View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ROYAL MEEKER, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES) . . .
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS f
C O N C IL IA T IO N

AND

A R B IT R A T IO N

( W H O L E 1 CSO
( NUMBER 1 1 7 0

S E R IE S :

NO.

7

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN
THE MEN’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY




CHARLES H. WINSLOW

SEPTEMBER, 1916

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1916




CONTENTS.
Page.

Collective agreements in the men’s clothing industry:
Introduction...... ....................................................................................
5-7
Part I.—Mediation, conciliation, and arbitration under the labor agree­
ments of Hart, Schaffner & Marx with their employees, 1911to 1914........ 9-94
Summary......................................................................................... 9-14
The general strike of 1910.................................................................. 15-19
Settlement of the strike..................................................................... 19-25
Agreement of January 14, 1911...................................... ............ 19,20
Decision of the arbitrators, March 13, 1911.................................. 20-25
Operation under agreement of January 14 and decision of March 13,1911. 25-27
Agreement of April 1, 1912, establishing a trade board....................... 27-33
Agreement of March 29, 1913............................................................. 33-39
Extension of the agreement— . — . . ......................................... 39,40
Adjustment of grievances.................................................................. 40-63
42
Organization and composition of the trade board.........................
Work of the trade board............................................................. 42-44
Nature and disposition of grievances referred to the trade board.. 44-48
Decisions of the board of arbitration........................................... 48,49
Development of a working code.................................................. 49,50
Rulings and opinions of the trade board.................. ...................50-53
Rulings and opinions of the board of arbitration..........................53-59
Descriptive analysis of typical cases............................................ 59-63
The preferential union shop—recognition of the union....................... 63-71
Operation under decisions relating to preference.......................68-70
Opinion of the chairman of board of arbitration relating to pref­
erence ..................................................... ............................. 70,71
Unionization of the shops. March and May, 1914............................71-74
Increase in membership of the unions, 1912 to 1914..................... 73,74
Power of discharge...................... .................................................... 74-82
The suspension system....................................... ....................... 75,76
Limitation upon the right of the company to discharge............... 76-82
Wages in the cutting department, 1910 to 1914.................................. 82-84
Fixing of prices under the labor agreement.......................................84-87
Allowances for employees earning less than prescribed minimum rates. 87,88
Equal distribution of work— .......................................................... 88,89
Function of the shop chairman......................................................... 89-92
Seasonal fluctuations of employment................................................. 92-94
Part II.—Agreements of labor unions with associations of manufacturers. 95-180
Summary................................................................................ .........95-98
General strike of 1913 in New York City.......................................... 98-106
Agreement of United Garment Workers with New York Clothing
Trade Association, Tailors to the Trade Association, and American
Clothing Manufacturers’ Association........................................... 106-111
Agreement of United Garment Workers with East Side Retail Clothing
Manufacturers’ Association......................................................... 111-114




3

4

COXTEXTS.

Collective agreements In the men’s clothing Industry—Concluded.
Part II.—Agreements of labor unions with associations of manufacturers—
Concluded.
Page.
Agreement of United Garment Workers with Boys’ Clothing Manu­
facturers of Greater New York.................................................... 114-116
Agreement of United Garment Workers with Metropolitan Merchant
Tailors’ Association.................................................................... 116-118
Agreement of United Garment Workers with Boys’ Wash Suit Manu­
facturers’ Association.................................................................. 118-123
Agreements with individual employers.................................... 122,123
Agreement of Cloth Examiners and Spongers’ Union of Greater New
York with Textile Union Finishers’ Association........................ 123-127
Agreement in the fur industry of New York City, 1912...............127-135
The strike of 1912.................................................................... 128-130
Text of agreement of September 8,1912................. ................. 130,131
Work of conference committee...... .......................................... 131-135
Wages paid the fur workers.........................................................
135
General strike and agreement in Boston, 1913............................... 136-144
General strike and agreement in Rochester, 1913........................ 144-150
Activity of New York State Bureau of Mediation and Arbitration. 146-149
Agreements with individual employers.................................... 149,150
Agreement of United Garment Workers with Union-made-Garment
Manufacturers of America........................................................... 150-180
Schedule of minimum prices, 1914...........................................161-180
Appendix—Agreement of May 1, 1916.................................................. 180-182
Tabular analysis.................................................................................. .. 182




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
WHOLE NO. 198.

WASHINGTON.

SEPTEMBER, 1916

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN THE MEN’S CLOTHING
INDUSTRY.
BT CHARLES II. WINSLOW.

INTRODUCTION.

In some respects the most significant conclusion forced upon one
who reviews the history of the conflicts and negotiations which have
culminated, during the past few years, in labor agreements between
the workers and the manufacturers in the clothing trades is that the
workers in these trades have developed a bargaining power equal to
that exercised by the employing firms, companies, or associations of
manufacturers. Whether the bargaining power of the workers be
measured by the character of the demands made, the negotiations
conducted in support of these demands, or the settlement finally
accepted, or by that test which is more frequently applied as a test
of bargaining power—namely, the power of endurance, the quality
of bulldog persistence when the chance of winning out seems in­
significant—whatever test is applied, in no instance among the
cases of conflict and agreement recorded in the recent history of
the clothing trades is there evidence that the bargaining power of
the workers, as compared with that of the employers, has been less
competent to achieve results or less intelligently directed. The work­
ers in these trades, whether organized in unions or acting blindly
in response to a mutual sympathy and a common condition of in­
dustrial exploitation, have possessed the power to disrupt the in­
dustry, the power to inflict and to suffer material losses; but this
power to inflict injury was, in its exercise, equally harmful to the
workers and to the employers. Obviously no amelioration of the
conditions in the trades could result from the blind exercise of
this power to inflict injury, which, on the contrary, was calcu­
lated to make worse rather than to improve conditions. Only




5

6

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

in proportion as the workers have learned to identify their wel­
fare with the success of the industry, and in proportion as the
employers have learned to identify their best interests with the
welfare of the workers, have conditions improved. It is the intelli­
gent realization of this community of interest, supported on both
sides by the power to demand recognition, that has brought about
industrial peace in an industry which in the past has been character­
ized by continual and destructive warfare—warfare which has been
petty at times but, owing to its persistence, demoralizing. This
institution of industrial peace is an achievement of consequence not
only to those engaged in the industry itself, but in a much greater
degree to the community as a whole, since it is the practical realiza­
tion in one industry of a condition which is perhaps applicable to
many industries conducted on a large scale.
It is, in fact, the achievement of industrial peace out of conditions
which would have been generally regarded as more difficult than the
conditions obtaining in any other important industry. The workers
in the clothing trades were of foreign origin. They were not only
alien, but were, as a group, composed of an indefinite number of
racially distinct stocks, without even a common language as an in­
strument of cooperation. They were not recognized as skilled work­
men. They were not credited with any high degree of intelligence.
They were without material resources, and they were submerged in
the flood of immigration which continually swept into the industry
multitudes of indigent workers who were themselves powerless to
sustain any given standards of living. Under these conditions wages
sank far below the subsistence point, if one defines the subsistence
wage as the wage which is sufficient to maintain a fair degree of
health among the workers. Every condition unfavorable to success­
ful cooperation and collective bargaining prevailed and no conditions
were favorable. The attainment of success is therefore full of
significance.
The employers as individuals were themselves as helpless as the
workers to remedy the evils. The remedy required organization and
cooperation on the part of the employers as well as on the part of the
workers, and the winning of industrial peace and of a general
amelioration of conditions is in fact an achievement of organization,
not of labor alone but equally of employers.
It should not be inferred that this achievement has been fully ac­
complished in all branches of the industry coincidently, though in all
branches some progress has been made. It must be conceded, how­
ever, that the progress has, with some exceptions, been least consider­
able in those branches of the clothing industry which are covered by
this report. The advance has been greater in those branches of



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS— INTRODUCTION

7

the industry which are engaged in the manufacture of women’s gar­
ments, than it has been in those branches which are engaged in the
manufacture of men’s garments. In the men’s clothing trades of New
York City, for example, there* is no agreement providing for the
amicable and systematic adjustment of differences in any degree com­
parable with the so-called protocol agreements under which the
ladies’ ready-to-wear garment industries have been conducted. But
it may. be fairly assumed that the successful operation of these pro­
tocol agreements is likely to lead to the adoption of similar agree­
ments in the men’s clothing trades.







PART I.— MEDIATION, CONCILIATION, AND ARBITRATION UNDER
THE LABOR AGREEMENTS OF HART, SCHAFFNER & MARX WITH
THEIR EMPLOYEES, 1911 TO 1914.
SUMMARY.

The successive labor agreements of Hart, Scliaffner & Marx have
controlled the relations of the company with its 6,500 employees
over a period of more than three years. The present agreement, with
the working code in accordance with which its provisions are admin­
istered, represents an experience acquired in the settlement of hun­
dreds of differences, and constitutes a complete system of mediation
and arbitration. This system has proved adequate for the amicable
adjustment of every difference arising out of the necessity for
a continuous revision of piece-rate wages to cover those minute
changes in the character of the work performed by individual work­
men, or small groups of workmen, which result from seasonal changes
in the styles and materials of garments, from the introduction of new
processes, and from those partial reorganizations of the working force
which characterize the administration of every large industrial plant.
Under the labor agreements of the company during the past three
years every sort of grievance has been remedied without any serious
interruption of the company’s business; every sort of wage adjust­
ment has been made; affd wide differences of opinion have been
reconciled. These differences of opinion have arisen as regards, for
example, the exercise of the company’s right to discharge union em­
ployees, and of its right to employ nonunion workmen; as regards
the distribution of work, and the maintenance of the roll of its per­
manent employees during slack seasons; and as regards a multitude
of small questions of policy, each of them sufficient, in the absence
of a definite agreement providing for arbitration, to precipitate an
industrial conflict involving thousands of workers and inflicting the
loss of thousands of dollars in wages and in.profits.
Since the provisions of the original agreement entered into in 1911,
covering a period of two years, have with some modification and
amplification been incorporated in a new agreement covering a period
of three years, it may be assumed that the policy initiated in 1911, of
referring all questions to an impartial tribunal for final adjudica­
tion, has after a fair trial commended itself to the company and to
its employees as beneficial and profitable.



10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The evidence is in fact conclusive that this policy has proved to
be advantageous in every respect. At the hearings of the Commission
on Industrial Kelations held in Washington in April, 1914, repre­
sentatives and employees of the company, as well as the chair­
man of the company’s board of arbitration, voiced the unanimous
opinion of all concerned that this specific scheme of mediation
and arbitration has operated successfully. One of the officers of
the company declared to the commission that “ not in a thousand
years ” would his corporation consider any proposal to revert to the
old system of individual bargaining. As a factor determining the
success of the policy in the past, however, and its permanent main­
tenance in the future, the attitude of the 6,500 employees, whose in­
terests are constantly involved in the negotiations under the agree­
ment, is of much greater consequence than the judgment of those
responsible for the administration of the system, and the evidence
is conclusive that this great body of workers, many of whom are of
foreign stock and some of whom are unable to speak the English
language, have accepted the provisions of the agreements in good
faith and in full confidence that their best interests are conserved.
This good will toward the scheme is its most valuable asset, and it
is established upon the substantial benefits which have been realized
by the workers.
While the present report must be confined largely to a formal
account of the experience of this industrial group in developing a
working scheme of peaceful negotiation between employer and em­
ployee, and to a description of the instruments and agencies of nego­
tiation, it should be noted that the chief benefits of the new regime
can not be summed up in any formal account of the articles of agree­
ment, or of the agencies of mediation, or in any list of grievances
remedied, or in any statement of increase in earnings, or in an enum­
eration of other material benefits. The benefits with which this
report must deal chiefly, namely, those which are more or less sus­
ceptible of formal analysis and statistical statement, are essentially
incidental. What the new regime means for these 6,500 industrial
workers can, however, be partially inferred from such accounts of
personal experience as that given in the following paragraphs,
quoted from a statement made by the chairman of the joint board of
local unions of garment workers. This statement contrasts the con­
ditions obtaining in the company’s shops (and it may be noted that
these conditions obtained throughout the industry generally) before
the institution of any agreement of mediation and arbitration, with
the conditions obtaining in these shops under the present agreement.
The impossibility of adequately summing up or tabulating in a
formal report benefits such as are indicated in this personal remi­




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN*S CLOTHING INDUSTRY*

11

niscence of one employee among 6,500 employees will be apparent.
The chairman of the joint board writes as follows:
To fully appreciate, and to be able to explain in what ways the
people have benefited by the agreement, I must refer back to the time
when no agreement was in existence.
I used to work in shop No. 3, and I must say that the foreman of
said shop is a kind person. My work during the seven years was
very seldom criticised, if at all, but I was considered a “ smart man,”
consequently kept responsible for some little trouble that happened
in the sections near me. Once a section of men picked enough cour­
age to stand up and ask the foreman for an increase; for such action
their leader, who was revealed by one of the men, was immediately
discharged and even denied the privilege to come for his hat and
coat in the shop, which were brought to him outside. He was such a
very nice, quiet, sociable fellow that it broke my heart to see him go
in such a fashion, but the only thing I could do was to feel sorry for
him. A few hours later I was called by the foreman and accused of
being the instigator of those people; wlien I protested that I did not
know anything about it, and that I could not have been the instigator
as I couldn’t speak their language (Lithuanian), I was told that I
was a “ smart man,” that I knew everything, and that at least I
should have notified him. Finally. I was asked to resign my posi­
tion ; I was a plain workingman and I expected the same treatment
that the other fellow had received a few hours before. While I was
getting ready very reluctantly to go home, reluctantly, not for the
job, though 1 needed it, but because I thought my staying in the shop
was necessary, the foreman had a conversation with the informer and
had been told that I was not mixed up in the matter at all, so the
foreman changed his mind and asked me to remain, told me that I
was a good man and that he believed every word I had said.
To-day when a section is dissatisfied a complaint is filed with the
shop chairman, who tries first to adjust it with the foreman or man­
ager. If he can not succeed, he reports to the deputies of the workers
and a joint investigation is made with the deputy of the company.
In the event the deputies fail to reach a settlement, the case is re­
ported to the trade board, and finally, if necessary, to the board of
arbitration. The chairmen of the shops may now speak for any of
the workers without being told to mind their own business. The
fear of being wrongfully discharged has disappeared, because of the
right to demand redress. Wages or prices can not be reduced; if
attempted to, the price committee, a creation of the trade board, will
be there and investigate the case.
That the policy initiated in 1911 has from the beginning proved
to be highly beneficial may be inferred from its continuous develop­
ment and elaboration. The original agreement provided simply for
arbitration of differences. It did not provide for any formal recog­
nition of the union; nor did it impose any limitations upon the com­
pany in the management of its affairs. It did not in any way modify
the company’s absolute right, for example, to make and to reduce
prices or to discharge employees. The agreement, with the code of
procedure which has been perfected through the decisions relating



12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

to hundreds of cases, has, however, gradually developed into a con­
stitutional system of management which insures, perhaps as far as
any system can give such assurance, the permanent .maintenance of
industrial peace. This assurance is based upon those provisions of
the agreement which guarantee to the workers the right of appealing
grievances to an impartial tribunal in which they are fairly repre­
sented.
Under these agreements a due process of law has been substituted
for the arbitrary and irresponsible rule of the foreman in the ad­
justment of all differences, and with the institution of this due
process of law there has developed among the workers a feeling of
security under the law, in place of the feeling, formerly prevalent
among them, of uncertainty, of fear, and of absolute helplessness.
Personal discrimination and favoritism, evils inherent in the system
of individual bargaining which is necessarily, in large industrial es­
tablishments, based upon the principle that the foreman can do no
wrong and that a presumption of guilt lies against the worker, have
been eliminated. Under the new regime no presumption of guilt
lies against either foreman or worker. On the contrary, the pre­
sumption as regards both foreman and worker is that which obtains
in any court of justice, namely, in each case of difference or grievances
a presumption of innocence and good will.
Through the gradual application of a principle of preference in
the hiring, laying off, and discharge of workers, the organizations
of labor have been greatly strengthened during the period covered by
the agreements.
In the case of the industrial group represented by the Hart,
Schaffner & Marx Co., there can be no doubt that the new system,
mediation and arbitration, has greatly benefited both parties oper­
ating under the labor agreement. The corporation has benefited not
only through the elimination of shop strikes—phenomena especially
harmful and frequent in seasonal industries under the old order—
but also through increased efficiency in production, which has been
an indirect consequence of the creation of good will and a spirit of
cooperation among its employees.
As regards the workers, a result of the new system is an increased
self-respect which can not be overestimated. At the recent hear­
ings before the Commission on Industrial Relations the representa­
tive of these workers emphasized the value of the moral as distin­
guished from the material benefits which have resulted. In the
words of this official “ the people actually feel like men and women
now, while previous to the agreement there was no such feeling in
the shops.” Then the “ people ” were in constant fear of discharge,
being subject, without any means of redress, to the caprice of



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IK MEN.'s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

13

the foreman, the irresponsible exercise of that caprice necessarily
affecting in each case the means of subsistence of the worker. In
the psychology of the wageworker the fear of discharge is a demor­
alizing influence, wherever discharge is based upon the irresponsible
exercise of arbitrary power and personal discrimination. The pres­
ident of the joint board of the local unions, a large majority of whose
members are Hart, Schaffner & Marx employees—a member of the
original trade board, who is familiar with the practical workings
of the agreement, and with the opinions entertained by the workers—
has declared recently that this fear of discharge has, under the new
plan, “ disappeared because of the right to demand redress.” The
new system would have amply justified itself if it had conferred no
other benefit than this, that it has substituted for the fear of dis­
charge at will a self-respecting confidence that impartial justice
will in each case be administered by a due process of law. Too great
emphasis can not be laid upon the fact that the substitution of a due
process of law for the whim of the foreman has involved no pe­
cuniary loss for the company. On the contrary, the experience of
the company indicates that there is, in fact, no essential economy in
the rule of caprice in the management of the affairs of a large cor­
poration.
Between April 1,1912, and June 1,1914, a total of 1,401 complaints
were peacefully adjusted. Of these complaints, which, with few ex­
ceptions, were filed by the unions, 1,178, or 84 per cent, were finally
adjusted through mediation by deputies—two deputies, one repre­
senting the corporation and one the workmen, acting upon each case;
206 complaints, or 14.7 per cent of the total number, were referred by
the deputies to the trade board for arbitration and were finally ad­
justed by this board; 17 complaints, or 1.2 per cent of the total
number, .were referred for final adjudication to the board of arbi­
tration or to its chairman. Of these, 16 represent appeals from
decisions made by the trade board,' which is the court of original
jurisdiction for all cases not settled through mediation by the dep­
uties. In the. disposition of these 16 cases, the board of arbitration
sustained the decision of the trade board in 9 cases, reversed the
decision of that board in 3 cases, and referred 4 cases back for new
adjustments. One case did not go to the trade board but was referred
directly to the board of arbitration.
Theoretically the agreements under which these 1,401 cases were
adjusted were drawn with a view to providing what may be termed
a scheme of continuous arbitration, since both the trade board and the
board of arbitration organized under the agreements are boards of
arbitration. As a matter of record, however, the method most fre­
quently employed in the final settlement of grievances has been not
arbitration but mediation. That is to say, in 1,178 out of 1,401 cases



14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the adjustment was finally effected by the deputies through media­
tion and without reference to the trade board for arbitration.
While the original agreement of 1911 was in the form of a deci­
sion rendered by a committee of arbitrators, it was in reality a
decision of representatives of the two parties. No third party ever
participated in the proceedings of the committee which prepared the
decision agreement, for reasons given in the body of this report.
During the life of the agreements, as noted above, 84 per cent of
all the grievances that arose were adjusted through the process
of mediation, and the present chairman of the board of arbitration
testified at the hearings of the Commission on Industrial Relations
that, though possessing the power to cast a deciding vote, he
has deemed it advisable, whenever possible, to bring the respective
parties to an understanding before resorting to the exercise of
this power. The men who are administering the present agreement,
as the records of the hearings of the commission reveal, consistently
maintain that the agreement is essentially an agreement to mediate,
and that arbitration is in fact provided for simply as a means of
enforcing the policy of mediation.
To sum up briefly, the present system of collective bargaining in
the Hart, Schaffner & Marx establishments has been a natural devel­
opment of three years’ experience. Previous to 1911 the company
had not looked with favor upon any proposed scheme of operating
under a labor agreement with its employees. Starting in 1911 with
an agreement which did not provide for recognition of the union,
a plan of collective bargaining has been gradually developed, which
includes the so-called preferential union shop and mediation and
arbitration, with an industrial code of rules and precedents for the
guidance of representatives of the corporation and of the unions.
Each of the two agreements providing for arbitration for definite
periods has been between the company and a joint board of six local
unions, about 90 per cent of the membership of which consisted of
Hart, Schaffner & Marx employees. There have been also two pro­
visional agreements, making a total of four separate and distinct
agreements entered into by the company. These are:
(1) Agreement of January 14,1911, to arbitrate differences.
(2) Two-year agreement of March 13, 1911, in the form of a
decision of a board of arbitration.
(3) Agreement of April, 1912, to create trade board.
(4) Three-year agreement of March 29,1913, providing for a pref­
erential union shop.
A detailed description and analysis of each of these agreements will
be found in the body of this report.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N 'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

15

THE GENERAL STRIKE OF 1910.

In September, 1910, a strike occurred in one of the shops of Hart,
Schaffner & Marx. Strikes of a similar character and for similar
reasons were, at this period, of frequent occurrence in the clothing
trade generally, and were considered a necessary evil in the manu­
facture of clothing. This particular dispute arose over a reduction
of the piecework price of seaming from 4 cents to 3f cents per pair,
in order to make the price uniform with that paid in other shops en­
gaged in the same work. However, instead of dying out, which was
the usual experience in such strikes, this dispute spread throughout
all the manufacturing establishments of Hart, Schaffner & Marx,
and ultimately to other establishments, thereby involving the trade
throughout the city, so that by the 1st of October a majority of the
garment workers of the city of Chicago were on strike.
Two distinct attempts were made, with the consent and cooperation
of the company, to arbitrate the grievances, but with the understand­
ing that the matter of closed shop and the reinstatement of striking
employees who had been convicted of violence during the strike
should not be considered by the arbitrators. Each of these attempts
and three other organized efforts at settlement failed.
The first attempt was in the form of a proffer of settlement
made jointly by a representative of the United Garment Workers
of America and a representative of Hart, Schaffner & Marx, who
submitted the following agreement to the strikers:
N o v e m b e r 5. 1910.
A g r e e m e n t S ig n e d b y t h e P r e s id e n t o f t h e U n it e d G a r m e n t W o r k e r s o p
A m e r ic a a n d t h e F ir m o p H a r t , S c h a f f n e r & M a r x .

The international president of the United Garment Workers of America agrees
to recommend the return of all former employees of Hart, Schaffner, & Marx
upon the understanding between himself and the heads of the firm that one
person shall be selected by the firm and one by the United Garment Workers
of America, these two to select a third, and these three to take up the alleged
grievances of the former employees of the firm and to devise methods, both as
to redress and the avoidance of like difficulties in the future.
The firm of Hart, Schaffner & Marx agrees not to discriminate against any
of their employees because of their affiliation with the United Garment Workers
of America.
This instrument shall not be considered as a recognition of any union, nor
shall the question of union or open shop organization be submitted to or passed
upon by the committee appointed herein; nor shall the question of open shop
be considered as a grievance on the part of the former employees of Hart,
Schaffner & Marx.
G e n e r a l P r e s id e n t U n it e d G a r m e n t W o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a .
H art, S ch affn er & M a r x .




16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

This proposition was overwhelmingly rejected. The reasons for
the rejection, according to the statements of representatives of the
strikers, were “ that the agreement was hedged about by so many
conditions and savored so much o f 4influence ’ and lack of good faith
that the prospects of harmony prevailing under such an agreement
were very slight.”
The second attempt at settlement came one month later in the
form of a proposition by Hart, Schaffner & Marx that the strikers
submit their grievances to arbitration, but with the proviso that
“ those who have been guilty of violence ” and those “ who shall be
determined guilty of violence by an arbitration committee” should
not be taken back. Following is a copy of the agreement proposed:
D ecem ber

5, 1910.

A g r e e m e n t O ffered b y H a r t , S c h a f f n e r & M a r x .

To the Hon. Fred A. Russe, Mayor of the city of Chicago, the Hon. Francis Z
>.
Connery, City clerk, and Messrs, Charles E. Merriam, Willmm F. Ryan, and
Winfield J\ Dunn, aldermen of said city.
G e n t l e m e n : All of the former employees of Hurt, Schaffner & Marx, except
those who have been guilty of violence, who are now out on strike shall be
taken back and shall return to work within 15 days from the date the strike is
terminated. Whether any of such employees have been guilty of violence shall
be the first matter to be determined by the arbitration committee hereunder.
And should such employees who are not taken back because of the charge of
violence be found not guilty by the arbitration committee, Hart, Schaffner &
Marx shall pay them for the time they have lost.
There shall be no discrimination of any kind whatever against any of the
employees of Hart, Schaffner, & Marx because they are or are not members
of any union.
An arbitration committee of live shall be appointed. The employees of Hart,
Schaffner, & Marx who are on strike shall select two, Hart, Schaffner, & Marx
shall select two, and the four chosen shall select a fifth. The finding of said
committee or of a majority thereof shall be binding. Subject to the provisions
of this agreement, said committee shall take up and consider whatever griev­
ances, if any, the employees of Hart. Schaffner, and Marx who are now on
strike shall have and shall devise a method for the settlement of grievances,
if any, in the future.

This plan also, as has been stated, was rejected by the strikers.
Three other unsuccessful efforts were made to terminate the con­
troversy: The first, by a committee of citizens, which, through an
investigation of the causes, hoped to work out a plan of reconcilia­
tion ; the second, by a committee of the city council, which endeavored
to end the controversy by organizing a conference of the parties at
issue; the third, by a committee of the Illinois State Senate ap­
pointed to investigate the conditions, ascertain the cause of the
strike, and place the responsibility. A brief account of these several
efforts follows.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IX M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

17

At a meeting called Sunday, October 30,1910, a citizens’ committee
was organized under the following resolution:
Whereas at the present moment there are approximately 40,000 clothing
employees who have left their work, most of them immigrants, and many of
them but newly arrived; and
Whereas it is not only important from the standpoint of the employees who
are thus out of work at the beginning of winter, and who from the very
necessity of the case have been able to save but little, but also important for
the welfare of the city that some steps be taken to investigate the grievances
and, if possible, to remedy the situation: Therefore be it
Resolved, That a committee of citizens be organized to carry out that
purpose.

This committee held several meetings at Hull House, as well as
many informal conferences. At its first meeting it appointed a
subcommittee, which was instructed to investigate the grievances pre­
ferred by the workers as the cause of the strike and to report to the
general committee.
The subcommittee proceeded immediately to formulate a schedule
to be used in interviewing individual strikers, with a view to deter­
mining the real cause of the strike. A number of strikers were, in
fact, interviewed and schedules filled out accordingly. While the
number of schedules obtained was comparatively small in propor­
tion to the total number of workers on strike, the individuals inter­
viewed, nevertheless, represented striking employees of 17 firms and
of 31 shops under the control of the Hart, Schaffner & Marx Co.
On November 5, 1910, the subcommittee made a lengthy report.
This report set forth the following specific causes of the strike:
Long hours, low wages, fines and deductions, increased speed, addi­
tional work without a corresponding increase in pay, enforced idle­
ness and retention in shop, without work, during slack periods, over­
crowding of sections, employment of apprentices in cutting room for
periods of two months without compensation, vulgar and abusive
language by foremen, unequal distribution of work, insanitary con­
ditions.
In answer to this report, representatives of the employers contended
that while some evils had grown up in the industry, principally
through inconsiderate foremen, the real cause of the strike was a
misunderstanding for which agents of the garment workers’ union
were responsible.
The controversy became a subject of municipal action on Novem­
ber 28, 1910. On this date a resolution was presented in the city
council, the purpose of which was to effect a settlement of the strike
through mediation. The city council, after much discussion as to
ways and means, adopted the following resolution authorizing the
38042°—Bull. 198—
16---- 2



18

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

appointment of a committee of five, including the mayor, the city
clerk, and three members of the city council, to act as mediators:
Whereas some 40,000 men, women, and girls in the garment trades of this
city have been out on strike for about six weeks, and are stili out; and
Whereas this condition entails great suffering upon our citizens and loss of
business to Chicago; and
Whereas many of the peace officers of the city needed for the protection of
the general public are nqjv required to serve as guards about the struck
shops; and
Whereas a committee of representative citizens have investigated the causes
of this strike and have found real differences between the parties in interest:
Now, therefore, be it
Resolvedf, That we, the members of the City Council of Chicago, believe that
the public interest demands a speedy settlement of this costly industrial dis­
pute: And be it further
Resolved, That a committee of five, including the mayor and the city clerk,
be appointed by his honor, the mayor, and instructed to use their best efforts
to bring about a conference of the parties at issue in this strike, to the end
that a just and lasting settlement of the points in the controversy may be made.

Immediate action was taken under this resolution to bring the
controversy to an end by formal and informal conferences. This
effort of the municipal authorities also failed to effect a settlement.
The Illinois State Senate appointed a special committee on Janu­
ary 10, 1911, to proceed to the city of Chicago and investigate the
conditions of the strike and the cause therefor, place the responsi­
bility and report back to the senate their findings in the matter
within 30 days from the date of the resolution. This action proved
futile so far as effecting any progress toward a settlement.
Following is the text of the senate resolution:
G a r m e n t W o r k e r s ’ S t r i k e i n t h e C i t y o f C h ic a g o .

Whereas there has been a great conflict and strike on in the city of Chicago
for the past six months between the general wholesalers and makers of clothes
and persons employed by them, and a number of these employees and workmen
have been killed and now all of them are in practically destitute circumstances,
and as a goodly number of them can not speak the English language well and
need the protection of the highest authority in the State from the greed and
avarice of the manufacturers, that is so often displayed in these matters; and
Whereas up to the present time the State board of arbitration has not been
able to cope with the situation, if it has tried; and
Whereas we deem it necessary for the purpose of settling and adjusting this
labor war, and to bring about such legislation as will make arbitration a com­
pulsory affair by law, and to investigate all of the conditions surrounding this
strike, and whether or not the State board of arbitration have made any effort
to settle this strike, and to cause a report to be made back to the senate of all
proceedings and negotiations by said board of arbitration and members of civic
bodies in Chicago and committees from the Common Council of Chicago, and
ascertain from all the conduct of the parties who are responsible for the death
of the five or six persons who were killed there, and lay the legal liability, as
nearly as can be done, and cause such remedies or measures to be enacted into




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

19

law and make provisions for the payment of the persons killed in the strike,
based upon the approximate cause of the strike: Therefore, be it
Resolved, That a committee of five senators be appointed by this senate and
its presiding officer to repair to the city of Chicago and investigate the con­
ditions of this strike aud ascertain the cause thereof, and lay the responsibility,
and report back to the senate in 30 days from the date of this resolution their
findings on the matter.
SETTLEMENT OF THE STRIKE.
C rea tion o f a J o in t C o n fe re n ce B oard.—After the failure to
bring about a settlement of the controversy through these several
attempts made by the parties at issue and by disinterested groups of
public-spirited citizens, the president of the United Garment Work­
ers of America proposed the organization of a joint conference board
to deal with the situation. This proposition met with the approval
of all concerned and was immediately carried into effect. A joint
conference board was organized on November 7, 1910, with two
representatives from each of the following organizations: The
United Garment Workers of America, the Chicago Federation of
Labor, the Garment Workers’ District Council No. 6, and the
Women’s Trade-Union League. In addition to these, the board em­
braced seven representatives from the strikers’ executive committee.
The board elected the president of the Chicago Federation of Labor
chairman, and it was agreed that henceforth all negotiations of an
official nature were to be carried on by or through this joint board.
AGREEMENT OF JANUARY 14,1911.

Early in January, 1911, it became known to the leaders of the
strikers that the firm was anxious to bring about a settlement of the
strike through arbitration, and with this end in view a conference
was held. The result of this conference was an agreement dated
January 14, 1911, to create a board of arbitration composed of
three members, one to be selected by the representatives of the com­
pany, one by the representatives of the strikers, and these two to
select the third member. This board was empowered “ to take up,
consider, and adjust whatever grievances, if any, the employees of
Hart, Schaffner & Marx who are now on strike shall have, and shall
fix a method of settlement of grievances, if any, in the future.” Fol­
lowing is the text of the agreement:
First All of the former employees of Hart, Schaffner & Marx who are now
on strike shall be taken back and shall return to work within 10 days from
the date hereof.
Second. There shall be no discrimination of any kind whatsoever against
any of the employees of Hart, Schaffner & Marx, because they are or they
are not members of the United Garment Workers of America.
Third. An arbitration committee, consisting of three members, shall be ap­
pointed. Within three days from the date thereof the employees of Hart,



20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Schaffner & Marx shall select one member thereof; within three days there­
after Hart, Schaffner & Marx shall select one member thereof; and two mem­
bers thus selected shall immediately proceed to select the third member of such
committee.
Fourth. Subject to the provisions of this agreement, said arbitration com­
mittee shall take up, consider, and adjust whatever grievances, if any, the
employees of Hart, Schaffner & Marx who are now on strike shall have, and
shall fix a method for the settlement of grievances, if any, in the future. The
finding of the said committee, or a majority thereof, shall be binding upon
both parties.

Under this agreement Mr. Clarence Darrow was appointed arbi­
trator by the joint board of the local unions and Mr. Carl Meyer was
appointed by the company. These two, meeting with the representa­
tives of both sides, agreed upon Dean Wigmore, of Northwestern
University School of Law, as a third arbitrator. Dean Wigmore,
however, declined to serve, and when it became apparent that the
two arbitrators appointed could not agree upon a third member, it
was decided to hold a formal meeting of the board of arbitration,
as constituted, for the purpose of adjusting such grievances as could
be settled by a board of two.
DECISION OF THE ARBITRATORS, MARCH 13,1911.

The outcome of the meeting was the following decision, which
became the bads for the subsequent adjustments:
C h ic a g o , I I I . , March IS, 1911.
We, the undersigned, Clarence Darrow and Carl Meyer, appointed arbitra­
tors to settle the difference between the employees of Hart, Schaffner & Marx
and the firm of Hart, Schaffner & Marx, have heard all grievances presented
and all questions in dispute between the respective parties, and we make the
following findings with respect thereto, all of said findings to be binding and
acted upon for a period of two years from the 1st day of April, 1911.
1. There shall be installed as soon as the same can conveniently be done, in
each tailor shop building where any female help is employed, at least one
separate room or space partitioned off from the rest of the workshop, which
shall be used as a rest room or retiring room in case of sickness on the part of
any female employee of said shop.
2. The firm of Hart, Schaffner & Marx shall see to it that all tailor shops
are properly ventilated. No sweeping of a character to raise any dust in any
of the shops shall be done during working hours. This shall not prevent,
however, the collection of pieces and remnants whenever necessary during such
working hours.
There is to be allowed three-quarters of an hour for dinner.
3. The following basis of wages shall be in force in the various depart­
ments :
No employee shall receive less than $5 per week, and no male employee above
the age of 17 shall receive less than $6 per week, and no male employee above
the age of 18 shall receive less than $8 per week.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

21

(a)
Cutting department.—The minimum to be paid to any cutter shall be $8
per week, and the scale of wages to be paid to the cutters shall be at the rate
of 50 cents per cut, as is now in force in the cutting room.
(&) Tailor shops.—There shall be a uniform increase in the wages of all
the employees engaged in the manufacture of clothing in the tailor shops,
whether by piecework or by time-work, of 10 per cent. This increase shall not
apply to or affect any foreman, forelady, or any of the assistant foremen or
assistant foreladies, such foremen, foreladies, assistant foremen, and assistant
i’oreladies being those employed by the company to supervise the work, and
this increase shall not apply to any. employees in the tailor shops other than
those actually engaged in the manufacture of clothing.
(c) Trimming department.—As to all machine operators, sleeve-lining cut­
ters, lining cutters, canvas and haircloth cutters, and trimmers on lay, the
minimum rate shall be $8 per week, and there shall be an increase of 10 per
cent over and above the scale of wages at present paid to the above-named
workers.
(d) Woolen department.—As to examiners, there shall be a minimum rate
of $15 per week, and the basis of the week’s wages shall be $18 per week for
36 pieces per day, instead of 40 per day, as heretofore.
Wherever in these findings a raise of any percentage has been fixed, the
firm of Hart, Schaffner & Marx shall, through their bookkeeping or accounting
department, determine as to the method in which this raise is to be calculated
or paid.
In all the departments, persons who are paid by the week shall be paid time
and a half for overtime. If work is done in any of the tailor shops on Sun­
days or on any of the following holidays, to wit, Christmas, New Year, Decora­
tion Day, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving, or Labor Day, the employees of such
shops shall receive double pay for the work done on said days.
During the slack season the work shall be divided, as near equally as is
practicable, among all hands.
4. As to any future grievances, the firm of Hart, Schaffner & Marx shall
establish some method of handling such grievances through, some person or
persons in its employ, and any employee, either by himself or by any individual
fellow worker, shall have the right to present any grievance at any reason­
able time, and such grievance shall be promptly considered by the person or
persons appointed by said firm, and in case such grievance shall not be ad­
justed, the person feeling himself so aggrieved shall have tlie right to apply
to some member of said firm for the adjustment of such grievance, and in
case the same shall not then be adjusted, such grievance may be presented to
Clarence Darrow and Carl Meyer, who shall be constituted as a permanent
board of arbitration to settle any questions that may arise between any of the
employees of said firm and said firm for the term of two years from April 1,
1911, during which time these findings shall be in full force.
All of the matters herein determined with reference to wages shall become
effective on and after April 1, 1911.

This award of the arbitrators at the termination of the strike thus
established a minimum wage of $5 per week for all the employees,
no male employee above the age of 17 to receive less than $6 per
week, and no male above the age of 18 to receive less than $8 per
week; it granted a uniform increase of 10 per cent in the wages of
all the employees; it established a 54-hour week; it provided that in
all departments operated on the weekly basis workers were to be



22

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

paid time and one-half for overtime; and finally, it was provided
that the firm was to establish a complaint department for the hand­
ling of grievances.
P a r t ie s t o t h e A g r e e m e n t .— The firm of Hart, Schaffner &
Marx, at the time of signing the agreement in settlement of the
strike, employed approximately 6,000 workers, 65 per cent of whom
were women and girls.
Under this first agreement, and under the agreement subsequently
entered into, the firm in its dealings with its employees was to be
represented by a labor complaint department, presided over by a
chief and two assistants, whose duties were to be to hear all com­
plaints registered by employees and, if possible, effect a settlement.
The workers were to be represented by a joint board of local unions
of employees, composed of three delegates from each of the following
locals of the United Garment Workers of America, and three from
the Women’s Trade-Union League:
1. Cutters and Trimmers’ Local No. 61.
2. Coat Makers’ Local No. 39.
3. Pants Makers’ Local No. 144.
4. Vest Makers’ Local No. 152.
5. Local No. 254, Bohemians.
6. Local No. 269, Lithuanians.
7. Local No. 264, Polish and Lithuanians.
8. Local No. 273, Polish.
9. Local No. 6, Slavs..
The members of the local unions represented in this joint board
are employed almost exclusively by the firm of Hart, Schaffner &
Marx. Under the original agreement of 1911, the employees in their
dealings with their employers, were recognized as individual fellow
workers, not as members of organized labor unions. This resulted
from that provision of the arbitration decision which expressly stipu­
lated that “ any employee may present a grievance in person or by an
individual fellow worker.” Subsequently, however, the arbitration
committee ruled that the members of the joint council might desig­
nate any fellow employee of Hart, Schaffner & Marx to represent
them before the arbitration committee. The “ fellow workers” so
designated, are selected as follows: One by the cutters, one each by
the tailors of coats, vests, and trousers, and one each by the people
speaking the Polish and the Lithuanian language.
E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e L a b o r C o m p l a i n t D e p a r t m e n t .— In com­
pliance with article 4 of the findings of the arbitrators the company
created the labor complaint department, to take general charge of
all dealings with its employees.
The arbitration agreement placed upon the company a new respon­
sibility, which devolved upon the labor complaint department, the



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N 's CLOTHING INDUSTBY.

23

function of this department as prescribed in the findings of the board
of arbitrators being to take charge of all grievances.
The labor complaint department attends to the complaints not only
of the employees, but also of the foremen and examiners against the
employees on account of. inferior quality of work or transgression of
discipline. During the first year of its existence the department re­
ceived nearly 800 complaints from all sources. It is impossible to tell
the exact manner in which these were disposed of, since no records of
adjustment were kept, and no attempt was made to classify the
grievances for future reference.
In order to establish a plan for the registration of complaints,
the following notice was posted in each room of the several factories
and shops of the company, and in addition, cooperation was effected
through the foremen:
N o t ic e .

M r.-------------- has been appointed by the firm to hear all complaints and to
receive suggestions from any employee. He will visit this shop every day and
talk with those who leave their names or numbers with the timekeeper. It is
the desire of the firm that every person in the shops shall receive fair treat­
ment, and that the conditions of work shall be as satisfactory as is consistent
with discipline and good order.1

Through an analysis of complaints registered by the workers, it
soon developed that the chief sources of irritation among them could
be classified as follows:
1. Lack of uniformity of piece prices.
2. Lack o f uniformity in the quality of work demanded in the
different shops.
3. Abuse of the power of discharge on the part of the foreman.
4. Lack of means of discipline other than discharge.
5. Lack of a practical method of presenting grievances to anyone
who had sufficient authority to remedy them.
6. The prevalence of small strikes, in shops and sections, which
engendered bad feeling.
7. Absence of any equitable method of dividing lay off among the
people.
8. Lack of any systematic method of relief for extraordinary eases
of misfortune.
9. Lack of any means of maintaining a proper attitude on the part
of the foreman toward the working people.
10. Overtime.
11. Presence in the shop of incompetent persons who could not
earn a living wage.
12. Constant conflict between the representatives of organized
labor in the shop and the foremen.
1 Order issued under the signature of this firm on M ar. 28, 1011.




24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

13. Improper balance of workmen among shops and the lack of an
efficient system of transferring workmen from one shop to another.
14. Chaotic method used in employing new people or reemploying
former employees.
Before the strike of 1910, the only method by which the workers
could express their dissatisfaction or gain recognition from the firm
was through “ sudden stoppages of work.” The workers claimed
that the voicing of a complaint practically meant discharge. Under
the new system, with special officers for the fair handling of griev­
ances, this evil has been eliminated to a very great extent.
One of the first rules adopted by the labor complaint department
was never to compromise in case of a “ stoppage of work,” but to
insist in every such case that the workers return to their work as a
condition of having their complaints heard. During the summer of
1911, there were sudden stoppages of work, on the average, once a
week. In only one case during this time was the above rule broken.
After September 1,1911, stoppages of work came to be regarded as
serious offenses, rendering the offenders liable to discharge. Under
this rule several people were, in fact, discharged. These discharges
were subsequently sustained by the arbitrators. The last serious
stoppage of work occurred on December 1, 1911, in shop No. 2, and
the settlement of this case brought with it a sincere effort on the
part of the union leaders to cooperate with the foremen in the elimi­
nation of this practice.
A d v a n t a g e s G a i n e d b y t h e P a r t ie s t o t h e A g r e e m e n t .— The
advantages of operating under the agreement may be summarized
briefly as follows:
Advantages to the firm:
1. Elimination of shop strikes, phenomena of frequent occurrence
and of seriously harmful consequences owing to the seasonal char­
acter of the industry.
2. Introduction of methods for the peaceful settlement by media­
tion or by arbitration of all grievances and of all differences that
might arise between the firm and its employees.
3. Assumption of responsibility for discipline and efficiency, to a
considerable extent, by the unions representing the workers.
4. Establishment of standardized uniform prices throughout all
the shops of the firm.
Advantages to the employees:
1. Practical recognition of the union, leading eventually to the
establishment of the preferential union shop, in which conditions are
favorable for the further development and strengthening of the
organizations of labor.
2. Collective bargaining through price committees and boards of
trade and arbitration in which the workers are fairly represented.



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

25

3. Relief from the liability to arbitrary and unjust discharge and
to the exercise of discrimination, each and every case of discharge
being, under the agreement, subject to review by the trade board.
4. Increase in wages, amounting in the case of tailors to 10 per
cent and in the case of cutters to 5 per cent.
5. Reduction of weekly hours of labor in 1911 to 54, and subse­
quently, in 1913, to 52.
0. Establishment of minimum standards of weekly wages for males
and females. This provision also abolished the system of having
newcomers work without remuneration during the first two months.
7. Equal division of work during slack periods.
8. Introduction of methods for the peaceful settlement, by media­
tion or arbitration, of all grievances that may arise between the em­
ployees and the firm.
9. Elimination of lockouts.
10. Abolition of the system of fines.
OPERATION UNDER AGREEMENT OF JANUARY 14 AND DECISION OF
MARCH 13,1911.

The original arbitration agreement was the culmination of a
series of efforts to establish permanent peace through the provision
of methods for the settlement of any grievances which might arise
in the future between the company and its employees. The agreement
extended to all of the employees actually engaged in the manufacture
of men’s clothing, the only employees excepted being the foremen
and forewomen, their assistants, the tailor inspectors and the ticket
sewers. The last two groups of workers, also, were subsequently
brought under the agreement by rulings of the chairman of the
board of arbitration.
The establishment of a labor complaint department, in accord­
ance with the provisions of the original award of the arbitrators,
was necessarily in the nature of an experiment, and the subsequent
failure of this department to organize and maintain proper machin­
ery for the expeditious settlement of grievances as they arose was
the occasion of much discontent, as well as of constant appeal to the
arbitrators. The workers claimed that, in the case of complaints
registered with the labor complaint department, principles involved
were disregarded, and that methods were employed to confuse the
issues, the result being to prevent any proper presentation of mat­
ters to the arbitrators for adjustment.
During the first year of the agreement, the arbitrators held more
than 5.0 meetings and issued 20 written decisions (other than the
original award). Eleven of these decisions were in favor of the
employees, two were in favor of the company, and seven were
compromised.



26

BULLETIN OF THE

BUREAU

OF LABOR STATISTICS.

While the arbitration agreement provided “ that the decisions of
the arbitrators shall be binding on the respective parties,” in a great
number of cases the arbitrators issued recommendations for the
purpose of bringing the parties to a voluntary settlement of their
controversies rather than enforce their findings on either side.
During this first year a great variety of cases were presented
to the arbitrators, including, among others, cases of discharge involv­
ing questions of incompetency or discipline, discrimination against
employees, stoppages of work, adjustment of prices for piecework
upon change of specifications, and the claim of decrease in earnings
through the enforcement of certain standards of work.
In the administration of the agreement, it gradually became ap­
parent to the arbitrators themselves, as well as to the parties oper­
ating under the agreement, that the “ board of arbitrators,” because
of the inadequate machinery at its disposal, was unable, acting as a
court of first instance, to deal speedily and properly with the multi­
tudinous questions presented, many of the questions being of a tech­
nical nature, requiring practical tailoring experience and special
technical knowledge.
Under these conditions matters fell into a somewhat chaotic state,
principally on account of the absence of written decisions of the
arbitrators, or of any common knowledge of these decisions, or of
any distinct understanding between the interested parties as to the
general significance of specific rulings of the arbitrators.
As an illustration of the complications which arose, the question
of price making may be mentioned. In compliance with one of the
first recommendations of the arbitrators, the company issued com­
plete and comprehensive specifications of each style of garment, de­
fining each operation and including an account of the processes and
practice involved, and, further, established the piece price to be paid
for each specific operation, the prices so established to remain un­
changed unless ordered by, or with the consent of, the arbitrators.
These specifications, originally made and adopted for the purpose
of standardizing processes in the different factories, resulted actually
in a lowering of the earning capacity of the workers.
When in any given instance the employees found that the prices
fixed under the new specifications did not enable them to earn the
rate of wages earned prior to the establishment of the new schedule,
the common procedure was to formulate a grievance and present it
to the labor complaint department for adjustment. Upon failure to
reach a settlement by this means, the next step was to refer the mat­
ter to the arbitrators.
The arbitrators, after hearing both parties to the controversy,
would in most instances render a decision the effect of which would
be to increase prices. Frequently, however, a week or more would



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN fS CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

27

elapse before the decision could become operative. In the meantime,
pending the promulgation of the decision of the arbitrators, new
specifications for the readjustment of the standard of product might
be issued by the labor complaint department.* Such specifications,
though for purposes of readjustment, would frequently call for better
quality and for additional labor. Thus, by this method it was not
uncommon for the decisions of the arbitrators to be annulled to a
greater or less extent.
In view of this complication it was deemed expedient by the sign­
ers of the agreement for the employees, as well as by the arbitrators,
to acquaint the company with the conditions existing and to inform
them of the prospects of serious friction developing into open strife,
unless harmony of action could be insured between the complaint
department and the board of arbitration in the settlement of such
complaints.
Subsequently arrangements were made for a conference. The
participants in this conference were two representatives of the em­
ployees, two representatives of the arbitrators, and two officers of
the company. The ineffectiveness of the labor complaint department
and the impracticability of the methods employed were discussed at
this conference, and it was pointed out that this ineffectiveness
resulted in thrusting upon the arbitrators the almost impossible task
of sitting in judgment on complaints of a technical nature which,
it was believed, could be adjusted more satisfactorily by a court of
original jurisdiction, composed of members who possessed a prac­
tical and technical knowledge of the processes of manufacture.
AGREEMENT OF APRIL 1,1912, ESTABLISHING A TRADE BOARD.

The following preamble of an agreement was then formulated and
subscribed to:
P r e a m b l e o f a n A g r e e m e n t E n t e r e d i n t o b y t h e C o n f e k e .y ck C o m m i t t e e a t
the

O f f ic e o f H a r t , S c h a f f n e r & M a r x , M a r c h 22, 1912.

The suggestion is made that a committee of three be appointed, one of whom
shall be appointed by Hart, Schaffner & Marx, another by the employees, and
the third by said two persons so chosen or by the parties who met to-day; said
committee to make such investigations as it may deem necessary, and thereafter
to formulate such rules and regulations as it may determine upon toward the
appointment of a permanent trade board (to be composed as far as possible of
men having practical and technical experience in the manufacture of clothes)
for the purpose of determining upon the prices and adjusting any other matters
in dispute which under the agreement now in force are to be heard, and said
committee further to formulate such rules and regulations for such trade board
as to said committee seems proper; said trade board to constitute the original
tribunal for determining prices and adjusting any other matters in dispute, and




28

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the arbitration board provided for by the agreement to be the appellate tribunal
in the event of any appeal being taken from the decision of the trade board;
such trade board to remain in existence during the life of the present agreement.
Nothing herein contained to in any way be construed as changing any of the
terms of the agreement now in force, but simply as a method of carrying out
said agreement

In accordance with the provisions of this preamble, the committee
of three drew up and proposed the following preliminary agreement,
which was subscribed to by the company and by the representatives
of the employees:
1 ’ KKLIMI NARY AGREEMENT.

It is agreed between I-Iart, Schaffner & Marx and the employees of Hart,
Schaffner & Marx that a committee be, and hereby is, appointed, composed of
two persons representing Hart, Schaffner & Marx; two persons representing the
employees; and a fifth to be selected by said other four members, for the fol­
lowing purposes:
1. To create a board of such number as such committee shall determine upon
for the purpose of adjusting and fixing prices when necessary, and adjusting
any other matters that may be in dispute between Hart, Schaffner & Marx and
its employees, and the neutral member of said board shall be appointed by said
committee.
2. To formulate and fix such rules and regulations for the guidance of said
board as may be determined upon, such rules and regulations to be binding upon
the parties hereto during the continuance of the agreement entered into be­
tween Hart, Schaffner & Marx and its employees, to wit, unlil April 1, 1913.
3. It is expressly agreed upon that the agreement made on January 14 and
the decision of Clarence Darrow and Carl Meyer, the arbitrators appointed
under said agreement, -which decision is dated March 13, 1911, shall remain
in all respects in full force and effect, and neither said committee nor said
board so appointed shall have any right to take up any question of increasing
wages or of providing for any sort of what is commonly termed a closed shop, or
to make any rules or regulations in violation of or inconsistent with any of the
provisioas of said agreement of January 14, 1911, or said decision of March
13, 1911.
Said board when appointed shall be solely for the purpose of acting as an
original tribunal, and an appeal shall always lie to the arbitration board
created by the present agreements from the decisions of said board.
Said board shall be in existence during the life of the present agreement l>etween said Hart, Schaffner & Marx and said employees, or until April 1,
1913.

This preliminary understanding led to the following agreement:
A g r e e m e n t C r e a t in g C o m m i t t e e to E s t a b l i s h T r a d e B o a r d a n d to F ok m t :late

R u l e s fo r i t s G u id a n c e .

It is agreed between Hart, Schaffner & Marx and the employees of Hart,
Schaffner & Marx, represented by Morris Feinberg, that a committee be and
hereby is appointed, composed of E. D. Howard and Carl Meyer, representing
Hart, Schaffner & Marx, William O. Thompson and S. Hillman, representing the
employees, and Charles H. Winslow (in his individual capacity, and not in any
way in his official capacity, and his services in no way to interfere with his
official work or hours), said Winslow being selected by said other four members,
for the following purposes:



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS TN M E N 's CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

2.9

1. To create a board of such number as such committee shall determine upon
for the purpose of adjusting and fixing prices when necessary, and adjusting
any other matters that may be in dispute between Hart, Schaffner & Marx and
its employees, and the neutral member of said board shall be appointed by said
committee.
2. To formulate and fix such rules and regulations for the guidance of said
board as may be determined upon; such rules and regulations to be binding upon
the parties hereto during the continuance of the agreement entered into between
Hart, Schaffner & Marx and its employees, to wit, until April 1,1913.
3. It is expressly agreed that the agreement made on January 14, and the
decision of Clarence Darrow and Carl Meyer, the arbitrators appointed under
said agreement, which decision is dated March 13, 1911, shall remain in all re­
spects in full force and effect, and neither said committee nor said board so
appointed shall have any right to take up any question of increasing wages
or of providing for any sort of what is commonly termed a closed shop, or to
make any rules or regulations in violation of or inconsistent with any of the
provisions of said agreement of January 14, 1911, or said decision of March 13,
1911.
Said board when appointed shall be solely for the purpose of acting as an
original tribunal and an appeal shall always lie to the arbitration board created
by the present agreement from the decision of said board.
Said board shall be in existence during the life of this present agreement
between said Hart, Schaffner & Marx and said employees, or until April 1, 1913.
For joint board of garment workers:
M o r r is F e in b e r g , Chairman,
For Hart, Schaffner & Marx:
J o s e p h S c h a f f n e r , Sect'etary and Treasurer.

The deliberations of the committee resulted in the following re­
port, establishing a trade board, with rules of procedure:
R e p o r t o f C o m m i t t e e E s t a b l i s h i n g T r a d e B o ard , w i t h R u l e s o f P r o c e d u r e .
PREAMBLE.

As a result of the garment workers’ strike of 1910, an agreement was entered
into between the firm of Hart, Schaffner & Marx and its employees, dated
January 14, 1911. In accordance with the agreement, Clarence S. Darrow and
Carl Meyer, who represented, respectively, the employees and the firm, estab­
lished among other things, by a decision dated March 13, 1911, that all griev­
ances arising between the firm and its employees should be heard by a board
of arbitration of three members. Thereafter for substantially a year many
matters were brought up before the board, including, among others, cases of
discharge involving questions of workmanship and quality of work, discrimina­
tion against employees, stoppage of work, and the adjustment of prices for
piecework upon change of specifications and the claims of decreased earnings
through the enforcement of certain standards of work, and while there has
been no division between those on the board, which has consisted of only two
members, and while its rulings have been considered fair and impartial and
have been satisfactory to both parties, nevertheless, as the year progressed, it
became apparent to the members of the board and to both parties that the board
of arbitration, because of the inadequate machinery at its disposal, was unable
as a court of first instance to speedily and properly adjust all of the various




30

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

questions arising—many of them of a technical nature and requiring practical
tailoring experience and technical knowledge.
Consequently, a conference was called by Mrs. Raymond Robins to consider
the matter and in response to her request the following persons met at the
office of Carl Meyer, the arbitrator for the new corporation of Hart, Schaffner
& Marx:
For the employees: Mrs. Raymond Robins, John Fitzpatrick, W. O. Thomp­
son, and Henry M. Ashton.
For the corporation: Joseph Schaffner, Carl Meyer, Milton A. Strauss, and
Prof. Howard.
As a result of the said meeting the said corporation and its employees
entered into an agreement, dated April 1, 1912, appointing this committee and
authorizing it to establish a trade board to sit as a court of original hearing
in all grievances arising between said corporation and its employees and to
make such rules and regulations for the carrying on of the work of said trade
board as the committee should consider proper.
The committee held several sessions and as a result established a trade
board of 11 members, preferably practical men in the trade, and has formulated
certain rules for its guidance. In framing the rules this committee has re­
frained from detail regulation, but has given the trade board ample power to
establish such additional rules as experience may dictate.
While all matters of this kind are more or less of a tentative nature and
must be subject to the test of practical everyday life, yet the committee after
a review of the work of the board of arbitration for the year just past and
of the experience in other fields which it has considered believes that the
organization herein provided will prove efficient for the work in hand, and it
is hoped it. will mark a step forward in the relations of the employer and the
employed, in the conciliation of labor.
TRADE BOARD.

1. The trade board shall consist of 11 members who shall, if possible, be
practical men in the trade; all of whom, excepting the chairman, shall be
employees of said corporation: 5 members thereof shall be appointed by the
corporation, and 5 members by the employees. The members appointed by the
corporation shall be certified in writiug by the corporation to the chairman of
the board, and the members appointed by the employees shall be likewise
certified in writing by the joint board of garment workers of Hart, Schaffner
& Marx to said chairman. Any of said members of said board, except the
chairman, may be removed and replaced by the power appointing him, such
new appointee to be certified to the chairman in the same manner as above
provided for.
ALTERNATES.

In addition thereto each side is to appoint five alternates in the same manner
above provided for, to the end that there will be as near as may be a full
meeting of the board at each session.
MEETINGS.

Meetings to be held weekly, unless waived by the chairman. Special meet­
ings may be called by 24 hours’ notice.
QUORUM.

Quorum to consist of not less than three members on each side, but in no
case shall the representation of either side have unequal voting power. In case



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N 's CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

31

a quorum is lacking after a regular call, the chairman shall give notice to the
chief deputy of the delinquent side* who will be given 80 minutes to produce
a quorum of regular members or alternates.
NEUTRAL MEMBER OF THE BOARD.

2. The neutral member of the board who is appointed by this committee, is
to hold office until the expiration of the original agreement; and in case of his
death, resignation, or inability to act, then his successor shall be appointed by
the board of arbitration at a full meeting of its three members. Said neutral
member shall be chairman of the board and shall preside at all meetings of
the trade board and shall have a vote in its proceedings.
The duties of the chairman shall be to preside at ail meetings, to certify to
all decisions and proceedings of the board, to maintain order and expedite the
business before the board by limiting discussion or stopping irrelevant debate,
and to conduct the examination of witnesses and to instruct deputies, and, upon
request, to grant stay of the orders of the board, at his discretion, pending
JURISDICTION OF BOARD.

3. Said board is to have original jurisdiction of all matters arising under the
agreement of January 14, 1911, and the decision thereunder of Messrs. Darrow
and Meyers, of March 13, 1911.
DEPUTIES.

4. The representatives of each of the parties of the trade board shall have
the power to appoint deputies for each branch of the trade; that is to say, for
cutters, coat makers, trouser makers, and vest makers.
Each side shall have the right to form such rules and regulations for its
own deputies as do not conflict with these rules or the rights of the other
party: Provided, however, That one of the said deputies shall be called chief
deputy, and shall be responsible for the keeping of the records to be kept for
his party, and for the placing of matters arising from his party upon the
calendar of the trade board, and to do such other work for the orderly carrying
on of the affairs of the trade board on behalf of the party he represents as the
trade board may from time to time require. Said deputies are:
(a) To do such work as the trade board may call upon them to do.
((f) To take up the grievances from the party which they represent, and. in
connection with a deputy from the other party, to make as prompt an investiga­
tion as is possible. If they agree upon a decision in regard to same, then they
shall report such decision in writing to the trade board, and their decision shall
be binding on both sides unless objections thereto are filed with the board,
within three days from the making of the decision.
If, however, the said deputies fail to agree, they shall then certify the fact
in writing to the trade board, agreeing on the facts, if possible, and in case they
disagree as to the facts, each shall certify his statement of facts to the trade
board, and the matter shall then be taken up by the board in its next regular
or special meeting, and the board at such meeting shall constitute itself a trial
board, and each party shall be permitted to present such arguments and such
evidence as is pertinent to the matter in dispute.
(c)
It is understood the deputies shall be available to give the duties of
their office prompt attention.
QUALIFICATION

OF DEPUTIES.

5. Each deputy, in order to qualify for the duty, must have a commission
signed by the proper official representing employees or the company, and said



32

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

commission must be countersigned by the chairman of the trade board. Dep­
uties must be either employees of Hart, Schaffner & Marx, or must be persons
who are connected with the joint board of garment workers of Hart, Schaffner
& Marx.
RECORDS.

6. Duplicate records shall be kept ’by the trade board, one to be in the hands
of the chief deputy for the corporation, and one in the hands of the chief deputy
for the employees. Such records shall contain the following, which are to be in
writing: The complaints of either party which are to be filed with the board;
the decisions of the board, of the deputies or of any committees; any orders
made by the board; calendars of cases before the board, and such other
matters as the trade board may direct placed upon the records.
APPEAL TO ARBITRATION BOARD.

7. In case either party should desire to appeal from any decision of the trade
board, or from any change of these rules by the trade board, to the board of
arbitration, they shall have the right to do so upon filing a notice in writing
with the trade board of such intention within 30 days from the date of the
decision, and the said trade board shall then certify said matter to the board
of arbitration, where the same shall be given an early hearing by a full board
of three members.
GENERAL RULES.

8. (a) In case the deputies or trade board agree upon a remedy for the
grievance, they shall make a signed order to the proper official of the company.
This official must execute the order without delay, or must indorse upon the
order his reason for refusing to do so, in which case either chief deputy or
trade board has the right within 24 hours to request a stay from the chairman
pending appeal to the board of arbitration.
(6)
In case of a stoppage of work in any shop or shops, a deputy from each
side shall immediately repair to the shop or shops in question.
If such stoppage shall occur because the person in charge of the shop shall
have refused to allow the people to continue work, he shaU be ordered to im­
mediately give work to the people, or, in case the employees have stopped work,
the deputies shall order the people to immediately return to work, and in case
they fail to return to work within an hour from such time such people shall be
considered as having left the employ of the corporation, and shall not be
entitled to the benefit of these rules.
(c) In case either party shall fail to carry out any decision of the trade
board, then such matter shall be certified by the trade board to the board of
arbitration, and thereupon said board of arbitration shall hear the matter, and
should it find that either party has failed to carry out a proper order of the
trade board, then the said board of arbitration shall have the power to devise
such means of discipline as it may consider just and proper.
(d) Whenever a change of price is contemplated the specifications shall be
submitted to the trade board, and the specifications with the prices fixed there­
for shall be certified to the firm by the chairman of the board.
(e) In fixing the prices the board is restricted to the following rules:
Changed prices must correspond to the changed work and new prices must
be based upon old prices where possible.
(/) Complaints against members of the trade board as workmen are to be
made by the foreman to the trade board. Any action of any employee as a



COLLECTIVE AGBEEMENTS IN MEN*S CLOTHING INDUSTBY.

33

member of the trade board s h a ll not be considered inimical to his employment
with the corporation.
(g) Before or at the time of entering any complaint against any employee
in the complaint book, said employee shall be notified thereof so he may have
the opportunity of notifying a deputy of the board and have said complaint
investigated.
(h) No employee who has voluntarily abandoned his position shall have any
standing before the board; voluntary abandoning of positions shall be con­
strued thus: When an employee has failed to occupy his accustomed place
without permission and fails to notify the foreman that he is holding his posi­
tion before the close of business of the next day.
(i) No member of a trade board shall sit on a case in which he is interested
or to which he is a party.
AMENDMENTS.

9. These rules and regulations shall be subject to amendment, modifications,
or alterations, or repeal at any time, either upon the order of the board of
arbitration or the trade board.
E . D . H ow ard,
C arl M eyer,
W . O. T h om pson,

S.

H il l m a n ,

C . H . W in s l o w ,

Committee..
AGREEMENT OF MARCH 29,1913.

The supplementary agreement of April 1, 1912, providing for
the establishment of a trade board, served its purpose and paved
the way for an extension of the agreement. The original agreement
of 1911 expired on April 1, 1913. For two months prior to that
date conferences of representatives of the company and of the em­
ployees, for the consideration of the new demands of the workers,
were held under the auspices of the board of arbitration, which
board participated actively in the conferences.
Representatives of the employees presented the following demands:
D e m a n d s of E m p lo y e e s of H a r t, S c h a f f n e r

&

M a r x , A p r il

1, 1913.

1. TAILORS.

A r t ic l e 1. All employees of Hart, Schaffner & Marx in the cutting, trimming,
and tailoring departments shall be members of local unions of United Garment
Workers of America in good standing.
(a)
New employees shall join said organization within two weeks after
their employment.
A r t . 2. Fifty hours shall constitute a week’s work in all tailoring shops.
(a) All overtime shall be paid at the rate of one time and one-half for all
piece and week workers.
(b) No overtime shall be allowed on Saturdays, Sundays, or legal holidays,
viz, Christmas Day, New Year’s, Decoration Day, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving
Day, and Labor Day.
3 8 0 4 2 °— Bull. 19 8 —16 ----- 3




34

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

Art. 8. The present board of arbitration shall be continued for the life of the
new agreement.
A r t . 4. No employee shall receive less than $9 per week.
(a) The question of increases in the various sections shall be referred to the
board of arbitration, whose findings shall be binding to both parties.
(b) Tailors shall receive a minimum wage of $16 per week.
Abt. 5. There shall be created a committee known as the price committee,
with equal representation from both parties, who shall investigate changes in
operations or new operations and determine the prices thereon.
A b t . 6 . No employees shall be discharged without sufficient cause.
(a) Overcrowded sections shall be considered a grievance.
(b) Where sections are abolished, the people employed in those sections shall
be put at operations as similar as possible within a reasonable time.
(c) All the privileges exercised by the old agreement not covered by this
agreement shall become a part of this agreement.
2. CUTTERS.
A r t ic l e 1. Forty-eight hours shall constitute a week’s work in cutting and
trimming departments.
A r t . 2. It is agreed that the basis per cut shall be 52J cents, not meaning as
piecework, but as a guide.
(a) It is further agreed that normal conditions shall be determined for the
cutting room, as follows: Five parts to a coat, one flap, one welt, and pipings;
also one top collar, one pattern; to a vest, two welts and three facings; to a
pair of trousers, one waistband, two hip-pocket facings, one fly, one side-pocket
facing, one hip-pocket flap and loops.
(b) Should there be any changes, such as alterations or any delay not on
the man’s part the lost time shall be credited accordingly.
A r t . 3. The following holidays shall be observed: Christmas, New Year,
Decoration Day, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and Labor Day, receiving
regular pay for each and all of them if the work is done during such week in
which the holiday occurs.
A r t . 4. All machine work is to be figured two cuts for one cut* the height not
exceeding eight ply. Overcoats shall be figured three cuts for two suits, not
exceeding two in height
(a) All trousers shall be figured three cuts per suit as a basis on normal
work. On extraordinary cloth or some extra attachments the cutters shall be
credited with extra time for same.
(&) All handwork not to exceed two in height.
A r t . 5. There shall be no reduction in wages unless such is justified by a
price committee. Should this committee disagree, then all evidence from both
sides shall be presented to the board of arbitration.
Art. 6. All cutters and trimmers shall have the right to present their griev­
ances through their representatives to the board of arbitration.
A r t . 7. All cutters and trimmers of Hart, Schaffner & Marx shall be members
of Local Union 61, United Garment Workers of America.
(а) If new employees are hired, after two weeks’ trial they shall become
members of said local union.
(б) If new employees are hired, the old employees shall be assured of not
more than three weeks’ lay off during slack season.
(c) All work during slack season shall be equally divided among all cutters
and trimmers.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M e n ’ s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

35

S. TUIMMERS.

Art. 8. No man shall be kept in one section over six months except lining
cutters and machine operators.
( а) Machine operators shall be paid as follows: $12 per week the first two
months, $13 per week the following two months, and $14 per week for the next
two months, and $15 per week the following three months, and $16 per week th£
next three months, and $1 increase every six months up to $34 per week.
(б) No man shall be put on lay unless he has worked two years in the
trimming room. He shall receive not less than $16 per week the first year,
$18 per week the second year, and $20 per week the third year.
(c) No apprentice shall start for less than $9 per week, with an increase of.
$1 every three months up to $16 per week.
(d) No man shall start cutting linings* for less than $16 per week and be
increased $1 every six months up to $22 per week.

As these conferences proceeded, it became apparent that although
the company and the employees could reach some agreement on many
of the points involved in the new demands, there were differences in­
volving the continuation and further extension of the articles pro­
viding for meditation, arbitration, and collective bargaining as a
whole which could not be reconciled.
The company, in fact, felt that it was impossible to concede the
chief demand of the employees, namely, that they discharge after
two weeks any employee who failed to become a member of the
United Garment Workers of America. It was contended that this
provision would virtually establish a closed shop, and that the con­
cession could not be made under the conditions prevailing in the
industry because the employees were not sufficiently experienced in
unionism properly to demand that they be given this power over
the company.
The workers, on the other hand, felt that the strengthening and
even the existence of their organization would be endangered if
union membership on the part of the employees of the firm should
remain voluntary, and if the nonunion employees should continue
to receive in the future all the benefits secured by the constant efforts
and material sacrifices of those who did belong to the union.
Negotiations came to a standstill and the arbitrators left the city.
Before leaving the city, however, the chairman of the board of
arbitration procured from the company a promise to extend the
period of the old agreement six weeks, to May 31, 1913, in order
that the time might be given for further negotiations, in the hope
that reversion to the extreme methods of industrial warfare might
be avoided. The unions, however, refused to accept this extension.
Representatives of the firm and of the employees in cooperation
with the chairman of the board of arbitration, however, continued
their efforts to discover some mutually acceptable method of adjust­
ing the chief difference, namely, the precise degree of the recognition
which should be conceded to the union by the company.



36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

One week before the date of expiration of the old agreement, the
chairman of the board of arbitration and the chief deputies for the
respective sides agreed to submit the following proposition—a
proposition for the so-called preferential union shop, which was
subsequently adopted.
A greem ent.

Tlie chairman suggests the following as a tentative working basis of agree­
ment:
1. That the firm agrees to this principle of preference, namely, that they will
agree to prefer union men in the hiring of new employees, subject to reasonable
restrictions, and also to prefer union men in dismissal on account of slack
work, subject to a reasonable preference to older employees, to be arranged
by the board of arbitration, it being understood that all who have worked for
the firm six months shall be considered old employees.
2. All other matters shall be deliberated on and discussed by the parties in
interest, and if they are unable to reach an agreement, the matter in dispute
shall be submitted to the arbitration board for its final decision.
Until an agreement can be reached by negotiation by the parties in interest,
or in case of their failure to agree, and a decision is announced by the arbi­
tration board, the old agreement shall be considered as being in full force and
effect.
For Hart, Schaffner & Marx:
J oseph S c h a ffn e r ,

Secretary and Treasurer.
M il t o n A. S t r a u s s .
E arl D e a n H ow ard.
M . W . Cresap.

For the Chicago Federation of Labor:
J o h n F it z p a t r ic k ,

President.
For the Women’s Trade-Union League of Chicago:
M a r g a r e t D r e ie r R o b in s ,

President.
For the joint board, United Garment Workers of America:
A. D . M a r i m p i e t r i ,




Chairman.
S id n e y H i l l m a n ,

Chief Deputy.
S a m L e v in e ,

Deputy for Cutters mid Trimmers.
F r a n k R osenbloom ,

Deputy for Local No.
H y m a n Oy l in k y ,

Deputy for Local No. 152.
P eter G a l s k is ,

Deputy for Locals Nos. 6, 253, 26$, 269, and 273.
C h a r l e s Z e l ib a r ,
N ic k M o reth ,

Representing the Cutters and Trimmers.
J. E . W il l ia m s ,

Arbitrator.

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

37

This agreement practically left all matters, except the closed-sliop
issue, in the hands of a board of arbitration. In order that both
parties might know tlie attitude of the chairman of this board, he
prepared the following statement, which subsequently became a part
of the specifications of the new agreement:
S ta t e m e n t of t h e C h a ir m a n .

In facing the possibility of unsettled questions being submitted to arbitration,
I find my present state of mind to be this:
That, in addition to maintaining what has been gained in the present agree­
ment, the chief interest of the employees centers around the question of an
increased efficiency of .organization, which requires a recognition of the rieed
for such a substantial degree of preference as will tend to improve that effi­
ciency; while the chief interest of the employers centers around the question
of efficiency in business competition, which necessarily includes a recognition
and consideration of cost and quality of production, with the shop cooperation
and discipline necessary to secure it.
I find my mind still open and ready to receive and be influenced by any light
that may be offered by either side, and this statement is given to show, so far
as I understand myself, what my present attitude is on the questions which
most need to be considered and reconciled.
J. E . W i l l i a m s , Chairman.
C h ic a g o , March 28,1913.

On the day following the chairman issued the following supple­
mentary statement:
After submitting the above statement to the principals of the parties in inter­
est, and discussing with them the manner of its application, I am confirmed
in the impression that the interests described therein are the interests that
should be mainly considered and conserved by the board of arbitration.

One month afterwards the board of arbitration, by authority
conferred upon it under the preliminary agreement which had been
entered into, issued the following decision which ipso facto became
the new collective agreement between the firm and its employees.
This agreement was to last three years, the date of expiration being
April 30, 1916.1
R u l i n g o f B o ard o f A r b i t r a t io n .

By virtue of this agreement on the 29tli day of March, 1913, between the
joint board of garment workers, United Garment Workers of America, and
Hart, Schaffner & Marx, the board of arbitration has made the following find­
ings to be in force between said parties:
1. This agreement shall be in force for a period of three years, beginning
May 1, 1913, and ending April 30, 1916. It is agreed that negotiations for the
further continuance, or of a change in the agreement, shall begin on March 1,
1916, and that representatives of both the parties hereto shall meet on that
date for preliminary discussions.
2. The trade board and board of arbitration shall be continued as hereto­
fore constituted, and shall continue their functions upon the lines now in prac­
1 This agreement has been renewed.




See Appendix, pp. 180 to 182.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

38

tice, except that it is agreed that the powers of the board of arbitration have
been enlarged to meet extraordinary conditions in the manner of the following:
2. {a) If there shall be a general change in wages or hours in the clothing
industry which shall be sufficiently permanent to warrant the belief that the
change is not temporary, then the board shall have power to determine whether
such change is of so extraordinary a nature as to justify a consideration of the
question of making a change in the present agreement, and, if so, then the
board shall have power to make such changes in wages or hours as in its judg­
ment shall be proper.
3. It is agreed that the principle of preference shall be carried out accord­
ing to the spirit of the agreement adopted March 29, 1913, as interpreted in
the statement made by the chairman of the board of arbitration before the
signing of that instrument.
4. The hours of work in tailor shops shall be 52 hours per week instead of
54 hours, as formerly.
5. The minimum-wage scale of the old agreement shall remain in force except
as follows:
Machine operators in tailor shops (except sergers, sleeve operators, and pad
makers) shall for the first three months of service receive not less than $5
a week, and not less than $8 a week thereafter. Sergers, sleeve operators, and
pad makers shall receive not less than $5 a week for the first three months,
and not less than $7 a week thereafter. Women in needle sections shall receive
not less than $5 a week for the first three months, and not less than $6 a week
thereafter.
6. All overtime shall be paid for as follows: Pieceworkers shall receive a
rate and a half, and week workers shall be paid at the rate of time and a
half for any overtime. No overtime shall be allowed on Sundays or legal holi­
days. Christmas, New Year, Decoration Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day,
and Thanksgiving Day shall be considered as legal holidays.
7. The full power of discharge and discipline remains with the company and
its agents, but it is understood that this power should be exercised with justice
and with due regard to the reasonable rights of the employee, and if an em­
ployee feels that he has been unjustly discharged, he may have appeal to the
trade board, which shall have the power to review his case.
8. The company and its agents shall use their best judgment in maintaining
a proper balance of workmen in the sections to keep the different departments
at work, and shall do their best to prevent overcrowding. If complaint shall
arise on this matter it shall be subject to review by the board.
9. When sections are abolished, the company and its agents shall use every
effort to give the displaced workers employment as much as possible like the
work from which they are displaced within a reasonable time.
10. It is understood that those parts of the old agreement which are not in
conflict with these amendments and which have not become obsolete are in
full force and effect. It is expected that the old and new agreements will be
consolidated later, when the board has had time to work on them, and the
present arrangement is intended to last until they can be properly codified.
J. E . W i l l i a m s , Chairman,
C arl M eyer,

W. O.

T h om pson ,

Board of Arbitrators.
May,

1913.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E x ’ s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

39

Briefly, the essential points of the new agreement are the fol­
lowing:
1. It extends over a period of three years.
2. It grants no increases in wages or rates save that it permits the
board of arbitration to make changes in wages and hours, in case
there is “ a general change in wages or hours in the clothing indus­
try, which shall be sufficiently permanent to warrant the belief that
the change is not temporary.”
3. It recognizes the union to the extent of giving preference to its
members in hiring and laying off workers.
4. It reduces the hours of labor per week from 54 to 52..
5. It limits the right of the firm to discharge, to the extent of
giving the trade board the power to review each case involving
discharge.
EXTENSION OF THE AGREEMENT.

Although, as has been stated, the original agreements covered the
employees of most of the manufacturing departments of the firm,
they did not specifically include the department of ticket sewing,
employing about 40 people; the tailor inspectors, a group of about
75 people inspecting the finished product; nor the apprentices in the
cutting room. The sponging department, employing about 20
people, originally came under the agreement as a branch of the cut­
ting force, but gradually dropped out, and is virtually outside the
provisions of the agreements at the present time.
Since January 1,1914, however, through two decisions of the chair­
man of the board of arbitration and one decision of the trade board,
the ticket sewers, tailor inspectors, and apprentices have been under
the agreement, and the decisions bringing these employees under the
agreement are briefly noted.
The ticket sewers in the cutting room were not unionized at the
time of the signing of the agreement of March 29, 1913. Consider­
able difficulty arose with reference to the status of this group of
workers when they subsequently organized.
In June, 1914, by agreement of representatives of both sides, the
entire controversy was referred for final adjudication .to the chair­
man of the board of arbitration, who rendered the following decision:
D e c i s io n o f t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e B o ard o f A r b i t b a t io n o n t h e S t a t u s o f
T ic k e t S e w e r s.

This group very properly comes witliln the jurisdiction of
rights of representation, appeal to the trade board, and the
granted under the agreement.
As this group is in some respects different from others *
man refrains from applying the principle of preference * »




the union, with
other privileges
* * the chair­
* but requests

40

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the two parties to exercise their best judgment and good will in working out
some mutually satisfactory scheme.
The intent of the plan we are working under is that any scheme adopted
shall be one that will tend to strengthen the union and maintain the efficiency
of the group or section.
Should the two parties fail to agree in the application of preference, the
board will then make a formal definition of its policy with regard to this
section.

The decision of the chairman with reference to inclusion of the
tailor inspectors was as follows:
D e c i s io n o f t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e B o ard o f A r b i t r a t io n a s to T a il o r
I n spectors.
J a n u a r y 28, 1914.
The question of whether inspector tailors come under the agreement now
being referred to the chairman of the board: Investigation was made and argu­
ment heard with the following result:
The union claims that many of these people are already members of the union,
that their work differs in no essential respect from any other section, and that
they should be dealt with the same as other workers under the agreement.
The company claims that it has not recognized them as under the agreement,
but to subject them to the same conditions of hiring and discharge as any other
union worker would unfit them to properly perform their work as inspectors,
because the company’s power to enforce their vigilance and care would be
diminished by the restrictions imposed by union conditions; also that it removes
forever the company’s principal check on the diligence of the foremen.
The chairman decides the inspector tailors do properly come within the pro­
visions of the agreement in all matters, except that in hiring and discharge
the provisions of the agreement be temporarily suspended. He regards this
operation as requiring more freedom of discipline to be given the company
because of its great importance as determining the quality of output and
because of its being so close to the eud of the series of operations, and therefore
not as susceptible of review and correction.
It is understood that this decision is tentative and subject to revision after
actual experiment at the request of either party.

The cutters’ apprentices were brought under the agreement by the
following decision of the trade board:
D e c i s io n o f t h e T r a d e B oard a s to C u t t e r s ' A p p r e n t ic e s ( C a s e N o .

G2).

This is the petition of trimmers for reinstatement on the ground of preference.
It is contended by the firm that the trade board has no jurisdiction in this
matter and that apprentices do not fall within the scope of the agreement.
The board rules that under the agreement all employees of Hart, Schaffner &
Marx engaged in. the manufacturing end of the business are included in the
agreement, and therefore apprentices, being employees of this character, are
necessarily included in the agreement
ADJUSTMENT OF GRIEVANCES.

Indirectly the adjustment of grievances through the mediation of
the respective deputies is carried on under the supervision of the
trade board, inasmuch as every settlement that the deputies make is



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

41

subject to review by the board on appeal, while all cases in which
the deputies fail to effect a settlement are by them presented to the
board.
A total of about 1,400 grievances were taken up by the deputies,
each of these cases coming up for original consideration before two
deputies, one of whom represented the employees and one the com­
pany. Between April 1,1912, and June 1,1914, the deputies effected
a final adjustment of about 1,200 grievances, including some cases
which were dropped by mutual consent and some which were for­
mally withdrawn by the respective complainants.
It is unfortunate that neither the representatives of the company
nor the representatives of the employees realize, even at the present
time, the importance of detailed records of disposition of cases by
the deputies. There is, in fact, no record covering the cases dis­
posed of by the deputies which makes possible a classification accord^
ing to the nature of the grievance or disposition made of the case.
All that can be definitely asserted is that these cases w-ere amicably
and promptly adjusted without the direct assistance of the trade
board.
The* following table shows the number of grievances adjusted
finally by the deputies, by the trade board, and by the board of
arbitration:
NUM BER AN D PE R CENT OF GRIEVANCES ADJUSTED, AP R . 1,1912, TO JUNE 1, 1914, B Y
A GENCY OF ADJUSTM ENT.

Agency of adjustment.

Number
of cases.

Per cent.

1,178
Deputies.......................................................................................
Trade board..................................................................................
206
Board of arbitration...................................................................

1
7

Total....................................................................................

1,401

84.1
14.7
1.2
100.0

It will be apparent from the above table that in the great majority
of cases the adjustment was effected in the simplest possible manner,
namely, through the mediation of deputies representing the respective
sides. More than five-sixths, 84.1 per cent, of the total number of
cases were in fact thus disposed of. Less than one-sixth of the total
number of cases were brought before the trade board, which was
the agency of final adjustment in 14.7 per cent of the total number of
cases. Only 1.2 per cent of the total number of cases were referred
to the court of last resort, the board of arbitration.
As regards the cases brought before the trade board complete
records are on file, and it is believed that the grievances represented
by th^j^ cases are fairly typical of the whole number of grievances
adjusted, and that the disposition of these cases by the board indi­
cates clearly how the agreement actually works in practice.



42

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

Before taking up these cases in detail a brief statement is made
regarding the organization and composition of the trade board under
the new agreement.
ORGANIZATION AND COMPOSITION OF THE TRADE BOARD.

The trade board, as organized on April 1, 1913, consists of 11
members, all of whom, except the chairman, are employees of the
company* The five representatives of the company are employed
in executive or supervisory positions in the factory. The five repre­
sentatives of the employees are selected by the joint board of the
local unions of employees of Hart, Schaffner & Marx. The present
chairman of the trade board was selected by the original committee
that created it.1
It will be seen that the trade board is composed of men whose
experience makes them entirely capable of dealing intelligently with
the practical and the technical details of any dispute that may arise.
Regular meetings of the trade board are held weekly in a place
provided by the firm, and meetings may be called at short notice on
request of either party or of the chairman.
WORK OF THE TRADE BOARD.

The following excerpt from the calendar of the board may be pre­
sented as being a typical weekly docket of cases:
T r ade B oard D o c k e t for W e e k o f J u n e

10, 1914.

Case 89.—Sleeve sewers in A3 claim a differential on one-piece sleeves. Keep­
ing separate account of disputed work until decision of board is made.
Case 90.—Miss A. complains on behalf of tape sewers in factory G that girls
are transferred to this section from shop 7 while she has union members wait­
ing for the position. The firm claims the right to transfer persons from one
shop to the other, especially if it is a justified promotion and the section they
are leaving is overcrowded.
Case 91.—Mr. L. requests an increase from $10 to $12 for Helen F., No. 3902,
shop 10.
Case 92.—Cutter petitions for restoration of reduced rate.
Case 98.—Same as case 92.
Case 9J
f.—Same as case 92.
Case 95.—Same as case 92.
Case 96.—Leg pressers, shop 2, complain about additional work.
Case 99.—Miss A. complains on behalf of seam pressers in all vest factories
that formerly they received $1.25 per 100 for double darts, while now they
get $1.10.
Case 100.—Mr. L. complains that in shop 10 the foreman hired a second
baster without sending a requisition to the offices of the union.
1 Subsequently, for practical reasons, the membership o f the board was reduced to five,
tw o members representing each side, and the im partial chairman. A t present, though
consisting of five members, most o f the important decisions are made by the chairman
casting the deciding vote.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN’ M EN’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

43.

The work of the trade board has been, in the opinion of the parties
to the agreement, fairly successful, and such deficiencies as are con­
ceded are attributed more to the development of specific conditions
which could not have been foreseen at the time of the board’s estab­
lishment than to any defects in the principles which underlie the
agreement.
The trade board was established to provide a tribunal of practical
men working in the industry, who should constitute a court of
original jurisdiction—a court competent to give more prompt and
equitable service than could be reasonably required of the board of
arbitration. In the main the trade board has rendered the service
contemplated in the agreement.
In the composition of its membership the trade board is repre­
sentative of the various departments of the factory, namely, cutting
and trimming, coat making, vest making, and trouser making. This
representative character of the board has been found to add greatly
to its efficiency in considering and adjusting specific grievances, each
of which necessarily involves conditions prevailing in some one
department and more or less peculiar to that department. By draft­
ing its membership from the various departments the board is made
to possess collectively a complete and intimate knowledge of the
conditions and character of the work in all departments. This inti­
mate and complete knowledge is absolutely essential as a condition
of intelligent procedure.
The method in dealing with complaints is as follows: When a com­
plaint is filed with the labor complaint department two deputies of
the trade board, one representing the firm and one representing the
workers, are informed of the complaint. These two deputies pro­
ceed to the shop wherein the dispute has arisen, investigate, and make
every effort to adjust the grievance. Failure on the part of the
deputies to bring about an adjustment automatically places the com­
plaint upon the docket of the trade board. Nothing, however, pre­
vents the board from referring a complaint back to the deputies
with instructions and recommendation in any case where there is a
possibility that further investigation may enable the deputies to
effect an adjustment.
"With regard to promptness in dealing with disputes the service of
the board has been fairly satisfactory, though at times not as prompt
as it should or could be.
There still is much waste of time and much delay in the hearing
of cases in the rendering of decisions, but both parties to the present
agreement believe that even in this respect the method of operating
by deputies and through a court of original jurisdiction, with a
right of appeal to a board of arbitration, is a distinct improvement




44

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

over former methods. It is clear tliat the indirect effect of the es­
tablishment and operation of the trade board is much greater than
might be inferred from a consideration simply of the number of
cases brought before the board for adjudication. As shown below,
many of the changes in prices made during the past season were
definitely determined upon and established without recourse to the
board. The chief deputy of the workers in fact has stated that he
has been able to adjust about 75 per cent of his complaints without
recourse to the board, and to a very considerable extent the efficiency
of the deputies in this work must be credited to the trade board as
an indirect consequence of its own efficiency.
NATURE AND DISPOSITION OF GRIEVANCES REFERRED TO THE TRADE BOARD.

The grievances covered by the cases brought before the trade board
have been classified by the board under the following headings:
W r o n g f u l D i s c h a r g e . — No worker, according to the first agree­
ment, could be discharged for union activity. The subsequent agree­
ment allowed the trade board to review every case of discharge in
order to determine whether the discharge was warranted. The cases
arising under this provision of the agreement cover a distinct class of
grievances.
A d d i t i o n a l W o r k , o r P r ic e s T oo Low.—A s the styles, par­
ticularly with reference to little features, change very frequently,
readjustments of prices are of frequent occurrence. Where the
character of the work is changed, the workers usually claim that
additional work is involved—work which was not required when the
price was originally fixed. These complaints constitute another
distinct class of grievances.
D i s p u t e i n P r ic e M a k i n g .—Disagreements which arise in fixing
prices for new work are not, strictly speaking, grievances, but such
issues constitute, nevertheless, a distinct class of cases. In each
instance a petition to the board to fix prices is consequent upon a
failure of the price committee to agree.
R e d u c t i o n o f R a t e s o f C u t t e r s .— The nature of these cases is ex­
plained in detail on pages 82 and 83 of this report. The rates of cut­
ters are increased or decreased on the basis of individual productivity
figured in terms of 524 cents per standard cut. Frequently, however,
cutters maintain that a specific decrease in productivity has been due
not to negligence on their part or inability to turn out the product,
but to some condition for which the firm is responsible. This claim is
usually made the basis of a petition to the board for restoration of
original rates.
D i s c r i m i n a t i o n .— Discrimination may be alleged either as re­
gards individuals or as regards sections.



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

45.

O v e r c r o w d e d S e c t i o n s .— T h e charge that too many employees are
being retained in any given section and that the section is over­
crowded is usually made for the purpose of compelling the firm to
lay off nonunion help during a slack season.
P r e f e r r in g N o n u n i o n H e l p .—The firm, according to agreement,
is to prefer union help, and the preference of nonunion help is, there­
fore, a violation of the agreement and constitutes a grievance.
M i s c e l l a n e o u s .— These cases embrace a great variety of grievances
which, however, occur infrequently and are not typical of conditions
prevailing in the shops.
The above classes cover a large proportion of the cases brought,
before the board. The nature of the grievances in other cases where
the grievance is specified will be self-evident, and it will be noted
that none of these other grievances are of frequent occurrence.
In the following table the cases upon which the trade board has
taken action are classified according to nature of the grievance in
each case. It will be noted that the grievance of most frequent oc­
currence is wrongful discharge. Other grievances in the order of
their frequency are: Additional work or prices too low, price-making
disputes, reduction of rates of cutters, discrimination, overcrowded
section. The first four classes of grievances, in fact, embrace threequarters of all the complaints that were referred to the trade board.
N A T U R E OF GRIEVANCES R E F E R R E D TO T H E T R A D E BO AR D , M A Y ft, 1912, TO JUNE
11, 1914.

Grievance.

Number
of oases.

Per cent.

Wrongful discharge.................................................... .........................................................
Additional work,or prices too low ......................... ............................... ........................
Disputes in price wi^tring................................................................... ...............................
Reduction 01 rates of cutters.................................................... ...................... .................
~n<g<-»rim Q r> against individuals or sections...............................................................
in .tin
Miscellaneous.................................................... ................................................................ .
Overcrowded section....................................... ....................................................................
Preferring nnnnninn help...................................................................................................
Unequal division of work;....................................................................................................
Claim for wages due.................................................. - ..........................................................
Time allowance for cutting specials..................................................................................
New system of work..........................................................................................................
Reduction of prices............ .................................................................................................
Illtreatment of employees...................................................................................................

75
42
31
18
15
15
14
7
1
1
1
1
1
1

33.63
18.83
13.90
8.07
6.72
6.72
6.28
3.14
.45
.45
.45
.45
.45
.45

Total.............................................................................................................................

1223

100.00

* including 1 case referred directly to the board of arbitration.

As regards the disposition of cases, the following terms require
brief explanation:
“ Compromised ” cases are those in which the final settlement did
not wholly sustain the position of either of the parties.
. “ Dropped” cases include (a) those in which the company and
the employees came to an understanding before the investigation,
(b) those in which the nature of the complaint was too trivial to



46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

require investigation, (e) those in which there was insufficient evi­
dence to establish the charge, (d) those in which the union did not
press for an investigation and settlement, (e) those in which, as
appeared upon investigation, the dispute was between employees,
the company being in no way involved.
“ Withdrawn ” cases are those in which the union or the association
definitely withdrew charges which had been preferred.
In the following table the cases referred to the trade board are
classified according to the disposition of the case. Of the 228 cases
61, or 27.4 per cent, were decided in favor of the union; the same
number were compromised; 54 cases, or 24.2 per cent of the total
number were decided in favor of the company; and the balance of
the cases were either dropped or withdrawn.
DISPOSITION OF GRIEVANCES R E F E R R E D TO T R A D E B O A R D , M A Y 8,1912, TO JUNE 1,
1914.
Number
of cases.

Per cent.

In favor of union............. .......................
Compromised...........................................
In favor of company.............................
Dropped....................................................
Withdrawn..............................................

*61
61
54
37
10

27.4
27.4
24.2
16.6
4.5

Total...............................................

2 223

100.0

Disposition.

1Including 1 case referred directly to board of arbitration and decided by that board.
2 Of these, 16 were subsequently appealed to the board of arbitration and 1, as shown in note l, was
handled in the first instance by that board.

The table following shows with reference to the more important
grievances in what proportion of cases referred to the trade board,
from May 8, 1912, to June 1, 1914, a decision was rendered in favor
of the union and in what proportion in favor of the company.
NU M BER A N D PE R CENT OF DECISIONS OF T R A D E B O A R D IN F AVO R O F U N IO N A N D
IN F AVO R OF COM PANY, B Y N A T U R E OF G R IEVAN CE , M A Y 8,1912, TO JUNE 1,1914.

Grievance.

Number
of cases
filed.

Decisions in favor
of union.

Decisions in favor
of company.

Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
Wrongful discharge.............................................................
Additional work, or prices too low...................................
Disputes in price making..................................................
Reduction of rates of cutters............................................
Discrimination against individuals or sections............
Overcrowded sections........................................................
Preferring nonunion help..................................................
Other grievances.................................................................

75
42
31
18
15
14
7
21

24
12
4
6
5
2
3
5

32.0
28.6
12.9
33.3
33.3
14.3
42.9
23.8

34
5
3
5
4

45.3
11.9
9.7
27.8
26.7

1
2

14.3
9.5

Total...........................................................................

‘ 223

*61

27.4

54

24.2

i Including 1 case referred directly to the board of arbitration and decided by that board.

It will be seen that in a little over one-fourth, 27.4 per cent, of
the total number of cases the decision of the trade board was in favor
of the union. Grouping the cases according to nature of grievance,



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N 'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

47

the corresponding percentages representing decisions favorable to
the union, ranged from 12.9 per cent in cases involving disputes of
prices to 42.9 per cent in cases of complaints of preferring nonunion
help. In cases of alleged wrongful discharge, reduction of rates of
cutters, and discrimination, the union won one case out of every
three filed. The low proportion of cases won by the union where
wrongful discharge was alleged is not surprising in view of the fact
that the firm has in force, as is noted elsewhere in this report, a very
elaborate and effective system for the handling of discharges.
Of the total number of cases filed, 24.2 per cent were decided in
favor of the company. This is approximately the number of cases
decided adversely to the complainant, since nearly all of the cases
represent complaints filed by the union. The company secured a
favorable decision in none of the 14 cases where overcrowding of
section was alleged; but it should be noted that only 2 of these cases
were decided in favor of the union, 12 cases being either compro­
mised, dropped, or withdrawn. The company secured a favorable
decision in 45.3 per cent of the cases alleging wrongful discharge.
The figures given in this table indicate that where the facts are
clear and definite the trade board makes no compromises. In more
than half, 51.6 per cent, of all the cases adjusted the decisions were
definitely in favor of or against the complainant.
In the table following, the cases decided in favor of the union, in
favor of the company, compromised, dropped, and withdrawn are
distributed according to the nature of the grievance.
DISPOSITION OF GRIEVANCES R E F E R R E D TO TH E T R A D E B O A R D , M A Y 8, 1912, TO
JUNE 1, 1914, B Y N A T U R E OF GRIEVAN CE .

Grievance.

Wrongful discharge.........................
Additional work, or prices too low.
Reduction of rates of cutters..........
Discrimination against individ­
uals or seotions...............................
Disputes in price making...............
Miscellaneous....................................
Preferring nonunion help...............
Overcrowded section......................
Unequal division of work..............
Time allowance for cutting spe­
cials .................................................
Claim for wages due........................
Reduction of prices.........................
New system of work........................
Illtreatment of employees..............
Total........................................

Cases
decided
in favor of
union.

Cases
decided
in favor of
company.

Cases com­
promised.

Cases
dropped.

Cases with­
drawn.
Total
num­
ber of
cases.
Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
39.3
19.7
9.8

34
5
5

63.0
9.3
9.3

12
11
3

19.7
18.0
4.9

4
11
1

10.8
29.7
2.7

1
3
3

10.0
30.0
30.0

75
42
18

8.2
6.6
6.6
3 4.9
2
3.3
1
1.6

4
3
1
1

7.4
5.6
1.8
1.8

4
18
4
3
4

6.6
29.5
6.6
4.9
6.6

1
6
6

2.7
16.2
16.2

1

10.0

7

18.9

1

10.0

15
31
15
7
14
1

1
1

1.6
1.6

24
12
6
5
4
4

1

1.8

1

1

10.0

1
1
1
1
1

10 100.0

1223

2.7
1

l 61 100.0 |

! 61

54 100.0 |

100.0

37 100.0

1 Including 1 case referred directly to the boaad of arbitration and decided by that board.




48

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOB STATISTICS.

Fifty-nine per cent of all the cases decided in favor of the union
represented either “ wrongful discharge” or “ additional work or
prices too low.” In 9.8 per cent of the cases' in which the union was
sustained, the grievance involved reduction of rates of cutters, and
in 8.2 per cent discrimination was proved.
Thirty-four, or 63 per cent, of all the cases decided in favor of
the company were cases in which “ wrongful discharge” was alleged
and was successfully refuted by the company. Five of the 20 remain­
ing cases of decision favorable to the company were cases in which
the charge of “ additional work or prices too low ” was not sustained;
5 were cases in which the union failed to prove its charge of a
“ reduction of rates of cutters” ; 4, cases in which it failed to prove
“ discrimination” ; 6 cases represented other issues.
Disputes in price making, as explained elsewhere, involve no
wrong or lack of good faith. Such cases are essentially appeals to
the trade board for assistance in determining a new price, where the
character of the work has changed and the representatives of the
respective parties on the price committee can not themselves agree
upon a new price. Hence it is not surprising to find that such cases
constitute a large proportion of the total number compromised.
The same holds true generally with reference to grievances involving
disputes designated as “ additional work or prices too low.”
Of the 37 cases that were dropped, 11, or 29.7 per cent, involved
complaints of “ additional work or prices too low” ; that is to say,
cases in which this grievance was probably more apparent than
real. The preferment of such grievances without sufficient justifica­
tion seems to be due chiefly to the fact that as yet no simple objective
standard of measurement of actual labor involved in a specific opera­
tion has been introduced.
About one-third of all the cases that were withdrawn consisted
of complaints involving grievances similar to those described in the
foregoing paragraph. These, undoubtedly, would have been
“ dropped ” or have been decided in favor of the firm had not the
complainants withdrawn them before a formal disposition had been
reached. Over one-fifth of the total number of cases referred to the
trade board were dropped or withdrawn.
DECISIONS OF THE BOARD OF ARBITRATION.

As a safeguard to both parties an appeal may be taken to the
board of arbitration from any decision of the trade board, and, as a
matter of fact, 16 such appeals were taken from decisions of the
trade board during the period under consideration.
The board of arbitration has during this period held many formal
and informal meetings, has advised and recommended many changes
in methods of adjusting disputes, and has rendered numerous writ­



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN*S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

49

ten and verbal decisions on relatively important and unimportant
cases. The cases appealed to this board, as shown in the following
tabulation, covered disagreements as regards discharge of employees,
as regards prices and weekly rates, as regards division of work, dis­
crimination, lay off of cutters’ apprentices, and employment of fore­
men to do work of employees laid off.
While the work of the board of arbitration during its early ex­
istence was devoted chiefly to mediation, it issued, nevertheless, 16
written decisions. In the case of 9 of these decisions the decision
of the trade board appealed from was sustained; in 3 cases the de­
cision of the trade board was reversed; and in 4 instances the case
was referred back for new adjustment.
In the table following the cases appealed to the board of arbitra­
tion are classified according to nature of grievance:
N A T U R E O F G R IEVAN CE IN CASES A P P E A L E D TO T H E B O A R D OF A R B IT R A T IO N
H A Y 8, 1912, TO JUNE 1,1914.

Grievance.

Number
Per cent.
of cases.

Wrongful discharge.................................................... .........................................................'i___
Disputes In price making............................................................................................................
Reduction of rates of cutters......................................................................................................
Discrimination against individuals or sections...................................................................
Unequal division of work............................................................................................... *.........
Equal lay off for apprentices......................................................................................................
Employment of foremen to do work of employees laid off..................................................

7
2
2
2
1
1
1

43.8
12.5
12.5
12.5
6.3
6.3
6.3

Total.....................................................................................................................................

16

100.0

Of the decisions appealed from the trade board to the board of
arbitration, 12 were decisions of the trade board in favor of the unions
3 were decisions in favor of the company, and 1 was a compromise.
In 13 of the cases appealed the company was the appellant, and
in 3 cases, the union.
One case involving a desired increase in rate of pay of a stamper
was filed by the union and referred directly to the board of arbitra­
tion. This case was decided in favor of the complainant.
DEVELOPMENT OF A WORKING CODE

Evidence of a gradual crystallization of separate pronouncements
into a code of rules and procedure, defining general policies observed
in the adjustment of specific grievances, is presented in various sec­
tions of this report, particularly in the sections dealing with the
adjustment of grievances, the working of the preferential union
shop, and that showing the development of the function of the shop
chairman.
38042°—Bull. 198—16------i




50

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

The following section presents the data from which this code was
made by bringing together the texts of rulings and opinions of the
industrial courts created by the agreement—namely, the trade board
and the board of arbitration—for the guidance of representatives of
the parties to the agreement in the daily performance of their duties.
The existence as well as the great guiding value of these so-called
precedents was clearly brought out by testimony presented to the
Commission on Industrial Relations, at Washington, April 8, 1914.1
RULINGS AND OPINIONS OF THE TRADE BOARD.

This section concerns itself with the legislative phase of the work
of the trade board. Very frequently, before resorting to specific ac­
tion, both the compiany and the employees consider it advisable to
apply to the board for a definite statement with reference to the
handling of a specific problem. The board or its chairman in such
cases formulates rulings or opinions, which, if not reversed by the
board of arbitration, become the working code of the agreement.
Since its organization the board has been asked to rule on the fol­
lowing points: (a) Whether foremen can do work of workers laid
off during the slack season—the opinion of the trade board in this
matter was subsequently sustained by the board of arbitration; (b)
defining matter with reference to so-called time allowances for cut­
ters; (e) methods of settlement of prices; (d) standing of non­
union workers before the board; (e) right of the company to abolish
certain sections in the processes of manufacture; and (/) equal lay
off for apprentices in the cutting room.
Below will be found the text of the rulings and opinions handed
down by the trade board on the problems just enumerated.
1 . C a n F o e e m e n do W o r k o f R e g u l a b W o r k in g P e o p l e i n D u l l S e a s o n s ?—
D e c i s io n o f T b a d e B o abd i n

C a s e N o . 77.

The facts in this case appear to be as follows:
Fanning was employed shaping, tacking vests. When the amount of work
became considerably reduced as the slack season came on, Fanning was laid
off and such work as he had been doing was turned over to a forelady.
The people contend that the company by the agreement may not discharge
or lay off an employee and give his work to a foreman to perform, as fore­
men are not included in the terms of the agreement and their position in the
shop is that of a director and not that of an operative; and that, therefore, to
employ foremen as workmen is to violate the principle of preference.
The firm contends that it is at liberty to discharge or lay off an employee
and transfer bis work to a foreman when the amount of work has become so
reduced that it can be performed by the foreman.
The board holds that the interpretation by the people of the agreement is
the correct one. By the terms of the agreement, as well as by practical con­
siderations, foremen are excluded from membership in the union. To take
* Testim ony o f S. Hillm an and E . D . Howard, pages 65 0 and 6 6 4 , respectively.




COLLECTIVE AGBEEMENTS IN M ENrS CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

51

work away from an operative and give it to a foreman is in reality to engage
a new operative, so far as the people are concerned, and a new operative who
is excluded from the right and obligations of the agreement. It would seem
that the agreement necessarily limits the foremen to directing and supervising
the work—to the extent of directing and instructing them.
The board is of the opinion that foremen can not be substituted for regular
operatives without raising at once the question of preference.
The board, therefore, grants the petition of Fanning, and orders that he be
reinstated, to begin work Monday, March 30, and without back pay.
2. T im e

A llow ance

to

C u t t e r s — D e c i s io n

of

the

T rade

B oard

in

. Ca se

No. 76.
Being a petition by deputy of the cutters for a ruling on the practice of the
time allowed on two tickets.
The board holds, in view of the evidence submitted, that the practice of
allowing three for two on two ticket lots had been in vogue in the cutting room
before and since the agreement has been in effect, and that where time is not
allowed, according to this practice, the cutter would have a justifiable griev­
ance. The board understands that no order to grant this allowance was ever
issued by the management of the cutting room, but that it simply grew up as
an established practice in the allowances of time made by the foreman.
3.

S t a t e m e n t o f t h e T rade B oard a s
O p e r a t io n

B egards C o n t e m p l a t e d C h a n g e s i n

I n v o l v in g t h e A b o l i s h m e n t o f S e c t io n s .

At the present time the chairman is informed that the firm is contemplating
extensive changes in the shops and factories which will necessitate abolishing
some sections involving the discharge of a considerable number of employees;
what the total number will be the chairman has not been informed.
In dealing with the prices and specifications which inaugurate these changes
of work involving discharges the chairman will order that the customary
procedure will be followed; that is, that a committee of representatives of the
firm and of the people investigate the prices and specifications and report to
the board. The chairman will then sign the specifications, and the prices will
go into effect provisionally.
The chairman will disavow any responsibility whatever for agreements to
present their grievances to the trade board for adjustment.
If lay offs occur the discharged persons will have the right under the agree­
ment to present their grievance to the trade board for adjustment.
In this connection the chairman desires to state the position he will take
toward these discharges. He will rule that places shall be provided for the
discharged employees according to seniority of service for the firm.
So far as the chairman has observed this will conform with the general
practice in all organized business where the human element in production is
given any consideration. It is a practice which makes for the greatest
measure of contentment and good will in the service. It is also the method
used in at least one instance by the board of arbitration when confronted by a
similar difficulty.
Inasmuch as the present situation is fraught with the most serious import­
ance both for the firm and the employees, and inasmuch as many diverse
opinions prevail on both sides as to the rights and function of the trade
board, the chairman has invited Charles H. Winslow, of the committee which
drafted the agreement and organized the board, to come to Chicago and deter­




52

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

mine for all parties concerned the mooted questions which have arisen regard­
ing the powers of the board. The two chief deputies have joined in this
request. The chairman has agreed that such decisions as he may determine
in the board pending the interpretation and counsel of Mr. Winslow will be
made to conform to Mr. Winslow’s interpretation. It is provided, however,
that the decisions as finally approved by the trade board shall be subject to
appeal to the board of arbitration by the deputy of the employees.
It is also agreed that pending the arrival of Mr. Winslow the firm will place
in effect, so far as possible, those specifications which involve the least number
of discharges so as to minimize the complications.
4. O p in io n of t h e T rad e B oard o n t h e S t a n d in g of N o n u n io n E m p l o y e e s
BEFORE THE BOARD.

The question has been raised whether a nonunion employee may secure
redress through the trade board.
So far as the chairman can see there is no way by which any employee
other than one who is a member of a union represented by the joint board of
Hart, Schaffner & Marx can bring a grievance to the trade board. A griev­
ance must be investigated and presented by a deputy. There is no deputy
for the nonunion employees. The nonunion employees have no represenative
on the board. There is no machinery created for the consideration of his
grievances. The nonunion employee has elected to deal directly and imme­
diately with the firm. If he is dissatisfied with the treatment he has no place
of appeal beyond the firm. The deputies for the firm could not represent him,
as he is not affiliated with those organizations which they represent
A u g u s t 2 2 ,1 9 1 2 .
5. O p i n i o n o f t h e T r a d e B o a r d o n t h e R i g h t o f t h e C o m p a n y t o A b o u s h
S e c t io n s .

The chairman has been asked for an opinion as to the right of the firm under
the agreement to abolish sections of work.
So far as the chairman can see there is nothing in the agreement which
limits the freedom of the firm in making readjustments in the conduct of the
business, in order to reduce the cost of production; and there is nothing
which prohibits the firm from discharging its employees except that the work
during the slack season must be divided as nearly as practicable among all
the employees so as to equalize the lay offs.
Discharges when they occur may be taken up as a grievance and be pre­
sented to the trade board, which has the right to sustain the discharge or
order the discharged person to be reinstated, its decision being subject to
appeal to the board of arbitration.
A u g u s t 2 2 ,1 9 1 2 .
6. L a y O f f f o r A p p r e n t ic e s i n t h e C u t t i n g R o o m — D e c i s io n o f t h e T r a d e
B oard i n

C a s e N o . 78.

Petition of M» G. that apprentices in the cutting room be laid off during the
slack season.
While recognizing certain considerations raised by the company in connection
with this case, particularly the discouragement to apprentices if they have to
suffer a lay off while making only small earnings, the board is of the opinion
that the original agreement in providing for an equal lay off of cutters so far




COLLECTIVE AGEEEMENTS IN M E N 'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

53

a s p r a c t i c a l d u r in g t h e s la c k s e a s o n d o e s n o t d is t in g u is h b e t w e e n a p p r e n tic e s
a n d c u t te r s , b u t in c lu d e s b o t h in t h e p r o v is io n .
T h e b o a r d , t h e r e fo r e , g r a n t s t h e p e t it io n f o r l a y o f f o f a p p r e n t ic e s in t h e c u t ­
t in g r o o m .
M a b c h 26,

1914.

RULINGS AND OPINIONS OF THE BOARD OF ARBITRATION.

The following rulings and opinions hare been rendered by the
board of arbitration:
1. L a y i n g O f f H e l p .

In reference to the clause of the agreement between Hart, Schaffner & Marx
and their employees, made March 13, 1911, which clause reads as follows:
“ During the slack season the work should be divided as equally as practicable
among aU hands.” At the time this agreement was entered into it was under­
stood that certain seasons of the year were slack and that at such seasons fewer
men would be required than at other times, and this clause was included so
that regular employees couid not be discharged during the slack season. It
was not meant to regulate the number of employees to be given work by Hart,
Schaffner & Marx. We are of the opinion that the firm has a right to employ
only the number necessary to conduct its business in the busy seasons of the
year, and that during the slack seasons all these employed should be kept on
the pay roll and the work proportionately divided. When there are too many
employees at the busy season of the year the firm has a right to discharge the
surplus number, but in discharging them they have no right to discriminate
against the union men, but the discharge must be made along the lines of effi­
ciency or some other lines that would meet the approval of this board, and,
where any new men are taken on after the discharge, the firm should first
employ such men as had previously been discharged, ^assuming that they are
not discharged for any cause which, in the opinion of the board, would dis­
qualify them from serving.
2. E q u a l D i v i s i o n o f W o r k .
O cto b e r 31, 1911.
At a hearing of the board of arbitration held on the 31st day of October,
1911, the board decided that under the terms of the agreement it is the duty
of Hart, Schaffner & Marx to equalize the time of laying off the employees
during the slack season, so that the work of the cutting room, which is involved,
will be divided as equally as practicable among all hands.
3. T i m e A l l o w a n c e s t o C u t t e r s - —S u s p e n s i o n s .
D e c e m b e r 13, 1911.
At a meeting of the arbitration board this day held, the question of making
certain allowances of time to the cutters when they were deprived of doing
their work by reason of special conditions through no fault of their own, was
remitted back to be adjusted by the corporation with its employees.
It was further determined that there were to be no more suspensions in the
cutting and trimming room.
4. S e t t l e m e n t o f P r ic e s .

The board recommends as a method for determining the prices to be paid
for work when any change in the method or character of the work is made,
the foUowing:



54

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Before the new price is fixed or before it is finally determined that the old
price shall prevail, there shall in each instance where a change in the method
or character of doing the work is to be made be selected two persons, one
by Hart, Schaffner & Marx, and the other by the employees, and the two so
designated shall select a nnmber of employees in the particular branch affected
by such change, such number to be agreed upon by said two representatives,
and a test shall be made with the employees so chosen; the extent and manner
of such test to be agreed upon by said two representatives; and after such test
is made the price fixed by said two representatives shall be the price for such
work; if such two representatives shall be unable to agree after such test, then
the matter shall be determined by the board of arbitration.
5. P e t i t i o n o f F i r m t o D i s c h a r g e S t r i k i n g U n i o n E m p l o y e e s .

Whereas certain seamers in our pants factory have been on strike for sev­
eral days, and the responsible officers of local No. 144 have encouraged and
abetted this striking and are attempting to persuade and even to force other
pants makers to join in the strike; and whereas in the presence of Mr.
Thompson, their arbitrator, and other responsible officers of other unions,
they have declared their contempt for the agreement and their determination
to violate it; and whereas this strike is only one of a considerable number of
similar outbreaks, the company declares that the members of local No. 144
have no further right to claim protection and benefit from all agreements
which have existed up to this time between the employees and the company.
The board of arbitration is asked to register this declaration, if in its judg­
ment the position is well taken, and to instruct the chairman of the trade
board to declare the memberships of the representatives of local No. 144 to be
vacant and to instruct the deputies that grievances from the members of local
No. 144 are not to be brought before the trade board or before the board of
arbitration.
Petition denied.
6. P a y f o r H o l i d a y s .
A u g u s t 7, 1913.
The company shall pay for six legal holidays in the following manner:
Any man who works during the fiscal week in which the holiday occurs shall
be entitled to regular pay for the holiday. It is intended that the company
shall pay only for those actually employed during that week, but it shall so
arrange the lay offs that the same man shall not lose two holidays in succes­
sion. The holiday pays shall be divided as equitably as possible between all
members of the permanent force.
This decision applies only to the cutting and trimming force.
C h a i r m a n B o a r d o f A r b i t r a t io n .

7.

A p p e a l fr o m

D e c is io n o f t h e T ra d e B o a rd in C a se

No. 78,

in A n s w e r t o

P e t i t i o n o f C u t t e r s ’ U n io n t h a t A p p r e n t ic e s a s C u t t e r s b e L a id O f f .
M a r c h 31,1913.
The chairman of the trade board rules that inasmuch as the agreement does
not distinguish between cutters and apprentices, that the provision requiring
equal division of the work so far as practical applies to apprentices.
Appeal from this decision is taken on the ground that when the agreement
was signed there was no idea on either side to lay off the apprentices, and
apprentices have not been given an equal lay off with cutters for three years.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

55

The company believes that this ruling do&s a great injustice to 26 young men
who have started to learn the trade of a cutter. These men cut very few
suits and get very small wages. To allow them to continue in the cutting room
throughout the slack season Would be of great benefit to them without mate­
rially working any disadvantage to the cutters.
It is a social duty of the company to offer an opportunity to young men to
learn a trade as it is the duty of all concerned engaged in manufacturing.
If the company did not offer this opportunity, young men would be obliged
to grow up without a trade, which would be a distinct harm to the industry
and to society at large.
These apprentices must learn cutting through instruction of the section
foremen. During the busy time these officers are busy with their routine duties
and have little time for instruction. The apprentices are then given the sim­
plest of work and learn but little. However, during the slack time the fore­
men are not busy and can give the apprentices much time. To lay the appren­
tices off in slack time would therefore deprive them of several weeks of instruc­
tion which can not be compensated for during the busy season.
We contend, therefore, that it is contrary to the rules of justice and fairness
already laid down by the board of arbitration to change the interpretation of
the agreement on technical grounds after three years in a manner which would
do so great an injustice to apprentices, who should be encouraged rather than
discouraged in their efforts to learn the trade. We realize that the chairman
of the trade board may not feel authorized to make his decision on broad
grounds of justice, but the board of arbitration was organized specially for that
purpose.
Decision of trade board affirmed.
8 . P e t i t i o n o f F i r m t o B o ard o f A r b it r a t io n f o r A m e n d m e n t t o T r a d e B o ard
R u les.

Rule No. 8 reads as follows:
In case of a stoppage of work in any shop or shops a deputy from each side
shall immediately repair to the shop in question.
If such stoppage shall occur because the person in charge of the shop shall
have refused to allow the people to continue work he shall be ordered to imme­
diately give work to the people, or in case the employees have stopped work the
deputies shall order the people to immediately return to work, and in case
they fail to return to work within an hour from such time such people shall
be considered as having left the employ of the corporation and shall not be
entitled to the benefit of these rules.
This rule was suggested and written in order to serve until the tailor shops
should know that stoppages of work were a violation of the agreement. It was
intended to gradually stop the practice. For the last few months the effect of
the rule has been to stimulate strikes; the people stop work for the purpose of
getting their deputy to come to the shop, expecting him to get the rulings of
the foreman reversed.
In a recent case, the deputy encouraged the strikers to continue the stoppage
and agreed with the foreman instead of doing his duty as prescribed in the
rule.
The rule has outlasted its usefulness and really fosters the evil it was in­
tended to correct. The company therefore petitions to have it repealed by the
board.
Petition denied.

Two more important rulings of the board of arbitration will be
found on pages 56 to 59*



56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
A P P E A L OF CUTTERS.

A petition of the cutters was made under the provisions of the
agreement of March 29, 1913, which empowered the board of arbi­
tration to make final decisions in all matters under dispute.
The cutters demanded a ruling from the board enjoining the com­
pany from requiring the cutting of more than two suits at one time*
They based their demand on the following grounds: (1) That the
cutting of more than two up requires too much physical exertion
and leads to quick fatigue; (2) That it requires a longer time to cut
three up than it does to cut singles or two up; (3) that no other firm
in the city of Chicago cuts three up.
The company in its brief denied all the allegations of the workers,
save the last one, which the company maintained was irrelevant,
on the ground that the practices of other firms had no bearing on this
case. The company furthermore denied that it required additional
physical exertion to cut three up. With reference to the second con­
tention of the workers, the company maintained that the time
necessary for cutting three up was taken into consideration when the
so-called average cut at 52£ cents was established.
The company maintained further that, according to statements of
the cutters themselves, the cutters in the establishment of Hart,
Schaffner & Marx earned better wages than the cutters of other
firms in the city of Chicago.
9. A w a r d o f B oa r d o f A r b i t r a t io n R e l a t i n g t o A p p e a l o f C u t t e r s .

The matters submitted by the cutters to the board of arbitration for decision
have been disposed of by the board of arbitration on the 6th day of June, 1913,
in the following way: A majority of the board, consisting of Messrs. Williams
and Darrow, find:
1. There shall be no cuts by hand in excess of two up on woolens weighing
15 ounces or over.
2. There shall be no cuts by machine on woolens above twelve up.
3. The company shall, so far as possible, equitably distribute among aU of
the cutters the cuts of three up, and if any future claim is made of a propor­
tionate increase of three ups by hand, such claim may be further considered
by the board of arbitration.
4. The schedule of prices to be paid for machine work shall be on the follow­
ing basis:
Minutes.

Minutes.

________ 7 5
Three ups------------_
Four ups-------------- _ _____ ________1 0 0
_______ 110
Five ups ______
________1 2 0
Six ups________
Seven ups------------_______ 13 0

Eight ups----------- --------- ______________ 1 4 0
Nine ups__________ _____ - _________15 0
Ten ups------------------------_______________ 1 6 0
Eleven ups_________
___________ 1 7 0
Twelve ups___________________________ 18 0

5. Either party shall have the right, at any time hereafter, to appeal to the
board of arbitration if these findings do not seem to work equitably.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

57

6. If machines of increased capacity are used the right is reserved to change
the number of the cuts and the price for any excess.
From the above findings Nos. 1 and 4, the remaining member of the board,
Mr. Meyer, dissents.
T e m p o r a r y D e c i s io n f o r C u t t i n g R o o m .

The interpretation placed by the chairman of the board of arbitration on the
recent decision of the board regarding 3 ups is as follows:
That all three ups of 15 ounces and over are not to be cut by hand; but
they may be cut by regular machine operators, except that any shear cutter
who may prefer to operate a machine may do so on the said 3 ups if agree­
able to him and the foreman.
Until the matter is further considered, cutters will be expected to pile up for
machine operators.
It is understood that all the matters in dispute in the cutting room, such as
the splitting of 4 ups, and all operations in which a change of work is asked,
shall be taken up as promptly as possible by the board and decided. Until
such questions are decided everybody is asked to exercise patience and to work
on as harmoniously as possible under direction of management.
C h a ir m a n

10.

B o a r d o f A r b i t r a t io n .

S u b s e q u e n t D e c i s i o n s o f t h e B oard o f A r b i t r a t io n — A r b it r a t o r s ’ A w a r d
in

C u t t in g C a s e .

This is a case presented by the cutters to the board of arbitration for the
establishment of what they term “ normal conditions ” in the cutting room. It
comes up as part of the demands which, under the recently adopted agreement,
is to be decided by the board. The claims of the cutters and the decision of
the arbitrators thereon are as follows:
1. The claim of the cutters is that overcoats, 4 up and over, should be fig­
ured at two for one. This claim is allowed.
2. Claim that overcoats, 3 ups, 15 ounces and over, should be given time
allowance of 60 minutes instead of 40 minutes, as at present. The board de­
cides that the time allowance shall be 50 minutes.
3. Claim that “ cutters should use their judgment in managing the work
so as to make 2-unit lays.” The board decides that the agent of the company
shall have the right to direct the arrangement of lays, .but that if his authority
is so exercised as to increase the normal number of one-suit lays, or to other­
wise give rise to just complaint by the cutter, it shall be considered a proper
claim for allowance; and the allowance committee hereafter referred to may
In its judgment make an adequate time allowance.
4. Claim that damaged goods be taken into consideration. This claim is
granted subject to the judgment of the allowance committee.
5. Claim that men shall be credited with time lost not due to any fault of
theirs. This claim is granted in the manner following: Whenever a cutter is
unable to proceed with work, but is forced to remain idle, he shall report at
once to his foreman, and if the foreman is unable to give him work he shall
be given a time-allowance memorandum, on which is noted the time of notice.
When the cutter is ready to work he shall note the time on the memorandum
and attach same to his next ticket, and the clerks will credit on his record the
time lost.
6. Claim relating to the introduction of combination lots is disposed of as
follows: When any cut of 2 up or over appears on a combination ticket it shall




58

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

be allowed for at the rate of three for two. It is understood that no other claim
for allowance shall be considered in the combination cut thus provided for.
7. The decision of June 6, 1913, is amended by changing item 3 to read
as follows:
The company shall, so far as possible, equitably distribute among the cutters
the cuts of 3 up, and if any future claim is made of a proportionate increase of
3 ups such claim may be further considered by the board of arbitration.
8. The division of the time allowed for cutting lays jointly by hand and
machine cutters is to be determined by the agents of the garment workers’
union, and if they can not agree it shall be decided by the chairman of the
board of arbitration.
9. Claim of allowances for a considerable list of alterations and extras is too
technical in its nature for this board to decide, and it provides the following
method for the disposition of this and kindred claims:
A committee shall be appointed to be known as the allowance committee,
one member to be appointed by the company and one by the union, and in event
of their failure to agree they shall call in the chairman of the trade board,
who shall act as umpire. It shall be the business of this committee to adjust
questions coming before it for allowances. To this end it shall endeavor to
establish a standard suit and shall proceed in the manner following: It shall
first establish the minimum parts entering into a suit or overcoat. It shall
add to this the items of additions or alterations which experience has shown
to be normal and for which no extra time has been customarily allowed or
which ought to be allowed. The minimum with the normal additions thus
ascertained and agreed upon shall be considered the normal suit, and any addi­
tions or extras above this shall be allowed the actual time required for their
making. It is understood that the standard herein provided for is tentative
and experimental and shall not be made permanent until confirmed by the
board of arbitration. It is suggested that three months be taken for this
experimentation and that records be kept of the steps in the process.
In addition to the list of allowances claimed by the cutter, it is agreed that
the matter of the number of 3 ups in excess of the normal be referred to the
allowance committee. It is the understanding that the decision of the board
with reference to 3 ups is based on the fact that they bear a certain proportion
to the whole. Should the proportion of 3 ups increase beyond the normal on
which the decision is based, the allowance committee shall take notice of such
increase and shall make adequate time allowance therefor.
The items following are accepted as the minima upon which the allowance
committee shall base its standards:
A suit consists of—
One coat, five parts: Fore part, back part, top, pocket, and sleeve.
One vest, one part: Under facing.
One trousers, two parts: Fore part, back part.
Fittings for coat: Collar, flap, piping, large and small breast welts—five
pieces.
Fittings for vest: Two welts, one no collar or notch collar, one front vest
facing, one bottom vest facing.
Fittings for trousers: One waistband (plain), one fly, two hip pockets, one
side pocket, one hip flap or tab, three cuts belt loops, one fob pocket, two side
buckle straps.
Under collars are at present charged for at rate of one and one-half minutes
for $25.20 man.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

59

Overcoat consists of 5 parts: One fore part, one back, one top sleeve, one
ttndersleeve, one facing.
Fittings consist of one top collar, one flap and piping, two breast welts (large
and small)—five pieces.
DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF TYPICAL CASES.

The object of the presentation and analysis of the following actual
cases is to show briefly the amount and character of data required to
serve as the basis for the proper adjustment of a complaint filed
with either the trade board or the board of arbitration. The analysis
of each case also serves to show the advantage of an industrial court
of last resort.
The complaints selected are of such character as to include cases
in which serious issues have been in dispute, as well as cases of minor
importance. The disposition of each case is typical of the general
policy.
Case

No. 1.

C o m p l a in t b y : U n io n .
N a t u r e op C o m p l a in t :

Petition for reinstatement of discharged employee on the ground of
discrimination.
A bstract of t h e I ssu es :

(a) Contention of the representatives of the unions. The representatives
of the unions contended and presented evidence to show th a t-------------had appeared as a witness before a committee of the trade board the day
before his discharge. That he had been an active member of the union at
the time of the strike and since.
(&) Contention of representatives of the firm. The firm presented evi­
dence to show th a t-------------- had not properly performed his duties in
separating the lots of goods which he had cut; that his delinquency had
been brought to the attention of the superintendent of the cutting room,
then taken up by the general manager of the firm, and later by the head
of the firm, who had ordered his discharge.
A b s t r a c t of F a c t s E s t a b l is h e d B efore t h e T rade B oard :

1. T h at-------------- had been an active union man, but his appearance
before a committee of the trade board had not been used against him by
the firm.
2. That sufficient evidence was presented to show delinquency in the per­
formance of his duties as a cutter.
D e c i s io n o f t h e T r a d e B o a r d :

On the basis of the evidence presented the board ruled that the charge
of discrimination was not supported.
D is p o s it io n :

The board denied the petition and the case was therefore found in favor
of the firm. Thereupon the case was appealed to the board of arbitration.
T r i a l o f t h e C a s e B e f o r e t h e B o a r d o f A r b i t r a t io n :

The issues involved in the trial of the case before the board of arbitration
from the standpoint of both the unions and the firm were precisely the
same as before the trade board.




♦60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS*

D e c i s io n o p t h e B o a r d o f A r b i t r a t io n :

The board of arbitration affirmed the decision of the trade board, but
instructed the representatives of the unions to change the form of their
charges in the future and permit the trade board to hear such complaints
on the merit of the work performed.
C a s e N o . 2.
C o m p l a in t b y : U n io n .
N a t u r e of C o m p l a in t :

Petition for reinstatement of five discharged offpressers on the ground
of discrimination.
A bstract of t h e I s s u e :

(a) Contention of the offpressers. During the slack season a week
worker was assigned to the offpressing section in the trousers shop in the
factory B. This the offpressers considered was overcrowding the section
and in effect reduced their earning capacity. For this reason the off­
pressers stopped work.
(b) Contention of the firm. The firm contended that on account of a
rush of reorders the work must be gotten out, but as soon as the “ rush
work ” was finished the week worker would be withdrawn.
A b s t r a c t o f F a c t s E s t a b l i s h e d B e fo r e t h e T r a d e B o a r d ;

1. That the firm found it necessary on account of a rush of reorders to
add a week worker to the offpressing section in the trousers shop, but
assured the offpressers through their deputy that the week worker would
be withdrawn as soon as the rush was over, whereupon they resumed work.
2. The next day several hundred pairs of trousers were sent to another
factory to be pressed. The offpressers, regarding this as an attempt to get
back at them, again stopped work. But under instructions from their
deputy returned to work a second time. Near the end of the day the week
worker was withdrawn.
3. The next day, contrary to an arrangement made by the deputy of the
firm and the deputy of the workers on the day previous (that the week
worker was to be withdrawn), the week worker was again assigned to
their section. This caused the offpressers again to stop work.
4. The deputy of the workers was notified of this stoppage of work and
requested to order the men back to work, but refused to enter the shop for
this purpose, asserting that he could be of no use in such a situation.
5. On orders of the labor complaint department five of the offpressers
were selected by the man in charge of this factory and discharged.
D e c i s io n o f t h e T r a d e B o a r d :

The trade board decided that on account of the deputy of the workers
declining to act the notification required by the agreement had not been
given the offpressers, and that the firm had acted in a way to provoke the
natural resentment of the men.
D is p o s it io n :

For these reasons the trade board ordered the reinstatement of the five
offpressers. An appeal from this decision was taken by the firm without
asking for a stay of execution.
T r i a l o f t h e C a s e B e f o r e t h e B o a r d o f A r b i t r a t io n :

The board of arbitration, after receiving the testimony offered in the
case, unanimously decided that the decision of the trade board, reinstating
the men on the ground of failure of notification by a deputy of the workers,
was not well taken and thereupon reversed the decision, finding in favor of
the firm.



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

61

C a s e N o . 3.
C o m p l a in t b y : U n io n .
N a t u r e op C o m p l a in t :

Petition of buttonhole makers to raise the price for making buttonholes.
A bstract op t h e I s s u e :

(а) Contention of the buttonhole makers. The workers contended that
since the change in gimp had been made it took more time to make but­
tonholes than it did when larger gimp was used.
(б) Contention of the firm. The firm contended that the change in gimp
made no change in the earnings as it did not involve more time than
when No. 10 was used.
A b s t r a c t o f F a c t s E s t a b l is h e d before t h e T rad e B o a r d :

1. That a change of gimp had been made from No. 10 to Nos. 5 and 11B.
2. On evidence submitted by a committee appointed to make tests, collect
further evidence among the operatives and forewomen, and review the pay
rolls, the board found that the contention of the buttonhole makers was
justified.
D e c i s io n o f t h e T r a d e B o a r d :

As a result of the testimony presented by both the workers and the in­
vestigating committee, the trade board raised and fixed the wage rate for
making buttonholes when No. 5 gimp was used one-fourth of one cent and
when No. 11B was used one-half of one cent per buttonhole.
D is p o s i t i o n :

Therefore the case was found in favor of the workers. The firm took
an appeal to the board of arbitration, but meanwhile asked for a stay of
execution.
T r i a l o f t h e C a s e B e f o r e t h e B o a r d o f A r b i t r a t io n :

The board of arbitration, after reviewing the evidence presented to the
trade board, supplemented by other evidence, affirmed the decision of the
trade board. The decision to take effect from the date of filing the original
complaint.
C a s e N o. 4.
C o m p l a in t b y : U n io n .
N atu re of C o m p l a in t :

Petition for a restoration of former wage rate by six cutters.
A bstract of t h e I s s u e :

(а) Contention of the representatives of the union. The workmen con­
tended that abnormal and unusual conditions prevailed. These unusual
conditions consisted of the use of more than one pattern for making a cut,
insufficient allowance of goods within which to make cuts, failure to re­
ceive lots of work on time, so that they were obliged to wait and were thus
idle.
(б) Contention of the firm. A general denial concerning unusual or ab­
normal conditions and that the reduction in wage rates was warranted.
A b s t r a c t of F a c t s E s t a b l is h e d B efore t h e T rad e B oard :

That unusual conditions affected the amount of work the cutters were
able to produce; and that failure to receive lots of work on time, as well as
an insufficient allowance of goods, were contributory causes.
D e c is io n o f t h e T r ad e B o a r d :

On the basis of the foregoing facts the trade board ordered the restora­
tion of the former wage rate with back pay.
D is p o s it io n ;

The case was therefore found in favor of the workmen, but an appeal
was taken by the firm to the board of arbitration.



62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T b i a l o f t h e C a s e B e f o r e t h e B o a b d o f A r b i t r a t io n :

On account of information received at the trial before the board, wherein
the issues and testimony remained unchanged, the board of arbitration
suggested conferences of the general manager and a representative of the
cutters in all cases of prospective reductions arising in the cutting room
prior to being presented to the trade board.
D e c i s i o n o f t h e B o a r d o f A r b it r a t io n :

Decision of the trade board was affirmed.
C a s e N o . 5.
C o m p la in t b y : U n io n .
N a t u r e of C o m p l a in t :

Wrongful discharge. Petition to trade board to reinstate-------------- , a
discharged vest maker.
A b s t r a c t of t h e I s s u e :

(a) Contention of the union. Man discharged for union activity, as he
was active assistant shop chairman.
(b) Contention of the firm. Man discharged on recommendation of the
matron of the factory on complaint of four girls whom defendant, they
maintained, grossly insulted.
A b s t r a c t of F a c t s E s t a b lis h e d :

The evidence of the complaining girls was not corroborated. Evidence,
on the other hand, tended to show existing animus in the shop against the
defendant.
D e c i s i o n o f t h e T r a d e B o ard :

The petition is granted on the ground that the evidence against------------is uncorroborated. The charge against-------------- involves not alone his
reputation and place as a garment maker, but also his reputation and
standing as a citizen. In the judgment of the chairman, charges of this
scope should be mainly sustained by proof and not purely presumptive tes­
timony. Man was reinstated with back pay.
The firm appealed from the decision to the board of arbitration. Subse­
quently the man was reinstated with back pay amounting to $192.50.
C a s e N o . 6.
C o m p la in t b y : U n io n .
N a t u r e of G r ie v a n c e :

Petition of buttonhole makers in shop No. 29 and factory B for increase
in price and back pay.
A b s t r a c t of I s s u e :

(а) Contention of the union. The workers are not earning enough, as
the specific kind of buttonholes they are making involves additional labor.
(б) Contention of the firm. From reports received from the superintend­
ent there seems to be no additional work.
A b st r a c t of F a c t s E s t a b l is h e d :

Actual test ordered by the trade board showed that about two minutes
more, on the average, was required on coats where No. 16 twist and No. 5
gimp was used.
D e c i s i o n o f t h e T r a d e B oa r d :

Board ordered 1 cent additional per coat on the prices for all sack coats
where the buttonholes are sewed with No. 16 twist and No. 5 gimp.
Subsequently, after this decision was affirmed by the board of arbitration,
the firm issued the following order, granting about $2,000 in back pay to the
workers:




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN’ M E N ’ S CLOTH ING IN D U STR Y.

To

63

t h e T im e k e e p in g D e p a r t m e n t.

Allow back pay to all buttonhole makers on sack coats who have made
buttonholes with No. 16 or No. 14 twist and No. 5 gimp since September 26,
1912,1 cent additional per coat, and continue to pay 1 cent additional per
coat for all coats made with No. 14 or No. 16 twist and No. 5 gimp.
THE PREFERENTIAL UNION SHOP— RECOGNITION OF THE UNION.

As has been stated, the demand of the employees for the estab­
lishment of the so-called closed shop was met by a concession on the
part of the company, which is embodied in those provisions of the
agreement which accord to members of the unions a preference in
the hiring, laying off and discharging of employees.
No decision prescribing the manner of applying the preferential
principle in the employment and laying off of help, however, was
rendered by the board of arbitration until the month of August,
1913, and a great many difficulties were, in fact, encountered by the
board in its efforts to work out a satisfactory code of rules in accord­
ance with which preference should be extended to members of the
union.
The outcome of these efforts on the part of the board was the
following decisions of August 30, 1913, handed down on petition of
the unions.
D e c i s i o n s i n R e l a t i o n t o P r e f e r e n c e a s C o d if ie d A u g u s t

30, 1913.

The garm ent workers’ officials having appealed to the board o f arbitration
fo r an interpretation o f the principle o f preference as announced in the agree­
ment, the board gives out the foUowing statem ent:

It finds that, under the agreement and the chairman’s statement on which
the agreement is based, the test of preference is that it must strengthen the
organization, while at the same time it must extend a “ reasonable preference ”
to old employees, and maintain the efficiency of shop discipline (and standard
of workmanship). It finds the application of “ reasonable preference” is left
to the board of arbitration, and that practically the whole subject of preference
is a matter to be worked out according to some plan to be devised by the
board within the limits set by the agreement. Being a new subject, almost
without a precedent in the garment industry, the board approaches it cautiously
and tentatively, feeling that any plan that it may devise must be submitted to
the test of actual practice to be improved upon or reconsidered as it may be
found to work well or ill in its practical application. In this spirit it offers
the following experimental interpretation, to remain in effect as long as it shall
work to the satisfaction of both parties. After a fair trial, if either party shall
so desire, appeal may be taken to the board for reconsideration.
p r o v i s io n

for preference.

The application of the principle of preference made herein is based on the
degree of unionization at present existing in the shops and is designed to pre­
vent union membership from falling below its present status, and by its con-




64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

tinned operation to strengthen the organization as contemplated by the agree­
ment.
For this purpose the sections of workers in the employ of Hart, Schaffner, &
Marx are to be divided into four classes corresponding to their degree of union­
ization, and shall be designated as class A, class B, class C, and class D.
Class A shall consist of those sections of workers in any shop or factory
which are highly unionized, and in which the members of the garment workers'
union largely predominate.
Class B shall consist of those sections of workers in any shop or factory
which are less highly unionized but in which there are a considerable number
of union workers.
Class C shall consist of those sections of workers in any shop or factory
in which the union members are relatively few in number or in which there are
none.
Class D shall consist of those sections containing a very small number of
workers or perhaps only one worker.
Appended hereto is a classification of sections as contemplated in the fore­
going provisions. Each section so classified shall have the degree of preference
belonging to its class.
preference of c l a s s a .

It is expected that every worker in class A section shall be a member in
good standing of the garment workers’ union. Failure to pay dues, or to other­
wise fail to comply with the requirements of the union will subject the de­
linquent member to discharge at any lay off that may be ordered as hereinafter
provided.
preference of c l a s s b .

Whenever a lay off or reduction of force takes place in any section in class B,
any member of the garment workers’ union shall have preference over those
who are not members of the union, and no union member shall be laid off until
all nonunion workers are laid off: Provided, That no worker employed more
than one year who in the judgment of the trade board is conspicuously efficient
shall be laid off.
PREFERENCE OF CLASS C.

Inasmuch as class C consists of sections in which there are very few union
members, or perhaps none at all, it is evident that preference can not well be
applied to this class. No preference is directed, therefore, in class C.
PREFERENCE OF CLASS D.

The preference to be given in this class is as follows: If any additional people
are added to this section, the permanent union men shall have preference in
lay off.
Should the original member of the section not be a member of the union in
good standing at the time of the lay off, preference shall be given to any com­
petent additional member of the section who may be a member of the union.
PROMOTION OF SECTIONS.

Whenever any section now classified as B or C shall become entirely union­
ized, it shall automatically change to class A. Whenever any section now
classified as A shall become less than half-uni >nized, it shall automatically



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N 'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY,

65

change to class B, and if it shall become entirely nonunion, it shall automatically
change to class C.
PREFERENCE OP SENIORITY.

If, in order to properly balance sections, a reduction of force be required
greater than can be secured by the laying off of nonunion workers as provided
for herein, then there may be laid off those members of the union in the order
of their seniority who have been in the employ of the company for a period
of six months or less: Provided, That any exceptionally efficient worker, or
any especially valuable member of the union, may be exempted from the rule
of seniority: Provided also, The company shall give notice to the chief deputy
of its intention to discharge under this clause, and if he fails to agree the
matter shall be referred to the trade board.
SLACK-SEASON REDUCTION IN TAILOR SHOPS.

If it becomes necessary to reduce the force in the tailor shops during the
slack season in order to give a reasonable amount of employment to the
workers who are retained, the trade board may order such reduction under the
conditions hereinafter mentioned. The principle of preference to union mem­
bers shall be applied in any reduction that may be made, and the method of
making a reduction on account of the slack season shall be as follows:
The company shall in its discretion, initiate a lay off whenever it deems the
condition of the shops require it
Should it not exercise its power in such a manner as to prevent overcrowding
of sections, the chief deputy shall, if he deems it necessary, make application
to the company for the required reduction of sections, and if it fails to comply
he shall appeal to the trade board which shall decide whether or not the section
is overcrowded as charged. In deciding the question of overcrowding the
trade board shall take into consideration the claims of the company for protec­
tion of its organization, while giving effect to the principle of preference. An
appeal may be taken from the decision of the trade board to the board of
arbitration.
Among the claims of the company which shall have due consideration are the
following:
1. The proper number of workers in a section required to maintain an ade­
quate balance. (This claim must be considered subject to the prior claim of
the union for equal division of lay off by its members, also recognizing the fact
that the sections in class C are under the control of the company.)
2. The requirements of the coming busy season,
3. The difficulty of hiring substitutes for the workmen dismissed, and the
risk of impairing the efficiency of the organization.
4. The question of whether the slack complained of is transient and inci­
dental, or whether it is due to the regular seasonal reduction of production and
likely to continue for the customary slack period.
The consideration of these claims is not intended to prevent a reduction of
the force when overcrowding exists; only to suggest to the board that its
action should be taken in the light of the company’s right to protection against
disorganization.
TABLE OP SECTIONS.

For the purpose of guiding the trade board in its decision the company
shall cause to be made a table for each shop or factory showing the normal
number of persons in each section in a period of full employment, and showing
also the normal production of such shop or factory in such period.
38042°—Bull. 198—16----- 5



66

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

After due allowance for the considerations before mentioned the trade board
shall hold to be overcrowded those sections which fall sufficiently below the
standard shown in the table to warrant a reduction, and shall determine the
number to be laid off.
The table provided for in the foregoing paragraph is intended only as a help
to the trade board, and is not intended to prevent it from ordering reductions
on other grounds whenever the facts warrant them. Whenever a section is
obviously overcrowded, as shown by any considerable shortage of work, the
trade board may act on it immediately if called on, whether in the slack season
or at any other period.
PREFERENCE IN HIRING.

When in need of additional workers the company shall give the first oppor­
tunity of employment to union members if they can be obtained; if the union
can not furnish them the company may procure the needed help from any
other source.
To give effect to this preference with as little friction or inconvenience as
possible the following provisions are made:
The company shall furnish the union a list of the number and kind of workers
needed, specifying the date on which the applicants must report, which list
shall be furnished as far in advance as possible.
The union shall keep on file with the company a list of such union applicants
for work as it may wish to offer, which list shall be corrected from time to
time and kept up to date.
The company shall keep an employment record which shall show the date of
engagement of all new workers, and the kind of work they are employed for
and the place of work in which they are assigned.
I f, after advance notice has been given, the union fa ils to have on its list
o f applicants the number and kind o f workers needed by the company on the
specified date, or if the needed applicants fa il to report in person on th at date,
then the company m ay assum e that union workers are not available and m ay
procure help elsewhere.

In case of an emergency, when advance notice can not be given, the company
may communicate orally or by telephone with the representatives of the union,
and in case the union can not furnish help, the company may proceed to hire
elsewhere.
If an applicant has been recently discharged for cause, or if under the in­
fluence of liquor, or obviously incompetent, the company shall not be required
to employ him. Otherwise, the candidates offered by the union shall have first
opportunity of employment.
PREFERENCE IN THE CUTTING ROOM.

The question of preference in the cutting room has been referred to the chair­
man for decision in the absence of some of the members of the board.
He finds it a subject of acute controversy, and after spending several sessions
in trying to bring the parties to a common ground of agreement, is obliged at
last to render an independent decision.
The measure of preference proposed by the company is that they will recog­
nize that all cutters on the permanent force shall belong to the union, with
the exception that 30 positions shall be exempted, which may be filled, at its
pleasure, with nonunion men.
The cutters object to the 30 exemptions on the ground that the number
corresponds to the number of nonunion men now in the cutting room, and they



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

67

contend that such an exemption furnishes no preference to union men. Further,
they claim that the company has no right of exemption under the agreement
except to old employees, or for exceptional personal efficiency, and they object
to the exemption proposed by the company because it is made without qualifica­
tion or adequate reason. Their main contention is that the company must offer
a satisfactory reason for any exemption they make; that it is not entitled under
the agreement to exemption without cause; and that the exemption of men on
no other ground except that they are nonunion works an unjustifiable hardship
on the organization and is likely to interfere seriously with the satisfactory
working of the agreement because of the excessively bitter feeling that now
obtains between the union and nonunion men in the cutting room.
To this the company rejoins that at the time of the settlement it refused
to consider the proposal of a “closed shop,” and that the essence of the “ closed
shop” is the prevention of the company from employing nonunion workers;
that they have the right to employ at their option a certain number of nonunion
men, and that the number they propose to exempt is very modest, being less
than 10 per cent of the number employed. They further maintain that they
have shown their good faith by offering a very liberal measure of preference for
the whole works, which in the cutting room would guarantee the union that its
membership would never fall below 90 per cent of the number employed.
THE CHAIRMAN’ S DECISION, AUGUST 5, 19 1 3 .

As to the fundamental ground for the preferential shop, the chairman believes
that for the purpose of this controversy it is best stated in his “ statement ”
which was made to both parties during the settlement negotiations, and since
made a part of the agreement. The test of preference made therein is to the
effect that it shall be such a preference as will make an efficient organization
for the workers, also an efficient, productive administration for the company.
It is to this statement the chairman must look for guidance in controverted
questions of preference, and applying its spirit to the present controversy in
the light of the arguments offered, he finds as follows:
All workers in the cutting room shall be members in good standing of the
garment workers’ union, with these exceptions, namely: That the company
may exempt 20 positions from the operation of this rule, being less than 5 per
cent of the number at present employed. Of these, one-half shall be limited to
old employees who have been in the employ of the company for five or more
years; the other half shall be chosen on the ground of personal efficiency of
individuals or general efficiency of administration, in the discretion of the
company.
J. E . W i l l i a m s , Chairman.
A u g u s t 5, 1913.
SUPPLEMENTARY DECISION RE PREFERENCE IN CUTTING ROOM.

The company having filed written objection to the decision of August 5,1913,
relating to preference in the cutting room, claiming that said decision is incom­
plete and in some respects beyond the power of the board under the agreement,
the following additions and modifications are made after due consideration of
said objections:
The company shall prefer union men In hiring, but shall have the right to
hire nonunion men if the union can not supply the needed help. The method
of preference in hiring shall be the same as provided for in the tailor shops.




68

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The preference in discharge shall be exercised at a time when the force is
being reduced in the cutting room. It is expected that the present practice of
laying men off during the slack season will be continued, and that the prefer­
ence to union men in dismissal shall be put in operation at that time. The para­
graph in the decision of August 5,1913, defining the degree of preference in the
cutting room shall be put into effect in the manner following:
After dismissal of the temporary force the company shall dismiss all non­
union men in excess of the number of 20 before requiring any union man to
take a lay off. The 20 nonunion workers retained by the company shall be in
the same position with respect to equal division of lay off as the union workers.
It is considered by the board that the proportion of union and nonunion
workers contemplated by this decision constitutes the best measure of prefer­
ence it is able to work out, and it directs that if there be found a greater
number of nonunion workers in the cutting room than are herein provided
for, the company shall proceed to reduce the number to the required propor­
tion at the time and in the manner set forth herein.
It is understood that the general provisions for the cutting room apply also to
the trimming room.
PREFERENCE FOR TRIM M IN G ROOM.

Both parties being agreed that the classification for tailor shops should not
be applied to the trimming room, and there being no objection to the applica­
tion of the same method used in the cutting room, the chairman decides as
follows:
That all workers in the trimming room, except those classified as belonging
to the office force, shall be members in good standing of the union, with the
exception that the company may at its option exempt nine positions from this
requirement, being 5 per cent of the number at present employed in the trim­
ming room.
J . E . W i l l i a m s , Chairman.
OPERATION UNDER DECISIONS RELATING TO PREFERENCE.

It will be noted that these decisions of the board of arbitration
formulate general rules for the enforcement of preference in accord­
ance with the provisions of the agreement, these rules to apply to all
of the tailoring occupations, that is to say, to all occupations save
those of cutting and trimming. As regards the latter occupations
special rulings were made as follows:
R ule

of

P reference

to

be

A p p l ie d

in

the

Case

of

C utters.

All workers in the cutting room shall be members in good standing of the
garment workers’ union, with these exceptions, namely: That the company
may exempt 20 positions from the operation of this rule.
R ule

of

P r eference

to b e

A p p l ie d

in

the

Case

of

T r im m e r s .

That all workers in the trimming room, except those classified as belonging
to the office force, shall be members in good standing of the union, with the
exception that the company may at its option exempt nine positions from this
requirement.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N 'S CLOTHING IN D U STR Y.

69

PREFERENCE IN THE TAILOR SHOPS.

As regards the tailor shops the decisions of the board of arbitration
formulating rules for the extension of preference to members of
unions may be summarized as follows:
P r e f e r e n c e i n H ir in g H e l p .—Under these decisions, preference
is accorded to members of unions in all cases of hiring help. When
new help is needed the labor department of the company must for­
ward a requisition for such workers as are needed to the officers of
the various unions affiliated with the joint board of the unions. I f
the union can not fill the requisition from its membership within the
time limit prescribed, the company is free to hire anyone available.
The following is a general order of the company instructing foremen
to observe this rule:
G e n e r a l O bd eb — H

ie in g

New H

elp.

W henever there is in any section need for additional help th at can not be
supplied by transfer from some other shop or section, a requisition fo r sam e
m ust be m ade to the labor com plaint departm ent, whether or not there is any
expectation o f getting the requisition filled. A fter a reasonable tim e, or in
special cases by arrangem ent w ith the labor departm ent, if no experienced
persons apply under requisition, you are at liberty to hire anyone you please.
Foremen are perm itted to hire union members at any tim e after requisition
has been m ade.

That this order has been generally observed may be inferred from
opinions expressed by officials of the unions. Further evidence of its
enforcement is found in the records of certain cases that have come
before the trade board, of which the following case, No. 100, may be
cited as an example.
On June 10,1914, the deputy for one of the unions complained that
in shop No. 10 the foreman hired a second baster without sending a
requisition to the union. In answer to this charge the company in­
formed the board that, according to reports submitted by the fore­
man of shop No. 10, he hired a second baster who represented him­
self as being a union man; and that when the foreman found out
that this worker had lost his union membership by reason of non­
payment of dues for nine months, the man who had been taken on
was dismissed and a man who had been previously laid off was
reinstated.
P r e f e r e n c e i n L a y i n g o f f H e l p .—During the slack seasons the
officials of the unions frequently file complaints to the effect that
certain sections are overcrowded, accompanying the complaint with
a petition that some of the nonunion people be laid off. Since sec­
tion 8 of the arbitration agreement authorizes the company and its
agents “ to use their best judgment in maintaining a proper balance
of workmen in the sections to keep the different departments at



70

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

work,” the company may depose against the granting of such peti­
tions by the trade board, (1) that the section is not overcrowded as
compared with a section near it; (2) that it is necessary to hold the
people for the coming busy season; (3) that it is difficult to get new
people for this section; (4) that the lay off will reduce the efficiency
of the shop; (5) that the slackness is of a very temporary nature;
or (6) that the nonunion people are especially efficient and have been
employed for more than one year.
Evidence as to the working of the rule of according preference to
members of the unions when laying off help may be gathered from
such cases as the following, which are typical:
Case 47, Sept. 18, 1913: In factory K two nonunion offpressers were laid off
by the trade board on request of the union.
Case 56, Oct. 11, 1913: Nonunion cutter laid off by the trade board because
the quota of 20 nonunion men allowed by the agreement was full.
Case 80, Apr. 30,1914: On petition of the union that two nonunion basters be
laid off on account of overcrowded section, the trade board ordered that the
nonunion employees in question be transferred to another factory.
Case 110, Mar. 16, 1914: On account of the pocket-making section being over­
crowded, the union asked the labor complaint department of the firm that
two nonunion employees of that section be laid off. Request granted by decision
of the deputies.
Case 890: Complaint filed by the union that section was overcrowded and that
nonunion man be laid off. The trade board decided that the man in question
be advised to join the union.
Case 1205, Mar. 20, 1914: Complaint that the section of finishers was over­
crowded. The firm agreed with the complainant that three nonunion finishers
be laid off at once. (Decision of deputies.)
Case 1219, Mar. 30, 1914: Complaint filed by the union to the effect that
armhole baster refused to pay dues. It was decided that if the worker in
question persisted in refusing to pay his dues he be laid off at once. (Decided
by the deputies.)
Case 1230, May 21, 1914: On complaint filed by the union a nonunion girl
was laid off because she refused to join the organization.
OPINION OF THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD OF ARBITRATION RELATING TO
PREFERENCE.

At a joint conference of deputies for the company and for the
unions with the chairman of the board of arbitration, a number of
matters were taken up relating to preference and to overcrowded sec­
tions in the company’s vest shops.
At this conference, in stating his position, the chairman of the
board of arbitration expressed the opinion that the giving of prefer­
ence to members of the union in the process of laying off during the
slack season “ must be done with as little harshness as possible.”
In the view of the chairman the motive of action in any given
case must be to strengthen the union by the addition of non­
union people, not “ to gratify feelings of resentment over old dis­



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

71

putes by cutting off some people from their means of livelihood
by discharge.” The chairman, however, was positive in the con­
viction that “ preference must be given union members ” and advised
“ wherever there is evidence of a section being overcrowded that
nonunion workers join the union and conform to its rules.”
In accordance with this view, the following cases were adjusted:
1. Trimmer in factory G advised to join the union immediately.
2. Girl pocket setter in factory G ordered to join the union.
3. Lining baster in factory F advised to join the union im­
mediately.
4. Buttonhole-making section in factory F being overcrowded, two
nonunion workers laid off.
5. In factory F one nonunion buttonhole sewer to be laid off.
6. Two nonunion pocket tackers in factory F advised that, in order
to hold their positions, they must join the organization.
7. A neck stitcher in factory H advised to join the union at once.
8. Case of M., a member of the union. M. refused to pay a fine
imposed on him by his organization. The chairman ordered M. to
pay the fine on the ground that failure to do so would result in his
dismissal as a nonunion man.
In conclusion it should be stated that, according to one of the
general rules laid down by the chairman of the board of arbitration,
August 30,1913, the preferential principle is to be applied under the
following conditions:
The .provisions for preference made herein require that the door
of the union be kept open for the reception of nonunion workers.
Initiation fee and dues must be maintained at a reasonable rate, and
any applicant must be admitted who is not an offender against the
union and who is eligible to membership under its rules: Provided,
That if any rules be passed that impose an unreasonable hardship,
or that operate to bar desirable persons, the matter may be brought
before the trade board or the board of arbitration for such remedy
as it may deem advisable.
Supplementary information concerning the workings of the
preferential union shop as described in this report will be found in
the stenographic reports of the hearings on the workings of this
agreement, before the Commission on Industrial Relations, April 8,
1914, page 743 ff, testimony of E. D. Howard.
UNIONIZATION OF THE SHOPS, MARCH AND MAT, 1914.

In compliance with a request of the company’s labor complaint de­
partment a census of the shops was taken by the foremen in March,
1914, to determine the number of union and of nonunion employees.
Three months later a second census was taken by the shop chairmen,
the representatives of the unions in the shops, for the purpose of
verifying the figures secured by the company in March.



72

BULLETIN OP THE BUBEATJ OF LABOB STATISTICS.

The proportion of union employees in the shops, as determined
by the census taken in May by representatives of the unions, con­
siderably exceeds the corresponding proportion as determined by the
company’s census in March. This difference may be due in part to an
increase in membership during the interval between the censuses.
The difference is greatest in the case of the pants makers. Among
these employees the percentage of union members according to the
company’s census was 51; according to the census taken by the
unions, 77.6. According to both censuses the proportion of union
members was lower among these workers than it was in any other
department, but it should be borne in mind that this is a compara­
tively small group of workers, constituting in the aggregate only
about 10 per cent of the total number of employees. Among the vest
makers the corresponding percentage was 89 according to the com­
pany’s census, and 96 according to the census taken by the unions;
among the coat makers, 82 and 91.6, respectively. The proportion
was highest, 95 per cent, among the cutters and the trimmers.
According to both censuses the extent of unionization varies con­
siderably in the different departments. It should be noted, however,
that the census of the unions was somewhat incomplete, between 10
and 15 per cent of the coat and trousers shops having failed to report
on the question of unionization. The percentages as determined by
the two censuses are given in the table following, which includes the
percentage for the cutters and for the trimmers, as fixed by the pro­
visions of the decision rendered by the board of arbitration. The
returns of these censuses would indicate that the proportion of union
members among the employees of the firm taken in the aggregate
considerably exceeds 80 per cent and may amount to or even exceed
90 per cent, according as one accepts the figures obtained by the com­
pany or those obtained by the unions.
P E R CENT OF U N IO N M EM BER S AM ONG E M P L O Y E E S IN T H E CO M PAN Y’ S SHOPS
M AR CH A N D M A Y , 1914.
Per cent of employees
in the union.
Shops.
March, 1914 May, 1914
(census by (census by
company).
unions).
S38SSSS

ooooo

Goat makers..............................................
Vest m akers.....................................
Pants makers...........................................
Cutters.......................................................
Trimmers..................................................

91.6
96.0
77.6
195.0
195.0

i Estimate based upon provisions of the decision fixing the number of nonunion employees.

The number of union members in the company’s shops in May,
1914, varied among the coat makers from 66 in one shop to 100 in
each of two shops, the percentage being 91.6 for all reporting shops



COLLECTIVE AGBEEMENTS IN M E N ’ S CLOTHING INDUSTBY.

73

combined; among the pants makers the percentage, based upon a
somewhat incomplete census, ranged from 52.3 to 95.1, being 77.6
for all shops combined.
INCREASE IN MEMBERSHIP OF THE UNIONS, 1912 TO 1914.

In the foregoing section the available data are given showing the
extent to which the shops of the company were unionized in 1914. In
the tables following data are given showing the growth in member­
ship of the unions under the agreement from January, 1912, to
May, 1914.
T h e V e s t M a k e r s .— At the end of May, 1914, the vest makers’
union of the company had a membership in good standing of 593,
which exceeded the membership of this organization in May, 1913
(433), by more than one-third, and was almost eight times as great
as its membership in May, 1912 (75). The membership in May, 1914,
according to a statement of the deputy of this union, was about 96
per cent of the total number of vest makers employed by the company
at that date.
M EM BERSHIP OF T H E V E ST M AK ER S’ U N IO N IN T H E CO M PAN Y’ S SHOPS, B Y M ONTHS
JA N U A R Y , 1912, TO M A Y , 1914.

Members of union in good
standing.
Month.
1912
January.......................................
February.......................................
March............................................
April.............................................
May................................................
June...............................................
July................................................
August..........................................
September....................................
October.........................................
November.....................................
December.....................................

105
93
95
97
75
98
114
121
119
140
136
148

1913
170
239
279
411
433
435
446
438
442
445
454
475

1914
494
548
558
584
593

There is ample evidence that the growth in membership has been
equally rapid in the case of the other labor organizations in the’
shops.
In the following summary table the amount of dues collected by
the five organizations during the first five months, January to May,
inclusive, of the years 1912, 1913, and 1914 are shown, with the
percentages that these amounts are of the dues collected in the corre­
sponding period in 1912. The aggregate amount collected by the five
organizations during the first five months of 1912 was $2,592; during
the corresponding months of 1913, $5,161; and during the corre­
sponding months of 1914, $8,906, the amount collected in these




74

BULLETIN OF THE .BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

months of 1914 being about three and one-lialf times as great as the
amount for the corresponding months of 1912.
D UES COLLECTED, J A N U A R Y TO M A Y , 1012, 1913, AN D 1914, B Y UNIONS.

Dues collected January to May, inclusive.
Amount.

Per cent.

Union.
1913
as com­
pared
with
1912

1914
as com­
pared
with
1912

1912

1913

1914

Coat makers......................................................
Trousers makers...............................................
Polish tailors.....................................................
Lithuanian tailors (1).....................................
Lithuanian tailors (2).....................................

$1,263
610
206
186
327

$2,597
1,016
469
435
644

$4,962
1,958
618
449
919

100
100
100
100
100

206
167
228
234
197

393
321
300
241
281

Total........................................................

2,592

5,161

8,906

100

199

344

1912

POWER OF DISCHARGE.

Under the original agreement of 1911, the company's absolute
right of discharge was limited only by its own promise not to dis­
criminate against union employees.1
From the very initiation of its system of collective bargaining,
however, the company has realized the importance of exercising its
right to discharge with fairness and the necessity of instituting a
more or less comprehensive system for the handling of individual
cases of discharge. The disposition of the company to devise some
scheme for regulating the exercise by its foremen of their arbitrary
power of discharge is manifest in the following paragraphs quoted
from report No. 16 of the head of the company’s labor complaint
department.
R e p o r t N o . 10.— P l a n t o R e g u l a t e D is c h a r g e s .

One of the most important sources of misunderstanding and friction with
our employees is the matter of discharge by the foreman. It has been a regular
thing after the settlement of strikes for employers to discharge the union
leaders and agitators Just as soon as they felt that they could do so without
bringing on another strike. All sorts of strategy and misrepresentation has been
used to get rid of these people. In most cases this was a very short-sighted
policy. For a little while such action did not provoke a strike, yet it antag­
onized the union people and destroyed whatever good will had been built up
after the strike.
Our agreement with our employees includes a promise not to discriminate
against union men. Our employees have a little confidence that we will carry
out this promise in good faith and they are watching for every indication of
bad faith on our part. If they discover ultimately that we are carrying out this
promise, I am sure that one of the greatest obstacles in the way of regaining
their confidence and loyalty will be removed.
1 Section 7, ruling of board of arbitration, May 20, 1911.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY,

75

Therefore I suggest that it should be a policy of the firm to avoid even the
appearance of bad faith in this matter. This does not mean that we should
discharge nobody, but that we should discharge persons only for a good cause.
Necessarily, the determination of the cause must be left with the foreman. I
suggest that whenever the foreman has found it necessary to discharge anyone
that he be required to make a written report to me containing a definite state­
ment as to the cause of such discharge. The effect of such an order, I believe,
would be to make the foreman more careful in discharging and will require
him to formulate in his own mind a definite reason for such discharges so that
he can be prepared to make an acceptable report. If a discharge is made simply
because the foreman is excited and angry he will find difficulty later in making
a good case, and will find it better to stop and think for a few minutes before
he acts.
THE SUSPENSION SYSTEM.

So long as the foreman was unrestricted in the exercise of the
power of absolute discharge, the work of the labor complaint depart­
ment and the arbitrators in adjusting differences was exceedingly
difficult, not only because it was found to be almost impossible in any
given case to determine exactly what were the facts, but also because
of the evil consequences as regards discipline certain to follow any
overruling of the action of a foreman which resulted in putting back
under his direction a worker whom he had once discharged. This
difficult problem was solved finally by adopting a suspension system,
under which the employee was given the right to ask for an investi­
gation and hearing before his discharge became official.
The suspension system as it has developed has relieved foremen of
a responsibility which many of them were inclined to shirk, and has
made it easy for a foreman to take such action as he deems proper
in any case, since it is understood that his decision is provisional, and
that the responsibility rests ultimately with the labor complaint
department.
Suspension has been used not only as a means of preventing indis­
criminate and unjust discharges, but also as a means of enabling
foremen to maintain discipline in the shops. When an infraction of
rules or a failure to meet the requirements of good work is not seri­
ous enough to justify a discharge, the foreman may suspend a
worker. The keeping of a complaint book and the fear which the
workers have of getting a record in the book operate as a strong
stimulus to good behavior and provide a ready discipline for minor
offenses.
Since the development of the suspension system a marked change
has taken place in the attitude of foremen and examiners toward the
workers. Kealizing that any action of theirs may be investigated,
foremen and examiners are now careful not to do anything which
may subject them subsequently to unfavorable criticism. The care­
fulness of the foremen in this respect is so great that they frequently,



76

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

in order to forestall criticism, call upon the labor complaint depart­
ment for advice, even on comparatively trivial matters. This sys­
tematic exercise of caution in the matter of discharge constitutes one
of the most striking contrasts found when conditions obtaining in
the shops to-day are compared with the conditions which obtained
under the old system of individual bargaining.
The exercise of proper authority by foremen and examiners has
under the new policy become easier and has largely ceased to be the
occasion of serious friction, because the final responsibility for any
decision involving the discipline or quality of work in the shop has
been put on the labor complaint department. Before the institution
of the present system foremen were frequently unable to enforce an
order without causing a “ stoppage of work,” and in the fear of caus­
ing such a stoppage allowed their orders to be disregarded. Under
the present system if their orders are not obeyed, they have only to
call upon the labor complaint department to enforce them, without
taking any responsibility for the consequences. The fact that con­
troversies between the foremen and the workers are now by mutual
consent referred to a fair tribunal of arbitrators for settlement
lessens, to a very considerable extent, friction in the enforcement of
discipline.
The following is a copy of the form used in giving notice of sus­
pension :
S u s p e n s io n N

o t ic e .

-- -

,

Shop or factory----- .
M-------------- ; pay roU N o.------ ; occupation--------------- ; is suspended from
his position and excluded from the shop until the case is investigated and
adjusted by Mr. Howard, main building, northwest corner of Franklin and
Monroe Streets. Cases will be heard daily at 11 a. m. and 2.80 p. m. Sus­
pension becomes permanent if this notice is not presented within two days
from date.
Reason for suspension-------------- .
’
9

Forem
an.

This is not a discharge.
LIMITATION UPON THE RIGHT OF THE COMPANY TO DISCHARGE.

As has been noted, the company made no concession in the agree­
ment of 1911 as regards the exercise of its right to discharge, other
than that which was implied in its promise not to discriminate
against nnion employees. Under the agreement of 1913, however,
the company’s right to discharge is specifically limited by the fol­
lowing restrictions:
(a) Workers must not be discharged for union activity.



77

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N 'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

(b)
Sufficient reason must be shown why the worker should be
discharged. Every discharge is subject to the review of the trade
board. The decision of the trade board may be appealed from to
the board of arbitration.
The records of cases which have arisen under these provisions,
and have in accordance with the policy adopted by the company
been referred to its labor complaint department, show that the com­
pany has, in fact, exercised its right of discharge very cautiously.
As has been explained, foremen are no longer allowed to exercise
the right of discharge. They may suspend a worker after a suffi­
cient number of warnings have been given. The suspended worker
is generally referred to the head of the labor complaint depart­
ment, who is the only official empowered to make a suspension per­
manent-empowered, that is to say, to discharge an employee.
During the 18 months from January, 1913, to June, 1914, 445 sus­
pensions were made in the 34 factories of the company. Of these,
265 workers, or 59.6 per cent, were subsequently reinstated by the
company itself.
In 94 cases only, constituting 21.1 per cent, or a little over onefifth, of the total number of suspensions, were the men discharged,
and in more than one-half of these 94 cases the discharged em­
ployees were subsequently reinstated by the trade board, on appeal
from the decision of the company’s labor complaint department.
Taking into consideration the fact that the average number em­
ployed by the company during the year is over 6,000, the number
of discharges under the Hart, Schaffner & Marx collective agree­
ment has been exceedingly small and probably does not exceed the
number required to preserve discipline and order in a factory of
that size.
In the following table is shown the number and disposition of
the 445 suspension cases arising during the period from January 1,
1913, to June 30,1914.
NUM BER A N D DISPOSITION OF SUSPENSION CASES FBOM JAN. 1,1913, TO JUNE 30,1914.

Suspensions.

Disposition by labor complaint department.
Discharged.

Shops.

Reinstated.

Unrecorded.

Number. Percent.
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Percent.
Coat shops...................
Vest shops...................
Trousers shops............

348
40
57

78.2
9.0
12.8

70
5
19

20.1
12.5
33.3

205
32
28

58.9
80.0
49.1

73
3
10

21.0
7.5
17.5

Total..................

445

100.0

94

21.1

265

59.6

86

19.3




78

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAC OF LABOB STATISTICS.

It will be apparent from the foregoing account that the regulation
of the power of discharge is far more comprehensive and adequate
under the agreement of March 29.1913, than it was under the agree­
ment of 1911. According to section 7 of the agreement of 1913—
The full power of discharge and discipline remains with the com­
pany and its agents; but it is understood that this power should be
exercised with justice and witli due regard to the reasonable rights of
employee, and if an employee feels that he has been unjustly dis­
charged he may appeal to the trade board, which shall have the
power to review his case.
Under this provision a number of cases have been brought before
the trade board on appeal, and it is generally conceded that the
spirit shown by the board, as well as the general policies followed
by it in the adjustment of cases of this kind, has been such as to in­
spire full confidence in its fairness. The following cases, which con­
stitute approximately one-third of the total number of cases of this
sort that have been adjusted by the board, have been selected as
typical and as illustrating the more important principles observed
by the board in determining whether or not, in specific instances, a
discharge is warranted.
D e c i s io n s o f t h e T r a d e B o ard .
J u k e 25, 1913.
No. 11.—Petition for reinstatement of -------------- , a discharged seamer
from pants shops Iv-3. Granted.
Board holds that the evidence submitted was insufficient to justify the
board in confirming the discharge.
Case

J u l y 12, 1913.
No. 18.—Petition o f -------------- , a discharged cutter, for reinstatement.
-------------- was discharged on the ground that he was insubordinate, used
loud and profane language while talking to his foreman, thereby disturbing the
good order of the cutting room.
The board holds that the charge of insubordination was not clearly proven,
and that the evidence for profane talking related only to one instance. There
was evidence, an d-------------- himself admitted, that he talked loud and was
excitable. Taking into consideration the fact that -------------- has been em­
ployed by the firm for five years, and that he is a good workman, the board
believes that lie would be sufficiently punished by a suspension of two weeks.
It accordingly orders th a t-------------- be reinstated as an employee, and that
he begin work Monday, July 28. It is understood that these two weeks shall
not count his lay off.
Case

A u g u s t 2, 1913.
No. 25.—Petition o f -------------- , a discharged second baster of shop 34, for
reinstatement. Denied.
The trade board holds that the evidence of inefficiency was sufficient to
justify the discharge.
Case




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS I S JIEN *8 CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

79

At-GUST 12, 1933.
C a s e N o.

33.—P e t i t i o n

o f --------------------, a d is c h a r g e d a r m h o le p r e s s e r , f o r r e in ­

st a t e m e n t.

The board holds that the evidence against -------------- is not sufficient to
justify his discharge and orders him to be reengaged in such shop or factory
as may be arranged by consultation with the deputies.
In view of the fact that there was some evidence to show th a t-------------was creating some dissension among the other workers, it was agreed that he
should suffer the loss of wages as a fine during the period between his suspen­
sion and reinstatement.1
A u g u s t 26, 1913.

No. —.—Petition o f -------------- , a discharged edge baster of shop A , for
reinstatement. Granted.
The petition is granted out of consideration of the long services of the dis­
charged and the absence of any intention to embarrass the work of the shop by
failure to report her absence. The loss of time will serve as a warning and
notice to herself and her associates.

C ase

J u l y 9 , 1912.
C a s e N o . 50 .— I n r e d is c h a r g e o f --------------------, a c u t te r .

The board finds that -------------- was guilty of violating the rules of the
cutting room and of wasting cloth, in that he did not call the attention of the
foreman to the amount of cloth he had left at the time of cutting the last lay.
Whether the mutilation of the cloth was deliberate is not proven beyond any
reasonable doubt, in the opinion of the chairman, though the weight of the
evidence inclines that way. The discharge o f -------------- was therefore well
grounded.
In view of the fact, however, th at-------------- has been in the employ of the
house for over six years, and that he appears to have no specially bad reputa­
tion for inefficiency, the chairman recommends th a t-------------- be reengaged
after he has had one week’s lay off. The chairman believes that the loss of one
week’s wages will be a severe and sufficient caution against a repetition of this
or a similar offense. To guard against the impression that-------------- has been
reinstated by order of the board with back pay and without any censure, the
chairman requests -------------- , deputy for the cutters, to read this decision
at the meeting of the cutters.
A u g u s t 2 0 ,1 9 1 2 .

73.—In re petition to reinstate ----------- , ----------- , and ----------- ,
discharged vest makers.
The petition is granted and these three discharged employees are ordered to
report for work next Friday morning. The grounds for this decision are
found in the circumstances attending the discharges of these employees which
give support to the contention that they were discriminated against. The cir­
cumstances referred to are these:
First. The putting into effect of specifications without definitely notifying
the representatives of the workers on the committee on prices that a lay off
of the workers was involved in the specifications.
C a s e N o.




1 Subsequently transferred to factory C.

80

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

Second. The discharge of witnesses who have recently appeared before the
board pending a decision of the case in which they had appeared. Since the
appeal of the decision of the board in this case (-------------- ) these witnesses
have been reinstated.
Third. These three discharged employees have been employees of the firm
for from two to* three years. Employees of shorter duration of service have
been retained while these three were discharged. The evidence before the
board is not sufficient to justify the preference that has been shown for the
employees that were retained.
A p r i l 24, 1914.
Case No. 81.—In re petition o f -------------- , a canvas presser, for reinstatement
The evidence in this case showed that a good many complaints had been
lodged against-------------- , and that he had been once suspended for five days
for having too hot an iron. The present discharge was due to the fact that he
pressed the canvas in three times instead of five as ordered by the foreman.
The superintendent of the shop stated that if he had known all of the cir­
cumstances of the first suspension he would not have suspended him, and that
he suspended him the second time in order to bring the question of three or five
time pressing to an issue for decision.
In view of the evidence the trade board rules that the best interest of both
the firm and the people will be met by reinstating-------------- to his position
without back pay.
M a y 1,1914.
85.—In re petition o f -------------- , a bushelman, for reinstatement.
The people contend th at-------------- was improperly discharged, as the dis­
charge occurred during the slack season, while the agreement specified that
work shall be divided as equally as possible. The firm contends that-------------was inefficient, purposely delaying work, as he stated to his coworker in the
section; and there was not sufficient work for the two men.
The contention of the firm that -------------- was an inefficient worker, or
that he was less efficient than his coworker, was not supported by the evidence.
The coworker denies that -------------- cautioned him against doing too much
or working too fast, though he did hear of such reports from other workers.
Moreover, -------------- has been drawing $15.40 a week as against $14 paid
B-------------- .
It was suggested th at-------------- be given work in some other section and
some arrangement of this sort has already been entered into tentatively before
this hearing.
The board orders-------------- to return to his section as bushelman and that
he be formally reinstated in his place with three days’ back pay.
C a s e N o.

D e c e m b e r 4, 1912.
153.—In re petition o f -------------- , a discharged coat maker, for rein­
statement.
—------------was discharged on the ground that he was insubordinate, in that
he refused to obey the foreman’s orders to sew patch pockets at the regular
piecework rate at a time when he had no work in his own section, that of
welt making.
-------------- contends that he was within his right when he refused to do
the work, as he is not required as a welt maker to sew patch pockets, which is
C a s e N o.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IK M E N ’ s CLOTHIXG INDUSTRY.

81

a different though similar operation. He contends that his action was sanc­
tioned by the common and accepted practice in the shops where the people
use their option as to whether they will do work which is not included in their
own operation.
In support of his contention he produced testimony to show that only recently
the flap makers in the same factory refused to sew patch pockets at a time when
they had no work in their own section, and that they were given a pass and per­
mitted to go home. The flap maker who testified to these facts also stated that
he had been asked by the superintendent of the factory to make patch pockets
and had refused, without any reprimand, suspension, or discharge.
Although much further evidence was heard pro and con on the common prac­
tice in the shops, the board does not wish to pass on the main question in this
case at this time and does not wish its decision to be taken as a precedent.
The board therefore orders that -------------- return to his place of work
Thursday m orning, and that if occasion arises where the forem an orders him
to m ake patch pockets that he obey the order, and if he then feels aggrieved
he m ay present further complaint.

No. 158.—In re petition for reinstatement o f -------------- , a pants maker.
In this case the firm contended that---------------was not discharged, but left
his place of work and did not return in time to hold his position under the terms
of the agreement, further that he had been unsteady at his work because of
bad personal habits, and for these reasons did not wish to reengage him.
The people contended that----------------- had been informed by the messenger
he sent to the shop that he would not be needed and considered himself dis­
charged. He denied that his previous absences were due to bad habits*
On the initiative of the representatives of the firm it was agreed that the board
would order the reinstatement o f -------------- and that he should be called be­
fore the board and informed that this decision meant another chance for him
to make good and to caution him as to his conduct.
Case

M a r c h 20, 1013.
No. —.—In re petition of A, a discharged “ rusher,” for reinstatement.
The people contended that A was discharged because of his activity as a
union man, particularly because of a radical speech he made Sunday afternoon,
March 16, at the mass meeting at Hod Carriers’ Hall. They deny that he was
an incompetent or inefficient workman.
The firm contends that A was discharged because of inefficiency and that the
discharge was not due to his speech on Sunday, as it was determined upon
before that event.
In favor of the contention of the people is the following evidence:
1. A has been employed as a “ rusher” by the firm for five and one-half
years.
2. About six or eight months ago the foreman of shop 34 asked for a good
rusher from the pants shop and A was sent.
3. Some two or three months after his transfer to shop 34 his wages were
raised from $13 to $15 a week.
4. A admits that sometimes the rush lots did not get through on time but
lays the blame chiefly on conditions in the shop, the fact “ specials ” had the
right of way and that tailors did not get out the work. No complaint slips
or records were produced against him.
38042°—Bull. 198—16----- 6
Case




82

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

5. A claims that the foreman, Mr. B, cautioned him about his union activity
and advised him that he was not consulting his own best interests, and that
he would get on better if he “ worked ” for him (B ). B admits that he talked
to A about his activity as a union mail.
6. A had no intimation that he was to be discharged until the Monday morn­
ing following the Sunday’s mass meeting. When he came to work Monday
morning he was met at the entrance by B and told that the firm had no
further use for his services. He was not permitted to go upstairs, but was
given a note to rej>ort to the genera! office for his time. B admits that while
he had reprimanded A because the lots were not coming out on time, he had
never warned him that his position was in jeopardy.
In support of the contention of the firm is the following evidence:
1. B testifies that lie had contemplated engaging someone in A’s place as
long as two or three months ago: that he had talked about a change with C,
general superintendent; that last week he had secured a man, a former em­
ployee in shop 4, whom he knew; that after trial for a couple of days on
“ specials ” he decided on Saturday to put this man in A’s place; that he spoke
to C about it on Saturday, who concurred in the decision; that he did not
notify A of the proposed change and resultant discharge on Saturday, as he
waited until the closing hour and then found A had left the shop a little before
1; that Monday morning he met him downstairs and Informed him of his dis­
charge.
2. This testimony, so far as it related to C, was corroborated by him in his
testimony.
While the chairman finds in the evidence sufficient testimony to give color
to the charge of the people that A is a victim of discrimination, and that his
discharge was timed and carried out so as to intimidate the people at the outset
of their voting on the advisability of a strike, the chairman holds that the
evidence of the firm's witnesses disproves the charge of discrimination. In
view of the testimony of B and C the chairman must regard the discharge
following the speech simply as an exceedingly unfortunate coincidence, the effect
of which upon the people in arousing their suspicion and antagonism could not
be greater if it were designed and is especially deplorable at this time.
Admitting, however, the force and validity of the firm’s testimony on this
point, the chairman also holds that no sufficient evidence was produced before
the board to justify the discharge of A. Aside from the general accusation
of inefficiency by B, no specific facts or records were placed in evidence against
what appears to be an efficient record for five years.
In view of this fact and in view of all the circumstances surrounding this
case, the chairman believes that in the interest of fair dealing, A should be
reinstated either in his former position, or in some other of equal advantage.
The board therefore orders that he report for work Monday morning, March
24, without back pay.
WAGES IN THE CUTTING DEPARTMENT, 1910 TO 1914.,

Under section (a), still in force* of the original agreement of
1911, the compensation for cutting was to be determined in accord­
ance with the following provision:
The minimum to !> paid to any cutter shall be $8 per week, and
e
the scale of wages to be paid to cutters shall be at the rate of 50
cents per cut.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

83

Thus the earnings of cutters are determined in each individual
case by the amount of work done, and a cutter automatically receives
wages proportioned to his capacity, as measured by the number of
cuts he succeeds in turning out. If his output decreases, his earn­
ings are correspondingly diminished.
The basis of computing individual productivity in the cutting
department is the average output for a period of at least three
weeks; if the cutter can prove to the satisfaction of the firm that
the reduction in his output is due to causes for which he is not re­
sponsible, his rate is not reduced. Cutters can appeal.from the de­
cision of the company to the trade board. In many instances the
original rate is restored.
As a whole, this system has worked well and to the satisfaction
of all the parties concerned.
The records of the firm, for the period of January 1, 1913, to
June 1,1914, show 832 automatic increases of $1 per week each, and
74 reductions of $1 per week each. Of the latter a considerable
number have been restored by the trade board.
An inspection of individual records shows that many cutters in­
creased their rates from $18 to $25 or $26 within the short period
of approximately one year.
The following table, based upon the records of the cutting de­
partment, show the changes that have taken place in the weekly
rates of cutters since 1910. Cutters earning less than $18 have been
eliminated from this tabulation on the supposition that men earn­
ing less than this amount are not as yet full-fledged journeymen,
but are rather learners who are still acquiring skill, and whose in­
crease in earning capacity, since it represents in part an increased
efficiency and the acquirement of technique, can not be wholly attrib­
uted to any change in the method of remuneration.
It is shown in detail in the table that of the total number of
cutters employed, the proportion earning between $18 and $25.99
per week decreased from 88.1 per cent in 1910 to less than half of
that percentage, 41.2 per cent, in 1914. During the same period the
percentage earning between $26 and $33.99 per week increased from
11.9 per cent in 1910 to 53.6 per cent in 1914, the proportion in 1914
being almost five times as great as in 1910. While in 1910 none of
the cutters earned $34 or over per week, in 1914, 5.2 per cent of all
the cutters employed were earning wages of this amount. In 1910
only 20 of the 168 cutters employed earned $26 or more per week
and none were earning more than $34; in June, 1914, 90 of the
153 cutters employed were earning $26 or more, and of these 90, 8
were earning $34 or more.
Since the earnings of cutters, under the system in operation, are
determined absolutely by individual productivity, it would seem



84:

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

clear that the present method of remuneration for cutting, which has
been established through collective bargaining, has proved itself
to be exceedingly profitable to the workers as well as to the company.
N U M BER A N D PER C EN T OF CUTTERS E A R N IN G EACH CLASSIFIED W E E K L Y
AM OUNT IN 1910,1913, A N D 1914.

Before strike, 1910.

February, 1913.

June, 1914.

Weekly earnings.
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent. Number. Percent.
118 to $21.99.......................................................
$22 to $25.99............. : .......................................
$26 to $29.99.......................................................
$30 to $33.99.......................................................
$34 and over......................................................

1
Total........................................................|

80
68
18
2
168

47.6
40.5
10.7
1.2
100.0 i
|

18
73
51
22
4

10.7
43.4
30.4
13.1
2.4

168

100.0

10
53
55
27
8

!

6.5
34.6
35.9
17.6
5.2

13
8

100.0

A l l o w a n c e s .— In the deteimination of rates for cutters, the fixing
of “ allowances,” so called, for unavoidable losses of time, has caused
and still causes considerable embarrassment.
At the suggestion of the company the following method of adjust­
ing rates to cover allowances has been adopted. There is a special
committee—committee on cutters—made up of one representative of
the company and one representative of the cutters’ union. The func­
tion of this committee is to investigate the records of individual cut­
ters that fall below the standard. If the reduced output of the indi­
vidual is due to losses of time which can not be attributed to per­
sonal negligence, carelessness, or incompetency, his rate of wages is
not reduced.

FIXING OF PRICES UNDER THE LABOR AGREEMENT.

As all the manufacturing of the firm is done on a piece-rate basis,
the matter of satisfactorily settling prices for work is of supreme
importance, since, in the nature of the industry, changes in the charac­
ter of the work are necessarily of frequent occurrence. About onethird of all the disputes that have arisen under the agreement have
arisen out of this necessity for fixing prices on new work so as to
maintain rates.1
Generally speaking, prices are fixed by a committee consisting of
an equal number of representatives of the company and of the em­
ployees. If necessary in any given case, an actual test is made to
determine the amount of labor required. If the price committee can
reach no agreement the matter is referred to the trade board, the
decision of the board in such cases being final. The trade board
fixes prices under conditions laid down by the board of arbitration,
1 Grievances of this sort usually come under the following classifications: Additional
work not specified in the price required, or prices too low i and Disputes in price making.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN''& CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

85

viz, prices, “ as far as practicable, must be uniform in all the shops
of the firm and no increase in price can be granted unless it is shown
that there is a corresponding increase in the work.”
The following nine cases have been selected in order to show spe­
cifically how this important problem has been handled by the trade
board:
D e c is io n s

of

the

T r ade B oard.

J u n e 21, 1912.
No. 26.—In re pressers of trousers legs.
That trouser pressers be granted an increase of one-fourth of a cent addi­
tional where they are required to press the trousers on four sides. It is under­
stood that if it is found feasible to adjust the pressing board so that trousers
may be pressed on three sides, the increase of one-fourth of a cent shall not
be granted.
Case

J u n e 27, 1912.
No. 85.—In re shoulder stretchers in all vest shops.
That 5 cents per hundred be added to the present price. This order to take
effect from the date of filing the complaint.
C ase

A u g u s t 12, 1912.
40.—In re petition of the brushers in factory H.
Vest shops to be relieved of putting statements in vests.
The petition is granted and the relief as requested is ordered into effect from
date of this decision.

C a s e N o.

J u n e 25, 1912.
2-B.—Petition of -------------- , a vest maker, for an increase on
“ Specials,” on the ground that it requires more time for him to write the
numbers in those lots, as there is only one garment in each lot
The board holds that there is not sufficient ground for the complaint, as the
additional work involved is so slight as not to justify an increase in the price.
Case

N o.

J u n e 25, 1912.
22.—In re price of seaming, including waistbands.
In view of the report of the committee, M r.-------------- and M r.----------------,
it was ordered that the rate for the operation of sewing seams, including ad­
justable waistbands, shall be 12 per cent higher than the present rate ($5.17),
this rate to be in effect from date of the change of operation. It is understood
that a change in the work win be made so that the operation will be $4.95 per
hundred provisionally; prices and specifications to be submitted in writing.1
C a s e N o.

A u g u s t 26, 1913.
No. 21.—In re petition of the offpressers in factory B against the present
system of examining.
The offpressers claim that they are losing time by the present method of ex­
amining which requires them to bring the coat to the examiner and wait until
he has examined it. They claim further that this is an innovation and was not
the system formerly in use in the shops; that formerly they placed the coats
on chairs or hangers pending examination.
The weight of the evidence in this case in the judgment of the board is in
favor of the contention of the people.
Case

i Back pay of 12 per cent on all adjustable waistbands at .$5.17, ordered by the firm on
July 9.




86

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The board rules accordingly that the following arrangement shall be made:
Operatives are to bring their coats as at present to the examiner. If the ex­
aminer is not engaged he will examine the coat at once. If the examiner is
absent or engaged, chairs or hangers are to be provided so that the operative
may leave the coat and get a fresh one so as not to lose time.
The board believes that this is a fair and reasonable adjustment of the
difficulty.
O cto be r 11, 1913.
No. 36 . —In re petition of the first banters, coat shops, that the company
is requiring a higher standard of work than formerly, particularly that the
stitch has been shortened.
The trade board finds from the evidence that the stitch required by the
specifications is 1 inch and consequently rules that this length of stitch may
be required by the company.
Case

N o v e m b e r 20, 1913.
No. 12.—In re petition of -------------- and -------------- and -------------- ,
brushers and examiners in the vest shops, for an adjustment of their rates
of wages.
These petitioners chum that since the brushing and examining were com­
bined they have been losing on the week-work rate from $1 to $2 per week.
They ask for an adjustment of the week-work rate on the basis of the former
piecework rate of 821 cents per 100.
From statistics coveriug the production of these men for 10 weeks preceding
October 30, 191.3, the earnings of these men, if reckoned on the former piece­
work basis, Mould be as follows:
A-------------- : Total garments. 18,048: in total hours. 442; average production
per hour, 40 garments; average earnings per hour at 82£ cents, 33 cents; total
average earnings per week of 52 hours, $17.16.
B-------------- : Total garments, 18,509; in hours, 591; average production per
hour, 31 garments; average earnings per hour, 25.57 cents; total average earn­
ings per week of 52 hours. $13.29.
C-------------- : Total garments, 18,494; in hours, 581; average production per
hour, 32 garments: average earnings per hour, 26.4 cents; average earnings
per week of 52 hours, $13.72.
The above ratings do not take any account of the examining and busheling
required in the combined operation, If $1 a week be added for examining, that
would seem a modest estimate, the petitioners should be receiving weekly rates
as follows:
C ase

A _____________________________________________________________ $18.00
B _____________________________________________________________ 14. 50
C _________________________________________________ - ___________ 15.00
The board orders that the petitioners be paid at the above rates from this
date.
The following order of the firm shows how this decree has been carried out:
O rder t o S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f V e s t S h o p s f r o m T r a d e B o a r d .

Beginning November 20 you will pay the brusher-examiners, named below, the
weekly rates set opposite their names:
A _____________________________________________________________ $18.00
B _____________________________________________________________ 14.50
C ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15.0Q



COLLECTIVE AGBEEMENTS IN M E N ’ S CLOTHING INDUSTBY.

87

A u g u s t 12, 19 13.

In re petition of the pocket makers in factory K against a change of work
whereby they are required to notch the pockets themselves.
The pockets had formerly been notched by the pocket facers; but two weeks
ago it was changed from that section to the pocket-making section on the ground
that the amount of work required by the change was so slight as not to inter­
fere with the work of the pocket makers and would make for better workman­
ship on their part.
On examination of the actual operation and taking of testimony in the shop,
the board grants the petition of the pocket makers, and orders that the oper­
ation be performed as formerly,
ALLOWANCES FOR EMPLOYEES EARNING LESS THAN THE PRESCRIBED
MINIMUM RATES.

By a decision of the board of arbitration, dated March 13, 1911,
the following minimum weekly rates of wages were established:
No employee shall receive less than $5 per week, and no male em­
ployee above the age of 17 shall receive less than $6 per week, and
no male employee above the age of 18 shall receive less than $8 per
week. (Sec. 3.)
The minimum to be paid to any cutter shall be $8 per week.
(Sec. 3a.)
As to all machine operators, sleeve-lining cutters, lining cutters,
canvas and haircloth cutters, and trimmers on lay, the minimum rate
shall be $8 per week. (Sec. 3c.)
As to examiners there shall be a minimum rate of $15 per week.
(Sec. 3d.)
Section 5 of the decision of the board of arbitration, dated
March 29.1913, amended these quoted provisions as follows:
The minimum-wage scale of the old agreement shall remain in
force, except as follows: Machine operators in tailor shops (except
sergers, sleeve operator’s, and pad makers) shall for the first three
months of service receive not less than $5 a week, and not less than
$8 a week thereafter. Women in needle sections shall receive not
less than $5 a week for the first three months, and not less than $6
ti week thereafter.
The minimum wage applies to week workers as well as to workers
paid by the piece. In either case the full minimum wage is paid for
a full week of 52 hours of work, the amount paid being proportion­
ately less if the hours worked during the specific week are less than
52. If, for example, the person in question has worked only 26
hours, the amount paid under the minimum-wage provision is ex­
actly half of the minimum prescribed for a full week’s work.
All employees on piecework operations are required to account for
their work according to whatever method of tallying is used in the
shop where they are employed, whether by piecework tickets written
by themselves, cards that are punched by clerks or inspectors, cou­



88

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

pons detached by the employees themselves, or other means. From
these records, supplemented by time sheets, the pay rolls are pre*
pared, displaying the employee’s time, occupation, rate, and, then, in
a separate column, the amount necessary to raise these earnings to the
minimum guaranteed.
A weekly list of all employees receiving allowances is prepared
from the pay roll while the latter is in process of completion, and is
forwarded to the heads of the manufacturing and of the labor
complaint departments and to the foremen of specific shops. This
report shows the employee’s number, occupation, minimum weekly
rate, hours actually worked, amount allowed, and also, by the side
of the current weekly allowances, the allowances, if any, made to
the same employee in preceding weeks.
The effect of these allowances upon the cost of the finished gar­
ments is considered to be insignificant, the loss or expense incurred
by allowances at no time having become, in fact, an appreciable fac­
tor in the cost of production.
EQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WORK.

On account of the seasonal character of the industry it becomes
necessary during the slack- season to diminish the working force by
about one-half. The manner in which this has been accomplished in
past seasons has been a source of much complaint among the workers.
The arbitration committee after considering this question has ruled
that “ during the slack season the work shall be divided as equally as
practicable among all hands.” It is understood that the workers
covered by this ruling include only regular employees, and that as
such they , can not under the agreement be discharged during the
slack season. It is understood, furthermore, that this provision shall
not be so interpreted as in any way to regulate the number of people
to be given work during the busy seasons.
The method adopted to regulate the distribution of work so as to
provide as nearly as possible an equal share of work for all em­
ployees is to issue “ lay-off ” notices at the beginning of the slack sea­
son to a sufficient number of employees, by week-at-a-time quotas, to
insure work for full time to the remaining employees. The working
efficiency of the factory is thereby maintained. As the slack season
progresses the “ lay off” increases, so that at the “ slackest time”
the “ lay off ” becomes a two-weeks period.
The common method employed prior to the strike was to compel
employees to report each day, whether there was work or not, and
to remain in the factory during, the regular working hours. These
unfair requirements have been entirely discontinued, and the very
great benefits of the new method are conferred without any economic
loss whatever to the company.



89

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N 's CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

The following, an order issued by the firm, shows how these “ lay
offs ” are carried out:
To

A l l S u p e r in t e n d e n t s

and

F oremen.

Whenever a regular lay-off notice is given with a definite date for return,
the employee is entitled to work for at least a week after the date of return.
Foremen are not permitted to give lay-off notices when it is necessary to dis­
charge employees. The excuse that “ they have discovered during the man’s
absence that they do not need him at all ” is not sufficient—they should have
known it before the man was laid off.
M a r c h 26, 1918.

The following is a copy of the lay-off notice:
L a y - o f f N o t ic e .

-------------- , 191—.
M-------------- :
On account of lack of work you are laid off at the close of work-------------- ,
191—. You are to report to the foreman o n -------------- , 191—, who will re­
instate you in your position if the quantity of work coming to the shop justifies
it So far as possible during the slack season the work will be divided equally
among the old employees. Failure to report within two days of the return date
given above will forfeit your position.
H art,

Schaffner

& M

arx,

-------------------- Foreman.
*
Countersigned.
FUNCTION OF THE SHOP CHAIRMAN.

Originally, under the agreement of 1911, no specific recognition of
the union was conceded by the company.' With reference to griev­
ances it was understood that the company was to create a grievance
department where each employee might present his or her grievances.
To help those who were unable to speak the English language, it
was specified that any employee might register a complaint through
a fellow worker.
Subsequently the trade board, in case No. 148, interpreted the
“ fellow worker ” to be the shop chairman, who was in fact the
official representative of the union in the shop.
A little later, in case No. 35, adjudicated on September 5, 1913,
the rights and powers of this representative of the union were
defined.
The development of the function of the shop chairman, in ac­
cordance with the decisions in the cases cited, is a specific instance
of the tendency, which has been manifested generally in administer­
ing the agreement, to develop important principles of policy in­
cidentally, and to formulate an industrial code of rules based upon
precedents. This industrial code as it has developed has greatly
facilitated the adjustment of grievances.



BULLETIN OF TH E

90

OF LABOR STATISTICS*

BUREAU

The following are the two decisions defining the function of the
shop chairman:
D e c is io n s

of t h e

T

rade

B oard.

CASE NO. 148.
Ja n u a r y
N ature

of

8, 1913.

G r ie v a n c e s :

This is a complaint by the people that the firm is violating the agree­
ment in that it is forbidding the employees from taking up complaints
with individual fellow workers, which the people claim is granted by the
agreement as follows: Section 4 of the decision of the arbitrators: “As
to any future grievances, the firm of Hart, Schaffner & Marx shall estab­
lish some method of handling such grievances through some person or
persons in its employ, and any employee, either himself or by any in­
dividual fellow worker, shall have the right to present any grievance at
any reasonable time, and such grievance shall be promptly considered
by the person or persons appointed by said firm,” etc.
C o n t e n t io n

of t h e

P eople:

The people contend that this section gives an individual fellow worker
in the shop the right to take up any complaint with an individual during
working hours, and that for the firm to prohibit the exercise of this right
is to violate the agreement; they contend further that they have hitherto
exercised this right and the prohibition of this activity will result in
widespread distrust by the people in the efficiency of the agreement, as
they believe that the exercise of this right is granted and sanctioned by
the agreement.
C o n t e n t io n

of t h e

F ir

m

:

The firm contends that the aforesaid section does not give the employee
the right to present complaints to his fellow worker during working
hours and while the shop is in operation, but that he may consult with the
individual fellow worker on his own time and out of working hours; the
firm contends that to permit the employee to bring complaints to the in­
dividual fellow worker destroys the discipline of the shop as it diminishes
the control of the foreman over the operatives.
I s s u e s I nvolved :

The question at isstie is whether the agreement permits an employee to
take up with an individual fellow worker a complaint during working hours
and while the shop is in operation.
D

e c is io n

:

On the question of the time when an employee may consult with a
fellow worker regarding a complaint, the agreement makes no declara­
tion. The agreement does provide that where any employee, either by
himself or by an individual fellow worker, decides to bring a grievance to
the attention of the firm, he must present the grievance at a reasonable
time, but as to when he may confer with an individua1 fellow worker
about the complaint which has become a grievance, nothing is said in the
agreement
I n a s m u c h a s t h e a g r e e m e n t is s ile n t o n t h e m a tt e r a t is s u e a d e c is io n
m u s t r e s t o n t h e m o s t r e a s o n a b le in t e r p r e t a t io n o f t h e in t e n t io n o f t h e
a g r e e m e n t a n d o f t h e c ir c u m s t a n c e s o f s h o p o p e r a t io n .

It is clearly intended and declared by the agreement that an employee
may elect to present a grievance by a fellow worker rather than by himself.
It will not be denied that an employee may bring a complaint to the repre­
sentative of the firm during working hours. But under the agreement he



COLLECTIVE AGBEEMENTS IN M E N ’ s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

91

may choose to make such complaint by a fellow worker rather than by
liimself. In this case the agreement confers upon the fellow worker all of
the rights of making and adjusting the complaint that it lodged in the em­
ployee. The employee is entitled to place his representative—the individual
fellow worker—in full possession of the facts of his complaint. The ques­
tion arises when he may do this. The firm contends he may only do it
outside of working hours. If the contention of the firm were correct the
employee could take up a complaint directly and immediately, if presented
by himself, whereas if he chose to present it by a fellow worker he could
only present it after delay sufficient to afford him opportunity to give the
facts to his representative. In the judgment of the chairman no such
distinction between presenting a complaint by an employee or by the indi­
vidual fellow worker is contemplated or contained in the agreement.
Moreover it is conceivable that such a delay might work to the disad­
vantage of the employee where he preferred to present his complaint by a
fellow worker. As an employee he could take up the complaint immediately
while the facts were fresh; as represented by a fellow worker the complaint
could only be taken up after the contingent circumstances were passed.
Assume, for instance, that the complaint arises from the criticism of the
workmanship of an operative. If the criticism is going to be brought to the
attention of a fellow worker, at what time can it be brought so effectively,
either for the justification or elimination of the complaint, as at the time
when the garment is at hand and the facts may be known to all concerned?
Both because he believes it is in accord with the intention of the agree­
ment and the most reasonable arrangement in relation to shop operation,
the chairman rules that the agreement does permit the employee to take up
a complaint with an individual fellow worker during working hours and
while the shop is in operation.
CASE NO. 3 5 .
S e p t e m b e r 5, 1913.
Petition o f -------------- for redress of grievances: Particularly in regard
to his rights as shop chairman and refusal of foreman to hold garments
where bad workmanship was charged. He also charged discrimination by
the foreman.
The points at issue in this case were two. (The board does not give
weight to the charge of discrimination.)
1. What are rights of the shop chairman in regard to dealing with com­
plaints?
In case No. 148 under the former agreement the board decided that shop
chairmen or “ individual fellow workers ” could take up complaints during
working hours and on the premises of the firm, but the foreman was not
required to recognize the shop chairman. He could refuse to discuss the
complaint with him and refer it to customary channels for adjustment.
In the present case the question centers on whether, when an employee
presents a complaint to an individual fellow worker (shop chairman) the
individual fellow worker has the right to go to the place of work of the
complainant and investigate the complaint. The firm contends that he has
not this right and that the exercise of it will seriously interfere with shop
discipline. The people contend that this is a right of the fellow worker
and that it has been exercised continuously.
In the former decision the board indicated but did not explicitly state
the steps that were to be pursued. On the immediate point it is difficult




92

BULLETIN' OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

to see how an individual fellow worker (shop chairman) can take up a
complaint for an employee unless lie has some opportunity to examine the
work or circumstances out of which the complaint arises, and that if it is
necessary for him to go to the employee’s place of work in order to put him­
self in sufficient possession of the facts this would seem to be inherent
in his right to take up the complaint. It is conceivable that after he has
examined the complaint he may find no adequate basis for it or may smooth
the matter over in some way so that no further steps are taken.
On this point, therefore, the board rules that the individual worker
(shop chairman) has the right to go to the place of work of the employee
where it is necesssary for him to get full possession of the facts of the
complaint He may then take it up with the foreman, but the foreman
is not required to discuss the complaint with him and may refer him to
the other channels for adjusting complaints.
In this connection the board wishes to emphasize the need of expedition
and courtesy on the part of the individual fellow worker when dealing
with complaints. The individual fellow worker must not pass on the
quality of the grievance—that is, he must not order an employee not to
do the work on the ground that it is “ all right” or passable. He must
not enter into any argument with examiners or foreman. His duty is only
to determine whether there is a complaint and whether it has any reason­
able basis in fact. Beyond this the board does not think he has any duty
to go. If the foreman refuses to take up the matter with him, he may then
report it to the firm or his deputy, and a joint investigation can then be
made.
2. The second point in the case is the question as to whether the worker
may require his work to be held for examination where complaint has been
made of the workmanship.
On this point the board rules that where it is convenient the entire lot
should be held for investigation when the worker demands it. Where it
is not convenient to hold the entire lot then a selection of the garments is
to be made as follows: The worker or his representative may select a
sample of the work that they think is passable; the representative of the
firm may select a sample that he regards as evidence of the worst work­
manship. These two samples will be presented to the board, if it becomes
necessary, as evidence of the workmanship. This ruling does not apply
to rush lots.
The shop chairman thus became the representative of the workers on the
premises of the firm. Individual workers file their grievances with the
chairman, who takes the matter up with the shop representative of the
firm. If the chairman of the shop does not succeed in adjusting the matter,
the grievances are brought (by the shop chairman) to the attention of
the respective deputy. The deputy then takes the matter up with a repre­
sentative of the labor complaint department of the firm.
SEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE HART, SCHAFF­
NER & MARX FACTORIES, AS SHOWN BY WEEKLY PAY ROLLS, MAY
1,1913, TO MAY 1,1914
A t i i P r o d u c t iv e L a b o r .—Generally speaking, there are two busy
and two slack periods in the men’s clothing industry. In the year
for which data are available the first busy period began in or about
the last week of the month of May, extending over weeks 4 to 17,




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IX M e n ' s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

93

about three months. The peak of this period A in week 12, when
vas
the pay roll for all productive labor reached 127.3 per cent of the
average weekly pay roll for the year. This period of relatively
high manufacturing activity was followed by a comparatively dull
period, extending over weeks 18 to 27, the lowest point reached dur­
ing this period having occurred in week 26—79.4 per cent of the
average pay roll for the year. In the twenty-seventh week employ­
ment began to increase, reaching the highest point of this busy sea­
son in Meek 40, when the pay roll climbed to 131.1 per cent of the
average. The second dull season began in the forty-fifth week, last­
ing for about 12 or 13 weeks and reaching its lowest point—73.8 per
cent of the average—in week 1. For the year as a whole the fluctua­
tions in employment for the period' under consideration were rather
violent, 131.1 per cent of the average as the highest and 73.8 per
cent of the average as the lowest of the period.
C u t t e r s .—The same four seasonal periods described in the pre­
ceding section are to be found in the cutting occupation, as shown
in the table and graphic chart which follow. In the cutting depart­
ment, however, the major fluctuations of the year appear to be some­
what more violent, the lowest point being lower and the highest
point somewhat higher than for all occupations.
FLUCTUATIONS OF EM PLOYM ENT IN T H E H A R T , SCH AFFNER & M A R X FACTORY
AS SH O W N B Y W E E K L Y P A Y RO LLS, M A Y 1, 1913, TO A P R . 30, 1814.

A ll occupations.

Week

number.

1
2
3

4
6
7
8
9
10
1
1
1
2
5

13
14
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

20.
21.

22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

- Total
weekly
pay roll.

$44,200
46,657
51,254
47,574
54,817
61,934
63,979
66,447
57,733
66,397
75,783
77,104
77,108
75,731
.72,522
73,913
65,330
61,131
58,602
55,551
61,660
61,003
49,721
50,140
53,355
48,107
50,961




Per
cent of
average
eekly

73.8
77.0
84.6
78.5
90.5

102.2

105.6
109.7
95.3
109.6
125.1
127.3
127.3
125.0
119.7

122.0
107.8
100.9
96.7
91.7

101.8

100.7
82.1
82.8

88.0
79.4
84.1

Cutters.

Total
weekly
pay roll.

$5,699
6,365
6,625
7,959
7,977
7,481
8.429
9,404
9,128
8,751
7,986
8,924
9,150
8,965
8,999
8,566
7,758
6,025
5.430
5,735
7,428
7,273
4,460
5,506
5,246
4,724
6,302

A ll occupations.

Per
cent of
average
weekly

sar

75.6
84.5
87.9
105.6
105.9
99.3
111.9
124.8
121.1
116.1
106.0
118.4
121.4
119.0
119.4
113.7
103.0
80.0
72.1
76.1
98.6
96.5
59.2
73.1
69.6
62.7
83.6

Week
number.

Total
weekly
payroll.

Per
cent of
average
weekly

gar

$57,284
94.6
58,002
95.7
63,257
104.4
66,295
109.4
66,837
110.3
60,996
100.7
63,979 ‘ 105:6
54,338
89.7
61,327
101.2
76,455
126.2
78,310
129.3
79,165
130.7
79,438
131.1
79,234
130.8
73,916
122.0
66,359
109.5
59,018
97.4
51,699
85.3
45,970
75.9
46,206
76.3
42,780
70.6
48,470
80.0
49 673
82.0
46,192
76.2
46,383
76.6

28
29.
30.
31
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39
40
41
42
43
44
46.
47.
48,
49
50.
52.
Total.

3,150,297

Cutters.

Total
weekly
pay roll.

Per
cent of
average
weekly
roi

$6,986
7,872
8,316
8,417
8,496
9,016
9,788
9,778
7,369
9,475
10,131
10,605
10,151
9,736
8,342
8,183
7,934
6,231
6,146
6,478
4,982
6,145
6,059
4,038
4,899
391,798 j.

92.7
104.5
110.4
111.7

112.8

119.7
129.9
129.8
97.8
125.8
134.5
139.4
134.7
129.2
110.7
103.6
105.3
82.7
81.6

86.8

66.1

81.6
80.6
54.0
65.0

FLUCTUATIONS OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE. HART, SCHAFFNER ft MARX FACTORY, MAY 1, 1913, TO APR. 30, 1914.
BULLETIN
O
F
THE
BUREAU
O
F
LABOB
STATISTICS,




PART II.— AGREEMENTS OF LABOR UNIONS WITH ASSOCIATIONS
OF MANUFACTURERS.
SUMMARY.

The collective agreements described in Part I I of this report
prescribe the conditions of employment for approximately 70,000
workers engaged in the manufacture of men’s and boys’ clothing.
Of these workers approximately 25,000 are employed in New York
City and 45,000 in other localities. All of the agreements consid­
ered in this portion of the report, however, except three, relate to
establishments located in New York City. The New York City
agreements cover in the aggregate approximately one-third of the
total number of workers engaged in the manufacture of men’s and
boys’ clothing in that city. One of the remaining agreements—that
with the Union-Made Garment Manufacturers of America—involves
about 30,000 people employed in 91 cities, located in 27 States and in
Canada. With few exceptions these agreements originated in the
years 1910 to 1913, the period during which the methods of collec­
tive bargaining were extensively introduced in the clothing trades
of the country.
Although all of these agreements, except two, have been made with
organizations of garment workers affiliated with the United Garment
Workers of America, the extent of recognition accorded the various
organizations by the respective employers varies. Four of the agree­
ments provide for a complete union shop; one provides for what is
known as the preferential union shop; and one for partial recog­
nition without preference.
Each of these agreements fixes the number of hours which shall
be regarded as constituting a full week’s work, the number varying
in the several agreements from 48 to 52. Each of the agreements
also prescribes minimum weekly wages and piece‘ rates for specific
occupations. All of the agreements except one—that with the Boys’
Wash Suit Manufacturers’ Association of New York—specifically
prohibit what is known in the clothing trades as subcontracting.
Home work, however, is still allowed under most of these agree­
ments, specific provisions prohibiting such work having been made
only in the agreements of the United Garment Workers with the
Union-Made Garment Manufacturers and with the East Side Retail
Clothing Manufacturers’ Association of the City of New York.




96

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

The testimony of numerous witnesses appearing before the Com­
mission on Industrial Relations, at its hearings held in New York
City in May, 1914, was sufficient to prove that home work—one
of the old curses of the clothing trades—is still very generally
employed in most of the men’s garment manufacturing trades in
that city. In spite of the fact that home work is a social menace,
imperiling the health and well-being of all concerned, employers and
consumers as well as workers, it is still carried on in about threefourths of the finishing processes in the manufacture of men’s
clothing.
This sort of work at the present time is carried on almost exclu­
sively by married women of Italian descent in tenements of the East
Side. The earnings of these workers, according to testimony pre­
sented to the Commission on Industrial Relations, have decreased
considerably during the past few years, the customary earnings at
the present time amounting to from 50 to 70 cents for a day’s work of
from 12 to 14 hours. On their own time these workers must call for
work and return it to the factory and must make any required alter­
ations. The reason given in the testimony before the commission
why the women undertake this sort of work is that the husbands (in
most instances casual workers in the clothing trades) are frequently
idle, or when employed do not earn sufficient wages to support their
families.
Descriptions by witnesses of the sanitary conditions in the homes
where the finishing work is done indicate that all the conditions of
filth and congestion commonly associated with the sweatshops of the
late nineties are still to be found in New York City.
The cause of the persistence of this system is found in the apparent
willingness of these women, because of their necessity, to take home
work at almost any price. The manufacturers, in fact, maintain that
it would be impossible to abolish home work, because the women now
employed could not be persuaded to perform their work on the prem­
ises of the firm. It is undoubtedly true that the women ask for work
to take home. The reason why these workers are ready to accept
home work at almost any price is that, as they believe, they can do the
work and at the same time attend to their home duties. Judging
from the experience of the rest of the garment trades of the same
city, however, it is fairly certain that the manufacturers of men’s
clothing would encounter no great difficulty in securing a sufficient
number of workers for their finishing departments, if they were
willing to pay for this kind of labor as much as they pay for similar
labor in their other manufacturing departments.
As a marked contrast to this condition in the men’s and boys’
garment trades, the condition obtaining in the women’s garment
trades of the same city should be noted. Under the so-called protocol



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN *S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

97

agreements of the last three or four years home work has been
almost wholly eradicated in the women’s garment trades.
In the matter of subcontracting, another ancient evil of the cloth­
ing industry, the situation in the men’s garment trades of New York
is far more encouraging. Witnesses before the commission were
almost unanimous in their testimony that this evil is far less prev­
alent to-day than it has been in the past.
Contracting for the manufacture of garments in outside shops,
however, is still more or less characteristic of the men’s garment
industry, and from the testimony of the various witnesses at the
above-mentioned hearings of the commission it is rather difficult to
determine the real cause of the continuation of this practice. The
notion that wages of workers in the shops of the contractors are
lower than in the so-called “ inside” shops of the manufacturers,
according to the testimony presented, would seem to be incorrect.
Wages are about the same generally and in some instances are even
higher in the outside shops. Thus it is difficult to see where the
margin of profit of the ordinary contractor comes from, except that
he may succeed in economizing in rent and in those expenses which
represent the maintenance of sanitary surroundings or conditions.
It is a matter of common knowledge that the sanitary conditions in
the shops of the contractors are far below those maintained by the
employers in their inside shops. Some of the witnesses maintained
that, for reasons which they could not satisfactorily explain, the
workers employed by the contractors are better mechanics aiid work
at a higher speed under the direct supervision of the contractors.
While, as can readily be understood, the latter contention very well
might be true to some extent, there would seem to bfe no apparent
reason why the workers in the outside shops, as compared with those
in the inside shops, should be handier or possess more mechanical
skill. The only apparent cause of the persistence of outside con­
tracting is the fact that the smaller manufacturers, who are very
numerous, can not afford to maintain their own shops, especially on
accoimt of the overhead charges during the dull season when other
factories are closed.
The agreements in the men’s and boys’ garment trades are defec­
tive as instruments for improving industrial conditions, both in
respect to those conditions which are local and peculiar to New York
City and also in respect to those conditions which are generally char­
acteristic of the industry. The agreements make no definite provi­
sion for the elimination of home work, and they provide no system­
atized method for the peaceful adjustment of grievances. Even the
agreement with the Union-Made Garment Manufacturers—the
strongest of the agreements described here from the point of view of
38042°—Bull. 198—16----- 7



98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.

the workers—contains no provision for arbitration. Similarly, in
the agreements with the Manufacturers of Boys’ Clothing and with
the New York Clothing Manufacturers’ Association, no provisions
are made for any sort of mediation in the settlement of grievances.
These agreements, in the matter of definiteness of purpose, as well as
of comprehensiveness of the institutions created for their successful
operation, are not comparable with the so-called protocol agreements
in the cloak, suit, and skirt and in the dress and waist industries of
the city of New York.
GENERAL STRIKE OF 1913 IN NEW YORK CITY.

The winter and spring of 1913 witnessed a radical change in the
labor conditions of the men’s clothing industry in New York City.
Within the first three months of the year many of the traditional'
evils of the trade, dating as far back as the Civil War—evils which
had been for many years the main causes of general discontent—
were eliminated by the concerted action of the workers and the em­
ployers. Without any exaggeration one may say that a greater and
more radical improvement was effected in the industry of New York
City during these three months than had taken place in the previous.
two decades. In these few months five collective agreements were
signed involving over 27,000 members of the United Garment Work­
ers of America and numerous associations of employers. Radical
changes affecting the conditions of employment, such as the institu­
tion of systems of mediation for the adjustment of disputes, official
recognition of the unions, reduction of working hours, and increase
in wages, were effected under the provisions of these agreements.
Besides these five collective agreements between organizations of
employers and of employees, numerous agreements between indi­
vidual firms and their employees were signed, all of them providing
for changes to be adopted at that time throughout the men’s clothing
industry.
This rapid development within a few months, on the one hand, rep­
resents the culmination of a strong desire, which had been gathering
force for several years, for amelioration of conditions in the indus­
try, and, on the other hand, it was an indirect consequence of a pre­
cedent, with reference to reforms, which had been established in the
women’s garment branch of the clothing industry in 1910.
For many years previous to 1913 a state of general unrest and
dissatisfaction with conditions of employment had existed among the
workers in the men’s clothing industry. This general discontent had
found expression on many occasions in strikes, directed, in some
instances, against a group of plants in the industry, but in a majority
of cases against individual shops. These persistently recurring con


COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

99

flicts, though in some in&fcanccs resulting in improvements in a few
branches of the industry, failed to effect throughout the industry and
permanently those changes which were being generally demanded by
the workers. On four separate occasions, more or less general strikes,
originating in a demand for a reduction of working hours, had
secured for the workers the following concessions: In the first in­
stance, a 60-hour week; in the second, a 59-hour week; in the third,
a 56-hour week; and in the fourth, the strike of 1908, a 54-hour week.
According to the statements of the union leaders, however, in each
instance the reduced working time was adhered to for a brief period
only, a return to the old working hours taking place in almost 95
per cent of the shops in the industry.
The explanation given of this tendency to revert to old conditions
was that there was no adequate organization among either employers
or employees. The reforms were- temporary because the agen­
cies effecting them were essentially temporary, neither, side be­
ing able to maintain a proper organization for any considerable
period after an agreement had been effected. Consequently, neither
side was able to enforce the maintenance of conditions agreed upon.
The lack of strong organization on the part of the workers was due
mainly to two causes: The great influx of immigrants, from which in
ever-increasing numbers the ranks of workers were being recruited,
and the specialization of manufacturing processes, which gave to un­
skilled workers easy access to the trade.
Unions of men’s clothing workers have been in existence in New
York City for almost 50 years, but owing to the slow process of edu­
cating and organizing the newly arrived foreigners a state of com­
parative disorganization had prevailed generally throughout the
trade prior to 1913, and even within the unions themselves.
Organization on the part of the manufacturers had been equally
incomplete and subject to disruption. The cause of instability, so far
as regards employers’ organizations, was primarily the pressure of
unfair competition brought to bear upon any manufacturer who un­
dertook to maintain any accepted standards as regards wages or
prices or conditions of employment. This pressure originated in the
irresponsible individual actions of a great number of small manu­
facturers who, equally with their employees, were untutored in the
principles and practices of effective cooperation.
Although the workers were largely unorganized, or organized in­
effectively, there was, nevertheless, practically no dissension among
them when the issue of a general strike was submitted on December
80,1912. A strike was ordered by an overwhelming vote.
Shortly before the date of this strike referendum the n u m b e r o f
union members among the workers engaged in the men’s clothiusr
industry in New York City was approximately 5,000. In view of



100

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

this relatively small membership it is significant, as evidence that
dissatisfaction was widespread among the workers in the industry,
that within a few days from the time the strike was ordered more
than 50,000 had walked out of the shops, and that the number of
strikers increased rapidly during the first weeks until at the end of
the fourth week of the strike, according to a conservative estimate
made by the union leaders, the number out on strike amounted to
110 000
The following locals of the United Garment Workers of America
were affected by the strike:

, .

New York City:
District Council No. 1, of Greater New York and Newark.
Amalgamated Association of Clothing Cutters.
Brotherhood of Tailors.
Pants Makers’ Union, Local No. 8.
Joint Board of Vest Makers’ Union.
Children’s Jacket Makers’ Union, Local No. 10.
Nonbasted Children’s Jacket Makers* Union, Local No. 12.
Buttonhole Makers’ Union, Local No. 244.
Washable Sailor Suit Makers’ Union, Local No. 169.
Lapel Makers, Parers, and Buttonhole Finishers’ Union, Local No. 162.
Brooklyn and Brownsville:
Tailors’ Union.
Pants Makers’ Union, Local No. 43.
Joint Board of Vest Makers.
Brownsville Tailors’ Union.
Brownsville Pants Makers’ Union.
Brownsville Children’s Jacket Makers’ Union.
Brooklyn and Brownsville Buttonhole Makers' Union.

Most of the shops affected by the strike were embraced within the
operating plants of the following manufacturers’ organizations:
New York Clothing: Trades Association.
Tailors to the Trade Association.
American Clothing Manufacturers’ Association.
The Associated Boys’ Clothing Manufacturers.
Boys’ Wash Suit Association.
United Manufacturers & Merchants’ Association.
United Garment Contractors’ Association.
Metropolitan Association.
Manhattan Merchant Tailors’ Association.
Bast Side Retail Clothing Manufacturers’ Association.

No official demands were formulated by tlie strikers until after
the strike had been in progress for a number of days. As the strike
progressed the workers came to an understanding among themselves
and formulated demands covering each branch of the trade. These
demands specified rates of wages for week workers and prices for
pieceworkers. As between the several locals of the United Garment
Workers of America there was very little difference in the general



COLLECTIVE AGKEEMENTS IN MEN *S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

101

character or in the essential details of the demands finally agreed
upon. The more important items in these demands were: A 48-hour
week; increases in wages and prices; improvement in sanitary con­
ditions; abolition of subcontracting; abolition of favoritism; aboli­
tion of tenement-house work; equitable distribution of work; stand­
ardization of prices; establishment of agencies for the adjustment
of differences; abolition of the deposit system; exclusive use of
machine power.
The demands formulated by each local union, in detail, were as
follows:
D e m a n d s o f C l o t h in g C u t t e r s a n d T r im m e r s of N e w Y o r k a n d V i c i n it y L o c a l U n i o n s 4, 5, 9 , a n d 28.

48-hour week. Work to cease at 12 o’clock Saturday.
Machine cutters, knife cutters, and cloth markers, $25 per week.
Trimmers, $22 per week.
Lining cutters, $20 per week.
Bushelmen and examiners, $18 per week.
The above rates to be the minimum rates in the branches, as specified.
D e m a n d s o f N o n b a s t e d C h il d r e n ’ s J a c k e t M a k e r s .

48-hour week.
Kaise workers who receive $15 to $25 two dollars per week; $10 to $15,
three dollars per week.
Minimum for men, $10.
liaise for all female help, 10 per cent to 15 per cent.
D e m a n d s o f P a n t s M a k e r s ’ U n i o n s —L o c a l s
N ew Y ork.

8, 40, 45,

and

159

of

Greater

1. The week’s work shall be not more than 48 hours.
2. (a) The abolition of foot power.
(&) All work shall be done inside the shop.
(c) Pressing shall be done by modern power irons; gas and fireplace irons
shall be abolished.
(d) No subcontracting in the entire trade.
3. All tools, such as straps, needles, and press towels, etc., to be furnished to
the employees free of charge.
4. (a) Employees working 14 days in a shop shall not be discharged with­
out the consent of the union.
(&) In the dull season work shall be equally divided among all working in
the shop.
5. The system of work for operators, pressers, sergers, tackers, lining mak­
ers, pocket sergers, and loop makers shall be the piecework system.
6. The prices of work shall be as follows:
o p e r a t in g .

Plain pants with open pockets.
Four facings, bend----------------Plain loop tacking, per loop.
Loops bent on top and tacked.
Side straps_________________



$ 0 .1 5

.01

.00*
.00i
.02*

102

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Side straps, stitched on top, extra_________________________________
Flaps, single stitched, per pair___________________________________
Flaps, double stitched, per pair, extra__________________________ _
Tabs, per pair___________________________________________________
Weld pockets, per pair, extra____________________________________
Double stitched front and back pockets____________________________
Closed pockets, front and back__________ _________________________
Front and back pockets, stitching_________________________________
Weld or cord seam______________________________________________
Broad weld seam (more than J inch)______________________________
Open lap seam__________________________________________________
Waistbands, extra____ __________________________________________
Extra watch pocket______________________________________________
Facing bent-in watch pocket_____________________________________
Tunnels, single lined_____________________________________________
Tunnels, double lined____ '_______________________________________
Tunnel loops, lined, single stitched, per loop________________________
Tunnel loops, including watch pocket flap, per loop_________________
Three point, French fly, extra------------------------------------------------------ French fly, double stitched----------------------------------------------------------Stay lining in French fly_______________ _________________________
Lining suspended from the French fly to cover the cross seam________
Stay lining in front, back pockets_________________________________
Stay lining from seat to the outside seam, extra____________________
Two straps stitched on top________________________________________
Hooks sewed in by machine_____________________________________
Outlets along the whole seam_____________ ______________________
Outlets from the knee___________________________________________
Canvas sewed on top____________________________________________
Raised pieces, once_____________________________________________
Raised pieces, double____________________________ _______________
Pants, quarter lined____________________________________________
Pants, half lined_______________________________________________
Pants, whole lined_____________________________________________
Fly tacks between the buttonholes_________________________________
Taped seats____________________________________________________
Tape sewed with seat seam______________________________________
Tape sewed with inside seam to knee_______________________________
Hips, double stitched to the pocket_________________________________
Hips stitched over the pocket_____________________________________
Corduroy pants, extra____________________________________________
Flannel pants, extra_____________________________________________
Raw edge, extra_________________________________________________
Alpaca pants, extra______________________________________________
All sizes over 42, extra___________________________________________
Side pieces sewed with the pocket lining_________ ___________________
Single specials, extra_____________________________________________

$0.01
. 03
.00$
.02
.04
.01
.01
.01
.01
.02
.03
. 01
.01
. 00£
.04
.05
. 01£
. 021
. 001
.00J
. 00A
. 00J
.01
. 01
. 001
. 001
.01
.001
.01
. 001
. 01
. 02
. 03
*04
. 001
. 01
. 001
. 001
. 001
. 01
. 02
.02
.08
.02
. 01
. 001
. 05

PRICE FOB SEKGIMJ.

Serging (per 100)-----------------------------------------------------------------------Seats and fly (per 100)___________________________________________
Tacking (per 100)_______________________________________________
Tacks on fly between the buttonholes (per 100)--------------------------------Lining maker (per 100)__________________________________________



.55
. 30
.65
.30
.30

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN’ s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

103

Front pockets serged (per 100)------------------------------------------------------ $0.40
Both front and back pockets serged (per 100)---------------------------------- ---.75
Loop making (per 100)------------------------------------------------------------------ ---.25
Bottom falling (per 100)--------------------------------------------------------------- ---.40
PRICE FOR PRESSING.

Plain pants_______________________________________________________. 10
Shaped pants, extra------------------------------------------------------------------- ----.00}
Turned-up bottoms, basted, extra--------------------------------------------------- ---.01
Turned-up bottoms, bent by presser, extra---------------------------------------- ---. 00}
Pack tops, extra------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 00}
Open-lap seam, extra--------------------------------------------------------- :--------------. 00}
Sponging, extra---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---.02
Matching stripes, extra------------------------------------------------------------------ ---. 01
Alpaca, extra------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---.01}
Shrinking, extra_______:------------------- ------------------------------------------- --- . 02}
All sizes over 42, extra------------------------------------------------------------------ --- . 00}
Flannel pants, extra_____________________________________________ __.02
Bands, pressing, extra------------------------------------------------------------------- ---. 02}
Canvas, pressing, extra------------------------------------------------------------------ ---. 00}
Linings, pressing, extra---------------------------------------------------------------- ---.00}
Pockets, pressing, extra--------------------------------------------------------------------.00}
Welds, pressing, extra— :--------------------------------------------------------------- --- . 00}
Flaps or tabs, extra______________________________________________ __. 01
Straps, pressing and binding, extra-------------------------------------------------- --- . 01
Plain seam, extra________________________________________________ __. 00}
Single specials, extra----------------------------------------------------------------------- .05
PRICE LIST OF COMMON LIN E M ACH IN E-FIN ISH ED WORK,

Operating.
Pants with three pockets and back straps, plain_____________________ __. 10
One back pocket, extra____________________________________ ______ __. 01}
Watch pocket---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 01
French fly_______________________ _______________________________ __ . 01
Four cross pieces________________________________________________ __ ,01
Side straps, plain------------------------------------------------------------------------- --- .01
Side straps, stitched, extra----------------------------------------------------------------.00}
Weld, or cord, extra------------------------------------------------------------------------ .01
Four loops tacked, extra__________________________________________ __ . 01
A hanger in the back, extra______________________________________ __ . 00}
Seats, double raised or taped or cross taped_________________________ __ . 01
Seats, once raised------------------------- ----------------------------------------------- --- . 00}
Tabs or flaps, per pair------------------------------------------------------------------ --- .02
Closed broad-weld seam------------------------------------------------------------------- .01}
Open-lap seam__________________________________________________ __ . 02
Four pieces or cross pieces raised___________________________________ .01
Four pockets raised_____________________________________________ __ .01
Lining raised on top_____________________________________________ __ .01
Pockets felled by machine________________________________________ __ . 01
Unfelled pockets________________________________________________ __ . 00}
One to three facing sewed with white cotton________________________ __ . 00}
Corduroy or khaki, extra_________________________________________ __ . 01
Bands, extra____________________________________________________ __ ,01



104

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Heavy corduroy or kluiki or overcoat goods, extra------------------------------$0.02
Lined pants, extra------------------------------------------------------------------ ;----------. 05
Tacks between buttonholes_______________________________________ __ .001
Bar tacks----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----.00$
Bottoms finished with silesia_____________________________________ __ . Q0$
Side pieces________________________________________________’____ __ . 00$
Bight fly, plain seam--------------------------------------------------------------------. 00$
Band linings______________________________________________________ .01
Samples or specials, extra________________________________________ __ . 02
Top pockets, extra----------------------------------------------------------------------------.01
Black fly finished by machine--------------------------------------------------------. 00$
Tacked lining and white-fly sewing__________________________________ . 01
Heavy pockets---------------------------------------------------------------------------. 00$
Prcss'nty the entire line.

Common cotton pants not fore pressed------------------------------------- ^____ __ . 03
Worsted or signot----------------------------------------------------------------------------.03$
Corduroy----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.03
Khaki, plain______________________________________________________ .03$
Corduroy, with finished cuff bottoms---------------------------------------------- ----. 03$
Khaki, with finished cuff bottoms--------------------------------------------------------. 04
The prices of extra work not included in this list to be determined by the
employees of each shop.
D

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

em ands

of t h e

B

ro th erh oo d of

T

a il o k s .

The abolishment of the subcontracting system.
The abolition of foot power.
No finishers* work should be given out to be done in tenement houses.
For overtime, time and one-lialf should be paid.
On legal holidays double time should be paid.
The working week shall consist of 48 hours.
PRICE LIST FOR OPERATORS.

1. First-class man—Coat stitchers, sleeve stitchers, and pocket makers, per
week, $25.
2. Second-class man—Lining makers, closers, and coat stitchers and assistant
jiocket makers, per week, $22.
3. Third-class man—Sleeve makers and all other machine workers, per
week, $16.
PRICK LIST FOR TAILORS.

1. First-class man—Shapers, assistant basters. and fitters, per week, $24.
2. Second-class man—Edge basters, canvas basters, collar makers, lining
basters, bushelers, and armhole basters, per week. $21.
3. Third-class man—Sleeve makers and all other tailoring work, corner tuck­
ers, and brushers, per week, $17.
PRICE LIST FOR PRESSERS.

1. Bushel pressers, per week, $26.
2. Regular pressers, second class, per week. $14.
3. Assistant and edge presser, per week, $18.



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

105

PRICK LIST FOR WOMEN.

1. Button sewers and bushel hands, per week, $12.
2. Feller hands, per week, $10.
3. Hand buttonhole makers, at first-class work, per buttonhole, 4 cents.
4. Hand buttonhole makers, at second-class work, sack coats, per buttonhole,
3 cents.
D e m a n d s of t h e C a n v a s an d P ad M a k e r s.
GENERAL DEMANDS OF CANVAS MAKERS.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Closed shops.
The working week shall consist of 48 hours.
A shop chairman.
Sanitary shops.
A price committee.
Electric-power machines and parts free.
Abolishment of contractors in inside shops.
The system of work should be piecework only.
PRICE LIST FOR TH E CANVAS OPERATORS.

1. The minimum scale of wages should be, per diem, $4.
2. Plain front with seven stitches without clamps, per hundred pairs, $1.50.
3. A plain overcoat with seven stitches without clamps, per hundred, $2.
4. A clamp, a shoulder, or a weam without binding, per hundred, 25 cents.
5. A clamp, a shoulder, or a weam with binding, per hundred, 50 cents.
6. A triangle clamp without binding, per hundred, 50 cents.
7. A triangle clamp with binding, per hundred, 75 cents.
8. An additional stitch, per hundred, 10 cents.
9. Binding on second side, per hundred, 50 cents.
10. Pieces of haircloth, for each piece, per hundred, 15 cents.
11. Buckram or children’s work with seven stitches, without binding, per hun­
dred, $1.
12. Buckram or children’s work with seven stitches with piece or binding to
shape, stitched once or twice, per hundred, $1.25.
13. For binding any front, per hundred, 25 cents.
PRICE LIST FOR PAD OPERATORS.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Piecework.
Minimum scale of wages for operators, per diem, $3.50.
Minimum scale of wages for handworkers, per diem, $2.50.
Minimum scale of wages for hand sewers, per diem, $2.50.
Minimum scale of wages for table workers, per diem, $2.50.
Minimum scale of wages, double needle, per diem, $2.50.

PRICE LIST FOR CUTTERS, PRESSERS, TRIMMERS, PACKERS, PAD FILLERS, AND S H IP ­
PING BOYS.

Week tcork only.
The canvas cutters are divided into three classes:
First class.—Markers and cutters, per week, $22.
Second elms.—Machine cutters, per week, $18.
Third class.—Fillers, per week, $12.



106

BULLETIN OF THE

BUREAU

OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Pad cutters are divided into two classes:
First class.—Per week, $22.
Second class.—Per week, $18.
Canvas pressers: Per week, $15.
Pad trimmers:
First class.—Per week, $15.
Second class.—Per week, $13.
Pad packers:
First class.—Per week. $12.
Second class.—Per week, $10.
Pad fillers: Per week, $15.
Canvas and pad shipping boys: Per week, $15.
AGREEMENT OF UNITED GARMENT WORKERS WITH NEW YORK
CLOTHING TRADE ASSOCIATION, TAILORS TO THE TRADE ASSO­
CIATION, AND AMERICAN CLOTHING MANUFACTURERS’ ASSOCIA­
TION.1

Very soon after the calling of the strike various civic institutions,
and many public-spirited citizens in their capacity as individuals,
became active in an effort to devise some scheme of settlement which
would insure a speedy termination of the controversy. During the
first week of the strike a committee of the New York Chamber of
Commerce arranged for a meeting with representatives of the union
and of the New York Clothing Trade Association, an organiza­
tion representing the largest firms engaged in the manufacture of
men's clothing in New York City. The committee subsequently sub­
mitted to those representatives the following proposition setting
forth terms of settlement:
At a preliminary hearing before a committee of the Chamber of Commerce,
to which were invited representatives of the New York Clothing Trade Associa­
tion and of the United Garment Workers of America, conditions in the industry
were brought up for discussion by questions addressed to each side by the
committee.
The following are the findings and recommendations:
The committee finds that the existing disturbances In one of the largest of
the manufacturing industries in our city threaten to impair the commercial
prestige of the city.
It believes that the first step to be taken is to get at the facts, and to get
these requires a body of men in whom both sides, as well as the public, have
complete confidence.
Accordingly, it recommends to both sides that six men be appointed, two to
be nominated by the New York Clothing Trade Association, two to be nomi­
nated by the United Garment Workers of America, and two to be nominated by
the Chamber of Commerce—the latter two to be subject to the confirmation of
both sides.
1 The workings of this agreement are outlined in the report of the hearings held by the
Commission on Industrial Relations on this subject, May, 1914, New York City, pp.
205-207.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ S CLOTHING INDUSTBY.

107

Such commission to begin its work immediately, and to proceed with the
utmost dispatch, to examine into the conditions, both in New York and com­
petitive clothing markets in this country. The report of such commission to be
made as soon as possible.

The committee made certain recommendations as to an agreement,
pending the report of the cofnmission. The union, however, refused
to accept this proposal, basing their refusal on the ground that no
increase in wages and no material reduction of working hours were
specified in it. After several other futile conferences had been held,
all negotiations conducted through the chamber of commerce were
discontinued.
Later several conferences were held between the representatives of
the union and the representatives of the United Manufacturers and
Merchants’ *Association, which were arranged for by Mr. H
u.<rh
Frayne, New York representative of the American Federation of
Labor. The result of the first conference was that a proposal was
agreed upon by the conferees and presented to the leaders of the
strikers.
This proposal, however, was rejected by the strikers, mainly be­
cause it did not provide for an immediate reduction of working
hours.
Several other efforts were made by the Manufacturers and Mer­
chants’ Association to effect a settlement of the strike. In the latter
part of January (Jan. 22-26) extended conferences were held by
the three parties—the union, the manufacturers, and the contractors.
The following is an excerpt from the report of the chairman of the
conferences:
All of the parties were agreed that the conditions in the industry were such
as to require joint cooperative effort of the three parties in uplifting the indus­
try. The employers recognized clearly the necessity for cooperation with the
union in accomplishing this result, and the union recognized in this connection
the importance of a strong employers’ association. Both the union and the
manufacturers also recognized that the contractors were an important factor in
direct dealings with the workers in the shops, and that their cooperation was
essential to any successful program for the improvement of the industry. The
parties recognized that while the pending strike continued it would be difficult,
if not impossible, to establish a strong employers’ organization and a strong
union that would make effective any standards to which they agreed. But
they recognized that through conferences and arbitration peaceful and perma­
nent solutions of the intricate and complex problems of the industry might be
secured. It became apparent very early in the conferences that the economic
situation was so complex that immediate changes would be difficult to effectuate.
The employers pointed out very clearly that the sales of this season’s goods
have been made upon so small a margin of profit that the concessions asked
for by the union representatives would not only mean serious loss, but might
drive them out of business. On the other hand, the union representatives con­
tended that the conditions of labor in New York were so low that the employers
could well afford to make liberal increases. The difficulty was in ascertaining




108

BULLETIN OF . THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS*

the facts. All parties were willing that the facts should be investigated under
their joint auspices.
Owing to the temper of the workers, however, it was quite obvious that some
immediate concessions of a substantial character must be made in order to
satisfy them, however difficult of execution, from the point of view of the eco­
nomic situation, their present demands might be* The demand was for a 48hour week, and for a very substantial immediate raise in wages. Upon the
matter of the hours the union representatives contended that they had long
since won the victory for a 54-hour week for the tailors and a 48-hour week
for the cutters. On the other hand, it appeared that because of the absence of
an effective agreement between a strong employers’ organization and a strong
union the actual hours in the contractors’ shops were more than likely to be 59.
A change, therefore, from 59 to 48 would have meant an immediate actual
reduction of 11 hours. The employers recognized the validity of the demand
of the union for a 48-hour week, and were themselves ready to subscribe to the
principle, but believed that such a standard should be put in operation only as
rapidly as the competitive conditions of the industry would warrant. It seems
to me that an actual reduction of 11 hours a week in labor, approximately onesixth of the time, or between IS and 19 per cent, would be so sudden a wrench
as to dislocate the industry and bring hardship to the workers and the em­
ployers. Some compromise on this point was necessary. Concessions had to
be made by both sides. On the employers’ side for several of the meetings
they declined to go further than 54 hours, and, acting under instructions from
their organization, the representatives of the United Manufacturers declined to
reduce this. On the other hand, the union representatives, having been charged
with the duty of insisting upon the 48-hour week, fought valiantly for this.
The conference seemed to be deadlocked. It seemed most unfortunate, because
out of this conference might come more important and valuable improvements
in the industry for both employers and workers alike. If the immediate de­
mands could be subordinated to the future results, this seemed to be the way
out
At this juncture Mr. Charles L. Bernheimer, chairman of the committee on
arbitration of the chamber of commerce, who had been studying the problem
and who had been giving his time and energy at the conferences, urged upon
the conference the desirability of compromise upon this matter of hours and
urged vigorously that both sides accept 52 hours per week as the immediate
standard. The manufacturers were reluctant to accept After long discussion
the manufacturers went one step further and agreed upon the following state­
ment of their attitude:
“ We believe in the ultimate 48-hour week in our industry and will be ready
to put it into operation just as soon as competitive conditions will justify.”
With this qualification the union representatives agreed to recommend to the
.workers the acceptance of the propostion made by Mr. Bernheimer.
With reference to the immediate increase in wages, the difficulty was not in
the willingness of the employers to make concessions but in the difficulty in mak­
ing these concessions apply to the present season. After long debate, Mr. Bern­
heimer suggested the following:
“All week workers receiving $12.50 or less shall receive an immediate increase
of 10 per cent; all week workers receiving over $12.50, and up to and including
$15, shall receive an immediate increase of TJ per cent; all week workers receiv­
ing over $15 shall receive an immediate increase of 5 per cent; but in no case
shall the advance be less than $1 per week.”




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

109

The difficulty with reference to increases for pieceworkers arose because of
the reduction in hours. It was found impracticable to work out any definite
percentage of increase, so the following was agreed upon:
•Pieceworkers shall receive, in addition to the increases mentioned above, an
*
increase sufficient in each instance to cover the reduction in hours to 52, so as to
equalize the benefits derived by week workers. In each shop a shop committee
shall be appointed, and such committee, in conjunction with the employer, shall
adjust the scale of prices for the shop which shall in all respects conform to the
foregoing increases.”
The representatives of the cutters’ union stated that the standard hours for
cutters was already 48 hours per week. The representatives of the employers
said that they would accept this standard, but, in their opinion, it would
require a revision in the scale of wages, they contending that they were now
paying above the generally accepted scale. It was agreed that the question of
wages for cutters was to be the first thing to be taken up and determined by
the conference committee and board of arbitration immediately after the return
of the workers to their benches, it being understood that the immediate per­
centages of advance provided for above shall apply to cutters, as well as other
operators.
Many matters were presented to the conference for discussion and were con­
sidered. The conference disclosed a disposition on all sides to arrive at a per­
manent solution of the difficulties in the industry. I am convinced that, if the
conference continues, with a board of arbitration to settle disputed points, every
question that had thus far been submitted for consideration will be satisfac­
torily disposed of.

The proposition mentioned in the chairman’s report was submitted
to the members of the union, but in the majority of the meeting
halls the workers refused to vote on it, because the proposal did not
provide for a 48-hour working week.
Later the Manufacturers and Merchants’ Association consented
to amend its proposition by granting a further reduction in working
hours to 50 hours per week, to go into effect after January 1, 1914.
This proposition was also rejected by the strikers, and all negotia­
tions between the Manufacturers and Merchants’ Association and
the unions were discontinued.
In the latter part of February, 1913, determined efforts were made
by various civic workers, including Mr. Marcus M. Marks, ex-president
of the National Clothiers’ Association, to effect a settlement of the
strike between the Allied Clothing Manufacturers’ Association (New
York Clothing Trade Association, American Clothing Manufac­
turers’ Association, and the Tailors to the Trade Association) and
their employees. After many extended conferences had been held
between the manufacturers and the representatives of the union, a
letter was sent by Mr. Kickert, president of the United Garment
Workers of America, to Mr. Marcus M. Marks, who, on receiving it,
immediately communicated by letter with Mr. Eugene S. Benjamin,
chairman of the advisory committee of the Allied Clothing Manu­
facturers’ Association, requesting the association to submit a state­



110

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

ment of what they were prepared to do for their employees to meet
the situation in the industry.
The following letter, complying in all details with the proposal
of the union, was received by Mr. Marks from the advisory com­
mittee of the Allied Clothing Manufacturers’ Association on Feb­
ruary 28,1913:
F e b r u a r y 28 , 1913.

I am duly in receipt of your letter of February 27, and have presented it
to the advisory committee of the allied associations, and they authorize me to
present the following statement of what they are prepared to do for their
employees in answer to your request:
1. The workers are to return to work immediately.
2. The question of hours to be submitted to a commission consisting of the
following: Mr. Robert Fulton Cutting, Mr. Marcus M. Marks, Dr. J. L. Magnes,
their recommendations to be accepted as final and binding.
3. The findings shall be on the basis of establishing a standard of working
hours per week that will maintain the industry in New York on a competitive
basis with other markets for the present and for the future.
4. Upon the resumption of work there shall be a general increase in wages
to week workers in tailor shops at $1 a week over wages paid prior to the
strike, and to pieceworkers the rate shall be advanced in the same proportion.
5. No reduction in price in dull season; the maintenance of sanitary condi­
tions.
6. The abolition of subcontracting in contractors’ and inside shops.
7. Hours and conditions in contract shops to be identical with those of in­
side shops.
8. The wages of cutters to be as agreed upon between the firms and their em­
ployees.
9. There shall be no discrimination o the reemployment of the workers.
Yours very truly,
E ugene S. B e n j a m in ,

Chairman Advisory Committee of the Allied
Associations of Clothing Manufacturers.

Immediately upon the exchange of these letters the president of
the United Garment Workers declared the strike at an end so far as
it affected the members of the New York Clothing Trades Associa­
tion, the Tailors to the Trade Association, and the American Clothing
Manufacturers’ Association. In a few of the shops the workers re­
fused to return to work as per instructions of the union officers, de­
claring their intention to continue the strike pending the decisions
of the commission of arbitration. It was then decided that the com­
mission agreed upon should meet and render an immediate decision.
The decision of the commission of arbitration was stated in a letter
to the president of the United Garment Workers as follows:
M a r c h 1 0 ,1 9 1 3 .

Pursuant to the commission intrusted to us on February 28, 1913, in Articles
II and III of the statement of Allied Associations of Clothing Manufacturers,
upon the publication of which the strike against members of these associa­
tions was declared ended, the undersigned have examined into the prevail­
ing hours of labor in the clothing industry of Chicago, Rochester, Baltimore,
and Philadelphia (the most important markets outside of New York City) and



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

I ll

find that 54 hours are practically the standard per week. Realizing, how­
ever—
1. That the tendency of the day is in the direction of shorter hours of labor;
2. That this tendency is strongly shown in the clothing market of New York
City;
3. That discontent prevails in some of the markets now working 54 hours a
week;
4. That New York is by far the leading market of the country in quantity
of manufactures, and therefore should properly lead in the movement for a
shorter workday.
Therefore, wo recommend that the hours of labor of tailors in the cloth­
ing industry in New York City should not exceed 53 at the present time, nor
52 hours beginning January 1, 1914. Hours of cutters not to exceed 50 at the
present time and to be 48 hours a week beginning January 1, 1914.
From time to time, we hope to be able to make a further study of conditions
in this industry and bring such recommendations as in our judgment are war­
ranted by competitive conditions.
We have appointed Mr. Meyer London the third member of this commission
in place of Mr. R. Fulton Cutting, who could not serve on account of an imme­
diate trip abroad, and who has therefore resigned from the commission.
Respectfully submitted,
J. L . M ag n es.
M arcus M . M a rk s.

P. S. t o Mr. R i c k e r t . —The commission has the assurance that all the pro­
visions of the arrangement of February 28 will be carried out faithfully.
Should it become necessary, the commission will employ the proper means to
bring about this result

A prolonged controversy, inflicting losses of thousands of dollars
in wages and in profits, was thus terminated, so far as regards the
shops of the Allied Clothing Manufacturers’ Association, by an
agreement to arbitrate the specific issues of the strike. In this agree­
ment, under which approximately 10,000 workers went back into the
shops, however, no provision was made for the amicable adjustment
of differences which might arise in the future. The agreement,
therefore, gave no guaranty whatever that any differences arising in
the future would not again precipitate an open conflict. In other
branches of the industry collective agreements providing for media­
tion and arbitration were in successful operation, guaranteeing the
maintenance of industrial peace. The need for such instruments
was equally great in the men’s clothing trades.
AGREEMENT OF UNITED GARMENT WORKERS WITH EAST SIDE
RETAIL CLOTHING MANUFACTURERS’ ASSOCIATION-1

The agreement with the East Side Betail Clothing Manufacturers’
Association, while of minor importance as regards numbers involved
and as regards the provisions of the agreement itself, was in point
1 Evidence that this agreement works satisfactorily may be found in the testimony pre­
sented to the Commission on Industrial Relations at its hearings in New York City, May,
1914, page 205.




112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS*

of time the first settlement effected during the strike of 1913. On
February 14, 1913, a collective agreement between this association
and the United Garment Workers was signed by the representatives
of the two parties.
The East Side Retail Clothing Manufacturers’ Association is an
organization composed of between 25 and 30 firms engaged in mer­
chant tailoring and in retail manufacturing of ready-to-wear men’s
clothing. All the firms belonging to this association are located on
the lower East Side of New York City, in the very heart of the men’s
clothing industry, and the bulk of the garments sold by these firms is
manufactured in the shops of contractors. The aggregate number of
workers is 2,000. Because the contractors make most of the garments,
such demands of the strikers as recognition of the union, abolition of
subcontracting, and home work did not affect the members of the
East Side Retail Clothing Manufacturers’ Association directly, and
consequently this association was more willing and in a better posi­
tion to comply with the demands than the larger associations, the
bulk of whose garments was manufactured by themselves. The
enforcement of the various demands could be easily exacted from a
contractor through a mere threat to discontinue giving orders. The
agreement which was signed reads as follows:
I. The wages to be paid to the employees of the members of the association
shall be the same as those heretofore paid to them, together with an increase
in wages of coat makers of not less than one dollar nor more than two dollars
per week, as the several members of the association and their several em­
ployees may agree, and with an increase in the wages to pants and vest makers
of twenty (20) per cent.
II. All wages shall be paid in cash, and upon the last day of each working
week.
III. All workers employed in the association’s factories shall be employed
and paid directly. No work shall be done by foot power; nor shall any charge
be made to the employees for use of power.
IV. The members of the association shall not have any part of their work
done by contractors working outside of their factories, unless such contractors
shall comply with all conditions and provisions herein set forth, as far as the
same are applicable to their work. Before any action is taken by the union
for any violation of this provision, notice shall first be given to the associa­
tion, and such violation shall be submitted to arbitration, as hereinafter men­
tioned.
V. Should any differences arise between any member of this association and
his employee and should they be unable to adjust same amicably between them­
selves, such differences shall be submitted to a permanent board of arbitration
for settlement. Said board shall consist of four members, two of whom shall
be appointed by the union and two by the association and their employees.
Should said board be unable to agree, they shall submit such questions to an
umpire to be chosen by them and whose decision in the matter shall be final.
VI. Should the union at any time make an agreement with any other associa­
tion of clothing manufacturers or any individual clothing manufacturer in the
same branch of the trade more favorable in its terms to such association or



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

113

individual than this agreement, then this agreement shall be modified accord­
ingly, so that in no event shall this agreement be more onerous in its terms to
the association or any of its members than any other agreement that may here­
after be made by the union as aforesaid.
This agreement shall be in force until February, 1914.
Witness the hands and seals of the parties hereto this 14th day of February,
1913.
United Garment Workers of America:
T. A. R i c k e r t , General President.
East Side Retail Clothing Manufacturers* Association:
N a t h a n M a k c u s , President (for the entire association).

This one-year agreement provided for the establishment of a board
of arbitration of four members, -empowered to elect an umpire, to
which all differences arising in the shops during the period of the
agreement must be referred for final settlement, in case such differ­
ences could not be amicably settled by the employers and employees in
conference. As regards wages, while the minimum increases stipu­
lated for coat makers were $1 to $2 per week, the increases actually
granted ranged from $1 to $5 per week. The actual increase to pants
makers was 10 instead of 20 per cent.
The following is the scale of wages prevailing under the agreement
in the majority of the shops owned or controlled by the East Side
Ketail Clothing Manufacturers’ Association:
Tailors.

Shaper____ .____ :-------------------------------------------------$24
Shoulder baster--------------------------------------------------20
Bottom baster----------------------------------------------------- 16
Corner tucker----------------------------------------------------- 15
Edge baster-------------------------------------------------------- 16
Canvas baster----------------------------------------------------- 16
Armhole baster---------------------------------------------------- 14
Sleeve maker------------------------------------------------------- 12
Collar maker------------------------------------------------------- 16
Button sewer-----------------------------------------------------9
Busheler (male)_________________________________ 16
7
Busheler (female)---------------------------- ;-----------------Hand button sewer---------------------------------------------- 18
Operators.

Pocket sewer------------------------ --------------- --------------First assistant pocket sewer---------------------------------Second assistant pocket sewer--------------------------------Sleeve sewer-------------------------------------- :--------------Coat sewer--------------------------------------------------------Closer_________________________________________
Lining maker------------------------------------------------------Coat stitcher-------------------------------------------- ---------Sleeve maker-----------------------------------------------------Lapel maker------------------------------------------------------Collar maker------------------------------------------------------38042°—Bull. 198—16----- 8



22
17
12
22
22
18
15
15
32
15
15

114

BULLETIN" OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.
Pressers.

$22

Bushel presser_____
Presser ___________
Edge presser______
First underpresser __
Second underpresser

16
14
14
12

Cutters.

Trimmers_____
Markers______
Machine cutters
Lining cutters —

22
24
26
19

AGREEMENT OF UNITED GARMENT WORKERS WITH BOYS' CLOTHING MANUFACTURERS OF GREATER NEW YORK.

As regards numbers involved, the agreement with the Associated
Boys’ Clothing Manufacturers was second in importance among the
several agreements under which the general strike of 1913 was
terminated.
At the very beginning of the strike and during its progress the
New York State Bureau of Mediation and Arbitration made re­
peated efforts to effect settlements. Various suggestions as to terms
and conditions of settlement were submitted by this bureau to the
respective parties. When the negotiations between the manufacturers
and the strikers, conducted through the New York Chamber of
Commerce and the Manufacturers and Merchants’ Association, were
discontinued the bureau of mediation and arbitration, on February
14, addressed a letter proposing mediation to Mr. Eugene S. Benja­
min, chairman of the advisory committee of four of the largest
clothing manufacturers’ associations, and to Mr. Thomas Rickert,
president of the United Garment Workers of America. The text of
this letter was as follows:
After our many interviews with you and your associates regarding the strike
in the clothing industry, you will readily agree that we have arrived at a fair
understanding of the difficulties in the way of the, settlement of this strike.
We have observed with interest that conferences have just been held between
certain employers and committees of their own employees in which conferences
certain differences of opinion, it appeared, could not be reconciled to the satis­
faction of all concerned.
We quote from a letter signed by Eugene S. Benjamin, president of Alfred
Benjamin & Co., addressed to one of his employees, dated February 13, and
referring to the conference just held with his employees: “ It is, in our opinion,
cruel and inhuman to allow a continuance of the present state of affairs, and
if continued longer will reflect very seriously on our ability to employ them in
full at a ll”
We share in this opinion, and believe that the only means for securing an
early termination of the strike is to have an opportunity in conference for
a frank and free expression and discussion of the desires of the respective




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

115

parties to this controversy by a committee authorized to negotiate for a
settlement.
Will you each kindly inform us if your associates will be willing to appoint
a committee to discuss with us the matters at issue in the presence of a
committee representing the other interests? On receipt of a favorable reply
we shall immediately arrange a time and place for such meeting convenient
to both parties. It is our judgment that the length to which the strike has
extended, with its consequent damage to the trade and the hardships of the
former employees and their families and the public interests generally, all de­
mand that this suggestion be adopted.
Very respectfully, yours,
W i l l i a m 0 . R o g ers , Chief Mediator.
M i c h a e l J . R e a g a n , Industrial Mediator.

The executive board of the United Garment Workers of America,
in an official reply to this appeal of the mediators, expressed its
willingness to accept mediation as a means of ending the strike. The
manufacturers, however, emphatically refused to accede to the propo­
sition.
As the reply of the manufacturers made further negotiations
with the advisory committee of the four associations useless, the New
York Bureau of Mediation and Arbitration proceeded to conduct
negotiations with individual organizations of manufacturers.
Several conferences were arranged by the bureau, the representa­
tives of the Associated Boys’ Clothing Manufacturers of Greater
New York, and the union, at which the State mediators conducted
the negotiations. At one of these conferences, a proposition set­
ting forth terms of agreement was submitted by the union and soon
afterward accepted by the manufacturers. The acceptance of the
union’s terms by the manufacturers was incorporated in a letter
addressed to the New York Bureau of Mediation and Arbitration,
and, as the latter body agreed to act as guarantors of the terms, the
strike, involving more than 8,000 boys’ clothing workers, was offi­
cially declared at an end.
The following is the letter accepting the terms proposed by the
union, which was addressed by the Associated Boys’ Clothing Manu­
facturers of Greater New York to the New York State Bureau of
Mediation and Arbitration:
F e b r u a r y 24, 1913.
We acknowledge receipt of yours of 24th which has had our careful consid­
eration. We appreciate your untiring efforts to end the strike in the children’s
branch of the clothing trade, and in order that you may have a further oppor­
tunity we submit the following proposition on behalf of the Associated Boys’
Clothing Manufacturers of Greater New York.
First To raise the prices to the contractors on children’s coats to cover an
increase to the workers of $1 a week.
Second. To raise the prices paid to their contractors making knee pants
10 per cent




116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Third. That the question of hours in the shops of the members of the associa­
tion be a matter of adjustment between each individual firm and its employees,
but in no case are the hours for children’s coat tailors to be more than 51 or
for cutters more than 50 hours per week beginning with the resumption of
work.
Fourth. Wages of cutters and trimmers to be as agreed upon between each
Individual firm and its employees.

Though paragraph 1 of the agreement provides for the increase of
$1 per week to children’s coat makers, the actual increase was on the
average of $3 per week, as further increases were granted to workers
shortly after the new conditions went into effect.
Until January 1, 1914, working hours remained as specifically
provided in paragraph 3 of the agreement. On that date, however,
the hours of cutters were reduced to 48 and those of coat makers to
50 per week.
A resolution of the manufacturers against a reduction of wages
and prices in the dull season did much toward abolishing a practice
which had occasioned continual protest on the part of the working­
men. Union leaders assert that such reductions during dull seasons
,were practiced extensively throughout the trade prior to 1913.
Subsequent to the signing of the agreement, the practice of sub­
contracting was discontinued and charges for the use of machine
power supplied by the Associated Boys’ Clothing Manufacturers were
abolished by mutual consent.
AGREEMENT OF UNITED GARMENT WORKERS WITH METROPOLITAN
MERCHANT TAILORS’ ASSOCIATION.1

A settlement involving approximately 3,000 workers was effected
on February 26, when the following articles of agreement were
decided upon and signed by the authorized representatives of the
United Garment Workers of America and the executive board of
the Metropolitan Merchant Tailors’ Association of Greater New York.
At a conference at the Public Bank, 89 Delancey Street, New York City, on
February 26, 1913, the following articles of agreement were decided upon by
authorized representatives of the United Garment Workers of America, whose
official signatures in their official capacity are attached to this agreement, and
the executive board of the Metropolitan Merchant Tailors’ Association of
Greater New York, whose signatures are also affixed:
This agreement, entered into by the United Garment Workers of America
and the Metropolitan Merchant Tailors’ Association, hereby agrees that in their
own and contractors* shops only members of Custom Tailors’ Unions No. 162
and No. 16, of the United Garment Workers of America, shall be employed.
S e c t io n 1. All tailors employed in the shops of the members of the association
or their contractors to work 50 hours.
1 The satisfactory working of this agreement is evidenced by the testimony of Mr. Silver­
man, business agent of the local unions, before the Commission on Industrial Relations at
hearings in New York City, May, 1014, pages 154 ff., also 201 ff.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N 'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

117

(a) In busy season overtime shall be worked when necessary and at regular
rate.
S e c . 2. This association hereby agrees to an advance of 15 per cent increase
on every garment to pieceworkers.
(a) The shorter hours of the week workers to be construed as equivalent
to an increase in pay.
( b) Overtime at regular wages during the busy season.
(c) When overtime is necessary during the dull season time and a half shall
be paid.
Sec. 3. Men to be taken back who went down during the strike, including
bushelmen.
Sec. 4. Schedule of hours for bushelmen shall be 56.
(a) Pay shall be rendered for legal holidays of the State of New York and
the United States of America when establishments shall be closed.
(&) It is understood and agreed that when said establishments shall be open
for business that such bushelmen shall work on such days in conjunction with
other employees.
(c) It is understood and agreed that the payment for a current week’s work
shall not be made at a later day than Monday of the succeeding week.
S e c . 5. It is understood and agreed that this agreement is for the term of two
years.
(а) At the end* of one year, if conditions should be prosperous, there should
be another increase subject to the arbitration committee.
(б) It is understood and agreed, however, that there shall be no lockout or
strikes during this period of two years.
(c) All disputes shall be referred to the arbitration board.
(d) It is understood and agreed that in the event of labor disputes with the
United Garment Workers of America, Customs Unions No. 162, No. 210, and
No. 16, with other associations or organizations, that in the event of no dispute
arising between the parties to this agreement, there shall be no sympathy strike
called with the contractors in the employ of the members of this association.
(e) That in the event of a general strike, if called by these local unions, it
shall not affect the members of the Metropolitan Merchant Tailors’ Associa­
tion.
Sec. 6. There shall be a permanent board of arbitration consisting of six
members, three to consist of the Metropolitan Merchant Tailors’ Association
and three to consist of the officers of Custom Union Locals No. 162, No. 210,
and No. 16 of the United Garment Workers of America.
This arbitration committee shall have the power to settle all such matters
as may be brought before them during the life of this agreement.
In the event of a disagreement or the inability of said board to reach a de­
cision in any matter in hand, a disinterested party, consisting of one referee,
shall be selected by mutual consent. The report and finding of said selected
referee shall be binding, and such report as he may render shall be final and
conclusive without further recourse.
United Garment Workers of America:
T. A. R i c k e b t , General President
Metropolitan Merchant Tailors’ Association:
Louis P e l l , Chairman.

The Metropolitan Merchant Tailors’ Association is an organiza­
tion composed of firms engaged in merchant tailoring on a large
scale. A conservative estimate places the number of workers em­
ployed by the association at 3,000.



118

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The agreement signed on February 26 incorporates in its terms
not only the general changes that were being established through­
out the industry at that time, but specific changes as well, reflecting
therein the nature of the merchant-tailoring branch of the industry.
Besides complying with the majority of the general demands of the
workers, the agreement provides for changes demanded in merchant
tailoring only. As in the case of the East Side retail clothiers’
agreement, the hours for bushelmen exceed those in other occupa­
tions by reason of the nature both of the occupation and of that
branch of the industry. It is claimed, however, by union leaders
that conditions relating to bushelmen specified in the agreement
have not been lived up to by either party and that at the present
time the working hours for bushelmen are greater than 56, the em­
ployees in this occupation, in fact, working at the discretion of their
employers.
Paragraph a of section 4 of the agreement, providing for pay for
legal holidays, removed a grievance long existing in the merchanttailoring industry. Previous to the signing of the agreement the
firms comprising the membership of the Metropolitan Tailors’ Asso­
ciation either kept their establishments open on legal holidays and
paid no extra prices on such days, or else kept their shops closed on
such days and deducted pay therefor from the weekly wages of the
workers.
Paragraph 6 of section 4 was strongly insisted upon by the manu­
facturers, on the ground that absence of bushelmen, who were re­
quired to make necesssary alterations on garments, would seriously
hamper the transaction of business on those holidays when the estab­
lishments were kept open.
The clauses of the agreement creating a board of arbitration and
specifying some of the possible future changes as subjects for de­
liberation and decision of the board have been faithfully carried out
by both parties to the agreement. Many cases of grievances have
been brought before the board of arbitration, and up to the time of
writing this report no occasion has presented itself in which an
impartial referee has been required, since no irreconcilable disagree­
ment has so far occurred.
AGREEMENT OF UNITED GARMENT WORKERS WITH BOYS’ WASH
SUIT MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION.

The strike of 1913 in the New York men’s clothing industry came
to an end when, on March 5, the Boys’ Wash Suit Manufacturers’
Association and their employees came to an understanding as to
the conditions that were to govern terms of employment in the
future. The strike of wash-suit workers was declared off after the



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN' M E N ^ CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

119

following correspondence was exchanged between the president of
the United Garment Workers and the president of the Boys’ Wash
Suit Manufacturers’ Association:
M a r c h 5, 1918.
The trouble between the workers and the firms who are members of the
Manufacturers of Boys' Wash Suits Association, of which you are president,
can be adjusted on the following terms:
All the workers to be reemployed without discrimination. All of them to go
back into the shops they came out of.
Wash-suit workers to work not more than 51 hours per week, except from
November 1 to June 1, when they are to be allowed to work three hours over­
time at regular price for piece and week workers.
Cutters and trimmers not to work more than 50 hours a week throughout
the year, ending at 12 o’clock noon, Saturday—their wages to be agreed upon
between firms and employees.
With the resumption of work, each week worker on sailor suits to receive
an increase of not less than $1 per week. Pieceworkers to receive an increase
of not less than 10 per cent; knee-pants workers to receive an increase of not
less than 10 per cent.
There shall be no reduction in price during the dull season.
The workers shall not be charged for machines, power, needles, straps, or
other supplies.
If differences arise, same to be adjusted by a committee of three of the em­
ployees and the individual manufacturer involved.
The foregoing conditions to apply to contract shops as weU as to inside
shops.
Upon receipt of assurance from you, as head of your association, that your
association has passed a resolution accepting the above terms of settlement I
will instruct the workers to return to work and thus end the strike in the washsuit industry.
Awaiting an early reply, I remain,
-------------- ,
Respectfully, yours,
General President

.

I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of March 5, setting forth the
conditions and terms upon which the grievances now existing between workers
and the firms who are members of the Boys’ Wash Suit Manufacturers’ Asso­
ciation can be adjusted.
In reply, beg to state that I have caused a meeting to be called for the purpose
of discussing the advisability of the acceptance of the terms set forth in your
letter. That pursuant to a resolution adopted at such meeting, it was resolved:
[Here follows a statement of terms of settlement verbatim as given in the
following letter.]
That the aforementioned resolution was spread upon the minutes of the
association and adopted and accepted by the association for and in behalf of
its members. You will notice that the result of our meeting was the adoption
of terms that you set forth in your letter to me as chairman of the association.
Respectfully, yours,
L . B e r n s t e in ,

President of the Boys’ Wash Suit Manufacturers* Association.




120

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

The parties agreed, subsequent to signing the above, to add the
following provision:
“ I further agree to employ and give preference to workers who
are members of the United Garment Workers of America.”
It was also agreed between the Boys’ Wash Suit Manufacturers’
Association and the United Garment Workers’ Association that each
contractor working for the association should sign a similar agree­
ment with the union.
Besides the collective agreements signed by the various manufac­
turers’ associations and the union, an additional agreement was
signed by each firm and its employees embodying the conditions that
were to prevail in each shop. The following is a fair example of the
supplementary agreements signed:
Memorandum of agreement made and entered into th is----- day of February,
1913, by and between the Children’s Jacket Makers’ Union of Brooklyn,
organized under the laws of the State of New York, party of the first part,
hereinafter designated and called the union, and D. K., o f ----- Street, of the
borough of Brooklyn, city and State of New York, party of the second part,
hereinafter designated and mentioned as employer.
Whereas the union is composed of competent workers in the manufacture of
children’s jackets; and
Whereas the employer is engaged as manufacturer or contractor making
children’s jackets, and is desirous to obtain competent help of the members of
this union in the making of children’s jackets; and
Whereas the union is desirous to furnish, to the best of its ability out of its
members, the help needed by the employer in the making of the children’s
jackets, it is now, in consideration of one dollar by each to the other in hand
paid, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, agreed as follows:
First. The union hereby agrees to furnish to the employer out of its mem­
bership operators, bushelers, pressers, finishers, turners, trimmers, sleeve mak­
ers, stitchers; also buttonhole makers of the Buttonhole Makers’ Union, tackers,
fitters, and lining workers, for the purpose of manufacturing children’s jackets,
and agrees to exercise all diligent effort to procure help for such employer to
the best of its ability. It is understood that should the union be unable to fur­
nish to the employer out of its membership all the help required by said em­
ployer in the making of children’s jackets, the employer may employ any help
wherever such help may be obtained, agreeing hereby that such help employed
by him who may not be members of the union shall and will become members
of the union immediately after their entering their employment, and that the
employer further agrees that his help shall and will be members in good
standing of the union herein.
Second. That the employer shall and will employ in his place or places of
business members of the union herein as makers or workers on children’s
jackets, and shall and will at all times call upon the union to furnish him out
of its membership any and all help that he may require necessarily in the
manufacturing of children’s jackets.
Third. Should the employer hereafter employ additional members of the
union in his workshop, or such help that may in accordance with this agree­
ment become members of the union, and should he continue such help in his
employ for a period of two weeks, it is understood that such help shall be
entitled to all the benefits under this agreement.



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N 'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

121

Fourth. It is understood that the members of the union shall be employed
by the week at the rate of increase of one ($1.00) dollar per week for each on
wages paid to them heretofore, and week work only shaU obtain in the shop
or shops of the employer herein, and that for handworking girls there shall
be an increase of ten per cent per week for each on wages paid to them here­
tofore. Said girls shall not be forced to belong to the union. That 50 hours
Khali constitute a week's work; work shall begin at 7 a. m. to 12 m., and from
1 p. m. to 5 p. m. during the first five days of the week and from 7 a. m. to
12 m. on the sixth day of the week; and that the members of the union in the
employ of the employer shall be paid their wages on the 1st day of the week
at 12 p. m. for all work done by them during the week. It is further agreed
that the employer will not require any of the members of the union to work
overtime.
Fifth. That no members of the union in the employ of the employer shall be
charged for any damages to work or merchandise damaged while in work,
unless the damage is done willfully.
Sixth. That no work shall be given to be performed to any person or persons
at their homes, nor shall any work be given to any contractor, providing such
work can be done in the shop or shops of the employer.
Seventh. It is agreed between the parties hereto that should any of the
members of the union for some reason or other temporarily quit their work, or
quit their work for the purpose of attending meetings of the union, such quit­
ting shall not be considered a waiver of any right that any employee who is a
member of the union may have by virtue of this agreement.
Eighth. That only one assistant shall be employed to each presser; and it is
understood that each of the members of the union is employed as an in­
dividual, being entitled to all the rights under the law known as the mechanics’
lien.
Ninth. The employee hereby authorizes, appoints, and constitutes the union
or its representative as their attorney irrevocable to collect and receive from
the manufacturer or warehousemen any and all money that may be due him
by reason and for work done for said warehousemen and manufacturer by
members of the union for the employer herein, and apply said money to the
payment of wages that may be or herein should the employer fail to pay his
employees as is hereinbefore provided, and the balance return to the employer
herein.
Tenth. It is understood between the parties hereto that the employer will at
all times permit a duly accredited representative of the union to visit his shop
or shops for a reasonable period from time to time for the purpose of consult­
ing with the members of the union in his employ. It is also understood that
the employer will recognize one of the members of the union in his employ
representing the members of the union in his employ as shop delegate.
Eleventh. The parties of the second part hereby agree to deposit with the
union a note in the sum of seven hundred ($700) dollars as security for the
faithful performance of all the conditions and covenants herein contained.
That the reason why the damage is hereby fixed is because it will be impos­
sible with any degree of certainty at this time or at any other time to deter­
mine and ascertain the actual damage that may be caused by a breach of this
agreement on the part of the employer.
Twelfth; It is agreed and understood that upon a compliance with all the
conditions and covenants herein contained the said mortgage and note will be
returned to the employer on the 15th day of June, 1914, at the time this agree­
ment will come and be at an end.



122

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS*

Thirteenth. That this contract will continue in full force and effect from the
period o f -------------- day of February, 1913, to the 15th day of June, 1914.
In witness whereof the parties of the second part have hereunto set their
hands and seals the day and year first above written, and the union has caused
one of its officers to sign his name and authorized said officer to seal this agree­
ment with the official seal of the union, the day and year first above written.
--------------------

[ l . s .]

--------------------

[ l . s .]

T h e C h il d r e n ’ s J a c k e t M a k e r s ’ U n i o n o f B r o o k l y n ,

[ l . s .]

In presence of—
AGREEMENTS WITH INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYERS.

During the progress of the strike several hundred agreements
affecting the settlement of the strike were signed between individual
firms and the union. All such individual shop agreements provided
for a strictly union shop, and all read as follows:
Agreement made between the United Garment Workers of America (hereinafter
designated as the union), in behalf of itself, the various local organizations
in the city of New York and vicinity affiliated with it, and the members of
such organization, and-------------- (hereinafter designated as the employer),
witnesseth, as follows:
First. The union agrees to use its best efforts to induce the employees of the
employer, now on strike, to resume work; and further agrees to provide the
employer hereafter with as many competent and skilled workers for all
branches of his work as he may be able to furnish, and to induce such workers
to take such employment upon the terms and conditions herein set forth.
Second. The employer agrees to reinstate all of his employees now on strike
who may apply for such reinstatement, and at all times to employ only mem­
bers in good standing of local organizations affiliated with the union within a
reasonable time.
Third. The terms upon which such employees shall work for the employer
shall be as follows:
I. A week’s work shaU consist of six (6) working-days, with an aggregate
of fifty (50) working hours. Work on legal holidays shall be paid at the rate of
double time, and overtime work on ordinary days shall be paid for at the rate
of time and one-half.
II. The Wages to be paid to the employees shall be at least equal to those
set forth in the “ Scale of wages,” which is a part of this agreement and hereto
attached; and in all cases in which such scale provides for payment by the
week payment shall not be made by the piece or upon any basis other than
weekly wages. All wages shaU be paid in cash and upon the last day of each
working week.
III. All workers employed in the employer’s factories shall be employed and
paid directly by such employer, and no contracting or subcontracting shall be
permitted within such factories. No work shall be done by foot power, neither
shall any charge be made to the employees for the use of power.
IV. The employer shall not have any part of his work done by contractors
working outside of his factory, unless such contractors shall employ only mem­
bers of the union, and shall comply with all conditions and provisions herein
set forth, as far as the same are applicable to their work. No work shall be




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

123

given out by the employer to be done or finished in unsanitary buildings or
places.
V. Should any difference arise between the employer and his employees, and
should they be unable to adjust same amicably among themselves, such differ­
ences shall be submitted to the union for settlement, and if the decision of the
latter shall be unsatisfactory to the employer the matter in dispute shall be
submitted to one or more arbitrators to be selected by the parties to the
dispute.
VI. The firm hereby agrees to use, in the making of coats, shoulder pads,
and canvas fronts that are made by members of a local affiliated with the
United Garment Workers of America, and stamped with the stamp of such
local union.
VII. The cutting, trimming, and examining department shall work forty-eight
(48) hours a week, to cease at 12 o’clock Saturday.
This agreement shall be in force u n til----- day o f -------, nineteen hundred
and fourteen.
AGREEMENT OF CLOTH EXAMINERS AND SPONGERS' UNION OF
GREATER NEW YORK WITH TEXTILE UNION FINISHERS’ ASSOCIA­
TION.1

On December 10, 1913, an agreement to last for five years wag
entered into between the Textile Union Finishers’ Association, an
organization of employers, and the Cloth Examiners’ and Spongers’
Union of Greater New York.
Under this agreement the employers obligate themselves: (1) In
hiring help to prefer members of the union in good standing; (2)
to establish a working week of 49| hours; (8) to pay established
minimum weekly rates; (4) to pay for six legal holidays; (5) to pay
double rate for overtime work; (6) to use the union label; and (7)
to eliminate lockouts.
In return the union obligates itself: (1) Not to furnish any help
to employers who are not members of the Textile Union Finishers’
Association; (2) not to grant the use of the union label to such
employers; (3) to allow a certain number of apprentices per shop;
and (4) to eliminate strikes and general walkouts.
The agreement provides for the establishment of regular channels
for the peaceful and orderly settlement of all the grievances that
may arise. For this purpose a standing committee of six arbitrators,
three from each side, is provided. In case of inability of this com­
mittee to reach a satisfactory decision, a majority of its members
is empowered to select an impartial seventh person to cast the decid­
ing vote.
At the time of the signing of this agreement the membership of
the union was 364, approximately 99 per cent of the total number
of workers engaged in the occupations of sponging and examining
in the city of New York.
1 Cloth Examiners and Spongers* Union in June, 1914, applied for admission into mem­
bership of United Garment Workers of America.




124

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

The following is the text of the agreement:
This agreement made and entered into on this 10th day of December, 1913,
by and between the Textile Union Finishers* Association, a domestic corpora­
tion, duly organized and existing under and by virtue of the laws of the
State of New York, hereinafter designated as the “ association,** and the Cloth
Examiners* and Spongers* Union of Greater New York, an unincorporated
association, consisting of more than seven members, hereinafter designated
as the “ Union,** witnesseth, as follows:
Whereas the purpose of this agreement is to maintain the present rate of
wages of the members of the union in some instances, and to increase the rate
of wages in other instances, to shorten the hours of labor, and generally to
improve conditions and have a better understanding between the association and
the members of the union;
Now, therefore, in consideration of one ($1) dollar paid by each of the
parties to the other, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and of the
promises hereinafter set forth, it is a agreed as follows:
The association promises:
First. To give preference in employment to members of the union, and to only
members of the union who are certified by the union to be in good standing,
and on a notification from the union that an employee is not in good standing
or no longer a member of the union to discharge said employee or have said
employee discharged at the end of the day or week, as the case may be, when
the term of such employment shall end, except that persons who are not
members of the union may be employed in the cases provided for in sub­
division eleventh of this agreement.
Second. To pay a minimum-wage scale as follows:
1. To examiners no less than twenty-seven ($27) dollars per week.
2. To spongers on long and short rollers or on Hebdon or Rothholtz and other
machines, and to employees papering in and out of presses, and to employees
operating winding machines of all descriptions, not less than twenty-two ($22)
dollars per week;
3. To employees taking off by hand or blade, damping, hanging by woolens,
book folding, hand rolling, and doubling up off rollers, not less than seventeen
($17) dollars per week;
4. To helpers performing general utility work, to which class of work shall
belong handing up, wetting out, taking down of ducks, linens, canvas, and all
other articles, excepting woolens, not less than nine ($9) dollars per week;
5. To apprentices, referred to in paragraph “ thirteenth,** to which the asso­
ciation agrees, for examiners, not less than twelve ($12) dollars per week for
the first six months of employment and not less than fourteen ($14) dollars
per week for the next six months’ employment, and not less than seventeen
($17) dollars per week for the second year’s employment, and not less than
twenty ($20) dollars per week for the third year’s employment, and not less
than twenty-three ($23) dollars per week for the fourth year’s employment,
and to spongers not less than eighteen ($18) dollars per week for the first six
months of employment, and not less than twenty ($20) dollars per week for
the next six months* employment, and to takers off not less than ten ($10)
dollars per week for the first six months of employment, and not less than
twelve ($12) dollars for the next six months of employment.
Third. To pay a minimum-wage scale for extra help engaged by the day as
follows:
I. To examiners five ($5) dollars per day.
II. To spongers four ($4) dollars per day.



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

125

III. To takers off three and 50/100 ($3.50) dollars per day.
Fourth. To make no deduction from the wages or salary of any such em­
ployee, for New Year’s Day, Decoration Day, Independence Day, Labor Day,
Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, and two hours’ absence on Election Day,
and members of the union shall not be required to do any work on the afore­
said days, excepting for seven hours on Election Day, and in the event of any
such employees performing any work in the aforesaid days, to pay the said
employee for said work at the regular rate per hour in addition to said em­
ployee’s regular salary, but that in no event shall any employee be required
to do any work on Labor Day.
Fifth. To pay for all work performed after the regular working hours at
double the regular rate per hour, excepting that three consecutive hours’ work
shall constitute a half day and shall be paid for accordingly. And for work
performed on Sundays, at double the regular rate per hour, irrespective of the
number of hours’ work performed.
Sixth. To engage such employee for the remainder of the week if employed
on any day of the week subsequent to the first working-day, unless at the time
of such employment notice is given to the employee that he is employed by the
day only, and to engage such employee for the entire week if the employment is
started on the first working-day of the week.
Seventh. To affix the labels or trade-marks of the said union to all goods
on which work is performed in the shop of any member of the association, but
reserving unto the member of the association the manner of affixing said labels
or trade-marks, at the rate of ten cents per thousand, and that no labels or
trade-marks shall be affixed to goods unless the labor described on said labels
or trade-marks shall have been performed by the members of the union, and on
a breach of any of the terms and conditions of this contract by the member of
the association, such member shall stop using said labels or trade-marks and
procure and surrender to the union all of the unused labels or trade-marks
in such member’s possession.
Eighth. Not to cause any lockout nor to discriminate in any way or for any
reason against any member of the union, excepting as against any member of
the union for his failure to comply with the terms and conditions of this con­
tract
Ninth. To furnish to the union upon request the names and addresses of all
persons interested as owner, partner, stockholder, or director of any member
of the association.
The union promises as follows:
Tenth. To supply its members to members of the association, and the members
of the association shall have the right to employ each and every member of the
union, and the members of the union are not to work for any cloth-sponging
concern, whether incorporated or not, who are not members of the association,
excepting that such members of the union who can not secure employment with
members of the association may obtain other employment, and except that mem­
bers of the union may be employed with manufacturers of clothing who do
only their own work of sponging, etc., on their own premises. It is distinctly
understood and agreed, however, that preference in employment of members
of the union shall at all times be given to members of the association, excepting
as against any member of the association for failure to comply with the terms
and conditions of this contract
Eleventh. To permit members of the association to employ persons who are
not members of the union, in the event that the union is unable to supply the
number of its members required by the member of the association, or in the
event that there is any unauthorized walkout by members of the union and the



126

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

union, on notice, does not immediately furnish other members to take their
places, but only until such time as the union can so supply its members.
Twelfth. Not to permit its members to be employed with any concern unless
such concern employs at least one cloth examiner and two cloth spongers.
Thirteenth. To grant apprentices to members of the association, one for every
five journeymen members of the union employed, unless there are at least ten
per cent of the members of the union of that particular calling of the business
out of employment at the time, and unless a proposed apprentice to an exam­
iner has been a member of the union for at least two years and a proposed
apprentice to a sponger or taker off has been a member of the union for at
least one year, but in no event may any member of the association have more
than two apprentices in his employ.
Fourteenth. To permit one of the owners of the business of each member of
the association to perform the work of an examiner or sponger or a taker off,
even though he is not a member of the union.
Fifteenth. To provide an office with a telephone, with a man in charge of the
office, to whom members of the association can apply for members of the union
to go to work.
Sixteenth. That no member of the union shall at any time solicit trade, either
directly or indirectly, in any branch of the cloth examining and sponging busi­
ness, either for himself or any other person, firm, or corporation, or the “ perch­
ing ” or shrinking of goods by any members of the union on his own account.
Seventeenth. To furnish only to members of the association, and to ho other
person or corporation, the labels and trade-marks of the union, and the same
shall be furnished to the members of the association at the rate of ten cents
per thousand.
Eighteenth. There shall* not be a walkout or strike by any members of the
union as against any member of the association so long as such member of
the association complies with the terms of this agreement and in case any such
member of the association shall fail to comply with any of the terms of this
agreement there shall not be a strike or walkout by any members of the union
as against any other member of the association who complies with the terms of
this agreement.
Nineteenth. It is hereby further mutually promised and agreed as follows:
A. That a week, under the terms and conditions of this agreement, shall
begin on Monday and end on Saturday at 12 o’clock, and each day’s work shall
consist of nine hours, to be performed at any time between 7 o’clock in the
morning and 6 o’clock in the evening, excepting on Saturday, when a day’s
work shall consist of four and one-half hours, to be performed at any time
between 7 o’clock in the morning and 12 o’clock noon.
B. That all disputes, differences, and grievances of every kind and descrip­
tion as to matters covered by this agreement and as to other matters which may
arise between the parties hereto or between members of the association and
the union shall be submitted for arbitration to a committee, consisting of six
arbitrators, three of whom shall be named by the association and the other three
by the union, and in case a majority of such arbitration committee can not agree
upon the subject of the dispute, difference, or grievance, such arbitration com­
mittee, by a majority thereof, shall select and agree upon a seventh person, who
shall be disinterested, to sit with them in the committee, and the determination
of the committee so enlarged by a majority thereof shall be final and binding
upon the parties. The board of arbitrators shall meet not later than 48 hours
after a grievance is submitted to them, and the matter shall then be taken up
and disposed of as rapidly as possible under the circumstances, and there shall
be no unreasonable delays*



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN’ s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

127

C. That this agreement shall be in effect on the date hereof and shall con­
tinue in full force thereafter and up to and including the 31sfc day of Decem­
ber, 1918, and shall be binding on the present and future members of the
parties hereto, and upon their respective successors, personal representatives,
and assigns. In case of the dissolution of the association before the expiration
of this agreement each and every member of the association who shall remain
in the business after such dissolution shall conform to the provisions of this
agreement relating to the hours of work, holidays, rate of wages and appren­
tices from the time of such dissolution up to the 81st of December, 1918.
In witness whereof the parties hereto have respectfully caused their cor­
porate seals to be hereto affixed and these presents to be signed by their respec­
tive presidents and attested by their respective secretaries on the day and year
first above written.
T e x t il e U n io n F i n i s h e r s ’ A s s o c ia t io n ,
B y M ic h a e l B r a y e r ,

President.

Attest by:
-------------- , Secretary:
C l o t h E x a m in e r s ’ a n d S po n g e r s’ U n io n ,
B y A dolph L o e w e n t h a l ,

President.

Attest by:
S ol. M il l e r ,

Secretary.

AGREEMENT IN THE FUR INDUSTRY OF NEW YORK CITY, 1912.

The main causes of dissatisfaction among the fur workers were
conditions of employment similar to those which characterized the
men’s clothing industry in New York City and other large clothing
centers prior to the spring of 1913. These conditions, according to
the statements of the fur-workers’ union leaders, were as follows:
Low wages, long working-days, inadequate pay for overtime work,
no pay for legal holidays, refusal of manufacturers to deal with
their employees collectively, discrimination against workers for
union activity, insanitary conditions in the shops, lack of agencies
for adjusting differences between employers and employees, and
several other minor grievances peculiar to the fur trade.
For several years previous to the fall of 1912 various demands for
the amelioration of working conditions, followed usually by strikes,
had been made by the fur workers upon groups of shops in the in­
dustry, and although on many occasions these demands were com­
plied with for a short time by the manufacturers, no lasting changes
affecting the industry as a whole were accomplished. As was the
case in the men’s garment industry, the inability of both employers
and employees in the fur industry to effect permanent changes
was due primarily to the lack of proper organization among either
the workers or the manufacturers. The fact that all but two fur
manufacturers refused to recognize the union or deal with their em­
ployees collectively contributed largely to the merely temporary
nature of changes.



128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
THE STRIKE OF 1912.

On the 20th of June, 1912, the leaders of the fur workers’ union,
the membership of which at that time represented about 10 per cent
of the 9,000 fur workers in New York City, issued a call for a
general strike. So widespread, however, was the dissatisfaction
among the fur workers that close to 9,000 workers quit work on the
day when the strike was declared, leaving the whole fur industry at
a standstill.
The following were the demands of the fur workers:
1. Bach manufacturer is pledged to keep a preferential union shop, i. e., he
should employ union men, if there are union men out of employment. Should
two men apply for the same vacant job, one being a member of thfe union and
the other a nonunion man, preference should be given to the union man.
2. The manufacturer is, however, not bound to employ the union man if the
latter is not qualified to do the work he requires.
3. The employees in every shop should have the right to elect their shop
chairman, whose duty should be to collect the union dues (not in working
hours) and to guard against any violation being done to the articles of the
contract.
4. Wages should not be changed more than twice a year. After prices are
settled, nothing should be deducted or otherwise changed before the agreed
time.
5. A permanent committee representing both parties should watch that the
contract shall be justly executed. The decisions of that committee should be
valid, for both parties. Each party should have an equal number of repre­
sentatives on that committee. This committee should elect an impartial chair­
man, who shall act as chairman over its proceedings, with the right to decide
certain questions.
6. If any dispute arises in any shop, between all employees and employer, or
between one employee and employer, the employer shall invite one representa­
tive of the union and one representing the associations, who shall be em­
powered to investigate and to settle that dispute. Should, however, their de­
cision not be satisfactory, or should there be any disagreement between both
representatives, the whole case should then be transferred to the general
committee.
7. Any decision of the conference committee shall be valid, provided a ma­
jority of each party vote in its favor. If the number of votes is equal, it re­
mains for the chairman to decide the case in question, and his decision shall be
valid for both parties.
8. The conference committee may also adopt certain rules and regulations in
accordance with the articles of agreement.
9. A joint board of sanitary control should be established.
10. Inside finishers’ contractors should be abolished and no single contracts
with men should be entered upon.
11. The payment for overtime work should be time and a half. Overtime
should only be allowed in the months of September, October, November, and
December.
12. The working hours should be as follows: The first five days in the week,
nine hours a day, and Saturday only four hours—till 12 m.—for the whole
year.



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

129

13. The following are the 10 legal holidays on which it should not be allowed
to work for which it should be paid: New Year, Washington’s Birthday, Lin­
coln’s Birthday, Decoration Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day,
Election Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas. All these holidays may be
changed for the Jewish holidays.
14. Under no circumstances should it be allowed to work overtime on Satur­
day after 12 m. or on legal holidays.
15. No home work should be given out
16. The same rules should prevail in contractors’ as in inside shops. The
inside shops should see that the rules prevailing in their shops should also be
enforced in contractors’ shops.
IT. Wages should be paid weekly, and in cash.

As can be seen, the demanded conditions of employment as well as
the conditions governing the future collective relations between em­
ployers and employees were f ashioned to a large extent along the lines
of the protocol in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry, which, ever since
its promulgation in the summer of 1910, has been used as a model
for agreements in all the allied needle trades. The demand for the
preferential union shop, the insistence upon the establishment of an
industrial court and a joint board of sanitary control, as well as the
demands for abolition of home work and subcontracting, bear close
resemblance to the provisions of the protocol in the cloak, suit, and
skirt industry.
No claim for a minimum wage or an increase in wages was
included in the general demands, the intention of the leaders being
to leave this question to be settled by the employees and employers of
the individual shops when collective relations were obtained.
The demand that wages should be changed not more than twice a
year was strongly insisted upon by the workers as the remedy for a
long-existing grievance, as changes of wages were usually made
according to the movements of the fur market.
The general strike lasted 13 weeks and was bitterly contested.
The demand of the workers for the recognition of the union proved
to be the main point of contention, as the members of two of the
fur manufacturers’ associations refused to deal with their employees
collectively.
During the first few weeks of the strike 34 firms not affiliated with
either of the two fur manufacturers’ associations signed individual
agreements with the union providing for a full recognition of the
union and an eight-hour working-day. However, the great majority
of the manufacturers, almost 650 in number, including the 486
members of the two manufacturers’ associations, refused to grant
the demands of the workers until the early part of September, when
the general strike came to an end.
T he S ettlement of the S trike .—From almost the very inception
of the strike various civic institutions, as well as public-spirited citi38042°—Bull. 198—16----- 9



130

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

zens acting individually, endeavored to effect a settlement by formu­
lating an agreement that would be satisfactory to both sides.
The efforts of several persons to act as mediators were unsuccessful
at first, neither side being willing to accept compromises. However,
as week after week passed, each week entailing additional financial
losses to both sides, it gradually became easier to prevail upon both
sides to come to an understanding.
In the early part of September, 1912, Dr. Judah L. Magnes, who
had previously made several attempts to settle the controversy, after
some correspondence succeeded in prevailing upon the manufacturers
and the striking fur workers to make some concession in order to
arrive at an agreement.
TEXT OF AGREEMENT OF SEPTEMBER 8,1912.

Shortly after the exchange of the above-mentioned correspondence
a conference was held, with Dr. Judah L. Magnes in the chair, at
which there were present representatives of the Associated Fur
Manufacturers (Inc.), the Mutual Protective Fur Manufacturers’
Association, the Furriers’ Union of New York and vicinity, and the
Furriers’ Union of Greater New York, Local No. 14263 of the
American Federation of Labor.
The following agreement was entered into by all the parties
present at the conference, Dr. Magnes acting as guarantor for the
parties in interest:
A g reem en t.

I. The parties have agreed that the following conditions of employment shall
prevail in the shops of each of the members of each of the associations and in
the shops of the contractors of said members, namely:
(1) The regular hours of work shall be from 8 a. m. to 12 noon and from 1
to 6 p. m. during the first five working-days in the week, and on Saturday from
8 a. m. to 12 noon (a half»lioliday on Saturday throughout the year).
(2) Overtime work shall be paid for at the rate of time and one-half.
(3) No employee shall be required to work on any of the following holidays,
to wit: New Year’s Day, Lincoln’s Birthday, Washington’s Birthday, Decora­
tion Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Election Day, Thanks­
giving Day, and Christmas, but the employees shall be paid for the same. But
the Jewish, holidays may be exchanged for these days if satisfactory arrange­
ment for such exchange may be made.
(4) No work shall be given to or taken by employees to be performed at their
homes.
(5) Equivalent sanitary conditions shall prevail in all outside shops as pre­
vail in inside shops. (Condition No. 5 is to be interpreted in the spirit of
paragraph No. 1 of this record of agreement, which reads as follows: “ The
parties have agreed that the following conditions of employment shall prevail
in the shops and in the shops of the contractors of the said members.” )
( 6 ) Wages shall be paid weekly and in cash. The amount of wages shall be
determined in January and July of each year.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN

CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

131

(7) A conference committee shall be established which shall consist of 11
members, 5 representing the employers, 5 representing the workers, and 1
representing the public, who is to act as umpire. The decision of the umpire is
to be binding in the event of a tie vote. Such a committee shall work out the
modus operandi between the employers and workers as represented in this
committee, and to the said committee shall be submitted all disputes that may
arise during the continuance of the conditions.
( 8) A joint board of sanitary control shall be established.
(9) Larger questions affecting the entire industry shall be submitted to a
permanent committee, which is to be composed of three outside persons.
(10) These conditions shall be in force for a period of two years from date.
On July 1, 1914, however, the conference committee of 11 shall meet to de­
termine whether or not these conditions shall be continued and, if continued,
for what further period. This committee shall render its decision on or before
July 21, 1914.
II. Furthermore, it has been agreed that the following questions be sub­
mitted immediately to the conference committee for consideration:
(1) Contracting or subcontracting.
(2) Time contracts.
(3) The seasons when overtime work shall be permitted.
(It is also understood that overtime work shall be paid for at all times at
high-season prices.)
III. All these conditions are to be carried out provided the workers return to
work at once.
S e p t e m b e r 8, 1912.

The above-quoted agreement complies with the demands of the
workers, except in the first three paragraphs referring to the rec­
ognition of the union. While no official recognition of the union
is mentioned in the terms of the agreement, the workers did not con­
test this point, considering the creation of the conference committee
a basis for future collective dealing as well as an unofficial recog­
nition of the union.
The general strike of the fur workers came to an end on September
8, 1912, after settlements in more than 700 shops were entered into.
These settlements can be divided as follows:
Four hundred and eighty-six firms, all members of the two fur
manufacturers’ associations, accepted the agreement signed above,
187 of the independent manufacturers complied with the formulated
demands of the strikers, and 34 firms accepted a union shop and the
eight-hour working-day.
WORK OF CONFERENCE COMMITTEE.

Meetings of the conference committee in the fur industry have been
subject to the call of the chairman and have been held whenever a
dispute in individual cases or a question involving general policy
demanded immediate settlement




132

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Though it had been decided at the first meeting of the conference
committee to hold all subsequent meetings at regular intervals, this
ride could not be enforced, as no working quorum could be secured at
meetings the calendar of which did not include a question demanding
immediate attention.
The first meeting of the conference committee was held on Sep­
tember 24,1912. Dr. Judah L. Magnes, in response to whose written
notices the conferees met, was unanimously elected the permanent
chairman of the conference committee. The work of the conference
committee at its first meeting was confined to determining rules gov­
erning the work of the committee in the future.
The following method of voting was adopted by the conferees:
In order to carry a motion it shall be necessary that the majority
of the representatives of each side shall vote in favor of it. In case
of deadlock the chairman shall have the decisive vote.
It was also decided at the first meeting of the conference com­
mittee that one permanent mediator be appointed for each side; the
two so appointed to act immediately upon complaints from either
side.
It was agreed that the conference committee should meet the first
and third Monday of every month.
The decision of the conference committee with reference to the
appointment of mediators was warmly welcomed by the workers
whose original demand for the creation of the office of mediator was
not incorporated in the terms of the agreement. The advantages
to both parties in the promulgation of this rule lay in the fact
that in case of a grievance on either side it would not be necessary
to wait until a meeting of the conference committee to act upon a
complaint.
At the meeting of the conference committee held on November 6,
1912, the importance of the function of the mediators was further
emphasized when the following resolution was adopted by the con­
ferees:
Pending the drawing of a protocol looking to the establishment of
direct relations between the manufacturers’ associations and the
union, the following shall be the procedure in cases of dispute:
There shall be no strike or lockout, but the representatives of the
conference committee from each side shall endeavor to settle the
dispute. In case they are not able to settle the dispute it shall be
brought before the chairman of the conference committee, whose
decision shall be binding upon both parties.
Further rules relating to the mediation of grievances were devised
when, at the meeting of the conference committee held on February
6,1913, the following resolution was passed by the conferees:
Whenever a complaint against a manufacturer is made the repre­
sentative of the union shall not put himself into communication with



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

133

the manufacturer until the association has been notified and been
given an opportunity of settling the complaint with a representative
of the union on the conference committee. It shall be his duty to
refer this complaint, in the_ regular course, to the manufacturers'
association before taking action.
At two meetings of the conference committee, held on March 13
and 25, 1913, the conferees resolved to take up for discussion and
decision eight questions, the decision on two of which had been in­
trusted to the conference committee by the terms of the general agree­
ment of September 8,1912.
The eight questions then taken up related to the drawing up of a
protocol to govern future relations between the manufacturers and
the furriers’ union.
It was understood that only in the event of each question being
answered in a way satisfactory to both sides should any of the points
agreed upon be regarded as a ruling of the committee; and that when
each point had been settled, all of the rulings together were to be
adopted as a protocol.
It was declared on behalf of the union that, whatever arrange­
ments were worked out in the matter of hours, it would be neces­
sary to retain the fundamental provisions of the agreement of Sep­
tember 8, providing for a 49-hour week.
The following were the eight questions submitted:
(1) The employers to recommend to their employees to join
Furriers’ Union No. 14263 of the American Federation of Labor, on
condition that the union accept everyone at the regular initiation fees
and without imposing any fine or making any threats whatever.
(2) Members of Furriers’ Union No. 14263 are to be preferred in
securing employment, other conditions, such as ability, being equal.
(3) Minimum wage.
(4) Overtime.
(5) Time contracts.
(6) Hours of work.
(7) Apprentices.
(8) Joint board of sanitary control.
After a general discussion of the eight questions, the following
decisions on questions 1, 2, and 4 were adopted by the conferees:
(1)
It was unanimously resolved that the employers of the asso­
ciations recommend to their employees that the employees join Fur­
riers’ Union No. 14263 of the American Federation of Labor; and
it was agreed by the union that all persons, irrespective of their
former attitude toward the union, be accepted as members in good
standing upon payment of the regular fees. It was further agreed
that no fine be imposed upon anyone applying for membership and
that no threat of any kind should be made.




134

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

(2)
It was unanimously resolved that employers should give pref­
erence to members of Furriers’ Union No: 14263 of the American
Federation of Labor, other conditions, such as ability, being equal.
(4) It was unanimously resolved that the conference committee
recommend to the manufacturers that, whenever possible, members
of Furriers’ Union No. 14263 of the American Federation of Labor
be employed, instead of giving overtime work to members of the
union already employed. The question of overtime work in general
was postponed for future discussion.
Questions 3, 5, 6, and 7 were postponed for future discussion.
Question 8, relating to the establishment of a joint board of sani­
tary control, was postponed for future discussion, pending the com­
pletion of the work of the subcommittee on sanitation, the general
understanding being reached that the expense of the sanitary board
be borne in three equal parts by the two manufacturers’ associations
and the union.
At the meeting of the conference committee held on March 25,
1913, the question of overtime work on Saturday afternoons was
liberally discussed, and it was unanimously conceded that overtime
work on Saturday afternoon during the months of October, Novem­
ber, and December was essential. Owing, however, to the fact that
a decision permitting work on Saturday involved a change in the
terms of the general agreement, it was decided that a report re­
lating to the above subject be presented in writing at the meeting
to be held on April 29, 1913, to enable the conference committee to
arrive at a final decision.
As no final decision with reference to overtime work on Satur­
days could be reached at the April meeting of the conference com­
mittee, the conferees took up for discussion questions demanding
immediate attention, and the following four resolutions defining
relations between manufacturers and the union were adopted:
(1) That the employer has the right to discharge an employee for
any legitimate business reason.
(2) That the agreement that wages shall be at a certain rate from
January to July and at another rate from July to January does not
of itself constitute an agreement to engage a man for the entire year.
(3) That an employee has a right to make propaganda for the
union outside of business hours: Provided, That such propaganda is
not made in an offensive or abusive manner.
(4) That the making of propaganda in a proper manner and out­
side of business hours is no legitimate business reason for discharging
an employee.
At subsequent meetings of the conference committee during the
summer months of 1913, the question of overtime work on Saturday
afternoons was taken up in liberal discussion, but no decision could
be reached by the conferees.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN*S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

135

At one of the meetings in the summer of 1913 the conference com­
mittee passed a resolution submitting the question of overtime work
to a referendum vote of the fur workers.
On September 21, 1913, the following resolutions were passed by
the committee:
The union shall have the right to appoint one of the employees
of a shop as the collector of dues, and that the collection of dues shall
be permitted only during the lunch hour.
There shall be no discrimination for union activity: Provided,
That it is not done in any way to interfere with the shop.
It was resolved, however, to suspend the operation of the above­
quoted resolutions, pending the favorable decision of the referendum
vote on the question of overtime work on Saturday afternoon.
The referendum vote of the workers was almost unanimously
against the overtime work on Saturdays, and, consequently, the reso­
lutions permitting “union activity,” i. e., the collection of dues
during the noon hour, were never put into operation, since such
collections could be made on Saturdays. Subsequently, collections
were, in fact, allowed during the noon hour.
As no decision could be reached by the conference committee on
some of the eight questions which were to form the nucleus for a
protocol to govern the relations between the manufacturers and the
union, the formulation of the protocol was temporarily abandoned
by the conferees.
WAGES PAID THE FUR WORKERS.

The following is the scale of wages which prevailed in the ma­
jority of shops in the two fur manufacturers’ associations:
General cutters.—Best mechanics who cut all the fine work, such
as sable, mink, ermine, seal, skunk, etc., earn from $20 to $25 from
January 1 to July 1, and $30 to $35 from July 1 to January 1.
Medium^grade cutters.—Those who cut Hudson seal (muskrat
dyed), caracul, Persian, etc., receive, from January 1 to July 1, $13
to $18; from July 1 to January 1, $16 to $25.
Cheap-grade cutters.—Those who cut rabbits, dogs, goats, marmot,
etc., receive, from January 1 to July 1, $8 to $13; and from July 1
to January 1, $10 to $15.
Operators.—January 1 to July 1, $8 to $12; July 1 to January 1,
$12 to $18.
Nailers.—January 1 to July 1, $8 to $12; July 1 to January 1,
$12 to $18.
Firmhers.—January 1 to July 1, $7 to $10; July 1 to January 1,
$9 to $14.




136

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

GENERAL STRIKE AND AGREEMENT IN BOSTON, 1913.

The fundamental causes of grievances in the men’s clothing in­
dustry in Boston prior to the spring of 1913 were similar to those
in the same industry in New York before their abolition by the
concerted action of employers and employees in the spring of the
same year.
Like the causes of grievances in the New York men’s clothing
industry, these fundamental causes had been features of the trade
for many years past and had proved for a long time the source of
discontent.
The following were some of the important causes of general dis­
satisfaction :
Long days; low wages; poor sanitary conditions; subcontract­
ing; inequitable distribution of work; work in tenement houses;
failure to set up standardized prices for piecework; lack of co­
operation between employers and employees; prevalence of piece­
work system, with the attendant results of long working-days.
The prevailing working hours were 54 in the large ready-madeclothing establishments and 57 in the small firms, according to the
statements of union leaders. In the very small shops and in a great
number of the custom-tailoring establishments, in the busy seasons
of the year, the men worked 16 or 17 hours per day. One of the
officials of the United Garment Workers of America maintains that
in rush seasons women, after a day’s work in the shops, brought home
bundles of garments, and worked upon them until late at night.
As many of the workers preferred to work at home whenever late
nightwork was required, the practice of long hours of overtime work
in Boston, as in New York, was directly responsible for work done
in tenement houses. Most of this work was done by women, who
represented, according to union officials, 35 per cent of the member­
ship of the United Garment Workers of America in Boston.
Complaints against the unsanitary conditions of the shops came
largely from the employees of the smaller establishments. In the
majority of the larger clothing plants sanitary conditions were all
that could be desired. According to information furnished by union
officials, there was proper ventilation and lighting, and the general
sanitary conditions were beyond reproach. Many of the complaints
originated in the shops of the contractors, where crowded quarters,
deficient fire protection, poor lighting, unswept floors, and dirty
windows were mainly to be found.
The following demands formulated by the joint board of the
United Garment Workers of America in Boston during the strike in
the spring of 1913, which led subsequently to the abolition of the




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

13*7

main causes of grievances, state the fundamental causes of discontent
throughout the men’s clothing industry in Boston:
B o s t o n , February 1, 1913.
On behalf of the joint board of the United Garment Workers
of this city, we beg to submit to you herewith our demands upon the ready­
made-clothing manufacturers of Boston:
1. A uniform 8-hour day throughout the trade.
2. Total abolition of tenement-house work.
3. The abolition of the subcontract system.
4. Improvement of the sanitary conditions in the various shops, according to
the conditions and circumstances existing in each case.
5. Recognition of the union, including the rights of women and girls, as well
as men.
6. All coat makers to be paid on a weekly basis; abolition of piecework in
this branch of the trade.
7. We demand the following increase in the price list for coat makers: Up to
$12 per week, 15 per cent increase; up to $18 per week, 10 per cent increase;
$18 per week and over, 8 per cent increase.
8. Pants, vest, and buttonhole makers to receive a sufficient increase in
piecework prices to equalize change from the basis of 10 hours per day to that
of 8 hours.
9. Abolition of all overtime work.
To enforce these just demands the garment workers of this city voted unani­
mously to cease work until such time as they are granted. We find that under
the existing social conditions, with the prevailing high cost of living and the
speed under which we are compelled to work, it is next to impossible to
maintain a healthy standard of living in conformity with the best traditions
and customs of this country.
Should you desire to consult with a committee representing the workers,
kindly communicate with our attorneys, Messrs. Boewer & Miicci, and the com­
mittee will be glad to confer with you to the end that a speedy adjustment of
our demands may be effected.
Very truly, yours,
S a m u e l Z o e n , President.
R a l p h d e C u n t o , Secretary.
Gentlem en:

All the demands quoted above demonstrate clearly the fact that
most of the causes of dissatisfaction in New York were prevalent in
Boston as well, and that a change for the better in the conditions
in New York, if such a change were to take place, would be extended
to Boston and other large centers for manufacturing men’s clothing,
such being the purpose of the general campaign inaugurated by the
United Garment Workers of America throughout the country.
Like the suggestions for a change in conditions formulated by the
unions in New York at approximately the same time, the demands
of the Boston garment workers show their close relationship to the
radical reforms in the women’s garment industry in New York City
that had been in force two years at that time.
The industrial dispute in Boston reached its acute state when, on
February 3, 1913, more than 5,000 workers in both the custom


138

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

tailoring and ready-to-wear branches of the men’s garment industry
went out on strike, tying up practically the whole industry in Boston.
The following locals of the United Garment Workers of America
were affected by the strike:
1. Coat Makers’ Union No. 1.
2. Coat Makers’ Union No. 225.
3. Pants Makers’ Union No. 1T2.
4. Vest Makers’ Union No. 173.
5. Lithuanian Union.
The immediate causes of the strike were two in number. The
first was an attempt on the part of one of the largest clothing
manufacturing companies in Boston to introduce into its shop what
is popularly known as the Chicago system of labor, which aims at
simplifying work. Under the old method the linings of coats were
cut out in bulk, but not fitted to each individual garment. In an­
other division of the factory fitters were assigned to this task. The
company decided to eliminate the fitter. The fitter had numerous
other duties which could easily be performed by unskilled labor.
Accordingly the cutters were assigned the additional duty of fitting
the lining to the garment, and unskilled women performed the minor
functions of the fitter. This meant the substitution of unskilled
women workers, earning $6 or $7 per week, for men who were earn­
ing approximately $18 per week.
This is but one instance of new methods aiming at the simplifica­
tion of work that this company introduced in order to decrease the
cost of production.
This company has always operated its factory as a union shop. An
arrangement existed between the company and the union whereby
all differences of opinion were to be settled by arbitration. When
the workers objected to the changes above mentioned, the manage­
ment declared its willingness to arbitrate, providing the employees
were willing to continue at their work pending the decision of the
arbitrators. This the workers refused to do, and left the shop in a
body.
The second immediate cause of the strike was the rumor that the
Boston manufacturers were making garments for the New York
clothiers, whose employees were on strike at the time. Whether or
not this rumor was based on facts it undoubtedly served as a con­
tributory cause for the walkout.
The demands of the employees as formulated by the joint board of
the United Garment Workers of America in Boston were met readily
enough by almost all of the smaller manufacturers and custom tailors,
but the larger manufacturers of ready-made clothing, who constituted
the membership of the Wholesale Clothing Manufacturers’ Associa­



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY,

139

tion, 19 in number, refused at first to grant any of the demands, upon
the ground that they could not compete successfully with other
markets unless the conditions of the trade in Boston were the same
as in other cities.
Many prolonged conferences were held in an effort to bring about
a settlement. The Boston Chamber of Commerce made the attempt,
but failed. The State board of conciliation and arbitration was
equally unsuccessful.
The mayor of the city arranged another conference, which, like
the previous conferences, accomplished nothing. In the conference
arranged by the mayor the following statement was made by the
larger clothing manufacturers’ association:
The attitude of labor is to make an example of the Boston strike
that will serve as the basis for settlements all over the country. They
say that the union officials were not satisfied with the terms agreed
upon in New York, Baltimore, and Rochester, but have come to‘Bos­
ton with the determination to win their fight at whatever cost. Chief
among these demands is that of recognition of the union. The ques­
tion of wages and hours, the manufacturers believe, would, as a last
resort, be submitted to arbitration willingly by their opponents.
Recognition of the union is just as firmly fought by the manufac­
turers to-day as in all previous discussions. The manufacturers as­
sert that they have their capital invested and should have the right
to manage their affairs as they see fit. They particularly object to
the provision in the settlement draft which calls for the election of a
shop chairman to treat with the manufacturers when difficulties arise.
.However, the decision of the larger manufacturers did not affect
in any way the original intention of the custom tailors and small
ready-made-garment manufacturers to meet the demands of their
employees. In the first three weeks of the strike, about one-fourth
of the strikers in the custom-tailoring branch of the industry re­
turned to work, their employers signing the agreement specified else­
where. By the end of the seventh week of the strike all of the cus­
tom tailors, special-order tailors and the small ready-made-garment
manufacturers not connected with the association signed an agree­
ment, as given below, and their men returned to work. This brought
the number of workers employed to about one-third, leaving twothirds still out on strike against the firms in the Wholesale Clothing
Manufacturers’ Association.
The agreement signed by each of the custom-tailoring establish­
ments and their employees is as follows:
This agreement made on the —— day o f ----- , 1918, between-------------- , of
the. first part, and the joint executive board of the United Garment Workers of
America, of Boston, of the second part, witnesseth:
The party of the first part hereby agrees to recognize the United Garment
Workers of America as an organization and to deal with its members col­




140

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

lectively through their elected representatives. This shall apply to all members
without regard to sex.
The party of the first part agrees to employ none but members of the United
Garment Workers of America in the manufacture of garments.
The.party of the first part further agrees to establish an 8-hour day and the
hours of labor shall be from 8 to 12 a. m., and from 1 to 5 p. m., overtime work
being allowed for 2 hours each day and full pay being allowed for overtime
work.
The party of the first part further agrees as follows:
1. No work shall be done in tenement houses.
2. No work shall be done through subcontracts.
3. Sanitary conditions shall be to the satisfaction of the shop committee of
the workers.
4. All coat makers shall be paid on a weekly basis and piecework in this
branch of the trade shall be abolished.
5. Wages to be adjusted to the satisfaction of the shop committee of the
workers.
In the event of any breach of the conditions aforesaid the party of the first
part agrees to confess judgment for $100, which the party of the second part
agrees to accept as liquidated damages.
In consideration of the promises on the part of the party of the first part, the
party of the second part agrees to furnish the party of the first part, as far as
possible with skilled, capable help in business. And the party of the second
part further agrees to make every effort to obtain a peaceable adjustment of
all differences.
This agreement shall be binding on the parties until February 10, 1914.
In witness whereof the parties to this agreement have hereunto set their
hands on the day and year above written.

This agreement, by complying with all the demands of the joint
board of United Garment Workers in Boston, removed from the
custom branch of the men’s clothing industry all the objectionable
features which had formed for a number of years the main causes of
discontent. Besides recognizing fully the union, the agreement es­
tablishes an 8-hour day in the industry—an industry that had been
known for years on account of its “ sweatshop ” system with its un­
limited hours of work.
This agreement prohibits work in tenement houses—that is, the
manufacturing of garments in workers’ homes under insanitary
conditions—both in the daytime and at night.
The clause in the agreement with reference to subcontracting
abolishes an evil that has developed as a natural result of the old
4 task system ” of making garments. Its abolition means to the workers
4
an actual guaranty of a system of standardization of wages and
prices, as well as other terms of employment.
The clause referring to sanitation, while not specifying means and
agencies of insuring the existence of sanitary conditions, contains a



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

141

promise of amelioration of conditions. The insanitary conditions
were unbearable in those shops where the manufacturing of gar­
ments, previously done on a small scale, had grown to such an
extent as to render space and ventilation inadequate for the greatly
increased number of employees.
Paragraph 4 of the agreement removes from one occupation in
the trade a continued source of wrangling and disagreement. For
a number of years the workers had been expressing a desire for the
abolition of piecework with all its attendant complications, such
as inability to agree upon a price, inability to establish a minimum
for prices, etc. Paragraph 4, therefore, was strongly insisted upon
by the strikers, as it paved the way for further changes along identi­
cal lines.
The agreement signed by the small ready-to-wear-garment manu­
facturers is as follows:
This agreement made on th e------day o f -------, 1913, between-------------- of
the first part and the joint executive board of the United Garment Workers of
America of Boston of the second part, witnesseth:
The party of the first part hereby agrees to recognize the United Garment
Workers of America as an organization and to deal with its members collec­
tively through their elected representatives. This shaU apply to all members
without regard to sex.
The party of the first part agrees to employ none but members of the United
Garment Workers of America in the manufacture of garments.
The party of the first part further agrees to establish an 8-hour day, and the
hours of labor shall be from 8 to 12 a. m. and from 1 to 5 p. m.
The party of the first part further agrees as follows:
1. No work shall be done in tenement houses.
2. No work shall be done through subcontracts.
3. Sanitary conditions shall be to the satisfaction of shop committee of the
workers.
4. All coat makers shall be paid on a weekly basis, and piecework in this
branch of the trade shall be abolished.
5. The following increase in the price list for coat makers shall be paid: Up
to $12 per week, 15%
per cent increase; $12 to $18 per week, 10 per cent in­
crease ; $18 and over per week, 8 per cent increase.
6. Pants, vest, and buttonhole makers shall receive a sufficient increase in
piecework prices to equalize change from the basis of 10 hours per day to that
of 8 hours.
In the event of any breach of the conditions aforesaid the party of the first
part agrees to confess judgment for $100 which the party of the second part
agrees to accept as liquidated damages.
In consideration of the promises of the party of the first part the party of the
second part agrees to furnish the party of the first part, as far as possible, with
skilled, capable help in business.
The agreement shall be binding on the parties until April 17,1915, unless ter­
minated at the end of one year by 60 days’ previous notice in writing.
In witness whereof the parties to this agreement have hereunto set their
hands on the day and year above written.




142

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

E Q U IV A L E N T PRICES IN COAT M AK IN G IN T H E M E N ’S G AR M EN T IN D U S T R Y IN
BOSTON B EF O R E A N D A F T E R T H E ST R IK E OF F E B R U A R Y I. 1913.

Occupation.

Price before
strike.

Price after
strike.

10.08 to SO. 10
.06 to .08
.06
.17 to
.13 to
.16 to

.20
.15
.18

.28 to
.18 to
.14 to

.33
.24
.17

Week work.
Seamers:
First class....... 20.00 to 22.00
Second class... 18.00 to 20.00
Third class.... 16.00 to 20.00

Price before
strike.

Price after
strike.

Week work—
Concluded.

Piecework.
Trimmers:
First class.......
10.06
Second class...
.05
Third class....
.04J
Pocket makers:
First class.......
.11
Second class... $0.08 and .09
Third class___
.07
Basters:
First class.......
.18 to .22
Second class...
.17 to .19
Third d a s s ....
.10 to .12

Occupation.

23.00 to 27.00
20.00 to 25.00
18.00 to 24.00

Shapers:
First class.......... $18.00 to $20.00 $21.00 to $24.00
Second class.... 16.00 to 18.00 19.00 to 22.00
Third class........ 16.00 to 18.00 18.00 to 22.00
Finishers:
First class.......... 6.00 to 10.00
8.00 to 14.00
Second class.... 5.00 to 8.00
7.00 to 12.00
Third class____
2.40 to 6.00
9.00 to 12.00
Sleeve makers:
First class.........
8.00 to 11.00 11.00 to 14.00
Second class.... 8.00 to 10.00 11.00 to 13.00
Third class........ 6.00 to 9.00
9.00 to 12.00
General operators:
First class......... 16.00 to 18.00 18.00 to 24.00
Second class.. . . 14.00 to 16.00 17.00 tc 20.00
Third class........ 13.00 to 15.00 16.00 to 18.00
All padding ma­
chines................... 7.00 to 9.00 10.00 to 13.00

All workers above specified, including pieceworkers, are now work­
ing on the week basis, which consists of not more than 50 hours.
Before the strike in the coat-making trade the time worked by
week workers consisted of from 54 to 60 hours, and the week for the
pieceworkers consisted of from 60 to 65 hours, while at the present
time all are working 50 hours per week.
Thus these two agreements granted the chief demands of the
strikers. Both provide for a union shop and an eight-hour day.
In the matter of overtime, no extra pay is provided for in the
ready-made-garment agreement, while the custom-tailoring agree­
ment permits not more than two hours of overtime per day, re­
moving thereby the possibility of the smaller shops drifting back into
the old rut of excessively long hours of work at night.
In both agreements tenement-house work and subcontracting are
abolished, and in both agreements a shop committee of the workers
is to be the judge of sanitary conditions. Piecework is abolished in
coat making, thus paving the way for further changes from the
piecework to the week system of work. In the custom-trade agree­
ment, no precise wages are agreed upon, but are to be arranged be­
tween the employer and a shop committee of workers. The readymade-garment agreement provides for an average increase of about
10 per cent to coat makers and a proportional increase to piece­
workers engaged in making pants, vests, and buttonholes.
Shortly after the last of the smaller manufacturers had signed the
agreement quoted above, a determined effort to effect a peaceful set­
tlement of the strike in the wholesale clothing industry was made by
the members of the Wholesale Clothing Manufacturers’ Association.
The result of this effort was that Mr. Marcus M. Marks, ex-national



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

143

president of the Clothiers’ Association of America, and Mr. Meyer
London, counsel for the unions of New York City, were invited to
come together and reach an amicable solution of the dispute. On
April 16 Messrs. Marks and London arrived in Boston and immedi­
ately proceeded to arrange a conference. The result of the confer­
ence was that the articles hereinafter quoted were agreed upon and
signed by both parties.
The terms of the agreement are practically those which were asked
for by the joint board at the outset, although on its face the agree­
ment does not seem to grant to the employees all the changes in
conditions granted in the agreements signed by both the custom
tailors and the smaller ready-made-garment manufacturers. While
the words “ union” and “ union shop” are not mentioned in this
agreement subsequent developments prove conclusively that the shops
became thoroughly unionized, none but union help being employed
in any of the larger houses.
T e rm s of S e t t le m e n t o f B o s t o n S tr ik e .
B o s t o n , April 17, 1913.
We, the undersigned, iereby establish the following conditions of employment
in our manufacturing departments and in our contractors’ shops:
1. That the hours of labor shall be not more than 50 per week.
2. That wages shall be advanced not less than $1 per week for week workers.
3. That the prices for pieceworkers be so increased as to yield the same in­
crease in wages as above provided for week workers.
4. Subcontracting to be abolished.
5. The best standards of sanitary conditions to be maintained in all the shops.
6. There shall be no discrimination against any worker for insistence upon
faithful performance of this covenant; or because one may act as shop chair­
man or member of shop committee.
7. There shall be no discrimination on account of quiet and orderly collection
of dues during lunch hours.
8. There shall be a general committee of three men satisfactory to both em­
ployers and workers, to continue during the term hereof, which shall be charged
with the duty of enforcing its terms, and the adjustment of any dispute here­
under.
9. These terms shall be in force for two years from this date, unless termi­
nated at the end of one year by 60 days’ previous notice in writing.
M ark A ndrew s

& Co.

B a r r o n , A n d e r so n C o.
S. B ergson

& Co.

R h o d e s & R i p l e y C l o t h i n g C o.
R ic e , S e y w a r d & W h i t t e n C o .
S c o t t & C o. ( L t d . ) .

G oldberg B r o s .

S h e r m a n W e l t o n C o.

H t m a n s B ros.

A. Shum an

L eopold M o r s e C o .

B.

S. W . L o o m is C o .

T albot

S. A . & H . M eyers.

T h o m p s o n , S n o w & D a v is

P eav y B roth ers
P ie r c e , B il l i n g s




& Co.
& Co.

R . S m it h

& Co.
& Co.

Co.

J a cob F a lk s o n

& Co.

Co.

144

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Paragraph 8 of the above-quoted agreement has never been put into
operation, all disputes being adjusted between a committee of
workers and the employer of the individual shop.
GENERAL STRIKE AND AGREEMENT IN ROCHESTER, 1913.

The general movement for the amelioration of working conditions
and toward a better understanding between employers and employ­
ees collectively in the men’s clothing industry extended to Rochester,
N. Y., at about the same time that efforts in the same direction were
made in other large cities. This city has been for a number of years
one of the leading centers in the manufacturing on a large scale of
ready-to-wear men’s clothing and the conditions in Rochester, before
this movement effected the changes, were similar to those in New
York, Boston, and other large clothing centers. While the changes
in conditions introduced in 1913 were not so sweeping in character
as in New York City or Boston, much was accomplished toward
placing the industry in Rochester on a level with other cities in the
matter of bringing the employers and employees to a better under­
standing, paving the way for the introduction of methods of collec­
tive bargaining and adjustment of grievances.
The fundamental causes of discontent among workers in New York
and Boston existed also in Rochester, with the result that, when the
United Garment Workers of America inaugurated their campaign
throughout the country, the Rochester locals of the union fell in
line with other cities and insisted upon the extension of the reforms
to their city.
The process of reaching an agreement effecting these changes took
a longer period of time and presented more difficulties in Rochester
than in other cities, due to an absolute lack of precedents governing
collective relations between the two parties to the dispute. While in
other cities, such as New York and Boston, the agreements reached
in 1913 established in most cases permanent agencies for collective
settlement of differences, there had existed previous to the signing
of these agreements temporary agencies of a similar nature. More­
over, a great number of manufacturers in New York and Boston
had been dealing with their employees through the accredited repre­
sentatives of the union for years previous to the official recognition of
the union agreed to in 1913.
These precedents were lacking in Rochester, where all agree­
ments as to conditions of employment were reached between em­
ployers and employees as individuals only.
The Rochester clothing manufacturers refused steadfastly to deal
with their employees as an organized body, going so far as to refuse
arbitration of the difficulties during the strike with them, basing



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

145

their refusal on the belief that such arbitration would mean at least
a partial recognition of the union.
The decision of the Bochester clothing manufacturers to recognize
the union was not reached until later, in March, after the settlement'
of all the differences in other clothing centers had been effected.
The course of the movement toward better mutual understanding
and general amelioration of conditions in Bochester was similar to
the movements preceding it in both New York and Boston.
On January 22,1913, 6,500 garment workers in Bochester decided
to declare a general strike. On the following day, 7,800 walked out
from the factories and shops,' and four days later a total of 10,000
workers were affected by the strike, leaving the entire industry in.
Bochester at a standstill. The reasons for the strike as given by
the union leaders were as follows:
The making of garments for strike-bound houses in New York;
the practice of subcontracting in factories; long and fatiguing hours
of employment; inadequate pay for overtime; no increase in wages
in the last 10 years proportionate to the cost of living; the denial
of any right to belong to a labor organization; dismissal and black­
listing of men and women- for union activity; no opportunity to
present grievances of employees through a shop committee, but
only as individuals, who are at a distinct disadvantage.
The conditions under which the strikers declared their willingness
to resume work were formulated as follows:
(1) Abolition of subcontracts; (2) forty-eight hours to constitute
a week’s work; (3) overtime to be paid for at the rate of time and
one-half, pieceworkers price and one-half; legal holidays double
time, pieceworkers double price; (4) 20 per cent increase in wages
for pieceworkers, 10 per cent for week workers; (5) no discrimina­
tion against any employee for being a member of the TJnited Garment
Workers of America; (6) if in the future any difficulties arise be­
tween the employer and the employee, the matter is to be adjusted
by a shop committee and the firms; if they fail to agree, the matter
shall be referred to an arbitration committee, composed of one
selected by the employer and one selected by the union, and the two
so selected stall in turn select the third arbitrator.
.In reply to these demands the following statement, issued by the
Bochester Clothiers’ Exchange and defining the manufacturers’ at­
titude in the controversy, appeared in the press addressed to the
public of Bochester:
To the Rochester public:
A general strike has been declared In the clothing trade, Rochester’s greatest
Industry. The situation Is the result of a series of meetings conducted by
labor organizations and agitations from New York City and elsewhere. Up
88042°—Bull. 198—16----- 10



146

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

to the time the general strike was declared the only complaint made was that
the Rochester market was manufacturing garments of New York City manu­
facturers.
We, the undersigned clothing manufacturers of Rochester, emphatically deny
that we have attempted to manufacture any garments on behalf of New York
manufacturers. We have denied this to our employees, but to some without
avail. We can prove positively the truth of this statement.
We wish it known that the garment trouble is based on false grounds, and in
our opinion is the result of agitation designed sympathetically to affect the
New York City clothing strike.
We want the Rochester public to understand that individually every firm
whose name is hereto subscribed has been and still is most willing to give ear to
any suggestion of complaint from any or all of the workers of its plant. We
further wish to have it known that we are quite keenly interested in the
welfare of our workers as they themselves.
It is a positive fact, the truth of which we urgently ask the public to as­
certain, to its own satisfaction, that the majority of those workers who have
left their employment, have left and are now remaining away from their work
only because of threats, intimidation, and fear of violence. We shall try to
reopen our manufacturing departments in full on Monday. If, however, suffi­
cient workers are not on hand to enable us to work efficiently, we shall be
obliged to close our factories for an indefinite period.
L. A d le r B r o s . & Co.
L e v y B r o s . C l o t h i n g Co.
A u g u s t B r o s . & Co.
M cG r a w , B e n j a m in & H a y s ,
L . B l a c k Co.
M ic h a e l s , S t e r n & Co.
A . D i n k e l s p i e l C o.
R o s e n b e r g B r o s . & Co.
G a r s o n , M e y e r & Co.
S olom on B ros. & L a m p e r t .
H i c k e y -F r e e m a n Co.
S teefel, St r a u s e & C on nor.
Louis H o l t z & S o n s .
T h e S t e i n -B l o c h C o .
(Dated) F e b r u a r y 6 , 1913.
ACTIVITY OF THE NEW YORK STATE BUREAU OF MEDIATION AND ARBITRATION.

From almost the very beginning of the strike the New York State
Bureau of Mediation and Arbitration made repeated efforts to effect
a peaceful adjustment of the differences. These efforts were unsuc­
cessful at first, the manufacturers refusing to give any but a verbal
promise to meet some of their employees’ demands and the latter
demanding a written guaranty. Toward the middle of February
the State board of mediation and arbitration succeeded in inducing
the manufacturers to meet shop committees of their employees, who
submitted to each of the manufacturers copies of the demands, which
are quoted on page 145.
The replies of the employers differed but slightly and were gen­
erally as follows:
Request No. 1. Agreed to.
Request No. 2. No.
Request No. 3. Agreed to as applied to dayworkers, but not as
to pieceworkers, the manufacturers claiming that the pieceworkers




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN' M EN 'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

147

had taken advantage of scale to do work after hours that they could
have finished on straight time.
Bequest No. 4. No.
Bequest No. 5. Agreed to.
Bequest No. 6. Not agreed to because it involved recognition of the
union and would make necessary the submission of questions of
arbitration that are not mentioned in the list. The employers, how­
ever, agree to receive their employees either as individuals or by
committees for the discussion of all differences that might arise.
In addition to their statement to the committee, the manufacturers
sent the following letter to the press, making it part of their reply:
To the clothing workers of Rochester:
We were waited upon to-day by employees’ committees, and in response to
their printed demands advised them substantially as follows:
We do not believe in subcontracting and will abolish such practice where
existing among us. We can not consider a change from the present 54-hour
week to a 48-hour week, nor grant any general increase in wages. Competition
absolutely forbids. Wages in the clothing industry of Rochester are, as a
matter of fact, high by comparison. Actual figures show that the present wage
scale in a representative Rochester clothing factory is materially higher than
the average wage in the clothing industry in the United States.
If the wage paid by us were not as high as the wages paid in other Rochester
industries, we would experience difficulty in getting workers. This has obvi­
ously not been the case.
If the wages paid by us were not as high as the wages paid in competitive
clothing markets we could and would undersell other markets and an abnormal
increase in business would follow. This, also, has not been the case.
A knowledge of conditions convinces us that were we to increase our cost
of manufacture we would not be able to meet the competition of other markets.
We believe in the principle of the “ open shop,” and because of this belief we
intend to continue our business on this principle. This means that we should
not and we do not discriminate against an employee for being a member of any
organization. It, however, also means that no plan or suggestion that might
be submitted to us, involving a violation of the principle of the “ open shop ”
can be or will be considered by us.
We have considered with free and open minds all questions involved in the
present situation, and we have tried to reach our conclusions with a spirit
of fairness toward the workers as well as toward ourselves. We are sincere
in our conviction that the demands which we have refused are unreasonable
to ask and impossible to grant; and we can but trust that the clothing workers
of Rochester will soon realize the truth of our statements and the justice of our
position.
Signed by—
L. A dle r B r o s . & Co.
A u g u s t B r o s . & Co.
L . B l a c k Co.
A. D i n k e l s p i e l Co.
G a r s o n , M e t e r & Co.
H i c k e y -F r e e m a n Co.
Louis H o l t z & S o n s .
L e v y B r o s . C l o t h in g C o.
M ic h a e l s , S te r n & C o.

M cG r a w , B e n j a m i n & H a y s .

S olo m o n B ros. & L a m p e r t .

R ose nber g B ro s. & C o .

T h e S t e i n -B l o c h C o .

S teefel, S tr a u s e & C on n o r.




148

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

As only a verbal promise to maintain these conditions could be
obtained, the strikers voted not to accept these terms.
On the 17th of March, shortly after the New York State bureau
of mediation and arbitration had suggested to both parties an in­
vestigation of the industry in Rochester with a view to airing the
differences, the clothiers’ exchange submitted to the mediators the
following proposals setting forth their conditions of settlement:
1. Abolition of subcontracting.
2. Fifty-two hours to constitute a week’s work.
3. Overtime to be paid at the rate of time and one-lialf for week workers.
4. Pieceworkers to be compensated for the time lost by the operation of the
52-hour week.
5. No work to be performed on the following legal holidays: Decoration Day,
Fourth of July, Labor Day, Christmas, and New Year.
6. No discrimination against any employee for being a member of the United
Garment Workers of America, nor shall there be any discrimination against
anyone now out on strike.
7. Manufacturers will meet and treat with individuals and committees of
employees.
8. Employees now on strike will be reemployed as rapidly as possible, and
before any additional help is engaged.

As the New York State Bureau of Mediation and Arbitration
agreed to serve as guarantor of the manufacturers’ proposal, the
strikers voted on March 19 to accept the terms of the settlement and
the strike was officially declared at an end.
Thus the terms of the settlement of the strike removed from the
trade in Rochester most of the features long objected to by the work­
ers. While no increase in wages is stipulated in the agreement, a
substantial reduction in hours was obtained by the workers, as pre­
vious to the strike the prevailing hours were from 54 to 56 per week.
Subcontracting, one of the main causes of grievances, was abolished,
insuring to the workers an apparently equitable distribution of work
and earnings.
The conditions stipulated in paragraphs 3 and 5 grant to the em­
ployees advantages which were insisted upon by the union all through
the dispute, as previous to this no extra pay for overtime work and
no holidays were allowed to the workers in the men’s clothing indus­
try in Rochester.
It was, however, in paragraphs 6 and 7 that the radical change in
conditions was obtained.
Paragraph 6 of the proposal, while on the face of it assuring only
no discrimination against workers for union activity, contains at
least a partial recognition of the union as previous to that time
membership in a union was considered a sufficient cause for discharge.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN*S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

149

Paragraph 7 of the agreement reflects in its terms the general trend
of the industry toward the establishment of collective bargaining.
Previous to this time no firm in Rochester dealt with its employees
as a body. No agreement as to terms and conditions of employment
had previously been made with groups of employees—all such agree­
ments being made between employers and individual workers.' The
assurance that the manufacturers would meet and treat with commit­
tees of employees opened the way toward the establishment of uni­
form wages and prices paid to workers in the various occupations
in each shop.
Subsequent to the settlement of the strike a voluntary reduction
of working hours—from 52 to 50—to take effect May 1, 1914, was
granted by the Rochester men’s clothing manufacturers to all their
employees.
AGREEMENTS WITH INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYERS.

The use of the union garment label has been granted in the past
and is granted at the present time by the United Garment Workers’
Association to manufacturers who comply with all the conditions of
employment stipulated in the agreements between each individual
firm and the United Garment Workers’ Association.
These individual agreements read as follows:
A g reem ent.

This agreement entered into by and between the firm o f -------------- , party of
the first part, and the United Garment Workers of America, party of the second
part, witnesseth:
That in consideration of the use of the trade-union label of the party of the
second part, the party of the first part agrees to abide by the rules and condi­
tions governing the party of the second part as prescribed by their international
constitution, and this agreement.
1. All employees engaged in the manufacture of garments for the party of
the first part must be good-standing members of the party of the second part.
The party of the first part further agrees that during the slack season the
work will be so divided that each employee will receive approximately an equal
amount of work.
2. All proper sanitary conditions shall be observed in all shops manufacturing
goods for the party of the first part who especially agrees to comply with all the
requirements of the State laws relating to workshops.
3. Said shops shall not be operated longer than-------- hours in any one week,
to end Saturday at 12 o’clock noon.
4. The party of the first part shall manufacture only in shops owned and
operated by said party and equipped with mechanical power.
5. The said party of the first part further agrees that they will not use any
of said labels after notification that the privilege to use same has been with­
drawn, or when said party of the first part abrogates this agreement.
6. The said label shall be in charge of a member designated by the party of
the second part, employed in said shop, who shall keep an account of same. The




150

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

label shall at all times be considered the property of the party of the second
part, and all labels on hand shall be returned to said party immediately upon
notification that the privilege to use the same has been withdrawn.
7. The party of the first part agrees to pay for the use of labels that have
been sewed in garments in the process of manufacture only at the rate o f -----per thousand labels, payment to be made to the local label secretary exclusively
by check, made payable to the order of B. A. Larger, general secretary, until
further notice.
8. The party of the first part shall abide by the union conditions in the
respective branches of the trade.
9. Should any differences arise between the firm and the employees, and
which can not be settled between them, the said differences shall be submitted
to the general officers of the United Garment Workers of America for adjust­
ment. Should this not prove satisfactory, the subject for dispute shall be sub­
mitted to an umpire to be mutually selected for final decision.
10. Party of the first part agrees to abide by the conditions further specified
in the supplementary agreement hereto attached. This agreement is not valid
unless approved of by the general executive board of the United Garment
Workers of America.
11. The party of the first part shall forfeit for one year the privilege of said
label if proven that said party has aided or abetted in the violation of article
10 of the constitution relative to the rules governing the use of the union label.
The party of the second part agrees to do all in its province as a labor or­
ganization to advertise the goods and otherwise benefit the business of the
party of the first part.
This agreement to go into effect on the----- day o f ------ , 191 , and terminate
one year from said date.
(Copy of seal.)
Signed by the party of the first part.
Signed by party of the second part.
Executed a t -------------- on th e------ day o f ------ , 191 .
AGREEMENT OF UNITED GARMENT WORKERS WITH UNION-MADE
GARMENT MANUFACTURERS OF AMERICA.

In 1901, 50 of the firms engaged in the manufacture of union-made
garments formed an association officially designated as the TJnionMade-Garment Manufacturers of America. The 50 firms forming
this association represent the largest plants of the industry, their
aggregated working force comprising 80 per cent of the entire number
of workers employed in the making of union-label garments—about
30,000.
The objects of this association were the promotion of a better
mutual understanding among the manufacturers of union-made
working garments, the promotion of a healthy growth of the
manufacture of union-made workingmen’s garments, the proper
adjustment of grievances, the enforcement of uniform conditions
in the trade, and the abolition of unfair competition.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MENrS CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

151

The articles of the constitution of this association are as follows:
CONSTITUTION.
A

r t ic l e

I.

This association shall be known as the Union-Made-Garment Manufacturers
of America.
A r t ic l e

II.

The object of this association shall be the promotion of a better mutual
understanding among such manufacturers and the promotion of a healthy
growth of the manufacture of. union-made workingmen’s garments under
proper conditions in the United States and Canada, for the correction of exist­
ing abuses, and a proper adjustment of such abuses as may hereafter develop.
A r t ic l e

III.

Application for membership to this association must be accompanied by the
initiation fee of $20, which shall also be considered as annual dues, and such
applicant shall become a member of this association at once upon application
being approved by a majority of the executive board.
A r t ic l e

IV.

S e c t io n 1. The officers of this association shall consist of a president, vice
president, second vice president, recording secretary, general secretary, and
treasurer, who shall be elected at the annual meeting of this association, and
shall hold the office until their successors are elected.
S e c . 2. T h e g o v e r n in g b o d y o f t h is a s s o c ia t io n s h a ll c o n s is t o f a n e x e c u t iv e
b o a r d c o m p o s e d o f t h e s i x o ffic e r s a b o v e n a m e d w i t h s i x a d d i t io n a l m e m b e r s
t o b e e le c t e d b y t h e a s s o c ia t io n a t t h e s a m e t im e a n d in t h e s a m e m a n n e r a s
t h e o ffic e r s a b o v e m e n t io n e d .
A r t ic l e V .
S e c t io n 1. The duty of the president of this association shall be to preside
over all meetings, attend disputes between the members, adjust differences,
and attend to other work usual to the office of president. He shall also keep
a record of the work performed by him, and make a detailed report of the same
at the regular meetings. All actions of the president shall be under the direction
of the executive board.
S e c . 2. The duties of the vice president and second vice president shall be
to take the place of the president, when the latter is indisposed or otherwise
unable to attend to his regular duties.
S e c . 8. The duty of the recording secretary shall be to notify the members
of the meetings of this association, keep a correct record of the proceedings of
the meetings, and publish same in pamphlets, books, papers, etc.
S e c . 4. The duties of the general secretary shall be to take charge of all cor­
respondence, give his prompt attention to same, and to look after matters per­
taining to the welfare of the members of this association. If deemed advisable
by the committee in charge, he shall pay an annual visit to all factories of
the members of this association. His particular duty is, as far as possible, to
adjust disputes that may arise between the members of this association and




152

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

the United Garment Workers of America. He shall be under the control of
the committee in charge of the office of general secretary, appointed by the presi­
dent for this purpose, who shall from time to time supervise his work and
authorize him to make such trips as deemed necessary to the interest of our
association. He shall report continually to the executive committee of our as­
sociation. His salary shall be determined by the association in convention
assembled.
Sec. 5. The duty of the treasurer will be to receive and take charge of all
funds of the association. He shall pay all warrants regularly drawn on him
by the auditing committee. He shall be personally liable for any misappro­
priation of the funds in his care, and at the regular meeting shall send full
report of all moneys received and paid out by him, together with any other in­
formation in his possession of importance to the association.
Sec. 6. It shall be the duty of the executive board to act on all complaints,
when made in writing, against the members of this association. They shall
act upon all applications for membership, and shall have power in all matters
not otherwise provided for, and shall submit at each meeting a detailed report
of their actions since the last preceding meeting.
A r t ic l e

VI.

All amendments of this constitution shall be submitted in writing and shall
be handed in not less than 30 days previous to the stated meeting at which
they are to be acted upon. It shall be the duty of the executive board to fur­
nish a copy of the proposed amendment to each member of this association, and
a two-thirds vote shall be required for the adoption of any amendment.
BY-LAWS.
A r t ic l e

I.

Stated meetings shall be held annually. The annual meeting shall be held in
New York City the first Tuesday in October. Special meetings to be called at
such time and place as deemed advisable by the executive board.
A r t ic l e

II.

Fifteen members of this association shall constitute a quorum for the trans­
action of business.
A r t ic l e III.
The annual dues of this association shall be $20 per year, to be paid annually
in advance on or before the 1st of January of each year, in addition to the
authorized assessments levied by the committee in charge of the general secre­
tary’s office. Members in arrears for dues and assessments for the preceding
year at the time of the October meeting, shall be dropped from membership
without action.
A r t ic l e I Y .

All bills against this association shall first be approved by the auditing com­
mittee.
A r t ic l e Y.
All points not provided for in this constitution and by-laws shall be governed
by Robert’s Rules of Order.



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.
A r t ic l k

153

VI.

All amendments to these by-laws shall be submitted in writing and shall be
handed in not less than 30 days previous to the stated meetings at which they
are to be acted upon. It shall be the duty of the executive board to furnish
a copy of the proposed amendment to each member of this association, and a
two-thirds vote shall be required for the adoption of any amendment
A

r t ic l e

VII.

OBDEB OF BUSINESS.

1. Roll call.
2. Reading minutes of preceding meeting for approval.
3. Report of president.
4. Report of the general secretary.
5. Report of the treasurer.
6. Report of chairman of the executive committee.
7. Report of the board of directors who have in charge the office of the
general secretary.
8. Introductions of resolutions, same being referred to special committee.
9. Reports of committee on resolutions.
10. Reports of special committees.
11. Unfinished business.
12. New business.
13. General discussion for the good of the association.
14 Reading minutes of the current meeting for correction.
15. Adjournment

Shortly after its formation the association entered into a “ gentle­
men’s ” agreement with the United Garment Workers of America
with a view to defining the.mutual obligations of both parties.
This agreement, besides holding the two parties to the terms of
the individual agreement heretofore quoted, provided for the rules
governing collective adjustment of differences and imposed upon
the two parties the enforcement of a uniform minimum-wage
scale throughout the plants operated by the members of the asso­
ciation. It also provided for rules governing the withdrawal
of the union label by specifying that no local of the United
Garment Workers of America can order the removal of the label
without the official sanctioning of the order by the executive board
of the United Garment Workers of America.
In June, 1905, the executive board of the Union-Made-Garment
Manufacturers’ Association requested the annual executive board
of the United Garment Workers to participate in a joint wage-scale
conference during the convention of the manufacturers’ association
to be held one month later. The United Garment Workers’ Associa­
tion complied with this request and appointed a committee of five
for the conference. This established a precedent in the matter of
collective bargaining, as thereafter all prices were discussed and
decided upon in joint conferences.
The following is the official report of the first joint wage confer­
ence held in Atlantic City, N. J., July 23 to 25,1905:



154

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
R e p o b t s o f J o i n t W a g e -S c a l e C o n f e r e n c e C o m m i t t e e .

First Joint Wage-Scale Conference, held in parlor A, Grand Atlantic Hotel,
Atlantic City, N. J., July 24, 25, 26, 1905.
The manufacturers’ association was represented by:
President, H . S . P e t e r s .
First vice president, T h o m a s E . G o r in g .
Second vice president, A . E . L a r n e d .
Recording secretary, T h e o p o r e A . W h i t e .
General secretary, W a l t e r C h u c k .
Messrs. B u s c h m a n n , N u n n a l l y , M c D o n a l d , C o r s e r , M o r r is , B a rtrttm .
The United Garment Workers of America was represented by:
President, T h o m a s A . R i c k e r t .
Secretary, B. A. L a r g er .
Treasurer, H e n r y W a x m a n .
Miss L i l l i e E . F r e d e r ic k s .
Miss M a r g a r e t C. D a l y .
At the suggestion of the representatives of the United Garment Workers
of America, Mr. H. S. Peters was selected as the chairman for the joint wagescale conference and Messrs. Larger and White as secretaries. Mr. A. E.
Larned, of Larned, Carter & Co., second vice president, who officiated as chair­
man several times during the different conferences, rendered valuable assistance.
Mr. Thomas E. Goring, representing Sweet, Orr & Co., was selected as
spokesman to exemplify and explain to the joint meeting the various garments
submitted and working scale attached thereto.
The first garment submitted was a “ high-grade ” full pants cut-band overall,
to be known and placed upon record as Exhibit “A ”
EXHIBIT “ A.”

Whereas the description or specification on page 2 of the Buffalo scale is
not complete as to what constitutes a finished garment: Be it
Resolved, That for the sum of 84 cents the following description or specifi­
cations shall constitute a standard garment:
1. Two-seamed band overall, which seams, both out, inseam and back, shall
be double sewed; double-stitched back crotch piece when necessary; where
seams are felled by hand on single-needle machine same shall be an extra
charge.
2. Band cut solid, V in center of back, turned, stitched, and tacked; band
single stitched on, turned over and stitched down, with top row, requiring a
total of three operations.
3. Buckle straps shall be six inches or less when finished, single stitched on
each edge, tacked or stayed once, straps stitched on the outside with buckle
sewed on.
4. Fly to be what is known as a pants silesia-ltned fly; both button piece
and fly turned, edges finished, and same to be tacked between each buttonhole.
5. Garment shall be turned and double stitched from fork to fly and tacked.
6. Two front swinging pockets, turned with facing, and formed, two rows
of stitching, tacked at each end. (Two cents additional wherever pockets are
turned and again stitched.)
7. Patch pockets, one hip, watch and rule pocket, double stitched and tacked*
8. Bottoms hemmed, single stitched with not to exceed one-half inch hem.
9. That 10 stitches to the inch shall be considered standard.
The above specifications and prices were unanimously agreed to.



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M e n ’ s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

155

EXHIBIT “ B.”

Specifications as to what shall constitute a standard railroad bib or apron
overall, body constructions the same as on Exhibit “ A,” with the addition of
bibs and suspender construction with side facing, and additional hip and com­
bination pocket, $1.80. (Two cents additional wherever pockets are turned and
again stitched.)
1. Bib construction: Bib joined, turned, and double sewed, hemmed top and
two sides. Bib sewed on with facing in center turned and stitched down.
2. Tapering suspenders stitched on both edges with loop in center, with in­
serted elastic, with buckle sewed on and buckle loop attached.
3. One turned side facing either top or bottom.
4. Standard combination pocket and one extra double-stitched hip pocket*
Total, $1.30.
The above specifications and prices were unanimously agreed to.
e x h ib it

“ c .”

High-back railroad apron overall, $1.25.
Construction as in Exhibit “ B,” with the following exceptions and addi­
tions. (Two cents additional wherever pockets are turned and again stitched.)
Exception: No back band, hence no V in band; no buckle straps.
Additions: High back and shoulder straps cut on. No elastic inserted;
straps, diamond center stayed and double stitched. Single row of stitching
through the center of strap, 5 inches from top of diamond stay, buckle
sewed on and loop attached.
The above specifications and price were unanimously agreed to.
e x h ib it

“ D.”

Standard railroad coat with five pockets, $1.13.
Description as follows:
Five back, body, and shoulder seams, all double stitched; round or square
front facing turned and edge stitched; five patch pockets; the inside breast
pocket shall be single stitched, the other four to be double stitched, of which
one shall be a standard combination pocket; coat collar solid or pieced, sewed,
turned, and single stitched. Sleeve construction: Two-pieced sleeve; cuff-faced
wristband; hemmed bottom, all double stitched. . When done on a single-needle
machine and felled by hand shall be charged for extra.
The above specifications and price were unanimously agreed to.
e x h ib it

“ E.”

s p e c ia l c o n s t r u c t io n s , e x t r a s , e t c .

1. Extra sizes.—An additional charge of 12 cents per dozen shall be paid for
all overalls or sack coats from and including size 44 and upwards.
2. Time-work.—All operators taken from their regular work for temporary
time-work shall be paid at the rate of his or her average earnings at piecework
plus 10 per cent.
$. Extra charge for certain hinds of duck.—All apron overalls or coats made
from plain brown, plain mode, and plain black duck, regardless of weight, shall
be 10 cents per dozen extra.
4. Extra construction on patch pockets.—A double-stitched patch pocket on
overalls or coats, when double stitched on by a single-needle machine, 5 cents




156

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

per dozen additionaL When stitched on by a two-needle machine they shall be
A cents per dozen additionaL Pockets when stitched with one additional row,
either across the top or across the center of pocket, 1 cent per dozen additional.
5. Overalls when constructed by single-needle machine.—Overalls, when they
are double sewed on a single-needle machine and when seams are felled or
turned by hand, shall be, for seat seams, 4 cents per dozen; for inseams, 7
cents per dozen; for outside seams, 10 cents per dozen.
6. Examiners or inspectors.—Examiners or inspectors working by piecework
the scale price per dozen can be arranged for, according to the working con­
ditions existing in the various factories.
Examiners and inspectors who work by the piece or week work shall be en­
titled to the minimum wages of $8 per week.
7. Adjustable slide.—The adjustable slide in the construction of suspender
straps shall not be considered an additional charge where this construction is
preferred.
8. Buttonholes.—Buttonholes, when constructed by the latest improved high­
speed machines, shall be as follows:
Buttonholes, when worked upon separate flies, shall be:
Per 100.

Singer machine__________________________________________ $0. 05
Wheeler & Wilson machine________________________________
. 05
Standard machine-----------------------------------------------------------. 05
Reece machine-------------------------------------------------------- --------- . 04J
Large buttonholes on waistband and on coats, when operated on a high-speed
machine, shall be as follows:
Per 100.

Singer machine______________________________ _____________ $0.09
Wheeler & Wilson machine_____________________ •
----------------- . 09
Reece machine-----------------------------------------------------------------.08
Eyelets on Reece machine shall be 4 cents per hundred.
All fly buttonholes, when made where the operator is compelled to handle a
finished garment, etc., shall be as follows:
Per 100.

Singer machine------------------------------- ---------------------------------- $0.07
Wheeler & Wilson machine_________________________________
. 07
Standard machine------------------ ------------------------------------------. 07
Reece machine-----------------------------------------------------------------.06
9. Buttons.—Patent buttons, when put on garments by high-speed power ma­
chines, shall be 3 cents per hundred.
Buttons, when sewed on by power machines, shall be 5 cents per hundred.
10. Cutters.—Resolved, That the minimum scale for an overall, shirt, cotton
or duck goods cutter shall be as follows:
First-class cutter, $18 per week, and that such cutter must be competent to
make and cut his own lays.
Apprentices, first year, from $6 to $10.
Apprentices, second year, $12.50.
Apprentices, third year, $15.
Apprentices, fourth year and thereafter, if competent and well qualified, shall
be $18 per week.
Any additional compensation for a first-class cutter will have to be the subject
of a special arrangement with employer.
Each of the above paragraphs relating to special constructions, extras, etc.,
was approved.



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN 'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY*

157

During the month of September, 1905, the United Garment Workers of
America agreed to the following reductions in all cases where manufacturers
used a special suspender in lieu of the regular standard ones:
Suspender, handmade, stitched on both edges------------------------- $0.09
Rubber stitched on end-----------------------------------------------------.02
Loops____________________________________________________
. 01
.12

Suspender, handmade, tapering, stitched on both edges-----------Inserted rubber----------- , ----------------------------------------------------Loops stitched on---------------------------------------------------------------

. 09
. 03
.01

.13
Suspender, machine-made, stitched both edges-----------------------.08
Rubber on end---------------------------------------------------------------- .02
Loops------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 01
.11

Suspender, machine-made, stitched on both edges______________
For loops stitched on--------- -----------------------------------------------

. 08
.01

Suspender, folded and single stitched through the center— ;-----For loops stitched on---------------------------------------------------------

.09
. 06
.01
.07

Attest:
W alter C h u c k ,

General Secretary.

At the annual convention held in New York City on January 23
to 25, 1906, further means were devised by the association of UnionMade-Garment Manufacturers to assure the enforcement of a union
scale on all the union-made workingmen’s garment shops. The con­
vention requested the United Oarment Workers of America to co­
operate in preventing irresponsible manufacturers from acquiring
the union label, and the secretary of the association was empowered
to conduct investigations with the view to enforcing the uniform
wage scale in all plants operated by the members of the association.1
In the October convention of the same year, the members of the
Union-Made-Garment Manufacturers’ Association, having in view
the further promotion of uniform conditions, went on record as
favoring the plan that all individual agreements between firms and
the United Garment Workers of America should terminate and be
renewed at the same time. It was expected that the introduction of
such a plan would enable the union and the manufacturers’ associa­
tion to further their intention of obtaining uniform conditions as to
wages, prices, and working hours.
1 See page 17 of the Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Convention of the Union-Made*
Garment Manufacturers of America, New York City, Jan. 23 to 25, 1906.




158

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

A request for the promulgation of such a plan was served upon the
United Garment Workers of America. The executive committee ex­
pressed its willingness to comply with this request on the condi­
tion that an eight-hour day and increases in wages go into effect
on and after the 1st of November, 1907. The counter-request of the
union was agreed to by the manufacturers, and accordingly the fol­
lowing resolution embodying the changes was approved and signed
by both parties:
R e s o l u t io n N o . 1.

Whereas the advisory committee of the Union-Made-Garment Manufacturers’
Association appointed to confer with the executive board of the United Garment
Workers of America has, in its report to this association, recommended certain
advances in the price to be paid for making hand and railroad overalls and has
also presented a request from said board for the adoption of an 8-hour aver­
age workday; and
Whereas this committee further reports that said executive board expressed
the assurance, founded upon general experience, that such shortening of hours
would not involve a loss in output, and that said board did not contemplate
and would not sanction any demand for increase of wages and prices in return
for, or as a direct result of, the adoption of such a revised schedule: Therefore
be it
Resolved, That, notwithstanding the exceedingly difficult financial market
and labor conditions, this association does accept the proposed changes in the
prices to be paid for said overalls, and does accede to the request that it adopt
and institute a 48-hour work week, the same to be effective on and after
November 1, 1907: Provided, That the status of the relationship now existing
between the United Garment Workers of America and the members of this
association as regards the use of the label as now contracted for, wage scale
as now agreed between the Union-Made-Garment Manufacturers’ Association
and the United Garment Workers of America, methods and machinery as now
recognized and accepted, be continued undisturbed until January 1, 1909, by
amending all pending contracts as to hours and prices herein referred to, and
extending same in force and effect until said date in order to permit fair adjust­
ment to the new working conditions; and
Resolved, That a committee of four be appointed to present these resolutions
to the officers of the United Garment Workers of America and, if found accept­
able to them, to ratify and acknowledge the same by signatures of both parties
to a formal copy thereof.
Approved for Union-Made-Garment Manufacturers’ Association.
J o h n I . M cD o n a l d .
T hom as

E.

G o r in g .

J o h n W e ic h e r s .
A . E . L arn ed.

Approved for United Garment Workers of America.
T . A . R ic k e r t .
B . A . L arger.
M. 0 . D aly.

Resolution accepted unanimously.

Shortly before the Union-Made-Garment Manufacturers’ conven­
tion in December, 1908, serious differences arose between the associa­



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN' M E N 'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY*

159

tion and the United Garment Workers of America. The differences
in most cases were based upon the interpretation of the verbal agree­
ments with reference to the withdrawal of labels and the uniformity
of the expiration of contracts. It became evident to both parties to
the dispute that a broad agreement must be entered into by the two
organizations covering the time for which contracts should run, the
procedure in case of disagreement about the granting or withdrawal
of the label, and one or two other points that were liable to become
bases of contention.
Actuated by these considerations the representatives of the two
organizations drew up and signed the following agreement:
Agreement entered into by and between the United Garment Workers of
America, through its legally qualified officers, party of the first part, and the
Union-Made-Garment Manufacturers’ Association of America, through its
legally qualified officers, party of the second part, with the object of removing
as far as possible all cause for misunderstanding and friction and of promoting
to the greatest degree the mutual helpfulness of the two organizations:
First. That both parties hereto shall appoint a committee of like number,
who are to meet annually in December of each year, or in the interim if said
committees deem it necessary, for the purpose of arranging and agreeing upon
all the details pertaining to hours of work, wages, prices for manufacturing
new garments, parts, or work on which no price has previously been agreed
upon by both parties hereto as organizations.
Second. That all contracts affecting, the wage scales in any of the factories
of the members of the party of the second part, or the use of the garment
workers’ label, next to be entered into by and between the party of the first
part and any of the members of the party of the second part shall be in force
and effect from January 1, 1909, until the 1st day of April, 1910.
Third. That subsequent contracts affecting the wage scales or the use of
the garment workers’ label entered into by and between the party of the first
part and any of the individual members of the party of the second part shall
cover the period of one year from the termination of the previous contract
(April 1 to April i ) .
Fourth. That in the event of the party of the first part desiring to withdraw
the use of their union label from any individual member of the party of the
second part, notice in writing shaU first be given of their intention so to do
to the secretary of the party of the second part at least one week in advance of
such action. And in the event of said secretary making a request for an extention of time a further delay of 15 days shall be granted by the party of
the first part in order to permit of the bringing of the entire controversy before
the executive board of the party of the second part and enable them to confer
with both parties in an effort to adjust the entire matter.
Fifth. Party of the first part further agrees not to grant the use of their
label to any manufacturer not a member of the party of the second part on a
more favorable basis of wages, hours, or other conditions than it grants to the
members of the party of the second part.
Sixth. That in the matter of the introduction of labor-saving machinery and
appliances party of the first part agrees not to object to their use: Provided,
The weekly earnings of all the employees previously engaged on the garments
affected shall be fuUy maintained.




160

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Seventh. It is understood between both parties hereto that nothing herein
abridges or curtails the right of the party of the first part to set and enforce
their prices in the factories of the members of the party of the second part on
any garment, parts, or other work until such time as the committees herein
provided for agree upon a price covering said work. Such price, when agreed
upon by the committees, to be considered the correct one.
Entered into at New York City, December 4,1908.
For the party of the first part:
T . A . R i c h e s t , Gen’l Pres.
B . A . L a r g e r , Gen1 Sec’y.
1
M a r g a r e t C. D a l y .
For the party of the second part:
H. S.

P eters,

Pres.

J o h n M cD o n a l d ,

Chairman Ex. Com.
This agreement is hereby extended for a period of one year.
T. A. R i c k e r t , Gen’l Pres.
B. A. L a r g e r , Gen’l Sec’y.
M a r g a r e t C. D a l y .
H. S. P e t e r s , Pres.
J o h n M cD o n a l d .

Executed in New York City, December 16, 1909.
Both parties hereto extend this agreement one more year, to be in force
until December 5,1912.
For the United Garment Workers:
T . A . R i c k e r t , Gen’l Pres.
B . A . L a r g e r , Gen’l Sec’y.
For the Union-Made-Garment Manufacturers* Association:
H. S. P e t e r s , Pres.
R o b e r t N o r e n , Gen’l Sec.
On December 11, 1912, both parties hereto mutually agree to extend and
continue in force the foregoing agreement until December 11,1913.
For the United Garment Workers of America:
T . A . R i c k e r t , Gen’l Pres.
B . A . L a r g e r , Genl. Sec.
For the Union-Made-Garment Manufacturers’ Association:
R obert N o ren ,

Gen. Sec.

T h o m a s E . G o r in g ,

Chairman Ex. Bd.

The agreement quoted above set forth and interpreted definitely
all rules of future conduct with reference to matters that had pre­
viously caused a great deal of friction and misunderstanding. It pro­
vided for an official joint wage-scale conference, established a uniform
period of agreements, and specified conditions regulating the grant­
ing and withdrawal of the union label.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

161

SCH
EDULE OF MINIMUM PRICES, 1914.

That branch of the clothing industry in which the manufacture
of union-made workingmen’s clothes is carried on includes over 125
factories located in all parts of the United States and Canada.
These firms, employing close to 30,000 workers, mostly women, are
engaged in manufacturing working clothes—overalls, jumpers, duck
coats, vests, shirts, and factory-made pants, all these garments having
a label of the United Garment Workers of America attached to them.
This label serves as a guaranty to the purchaser that the garment has
been manufactured by union labor and in union shops. Below is
given a detailed list of prices for 1914.
SCHEDULE OF MINIMUM PRICES FOR OVERALLS, JUMPERS, DUCK
COATS, VESTS, SHIRTS, AND FACTORY-MADE PANTS.
This schedule of prices does not apply to New York, Chicago, Denver, the
Pacific coast or other cities where the prices are now higher than this schedule.
This is intended and is only a minimum and not a maximum schedule of
prices. It is subject to changes and corrections.
Issued by authority of the general executive board of the United Garment
Workers of America, March 21, 1914.
H

ig h

-G r a d e O v e r a l l s .

All high-grade or two-seamed garments in the overaU line are to be figured
from the $1.04 band overaU, made as follows:
BAND OVERALL.

Two seamed. Out, in, and seat seams felled on two-needle machine. When
seams are felled by hand on single-needle machine same shall be charged for
extra.
Band cut solid, V in center of- back, turned, stitched, and tacked; band single
stitched on, turned over and stitched down, with two rows, requiring a total
of three operations.
Buckle straps to be six inches or less when finished, single stitched on each
edge, tacked or stayed once, straps stitched down on the outside, with buckle
sewed on end of strap.
Fly to be what is known as a pants silesia-lined fly; both button piece and fly
turned, edges finished, two tacks between button holes.
Garment to be turned and double stitched from fork to fly and tacked.
Two front swinging pockets, turned, with facing and formed, two rows of
stitching, and tacked at each end.
Patch pockets: Two hip, watch, and rule pockets, all double stitched and
tacked.
One-half inch hem on bottom.
Ten stitches to the inch shall be considered standard.
Sewing on lot and size ticket (2 by 3 or smaller) not turned in.
Prices of parts, divided and totaled, as follows:
Two front swinging pockets, turned, with facing and formed, two rows of
stitching tacked at each end_____________—_____________________ $0.16
38042°—Bull. 198-16----- 11



162

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Two double-stitched hip patch pockets----------------------------------------------- $0.10
One double-stitched rule patch pocket---------------------------------------------.04
One double-stitched watch patch pocket---------------------------------------------. 03
Buckle strap 6 inches when finished, single stitched on each edge, tacked
or stayed once, straps stitched down on the outside, buckle sewed on
end------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.08
Pants silesia-lined fly, both button piece and fly turned and edge finished- ‘ . 12
Garment turned and stitched from fork to fly and and tacked-------------. 02
Tacking fly (two tacks)*.__________________________________________
.02
Out, in, and seat seam felled on Union Special two-needle machine-------. 18
Hemming bottoms________________________________________________
. 05
Sewing on solid band with three operations, V in center of back, turned,
.23
stitched, and tacked____________________________________________
Sewing on lot and size ticket (2 by 3 or smaller) not turned in-------------. 01
For operating, total price per dozen garments----------------------------

1.04

RAILROAD BAND BACK-BIB OVERALL.

Two seamed. Out, in, and seat seams felled on two-needle machine. When
seams are felled by hand on single-needle machine same shall be charged for
extra.
Band cut solid, V in center of back, turned, stitched, and tacked; band single
stitched on, turned over, and stitched down; with top row, requiring a total
of three operations.
Buckle straps to be 6 inches or less when finished, single stitched on each edge,
tacked or stayed once; straps stitched down on the outside, with buckle sewed
on end.
* Fly to be what is known as a pants silesia-lined fly; both button piece and
fly turned, edges finished, two tacks between buttonholes.
Garments to be turned and double Pitched from fork to fly and tacked.
Two front swinging pockets, turned, with facing and formed; with two rows
of stitching and tacked at each end.
Patch pockets: One standard combination, two hip, watch, and rule pockets,
all double stitched and tacked.
One-half inch hem on bottom.
Bib construction: Joined in center, turned and double sewed; hemmed top
and two sides; bib sewed on, with facing, turned and stitched down.
Tapering suspenders stitched on both edges, loop in center and inserted
elastic; buckle sewed on and buckle loop attached.
Sewing on lot and size ticket (2 by 3 or smaller) not turned in.
Front pockets side hemmed with two rows and side facing sewed on back
with two operations.
Ten stitches to the inch shall be considered standard.
Prices of parts divided and totaled, as follows:
Two front swinging pockets, turned, with facing and formed, two rows
of stitching, tacked at each end__________________________________ $0.16
Two double-stitched hip patch pockets______________________________
.10
One double-stitched rule patch pocket-------------------------------------------.04
One double-stitched watch patch pocket____________________________
.03
Buckle strap 6 inches or less when finished, single stitched on each edge,
tacked or stayed once, straps stitched down on the outside, buckle
sewed on end---------------------------- -----------------------------------------------. 08
Pants silesia-lined fly, both button piece and fly turned and edge finished. . 12



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

163

Garment turned and double stitched from fork to fly and tacked------------ $0.02
Out, in, and seat seams felled on Union Special two-needle machine----. 16
Hemming bottoms------------------------------------------------------------------------.05
Tacking fly (two tacks)----------------------------------------------------------------- .02
Sewing on solid band with three operations, V in center of back, turned,
stitched, and tucked_____________________________________________
. 15
Hemming top and sides of bib--------------------------------------------------------. 07
Felling bib in center_________________________ ____________________
.02
Sewing on bib with one-piece facing-------------------------------------------------. 06
Double-stitched combination patch pocket----------------------------------------.08
Making suspenders with rubber in center, loop, metal loop and buckle
attached_______________________________________________________
. 13
Front pocket, side hemmed with two rows---------------------------------------. 04
.05
Side facing sewed on back with two operations------------------------------Tacking side seams-----------------------------------------------------------------------. 03
Sewing on lot and size ticket (2 by 3 or smaller) not turned in_______
. 01
For operating, total price, per dozen___________________________
If facing across front on bib is pieced, extra________________________

1.42
. 01

HIG H -B AC K RAILBOAD APRON OVERALLS.

Two front swinging pockets, turned, with facing and formed, two rows
of stitching, tacked at each end___________________________________
Two double-stitched hip patch pockets______________________________
One double-stitched rule patch pocket_______________________________
One double-stitched watch patch pocket_____________________________
Pants silesia-lined fly, both button piece and fly turned and edges fin­
ished __________________________________________________________
Garment turned and double stitched from fork to fly and tacked_______
Out, in, and back seam felled on Union Special two-needle machine____
Hemming bottoms________________________________________________
Tacking fly (two tacks)__________________________________________
Hemming top and sides of bib_____________________________________
Felling bib in center on Union Special two-needle machine____________
Sewing on bib with facing________________________________________
Double-stitched combination patch pocket___________________________
Front pockets, side hemmed with two rows__________________________
Side facing sewed on back with two operations___ __________________
Tacking side seams_______________________ ________________________
High back and shoulder straps, cut on, with single row of stitching
through center of strap, edges hemmed up to 5 inches from end, no
elastic, straps diamond center-stayed, buckle sewed on and loop at­
tached_________________________________________________________
Sewing on lot and size tickets (2 by 3 or smaller) not turned in________

. 12
. 02
. 16
. 05
.02
. 07
.02
. 06
.08
. 04
.05
.03

For operating, total price, per dozen__________________________
If bib facings are pieced, extra____________________________________

1.31
. 01

C h eaper G rade

of

.16
.10
. 04
.03

. 25
. 01

O veralls.

ONE-SEAM BAND OVERALL.

(1) Inseams and seat seam single sewed or felled on two-needle machine.
Fly construction: Plain overall, fly not turned or tacked, set on with one
row of stitching, button side plain turned hem.



164

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Band construction: Band cut solid, V in center of back, turned, stitched, and
tacked; band single stitched on, turned over, and stitched, with top row, re­
quiring a total of three operations.
Short overall-buckle strap, folded over and stitched through center.
Pockets: Two front pockets, one hip, one watch, and one rule; single-stitched
patch pockets.
One-half inch hem at bottom.
Eight stitches to the inch shall be considered standard.
For operating, total price, per dozen, $0.55.
(2)
One-seam band overall: Made the same as the preceding garment, with
the exception that in place of the two front single-stitched patch pockets, this
garment is made with two front swinging pockets formed with one row of
stitching, tacked at each end and single-sewed dart over hip.
For operating, total price, per dozen, $0.65.
ONE-SEAM BIB OVERALL.

( 1 ) Bib cut on, joined in center on two-needle machine, hemmed top and
sides, two front, one hip, one rule, and one watch, all single-stitched patch
pockets; straight overall fly, not turned or tacked, set on with one row of
stitching; button side plain hemmed; one-half inch hem on bottom; straight
single stitched through center suspenders, finished for combination loop buckle;
not crossed and hemmed in, with plain hem across back; one plain side facing,
opposite side hemmed; inseam and seat seam single sewed, or felled on twoneedle machine.
Eight stitches to the inch shall be considered standard.
For operating, total price, per dozen, $0.64.
( 2 ) Inseam and seat seam single sewed or felled on two-needle machine;
double sewed from fork to fly and tacked.
Straight overall fly not turned, set on with one row of stitching, no tacks,
button side turned and hemmed.
Pockets: Two front swinging, single stitched, turned, with facing, formed;
two rows of stitching at top and tacked at each end; one side facing, opposite
side plain hemmed, one hip, one rule, one watch, all single stitched and tacked
patch pockets.
Bib joined, turned and felled on two-needle machine, hemmed top and two
sides; bib sewed on with one piece facing in center, turned, and stitched down.
Suspenders tapering, hemmed edges, diamond center-stayed, single row of
stitching through center of strap at end, finishing for combination loop buckle;
sewed in with plain hem across back.
One-half inch hem at bottom.
Eight stitches to the inch shall be considered standard.
For operating, total price, per dozen, $0.82.
PANTALOON OVERALL.

Two front or side swinging pockets, turned, with facing and formed,
two rows of stitching, tacked at each end_________________________ $0.16
Two single-corded hip pockets extending to band___________________—
. 27
One double-stitched patch watch pocket_____ - ______________________
.03
Buckle straps, 6 inches or less, finished, single stitch on each edge, tacked
or stayed once, straps stitched down on the outside, buckle sewed on— .08
Pants silesia-lined fly, both button piece and fly turned and edges finished. . 12
Garment turned and double stitched from fork to fly and tacked_____ . 02
Out, in, and back seams felled on Union Special two-needle machine.___
.18



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

165

Two tacks in fly---------------------------------------------------------------------------- $0.02
Wide hem at bottom---------------------------------------------------------------------. 10
Band cut solid, V in center of back, turned, stitched, and tacked, band
single stitched on, turned over, and stitched down, with top row,
requiring a total of three operations----------------------------------------------. 23
Made with lined band_____________________________________________
. 05
Sewing on lot and size ticket (2 by 3 or smaller) not turned in_________
. 01
For operating, total price, per dozen___________________________ 1.27
Made of 8-ounce or lighter denim, fancy or plain. When made of cottonade or other cotton goods, not heavier than 8 ounce, extra per dozen__
. 10
. 15
When made of khaki drill, extra per dozen__________________________
When made of khaki duck, extra per dozen__________________________
. 20
E xtbas

and

P r ic e s

of

P

Overalls,

arts on

seam s.

Felling outside seam on two-neeale Union Special machine—
,__________ $0.07
On band garments, extra--------------------------------------------------------------. 02
Felling seat seam on two-needle Union Special machine_______________
. 03
Felling inside seam on two-needle Union Special machine_____________
. 06
Bib seam felled in center on two-needle Union Special machine________
. 01
. 02
Bib seam felled in center on single-needle machine___________________
Felling outside seam of Brownies on two-needle Union Special machine—
. 05
Felling seat seam of Brownies on two-needle Union Special machine___
. 01}
Felling inside seam of Brownies on two-needle Union Special machine— . 04}
Where seams are sewed on single-needle machine with one row of stitching
only the price is the same as for two-needle machine.
Where they are double sewed on a single-needle machine and seams felled
by hand, price shall be:
For seat seams__________________________________________________ $0.05
For inseams----------------------------------------- --------------------------------------. 07
_
. 10
For outside seams on bib garment---------------------------- ! _____________
For outside seams on band garments, per dozen________ ______________
. 12
t h r e e -n e ed le m a c h in e

.

On all overalls and coats the price for felling seams shall be 12} per cent
more if done on a three-needle Union Special felling machine than price quoted
in this schedule on two-needle Union Special machine.
EXTRA FOR SEAMS ON LA SK EY FELLER.

On bib overalls: Extra, per dozen garments_______________________ $0.03}
Divided as follows:
Inseams_____________________________________________ $0.01
Outside seams________________________________________
.02
Back seam-----------------------------------------------------------------. 00}
On all patch-pocket band overalls: Extra per dozen__________________
. 04
Divided as follows:
Inseams_____________________________________________ $0.01
Outside seams____________ ____________________________
.02
Back seam___________________________________________
. 01



166

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

On all inserted hip-pocket band garments made out of fancy denim, cotDivided as follows:

When outside seams are felled on band garments on two-needle Union
Special machine to bottom of pocket and clean finished to band on
single-needle machine, price for seaming__________________________
Finishing off on single-needle machine, extra per dozen______________

. 07
. 03

FLIES.

Plain overall fly, not turned and button side plain hem turned, both put
on with one row of stitching-------------------------------------------------------- --- . 04
Same fly, buttonhole side turned-in edge____________________________ __. 06
Extension overall fly, to top of bib, not lined, turned, or tacked------------ --- . 12
Continuous fly and button piece, extra to above prices__________________ . 05
Trouser fly, silesia lined, turned, without tacking____________________ __ . 12
Extra stitching on fly, per row___________________________________ __ . 01
Tacking fly between buttonholes, each tack, per dozen------------------------- --- . 01
Garments turned and double stitched from fork to fly and tacked (this
price does not apply on one-seamed garments)____________________ __ . 02
For box stay at top of fly on bib overalls, extra_____________________ __ . 02
PATCH POCKETS.

Single-stitched regular patch pocket__________________________________ . 03
Double-stitched regular patch pocket_______________________________ __.05
Two-needle stitched regular patch pocket____________________________ _. 04
Regular combination pocket, double stitched-------------------------------------- --. 08
Single-stitched regular watch pocket___________'_________ 1--------------- --. 02
Same, double stitched--------------------------------------------------------------------- --. 03
Single-stitched regular rule pocket__________________________________.03
Same, double stitched--------------------------------------------------------------------- --. 04
Extra row of stitching across top or through center of pocket, each row
per dozen extra------------------------------------------------------------------------- --. 01
For every row of stitching taken off pockets from regular stitching, less
per dozen---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --. 001
If any of the preceding pockets are made larger than the regular size
an additional charge to the above prices will be made.
Extra tab stitched on the outside of any patch pocket, single stitched__ _. 03
Same, double stitched_____________________________________________ _. 05
DOUBLE SEAT AND KNEES.’

Small round double seat on Brownies, single stitched_________________
Double knees on Brownies, single stitched__________________________
If the double knees form patch pockets the price of the patch pocket is
to be paid for in addition to the price of the double knees.
Double knees on overalls, single stitched____________________________
Double seat on overalls, single stitched______________________________
If the double knee runs up to form patch pockets the price of the patch
pocket is to be paid for in addition to the price of the double knee.




. 05
.06
. 12
. 10

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

167

SIDE FACINGS.

Plain side facings sewed on with two rows of stitching-----------------------$0.
Placket side facing sewed on with three operations----------------------------- .
Hemming on underside, one row of stitching------------------------------------- .
If side facing has cross stitching at bottom, extra-----------------------------Continuous side facing on single-needle machine, with two operations,
sewed on after seams are closed-------------------------------------------------- .
BUCKLE STRAPS.

One-piece buckle straps, plain, single stitched through center (making
and sewing on)------------------------------------------------------------------------One-piece buckle straps stitched on each edge (making and sewing on)—
If buckle straps are pieced, extra--------------------------------------------------Buckle straps lined (making and sewing on)----------- ---------------------------Buckle straps, stitched on each edge, fancy curved shape (making and
sewing on)------------------------------------------------------------------------------Side straps, same price per dozen buckle straps as above.

.
.
.
.
.

BUTTON STAYS, ETC.

Button stays on bib, set in with hemming, per 2 dozen stays----------------Single-stitched button stays, per 2 dozen stays--------- ------------------------Double-stitched button stays, per 2 dozen stays______________________
Single-stitched buckle loops on bib, per 2 dozen loops_________________

.
.
.
.

DARTS.

Cut-in dart in back_______________________________ ________________ .
Imitation dart, folded over and stitched down across end of buckle straps- .
BELTS AND LOOPS.

Separate belt cut in one piece, stitched on both edges, buckle sewed on
one end with loop_____________________________________________ Same double stitched at both edges_________________________________
If belt is lined, extra______________________________________________
Narrow belt loops folded over, single stitched through center, and tacked
down on garment at each end, per one dozen loops__________________
Same loop, stitched at each edge, per one dozen loops_________________
Tacking made loops top and bottom on special bar machine, per dozen
loops----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Narrow made belt loops that operator cuts, inserts at top, and tacks
down at bottom, per dozen loops---------------------------------------------------If loops have been cut and made for operator and operator is only re­
quired to insert and tack them down at bottom, take off from total
price of five dozen loops--------------------------------------------------------------

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

CROTCH PIECES, ETC.

Front crotch pieces, single stitched, per dozen garments________________
Front crotch pieces felled or double stitched, per dozen garments______
Back crotch pieces single stitched, per dozen garments-----------------------Back crotch pieces felled or double stitched, per dozen garments_______
Diamond stay on either in or outside of crotch seam, extra_____________
All pieces on top of back called risers or block pieces---------------------------




.
.
.
.
.
.

168

BULLETIN OP THE BUBEAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.
TACKING.

Tacking on ordinary tacking machine, per two dozen tacks____________$0.02
Tacking on Philadelphia tacking machine which cuts its own threads,
per two dozen tacks_______________________ >
_____________________ . 01
Tacking the V in back of overalls at band, per dozen tacks, on ordi­
nary machine------------------------------------------------------------------------------ . 02
Tacking side seam at end of joining in ordinary machine, per dozen tacks- . Oli
SW INGING POCKETS,

Inserted watch pocket, single corded__________________________________. 08
Inserted watch pocket, double corded_______________________________ _. 10
Straight single-corded inserted hip pocket, not turned, no stay to band__ _. 10
Same pocket, double corded________________________________________ _. 12
Inserted hip pocket, single corded, with one stay stitched in at top with
band----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --. 13i
Same double corded------------------------------------------------------------------------ --. 15£
Same pockets, with two stays stitched in at top with band, extra per dozen
pockets-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --. 01*
If inserted pockets have triangular-shaped stitching at end of tacks, per
dozen pockets extra----------------------------------1--------------------------------- --. 01
If the preceding inserted pockets, after being turned, are again stitched,
extra per dozen pockets--------------------------------------------------------------- --. 01
If the front swinging pockets, after being turned are again stitched, extra- . 02
Extra facing on side swing pockets----------------------------------------- ------------. 06
When swinging pockets have edges of facings turned in, extra per dozen
facings-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 01
SURGING.

If front pockets are serged in place of sewed together with one row, either
turned or raw, deduct from scale price, per dozen pockets-----------------If front pockets are turned and stitched again, deduct from price of gar­
ments (if the extra charge was originally figured in the total price),
per dozen pockets, an additional------------------------------------------- --------If back pockets are serged in place of sewed together with one row down
each side, either turned or raw, deduct from scale price, per dozen
pockets---------------------------------------- —
------------------------------------------If the back pockets were sewed with two rows on each side of pocket and
work is to be done on serging machine, deduct from total price per
dozen pockets----------------------------------------------------------------------------

. 01J
. 01
. 01

.02

H EM M IN G, ETC.

Hemming on bottom of overalls-------------------------------------------------------- --. 05
Wide-hemmed bottom--------------------------------------------------------------------- --.10
Hemming on bottom of Brownies------------------------------------------------------ --. 03
Hemming and putting on suspenders on Brownies------------------------------- --. 06
Suspenders sewed on semihigh back with narrow facing, two rows of
stitching, extra-------------- ,------------------------------------------------------------ --. 05
Band of overall lined_____________________________________________ _. 05




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M e n ' s CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

169

BROWNIE OVERALLS.

Ranging in size from 2 to 12 years.
One-seam garment; bib cut on, joined in center with one row of stitching;
top and sides of bib hemmed; one single-stitched patch pocket; suspenders
folded over and stitched through center, sewed in with hem across back; fin­
ished for combination loop buckle; seat and inseams not felled, joined with
one row of stitching, plain overall fly not turned or tacked; button side plain
hemmed, raw, no side facings, openings plain hemmed.
For operating, total price, per dozen, $0.85.
H

ig h

-G ra d e G o a t s ,

standard

r a il r o a d

coat.

Back, underarm, and shoulder seams all felled on double-needle machine;
round or square front facing, turned; edge single stitched; five patch pockets;
the inside breast pocket single stitched, the other four to be doubled stitched,
of which one shall be a standard combination pocket; coat collar not pieced in
back, single stitched; two-piece sleeve, shape-faced cuff, stitched top and bot­
tom; bottom of coat hemmed.
For operating, total price, per dozen, $1.19.
On the preceding garment, when seams are joined on a single-needle
machine and felled by hand, extra, per dozen______________________ $0.06
Setting in sleeve on single-needle machine and felling by hand, extra,
per dozen---------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 06
All high-grade garments are to be figured from the preceding $1.19 coat.
C h e a p C oats

and

J u m persl

ONE-SEAM COAT.

Cut with one seam in center of back and two shoulder seams, all single sewed
on two-needle machine, felled; sleeve set in on two-needle machine.
Straight front facing cut on, turned and single stitched on both edges.
One-piece straight collar, single stitched.
Sleeves, one piece, single sewed or two-needle machine sewed, plain hem at
wrist, single stitched, sleeve opening plain hemmed.
Two single-stitched patch pockets.
Narrow hem at bottom of coat.
For operating, total price, per dozen, $0.70.
SHIRT JUMPER.

Cut with two shoulder and two underarm seams; sleeve cut one piece, felled
in on double-needle machine before closing side; side and sleeve seam joined
on two-needle machine in one operation; plain narrow hem at wrist, short
opening with narrow hem; two single-stitched patch pockets; narrow hem at
bottom of coat; straight front facing cut on, turned and single stitched on
both edges; collar cut straight, and in one piece single stitched; all seams
done on two-needle machine.
For operating, total price, per dozen, $0.60.




170

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
E

xtras

and

P r ic e s

P

of

arts

on

C oats

and

Ju m pers.

Sewing on facings, turning over, and stitching down on each edge_____ $0.20
Piecing front facings, extra______________________________________
.02
If the front facings extend up to shoulder seams, extra______________
. 02
Double stitching edge of coat back to hemming____________________
. 06
Double-breasted fronts, extra_________________ ____________________ .05,
Facings cut on less per dozen garments_____________________________
. 05
SEAMS*

Joining two underarm seams on two-needle Union Special machine, or
single sewed-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Joining shoulder seams on two-needle Union Special machine, or single
sewed________________________________________________________
Joining back seam on two-needle Union Special machine, or single
sewed-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Joining outside seam of sleeves on two-needle Union Special machine,
or single sewed------------------------------------------------------------------------Piecing sleeves on two-needle Union Special machine, or single sewed_
Joining body sleeve and shoulder seam and felling on single-needle ma­
chine, extra per dozen garments-------------------------------------------------

. 05
. 02
. 03
. 05
. 03
.06

EXTRA FOR SEAMS DONE ON LA SK EY FELLER.

On coats, extra per dozen garments
Divided as follows:
Shoulder seams--------------------Setting in sleeve-------------------Piecing sleeves--------------------Joining outside seam of sleeved
Joining three back seams------

______

. 04i

$0.00|

.01
. 00|

.01
. 01*

HEM M IN G.

Hemming bottom of coat, one row of stitching-------------------------------------.06'
Hemming bottom of coat, two rows of stitching------------------------------- --- .11
SLEEVES.

Setting in sleeves on two-needle Union Special machine----------------------- .15
Setting in sleeves and felling on single-needle machine-------------------------- . 20
Plain narrow hem at bottom of sleeves, no opening--------------------------- --- . 04
Plain 1-inch hem at bottom of sleeves, no opening--------------------------- ----.06
Plain narrow hem, with narrow hemmed opening in sleeves___________ __ . 06
Additional row of stitching on any of the above, extra---------------------- ----. 02
Shaped cuff facing, sewed on, single stitched at edge and at top of cuff
and around opening___________________________________________ __ .15
Same, double stitched at lower edge and opening, extra-------------------------- . 05
When these cuffs are sewed on sleeves after sleeves are closed, extra__ __ . 05
Tacking on sleeves_______________________________________________ __ . C2
COLLARS.

Making and putting on coat collar, single stitched__________________ __ . 16
_
Making and putting on single-stitched shirt collar with extension band— . 24
If collar is pieced in back, extra---------------------------------------------------------- . 02
Double stitching coat collar----------------------------------------------------------- --- .02



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IK M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY,

171

POCKETS.

Single-stitched patch pocket-------------------------------------- -------------------- $0.03
Double-stitched patch pocket--------------------------------------------------------. 05
Regular combination pocket, double stitched------------------------------------. 08
If any of the preceding pockets are made larger than the regular size,
an additional charge to the above price will be made.
Extra tab stitched on the outside of any patch pocket, single stitched----. 03
Same, double stitched-------------------------------------------------------------------- . 05
Extra row of stitching across top or center of pocket, each row per
dozen, extra------------------------ -- ----------------------------------------------—
. 01
For every row of stitching taken off pockets from regular stitching, less
per dozen--------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 00}
S h ir t s .
PLAIN WORK SHIRTS.

No pockets, no extension band on collar.
Single stitched, except as applied to two-needle operation.
Front making, sewing on button piece, turned and stitched down; center
plait sewed on and turned, stitched on both edges; plain set-on yoke,
single stitched or felled on double-needle shoulder seam------------------ $0.18
Making one-piece sleeves; hem opening and stitched on plain one-piece
wristband, turned and stitched around edge, ends of bands turned and
closed with one row of stitching-------------------------------------------------. 10
Making band collars, without extension band, single stitched, no lining,
and set-on collar_______ :______________________________________
. 20
Hemming on high-speed machine___________________________________
. 03
Setting in gussets------------------------------------------------------------------------. 02
Setting in sleeve on two-needle machine------------------------------------------- . 05}
Joining side and sleeve seams on two-needle machine_________________
. 06}
For operating, total price, per dozen------------------------------------------------- . 65
EXTRA ON SHIRTS.

Tacking on ordinary machine, per 2 dozen tacks_____________________ __. 02
Tacking on Philadelphia machine that cuts its own threads, per 2
dozen tacks---------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 01
Extension bands on collar, extra, per dozen_________________________ ___. 02
A single-stitched pocket, without any lap or facing, extra, per dozen___ __. 03
Same pocket, with hem and one extra row of stitching, single stitched,
per dozen_____________________________________________________ __.04
With facing sewed on, turned, and extra row of stitching_____________ __. 05
Plain pocket, double stitched_____________________________________ __.05
With facing sewed on, turned, and double stitched top and bottom of
facing, per dozen______________________________________________ __. 08
Large combination pocket, double stitched__________________________ __. 10
Double-stitched center plait, extra_________________________________ __.02
Double-stitched collar, extra----------------------------------------------------------- --- .02
Collar, if lined, extra----------------------------------------------------- -------------- ---.01
Band of collar, lined, extra_______________________________________ __. 01
Yoke double stitched at bottom______________________________________.02
If shoulder seam is double stitched with single-needle machine, extra__ __. 01
Placket, single stitched on one side of sleeve, under side hemmed, per
dozen sleeves__________________________________________________ __. 06



172

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Same double stitched and stayed, per dozen sleeves------------------------------$0.08
Facing on under side of sleeve, put on with one row of stitching________
. 03
. 05
Continuous facing on sleeve, put on with one row of stitching__________ _
Double-stitched cuff on waistband___________________________________
. 03
Pieced sleeve, if done in one operation on single or two-needle machine__
. 03
Pieced cuffs---------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 02
Gussets inserted in sleeves___________________________ _____________
.02
M

is c e l l a n e o u s .

EXTRA SIZES.

All overalls, coats, wash or khaki pants from and including sizes 44 to 52.
For operating, extra per dozen garments-------------------------------------------- $0.12
Same garments, size 52 to 60, extra per dozen garments_______________
. 24
Same garments, from 60 and up, extra per dozen garments____________
. 36
. 12
All shirts from size 18 and up, for operating, extra per dozen garments_
TIME-W ORK.

All operators taken from their regular work for temporary time-work
shall be paid at the rate of his or her average earnings at piecework,
plus 10 per cent.
EXTRA CHARGE FOR CERTAIN KIN DS OF GOODS.

All overalls or coats made from brown, mode, white, plain black, or other
color of duck, regardless of weight, shall be:
For operating, extra, per dozen________________________________
On all coats, overalls, or garments figured from standard band or panta­
loon overall when made of cottonade or other cotton goods not heavier
than 8 ounces:
For operating, extra, per dozen-----------------------------------------------Same when made of khaki drill, extra, per dozen--------------------------When made of khaki duck, extra, per dozen--------------------------------Soft stifel goods, no extra charge.
Regular stifel, extra, per dozen-------------------------------------------------Extra heavy and heavily sized stifel, extra, per dozen-------------------Sample of stifel goods on file at general office.

.10

.10
. 15
. 20
. 10
. 15

EXAM IN ING AND INSPECTING.

Examiners or inspectors, working piecework, the scale price per dozen can
be arranged according to the system or method of examining or inspecting in
use in that factory. But examiners or inspectors working either piece or week
work shall be entitled to no less than $8 per week.
ADJUSTABLE SUSPENDER SLIDES.

No extra charge where this construction is preferred.
TICKETS ON COATS, OVERALLS, AND PANTS.

Sewing on lot and size ticket (2 by 3 or smaller), not turned in.
If same ticket is larger, per dozen-----------------------------------All cloth tickets turned in edges--------------------- -----------------


$0.01
.02
.03

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

173

CUTTERS.

The minimum scale for overalls, shirt, cotton or duck goods cutters, shall
be as follows:
First-class cutter, $20 per week. He must be competent to make and cut his
own lays, or have had three years’ experience as an apprentice.
Apprentices, first year, from $6 to $10.
Apprentices, second year, $13.50.
Apprentices, third year, $16.50.
Fourth year and thereafter, not less than $20 per week. He to receive not
less than that amount for laying up, marking, and cutting his own lays or for
doing any one of the three operations.
Additional compensation for first-class cutters may be the subject of special
arrangement with employer.
Every cutter must be given an opportunity to learn to mark and cut his own
lays, and so learn the trade. One man must not do all the cutting or all the
marking, to the detriment of the other cutters,
SUSPENDERS.

Cut solid, folded over and stitched through center, with adjustable metal
loop-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------$0.06
Same on Brownies------------------------------------------------------------------------. 05
Suspender cut solid, stitched on each edge, no rubber, buckle sewed on or
adjustable metal loop-----------------------------------------------------------------. 08
Same suspender tapering---------------------------------------------------------------. 09
If rubber is inserted in any of the foregoing, extra-----------------------------. 03
If rubber is sewed on end, extra-----------------------------------------------------. 02
If a narrow single stitched through center loop is sewed on, extra______
. 01
If suspender is pieced across ends, extra per dozen___________________
. 02
Piecing wide end suspenders, extra per dozen suspenders--------------------.03
BUTTONS AND BUTTONHOLES.

Per 100.

Buttonholes when worked in separate flies on ordinary fast Singer
machine______________________________________________________$0.05
Wheeler & Wilson------------------------------------------------------------------- :—
.05
Standard----------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 05
Same if done on Singer high-speed thread cutting or on a Reece ma­
chine ________________________________________________________
. 04$
Singer machine straight buttonhole------------------------------------------------- .04}
All fly buttonholes when made where the operator is compelled to handle
finished garments on ordinary Singer, Wheeler & Wilson, or Standard
machine---------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 07
On Singer high-speed thread-cutting straight buttonhole or on a Reece
machine---------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 06
Large buttonholes on coats and overalls on ordinary high-speed ma­
chine :
Singer and Wheeler & Wilson-------------------------------------------------.09
On high-speed Singer thread-cutting or Reece machine____________
. 08
Large buttonholes on overalls in band (one in a garment) on Reece or
latest high-speed thread-cutting Singer----------------------------------------. 10
Buttonholes on Reece or latest high-speed thread-cutting Singer (any
size) in suspender--------------------------------------------------------------------.05



174

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

Small buttonholes on coats in sleeves (two or four in garment), same
price as large buttonholes.
Eyelets on Reece or latest improved high-speed Singer thread-cutting
machine---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- $0.05
Metal eyelets on automatic machine_______________________________ _
. 03
PATENT BUTTONS*

Put on garments by high-speed power machine______________________
Buttons, when sewed on by power machine________________________

.03
.05

M A SKIN G.

For buttons and buttonholes is to be paid for extra.
M i n i m u m I t e m iz e d P a n t s S c a l e o f P r ic e s o n F a c t o r y -M a d e P a n t s — N o t t o
A p p l y t o T a il o r -M a d e G a r m e n t s
pockets.

Top or side pockets, made with facing, cut on, one row of stitching at
edge and one row of stitching on facing, per dozen garments________ $0.18
Extra side facing, sewed on wrong side, turned and stitched, per
dozen garments------------------------------------------------------------------------.06
Pocket facings turned, per one dozen facings_______________________
. 01*
Facings turned on watch pocket, per 1 dozen facings_________________ . 00|
Side or top pocket, turned and stitched, per dozen garments___________
. 02
Patch watch pocket, per dozen pockets-------------------------------------------. 04
Inserted swinging single-corded watch pocket, per dozen pockets______
. 08
Inserted double-corded watch pocket, per dozen pockets______________
. 10
Single-corded hip pockets, per 1 dozen pockets______________________
. 12
Single-corded hip pockets, with one stay to band, per dozen pockets___
. 15
Double-corded hip pockets, per dozen pockets_______________________
. 13
Double-corded hip pockets, with one stay to band, per dozen pockets__
. 16
All curved pockets, per dozen pockets, extra________________________
. 01
Extra row of stitching, over or under corded pocket, each row, per
.01
dozen pockets, extra___________________________________________
Triangle-shaped stitching at end of corded pockets, per dozen pockets,
extra_________________________________________________________
. 02
Extra row of stitching on pockets, each row per dozen pockets, extra—
. 01
Putting in pockets by special two-needle machine, with knife attachment,
does not reduce the cost of same, as the full price of pockets will be charged
and divided on the different sections.
d abts.

Cut-in dart, single sewed, per 1 dozen garments_____________________ $0.06
Cut-in dart, single sewed and corded, per dozen garments-----------------. 07
Cut-in dart, single sewed and double corded, per dozen garments_____
. 08
FLIES.

Silesia-lined fly, neither side turned, per dozen flies--------------------------Lined fly, with button side turned, per dozen flies-----------------------------Silesia-lined fly, with both sides turned, per dozen flies----------------------Button side turned under, with extra row of stitching, extra—-------Extra row of stitching on fly, each row extra------------------------------------




. 10
. 12
. 14
. 01
. 01

COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN MEN’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

175

Piecing fly or lining, each piecing extra_____________________________ $0.01
Button stay or interlining in fly, extra---------------------------------------------. 02
Tacking fly, each tack, per dozen tacks-------------------------------------------. 01
Tacking fly at bottom, per dozen flies----------------------------------------------. 02
French fly, cut on, sewed on wrong side, turned and stitched again at
edge, per dozen flies------------------------------------------------------------------. 04
Piecing on extension or offset on fly, per dozen flies, extra-----------------. 02
If offset or extension is corded, each cording extra------------------------------ . 00$
Piecing lining on French fly, each piecing extra------------------------------. 01
SEAMS.

Outside seam, single sewed on ordinary machine, per dozen garments.iOutside seam, double sewed on inside on ordinary machine, per dozen
garments_____________________________________________________
Outside seam, double sewed to knee on ordinary machine, per dozen
garments--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Outside seam, single sewed and corded on ordinary machine, per dozen
garments---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---Outside seam, single sewed with ^ to £ inch welt seam on ordinary
machine, per dozen garments-----------------------------------------------------Outside seam, single sewed, | to 1 inch welt seam on ordinary machine,
per dozen garments------------------------------------------------------------------Outside seam, sewed with open lap or wing seam on ordinary machine,
with guide, per dozen garments_______ I_________________________
Same without guide---------------------------------------------------------------------Outside seam, on old-style Wheeler & Wilson, two-needle machine, or
Singer that is fed with bobbin, per dozen garments__________________
Outside seam on Post, Wheeler & Wilson higher-speed two-needle ma­
chine, per dozen garments-----------------------------------------------------------Outside seam on Union Special high-speed two-needle machine, per dozen
garments----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Outside seam, on one-needle Union Special machine, or high-speed ma­
chine, per dozen garments-----------------------------------------------------------Outside seam, double sewed on one-needle Union Special machine, or high­
speed machine, per dozen garments------------------------------------------------Outside seam, double sewed to knee on one-needle Union Special machine,
or high-speed machine, per dozen garments_________________________
Insea'm, on ordinary machine, per dozen garments____________________
Inseam, double sewed on ordinary machine, per dozen garments_________
Inseam, double sewed to knee on ordinary machine, per dozen garments.
Inseam, on old-style Wheeler & Wilson, or Singer two-needle machine that
is fed with bobbin, per dozen garments----------------------------------------- Inseam on Post, Wheeler & Wilson higher-speed two-needle machine,
per dozen garments--------------------------------------------------------------- -----Inseam, on Union Special high-speed two-needle machine, per dozen gar­
ments---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inseam, on one-needle Union Special machine, or high-speed machine, per
dozen garments_________________________________________________
Inseam, double sewed on one-needle Union Special machine or high-speed
machine, per dozen garments--------------------------------------------------------Inseam, double sewed to knee on one-needle Union Special machine, or
high-speed machine, per dozen garments-------------------------------- --------Back seam, single sewed on ordinary machine, per dozen garments-------


. 12
. 20
. 18
. 24
. 27
. 30
. 36
.48
. 13
. 11 .
. 09
. 08$
. 14$
. 12$
. 09
. 15
. 13
. 11
. 09
.07
.07

.12
. 10
. 03

176

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

Back seam, double sewed on ordinary machine, per dozen garments____ $0.05
Back seam, sewed and corded on ordinary machine, per dozen garments— . 05}
Back seam, on old-style Wheeler & Wilson or Singer two-needle machine,
that is fed with a bobbin, per dozen garments________________ ______ . 04
Back seam on Post, Wheeler & Wilson higher-speed two-needle machine,
per dozen garments__________________ !__________________________ .03}
Back seam, on Union Special high-speed two-needle machine, per dozen
garments_______________________________________________________ . 03
Back seam, single sewed on one-needle Union Special machine, or high­
speed machine, per dozen garments__________________________ _____ . 03
Back seam, double sewed on one-needle Union Special machine, or high­
speed machine, per dozen garments________________________________ . 05
Joining, on single-needle machine, with two rows of stitching from fork
to fly ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .02
BUCKLE STRAPS.

Buckle strap, cut solid, stitched through center, made and sewed on, per
dozen pairs____________________________________________________
Buckle straps, cut solid, stitched at each edge, made and sewed on, per
dozen pairs___________________________ _________________________
Silesia-lined buckle straps, sewed on wrong side, turned, and stitched at
each edge, made and sewed on, per dozen pairs------------------------------Silesia-lined, fancy curved, buckle straps sewed on wrong side, turned,
and stitched at each edge, made and sewed on, per dozen pairs----------Side buckle straps cut solid, sewed through center, made, and sewed on,
per dozen pairs--------------------------------------------------------------------------Side buckle straps cut solid, sewed at each edge, made, and sewed on,
per dozen pairs--------------------------------------------------------------------------Side silesia-lined buckle straps, sewed on wrong side, turned, and
stitched at each edge, made and sewed on, per dozen pairs____________
Side silesia-lined buckle straps and strap loops for buckles, buckle straps
sewed on wrong side, turned, and stitched at each edge, loop folded
over, both made and sewed on, per one dozen pairs— ----------------------Buckle straps inserted in dart, per one dozen pairs-----------------------------Side buckle straps inserted in side seam, then stitched on outside second
time, per dozen pairs, extra-----------------------------------------------------—
Buckle straps pieced, per dozen buckle straps, extra----------------------------

. 06
. 08
. 12
. 18
. 06
. 08
. 12
. 09
. 01

.01
. 01

RISERS, BLOCK PIECES, TAPES, ETC.

Risers on back, not to exceed 6 inches, single stitched, per dozen
garments----- ^--------------------------------------------------------------------------- --. 03
Bisers on back extending across back, single stitched, per dozen garments- . 05
Risers on back, not to exceed 6 inches, single stitched, and corded, per
dozen garments--------------------------------------------------------------------------- --. 05
Risers on back extending across back, single stitched, and corded, per
dozen garments--------------------- -------------------------------------------------------. 08
Block pieces, single stitched, per dozen garments-----------------------------------. 05
Seat pieces, single sewed, per dozen garments------------------------------------- --. 03
Seat pieces, double sewed, per dozen garments----------------------------------- --. 05
Seat pieces, single sewed, and corded, per dozen garments----------------------. 05
Short tape in crotch, 6 inches long, per dozen garments________________. 06
Short rape sewed crossways, 6 inches long, per dozen garments-------------. 12



COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M EN'S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

177

Long tape sewed from fly to band, per dozen garments________________$0.12
Long tape in regular back-seam stitching, one operation, per dozen gar­
ments, extra---------------------------------------------------------------------------.03
Crotch lining, back or front, plain, per dozen garments-----------------------. 03
Crotch lining, back or front, turned or double, per dozen garments-------. 04
Lining in seat, per dozen garments------------------------------------------------. 10
Whole light lining, per dozen garments------------------------------------------.20
Whole heavy drill lining, per dozen garments-----------------------------------. 30
Half light lined, per dozen garments------------------------------------------------. 15
.20
Half heavy drill lined, per dozen garments------------------------------------BELTS, LOOPS, FLAPS, ETC.

Belt loops stitched through center, inserted in top and tacked at bottom,
per dozen loops________________________________________________
Belt loops stitched at each edge, inserted at top and tacked at bottom,
per dozen loops________________________________________________
Belt loops made and cut for operator, operator only to insert and tack
same at bottom, per dozen loops__________________________________
Belt loops made and cut, top and bottom tacked by special bar machine,
for tacking, per dozen loops____________________________________
Lined button tab, cut round, sewed on WTong side, turned and stitched,
per 1 dozen tabs____________________ _____________________ - ___
Lined button tab, cut pointed, sewed on wrong side, turned and stitched,
per 1 dozen tabs-----------------------------------------------------------------------Lined round flaps, single stitched, sewed on wrong side, turned and
stitched, inserted in hip pocket, per 1 dozen flaps_________________
Lined pointed flaps, single stitched, sewed on wrong side, inserted in hip
pocket, per 1 dozen flaps_______________________________________
If round flap on hip pocket is double stitched, per dozen flaps, extra___
If pointed flap on hip pocket is double stitched, per dozen flaps, extra__
Lined round flaps on watch pocket, sewed on wrong side, turned and
single stitched, inserted in watch pocket, per dozen flaps___________
Same flap when double stitched, per dozen flaps____________________
Lined pointed flaps on watch pocket, sewed on wrong side, turned and
single stitched, inserted in watch pocket, per 1 dozen flaps_________
Same flap, double stitched, per dozen flaps, extra________________ !___
Belts made of one piece, stitched through center, buckle attached, per
1 dozen belts__________________________________________________
Belt made of one piece, stitched through center, with loop and buckle
attached, per 1 dozen belts_____________________________________
Belt made of one piece, stitched at each edge, buckle attached, per
1 dozen belts__________________________ _______________________
Belt made of one piece, stitcLed at each edge, with loop and buckle
attached, per 1 dozen belts_____________________________________
Belt made of one piece, double sewed at each edge, buckle attached,
per 1 dozen belts_____________________________________________ _
Belt made of one piece, double sewed at each edge, with loop and buckle
attached, per 1 dozen belts_____________________________________
Belt made with silesia lining, sewed on wrong side, turned and single
stitched at edge, buckle attached, per 1 dozen belts___________ _______
Belt made with silesia lining, sewed on wrong side, turned and single
stitched at each edge, with loop and buckle attached, per 1 dozen belts—
Same belt, double stitched, per 1 dozen belts___________ •
____________
_
38042°—Bull. 198—16----- 12



. 04}
. 05}
. 03
. 01}
. 09
. 12
. 15
. 18
. 02
. 03
. 12
. 13
. 15
. 01§
. 07
. 09
. io
. 12
. 14
. 1(5
. 18
. 20
. 24

178

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Tacking on ordinary tacking machine, per 1 dozen tacks______________$0.02
Tacking on special high-speed Philadelphia tacking machine, per 1
dozen tacks--------------------------------------------------------------------------------.01
Tacking on old-style Singer tacking machine, per 1 dozen tacks-------------- .02}
CURTAINS, BANDS, ETC.

Plain band, cut solid, sewed on pants with three operations, per 1 dozen
garments_______________________________________________________
Plain band, cut solid, sewed on pants with three operations, pieced in
center or sewed together in back, per dozen garments_______________
Plain band, cut solid, sewed on with three operations, V in back and tack,
per dozen garments_____________________________________________
Plain band sewed on garment, first operations, per 1 dozen garments___
Same band, opened and stitched, first stitching, per dozen garments_____
Same band, opened and stitched, second stitching, per dozen garments___
Canvas in waistband, per dozen garments----------------------------------------If canvas comes in more than two pieces to a garment, per dozen gar­
ments, extra___________________________________________________
Button stays in waistband, sewed in with regular stitching, per 2
dozen stays____________________________________________________
Curtain sewed on waistband and buttonhole fly side, per dozen garments.
Curtain sewed on waistband and both fly sides, per dozen garments-----Curtain stitched on outside at top, per dozen garments________________
Curtain stitched through waist line, per dozen garments_______________
Stitching bottom of curtain by operator, per dozen garments____________
Turning and hemming bottom of curtain by operator, per dozen garments.
Stitching curtain at sides, forming a long tack by operator, one stitch­
ing, per dozen garments_________________________________________
Curtain tacked at sides with short tack, per dozen garments----------------Joining curtain in back by operator, per dozen garments______________
Piecing curtain on both sides by operator, per dozen garments--------------Curtain pieced lengthwise, per dozen garments_______________________
Tacking V band opening by operator, per dozen garments--------------------Stitching curtain down on back seam, per dozen garments_____________
Curtain sewed in with regular back-seam stitching, per dozen garments—
Finishing outside seam above pocket on French waist, per dozen gar­
ments__________________________________________________________
Canvas put in hook and stitched in waistband, per 1 dozen garments___
Canvas in hook, operator only to stitch same down, per dozen garments—
Patent hook inserted, with one stitching on fly. no other stitching, per
dozen garments_________________________________________________
Patent drawer supporter sewed in waist band, per dozen loops--------------

. 19}

21}
.23}
. 07}
. 08
. 06
.06
. 02
. 03
. 11}
. 12}
. 12
. 12
. 03
. 05
.03
. 03
. 03
. 05
. 05
. 02.
. 03
. 01
. 03
. 05
. 03
. 02
. 03

BOTTOMS AND CUFFS.

Two-inch wide hem turned in at bottom on ordinary machine, per dozen
garments_____________ _________________________________________
Same 2 to 3 inches wide, per dozen garments________________ I----------Same over 3 inches wide, per dozen garments----------------------------------Stitching bottom on blind-stitching machine, bottom not basted, per dozen
garments______________________________________________________




. 10
. 12
. 15
. 09

COLLECTIVE AGBEEMENTS IN M E N 'S CLOTHING INDUSTBY. 1 7 9

Straight bottoms, hemmed on up-to-date high-speed blind-stitehing ma­
chine, per dozen garments----------------------------------------------------------- $0.07
Hemming bottom on old-style cylinder machine, per dozen garments____ _.08
BUTTONHOLES AND BUTTONS.

Buttonholes in fly on high-speed Singer machine, with automatic thread
cutter, per 100 buttonholes______________________________________ _. 04*
Large buttonholes on high-speed Singer machine with automatic thread
cutter, on the bend, per 100 buttonholes___________________________ _. 10
Buttonholes in fly on Reece machine, per 100 buttonholes________________. 04*
Large buttonholes on band on Reece machine, per 100 buttonholes_____ _. 12
Fly buttonholes on ordinary buttonhole machine, per 100 buttonholes___ _. 06
Sewing buttons on fly with high-speed machine, automatic thread cutter.
per 100 buttons----------------------------------------------------------------------------.05
Sewing buttons on band with high-speed machine, automatic thread cut­
ter, per 100 buttons_____________________________________________ _. 06
Sewing buttons on fly with high-speed machine, without automatic thread
cutter, per 100 buttons------------------------------------------------ -----------------.06
Sewing buttons on band with high-speed machine, without automatic
thread cutter, per 100 buttons------------------------------------------------------ -.07
Sewing buttons on fly with old-style button machiue, per 100 buttons____ _. 09
Sewing buttons on band with old-style button machine, per 100 buttons.. . 10
SEBGING, LIN INGS, AND TICKETS.

Serging flies on high-speed machine, per 100 flies______________________ _. 04
Serging' flies on ordinary serging machine, per 100 flies________________ _. 06
Serging front and back parts on high-speed machine, per dozen garments.-. 07
Serging front and back parts on ordinary serging machine, per dozen gar­
ments _______________________ ‘-------------------------------------------------- --. 08
Serging bottom of curtains on high-speed machine, per 100 curtains____ _.05
Serging bottom of curtains on ordinary serging machine, per 100 curtains. . 06
Sewing on lot and size tickets (2 by 3 or smaller) not turned in, per dozen
tickets------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------. 01
If same is larger than 2 by 3, price, per dozen tickets_________________ _. 02
Sewing on and hemming cloth ticket, per dozen garments_______________. 03
Size or patent tags, inserted in regular stitching, per 1 dozen tags*----------- . 00*
Serging side facings on high-speed machine, per 100 facings___________ __. 02
Serging facings on ordinary serging machine, per 100 facings--------------- --- . 04
hand

s e w in g .

Sewing buttons on fly by hand, per 1 dozen buttons__________________ __. 02
Sewing buttons on waist by hand, per 1 dozen buttons________________ __ . 03
Sewing buttons on pants for flaps or tabs, per 1 dozen buttons________ __ . 03
Curtain felling at top of band and fly by hand, per pair________________ . 05
Felling curtain down back and tacking same by hand, per pair________ __ . 01
Tacking curtain with small tacks by hand, per 1 dozen tacks________ __ . 02
Sewing in hooks by hand, per 1 dozen garments_____________________ __ . 06
Sewing in bars by hand, per 1 dozen garments_____________________ __ . 04
Felling around hooks by hand, per 1 dozen garments_________________ __ . 03
Basting rubber in bottom by hand, per 1 dozen garments________________. 07
Felling bottom by hand, per dozen garments________________________ __ . 24
Felling crotch tape, 6 inches long, by hand, per dozen garments______ __ . 06



180

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Light tack on seams after rubber is inserted, per dozen tacks_________ $0.01
Felling cuff bottoms by hand, turned edges, per dozen garments________ __ . 36
Tacking pockets by hand, per 1 dozen tacks_________________________ __ . 08
Sewing on tickets by hand, 1} by 2 inches, perforated corners, per 1
dozen garments____________________________________ __________ __ . 02}
Same ticket in large size, per dozen garments_________________ _____ __ . 04
Fancy herringbone tacking, 1 inch long, per dozen tacks________________ . 04
Felling side pocket to seam by hand, per dozen garments_______________ . 08
Felling around brand label or trade-mark by hand, per dozen garments- . 04
SIZES, THBEAD, ETC.

All sizes over 42 to 48, per dozen garments, extra___________________ __ . 12
All sizes over 48 being double extra sizes, per dozen garments______ 1. .24
All outside stitching done with silk or mercerized thread, per dozen
garments________________________________________________________ . 12
Changing bobbin for stitching pockets and flies, per dozen garments___ __ . 03
GOODS.

Heavy kersey weights, per dozen garments, extra_______ ___ ._________ __ . 15
All corduroys, per dozen garments, extra---------------------------------------- ----.20
Extra heavy corduroy, per dozen garments, extra----------------------------------. 30
Serges, per dozen garments, extra______________________________ ____ __ .15
White flannel, per dozen garments, extra----------------------------------------- ----. 15
Heavy winter-weight uniform goods, per dozen garments, extra_______ __ . 36
This scale does not apply to cheap cotton thibet or 18-ounce black
Bedford cord.
HOFFM AN STEAM PRESSING M ACH IN E.

Prices of piecework on the above machine are as follows:
Leg pressing—
Cottonades, cotton worsteds, on two sides only, per dozen--------------------- --- . 10
Cashmere, flannels, serges, four sides, per dozen--------------------------------- .20
Peg tops, all grades, per dozen------------------------------------------------------ --- . 24
High-grade worsteds, serges, and cashmeres, four sides, per dozen---------- . 36
Top pressing—
Pressing tops on cottonades, cotton worsteds, cheap union, per dozen—
. 05Pressing tops on cashmere, flannels, and union, per dozen--------------------- --- . 10
Pressing tops on worsteds, serges, and all high-grade goods, per dozen—
. 14
APPENDIX— AGREEMENT OF MAY 1,1916.
The conference committee having charge of the negotiations between Hart,
Schaffner & Marx and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers’ Union have consid­
ered in detail the proposals submitted by the union and have reached an agree­
ment on most of the points submitted. The new agreement is to go into effect
on May 1,1916, and the demands disposed of at the present date are as follows:
TAILOR SHOPS.

1. This agreement shall be effective from May 1, 1916, to April 30, 1919.
2. The trade board and board of arbitration shall be continued, as now con­
stituted.
3. The hours of work in the tailor shops shall be 49 per week, with the Sat­
urday half holiday.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN M E N ’ S CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

181

4. There shall be an increase in wa^es to pieceworkers of 10 per cent. A
committee shall be appointed to distribute this increase by additions to piece­
work prices, especially in the sections which are relatively lower paid, according
to the principles already agreed upon in conference.
5. The matter of the preferential union shop has been left in the hands of the
committee.
0. The minimum wage scale in the tailor shop shall be as follows:
First
month.
M foitiQ operators (male and female)....................................................................
ffM
Women in hand-work sections............. ........... . ...................................................
Men, 18 years
over, not operators............................ .....................................
Ail men not included in above........... ............. ....................................................

Second
month.

$5.00
5.00
8.00
8.00

$7.00
6.00
10.00
9.00

Third
month.
$9.00
8.00
12.00
10.00

7. For work done in excess of the regular hours per day, overtime shall be
paid to pieceworkers of 50 per cent in addition to their piecework prices; to
the week workers at the rate of time and a half; no overtime shall be allowed
on Sundays or legal holidays. Christmas, New Year’s, Decoration Day, Fourth
of July, Labor Day, and Thanksgiving Day shall be observed as holidays.
8. The present practice regarding the status of shop chairmen shall be con­
tinued and made part of the agreement by drafting a proper clause.
9. Any workers who are absent on account of sickness shall be reinstated in
their former positions if they return within a reasonable time.
10. The committee has reached a satisfactory understanding regarding the
designation of male and female in requisitions.
11. Decisions of board of arbitration to that effect to be incorporated.
12. The matter of placing new operations on week work shall be handled by
the committee.
13. The company and the deputies have agreed to cooperate together to
abolish all unnecessary waiting in the shops.
14. The hour rates for pieceworkers shall be based on their earnings on
piecework.
15. The committee for the distribution of the 10 per cent increase to piece­
workers shall take into account the extra work on singles, operations which
require a change of silk, in tying or untying bundles, and shall increase the pay
for this work accordingly.
16. The deputies shall cooperate with the company in sending new help on
requisition so that there will be as little necessity as possible of hiring new
people until the work is ready for them.
19. The committee on the distribution of the 10 per cent increase shall, so
far as possible, eliminate any inequalities in prices now existing between the
shops, and shall attempt to equalize the piecework prices according to the diffi­
culty of the work and the amount of care required.
20. Any employee suspended shall receive a definite decision from the labor
department as to the disposition of his case within six working hours from the
time he presents his suspension notice.
CUTTERS.

1. The principle of preference, as applied in the cutting and trimming rooms,
shall be as before, except that the clause relating to cutters who are exempted
from union obligations is expressly defined as being strictly limited to the indi­
viduals now on the exemption list. Should the number on that list be for any




182

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

reason reduced, it is understood that no other cutters and trimmers can be
added.
2. The company shall not reduce the wages of any cutter. The company
shall report to the commission all failures of cutters to produce their quota of
work when, in its judgment, the delinquency is not caused by conditions of the
work. The commission shall investigate the matter and advise with the cutter
concerning it. At the end of a period sufficiently long to determine the merits
of the case, the cutters* commission shall, if it deem necessary, find measures to
discipline cutters to conform to their, production. In judging the merits in such
instances, the commission shall use the principle of comparative efficiency.
3. The chairman of the board of arbitration and trade board shall take up
the cases of cutters who have been reduced and shall determine what their
salaries are to be when the new agreement goes into effect.
4. All cutters whose present wages are less than $26 per week shall receive
an increase of $1 per week. This increase shall not be taken into account by
the commission in calculating the quota of work required by such cutter.
5. The company shall prefer men now in the- trimming room when increasing
the number of cutters.
8. The salaries of experienced cutters who are employed temporarily shall
for the first two weeks be at a rate not less than the salaries they received in
their l&st position. After two weeks, the temporary cutters shall be paid on
the same basis as the regular men, their salary to be fixed by the cutters’ com­
mission on the basis of their production.
9. The company shall continue the practice of paying cutters for Christmas,
New Year’s, Decoration Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, and Thanksgiving Day.
TRIMMERS.

1. All men now on the trimmers’ pay roll, who are receiving not to exceed $15,
are to be increased $2 per week. All men receiving a weekly wage of over $15,
and not exceeding $20, shall receive an increase of $1 per week. Except that
apprentice trimmers having been employed less than 6 months are to receive an
increase of $1 per week,
2. The following periodical increases shall be granted during the term of this
agreement: Men receiving under $12 shall receive an increase of $1 per week
every 3 months until their wages shall be $12 per week. Men receiving over
$12, and less than $18, shall receive an increase of $1 every 6 months until
their wages shall be $18 per week. Men receiving over $18 per week, and less
than $20, shall receive an increase of $1 per week every year until their wages
shall be $20 per week.
3. All men starting to work on the band-saw machines shall receive not less
than $18 per week and shall receive an increase of $1 per week every 6 months
until their wages are $20. Thereafter til *y shall receive an increase of $1 per
week every year until they reach the rate of $24. No men shall be assigned
to the band-saw machine permanently until they have been employed in the
trimming room two years.
5. So far as practicable, the apprentices in the trimming room shall begin on
their work on the lower grades of the trade and shall be advanced gradually to
the more difficult ones.
5b. Apprentices shall not be permanently transferred to work requiring the
use of any electric machines until they have been employed for one year or more.
The wages of experienced men employed shall be determined in the same
manner as in the cutting room.




COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS IN THE MEN’S CLOTHING TRADES.
Parties to the agreement.

,

I

Union-Made Garment Man- Hart, Schaffner St Marx Co.
and tin? Joint Board of
ufacturers’ Association of
Garment Workers (United
America and United Ga~G a r m e n t Workers or
ment Workers of Amcrica.
Amcrica).

Metropolitan M e r c h a n t
Tailors.' Association and
United Garment Workers
of Amcrica.

East Side Retail Clothing : Bov*.* Clothing ManufaeUirManufacturcrs’ Associa- ! era of Greater New York
lion and United Garment . and U n ite d G a rm e n t
Workers of America.
Workers of America.1

Feb. 24, Now Voric City, l-Yb.
Dee. 4, 1WK: renewed D:*c. I Chicago. III.. Mar. 13,1011. New York City, Feb. 11, New York Cilv,
I’.«13.
' Apr. 1,1012. Mur.29,1V1».*'. WM*
hi, 1909, Dec. .i, 1911
?.4
I
Men's clothing....................... Boys’ clothing....................... Men's clothing.....................
Men's clot hi
Overalls, shirts, and p onti..

City and date....................
Articles manufactured .. ..

Number of people involved...................
Agencies for adjusting grievance:
Mediation...................................

Ar bit rat io n ........................................

of Amcrica.

ica.*

New York City, Feb. 2s, i New York City, Mar. S. 1913. llochester, N. Y ., Mar. 19,
1.» 3
' 1.
1913.

New York City, Sept .s. 1912.

Men's clothing.............

Bo>V wa>h suiis.................... Men's clothing.

Men's clothing..

Boston, Mass., Apr. 17,1913.. New York City, Dec. io,
1913.

Men's and women's fur garmenls.

Cloth examining and spong­
ing.

Indefinite............................... Indefinite.,

.....

\l.<m........................................| 10,000....................................... 4,000..........

10,000.........................., 3,500.

Board of Medial ion, cousin ini; of 3 repnwm at Ives O;
t he union and 3 represent aiives of the association.

No provision..........................; No provision.,

Employers to deal with
committees of employees.

A ll differences to be adjust­ Board of Grievances consist­
ed between thn represent­
ing of o members, 3 mem­
atives of the union and
bers representing t heassoindividual manufacturers. , elation and 3 menbers
representing the union.

Board ol Arbitration, con- : Not specified .
.«i>tingof2repre.senuitives !
of the union and 2 repre­
sentatives of the associa­
tion; one referee with final
vote in cftfcs o f disagree­
ment.

Board of Arbitration, con­
sist Ing of l ho 0 members of
tho Board of Mediation
and one disintere-ted ref­
eree.

Board of Arbitration of 3 j Committee of 3 members to
members.
■ adjust all dilTeremvs.

New York Stato Board of
Mediation and Arbitra­
tion to act as arbitrators.

Commit tee of 3 members sat isfactory to both parties t o
act as arbitrators.6

Board of Arbitrat ion or 7 Board of Arbitration of 3 dis­
members, consisting oft he \ interested parties,
members of the Board of
Grievances and an itnpar- .
tial chairman.
!

No provision..........................

Employers obligated to ; No provision.....................
nuinrain sanitary condi- j
t ions in their shops.

Best standards or sanitary
conditions to be main­
tained.

No provi«ion.

Aigecmcnt expires Apr. 30,
inn*.

30, 000.,

9.000..

2 00(1

Medial ing committee to ad­
just hours of work, wages,
aiid'priccs.

Mar. 13.1911: Agreement to
consider grievances. Apr.
1,1912: Establishment of
trade board—5 members
from each side, with an
impartial chairman; crea­
tion of deputy clerks.

Committee on mediation : Not sjx'Cified.
(agreed to subsequent to
the signing of agreement).,

provision........................ , Board of Arbitration of 3
I member*.

ican Clothing Manufacture i
crs’ A s s o c i a t i o n , and
United Garment Workers
of America.

Tcxtilo Union Finishers* Associated Fur Manufactur­
Association and Cloth Ex­
ers, Mutual Protectivo Fur
aminers* and Spongers*
Manufacturers'
Associa­
Union.
tion, and Furriers* Union
of New York and vicinity
and Furriers* Union of
Greater New York.1

Manufacturers* Associa­
tion and United Garment
Workers of America.

Indefinite..

1 your......................................

Period for which agreement was signed. 1 Agreement expires Doc. 11.
1913. (ltenewcd.)

Ex- Boston Wholesale Clothing
GarAmer-

, .....................

*,000

Sanitation.........................

X o provision..

Union shop.

Mar. 29, 1913: Preferential
union .iliop; reasonable
>reforence in hiring and
aying oiT help.

I
i
■

Generalsanitarvcondition*; j No provision........................... No provision..
proper ventilation; rest !
room for female workers.

Ttpcngnit ion of 1he union.. . .

..............

!

2 years.......................... ....... i 5 years.....................................

14
0 .,

2 years....
9,000..
Conference committee or 11
members, 5 representatives
from each side and 1 im­
partial member.

Joint Board of Sanitary Con­
trol*

No specific recognition......... ' Preferential union shop........

Union shop............................ \ Union *hon’ ..

Union sh op ...

Indefinite.............................. .

Employers to deal with com­
mittees of employcos.

Union shop............................. Union shop,

Preferential union shop.

Minimum Increase of SI per
week (the prevailing in­
crease is from Si lo Slj;
cutters' wages subject to
individual agreements.2
0

The prevailing rates for cut­
ters are S22; pressers, SI7
to S21; shapers, S20 and
up; finishers, not many
being employed on a
weekly basis, SO to $10;
pocket operators, $22.

Minimum increase or SI per
week, making the prevail­
ing xcalo or wages as fol­
lows:

Wages determined Januarv
and July ol each year.

{

/Cutters, S20 per week; ap­
prentice cutters, 1st year,
SO to 110; 2d year, $13.50;
3d year, Si C.jU; examin­
ers, not less than S3 per
week. A ll t e m p o r a r y
work on time basis to be
paid for at the rate of the
p i e c e w o r k e r s ’ average
wage, taking two consecu­
tive full weeks' wages for
such average and paying
the average plus 10 per
cent.

Minimum standards of wages:
Week workers—

■Regular time......

March 13, 1911: Minimum Minimum increase of SI to Cullers’ and t r i m m e r s '
wagessubjcct toludividu$2 per week to coat mak­
wage, 55 per week; inale
ers: actual increase from • ai agreements b e r w e e u
employees above 17 years,
firm and i’ s employee^;
SL to $5 per week, mak­
not less than SO per week;
minimum Increase o f SI
ing the prevailing hcale of
male employees al>ove 18
per week to c h ild r e n 's
wages as follows:
years, not less than S8 per
coat makers. (The pre­
week; minimum wage for
vailing lnrree«e averaging
Tailors.
cutters. $8 per week; in­
S3 per weekusjreed losu b ­
crease of 10 per cent to tail­
sequent: to t!ie signing of
Shaper......................... $24
ors; increase of 10 percent
agreement.)1
9
20
to workers In the trimming Shoulder baster...........
1
0
department; m in im u m Bottom baster.............
1*
.)
wage of SS per week for Corner tucker...............
1
0
workers in the trimming Edge baster..................
10
department; m in im n m Canvas baster...............
It
wage of $15 per week in Armhole barter...........
1
2
the woolen department Slee\e m aker...............
10
and $18 per week on basis Cellar maker................
9
of examination of 30 pieces Button sewer...............
10
per day. instead of 40, as Bushelcr (m a le ).........
previously. March 29, Busheler (fem ale).......
1913: Machine operators, Hand button .*ewer . . .
$5 per week the first 3
Operator*.
months and $8 per week ,
one week thereafter; scrg- •
ers, sleeve operators, and I Pocket sewer................
pad makers, S5 per week : First assistant pocke*.
the first 3 months nnd S7 I sewer.
1
2
per week one week there­ Second assistant pock­
after; women in needle I et sower.
22
section, S5 per week the j Sleeve sewer................
first 3 months and $6 per f Coat sower....................
IS
week one week thereafter.9 1 Closer...........................
i:»
Lining m ak er.............
ICoat stitcher................ i."i
12
Sleeve m aker...............
Lapel maker................
1:
l.i I
Collar maker................

: Shorter hours lo be C on­
i strued as i n c r e a s e in
• wages; increase:* after 1
* y o u subject to deck ion of
. the Board of Arbitration.

Minimum increase of SI per
week to workers on sailer
suits (the prevailing in­
crease is from Si to SJ i;
cutters’ and trim m ers*
wages subject to i n d i ­
vidual agreements.^

Shaper...........................
Shoulder baster...........
Bottom baster.............
Comer tucker...............
Edge baster..................
Canvas baster...............
Armhole ba&ter...........
Reeve m aker...............
Collar maker................
Button sewer...............
Bushelcr (m a le ).........
Bushcler (female)........
Hand butlon- sower.. .

Pressers.

Presters.

Bushel p r e s s e r ........
l’ resser.........................
Edge presser................
1st under presser.........
2d underpresser...........

*
Bushel presser............. ?2‘_ j
Presser.........................
10
Edge pressor................
»4
1st underprcsser.........
M
3d underpresscr...........
12

Lining cutlers.............

Piecework . . . .

According to union priee
list. »

March 13, 1011: Increase o f ! Increase of 20 per cent to
10 per cent to tailors, i vest makers; increase of
March 29.1913: Kate and
10 per cent to pant* makone-half for overtime.
■ crs.

Hours of labor:
Regular tim e.

48 hours per week................

52 hours per week; 48 hours
per week for cutters. ’

Coat makers. 50 hours per
week; cutters, 4S hours
per week; busheimen, 53
hours per week. (Hours
for busheimen subject to
revision by the Board of
Arbitration.)

N o provision..

No overtime on Sundays
and legal holidays.

No provision.......................... No provision..

G legal holidays: Christmas
Day, New Year’s Day.
Decoration Day, Fourth
o f J u ly , L a b o r Day,
Thanksgiving Day.

Double time to be paid for | X o provision.,
work on legal holidays.
I

Y es.

Yes..

Legal holidays..

Tlegulur pay day In cash........................ ; No provision..

Subcontracting.......................

ilom e work..............................

Abolished.

Extra charges for power, e tc .

Not specified.............

Use o f machine power.............

i

Introduction oflabor-saving
machinery not to affect
existing scale of wages
and prices.

Y e s ........................................ . X o ..

Distribution and standardization
work

X ot specified..

Nailers.
January to July, $8 to $12;
July to January, $12 to $18.

Finishers.
January to July, $7 to $10;
July to January, $9 to $14.

$22
24
26
19

Regular rate in busv season:
time and one-half in dull
sca.--on.

No provision...,

. 3 hours per »veek overtime
| from November 1 to Mav
! 31, at regular rate.

Time and one-half .

No provision.........

Double time for overtime,
except that 3 consecutive
hours o f overtime work
constitute one-half day's
work and are paid for acc o r d i n g l y ; ull Sunday
work at double time; sin­
gle pay for work on holi­
days in addition to regular
pay.

Time and one-half.

Increase of 10 per cent on all
piecework.

Pieceworkers to be compen- Increase to pieceworkers to
sated for the time lost by i correspond with that to
the operation of the 52week workers.
liour week.

X o provision (no piecework). X o provision (no piecework)

Children’s coat makers, 51
hours per week: cutters,
r»0 hours per week; further
reductions in hours to be
subject to agreements bet w e e n each individual
firm and its employees.
In accordance with th*.?
foregoing agreement, the
following changes became
effective throughout the
trade on Jan. 1,1914: Chil­
dren's coat makers, 50
hour3 per week: cutters,
IS hours per week.

Decision of the Board of
Arbitration: Tailors, 53
hours per week, and 52
hours ucr week beginning
Jan. 1 1911; cutters, 50
hours per week, and 48
hours per week beginning
Jan. 1,1911.

Wash-stiit workers, 51 hours
p e r week; cutters and
trimmers. 50 hours per
week. The hours for cut­
ters were reduced to 48 by
mutual consent on Jan. I,
1914.

52 hours per w eek..

50 hours per week..

49i hours per week................ 49 hours per week

X ot specified.

No provision..

No provision.....................

Not specified.,

No provision..

No provision.,

Pending decision of confer­
ence committee.

N o work on legal holidays;
pay for legal holidays. '•
*

No provision..

No legal holidays observed.. 5 legal holidays: New Year’s
D a y , Decoration Dav,
. Fourth o f July. Labor
! Day, Christmas Dav.

N o provision.,

0 legal holidays: New Year’s
p a y , D e c o ra tio n Day,
F o u r t h of July, Labor
Day, Thanksgiving Day,
Christmas Day; no work
on Labor Day under any
circumstances.

10 legal holidays to to paid
for.

X o t specified .

X ot specified.

X ot specified . . .

. \es; agreed to subsequent ( Yes........................................... X o t specified.
s to tho signing of agree- :
mcnt.
I

Not specified........................

Yes.

Conditions in contractors*
shops l o be identical with
those in manufacturers’
shops.

X o provision.,

Conditions in contractors'
shops to be identical with
those in manufacturers’
shops.

Conditions In contractors’ ■ X o ............................................ 1 Conditions in contractors’ X o provision.,
shops to be identical with
I shops to bo identical with
thoso m manufacturers’
those in manufacturers’
shops.
;
| shops.

C ondi\ions In contractors'
shops to be identical with
t h o s e in manufacturers'
snops.

Abolished; agreed to subse­
quent lo the signing or
agreement.

Abolished; agreed to subse­
quent to tho signing of
agreement.

Abolished..............................

No provision; partiv abol­
ished by mutual consent.

X o provision..

Pending decision of confer­
ence committee.

X o provision..........................

X o pro vision..........................

No provision.,

No provision..

X
'<>............................................ X o provision..

X o provision.,

Prohibit ed.

N o...

X o; abolished b y mutual
consent subsequent to the
signing o f agreement.

X o; abolished by mutual
consent subsequent to the
signing of agreement.

X ot specified.

X o charges for power, sup­
plies, etc.

Xo............................................ Not specified..

Not specified..

X o provision.

Machine power to be used
only.

..............

Machine power to be used
only.

Use of union label................................

Ratio of apprentices: One
apprentice to every 5 jour­
neymen union members
$22
employed; not more than
1G
14
2 to each firm.
14
12

January to July, $8 to $12,
July to January, $12 to $18.

Abolished; agreed to subse­
quent to the signing of
agreement.

No.
. . . X o..

,

22
22
18
15
Takers off, per tretk.
15
12
lo 1st 6 months................ $10
15 2d Gm onths................
12

Increase for piecework to
correspond with increase
for week workers.

X o nrovision...........................■ Machine power to be used
’
; only.

Not specified.

Machine power to be used
only; agreed to subse­
quent to the signing of
agreement.

Y e s .......................................... Not specified.,

Xot specified..

N o provision.

X o provision.

.! Abolished................................I Abolished..

Abolished..

Cutters, Grade B.

Cuts Hudson seal (muskrat
dyed), caracul, perslan,
etc., January to July, $13
to $18; July to January .$16
IstG months................ $12
to $25.
2d 0 m onths................
14
17
2d year........................
Cutters, Grade C.
20
3d\ear........................
4th yea r......................
23 Cuts rabbits, dogs, goats,
marmot, etc., January to
Spongers per u eek.
July, $8 to $13; July to
January $10 to $15.
1st 0 months................ SIS
2d 0 months................
20
Operators.

Increase of 10 per cent to ! Increase of 15 per cent on all
knee pants makers.
j piecework.

N o............................................ Conditions in contractors*
I shops to be ident ical wit h
; those in manufacturers
! shops.

i No provision..

Contractors..............................

12

Cutters, Grade A.
All those that cut fine and
expensive furs, such as sa­
ble, mink, ermine, seal,
skunk, etc., January to
July, $20 to $25; July to
January, $30 to $35.

n> ■

Time and one-half................ No provision ,

Time and one-half; double
time for work on 0 legal
holidays.

! Double time or double rate
! for work on Sundays and
l holidays.

T rim m ers....................
M arkers.......................
Machine cutters...........
Lining cu tters............

S22
24

Time and one-half to week
workers; rate and onehalf to pieceworkers.

Overtime

$22
17

Prevailing rates for furriers:

Cutters•

Cutters.

Overtime....................

Extra help engagtd by day.
14! 'Examiners..................$5.00
12I Spongers................... 4.00
10' Takers o ff” ................ 3.50
9
10
Apprentices.
7
Examintrs, per irrek.
IS

Operators.
Pocket sewer................
First assistant pocket
sewer.
Second assistant pockct sewer.
Sleeve sewer................
Coat sewer....................
Closer.............................
Lining maker...............
Coat stitcher................
Sleeve m aker...............
Lapel maker................
Collar maker................

22

! Trimmers......................
.Markers........................

Tailor*.

Examiners.................. $27
Spongers, press opera­
tors, winding ma­
chine operators.......
22
} Employees doing tak■ lug oil, damning,
! hanging up, book
I f old mi;, hand rolling,
( doubling u p .............
17
9
, Helpers........................

I No..

.j Equitable division o f work
; in dull seasons; standardi■ zation of garments, procI esses and prices.

No provision.,

Tailors, 50 hours per week;
cu tters, 50 hourspor wee k;
busheimen, 50 hours per
v.eek.1
3

I

X o.,

X o.,

X o ..................

X o provision.

Equitable distribution of
work agreed to subse­
quent to the signing of
agreement. ’

X o provision.,

i

•X o ...........................................

.! Xoprovis

I
No..

No.

Y es.

X o provision.,

Xo provision..

No provision.......................... 'N o provision.

Mar. 29,1913: System o f pro­
motion ia the trimming
| department,providing for
i an increase each year o f ,
$1 per week fora period of
, 7 years.

Amendments.

i proposition made b y tho manufacturers, agreed to by the unions, and guaranteed by the New York
State Board o f Mediation and Arbitration.
* N ew Y ork State Board o f Mcuiatiou and Arbitration acting as guarantor of agreement.
* Dr. J. L . Magnes, o f New York City, is tho guarantor of this agreement.
< The Union-Made Garment Manufacturers* Association embraces factories and firms located in 91 cities
of 27 States and Canada.
* Three agreements.

38012®—Bull. 198 -10.




(T o face page 1S2.)

•This provision has never been carried out, all differences being adjusted between union representa­
tives and individual manufacturers.
•Mar. 27,1914: Not yet established.
6 No strikes or lockouts during the j>oriod of the agreement.
• Board of Arbitration authorized to regulate wages and hours in accordance wilh permanent changes
throughout the trade.
1 Keductioti of prices previously obtained in dull seasons abolished.
0

1 All workers engaged on week’s first working day to bo retained whole week; if employed on dav
1
subsequent to week’s first working day, to be retained whole week, unless work by day is specified.
Sec text.
1 Busheimen compelled to work at the discretion of the employers.
3
MWhen shops aro open for work on legal holidays, busheimen are to work in conjunction with other
employees, their not working on such days to be sufficient cause for deduction in pay.

INDEX.
A.
Page.
Agreements of labor unions w ith associations o f manufacturers (P art I I ) ------------9 5 -1 8 0
Am algamated Clothing W orkers’ Union, agreement of, w ith H art, Schaffner &
M a r x ______________ - t ________________________ I ___________ _____________________________ 1 8 0 -1 8 2
American Clothing Manufacturers* Association, agreement of, w ith United Gar­
ment W o rk e rs-,.___ _________ ___ __ _______________________________________________________ 1 0 6 -1 1 1
Arbitration and mediation, etc., collective agreements as to, table o f__________ Facing 182
Arbitration board, H a rt, Schaffner & M a r x :
Appeals from trade board, decisions in ____________________________________________4 8 ,4 9
Complaints or grievances filed w ith, descriptive analysis o f__________________ 5 9 -6 3
Minimum rates, employees earning less than, allowances for, decisions as to— 87, 88
Opinion o f chairman of, as to preference of union members______________________ 70, 71
Opinions and rulings of, as to suspensions, etc------------------------------------------------------- 5 3 -5 9
Preferential shop, decisions as to-------------------------------------- ;-----------------------------------------6 3 -6 8
Arbitration, conciliation, and mediation under labor agreements, H art, Schaffner
& Marx, 1910 to 1914 (P art I ) _______________________________________________________ 9 -9 4
Associated Fur M anufacturers (In c .), etc., agreement of, with fur workers, Sep­
tember 8, 1912, text of_______________________________________________________________1 3 0 ,1 3 1

B.
Board of arbitration.
(S e e Arbitration board.)
Bovs’ Clothing M anufacturers of Greater New York, agreement of, with United
Garment Workers------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1 4 -1 1 6
Boys’ W ash Suit Manufacturers’ Association, agreement of, w ith United Gar­
ment Workers___________________________________________________________________________ 1 1 8 -1 2 3
C.
Cloth Examiners and Spongers’ Union of Greater Now York, agreement of, with
Textile Union Finishers’ Association_________________________________________ ______ 1 2 3 -1 2 7
Coat making, prices paid for, before and after strike o f February 1, 1 9 13, B o sto n .
142
Contractors and subcontracting, etc., collective agreements as to, table o f___ Facing 182
Cutters, H art, Schaffner & M a r x :
Appeal o f___ :____________________________________________________________________________ 5 6 -5 9
Apprentices, inclusion of, under agreement o f 1 913________________________________
40
Earnings of, classified weekly________________________________________________________
84
Demands of, April 1, 1 9 1 3 ____________________________________________________________
34
Fluctuations o f employment of, M ay 1, 1913, to April 3 0, 1 9 1 4 ______________ 93, 94
Cutting department. H art, Schaffner & M arx, decision or arbitrators as to, March
13, 1 9 1 1 ____________________________________________________________________________________
21
D.
Discharge, lim itation of power of. H art, Schaffner & M arx_______________ __________ 7 6 -8 2
Discharges, plan to regulate, H art, Schaffner & M arx_________________________________ 74. 75
Dues collected by unions, in shops of H art, Schaffner & M arx, 1912, 1913, 1 9 1 4__
74

Earnings, classified weekly, o f cutters, H art, Schaffner & M arx-------------------------------84
Earnings.
(S e e a im W ages.)
E ast Side Retail Clothing M anufacturers’ Association, agreement of, with United
Garment W orkers_______________________________________________________________________ 1 1 1 -1 1 4

F ixing of prices under the labor agreement, H art, Schaffner & M arx_______________ 8 4 -8 7
F ur industry, New York C i t y :
Conference committee, work o f-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 3 1 -1 3 5
Furriers’ Union of Greater New York, Local No. 14263, agreement of Sep­
tember 8 , 1912, text o f___________________________________________________________1 3 0 ,1 3 1
Strike of 1 9 1 2 _ _ _ ___________________________________________________________I ______ 1 2 8 -1 3 0
W ages, scale o f__________________________________________________________________________
135




183

184

INDEX.
G.

Grievances, under the agreements, H art, Schaffner & M arx, adjustment o f :
Page.
Agency of adjustment, complaints settled by each specified, April 1, 1912,
to June 1, 1 9 1 4 _______________________________________________________________________
41
Arbitration board, decisions o f_______________________________________________________4 8 ,4 9
Arbitration board, petition of cutters to____________________________________________ 5 6 -5 9
Arbitration board, rulings and opinions of_________________________________________ 5 3 -5 9
Disposition of grievances, M ay 8, 1912, to June 1, 1914_________________________ 4 0 -4 8
Nature o f grievances appealed to arbitration board, M ay 8, 1912, to June
49
1, 191 4 ________________________________________________________ L _____________________
Nature o f grievances referred to trade board, M ay 8, 1912. to June 1, 1 9 1 4 __
45
Reference o f grievances to trade board, and nature and disposition o f_______ 4 4 - 4 8
Trade board, decisions of, in favor o f union and in favor o f company, M ay
8, 1912, to June 1, 1 9 1 4 ______________________________________ _____________________
47
Trade board, organization and composition o f_____________________________________
42
Trade board, rulings and opinions of______________________________ :_______________ 5 0 -5 3
Trade board, work o f___________________________________________________________________ 4 2 -4 4
Typical cases of, descriptive analysis o f__________________________________________ 5 9 -6 3
H.
H a rt, Schaffner & M a r x :
Agreement of January 14, 1911, creating a board of arbitration to settle
strike text o f - — __ __________________ ____ ______________________
—
_
_
jq 20
D ecision of the arbitrators, March 13, 1 9 l I I I _______ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I _ I 20^-25
Agreement o f January 14 and decision o f March 13, 1911, operation under__ 2 5 -2 7
Agreement o f March 29, 1 9 1 3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 3 -3 9
Agreement o f March 29, 1913, adjustment of grievances under______________ 4 0 -4 2
Agreement o f March 2 9 , 1913, extension o f_^ ____________________________________ 3 9, 40
Agreement o f March 2 9 , 1913. text o f_______________________________________________ 37, 38
Agreement o f M ay 1, 1916, w ith Am algamated Clothing Workers* Union, text
o f---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 8 0 -1 8 2
Agreement proffered December 5, 1910, to mayor and aldermen of Chicago__
16
Agreement proffered November 5, 1910, to United Garment W orkers, text o f 15
Agreement establishing a trade board------------------------------------------------------------------------2 7 -3 3
Arbitration board, decisions o f------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4 8 ,4 9
Arbitration board, rulings and opinions o f_________________________________________ 5 3 -5 9
Arbitrators appointed to settle strike, decision of, March 13. 191 1 ___________ 2 0 .2 1
Cutters, appeal of, under provisions of agreement o f March 29, 1 9 1 3__________ 5 6 -5 9
Cutters* apprentices, decision as to, o f board o f arbitrators____________________
40
Cutters, demands of, April 1, 1 9 1 3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------34
Cutting department, decision o f arbitrators as to, March 13, 1911__________
21
Discharge, right of company to, limitation upon_________________________________ 7 6 -8 2
Discharge, power of, under the several agreements________________________________ 7 4 -8 2
Grievances adjusted, number and per cent of, by agency o f adjustment, April
1, 1912, to June 1, 191 4 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41
Minimum rates, employees earning less than, allowances for____________________87, 88
Preferential union shop, recognition of union______________________________________ 6 3 -7 1
Preferential union shop, decision o f board of arbitration in regard to_______ 6 8 -7 0
Preferential union shop, opinion o f chairman o f arbitration board as to_______ 70, 71
Prices, fixing of, under labor agreement____________________________________________ 8 4 -8 7
Suspension system ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75, 76
Unions, increase in membership of, 1912 to 1 914_________________________________ 73, 74
Unionization o f shops, M arch and M ay, 191 4 ------- --------------------------------------------------- 7 1 -7 4
Seasonal fluctuations o f employment as shown by pay rolls, M ay 1, 1913,
to M ay 1, 1 9 1 4 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 2 -9 4
Shop chairman, function o f-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 9 -9 2
Strike, general, of 1 9 1 0 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 5 -1 9
Strike settlem ent o f___________________________________________________________
Tailor inspectors, decision as to, o f board of arbitration______________________ I I
40
Tailor shops, preference to members o f unions in ------------------------------------------------- 69, 70
Tailor shops, decision of arbitrators as to, March 13, 1911_____________ _________
21
Tailors, demands of. April 1, 1913---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 3 ,3 4
Trade board and board of arbitration, descriptive analysis of typical cases
filed w ith----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 9 -6 3
Trade board, grievances referred to, nature and disposition o f__________________ 4 4 -4 8
Trade board, organization and composition of----------------------------------------------------------42
Trade board, rulings and opinions of------------------------------------------------------------------------5 0 -5 3
Trade board, work of___________________________________________________________________4 2 -4 4
Ticket sewers, status of, decision of arbitration board---------------------------------------3 9 ,4 0
Trimmers, demands of, April 1, 1913-----------------------------------------------------------------------35
Trimming department, decision of arbitrators as to, March 13, 1911-------------------21
W ages in cutting department, 1910 to 191 4 ------------------------------------------------------------- 8 2 -8 4
Woolen department, decision of arbitrators as to, March 13, 1911-----------------21
W ork, equal distribution o f------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8 8 ,8 9
W orking code, development o f-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49, 50
Holidays, etc., legal, collective agreements as to, table of---------------------------------- Facing 182
Home work, etc., collective agreements as to, table o f-------------------------------------------Facing 182
Hours o f labor, etc., collective agreements as to, table o f------------------------------------ Facing 182

I.
Illinois State Senate resolution, text of, relating to strike o f garment workers
in Chicago, 1 9 1 0 ---------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 8 ,1 9




INDEX.

185

M.
Page.
Machine power, etc., use of, collective agreements as to. table of_____________Facing 182
Metropolitan Merchant Tailors* Association, agreement of, with United Garment
W orkers____________________________>
__________________________________________ __________ 1 1 6 -1 1 8
Minimum prices, schedule of, in union-made-garment manufacture, 1 9 1 4 _______ 1 6 1 -1 8 0
Minimum rates, employees earning less than, allowances for__________________________ 8 7 ,8 8
Minimum-wage scale in tailor shops, under agreement of Amalgamated Clothing
Workers and H art, Schaffner & M arx---------------------------------------------------------------------------181
M utual Protective Fur Manufacturers’ Association (In c .), etc., agreement of Sep­
tember 8, 1912, with fur workers--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 3 0 ,1 3 1
N.
New York Clothing Trade Association, etc., agreement of, with United Garment
W o rk e rs___________________________________________________________________________________ 1 0 6 -1 1 1
New York State Bureau of Mediation and Arbitration, in Rochester strike of
1 9 1 3 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 1 4 6 -1 4 9
O.
Occupations in coat making, equivalent prices in each of specified, before and after
strike of February 1, 1913, Boston_____________________________________________________
142
Overtime, etc., collective agreements as to, table of-----------------------------------------------Facing 182
P.
P ay day, regular, in cash, etc., collective agreements*.as to, table o f___________ Facing 182
Power, etc., extra charges for, collective agreements as to, table o f_____________ Facing 182
Preferential union shop, recognition o f u n ion :
Arbitration board, chairman of, opinion of, relative to preference_____________7 0, 71
Arbitration board, decisions o f_________________________________!-------------------------------- 6 3 -7 1
Cutters, rule o f preference applied to-------------------------------------------------------------------------68
Operation under decisions relating to------------------------------------------------------------------------6 8 -7 0
T ailor shops, preference in____________________________________________________________ 69, 70
Trimmers, rule of preference applied to____________________________________________
68
R.
Rochester Clothiers* Exchange, attitude of, public statement defining, text o f__ 145,1.40
Rochester clothing manufacturers, public letter of, to clothing workers, text o f__
147
S.
Sanitation, etc., collective agreements as to, table o f_____________________________ Facing 182
Seasonal fluctuation of employment as shown by pay rolls, Hart, Schaffner & M a r x . 9 2 -9 4
Shop chairman, function of, H art, Schaffner & Slarx----------------------------------------------------- 8 9 -9 2
Strikes, in clothing in d u stry:
Boston, 1913, and agreement______________________________________________________ 1 3 6 -1 4 4
Chicago, 19 1 0 --------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 5 -1 9
New York City, 1913________________________________________________________________ 9 8 -1 0 6
New York City, fur workers, 1912, and agreement_________________:___________ 1 2 8 -1 3 0
Rochester, 1913, and agreement----------------------------------------------------------------- -------------- 1 4 4 -1 5 0
Suspension cases, number and disposition of, January 1, 1913, to June 3 0, 191 4 __
77
Suspension system , H art, Schaffner & M arx__________________________________ _________75, 76
T.
Tailor inspectors, decision as to, o f chairman of arbitration board, H art, Schaff­
ner & M arx________________________________________________________________________________
40
Tailor shops, preference to union members in, H art, Schaffner & M arx_____________ 69, 70
Tailor shops, decision o f arbitrators as to, March 13, 1911, Ilart, Schaffner & M a r x .
21
Tailors, demands of, April 1, 1913, H art, Schaffner & M arx__________________________ 33, 34
Tailors to the Trade Association, etc., agreement of, with United Garment W ork­
ers---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 0 6 -1 1 1
Textile Union Finishers* Association, agreement of, with Cloth Examiners and
Spongers* Union o f Greater New Y ork______________________________________________ 1 2 3 -1 2 7
Ticket sewers, status of, decision o f chairman of arbitration board, Ilart, Schaff­
ner & M arx----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 9 ,4 0
Trade board, H art, Schaffner & M a r x :
Committee creating, report of, with rules o f procedure_________________________ 2 9 -3 3
Discharged employees, decisions in specified cases o f_____________________________ 7 8 -8 2
Establishm ent o f_________________________________________________________________________2 7 -3 3
Fixing o f prices, decisions as to---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 5 -8 7
Grievances referred to, descriptive analysis o f typical cases of_______________ 5 9 -6 3
Grievances referred to, nature and disposition o f____________________________•__!____4 4 -4 8
Organisation and composition________________________________________________________
42
Rulings and opinions___________________________________________________________________5 0 -5 3
Shop chairman, functions of, decisions as to______________________________________ 9 0 -9 2
W ork o f_________________________________________________________________________________ 4 2 -4 4
Trim mers, demands of, April 1, 1913, H art, Schaffner & M arx_____________________
35
Trim m ing department, decision of arbitrators as to, March 13, 1911, Ilart, Schaff­
ner & M arx---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------21




186

INDEX.

ir.
Page.
Union dues, amount of, collected in shops of H art, Schaffner & M arx______________
74
Union label, etc., collective agreements as to, table o f____________________________Facing 182
Union label, form o f agreement as to, between United Garment Workers and in­
dividual firms___________________________________________________________________________ 1 4 9 ,1 5 0
Union-made-garment manufacture, schedule o f minimum prices------------------------------ 1 6 1 -1 8 0
Union-made-Garment Manufacturers, constitution and by-laws of, text o f_______ 1 5 1 -1 5 3
Union-Made-Garment Manufacturers of America, agreement with United Garment
W o rk e r s__________________________________________________________________________________1 5 0 -1 8 0
Union members, per cent of, in shops o f H art, Schaffner & M arx-----------------------------72
Union, recognition of, and preferential union shop* Hart, Schaffner & M arx----------- 6 3 -7 1
Unionization o f the shops, M arch and M ay, 1914, H art. Schaffner & M arx----------- 7 1 - 7 4
United Garment W orkers, and agreements with specified p a r tie s:
American Clothing Manufacturers* Association----------------------------------------------------- 1 0 6 -1 1 1
Boys’ Clothing Manufacturers of Greater New York---------------------------------------1 1 4 -1 1 6
Boys’ W ash Suit Manufacturers’ Association----------------------------------------------------- 1 1 8 -1 2 3
E ast Side Retail Clothing M anufacturers’ Association-------------------------------------1 1 1 -1 1 4
Individual custom-tailoring establishments, Boston, form o f-------------------------- 1 3 9 ,1 4 0
Individual employers, New York, form of, as to union label------------------------ 1 2 2 ,1 2 3
Metropolitan Merchant Tailors’ Association of Greater New York__________ 1 1 6 -1 1 8
New York Clothing Trade Association----------------------------------------------------------------- 1 0 0 -1 1 1
Union-Made-Garment Manufacturers of America------------------------------------------------- 1 5 0 -1 8 0
Ready-to-wear-garment manufacturers, small, form o f-----------------------------------------1
141
Tailors to the Trade Association------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1 0 6 -1 1 1
V.
Vest makers’ union, membership o f,-in shops of H art, Schaffner & M arx__________

73

W.
W ag6$ *
Button sewers, fellers, and buttonhole makers, New York, demands of, as to _
105
___
105
Canvas and pad makers, New York, demands of, as to------------------------------------ *
Ooat making, Boston-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------142
Cutters and trimmers, New York, demands of, as to____________________________
101
Cutters, E ast Side Retail Clothing Manufacturers’ Association, New York,
sc a le -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------114
Cutters, pressers, trimmers, packers, pad fillers, and shipping boys, New
York, demands of, as to_________________________________________________________ 105, 100
Cutters, classified weekly earnings of, 1910, 1913, 1914_________________________
84
Cutting department, 1910 to 1914, H art, Schaffner & M arx_____________________ 8 2 -8 4
Duck coats, vests, etc,, schedule of minimum prices for__________ _____________ 1 6 1 -1 8 0
Fur workers, New York City, wage scale_________________________________________
135
Jacket makers, children's, demands of, as to____________________________________
101
Jumpers, overalls, etc., schedule of minimum prices for-------------------------------------1 6 1 -1 8 0
Minimum standards of, collective agreements as to---------------------------------------Facing 182
Minimum rates, employees earning less than,, allowances for__________________ 87, 88
Operators, New York, demands of, as to -------------------------------------------------------------------104
Operators, E ast Side Retail Clothing M anufacturers’ Association, New York,
wage scale----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------113
Overalls, jum pers, etc.. schedule of minimum prices for______________________ 1 6 1 -1 8 0
Pants makers, New York, demands of, as to_____________________________________ 1 0 1 -1 0 4
Pressers, E ast Side Retail Clothing Manufacturers’ Association, New York,
wage s c a le --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------114
Pressers, New York, demands of, as to---------------------------------------------------------------------104
Pants, factory-made, shirts, vests, etc., schedule of minimum prices for_____1 6 1 -1 8 0
Tailors, New York, demands of, as to---------------------------------------------------------------------104
Tailors, E ast Side Retail Clothing Manufacturers’ Association, New York,
wage s c a le ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------113
Uniori-Made-Oarment Manufacturers’ Association, join t wage-scale conference
committee, reports of, 1 9 0 5 _____________________________________________________ 1 5 4 -1 5 7
Vests, duck coats, etc., schedule o f minimum prices for-------------------------------------1 6 1 -1 8 0
W oolen department, decision o f arbitrators as to, March 13, 1911, H art, Schaff­
ner & M arx__________________________________________________________________________________
21
W ork, etc., distribution and standardization of, collective agreements as to, table
o f----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Facing 182
W ork, equal distribution of, H art, Schaffner & M arx----------------------------------------------------- 88, 89
W orking code, development of, H art, Schaffner & M arx----------------------------------------------- 4 9 , 50