View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
FRANCES PERKINS, Secretary

WOMEN'S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

Changes in Women's Employment
During the War
By

MARY ELIZABETH PIDGEON

SPECIAL BULLETIN N O . 20 OF THE WOMEN'S BUKEAU
JUNE 1944

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1944

For tale by the Superintendent of Documents, V- $- Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C
Price 10 cent*







Letter of Transmittal
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OP LABOR,
WOMEN'S BUREAU,

Washington, June 14, 1944.
I have the honor to present a report the findings of which
will be of importance in the development of sound postwar employment policies. Its analysis answers a variety of insistent questions as
to the war movements in women's entrance to and exit from the labor
force, according to their age and marital status and the changes in
their occupational groupings in this period.
Basic data for this report were specially collected by the Bureau of
the Census, at the request of the Women's Bureau, in the course of the
regular monthly labor-force census. They were tabulated by that
office under the direction of Dr. A. Ross Eckler, chief of the Special
Surveys Division, assisted by Miss Gertrude Bancroft. Questions to
be asked and specifications as to these tables were prepared by Janet
M. Hooks Bassie of the Women's Bureau Research Division, and
analysis of the findings was made by Marv Elizabeth Pidgeon, chief
of the Research Division, assisted by Elisabeth D. Benham.
Respectfully submitted.
MARY ANDERSON, Director.
MADAM:

Hon. FRANCES PERKINS,




Secretary of Labor.
ni




Contents
Page

Letter of transmittal
Employment of women in the war period—Significant facts
Source of new data on employment of women
Women as a permanent part of the labor force
War increases in woman employment
Chief sources of new woman labor supply
Women who left the labor force
'_
Distribution of woman population as to employment or activity
War shifts in women's employment in major occupation groups
Women remaining in the same occupation group as before Pearl
Harbor
Labor-force status before Pearl Harbor of women employed March
1944, by occupation group
Women who entered the various occupational groups after Pearl
Harbor
Occupation group in March 1944 of women not in the labor force
before Pearl Harbor
Former occupation group of women who shifted to new occupations. _
New employment of women who changed occupations
Net gain or loss in each occupation group since 1940
Over-all employment and occupation shifts of women _
Changes in women employment by industry group
Women remaining in same industry group as formerly
Women who remained in the labor force
The various manufacturing industries
New entrants to each industry group
Distribution of new entrants to labor force
Major shifts between industry groups
Net gain or loss in each industry group since 1940
The employment situation within each industry group
Marital status of women war workers
Increases in employment of women, by marital status
Various groups of married women
Women's labor-force status, by marital status in March 1944~
Relative stability of single and married women workers
Marital status and former activity of new accessions to the woman
labor force
1
Marital status and activity of women who left the labor force
Increasing employment of married women Age of women workers and women not at work
Former and present activity status, by age.
Labor-force status and marital status, by age
Appendix—General tables
1. Activity status in 1944 by activity status in 1941—Numbers.2. Activity status of major groups in 1944 by activity status in 1941—
Percent distribution
3. Percent distribution of chief groups in 1944 according to activity
status in 1941
4. Occupation group in 1944 by labor-force status in 1941
5. Occupation group in 1941 of women who shifted to new occupation
group before March 1944
6. Over-all of employment in same occupation and shifts in and out of
. labor force and between occupations, 1941 to 1944
__
7. Industry group in 1944 by labor-force status in 1941
8. Former industry group of women who shifted to new industry
group
9. Labor-force status in 1944 and in 1941, by marital status
10. Marital status by labor-force status, 1944 and 1941
11. Marital status and age of women in labor force March 1944
12. Marital status and age of women not in labor force March 1944.


v

III
VI
1
2
2
3
3
4
5
5
6
6
7
8
8
9
9
11
11
11
12
12
13
14
14
15
17
17
18
19
19
20
20
21
22
23
23
24
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
27
28
28
29
29

EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN THE WAR PERIOD
SIGNIFICANT FACTS

Employed in December 1941, as reported March 1944—12,090,000.
Employed March 1944—16,480,000. (Increase, 36 percent.)
61 percent were in labor force before Pearl Harbor.
50 percent in same occupation group as formerly.
In labor force in both periods—10,230,000.
69 percent were 20-44 years old.
42 percent single; 30 percent married, husband present.
Women who left labor force—2,180,000.
21 percent were 45 years old or more.
62 percent were married, husband present.
93 percent went to home housework.
New entrants to labor force—6,650,000.
55 percent were 20-^4 years old.
44 percent single; 36 percent married, husband present.
56 percent were home houseworkers; 34 percent in school.
Women not entering labor force—33,260,000.
43 percent were 45 or over, 14 percent under 20.
65 percent were married, husband present.
Percent change
194Q-U

Proportion employed
19U

mo
Woman population, 14 and over
-|-4
22.0
31.5
Single women
—6
3a 3
53.6
Married women
4-8
22.5
13.9
Great employment shifts occurred between occupations.
Manufacturing and clerical occupations gained most.
The manufacturing industries differed greatly.
In war industries, 49 percent came from outside the labor force, 26
percent from other industries. In essential supply industries only
37 percent came from outside the labor force, 54 percent were in same
industry as before the war.
NOTE.—As reported for December 1941 and March 1944 by women interviewed in March 1944. Does not take account of all changes occurring between
the two dates.
VI




Changes in Women's Employment During
the War
One of the most spectacular of the changes that have characterized
the period since the Pearl Harbor attack is the tremendous shift in the
work of women to meet this country's needs for industrial products.
This has occurred in many cases through women's own volition, but in
large measure it has been in response to urgent calls for their services.
After two years of great and rapid transition in women's employment and occupations, the need has been felt increasingly for further
data on the over-all extent and character of the movement. Aside
from their widespread interest, such data are of the utmost importance
in shaping both immediate and future administrative policies.
In the first place, tho effectiveness of continuing plans to carry
forward this country's program for production and services depends to
a considerable extent on the response women are making to the great
efforts to call them to work outside their homes. Further, wise provision for the necessary adjustments after the war requires a background
understanding of employment needs and possibilities, on which much
light can be thrown by a fuller knowledge of the experiences during
the war.
SOURCE OF NEW DATA ON EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

The Bureau of the Census publishes monthly estimates, for men and
women separately, of total civilian emplo}rment. These are based on
interviews with households in* a national sample which has been in
operation since the spring of 1940. The present sample includes some
30,000 households located in 123 counties selected in such a, manner
as to provide national estimates of the major labor-force characteristics of the population.1
In connection with this reporting, special additional questions sometimes are asked for a particular month. In the spring of 1944, the
Bureau of the Census responded to a request by the Women's Bureau
of the U. S. Department of Labor for the inclusion of questions to afford
data on the shifts in the employment and occupations of women
between tho week immediately preceding the Pearl Harbor attack and
a week in early March 1944. Throughout this discussion, comparisons
of earlier and later data refer to the week of December 1-6, 1941, and
the week of March 5-11, 1944, the interim thus being about 2# years.2
for December 1&41 are not available for certain particular comparisons. This will be explained where discussed. (See footnote II, p. 9.) The use of 1940 for the present questions, instead of December 1941, was
considered, but it was felt that the later date would afford more accurate replies, since persons interviewed
can remember more vividly the Pearl Harbor date and the time just preceding than a time approximately
4 years before the date of interview*




2

CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

The questions added to the usual monthly schedules were as follows:
(1) For all persons 14 years and over, enter activity
during week before Pearl Harbor, December 1-6,
1941.
(2) If at* work or had a job during the week before Pearl
Harbor, enter occupation and industry of that job.
The data resulting from these questions are of even greater value
because correlations with age and marital status could be made in
addition to those on employment and occupation. Marital status
could be included because a special question on that subject had been
asked in the preceding month. Age was obtainable because such
a question is a part of the regular schedule, this information being of
vital importance, for example, to the draft boards. Caution is necessary in regard to the use of material developed from a sample of this
type, especially since in. this case its content is of such wide national
interest. The data give a revealing picture of various relationships—
for example, as to the types of shifts occurring in and out of the labor
force or between various industries or occupations, or as to the age
or marital status of women in and not in the labor force. However,
since they are estimates from a sample they do not completely measure
the exact sizes of particular groups, especially of the smaller groups.3
WOMEN AS A PERMANENT PART OF THE LABOR FORCE

Many people have not realized the very large extent to which
women are a permanent part of the labor force. The dominance of the
war situation, with its urgent call to women to take employment and
its large increases in the numbers of them who have gone to work, has
tended to obscure the fact that women long have been a very substantial and increasing part of the country's labor force. In the 50 years
prior to 1940, the proportion of workers who were women increased
from 17 percent in 1890 to 24 percent in 1940, as the following shows.
Percent women were
of all worker*

1890
.
17 2
1900
II.""!""
"
"" 1&3
1910^.
" _
21.2
1920
I::::::;::::::::::::;; 20.5
1930
22.0
1940
"
""
"""24.3
1944 (March)
I--"III""Ii;_\\\\\\\\\\\\";; 32. 9
WAR INCREASES IN WOMAN EMPLOYMENT

In spite of the fact that in 1940 women already constituted over
24 percent of the labor force, the number of women who have sought
to meet the new war needs is almost breath-taking in its magnitude,
ine number of employed women reported increased by 36.4 percent in
a period of a little more than 2 years-from the week preceding the
rearl Harbor attack to the week of March 5 to 11, 1944, when the new
figures were taken. These data are as follows:
Number of women
employed

-^

IJecember 1-6, 1941,
March 5-11. 1944

"

* 12,090,000
1 6 480,000

* See note 1 on p. 1.
* These are women who in March 1944 said they also were employed in December 1941.




WAR INCREASES IN WOMAN EMPLOYMENT

3

Actually, the number of women going to work within this period has
been far greater than these over-all figures would indicate, for of those
at work before Pearl Harbor many had left employment by March
1944 and been replaced by new workers. For this reason, the entire
number of new women entrants, not employed in early December 1941
totaled 6,650,000.5
Chief Sources of New Woman Labor Supply.

Where did this startling number of additional women workers come
from? More than half of the new entrants had come to work from
their homes, and about a third of them had been in school. The
following summary indicates these and the minor sources of the new
women workers:
Number
(in thousands)

Percent

6,650

Source of new women trorkcrs '

100.0

3,710
2,280
240
80
340

55.8
34,3
3.5
1,2
5. 1

Total
Home housework
School
Under 14.__
Other
Labor-force status not ascertainable

_

The response these new women workers have made to the needs of their
country, their communities, and in many cases their own families
indicates that when vital need arises women are available to meet it.
When women are as ready as this, under voluntary systems, to take
their part, compulsory methods appear entirely unnecessary, unless
this country as a whole should face far more extreme situations than
seem likely to arise. Furthermore, the willingness of a great body of
women to come forward when the situation demands it places a corresponding responsibility squarely on the shoulders of industry and
public authorities to include in their planning full consideration of the
extent to which women are a large and normally increasing part of the
labor force.
Women Who Left the Labor Force.

Though more than 80 percent of the women who reported that they
had been employed before Pearl Harbor were still working in March
1944, over 2 million women—18.6 percent of those who were at work
in December of 1941—left the labor force between the two dates under
comparison. A consideration of where these women went may be of
constructive interest to those who are planning for adjustments of
workers after the war.
Of the women who left, more than 90 percent went to home housework, some were unable to work, and a very much smaller number
went to school. Their numbers and distribution were as follows:
Women who left labor force

March 19U stotm of women uhoUft labor force

j/KSto)

2,180

Total

In home housework..
Other

2

_

» ??2

-

-

160<

Percent

100.0
9

£ I

7

*3

* This takes no awount of the multitude of shifts between occupations nor of-otherchanges in the Interim
period. For discussion of the former, see section on War Shifts In W omen s Occupations, p. 10.
5045S0 0 —14

2




4

CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

Distribution of Woman Population as to Employment or Activity.

Of the entire female population of 14 years and over in March 1944,
practically 20 percent were in the labor force both before Pearl Harbor and in March 1944, and in addition about 13 percent entered
in the period between these two dates. A small proportion were
women formerly in the labor force who had left it by March 1944.
More than 60 percent of the women in the United States were not in
the labor force either before Pearl Harbor or in March 1944. Over
three-fourths of these—more than 25% million women—were home
houseworkers in both periods, small proportions were in school or
unable to work at both times, and nearly 2}{ million were under 14
before Pearl Harbor. This leaves almost 2 million women, besides a
proportion of the home houseworkers, who still might be available if
further additions to the country's labor forces are needed.
The women who have not gone to work undoubtedly are those
whose economic situation neither requires nor tempts them to do so.
There also are a number of localities where war industries have not
developed, and women who for family reasons are unable to migrate
have no increased opportunity for employment. Since Government
contracts are now being curtailed, and in various parts of the country
women who do need their earnings are being laid off, there appears to
be little evidence that employment needs cannot be solved by a proper
use of the existing labor force without calling on this reserve group of
women.
The basic figures for the foregoing discussion 6 of the present situation are as follows:
Activity status

Distribution of women population
Numbtr (in thousands) Percent

Woman population 14 and over, March 1944
52, 320
In labor force March 1944
16, 880
In labor force both before Pearl Harbor and in March
1944
10,230
Entered labor force between December 1941 and March
1944
_.
6,650
Not in labor force March 1944
___ 35,440
l
Not in labor force at either date
33,260
Both dates:
Home housework
25, 550
In school
1, 580
Unable to work
1, 790
Under 14 before Pearl Harbor.. __ ^
2, 440
Other 1
1, 900
Left labor force between December 1941 and March 1944 2, 180
i Includes 570,000 with status not reported for December 1941.
• See footnote on p . 3.




100. 0
19.6
12.7
63. 6

4. 2

WAR SHIFTS I N MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUPS

5

WAR SHIFTS IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT IN MAJOR
OCCUPATION GROUPS
The great net increases in woman employment do not show the shifts
in and out of the labor force, nor the very considerable shifts between
major groups of occupations. The March 1944 woman labor force is
made up as follows:
[In thousands]

Women employed March 1944
In same occupation as formerly
Not in same occupation as formerly
Changed occupation
I
Were unemployed formerly J
Entered labor force

16,480
s] 370
" 8, 110
". "_ tt 460
230
6, 420

,

* Includes those on emergency work.

Women Remaining in the Same Occupation Group as Before Pearl
Harbor.
Of 9,830,000 women who were employed both before Pearl Harbor
and in March 1944, 85 percent (8,370,000 women)7 had remained in
the same occupation groups in which they formerly worked. In every
occupation group, more than three-fourths of the March 1944 women
employees who were in the labor force before Pearl Harbor had remained in the same group as before. The summary next presented
shows how the occupation groups differed in extent of retaining their
women workers.
Perhaps it is of even greater significance that half of the total number
of the women in the entire March 1944 woman labor force were in the
same occupation group as before Pearl Harbor. This was true of more
than 70 percent of the professional and semiprofessional and proprietary workers, more than G percent of those in domestic service and
O
farm occupations. However, only a little over 40 percent of the sales,
manufacturing,8 and service workers other than domestic were in the
same occupation as formerly, as were only about 50 percent of the
clerical employees.
Women who In March 1944 said they
were in same occupation group as
before Pearl Harbor
All vromen
Percent of—
employed
March
1944 (in
All
thousands) Number (in All women em- women
ployed before
thousands) Pearl Harbor in the
group in
and in this
occupation in March
1944
March 1944

Occupation proup

AH occupations

^

-

Professional and semiprofrssional
—
I roprictors, managers, and officials
Clerical and kindred
.. .Sales
Craftsmen, foremen, operatives, and laborers except
farm....
_„.
Domestic service ".Other services
Farmworkers
^ot classifisihln
_ ' Less than 1.000.

16,480

8,370

85.2

50.8

M90
650
4,3S0
1,240

1,080
460
2,210
510

96.0
86.6
86.5

m.5

72.8
71.1
50.5
4L2

4,920
1,570
1,650
660
20

2,060
1,000
700
340

78.2
90.9
76.4
93.8

41.9
63.9
42.5
60.8

0)

j ™ J W W 5 5 K « D . though a small proportion of these workers are in other t>pes oi industry.
'<>« «P«tl«. and laborers e«ep«farm.
»£**«$$£
discussion as *'manufacturing,"



6

CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

Labor-Force Status Before Pearl Harbor of Women Employed
March 1944, by Occupation Group.

The occupations of women in March 1944 differed considerably in
the proportion of their women workers who had been in the labor force
(though not necessarily in the same occupation group) in the week
before Pearl Harbor. For example, as the following summary shows,
more than 70 percent of the women who in March 1944 were in the
proprietary, professional, and domestic-service groups were in the
labor force before Pearl Harbor. On the other hand, more than 50
percent of the women who were in sales, as well as more than 40 percent
of those in the groups that had increased most largely, manufacturing
and clerical work, were not in the labor force in December 1941, but
entered employment directly from activities outside the labor force
that engaged them before Pearl Harbor.
Occupation group

All occupations

Percent' of women employed
in March 19U trho before Pearl
Harbor were—
In lafjor
Not in labor
force
force

61.0

Proprietors, managers, and officials
_ 82. 4
Professional and semiprofessional
76. 3
Domestic service
.__
_._ 71. 0
Farmworkers
65.0
Clerical and kindred
59. 5
Services other than domestic
57. 5
Craftsmen, foremen, operatives, and laborers except farm__ 55. 9
Sales
48.0

39.0
17. 6
23. 7
29. 0
35.0
40. 5
42. 5
44. 1
52.0

i For numbers, see table 4 in the appendix.

Women Who Entered the Various Occupational Groups After Pearl
Harbor.

Though one occupation group had sustained a net loss,9 in March
1944 every group had some women who were not so employed in
December 1941. Of the total 8,110,000 women who came either from
other occupations or from entirely outside the labor force, the largest
proportion came from home housework, with the exception of clerical
workers, to whom the schools furnished the largest group. The
groups second in size that entered semiprofessional, sales, and farm
occupations were from the schools, and to proprietary or managerial
work more women transferred from other occupations than entered
from any source except home housework. Manufacturing and service industries each acquired similar proportions of women workers
from schools and from other occupations in the labor force. The following summary shows these data:
• 1944 compared to 1940. See p . 9, summary and footnote 11.




WAR SHIFTS IN MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUPS
Women en- Percent of entrants to group who came from—
tering proup
since Pearl
Harbor (in Other occu- H o m e
Other acpations
housework School
thousands)
tivities

Occupation group

All occupations

8,110

Professional and foniiprofessional
Proprietors, managers, and officials
Clerical and kindred
Sales
. *..
Craftsmen, foremen, operatives and laborers except ffirm
Domestic service
Other scrvict">

Farm workers
Not classifiable

.

..»*«.

*-.

._
--

»

--

.-

18.0

44.4

27.0

10.6

400
1&0
2,170
730

11.1
38.0
15.9
11.0

44-6
52.9
30.7
50.1

319
4.8
44.8
28.8

9.4
4.2
8.7
U0.1

2,SG0
570
950
220
20

20.1
17.6
22.9
10.3
23.2

50.9
46.8
45.0
58.1
48.6

19.1
15.7
19.1
18.9
18.3

* 10.0
U9.9
U2.9
U2.8
9.9

i Major group formerly under 14 years of ape.
1
3 or 4 percent formerly unemployed.

Occupation Group in March 1944 of Women Not in the Labor Force
Before Pearl Harbor.
More than half of the 6,420,000 women employed in 1944 who had
entered the labor force since December 1941 were from home housework and about a third were from the schools. As has been mentioned, the major groups of new women workers went into manufacturing and clerical work, with the service and the sales groups next
though acquiring considerably smaller numbers.
There were differences in the types of occupation that engaged
women who had been home houseworkers, in school, under 14, or
unemployed. Of the homo houseworkers, 40 percent went into manufacturing, slightly less than half as many into the clerical and into the
combined service groups, 10 percent into sales occupations. Of the
school girls, nearly 45 percent became clerical, workers, a fourth went
into manufacturing jobs, and very roughly a tenth each into the sales
and the combined^ service groups. A small but perhaps significant
proportion wont from school into semiprofessional types of work.
Of the girls who were under 14 before Pearl Harbor, 85 percent still
were in school in March 1944. Of those who went to work after
Pearl Harbor, only a very small proportion were unemployed in March
1944. The remainder naturally were young workers, for the most
part with very little experience. Consequently, until they can acquire further "training, their opportunity for employment is found
chiefly in those occupations that do not demand much experience.
Nearly half of them had taken work in domestic or other service occupations, about a fifth sales jobs, and very roughly a tenth each were
in manufacturing, in clerical occupations, and on the farm.
Though the proportions of women unemployed just before Pearl
Harbor were relatively small, considerable numbers of them had found
jobs in one or another occupation by March 1944. It is not surprising that the largest groups of these had been taken on m the manufacturing and clerical lines of work, in which total increases were «> great,
and by service industries (especially other than domestic) winch
needed replacements badly since they were losing to t h e t m a n ^ f ^
*B and clerical groups. Very few went to P ™ * ™ * * °* 3 ™ "
fessional occupations, fewer yet to sales, fewest of all to proprietary
a
nd farm jobs.



8

CHANGES I N WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

The summary following shows the 1944 occupational distribution of
these major groups of workers who entered the labor force after Pearl
Harbor.
Percent distribution by occupation group
of employed women who in March 1944
said that before Pearl Harbor they were—
Occupation group
Outside the
labor force
(total)
Total (in thousands)
Professional and semiprofessional
Proprietors, managers, and officials Clerical and kindred...^
Sales
Craftsmen, foremen, operatives, and laborers except farm
Domestic service
Other services __
Farmworkers
Not classifiable
_

'6,420
100.0
5.5
1.8

27.6
10 0
33.3
71
10.9
3,1
.3

In home
housework
3,600
100.0
5.0

2 8
18 5
10 1
40.5
7 4
11.9
3.5
.3

In school
2,190
100.0
6.4

.4
44.3
9.5

249
40
8.3
1.9
.2

i For numbers see table 4 in appendix.

Former Occupation Group of Women Who Shifted to New Occupations.

Of the women employed both before Pearl Harbor and in March
1944, there were 1,460,000 ^yho changed their occupation group. The
factors normally of greatest influence with women in making such shifts
are the strength of demand in an occupation and the extent to which
the worker can better her situation by the change. During the war
period patriotic motives are added to these. Thus the movements tend
to be toward those occupation groups that are seeking workers most
urgently, notably the manufacturing, clerical, and to a less extent the
service occupations other than domestic.
The movements also tend to be, naturally, toward the occupations
considered more desirable than the ones engaged in, because of better
conditions of work, higher pay, wider opportunity, or other inducement. Thus women formerly in domestic service have gone to other
services and to manufacturing; those in other services have gone to the
manufacturing and sales groups; those from manufacturing and sales,
to clerical jobs; those from clerical, to manufacturing, managerial, and
professional and semiprofessional work. Shifts in both directions have
been considerable as between sales and manufacturing, between sales
and clerical, and between domestic service and farm work.
New Employment of Women Who Changed Occupations.

Many of the 1,460,000 women who changed their employment after
Fearl Harbor went into strikingly different lines of work. Over half
those leaving service occupations and clerical work and some 40 percent leaving the professional group went to manufacturing. Practically half or more of those leaving sales, manufacturing, and the
proprietary group went into clerical occupations. Of those leaving the
farm, 60 percent went to domestic service.




WAR SHIFTS IN MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUPS

9

Net Gain or Loss in Each Occupation Group Since 1940.

As might be expected, the greatest net increases in employment from
the time of the 1940 Census to March 1944 have been in the manufacturing 10 and the clerical groups, which have added more than 2% and
2 million women, rrespectively, some of them formerly in other occupations or unemplo3 ed and others not previously in the labor force. The
sales group and services other than domestic have added roughly
400,000 each; the proprietary group, over 200,000; the farm occupations, a very much smaller number. It must be remembered that
neither of the periods under discussion reflected the great seasonal
employment on the farms that occurred in summer. The gain in the
professional and semiprofessional group is trifling, and there has been
an actual loss of just over 400,000 in domestic service.
The result of these changes is that the manufacturing and clerical
occupations now engage a much 11
larger proportion of all employed
women than was the case in 1940. The two occupation groups that
ordinarily may be considered at opposite ends of the scale so far as
training requirements are concerned, domestic service and professional
employments, have in 1944 smaller proportions of all women workers
than formerly. The remaining occupations—services other than
domestic, sales, farm, and proprietary groups—have much the same
proportions of the employed women as in 1940.
The following summary shows these data:

Occupation group '

All occupations *
Professional and scmiprofessinnal
Proprietors, managers, and officials
Clerical and kindred
Sales...
.
Craftsmen, foremen, operatives, and laborers except farm..
»
Domestic service
Other services
Farmworkers

Xumber of Net changes since 1940 l Percent distribution in—
employed
women in
March 1944 Xumber (in
March 1944
1940
Percent
(in
thousands) thousands)
16,480

+5,340

+48.0

100.0

•100.0

1,400
650
4,3S0
1,240

+20
+230
+2,010
+460

+1.2
+.'J3.3
+84.5
+58.4

13.2
3.8
21.3
7.0

9.0
3.9
26.6
7.5

4,920
1.570
1,650
660

+2,670

+118.7
-20.4
+30.9
+18.6

20.2
17.7
11.3
4.2

29.9

-400

+390
+90

9.5

10.0
3.4

1
Fijrurcs used for 1940 comprise the employed and also those seeking work who were experienced in the
occupation. Sec note 11, this page, for reason for comparison with 1940 occupation data. The 1940 figures
include the experienced unemployed, sksco they wen* a part of the labor force needing jobs, though their
occupational allocation refers only to theoccupation last enpaged in and not their usual ornonnal occupation.
I
Total exceeds details, since those la occupations not classifiable arc not shown separately.

Over-all Employment and Occupation Shifts of Women.

In addition to the women newly entering the labor force, the previously unemployed who now have jobs, and those who changed from
one occupation group to another, a statement of occupation shifts
must note the 2,250,000 women estimated to have left the labor force
in the period between 1940 and March 1944.12 The combined shifts in
, " The UMOdata'are used for this one comparison for the following reasons: The available tabulations show
March 1944 oecuirations of women according to employment or activity status before Pearl Harbor. A
complete occupational count of those em ployed just before Pearl Harbor cannot be had, since the occupation
distribution of those in the labor force before Pearl Harbor but having since left the labor force is not available.
The nearest approach to occupational data for this l3tter group is in assuming that their occupational distribution was approximately the same as that of all women in the 1940 labor force, which has been done for
the discussion on pp. 8-9 and In table 6.
II
This does not take account of individuals making several shifts within the period.




10

CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

employment and occupations had affected more than 10% million
women, not very far short of the whole number of women employed
in 1940.
Adding to this the women who remained in the same occupation
group as before gives a grand total of employment and shift data for
18% million women. This number, roughly 37 percent of the country's whole woman population,13 has been involved in productive and
service processes in the short period of about 2% years from the week
before rearl Harbor to March 1944. The summary following shows
the figures contributing to this over-all picture of employment and
shifts.
Total reported (remained in employment and shifted em[In thousand*]
ployment, combined)
US, 730
Remained in same occupation
8, 370
Shifted occupation or changed employment status
10, 360
In labor force in 1944
1
8, 110
Not before in labor force._
__. 6, 420
Formerly unemployed (out of a job)
230
2
Shifted from one occupation to another
1, 460
Left labor force before 1944__.
2, 250
i
3

See note 13, this page. Takes no account of those not reporting 1944. See note 5, p. 3.
See note 12, preceding page.

Another method of illustrating the magnitude of the shifts that have
occurred is by comparing them with the March 1944 employment in
each occupation group. Such a comparison shows a general shifting of
more than 60 percent in and out of occupations in terms of present
employment. The shift in the sales group and in service other than
domestic has been more than 70 percent as great as the March 1944
woman employment; in domestic service and in manufacturing, more
than 65 percent as great. Least shifting has occurred in professional
and proprietary occupations. The summary following shows these
shifts for each occupation group.
.
.
Occupation group

Ratio of over-all employment
Bhifis t to total March 19U
employment

..I

6^9

Total

Professional and semiprofessional
Proprietors, managers, and officials "
Clerical and kindred
Sales
"

Manufacturing
Domestic service
Other services
Farm workers

"
"

IIIIIIII
I"II

_
:

11 III II

47. 1
42. 1
60.5
7x. 5

"""

"~"I
I
o u t of t h e l a b o r for<v o r c h a

" See summary on p . 22.




" 67! 4
6ll 5
72 9
56! 3

11

CHANGES IN EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY GROUP

CHANGES IN WOMAN EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY
GROUP

Practically half the women employed in March 1944 were in the
same broad industry group as formerly, as the following summary
shows:
[In thousands]

Women employed March 1944

16,480

In same industry group as formerly
Not in same industry group as formerly
From other industry groups
Formerly unemployed
From outside the labor force.

8, 220
8, 270
1, 620
230
6,420

Women Remaining in Same Industry Group as Formerly*

Tabulation by industries from this material necessitates combinations into very broad groups. Though the particular occupation
greatly influences shifts between industries, data from the sample
do not permit correlation of occupation and industry. The summaries
following indicate the combinations made along broftd industrial lines.
It is not surprising that manufacturing had the smallest proportion
of employees who were in the same industry class as formerly (except
for the mining-construction-Government group, containing only a
relatively small number of women; it is merely a residual group).
The largest proportions of the March 1944 women workers in the
same industry group both before Pearl Harbor and in March 1944
were those in the domestic, personal, and recreation services; in the
finance, business, and repair, and professional services; and in
agriculture.

Industry group

All Industries..
Agriculture
Manufacturing*
Transportation, communication, public utilities
Trade, wholesale and retail
Finance, business, repair, professional
Domestic, personal, recreation services
_
Other (mining, construction, Government, forestry, fishing)'Not ascertainable
1
1
1

Women In the same industry group DecemWomen In ber 1941 and March
1944
the industry group
in March
Percent of
1944 (in
thousands) Number (in all in the
thousands) industry
group in
March 1044
IG.450

8,220

49.9

580
5,590
680
3,190
2,680
2,660
1,080
20

350
2,380
330
1,530
1,630
1,660

60.5
42.6
48.0
47.8
61.0
62,5
30.7

330

()

See p 4 12 for industries Included in each manufacturing group.
These were combined, since this is an "other" industry group.
Less than 5,000.

Women Who Remained in the Labor Force-

Of the women employed in March 1944 in the business-professional
group and in domestic and other services, about 70 percent were in
the labor force before Pearl Harbor- On the other hand, only 55 to
594580*




12

CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

57 percent of those in trade, in manufacturing, and in the miningconstruction-Government group formerly w£re in the labor force, as
appears in the following:
r
*

°

Percent who before Peart
Harbor were—
Not in
In labor force labor force

industry group

All industries
Agriculture
Manufacturing l
Transportation, communication, public utilities
Trade, wholesale and retail
_
Finance, business, repair, professional
Domestic, personal, recreation services
Other (mining, construction, Government, forestry,

fishing)

61.0
64. 8
56. 8
60. 9
56. 2
69. 6
69.1
54. 6

39.0
35. 2
43. 2
39. 1
43. 8
30. 4
30. 9
45. 4

i See text following for industries included in each manufacturing group.

The Various Manufacturing Industries.

Manufacturing industries have been tabulated in separate divisions
in order to show the shifts in woman employment between the various
types of manufacturing industries, shifts which are of particular importance in wartime. Group I contains the workers in major war
manufacturing—in the metal, chemical, and rubber industries.
Group II is composed of workers in the consumer industries that supply both the civilian population and the armed forces with essentials—
food, clothing, textiles, and leathers. The remaining manufacturing
employees are placed in group III. As the following summary shows,
group I, the essential war industries that have expanded so rapidly,
differed from the two other manufacturing groups in two respects:
Its labor force included much smaller proportions of its own former
employees, and its recruitment of new personnel was very much greater
from within the labor force as well as from outside sources.

Manufacturing group

All manufacturing
Group I
Group n
Group III

Percent who formerly were—
Women in
the industry proun In s a m e In another In industry Outside
in March manufac- manufac- groups other
the
1044 » (in
labor
than manuturing
turing
thousands)
force
facturing
group
group
5,540

38.0

4.6

12.0

43.2

2,690 '

23.6
53.8
43.8

7.7
1.0
4.3

17.7
5.8
9.8

49.1
36.9
40.3

2,160 •
730 |

* Totals exceed cross details; in all manufacturing, about 2 percent were unemployed; in group 1,2 percent;
in group II, 2.5 percent; in group 111,1.8 percent.

New Entrants to Each Industry Group.

With one exception, the largest numbers of new entrants to every
industry group came from home housework, and in almost all groups
the second largest number came from the schools; however, 20 percent
of the total shifted from other industry groups. Home houseworkers
made up nearly 60 percent of the newcomers to agriculture and half
those to the domestic-and-personal-service group; and in each of these,
schoolgirls were 18 percent of the new workers. On the other hand, the
situation was reversed for the transportation-communication group,
home houseworkers constituting only 26 percent of the new employees
and girls out of school 46 percent. Workers from these two sources



CHANGES IN EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY GROUP

13

were more nearly equal in number in the business-professional group.
The residual mining-construction-Government group differed from
the others in that almost as many women newly employed came from
other industry groups as from home housework, in each case nearly
a third. This and manufacturing group I drew from other industries
larger proportions than any other group, and agriculture, trade,
manufacturing II, and the services group drew least from other
industries.
Regarding those from other sources, the major groups in agriculture
and the domestic and personal services were under 14 years of age
before Pearl Harbor. Considerable numbers of women formerly
unemployed were taken on in each manufacturing group, in trade, and
in the miscellaneous mining-construction-Government group. Manufacturing II and the business-professional group took considerable,
numbers of girls formerly under 14, but larger numbers of those
formerly unemployed.

Industry group

Total...
Agriculture
. - Manufacturing
Group I
Group 11
. .
Group III
Transportation, communication, public
utilities
Trade, wholesale* and retail
Finance, business, repair, professional
Domestic, personal, recreation services ..
Other (mining, construction, Government,
forestry, fishing) „

New entrants to
the industry since
Pe&rl Harbor (in
thousands)

Other industries

Home
housework

18,270

19.6

•43.5

2*). 5

10.4

230
*3,210
2,060
1,000
410

10.5
21.0
33.2
14.7
25.2

68.5
45.6
39.9
4S.3
38.4

18.1
24.8
20.5
25.8
28.3

2 12.9

360
1,670
1,010
1,000

24.1
14.3
19.0
15.0

26.4
45.4
39.6
49.7

45.6
28.4
32.4
18-0

U1.9
*8.1
U7.2

750

31.3

31.5

26.6

*10.6

Percent who came from—

School

Other activities

8.6

<6.4
M1.2
*8.1
4.0

1

Total exceeds details, as industry for 10 000 new entrants not ascertamable.
* Major group under 14 before Pearl Harbor.
,
* Details here exceed total entrants to all manufacturing industries, as 260,000 women shifted from group
to proup within manufacturing.
* Major group formerly unemployed.
' Includes considerable, numbers of those formerly under 14, but larger numbers of unemployed-

Distribution of New Entrants to Labor Force.

Of the women who entered employment from home housework, 40
percent went to manufacturing, chiefly to groups I and II, about half
as many to trade, 14 percent to the domestic and personal services, and
a somewhat similar proportion, .12 percent, to the business and
professional group.
Of the newly employed schoolgirls, proportions similar to those of
home houseworkers entered the total manufacturing and trade groups,
but a very much smaller proportion went into the domestic and
personal services.
Of the girls under 14 entering the labor force, 40 percent went into
trade, 35 percent to the domestic and personal services, nearly 10
percent to agriculture. Relatively few entered manufacturing
industries, none the third group.
.
More than half of the unemployed went to manufacturing, chiefly to
groups I and II, but very roughly a tenth of them went to each of the



14

CHANGES I N WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

groups of trade, domestic and personal services, mining-constructionGovernment, and business-professional.

Industry group

Pcrcents entering the industry groups specified who
before Pearl Harbor wereIn home
housework

Number of women (in thousands).
Percent
Agriculture
_
_
Manufacturing
_
_
Group I
Group I I .
_.
Group III
Transportation, communication, public utilities
Trade, wholesale and retail..
Finance, business, repair, professional
_..„.
Domestic, personal, recreation services
Other (mining, construction, Government, forestry, fishing).

13.600
100.0
3.7
40. G
22,8
13.4
4.4
2.6
21.0
11.5
13.8
C.C

In school
12,190
100.0
1.9

36.3
19.2
11.7
5.3
7.4

21.6
15.4
8.2
9.1

* Total exceeds details, as Industry group not ascertainable for very small proportions.

Major Shifts Between Industry Groups.
The over-all of shifts between industry groups made in the war
period by women who were employed both before Pearl Harbor and
in March 1944 involved nearly 2 million women. The largest proportions who entered the various manufacturing groups, the transportation-communication, and the mining-construction-Government groups
were from trade. Women entering agriculture, trade, and businessprofessional went in greatest numbers from the domestic and personal
services. Manufacturing group I gained from group II, and each of
the manufacturing groups gained from the domestic and personal
services. It must be borne in mind that these figures are estimates
based on a small sample.
More than 60 percent of the women who left agriculture went to the
domestic and personal services. The major war manufacturing industries (group I) attracted more than 50 percent of those leaving
manufacturing (groups II and III) and 30 to 40 percent of those leaving the trade, business-professional, and domestic-and-personal-servlce groups. However, some women went from manufacturing I to
the mmmg-construction-Government group, as did the largest number of those leaving transportation-communication. These may have
been largely clerical workers. Of those leaving mining, construction,
and so forth, the largest proportion went to business-professional.
Net Gain or Loss in Each Industry Group Since 1940.14
Woman employment increased by nearly 50 percent from 1940 to
March 1944. However, this does not take account of the 1,710,000
women who were on emergency work or unemployed in 1940, who in
reality were a part of the labor force at that time. Addition of these
to the 1940 labor force reduces the increase in woman employment
by 1944 to about 36 percent.
As would be expected, the greatest increase was in the war industries




CHANGES IN EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY GROUP

15

(group I of manufacturing). Next came the mining-constructionGovernmcnt group, and then transportation-communications. Much
smaller increases than elsewhere occurred in the business-professional
and agricultural groups, and the domestic and other services group
declined considerably.
Naturally, in 1944 a very much larger proportion of the woman labor
force than in 1940 was in the war manufacturing industries, and the
small proportion in the mining-construetion-Government group almost
doubled. Smaller proportions of the women employed in 1944 than in
1940 were in the domestic and other services group and the businessprofessional group. The remaining industry groups contained fairly
similar proportions of all women wwkers in 1940 and in 1944, this
being true also of the manufacturing groups II and III, not the primary
war industries. The following summary shows the changes in industry
distribution of woman employment, 1940 to 1944:

Industry group

Total .
Apiiculture . . . .
Manufacturing
Oroup I
_
Group II
Group III.
Transportation, communication, public utilities
Trade, wholesale and retail
Finance, business repair, professional
Domestic, |H»r^»nal, recreation services
,
Other (mininp, construction, Government,
forestry, fish ing)

Net change in womanl
Women
employed employment since 1940
in March
1941 (in
thousands) Number (in Percent
thousands)

Percent distribution in—
March

*+5,340

s+48.0

»100.0

U00.0

|
!
I
j
i

+90
+3.270
+2,210
+830
+220

+ 19.4
+ 140.7
+462.7
+62.6
+42.6

4.4
20.8
4.3
12.0
4.6

3.5
33.9
16.3
13.1
4.4

3,190 ;
2,6S0 i

+98.4
+57.2
+12.6

2,660 j

+340
+1,160
+300
-290

3.1
18.2
21.3
26.5

4.2
19.4
16.2
16.1

1,080 I

+700

+180.0

3.5

6.6

lfi.480
5S0
5,590
2,090
2,160
730

1

See footnote 1, p. 2, for reason for comparison with 1910 industry data.
* Takes no arcnunt of the women who in 1940 were unemployed or on emergency work and who were a part
of the labor force. TlK'ir inclusion reduces the increase to about 36 percent.
* Total exceeds details slightly, since those not classifiable are not included.

The Employment Situation Within Each Industry Group.

Manufacturing.—The war manufacturing industries (group I)
showed the enormous net gain in woman employment from 1940 to
1944 of more than 460 percent, and this produced a large gain in the
total manufacturing employment of women.
The war industries (group I) drew roughly almost equal numbers of
women from home housework and from other industry groups, chiefly
from trade, the domestic and personal services, and the second manufacturing group. The essential supply industries (group II) and all
other manufacturing (group III) drew their new woman workers most
largely from home housework and schools. Group II drew the smallest
proportion of its new women workers from other industry groups.
Other industry sources of women workers for groups I and II were
largely trade and the domestic and personal services, and to some
extent the business-professional group. Group III also drew a considerable number of women from group II, and group II from group I.
All three groups, but especially I and II, took on relatively large
numbers of the unemployed women.



16

CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

Of those leaving these industries many women went to trade, considerable numbers from groups I and III to business-professional
industries, and some from group I to mining-construction-Government.
As has been indicated, there also was considerable shifting in the
woman labor force between the manufacturing groups, from the war
industries (I) to the supply industries (II), and from groups II and III
to the war industries.
Mining-ComtructioTt-Government.—This

group shows a larger pro-

portional increase from 1940 to 1944 than any other except war
manufacturing. It gained roughly a third of its new workers each
from home housework and from other industries, with a proportion
only a little smaller from the schools. Of those entering from other
industries, the largest numbers were from trade and the businessprofessional group. Smaller numbers were from the domestic and
other services and from women formerly unemployed. Of those leaving
this industry group for other employment, most went to the businessprofessional group, considerably smaller numbers to the essential
supply industries (group II).
Transportation-CornmunicatioT^Public Utilities.—Woman

employ-

ment in this industry group almost doubled from 1940 to March 1944.
Not far from half of its new women employees came from the schools,
and more than a fourth came from housework. From other industries,
this group gained women workers from trade and from domestic and
other services, with considerable numbers also from the businessprofessional group. Its losses of women were largely to the miningconstruction-Government group and to the war manufacturing
industries (group I), with considerable numbers going also to the
business-professional group.
Trade.—It may seem surprising that this group had well over half
again as many women employees in March 1944 as in 1940. Not far
from half the new women workers in trade came from home housework, more than a fourth from the schools, and fewer than in any other
group had been in other industries. However, some women entered
trade from the domestic and other services, smaller numbers from the
business-professional group, the manufacturing supply industries
(group II), and those formerly unemployed. Of the women leaving
trade, most went to manufacturing, especially to the war industries
(group I); some went to the mining-cons true tion-Government group,
and somewhat smaller numbers to the business-professional group.
Agriculture.—This group employed almost 20 percent more women
in the spring of 1944 than in the spring of 1940. About 60 percent of
its new women entrants came from home housework, the group next in
size from schools. Of the women from other industry groups over 65
percent were from the domestic and other services. Of the women
leaving agriculture, over 60 percent went to the domestic and other
services, nearly 10 percent to manufacturing I.
Finance-Insurance-Business-Professions.—This industry group had
over 10 percent more women employees in March 1944 than in 1940.
Very roughly a third of its new women workers came from each of the
sources home housework and the schools. Of those from other industry
groups the largest numbers formerly were in trade and the domestic
and other services. Appreciable numbers came from among the
unemployed and the girls who had been under 14. Of the women who
left this group for other industries, most went to war manufacturing



MARITAL STATUS OF WOMEN WAR WORKERS

17

(group I), much smaller numbers to mining-construction-Government
and to trade.
Dornestic-Personal-Recreation Services.—This was the only group

that sustained a net loss in number of women workers between 1940
and March 1944. Though it had this net loss, some women had come
newly into such employment. Half these came from home housework,
and groups of similar size were from schools and from other industries,
chiefly from agriculture, with smaller numbers from trade. Considerable numbers of women workers under 14 years of age entered this
group. Of the women leaving these sendees, most went to manufacturing, especially to the war industries (group I), and appreciable numbers
went to trade and to the business-professional group.
MARITAL STATUS OF WOMEN WAR WORKERS

To the worker, the items of greatest importance about her job are
the character of the work, the conditions under which it is done, and
the amount it pays. Whether she be married or single has in itself no
bearing on her job. Whatever their marital status, most working
women must support themselves, and in many cases others as well.
Among single as well as married women a large proportion are homekeepers and many also care for children. Whether she be single or
married, the household responsibilities of the woman worker in
addition to heroutside job may affectseriouslyherhealthand efficiency.
To the employer, the important attribute of his workers is their
efficiency on the job, and their marital status is of no concern to him
unless it should affect the efficiency or regular attendance of his
labor force.
Though marital status is of far less significance in the job than other
factors, it is a matter of continuous interest. This may be 'partly
because the more significant factors are so much more difficult to
determine than the relatively simple data as to marital status. It also
is in part a relic of the early idea that society has the right to regulate
the lives of women in more personal matters than it does the lives
of men.
In 1940, as at all previous census dates, many more single than
married women were working, though married women far exceeded
single women in the population. A number of things contributed to
this. Aside from the matter of tradition, it has become customary for
the young woman to develop expertness in some occupation, to be
taught that it is incumbent on her to work as a matter of course, to be
at least self-supporting, and often to contribute to the family funds
more than the amount of her own upkeep.
Increases in Employment of Women, by Marital Status*

Employment increases in the war period were very much greater
among married than single women, both in numbers and in proportions'
of their marital group that entered the labor force, as the following
shows:
Employment increases
from WO to March 19U
Number (in
thousands)
Percent

Single w o m e n . . . .
Married women



-- J.JOO
- 3 ' 13°

32
iS>

18

CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

The large increase among single women is not surprising, since if not
already employed they are likely to be more free than married women
to go to work. As noted on page 2, marital status was not obtained
in March but was transcribed from the February schedule for the
same family. In cases where marital status was not available from
the February schedule, a woman was listed as single unless there
was a man of similar age in the family and no other woman possibly
his wife. This explains the difference between the marital-status
figures shown here and the February figures reported by the Census.
In this time of pressure for added labor supply, the married women
for the first time in this country's history exceeded single women in
the employed group, and that by nearly 2 points (1.7) in March 1944.
Since this was a period of accelerated marriage, the proportion of the
married women in the population also had increased, as will be discussed later (p. 21). Numbers then employed were as follows:
Women employed March 19U
Number (in
thousands)
Percent

Total

16,480

100.0

7,030
7,310
2,140

42.7
44.4
13. 0

Single
Married
Widowed or divorced
Various Groups of Married Women.

To discuss married women as a complete group loses sight of significant differences in labor-force status between those whose husbands are
present in the home and those whose husbands are absent for one
reason or another. Women with husbands absent constitute 12 percent of all married women, but they are 26 percent of the married
women employed. The data now made available separate information
as to married women with husbands present and those with husbands
absent, and for the first time those whose husbands are in the armed
forces also are singled out. The latter group has become important
during this war period in the increase in employment, as the following
shows, though a considerable proportion of the service men's wives had
left the labor force before March 1944. (See p. 19.)
This section of the report includes some discussion of these various
groups of married women, but again attention must be called to the
fact that, as explained on page 2, the figures are estimates from a
sample. Therefore, while they give a good general indication as to
the relationships of the various groups, including the relative place
of some that are quite small in comparison with others, they cannot
be interpreted as measuring the size of these groups with exactitude.
Women employed in
March 19U
Number (in
thousands)
Percent

Allwomen

Single
Married
Husband present
Husband absent—
In armed forces
Not in armed forces
Widowed or divorced
1

1 16, 480
7 030
7 300
5, 370

100.0
42.7
_
32. 6

1,280
650
2, 140

7.7
4.0
13. 0

Percent in
1940

100.0
47.9
31. 9
5.6
14. 6

Total exceeds details, as there were 10,000 women for whom husbands' status was not ascrrtainable.




MARITAL STATUS OF WOMEN WAR WORKERS

19

Women's Labor-Force Status, by Marital Status in March 1944.

Of the women who were in the labor force both before Pearl Harbor
and in March 1944, 42 percent were single, 30 percent married with
husband present, 16 percent widowed or divorced. Of the new entrants
after Pearl Harbor, nearly 44 percent were single, about 36 percent
married with husband present, nearly 10 percent were women with
husbands in the armed forces, and a somewhat smaller proportion
were widowed or divorced.
Of the women not in the labor force in either period, the March 1944
status was that 65 percent were married with husband present, 17 percent single, 13 percent widowed or divorced. Eighty percent of the
total were in home housework, some were in school, a few had been
under 14 before Pearl Harbor.
Of those who had left the labor force between the Pearl Harbor
date and March 1944, 62 percent were married with husband present,
about 12 percent each were single or were service wives, nearly 10 percent widowed or divorced. Of the total of this group nearly 93 percent
had gone into home housework.
Percent in each marital status of those who—
Marital status

All groups (In thousands)
Single
Married:
Husband present
Husband absent—
In armed forces
Other
Widowed or divorced

Were in labor Entered labor Were not in Left labor
force at both force between labor force at force since
either date Pearl Harbor
dates
dates
2,180

10,230

6,650

42

44

17

12

30

36

65

62

7
5
16

9
3
8

3
2
13

13
3
10

33,260

Relative Stability of Single and Married Women Workers.

A consideration of the women at work in March 1944 who were employed before Pearl Harbor shows as very nearly equal the stability of
single and married women. In each group between 56 and 59 percent had been employed before Pearl Harbor, and the numbers of the
single and the married women who were at work in both periods are
remarkably similar. Of those employed before Pearl Harbor who
had continued to work, the smallest proportion was among the'women
with husbands in the armed forces. Even of these, more than half
were employed at both times, but their not remaining employed may
be explained by the availability of financial allotments for their livelihood and by their assumption of new responsibilities of home and
children, which would fill their time. Increased mobility during
wartime might add to or detract from numbers of employed married




20

CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

women in various areas, depending on a variety of factors. The
following summary shows the figures just discussed, with others:
Employed before Pearl Harbor and
in March 19U
Percent of
all March
Number employed
19U
at both dates
employed
(in thousands)
women

Marital status

All women

9,830
4,140
4, 130
3,010

58.9
56.4
56.1

660
450
-- 1,560

Single
Married
Husband present
Husband absent—
In armed forces
Not in armed forces
Widowed or divorced

59.7

51.5
68.5
73.1

!

* Total exceeds details, as status of some husbands not ascertainable.

Marital Status and Former Activity of New Accessions to the Woman
Labor Force.

Of the 6,650,000 women in the labor force in 1944 who were not
employed before Pearl Harbor, over 40 percent were single and a
number not very far short of this were married, with husbands
present.
Among the single women, 68 percent formerly were in school.
Among the 2 million young women who had been in school, about 90
percent were single women (1,970,000 of them). However, there were
a considerable number of young wives with husbands now in the armed
forces who were former schoolgirls.
Of the 3% million women workers who formerly were home houseworkers, more than 2 million were married with husbands present in
the home.
The summary following shows the previous activities of the major
proportions of the new women workers in the various marital groups:
Marital status

Total.
Single
_
„
Married
Husband present ~ ^
Husband absentIn armed forces
Not inarmed forces
Status of husband not ascertainable'.
Widowed or divorced

Percent who before Pearl Harbor were—

New women workers
in 1944 (in
thousands)

Unemployed

In home
housework

In school

6,650

3.4

M.I

33.0

9.5

2,890
3,190
2,300

4.4
1.7
1.1

13.5
86.0
91.3

68.0
7.0
3.5

14.0
5.4
4.1

620
210

2.4
5.8

67.7
80.1
1C0.0
81.4

20.4
6.2

9.5
7.9

.8

10.1

V)
570

7.7

Other

1 Less than 5,000.

Marital Status and Activity of Women Who Left the Labor Force.

Among the women who were employed just before Pearl Harbor,
2,250,000 left employment prior to March 1944. Over 60 percent of
these are married women with husbands present. More than a tenth
are those with husbands in the armed services, a smaller proportion
are single women, and still fewer are widowed or divorced. In each
group the great majority of those who left employment returned to



21

MARITAL STATUS OF WOMEN WAR WORKERS

home housework; in the case of married women with husbands present, this group comprises over 96 percent of all those leaving. Very
roughly a tenth of the widowed or divorced women and of those with
husbands in the armed forces are still in the labor force but unemployed in March 1944, and this is true of a somewhat larger proportion
of the single women. Small numbers have returned to school, nearly
all of these being simrle girls.
The summary following shows the activities of the women in each
marital group who left employment between Pearl Harbor and March
1944.

Marital status

All women

*

Single
Married:
Husband prc^nt
Husband absent—
In armed forces
~*
Not in armed forces
...
Status of husband not ascertalnable. - Widowed or divorced

Women who
Percent who in March 1944 were—
left employment since
In home
Pearl Harbor UnemIn school Other *
housework
(in thousands) ployed
2,250

6.0

87.8

0.5

5.7

280

13.0

62.5

2.7

21.8

1,370

3.0

96.3

300
SO

10.1
8.6

86.2
83.0
1C0.0
70.6

.5
.7

3.3
7.8

.7

19.6

m

9.1

.7

210

i Includes tho c o unablo to work.
Less than 0.05 percent.
< Less than 5,(X)0.
J

Increasing Employment of Married Women.

Though single women formerly have made up the greater part of
this country's woman labor force, it has become necessary for an increasing number of married women to work, a factor in American
economy that cannot be ignored. To begin with, there now are in
the population about 2% million more married women and some
millions fewer single women than in 1940 to help carry on the country's
production and services. The proportion of married women in the
entire woman population increased by 8 or 9 percent, 1940 to 1944,
while the number of single women declined by from 6 to 9 percent.
The time has passed when a woman automatically can leave the
labor market merely because of her marriage. Efforts to push her
out for that inconsequential reason may result in unwarranted family
hardship. In an increasing number of instances her earnings are
necessary to support the new home. In many cases she could not
marry unless her earnings helped to establish the home. In perhaps
more cases she could not marry unless she continued to shoulder her
premarital financial responsibilities in her parents' home. An important population trend that contributes considerably to this situation is
the increase in the proportion of older persons. Young persons often
must continue after marriage to carry part of the support of family
members who are passing beyond working age or are so young as
still to be in school. The responsibility of the individual family for its
older members is likely to be unchanged for a number of years to
come, since the proportion of these older persons in the population
is increasing and their needs are not yet adequately provided for




22

CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

through the developing assurance systems. In many families some
art of this load is being assumed, and must continue to be assumed,
y the working wife and the married daughter.
During the war period more than a million married women with
husbands present have left employment—1,370,000—most of them to
enter home housework. This indicates that those who are able to do
so in general are likely to return to their homes. Those who remain in
their occupations find it necessary to continue work for some reason,
and in the postwar period they should not be discriminated against in
employment for arbitrary reasons, such as marital status, that have
no connection with their working ability.
The proportional increase in married women, combined with other
economic and population factors such as have been discussed, makes it
probable that after the war there will be more married women in the
labor force than before the war, though the number is likely to be
smaller than at the war peak.
The proportions among the women of each marital group who were
employed in 1940 and in March 1944 are as follows:

E

Woman population
in 1940 i
Marital status

Total
Single*
Married.
Widowed or divorced

Woman population in March 1944
Percent
change
from
1910

Percent
employed
in March
1944

Number
(in thousands)

Percent
employed
in 1940 a

Number 3
(in thousands)

50,550

22.0

52,320

+3.5

31.5

13,940
30,090
6,520

33.3
13.9
25.0

13,110
32,490
6,720

-6.0
+8.0
+3.0

53.6
22.5
31.8

i U. S. Census of 1940. Population, Vol. IV, table IX, p. 5, and table 2, p. 9.
*Ibid., Vol. Ill, table 68, p. 111.
3
Marital status figures shown here were transcribed from February schedules. See text on p. 18 for
explanation.
* Marital status of population shown only for persons 15 and over. Age group 14 assumed to be single.

AGE OF WOMEN WORKERS AND WOMEN NOT AT WORK

Of the women in the labor force in March 1944, 55 percent were
under 35 years of age, but of those not in the labor force nearly 60 percent were 35 years of age or older, more than 40 percent being at
least 45.
Of women in the labor force before Pearl Harbor as well as in
March 1944, over half were 35 years of age or older. The largest group
were 45 years old or more, with almost as many 25 to 34. The opposite situation existed among those that newly entered the labor force
during the war period, nearly half being under 25 years of age and the
largest group under 20.
Of workers who were not in the labor force at either date, 60 percent
were 35 years old or more, the largest group being 45 or over. However,
of former workers who had left the labor force during the war, 60
percent were under 35, the largest group being 25 to 34.




23

AGE OF WORKERS AXD THOSE NOT AT WORK

Number
Labor-force status

Percent whose age in March 1944 was—

(in thou- Under
sands)
20

Total in labor force in March 1944

20-24

25-34

35-44

45 or
over

16,880

13.1

IS. 8

23.0

21.5

23.5

10,230
6,650

2.9
28.6

26.3
17.9

23.9
17.9

27.9
16.8

35,440

13.4

18.9
18.7
7.9

19.8

17.6

41 3

33,2C0
2,180

14.0
4.0

6.8
23.9

18.9
33.6

17.6
17.2

42 6
21.1

In labor force before Pearl Ilarbor and also in March
Entered labor force since Pearl Harbor.
Total not In labor force in March 1944
Not in labor force at either date
Left labor force since Pearl Harbor

Former and Present Activity Status, by Age.

Among the home houseworkcrs, nearly half of those who did not
enter the labor force were 45 years of age or more, but of those who
went to work after Pearl Harfior over 70 percent were under 45.
Almost a third of the schoolgirls entering the labor force after Pearl
Harbor were at least 20 years of age, but of those who did not take
jobs only 15 percent were as old as 20.
Few of the women formerly unable to work took jobs after Pearl
Harbor; of those who did not take jobs over 90 percent were 45 or
more.
Labor-force status in 1941 and subsequent status

In home housework in 1911:
Entered labor force.
Did not enter... .
In school in 1941:
Entered labor force
Did not enter
Unable to work in 1W1:
Did not enter

Number of
women (in
thousands)

Percent who were—
Under 20

20-44

45 or over

3,710
26,070
-.-

70.1
52.2

28.2
46.8

2,280

..

1.7
1.0

6S.6
85.3

31.3
14.7

.1

£200
1,820

1.4

7.7

91.0

Labor-Force Status and Marital Status, by Age.

Of the single women in the labor force in March 1944, 90 percent
were under 45 years of age; of those who were widowed or divorced,
more than 60 percent were 45 or over. Among the women in the labor
force, practically a third of those who were married with husbands
present and of those with husbands absent but not in the armed forces
were 45 years of age or older. Those with husbands in the armed services were younger women. This distribution of the women of each
marital status was similar for the groups that entered the labor force
after Pearl Harbor and those who already were in the labor force, except that the women newly entering from the group with husbands
absent but not in the armed services tended to be younger than those
of the same marital group but already in the labor force.
Among those who were not in the labor force, over 70 percent of the
single women and more than a tenth of the women with husbands in
the armed services were under 20 years of age. In every other group
those not in the labor force tended to be older; more than 90 percent of
the widqwed and divorced and more than 40 percent of those married



CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

24

but with husbands present, or husbands absent but not in the armed
forces, were at least 45. The proportions who were 45 years of age
or older were larger among those who formerly were not at work than
among thoss who had left the labor force, except for single women,
among whom more than a tenth of those who left the labor force were
under 20 years of age and hence may be expected to have resumed
their schooling.
APPENDIX—GENERAL TABLES
[Note.—Because of rounding of numbers, details and totals do not agreo In all cases.]

TABLE 1.—Actitnty status in March 1944 of women 14 yean old or more at that timet
by their activity status in week preceding Pearl Harbor
[In thousands]
Activity status In March 1944
Activity status in week
before Pearl Harbor

Total
In labor force
Employed _.

Unemployed
Seeking work
Not seeking
Emergency work_
Not in labor force
In home housework...
In school
Unable to work
Under 14

Other

Women
in status
specified
in week
before
Pearl
Harbor

Total

Employed

i 52,320

16,880

16,480

12,410

10,230

10,060

12,090
320
100
80
140

9,970
260
90
60
110

39,000
29,780
4,480
1,830
2,670
230
910

Labor-force status not ascertainable.

Women not in labor force

Women in labor force

Total

In
home
housework

400

35,440

23,750

3,940

2,310

170

2,180

2,020

20

70

70

9,830
230
70
50
110

130
40
20
10

2.120
60
10
20
40

1,980
40
10
10
30

10

70

60
10

6,310

6,100

210

32,690

26,240

3,890

3,710
2.280
10
240
70

3,600
2,190
10
230
70

110
90

26,070
2,200
1,820
2,440
160

25,650
520
30
120
30

20
1,580

340

330

570

490

Unemployed

10
10

Unable'
In
to
school work Other
430

m

2,290
30

h
2,210
390
10
1,790
10
10
30

350
110
90
20
120
10

i Woman population 14 years old or more in March 1944.
* Less than 5,000.

TABLE 2.—Activity status of major groups of women in March 1944, by status in
week preceding Pearl Harbor

Activity status

In labor force:
Employed. . . .
Unemployed
Not in labor force:
In home housework..
In school
Under 14




Women in
Percent of group specified whose status in March 1944 was—
status specified in week
before Pearl
UnemIn home
Harbor (in Employed
Other
housework In school
ployed
thousands)

12,090
320

SI. 4
69.3

1.1
12.0

16.4
13.2

0.1
1.2

LI
4.3

29,780
4,480
2,670

12.1
48.9
8.5

.4
1.9

85.8
• 11.7
4.3

.1
35.2
85.7

1.7
2.3
1.2

.3

25

APPENDIX—GENERAL TABLES

TABLE 3.—Percent distribution of chief groups of women in March 1944 according
to activity status in week preceding Pearl Harbor
Percent distribution before Pearl Harbor of women who in
March 1911 were—
Activity status
In all types
of activity Employed
Total (in thousands)

In home
housework

In school

*52.320
100.0

16,480
100.0

400
100.0

28,750 '
100.0

3.940
100.0

23.1
.6
56.9
8.6
3.5
5.1
2.2

59.7
1.4

33.5
9.7

6.9

21. S
13.3
.1
1.4
2.4

23.3
21.6

88.9
1.8
A

0.3
.1
.4
40.1
.1
58.2
.8

In labor force:
Employed.
Unemployed
Not in labor force:
In home housework
.
Inschool
Unable to work
Under 14
Other and not asoertainable
1

Unemployed

2.1
4.7

L8

Women 14 years old or more in March 1944.

TABLE

-Occupation group of women employed in March 1944$ by labor-force status
in week preceding Pearl Harbor
fin thousands]
i

Number of
women in
the group
March 1944

Occupation group

Total

.

„.

_

Number

Percent of
all in occupation
group
March 1944

Not in labor force before Pearl Harbor

Number

Percent of
all in occupation
group
March 1944

16,480

10,060

61.0

6,420

39.0

1,490
650
4.3S0
1,240

1,140
540
2,610
590

76.3
82.-J
59,5
43.0

350
110
1,770
640

23.7
17.6
40.5
52.0

4,920
1,570
1,650
560
20

Professional and semiprofessional
Proprietors, managers, and oflicials... . . . .
Clerical and kindred
Sales
Craftsmen, foremen, operatives, and
laborers except farm . . .
Domestic service
Other services..* .
. ...
......
Farm workers .
Not classifiable
TABLE 5.—Occupation

In labor force both before Pearl Harbor and
In March 1944

2,750
1,110
950
360
10

55.9
71.0
57,5
65.0
25.1

2,170
450
700
200
20

44.1
29.0
42.5
35.0
74.9

group in December 1941 of women who shifted to new
occupation group before March 1944
Percent distribution of women according to occupation group
In which employed before Pearl Harbor

Occupation group
in March 1944

All occupations (1,460,000 women)..
Proprietors, managers, and officials-..
Clerical and kindred
Bales
Craftsmen, foremen, operatives, and
Domestic service
Other services
Farm workers

- -.- ...-*.*.
---




Craftsmen,
\
foreProfes- Promen, Domes- Other Farm
sional prietors, Clerical
operaman*
and
serv- worktic
and
Sales tives,
semi- agers,
ers
service ices
and
profes- and kindred
laborers
sional officials
except
farm
5.3

1.0
8.5
10,2
5.6
2.9
.7
6.8

2.2

7.0

3.4

32.4
22.1

""IT
1.7
.4
1.1
7.0

19.8
9.3
1.4

17.1
20.6
33.6
33.7
14.0
1.6
8.8

13.4
12.4
15.7
32.3
26.7

27.4
8.8
4.7
5.7
9.7

19.0
112
20.6
12.1
29.7

7.5
8.1

34.7

29.3
23.3

4.5

4.7
17.0
6S.7
21.4 . 64.8

2.4
1.9
1.1

65.6

1.7

26

CHANGES I N WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

T A B L E 6.—Over-all of women's employment in same occupation and their shifts
in and out of labor force and between occupations, December 1941 to March 1944
[In thousands]

Occupation group

Women who shifted their occupation or employWomen who
ment status
remained in
same occu- Women
pation and in same
Entered labor force or Left the
women who occupation
changed occupation since labor force
changed in March
Pearl llarbor
activity or 1944 as
before
Grand
occupation, before
March
total,
Pearl
December
1944*
Harbor all shifts
Entered Changed (estimate)
m i to
employ- occupation
Total
March 1944
ment
combined»

All occupations
Professional and semiprofessional
Proprietors, managers, and
officials
Clerical and kindred
Sales
Craftsmen, foremen, operatives, and laborers except
farm
Domestic service
._
Other services
Farm workers
Not classifiable

10,300

8,110

6,650

1,460

2,250

1,080

700

400

360

40

300

460
2,210
510

270
2,650
890

190
2,170
730

120
1,830
650

70
340
80

90
480
160

2,060
1,000
700
340
(3)

3,320
960
1,200
320
50

2,860
570
950
220
20

2,290
470
730
200
20

570
100
220
20
10

460
400
260
100
30

»18,730

8,370

1,780
740
4,860
1,400
5,380
1,970
1,910
660
50

i Does not take account of individuals making several shifts within the period.
Distributed according to 1940 Census of Occupations of employed women*
»Less than 1,000.

3

T A B L E 7.—Industry group of women employed in March 1944 by labor-force status
in week preceding Pearl Harbor
|[In thousands]
In labor force before
Pearl Harbor
Industry group

Total
Agriculture
Manufacturing
Group I
_
„_.
Group II
Group III
Transportation, communication, public
utilities
Trade, wholesale and retail
_ .
Finance, business, repair, professional
Domestic, personal, recreation services
Other (mining, construction, Government,
forestry, fishing)
Not ascertainable

Women in
industry
group in
March 1944 Number of
women

Percent of
Percent of
all in the
all in the
industry Number of industry
women
group In
group in
March 1944
March 1944

16,480

10,0C0

61.0

6,420

39.0

580
* 5,590
2,690
2,160
730

3S0
3,170
1,370
1,370
440

64.8
56.8
50.9
63.1
59.7

200
2,420
1,320
800
290

35.2
43.2
49.1
36.9
40.3

3.190
2,680
2,660

420
1,790
1,860
1,840

60.9
50.2
69.6
69.1

270
1,400
810
820

39.1
43.8
30.4
30.9

20

590
10

54.6
40.0

490
10

45.4
60.0

« See p. 12 for industries included in each group.




Not In labor force before
Pearl Harbor

TABLE 8.—Fortner industry group of women who shifted to new industry group
Percent distribution or women according to Industry group in which employed
before Pearl Harbor
Industry group to which women shifted since Poarl Harbor

Manufacturing
Agriculture

All Industrie (1,880,000)
Agriculture
Manufacturing.
Group I
Group I I . . .
Group III
Transportation, communication, public utilities..
Trado, wholesale and retail
Finance, business, repair, professional
Domestic, personal, recreation services
--Other (mining, construction, Government, forestry, fishing)..




Total

Transportation, Trade Business, Domestic Mining,
profes- and other ota
sional
services
Group Group Oroup communication
III

6.0

8.8

3.7

3.2
1.6
5.4
3.1
2.0
l.S
3.2
47.6
2.4

13.3

4.0

30.3
14.7
30.4
12.3
23.7
19. G
8.7
17.3

12.5

26.4

13.7

24.6

2.4

9.3
6.4

2.2
1.3
3.1
1.5

0.5
42.5
29.7
35.9
29.4
34.6

4.7
10.5
2.0
3.7

2.4
3.1
4.0
8.7

6.3
18.3
14.8
9.1
8.7
14.2
20.6

67.4
30.8
20.9
27.4
23.3
27.7
48.3
32.7

0.4
2.0
.8
4.1
2.0
4.4
1.6
9.6
1.2

0.4

20.9

8.3
0.2
4.2
4.8
5.8
3.0
6.2

2.9

6.4

21.2
8.1
14.2
3.3
3.6
7.4

31.0

26.4
30.9

11.1
23.2

12.0

to

28

CHANGES IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT DURING WAR

TABLE 9.—Labor-force status of women in March 1944 ond in week preceding Pearl
Harbor, by marital status
fin thousands]
Marital status
Married, Married,
Widowed Married, husband husband
absent
or dihushand absent not in the
in the
vorced
present
armed
armed
forces
forces

Labor-force status
Total i

Single

NUMBER OF WOMEN
1,360

Woman population.

52,320 !

In labor force March 1944-

16. sso";

7t 230 i

10.230
6 f 650
240

4.330
2.900
230

1,630
550 i

35,440

5.880

4,540

23, 050

33,260

5,610

4.330

21.700

mo

25,550 '
1,580
1,790 !

900 J
1, 570 .
300 j

2, 640 j

20.740
210

750
10
10

2,440 I
2.IS0
2,020 I

2,400 ,
270

20
1,350
1,340 :

10
2S0
270

70
70

In labor force at both dates
Entered labor force between dates,.
Under 14 before Pearl Harbor..
Not in labor force March 1944..
Not in labor force at either date *
1
At both dates—
In home housework
In school
Unable to work
Under 14 before Pearl Harbor and
not in labor force March 1044 .
Left labor force since Pearl Harbor . j
In home housework March 1944.. \

13,110

6,720 |

1,230
210
170

28.510
- ..
5, 160

2,580
7~330~|

470
200

700 |
620 '

3.01H) |
2,370 ;

(») i
1,250 !
620
510
(*)

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION
Woman population
In labor force at both dates. - ..
Entered labor force between dates. _. .
Not in labor force at either date
Left labor force since Pearl Harbor

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

19.6
12.7
63.6
4.2

33.0
22.1
42.8
2.1

24.2
8.3
64.4
3.1

10.8
8.3
76.1
4.7

27.3
24.2
37,8
10.8

34.5
14.8
45.4
5.3

» Totals exceed cross details, as details not shown for 40,000 women married but with husband's status not
ascertainable. For source of data on marital status see p. IS.
3
Totals exceed details, as details not shown for 1,900,000 in other activities.
3
Less than 5,000.

TABLE 10.—Percent distribution of women according to marital status, by labor-force
status in March 1944 and in week preceding Pearl Harbor

Labor-force status

Woman population.
In labor force March 1944
In labor force at both dates...
Entered labor force between dates
Under 14 before Pearl Harbor
Not in labor force March 1944
Not in labor force at either date
At both dates—
In home housework
In school
Unable to work ..
Under 14 before Pearl Harbor and
not in labor force March 1944..,
Left labor force since Pearl Harbor -.
In home housework March 1944...

Total
number
of women i (in
thousands)

Percent of total women who were—

Single

Married, Married,
Widowed Married, husband husband
absent
or di- husband absent not in the
in the
vorced
present
armed
armed
forces
forces

52,320 i

25.1

12.8

54.5

4.9

16, SSO
10, 230
6,650
240

42.8

12.9

32.3

7.9

15.9
8.3

30.2
35.6

35,440
33,260

42.3
43.5
97.1
16.6
16.9

12.8
13.0

65.0
65.5

6.0
9.4
1.3
3.5
2.9

4.0
4.6
3.0
1.5
2.0
1.0

25,650
1,580
1,790

3.5
99.3
16.7

10.4
"68.Y

81.2
.2
11.7

2.9
.4
.3

2.0
.1
Z&

2,440
2,180
2,020

98.6
12.4
9.0

9.6
8.2

1.0
61.8
66.2

12." 7
13.2

.1
3.3
3.2

* Aged 14 and over. For source of data on marital status see p. 18.




2.6
:...':-••-

APPENDIX—GENERAL TABLES

29

TABLE 11.—Marital status and age of women in labor force March 1944
Number of
women
(in thousands)

Marital status of women in labor force

Total In labor force in March 1944..

"16,880

Single
Widowed or divorced
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent, in armed forces
Married, husband absent, not in armed forces

7.230
2, ISO
5,460
1,330
670

-.-...

In labor force both March 1944 and before Pearl Harbor,

Percent whose age in
March 1944 was—
Under 20 { 20-44

45 or over

13.1

63.4

23.5

27.8

62.4
38.7
67.8
89.7

9.8
61.2
31.0
1.6
31.8

.1
1.2
8.6
1.4

•10,230

2.9

69.2

27.9

4,330
1,630
3,090
700
470

6.1
.1
.4
2.8
.5

79.3
38.4
65.8
95.5
64.5

14.6
61.5
33.7
1.7
35.0

fifnplc.
Widowed or divorccd
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent, in armed forces
Married, husband absent, not in armed forces..
Came Into lAbor force since Pearl Harbor...

!

'6,650

28.6

54.6

16.8

2,900
550
2,370
620
200

SInple
Widowed or di vorccd
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent, in armed forces..-.-.
Married, husband absent; not in armed forces..

60.3
.2
2.3
15.3
3.6

37.1
39.7
70.3
83.2
72.1

2.6
60.1
27.4
1.5
24.2

1
Total exceeds details, as details not shown for women with husbands* status not ascertainable. In
interpreting, note statement as to sample on p. 2, and p. 18.

March 1944
TABLE 12.—Marital status and age of women not in labor force
Percent whose age in
Number of
March 1944 was—
women
(in thousands)
Under 20 20-44 45 or over

Marital status of women not in labor force

....

*---

I
!
i

Left labor force since Pearl Harbor

*

Tota

45.3

41.3

71.9
.1
13.5
4.1

15.9
6.6
58.1
84.3
49.3

12.2
93.2
40.5

14.0

43.4

42.6

5.610
4,330
21.700
9S0
620

74.8

13.2

1.3

15.7
3.7

56.8
81.6
47.9

12.0
94.0
42.0
48.5

»2,1SO

.

Not in labor force at either date

Sinjtle
Widowed or divorced .
.
.
....
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent in armed forces
Married, husband absent not in armed forces

13.4

5,880
4 540
23,050
1.250
690
133,260

Single
Widowed or divorced
Married, husband present
„,
Married, husband abfent, in armed forces
«..- *Married, husband absent, not in armed forces
Single
Widowed or divorced
*
Married, husband present
Married, husband absent in armed forces * *.
Married, husband absent, not in armed forces.,

35,440

4.0

74.8

21.1

270
210
1,350
280
70

11.1

72,1
21.6
80.3
93.9
62.0

16.8
77.4

1

Total not in labor force in March 19*4

j
|
;
<

1.4

1.0
2.6
5.5
8.0

5.9

2.3
4A5

2.7

17.1
.6
30.1

l exceeds details, as details not shown for women with husbands' status not ascertainable. See





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102