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DEPARTMENT O COM ERCE AND LABOR.
F
M

BULLETIN

BUKEAU OF LABOR

NO. 54—SEPTEMBER, 1904.




ISSUED E V E R Y OTH ER M O N TH .

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1904.




EDITOR,

CARROLL D. WRIGHT,
COMMISSIONER.

A SSO C IA TE E DITORS,

G. W. W. HANGER,
CHAS. H. YERRILL, G. A. WEBER.

COJ^TE^TS.
THE EXHIBIT OF THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF LABOR AT THE
LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION.
Page.

Introduction, by G. W. W. Hanger............................................................
The working of the L nited States Bureau of Labor, by Carroll D. Wright.
T
Bureaus of statistics of labor in the United States, by G. W. W. Hanger.
Origin of bureaus...................................................................................
Personnel and financial resources.........................................................
Duties of bureaus and their officers....................................... . . . . ......
Legal powers and methods of investigation............................... *.........
Character and scope of actual work done.............................................
Results..................................................................................................
Bureaus of statistics of labor in foreign countries, by G. W. W. Hanger..
Austria..............................................................*..................................
Belgium................................................................................................
Canada........ ........................................
Denmark..............................................................................................
France...................................................................................................
Germany..............................................................................................
Great Britain.......................................................................................
Italy.....................................................................................................
Netherlands.............................................I..........................................
New South Wales.................................................................................
New Zealand............................................................................. ...........
Norway.................................... ............................................................
Ontario’..................................................................................................
Russia....................................................................................................
Spain.....................................................................................................
Sweden..................................................................................................
Switzerland...........................................................................................
International association for the legal protection of labor...................
Value and influence of labor statistics, by Carroll D. Wright.....................
Strikes and lockouts in the United States, 1881 to 1890, by G. W. W .Hanger.
Wages in the United States and in Europe, 1890 to 1903, by G. W. W.
Hanger.........................................................................
Cost of living and retail prices in the United States, 1890 to 1903, by
G. W. W. Hanger...................................
Cost of living........................................................................................
Consumption of food .....................................................
Retail prices.........................................................................................
Wholesale and retail prices...................................................................
Wholesale prices in the LTnited States, 1890 to 1903, by G. W. W. Hanger.




969-971
973-989
991-1021
994-999
999-1004
1004-1008
1008-1013
1013-1020
1020,1021
1023-1086
1024-1027
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1040-1046
1046,1047
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1075,1076
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1119-1128
1129-1164
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1156-1158
1158-1163
1163,1164
1165-1190
hi

IV

CONTENTS.

Housing of the working people in the United States by employers, by
G. W. W. Hanger....................................................................................
American Waltham Watch Company, Waltham, Massachusetts.......
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company.......................................................
J. B. and J. M. Cornell Company, Coldspring, New York..................
The Draper Company, Hopedale, Massachusetts.................................
Ludlow Manufacturing Associates, Ludlow, Massachusetts................
Maryland Steel Company, Sparrow Point, Maryland........................
N. O. Nelson Manufacturing Company, Leclaire, Illinois...................
Niagara Development Company, Niagara Falls, New Y ork ................
Peacedale Manufacturing Company, Peacedale, Rhode Island...........
Pelzer Manufacturing Company, Pelzer, South Carolina.....................
Plymouth Cordage Company, North Plymouth, Massachusetts.........
The John B. Stetson Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania..............
S. D. Warren & Co., Cumberland Mills, Maine................................
Westinghouse Air Brake Company, Wilmerding, Pennsylvania......
Public baths in the United States, by G. W. W. Hanger............................
Municipal—
Albany, New York........................................................................
Baltimore,' Maryland............................................. .....................
Boston, Massachusetts...................................................................
Bridgeport, Connecticut................................................................
Brookline, Massachusetts..............................................................
Brooklyn, New Y ork.....................................................................
Buffalo, New Y ork........................................................................
Cambridge, Massachusetts.......................... ..................................
Chicago, Illinois.......................................................................... .
Cleveland, Ohio..............................................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..........................................................................
Detroit, Michigan..........................................................................
Hartford, Connecticut..................................................................
Hoboken, New Jersey....... z..........................................................
Holyoke, Massachusetts......................................... .....................
Kansas City, Missouri...................................................................
Louisville, Kentucky....................................................................
Milwaukee, Wisconsin...................................................................
Minneapolis, Minnesota.................................................................
Newark, New Jersey.....................................................................
New Bedford, Massachusetts.........................................................
Newton, Massachusetts..................................................................
New York, New Y ork...................................................................
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania...........................................................
Portland, Maine............................................................................
Providence, Rhode Island............................................................
Rochester, New Y o r k ..................................................................
St. Paul, Minnesota........................................................................
Springfield, Massachusetts............................................................
Syracuse, New York......................................................................
Taunton, Massachusetts..................................................................
Troy, New Y ork ............................................................................
Utica, New York.......................................................................... .
Washington, District of Columbia..................................................
Wilmington, Delaware...................................................................
Worcester, Massachusetts....................................................„........
Yonkers, New Y ork.......................................................................



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CONTENTS.

Public baths in the United States—Concluded. .
Nonmunicipal—
New York, New Y ork ...................................................................
Allegheny, Pennsylvania..............................................................
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania...............................................................
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania..........................................................
San Francisco, California..............................................................
Special bathing appliances.................................. ................................
Trade and technical education in the United States..... ............................
Introduction.........................................................................................
New York Trade School, New York, New Y ork .................................
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New Y ork ..................................................
St. George’s Evening Trade School, New York, New Y ork ................
Williamson Free School of Mechanical Trades, Pennsylvania............
The California School of Mechanical Arts, San Francisco, California.
The Wilmerding School of Industrial Arts, San Francisco, California.
Dairy School, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin..... ........
Department of Dairying, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Me­
chanic Arts, Ames, Iowa...................................................................
Young Women’ s Christian Association School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Young Women’s Christian Association School, New York, New York.
Women’s Training School, St. Louis, Missouri...................................
Philadelphia Textile School and School of Industrial Art, Philadel­
phia, Pennsylvania............................................................................
Lowell Textile School, Lowell, Massachusetts....................................
New Bedford Textile School, New Bedford, Massachusetts................
Rochester Athenaeum and Mechanics’ Institute, Rochester, New York.
Armstrong and Slater Memorial Trade School, Hampton Normal and
Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Virginia........................................
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama.........
Mount Meigs Colored Industrial Institute, Waugh, Alabama............
Snowhill Industrial Institute, Snowhill, Alabama...............................
Hand and machine labor in the United States...........................................
Labor legislation in the United States, by G. A. Weber............................
Labor in factories, sweat shops, etc.....................................................
Mine labor.............................................................................................
Railway labor........................................................................................
Hours of labor......................................................................................
Sunday labor........................................................................................
Employment of women........................................................................
Child labor...........................................................................................
Licensed occupations............................................................................
Payment of wages.................................................................................
Employers’ liability................................................ .............................
Boycotting,-blacklisting, intimidation, etc...........................................
Labor organizations.............................................................................
Boards of arbitration and conciliation..................................................
Bureaus of labor................................................ .................................
Free public employment bureaus.......................... : .............................
Labor conditions in Hawaii........................................................................




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L IS T O F IL L U S T R A T IO N S .
CHARTS RELATING TO STRIKES.

Page.

1. Strikes, establishments involved, and employees thrown out of work, as
ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered, by years, 1881 to 1900.
2. Strikes, establishments involved, and employees thrown out of work, as
ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered, by industries, 1881
to 1900................... . ........ ............................................ .*...........................
3. Strikes ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered, establishments
involved, and employees thrown out of work, by States, 1881 to 1900__
4. Per cent of establishments involved in strikes in 5 leading States of total
establishments involved in strikes during 20 years, 1881 to 1900............
5. Per cent of employees thrown out of work in strikes in 5 leading States
of total employees thrown out of work during 20 years, 1881 to 1900___
6. Per cent of establishments involved in strikes in 20 leading cities of total
establishments involved in strikes during 20 years, 1881 to 1900............
7. Per cent of employees thrown out of work by strikes in 20 leading cities of
total employees thrown out of work during 20 years, 1881 to 1900.........
8. Per cent of strikes ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered
during 20 years, 1881 to 1900...................................................................
9. Per cent of employees thrown out of work by strikes- ordered by labor
organizations and not so ordered during 20 years, 1881 to 1900 ..............
10. Per cent of establishments involved in strikes ordered by labor organiza­
tions and not so ordered during 20 years, 1881 to 1900.............................
11. Per cent of establishments closed on account of strikes of total establish­
ments involved in strikes during 20 years, 1881 to 1900 ..........................
12. Wage loss of employees, assistance to employees by labor organizations,
and employers’ loss in strikes, by years, 1881 to 1900.............................
13. Wage loss of employees, assistance to employees by labor organizations,
and employers’ loss in strikes, by industries, 1881 to 1900........ ...........
14. Wage loss of employees, assistance to employees by labor organizations,
and employers’ loss in strikes, by States, 1881 to 1900 ............................
15. Per cent of wage loss of employees, assistance to employees bv labor organiza­
tions, and employers’ loss in strikes during 20 yeays, 1881 to 1900.........
16. Results of strikes ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered, by
years, 1881 to 1900...........*..................................................................... *
.
17. Results of strikes ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered, by
industries, 1881 to 1900.............................................................................
18. Results of strikes, by States, 1881 to 1900...................................................
19. Results of strikes to employees thrown out of work, by years, 1881 to 1900..
20. Results of strikes undertaken for 5 leading causes, 1881 to 1900.................
21. Per cent of strikes undertaken for leading causes during 20 years, 1881
to 1900.......................................................................................................




VII

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1109
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1114
1117

V III

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

CHARTS RELATING TO WAGES, ETC., 1890 TO 1903.

Page.

Wages and hours of labor: United States and Europe, 1890 to 1903—
22. Blacksmiths...........................................................................................
23. Boiler makers........................................................................................
24. Bricklayers.............................................................................................
25. Carpenters.............................................................................................
26. Compositors.....................................................................
27. Hod carriers...........................................................................................
28. Iron molders................... ; ....................................................................
29. Laborers, general.................
30. Machinists..................................................................................
31. Painters..................................................................................................
32. Plumbers...............................................................................................
33. Stonecutters....................
34. Stone masons..........................................................................................
35. Wages, hours of labor, number of employees, and cost of living in the
United States, 1890 to 1903 .......................................................................

1122
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1122
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1122
1122
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1122
1122
1128

CHARTS RELATING TO COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES.
36. Per cent of total income from husbands, wives, children, boarders and
lodgers, and other sources, by geographical divisions and general nativity
of head of family......................................................................................
37. Average cost per family of certain articles of food consumed in 1901,
for the United States.................................................................................
38. Average expenditure per family for various purposes in 1901, for the
United States.............................................................................................
39. Average cost of food per family each year, 1890 to 1903, for the United States.
40. Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families,
by size of income............................... ......................................................
41. Relative prices of food in the North Atlantic States, weighted according to
family consumption, 1890 to 1903....... ................... _.................. ...........
42. Relative prices of food in the South Atlantic States, weighted according to
family consumption, 1890 to 1903 ............................................................
43. Relative prices of food in the North Central States, weighted according to
family consumption, 1890 to 1903 ........................................... *___ . ___
44. Relative prices of food in the South Central States, weighted according to
family consumption, 1890 to 1903.............................................................
45. Relative prices of food in the Western States, weighted according to family
consumption, 1890 to 1903.........................................................................
46. Relative prices of food in the United States, weighted according to family
consumption, 1890 to 1903.........................................................................

1132
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1160
1160
Uj60
1161
1161
1161

CHARTS RELATING TO WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.

Relative wholesale and retail prices of fresh beef, 1890 to 1903 .................
Relative wholesale and retail prices of butter, 1890 to 1903.........................
Relative wholesale and retail prices of eggs, 1890 to 1903............................
Relative wholesale and retail prices of wheat flour, 1890 to 1903................
Relative wholesale and retail prices of lard, 1890 to 1903...........................
Relative wholesale and retail prices of bacon, 1890 to 1903........................
Relative wholesale and retail prices of smoked ham, 1890 to1903...............
Relative wholesale and retail prices of Irish potatoes, 1890to 1903___ . . . .
Relative wholesale and retail prices of sugar, 1890 to 1903..........................
Relative wholesale and retail prices of food in the United States, 1890 to
1903...........................................................................................................




1164
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1164
1164
1164
1164

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

IX

CHARTS RELATING TO WHOLESALE PRICES.
Page.

57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.

Relative prices of farm products, 1890 to 1903.............................................
Relative prices of food, etc., 1890 to 1903 ....................................................
Relative prices of cloths and clothing, 1890 to 1903...........................
Relative prices of fuel and lighting, 1890 to 1903 ........................................
Relative prices of metals and implements, 1890 to 1903 .............................
Relative prices of lumber and building materials, 1890 to 1903...................
Relative prices of drugs and chemicals, 1890 to 1903............................
Relative prices of house-furnishing goods, 1890 to 1903...............................
Relative prices of all commodities, 1890 to 1903 .........................................
Relative prices of raw and manufactured commodities, 1890 to 1903...........
Actual prices of live cattle and dressed beef, 1890 to 1903 ..........................
Actual prices of wheat and wheat flour, 1890 to 1903..................................
Actual prices of 96° centrifugal (raw) sugar and granulated sugar, 1890 to
1903 .........................................
Actual prices of raw cotton and cotton yarns, carded, white, mule spun,
northern (cones 22-1), 1890 to 1903.........................................................
Actual prices of scoured Ohio fine fleece wool and worsted yarns (2-40s
Australian fine), 1890 to 1903...................................................................
Actual prices of crude petroleum and refined 150° water-white petroleum,
1890 to 1903........................ ' ....................................................
Actual prices of foundry No. 2 pig iron and eight-penny wire nails, 1890 to
1903..............................................................................................
Actual prices of foundry No. 2 pig iron and steel rails, 1890 to 1903..___
Actual prices of steel billets and galvanized barb wire? 1890 to 1903___ . . .

1178
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1190
1190
1190
1190

PHOTOGRAPHS AND PLANS RELATING TO HOUSING OF WORKING
PEOPLE BY EMPLOYERS.
Colorado. Fuel and Iron Company:
76. Typical old-style dwellings of mining employees.................................
77. Group of houses for mining employees,Segundo, Colorado...............
78. House for employees, Rouse, Colorado................................................
79. Street in Redstone, Colorado.................................................................
80. Schoolhouse, Redstone, Colorado.........................................................
81. Clubhouse, Primero, Colorado............... ..............................................
82. Clubhouse, Redstone, Colorado............................................................
83. Redstone Inn, built for use of employees.....................
84. Minnequa Hospital, built for use of employees....................................
J. B. & J. M. Cornell Company:
85. House for employees, Plan A ................................................................
The Draper Company:
86. House for employees, Plan B................................................................
87. House for employees, Plan C .................................................
88. A study in back yards............................................................................
89. Bancroft Memorial Library.............................
90. Grammar school building.....................................................................
Ludlow Manufacturing Associates:
91. Ludlow Cottage......................................................................................
92. Plymouth Cottage .................................................................................
93. Weston Cottage....................................................................................
Maryland Steel Company:
94. House for employees, Plan D...................................................
95. House for employees, Plan E ..... ........................
96. House for employees, Plan F ...............................................................



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X

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Maryland Steel Company—Concluded.
97. Houses for employees, Plan H .............................................................
98. House for employees, Plan J ..............................................................
99. House for employees, Plan K ..............................................................
100. House for employees, Plan L ..............................................................
101. Kindergarten Building.......................... ...... . .............................. ......
102. School Building...................................................................................
103. Clubhouse for employees.....................................................................
N. O. Nelson Manufacturing Company:
104. School and library building................................................................
105. House owned by employee........................................ .................... ..
106. House for employees, Plan N ..............................................................
107. House owned by employee......................................................
Niagara Development Company:
108. House for employees, Plan P ..............................................................
.......................................
109. House for employees, Plan Q ......................*
110. House foremployees, Plan R ........... .......................................
111. House foremployees, Plan S ........................................................
112. Plouse foremployees, Plan T ..............................................................
Peacedale Manufacturing Company:
113. Houses for employees........................ ................................................
114. Houses owned by employees............................................................
115. Hazard Memorial Building..................................................................
Pelzer Manufacturing Company:
116. House for employees.......................... .................................... ...........
117. Schoolhouses ......................................... ........ .....................................
Plymouth Cordage Company:
118. House foremployees, Plan V ............
119. House foremployees, Plan X ............................................................
120. House for employees...........................................................................
121. House owned by employee__________ ______________ ___ . ______
122. Loring Reading R oom ............ .................... ................................ .
123. Sloyd school................ ...................................... - ....................... ......
J. B. Stetson Company:
124. Typical houses purchased by employees with the aid of building and
loan association stock given by the company for efficient work___
S. D. Warren & Co.:
125. House for employees, Plan Y ..............................................................
Westinghouse Air Brake Company:
126. House for employees, Plan Z ..................................................... ........
127. House for employees, Plan A A ............ .................................. ..........
128. Houses for employees, Plan BB............................... ........ .................

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1238
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PHOTOGRAPHS AND PLANS RELATING TO PUBLIC BATHS.
Albany, New \rork:
129. Municipal Bath.. ...............................................................................
Baltimore, Maryland:
130. Municipal Bath No. 1........................................ ......... .....................
131. Municipal Bath No. 2..........................................................................
Boston, Massachusetts:
132. L Street Municipal Bath, viewfrom water.........................................
133. L Street Municipal Bath,women’s house and boys’ beach..................
134. Harvard Bridge Municipal Bath........................................................
135. D Street Municipal Gymnasium and Bath..........................................



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Boston, Massachusetts—Concluded.
136. Dover Street Municipal Bath................................................
137. Cabot Street Municipal Bath................................................................
138. Cabot Street Municipal Bath, floor plans ...........................................
139. North End Municipal Bath...................................................
140. State Bath at Revere Beach................................................................
141. State Bath at Revere Beach, floor plan..........................................
Brookline, Massachusetts:
142. Municipal Bath....................................................................................
143. Municipal Bath, floor plan.................................................................
Brooklyn, New York:
144. Municipal Floating Bath No. 2 ......................
145. Municipal Floating Bath No. 2,upper frame plan..............................
146. Pitkin Avenue Municipal Bath..........................................................
147. Pitkin Avenue Municipal Bath, floor plans........................................
Buffalo, New York:
148. Municipal Baths..................................................................................
Cambridge, Massachusetts:
149. Captain’s Island Municipal Bath.........................................................
Chicago, Illinois:
150. Twenty-fifth Street Beach Municipal Bath.........................................
151. Douglas Park Municipal Bath and Gymnasium.................................
Cleveland, Ohio:
152. Municipal Bath....................................................................
Newark, New Jersey:
153. Municipal Bath....................................................................................
New York, New York:
154. West Forty-first Street Municipal Bath.............................................
155. West Sixtieth Street Municipal Bath, front elevation.......................
156. West Sixtieth Street Municipal Bath, longitudinalsection................
157. West Sixtieth Street Municipal Bath, cellar plan..............................
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:
158. Eleventh Street Municipal Bath...................................................
Yonkers, New York:
159. Municipal Bath No. 2.................................................................
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:
160. Gaskill Street Bath.............................................................................
161. Gaskill Street Bath, floor plans...........................................................
162. Typical shower apparatus...................................................................
163. Plan of typical shower bath...............................................................
164. Plan of typical laundry in public bath................................................

XI

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165-1 Model bath house of the Berlin Society for People’s Baths, Berlin
Industrial Exhibition, 1896................. *............................. ............. 1366
167J
PHOTOGRAPHS RELATING TO TRADE AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN
THE UNITED STATES.
New York Trade School, New York, New York:
168. School buildings.......... .......................................................................
169. Instruction in pattern making............................................................
170. Instruction in blacksmithing..............................................................
171. Instruction in plumbing......................................................................
172. Instruction in typesetting..................................................................
173. Instruction in fresco painting..............................................................



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X II

LIST OF ILLUSTBATIONS.

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York:
174. Main school building............................................................................
175. Science and technology building and electrical building...................
176. Instruction in applied electricity.........................................................
177. Instruction in machine work—evening class................................
T
178. Instruction in wood carving and modeling.........................................
179. Precious metal work from original designs.........................................
180. Instruction in dressmaking..................................................................
181. Instruction in costume designing.........................................................
182. Instruction in millinery.......................................................................
Williamson Free School of Mechanical Trades, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:
183. Administration building and campus..................................................
184. Instruction in carpentry.......................................................................
185. Instruction in machine w ork..............................................................
186. Barn erected by students....................................................... .............
California School of Mechanical Arts, San Francisco, California:
187. School buildings...................................................................................
188. Instruction in machine w ork..........................................
189. Instruction in cooking..........................................................................
190. Instruction in sewing..........................................................................
Wilmerding School of Industrial Arts, San Francisco, California:
191. School building........................................................
192. Instruction in cabinetmaking..............................................................
193. Instruction in wood carving....................
194. Instruction in plumbing.......................................................................
Dairy School, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin:
195. Dairy building......................................................................................
196. Dairy barn...................................
197. Instruction in dairy machinery...........................................................
198. Instruction in creamery butter making...............................................
199. Instruction in farm dairy butter making.............................................
200. Instruction in cheddar cheese making................................................
Young Women’ s Christian Association School, Boston, Massachusetts:
201. Instruction in cooking...................................... .................................
202. Instruction in laundry work................................................................
Young Women’s Christian Association School, New York^ New York:
203. Instruction in nursing............................................................... ..........
204. Instruction in millinery.......................................................................
Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:
205. School building...............
206. Experimental dyeing laboratory.........................................................
207. Heavy loom weaving....................
208. Experimental weaving—hand looms...................................: .............
209. Instruction in card stamping and lacing.............................................
Lowell Textile School, Lowell, Massachusetts:
210. School buildings.....................................
211. Dyeing laboratory................................................................•
..............
212. Cotton spinning department................................................................
213. Woolen and worsted spinning department.........................................
214. Hand looms..........................................................................................
215. Carpet looms........................................................................................




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1390
1392
1392
1392
1392
1394
1394
1394
1394
1396
1396
1396
1396
1396
1396
1400
1400
1400
1400
1404
1404
1404
1404
1404
1406
1406
1406
1406
1406
1406

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

X III

New Bedford Textile School, New Bedford, Massachusetts:
Page.
216. School building.................................................................................... 1408
217. Knitting department........................................................................... 1408
1408
218. Experimental weaving—hand looms.....................................
219. Power weaving department................................................................. 1408
Rochester Athenaeum and Mechanics’ Institute, Rochester, New York:
220. Instruction in statics............................................................................ 1410
221. Instruction in machine work................................................................ 1410
222. Instruction in dressmaking................................................................. 1410
223. Instruction in cooking............................................................
1410
Armstrong and Slater Trade School, Hampton Institute, Hampton, Virginia:
224. Students at work on school building................................................... 1412
225. Instruction in Wheelwrighting............................................................ 1412
226. Instruction in
tillage.................................................................... 1412
227. School experiment farm...................................................................... 1412
228. Instruction incombined draft of animals............................................ 1412
229. Instruction in judging swine.............................................................. 1412
230. Instruction in
cooking.................................................................. 1412
231. Instruction in laundry work........................
1412
232. Instruction in dressmaking.................................................................. 1412
233. Instruction in spinning and rug weaving........................................... 1412
Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama:
234. School buildings and grounds.............................................................. 1414
235. Students at work on school building................................................... 1414
236. Instruction in blacksmithing............................................................... 1414
237. Students at work in truck garden..................................................... .. 1414
238. School dairy herd................................................................................ 1414
239. Instruction inuse of cream separators................................................. 1414
240. Instruction in
cooking................................................................... 1414
241. Instruction in dressmaking............................................................... 1414
242. Instruction in bee culture................................................................ 1414
243. Instruction in care of poultry............................................................. 1414
CHARTS RELATING TO HAND AND MACHINE LABOR.
244. Number of hours worked under each method in producing selected
units—agriculture, mining, quarrying, transportation, etc..................... 1419
245. Number of hours worked under each method in producing selected units
of manufacture....................................................................................... 1419
CHARTS RELATING TO LABOR LEGISLATION.
246.
247.
248.
249.
250.
251.
252.
253.
254.
255.
256.

Factories and workshops, mercantile establishments, etc..........................*
Mine labor..................................................................................................
Railway labor.................
Hours of labor.............................................................................
Employment of women............ ...................................... : .......................
Employment of children............................................................................
Examination and licensing of certain employees......................................
Payment of wages..............................................................................
Boycotting, blacklisting, intimidation, etc................................................
Labor organizations....................................................................................
Bureaus of labor.........................................................................................




1422
1428
1430
1436
1440
1444
1454
1460
1474
1478
1484

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS,

XIV

CHARTS RELATING TO LABOR CONDITIONS IN HAWAII.
Page.

257. Per cent of population of each race in 1900..... . .......................................
258. Population, by race, 1853 to 1900................................................................
259. Per cent of total persons engaged in gainful occupations of each race in
1900 ......................................
260. Per cent of total persons engaged in gainful occupations in each general
occupation group in 1900.......................................................................
261. Persons engaged in gainful occupations, by race, in 1900................. ........
262. Persons engaged in mechanical occupations, by race, in 1890, 1896, and
1900 .......................
263. Persons engaged in certain mechanical occupations, by race, in 1900.......
264. Persons employed on sugar plantations, by race, 1892 to 1902 .......... .......
265. Average daily wages of sugar plantation labor, 1890 to 1902_____ ______
266. Persons employed in skilled occupations on sugar plantations, by classified
daily wages and race, 1902....... .............................................................




1488
1488
1489
1489
1490
1490
1490
1490
1490
1490

B U L L E T IN
OF TH E

BUREAU
No. 54.

OF L A B O R .

A T SHIN GT O N.
\A

Septem ber,

1904.

EXHIBIT OF THE U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR
AT THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSI­
TION.
INTRODUCTION.
B Y G.

W.

W.

HANGER,

Bepresentative Department o f Labor ( now Bureau o f Labor o f the Department o f Commerce
and Labor), U. S. Government Board, Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

Under an act of Congress approved March 3, 1901, entitled “ An
act to provide :£or celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the
purchase of the Louisiana territory by the United States by holding
an international exhibition of arts, industries, manufactures, and the
products of the soil, mine, forest, and sea, in the city of St. Louis, in
the State of Missouri” provision was made not only for generous
financial assistance to the exposition company, but also for the exhibit
by the United States Government of such articles and material as
would illustrate “ the function and administrative faculty of the
Government in time of peace and its resources as a war power, tending
to demonstrate the nature of our institutions and their adaptation to
the wants of the people.”
Exhibits were to be prepared for each of the Executive Depart­
ments of the Government and also for the Smithsonian Institution,
the National Museum, the United States Commission of Fish and Fish­
eries, the Department of Labor, the Library of Congress, and the
Bureau of the American Republics. In order to secure a complete
and harmonious arrangement of the exhibits of the Government, pro­
vision was made for the creation of the United States Government Board,
which was to be charged with the “ selection, purchase, preparation,




969

970

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

transportation, arrangement, installation, safe-keeping, exhibition,
and return of such articles and material” as the heads of the several
above-mentioned Departments and offices might decide to include in
the'Government exhibit. This board was to be composed of several
persons, one to be named by the head of each of the Departments and
offices enumerated. Since the date of the above act two of the inde­
pendent offices named, the Department of Labor and the Commission
of Fish and Fisheries, have become bureaus of the new Department
of Commerce and Labor, but their representation on the Government
Board was not affected thereby. A new member, however, was
added to the board as the representative of the new Executive Depart­
ment, to have in charge the exhibits of the various bureaus which were
included therein, with the exception of the two mentioned above,
which were already represented upon the board.
In accordance with the provisions of the law, the writer was desig­
nated by the Commissioner of Labor as the representative of the
Department of Labor (now the Bureau of Labor of the Department of
Commerce and Labor) on the Government Board, and was directed to
prepare for the exposition an exhibit which should illustrate the work
and functions of that office. Owing to the nature of the work of the
Bureau of Labor, which is largely statistical in character, the exhibit
has been necessarily confined within narrow limits so far as the character
of the exhibit is concerned, although the range of the subjects covered is
considerable, embodying practically all of the investigations and
reports of the Bureau which furnish material susceptible of use for
exhibit purposes.
The exhibits are of three principal kinds, as follows: First, complete
sets of the publications of the Federal and State bureaus of labor and
of the factory inspectors of the various States, together with miscel­
laneous volumes of Federal reports relating to labor and industrial
conditions—this entire collection of reports being intended to illustrate
important functions of the Federal and State bureaus as affecting labor;
second, a number of series of charts illustrating in graphic form the
results of some of the important investigations of the Bureau of Labor,
and incidentally including the results of special investigations and
researches which were undertaken for the purpose of supplementing
certain interesting features of the Bureau’s work; and third, a num­
ber of series of photographs and plans illustrating still other features
of the work of the Bureau of Labor.
The purpose of the present Bulletin is to place in a form conven­
ient for reference and use a part of the charts and photographs
exhibited and to furnish the figures and information upon which they
are based, as well as to make known the results of the special research
and work undertaken in connection with the preparation of the
exhibit. It is thought that this purpose can best be accomplished by



INTKODUCTION.

971

the presentation of a number of papers relating to the various features
covered by the exhibit and including under each paper reproductions
of at least a part of the charts and photographs appropriate thereto,
together with such figures and other material as may seem necessary.
Among these papers will be found certain ones, notably the first four,
which do not relate to any special exhibit of the Bureau, although
their interest in connection with a consideration of the work of the
Bureau of Labor and of the subject of labor statistics in general is
obvious. As will be seen some of these papers are in the nature of
monographs while others are simply brief descriptions of the exhibits,
together with only such figures and interpretive and explanatory
material as are deemed essential to an understanding of the charts
and other exhibits. The subjects covered are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

The working of the United States Bureau of Labor.
Bureaus of statistics of labor in the United States.
Bureaus of statistics of labor in foreign countries.
The value and influence of labor statistics.
Strikes and lockouts in the United States, 1881 to 1900.
Wages in the United States and Europe, 1890 to 1903.
Cost of living and retail prices in the United States, 1890 to 1903.
Wholesale prices in the United States, 1890 to 1903.
Housing of the working people in the United States by employers.
Public baths in the United States.
Trade and technical education in the United States.
Hand and machine labor in the United States.
Labor legislation in the United States.
Labor conditions in Hawaii.

It is a great pleasure to acknowledge here the uniform courtesy and
interest of the many officials and individuals, both in this country
and abroad, who gave generously of their time in order to furnish
information and materials entering into the exhibit of the Bureau and
this Bulletin. Among these may be mentioned the chiefs of practi­
cally all of the bureaus of statistics of labor both at home and abroad,
the officials of many of our principal cities, large employers interested
in the movement for the betterment of the housing and other condi­
tions of their employees, and the heads of many of our schools
especially devoted to trade education. Acknowledgment should also
be made of the interest of the entire personnel of the Bureau of
Labor in the exhibit and the assistance freely rendered by all whose
services could be utilized in its preparation. Special thanks are due
to Messrs. Verrill, Bowen, Baldwin, Weber, Croxton, Bell, and Depue
of the office, and Messrs. Sheridan and Ellis of the field corps. The
representative of the Bureau was particularly fortunate in securing the
services of Mr. Harold M. Parsons, who performed practically all
the mechanical work in connection with the construction of the graphic
charts.
10193—No. 54—04----- 2






THE WORKING OF THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF LABOR.(<*)
B Y C A R R O L L D . W R IG H T ,

ORIGIN.
Legislative efforts looking to the establishment of a Federal office for
the collection and publication of labor statistics date from April 10,1871,
when Hon. George F. Hoar, of Massachusetts, then a member of the
House of Representatives, introduced a bill “ to provide for the
appointment of a commission on the subject of wages and hours of
labor and the division of profits between labor and capital in the United
States.” December 13, 1871, Mr. Hoar reintroduced his bill with cer­
tain amendments, and amendments were also proposed by Mr. Killinger. This bill passed the House of Representatives December 20
,
1871, was brought into the Senate January 8, 1872, and was referred
to the Committee on Education and Labor. It was reported back by
Senator Sawyer with certain minor amendments, and other amend­
ments were proposed by Senator Wilson. Nothing more was done in
that Congress, which was the Forty-second; but April 23, 1879, the
legislature of Massachusetts sent a resolution to Congress asking for
the establishment of a national bureau of labor, and May 5 of the
same year Mr. Murch, of Maine, introduced a bill to establish a bureau
of labor statistics. On December 8 1879, Senator Hoar introduced
,
in the Senate a bill to establish a labor commission. No action was
taken upon either bill. April 12, 1880, in the House of Representa­
tives, Mr. Warner introduced a bill to establish a bureau of mines and
mining, a bureau of manufactures, and a bureau of labor statistics in
the Department of the Interior. This bill was never considered. Jan­
uary 9, 1882, in the House of Representatives, Mr. Belford reintro­
duced Mr. Warner’s bill. December 4, 1883, in the Senate, Mr. Blair
introduced a bill to establish a bureau of statistics of labor, and Decem­
ber 10 of the same year, in the House of Representatives, Mr. Willis
introduced a bill to establish a bureau of statistics of labor and indus­
tries. December 11, the same year, Mr. Hopkins, in the House of
Representatives, introduced a bill to establish and maintain a depart­
ment of labor statistics. February 12, 1884, the Committee on Labor
a Revised from an article in the
with the consent of the publishers.




C o sm o p o lita n

M a g a z in e

of June, 1892, and printed
973

974

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

of the House, after considering various bills, reported the bill intro­
duced by Mr. Hopkins to establish and maintain a department of labor
statistics, and this bill passed the House of Representatives April 19,
1884. It was received in the Senate on the 21st of the same month,
and was reported back, April 25, by Mr. Blair, chairman of the Com­
mittee on Education and Labor. May 22,1884, Mr. Garland proposed
certain amendments to this bill, as did Senator Aldrich. Out of these
various bills introduced in 1883-84 an act establishing a bureau of
labor in the Department of the Interior was framed and passed, and
was signed by the President June 27, 1884. This act provided that
u the Commissioner of Labor shall collect information upon the subject
of labor, its relation to capital, the hours of labor and the earnings of
laboring men and women, and the means of promoting their material,
social, intellectual, and moral prosperity.”
The earlier bills to which reference has been made were introduced
as the result of the establishment of the bureau of statistics of labor in
Massachusetts; the later bills, those introduced in the year 1879 and
subsequently, resulted from the various petitions of labor organizations.
The United States Bureau of Labor was organized in January, 1885,
and the Commissioner of Labor, February 4, 1885, addressed a letter
to the honorable Secretary of the Interior declaring the policy of the
office, in which he said:
It should be remembered that a bureau of labor can not solve indus­
trial or social problems, nor can it bring direct returns in a material
way to the citizens of the country; but its work must be classed among
educational efforts, and by judicious investigations and the fearless
publication thereof it may and should enable the people to comprehend
more clearly and more fully many of the problems which now vex
them.
After the Bureau of Labor—as one of the bureaus of the Department
of the Interior—had been in existence three years and had shown the
character of its work, the Knights of Labor demanded that Congress
should create r Department of Labor, to be independent of any of the
general Departments. To this end Congressman O’Neill, of Missouri,
introduced a bill to establish a department of labor, and this bill was
promptly passed by the House and the Senate, and was approved June
13, 1888, the act providing that “ there shall be at the seat of govern­
ment a Department of Labor, the general design and duties of which
shall be to acquire and diffuse among the people of the United States
useful information on subjects connected with labor, in the most gen­
eral and comprehensive sense of that word, and especially upon its
relation to capital, the hours of labor, the earnings of laboring men
and women, and the means of promoting their material, social, intel­
lectual, and moral prosperity.” The act defined the organization of
the Department and the duties of the Commissioner* and provided for




THE WORKING OF THE U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR.

975

transferring the Bureau of Labor, its duties, etc., to the Department
of Labor. The new Department, therefore, simply continued the
existence of the Bureau of Labor, but with independent functions.
The head of the Department was not placed in the Cabinet, but occupied
under the new law a position similar to that of the Commissioner of
Agriculture before that Department was made a Cabinet office.
Under the act approved February 14, 1903, establishing a new
executive department, to be known as the Department of Commerce
and Labor, it was provided that, among other offices, the existing
Department of Labor be placed under the jurisdiction and supervision
of the new Department, this provision to take effect and be in force
July 1, 1903. In accordance with the provisions of this act the for­
mer Department of Labor on July 1 , 1903, became a bureau—the
Bureau of Labor—of the Department of Commerce and Labor. Inas­
much as no provision was made for any change in its general design
and duties, its work is being carried on along practically the same
lines as formerly.
ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS.
With this brief history of the origin of the United States Bureau
of Labor, it is well to describe its organization and functions, as
they really represent those of the various State bureaus. The Bureau
is presided over by a Commissioner, entitled “ The Commissioner of
L abor;” there is a chief clerk, statistical experts, special agents, and
a proper corps of clerks, messengers, and watchmen. The grade of
pay is the same as that pertaining to other Federal offices. The func­
tions of the Bureau are to collect and publish information, as the
law defines, relating to the material, social, intellectual, and moral
prosperity of laboring men and women. Under these broad powers
the Commissioner can undertake any investigation which in his judg­
ment relates to the welfare of the working people of the country, and
which can be carried out with the means and the force at his disposal.
He is obliged by law to make an annual report covering the results of
his investigations, and he may make, in his judgment, special reports
on particular subjects whenever required to do so by the President or
either House of Congress, or when he shall think the subject in his
charge requires a special report.
Since November, 1895, the Bureau has published a bimonthly
bulletin. This is published in accordance with a law approved March
2 of the same year, as follows:
The Commissioner of Labor is hereby authorized to prepare and
mblish a bulletin of the Department of Labor as to the condition of
abor in this and other countries, condensations of State and foreign
labor reports, facts as to conditions of employment, and such other

f




976

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

facts as may be deemed of value to the industrial interests of the coun­
try, and there shall be printed one edition of not exceeding 10,000
copies of each issue of said bulletin for distribution by the Department
of Labor.
In accordance with the plan adopted, the Bulletin has at least four
regular departments of information in each issue, as follows:
First. The results of original investigations conducted by the Bureau
or its agents and experts.
Second. A digest of State labor reports.
Third. A digest of foreign labor and statistical documents.
Fourth. The reproduction immediately after their passage of new
laws that affect the interests of the working people, whether enacted
by Congress or by State legislatures; and accompanying this there is
the reproduction of the decisions of courts interpreting labor laws or
passing upon any subject which involves the relations of employer and
employee.
The Bureau thus has three methods of announcing the results of
its investigations. The only limitation to the work is that of means
and equipment.
The information under any investigation is usually collected on prop­
erly prepared schedules of inquiry in the hands of expert special agents,
by which means only the information which pertains to an investiga­
tion is secured. Rambling and nebulous observations which would be
likely to result from an investigation carried on by inquiries not prop­
erly scheduled are thus avoided. The great advantages of this method
have been demonstrated by many years of experience. Sometimes the
peculiar conditions accompanying an investigation admit of the use of
the mail, but as a rule the attempt to collect information upon any
given subject under investigation through the mail has proved a failure.
W ith property instructed special agents, who secure exactly the infor­
mation required, who are on the spot to make any explanation to
parties from whom data are sought, and who can consult the books of
account at the establishment under investigation, the best and most
accurate information can be secured, and in a condition for tabulation;
in fact, sometimes under this method the tabulation is partially accom­
plished by the form of the inquiry and answer, as shown by the schedule.
It should be remembered that the Bureau of Labor does not attempt
to secure information concerning all the people or all the establish­
ments of a city or of the country. This character of work belongs to
the Census Office and to the methods of general enumeration. The
Bureau of Labor must secure specific information and on specific
topics.
The question is often asked, How do people receive the agents of the
Bureau? As a rule the reception is kindly, even if the person inter­
viewed declines to give the information sought. As representative and




THE WORKING OF THE U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR.

977

special facts are required, it is always found that if one establishment
or one man from whom facts are desired declines to give them, some
other establishment or some other man will be found sufficiently
interested in the subject as presented to furnish the information. As
time progresses the declinations are less frequent. The Bureau never
allows the names o f parties furnishing facts to be given in its reports, but
it seeks every method of verification open to it. Thus confidence is
secured, from the knowledge that in none of the reports have private
interests been endangered. Through this confidence manufacturers in
this and other countries have opened their books of account, their pay
rolls, and their records to the agents of the Bureau. Estimates, hearsay
statements, what a man thinks relative to a fact that can be ascertained—
in fine, all variable elements—are carefully and strictly excluded and
only original and positive data accepted. Even under this rigid method
errors will creep into an official report, and sometimes a statistical con­
clusion will be, to a small degree at least, invalidated. Such an occur­
rence, however, is exceedingly rare in the history of the Bureau.
After the information is brought into the office the schedules con­
taining it are subjected to most careful scrutiny, for the purpose of
ascertaining whether there are any logical faults or incongruities in it.
If such are found, the agent furnishing it is called upon to verify his
work. What I mean by “ logical faults or incongruities” is this: For
instance, the product of an establishment may be given at a certain
sum and the raw material at another, the two being entirely out of
proportion. Under such circumstances a schedule could not be accepted,
and there must be a reexamination. When the schedules are all veri­
fied the classifications and tabulations are made, every calculation being
subjected to rigid verification in the preparation of copy for the press,
and in the reading of the proof all original calculations must again be
verified, all references reexamined, and every care taken to guard
against typographical as well as clerical errors. Figures made by the
officers of the Bureau in their analyses, or by the most skilled expert
in it, are never allowed to be printed until verified.
CHARACTER OF THE W ORK.
The altruistic spirit of the age undertakes to ascertain what social
classes owe to each other, and statistical science helps the world to the
answer. Generally three answers may be given to the inquiry. If we
say social classes owe nothing to each other, then society retrogrades
to civilized heathenism, and neither social science nor statistics has any
place among the departments of human knowledge. If the answer is
that social classes owe everything to each other, then socialism is the
logical form of social organization. But if the answer is in the spirit
of “ inasmuch as ye have done it unto the least of these, ye have




978

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

done it unto me,” then we have put the Christian religion into
social science, have answered the question rationally, and must have
the light of facts in order that the action, either of governments or of
communities, under the spirit of this answer shall not be either futile
or absurd. Altruism is the rule of the day as against the individualism
of the past. Its tendency must be guided by facts, and facts can be
gained only by the most faithful application of the statistical method, not
only in the gathering thereof, but in the application. Personal obser­
vation on which to base conclusions is not sufficient. Very many illus­
trations might be given of this fact, but they are hardly essential. The
assertion can be made, however, without fear of contradiction, that
very many conclusions have been deduced from mere observation
which the facts, when properly classified, show were erroneous. The
attempt to compare criminal conditions through criminal statistics, the
use of city criminal statistics as against those belonging to the country,
the acceptance of one line of statistics relative to moral conditions when
two or three are essential—all these directions in which the statistical
method is used teach us that ordinary observation is too faulty, at least
for legislative purposes. So the character of the work of an office
having the functions of the Bureau of Labor must be based upon the
Baconian idea of securing the facts before taking the action.
The character of the work of the Bureau has been critical, involv­
ing the closest application of the statistical method, and has been free
to a large extent, if not entirely, from any desire to argue a point. If
there have been errors in the origin of investigations they have arisen
from a misconception of what constitutes labor statistics. A glance at
the different volumes already issued may perhaps give the best evidence
as to whether the Bureau has properly construed the character of its
work. The Bureau has issued 18 annual reports, 12 special reports,
and 53 bimonthly bulletins.
ANNUAL REPORTS.
The first annual report related to industrial depressions. The infor­
mation for this report was collected and classified by a force entirely
inexperienced, with a small amount of money at command, with the
anxiety that comes of the organization of a new work, with some jeal­
ousies as to the appointment of the head prejudicing its labors, with a
critical watchfulness of friend and foe, and with the idea prevailing
among labor organizations that the duty of the new office was in the
nature of propagandism, and not of the educational function of gath­
ering and publishing facts. This report upon industrial depressions,
however, gave the Bureau of Labor a standing, and convinced its
friends that with proper financial equipment it could handle any rea­
sonable investigation that might be committed to it. The statistics




THE WORKING OF THE U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR.

979

published in that report bore upon the various features involved in
depressions. It brought out for the first time the relation of nations
to each other as producers and the various influences bearing upon
discontent, and gave a summary of the causes and a classification as to
regularity of previous depressions, etc., every page bearing directly
or indirectly upon the condition and the welfare of the working men
and women of the country.
The second annual report related to convict labor as carried on in
the penal institutions of the country. This investigation was directed
by a joint resolution of Congress. It comprehended all the facts ascer­
tainable relating to the employment of convicts in every institution of
whatever grade in the United States in which the inmates were in any
way employed on any kind of productive labor. The results were
exceedingly valuable, and they brought out the clear and well-defined
relations between convict labor and other labor, the importance of it,
the character of it, the relation of cost to product, and all the other
features which one might expect as bearing upon the subject. The
report also contained a most valuable digest of the laws of States and
of countries in the past and for the present bearing upon the employ­
ment of convicts. All the methods in vogue were fully and freely
described and discussed and their advantages and disadvantages brought
into relation. Certainly the whole report must be considered strictly
as one of labor statistics.
The third annual report was the result of an investigation relating
to strikes and lockouts occurring in the United States during the years
1881 to 1886, inclusive. The report was exhaustive and complete, so
far as all the material facts relating to strikes and lockouts were con­
cerned. It could not undertake to investigate the psychological ele­
ments of strikes except as such psychological elements were illustrated
in actions and results. The statistical method fails when it undertakes
to grasp the inner motives of men; but it succeeds when it undertakes
to record the results of those motives as they appear to the public.
The report contained a digest of laws relating to strikes and boycotts,
the course of the change of sentiment in judicial decisions on conspir­
acies, and a brief history of the great strikes of the past. Clearly, the
report was one of labor statistics, and nothing else.
The fourth annual report related to working women in 22 of the
larger cities of the United States. It did not undertake to investigate
the work of women in the lowest industrial pursuits, nor in the pro­
fessions nor even in semiprofessional callings, but gathered all the
facts as to wages, expenditures, health, moral and sanitary surround­
ings and conditions, and results of work for those women popularly
known as “ shop girls” —perhaps the middle class of working women.
The facts were almost entirely collected by women, who took every
means to verify the statements made to them, and the results were a



980

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

body of facts relating to more than 17,000 women. The report also
comprehended what was being done in the cities canvassed in the way
of clubs, homes, etc., to assist working women when out of employ­
ment or when otherwise requiring temporary encouragement. To my
own mind, this report must be classed among the most valuable of
those relating to labor.
The fifth annual report was upon the railroad labor of the country,
and by it the results as to pay and the efforts of companies to assist
their employees, the liability for accidents, and other features were
brought out.
Railroad corporations gave into the hands of the
agents of the Bureau their vouchers and pay rolls, from which were
taken all the facts relating to wages and earnings. When it is under­
stood that there are nearly a million employees of the different railroad
corporations in the country, the importance of securing and publishing
the facts relating to them becomes apparent. The vast body of work­
ers on the great railroad systems of the country, in whose hands the
welfare of the community in many respects is placed, and upon whose
faithfulness in the discharge of duty life and limb so largely depend,
is a body for which all facts should be ascertained. This report has
never been studied as it should be. It contains data of the greatest
importance in the consideration of labor questions. The migration of
labor—its tendency to change position and to seek new fields—was for
the first time, so far as my knowledge goes, brought out and statistic­
ally stated. A new thought was also brought to light, resulting in
what may*be called the “ theoretical condition” of employees working
under the wage system. Philosophically, so far as the discussion of
labor questions and of certain features of socialism is concerned, the
fifth annual report offers material never before published.
The sixth and seventh annual reports relate primarily to the cost of
producing iron and steel and cognate products, and the textiles and
glass, in this and other countries. This work was ordered by Congress
in the organic law of the Bureau. It took three years and a half of
the most laborious efforts to collect and tabulate the information. The
primary object of securing the information relative to the cost of pro­
duction, so far as Congressional action is concerned, was to ascertain
the difference between the cost of producing articles abroad and in this
country, that a more scientific conclusion might be reached relative to
the rates of duties necessary for the purposes of equalization. Inci­
dentally, however, along with the collection of the data required by
Congress, the wages of those working in the industries comprehended
by the investigation, as stated, and the cost of the living of workers in
these industries, were considered, and the bulk 6f the reports (the sixth
and the seventh) relate to wages and the cost of living, comprehending
in the latter feature the facts for more than 16,000 families. Thor­
oughly and preeminently are these reports of labor statistics.



THE WORKING OF THE U / S. BUREAU OF LABOR.

981

The eighth annual report was especially ordered by Congress, and
related to industrial education in different countries. It took up the
status of industrial education in the United States, Austria, Belgium,
France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, the Scandinavian coun­
tries, and Switzerland. It also dealt with the kindergarten in relation
to manual training, manual training in conjunction with bookwork,
manual training and trade instruction in reformatories, and the effect of
manual training and trade instruction upon the individual, and it con­
tained an extensive bibliography of works treating upon industrial
education. This report has been of great value in States where the
subject of industrial education in any form has been discussed by
legislatures.
The ninth annual report related to building and loan associations,
including under that general title all associations the objects of which
were similar to those of building and loan associations, the general
subject including cooperative banks, mutual loan associations, home­
stead aid associations, savings fund and loan associations, and other
similar institutions. The work was comprehensive, and covered all
the associations in the United States as they existed in 1892-93, with
full tables giving the facts as to number, series, shares, number and
sex of shareholders, etc. It also contained special interest-rate tables
and average premium-rate tables, with a description of the various
plans adopted for the payment of premiums and for the distribution
of profits, as well as withdrawal plans. The report also contained a
chapter giving general legislation relating especially to building and
loan associations.
The tenth annual report was a continuation of the third, relating to
strikes and lockouts, and was in two volumes, Volume I containing an
analysis of all tables -and the detail tables of all strikes and lockouts
occurring in the United States from January 1, 1887, to June 30,1894.
Volume II contained summaries of the detail tables given in Volume I.
The analysis reclassified and resummarized the facts contained in the
third annual report, giving strikes and lockouts from January 1,1881,
to December 31,1886. The tenth, therefore, comprehended all strikes
and lockouts from 1881 to June 30, 1894.
The eleventh annual report was the result of an investigation con­
cerning the work and wages of men, women, and children, classifying
the occupations and earnings of women and children and of men, and
dealing with the relative efficiency of women and children and of men
engaged in the same occupation, the comparison of earnings of women
and children and of men of the same grade of efficiency, the reasons
usually given for the employment of women and girls, the hours per
week worked in establishments, and the different occupations followed
by women and girls.




982

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The twelfth annual report was the result of instructions from Con­
gress authorizing the Commissioner of Labor to make an investigation
relating to the economic aspects of the liquor problem. The report
gave the production and consumption of liquors, the traffic in liquors,
the revenue derived from the production of and the traffic in the same,
the experience and practice of employers relative to the use of intoxi­
cants, and various tables relating to license fees or special taxes, fines,
etc. It also gave the laws regulating the revenue derived from liquor
production and traffic in the different States. The report was for the
year ending June 30, 1897.
The thirteenth annual report, entitled “ Hand and Machine Labor,5
’
was also the result of an investigation authorized by joint resolution of
Congress, under the provisions of which the Commissioner of Labor
was authorized and directed to investigate and make report upon the
effect of the use of machinery upon labor and the cost of production,
the relative productive power of hand and machine labor, the cost of
manual and machine power as they are used in the productive indus­
tries, etc. This resolution was approved August 15, 1894, and after
between three and four years of very difficult labor the results of the
investigation were reported in October, 1898, in the thirteenth annual
report. The work was published in two volumes.
The fourteenth annual report, published in December, 1899, related
to water, gas, and electric light plants under private and municipal
ownership, and was designed to bring out the essential facts relating
to such works in the United States. The report was the result of an
agreement by the various commissioners of labor at their annual con­
vention held in Albany in June, 1896. It was impossible to make such
a report comprehensive in all its details, yet the Bureau was able
to bring out the facts for the representative private and municipal
works under the various designations as they existed in the United
States at the time of the investigation.
The fifteenth annual report is the only compilation the Bureau has
ever indulged in.
All its works other than this have been the
results of original inquiry and investigation. The fifteenth annual
gives the wages and hours of labor in the principal commercial coun­
tries of the world for as many years as possible, the facts being taken
from authenticated official reports of the countries involved in the
compilation. In many countries the quotations of rates run back
many years, and in all countries, as far as possible, they are brought
down to the summer of 1900.
The sixteenth annual report covers the statistics of strikes and
lockouts from June 30, 1894 (the date at which the investigation
resulting in the tenth annual report ended), to December 31, 1900.
The report includes also the data contained in the third and tenth
reports, tLus furnishing an exhibit of the strikes and lockouts in the




THE WORKING OF THE U.

S. BUREAU OF LABOR.

983

United States from January 1, 1881, to December 31, 1900, a period
of twenty years. A history of strikes prior to 1880, and also the atti­
tude of the courts relative to conspiracy, etc., are given.
The seventeenth annual report relates to trade and technical education
in the United States and in the principal European countries. Besides
very full details in regard to the schools, the report gives the results
of special inquiries directed to ascertaining the influence of the schools
upon the pupils, upon apprenticeship, and upon any industries, as well
as the attitude of employers, of school graduates, and of labor unions
toward industrial education. This second report upon industrial edu­
cation was made in response to many urgent requests.
The eighteenth annual report, which is now in the hands of the
printer, presents the results of an extended investigation into the cost
of living of workingmen’s families and the retail prices for the years
1890 to 1903 of the principal staple articles of food used by such fami
lies. The object of the investigation into cost of living was to deter­
mine the cost of housing, fuel, lighting, food, clothing, etc., in the
ordinary family in the United States. The object of the investigation
into retail prices was to determine the changes in the prices of the
staple articles of food for a period of years, and thereby to determine
as nearly as possible the changes in the cost of living in the several
years covered.
Of the annual reports already published all are now out of print,
except the sixth, fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth.
SPECIAL REPORTS.
The first of the special reports published by the Bureau is enti­
tled 6 A Report upon the Statistics of and Relating to Marriage and
6
Divorce,” and was sent to Congress in 1889 under special provision of
an act of Congress to enable the Commissioner to make the report.
This document covers the statistics of marriage and divorce in the
United States for twenty years, from 1867 to 1886 inclusive, and it
comprehends also statistics and laws of other countries. To make it
required the collection of data from libels for divorce and divorce
dockets of more than 2,600 courts in the United States having divorce
jurisdiction. Much has been said by my friends in labor organiza­
tions condemnatory of this report, not as to its character, but as to
the propriety of the Bureau of Labor making it. The answer is
very emphatic and to my mind thoroughly comprehensive—that Con­
gress found the Bureau of Labor the only one connected with the
Government having the proper machinery for carrying out its pur­
poses; further, if there is any subject in which labor should be actively
interested, and which concerns the happiness of the workingman, it
is the sacredness and the permanency of home relations. To my own
mind, the report upon marriage and divorce is as thoroughly—although



984

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

on the first appearance somewhat remotely—essential to labor in all
its interests as any reports upon wages or cost of living.
The second special report is one that has been in very great demand.
It was originally published in 1892, and comprehended the labor laws
of the United States Government and of the different States, giving
such laws in full, together with annotations relative to decisions of
courts affecting them. By a concurrent resolution adopted by Con­
gress March 5,1896, a second and revised edition of the second special
report was published. A third edition, again revised, is now in press
as the tenth special report.
The third special report is simply an analysis and index of all
State labor reports that had been published up to 1893, and was made
with special reference to the needs of the Bureau. No subse­
quent analysis has been made, but an index of the contents of the
various annual and biennial reports of the States having bureaus of
statistics of labor or similar offices has been prepared to supply the
needs of the Bureau itself and those of the various libraries of the
country.
The fourth special report relates to compulsory insurance in Ger­
many; the fifth special, to the Gothenburg system of regulating the
liquor traffic; the sixth special, to the phosphate industry of the United
States; the seventh special, to the slums of the cities of New York,
Chicago, Philadelphia, and Baltimore; the eighth special, to the hous­
ing of the working people; the ninth special consists of a study of
the Italians in the city of Chicago, and the eleventh special, now in
press, is a study of the subject of the regulation and restriction of
output.
O f the special reports already published all are now out of print.
In addition to the numbered special reports two special reports have
been made upon labor in Hawaii. The law originally required these
reports to be made annually, but as now amended a report will be
required in 1905 and every five years thereafter.
BULLETIN.
In addition to the annual and special reports just enumerated fifty three numbers of the bimonthly Bulletin have already been issued.
The leading articles in these bulletins are as follows:
No. 1. Private and public debt in the United States, by George K. Holmes.
Employer and employee under the'common law, by V. H. Olmsted and S. D.
Fessenden.
No. 2. The poor colonies of Holland, by J. Howard Gore, Ph. D.
The industrial revolution in Japan, by William Eleroy Curtis.
Notes concerning the money of the U. S. and other countries, by W. C. Hunt.
The wealth and receipts and expenses of the U. S., by W. M. Steuart.
No. 3. Industrial communities: Coal Mining Co. of Anzin, by W. F. Willoughby.
No. 4. Industrial communities: Coal Mining Co. of Blanzy, by W. F. Willoughby.
The sweating system, by Henry White.



THE WORKING OF THE U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR.

985

No. 5. Convict labor.
Industrial communities: Krupp Iron and Steel Works, by W. F. Willoughby.
No. 6. Industrial communities: Familistere Society of Guise, by W. F. Willoughby.
Cooperative distribution, by Edward W. Bemis, Ph. D.
No. 7. Industrial communities: Various communities, by W. F. Willoughby.
Rates of wages paid under public and private contract, by Ethelbert Stewart.
No. 8. Conciliation and arbitration in the boot and-shoe industry, by T. A. Carroll.
Railway relief departments, by Emory R. Johnson, Ph. D.
No. 9. The padrone system and padrone banks, by John Koren.
The Dutch Society for General Welfare, by J. Howard Gore, Ph. D.
No. 10. Condition of the Negro in various cities.
Building and loan associations.
No. 11. Workers at gainful occupations at the censuses of 1870, 1880, and 1890, by
W. C. Hunt.
Public baths in Europe, by Edward Mussey Hartwell, Ph. D., M. D.
No. 12. The inspection of factories and workshops in the U. S., by W. F. Willoughby.
Mutual rights and duties of parents and children, guardianship, etc., under
the law, by F. J. Stimson.
The municipal or cooperative restaurant of Grenoble, France, by C. O. Ward.
No. 13. The anthracite mine laborers, by G. O. Virtue, Ph. D.
No. 14. The Negroes of Farmville, Va.: A social study, by W. E. B. Du Bois, Ph. D.
Incomes, wages, and rents in Montreal, by Herbert Brown Ames, B. A.
No. 15. Boarding homes and clubs for working women, by Mary S. Fergusson.
The trade-union label, by John Graham Brooks.
No. 16. The Alaskan gold fields and opportunities for capital and labor, by S. C.
Dunham.
No. 17. Brotherhood relief and insurance of railway employees, by E. R. Johnson,
Ph. D.
The nations of Antwerp, by J. Howard Gore, Ph. D.
No. 18. Wages in the United States and Europe, 1870 to 1898.
No. 19. The Alaskan gold fields and opportunities for capital and labor, by S. C.
Dunham.
Mutual relief and benefit associations in the printing trade, by W. S. Waudby.
No. 20. Condition of railway labor in Europe, by Walter E. Weyl, Ph. D.
No. 21. Pawnbroking in Europe and the United States, by W. R. Patterson, Ph. D.
No. 22. Benefit features of American trade unions, by Edward W. Bemis, Ph. D.
The Negro in the black belt: Some social sketches, by W. E. B. Du Bois, Ph. D.
Wages in Lyon, France, 1870 to 1896.
N'' 23. Attitude of women’s clubs, etc., toward social economics, by Ellen M. Henrotin.
The production of paper and pulp in the U. S. from Jan. 1 to June 30, 1898.
No. 24. Statistics of cities.
No. 25. Foreign labor laws: Great Britain and France, by W. F. Willoughby.
No. 26. Protection of workmen in their employment, by Stephen D. Fessenden.
Foreign labor laws: Belgium and Switzerland, by W. F. Willoughby.
No. 27. Wholesale prices: 1890 to 1899, by Roland P. Falkner, Ph. D.
Foreign labor laws: Germany, by W. F. Willoughby.
No. 28. Voluntary conciliation and arbitration in Great Britain, by J. B. McPherson.
System of adjusting wages, etc., in certain rolling mills, by J. H. Nutt.
Foreign labor laws: Austria, by W. F. Willoughby.
No. 29. Trusts and industrial combinations, by J. W. Jenks, Ph. D.
The Yukon and Nome gold regions, by S. C. Dunham.
Labor Day, by Miss M. C. de Graffenried.




986

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

No. 30. Trend of wages from 1891 to 1900.
Statistics of cities.
Foreign labor laws: Various European countries, by W. F. Willoughby.
No. 31. Betterment of industrial conditions, by V. H. Olmsted.
Present status of employers’ liability in the U. S., by S. D. Fessenden.
Condition of railway labor in Italy, by Dr. Luigi Einaudi.
No. 32. Accidents to labor as regulated by law in the U. S., by W. F. Willoughby.
Prices of commodities and rates of wages in Manila.
The Negroes of Sandy Spring, Md.: A social study, by W. T. Thom, Ph. D.
The British workmen’s compensation act and its operation, by A. Maurice
Low.
No. 33. Foreign labor laws: Australasia and Canada, by W. F. Willoughby.
The British conspiracy and protection of property act and its operation, by
A. Maurice Low.
No. 34. Labor conditions in Porto Rico, by Azel Ames, M. D.
Social economics at the Paris Exposition, by Prof. N. P. Gilman.
The workmen’s compensation act of Holland.
No. 35. Cooperative communities in the United States, by Rev. Alexander Kent.
The Negro landholder of Georgia, by W. E. B. Du Bois, Ph. D.
No. 36. Statistics of cities.
Statistics of Honolulu, H. I.
No. 37. Railway employees in the United States, by Samuel McCune Lindsay, Ph. D.
The Negroes of Litwalton, Va.: A social study of the “ Oyster Negro,” by
William Taylor Thom, Ph. D.
No. 38. Labor conditions in Mexico, by Walter E. Weyl, Ph. D.
The Negroes of Cinclare Central Factory and Calumet Plantation, La., by
J. Bradford Laws.
No. 39. Course of wholesale prices, 1890 to 1901.
No. 40. Present condition of the hand-working and domestic industries of Germany,
by Henry J. Harris, Ph. D.
Workmen’ s compensation acts of foreign countries, by Adna F. Weber.
No. 41. Labor conditions in Cuba, by Victor S. Clark, Ph. D.
Beef prices, by Fred C. Croxton.
No. 42. Statistics of cities.
Labor conditions in Cuba.
No. 43. Report to the President on anthracite coal strike, by Carroll D. Wright.
No. 44. Factory sanitation and labor protection, by C. F. W. Doehring, Ph. D.
No. 45. Course of wholesale prices, 1890 to 1902.
No. 46. Report of Anthracite Coal Strike Commission.
No. 47. Report of the Commissioner of Labor on Hawaii.
No. 48. Farm colonies of the Salvation Army, by Commander Booth Tucker.
The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio, by Richard R. Wright, jr., B. D.
No. 49. Cost of living.
Labor conditions in New Zealand, by Victor S, Clark, Ph. D.
No. 50. Labor unions and British industry, by A. Maurice Low.
Land values and ownership in Philadelphia, by A. F. Davies.
No. 51. Course of wholesale prices, 1890 to 1903.
The union movement among coal-mine workers, by Frank Julian Warne,
Ph. D.
No. 52. Child labor in the United States, by Hannah R. Sewall, Ph. D.
No. 53. Wages and cost of living.




THE WORKING OF THE U. S. BUREAU QF LABOR.

987

In addition to the annual and special reports and the bimonthly
bulletin, a large part of the force of the Bureau was engaged for
nearly a year, in association with the Senate Committee on Finance, in
collecting for that committee the statistics of wages and prices for a
period of fifty-two years (from 1810 to 1891, inclusive), which were
published in seven volumes. The Bureau also made some reports in
accordance with Senate resolutions calling for the same, namely, one
on total cost and labor cost of transformation in the production of
certain articles in the United States, Great Britain, and Belgium; one
on the cost of producing white pine lumber in the United States and
Canada, and one on the effect of the international copyright law in
the United States.
To my mind, all the facts which have so far been gathered and pub­
lished by the Bureau bear, either directly or indirectly, upon the
industrial and humanitarian advance of the age, and are all essential
in any intelligent discussion of what is popularly known as the u labor
question.” Labor statistics must not be considered as simply statistics
relating to narrow fields, but, in the language of the law creating the
Bureau of Labor, they should relate to the “ material, social, intel­
lectual, and moral prosperity” of all concerned; and this means the
material, social, intellectual, and moral prosperity of society itself.
If the industrial elements of a nation are not progressing intellectually
and morally to a higher social plane, little can be expected from all
the educational efforts which may be made under the conventional and
academic methods. There must be the broader education which com­
prehends the industrial freedom of men and women as a prerequisite
to securing intellectual and political freedom.
Kindly criticism is sometimes made upon the Bureau by its friends
that it does not do this or that—that it has not taken up investiga­
tions that are most pressing in their nature. The answer to this is
that the Bureau is limited in many directions. It would be a very
great piece of maladministration to undertake an investigation that
could not he carried to reasonable completeness—to undertake a work
which the Bureau has neither the means nor the equipment to carry
on, and very many of the suggestions, which are in the kindliest
way made to it, are suggestions which would involve the expenditure
of hundreds of thousands of dollars to carry out and the employment
of a force of hundreds of people instead of the use of the means and
the force at the command of the Bureau. There has never been a
suggestion made relative to the work of the Bureau that the Com­
missioner would not gladly have carried out had he had the means
to do so. And yet Congress has been very liberal. Commencing with
$25,000 as the annual appropriation for the Bureau of Labor, Congress
now appropriates more than $184,000, exclusive of printing, for the
10193—No. 54—04----3




988

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

administration of the Bureau, and, so far as I know, there has been
no inclination on the part of the House, th$ Senate, or the President
to in any way abridge or interfere with the work of the Bureau. On
the other hand, it has met with the most generous confidence on the
part of Congress and of the President, and been aided in all reason­
able ways in bringing its work to a high standard of excellence.
This is in evidence through the continued demand for the reports of
the Bureau. One of the most gratifying demands comes from read­
ing clubs which are being established rapidly all over the country
by labor organizations. The study of economic facts by such organi­
zations ought to be stimulated in every way, and the Federal Govern­
ment, through its Congress, does not hesitate to meet this demand.
The question is often asked why the Bureau does not furnish data
each year showing the condition of labor and industrial matters con­
tinuously. This would be a desirable result to be accomplished,
but it would involve a very large expenditure of money and practi­
cally a census of manufacturing establishments.
This can be done only at the decennial census of the United States.
In order to give complete statements of an industry the Bureau
would have to canvass all the establishments in that industry, and
hence in all industries. It will be seen at once that this is an impossi­
bility. The Bureau is therefore content to make special investiga­
tions each year, the results of which, if of sufficient importance in
volume and value, are published in its annual report, and if of minor
importance in volume, although maybe not in value, they are pub­
lished in the bimonthly bulletin. The special reports authorized by
Congress enable the Bureau to publish the results of special investi­
gations which can not be included in either of the other forms of
publication.
The Bureau can determine many things bv the statistical method,
and it must work emphaticalty on that method. It is often said that
it should undertake the agitation of certain features of reform; in
other words, that it should become the instrument of propagandism.
But when this proposition is made, the question should be asked,
Whose ideas of reform should be adopted, of what propositions should
it become the propagandist, and to what extent should it argue for
or against the platforms of this or that party or organization? It
seems to me that all men who comprehend the value of accurate
knowledge must see at once that for the Bureau to enter upon such a
course would result in its immediate abolition; that should it become
the advocate of any theory it would thereby become partisan in its
work and thus destroy its own efficiency. If the Bureau advocates
a proposition it necessarily takes the position of an advocate, and
hence a partisan, and lays itself open to the charge of having col­




THE WORKING OF THE U.

S. BUREAU OF LABOR.

989

lected facts to substantiate and bolster up its position, or of havingneglected to secure facts which might antagonize such position. When­
ever the head of the Bureau of Labor attempts to turn its efforts in
the direction of sustaining or of defeating any public measure, its
usefulness will be past and its days will be few. It is only by the fear­
less publication of facts, without regard to the influence those facts
may have upon any party’s position or any partisan’s views, that it
can justify its continued existence, and its future usefulness will depend
upon the nonpartisan character of its personnel.







BUREAUS OF STATISTICS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES.
B Y G. W . W . H A N G E R .

On April 28, 1903, in Washington, D. C., was held the nineteenth
annual convention of the Association of Officials of Bureaus of Labor
Statistics of America. This body, which is unique in character, has
met thus in annual convention in some important city of the country
for the past twenty-one years, with the exception of the years 1890
and 1893, when, however, informal conferences were held.
The
association was organized and held its first convention at Colum­
bus, Ohio, in September, 1883. To the Hon. H. A. Newman, at that
time commissioner of labor of the State of Missouri, is due the credit
for calling this first conference of the heads of the State labor bureaus
then in existence. His reasons are stated as follows:
As there seemed to be a wide difference in the manner of gathering
and compiling statistics in the different States of the Union that have
bureaus of labor statistics, the commissioner of this department con­
cluded that a free interchange of opinions by the different commis­
sioners would be of much value, not alone to the commissioners, but
to the State legislatures as well. To this end, after much correspon­
dence, he called a meeting of the commissioners to be held at Colum­
bus, Ohio, on the 26th day of September, 1883.
At the time of the first convention, bureaus had been established in
12 States. In 11 of these (California, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts,
Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and
Wisconsin), the bureaus were in active operation, while in 1 (Connecti­
cut) the bureau had been abolished after issuing two reports. Of the
11 bureaus in active operation 6 were represented at this convention,
and the number of bureaus actually represented at these conventions
has since increased to 20 in 1903—an evidence of growth not only in
the number of bureaus of this character but also in interest in the
objects for which the association was formed. During its life the
association has held conventions in important cities of 16 States. Its
objects, as set forth in the official rules adopted in 1892, areas follows:
To meet annually for the discussion of business pertaining to the
association; for the discussion of methods of work, current and other­
wise, pertaining to bureaus of labor or industrial statistics and kin­
dred departments with which its members are connected in their
respective States; also, to foster the ties of friendship, interchange
ideas, and in various waj^s seek to promote the welfare of these bureaus
of statistics; to present subjects for investigation, and to transact all
such business as is deemed consistent with the duties of statisticians.




991

992

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The active members of the association consist of commissioners and
chiefs of State and national bureaus of labor and industrial statistics
and their deputies and chief clerks, while all ex-commissioners and
ex-deputies of such bureaus are ex officio members. Within the last
few years there have also been admitted to membership in this associ­
ation the Director of the United States Bureau of the Census and his
chief statistical staff, the deputy minister of labor of the Dominion of
Canada, and the secretary of the labor bureau of Ontario.
The bureaus, departments, or offices thus represented have, from
time to time, been created and provided for by the various State legis­
latures, and, in the case of the United States Bureau of Labor, by the
Congress of the United States. Their purposes or objects have been
variously stated in their organic acts, but an examination of these acts
discloses a practical uniformity of purpose— the collection and dissemi­
nation of statistics relating to the industrial, social, moral, educational,
and living conditions of the working classes.
The rapid increase in number of these offices in the United States is
due largely, without doubt, to the desire of legislators for information
upon which to base laws for the betterment of the working and living
conditions of the workmen in the factories, shops, and mines of our
country. The passage of such laws has more and more been urged by
the public in general and by the laboring classes in particular. Pub­
licity concerning the conditions of factories, shops, and mines as
regards the safeguards instituted for the protection of workmen, and
information as to the actual condition of the workman as regards his
wages, hours of labor, cost of living, and general shop and home con­
ditions are necessary to scientific remedial legislation. Prior to the
creation <?f these offices but little in the way of actual statistics relat­
ing to labor was obtainable. The labor and expense o f collecting the
necessary data covering any considerable field were too great for
private undertaking. Besides, the possible unreliability of data col­
lected in this manner and lacking official confirmation detracted largely
from their value and rendered their use as a basis of legislation unsafe.
Here, undoubtedly, was a proper and legitimate field for Federal and
State activity.
The first bureau established in this or any other country for the col­
lection and publication of statistics relating to labor was that of the
State of Massachusetts, the date of its establishment being June 23,
1869. Three years later, on April 12, 1872, Pennsylvania created a
bureau of industrial statistics, and in the next year, 1873, Connecticut
established a bureau of labor statistics, which was abolished after a
brief life, being reestablished April 23, 1885. Kentucky followed,
creating a bureau of agriculture, horticulture, and statistics on March
20, 1876, and Ohio established a bureau of labor statistics on May 5,
1877. During the next two years New Jersey, Indiana, Missouri, and



993

BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES,

Illinois established bureaus, and since 1880 other States have followed,
there being at the present time 33 bureaus and offices of this character
in the United States in active operation. These offices, as well as their
chief officers, have been designated by various titles, but their pur­
poses and functions are entirely similar. The following table gives
the States in which bureaus of statistics of labor have been established,
the official designation of each bureau, the title of the head thereof,
and the date of the approval of the act creating the office.
BUREAUS OF STATISTICS OF LABOR ESTABLISHED IN THE UNITED STATES PRIOR TO
JULY 1, 1903.
[The chief officer of each of the State bureaus is located at the capital of the State in which he
serves, with three exceptions: The Chief of the Bureau of Industrial Statistics of Maryland is
located at Baltimore, the Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of California at San
Francisco, and the Commissioner of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor of Louisiana at New Orleans.]

State.

Name of office.

United States___
California..........
Colorado............
Connecticut.......
Idaho .................

Bureau of Labor ( a )..........................................
Bureau of Labor Statistics...............................
Bureau of Labor Statistics...............................
Bureau of Labor Statistics...............................
Bureau of Immigration, Labor, and Statis­
tics.
Bureau of Labor Statistics...............................
Bureau of Statistics..........................................
Bureau of Labor Statistics...............................
Bureau of Labor and Industry (d).................
Bureau of Agriculture, Labor, and Statis­
tics. ( e)
Bureau of Statistics of Labor..........................
Bureau of Industrial and Labor Statistics..
Bureau of Industrial Statistics......................
Bureau of Statistics of Labor..........................
Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics..
Bureau of Labor ( / ) ..........................................
Bureau of Labor Statistics and Inspection (g)
Bureau of Agriculture, Labor, and Industry.
Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics..
Bureau of Labor..................................................
Bureau of Statistics of Labor and Industries.
Department of Labor ( * ) .................................
Bureau of Labor and Printing ( j ) .................
Department of Agriculture and Labor........
Bureau of Statistics of Labor..........................
Bureau of Labor Statistics and Inspection
of Factories and Workshops.
Bureau of Industrial Statistics......................
Bureau of Industrial Statistics......................
Department of Labor and Statistics ( l ) ___
Bureau of Labor, Statistics, and Mines........
Bureau of Statistics ( m ) ...................................
Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics..
Bureau of Labor..................................................
Bureau of Labor..................................................
Bureau of Labor, Census, and Industrial
Statistics, (n)

Illinois...............
Indiana..............
Iow a...................
Kansas...............
Kentucky..........
Louisiana..........
Maine.................
Maryland..........
Massachusetts. . .
Michigan............
Minnesota..........
Missouri..............
Montana............
Nebraska............
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.........
New York..........
North Carolina ..
North Dakota___
Ohio.....................
Oregon ...............
Pennsylvania .. .
Rhode Island___
South Dakota . . .
Tennessee..........
U tah ...................
Virginia..............
Washington.......
West Virginia ...
Wisconsin . . , ___

Title of head of office.

Date of ap­
proval of
act creating
the office.

Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Deputy commissioner (ft)
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................

June
Mar.
Mar.
c July
Mar.

27,1884
3,1883
24,1887
12,1873
2,1899

Secretary........
C hief...............
Commissioner
Commissioner
Commissioner

May 29,1879
Mar. 29,1879
Apr. 3,1884
Mar. 5,1885
Mar. 20,1876

Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Chief.................................
C hief.................................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Deputy commissioner (h)
Commissioner.................
Chief.................................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner......... .......
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................

July
Mar.
Mar.
June
June
Mar.
May
Feb.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
May
Feb.
Oct.
May
Feb.

9,1900
7,1887
27,1884
23,1869
6,1883
8,1887
19,1879
17,1893
31,1887
30,1893
27,1878
4,1883
28,1887
1,1889
5,1877
24,1903

Chief (fc)............................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Territorial statistician..
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................

Apr.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Feb.
Apr;

12,1872
29,1887
7,1890
23,1891
13,1890
3,1898
3,1897
22,1889
3,1883

a From organization to June 13, 1888, Bureau of Labor; from June 13, 1888, to June 30, 1903, Depart­
ment of Labor.
ftThe secretary of state is ex officio commissioner.
c Abolished by act approved July 23,1875; reestablished by act approved April 23, 1885.
dFrom organization to June 30,1889, Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics.
cFrom organization to April 2, 1892, Bureau of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Statistics.
/F ro m organization to April 19, 1893, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
g From organization to March 23, 1883, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
h The governor is ex officio commissioner.
iFrom organization to February 7,1901, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
iFrom organization to March 3,1899, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
fcFrom organization to May 11, 1874, commissioner.
I Abolished in 1898.
m Abolished by act of March 12, 1895.
•«From organization to April 4,1885, Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics.




994

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

It should be noted that two of the bureaus established (those of
South Dakota and Utah) have been abolished and that the reports of
one bureau (that of Kentucky) have not up to the present time related
in any way to the immediate interests of labor. The department of
labor and statistics of South Dakota, created in 1890, was abolished
in 1898, no reports having been issued, while the bureau of statistics
of Utah, created also in 1890, was abolished in 1895, but one report
having been issued.
ORIGIN OF BUREAUS.
An examination of such data as* are obtainable, relative to the earlier
histor}^ of bureaus of labor in the United States and the causes leading
to their creation and organization, reveals the fact that their existence
in most of the States is due more or less directly to the efforts of
organized labor. These efforts, however, were undoubtedly supple­
mented in most cases by those of business men, whose interests
demanded accurate information as to labor conditions; by those of
that portion of the general public which has displayed a growing
interest in social, economic, and labor conditions, and by those of
workingmen generally outside the ranks of organized labor. Through
the courtesy of the State labor commissioners, who have furnished
such data as were available, it is possible to give a brief statement
relating to the inception and history of the movement for the estab­
lishment of bureaus of labor statistics in those States which now have
such offices in active operation. An account of the steps leading to
the creation of the Federal Bureau has been given on pages 973 to 975
and need not be repeated here.
STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR.

The California bureau was established as a result of the efforts of
the laboring classes generally, led by organized labor, for the creation
of a State department whose function it should be to collect and pub­
lish information of a statistical character pertaining to the various
questions affecting labor and to the betterment of the workingman’s
condition.
The creation of the Colorado bureau was due entirely to the efforts
of the labor organizations of the State, at whose request two bills
looking to this end were introduced during the legislative session of
1885. The Knights of Labor, who were then very strong in the
State, made every effort to secure the passage of an act establishing
such a bureau, but the bills were never called up by the committee to
which they were referred. In 1887, however, this organization suc­
ceeded in electing seven representatives to the legislature, and it was
owing to the efforts of these members that a bill was introduced and
enacted into law




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES.

995

A public demand for statistical information pertaining to labor
resulted in the establishment of a bureau in Connecticut in 1873.
This bureau was abolished in 1875, the ostensible reason being dis­
satisfaction with the conduct of the bureau and the unreliability of the
reports published. In 1885 a renewal of popular demand for informa­
tion, brought about largely by the increased influence of organized
labor, led to the reestablishment of the bureau.
The establishment of the Illinois bureau is said to have been directly
due to the demand of organized labor in that State for protective leg­
islation for certain industries and to the desire of the representatives of
business interests for trustworthy statistics. x During the years imme­
diately preceding the general assembly of 1879, there occurred a marked
growth of labor organizations both in strength and numbers, due
largely to the depression in industry at that time and to the resulting
disturbance of economic conditions. These organizations succeeded in
placing in the general assembly of 1879 four of their representatives,
who demanded recognition of their constituency. Among other laws
enacted directly in the interests of labor by this assembly was that
creating the bureau of labor statistics.
The bureau of statistics in Indiana was organized by legislative
enactment in 1879 for the purpose of supplying information of a sta­
tistical nature concerning the various social and economic subjects
interesting labor and the industrial classes generally.
The specific causes leading to the establishment of the Iowa bureau
were the demands of the Knights of Labor and other labor organiza­
tions for representation in the executive branch of the State
government.
The bill creating a bureau in Kansas was introduced at the legisla­
tive session of 1885 by W . J. Buchan, a State senator. It is stated
in the first annual report of this bureau that its creation was regarded
as a concession to labor unions and that the appropriation made for
its maintenance was very limited.
The specific object in establishing the Kentucky bureau was to
develop the agricultural resources of the State and to give employ­
ment to labor and capital as well as to induce them to come to the
State. The law creating the bureau was enacted before there had
been much agitation of the labor question, but it has since been sup­
plemented by a specific act having for its object the improvement of
the condition of labor—protecting child labor and providing for the
inspection of factories, etc.
The Louisiana bureau was established upon the earnest solicitation
of the Central Trades and Labor Council, a central body composed of
delegates from nearly all the labor organizations in the city of New
Orleans.
The establishment of a bureau in Maine was due to a demand on the



996

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

part of labor organizations and of the laboring classes generally for
statistical information pertaining to the great questions affecting labor
and for representation in the affairs of the State.
The credit for the establishment of a bureau of labor statistics in
Maryland belongs to District Assembly No. 41, Knights of Labor, which,
in 1881, began an agitation in favor of the creation of such a bureau,
and finally, in 1884, succeeded in having a measure enacted in the
general assembly of the State providing for an office of this character.
In 1892 the bureau was thoroughly reorganized and its reports changed
from biennial to annual.
Agitation as to the hours of labor of workmen was begun as early
as 1845 in Massachusetts through petitions to the legislature, and was
continued until, in 1865, a commission was appointed to investigate
the subject. In making its report, on February 7, 1866, “ the annual
collection of reliable statistics in regard to the condition, prospects,
and wants of the industrial classes” was recommended. Later in that
year, no action having been taken on this recommendation, another
commission was appointed to investigate the same subject, and in pre­
senting its report, on January 1,1867, unanimously recommended that
a bureau of statistics be established.
While the bureau was not established until two years later, the
recommendations of these commissions and the further agitation for
a shorter workday undoubtedly had their weight. The more imme­
diate cause of the establishment of this—the first bureau of the kind
created in the world—is attributed by the Hon. Carroll D. Wright to
a necessity for the conciliation of very powerful labor interests in the
State. The resolve creating a bureau was first introduced in the
senate, but on its passage to a third reading was rejected. Later it
was reconsidered, and after being amended in the house and again in
the senate it finally passed and was approved by the governor June
23. The idea of such a bureau had been prominently before the public
for three years and popular sentiment, if not particularly in favor of
systematic investigation, was not adverse, so that the enactment of
such a measure met with the quiet approval of the people generally.
The Michigan bureau was organized in 1883 at the earnest request
of the working people that statistical information relating to the con­
dition and needs of labor be furnished to the public. In 1893 factory
inspection was made a part of the work of the bureau as a result of
the efforts of organized labor and of labor in general. Coal-mine
inspection also is now included in the work of the bureau.
The establishment of the Minnesota bureau was due to the efforts
of members of labor organizations and to the action of members of
the State legislature who were friendly to the interests of labor.
The Missouri bureau was established in response to the demands of
the labor organizations of the State. The honor of projecting the



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES.

997

movement which resulted in the creation of the bureau is due to the
Trades Assembly of St. Louis.
A provision for the creation of a bureau of agriculture, labor, and
industry was incorporated in the State constitution of Montana, but
the office was not organized until February, 1893. Its organization
was not due to agitation by any particular interest, but was the logical
outcome of public needs.
The Nebraska bureau was created in response to a demand on the
part of the laboring people, the business interests, and the people
generally, not only of Nebraska, but of other States as well, for sta­
tistical information regarding the resources of the State. The estab­
lishment of similar bureaus in other States hastened this action.
The enactment of the law creating the New Hampshire bureau is
said to have been the outcome of the deep interest of the people of
the State in the cause of labor. Organized labor took the lead in
calling attention to the needs of the laboring classes, and in 1886,
through the influence of the Knights of Labor, many representative
workingmen and others favorable to their interests were elected to
the legislature. During the succeeding years many laws were enacted
for the benefit of the laboring people, and as a result of these laws
and of a general awakening of the public to the needs of labor the
bureau was created on March 30, 1893.
It can not be ascertained that labor organizations influenced directly
the establishment of the New Jersey bureau. Interest in the subject
of factory life created by the reports of the Massachusetts bureau,
which had been established nine years previously, had much to do with it.
The great railway strikes of 1877 strengthened general interest in the
subject of the relations of capital and labor, and out of this sentiment
grew a general demand for a bureau of this character. Its establish­
ment does not appear to have been advocated by any particular group
of men. Such unions as were in existence at that time were neither
particularly powerful nor aggressive.
At the request of organized labor a bill providing for the creation
of a bureau of labor statistics in New York was introduced in the
State legislature in 1883, and passed without a dissenting vote iu either
branch. The act took effect May 4, and on that day the first commis­
sioner was nominated and confirmed. In 1901 the three departments—
bureau of labor statistics, department of factory inspection, and board
of mediation and arbitration—were consolidated under the name of
the Department of Labor.
The North Carolina bureau was established in 1887 through the
efforts of labor organizations, which desired a department in the gov­
ernment of the State that should exercise supervision over the inter­
ests of the working people, and furnish to the public statistical
information concerning their condition and their needs.



998

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

To M. A. Foran, president of the Coopers’ International Union, is
due the credit of the first practical effort toward establishing the Ohio
bureau. As a delegate to the constitutional convention of 1873, he
advocated an amendment to the constitution providing for the creation
of a bureau of labor statistics, but his effort was unsuccessful. Three
years later John Ferenbatch, who had been interested in the establish­
ment of a bureau as early as 1870, and who was then president of the
National Association of Mechanical Engineers, as a member of the
State legislature introduced the bill creating the bureau. This bill
passed the house of representatives by a large majority, but the legis­
lature adjourned without action by the senate, and it was not until the
following session that the bill was taken up and passed by that body,
becoming a law on May 5, 1877.
The creation of a bureau in Oregon is stated to have been caused
principally by the desire of organized labor for an office of this char­
acter in the State, the bill being passed by the legislature with but
one dissenting vote.
The act creating the Pennsylvania bureau was passed in 1872, in
response to the demands of labor. Upon the adoption of the new
constitution in 1874, the bureau of statistics became a bureau in the
department of internal affairs created by that act.
There was no specific cause which led to the creation of a bureau in
Rhode Island, and the statement may fairly be made that this bureau
was established as a result of a general public awakening to the
importance of the labor question and a desire for statistical informa­
tion pertaining to it.
The Tennessee bureau was established in response to a general
demand for State supervision and inspection of coal mines and for the
collection and publication of information of a statistical character per­
taining to the mining and other industries of the State. It can not be
said that any particular labor element was active in securing the pas­
sage of the act.
The bureau in Virginia was established in 1898 in response to the
appeals of organized labor: supported by the mercantile, mining, and
manufacturing interests of the State, the latter class being concerned
in the enactment of the measure chiefly because the existence of such
a bureau afforded a means of exploiting the industrial possibilities of
the State.
The reason for the creation of a bureau of labor in Washington was
the necessity of providing for the inspection of coal mines, factories,
and other places where machinery is employed; also the demand for
statistical information concerning the condition of the working classes.
To organized labor is due the credit of creating popular sentiment in
favor of the establishment of such a bureau.




BUREAUS OF LABOR IK THE UNITED STATES.

999

The creation of the West Virginia bureau was due to the influence
of organized labor, backed by a popular demand for statistical infor­
mation pertaining to the great labor interests of the State.
The creation of a bureau of labor statistics in Wisconsin was strongly
advocated by many of the citizens of that State for some }rears pre­
vious to 1881, but particularly in that and the following year. As the
movement did not receive sufficient encouragement from the people of
the State generally, no action favorable to the creation of such a bureau
was taken by the legislature. In January, 1883, however, Governor
J. M. Rusk recommended to the legislature the establishment of a
bureau for the collection of statistics of agriculture and labor, and in
accordance therewith a law was enacted providing for a bureau of
labor and factory inspection, the law going into effect on April 3, 1883.
In this, as in other States, the scope of the bureau’s work has been
oroadened from time to time by amendments to the original act.
PERSONNEL AND FINANCIAL RESOURCES.
In considering the results accomplished by these offices the question
naturally arises as to the means and facilities at their disposal for carry­
ing out the oftentimes onerous duties required of them by law. To
properly and successfully prosecute the work of collecting statistics
requires not only experience, administrative ability, and a wide knowl­
edge of the social and economic conditions of the working classes of a
particular State on the part of the chief officer of its bureau, but also
a trained staff of assistants and ample means to cover the traveling and
other expenses connected with the gathering and compiling of data.
Men already trained in practical statistical methods and economic
work can not always be found to take charge of offices of this charac­
ter, and in most cases these officers take up the work without previous
experience, relying for success upon the experience gained month by
month in the performance of the duties incident to the office. Under
such conditions the longest possible tenure of office is essential to good
work.
The chiefs of these bureaus are usually appointed by the governor
of the State. The exceptions are found in Indiana, Kentucky, North
Carolina, North Dakota, and Oregon, where they are elected by popu­
lar vote; in Kansas, where the chief is elected by a State society of
labor and industry; in Pennsylvania, where he is appointed by the sec­
retary of internal affairs; in Colorado, where the chief officer is ap­
pointed by the secretary of state, who is himself ex officio commis­
sioner of labor, and in Illinois, where the chief officer is appointed by
a board of five commissioners, who are themselves appointed by the
governor of the State. The chief of the Federal Bureau of Labor is




1000

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

appointed by the President of the United States. The employees of
the various State bureaus are almost invariably appointed by the chiefs,
while those of the Federal Bureau are, without exception, appointed
under civil-service rules from the eligible lists of the Civil Service
Commission.
The terms for which these chief officers are appointed vary in the
different States from two to four years. In 19 of the 28 States, for
which information was secured, appointments were made for terms
of two years, and in the other 9 for terms of four years. The United
States Commissioner of Labor is appointed for a term of four }^ears.
In many of the States, however, these officers have been retained in
office beyond the terms for which they were first appointed, probably
for reasons which have already been suggested. From information
gathered in the early part of 1903 it appears that the chiefs of these
bureaus have been retained longer than ten years in but five of the
bureaus, the chief of the Federal Bureau having served nineteen years
(the entire period of its existence), that of the Maine bureau sixteen
years, that of the Massachusetts bureau fifteen, and those of the Rhode
Island and Wisconsin bureaus ten years. In many of the States hav­
ing the larger bureaus the service of the present chief has covered a
much shorter period, the terms in these States being as follows: In
Illinois, six years; in New Jersey, five years; in New York, Ohio, and
Connecticut, four years; in Maryland, three years; in Michigan, Min­
nesota, and Missouri, two years; and in Pennsylvania, less than one
year. Taking into consideration all the bureaus of the country, the
average length of service of their chiefs is slightly over five years.
Conditions in this respect are without doubt very much better now
than at any time in the past, and it is becoming more and more recog­
nized that the retention in these offices of men with the greatest pos­
sible degree of experience is absolutely essential to the best results.
With the exception of the Federal Bureau and several State bureaus,
whose employees are appointed after competitive examination under
civil-service regulations, in which cases a practically permanent ten­
ure of office follows, the length of service of employees of these
bureaus is dependent entirely upon the will of their chiefs and is
usually measured by the length of service of the latter. In some of
the State bureaus having small appropriations assistants are employed
only during a portion of each year, the chief and his deputy being the
only persons regularly engaged. It is safe to say that but few of the
State bureaus are supplied with the funds necessary to secure and
maintain an adequate corps of assistants. As before stated, conditions
are very much improved as regards these important offices and more
liberal appropriations are being made for carrying out their work, but
many bureaus are still handicapped by insufficient provision of funds




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES.

1001

for the employment of clerical and other assistants and for other
necessary expenses. The following table alfords information as to the
salaries and length of service of the officers as well as the number of
employees in each bureau and their salaries and length of service:
NUMBER, COMPENSATION, AND YEARS OF SERVICE OF OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES.
[Not including employees engaged solely in service in factory inspection, mine inspection, or free
employment offices.]
Commissioner.
Bureau of Labor.
Annual
salary.

Deputy commis­
sioner.

Years Annual Y ears
of
of
salary.
service.
service.

19
United States.......
85,000
8,000
4
California.............
Colorado...............
(&
)
(*)
4
2,500
Connecticut.........
1,800
8
Idaho ....................
2,500
6
Illinois..................
2
2,000
Ind iana.................
1
1,500
Io w a ......................
1.500
6
Kansas..................
1
K entucky.............
2.500
1.500
3
............. Louisiana
1.500
16
M aine....................
3
M aryland.............
2.500
Massachusetts___
3,000
15
2
Michigan...............
2,000
2
2.500
Minnesota.............
2
2,000
Missouri.................
2
2.500
M ontana...............
(e)
Nebraska...............
'(*)
’ 4
1.500
New Hampshire. .
5
2.500
New Jersey...........
4
3.500
New Y o rk .............
2
1,500
North Carolina . . .
2
North Dakota___
2,000
4
2,000
Ohio........................
1
1,800
Oregon ...................
1
2 ,5C0
Pennsylvania___
2,000
10
Rhode Island........
4
1,800
Tennessee.............
1,200
3
Virginia.................
Washington.........
1,800
6
1,200
___ West Virginia 6
Wisconsin.............
2,000
10

a $2,500

Temporary em­
ployees.

Regular employees.
Num­
ber.

Average Average
annual years of
salary.
service.

1,200
1,000
1,200

$1,223
1,200

3.3

1,404

4.2

1

720

2.0

3

2
3
4

(d)

(d)

2

1
1
5

1,020
927
1,200
1,500
920
1,000
1,110
1,550
420
600
848
1,350
540
1,000

1
1

600
600

1
1,500

1

2

2,000
/ 2,500
900
1,500

10

2
22

800
- 1,500

1

7
1

2
2

1,250
(c)
(c)

(d)

(d)

(c)

(c)

(d)

1
1
4
25
5
3
2

2

$1,040

(<0

0d)
3.0
16.0
2.5
11.0
2.4
2.0
1.5
4.0
1.5
3.0
5.0
2.0
5.0
1.0
4.6

4
3
1

1,500
1,500

3

(c)
(°)

(d)
i,700

Average
annual
salary.

10.0

5

17
4
4

103
2

1,800
1,800

Num­
ber.

3

1,000
800
615
866

1,200

(c)

4

1,200

1.0
7.0

(d )

921

3.0
2.0

.

(c)

(c)

a Acting

Commissioner in absence of Commissioner.
&
Secretary of State ex officio commissioner of labor.
c Varies.
dNot reported.
e Governor of State ex officio commissioner of labor.
/ Two deputy commissioners.

The above table includes only the data pertaining to the officers and
employees of the labor bureaus. In some of the States the work of
factory and mine inspection and of the free-employment bureaus is
placed under the charge of the commissioner of labor. The employees
of these branches of the service are not included here, but the total
annual expenditures on account of each of these branches are shown
in the following table, which covers also the itemized annual expendi­
tures of the bureau service itself:




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

1002

ITEMIZED ANNUAL EXPENDITURES, EXCLUSIVE OF RENT AND PRINTING.
Bureau of Labor proper.
Salaries.

Bureau of Labor.
Offi­
cers.

Clerical Special
force. agents.

Other.

Total.

Factory Mine
inspec­ inspec­
tion.
tion.

Total.

United States___ $7,500 $97,636 $31,750 $136,886 $35,326 $172,212
(a)
(d)
b 4,800 ^2,500
7,300
California............ 4.800
1,800
340
2,140
Colorado.............. 1.800
7,104
2,204
1,481
Connecticut....... 2,500
2,400
8,585
600
1,800
2,400
Idaho. ................. 1,800
2,230
$16,600
10,270
7,020
12,500
Illinois................. e 3,250
3,200
1,490
1,958
6,648
1,677
Indiana...............
8,325
(d.)
1,074
3,574
2,500
2,500
Iowa....................
720
800
4,220
2,300
Kansas................. 2,700
6,52^
(<)
*
Kentucky............ 2,500
10,800 $2,200
(/)
(/)
1,000
2^500
1,000
Louisiana............ 1,500
3,500
1,500
1,000
600
3,100
400
3,500
M aine.................
2,460
6,660
Maryland............ 4,200
(/)
(/)
(/)
Massachusetts—
3,000 19,250
2,400
24,650
4,100
28,750
Michigan............ 3,500
5,100
8,600
2,550
1,361
11,150 19,163
4,000
2,780
6,780
2,220
Minnesota..........
3,200
9,000
Missouri.............. 2,000
2,400
1,733
581
4,981
6,714
Montana.............. 2,500
1,500
4,000
2,300
6,300
1,840
1,350
Nebraska............ 1,500
3,340
4,690
1,000
2,500
New Hampshire . 1,500
240
2,740
2,220
2,764
9,484
New Jersey......... 4,500
1,001
10,485
8,500 28,760
New Y ork ..........
5,340
42,600 (738,400 0 81,000 &44,400
(d)
North Carolina .. 2,400
420
2,820
680
3,500
North Dakota___ 3,500
600
1,000
4,100
5,100
4,240
6,240
Ohio..................... 2,000
9,760
16,000
Oregon................. 1,800
1,800
800
2,600
Pennsylvania___ 2,500
3,000
2,400
7,900
6,000
13,900
Rhode Island___ 2,000
1,620
3,620
380
4,000
(d)
Tennessee..........
1,800
1,000
2,800
800
3,600
Virginia.............. 1,200
364
1,564
396
1,960
(d)
Washington......... 1,800
600
2,400
2,125
700
3,100
(d)
West Virginia___ 2,000
600
2,600
1,000
3,600
Wisconsin............ 3,278
2,072
1,172
5,350
6,522 10,681

w

Free
em­
Grand
ploy­
ment total.
offices.

$172,212
7.300
2,140
$9,894
18,479
2,400
23," 350'
52,450
8,325
3,574
6,520
13.000
3.500
3.500

(/)

10.000

28,750
31,674
12,200

6,439

5,000
9,500

(*)

1,814

13,153
6.300
4,690
2,740
lO, 485
130,400
3.500
5,100
25,500
2,600
13,900
4,000
3.600
1,960
5,225
3.600
19,017

« Included in other expenses.
b Not including salaries of special agents.
c Including salaries of special agents.
d No special appropriation for this purpose. Service performed by officers of the bureau of labor.
e Including $750 salaries of board of commissioners.
/N o t reported.
g Including expenses of factory inspection, other than salaries.
h Salaries only; other expenses included in total for Bureau proper.

The figures in the above table in the case of each bureau relate to
the last fiscal year for which data were obtainable. In a few cases in
which the bureaus did not report expenditures it has been necessary to
substitute appropriations instead on the assumption that in such cases
the two were practically identical. The table shows clearly the amounts
placed at the disposal of these bureaus to enable them to carry out the
duties required of them by law and suggests in some cases at least the
difficulty of securing reliable data for their reports and preparing the
same for publication. With the exception of the Federal Bureau and
those of half a dozen of the States, the lack of adequate financial
means is most noticeable. A fair provision is usually made for the
salaries of the chiefs of the bureaus, but in the majority of cases the
provisions for clerical assistance, and especially for special agents to
perform the work of investigation and special inquiry, are quite
inadequate. In the bureaus of a number of States it is seen that no
provision whatever is made for clerical or other assistance, while in the
case of others but a few hundred dollars are available for the expenses



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES.

1003

of investigation and the preparation of reports. Under such circum­
stances any attempt to cover the entire State or carry on any exten­
sive statistical inquiry becomes impossible, and the work of many of
the bureaus is therefore confined to the preparation for publication of
such facts only as may readily be secured by correspondence or other­
wise at little or no expense. While the generally acceptable character
of the reports issued under such circumstances is surprising, it is to
be regretted that appropriations are not always sufficiently large to
render possible the same character of work as that performed by the
bureaus of certain of the States whose legislators are disposed to
regard the work and functions of their labor bureaus as important and
worthy of generous financial aid. Excluding the Federal Bureau from
consideration, it is seen that the total expenditure for salaries of offiers in the 32 State bureaus was $87,528, or an average of $2,785.25 in
each bureau.
As has been seen in a previous table, the amounts given for each
bureau cover in most cases the salaries of the chief and a deputy. In
some cases these amounts cover only the salary of the chief, no deputy
being provided for, while in the New York bureau the amount given
covers the salaries of the chief and two deputy commissioners. The
previous table shows these salaries in detail. In 5 of the States no
provision whatever is made for clerical assistance, while in 14 others
less than $2,000 is appropriated for this purpose. Between $2,000
and $3,000 is provided in the case of 7 other States, and it is thus
shown that of the 32 State bureaus, 26 have less than $3,000 each
available for its clerical force while but 5 have above that amount, one
bureau having made no report on this point. A still greater need is
seen for provision for special agents, without which it is practically
impossible for a bureau to secure facts from original sources with any
degree of confidence in their correctness. In 22 of the States no pro­
vision whatever was made for the employment of special agents; in 3
of the remaining States less than $1,000 was available for this pur­
pose; in 5 other States between $1,000 and $3,000 was available; in 1
State making provision for special agents the amount available was
not reported, while an expenditure of over $3,000 was made in but 1
State. A like condition is found when the column relating to other
expenditures is examined. This column includes the numerous con­
tingent expenses such as those for traveling, expressage, postage, tel­
ephone service, etc. Inasmuch as the printing for these bureaus is
usually not charged against their appropriations, and as they usually
occupy quarters in some State building, items for these expenses have
been omitted in the table in the few instances where they existed. As
will be seen in the table, the duties of factory and mine inspection
are frequently performed by these heavily burdened bureau officers,
10193—No. 54—04---- 4




1004

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

no appropriation for the thorough compliance with the provisions of
the laws in this respect having been made. In other States provision
more or less adequate is made for this work as well as for the work
of conducting free employment offices.
The figures for the Federal Bureau show a total expenditure of
$172,212, exclusive of that for rent and printing. A total of $11,821
is expended for these items, $6,750 being for rent of offices, $750 for
rent of storage rooms, and $4,321 for miscellaneous printing and bind­
ing. The expense of printing and binding the regular editions of the
reports and bulletins of the Bureau is paid out of the general printing
fund of the Government, no part of which is included in the above
amount. The grand total of expenditures for the Federal Bureau,
including those for rent and printing, are thus shown to be $184,033.
The proportion expended on account of salaries ($136,886) classified
as to that going for services of officers, of clerks, and of special agents
is shown in the table. The “ other expenditures,” amounting to
$35,326, are made up of $30,272 expended for per diem in lieu of sub­
sistence for employees oh field duty, their traveling expenses, the
traveling expenses of officers and employees, the purchase of articles
for publication in the Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor, etc.; $1,000 for
the purchase of books and periodicals; $1,000 for the purchase of
stationery; $450 for the payment of postage to Postal Union countries,
and $2,604 for furniture, carpets, ice, gas, telephone service, telegrams,
repairs to furniture, etc.
DUTIES OF BUREAUS AND THEIR OFFICERS.
The duties devolving upon these bureaus or their officers are in
almost every instance set forth by the law in a general way in the fol­
lowing words: “ To collect, assort, arrange, and present in reports,
statistical details relating to all departments of labor in the State,
especially in relation to the commercial, industrial, social, educational,
and sanitary condition of the laboring classes, and to the permanent
prosperity of the productive industries of the State.”
In 31 of the 32 States having bureaus, the substance of the above
general definition of their duties appears on the statute books. In
some of the States no further direction is given as to the scope of the
work to be carried on. In most of the States, however, more definite
and specific directions are given as to the special matters that shall
constitute the subject of their reports. These cover a wide range of
subjects, many of which are but remotely, if at all, connected with
the interests of the laboring classes. It may be interesting to note
the character of these subjects and the extent to which they severally
appear in the proposed work of the bureaus of the various States as
given by the laws. It should be kept in mind, however, that many of
the specific subjects enumerated have been taken up by bureaus under



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES.

1005

the general provisions of law given above, although they do not
appear as subjects concerning which they are specifically required to
investigate and report. It should be,remembered also that for various
reasons, such as lack of funds, etc., some of the bureaus have so far
found it impossible to cover every subject specifically mentioned in
their respective organic acts.
The following is a partial list of the subjects of most vital interest
to the laboring classes employed in factories, workshops, etc., which
are specially recommended for investigation by the laws of the vari­
ous States, together with the number of States involved:
SUBJECTS OF SPECIAL INTEREST TO LABOR, CONCERNING WHICH STATISTICS AND
INFORMATION ARE REQUIRED TO BE COLLECTED AND PUBLISHED.
Subjects.
Wages of la b o r...............................................................................................................................................
Hours of labor........... ! ...................................................................................................................................
Cost of living..................................................................................................................................................
Relations between capital and labor......................................................................................................
Operation of labor-saving machinery in its relation to hand labor..............................................
Number emploved in each industry......................................................................................................
Nativity of workmen....................................................................................................................................
Savings of workmen .. . .......................................................................................................................
Number of workmen renting homes and rents paid.........................................................................
Number of unemployed and causes of idleness...............'..................................................................
Number and character of accidents to workmen................................................. ..............................
Cooperation.....................................................................................................................................................
Strikes and lockouts, their causes, etc.....................................................................................................
Trade unions and other labor organizations........................................................................................
Sanitary conditions of factories, shops, etc............................................................................................
Influence of various occupations and the use of intoxicating liquors on the health and
mental condition of the working classes............................................................................................
Chinese—their number, habits, conjugal condition, occupations, wages and earnings, cost
of living, etc-...............................................................................................................................................

States.
13
10

4

10
3
7

4
4
4
2

4
5
11
10
6
3
3

The investigation of the above subjects, together with such others
of a similar character as may be made under the general provisions of
law which have already been mentioned, may be considered as among
the most important duties of a bureau of statistics of labor, so far as
the collection and publication of statistics are concerned. Many of
these bureaus, however, are required to investigate and report on a
variety of other subjects. The collection and publication of statistics
and information relative to manufacturing and industrial interests are
required of the bureaus of 18 States. In at least 3 of these States
such statistics are required in great detail, and provision is made for
covering a wide range of inquiries connected with the subject—such
as kind of goods made, number of partners or stockholders, capital
invested, kind and value of raw materials used, quantity and value of
articles manufactured, number of employees distinguished as to age
and sex, wages paid, weeks in operation, and other facts necessary to
show the condition of labor and business in these industries.
In some of the States, notably Kentucky, Idaho, and North Carolina,
the work required of these bureaus relates largely to agricultural and
allied industries. The collection and publication of statistics of this
character are required by the laws of 11 States. In addition to data



1006

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

of a general nature, relative to the agricultural resources of these
States, special requirement is made for statistics and information as to
the kind and value of crops, live stock, and other agricultural prod­
ucts, the value and area of farm lands, the various kinds of soils and
their use, and adaptability for various crops, irrigation, etc. The law
of Kentucky requires, among other things, that the efforts of the bureau
of agriculture, labor, and statistics shall be directed to the promotion
of agriculture, horticulture, etc., in that State, and that the commis­
sioner shall promote and encourage the organization of agricultural
and horticultural societies and other associations in the various counties
thereof. It is provided that the commissioner shall send properly
qualified and equipped persons into those parts of the State in which
information is most needed by the farmers in order to give lectures
on agricultural matters and distribute literature. The commissioner
is authorized also to offer and pay premiums to encourage the agri­
cultural industries of the State, to distribute such seeds as the United
States Government may desire to introduce into the State, to have
analyzed the soils in different parts of the State, to furnish crop
reports to the newspapers for publication, etc. The law of Idaho,
similar in many respects to that of Kentucky, makes it the duty of the
commissioner of labor to keep in his office for exhibit samples of the
productions of the State, including grains, grasses, fruits, vegetables,
minerals, manufactured articles, and other products. He is also
required, whenever practicable, to organize and encourage local
exhibits at such points as will tend to advertise the resources of the
State, and, wherever funds are available for such purposes, make or
cause to be made, exhibits of the products and industries of the State
at such industrial and international exhibitions in other States as the
governor shall direct. In this State as well as in Kentucky and Mon­
tana the encouragement and promotion of immigration is made a duty
of the commissioner of labor.
Statistical and other information relating to the mining industry is
required of the commissioner of labor by the laws of 10 States—pro­
duction, resources, etc., are specifically mentioned. The laws of 5
States require reports as to their material resources; those of 3 as to
their commercial and business interests; those of 6 as to their rail­
roads and other means of transportation; those of 2 as to their water
power, water supply, etc.; those of 2 as to their timber lands and
timbers, etc. Among the other subjects of investigation mentioned are
penal institutions in 6 States; assessed valuation of property in 1 ;
population in 2; exports and imports in 1 ; public roads in 1 ; the num­
ber and value o f schoolhouses, churches, and charitable institutions
in 2; education in 2; vital statistics in 2, etc.
The duties of bureaus of labor and their officers are limited in many
States to the collection, preparation, and dissemination of information
relating to the subjects mentioned above. In other States these duties



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES.

1007

are extended to cover other and quite as important features of State
activity. The inspection of factories, workshops, etc., is more or less
under the direction and supervision of these bureaus in 13 States—
Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,
Oregon, New York, Tennessee, Washington, West Virginia, and W is­
consin; inspection of hotels, lodging houses, etc., in 2 States—Nebraska
and Wisconsin; inspection of elevators in 2 States—Missouri and Wis­
consin; and inspection of mines, collieries, etc., in 2 States—Michigan
and Tennessee. Inspection of factories, etc., has not been established
by law in California and Maryland, but the commissioners of labor of
these and other States have been assigned the duty of enforcing the
laws for the protection of life, health, etc., in factories and the laws
regulating the employment of women and children. The enforcement
of the laws of Ohio regulating convict labor has been made a duty of
the commissioner of labor in that State, while the enforcement of the
laws of New York regulating the sale of convict-made goods has like­
wise been delegated to the commissioner of labor of the State. In at
least 2 States—Massachusetts and Rhode Island—the work of taking
the State census is under the direction of the commissioner of labor.
In 9 States—Connecticut, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska,
New York, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin—free public employ­
ment offices have been organized and established by the bureaus of
those States, and are carried on under their direction and as a part of
their work. Provision is made in the law of Montana for the publica­
tion by the bureau of labor of the transactions of its free public em­
ployment offices, but no further connection is established between the
two services. Mediation in industrial disputes under certain circum­
stances is made a legal duty of the chiefs of the bureaus in Colorado
and New York, while in other States the services of these officers are
frequently offered with a view to bringing about arbitration, although
such duty is not required by law.
It is thus seen that compliance with the laws in each State involves
investigation by these bureaus on widely varying subjects and that but
little uniformity exists, so far as the directions for specific investiga­
tions are concerned. Full compliance with the intent of these laws in
this respect has been impossible in many States in which inadequate
provision has been made for the expenses of investigation. An effort
will be made further along in this paper to show in a general way the
character and scope of the work actually performed by these bureaus.
The duties devolving upon the Federal Commissioner of Labor may
best be described by quoting from the organic act of the Bureau,
although it should be stated that frequent directions for reports on
specific subjects have been given by Congress since the date of that
act, which reads in part as follows:
That the Commissioner of Labor, in accordance with the general
design and duties referred to in section one of this act, is specially



1008

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

charged to ascertain, at as early a date as possible, and whenever
industrial changes shall make it essential, the cost of producing articles
at the time dutiable in the United States, in leading countries where
such articles are produced, by fully specified units of production,
and under a classification showing the different elements of cost, or
approximate cost, of such articles of production, including the wages
paid in such industries per day, week, month, or year, or by the
piece, and hours employed per day, and the profits of the manu­
facturers and producers of such articles, and the comparative cost of
living, and the kind of living. “ It shall be the duty of the Commis­
sioner also to ascertain and report as to the effect of the customs laws,
and the effect thereon of the state of the currency, in the United States,
on the agricultural industry, especially as to its effect on mortgage
indebtedness of farmers;” and what articles are controlled by trusts,
or other combinations of capital, business operations, or labor, and
what effect said trusts, or other combinations of capital, business
operations, or labor have on production and prices. He shall also
establish a system of reports by which, at intervals of not less than
two years, he can report the general condition, so far as production
is concerned, of the leading industries of the country. The Commis­
sioner of Labor is also specially charged to investigate the causes of,
and facts relating to, all controversies and disputes between employers
and employees as they may occur, and which may tend to interfere
with the welfare of the people of the different States, and report
thereon to Congress. The Commissioner of Labor shall also obtain
such information upon the various subjects committed to him as he
may deem desirable from different foreign nations, and what, if any,
convict-made goods are imported into this country; and if so, from
whence.
L E G A L POWERS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION.
Two most important features to be considered in connection with
the efficiency of the work of these bureaus are the extent of powers
conferred by law on their chiefs for securing the data upon which
their reports are based and the methods adopted in the collection of
the same. An examination of the laws of the various States in which
bureaus of statistics of labor have been created discloses that quite gen­
erally an effort has been made by the legislatures to clothe the officers of
these bureaus with at least a degree of authority. No powers what­
ever are conferred on bureau chiefs in the States of Connecticut, Idahov
Illinois, Maryland, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Rhode Island.
In Kentucky the only power of this kind given by law is that which
permits inspectors to enter any factory, workshop, or other place where
labor is employed, when open and in operation, in the performance of
the duties required by law. In the remaining States having bureaus,
however, a more or less considerable degree of authority is conferred.
In 9 States the bureau officers are empowered to send for persons and
papers; in 14, to issue subpoenas; in 22, to examine witnesses under
oath; in 17, to administer oaths in the performance of their duties; in
5, to require full and complete answers, under oath, to any inquiries



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES.

1009

made of any individual, corporation, etc., and in 5, to take depositions,
or cause the same to be taken by others authorized by law to do so.
Provision is made in a few States that witnesses shall not be required
to leave the vicinity of their residences or places of business, and that
they shall be paid fees of varying amounts for attendance.
In addition to the above, the officers of these bureaus are empowered
in 13 States to enter any factory, workshop, or other place where labor
is employed, when open and in operation, in the peformance of the
duties required by law. In a considerable number of States various
State, county, and municipal officers are required to furnish all the
information in their power when called upon. In some States, how­
ever, no penalties whatever are imposed for failure to comply with the
preceding requirements of the laws. This is true of 11 of the States
having bureaus, while vaiying penalties are imposed in the remaining
ones. In 13 States any owner, lessee, agent, or other person in charge
of any factory, workshop, etc., who refuses entrance to the officers of
the bureau is subject to a fine ranging from $25 to $500, or, in some
cases, to the alternative of imprisonment of not exceeding thirty days,
ninety days, and in one instance six months. In 16 States similar
punishment is provided for persons neglecting or refusing to furnish
statistics or information when called upon; in 11 States, varying pen­
alties are imposed on persons neglecting or refusing to obey any sum­
mons or subpoena and testify; while in 6 States even greater penalties
are imposed on persons who may testify falsely or answer untruthfully
in regard to inquiries made by the bureau officers. On the other hand
the laws of at least 7 States provide penalties for the disclosure by
bureau officers of the names of persons or firms furnishing information
or statistics. It is thus seen that in some States no specific authority
or powers in the way of securing information or making investiga­
tions are conferred on the officers charged with these duties, while in
other States no penalties are provided for refusal to make answer,
testify, or afford these officers the facilities necessary to effectively
perform their duties. In a considerable number of the States, how­
ever, these officials are given adequate legal powers and compliance
with the law enforced by well-defined penalties.
Inquiry as to the experience of the various bureaus regarding the
enforcement of these provisions, requiring compliance on the part of
the public with the requests of their officers for information, has
resulted in the information that while the laws have been tested in but
few cases, they have proved quite effective. In at least three States
where cases of infraction of the law have been brought before the
courts the laws have been held constitutional, while in one State,
under the decision of its attorney-general, the law is invalid. In any
event the officers of these bureaus are dependent to a large degree upon
the good will of those with whom they are brought in contact in the
performance of their duties, and it is believed that recourse to prose­



1010

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

cution for refusal to cooperate with them would, in most cases, fail in
securing entirely trustworthy data. Information given and service
rendered willingly and from motives of public duty are much more
trustworthy and desirable than when furnished under threat of prose­
cution. In one State in which certain manufacturers neglected or
refused to report certain facts which were requested, the bureau offi­
cers deemed it unwise to institute suit, believing that the moral influ­
ence of the law would finally accomplish the desired end. The
Commissioner of the Federal Bureau has no power whatever under
the law to enforce compliance with his requests for information from
workingmen, employers of labor, or others, and yet, in an experience
of nineteen years as the chief of the Bureau, he has never failed to
secure the information desired. The pledge always given of the confi­
dential treatment of any data furnished and the appeal for compliance
with requests for information solely on the ground of public duty
have proved uniformly successful.
Two methods of investigation are open to bureaus such as these
engaged in statistical inquiries. The first consists in correspondence
with the persons, corporations, etc., from whom information and
figures are desired or in mailing to them printed schedules of inquiries,
the answers to which are to be inserted by them. The second consists
in personal investigation by the officers or special agents of the bureau.
The first of these methods is the one in most common use by the State
bureaus, owing to the small expense connected with the collection of
information in that manner. Its general use, however, is due almost
solely to the fact that the small appropriations of the bureaus for
special service in the way of the collection of information renders
impossible the adoption of any other method. While this method has
met with a degree of success in some States it is open to very grave
objections.- The negligence or unwillingness of those to whom inquiries
are sent, even when the inquiries are fully understood, produces invari­
ably more or less incomplete results and data, which are in a great
degree inharmonious and unreliable. A t the second annual convention
of the officials of these bureaus in 1884 a committee appointed for the
purpose of ascertaining and suggesting the best methods for the col­
lection of statistics reported unanimously in favor of the gathering of
statistics by special agents instead of by means of correspondence. In
the discussion of the systems in vogue the report states that the chief
merit o f the blank or circular system lies in the fact that it is the only
feasible method in most cases, owing to small appropriations. The
report continues as follows:
The blank or circular system is open to the objection that it compels
the bureau to propound questions to a witness with whom it has no
personal relations, and of whom, in the great majority of cases, it has
no personal knowledge. If the witness be a willing one, he often mis­
takes the meaning of some of the questions propounded, and his mis­
apprehension leads to answers which are either totally at variance with



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES.

1011

or repugnant to the real nature of the question. If the witness,
from any cause, be an unwilling one, he answers the least important
questions only, thereby necessitating the sending by the bureau to
him o f a duplicate blank, accompanied by a reminder of his failure to
comply with the law.
In many cases the persons to whom the blanks are furnished answer
the questions fully, but fail to return the blanks until, as they think,
sufficient time has elapsed to render them worthless. If the blank
system is to be preserved, it should be made efficient by the passage
of stringent laws, enlarging and unmistakably defining the coercive
powers of the bureau when acting on behalf of the Commonwealth in
the collection of statistics. The important point in gathering statistics
is that they be reliable. The most that can be said in favor of the
blank system is that you can not prove that they are not reliable.
Since the date of the report just quoted, greater powers have been
conferred quite generally on the officers of these bureaus, and although
the legal authority to compel the production of books and papers and
require attendance and testimony under penalty of fine or imprison­
ment has been used in but few cases, the moral effect of the laws con­
ferring these added powers, the growing confidence in the work of
the bureaus, and the better understanding of their aims have gradually
removed some of the obstacles to success with the first method of
investigation. The entire success of the method, however, can not be
expected, as many of the obstacles indicated are not due to the unwill­
ingness of those from whom information is sought, but are inherent
in the system itself.
The second method, as has been stated, consists in personal inves­
tigation and inquiry by the officers or agents of the bureaus. This
method, which has been used in almost all of the investigations con­
ducted by the Federal Bureau, may best be explained and its advan­
tages indicated by describing its operation in that Bureau. The subject
of investigation having been determined upon, the officers of the
Bureau first give their best thought to a preliminary study of the sub­
ject, and then use the most painstaking care in the preparation of a
schedule of inquiries which shall cover every essential feature concern­
ing which information is desired. Quite as much care is also taken
in the preparation of the instructions to the agents who are to be
assigned to the work of collecting the data called for by the schedule.
These instructions are designed to cover every inquiry on the schedule
and meet every condition that may be encountered by the agents after
they have actually begun the work in the field. The printed instruc­
tions are supplemented very often by verbal explanations. In the case
of the investigation of subjects of a technical nature a preliminary
tentative canvass of a few weeks is made before the schedule is finally
adopted, for the purpose of ascertaining any imperfections or omis­
sions. Having divided the territory to be covered into convenient
assignments, the Bureau furnishes each agent with a supply of the
blank schedules and assigns him to some particular city, locality, or



1012

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

State. The agent proceeds to his assignment and makes a personal
visit to the individuals, firms, organizations, etc., from which infor­
mation is desired. He makes clear the meaning of each inquiry and
inserts the reply on the schedule, afterwards verifying and testing the
results in any way that may be possible. In the case of wage statis­
tics, for instance, a transcript is made directly from the pay rolls,
while in the case of statistics of strikes, both the employer and the
employees are interviewed, the results of the combined information
being inserted on the schedule. Wherever possible such information
is verified by written or printed records. Any inconsistencies in the
replies to inquiries are thus noted at once and immediate effort is made
to remove them by further inquiry and investigation.
Completed and perfected schedules are mailed to the headquarters
of the Bureau as' rapidly as secured or at frequent intervals, according
to the character of the work in hand, and when received are stamped,
dated, and recorded. They are then placed in the hands of a corps -of
trained examiners, whose immediate duty it is to verify all calcula­
tions and discover any errors or inconsistencies which may appear. If
none are found the schedule is filed for use when the tabulation is
taken up. Should errors or inconsistencies be found in a schedule, it
is returned to the agent who secured it with an appropriate letter of
instructions for verification or correction. Imperfect schedules are
thus returned to the agents while the latter are in the locality in which
the schedules were secured, and where access may readily be had to
the original sources of information as an aid in making the desired
corrections. This method of investigation has many obvious advan­
tages, and although the officers and agents of the Federal Bureau are
not clothed with any legal powers whatever, information has seldom
been refused after an explanation of the objects of the inquiry and the
pledge of confidential treatment of the data given have been made.
An inquiry made by the writer as to the experience of the chiefs of
the State bureaus with the two methods emphasizes the obvious advan­
tages of the personal method of investigation. Of the thirty bureaus
from which information was secured, both methods of investigation
were in use in all except one, which had never used the personal
method. The personal method was without exception declared to be
the better, and in many cases very strong objections to the system of cor­
respondence or circular blanks were expressed, the latter system being
pronounced in most cases unsatisfactory and in some cases utterly
worthless. It is stated by one of the most important State bureaus
that the method of direct collection by special agents is preferred and
is used in all important investigations; in routine work, as in the col­
lection of statistics of manufactures upon a uniform basis every year,
blanks are used, supplemented by agents’ work in case of delinquents.
Another important bureau reports that less than one-half of the infor­
mation desired can be secured by correspondence. Still another bureau,



1013

BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES.

whose work is largely of a routine nature, after haying established
confidential relations with the manufacturing and other industrial
interests of the State, succeeds in collecting satisfactorily by corre­
spondence about 70 per cent of its schedules. In one important bureau
an objection to the personal method is found in the inefficiency of special
agents who are appointed solely for political reasons. The objection
is well taken, as the success of the personal method depends greatly
on the character of the agents employed. Integrity, intelligence,
experience, tact, and many other good qualities in the agents assigned to
the collection of data are essential to the best results under this method.
CHARACTER AND SCOPE OF ACTUAL W ORK DONE.
The character and the scope of the investigations prescribed for
these bureaus by the laws creating them have been shown in a general
way under a preceding caption. The record of their actual accom­
plishments, however, as shown by an examination of their reports and
other publications, is perhaps a matter of even greater interest.
Before taking up the enumeration of the subjects covered by the
reports of these offices it may be of interest to gain an adequate idea
of the great volume of the statistical and other material which has
been placed at the disposal of the public through their efforts. The
following table shows for the Federal Bureau and that of each State
maintaining an office of this character, the number of reports and
other publications which have been issued up to the end of the year
1903, the frequency of issue of these reports, and the number regu­
larly distributed:
NUMBER OF REPORTS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY LABOR BUREAUS PRIOR
TO DECEMBER 31, 1903.

Bureau of labor.

United States___
California......... .
Colorado........... .
Connecticut____
Idaho ..................
Illinois................
Ind iana.............
Io w a ....................
Kansas............... .
Kentucky......... .
Louisiana......... .
M aine..................
M aryland......... .
Massachusetts..
Michigan........... .
Minnesota......... .
Missouri............. .
M ontana........... .
Nebraska...........
New Hampshire
New Jersey........
New Y o rk .........
North Carolina.
a

Number of
Frequency of copies of re­
issue of reg­ ports regu­
ular reports
larly dis­
at present.
tributed.




Annual
reports.

Biennial
reports,

25, C O
O
17
3.000 ................
2.000
8,500
20

Annually..
Biennially.
Biennially.
Annually..

8
7

...........

(a)

Biennially.
Biennially.
Biennially.
Biennially.

3.000
5.000
4.000
8.000

Annually..
Annually..
Annually..
Annually..
Annually..
Biennially.
Annually..
Biennially.
Biennially.
Biennially.
Annually..
Annually..
Annually..

500
4.000

None issued.

Number of reports issued.

()

1.000

6,000

4.000
3.000
4.000
3.500

1.000

1.500
3,600
7.500

6,000

b

6
16

11
10
1

Special
reports.

Bulle­
tins.

12

49

78
10
8

19

230

260
35

1

1
1
1

........................
...........
1

1

1

16

11

32
20

16
4

8
28

7
24

6

2

23
19
15

2

8
4

Total.

21

10
18

1

17
23
76
24

7
24

8
2

2
1

12

2

19

24
40
15

1
1

Reports issued to date do not relate to labor.

8

1014

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

NUMBER OF REPORTS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY LABOR BUREAUS PRIOR
TO DECEMBER 31, 1903—Concluded.

Bureau of labor.

North Dakota.
Ohio.................
Oregon . . . . . . .
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island.
Tennessee___
Virginia..........
Washington ..
West Virginia
Wisconsin___
Total

Number of
Frequency of copies of re­
issue of reg­ ports regu­
Annual
ular reports
larly dis­
reports,
at present.
tributed.
Biennially..
A nnually...

Biennial
reports.

Special
reports.

Bulle­
tins.

2,000
3.000
300
4.000
2.000
3,000 I
1,200 !

(a)

126,100 !

Total.

8

1,500
5,000

Annually...
Annually...
Annu ally...
Annually...
Biennially..
Biennially..
Biennially..

Number of reports issued.

26

36
30
16

10

4
3

5
9

314

94

59

373

840

a None issued.

An almost complete set of the above reports, as well as those relating
to factory inspection, form a part of the exhibit of the Federal Bureau
of Labor at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. The eighteenth
annual report of the Bureau is in the hands of the printer and will soon
be issued. Of the edition of 25,000 copies of the annual reports 5,000
are distributed by the members of the Senate of the United States,
10,000 by the members of the House of Representatives, and 10,000 by
the Bureau itself. Reprints of the annual as well as the special reports
and bulletins are frequently made, greatly augmenting the number
regularly distributed. The special reports of this Bureau are issued
at irregular intervals, while the bulletins appear every two months.
Of the latter about 20,000 copies are regularly distributed, but the
edition may be increased as necessity demands to as many as 40,000.
In connection with the above table it should be stated that no reports
later than the year 1902 have been included, and in some few cases
reports for 1901 are omitted. These omissions are due to the fact that
the missing reports had not been printed and distributed prior to
December 31, 1903. In the table no account has been taken of the
numerous issues of the labor laws of the different States published in
pamphlet form from time to time by these bureaus. The number of
copies of special reports and bulletins issued is not given in the table.
It may be stated in passing that of the special reports of the Illinois
bureau, which relate to coal mining and its free employment offices, an
edition of 6,000 is published, while of the bulletins which relate to its
free employment offices, 200 are published and distributed weekly; of
the bulletin of the Maryland bureau an edition of 1,000 copies is issued;
of the special reports of the Massachusetts bureau which relate to
manufactures, an edition of 5,000 is printed, while of the bulletins,
issued quarterly, an edition of 1,200 is authorized; the Nebraska
bureau publishes each year an edition of 10,000 of a bulletin on the
industries and resources of the State, and an edition of 15,000 of its
crop report; the New York bureau publishes an edition of 7,500 each
of its annual reports on mediation and arbitration and factory inspec­



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES.

1015

tion, and an edition of 4,200 of its quarterly bulletin, and the Ohio
bureau publishes an edition of from 500 to 1,000 of the quarterly bul­
letin of its free public employment offices.
A stud}^ of the figures in the table shows that of the regular annual
and biennial reports of these offices the enormous number of 126,100
are periodically distributed to the public, and to this should be added
a considerable number of reprints that have been issued after the regu­
lar issues were exhausted. It should be remembered, too, that these
figures do not include the data for a large number of special reports
and bulletins issued by various bureaus as indicated in the table and in
the preceding explanatory text. Of the 30 bureaus, including the
Federal Bureau, for which information is given in the table, 16 issue
their regular reports annually, while 14 issue them biennially. The
table shows the number of such reports issued by each bureau prior
to December 31, 1903—the number issued during the existence of the
bureaus being 314 annual and 94 biennial reports, a total of 408. In
addition to these regular reports a total of 59 special reports and 373
bulletins have also been issued in editions of varying size. The grand
total of all publications of the character included in the table is shown
to be 840—an impressive number when it is remembered that single
reports in many cases represent the expenditure of much time and
labor.
In the effort 4o ascertain the character and scope of the subjects
covered in the reports of these bureaus a total of over four hundred
volumes were examined. These include the available reports of all of the
State bureaus, with the exception of those of Oregon and Idaho, which
have not yet published a report, and Kentucky, whose reports so far
have not related to labor. An index of the reports of the bureaus of
statistics of labor in the United States, containing 287 pages, has been
published by the Federal Bureau for its own use and the use of the
libraries of the country, but owing to lack of space in the present
paper, and the great diversity of the subjects covered in the different
reports, kindred subjects whenever possible have been grouped under
one general heading in the following table. Thus, the subjects as they
appear on the table do not in many instances represent separate and
distinct chapters or subdivisions in the various reports, but show in a
general way the contents of those reports as determined by an exami­
nation of the subject-matter. Wherever a reasonable amount of
attention has been given to a subject, although it may be subordinate
to others treated in connection with it, that subject has been included
under the appropriate description. Bulletins and special reports have
been counted as well as regular reports when their importance justi­
fied their inclusion. The table shows the total number of reports
in which each specified subject has been treated, together with the
number of State bureaus which have issued these reports.



1016

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

functions o f............................
synopsis of reports of...........

17

11

14

1

2
1 | 2

1

4
1

2

1

3

2

1

i

j Maine.

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

5

| Louisiana.

Accidents...................................................................................
Addresses, papers, letters, etc..............................................
Afflicted classes........................................................................
Agriculture................................................................ ..............

7

d
£
O
M

| Kansas.

2
3
4
6
6
7
8
9
10
u
12
13

j Indiana.

Number of reports, bulletins, etc., issued........................

| Illinois.

1

| Connecticut.

Subj ects covered.

Colorado.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

California.

SUBJECTS COVERED BY REPORTS OF STATE LABOR BUREAUS AND NUMBER OF REPORTS
IN WHICH EACH SUBJECT IS TREATED.

9

16

1

15

1

4

4

2

2

14

3

1

1

1
2

3

1
2
Building trades, condition
Bureaus^of labor statistics,
of chiefs of.
Bureaus of labor statistics,
Bureaus of labor statistics,

of employees in, etc.............
proceedings of convention

Census statistics........................................................................
Child labor.................................................................................
City and county statistics.....................................................
City employees".........................................................................
Commerce, transportation, merchandise, etc.................
Convict labor___ .......................................................................
Cooperation and profit sharing............................................
Corporations, trusts, etc......... ~ ............................................
Cost of living........... .................................................................
Cost of production of certain articles.................................
Criminal statistics....................................................................
Dairy, etc., industries.............................................................
Debt, public, statistics of.......................................................
Decisions of courts..................................................................
Descriptive and historical, counties, cities, etc...............
Education................... .............................................................
Election returns and voting..................................................
Employment agencies ...................... ..................................
Employment oflices, free public...........................................
Farm and domestic labor.....................................................
Farmers’ returns......................................................................
Farms, homes, mortgages, etc., statistics of......................
Fish and gam e..........................................................................
Fish and oyster industry.......................................................
Foreign labor............................................................................
Forest and lumber statistics..................................................
Franchises.................................................................................
Glass and pottery industries................................................
Homes of the working class..................................................
Hotels, summer resorts, e tc ..................................................
Ice industry...............................................................................
Immigration.............................................................................
Industrial conditions..............................................................
Industrial development and resources..............................
Inspection of factories and shops.......................................
Insurance, mutual relief and benefit, e tc ........................
Irrigation...................................................................................
Labor legislation......................................................................
Labor Question, general consideration o f ........................
Land statistics...........................................................................
Liability of emp’ oyers.............................................................
Liquor traffic and intemperance.........................................
Live-stock statistics................................. «............................
Machinery, effect of, on labor..............................................
Manual and technical training..........................................
Manufactures, statistics o f ....................................................
Meteorological and geological statistics............................
Mines and mining....................................................................
Miscellaneous statistics, social, economic, financial, etc.
Mortgages, chattel..................................................................
Newspapers, periodicals, e tc ................................................
Officials, directory of...............................................................
Oid-home week, observance o f ............................................
Opinions of employers and employees..............................
Pauperism, statistics, etc., o f..................................................
Payment of wages....................................................................
Prices, variations i n .................................................................




2

2

1
2
1

2
2
1
3

3
2
6
*’ 5*
1
3

2

1
1
2
1
1

i
3
2

3

1
3

3
2

2

3

2

3

1

1
1

2
3
1
2

2
4
1
7
6
5
i
1
"2
14 “ 2 *
3
1

2

1
6
9

1

2

1 I 5

6
2

1

3
4

3
2

2

1

2

8

7

1

12

1

1

3.
2

i 3

4

8

1

1

2

"2

3
1
1

1
3
4

2

2

1

1
6

1
2
3 "i*

1

2
2

2
1

3

12

2
1

4

1

2
1
2
2
3

1
1

2
2
1

i
i 2
3
1

2

2
2
1

1

2
1

3
1

1
1
2
1
1

1

1

10

2

4

” i*

2

1

6
2

2
1

6

3
1
5

4

1
5
3
2

1
11
13
in

1

3
1
2
1
3

*2

1

4

1
3
12

1

4

io
5
8 ■ 10
14

1
3

1

13
6
5
4
1

2
12

12

1

13
4
__ 4 ___

2
1
1

2

3
3
1
5 ' i

1
12

7
i

8
2
2

1

2
4
1

1017

BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES,

5

9
1
3
3
....

1
1
2
5

4

1

3
l' 10
4
4
1
1
2
i
5
3
2
1
3
4
i
2 13
2
5

2
1
5
4
5
4
3
8
3
3

1
3

2
1
3
2
3
4

3

1

5
11
3

1

5*

3
2■ 1
5
1

2

6

2
3

2
3

4

1

* 7*
2

13
2
5

1
6

17
5
1
1
5

"Y

1
2

1
1
5
5
2
1

2

i
1
5

2
2

5

2

5

6

1

6

1
2
3 *"‘ *
1
1 Y
1
2
1
1
1
3
2
4
7 ’Y

7
5
6 **2*
1
3
3
4
5
2
2
1
2
1
2

2

1
2

9
*9* 12

**...

6 . 7
3
3

6
1
1
1
4

1 !
i
1

6

8
2
1

4
1
2
4
2

8
1

1

1

7
2

2
7
5
2
6

7
1

1

4

1
4

4

1

5
4
1

2
2

1
5
1 4

13

i___
t
1 i___

2
2
1
4
1
2
3
1

1
16
3
1

1

1

2
2
1
5
1
3

Y

'Y

1
17
10 *’ 3 " 3
1
1
12
6
3

1

3

3
1
1

4
5

2

1
3
1

2
1

’Y
1
1
1
3

2

__

1

3
2

2
1
1

6

2
1
2

2

1

1

1
3
2
3

2
1 *2
1
2

r*‘

2 1 1

1

i
i

3
1
1

1
2

1

1
13

1

1
!

1

1

5
2
2

1

1

1
5
1
3

12

2

1

1

2

1
1 ’Y

1
1

1
1
2

*Y
1
1
2

3
3

1

1
1 ” 2
1
1
1
2

|
10 ___ I . . .
1

1

7
1
6
3

2
2
2
1
1
1
3

1
2
1
1
3
4

3

2
3
10 ” 5"
5
7
2 12
1
6
....
1
*2
5
6
!
2
i 3
1
1
1

7
1




4
1

3

7

2

5

4
1

1
3
2

3
2
1
20 17
2
2
2 ” 5'

i
5

2
14
| 1
1 2

2

11

2

2

5

4
2

6
3
4
2

1
1
1

1
2
3
9

i
6

16

2

2
21

5
1
2
5

1

3
25
18
6

1

*Y

3

3

1
1
1
5

6
9

2
2

1
1

3

1
3
1
1 " 2'

2
4
3

1

1
1

3
1

4
3

1
9

’Y

28
36
3
99
8
39
5
14
6
39
29
40
54
11
35
76
48
52
10
41
68
52
8
92
3
52
18
33
45
36
21
17
15
65
55
31
51
4
25
21
24
3
21
22
5
3
36
53
57
71
12
7
157
25
49
21
6
49
11
31
208
25
138
69
4

10
8
11
1
4

10
4
1

7

1
1

1
1
2
4
2

1

j
j

2
11

1
3

’Y

1

2
2
3

1

1
1

; 1
1

2

2

2
6
3
1

14
13

| Total.

1
2
3

"i"

1
2

2
3
4
1

4

9 401

2
4
2

4
1

14

5

Y

1

8
*6

2
5
9
2
3
2

3

1
1

2
1

6

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

3

3

1
1

3

! 4

| Wisconsin.

4

1

1
1
2
5
4
3
4 * 3 * 10
1
2

*&
"

3
1

5

I

2

1
1

’Y
8

1
5
1

2
4

2
12

2

7

1
7

6

2

3
1

2

1

1
1
4
2 *Y
3
2
1

6

3
1

1

13

1
1
1
1
2
3
2

0

1
11

1

1

4

9
3
1

1

3
2
1
1
1

2

1
1
1
5

9

| West Virginia.

2

14

Vashington.

1

29

Virginia.

6

j Utah.

7

29

3
1

| Tennessee.

7
1
2
1

j
2
1

7
!

| Rhode Island.

2
1
4

2
1

1

Pennsylvania.

8
1
1

7

1

j

14

1

18

North Dakota.

31

1
2

6

| Ohio.

New York.

North Carolina.

23

2

1

6

18

New Jersey.

4

New Hampshire.

4

Nebraska.

2
2
1
5

7

Missouri.

4

?
1
1
1

Montana.

50

Minnesota.

Massachusetts.

18

Michigan.

Maryland.

SUBJECTS COVERED BY REPORTS OF STATE LABOR BUREAUS AND NUMBER OF REPORTS
IN WHICH EACH SUBJECT IS TREATED.

23
31
2
6 112
28
32
3

4

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

1018

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102

Proceedings of societies, associations, etc..........................
Products marketed, amount and value o f ........................
Property values, personal.....................................................
Pullman inquiry*......................................................................
Quarrying, etc., industries......................................................
Railroads and street railways, statistics of........................
Railway and street-railway labor.......................................
Roads, public.............................................................................
Salt industry.............................................................................
School statistics........................................................................
School teachers, clergymen, etc., earnings and ex­
penses of.
Seamen........................................................................................
Shoe industry...........................................................................
Shorter w orkday....................................................................
Socialism, communism, etc....................................................
Special investigations.............................................................
Strikes and lockouts, boycotts, etc.......................................
Sunday labor.............................................................................
Sweating system ......................................................................
Tannery industry....................................................................
Taxation....................................................................................
T extiles......................................................................................
Trade unions and other labor organizations...................
Unem ployment........................................................................
Vital and health statistics, trade life of workingmen ..
Wages, hours of labor, earnings, etc., of employees........
Water, gas, and electric-light plants...................................
Wealth, distribution of, coinage statistics, e tc .................
Working w om en......................................................................




3

1
3

1
2

13

1

3

4
4

1

5
10

i

1
1

2
4
2

3

'T

3
6
6

1

7
3
10

11

5
1

1

1

1
1

Maine.

Louisiana.

Kansas.

Indiana.

Iowa.

Connecticut.

Illinois.

Subjects covered,

Colorado.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

California.

SUBJECTS COVERED BY REPORTS OF STATE LABOR BUREAUS AND NUMBER OF REPORTS
IN WHICH EACH SUBJECT IS TRE A.TED—Concluded.

1
1
6
4

1

1

”2
2

2
2
4

3
7

3

3

3

10
1

1

2

7

14
1

1

7

3

4

*Y

2
3

1
1

2
1
10

3

3
3

6

4

10
1

3

3

1

2 2
9
”2 2
8
7
7
1
2 1
1

3

1
14

2

BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES,

1019

SUBJECTS COVERED BY REPORTS OF STATE LABOR BUREAUS AND NUMBER OF REPORTS
IN WHICH EACH SUBJECT IS TREATED—Concluded.

10193—No. 54—04----- 5




1020

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOE.

The reports of the Federal Bureau of Labor have not been included
in this table, but a statement of the subjects covered in its reports and
bulletins is given in connection with a description of the working of
the Bureau by Commissioner Wright, under another caption.
A careful examination of the subjects enumerated in the foregoing
table shows that much of the work of these offices in the various States
is devoted to the collection and dissemination of information concern­
ing matters but remotely, if at all, connected with the interests of
labor. Among these may be enumerated statistics and information
relative to the defective and dependent classes, and asylums, hospitals,
and charitable institutions; criminal statistics; statistics of births,
deaths, etc.; census statistics of population;*statistics of agriculture;
the production and acreage of farms and stock raising; financial sta­
tistics in general and those relating to the public debt, mortgages,
assessed valuation of property, taxation, etc.; statistics of education
and of newspapers; election returns, franchises, etc. These offices
are the general statistical offices of the States, and as such are unable
to devote their entire time and efforts to the investigation and study
.of the questions especially pertaining to the interests of the working
classes. The effort is made, however, to study these questions as
carefully as is possible with the small appropriations at the disposal
of the bureaus, and it is only fair to say that so far as can be seen
their work is usually performed and their reports made with entire
fairness and impartiality. It has generally been assumed by the
bureaus that their duty consists in the collection and publication of
information that would be of value in the solution o f‘social problems,
and that it is no part of their work to solve the problems themselves.
This attitude was clearly stated by Commissioner Wright, the chief
of the Federal Bureau, in an address before the Seventh Annual Con­
vention of Chiefs of Bureaus of Labor, as follows:
The bureaus are not solving great labor or economic problems, but
they are contributing most important information and presenting it
without bias. It is not our business to seek or offer solutions; it is
our business to collect information and present it impartially and fear­
lessly to the public.
This is without question the only position that can be maintained
successfully and result in the confidence of all classes of citizens.
RESULTS.
In summing up the practical results of the work of these bureaus
it can not be doubted that their influence has contributed in a large
measure to the betterment of industrial conditions. It is always diffi­
cult to measure accurately the influence of the various forces that are
working simultaneously for reform in any field, and as regards the
special field covered by these bureaus there is no exception to the rule.



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES

1021

It is nevertheless certain that these offices have been instrumental to a
great degree in securing needful legislation tending toward the better­
ment of the conditions under which industrial workers have lived and
labored. They have brought the result of their investigations before
the public as well as the legislators of the various States, thereby bring­
ing into play as a powerful influence for reform the enlightened pub­
lic opinion of their constituencies. Bad and unfair conditions once
exposed are almost cured, and it may safely be said that no other forcehas worked so strongly or done so much toward the dissemination of
information relating to these conditions. In addition to the influence
of the reports of these bureaus, the active efforts of their officers have
been exerted strongly for remedial legislation in various fields and in
many States the suggestion, introduction, and passage of measures of
this character have been due almost entirely to these officials. The
subsequent enforcement of these laws in almost all cases has been
placed in their hands, and in many States the chiefs of these bureaus
have instituted proceedings under these laws which have resulted in
the practical abolishment of many of the evils formerly incidental to
the working and living conditions of the industrial classes.
An inquiry as to the remedial legislation and practical reforms*
resulting from the work of these bureaus discloses the fact that in
almost every State some important result may be cited. Among the
laws enacted in the various States, largely through the work and
efforts of these bureaus and their officers, special mention should be
made of those relating to employers’ liability, those regulating the
hours of labor, those providing for the inspection of factories and
mines, those providing for the protection of workmen and the general
betterment of the conditions under which they are working, those
restricting and providing for the regulation of the employment of
women and children, those regulating work in sweat shops, those
abolishing the truck or store-order system of payment and compelling
the cash payment of wages, those establishing free employment
bureaus, those providing for the arbitration of industrial disputes,
those providing for improvement in the inspection and construction
of tenement houses, those regulating the employment of prison labor,
those providing for compulsory education, those providing for reform
in taxation.







BUREAUS OF STATISTICS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
B Y G. W . W . HANGER.

The first official bureau established in Europe for the special purpose
of collecting and disseminating statistical and other information in
regard to labor was the Direction du Travail, Ministere du Commerce,
de l’lndustrie, des Postes, et des Telegraphes of France on August 19,
1891. In the United States a bureau of statistics of labor had been
created in 1869 by the State of Massachusetts, and that office stands
to-day as the oldest bureau of this character in the world. Many of
the other States of the United States had followed in the steps of
Massachusetts and established bureaus of a similar character, 26 being
in existence at the time of the creation of the bureau in France. The
United States Government itself had established a Federal bureau of
labor in 1884, thus being the first National Government to create a
bureau of statistics of labor. Great Britain followed France, estab­
lishing in 1893 a labor department under the board of trade, while of
the other European countries, Spain established a bureau in 1894,
Belgium in 1896, Austria in 1898, Germany, Italy, and Sweden, in
1902, and Norway in 1903. In addition to the above countries in which
offices were created for the special services usually required of bureaus
of statistics of labor, a number of the other countries of Europe had
established general statistical bureaus which, to a greater or less degree,
included among their duties the collection and publication of statistics
of labor. Among these may be mentioned the central statistical office
in Denmark, which was established in 1895, and that of the Nether­
lands, established in 1899. It should be stated, however, in this con­
nection that in many of the countries mentioned a certain degree of
attention had been given to the collection and publication of labor
statistics previous to the creation of the bureaus which are devoted to
this special service. In Germany, for example, a commission for labor
statistics {Kommission f u r Arbeiterstatistik) had been created in 1892,
to make investigations relative to subjects of interest to the laboring
classes, and in Great Britain a special service was rendered through
the labor correspondent of the board of trade as early as 1886, while
in other countries commissions had been appointed from time to time
for the purpose of making special investigations similar in character
to those usually undertaken by bureaus of statistics of labor.
In addition to the above-mentioned countries, the list of foreign
governments having labor bureaus comprises New South Wales, New




1023

1024

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Zealand, Canada, and Ontario.a A bureau having similar duties is
found also in Switzerland, but it is not under Government control,
although it receives a subsidy therefrom.
An account of the various foreign bureaus and a list of their publi­
cations, so far as information could be secured, will be found in the
following pages. Digests of the important official publications are a
regular feature of the bimonthly Bulletin of the Bureau of Latjor.
Special acknowledgment is made of the courtesy of the officers of
the various bureaus in furnishing valuable information concerning the
offices under their direction.
AUSTRIA.
By virtue of an imperial decree of July 21, 1898, a bureau of labor
statistics was established at Vienna under the ministry of commerce
[Arbeitsstatistisches Amt im J k. Handelsministerium). A bill for the
c.
creation of such a bureau had been presented to the Parliament in
1894, but had failed to become a law. Under the above decree of the
Emperor, however, the active operation of the bureau began October
1, 1898. The regulations determining its functions provide that the
bureau shall collect, systematize, and periodically publish all informa­
tion pertaining to the statistics of labor. This work is to have regard
to the condition of the laboring classes, taken in its broadest sense,
especially of those engaged in manufactures and trade, mining, agri­
culture and forestry, and commerce and transportation; to the efficiency
of the institutions and laws designed to promote the welfare of the
workingman, and to the extent and conditions of production in the
industries mentioned.
To facilitate the work of the bureau and to secure the effective coop­
eration of various interests, by the imperiakdecree the bureau of labor
is directed to seek the cooperation of the State and communal authori­
ties, boards of trade and chambers of commerce, workingmen’s acci­
dent insurance institutions, trade unions, arbitration courts, and
other workingmen’s institutions, and these bodies in turn are directed
to render all necessary assistance to the labor bureau in carrying out
its work.
Under the same decree and regulations there was established at the
same time a permanent labor council (Stmidiger Arbeitsbeirath), whose
duty it is to “ act as an advisory body to the labor bureau, and espe­
cially to promote harmonious relations between the bureau and the
manufacturers or other persons with whom the former comes in con­
tact in the prosecution of its work.” This council was constituted on
September 25, 1898, and has reported on several bills in the interest
a A
letter, dated August 17, from Perth, Western Australia, signed T. F. Davies,
clerk of the court of arbitration, states that a department of labor is now in course of
inauguration in that State, the minister of labor being J. B. Holman, esq.




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1025

o f the working classes, which have been enacted into law. The per­
manent labor council, wffiich under the original decree consisted of 32
members, has been augmented under a later decree to 40 members.
Ten of these represent the labor bureau and other government offices
as follows: The director of the bureau and his chief assistant, the
president of the statistical central council, the president of the council
of hygiene, and one representative each of the ministers of the inte­
rior, justice, finance, agriculture, railroads, and commerce.
The
remaining 30 members are appointed for a term of three years by the
minister of commerce, of whom one-third must be employers of labor,
one-third workingmen, and one-third persons whose technical knowl­
edge renders desirable their cooperation in the work of the council.
No salaries are paid these 30 members, but those living outside
Vienna are allowed a per diem of 8 gulden ($3.25) and their traveling
expenses when on duty, while the workingmen members residing in
Vienna are allowed a per diem of 5 gulden ($2.03) for each day’s
attendance.
The personnel of the bureau consists of the director and his assist­
ant, 7 officers of the staff of the ministry of commerce, 8 technical
assistants, and 40 clerks. The salaries of these officers and employees
are fixed in accordance with the various ranks attained by them in the
Government service. The total appropriation for the last fiscal year
for carrying on the work of the bureau was 179,750 crowns ($36,489.25).
In addition to its regular work the bureau, under the law of Jan­
uary 21, 1902, took an industrial census of the Empire. A monthly
bulletin, “ Soziale Rundschau,” is published regularly by the bureau,
an edition of 3,000 copies being printed. In addition to this bulletin,
annual reports have been issued relative to strikes and lockouts, the
work of the labor bureau, overtime work in factories, and other sub­
jects, of which editions of from 1,000 to 1,500 copies have been
printed. The printing of the bulletin and other publications is paid
out of the appropriation of the bureau, at an expense of 34,000 crowns
($6,902).
In collecting data this bureau makes use of both the personal and
the correspondence methods, according to the character of the investi­
gation in hand. While no legal powers have yet been conferred on
the officers of the bureau to enable them to enforce their requests for
information, a bill has been introduced in the Parliament with that
end in view.
Dr. Victor Mataja, who has been the director of the bureau since its
creation, reports as one of the important results of its work the regu­
lation of the statistical reports of employment agencies.
The following publications have been issued by the Austrian labor
bureau since its organization:




1026

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOE.
REGULAR PUBLICATIONS.

The Social Keview. ( S o z i a l e R u n d s c h a u . ) Monthly bulletin; first number was
for January, 1900.
Strikes and Lockouts in Austria. ( D i e A r b e i t s e i n s t e l l u n g e n u n d A u s s p e r m n g e n i n
O s t e r r e i c h .)
Annual report; first report was for the year 1897. Eeports for 1894 to 1896
were published by the statistical department of the Austrian ministry of commerce.
Report of the Operations of the Imperial Bureau of Labor Statistics in the Ministry
of Commence. (B e r i c h t u b e r d i e T d t i g k e i t d e s k . k . A r b e i t s s t a t i s t i s c h e n A m t e s i m H a n d e l s m in is t e r iu m .)
Annual report; first report was for the year 1900.
Extension of Hours of Labor (Overtime) in Factories. ( A r b e i t s z e i t - V e r l a n g e r u n g e n
( U b e r s t u n d e n ) i n f a b r i k s m a s s i g e n B e t r i e b e n . ) Annual report; first report was for the
year 1900.
The Wages of Mine Workers and Overseers. ( D i e L o h n e d e r A r b e i t e r u n d A u f s e h e r
b e im
B e r g b a u .)
Published annually as part 4, vol. 2, of the statistical yearbook of
the imperial ministry of agriculture; first report was for the year 1901.
REPORTS OF SPECIAL CONFERENCES, COMMITTEES, ETC.

Report of the Conferences of the Secretaries of the Chambers of Commerce and
Industry of Countries Represented in the Austrian Parliament, Regarding the Trade
Registers, the Next Statistical Quinquennial Report of these Chambers, and the Sta­
tistics of Trade Associations, held in Trieste, October, 1898. ( P r o t o k o l l u b e r d i e i m
O k to b e r 1 8 9 8 in
T ries t a b g e h a lte n e n B e r a tu n g e n d e r S e k r e ta r e d e r H a n d e ls - u n d
G ew erb ek a m m ern
d er
im
B eich s ra te *
v ertreten en
K o n ig r e ic h e
u n d
L a n d e r ,
b e tr e ffe n d
d ie
G e w er b e k a ta ste r , d en
n d ch s ten
s ta tis tis c h e n
Q u in q u en n a lb e rich t
d ies er
K a m m e r n
u n d
d ie G e n o s s e n s c h a ft s s ta tis tik .)
122 pages. 1899.
Instructions Regarding the Keeping of the Trade Registers and the Taking of the
Industrial Census by the Chambers of Commerce and Industry. (I n s t r u k t i o n , b e t r e f ­
fen d

d ie

F u h r u n g

d er

G ew erb ek a ta ster

u n d

d ie

V o rn a h m e

v o n

G e w e r b e z d h lu n g e n

d u rch

d ie

) 28 pages. 1899.
Report of the Conference of the Secretaries of the Chambers of Commerce and
Industry on the Methods of Cooperation of these Chambers in taking the Industrial
Census in Connection with the Next Census of Population, held at Vienna, May?
1900. ( P r o t o k o l l u b e r d i e i m M a i 1 9 0 0 z u W i e n a b g e h a l t e n e B e r a t u n g d e r S e k r e t a r e d e r
H a n d e ls - u n d
G e w e r b e k a m m e r n , b e tr e ffe n d
d ie M o d a litd te n
d e r M itw ir k u n g
d ies er K a m ­

H a n d e ls -

u n d

m ern

d er

b ei

G e w er b e lca m m e m .

D u r c h fu h r u n g

d er

a n

d ie

b e v o rs teh e n d e

V o lk s z d h lu n g

a n z u g lie d e r n d e n

a llg e -

55 pages. 1900.
Minutes of the Sessions of the Permanent Labor Council. ( S i t z u n g s p r o t o k o l l e d e s
s td n d ig e n A r b e it s b e ir a th e s .)
Sessions 1 to 5, 416 pages, 1900; Sessions 6 and 7, 219
pages, 1901; Sessions 8 to 10, 170 pages, 1902; Sessions 11 to 13, 291 pages, 1902;
Sessions 14 to 16, 541 pages. 1903.
Stenographic Report of the Examination of Witnesses on Conditions in the
Garment-Making Industry, held in the Imperial Bureau of Labor Statistics. ( S t e n m e in e n

B e t r ie b s z d h lu n g .)

o g ra p h isc h es

P r o to k o ll

d er

im

k.

k.

A r b e its s ta tis tis c h e n

A m te

d u rc h g efu h r te n

V ern eh m u n g

) 791
pages. 1899.
Report of the Conference on Statistics of Labor Employment Agencies and on the
Plan for Annexing to the General Employment Institutions Agencies for Securing
Information concerning Dwellings and Workshops, held June 27 and 28, 1901.

v o n

A u s k u n ftsp e rs o n en

(P r o to k o ll

u b e r

A u s g e s ta ltu n g
W o h n u n g s-

d ie

d er

u n d

u b er

a m

2 7 .

d ie

V e r h a ltn is s e

u n d

2 8 .

J u n i

in

a n

K le id e r - u n d

1 9 0 1

A r b e its v e r m ittlu n g s -s ta fis tik
W e r k s ta tte n v e r m ittlu n g

d er

a b g e h a lte n e

u n d

d ie

d a s

W d s c h e k o n fe k tio n .

K o n fer en z ,

P r o je k t

a llg e m e in e n

d er

b e tr e ffe n d

A n g lie d e r u n g

d ie
e in e r

A r b e it s n a c h w e is -A n s t a lt e n .)

135 pages. 1901.
Stenographic Report of the examination of Witnesses on Conditions in the Shoe­
making Trade, held in the Imperial Bureau of Labor Statistics. ( S t e n o g r a p h i s c h e s
P r o to k o ll

d er

k u n fisp er so n e n

im

k.

u b er

k.
d ie




A r b e its s ta tis tis c h e n
V e r h a ltn is s e im

A m te

d u rc h g efu h r te n

S c h u h m a c h e r g e w e r b e .)

V ern eh m u n g

740 pages.

v o n

1904.

A u s -

BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1027

O TH ER PUB LICA TIONS.

Communications of the Imperial Bureau of Labor Statistics. (MitteUungen des
k: k. Arbeitsstatistischen Amtes.) No. 1.—Laborers in the Imperial Navy (Die Lohnarbeiter der k. u.k. Kriegsmarine), 76 pages, 1900; No. 2.—The Labor Conditions at
the Lloyd Arsenal and the Trieste Technical Establishment (Die Arbeitsverhaltnisse
im Lloydarsenale und Stabilimento tecnico triestino), 97 pages, 1902; No. 3.—Domestic
Service and the Law of Domestic Service in Austria ( Gesindewesen und Gesinderecht
in Osterreich), by Dr. Hugo Morgenstern. 1st Part: Historical Survey. Statistics
and Economic Condition of Servants ( Geschichtlicher Uberblick. Statistik und wirtschaftliche Lage des Gesindes). 216 pages. 1902.
Results of the Industrial Census of Austria taken June 1, 1897. ( Ergebnisse der in
Osterreich vorgenommenen Gewerbezdhlung nach dem Stande vom 1. Jimi 1897.) 381
pages. 1899.
Classified List of Trades and Other Industrial Occupations for Statistical Use by the
Chambers of Commerce and Industry in the Countries Represented in the Austrian
Parliament. (Systematises Verzeichnis der Gewerbe und anderer gewerbemdssig ausgeubter
Beschaftigungen fur statistische Zwecke der Handels- und Gewerbekammern in den im
Beichsrate vertretenen Konigreichen und Landern.) Second revised edition, 147 pages.
1900.
The Protection of Labor in Contracts for Public Works and Supplies. Report of
the Imperial Bureau of Labor Statistics on the Efforts Made and of the Laws and
Regulations Enacted by European and Transmarine Countries. (Der Arbeiterschutz
bei Vergebung offentlicher Arbeiten und Lieferungen. Bericht des k. k. Arbeitsstatistischen
Amtes iiber die auf diesem Gebiete in den europdischen und uberseeischen Industriestaaten
unternommenen Versuche und bestehenden Vorschriften.) 163 pages. 1900.
Compilation of Decisions of Imperial Industrial Courts. (Sammlung von Entscheidungen der k. k. Gewerbegerichte.) (Supplement to Soziale Rundschau.) Two vols.
Issued by the Imperial Ministry of Justice. Vol. I, 224 pages; Vol. II, 208 pages.
1900, 1901.
Habitation and Sanitary Conditions of Home Workers in the Garment-Making
Industry. (Die Wohnungs- und Gesundheitsverhaltnisse der Heimarbeiter in der Kleiderund Waschekonfektion.) 125 pages. 1901.
Social Betterment Institutions of Employers for the benefit of their Employees in
Austria. (Die Wohlfahrtseinrichtungen der Arbeitgeber zu Gunsten ihrer Angestellten und
Arbeiter in Osterreich.) Part 1. Social Betterment Institutions of Railways. ( Wohl­
fahrtseinrichtungen der Eisenbahnen.) No. 1.—Private Railways (Privat-Eisenbahnen),
249 pages, 1902; No. 2.—Social Betterment Institutions of the Austrian Imperial
State Railways (Die bei den k. k. osterr. Staatsbahnen bestehenden Wohlfahrtseinricht­
ungen), 124 pages, 1903. Part 2. Social Betterment Institutions in Industrial and
Commercial Establishments. ( Wohlfahrtseinrichtungen der gewerblichen und Handelsbetriebe.) 423 pages. 1904.
Hours of Labor in Mercantile Establishments other than Retail Stores. (Die
Arbeitzeit in Handelsbetrieben mit Ausschluss des Detail-Warenhandels.) 123 pages.
1903.
Changes in Trade Conditions during the Two Periods 1898-99 and 1899-1900.
( Verdnderungen im Stande der Gewerbe wdhrend der beiden Perioden 1898/1899 und
1899/1900.) 452 pages. 1903.
The Condition of Watchmen in the Employ of the Imperial State Railways. (Die
Lage der Wdchter der k. k. Staatsbahnen.) 94 pages. 1903.
Labor Conditions in the Ostrau-Karwin Coal District. (Arbeiterverhaltinisse im
Ostrau-Karwiner Steinlcohlenrevire.) Part I.—Hours of Labor, Efficiency, Wage and
Income Conditions (Arbeitzeit, Arbeitsleistungen, Lohn- und Einkommensverhdltnisse).
763 pages. 1904.



1028

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

BELGIUM.
The first step toward the creation of a bureau of labor ( Office du
Travail) in Belgium was the royal decree of November 12, 1891, in
which provision was made for an office of this character as a part of
the ministry of agriculture, industry, and public works, which in con­
sequence was denominated the ministry of agriculture, industry, labor,
ancf public works. After providing for the framing of regulations to
govern the organization of the bureau, its duties were indicated as
follows:
1. To collect, systematize, and publish all information relating to
labor, particularly as regards the state and development of production,
the organization and remuneration of labor, its relations with capital,
the condition of workingmen, the comparative situation of labor in
Belgium and foreign countries, labor accidents, strikes, unemploy­
ment, the workings of the laws that specially concern industry and
labor.
2. To cooperate in the study of new legislative measures and amend­
ments to be made to the legislation already in force.
3. To see to the execution of the laws relating to labor within the
limits fixed by the regulations for the organization of the bureau.
The regulations governing the organization of the bureau were
approved by a royal decree of April 12, 1895. An adequate concep­
tion of the duties and functions prescribed for this important bureau
can best be gained by a reading of this decree, which is as follows:
R O Y A L D E C R E E O F A P R IL

12, 1895,

O R G A N IZIN G T H E B U R E A U O F L A B O R .

A r t i c l e 1 . In addition to the administrative offices enumerated in
article 1 of the organic regulation of December 31, 1889, the depart­
ment of agriculture, industry, labor, and public works shall include a
bureau of labor.
A rt. 2. It shall be the duty of the bureau of labor, upon the request
of a competent branch of the Government, to inquire into the state of
industrial and agricultural labor, as well as the condition of the work­
ing people in manufacturing, the trades, commerce, agriculture, and
transportation; to inquire likewise into the effects of the laws and
regulations relating to such working people, and, in general, to gather
all information that may contribute to the betterment of their material,
intellectual, or moral condition.
It shall devote itself especially to the following subjects:
The economic and commercial condition of the different branches of
labor.
The state of the labor market for the different trades; unemploy­
ment, its causes, duration, and effects, and the means of remedying
it, including insurance.
The condition of the workmen and apprentices of both sexes as
regards wages and methods of remuneration, length of workday, da}rs
of rest, conditions of employment and discharge, and other clauses of
the labor contract.




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1029

The cost of living, the budgets of the different classes of working­
men and working women.
The retail prices of the articles and commodities ordinarily used by
the great mass of the public.
The influence of taxes upon the income, consumption, and conditions
of the working class.
The number of labor accidents in each trade, the severity of injuries,
duration of the [resulting] inability to work, age and civil condition
of the victims, and the physical and moral causes of accidents.
Disease among the different classes of laborers, according to age,
sex, and trade, especially diseases arising from the nature of the occu­
pation, from food conditions, from the abuse of alcoholic beverages.
The number of workingmen annually rejected by the army authori­
ties for insufficient stature, bodily defects, or weak constitution.
The number of workingmen annually sent to almshouses, houses of
refuge, reformatories, and prisons of the State.
Industrial disputes between employers and workingmen; their
frequency, causes, courses, results, and consequences.
The working of public and private institutions for promoting
harmonious relations between employers and workingmen, such as
conciliation boards, factory boards, arbitration, councils of industry
and labor, and councils of prudhommes.
The working of laws respecting the labor of women and young per­
sons, wages, shop regulations, the labor contract, and, in general, of
all statutory provisions which constitute obligatory clauses of the labor
contract.
The results of measures and regulations concerning the sanitation
and safety of workshops.
The condition of working people as to housing, the effects of the law
relating to workingmen’s dwellings, the activities of committees of
patronage, the development and operations of companies for the
building of workingmen’s dwellings.
The state and development of associations of - employers, of work­
ingmen, and of mixed associations.
The state and development of mutual benefit societies, and the
working of the law relating to them.
The state, development, and different modes of insurance against
sickness, accidents, invalidity, old age, as well as of insurance of
widows and orphans.
The condition and development of saving in the different parts of
the country, and among different classes of workingmen.
The condition and development of cooperative associations, and the
working of the law relating to them.
The extent and results of industrial and trade instruction, and of
instruction in housekeeping.
The condition of apprenticeship in the different industries and trades.
The effects of measures taken for the relief of suffering.
The results of measures relative to the condition of labor, adopted
by certain public administrations (minimum wage, length of workday,
premiums, boards of conciliation, participation in adjudications, acci­
dent insurance, etc.).
The state of industry, conditions of production, state of labor, cost
of living, emigration, colonization, strikes, etc., in foreign countries.
A rt . 3. The bureau of labor is intrusted with the duty of studying



1030

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

and making known the movement of legislation concerning labor and
laborers abroad, and of investigating the effect of such foreign legisla­
tion. It shall cooperate in the study of new legislative measures, and
amendments to be made in existing legislation concerning labor.
A rt. 4. The bureau of labor shall have among its functions the
administrative service relative to the execution of the laws and regu­
lations respecting the following subjects, within the limits and under
the conditions to be fixed by departmental regulations:
The councils of industry and labor.
The councils of prudhommes.
The superior council of labor.
The payment of wages.
The regulation of workshops.
The labor contract.
Apprenticeship.
Workingmen’s insurance.
Trade unions.
Mutual benefit associations.
Labor inspection.
A rt. 5. Independently of the officials and clerks necessary in the
offices of the bureau, and included on the rosters of the central admin­
istration of the department, the minister shall have power to entrust
specially defined work to temporary agents.
A rt. 6. The bureau of labor shall publish monthly an official bul­
letin under the title of Revue du Travail. This review shall contain,
in particular, information on the state of the labor market, unemploy­
ment, industrial disputes between employers and workingmen, begun,
ended, or in progress; arrangements for regulating new working con­
ditions; resolutions passed by councils of industry and labor; labor
accidents, and judicial decisions rendered .under statutory provisions
as to responsibility; measures taken by the public authorities with
reference to the healthfulness and safety of industrial establishments;
the construction of workingmen’s dwellings; the development of mutual
insurance cooperation, and saving; industrial, trade, and housekeep­
ing instruction; conventions of labor organizations, and the work of
bodies occupied with social questions.
The bulletin shall also furnish summary information on the fluctua­
tions of trade, exportation, and importation, when they occur, the
effects of colonization, retail prices of articles and commodities ordi­
narily used by working people, as well as comparative tables of whole­
sale prices in the leading markets of the world. Finally, it will include
notes on the principal events affecting labor and on the progress of
labor legislation in Belgium and in foreign countries.
A rt. 7. The bureau of labor shall publish separately the results of
special investigations undertaken in accordance with article 2, as well
as reports on labor legislation in foreign countries and its results.
A rt. 8. The minister shall determine, according to article 19 of
the organic regulations of the department, the powers to be accorded
the chief of the bureau, with the view of facilitating the directive
work and the dispatch of business.
A rt. 9. There shall be created in the government of each province a
provincial bureau of labor. The governors shall determine, in the
regulations of their respective administrations, the organization of the




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1031

provincial bureaus of labor and the various functions to be exercised
by them.
A rt . 10. The minister of agriculture, industry, labor, and public
works is charged with the execution of the present decree.

The constantly increasing requirements of the various services com­
mitted to the bureau of labor very shortly led to the division of the
ministry of agriculture, industi^, labor, and public works into two
ministries, one of which was made to comprise agriculture, hygiene,
and public works, and the other industry and labor. The new min­
istry {Ministere de VIndustrie et du Travail) was created by royal
decree of May 25, 1895, and upon it devolved the functions relative to
industry and labor which formerly appertained to the ministry of
agriculture, industry, labor, and public works.
As may be seen by reading the organic decree of April 12, 1895,
the bureau of labor is engaged not only in the collection and prepara­
tion of labor statistics—its functions are much broader. The bureau
is in charge of a director-general, who has under him officials charged
with specific duties. By a ministerial decree of January 2, 1897, the
work of the bureau was divided into five sections, as follows:
1 . Statistics.
2. Legislation and interpretation of laws and decrees.
3. Enforcement or execution of laws and decrees.
4. Inspection of labor and of establishments designated as dangerous
and unhealthy.
5. Provident institutions.
There is also a general service comprising the library, bookkeeping
department, etc.
The force employed in all of these services comprises 53 officials and
clerks of all grades (not including laborers) at the central office and 21
officials performing duty in the provinces (inspectors of labor), or a
total of 74 persons. Special inquiry relative to the personnel of the
section of statistics has elicited the information that it comprises
one chief of section and one chief clerk, both appointed by the King
and receiving respectively salaries of 6,500 francs ($1,254.50) and 4,600
francs ($887.80); three editors, appointed by the minister, receiving
2,200, 3,000, and 3,600 francs ($424.60, $579, and $694.80), and four
clerks, appointed by the minister, receiving 1,200, 1,400, 1,600, and
2,400 francs ($231.60, $270.20, $308.80, $463.20). Three of the mem­
bers of this section, including the section chief and the chief clerk, have
been in the service of the bureau since its creation, while the remain­
ing members, with one exception, have served but one year each.
One of the so-called editors is charged with the duties of a special
agent, receiving in addition to his salary a special compensation and
being reimbursed for his traveling expenses. It should be stated
that no appointments whatever are made, by the director-general of



1032

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

the bureau. According to the rule in force in all the ministerial
departments the officers beginning with the grade of chief clerk and
those above that grade are appointed by the King, while the employees
below the grade of chief clerk are appointed by the minister. The
term of office is indefinite.
It may also be noted that under article 5 of the organic decree of
April 12, 1895, independently of the officials and clerks regularly pro­
vided for, the minister has power to intrust specially defined work to
temporary agents. Much of the work of the bureau has been done
under the provisions of this article—the monographs which compose
the series of volumes devoted to domestic industries in Belgium, five
volumes of which have appeared and two of which are in preparation,
having been prepared under the control and in accordance with the
instructions of the bureau of labor by a temporary agent who was not
attached to the service.
There exists also a corps of 17 labor correspondents located in various
districts who supply the greater part of the information contained in
the monthly bulletin. The bureau assumes no responsibility for the
statements or reports of these correspondents. They are furnished
with certificates signed and attested by the director of the labor
bureau, showing their quality as labor correspondents in their respec­
tive districts, but they can exercise no authority in the collection of
information and must depend entirely upon the good will of their
informants. They receive a fixed compensation as correspondents and
a rate per line for articles and other correspondence sent in and pub­
lished. A small allowance is also made for expenses.
Each correspondent is required to make a monthly report to the
bureau on the condition of the labor market in each of the leading
industries in his district, the report to consist of a statement of all
changes in the economic condition of each industry, such as produc­
tion, labor supply and demand, changes in wage rates, hours of labor,
etc., a statement of changes in employers’, employees’ , and mixed
associations, and a statement of the selling prices of the principal
commodities consumed by working people. In addition to these regu­
lar monthly reports the correspondents are also expected to make,
whenever the occasion arises, reports on mutual benefit organizations,
cooperative societies, cases of conciliation and arbitration, acts of local
authorities in the interests of the working people, improvements in
housing conditions, the creation of trade and housekeeping schools,
the operations of labor exchanges, wayfarers’ lodges, etc. The infor­
mation is in all cases required to be obtained at first hand.
The appropriations for the ministry of industry and labor for the
year 1903, as shown by the Moniteur Beige for August 28, 1903,
amounted to a total of 19,696,500 francs ($3,801,424.50), of which
16,493,400 francs ($3,183,226.20) were for the expenses necessary for
conducting the work of the bureau of labor and for the enforcement



BUREAUS OF LABOR IK FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1033

of the laws with which that office is charged. The following state­
ment shows to some extent the special purposes for which the appro­
priations to the bureau of labor were made:
Appropriations for Belgian Bureau of Labor for the fiscal year 1903.
LAB OR .

B ureau

of

la b o r:

Statistics,

pu b lica tion s, p u rch ase an d
d ocu m en ts

sp ec ially

co m m issio n s,
b in d in g

in ten d e d

p rin tin g ;

of b o o k s an d

for th e

use

of

th e

bureau of la b o r; c o m p en sa tio n for d istrict lab o r cor­
re sp on d e n ts; m iscellan e ou s e x p e n s e s ..................................

$ 1 7 ,3 7 0 .0 0

C o m m itte e s of p atron a ge : E x p e n se s relative to th e e x ­
ecution of th e law of A u g u st 9, 1889; su b sid ie s.............

8 ,6 8 5 .0 0

T h e e x p en d itu re s on accou n t of th e p ro v id en t funds of
m u tu al aid societies; subsidies to Congress in relation
to p ro v id en t in stitu tion s; p erson n el an d m isc ellan e ­
ous e x p en se s of th e p erm a n e n t co m m issio n instituted
for th e purpose of facilitatin g th e

e x a m in a tio n of

th e affairs of m u tu a l aid societies; e xp en d itu re s on
accoun t of th e a w ard in g of special d ecoratio n s;
cou ragem en t o f useful w ork s

en­

relatin g to questions

con cern in g p ro v id e n t in stitu tion s an d m easures for
th e ad v a n ce m e n t of th e affiliation of th ese in stitu ­
tio n s; subsidies for th e purchase of flags; m isc ella n e ­
ous e x p e n d it u r e s ..............................................................................
C ou n cils of p ru d h o m m e s:

6 7 ,5 5 0 .0 6

C o m p e n sa tio n of notaries;

re vision of electoral lists; co m p en sa tio n of th e per­
sonn el of local c o m m is s io n s ................................................. ...
S uperior council of lab o r:

6, 446. 20

Salaries of secretaries; m is­

cellaneous e x p e n d itu re s................................................................

5, 7 9 0 .0 0

In sp e ctio n of lab o r in dangerous or insanitary estab­
lish m e n ts: In sp e ction p e rso n n e l; co m p en sa tio n and
office e x p e n se s; trav elin g e xp en se s and per d ie m ____

46, 320. 00

In sp e ctio n of lab o r in dangerous or u n h e a lth fu l estab ­
lish m e n ts: In sp e ctio n m a te ria l; e x p en se s for e x p e r i­
m e n ts;

pu rch ase of in stru m e n ts; m iscellan e ou s e x ­

p en d itu res .............................................................................................

P A R TIC IP A TIO N

OF T H E STATE IN T H E CREATION

2, 895. 00
---------------- $ 155, 056. 20
OF O L D -A G E

PENSIONS.

C o n trib u tio n to th e special pen sion fu n d for th e crea­
tio n of o ld -a ge p en sion s (art. 11 of th e law of M a y 10,
1900, m o d ifie d b y art. 8 of th e law of F e b . 1 8 ,1 9 0 3 ) . $2, 895, 000. 00
S u bsid ies to m u tu a l aid societies recogn ized as h a v in g
for th e ir ob je ct th e affiliation of th eir m e m b e rs in th e
general re tire m e n t fu n d (art. 12 of th e law of M a y
10, 1 9 0 0 ) ............................................................................................... "

77, 200. 00

E x p e n se s of ad m in istra tio n relative to th e ex e cu tio n of
th e law of M a y 10, 1 9 0 0 : Su bsid ies to c o m m itte es of
p atronage for th e h o u sin g o f th e w o rk in g p eo p le , to
ap p eal co m m issio n s, an d to o th e r in stitu tion s in v ite d
to cooperate in th e ap p lication of th e la w ........................




34, 740. 00
------------------ $ 3 ,0 0 6 , 940. 00

1034

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
SP EC IA L E X P E N D IT U R E S.

S u b sid ies to th e p ro v id e n t fu n d for th e relief of victim s
o f la b o r acciden ts in stitu ted b y th e law o f J u ly 21,
1 8 9 0 ..............................................................................................................................................

$ 2 1 ,2 3 0 .0 0
3 ,1 8 3 , 226. 20

It will be noted that a large proportion of the total amount appro­
priated for the expenses of the bureau is for contributions to pension
funds, for subsidies of various kinds, etc. The total amount of the
above, which is paid on account of salaries to officials and employees
of the bureau in 1903 has been stated to aggregate 256,874 francs
($49,576.68). This sum was distributed among the 74 officials and
employees who, as has been previously stated, constituted the per­
sonnel of the bureau in all its sections.
The duties committed to the Office du Travail and its officers have
been shown very clearly in the decree of April 12, 1895, which has
already been reproduced. In matters of statistical information no
special powers to enable them to enforce their requests for data are
given to the bureau, to its officers, or to its agents. An exception
was made with regard to the general census of industries and trades,
which was taken in 1896 in compliance with the law of June 29, 1896>
The regulations which were to be observed in taking this census, and
the obligations of individuals called upon for the information deemed
to be necessary, were fixed by royal decree. The law above referred
to provided that individuals who did not fulfill such obligations should
be liable to a fine of from 1 to 25 francs (19.3 cents to $4.83), or to
imprisonment from one to seven days, or to both. In case of the
refusal of individuals to conform to the rules prescribed it was pro­
vided that they might be enforced by judicial process and at the cost
of the persons proceeded against.
As has been indicated in the preceding pages the Office du Travail
is charged with important duties aside from the collection and dis­
semination of statistics. The very complete system of factory inspec­
tion in Belgium is largely under the direction of this bureau. The
entire scheme for the inspection and regulation of dangerous and
unhealthful establishments and industries rests on the provision that
no establishment embraced within that classification can be opened or
transferred from one locality to another without special authorization
by the Government. The duties of the officials and agents connected
with this service are to visit industrial establishments subject to the
law; to inform themselves concerning all infractions of the law or
regulations issued in relation thereto; to grant, when proper, the
authorisation prescribed in relation to the employment of children; to
submit reports and recommendations concerning the application of
the law; and also to give advice and furnish statistical and other




1035

BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

information which may be requested of them by the authorities and
which they have collected in order to determine the effect of the labor
legislation and to study the reforms that can be introduced therein.
Other special duties devolving on the bureau of labor have been suf­
ficiently indicated in the decree of April 12, 1895, which has been
given.
The inquiries undertaken by the bureau regarding Sunday labor
and statistics of strikes have been made by means of circular blanks,
but in practically all of its remaining work recourse is generally had
to the personal method of collection. It is stated by the directorgeneral that in every case where it can be applied, the collection of
statistics by special agents is greatly preferable to that by means of
correspondence and circular blanks.
The following publications of the bureau have been issued as
indicated:
R E G U L A R PUB LICA TIO N S.

T h e L a b o r R e v ie w .

(Revue du Travail.)

M o n th ly b u lle tin ; first n u m b e r w as for

J a n u ary, 1896.

(Annuaire de la Legislation du Travail.)

Y e a r b o o k of L a b o r L e gislation .

A nnual

re p o rt; first report wr for th e ye ar 1897.
as
A n n u a l R e p o rts of L a b o r In sp e ctio n .

( Rapports

Annuels de VInspection du Travail.)

F irst report w as for th e y e a r 1895.
O f th e R e v u e du T ra v a il an e d ition of 3 ,0 0 0 is issued , w h ile of th e o th er regular
rep orts th e e dition is u su a lly 1 ,0 0 0 .

I n a d d itio n to th e regular reports n oted ab ove

a n u m b e r o f im p o rta n t special reports h a v e been issued fro m tim e to tim e in edi­
tion s of 1 ,0 0 0 each.

T h e y are as fo llo w s:
SPECIAL REPORTS.

(L' Assurance contre VInva­

In su ra n ce again st I n v a lid ity a n d O ld A g e in G e rm a n y .

lidity et la Vieillesse eri Allemagne.)

344 pages.

1895.

S u n d a y L a b o r in B e lg iu m a n d F oreign Countries.
v o lu m es.

(

Travail du Dimanche.)

F iv e

1 8 9 6 -1 8 9 8 .

N ig h t W o r k o f W o m e n in In d u stria l E sta b lish m e n ts in F o reig n C ou n tries.

de Nuit des Ouvrieres de VIndustrie dans les Pays Etrangers.)

271 pages.

C o m m issio n o n W o r k in g m e n ’ s P en sio n s; R epo rts an d P roceed ings.

des Pensions Ouvrieres; Rapports et Proces-verbaux.)

T h re e v o lu m es.
823 pages.

(

Ilouille, Octobre, 1896-Mai, 1900. )

104 pages.

G e n e ra l C ensus of T rades an d In d u strie s of O ct. 31, 1896.

Industries et des Metiers, 31 Octobre, 1896.)

Commission

( Les Salaires

1901.

(Statistique des

Statistics of W a g e s in C oal M in e s, O ctob er, 1 8 9 6 -M a y , 1900.

dans les Mines de

Travail

1900.

W a g e s in In d u stria l E sta b lish m e n ts in G h e n t, V o l. I ; C o tto n In d u s try .

dans VIndustrie Gantoise, Tome I; Industrie Cotonniere.)

(

1898.

Salaires

1901.

( Recensernent General des

E ig h te e n v o lu m e s.

1901.

L a w s and R e gu lation s C o n ce rn in g th e L a b o r o f W o m e n an d C h ild re n , th e R e g u ­
lation of C lassified E sta b lish m e n ts an d Ston e Q uarries, th e P a y m e n t of W a g e s to
W o r k in g P eo p le , S h o p R e gu lation s, th e L a b o r C o ntract, an d In sp e c tio n of L ab or,

(Lois et Reglements Concernant le Travail des Femmes et des Enfants, la Police des Etablissements Classes et des Carrieres d del Ouvert, le Payement des Salaires aux Ouvriers9
les Reglements d’Atelier, le Contrat de Travail et VInspection du Travail.) 300 pages,
1902.
10193— N o . 54 — 04 --------6




1036

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

E le c tric M o to rs in D o m e stic In d u strie s.

d Domicile . )

2 92 pages.

( Les Moteurs Electriques dans les Industries

1902.

F la x -S p in n in g M ills, a S tu d y in In d u stria l H y g ie n e .

dJ
Hygiene Professionnelle.)

4 73 pages.

D o m e stic In d u strie s in B e lg iu m .
v o lu m e s.

( Les Filatures de L in , Etude

1902.

(Les Industries d Domicile en Belgique.)

S ix

1899 to 1904.

In d u stria l M o n o g ra p h s.
Statistics o f

1896-1900.)

S trikes

2 84 pages.

(Monographics Indusirielles.) 175 pages. 1903.
(Statistique des Greves en Belgique,

in B e lg iu m , 1 8 9 6 -1 9 0 0 .
1903.

Among the principal reforms and laws which are stated to have been
due to the intervention of the bureau of labor, or which have been put
into execution at its instance, the following are cited:
The definite organization of labor inspection;
The law concerning the regulation of workshops;
The law in relation to trade unions;
The law concerning the safety and health of employees in industrial
and commercial enterprises;
The law in relation to the labor contract;
The regulation and measurement of the labor of working people;
The law concerning old-age pensions;
The inspection of provident institutions (mutual aid societies, work­
ingmen’s homes societies);
The organization of statistics of labor;
The development of councils of prudhommes and of councils of
industry and labor.
Inasmuch as the decree organizing the bureau of labor provides that
the office shall have charge of the administrative service relative to
the execution of the laws and regulations respecting the councils of
industry and labor, the superior council of labor, and the councils of
prudhommes, it seems necessary to furnish a brief statement of the
purposes and functions of these bodies and their method of operation.
C ouncils of P ru dh om m es . —These bodies were established in
Belgium as early as 1809 in pursuance of the French law of March
18, 1806. After the investigation of the organization and work of
these councils by the labor commission of 1886, and as a result of its
recommendations, all previous laws were repealed and the work of
these bodies was placed upon a new basis b}- the law of July 31, 1889.
Slight modifications of this law have since been made by the law of
November 20, 1896, and by a royal decree of January 8, 1897.
It is provided that each council must be created by law and the
boundaries of its jurisdiction are at the same time defined. In case,
however, certain trades or industries in a particular locality or district
are of sufficient importance to warrant it, special councils may be
created for their benefit and operate within the same boundaries.
These councils of prudhommes consist of at least six members, half
of whom are elected by the employers and half by the employees.




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1037

Elaborate provisions are made in the organic law relative to the quali­
fications of electors and candidates, the nomination of candidates, and
the manner of holding elections. The president and vice-president of
each council are appointed by the King, one selection being made
from each of two lists furnished by the group of members of the
council representing respectively the employers and the employees.
These ne'ed not be members of the council and they, as well as the
members, serve for a term of three years.
The jurisdiction and powers of these councils are stated by the law
as follows:
The councils of prudhommes shall have jurisdiction concerning dis­
putes either between employees or between employers and their em­
ployees in any matter relating to work done, labor, or wages in the
branches of industry for which the councils are created. Their terri­
torial jurisdiction is fixed by the locality of the factory and in the case
of home workers, by the place where the contract is made.
At least two regular meetings must be held each month and special
meetings may be called b}" the president of the council whenever cir
cumstances warrant such action. An equal number of employer and
employee members must be present at each meeting, and should one
class be in excess, a sufficient number of the class in excess must retire
to establish the numerical equality of acting members. Matters in
dispute.may be referred to a council for conciliation by the parties
interested, and this must be done by a written request for interven­
tion. The parties to a case must appear before the council, as well as
witnesses in case the parties themselves disagree as to the facts. Each
case is tried, judgment rendered, costs assessed, appeals taken (to the
civil courts), etc., in the manner usual in courts of law. A most
important feature of these councils is a board of conciliation consist­
ing of twT members which is created by each body, before which all
o
disputes must first be brought and whose duty it is to make every rea­
sonable effort to conciliate the parties to the dispute and thus dispose
of the matter at issue. Failing in this, the case is then brought before
the council itself.
In addition to the above-mentioned functions, these councils are
clothed with power to impose fines not exceeding 25 francs ($4.83) for
the purpose of suppressing acts of bad faith, grave neglect, or other
acts calculated to disturb the order and discipline of workshops and
factories. They may also be called upon by the King to serve as advis­
ory boards and render their opinions concerning any questions relat­
ing to labor and industry that may be submitted to them.
The expenses of each council are paid by the communes within its
jurisdiction and provision is also made for rooms for holding their
meetings. The members of the council are allowed a per diem while
in attendance upon meetings equal to the average value of a day’s labor




1038

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF \LABOR.

in the province, while the salaries and allowances of the council’s
registrar and constables are determined by royal decree.
C ouncils of I n d ustry and L a b o r . —The establishment of these
bodies was authorized by the law of August 16, 1887, and their pur­
pose is well defined by a former director-general of the Belgian bureau
of labor as follows:
Each council of industry and labor is in reality a small industrial
parliament which concerns itself with the common interests of employ­
ers and employees, according to a programme established beforehand
by the Government. They are consultative bodies which at times act
also as conciliation boards.
Their origin may be attributed to the action of the labor commis­
sion of 1886, in recommending the creation of a system of boards for
the arbitration or conciliation of industrial disputes. In the passage
of the bill through the Parliament, however, the proposed boards or
councils were intrusted with additional duties of great importance,
consisting mainly of consultations with reference to the mutual interests
of employers and workingmen with a view of obviating controversies
between them. The principal difference between these councils of
industry and labor in their capacity of conciliation boards and the
councils of prudhommes, whose most important duties are connected
with the conciliation and arbitration of industrial disputes, lies in the
fact that the councils of prudhommes consider only disputes arising
from a violation of contracts or agreements, and their judgments must
be based on such contracts or agreements, while the councils of labor
and industry consider disputes on matters concerning which no con­
tracts or agreements exist, with the object' of bringing about a mutual
understanding between employers and workmen and the formation of
contracts or agreements based thereon. The decisions of the former
are binding, while the recommendations of the latter are of an
advisory character, and may be adopted or not at the will of the par­
ties to the dispute.
The following is a statement of the provisions of the law creating
these councils:
There shall be created in every locality in which its utility is demon­
strated a council of industry and labor. This council shall have as its
mission the consideration of the mutual interests of heads of industrial
establishments and employees, in order to prevent and, if required,
adjust disputes that may arise between these two classes. A council
may divide itself into as many sections as there are distinct classes of
industries in its district, care being taken to unite in each those persons
most competent to judge concerning matters pertaining to the industry
to which it relates.
Councils shall be created by royal decree, either upon the direct
initiative of the King or upon the request of the communal council
or of the employers and employees interested. The decree shall in
each case fix the boundaries, the industries to which the council



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1039

relates, and the number and nature of the sections. Each section
shall be composed of an equal number of emplo3
^ers and employees,
and this number shall be fixed by the decree creating the council, but
must not be less than six nor more than twelve.
The organic law does not provide more than general directions as
to the method of electing the members of these councils, but elaborate
regulations similar to those prescribed for the councils of prudhommes
have been provided by royal decree. The term of office is three
years, and its officers are chosen by each section from among its mem­
bers. The first of the duties of these councils, as has been heretofore
mentioned, has been clearly stated as follows:
When the circumstances seem to require it the governor of the
province, the mayor of the commune, or the president shall, upon the
request of the employers or employees, convoke the section relating
to an industry in which a conflict seems imminent. This section shall
use its efforts to terminate the difficulty. „ If an agreement can not be
reached, a summary report of the proceedings must be published.
The methods to be adopted in conciliation are not prescribed, and, ‘
as previously stated, the decision of the council can not be enforced.
The limit of their powers, in the event of failure to bring about an
agreement between the parties, is reached when the proceedings and
their decision are given to the public.
The second of their duties has been stated as follows:
The King may call together the council of any district in full assem­
bly, in order that it may give its advice concerning such questions or
proposals of general interest relative to industry or labor which he
may consider it desirable to submit to it. The King may also assem­
ble a number of sections belonging to the same or different localities.
Such an assembly shall elect its own president and secretary.
As in the case of the councils of prudhommes, provision is made
for a place of meeting for these councils and for the payment of their
members while in attendance upon its meetings.
Owing to the failure of the local authorities to request the creation
of these councils as provided by law, two years elapsed after the enact­
ment of the law before action was taken in this direction. The Gov­
ernment itself then took the matter in hand and created 17 councils in
various industries during December, 1889, and since that time other
councils have been created.
The following statement relative to the practical work of these
bodies has been made by Mr. W . F. Willoughby in one of the bulletins
of the United States Bureau of Labor, from which are derived much
of the data forming the basis of the brief description of both the coun­
cils of prudhommes and the councils of industry and labor.
The function of these councils (councils of industry and labor) as
boards 'of conciliation or arbitration has been exercised to a limited




1040

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU

OF LABOR.

extent only. •Their importance as consultative chambers regarding
industrial and labor matters has, however, steadily increased. The
councils have not only been frequently summoned to give their opinion
concerning proposed legislation, but they, are given important powers
in respect to the execution of the law of December 22, 1889, concern­
ing the employment of women and children; the law of July 2, 1899,
concerning the protection of the health and lives of industrial employ­
ees; and the law of August 1 6 ,188T, concerning the pa}^ment of wages
of workingmen. The effect of these provisions is that the working­
men, through these councils, can exercise an important influence in
determining the conditions under which they shall labor and in the
framing of new legislation.
S u p e r io r C ouncil of L a b o r . —In order to give the councils of
industry and labor an operating center and to complete their organiza­
tion, the royal decree of April 7, 1892, established under the ministry
of agriculture, industry, and public works a permanent body designated
as the Superior Council of Labor ( Conseil Superieur du Travail).
This body has the duty of preparing the questions to be referred to
the councils of industry and labor, and of presenting to the Govern­
ment the recommendations of the latter bodies. Another function of
the superior council is to examine the bills and prepare the resolutions
which are to be voted on by the legislature. It also furnishes, by
means of special investigations, information concerning labor ques­
tions. In a word, it occupies itself with all questions concerning the
relations between emplo}rers and employees, and the improvements to
be made in the condition of the laboring classes. This council is now
under the direction of the ministry of industry and labor and its mem­
bership is composed in equal proportions of representatives of employ­
ers of labor, representatives of workingmen, and persons specially con­
versant with economic, social, and labor questions. The members are
named by royal decree on suggestion by the minister (16 for each of the
three classes) and many of those of the first two classes are also mem­
bers of councils of industry and labor. The officers of the superior
council are a president, three vice-presidents, and a secretary. The
members hold their office for four years and are entitled to mileage and
compensation for attendance at meetings of the council. In the pro­
ceedings of the council a majority of all the members present is neces­
sary to carry a motion, and no action can be taken unless at least
one-half of its membership is in attendance.

CANADA.
As early as 1890 provision was made by the Parliament of Canada
for the creation of a bureau of labor under the department of agri­
culture. The duties assigned to the chief of this office by the organic
act were described as follows:




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1041

To collect, classify, and arrange, and present in quarterly bulletins
and in yearly reports to Parliament, statistics relating to all kinds of
labor in Canada, and such statistics may be classified in the manner set
forth in the schedule to this act.
The intent of the above law, however, was never carried out, no
information of the character described having been published.
Later on an investigation made during the years 1897 and 1898 b}r
Mr. W. L. Mackenzie King at the request of the Hon. Sir William
Mulock, postmaster-general, relative to the methods of carrying out
the government clothing contracts, directed the attention of the Parlia­
ment to the prevalence of the sweating system, and more especialty to
its existence in the shops engaged on government work. The report
on this subject excited a general discussion and resulted in the pas­
sage of a resolution in the House of Commons in March, 1900, to
the effect that all government contracts should contain such conditions
as would effectively prevent the abuses arising from the subletting of
such contracts, and that every effort should be made to secure the pay­
ment of such wages as are generally accepted as current in each trade
for competent workmen in the district where the work is carried out,
and the working of a fair number of hours by persons engaged on
such work. The work referred to in the resolution was to include not
onl}r work undertaken by the Government itself, but also all works
aided by grant of Dominion funds. The discussion in the Parliament
of other matters of interest to labor naturally followed, and this,
together with the increasing necessity for important statistical informa­
tion in regard to industrial conditions, and the keen personal interest
of the Hon. Sir William Mulock in the welfare of the working classes,
may be said to constitute the principal causes leading to the introduc­
tion into the House of Commons of the conciliation act of J900, which
made provision not only for the settlement of labor disputes by con­
ciliation and arbitration, but also for the establishment of a depart­
ment of labor and the publication of the Labor Gazette and the
presentation to the Parliament of an annual report.
The act, under the authority of which the department of labor was
established, received the royal assent on July 18,1900, and the portion
relating thereto, reads as follows:
With a view to the dissemination of accurate statistical and other
information relating to the conditions of labor, the minister shall
establish and have charge of a department of labor, which shall col­
lect, digest, and publish in suitable form statistical and other informa­
tion relating to the conditions of labor, shall institute and conduct
inquiries into important industrial questions upon which adequate
information may not at present be available, and issue at least once in
every month a publication to be known as the Labor Gazette, which
7
shall contain information regarding conditions of the labor market and




1042

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOR.

kindred subjects, and shall be distributed or procurable in accordance
with terms and conditions in that behalf prescribed by the minister.
The expenses incurred in the carrying out of this act shall be defrayed
out of the money provided for the purpose by Parliament.
An annual report with respect to the matters transacted by him
under this act shall be made by the minister to the governor-general,
and shall be laid before Parliament within the first fifteen days of each
session thereof.
The work of organizing the new department was begun immediately
after the passage of the act, and the first number of the Labor Gazette
issued by September 15, 1900.
.
Under the minister of labor the department is in charge of a deputy
minister of labor, who receives a salary of $3,200. In addition to this
officer, who is also editor of the Labor Gazette, the personnel of the
office includes an associate editor of the Labor Gazette, a secretary
to the deputy minister, a librarian, 2 fair-wages officers, 4 clerks,
and a stenographer—a total of 11 officers and employees. The 10
employees of the department are paid salaries ranging from $600 to
$1,550 per annum, the average compensation being $1,165. All hold
their positions on a civil-service basis, and with the exception of two
have been employed in the department since its organization. In this
connection it should be stated that the above regular force is augmented
by a corps of local correspondents, about thirty in number, who cover
most of the cities of the Dominion, and have been appointed to assist
in the carrying out of the policy of the office as regards its principal
publication, the Labor Gazette. It is the duty of these correspond­
ents, who are compensated by small annua] salaries, to make report
monthly on the condition of the labor market in their respective cities
and districts; to supply information in regard to particular trades, the
more important'industrial events, and other local information of inter­
est to labor generally. It is also their duty to keep the department
informed of the commencement and progress of industrial disputes
which may arise within their jurisdiction; to furnish statistics and
information in reference to economic conditions in their respective
localities, as required by the department, and to discharge such other
duties as may, from time to time, be committed to them.
The total expenditures of the department for the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1902, as shown by the latest report available—the second
annual—amounted to $31,964. This amount includes salaries, the pub­
lication of the Labor Gazette, traveling expenses in connection with
the work of the fair-wages officers, and the settlement of industrial
disputes, and all other items.
In addition to the regular work of collecting and disseminating sta­
tistics of labor, the department of labor is charged with very impor­
tant duties in connection with conciliation of labor disputes and the
enforcement of the provisions of the resolution of the House of Com­




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1043

mons relative to fair wages. The deputy minister of labor has acted
as conciliator in a large number of industrial disputes referred to the
department under the act, and two fair-wages officers are engaged
with the preparation of schedules of wages for insertion in Govern­
ment contracts.
The conciliation act of July 18, 1900, under one section of which the
department of labor was organized, provided also for the prevention
and settlement of trade disputes by some form of voluntary concilia­
tion. Under this act the minister of labor may intervene by making
an inquiry upon his own motion, by appointing a conciliator on the
application of either party, or by appointing an arbitrator on the
application of both parties to the dispute. The administration of
the act is thus seen to be directly under the department which has up
to the present time proceeded only ugon application of one or both of
the parties for friendly intervention, deeming it inexpedient for the
department itself to take the initiative. It is stated in the report of
the department that in all cases where application has been made, a
conciliator was immediately sent to interview the parties to the dis­
pute and arrange a settlement where possible. In every case in which
the conciliator has been sent by the Government, his authority has
been recognized by employers and employees alike, and each party
has expressed a willingness to avail itself of the good offices of the
department to bring about an adjustment of the existing difficulties.
This attitude has greatly facilitated the settlements which have been
made. It is further stated in this connection that the power of the
conciliator is not dependent upon the willingness'of each of the parties
to avail itself of his good offices, but that the strength of his position
lies in the provision of the act that the conciliator must present to the
minister of labor a report of his proceedings, which report, as con­
templated, though not expressed in the act, is published in the Labor
Gazette, the official journal of the department. The knowledge of
each of the parties to a dispute that its case, in so far as the position
can be learned by the conciliator, must appear in an official record of
the Government, which serves for a focus of public opinion, greatly
influences each party to submit a fair statement of its case at the out­
set, and to refrain from any delay in granting reasonable concessions
or from holding out for unreasonable demands. The experience of
the department in its settlement of disputes has been quite successful.
Its report for the fiscal year which ended June 30, 1902, states that
intervention was sought in 11 cases, in 6 of which a settlement was
effected within two days after the arrival of the conciliator, while in 4
cases the aid of the department had been requested too late, the
employers claiming that they were no longer embarrassed.
Reference has already been made to the resolution relating to fair
wages on public contract work passed by the House of Commons on



1044

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

March 17, 1900, and its provisions stated. These provisions have
been carried out by special officers known as “ fair-wages officers,’5who
have performed their duties under the direction of the department of
labor since its creation. The work of this branch of the department’s
work has been divided into three parts, which are described as follows:
I. The preparation of schedules of current rates of wages for inser­
tion in contracts* awarded by the several departments of the Govern­
ment and other conditions to be inserted in same, for the protection of
the employees o f contractors on public contract work.
II. Investigation of complaints concerning the nonpayment by con­
tractors of a minimum wage equal at least to that fixed in the schedule
inserted in their contracts, or the nonperformance by them of other
conditions in regard to subletting, hours of labor, etc.
III. The answering of inquiries concerning the nature of the con­
dition* under which public work is being performed in different local­
ities, inquiries as to current rates in these localities, etc.
In further explanation of the method of procedure adopted in this
work, the following statement from the annual report of the depart­
ment is given:
The plan adopted in the preparation of schedules is as follows: The
department of the Government which is about to invite tenders for a
contract, in which it is intended to insert the fair-wages schedule,
sends a request to the department of labor to have such schedule pre­
pared. One of the fair-wages officers is thereupon sent to the locality
in which the work is to be performed to ascertain what are the rates
of wages and hours of labor current in that locality for workingmen
belonging to each of the several classes likely to be engaged in the
construction of the'work for w hich tenders are being sought. The
T
officer prepares a schedule, on the facts ascertained by investigation in
the locality, setting forth what may be considered a fair basis of
minimum wage payment to be made to the several classes of labor.
This schedule is transmitted to the department concerned for incorpo­
ration in the terms and conditions of the proposed contract, and there­
from tenderers know in advance the rates of wages which they will be
required to pay the workmen. On the execution of the contract the
schedule is published in the Labor Gazette.
The investigation of complaints received at the department of labor,
or forwarded to this department from one of the other departments of
the Government, concerning the nonpayment by contractors of the
rates of wages fixed in the schedule governing their contract, or con­
cerning the nonperformance by them of other conditions inserted, has
been an important part of the work of the fair-wages officers. The
practice adopted in regard to these investigations is as follows: If the
complaint is first received by the department of labor, this department
informs the department affected of the nature of the complaint, and if
it is found to be of a kind that can not be settled forthwith by that
department, or is of a nature demanding a special investigation, the
department of labor is requested to have such investigation made, and
a report upon the merits of the claim, or other matters of complaint,
prepared. One of the fair-wages officers is then sent to the locality
from which the complaint comes to make a personal investigation of



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1045

the case. His report is submitted to the minister of the department,
and is subsequently transferred, together with the recommendation of
the department of labor, to the department of the Government which
has awarded the contract, or has charge of the work.
The work of the department of labor, so far as the collection of
information and statistics is concerned, has been carried on mainly
through correspondence and ‘circular blanks. As has been stated, the
department has in almost every section of the Dominion a correspond­
ent who is relied upon to furnish a m onths report on the conditions*
of labor in his locality and make report in regard to such special
matters as the department directs. Information from these sources
and circular blanks have been used almost exclusively. To a very
limited extent only has information been secured through the personal
investigation of officers other than correspondents.
This personal
investigation is regarded by the officers of the department as the more
efficient and satisfactory method, although it is stated that the regular
correspondents have on the whole done their work quite satisfactorily,
while information received by correspondence and circular blanks has
also been fairly acceptable.
Three annual reports have been made in accordance with the pro­
visions of the organic law, the last being for the fiscal }^ear ending
June 30, 1903, and an edition of 3,500 copies is regularly printed.
This report is devoted entirely to a description of the work and oper­
ations of the department. The medium of the department for the
publication of statistical information is the Labor Gazette, the scope
and purposes of which are described as follows:
In’ its relation to the work of the department, the Labor Gazette
may be said to serve a twofold purpose: In its character as a.monthly
publication it supplies the latest information in reference to the gen­
eral condition of the labor market in all parts of Canada and conditions
obtaining in particular trades; reviews the more important industrial
events, and presents reliable accounts of subjects of current interest
in matters of concern to labor; it also presents in serial form special
articles of a statistical and descriptive nature, and thereby obviates
the necessity of publishing separately special reports or other bluebooks, comprising within the pages of a single volume the informa­
tion thus presented in a series.
This publication has been issued monthly since September, 1900, the
average monthly circulation for the year ending June 30, 1902, having
been 8,370 copies, of which 5,648 were on account of annual subscrip­
tions. The Labor Gazette regular^ includes information along cer­
tain lines, of which mention may be made of the following: Reports
of the local correspondents of the department as previously described,
statistics of strikes and lockouts, reviews of important official publica­
tions of the Canadian and other governments, digests of legal decisions
affecting labor, subjects of special investigation, such as statistics'of




1046

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

wages and cost of living, etc., digests of labor laws, reports of current
work of the department under the conciliation act and the fair-wages
resolution, etc.
The most important results of the work of the department in the
way of practical reforms are said to be those pertaining to the settle­
ment of strikes and lockouts by conciliation and the enforcement of
the fair-wages resolution of the House of Commons.
DENMARK.
A purely statistical bureau (Bureau de Statistique de V^tat) was
established in Denmark January 1 , 1850, succeeding the “ Tabelkommission,” which had existed since 1833. Its present organization,
however, was obtained by the law of December 16, 1895, under which
the bureau was thoroughly reorganized and its functions materially
enlarged. This reorganization, as well as the creation of the bureau,
were due solely to the initiative of the Government. It should be
stated that it is not devoted specially to the collection, compilation,
and dissemination of statistics of labor, but is a central bureau of
statistics, comprising in its work a wide range of subjects, which nat­
urally include to some extent statistics relative to the social and
economic condition of the working classes.
The scope of the work of the bureau is determined by the law of
December 16, 1895. This law, so far as it provides for the collection
and publication of statistics of labor, specifies the following subjects:
Social statistics, embracing conditions of living in the different social'
classes, such as reports on food materials, commodities consumed,
workingmen’ s budgets, workingmen’s insurance; statistics of wages
and of -earnings in the different trades; statistics of savings and of
people’s banks.
Aside from the purely statistical work the officials of the bureau are
charged with no other public duties.
The personnel of the bureau consists of a director, two bureau chiefs,
and four associates, appointed by the King, and ten assistants, appointed
by the minister of finance. The director receives a salary of from
4,800 to 6,000 crowns ($1,286.40 to $1,608) per annum, according to the
length of his service; the two chiefs of bureau 3,200 and 3,600 crowns
($857.60 and $964.80), respectively; while of the four associates two
receive 2,400 crowns ($643.20) each, one, 2,200 crowns ($589.60), and
one, 1,800 crowns ($482.40). The ten assistants, three of whom are
women, receive annual salaries ranging from 1,000 to 1,400 crowns
($268 to $375.20), the average being 1,220 crowns ($326.96). While the
director has been connected with the bureau but one year, his two
principal assistants have served eleven years each, and the four asso­
ciates from seven to thirty years. The average length of service of
the ten assistants is over six years.



BUREAUS OF LABOR IK FOREIGK COUKTRIES.

1047

’ The expenses of the bureau for the year ending March 31, 1902,
were 112,280 crowns ($30,091.04), distributed as follows: Salaries of
officials, 21,300 crowns ($5,708.40); salaries of assistants, 13,200
crowns ($3,537.60); .pay for special work, 34,880 crowns, ($9,347.84);
office expenses and printing, 37,300 crowns ($9,996.40); and rent, 5,600
crowns ($1,500.80).
The powers of the bureau with regard to requiring statistical
information are not fixed by any particular provisions of the law. In
conformity with the communal laws (that of the rural communes of
July 6, 1867, and that of city communes of May 26, 1868), the com­
munal administrations are required to furnish information regarding
the population, the number of cattle, and other communal statistics;
but these laws do not prescribe the limits of the duties of the public
with regard to giving information for statistical purposes. Never­
theless, the statistical material collected has for its principal basis the
regulations of these two laws. In one case particularly, where an
important statistical work is undertaken, a legal right has been estab­
lished to this end, under the law of March 22, 1897, which requires a
census of trades and industries. Under this right the duties of manu­
facturers are limited to the communication of information regarding
the number of employees, the goods produced, etc. Furthermore,
resort is also had to the factory law of April 11,1901, wffiich prescribes
the information for statistical purposes that may be required of chiefs
of establishments which come under the supervision of the factory
inspectors. These latter are not, however, under the direction of the
statistical bureau.
A s a rule the information and statistics obtained by the bureau are
in the form of written reports and schedules from the authorities or
individuals. Sometimes, however, information is sought through per­
sonal investigation, when one of its officials is sent to ascertain on the
spot certain facts of a local nature.
In addition to a statistical annual, the bureau publishes “ Statistik
Tabelvaerk,” comprising statistical tables relating to population, judi­
cial statistics, agricultural statistics, statistics of commerce and nav­
igation, and financial statistics. That portion of its publications
devoted to social and labor statistics appears under the collective title
of 44Communications Statistiques,” ten or more being issued at irreg­
ular intervals during each year in editions of about 1,000 copies. The
issue of the other publications of the bureau average about the same
number.
FRANCE.
In France a bureau of labor ( Office du Travail) was created by the
law of July 20 1891, which constituted it a branch of the ministry of
,
commerce. Its organization and functions were determined by special
regulations approved by the decree of the President of the Republic



1048

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

dated August 19, 1891. These regulations make it the duty of the
bureau u to collect, sj^stematize, and publish all information relating
to labor, particularly as regards the state and development of produc­
tion, the organization and remuneration of labor, its relations with
capital, the condition of the working people, and the comparative
situation of labor in France and in foreign countries.”

Its functions have not been changed since its establishment, but its
organization has received slight modifications in consequence of larger
modifications affecting the entire ministry of commerce.
By virtue of a decree of October 10, 1900, and a ministerial order
of the same date, the bureau of labor has ceased to be a service inde­
pendent of the administrative services of the ministry. To it has
been annexed the inspection of labor, the service of the councils of
prudhommes, and some other services of various degrees of impor­
tance. The whole has been grouped under the name of Department
of Labor (Direction du Travail), forming one of the four departments
among which are now divided the functions of the ministry of com­
merce, industry, posts, and telegraphs {Ministere du Commerce, de
VIndustrie, des Postes, et des Telegraphes).
The department of labor comprises three bureaus, the functions of
which are as follows:
Bureau No. 1.—Bureau of labor and general statistics {Office du
Travail et Statistique Generate) :
Superior council of labor; councils of labor; superior council of sta­
tistics; comparative legislation.
Bulletin of the bureau of labor.
Technical services; investigations, information, and statistics relat­
ing to labor; statistical annual; annual statistics of demography and
public aid; enumeration of population, etc.
Bureau No. 2.—Inspection of labor {Inspection du Travail) :
Regulation of labor in industrial plants, manufactories, shops, yards,
warehouses, etc.; hygiene and safety of shops and other work places;
inspection of labor; superior commission of industrial labor.
Consulting committee of arts and manufactures.
Dangerous or insanitary establishments.

Dynamite and other'explosives.
Bureau No. 3.—Trades organizations and councils of prudhommes
{Associations Professionnelles et Conseils de Prudhommes):

Laws and regulations relating to labor inquiries and to labor con­
tracts.
Councils of prudhommes.
Unemployment; institutions and regulations for the placing of
workingmen and salaried employees, for works of relief, for traveling
assistance, and for indemnities for unemployment.

Strikes; conspiracies; conciliation* and arbitration.



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1049

Industrial associations of employers, of working-men, and of salaried
employees; mixed associations; leagues or federations of associations;
labor exchanges; examination of by-laws, etc.; donations of books,
models, or collections to the libraries of industrial organizations ; pub­
lication of the annual of trade associations.
Cooperative associations; distribution of subsidies to workingmen’s
productive and credit associations; profit sharing.
The functions of the bureau of labor as originally created are to-day
divided between the first and the third bureaus of the department of
labor as shown above. This division of work, while favoring the dis­
patch of business, does not in any degree impair the unity of the bureau
of labor, the immediate direction of which is under the director of
labor.
The department of labor being a part of the central administration
of the ministry of commerce, its personnel is subject, not to special
provisions of law, but to the organic regulations of the ministry. An
applicant for a position, when accepted by the central administration,
is placed in the service where a vacancy exists and, in the course of
his career, may be transferred from one bureau to another, and even
from one department to another department, according to his fitness
or the requirements of the service. The director himself is appointed
by the President of the Republic, while all other functionaries are
appointed by the minister of commerce. The director receives from
15,000 to 18,000 francs per annum ($2,895 to $3,474); the three chiefs
of bureaus, 7,000 to 9,000 francs ($1,351 to $1,737); the three assistant
chiefs, 4,500 to 6,000 francs ($868.50 to $1,158); the nine editors and
translators, 2,000 to 4,000 francs ($386 to $772); the nine copyist clerks,
1,800 to 4,000 francs ($347.40 to $772); and the five typewriters, 1,800
to 3,000 francs ($347.40 to $579).
The entire personnel of the department is thus seen to consist of
30 persons, of whom 13 are attached to the bureau of labor, 8 to
the labor-inspection service, and 8 to the service devoted to trades
organizations and -councils of prudhommes. The total of the annual
salaries of the 30 persons constituting the personnel of the labor
department amounts to approximately 112,000 francs ($21,616). It
has been impossible to secure a statement of the other expenses con­
nected with the administration of the labor department, such as heat­
ing, lighting, office expenses, etc., owing to the fact that this depart­
ment is housed in the same building with the three other departments
of the ministry of commerce, etc., and its supplies are paid for by a
common appropriation. It could only be learned that the central
administration (of which the labor department forms more than onefourth) expends 72,400 francs ($13,973.20) a year for compensation of
attendants and 93,400 francs ($18,026.20) a year for maintenance of
equipment and,office expenses of all kinds.




1050

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEATJ OF LABOB.

Besides the personnel of the central administration comprised in the
three bureaus above described, the director of labor employs for
investigations by the bureau of labor an outside force of special
agents consisting of permanent investigators, the number of whom is
fixed at two, and temporary investigators, the number of whom is
variable, but at present is five. The work incident to the census of
trades requires the employment of numerous aids; but the number of
these employees, who are temporary and not attached to the adminis­
tration, varies so that it is impracticable to take account of it in repre­
senting the normal footing of the labor department. The relations of
the director with the investigators are immediate, he himself keeping
in touch with their work.
The resources of the department of labor are not by any means
limited to the sums previously mentioned. There are in the budget
of the ministry of commerce seven appropriations at the disposal of
the director of labor. These are as follows, given in the order of the
bureaus to which they belong:
B ureau N o . 1 . —Bureau

of labor and general statistics.

1. Appropriation entitled “ Bureau of labor and general statis­
tics,” under which there was entered for the year 1902 a credit of
95,000 francs ($18,335), distributed as follows:
S ervices of p e r m a n e n t in v estiga tors or special a g e n ts........ _ . ................ .................$2, 702. 00
S pecial services ren d ered b y te m p o r a r y in v e stig a to rs........................... ...................

772. 00

S ervices o f te m p o r a r y in v estiga tors:
B u rea u of l a b o r ........................................................................................................................

4, 342. 50

S ta tistic s.........................................................................................................................................

9 6 .5 0

P u rch ase of b o o k s an d su b scrip tion s to rev iew s a n d jo u r n a ls:
B u rea u of l a b o r ........................................................................................................................

289. 50

S ta tistic s...................................................................1....................................................................

9 6 .5 0

P rin tin g :
B u rea u of la b o r ...................................................... .................................................................

5, 790. 00

S ta tistic s............................................................................................................................ ............

4, 246. 00

2. Appropriation entitled u Superior council . of labor,” under
which there was entered for the year 1902 a credit of 23,000 francs
($4,439), distributed as follows:
C o m p e n sa tio n of clerks an d r e p o r te r s ...........................................................................................

$579

A tte n d a n c e ch e ck s an d re im b u rse m e n t of m e m b e rs of th e c o u n c il____ . . . . _____ 1, 351
P rin tin g, p u b lica tion s, ste n o g ra p h y , a n d m isc ellan e ou s e x p e n s e s ............................ 2 ,5 0 9

3. Appropriation entitled u Quinquennial census of trades.” The
expense incident to the census of trades taken in 1901 was estimated at
1, 000,000 francs ($193,000). This sum was distributed over five years.
The proportional part, 200,000 francs ($38,600), assigned to the budget
of 1902, is divided thus:
P e r s o n n e l ...................................................................................................................................................

$ 2 4 ,1 2 5

S u p p l i e s ................................................................................................................................* .....................

1 4 ,4 7 5




1051

BUREAUS OF LABOR I F FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
T
B ureau N o. 2.—Inspection

of labor.

4.
Appropriation entitled “ Inspection of labor,” under which there
was entered for the year 1902 a credit of 737,500 francs ($142,337.50),
distributed as follows:
Salaries of in sp e c to rs.....................................................................................................................

$94, 763. 00

C o m p e n sa tion of secretary of superior c o m m is s io n .................................................

193. 00

Office an d trav elin g e x p e n s e s .......... .......................................................................................

38, 214. 00

E d itin g and p u b lish in g th e B u lle tin of L a b o r In sp e ctio n an d reports on
th e ap p lication of th e law s regu latin g la b o r .............................................................

2, 412. 50

C o m p en sa tion and reim b u rsem en t for service at m i n e s ........................................

6, 755. 00

5.
Appropriation entitled “ Consulting committee on arts and
manufactures,” under which there was entered for the }7
ear 1902 a
credit of 27,000 francs ($5,211), distributed as follows:
Salary of th e secretary of th e c o m m i t t e e ............................................................................

$926. 40

A tte n d a n c e ch eck s for m e m b e rs of s a m e ............................................................................ 4, 246. 00
M iscella n eo u s exp en se s of th e c o m m itte e ............................................................................

B ureau N o. 3.—Trades

38. 60

organizations and councils of prudhommes.

6. Appropriation entitled “ Encouragement to workingmen’s pro­
ductive or credit associations,” under which there was entered for the
year 1902 a credit of 148,000 francs ($28,564) for subsidies to the
associations referred to.
7. Appropriation entitled “ Encouragements and medals for trade
associations and councils of prudhommes,” under which there was
entered for the year 1902 a credit of 18,500 francs ($3,570.50), distrib­
uted as follows:
E n cou rag em en ts to trades associations, purchase an d rem itta n ce of b o o k s,
m ed als, e tc ............................................................................................................................. ............ $2, 895. 0G
A n n u a r y of trades asso cia tio n s...............................................................................................

5 7 9 .0 0

M ed als of h o n o r for m e m b e rs of councils of p r u d h o m m e s ................................

96. 50

From the foregoing may be obtained a correct idea of the functions
of the department of labor. Placed under the immediate authority
of the minister of commerce, it is not endowed by law with special
powers, but as an agency of the minister it possesses all the powers
which the laws, given in the constitution, or otherwise, confer upon
him as a member of the Government.
The bureau of labor gathers its information by three methods: By
personal inquiries; through certain administrative officers, such as
prefects, under-prefects, and mayors, and by schedules of inquiry
addressed to competent persons or bodies. The choice of the method
to be employed depends on the purpose of the investigation.
10193— N o . 54— 04--------7




1052

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The following publications of the bureau of labor and general statis­
tics have been issued as indicated:
R E G U L A R P U B LICA TIO N S.

( Bulletin de VOffice du

B u lle tin of th e B ureau of L a b o r.
first n u m b e r w as for J a n u ary, 1894.

Travail.)

M o n t h ly b u lle tin ;

T h re e th o u sa n d copies are p rin ted each m o n th .
( Statistique

Statistics of Strikes, and of R ecou rse to C o n ciliation an d A rb itra tio n .

des Greves et des Recours d la Conciliation et d VArbitrage.)

Annual

re p o r t; first

re p ort w as for th e ye ar 1890.
Statistical A n n u a l.

( Annuaire

statistique.)

F irst rep ort w as for th e y e ar 1892.

T h e statistical an n u als for th e years 1878 to 1891 w ere p u b lish e d b y th e gen era l sta­
tistical office of th e m in istry o f co m m e rce , in d u stry , an d th e co lo n ies.
A n n u a l Statistics o f D e m o g ra p h y a n d P u b lic A id .

Statistique annuelle—Demographie et Assistance.)

( Statistique generale de la France—

F irst rep ort w as for th e ye a r 1890.

T h e an n u al reports for th e years 1871 to 1889 w ere p u b lish e d b y th e d iv isio n o f
accoun ts an d statistics of th e m in istry of co m m e rce , in d u stry , an d th e co lo n ie s.
SPEC IAL REPORTS.

T h e P la cin g of Salaried E m p lo y e e s , W o r k in g m e n , an d D o m e stic s in F ra n ce, w ith an
( Le Placement des Employes, Ouvriers, et
Domestiques en France, avec un Appendice relatif au Placement dans les Pays Etrangers.)
A p p e n d ix on P la cin g in F o reig n C ou n tries.
742 pages.

1893.

( A re p ort o n th e w o rk of e m p lo y m e n t o ffic e s .)

S econ d I n q u ir y o n th e P la cin g of Salaried E m p lo y e e s , W o r k in g m e n , a n d D o m e stic s.

(Seconde Enquete sur le Placement des Employes, des Ouvriers et des Domestiques.)
p ages.

186

1901.

C o n c ilia tio n a n d A rb itra tio n in C o lle ctiv e D isp u tes b e tw ee n E m p lo y e r s and W o r k ­
( De la Conciliation et de VArbitrage dans
les Conflits collectifs entre Patrons et Ouvriers en France et a VEtranger.) 6 16 p ages. 1893.
R e v ie w o f th e S ix th A n n u a l R e p o rt of th e U . S. D e p a rtm e n t of L a b o r ( Examen du
6eme Rapport Annuel du Departement du Travail des Etats-Unis) an d T h e A r te ls an d
D iv id e n d S h arin g b y E m p lo y e e s of th e R u ssia n R a ilw a y s ( Des Arteles et de la Partici­
pation IniSressee du Personnel dans les Chemins de Fer Russes). 93 pages. 1893.
W a g e s a n d H o u rs o f L a b o r in F re n c h In d u stry .
( Salaires et Duree du Travail dans
VIndustrie Franqaise.) 4 v o lu m e s. 1893 to 1897.
in g m e n in F ra n ce an d in F oreign C o u n tries.

( Bordereaux de

W a g e s D a ta for V a rio u s Classes o f W o r k in g m e n in 1900 an d 1901.

Salaires p ou r Diverses Categories dJ Ouvriers en 1900 et 1901.)

( Minimum de Salaire dans les

M in im u m W a g e s in P u b lic W o r k s .
129 pages.

1902.

Travaux Publics.)

1897.

S m a ll In d u strie s: W a g e s an d H o u rs of L a b o r.

du Travail.)

232 pages.

T w o v o lu m e s.

( La

Petite Industrie: Salaires et Duree

1893 a n d 1896.
( Les

W o r k in g m e n ’ s C o op erative P ro d u c tiv e A sso cia tio n s in F rance.

Ouvrieres de Production en France.)
H y g ie n e an d Safety of W o r k e r s .

6 13 pages.
( Hygiene et

Associations

1897.

Securite des Travailleurs.)

660 pages.

1895*
D o c u m e n ts on th e Q u e stio n of L b ie m p lo y m e n t.

Chomage.)

398 pages.

R e lie f in Cases of U n e m p lo y m e n t in 1 8 9 6 -1 8 9 8 .

Chomage en 1896-1898.)

( Documents

sur la Question du

1896.
23 pages.

(

Travaux de Secours en cas de

1899.

D o c u m e n ts R e la tin g to P iec ew o rk .

( Documents

sur le Marchandage.)

125 pages.

1899.
In q u ir y in to th e L e g isla tio n R e sp e ctin g C ou n cils of P ru d h o m m e s .

Legislation des Conseils de Prudhommes.)




55 pages.

1900.

( Enquete sur

la

1053

BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

C o m p u lso ry In su ra n ce again st L a b o r A ccid e n ts in G e rm a n y an d A u stria.
(IS Assu­
rance Obligatorse contre les Accidents du Travail en Allemagne et en Autriche.) T w o
v o lu m e s, 110 an d 124 pages.

‘ 1892.

Statistical R e su lts of C o m p u lso ry In su ra n ce against Sick ness in G e rm a n y an d A u s ­
( Resultats Statistiques de VAssurance Obligatoire contre la Maladie en Allemagne et en
Autriche.) T w o v o lu m e s, 134 an d 147 pages. 1893.
A S tu d y of th e L a te st R e su lts of Social In su ra n ce in G e r m a n y and A u stria .
( Etude
sur les Berniers Resultats des Assurances Sociales en Allemagne et en Autriche.) T w o
tria.

vo lu m es, 180 an d 229 pages.

1894 an d 1895.

(Les Caisses Patronales de Retraites ['Indus-

In d u stria l E m p lo y e r s ’ P en sio n F u n d s.

trie'].)

437 pages.

1898.
( Bases

Statistical B ases of A c c id e n t In su ran ce.

Accidents.)

235 pages.

L a b o r O rganizations.
905, 895, an d 679 pages.
A tta c h m e n t o f W a g e s .

Statistiques de VAssurance contre les

1899.

(Les Associations Professionnelles Ouvrieres.)

T h re e vo lu m es,

1899, 1901, a n d 1902.

(Saisie-arret sur les Salaires.)

138 p ages.

Sociale en Australie et Nouvelle-Zelande.) 200
In d u stria l P oisons.
(Poisons Industriels.)

pages.

4 49 pages.

416 pages.

1901.
( Rapport sur VA p-

1902.

Statistical R e su lts o f th e E n u m e ra tio n of th e P op u latio n in 1891.

tiques du Denombrement cle la Population en 1891.)

Ouvri’ re et
e

1901.

R e p o rt o n A p p r e n tic e sh ip in th e P rin tin g T ra des, 1 8 9 9 -1 9 0 1 .

prentissage dans VImprimerie, 1899-1901.)

1899.

( Legislation

Social an d L a b o r L e gislation in A u stralia an d N e w Z ea lan d .

(Resultats Statis­

T w o v o lu m e s, 349 an d 814 pages.

1893 an d 1894.
Statistical R e su lts of th e E n u m e ra tio n of 1896.

brement de 1896.)

491 pages.

( Resultats

Statistiques du Denom­

1899.

Statistical R e su lts of th e C ensus of In du stries an d T rad es in 1896.

tiques du Recensement des Industries et Professions en 1896.)
663, an d 4 40 pages.

( Resultats

Statis­

F o u r v o lu m e s, 845, 803,

1 8 9 9 -1 9 0 1 .

D istrib u tio n of A p p lie d S te am a n d W a te r P o w er in 1899.

Motrices a Vcipeur et HydraiUiqucs en 1899.)

( Repartition

des Forces

T w o v o lu m es, 235 an d 224 pages.

1900

and 1901.

Mention should be made of the volumes and the reports which are
presented to the superior council of labor at each of its sessions, with
the view of illustrating as much as possible by actual cases the ques­
tions entered on its calendar. The proceedings of the superior coun­
cil are likewise published after each session. The first session report
was for the year 1891.
The publications of bureau No. 2 of the department of labor,
engaged in the service of inspection, need particular mention as fur­
nishing an account of the work of that service. These are: The
Annual Report on the Administration of the Laws Regulating Labor
{Bapport sur VApplication des Lois Reglementant le Travail), the
first report of which was for the year 1893, and the Bulletin of the
Inspection of Labor {.Bulletin de VInspection du Travail), published
bimonthly since 1893. The latter contains all the jurisprudence as
well as articles on hygiene and safety in industry.
Bureau No. 3, trades organizations and councils of prudhommes,
publishes an Annual of Trade Associations (Annuaire des Syndicats
Professionals), the first of which was for the year 1897.



1054

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The expenses of printing the publications of the department of
labor have already been indicated in connection with the statement of
the appropriations of the office, but it may be interesting to show
these expenditures separately: To the account of the superior council
of labor are charged all costs of printing due to the operations of this
council, these being estimated at 13,000 francs ($2,509). To the
account of the quinquennial census of trades will be charged the costs
for the printing of this census, but as the printing has not yet been
commenced there was no expense to provide for on the 1902 budget
previously mentioned. To the account of the encouragements and
medals for trades associations, etc., are charged the costs of printing
the Annual of Trade Associations, the estimate of cost being 3,000
francs ($579). To the account of the bureau of labor and general sta­
tistics are charged all the other printing expenses occasioned by pub­
lications of the bureau of labor, estimated for 1902 at 52,000 francs
($10,036), of which 30,000 ($5,790) was for the bureau of labor and
22,000 ($4,246) for general statistics. Thus the estimate for the total
expenditures on account of printing for the bureau of labor and for
general statistics amounts, for 1902, to 68,000 francs ($13,124). If
to that sum is added the expenses of the Bulletin of Labor Inspection
and of the Annual Report on the Administration of the Laws Regu­
lating Labor, which amount to 12,500 francs ($2,412.50), the total of
the credits placed at the disposal of the department of labor to insure
the printing of its documents foots up to 80,500 francs ($15,536.50).
It should be noted, however, that the above is only an estimate, for,
while transfers from one account to another are absolutely prohibited,
transfers from one article to another, under one and the same account,
are not forbidden.
Through its operations, which began over ten years ago, the bureau
of labor has contributed greatly to the progress effected within this
period in labor legislation. The director of the bureau, however, does
not wish it to appear that his office claims exclusive credit for such
reforms, inasmuch as they could not have been undertaken without
the support of public opinion and the cooperation of the Government
and of the legislative power.
With this reservation, the following is the list of the legislative
enactments promulgated since 1892 relating to questions of interest to
labor which have been effected largely through the influence of the
bureau of labor and its reports:
Law

of D e c e m b e r 2, 1892, on th e lab or of c h ild re n , of girls in m in e s, a n d

w o m e n in in d u stry .
L a w o f D e c e m b e r 27, 1892, on co n ciliation a n d arb itration .
L a w o f J u n e 12, 1 893, on h y g ie n e a n d safe ty of w ork ers.
L a w of J u ly 15, 1893, o n free m e d ic a l a tten d an ce.




of

BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
L a w of J u ly 29, 1893,

1055

for a d m ittin g w o rk in g m e n ’ s associations to co m p ete for

c o m m u n a l w o rk s an d su pplies.
L a w of A u g u s t 8, 1893, for th e p ro te ctio n of n ation a l labor.
L a w o f Ju n e 29, 1894, on re lie f an d p en sion fu n ds of m in e w ork ers.
L a w of N o v e m b e r 5, 1894, on th e fo rm a tio n of farm ers’ loan associations.
L a w of N o v e m b e r 30, 1894, on ch e ap h ou sin g.
L a w of D e ce m b e r 19, 1894, on re lie f and pen sion fu n d s of m in e w ork ers.
L a w of J a n u ary 12, 1895, on a tta c h m e n t of w ages an d lo w salaries of w o rk m e n
an d e m p lo y e e s.
L a w of F e b ru a ry 8, 1895, a m e n d in g article 549 of th e co m m e rcia l code

(as to

w a g e s).
L a w of J u ly 20, 1895, reo rga n izin g th e sav in gs b a n k s system .
Law7 of D e c e m b e r 27, 1895, as to p en sion , relief, an d p ro v id e n t fu n d s for salaried
e m p lo y e e s a n d w o rk in g m e n .
L a w of D e c e m b e r 29, 1895, as to th e in h eritan ce of th e p en sion s c o m in g from th e
n ation a l p en sio n fu n d .
L a w of M a rc h 31, 1896, on ch eap h ou sin g.
L a w of J u ly 16, 1896, on relief an d pen sion fu n d s of m in e w ork ers.
L a w of J u ly 17, 1 897, au th o rizin g th e insurance fund to m a k e th e sum p a y a b le in
th e e v e n t of d ea th d iv isib le a m o n g several beneficiaries (lite r a lly to m a k e m ix e d
insurances in th e e v e n t of d e a th ) .
L a w of A p r il 1, 1898, on m u tu al relief associations.
L a w of A p r il 9, 1 898, co n cern in g resp on sib ility for accid en ts to e m p lo y e e s in th e ir
w ork .
L a w of A p r il 19, 1898, for th e repression of disorder,

acts of violen ce,

acts of

cru elty, an d assaults on ch ild re n .
L a w of A p r il 21, 1898, for th e creation of a p ro v id e n t fu n d on th e p art of F re n c h
seam en against th e risks an d acciden ts of th e ir occup ation.
L a w of M a rc h 31, 1899, for th e e sta b lish m e n t an d su b sid izin g of district m u tu a l
agricultural cred it fu n ds an d local m u tu a l agricultural associations a n d b a n k s.
L a w of M a y 24, 1899, e x te n d in g , w ith a view to th e a p p lication of th e law of
A p r il 9, 1898, th e operations of th e n ation al fu n d for a ccid en t insurance.
L a w of J u n e 30, 1899, co n cern in g accid en ts caused in agricultural w o rk b y th e use
of m a c h in e ry op erated w7
ith m e ch a n ica l pow er.
D ecree of A u g u st .10, 1899, as to co n d ition s of la b o r on contracts let on b e h a lf of
th e State.
D ecree of A u g u s t 10, 1899, as to co n dition s of lab o r on contracts le t on b e h a lf of
d ep artm en ts.
D ecree of A u g u st 10, 1899, as to co n dition s of lab o r on contracts le t b y co m m u n e s
and p u b lic c h a rity in stitu tion s.
L a w of M a rc h 30, 1900, a m e n d in g th e law of N o v e m b e r 2, 1892, on th e lab o r of
ch ild re n , of girls in m in e s, an d w o m e n in industrial e stab lish m en ts.
L a w of J u ly 4, 1900, relatin g to th e co n stitu tio n of associations or fu n d s for fa rm ­
ers’ m u tu a l insurance.
D ecree of S ep te m b e r 17, 1900, for th e e sta b lish m e n t an d organ ization of councils of
lab or.
Law7 of D e c e m b e r 25, 1900, a m e n d in g th e law of M a rc h 31, 1899, for th e e sta b lish ­
m e n t an d su b sid izin g of d istrict m u tu a l agricultural loa n fu n ds.
L a w of D e c e m b e r 29, 1900, fix in g th e c o n d ition s of th e la b o r of w o m e n e m p lo y e d
in stores, sh op s, a n d places co n n ected th e re w ith .
D ecree of Ja n u ary 2, 1901, co n cern in g councils of lab or.
L a w of M a rc h 25, 1901, a m e n d in g th e law of J u ly 8, 1890, con ce rn in g d elegates to
loo k after th e safety of m in e w orkers.




1056

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

L a w of J u ly 18, 1901, gu aran teein g th eir w ork an d e m p lo y m e n t to reservists called
to serve th e ir te rm of m ilita ry in struction.
L a w of J u ly 20, 1901, a m e n d in g article 6 of th e law of N o v e m b e r 5, 1894, con cern ­
in g th e fo rm a tio n o f farm ers’ loa n associations.
L a w of M a rc h 22, 1902, a m e n d in g various articles of th e law of A p r il 9, 1898, co n ­
cern in g re sp o n sib ility for accid en ts to e m p lo y e e s in th e ir w ork .
L a w o f A p r il 10, 1902, su p p le m e n ta l to th e law of D e c e m b e r 27, 1890 (co n tra ct of
le a s e ).

The important work of the department of labor of France so far as
it relates to the collection and publication of statistics of labor and
the enactmejit of remedial legislation has been fully shown. Its super­
vision of the service for the inspection of factories and of the various
bodies whose duties consist largely in the conciliation and arbitration
of labor disputes has been given but passing notice. The important
duties of the department in this connection should not be overlooked.
A most complete system of factory inspection has been established
and is being enforced, and the work of the councils of prudhommes
and other arbitration tribunals has shown highly beneficial results.
The details in connection with both these classes of service have been
explained in Bulletin No. 25 of the United States Bureau of Labor
and need not occupy space here. An account of the councils of prud­
hommes and other bodies formed for bringing about the adjustment
of labor disputes has been given in connection with the description
of the work and functions of the bureau of labor of Belgium in the
preceding pages. These bodies operate under practically the same
conditions and have practically the same functions in France as in
Belgium, and the reader is therefore referred for information to the
description previously given.
GERMANY.
As early as 1872 efforts were made toward the creation of a perma­
nent Government bureau in Germany for the collection and dissemina­
tion of statistics and information relative to labor. It was not until
1891, however, that the central Government created a commission of
labor statistics (Kommission f u r Arbeiterstaiistik) for this purpose.
While no official bureau or body specially concerned with the collec­
tion of labor statistics, etc., was in existence previous to the creation
of this commission, a special bureau of statistics (Kaiserliches Statistisches Amt) for many years had been engaged to some extent in that
class of work which bureaus of labor usually undertake. This condi­
tion was due to the fact that in Germany the central statistical offices
of the Empire as well as those of the individual States were not con­
fined to the usual statistical investigations, but were concerned as
well with the multifarious topics which interest labor. As a conse­
quence, even without special provision, there were prosecuted inter­




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1057

esting investigations within the field of labor statistics. The annual
reports of the factory-inspection service in Germany furnished a con­
tribution to the statistics of labor, presenting a great mass of informa­
tion relative to the social and economic conditions of the workers in
factories and workshops. The reports of the imperial statistical
bureau on the effects of the laws relative to workingmen’s insurance
and of the imperial bureau of insurance relative to accidents to labor
furnished another contribution to the available statistics of labor.
The commission of labor statistics was organized and began its work
on April 1, 1892. It consisted of a president, appointed by the Impe­
rial chancellor, and fourteen members—six chosen by the federal
council (Bundesrath), seven by the Imperial Parliament (Reichstag),
and one selected by the Imperial chancellor from the officials of the
Imperial statistical bureau. The duties of this commission were to
consider and advise concerning proposed statistical inquiries and their
execution and results when requested by the Bundesrath or chancellor,
and to submit to the chancellor plans for the prosecution of such
inquiries. When necessary for ascertaining more clearly the conditions
of the working classes, the commission had power to invite to its ses­
sions for consultation equal numbers of employers and workingmen,
and to interrogate any persons in a position to give needful informa­
tion. All information gathered by the commission was compiled and
prepared for publication by the Imperial statistical bureau. The
commission during its existence issued 11 volumes of reports giving
the results of its investigations. These relate to a variety of sub­
jects, and have formed the basis upon which the Bundesrath has for­
mulated regulations governing labor in a number of industries. Of
these reports there are two relating to hours of labor in bakeries and
confectioneries {Erhebung uber die Arbeitszeit in Backereien nnd Konditoreien), issued in 1892 and 1893; three relating to hours of labor,
notice of discontinuance of employment, and conditions of apprentice­
ship in the commercial industries (_
Erhebung uber Arbeitszeit, Kundigungsflisten und Lehrlings- Yerhdltnisse im Ilandelsgewerbe), issued in
1893 and 1891; two relating to hours of labor in flour mills {Erhebung
uber die Arbeitszeit in Getreidemuhlen), issued in 1894 and 1895; two
relating to conditions of employment and compensation of waiters
and waitresses (_
Erhebung uber die Arbeits- und Gehalts- Yerhdltnisse
dev Kellner und Kellnerinnen), issued in 1894 and 1895; one relating
to the conditions of labor in the garment-making industries {Zusammenstellung der Ergebnisse der Ermittelungen uber die Arbeitsverhdltnisse in der Kleider- und Wasche-Konfektion), issued in 1896; and one
relating to the hours of labor of clerks and apprentices in business
offices and commercial establishments not connected with public sales­
rooms {Erhebung uber die Arbeitszeit der Gehulfen und Lehrlinge in
solehen Komjptoren des Ilandelsgevyerbes und kaufmdnnischen Betrieben,




1058

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

die nicht mit offenen Yerkaufsstellen verlmnden sind), issued in 1902.
The last-mentioned report was prepared for publication by the divi­
sion of labor statistics.
Owing to the inability of the commission of labor statistics to
undertake the regular and systematic collection of statistics of labor,
its services were replaced by a division of labor statistics (Abtheihmg
f u r ArbeiterstatistiJc), which was organized as a branch of the Imperial
statistical bureau on April 1, 1902. An account of the organization
of this division, as well as the provisions regarding the subcommittee
for labor statistics and its business organization, was published in
No. 1 of the Imperial Labor Bulletin (Reichs-Arbeitsblatf), April, 1903.
From it has been taken the following information:
Considerable has already been done by the German Imperial and
State governments in the field of statistical investigation concerning
labor. Among the official statistics at hand bearing upon economic
and social conditions are the population, occupation, and industrial
censuses; a number of special investigations, such as those relating to
apprentices, journeymen, and factory workers (1876), woman and
child labor in factories (1877), Sunday labor (1885), wage conditions
in the linen and underwear manufacturing industries (1887), the
handicrafts (1896); the investigations of the commission of labor sta­
tistics regarding the bakers’ and confectioners’ trade, labor in flour
mills, employees in mercantile establishments, hotel, restaurant, and
saloon employees, persons employed in inland navigation, etc.; sta­
tistics collected on account of the sick, accident, invalidity, and old-age
insurance system; and the annual reports of the factory inspectors.
Social statistics have also been collected by the larger cities, chambers
of commerce, and other public corporations. Many private institu­
tions have conducted investigations in this field, as, for instance, the
Social Economy Society ( Yerein f u r Sozialpolitild), employers’ and
employees’ trade organizations, etc.
The duties of the division of labor statistics have been prescribed as
follows:

1. The collection, compilation, and periodical publication of labor
statistics and other information concerning labor conditions.
2. The conduct of special investigations by means of correspondence
and personal inquiry; also the giving of advice.
The division for labor statistics is assisted by an advisory council.
This council assumes, in a large measure, the duties of the late com­
mission for labor statistics. Its duties are to assist the Imperial sta­
tistical bureau in carrying out its work in the sphere of labor statistics.
Its special functions are:
1. To give advice, whenever directed by the federal council or the
Imperial chancellor (ministry of the interior), with regard to taking
up, carrying on, and compiling statistical investigations.
2. To consult experts, whenever necessary, in the preparation of
statistical material.
3. To make suggestions to the Imperial chancellor (ministry of the
interior) for undertaking and carrying out statistical investigations.




BUREAUS OF LABOR IK FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1059

The council consists of a president and 14 members, 7 of whom are
elected by the federal council (Bundesraih) and 7 by the Imperial diet
{Reichstag). The director of the Imperial statistical bureau is ex officio
president of the council and has a vote in its proceedings. The mem­
bers hold office during the legislative period and until their successors
are elected.
When directed by the Imperial chancellor or requested by six mem­
bers, the advisory council is authorized to invite an equal number of
employers and employees to participate as associates. These have a
consultative voice in the meetings.
The council may delegate some of its work to special or standing
committees of its members, but the final adoption of the plan for car­
rying out a proposed statistical investigation and the giving of advice
regarding such investigations can not be delegated to a committee.
The president calls the meetings of the council and of the commit­
tees. Any business which is not of special importance may be placed
before one of the committees directly b}^ the president, unless a major­
ity of the committee or at least six members of the council request its
consideration by the latter, in which case it must come before the
council. The president presides over the committee meetings. The
clerical work of the board is performed by the Imperial statistical
bureau.
The Imperial chancellor (ministry of the interior) as w
rell as the
State governments have a right to send delegates to the meetings of
the council, who must always be given a hearing. The Imperial chan­
cellor (ministry of the interior) and the State governments must be
informed, at least one week in advance, of the meetings to be held and
of the regular business to be transacted. Officials of the Imperial
statistical bureau may also be attached to the council and have a
consultative voice in the meetings.
The Imperial chancellor fixes the rate of per diem or compensation
to be paid and the traveling expenses allowT the members and others
ed
who are called to the meetings of the council.
The personnel of the division of labor statistics consists of 28 offi­
cials and clerks. A monthly labor bulletin {Reichs- Arbeitsblatt) is
published, of which the first number was for April, 1903, and 12,000
copies of each issue are distributed. Although the division was not
organized until April 1, 1902, investigations have been undertaken and
completed relative to the hours of labor in offices and hours of labor
in certain trades. It issues, at irregular intervals:
P u b lica tion s o f th e a d v isory cou n cil for lab o r statistics: R ep orts of p roceed ings.

( Drucksachen cles Beirats fu r Arbeiterstatistik: Verhandhingen.)
P u b lica tion s o f th e Im p e r ia l statistical bureau, d ivisio n of lab o r statistics: I n v e s ­

{Drucksachen des Kaiserlichen Statisiischen Amts, Abteilung fu r Arbeitersta­
tistik: Erhebungen.)
tigations.

Its creation, however, is too recent to permit of any judgment as to
the general effects and results of its work and investigations.




1060

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

GREAT BRITAIN.
A resolution of the House of Commons in March, 1886, constituted
the first definite action looking to the creation of an office in Great
Britain for the collection of statistics of labor. The resolution read
as follows: “ In the opinion of this House, immediate steps should be
taken to insure in this country the full and accurate collection and
publication of labor statistics.” In compliance with the suggestion
contained in this resolution, a special service was organized for the
collection and publication of statistics relating to the various subjects
of interest to the laboring classes, under the direction of the commer­
cial department of the board of trade. A special officer, with the title
of labor correspondent, was appointed to have direct charge of the
work.
In 1893 this service was greatly enlarged and a separate department
under the board of trade organized to carry on the work. This new
office, termed the Labor Department of the Board of Trade, forms one
of three departments of the board of trade—the commercial depart­
ment, the labor department, and the statistical department—all of
which are carried on under the direction of a comptroller-general.
The following account of the present organization and work of the
department of labor is taken from a memorandum issued by that office
in August, 1903:
The labor department is under the direction of a commissioner for
labor. The staff numbers 43. In addition to clerks of various grades,
it consists of an assistant commissioner for labor, a chief labor cor­
respondent, two senior investigators, and four investigators, one of
them a lady, together with an assistant lady investigator.
In addition, there are a number of correspondents who are not on
the staff of the department, but are paid by fees, and whose functions
generally consist in furnishing monthly reports on the state of employ­
ment and in obtaining such information as may be required from time
to time. These include four trade correspondents, 30 local correspond­
ents, and four correspondents connected with organizations of work
people, who report on certain trades only. The four trade corre­
spondents are connected with associations of employers and supply
reports dealing with the whole of their respective trades. The trades
thus reported on are the building, the cotton, the woolen and worsted,
and the boot and shoe trades. The 30 local correspondents in different
parts of the United Kingdom obtain information chiefly from work
people or their organizations and furnish reports dealing with the
various industries in their respective districts. Most of the paid local
correspondents are connected with trade unions; some are workmen
engaged in various industries.
The principal work of the department may be grouped as follows:
I. To collect and publish statistics and general information on sub­
jects relating to labor in the United Kingdom. Certain reports had
been issued by the board of trade previous to the creation of the labor




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1061

department; others have been begun and continued by the labor depart­
ment itself. The following is a list of those now issued:
Abstract of Labor Statistics. Annual; first report was for 1893-94.
Report on Changes in Wages and Hours of Labor. Annual; first report was for
the year 1893.
Report on Strikes and Lockouts. Annual; first report was for the year 1888.
Proceedings of the Board of Trade under the Conciliation Act. Biennial; first
report wT for the period August, 1896, to June, 1897.
as
Report on Trade Unions. Annual; first report was for the year 1886.
Directory of Industrial Associations. Biennial; first edition was for the year 1899.
Abstract of Foreign Labor Statistics. Biennial; first report was for the years
1898-1899.

II. To make special inquiries into various important industrial ques­
tions. The following volumes, embodying the result of these inquiries,
have been published:
Report on the Agencies and Methods for Dealing with the Unemployed. 440
pages. 1893.
Report on Alien Immigration into the United States. 392 pages. 1894.
Report on the Volume and Effects of Recent Immigration from Eastern Europe
into the United Kingdom. 224 pages. 1894.
Report on Profit-sharing. 206 pages. 1894.
Report on Gain-sharing and Certain Other Systems of Bonus on Production. 132
pages. 1895.
Report on Standard Piece Rates of Wages and Sliding Scales in the United King­
dom. First report for the year 1893, 250 pages, 1894. Second report for the year
1900, 333 pages, 1900.
Report on Standard Time Rates of Wages in the United Kingdom. First report
for the year 1893, 290 pages, 1894. Second report for the year 1900, 222 pages, 1900.
Report on Contracts given out by Public Authorities to Associations of Workmen.
352 pages. 1897.
Statistics of Em ployment of W om en and Girls. 160 pages. 1894.
Changes in Em ployment of W om en and Girls in Industrial Centers. Part I.—
Flax and Jute Centers. 317 pages. 1898.
Report on M oney Wages of Indoor Domestic Servants. 58 pages. 1899.
Provision for Old Age Abroad by Government Action in Certain European Coun­
tries. 60 pages. 1899.
Return of Em ployment of Children on leaving School (Upper Standards). 110
pages. 1899.
Report on Wholesale and Retail Prices in the United Kingdom in 1902, with com­
parative statistical tables for a series of years. 510 pages. 1903.

In addition to the above, a series of Reports on Wages in various
industries in 1886 and 1891, a Report on Cost of Production, and other
special reports on labor matters were published by the board of trade
between 1886 and 1893.
III. To publish monthly a journal called the Labor Gazette.
The Labor Gazette, the first issue of which was for May, 1893,
deals with a variety of subjects affecting labor questions, and fur­
nishes statistical and other information collected by the department
during the month from sources in the United Kingdom ana abroad.




1062

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The state of employment in the principal trades of the United King­
dom is reported on, and, in addition to articles on special matters of
interest, information with regard to the following subjects is usually
given, namely: Trade disputes, conciliation and arbitration cases,
changes in the rates of wages and hours, industrial accidents, indus­
trial prosecutions, pauperism, industrial organizations, labor bureaus,
friendly societies, legal cases affecting labor, and emigration and immi­
gration. The Labor Gazette is sola at a moderate price, 1 penny,
and many copies are distributed gratis to free libraries, workingmen’s
associations, mechanics’ institutes, chambers of commerce, etc.
Some account may here be given of the sources of the material from
which the Labor Gazette is compiled, much of the information being
also utilized in the annual publications of the department. In addition
to reports and returns of an official nature received from other Govern­
ment departments, and from H. M. consuls abroad (through the For­
eign Office), a large number of returns are voluntarily furnished from
unofficial sources.
-The bulk of the unofficial returns relate to the state of employment.
A number of returns are received direct from employers’ associations
and from trade unions. In certain industries returns are supplied
direct to the department by individual enciphers and companies. The
returns thus received deal with coal and iron mining, the pig-iron indusdustry, iron and steel works, and tinplate works. In the case of four
other industries, viz, the building, cotton, woolen and worsted, and
boot and shoe trades, returns are supplied by employers and their asso­
ciations to the trade correspondents, who furnish the department with
reports and statistics based thereon. Information with regard to agri­
cultural labor is received from correspondents in various parts of the
country, most of whom are farmers or chairmen of rural district coun­
cils. In addition, the paid local correspondents furnish reports and
statistics relating to the various industries carried on in their respective
districts.
The system of obtaining information as to the state of employment
through these local correspondents is found to be advantageous to the
work of the department, as a large number of trade unions in the
United Kingdom keep accurate records of their unemployed members
for the purpose of unemployed benefit, and these records form one of
the best tests of the state of the labor market. It is found that much
of this information is most advantageously collected locally, and the
local correspondents are paid fees to remunerate them for such collec­
tion. They are not employed to report on controversial matters, e. g.,
strikes.
As regards strikes and lockouts and changes in wages and hours of
labor, it is the practice of the department, on learning of their occur­
rence, to dispatch forms of inquiry to the representatives of the
employers and work people concerned, who in most cases readily supply
the information for which they are asked.
IV.
In addition to the work already described, the department has
to administer the conciliation (trade disputes) act of 1896, which
authorizes the board of trade to take action for the settlement of
trade disputes under the following circumstances:
Where a difference exists or is apprehended between an employer
or any class of employers and workmen, or between different classes




BUREAUS OF LABOR IK FOBEIGK COUNTRIES.

1063

of workmen, the board of trade may, if they think fit, exercise all or
any of the following powers, namely:
(a) Inquire into the causes and circumstances of the difference.
(b) Take such steps as to the board may seem expedient for the
purpose of enabling the parties to the difference to meet together, by
themselves or their representatives, under the presidency of a chair­
man mutually agreed upon or nominated by the board of trade or by
some other person or body, with a view to the amicable settlement of
the difference.
(c) On the application of employers or workmen interested, and
after taking into consideration the existence and adequacy of means
available for conciliation in the district or trade and the circumstances
of the case, appoint a person or persons to act as conciliator or as a
board of conciliation.
(d) On the application of both parties to the difference, appoint an
arbitrator.
The board of trade also registers conciliation boards on their appli­
cation, and may take action for the promotion of the formation of
voluntary boards.
It is to be regretted that no figures are obtainable as to the expenses
of the department of labor, owing to the fact that the data for this
department are inseparably combined with those for the other
departments of the board of trade.
ITALY.
One of the most recent bureaus of labor to be established in Europe
is that of Italy, which was created by the law of June 29, 1902. By
that law provision was made for the organization of a central bureau
of labor ( Uffido del Lcivoro) under the ministry of agriculture, industry,
and commerce {Ministero di Agricoltura, Industrie*, e Commereio), its
special position being under the division of industry and commerce.
•The organization of the office was sanctioned by the royal decree of
November 13,1902, and the regulations for its operation were approved
by the royal decree of January 29,1903. The bureau began its opera­
tions on July 16,1903.
In the Chamber of Deputies, session of June 8,1901, Signor Zanardelli, president of the council and minister ad interim of agriculture,
industry, and commerce, in presenting a draft of a law to establish a
central bureau of labor and a superior council of labor and urging its
passage, said in part:
These institutions, of a class already operating with beneficial results
in many foreign lands, are needed also in our country, where, in con­
sequence of the notable development resulting from agricultural and
industrial production, questions relating to labor and laborers have
acquired much importance. It is therefore a duty of the Government
to give the most careful attention to the study of these questions, to
devise the best means for securing the general improvement of these




1064

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

classes, to take humane steps for their protection and for their moral
and material improvement.
Thus will be maintained the harmon}^ which is necessary between
capital and labor, and an effective contribution will be made to the
economic prosperity of the nation.
These are new duties which fall upon the modern State, responding
to the great changes in social conditions and to the wonderful impulse
taken by every form of human activity. For the proper discharge of
these duties it is important that Government and Parliament be ade­
quately enlightened, through the diligent work of an appropriate
bureau, on the conditions of the working people, on all the subjects
which interest the workingmen, and on the measures to be adopted for
the defense and promotion of their interests, just as other administra­
tive organs are charged with the work of guarding and promoting the
development of production and of trade.
The need of such an office had been recognized for some years, and
various bills providing for the creation of a bureau of labor had been
introduced by members of the Chamber of Deputies. In no case,
however, had it been found possible to bring the matter to a success­
ful issue. As early as 1897 the insurance council ( Consiglio della
Previdenzaf), after examination of a legislative bill relative to accidents
to laborers in their work, which the Government purposed laying
before Parliament, passed a resolution petitioning for the establish­
ment of a bureau and a council of labor. As stated, however, no suc­
cessful action in this direction was begun until the year 1901, when
the present law was first presented for consideration and discussion.
This law, which was approved June 29, 1902, is as follows:
A rticle 1 . There is established in the ministry of agriculture,
industry, and commerce {Ministero di Agricollura , Industrieq e Commercio) a bureau of labor ( Ufficio del Lavoro) with the purpose:
(a) Of collecting, arranging, and publishing knowledge and informa­
tion relating to labor in the Kingdom and in those foreign countries to
which emigration mainly takes place, chief regard being had to the
conditions and development of national production; the classification
and remuneration of labor; the relations of labor with capital; the
number and conditions of the work people, regard being also had as
to unemplojunent; strikes, their causes and results; the number,
causes, and consequences of accidents to workingmen; the effects of
the laws which more specially concern labor, and the comparative con­
ditions of labor in Italy and in foreign countries.
(b) To investigate and make known the development of legislation
and institutions of a social character in foreign countries, as also to
cooperate in the study of reforms to be introduced in legislation per­
taining to labor in Italy.
(e)
To execute all the studies and researches which, as to the matters
indicated, may be ordered by the ministry of agriculture, industry,
and commerce, whether on its own motion or in pursuance of votes or
proposals of the superior council of labor.
A rt . 2. There is also established in the said ministry of agriculture,
industry, and commerce, a superior council of labor ( Consiglio Supe-




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1065

r io r e d el L a v or o), to be presided over by the minister, or, in his stead,
by the under secretary of state.
The council shall be composed of 43 members, exclusive of the presi­
dent, as follows:
Three senators chosen by the senate and three deputies chosen by
the Chamber of Deputies for the duration of the legislature.
Four members chosen by the chambers of commerce ( Cam ere d i
C o m m ercio );
Four members chosen by agricultural assemblies ( C o m iz i A g r a r i );
Three members chosen by the Italian Federation of the Society for
Mutual Aid {F e d e r a z io n e I ta lia n a d ella S o cie ta d i M u t u o S o cc o rso );
Three members chosen by the National League of Italian Coopera­
tive Societies { L e g a F a z io n a le d elle C o o p era tiv e Ita lia n e)\ and
Two members chosen by the Association of People’s Banks (A s s o c i a zion e f r a le B a n c lie P o p o la r i).

In addition, the following officials are made members of the council:
The director-general of agriculture, the director-general of statistics,
the director-general of the merchant marine, the director of industry
and commerce, the director of the division of credit and insurance, the
director of the bureau of labor, the commissioner-general of emigra­
tion.
The other fourteen members shall be named by royal decree, on
nomination by the minister of agriculture, industry, and commerce,
and shall be selected: Two from among economic and statistical edu­
cators; five from producers and the heads of agricultural, industrial,
and commercial establishments; two from the workers and bosses of
the mines of Sicily and Sardinia; one from the longshoremen and sea­
men; four from the peasants and laborers.
Excepting the three senators and three deputies, all the members
elected or appointed shall hold office for three years. They may be
reelected, and the appointment or election of one-third shall take
place each year. For the first two years the membership to be
replaced shall be determined by lot.
A rt. 3. The director of the bureau of labor shall be ex officio amem­
ber of the directory of the council of emigration ( C o n sig lio d el V E m i q r a z io n e ), and of that of the national fund for the insurance of work­
ingmen against old age and invalidity ( Casse N a z io n a le d i P r e v id e n z a
p e r la V eeeh ia ia e p e r la L n v a lid ita d e g li O p era i).
A rt. 4. The superior council of labor is required

to examine ques­
tions concerning the relations between employers and employees, to
suggest measures to be adopted for the betterment of the conditions of
the workingmen, to propose studies and investigations to be executed
by the bureau of labor, to express opinions on legislative bills per­
taining to labor and on any other subject that the minister may sub­
mit to its study.
A rt. 5. In the superior council of labor shall be established a per­
manent committee, with the duty of assenabling and systematizing the
material procured for study and preparation by the council, and of
discharging the other consultative functions which shall be established
by the regulation provided for in article 13.
The permanent committee shall be composed of nine members who
shall be designated by the said council out of its own membership;
provided, however, that three of them shall be selected by the council
from the workingmen councilors.




1066

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

A rt . 6 . To such members of the council and of the permanent com­
mittee as do not reside at Rome there shall be allowed a compensation
for traveling and hotel expenses, at a rate to be fixed by the regulation.
A rt . 7. The bureau of labor shall publish, monthly or oftener, a
Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor (.B o lle tin o delV Ufficio d el l a v o r o ),
which shall contain the information referred to in article 1 , particu­
larly that pertaining to the countries into which Italian emigration
flows. The bureau shall also publish monographs on all the different
questions which concern labor.
A rt . 8. The publications of the bureau of labor shall be sold or
given on subscription at the price of the postage. They shall, how­
ever, be sent gratis to such labor organizations as request them.
A rt . 9. Local authorities, reform associations (ethical bodies), agri­
cultural, industrial, commercial, and labor associations, and the local
bureaus of labor are required to furnish to the bureau of labor the
knowledge and information that may be requested of them in the per­
formance of its duties. All communications addressed by them to the
bureau of labor shall be transmitted post free.
A rt . 10. Any person who shall refuse to furnish knowledge or
information requested by the bureau of labor, or who shall knowingly
falsify such information, shall be punished by a fine of not less than
five lire ($0.97) and not more than fifty lire ($9.65).
A rt . 11. In the bureau of labor shall, by degrees, be assembled, under
royal decrees, all the services pertaining to labor and to mutual or
other insurance.
For the personnel of this bureau there is authorized an annual
budget not to exceed 50,000 lire ($9,650), and for the extra expenses
incident to organization provision shall be made on the accounts of
the budget of the ministry of agriculture, industry, and commerce, for
the fiscal year 1902-3.
A rt . 12. In the budget of the ministry of agriculture, industry, and
commerce, for the fiscal year July 1 , 1902, to June 30, 1903, shall be
placed the sum of 50,000 lire ($9,650) for the expenses of the bureau
and the council of labor.
A rt . 13. A regulation, to be approved by royal decree, after hear­
ing by the council of state:

Shall make rules for the operation of the bureau of labor, specify
its powers—those of the council of labor and of the permanent commit­
tee—within the limits fixed by the present law;
Indicate the methods by which the chambers of commerce, the meet­
ings, the federation, the league, and the association mentioned in arti­
cle 2 shall proceed to the election of their representatives from persons
belonging to the same, respectively; and
Determine what further action is necessary to the execution of this
law.
A part of the personnel of the bureau of labor shall be selected
from economic and statistical educators on the competitive basis of
their reputations.
A rt . 14. The present law shall take effect the 1 st of July, 1902.
The regulations provided for in Article 13 of the law, and approved
by the Royal decree, dated January 29, 1903, are as follows:
A rticle 1. The bureau of labor shall make studies and researches:
1 . On the conditions of the individual industries—manufacturing,



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1067

agricultural, lorestry, mining, and transpcitation; of tLe trades, the
mercantile industries, and, in general, of every form of production,
public or private—with the purpose of ascertaining their economic
situation, the cost of production, and the profits of the same.
2 . On the conditions of the labor market for the different branches
of industry, arts, and trades, and on the various forms of labor con­
tracts; on labor by the day and by contract; on the conditions of
apprenticeship, and whatever else concerns the regulation of labor.
3. On the number and classification of workingmen*by grade of
labor, by sex, and by age; on unemployment, the localities and seasons
in which it chiefly occurs, its causes and effects, and on means adopted
or to be adopted to remedy it.
4. On the economic conditions of workingmen and apprentices of
both sexes, especially as regards wages and the methods and forms
of paying the same, profit sharing by the workingmen, the hours of
labor and of rest, by industries and by classes, sex, and age of the
work
5.
retail prices of the commodities and articles of ordinary
consumption by the working classes, and on the cost and conditions of
housing the latter.
6 . On the cost and manner of living of the various classes of
laborers.
7. On the conditions as to health and safety of the different forms
of labor, regard being had also to the localities where the labor is
performed.
8 . On the number of labor accidents, according to their form and
nature, the different kinds of labor, the duration of the disability, and
the age and sex of the persons injured; on the causes and consequences
of accidents.
9. On the forms and frequency of diseases and on the mortality
among the working classes, separately by industries, sex, and age, with
special regard to diseases arising from the nature of the employment,
from the situation and character of the dwellings, and from the food
consumed.
1 0 . On the number of workingmen annually rejected as physically
unfit for military service, classified according to cause of rejection and
occupation.
1 1 . On the number and causes of disputes between employers and
employees and of strikes, separately by industries, and by number and
classes of laborers participating; on the forms, methods, and conditions
of settlement, and on the consequences to the establishments as well
as to the work people; on the results of statutory or voluntary insti­
tutions for improving the relations of employers with employees.
1 2 . On syndicates, industrial, agricultural, and other; on the state
and development of every form of association among employers and
managers or among workingmen.
13. On saving and cooperation among workingmen; on the other
forms of provident enterprise, and on the results of the institutions of
every kind, and the measures adopted by public authorities or private
persons to improve the moral and intellectual conditions and increase
the material well-being of the laboring classes, or to alleviate their
hardships.
14. On the effects of the laws, regulations, and arrangements which
more particularly concern labor and laborers.
10193—N 54—04----- 8
o.



1068

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The studies and investigations indicated in paragraphs 1 to 7 and in
paragraph 12 of this article shall be done for this country, and also for
those foreign countries to which Italian emigration is mainly directed,
and shall be conducted so as to show the comparative conditions of
labor in our country and in those countries.
A rt . 2. (Substantially repeats provision of the law, Art. lb .)
A rt . 3. The minister shall present each year to the two houses of
Parliament a report on the operation of the .bureau of labor, and on
the results of its work and that of the superior council of labor in the
preceding year.
A rt . 4. For its studies and investigations the bureau of labor shall
have recourse to the other departments of the Government as well as
to the authorities and associations indicated in article 9 of the law, and,
so far as needful, to private correspondents in Italy and abroad. It
may make use also of the work of the diplomatic and consular agents
and other Italian officials abroad; of chambers of commerce and of
other Italian associations abroad. Finally, the bureau can place itself
in direct correspondence with foreign bureaus of labor, and with asso­
ciations or other bodies in foreign countries which have the purpose
of aiding the working classes.
A rt . 5. The information gathered by the bureau of labor shall be
examined and systematized by the same, and, when expedient to do so,
shall speedily disseminate by the press and by other means which the
ministry may from time to time deem suitable.
A rt . 6. The bulletin of the bureau of labor shall contain, particu­
larly, information on the state of the labor market in the Kingdom and
abroad, and on unemployment; on disputes between employers and
employees; on strikes and the cases and modes of conciliation and arbi­
tration, as also on agreements establishing new conditions of labor;
on variations in wages and length of the working-day; on retail prices
of the principal commodities; on industrial and workingmen’s organi­
zations; on bureaus of labor; on questions of law relating to labor;
on emigration from Italy to foreign countries, and on the development
of labor legislation in Italy and abroad.
A rt . 7. By suitable supplements to the bulletin the bureau of labor
shall publish the results of investigations and special studies on sub­
jects of particular interest to labor.
A rt . 8. The superior council of labor shall be convened by the min­
ister in ordinary session once a year, and in extraordinary sessions
when required by the regular progress of its work.
*

*

*

*

*

*

*

The minister shall designate the reporter for each subject entered
on the calendar.
A rt . 9. The council shall elect from its members three vice-presidents,
who shall be selected, one from the employers, one from the working­
men, and one from the other councilors.
The minister shall select from the personnel of the bureau of labor
two clerical secretaries and two secretaries on the part of the council.
A rt. 10. For the purpose of making the investigations provided
for in article 4 of the law and of proposing measures for adoption con­
cerning the matters investigated, the council shall propose to the
minister the investigations and works to be executed by the bureau of
labor, and shall have power to interrogate, or, with the approval of
the minister, to summon to its meetings employers and workingmen



BUREAUS OF LABOR IK

1069

FOREIGN COUNTRIES

or other persons well known to be competent as experts in sociological
matters.
A rt . 1 1 . In addition to the studies and investigations referred to in
the preceding article, the council shall propose such others as it deems
expedient to have made by the bureau of labor; examine and discuss
their results and suggest to the minister the appropriate measures.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
A rt . 1 2 . (Relates to publication of proceedings of the council in the
Bulletin.)
A rt . 13. The permanent committee of the superior council of labor
elects from its members its president and two vice-presidents, of whom
one shall be chosen from the workingmen councilors.
The secretariate of the council discharges the same functions for
the permanent committee.
A rt . 14. The director of the bureau of labor has the right to be
present at the sessions of the committee.
The members of the council who are not members of the committee
may be present at the sessions of the latter, but may not participate
in its discussions nor vote, nor have any title to remuneration.
A rts . 15-27. (Relate to details of process in electing councilors of
the various constituencies, and to mileage and peT diem.)
A rt . 28. The superior council of labor may make regulations for
the conduct of its discussions, for authentication of elections [of coun­
cilors], and for its own work and that of the permanent committee.
The royal decree of November 13, 1902, prescribing the number,
grades, etc., of officers and employees of the Italian bureau of labor
created by the law of June 29, 1902, is as follows:
A rt . 1. There is established under the ministry of agriculture,
industry, and commerce a bureau of labor, which shall be constituted
as a division under the immediate authority of the minister and the
undersecretary of this ministry.
The division shall be formed in two sections, and shall be composed
of the personnel indicated in the following article:
A rt . 2 . The present register of the ministry of agriculture, industry,
and commerce is increased by the following positions:
Grade, class, and number of positions in each.
Administrative positions:
1 division chief of the second class............................................
2 section chiefs of the second class............................................
3 clerks of the second class............................................... ..........
1 clerk of the third class..............................................................
2 assistants of the first class................. ............... .......................
3 assistants of the second class....................................................
Accountant grade:
1 assistant of the first class.........................................................
1 assistant of the second class......................................................
Messenger grade:
2 messengers of the second class.................................................
Attendants:
1 doorkeeper..................................................................... ............
1 doorkeeper..................................................................................

Individual sal­
aries.

Total of salaries
in each class.

L ire.

Dollars.

L ire.

6,000
4,500
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000

1,158.00
868.50
675.50
579.00
482.50
386.00

6,000
9,000
10,500
3,000
5,000
6,000

1,158.00
1,737.00
2,026.50
579.00
965. 00
1,158.00

2,500
2,000

482.50
386.00

2,500
2,000

482. 50
386.00

1,800

347.40

3,600

694.80

1,300
1,100

250.90
212.30

1,300
1,100

250.90
212.30

Dollars.

Total number of positions, 18; aggregate cost, 50,000 lire ($9,650).
A rt . 3. The head of the division hereby established shall exercise
the functions of director of the bureau of labor.



1070

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

A rt . 4. The place of chief of division of the second class, one of the
two places of section chief of the second class, and the place of clerk
of the third class in the administration grade shall be filled by the
method of open competition.
The competition shall be opened by the minister of agriculture,
industry, and commerce among economic and statistical educators,
including those attached to government offices who possess a univer­
sity degree or the diploma of an institution of superior instruction.
A rt . 5. The incumbents of the other positions, except those indicated
in articles 6 and 8 , shall be appointed by the minister of agriculture,
industry, and commerce from the personnel of the respective grades—
administration, accountant, and regular—of that ministry, or, in excep­
tional cases, from other ministries.
A rt . 6 . Provides that positions becoming vacant in consequence of
promotions occurring through appointments under the preceding
article shall be placed in competition by the minister, on the basis of
record and examination, amongst the extra persons then in the service
of the ministry of agriculture who possess the qualifications required
for admission to each of the three categories—administrative, account­
ant, and messenger. The examinations are to be by the regular
methods already prescribed.
A rt . 7. Prescribes that those extra persons serving in the ministry
who have already become eligible by examination, etc., need not stand
a new test, but are to be appointed according to priority in their
respective grades, to fill vacancies in the lowest grade and class of the
three categories.
A rt . 8 . Provides for filling the two doorkeepers’ positions—the
higher by promotion, the lower and the vacancy made by the promo­
tion from persons in the service of the ministry, all according to rules
already in force.
It is thus seen that very complete provision has been made for a
service for the collection and dissemination of labor statistics and for
a superior council of labor with duties to some extent analogous to
those of similar bodies in Belgium and France.
The work of the bureau is distributed among three divisions or sec­
tions devoted respectively to the following subjects:
Section 1 . Administrative affairs.
a Records (minutes of proceedings).
b Accounts.
c Administration of the law concerning prudhommes.
d Administration of the law concerning female and child
labor in factories, quarries, and mines; supervision.
Section 2, Statistics and economics.
a Industrial organizations.
b Workingmen’s unions (labor councils, trades federations).
c Strikes.
d Migration.
Section 3. Social legislation;
a Proposed legislation.
b Comparative labor legislation.
c Labor jurisprudence; questions arising in the application
of the laws.




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1071

Up to this time the department has published nothing more than
the bulletin and the reports of the superior labor council. The work
which it has in hand, however, is indicated in the following extract
from a statement of the present director of the bureau:
The first task which was assigned to the bureau was of an urgent
character. It was a preparatory study of the application of the law
relating to the employment of women and children, which was neces­
sarily placed before the Superior Council of Labor at its first session.
Among the other questions holding preeminence in demanding
attention were the proposed laws relating to the weaving industry,
and to the production of sulphur in Sicily, and the application of the
law concerning labor in the rice fields.
Closely related to the application of the existing laws and to the
labor regulations to be made in future is the task, which now awaits
the attention of the bureau, of preparing a law which will organize
the inspection service on a strong and rational basis.
No less important in itself and in its relation to the future prosperity
of this new bureau is the statistical investigation concerning the organ­
ization of laborers and of employers, upon which the superior labor
council has determined, and which the bureau of labor has undertaken,
by preparing schedules of inquiry which have already been distributed
among the councils of labor, the u legh e d i resisten za ,” and trade fed­
erations. In the meantime, a request was placed before the chambers
of commerce for information concerning industrial societies, in order
that they might also be comprised within the scope of the inquiry.
This study is intimately related to the future activity of the office,
and it is proposed to propound a list of questions to the labor organi­
zations and to employers’ unions designed to bring out such informa­
tion as will serve to prepare necessary material for the bulletins and
other bureau publications.
The bureau has likewise begun a mathematical statistical study of
rates necessary for a s}7
stem of insurance against the pecuniary loss
sustained by the operation of article 6 of the law of June 29, 1902,
which prohibits women from engaging’ dn industrial labor for one
month after confinement.
The bureau is also occupied with the question of strikes, which will
constitute one of the most interesting features of the monthly bulletin.
The bureau, furthermore, has instituted a study of the reform of
the law concerning the councils of prudhommes.
With two lists of questions, one directed to the chambers of com­
merce, and the other to the presidents of the councils of prudhommes,
it has already collected important information on the duty, expenses,
and inconveniences of that service.
Another series of investigations are those regarding contract labor.
Recently the bureau, through three circulars, the first to the prefects,
the second to the council of prudhommes, and the third to the labor
councils, has made a collection of factory regulations, collective con­
tracts, and the decisions of the councils of prudhommes.




1072

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

NETHERLANDS.
Until recent years labor statistics occupied but a very small part of
the attention of the various statistical services in the Netherlands.
The earliest statistical service was a commission (Commissie voor de
StatistieJc) which existed from 1826 to 1830. From 1830 to 1848 there
was no statistical service of any kind in Holland. In 1848 a division
of statistics (Bureau van StatistieJc) was created in the ministry of the
interior. This bureau continued until 1878. In 1858 a royal statistical
commission (jRijJcscommissie voor StatistieJc) was appointed, but it was
discontinued in 1861. In 1892 a central statistical commission ( Centrale
Commissie voor de StatistieJc) was appointed. In 1899, by virtue of a
royal decree, a reorganization of the statistical service resulted in the
creation of a central statistical bureau ( Centraal Bureau voor de Statis­
tieJc) in the department of the interior, and since its organization the
functions of the central commission have been only advisory.
This new bureau has given considerable attention to labor statistics.
It publishes statistics of labor councils, provident institutions, strikes,
and other labor statistics.
Following is a list of the publications containing labor statistics
issued by this bureau since its organization:
Statistical Annual of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. (Jaarcijfers voor het Koninkrijk
dev Nederlanden.) The Kingdom in Europe: First report for the year 1898. The
Colonies: First report for the year 1897. The statistical annuals for the years 1881
to 1891 were published by the Netherlands Statistical Society, and for the years
1892 to 1896 and 1897, respectively, by the central statistical commission.
Monthly Statistics and Other Periodical Information concerning the Netherlands
and the Dutch East Indies. (Maandcijfers en andere periodieke Opgaven betreffende
Nederland en de Kolonim.) Usually two numbers are issued per year. The first
two numbers of the present series were for the year 1899. The old series for the
years 1893 to 1898 were published by the central statistical commission.
Review of the Central Bureau of Statistics. (Tijdschrift van het Centraal Bureau voor
de Staiistiek.) Appears at irregular intervals. The first number was published in
1902 and 4 numbers appeared in 1903.
Contributions to the Statistics of the Netherlands, New Series. (.Bijdragen tot de
Staiistiek van Nederland, Nieuwe Volgreeks.) Appear at irregular intervals. The
first number of the present series was published in 1900. The old series was pub­
lished from 1894 to 1898 by the central statistical commission.
Nos. V, XIII, X IX , X X IX . Statistics of provident institutions in the Nether­
lands (StatistieJc der Spaar- en Leenbanken in Nederland). For the years 1898,
1899, 1900, and 1901.
No. XII. Report of the census of occupations of December 31,1899 ( Uitkomsten der
Beroepstelling in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden gehouden op 31 December, 1899).
Nos. XVI, X X X V . Reports on Wages and Hours of Labor on State Works ( Overzicht betreffende de loonen en den arbeidsduur bij Rijkswerken). For the years
1899 and 1902.
No. XXIV. Housing Statistics of December 31, 1899 ( Uitkomsten der Woningstatistiek van 31 December, 1899).
No. XXVI. Report on Market Prices of Grain at Arnhem in the years 1544-1901
(Overzicht van Marktprijzen van Graven te Arnhem in dejaren 1544-1901).



BUBEAUS OF LABOR IK FOREIGK COUKTRIES.

1073

The Review ( T i j d s c h r i f t ) of the central bureau of statistics contains
statistics of labor councils and exchanges, prices, wages, strikes, and
lockouts, and other statistical information, much of which relates to
labor conditions.
The central bureau of statistics is at present occupied with an inquiry
concerning workingmen’s associations, which is intended to be a con­
tinuation of the statistics collected and published in 1896 by the central
statistical commission. The bureau also proposes to publish statistics
concerning cooperation, workingmen’s insurance and savings, the
housing of the working people, prison labor, etc.
Among the more important labor statistics published before the
organization of the present central bureau were the following by the
central statistical commission, which appeared in the old series of
“ Contributions to the Statistics of the Netherlands:”
W a g e s an d H o u rs o f L a b o r in State W o r k s in 1894 (Owrzicht van de loonen en den
arbeidsduur bij Rijkswerken in 1894), p u b lish e d in 1896.
Statistics of L a b o r O rgan ization s ( Statistiek der Arbeidervereenigingen), 1894.
Statistics of T ra d e A ssocia tio n s ( Onderzoek ncwr de geschiedenis en werkzaamheid der
Yakeereenigingen ) , 1896.

The ministry of the interior publishes the annual reports of the
local councils of labor.
The central statistical bureau is under the direction of Dr. C. A.
Verrijn Stuart.
NEW SOUTH WALES.
A Government labor bureau of employment was created in New
South Wales in 1892, but its operations under the direction of the
labor commissioners were confined to matters concerning the employ­
ment of labor in Government and other works. A department of
labor and industry, with larger functions was, however, created in
1895 under the minister of public instruction, whose office and duties
were enlarged to this extent. This department includes the labor
bureau with its duties as defined above, and in addition has charge
of the general statistical work of the Government and the administra­
tion of the factory act, the early closing legislation, the shearers’
accommodation act, and other industrial measures.
Its personnel includes the Government statistician, the clerk in
charge of labor and industry, the labor commissioners, and a corps of
clerks, compilers, typewriters, etc. For the fiscal year 1902-3 the
appropriation for the support of the office of the Government statis­
tician was £9,750 ($47,448.38); that for the support of the office in
charge of factory inspection and the administration of labor laws,
£3;929 ($19,120.48), and that for the labor bureau of employment,
£8,373 ($40,747.20)—a total for these three services of £22,052
($107,316.06).




1074

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The work of the Government statistician and his assistants is con­
fined wholly to the compilation of statistics, and while certain indus­
trial statistics are annually compiled and published the greater part of
the work of this branch of the service is concerned with the collection
of vital and other statistics having no special bearing on labor matters.
The clerk in charge of the department of labor and industry and his
assistants confine their work to the inspection of factories and the
administration of the labor laws of the colony, while the labor com­
missioners are concerned wholly with the administration of the affairs
of the labor bureau of employment.
A compilation of the statistics of the colony is issued periodically
by the Government statistician and an annual report by the depart­
ment of labor and industry. As has been seen, the service in New
South Wales differs materially from that of other States and countries,
but it is claimed that many substantial reforms in the way of needful
labor legislation have been in a large measure due to its work.
NEW ZEALAND.
The department of labor of New Zealand was not established by a
specific statute, but, starting in 1891 with the present secretary for
labor, Mr. Edward Tregear, as the entire personnel of the office, it
has grown to considerable proportions. Its creation is attributed
largely to the results of an industrial depression which followed the
great maritime strike. The necessity of dealing with the large num­
bers of unemployed laborers and of relieving their needs led to the
establishment of State cooperative works. In this work the labor
department acted as labor agent, and to this function the duties in
connection with the administration of the factory act, the arbitration
act, etc., were added as time went on.
The secretary for labor, who has been connected with the service
since its establishment, is the chief inspector of factories and also the
registrar of industrial unions. His salary is <£450 ($2,189.93) per
annum. The personnel of the department includes in all 14 employees
of various grades at the headquarters at Wellington, and 14 inspectors
and clerks located at various points in the colony. In addition, 160
police officers act as inspectors of factories and agents of the depart­
ment, those in the larger towns receiving small bonuses, ranging from
£ 2 2 d. ($9.77) to £15 ($73) per annum for the extra service. A num­
ber of the clerks are engaged on temporary service at small salaries.
The permanent force, however, many of whom have been in the serv­
ice for years, receive salaries fairly commensurate with the services
and duties required of them. A chief clerk receives £350 ($1,703; 28)
per annum; a clerk, £180 ($875.97); a stenographer, £175 ($851.64);
while factory inspectors receive from £130 to £215 ($632.65 to
$1,046.30). The annual appropriation for salaries in the department



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1075

approximates <£3,135 ($15,256.48); that for the expenses of the depart­
ment is £3,000 ($14,599.50); while the expenses of the administration
of the industrial conciliation and arbitration act, including* the pay­
ment of fees of members of the court, amount to £3,750 ($18,249.38).
The total annual appropriation for these services approximates £9,885
($48,105.35).
The department of labor in New Zealand is not specially concerned
with the collection of statistics, its principal duties being in connec­
tion with the administration of the labor laws of the colony. The
officers of the department act as labor agents for the unemployed, as
factory inspectors, and inspectors of shops and offices; they also main­
tain a registry office for servants, act as registrars of trade unions,
and in a general way administer the labor la w s of the colony.
The statistical and other information of interest to labor which this
office secures and publishes is derived mostly from the applications
for registry under the factory act and from the personal investigation
of the factory inspectors and other officers of the department. No
attempt is made to gather general statistics which come under the
jurisdiction of the census department. An annual report is printed,
the edition being 650, and since March, 1893, a monthly bulletin
entitled the “ Journal of the Department of Labor.” The edition of
the latter is 1,125 copies monthty. It is claimed that almost all of the
so-called “ advanced legislation ” of New Zealand has had its conception
in the labor department and its reports. A very complete review of
these laws and the general conditions of labor in this colony appears
in Bulletin 49 of the United States Bureau of Labor.
NORWAY.
There is in Norway no special bureau for the collection of statistics
of labor, but quite recently a division has been established in the
central statistical bureau ( D e t S ta tistisk e C en tra l-bu rea u ) charged with
this duty. The establishment of this division followed a resolution
of the Storthing (the Parliament of Norway) on April 2 , 1902, in which
the Government was requested to consider the question of extended
investigations into the statistics of labor with special reference to the
conditions as regards unemployment. In compliance with this request
the central statistical bureau was charged with this task by the Gov­
ernment, a special division being created in the bureau for that pur­
pose. The resolution of the Storthing is said to have been due to an
address from unemployed laborers in Christiania, pointing out some
measures it was suggested should be taken. Among other things it
was suggested that the Government be asked to provide means by
which unemployed laborers could be informed where work could be
secured. A motion made by the democratic labor organization of
Christiania respecting pecuniary assistance to the unemployed of the



1076

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

c i t y m a y also have contributed to the passage of the resolution which
led to the creation of the special service for labor in this country.
The division of labor statistics is under the direction of one of the
secretaries of the central statistical bureau, who has two assistants,
appointed by the director of the bureau. The secretary receives for
this service 2,500 kroner ($670) per annum, in addition to 1,000 kroner
($268) paid for other work in the bureau, while the two assistants
receive a salary of 1,000 kroner ($268) each per annum. These
expenses, together with an appropriation of 610 kroner ($171.52) for the
printing of a monthly bulletin, 300 kroner ($80.40) for the printing of
schedules and circular blanks, and 1,060 kroner ($284.08) for other
expenditures, brings the total of the annual expenses of the division up
to 6,500 kroner ($1,742). The work of the division began April 1 ,
1903, and its principal publication will be a monthly bulletin.
It should be stated that the central statistical bureau has at various
times collected and published statistics of labor in connection with its
other work. In 1892 three volumes relating to social statistics were
issued, while for a number of j^ears it has published quinquennial
statistics of wages.
ONTARIO.

By act of March 10 , 1882, provision was made for the creation of a
bureau of industries in Ontario, under the department of agriculture.
The duties of this bureau, however, were confined principally to the
collection and publication of statistics and information in regard to
agriculture, although in 1884 and several years immediately following
efforts were made to include in its work the collection of statistics
relative to labor. For several years its reports contained a certain
amount of data of this character, but thereafter its work in this
direction was discontinued. Later on, in 1900, however, as a result of
the activities of the labor organizations of the Province, an act was
passed providing for the creation of a bureau of labor, under the
department of public works, whose sole duty should be the collection
and dissemination of statistics of labor. The organic act of the bureau
provides that its chief officer—the secretary, together with such other
officers as may be necessary for the proper conduct of the bureau, shall
be appointed by the lieutenant-governor. The duty of the bureau, as
stated, is to collect, assort, systematize, and publish information and
statistics relating to the employment of labor, the wages and hours
of labor throughout the Province, cooperation, strikes or other labor
difficulties, trades unions and labor organizations, the relations between
labor and capital, and other subjects of interest to the working classes,
together with such information relating to the commercial, industrial,
and sanitary condition of workingmen and to the industries of the
Province as it may be able to gather.



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1077

The personnel of the bureau is as 37et veiy small, consisting only of
the secretary and his stenographer, the former receiving an annual
salaiy of $1,500 and the latter $500. The entire appropriation for its
expenses amounts to but $3,000 per annum.
The investigations made by the bureau during the three years of its
existence have included statistics of wage-earners, their wages, hours
of labor and general conditions, inquiries into the growth of industries
in the Province and the opportunities in various localities for their
establishment, statistics of manufactures, showing the value of prod­
uct and wage rates, statistics of strikes and lockouts, labor organiza-.
tions, etc.
Under an amendment to the Trades Disputes Act, passed early in
1902, the secretary of the bureau is given power also to act as concili­
ator in industrial disputes within the province. Through his media­
tion a number of difficulties between emplo}T and employees have
ers
been satisfactorily adjusted. The enforcement of the factoiy inspec­
tion laws is also one of the duties of this office.
Owing to the inadequacy of the appropriation for its expenses, the
collection of statistics bj^ the bureau has been carried on by means of
correspondence and circular blanks, both of which methods are said to
be veiy unsatisfactoiy. Out of the small appropriation for the bureau
regular annual reports have been printed, at an expense of $400, and
editions of 5,000 copies each have been distributed regularly.
RUSSIA.
It has been learned from an official source that the proposition has
recently been made to create a labor bureau under the Central Statis­
tical Committee (C o m ite C en tra l de S ta tistiq u e) in Russia. A plan of
organization for this bureau is said to be under consideration.
SPAIN.
B37 a royal decree of August 9, 1903, the Institute of Social Reform
was established in Spain, under the
ministry of the interior. The institute is composed of three sections:
A section of statistics, a section of publications, and a section of
inspection.
The institute maintains close relations with the ministries of agri­
culture and justice. These relations are of a kind which give it a very
pronounced character of independence, sgid at the same time have placed
it outside of all spirit of part}r politics. In addition, the council of the
institute has been presided over by one of the most prominent Repub­
licans, and is filled with well-known men from all parties.
(.I m t i t u t o de H e f o r m a s S ocia les)

The special subjects which are committed to the institute for inves­
tigation are determined by article 2 of the decree, in which these are
arranged in four main groups, as follows:




1078

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

1 . The labor population and its movement in the Kingdom, emigra­
tion and immigration, the organization and social aspects of labor in
the various industries, the conjugal condition of workingmen, floating
and temporary labor, immigrant labor, etc.
2 . Workingmen’s earnings; wages of adult males, of women, and of
children; cost of living; working hours; profit sharing; labor con­
tracts; disputes of employers and employees; workingmen’s associa­
tions for cooperative production; strikes; the economic condition of
labor; imposts and taxes on consumption of the most necessary com­
modities.
3. Religious, moral, intellectual, physical and hygienic conditions
of workingmen and their families; labor accidents, and measures for
their prevention; medical attendance of workingmen; disability „in­
curred during labor; invalidity, etc.
4. Trade unions; cooperative associations; savings, deposit, and
loan banks; associations for religious ends, for mutual relief, and for
recreation among workingmen; apprenticeship courses and special
statistics; welfare enterprises, public and private; workingmen’s con­
ventions; statistics of labor in foreign countries.
For the conduct of the service,, besides the central office, the decree
provides for the establishment of special offices in the governments of
the provinces. Further, in places where practicable, there are to be
appointed special agents serving without pay, their positions being
honorary.
Articles 4, 5, 6 , and 7 make particular rules for the conduct of the
service.
Article 8 provides that companies, firms, and associations of every
kind, as also individuals, may send to the central office or the pro­
vincial offices information on matters pertaining to the service of labor
statistics. Such information may be printed in the periodical publi­
cations which the bureau is required to issue.
These publications are to be a monthly bulletin, and an annual
report containing the data collected during the year. Workingmen
may obtain these publications gratis, but subscription to the bulletin
is obligatory for the towns, and the proceeds from sales and subscrip­
tions are to be applied to cover part of the necessary expenses of the
service. Particular mention of the work accomplished by the special
agents is to be made in the annual statistics in the monthly bulletin.

SWEDEN.
Previous to 1893 various commissions appointed to make reports on
topics which were the subject of discussion for proposed legislation
had made a number of statistical investigations in regard to subjects
of interest to the laboring classes and published the results of their
labors, but no regularly constituted bureau of labor was in existence.
In 1893 the proposal was first made in the Parliament to establish a
bureau of labor statistics, and an investigation relative to the desira­




BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1079

bility of such action was made by the central bureau of statistics and
the royal board of trade (IL Kornmerskollegium). Finally, in 1896, it
was definitely determined to organize a bureau of this character under
the supervision of the board of trade, and its work at the outset was
to be restricted to statistical investigations on certain subjects only, in
order to indicate to Parliament the scope of work most desirable in
such an office. For this purpose an appropriation was made amount­
ing to 10,000 crowns ($2,680) per year for each of the years 1897 to
1902, a total of 60,000 crowns ($16,080). A portion of the expenses of
the bureau, such as office rent, printing, postage, etc., was to be paid
out of the funds of the board of trade.
The investigations undertaken and completed during the six j^ears
following the creation of the bureau were in relation to labor condi­
tions in the baking industry, in the tobacco industry, in the larger
mechanical workshops, and in certain special factories and workshops.
As a result of this series of investigations and the tentative work of
the bureau it became evident that a permanent organization was essen­
tial in order to provide a skilled office force and secure the confidence
of the organizations of employers and emplo}'ees. The bureau (.Afdelning f o r Arbetsstatistik) was accordingly organized on a permanent
basis in April, 1902, the personnel consisting of a chief actuary
in charge, appointed by the King, at an annual salary of 5,000
crowns ($1,340); two clerks, appointed by the board of trade, at an
annual salary of 1,500 crowns each ($402); three female assistants,
appointed by the chief actuary, at an annual salary of 1,000 crowns
each ($268), and a corps of 25 agents for the collection of information
and statistics, located in various localities, receiving as compensation
from 200 to 600 crowns ($53.60 to $160.80) annually. The total appro­
priation for salaries for the last fiscal year amounted to about 20,000
crowns ($5,360), the general office expenses and those for stationery,
postage, printing, etc., being defrayed out of the appropriation of the
board of trade.
Upon the permanent organization of the office it was determined
that the work of the bureau should consist first, of the regular collec­
tion and publication from year to year of general statistical data on
certain labor topics, and second, of special investigations in regard to
specified subjects. It was proposed to publish a portion of the mate­
rial periodically in a bulletin and a portion in a series of annual and
special reports. The periodical bulletin (Sociala Meddelanden), which
appears quarterly, contains a review of the social legislation of Sweden
and of foreign countries, digests of social and statistical publications,
reports on the state of the labor market, etc. A yearly report is made
on strikes and lockouts, and also a yearly special report—the one for
the present year being devoted to the results of an investigation into
working hours, wages, sanitar}^ conditions, etc., in certain industries.



1080

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

it is proposed to make an important feature of the work of the
bureau the collection of data on prices of food products; on the cost
of housing, clothing, and other factors in the cost of living, for the
various portions of the kingdom; on the causes of death and sickness
among workmen in the various trades, and on the extent of the employ­
ment of women in the various industries. In addition there will be
the regular collection of material relative to strikes and lockouts and
trade unions.
Of the annual reports of 4he bureau an edition of 1,800 is printed,
while of the quarterly bulletin (Sociala Meddelandeii), the first number
of which was issued in 1903, the edition is 3,000 each quarter.
SWITZERLAND.
Although the Swiss Republic has no bureau of statistics of labor,
similar functions are performed by the Workingmen’s Bureau ( Secre­
tariat Ouvrier Suisse). The establishment of this bureau, December
20 , 1886, at Berne, was due to the initiative of the Swiss Workingmen’s League (Federation Ouvriere Suisse), and its special purpose is
to contribute to the development of labor statistics in Switzerland, to
investigate and study the conditions of labor, and act as its official
representative in questions pertaining to legislation and administra­
tion. Certain powers are conferred on the bureau by the Federal
Government, which grants it an annual subsidy and directs it to make
certain reports. In 1896 the subsidy was raised from 20,000 to 25,000
francs ($3,860 to $4,825), with the view of aiding more largely the
development of the institution. Annual reports are regularly made
by the bureau, and also reports on special subjects as occasion demands.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE LEGAL PRO­
TECTION OF LABOR.
It is believed that the consideration of the various services which
have been established for the promotion of the interests of labor
would not be complete without mention of a new office, international
in scope, which is concerned not alone with the collection and dis­
semination of statistics of labor, but with the bringing together of
those persons in the different industrial countries who consider pro­
tective legislation for working people necessary, and the organization
of an international labor office which shall have for its object the pub­
lication of a periodical collection of the labor laws in all countries.
As a result of the consideration of the feasibility of establishing
such an office by interested officials and individuals in the great indus­
trial countries of the continent of Europe a meeting was held in Paris
in 1900, and statutes providing for the organization and government
of the association formulated and adopted. These statutes are as
follows:



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1081

A rticle 1. There is hereby organized an international association
for the legal protection of labor. The seat of the association is in
Switzerland.
A rt. 2 . This association has for its object:
First. The bringing together of those who in the different industrial
countries consider protective legislation of working people as neces­
sary.
Second. The organization of an international labor office which will
have for its mission the publication, in French, German, and English,
of a periodical collection of the labor legislation in all countries, or to
lend its cooperation to such a publication.
This collection will comprise:
(a) The text or a resume of all laws, regulations, and decrees in force
relating to the protection of the working people in general, particu­
larly woman and child labor, the limitation of the hours of labor of
male workers and adults, Sunday rest, periodical repose, dangerous
industries;
(i) An historical summary of these laws and regulations;
(o) A resume of official reports and documents concerning the inter­
pretation and execution of these laws and decrees.
Third. To facilitate the study of labor legislation in the various coun­
tries, and especial^ to furnish to members of the association informa­
tion regarding the legislation in force and its application in the several
States.
Fourth. To further, by the preparation of memoirs and otherwise,
the study of the question of the concordance of the various protective
labor laws, as well as that of international statistics of labor.
Fifth. To convoke the international congresses on labor legislation.
A rt . 3. The association is composed of all persons and societies
(other than the national sections) who adhere to the object of the asso­
ciation, as indicated in articles 1 and 2 , and who remit to the treasurer
an annual contribution of 10 francs [|1 .93 ].
>
A rt . 4. Any member who by the end of one year has neglected or
refused to pay his dues will be considered as having resigned.
A rt . 5. The members have a right to the publications to be issued

by the association.
They also have the right to receive gratuitously from the bureau
the results of inquiries that may have been instituted, and conform­
ably to special regulations, such information as may come within the
competence of this bureau.
A rt . 6 . The association is under the direction of a committee com­
posed of members belonging to the various States admitted to repre­
sentation thereon.
A rt . 7. Each State will be represented on the committee by six
members, as soon as 50 of its citizens will have joined the association.
After that, each new group of fifty members will be entitled to one
additional seat, the total number of members of the committee from
any State not to exceed ten.
The governments will be invited to designate one delegate each, who
will have the same rights in the committee as the other members.
A rt . 8 . The duration of the terms of members of the committee is
not limited, and the committee is recruited by cooptation.




1082

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The election of new members of the committee to replace those who
have died or resigned will take place upon the nomination of the mem­
bers belonging, respectively, to the States having a right to the repre­
sentation.
The vote is by secret ballot, at a meeting of the committee, the
notice of which will contain an indication of the candidates presented.
The members who do not attend this meeting may send their votes to
the president in a sealed envelope.
A rt . 9. The committee is competent to pass any resolutions need­
ful for the accomplishment of the object of the association. It shall
meet in a general assembly at least once every two years. It m be
a}*
convoke4 by the bureau, whenever the latter judges it necessary or
when at least fifteen members of the committee request it.
The choice of the meeting place will be made by the consultation in
writing of all the members of the committee, by the secretary-general,
within a time fixed by the bureau.
A rt . 1 0 . The committee elects from among its members a bureau
composed of a president, a vice-president, and a secretary-general.
The committee also appoints the treasurer of the association.
A rt . 1 1 . The mission of the bureau is to take the steps necessary
for the execution of the resolutions of the committee. It manages the
funds of the association. It makes each year a report to the commit­
tee of the administration of its affairs. It appoints the clerks and
other persons necessary for the work of the association. It places
itself in communication, in all industrial States, with specialists and
other competent persons disposed to furnish information regarding
the labor laws and their application. These persons receive the title
of correspondents of the association.
A rt . 12. The secretary-general has charge of the correspondence of
the association, of the committee, and of the bureau, as well as of the
publications and of the information service.
A rt . 13. The treasurer receives the dues and has charge of the

funds.

He makes no payments without the visa of the president.
14. A national section of the association may be formed in a
country, on condition that it has at least 50 members and pays into
the treasury of the association an annual contribution of at least 1,000
francs [$193]. The statutes of such a section must be approved by
the committee.
Such a section has the right to provide for the vacancies which occur
on the committee from among the representatives of its country.
The members of a national section have the same rights as those of
the association, with the reservation that the publications to be fur­
nished them by the association, as well as the representation on the
committee, will be proportionate to its annual contributions.
A rt . 15. The present statutes can not be revised, either wholly or
in part, except at a meeting of the committee, and then only by a
two-thirds majority of the members present, and when the proposi­
tion of revision has been inserted in the notice of meeting.
The purposes of the association are stated in the first and second
sections of article 2 of the statutes. The primary object of the Inter­
national Labor Office which is provided for is the collection and pub­
lication of the laws of the various countries relative to the protection
of labor, but so far the expense of pubJication of a volume contain­
A rt .




BUREAUS OF LABOR IFF FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1083

ing all existing laws has proved to be too great for the resources of the
office. As will be seen, however, provision is made in the statutes
(article 2, sections 3 and 4) for still further duties for the association.
These consist of efforts to facilitate the stud}^ of labor legislation in
various countries; to furnish members of the association with infor­
mation as to existing laws in various countries and their application^
to further the study of the method of uniformizing the various pro­
tective laws, and finally to establish, along uniform lines, international
statistics of labor. Another duty is to suggest and aid in convok­
ing international congresses for the discussion of protective labor
legislation.
The association itself is composed of all persons and societies wlu>
adhere to the objects of the association and pay the annual dues of
10 francs ($1.93), and is under the direction of a committee com­
posed of members belonging to the various countries which have been
admitted to representation, as provided in article 7 of the statutes.
The bureau of labor or office of labor, whose officers are elected from
among the members of the association, performs its executive func­
tions. This office is located at Basel, Switzerland, and consists of a
president, a vice-president, and a general secretary.
The office work is performed by a director, who is the general sec­
retary of the association, and is appointed by the international com­
mittee; an assistant secretaiy, a clerk, and a translator, each appointed
b}^ the bureau; and occasional help employed by the director.
In an account of the organization and work of the International
Labor Office, by Prof. Stephan Bauer, the director as well as the
general secretary of the association, it is shown that the organization
of the association dates from the Paris congress of 1900, which “ laid
the formal foundation stone” for its establishment by formulating
and adopting the statutes which have been given. A president was
chosen, and Basel selected as the seat of the labor office. The follow­
ing are extracts from a report by Professor Bauer:
The next thing to be done was to open a correspondence with the
various State governments in order to effect a regular remittance of
their laws and documents, to persuade the industrial associations and
trade unions to intrust the office with the communication of their
wishes as to legislation, to make provisions for a working staff, to
enter into relations and arrange terms with publishers, and, finally, to
find a financial basis for regular organized work.
First of all, provision was made for the rapid circulation of labor
laws. Through the mediation of the Swiss department of industry,,
the State governments were requested to forward their laws direct to
the International Labor Office, and thus the grades of diplomatic inter­
course, which had hitherto to be observed, were done away with.
For the purpose of official intercourse almost every State has rec­
ommended its labor department or the industrial department of its
10193— No. 54— 04----- 9




1084

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

ministry of commerce to communicate direct with the International
Labor Office.
As the sections of the International Association contribute at least
1,000 francs ($193) each toward the maintenance of the labor office,
the expenses of a larger staff, printing expenses, etc., would, on an
exclusive private basis, have been unattainable. Therefore the asso­
ciation took steps, as early as the winter of 1901, for obtaining State
contributions to the maintenance of the office. Switzerland, as the
seat of the office, now secures to them 10,000 francs ($1,930); France,
a subscription of 5,000 francs ($965) to the subsidy on the publications;
the Netherlands, 4,000 florins ($1,608) to the same fund. The United
States agreed to pay an annual subsidy of $200 . After the Basel
meeting the German Reichskanzler fixed a subscription of 3,000
marks ($714), which was by a vote of Parliament increased to 6,000
marks ($1,428) in 1902. Austria followed with 3,000 kronen ($609);
Italy with 1,000 lires ($193). The Belgian Government provides the
association with 600'copies of its A n n u a ir e d e la L e g is la tio n d a T r a v a il
for distribution free of charge.
According to a statement furnished by Professor Bauer, the actual
receipts and expenditures of the International Labor Office during
1903 were as follows:
Receipts: State subsidies, $6,160; section contributions, $2,024;
contributions from members, direct, $24; miscellaneous, $150; total,
$8,358.
Expenditures: Salaries, $3,000; translation (done outside), $1,210;
traveling expenses, $174; bureau expenses, stamps, library, etc., $865;
cost of printing the publications, $3,000; miscellaneous, $60; total,
$8,309. The amount expended for salaries in 1903 was distributed as
follows: Director, $1,200; assistant secretary, $600; clerk, $480;
translator, $480; occasional help, $240.
The information and statistics are secured by the bureau through
correspondence and circular blanks. These are directed to factory
inspectors, economists, etc. The director believes that correspondence
and circular blanks should be used to get information only from per­
sons who (1 ) are free from personal interest in the influence of the
reply, (2) have sufficient economic training, (3) can verify their state­
ments from daily experience or from accounts.
In reference to the Bulletin of the International Labor Office, which
is its chief publication, Professor Bauer speaks as follows:
The information which labor departments publish in their differ­
ent publications chiefty concerning the conditions £,nd rights of labor
in their respective countries is concentrated in the Bulletin of the
International Labor Office. The bulletin is not intended to meet the
demands of local social political interests. It aims before all at com­
pleteness in its records of social legislation. In the introduction this
progress is historically analyzed, mostly on the basis of reports and
parliamentary bills, proposals, etc. This analysis is not intended to
be a criticism of social legislation. Being purely a source of informa­
tion, the bulletin can not replace the perusal of critical journals, such
as the “ Archiv” for Social Legislation, the uSoziale Praxis,” or the



BUREAUS OF LABOR IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

1085

Bulletin of the Labor Department. Then, again, these publications
are not pledged to completeness or to literal translation of the laws of
all industrial communities.
The Bulletin contains the texts or the contents of recent labor laws,
parliamentary work leading toward such laws, resolutions of congresses
concerning them, and a bibliography of social reform.
It is much to be regretted that, owing to financial motives, no Eng­
lish edition of the bulletin could be arranged. If once an American
and a British section of the International Association were established,
the issue of an English edition, as demanded in the statutes, would
afford no difficulties.
The sifting of law texts, the revision of about 300 industrial union
reviews—of the protocols of parliamentary debates—and of about
1,000 newspaper cuttings monthly, in addition to a correspondence
now swollen to about 3,500 letters yearly, which all keeps the office
staff, their correspondents and translators, fully employed, is increased
by the preparation of information and the issue of reports for delegate
conferences.
It is stated that the preparation of reports on particular topics for
various conferences and congresses form, perhaps, the most interesting
part of the scientific work of the labor office.
Following are the publications of the International Labor Office:
Bulletin of the International Labor Office. ( Bulletin de V Office International du
Published at irregular intervals since the beginning of the year 1902.
The Night Work of Women in Industry. Reports on the importance of its legal
regulation. ( Le Travail de Nuit des Femmes dans V Industrie. Rapports sur son import­
ance et set reglementation legale.) 426 pages. 1903.
Dangerous Industries. Reports on the dangers and the means of their prevention,
particularly in match factories and factories which make or use lead colors. (Les
Tt ‘avail.)

Industries Insalubres. Rapports sur leurs dangers et les moyens de les prevenir , particu­
lar ement dans VIndustrie des cdlumettes et cedes qui fabriquent ou emploient des c ouleurs
d eplom b.) 503 pages. 1903.

Quoting again from Professor Bauer:
The investigations into the question of night work for women, as
well as that of dangerous industries, were started both by the sections
which sent in independent reports on the subject and by the labor
office, which filled up the gaps resulting from the organization of the
association in countries where there are no sections, b}^ means of its
correspondents and experts—e. g., in United States by Professor
Adna F. Weber; Great Britain, by Miss A. M. Anderson, H. M.,
principal .lady inspector, and Mr. George Wood. The International
Labor Office had not only to collect and submit these reports to the
committee, but to lay before them a summary touching the state of
the laws which, together with the reports which form, as it were, a
living commentary on such laws, could be looked upon as forming the
basis of the committee conference.
The International Labor Office published in 1903, bimonthly, 3,000
copies of the bulletin, of which - ,000 were in the German language
2
and 1,000 in the French language; 2,225 copies of the annual report,
of which 1,300 were in the German language and 925 in the French




1086

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

language. The cost of printing the German bulletins was $1,100 and
the French bulletins $800; the German annual reports $150 and the
French annual reports $130. The expenditures for the reports on
night work of women and on dangerous industries aggregated $1 ,000.
In a review of the work of the International Labor Office, Professor
Bauer remarks as follows:
Being of a purely scientific character, the International Office,
although established by a private association, has in two years of
unpartisan work been able to enlist the support of all European and of
the United States Governments. The most eminent representatives
of factory inspection in Germany, Belgium, Denmark, France, Great
Britain, Victoria, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzer­
land have contributed to the office’s reports. It is much to be hoped
that the interest which international economic questions have lately
evolved in Great Britain may extend to the field of labor legislation.
The future work of the International Labor Office depends upon
the action of the international committee. The questions of industrial
poisons (other than phosphorus, lead, and lead colors), of the work of
children and minors, of home work, and of social insurance of'for­
eigners are under consideration. As soon as a certain uniformity in
social statistics shall have been obtained, the publication of an inter­
national labor annual will be possible.




VALUE AND INFLUENCE OF LABOR STATISTICS. («)
B Y CARROLL D. W R IG H T.

There are now in the United States, besides the Federal Bureau of
Labor, thirty-two State bureaus or departments devoted to the
collection of statistics of labor by means of original investigations.
Besides these, the Federal Bureau of the Census and the Bureaus of
Statistics of the Department of Commerce and Labor and of the
Agricultural Department, the departments and boards of agriculture
of the various States, and various other offices may be considered as
publishing labor statistics in some degree. But I speak here of the
value and influence of those offices first mentioned—those devoted
specifically and technically to the investigation of social and industrial
conditions and to the publication of distinctive labor statistics. These
offices had their foundation in the establishment of the Massachusetts
bureau in 1869. Gradually other States created bureaus of statistics
of labor, and in 1881 the United States Government added its own
office to those already in existence. All the offices, together, have
published nearly 500 octavo volumes, covering a great variety of
topics and the results of investigations relative to almost every
condition and environment of the workingman.
The character and quality of the work of the different offices varies
in some degree, due to a considerable extent to the short tenure of
the heads of the different bureaus. Where the governor of a State
has allowed himself to ignore politics and insisted upon scientific work,
the bureaus have achieved the greatest success; but as a rule a governor
feels that the office of the chief of the bureau of statistics of labor
of his State must be filled by somebody from his party, without refer­
ence to the skill, the experience, or the integrit}^ of the incumbent
under the previous administration. Yet I am glad to say, as the result
of pretty careful study of the reports of all the officials who have
done duty in this country during more than thirty }^ears, that no
.matter for what reason they were appointed, no matter how inex­
perienced in the work of investigation and of compilation and presen­
tation of statistical matter, no matter from what party they came,
and whether in sympathy with capital or with labor, and even if hold­
ing fairly radical socialistic views—the men have, almost without
exception, at once comprehended the sacredness of the duty assigned
them, and have served the public faithfully and honestly, being content
o> Revised from an article in the E n g i n e e r i n g
printed with the consent of the publishers.




M a g a z in e

of November, 1893, and

1087

1088

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

to collect and publish facts without regard to individual bias or indi­
vidual political sentiments. As soon as a man realizes that he is giv­
ing to the world a fact, he feels the necessity of accuracy, and that
to distort the information collected would be to commit a crime worse
than any ordinary lying, because it would mislead legislators and others
and fix a falsehood in the history of the State. Many men, too, have
come into the work of the statistical bureaus feeling that they could
use them as the means of propagandism in some way, and in a few
cases this has been attempted, but almost always with failure, because
bureaus are looked to to furnish information relative to actual condi­
tions surrounding industry.
That what I have said is true is illustrated by other countries fol­
lowing the example of the American States. Great Britain, France,
Belgium, Germany, Austria, Spain, Italy, Sweden, Norway, New
Zealand, New South Wales, Canada, and the province of Ontario,
Canada, have established bureaus following in their duties very closely
those assigned by law to the American bureaus and departments. In
Denmark and the Netherlands labor statistics of the same character
are published by general statistical bureaus. A distinguished member
of the House of Commons of England told me a few years ago that,
whenever he wished to lay any facts relative to workingmen before
his colleagues, he carried into the House some American report on the
statistics of labor. In the Chamber of Deputies of France, in the
German Reichstag, and in the legislative bodies of other countries the
American labor reports have been freely used in economic discussions.
Had not the work of the American offices been highly regarded, these
things would not have occurred. It is true, of course, that the senti­
ment of the times is largely conducive to the successful operation of
bureaus of statistics of labor. The general attention paid to social
and industrial conditions and all conditions affecting the environment
of men has fitted the soil for statistical seed. The altruistic spirit of
this age calls for accurate information, that it may know how best to
expend its efforts and not dissipate its energy. The question is con­
stantly being asked, What do social classes owe to each other? and
that any one class may not be deceived in the nature or magnitude of
its debt, it must turn to statistics to ascertain the true situation.
The question is often asked, and by very intelligent people, Of what
good is a bureau of statistics of labor; does the workingman secure
any direct benefits from its existence? This question can not be
answered very specifically, any more than could one asking for the
direct benefits of the public school. It would be a difficult process to
show how a dollar more is made to enter the pockets of the working
people through the existence of the public schools, or any other edu­
cational institution, and yet all men will admit that the sum of benefits
is largely increased by the existence of schools. Personally I have




’ VALUE AND INFLUENCE OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1089

always contended that the bureau of statistics of labor, wherever it
exists, is simply a part of the educational machinery established by
the community through which it is enabled to know more of itself.
“ Know thyself” is an injunction which should be applied to commu­
nities as well as to individuals, and it is only through rigid, impartial,
and fearless investigations that any community can know itself in
many directions. Notwithstanding this general view of the educa­
tional influence of the offices I am considering, very many instances of
their specific influence can be cited. These instances I must, for pur­
poses of convenience, draw largely from those which have come
under my own observation or within my knowledge, for to enter upon
a research of all the influences which have come in direct ways from
the services of all the offices in existence in this country would take
me too far afield.
One of the first results that I remember as being traceable to a
published report related to the tenement-house system of the city of
Boston. In the second, third, and fourth reports of the Massachusetts
bureau of statistics of labor there were many facts showing the con­
dition of the tenement houses in the city named. The public was fully
apprised of the misery that existed in them, resulting from bad condi­
tions, ill construction, and all that tended to make tenement-house life
an evil. Public attention was aroused through these publications,
better laws were framed and passed, and a public sentiment created
which crystallized in a reform movement having for its purpose the
improvement of tenement houses in Boston. Some of the worst places
were improved, and the impetus then given is still active, as is shown
by the existence of societies in that citj^ and their influence in securing
from the legislature an appropriation to enable the bureau in that
State to make a very exhaustive investigation covering every tenement
of whatever grade in the city of Boston.
The bureaus everywhere, whenever conditions warranted it, have
investigated the subject of child labor and shown to the public all the
facts connected with such employment, the evils it entailed upon the
community, and the methods which could be resorted to for its reduc­
tion, and everywhere, too, the results have been beneficial. If the
bureaus had never accomplished anything else than the marked reduc­
tions in the number of young children—those under 10 years of age—
who are employed in factories and workshops, they would have amply
repaid the public for its expenditure in their equipment and support.
The publication of information relative to the inspection of factories
and workshops in England and other countries, together with statistics
showing the necessity for such inspection in this country, has led in
several States to the establishment of boards of factory inspectors.
These boards have committed to them the execution of laws for the
protection or benefit of those wdio have to work in any kind of pro­



1090

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

ductive establishments. These inspectors enforce the laws concerning'
the hours of labor, the employment of women and children, the guard­
ing of machinery so that the operatives may be more free from acci­
dents, and in all ways undertake the enforcement of all laws of the
character specified. Through these efforts (and they were largely
induced by the reports of labor statistics) child labor has decreased,
accidents have been reduced in number and severity, the hours of
labor have been shortened and recognized, and so all along that line
of facts the influenced the reports of the bureaus has been enormous;
the value of their statistics can not be expressed by figures.
The first ten-hour law in this country was passed by the Massachu­
setts legislature in 1871. The statistics published by the bureau of
that State helped the passage of the law in a marked degree, and saved
its repeal in later years. The manufacturers, finding that they were
brought under the ten-hour law so far as minors and women were
concerned, felt that the manufacturers in surrounding States ought
to be brought under like laws or the law of Massachusetts should be
repealed, for they claimed, as was claimed in England years ago, that
in working under a ten-hour law the manufacturers of Massachusetts
were placed at a decided disadvantage relative to the manufacturers
in the surrounding States. The legislature therefore directed the
bureau of statistics of labor to investigate the subject of the hours of
labor in that State and in the other New England States. The result
of the Investigation showed that under a ten-hour system the Massa­
chusetts manufacturers paid more wages than those in the other
States, where eleven and twelve hours were the rule; that they pro­
duced more goods on any basis that could be named, whether per
individual or per machine; in short, that in every respect the Massa­
chusetts operatives were under better conditions than those of the
surrounding States. There has been no attempt since that report was
published to repeal the ten-hour law of Massachusetts. On the other
hand, other States have followed suit, until now that system prevails
generally in the United States.
The bureaus have been very influential in securing a modification of
the old common-law rule relating to the liability of employers for
accidents occurring to their employees. Under this rule a workman
can not recover damages for injuries received through the carelessness
or negligence of a coemployee, although a stranger might recover
damages for an injury following the same carelessness or negligence;
as, for instance, under the old common-law rule, a brakeman on a train
running perhaps 500 miles could secure no damages from a railroad w
corporation in consequence of injuries received through the carelessness
or negligence of a switchman along any part of the line, although the
brakeman knew nothing of the switchman, had no knowledge of his
skill or capacity when he engaged with the company, and in no sense



VALUE AND INFLUENCE OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1091

of the word, so far as reason is concerned, could be considered the
coemployee of the switchman; yet, although that common-law rule
grew up before great industrial enterprises were established, judges
had adhered to it and had ruled that in such a case as that just men­
tioned the switchman and the brakeman were coemployees, and there­
fore the employer could not be held liable. The agitation for a
legislative change in this common-law rule in England resulted in the
enactment of a law in 1880 changing or modifying the rule, and in
this country, the matter being taken up by bureaus of statistics of
labor, several legislatures have been convinced of the justice of a
change, and have therefore made it; the dire results which were pre­
dicted as sure to follow the change of the rule have not followed.
In this direction the bureaus have done a great service, not only
to the employees of railroads and corporations engaged in produc­
tive industry, but in securing the public against the employment of
incompetent men.
Another ver}^ emphatic influence which the bureaus have exercised
is in the abolishment or modification of what is known as the u truckstore ” system, or, as it is more popularly known in some parts of the
country, the “ pluck-me” method of store trading. This system con­
sists in the establishment of a store by the proprietors of a works for
the supply of its employees. Formerly, in many instances, the prices
charged at these stores were much higher than those charged at other
places, and so the employee of a concern having a truck store was
almost compelled, and in many instances actually compelled, to pur­
chase the necessaries of life for his family at an exorbitant price,,
whereby the employer made a second profit on the labor of the em­
ployee. In very many instances the workmen of such an establish­
ment never saw any money from one year’s end to another. The pay
for the goods purchased in the store was secured by the pay rolls, and
the debts and credits left no margin on pay day. Early in the exist­
ence of bureaus of statistics of labor this system was attacked through
the statistical method, and the result has been that in very many States
laws have been passed making it a criminal offense, in some cases, to
carry on such a system, and in other cases making it the duty of the
proper officers to see to it that they are regulated. The evils of the
truck-store system have not yet been entirely eradicated in this coun­
try, but the change has been great, and the value to the wage receiver
of the greatest importance.
In this connection I might mention the influence which the bureaus
have had in securing more frequent payments for the workingman.
Formerly the pa}7
ments were monthly. Under this system the credit
system grew also, because without ready money the wage receiver
must secure credit of his grocer, and the grocer, under such circum­
stances, looks out that the charges are sufficient to cover the delay in




1092

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

receiving his money or the losses which may come through his endeav­
ors later on to collect the amount of his bill of the employer through
the trustee or the garnishee system. Weekly payments have been
shown by .various bureaus to be beneficial in eradicating some of the
evils of the credit system.
In some of the Western States there have grown up during the past
few years some of the most rascally practices on the credulity of the
workingman that have ever been known. They are robberies of the
meanest sort, for they not only rob a man of his money, but in many
instances of his manhood. The practice I refer to is that of a certain
class of employment offices, located usually in the rear of some beer
saloon, which advertise that a large number of men are wanted for labor
in a certain city, but almost always at a distance. In a Western city
one of these offices advertised for 1,000 men to proceed immediately
to Washington, D. C., where employment would be furnished at $ 1
per day. Hundreds of men responded to this advertisement. They
were obliged to pay down $3 or $4, as the case might be or as the ras­
cality of the manager might demand, and then the men were put off by
various excuses for several days, until they began to clamor for their
contract. When they became too demonstrative, the manager would
pay back a part of the sum advanced, for the sake of integrity.
Meantime, however, these hundreds of men, loafing about his beer
saloon, had expended more or less money for beer, in addition to the
fee paid for the supposed employment. In one city an advertisement
appeared for a large number of men to be shipped to Iowa, while in
Iowa an advertisement appeared for a large number of men to be
shipped to the very place of the first call. The bureaus in some of
the States where such practices have been carried on collected the
information relative to these offices and exposed the swindle perpe­
trated upon the wage receiver. Much good was derived from these
reports, and, in addition to the laws in existence, others of a more
stringent nature followed.
These instances of the direct influence and value of bureaus of sta­
tistics of labor are sufficient, it seems to me, to prove beyond any ques­
tion their right to exist, their right to the sympathy and support of the
public, and their right to ample equipment and means for carrying on
their beneficent work. But the}7have another office to perform, which
is one of the leading offices of statistics in every direction, and that is
the correction of false impressions and the removal of apprehension,
and two or three instances of work of this kind may perhaps be of service.
The statement is usually made by writers on the labor question from
the capitalistic point of view that the prosperity of the savings banks
of the country represents absolutely the prosperity of the working­
man— that the total amount of savings in such banks clearly indicates
the prosperity of labor. I am not disposed to question this statement,




VALUE AND INFLUENCE OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1093

so far as it applies as a principle, but I question the degree of accuracy*
contained in it, for the investigations have clearly shown that only
about one-half of the deposits in the savings banks belong to men
and women engaged in manual labor or in the toil necessary to the
production of goods. Such a fact, properly brought out, simply sets
people’s thoughts in the right direction, although it does not disprove
the sentiment underlying the erroneous statements regarding the con­
ditions involved.
In 1878 a great deal was said about the unemployed in this country.
It was reported, and the report was very industriously circulated, that
there were from 200,000 to 300,000 people out of employment in Massa­
chusetts, 40,000 in the city of Boston alone, and 3,000,000 in the United
States. These figures were quoted in newspapers, works on political
economy, speeches in Congress, political resolutions, etc., until they
came to be believed everywhere, and yet no attempt was made, officially
or otherwise, to ascertain the real facts. The bureau of statistics of
labor of Massachusetts undertook to make an investigation of the sub­
ject, and this it did at two separate canvasses—one in June, 1878, and
the other in November of the same year. The result showed that in
that Commonwealth, on Ju n el, there were 28,508 skilled and unskilled
laborers, male and female, out of employment, seeking and in want of
work, and that in November there were not more than 23,000 of the
same class. On these bases, there could not have been over 460,000
unemployed able-bodied men and women in the United States, ordi­
narily having work, out of employment at the time mentioned. The
report further showed that in the State mentioned there were in 1875
only 316,459 persons engaged in manufactures and mechanical indus­
tries, in occupations upon which they depended for support, whether
actual^ employed or not, and the whole number actually employed in
the manufacturing and mechanical pursuits of the State was 308,963.
If, therefore, there had been 200,000 or 300,000 persons out of employ­
ment in the State in June, 1878, as the alarmists were in the habit of
stating, there could have been hardly any left in the factories and
workshops of the community. The figures published by the report
were used all over the country, and completely reversed the popular
belief relative to the vast number of the alleged unemployed in the
country.
But I think one of the most striking instances of the removal of false
impressions from the public mind relates to mortgage indebtedness on
real estate. In a speech made in Congress in May, 1888, the statement
was quoted from an agricultural paper that the estimated mortgage
indebtedness of all real estate in Ohio at that time was $701,000,000;
in Indiana, $398,000,000; in Illinois, $620,000,000; in Wisconsin, $250,000,000; in Michigan, $350,000,000; in Iowa, $351,000,000; and state­
ments were made for other States. The Ohio and Michigan bureaus




1094

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

of statistics of labor undertook to investigate this subject, through the
offices of the registers of deeds, the boards of assessors, etc., and in
these two States the mortgage indebtedness, as established and esti­
mated by the commissioners of labor, was, for Ohio, $330,999,205, and
for Michigan, $129,229,553, instead of the amounts popularly claimed.
Under the Federal census of 1890 an investigation was made relative
to mortgage indebtedness, and the facts established with remarkable
accuracy for the other States just named. By the investigation of the
census it was shown that in Indiana the mortgage indebtedness was
$110,730,643; in Illinois, $384,299,150; in Wisconsin, $121,838,168;
and in Iowa, $199,774,171. It is a little remarkable that the sums
accepted in a popular way for the mortgage indebtedness of the States
named were in some instances exactly the valuation of all the property
of the State. The extravagant figures quoted were used all over this
country and in Europe, wherever capitalists were seeking investments
in this country. The figures did immense harm; the wrong can not
be calculated; but as time goes on the statistics emanating from bureaus
of statistics of labor and from the Bureau of the Census are removing
the apprehension which grew out of the original statements.
With regard to the causes for which mortgages are placed upon
farms in the western country, it has been claimed in recent years that
the great mortgage indebtedness of Western States is due largely to
disaster or adversity. The commissioner of labor of Nebraska under­
took to satisfy himself, by positive investigation, as to the truth or
falsity of such claims, and he took as the territory for his investigation
the county of Sarpy, covering the period from December 31, 1879, to
January 1 , 1890. Sarpy is one of the oldest counties in Nebraska, and
it therefore offered the best opportunities for investigation in that
State. The result, as to'the causes for the creation of the mortgage
indebtedness of the county, is shown in the following statement,
taken from Commissioner Jenkins’s report for 1889-90:
Per cent.

Purchase m oney................................................................................................ 58. 00
Permanent improvements................................................................................... 3. 00
Purchase of stock............................................................................................... 4. 00
To meet personal obligations....................................................................................50
, To invest in real estate..............................................
7. 00
To invest in mercantile business.................................................
20. 00
Sickness............................................................ ........................................................25
Unknown causes................................................................................................ 7. 25

Allowing that all the mortgages from sickness and from unknown
causes were the result of misfortune or of adversity of some kind,
the foregoing table shows that 92i per cent were for legitimate causes,
and such causes as indicated prosperity rather than adversity.
The investigation under the Eleventh United States Census compre­
hends the object of indebtedness for 102 selected counties in several
States, the results being obtained by personal inquiry f hrough the




VALUE AND INFLUENCE OF LABOR STATISTICS.

1095

experts of the Office. That investigation is a clear and emphatic
corroboration of the results arrived at by Commissioner Jenkins of
Nebraska. It shows that to legitimate objects, indicating clearly pros­
perity and advancement, 94.37 per cent of all the mortgage indebted­
ness of the 102 counties considered must be attributed.
The convict labor question is one that has attracted a great deal of
attention during the last quarter of a century, but it was not until
various State bureaus and the United States Bureau of Labor col­
lected exhaustive statistics relative to productive employments in
penitentiaries and other penal institutions and showed the effect of
different sj^stems of empktying convicts that the discussion took intelli­
gent shape. There has been much reform along the lines of convict
labor. Many States have made experiments which have been aban­
doned, while others have established new systems which are progress­
ing favorably. In the whole work the contributions of the bureaus of
labor statistics have been of the greatest possible value.
The advancement of technical science, too, has been greatly acceler­
ated by the exhaustive publications of different departments and bureaus
of statistics of labor relative to industrial education. It is only recently
that the different States of the Union have felt it incumbent upon them,
through their legislatures, to study all the phases of industrial training,
consisting of manual training, trade school instruction, and the higher
technological or university work which is done in our institutes of
technology. The United States Bureau of Education has aided the dis­
cussion and consideration of such matters, and its work has been
grandly supplemented by the State bureaus and the United States
Bureau of Labor. It is now possible to discuss the question of indus­
trial education in all its phases not only intelligently but on the basis
of practical experience in this and other countries.
These few instances show the enormous value of statistics in remov­
ing apprehension and in correcting erroneous views. The money
value of such information is not easy to calculate.
In September, 1883, the heads of the few bureaus of statistics of labor
then existing met at Columbus, Ohio, and organized the National Con­
vention of Chiefs and Commissioners of Bureaus of Statistics of Labor.
Since then these officials have met annually for the purpose of discuss­
ing statistical methods and the best way of collecting information and
of tabulating, analyzing, and presenting it. It was one of the early
dreams of the founders of this convention that some uniform contem­
poraneous work could be undertaken by all the bureaus in coopera­
tion, but this dream was fraught with many difficulties. States did,
not organize their bureaus at the same time. Many of the subjects
which had been covered by those organized at early dates formed the
subjects of investigation of those which had been established at later
dates, and hence there was a conflict; for the earlier bureaus did not




1096

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

wish to cover again what was new and important to the more recently
established ones. Another difficulty arose in the fact that the indus­
tries and conditions of one State were not common to all States having
bureaus of statistics of labor. Notwithstanding the fact that the origi­
nal idea has not been and can not be carried out, the convention has
been of the greatest possible value to the different States. At each
annual meeting each commissioner of labor reports the investigations
he has in hand, the methods he has adopted for obtaining the informa­
tion desired, and all the difficulties and complications attending his
work. These matters are then discussed and the experience of older
commissioners brought out for the benefit of those who have more
recently come into the work of gathering statistics of labor. Thus
great advantage is given to even the older commissioners to gain fresh
inspiration from the troubles and difficulties of those who are new to
the work. The convention also helps to call public attention not only
to the value but to the methods of the work being conducted.
Notwithstanding all that I have said relative to the value and influ­
ence of the statistics of labor, I am perfectly well aware that they
could be made of far greater value; but that greater value can be
secured only through the direct action of the legislative bodies behind
the bureaus. They are very poorly equipped. They need more men
and more money. They need experience, which can come only
through the influence of the executives of the States. With a longer
tenure of office and an increase in the equipment and means of the
bureaus, their future usefulness can be made to far excel that of the
past and of the present. The lines of work which they ean undertake
are numerous and inexhaustible. Knowledge of production is abso­
lutely essential for the adjustment of many of the difficult questions
we are facing to-day, and any contribution, through statistical inves­
tigation or otherwise, that will enable both the capitalist and his
employee to more clearly understand the real conditions of production
should be welcomed by all elements of the community. The bureaus
must be kept in the future, as in the past, free from partisanship.
The statistician is not a statistician when he is an advocate, no matter
how skillful he may be in the manipulation of figures. He must be
impartial, he must make his investigations without any reference to
theories to be proved or disproved, and give to the world the actual
results of his inquiries. This country lacks trained statisticians.
We have no means for training them except in the practical work of
the statistical offices of the State and Federal governments. These
offices, therefore, become a school for the future, and the statisticians
of this county that are to be of great service to the governments
must acquire their knowledge through the statistical offices; but no
work can be accomplished successfully without money and without
men. We must look^ therefore, to the legislative branches of our
various governments for the increase of the usefulness and for recog­
nized influence of our bureaus of statistics of labor.



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.
B Y G. W . W . HANGER.

Very early in the history of the Federal Bureau of Labor consider­
ation was given to that class of industrial disturbances known as strikes
and lockouts, the Bureau’s first collection of statistics relative to this
subject forming the basis of its third annual report in 1887. Previous
to that date no special effort had been made to secure adequate infor­
mation on this subject covering the whole country, although a report
had been prepared from data collected at the Tenth Census of the
United States in 1880, which furnished information as to the number
of strikes and lockouts during that year and their causes and results.
It should be stated also that several of the State bureaus of labor,
notably those of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, had published more
or less complete records of strikes and lockouts which had occurred
within the limited area covered by their operations. The census report
referred to shows that during the year 1880 the number of distinct
disturbances of this character aggregated 762. A careful compila­
tion of all available data relative to the strikes and lockouts which
occurred previous to 1880 forms a part of the Third Annual Report of
the Bureau of Labor and reveals the fact that prior to that year the
total for the United States, so far as ascertainable, aggregated but 678,
51 of which occurred in 1879, 40 in 1878, 47 in 1877, 32 in 1876, etc.
While the period of strikes in the United States may be said to have
begun in 1880, this method of enforcing demands on the part of work­
men for the betterment of wage and other conditions of employment
or for the abolishment of what were believed to be unjust conditions
of employment, undoubtedly existed many years ago and under
entirely different industrial conditions. In our own country isolated
cases are known to have occurred as early as 1741. In that yrnar there
appears to have been a general strike of journeymen bakers (probably
in New York City) who combined “ not to bake bread but on certain
terms.” While similar cases may have occurred in the meantime, no
further record is found of a difficulty of this character until the year
1796, when an association of journeymen shoemakers of Philadelphia
ordered a strike or “ turnout” of its members to enforce a demand for
an increase of wages. This strike was successful, and in 1798 a simi­
lar strike was ordered by the same association, the result, like that of
1097



1098

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

its predecessor, being successful. In the following year the journey­
men shoemakers struck against a demand by the master cordwainers
of Philadelphia for a reduction of wages. The association of journey­
men shoemakers is said to have numbered over 100 members at the
time, and partial success was gained after a strike lasting ten weeks.
Four years later, in 1803, a number of sailors in New York City, who
had been receiving $10 per month, struck for an increase in wages to
$11 per month. This strike was attended by considerable violence and
resulted unsuccessfully. In the following years strikes gradually
increased in number and importance, but the number which occurred
annually did not assume important proportions until the 37 1880,
ear
which may be termed the beginning of the strike period in the United
States.
The investigation, the results of which were published in the Third
Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor, in 1887, was undertaken for
the purpose of supplying the growing demand of the public for accu­
rate information as to the number and frequency of these disturb­
ances, their causes and results, the numbers of employees involved,
the wage loss, and the loss to employers entailed thereby, etc. The
period covered by this first investigation included the years from 1881
to 1886. A second investigation by the Bureau in 1891 and a third
in 1901 along similar lines bring the statistical record of strikes and
lockouts down to the end of the year 1900, a period of twenty years.
In these reports of the Bureau—the third, tenth, and sixteenth
annuals—these disturbances are classified separately as to the number
which were strikes and the number which were lockouts. The prin­
cipal distinction between a strike and a lockout is that in one case the
employees take the initiative in regard to the discontinuance of work
in an establishment, and in the other case the initiative is taken by
the employer. A strike may be defined as a refusal by the employees
of an establishment to work unless the employer complies with some
demand made by the former or withdraws some obnoxious demand
made by himself; a lockout is defined as a refusal by the employer to
allow his employees to work in his establishment unless they will
comply with some demand as to the conditions of employment made
by him. It is thus seen that but little difference exists between these
two classes of industrial disturbances beyond the question of initiative,
as indicated above. As compared with strikes, however, lockouts are
relatively unimportant as regards both the number of persons affected
and the financial losses involved. For this reason the facts relative
to strikes only were used in the preparation of the graphic exhibit
relating to these disturbances, which forms a portion of the exhibit of
the Bureau at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. As a basis for the
consideration of the figures and charts which follow, as well as for the




STRIKES AND LOOKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1099

purpose of affording a general survey of the main facts relative to
strikes and lockouts, the following table is presented:
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 1881 TO 1900.

STRIKES.
Year.

1881.............
1882.............
1883.............
1884.............
1885.............
1886.............
1887.............
1888.............
1889.............
1890.............
1891............
1892........... :
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
Total ..

Number of
strikes.

471
454
478 .
443
645
1,432
1,436
906
1,075
1,833
1,717
1,298
1,305
1,349
1,215
1,026
1,078
1,056
1,797
1,779
22,793

JE^tablish- Employees
thrown out
ments
of work.
involved.

Average
duration
(days).

Assistance
Wage loss of to employees
employees. by labor or­
ganizations.

Loss of em­
ployers.

$3,372,578
9,864,228
6,274,480
7,666, 717
10,663,248
14,992,453
16,560,534
6,377,749
10,409,686
13,875,338

$287,999
734,339
461,233
407,871
465,827
1,122,130
1,121,554
1,752,668
592,017
910,285

$1,919,483
, 4,269,094
4,696,027
3,393,073
4,388,893

508, 044
379,676
147,704
249,559
351,944
298,939
206, 671
265,914
660,425
392,403
241,170
408,391
a 249,002
417,072
505,066

12.8
21.9
20.6
30.5
30.1
23.4
20.9
20.3
26.2
24.2
34.9
23.4
20.6
32.4
20.5

14,801,505
10,772,622
9,938,048
37,145,532
13,044, 830

6,176,688
5,145,691
3,406,195
18,982,129
5,072,282

22.0
27.4
22.5
15.2
23.1

11,098,207
17,468,904
10,037,284
•15,157,965
18,341,570

1,132,557
833,874
563,183
931,052
559,165
462,165
721,164
585,228
1,096,030
1,434,452

117,509 a 6,105,694

23.8

257,863,478

16,174,793

122,731,121

2,928
2,105
2,759
2,367
2,284

129,521
154,671
149,763
147,054
242,705

10,053
6,589
3,506
3,786
9,424
8,116
5,540
4,555
8,196
6,973
5,462
8,492
3,809
11,317
9,248

12,357,808
6,698,495
6,509,017
2,936,752
5,135,404

5,304,235
4,868, 687
4,596,462
7, 443, 407
9,431,299

a Not including the number in 33 establishments for which data were not obtainable.

LOCKOUTS.
Year.

Number of
lockouts.

1881.............
1882.............
1883.............
1884.............
1885.............
1886.............
1887.............
1888.............
1889.............
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............

140
67
40
36
64
69
61
70
55
40

1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
Total.

Establish­ Employees
ments in­ thrown out
volved.
of work.
655
4,131
20,512
18,121
15,424
101,980
59,630
15,176
10,731
21,555
31,014
32,014
21,842
29,619
14, 785

40
32
42
41
60

9
42
117
354
183
1,509
1,281
180
132
324
546
716
305
875
370
51
171
164
323
2,281

1,005

9,933

6
22
28
42
50

Average
duration
(days).

Assistance
Wage loss of to employees
employees. by labor or­
ganizations.

Loss of em­
ployers.

7,668
7,763
14,217
14,837
62,653

32.2
105.0
57.5
41.4
27.1
39.1
49.8
74.9
57.5
73.9
37.8
72.0
34.7
39.7
31.6
65.1
38.6
48.8
37.5
265.1

$18,519
466,345
1,069,212
1,421,410
901,173
4,281,058
4,233,700
1,100,057
1,379,722
957,966
883,709
2,856,013
6,659,401
2,022,769
791,703
690,945
583,606
880,461
1,485,174
16,136,802

$3,150
47,668
102,253
314,027
89,488
549,452
155,846
85,931
115,389
77,210
50,195
537,684
364,268
160,244
67,701
61,355
47,326
47,098
126, 957
448,219

357,535
298,044
239,403
379,365
5,447,930

504,307

97.1

48,819,745

3,451,461

19,927,983

$6,960
112,382
297,097
640,847
455,477
1,949,498
2,819,736
1,217,199
307,125
486,258
616,888
1,695,080
1,034,420
982,584
584,155

A comparison of the data for strikes with those for lockouts,
as shown in this table, very clearly indicates the comparative unim­
portance of the latter class of disturbances. Following the totals it is
seen that of the entire number of conflicts (23,798), which occurred
10193—No. 54—04---- 10




1100

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

during the twenty years, 22,793, or 95.78 per cent, were initiated by
the working people and were classified as strikes, while but 1,005, or
4.22 per cent, were initiated by employers and were classified as lock­
outs. A practically similar degree of disparity between the two classes
of industrial disturbances is revealed when the figures relating to the
establishments involved, the employees thrown out of work, etc., are
compared. Of the 127,442 establishments involved in these conflicts
during the period 117,509, or 92.21 per cent, were so involved by
reason of strikes, while but 9,933, or 7.79 per cent, were involved on
account of lockouts; of the 6,610,001 employees thrown out of work,
6,105,694, or 92.37 per cent, were deprived of employment by reason
of strikes, and but 504,307, or 7.63 per cent, by reason of lockouts; of
the enormous wage loss of the employees thrown out of work, amount­
ing to $306,683,223, $257,863,478, or 84.08 per cent, was chargeable
against strikes, while $48,819,745, or 15.92 per cent was due to lock­
outs. In comparing the amount of financial assistance rendered by
labor organizations to employees engaged in these conflicts, practically
the same proportion is found as for the loss in wages, $16,174,793, or
82.41 per cent of the total assistance rendered ($19,626,254), being fur­
nished to striking employees and $3,451,461, or 17.59 per cent, to
employees locked out. The total financial loss to employers during
the twenty-year period by reason of these conflicts was $142,659,104,
of which amount $122,731,121, or 86.03 per cent, were losses resulting
from strikes, and $19,927,983, or 13.97 per cent, from lockouts.
Having briefly compared the data relating to these two classes of
conflicts, no further consideration will be given to lockouts, as the
facts relating thereto were not considered of sufficient importance to
warrant the preparation of a separate series of charts, even had space
been available for their display in the exhibit of the Bureau. Full
information relating to lockouts as well as strikes during the twenty
years ending December 31, 1900, may be found in the last report of
the Bureau relating to this subject—the Sixteenth Annual.
The following three tables have been specially prepared as the basis
for a portion of the charts forming the exhibit. The first two show
by years and by industries the number of strikes, establishments
involved, and employees thrown out of work, classified as to whether
the strike was ordered or not ordered by labor organizations. The
third table shows by States the number of strikes ordered and not
ordered by labor organizations and the total establishments involved
and employees thrown out of work.




STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1101

STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, AS
ORDERED BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND NOT SO ORDERED, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1900.
[This table does not include 10 strikes, involving 104 establishments and throwing out of work 7,594
persons, as it was not possible to ascertain whether ordered by labor organizations or not.]
Establishments
involved in strikes.

Strikes.

Year.

1881.......................................
1882.......................................
1883.......................................
1884............................, ........
1885.......................................
1886.......................................
1887......................................
1888......................................
1889......................................
1890............................. .
1891.......................................
1892.......................................
1893......................................
1894.......................................
1895......................................
1896......................................
1897.......................................
1898.......................................
1899......................................
1900.......................................

Or­
dered
by
labor
organ­
iza­
tions.
222
218
271
239
361
760
952
616
724
1,306
1,284
918
906
847
658
662
596
638
1,115
1,164

T otal........................ 14,457

Or­
Not or­
Not or­
dered
dered dered
by
by
by
labor Total.
labor Total. labor
organ­ organ­
organ­
iza­
iza­
iza­
tions.
tions.
tions.
249
236
207
204
284
672
483
288
351
525
432
380
399
501
555
363
482
418
682
615

471
454
478
443
645
1,432
1,435
904
1,075
1,831

2,213
1,600
2,317
1,961
1,620
8,819
5, 746
3,064
3,019
8,534

1,716
1,298
1,305
1,348
1,213
1,025
1,078
1,056
1,797
1,779

7,379
5,050
4,005
7,271
6,100
4,913
7,798
3,220
10,439
8,422

8,326 22,783 103,490

715
505
442
406
664
1,234
842
440
767
888
642
490
550
924
871
548
694
589
878
826

2,928
2,105
2,759
2,367
2,284

Employees thrown out of
work by strikes.
Ordered Not or­
by labor dered by
labor
organi­
organi­
zations.
zations.

10,053
6,588
3,504
3,786
9,422

72,052
100,192
97,843
87,944
159,667
381,983
279,728
108,153
192,580
264,142

8,021
5,540
4,555
8,195
6,971

226,437
159,342
201,035
549,610
270,699

5,461
8,492
3,809
11,317
9,248

174,025
301,285
172,067
295,492
407,091

Total.

57, 469
54,479
51, 920
59,110
83,038

129,521
154,671
149,763
147,054
242,705

126,061
99,944
39,403
56,979
87,560
65,502
47,329
64,879
110,725
121,619
67,120
107,106
76,935
121,580
97,972

508,044
379,672
147,556
249,559
351,702
291,939
206,671
265,914
660,335
392,318
241,145
408,391
249,002
417,072
505,066

13,915 117,405 4,501,370 1,596,730

6,098,100

STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, AS
ORDERED BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND NOT SO ORDERED, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO
1900.
[This table does not include 10 strikes, involving 104 establishments and throwing out of work 7,594
persons, as it was not possible to ascertain whether ordered by labor organizations or not.]
Establishments in­
volved in strikes.

Strikes.

Industry.

Boots and shoes...............
Building trades.................
Clothing..............................
Coal and coke...................
Cotton and woolen goods.
Food preparations...........
Furniture..........................
G lass...................................
Machines and machin­
ery ...................................
Metals and metallic
goods...............................
Printing and publishing.
Public ways and works
construction..................
Stone quarrying and
cutting............................
Tobacco..............................
Transportation.................
Wooden goods...................
All other industries.........

;
Or­
Not or­
Or­ Not or­
dered dered
dered dered
by
by
by
by
labor labor Total. labor
labor Total.
organ­ organ­
organ­ organ­
iza­
iza­
iza­
iza­
tions. tions.
tions.
tions.
I
639
3,989
1,365
1,303
211
308
333
188

862
4,440
1,638
2,512
1,133
408
405
374

1,015
40,922
19,012
11,586
489
4,910
1,023
346

249
988
683
2,892
1,088
216
85
253

Not or­
Ordered dered by
by labor
labor
organi­
organi­
zations. zations.

1,264
118,282
41, 910
636,007
529,354
19,695
14,478 1,428, 747
163,804
1,577
5,126
86,853
41,195
1,108
599
55,498

18,985
29, 939
34,418
463,688
205,234
23,392
8,706
33,653

Total.

137,267
665,946
563,772
1,892,435
369,038
110,245
49,901
89,151

300

152

452

1,006

167

1,173

72,052

17,443

89,495

1,055
657

1,024
108

2,079
765

3,436
1,585

1,215
138

4,651
1,723

309,388
35,233

201,948
5,055

511,336
40,288

105

503

608

231

660

891

11,554

91,345

102,899

612
1,102
554
227
1,509

244
407
708
67
1,677

856
1,509
1,262
294
3,186

3,178
5,302
2,248
949
6,252

405
851
1,185
107
2,733

3,583
6,153
3,433
1,056
8,985

87,763
166,331
393,245
48,203
317,861

22,760
84,765
91,209
5,156
259,034

110,523
251,096
484,454
53,359
576,895

13,915 117,405 4,501,370 1,596,730

6,098,100

T otal........................ 14,457




223
451
273
1,209
922
100
72
186

Employees thrown out of
work by strikes.

8,326 22,783 103,490

1102

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

STRIKES ORDERED BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND NOT SO ORDERED, ESTABLISHMENTS
INVOLVED, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY STATES, 1881 TO 1900.
[The number of strikes shown in this table does not include 10 strikes, involving 104 establishments
and throwing out of work 7,594 persons, as it was not possible to ascertain whether ordered by labor
organizations or not; the establishments involved and employees thrown out of work are for all
strikes.]
Strikes.
State.

Not
Ordered
ordered
by labor by labor
organi­
organi­
zations.
zations.

Total.

Establish­ Employees
thrown out
ments
involved.
of work.

Alabam a......................................................................
California....................................................................
Colorado......................................................................
Connecticut................................................................
Florida..........................................................................
Georgia..........................................................................
Illinois..........................................................................
In d ian a........................................................................
I o w a .............................................................................
K entucky....................................................................
M aine............................................................................
M aryland....................................................................
Massachusetts.............................................................
Michigan......................................................................
Minnesota....................................................................
Missouri........................................................................
New Hampshire.........................................................
New Jersey..................................................................
New Y ork....................................................................
Ohio...............................................................................
Pennsylvania.............................................................
Rhode Island..............................................................
Tennessee....................................................................
Texas ...........................................................................
Virginia........................................................................
West Virginia.............................................................
Wisconsin....................................................................
All other States...........................................................

117
224
125
209
90
126
1,950
313
177
138
87
146
976
213
243
277
50
442
5,085
918
1,306
47
144
104
72
75
323
480

93
117
88
377
141
64
690
239
174
85
85
94
729
131
138
129
78
363
1,375
653
1,537
152
92
40
43
104
231
284

210
341
213
586
231
190
2,640
552
351
223
172
240
1,705
344
381
406
128
805
6,460
1,571
2,843
199
236
144
115
179
554
764

494
948
840
1,021
855
578
20,784
1,964
1,408
895
254
1,049
5,099
1,174
1,633
3,516
190
3,209
37,845
5,712
18,438
409
652
574
249
764
2,568
4,387

53,609
42,097
49,774
53,996
62,599
30,448
850,599
132,344
72,598
50,849
33,961
59,590
348,470
91,364
69,110
107,526
24,877
150,123
1,193,361
415, 651
1,666,043
45,615
51,251
19,941
24,258
93,583
99,642
212,415

T otal..................................................................

14,457

8,326

22,783

117,509

6,105,694

From these tables there were constructed the following charts,
reproductions of which are given opposite pages 1102 and 1104:
C h a r t 1 . —Strikes, establishments involved, and employees thrown out of work,
as ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered, by years, 1881 to 1900.
C h a rt
—Strikes, establishments involved, and employees thrown out of work,
as ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered, by industries, 1881 to 1900.
C h a r t 3 .—Strikes ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered, establish*
ments involved, and employees thrown out of work, by States, 1881 to 1900.

Taking up the consideration of Chart 1 and the figures upon which
it has been based, it is seen that the total number of strikes which
occurred during the twenty-year period beginning with 1881 was
22,783, not including 10 strikes which were omitted from this total,
owing to lack of information as to whether they were ordered by labor
organizations or not so ordered. The number of strikes during each
year of the period is very clearly brought out by this chart. Begin­
ning in 1881 with 471, the number of strikes during the next three
years remained under 500. In 1885 the number increased to 645, while
in 1886 it more than doubled, being 1,432 for that year. Practically
the same number of strikes occurred in 1887 as in 1886, but in 1888 a
considerable decrease is shown, the number for that year being 904.



S t r ik e s , E s t a b l i s h m e n t s In v o l v e d , a n d E m p l o y e e s T hrown o u t o f W drk . a s O rd er ed
b y L a b o r O r g a n iz a tio n s an d n o t s o O r d er ed , 1681 t o 1 9 0 0 .

S08

1882.
_____ ft
1883_________
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1 8 8 6 _________
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1887
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1889
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1891 ________
1892 _______
1893 . ______
1.
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1 8 9 4 ________ ""® a.
1 8 9 5 ________
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1899 ________
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YEARS.

1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
:: 1893
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900

STRIKES AND LOOKOUTS IK THE UNITED STATES.

1103

In 1889 the number increased to 1,075, while in 1890 the number
almost doubled, reaching 1,831 strikes, and, by reference to the chart,
1890 is seen to be the year in which the greatest number of strikes
occurred during the twenty-year period. In 1891 the number decreased
to 1,716, while in 1892 a considerable decrease is noted, the exact num­
ber being 1,298. During the next three years no considerable change
occurred in the number of strikes, but in 1896 the number dropped to
1,025, remaining practically stationary during the next two years.
In 1899, however, the number of strikes increased enormously, the
number for that year being 1,797, while in 1900 the number was 1,779.
It is thus seen that during the twenty years covered by the figures and
charts the greatest number of strikes occurred during 1890 and 1891,
and during 1899 and 1900 the two periods of greatest prosperity and
industrial activity.
This chart also shows with reference to the number of strikes the
proportion which were ordered by labor organizations and not so
ordered. Of the total number of strikes which occurred during the
period, 14,457, or 63.46 per cent, were ordered by labor organizations.
The years 1890, 1891, and 1892 show the largest proportion of strikes
ordered by labor organizations, the figures being: 1891, 74.83 per
cent; 1890, 71.33 per cent, and 1892, 70.72 per cent. The smallest
proportion of strikes ordered by labor organizations was during the
first two years of the period, 47.13 per cent being so ordered in 1881
and 48.02 per cent in 1882.
The table shows that during the period 117,405 establishments were
involved in the 22,783 strikes which form the basis for the chart.
Beginning with a comparatively small number in 1881, the number of
establishments involved in strikes did not reach 3,000 during any one
of the five years from 1881 to 1885. In 1886, however, the number
almost quadrupled, 10,053 establishments being involved in strikes
which occurred during that year. The number during the next three
years decreased considerably, but in 1890 rose to 9,422. The number
in 1891 again decreased, being 8,021, and this decrease continued
during 1892 and 1893. In 1894, however, the number of establish­
ments involved in strikes was much larger than during the preceding
year, being 8,195. In 1895 and 1896 the number again decreased,
while in 1897 it rose to 8,492. The number of establishments involved
in 1898 was smaller than in any year since 1889, being 3,809. In the
succeeding year, 1899, however, is shown the greatest number in any
year of the period, 11,317, while in 1900 the number involved was
9,248. The chart shows the number of establishments involved sep­
arated according to whether in strikes ordered by labor organizations
or not so ordered. An examination of the figures in the chart shows
that in-each year of the period without exception the number of estab­
lishments involved in strikes ordered by labor organizations was very




1104

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

largely in excess of those involved in strikes not so ordered. Of the
total number of establishments involved in strikes during the period,
103,490, or 88.15 per cent, were involved in strikes ordered by labor
organizations, while 13,915, or 11.85 per cent, were involved in strikes
not so ordered.
This chart also shows the number of employees thrown out of work
during each year of the period on account of the 22,783 strikes, the
total number for the period being 6,098,100, of which 4,501,370, or
73.82 per cent, were thrown out by reason of strikes ordered by
labor organizations, while 1,596,730, or 26.18 per cent, were thrown
out by strikes not so ordered. It is seen that the greatest number of
employees thrown out of work was for the year 1894, the number
being 660,335. In 1886 the number was 508,044, while in 1900 the
number was 505,066, etc.
Chart 2 shows the 22,783 strikes which occurred during the period,
classified according to the industries affected. The number of estab­
lishments involved and the number of employees thrown out of work
by reason of these strikes are also shown for each industry. Refer­
ence to the chart and the figures upon which it is based shows that
the industries most affected by strikes during the period of twenty
years were the building trades, with 4,440 strikes; the coal and coke
industry, with 2,512; the metal and metallic goods industry, with
2,079; the clothing industry, with 1,638; the tobacco industry, with
1,509, and transportation, with 1,262. Of the 22,783 strikes forming
the basis of the table, 58.99 per cent were in the six industries just
referred to. Of the establishments involved in these strikes by far
the greatest number, 41,910, were in the building trades; the next
largest number, 19,695, were in the clothing industry, and the next,
14,478, in the coal and coke industry. As regards the number of
employees thrown out of work on account of these strikes, however,
it is seen that much the largest number were in the coal and coke
industry, 1,892,435 being thrown out of work in this industry alone.
In the building trades 665,946 were thrown out of work on account
of strikes during the period, while the number thrown out in the
clothing industry«was 563,772, in the metal and metallic goods indus­
try 511,336, and in the transportation industry 484,454, etc.
Chart 3 is quite similar in form to the two preceding charts,
showing the number of strikes, establishments involved, and employees
thrown out of work during the period, classified by the States in which
the strikes occurred. In this table, also, the strikes ordered by labor
organizations and not so ordered have been indicated. This separation,
however, was not extended to the establishments involved and the
employees thrown out of work. During the twenty-year period cov­
ered, it is seen that by far the largest number of strikes, 6,460, or 28.35
per cent, occurred in the State of New York, while 2,843, or 12.48 per




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STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1105

cent, occurred in Pennsylvania, 2,640, or 11.59 per cent, in Illinois,
1,705, or 7.48 per cent, in Massachusetts, 1,571, or 6.90 per cent, in
Ohio, etc. As regards establishments involved in all strikes, the larg­
est number, 37,845, or 32.21 per cent, is also shown for the State of
New York, while 20,784, or 17.69 per cent, were in Illinois, 18,438, or
15.69 per cent, in Pennsylvania, 5,712, or 4.86 per cent, in Ohio, 5,099,
or 4.34 per cent, in Massachusetts, etc. The greatest number of
emploj^ees thrown out of work by reason of strikes during the period,
however, is found in Pennsylvania, where 1,666,043, or 27.29 per cent
of all persons thrown out during the period, are shown. New York
follows with 1,193,361, or 19.54 per cent, Illinois with 850,599, or
13.93 per cent, Ohio with 415,651, or 6.81 per cent, Massachusetts
with 348,470, or 5.71 per cent, etc.
In considering the totals for the three tables which form the basis
of the three preceding charts, it should be remembered that the figures
do not represent the actual number of establishments or individuals
involved in strikes in a given year, in a given industry, or in a given
State, because in many instances two or more strikes have occurred in
the same establishments in the same year, and in such cases the estab­
lishments and the number of employees are duplicated or triplicated,
as the case may be, in the totals derived by addition.
It has been seen from the preceding discussion of Chart 3 that
during the twenty-year period ending with the year 1900 the majority
of all establishments affected by strikes were located in five States,
Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. In
order to bring out more clearly the very large proportion of strikes
which occurred in these States, two charts have been prepared, as
follows:
C h a r t 4 -—Per cent of establishments involved in strikes in 5 leading States of total
establishments involved in strikes during 20 years, 1881 to 1900.
C h a r t 5 .—Per cent of employees thrown out of work by strikes in 5 leading States
of total employees thrown out of work during 20 years, 1881 to 1900.

C h a r t 4.




C h a r t 5.

1106

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The following table furnishes the figures which form the basis of
these charts:
ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK IN STRIKES IN
5 LEADING STATES, 1881 TO 1900.
Establishments in­ Employees thrown
volved in strikes.
out of work.
State.
Number. Per cent Number. Per cent
of total.
of total.

Massachusetts....................................................................................
All other States.....................................................................................

37,845
20,784
18,438
5,712
5,099
29,631

32.21 1,193,361
850,599
17.69
15.69 1,666,043
4.86
415,651
4.34
348,470
25.21 1,631,570

19.54
13.93
27.29
6.81
5.71
26.72

T otal.............................................................................................

117,509

100.00 6,105,694

100.00

New York.................................................................. .... .....................
Illinois............. ........................................................... ...................... .
Pennsylvania............... ........................................................................

Chart 4 shows that of the total number of establishments involved
in strikes during the period, 74.79 per cent were located in the
States o f New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Massachusetts,
while but 25.21 per cent were located in the other States of the Union.
Chart 5, which is similar in form, shows that of the total number of
employees thrown out of work by reason of strikes in the United
States during the twenty-year period, 73.28 per cent were thrown out
of work by strikes which occurred in establishments located in these
five States, while but 26.72 per cent were thrown out of work by
strikes in establishments located in the other States. It is interesting
to note that these States contained 45.05 per cent of all the manu­
facturing establishments and employed 55.09 per cent of the capital
invested in the manufacturing and mechanical industries of the United
States, according to the reports of the Twelfth Census.
The distribution of strikes by principal cities during the twentyyear period is shown in the following table:
ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK IN STRIKES IN
5 LEADING CITIES AND IN 15 OTHER CITIES, 1881 TO 1900.
Establishments in­
volved in strikes.

Employees thrown
out of work.

City.
Number. Per cent Number. Per cent
of total.
of total.
New York...............................................................................................
Chicago...................................................................................................
Allegheny and Pittsburg..................................................... ............
Philadelphia..........................................................................................
Fifteen other cities............................................ ................................
All other localities...............................................................................

33,161
17,176
5,432
5,045
15,150
41,545

28.22
962,470
14.62
593,000
4.62
175,795
4.29
197,538
12.89
562,705
35.36 3,614,186

15.76
9.71
2.88
3.24
9.22
59.19

Total..............................................................................................

117,509

100.00 6,105,694

100.00




STBIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1107

The table immediately preceding forms the basis of the following
charts:
C h a r t 6 .—Per cent of establishments involved in strikes in 20 leading cities of total
establishments involved in strikes during 20 years, 1881 to 1900.
C h a r t 7 . — Per cent of employees thrown out of work by strikes in 20 leading cities of
total employees thrown out of work during 20 years, 1881 to 1900.

C h a r t 6.

C h a r t 7.

joo

Out of the total of 22,793 strikes which occurred in the United
States during the twenty-year period 10,723, or 47.05, per cent, occurred
in 20 cities and 7,942, or 34.84 per cent, in the five cities, New York,
Chicago, Allegheny, Pittsburg, and Philadelphia. Of the establish­
ments involved in these strikes, as shown by the chart, 28.22 per cent
were in strikes in New York City; 14.62 per cent in strikes in Chicago;
4.62 per cent in strikes in Allegheny and Pittsburg; 4.29 percent in
strikes in Philadelphia, and 12.89 per cent in strikes in 15 other cities.
It is thus seen that 64.64 per cent of establishments involved in strikes
in the United States during the period were located in 20 cities, while
but 35.36 per cent were located in the rest of the country. Likewise
it is seen that of the total number of employees thrown out of work
by strikes during the period, 15.76 per cent were thrown out of work
by strikes in New York City; 9.71 per cent by strikes in Chicago; 2.88
per cent by strikes in Allegheny and Pittsburg; 3.24 per cent by strikes
in Philadelphia, and 9.22 per cent by strikes in 15 other cities. Of
the total number of employees thrown out of work by strikes, 40.81
per cent were thrown out of work by strikes in the 20 cities, while
59.19 per cent were thrown out of work by strikes in the remainder
of the country. Further investigation shows that the wage loss to
employees through strikes in the 20 cities was $76,637,571 as against
$257,863,478 for the entire country; the loss to employers was
$56,058,702 as against $122,731,121; and the assistance to employees by
labor organizations was $8,537,350 as against $16,174,793. The pro­
portion of the total wage loss in these cities was, therefore, 29.72 per
cent, while that of the employers’ losses was 45.68 per cent. The



1108

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

assistance rendered strikers in these cities was 52.78 per cent of the
total amount of assistance rendered to strikers in the entire country.
These 20 cities contained 25.32 per cent of all the manufacturing
establishments in the country, and employed 35.47 per cent of the
capital invested in the manufacturing and mechanical industries of
the United States, according to the reports of the Twelfth Census.
In certain previous charts the data relative to strikes have been clas­
sified according to whether they referred to strikes ordered by labor
organizations or not so ordered. The following charts have been con­
structed for the purpose of summarizing the most important facts
relating to the strikes, establishments involved, and employees thrown
out of work, as ordered and not ordered by labor organizations:
C h a r t 8 .—Percent of strikes ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered
during 20 years, 1881 to 1900.
C h a r t 9 .-—Per cent of employees thrown out of work by strikes ordered by labor
organizations and not so ordered during 20 years, 1881 to 1900.

C h a r t 8.

C h a r t 9.

These charts show that of the total number of strikes which occurred
during the twenty-year period, 63.46 per cent were ordered by labor
organizations and 36.54 per cent were not so ordered, and of the
total number of employees thrown out of work by strikes during the
20-y.ear period, 73.82 per cent were thrown out of work by strikes
ordered by labor organizations and 26.18 per cent by strikes not so
ordered.
Of the total number of establishments involved in strikes, 88.15 per
cent were in strikes ordered by labor organizations while 11.85 per
cent were in strikes not so ordered. It is interesting to note that
quite a large proportion of the establishments involved in strikes
during the period were compelled to cease work temporarily on this
account. Of the total number of establishments involved in strikes
during the period, 65.73 per cent were closed on account of strikes




STRIKES AND LOOKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

while 34.27 per cent were not closed.
constructed to bring out these facts:

1109

The following charts have been

Chart 10 . — P er cent of esta b lish m en ts in v o lv e d in strikes ordered b y la b o r organ i­
zations an d n o t so ord ered d u rin g 20 years, 1881 to 1900.

Chart 11 . — P er cent of esta b lish m en ts closed on accou n t o f strik es of to ta l e sta b lish ­
m e n ts in v o lv e d in strikes d u rin g 20 years, 1881 to 1900.

C h a r t 10.

C h a r t 11.

The following three tables furnishing data respectively by years,
by industries, and by States relative to the wage loss of employees,
and the loss to employers on account of strikes, and the assistance
rendered to the employees by labor organizations, form the basis for
an interesting series of charts:
WAGE LOSS OF EMPLOYEES, ASSISTANCE TO EMPLOYEES BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS,
YEARS, 1881 TO 1900.

Year.

1881.
1882.
1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1893.
1899.
1900.

Assistance to
Wage loss of employees Employers’
employees. by labor or­
loss.
ganizations.
$3,372,578
9,864,228
6,274,480
7,666,717
10,663,248
14,992,453
16,560,534
6,377, 749
10,409,686
13,875,338
14,801,505.
10, 772, 622
9,938,048
37,145,532
13,044,830
11,098,207
17,468, 904
10,037,284
15,157,965
18,341,570

Total




$287,999
734,339
461,233
407,871
465,827
1,122,130
1,121,554
1,752,668
592,017
910,285
1,132,557
833,874
563,183
931,052
559,165
462,165
721,164
585,228
1,096,030
1,434,452

$1,919,483
4,269,094
4, 696,027
3,393, 073
4, 388,893
12,357,808
6,698,495
6,509,017
2,936,752
5,135,404
6,176, 688
5,145,691
3,406,195
18,982,129
5,072,282
5,304,235
4,868,687
4,596, 462
7,443,407
9,431, 2£9

257,863,478

16,174,793

122,731,121

1110

BULLETIK OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

WAGE LOSS OF EMPLOYEES, ASSISTANCE TO EMPLOYEES BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS,
AND EMPLOYERS’ LOSS IN STRIKES, BY INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1900.

Industry.

Assistance
Wage loss to employ­
of employ­ ees by labor Employers’
loss.
ees.
organizations.

Boots and shoes........................
Building trades........................
Clothing.......................................
Coal and coke............................
Cotton and woolen goods.......
Food preparations....................
Furniture...................................
G lass............................................
Machines and machinery___
Metals and metallic goods___
Printing and publishing.......
Public ways and works......... .
Stone quarrying and cutting.
Tobacco.......................................
Transportation..........................
Wooden goods.................„.........
All other industries..................

$7,669,062
20,452,292
10,424,709
106,503,470
12,798,427
2,239,476
1,996,587
7,492,419
3,929,672
29,929,510
1,829,183
842,941
6,840,849
7,517,709
13,517,259
1,814,344
22,065,569

$598,881
1,808,483
534,228
2,393,107
412,457
76,919
259,254
1,033,940
611,484
2,108,318
530,236
28,401
562,261
1,610,440
2,038, 757
167,407
1,400,220

$3,321,637
9,613,624
3,121,604
30,870,466
4,820,058
1,541,239
1,051,009
2,144,136
3,673,825
10,941,990
1,511,026
296,339
2,678,616
2,840,112
27,531,256
2,500,982
14,273,202

T otal.................................

257,863,478

16,174,793

122,731,121

WAGE LOSS OF EMPLOYEES, ASSISTANCE TO EMPLOYEES BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS,
AND EMPLOYERS’ LOSS IN STRIKES, BY STATES, 1881 TO 1900.

State.

Assistance
Wage loss of to employ­
ees bylabor
employees.
organiza­
tions.

cnployers
loss.

A labam a...........
California..........
Colorado...........
Connecticut___
Florida..............
Georgia...............
Illinois...............
In d ian a.............
Io w a ................. .
K entucky..........
M aine.................
M aryland..........
Massachusetts...
Michigan............
Minnesota.........
Missouri.............
New Hampshire
New Jersey........
New Y o rk ..........
Ohio.....................
Pennsylvania ..
Rhode Islan d ...
Tennessee.........
T e x a s .................
Virginia.............
West Virginia..
Wisconsin..........
All pther States

$3,394,600
2,422,112
4,960,913
1,546,245
2,511,798
973,557
32,390,065
7.044.635
2,891,489
3,992,370
1,426,906
3.023.636
15,459,873
3,728,540
1,532,280
4,811, 386
520,235
6,389,023
30,993,325
15,963,320
84', 123,837
1,684,258
4,459,977
1,074,373
472,767
6,230,505
3,575,372
10,266,081

$60,247
264,556
150.026
171,285
449,768
69,738
3,053,273
275,992
95,091
171.026
77,210
160,180
1,244,778
259,359
71,927
380,416
23,507
612,832
3,069,239
853,995
3,229,181
81,969
242,699
50,510
30,436
210,130
347,879
467,544

$821,298
1,607,532
4,198,270
1,043,344
1,007,476
681,304
26,652,943
2,483,821
1,266,110
1,254,815
369, 784
1,377,287
6,571,484
1,626,000
1,693,870
6,055,139
125,243
2,530,424
16,044,601
7,572, 758
24,236,204
942,865
1,576,920
1,003,910
273,695
1,498,490
3,058,567
5,156,967

T otal........

257,863,478

16,174,793

122,731,121

From these tables there were constructed the following charts,
reproductions of which are given herewith.
C h a r t 1 2 —Wage loss of employees, assistance to employees by labor organizations,
and employers’ loss in strikes, by years, 1881 to 1900.
C h a r t I S .—Wage loss of employees, assistance to employees by labor organizations,
and employers’ loss in strikes, by industries, 1881 to 1900.
C h a r t 1 4 .—Wage loss of employees, assistance to employees by labor organiza­
tions, and employers’ loss in strikes, by States, 1881 to 1900







Labor Bui. 54
Wa g e L o s s o f E m p l o y e e s . A s s is t a n c e t o E m p lo y ees b y L abor O rg an ization s ,
a n d E m p lo y er s ' Lo s s in S t r ik e s . 1881 to 1900 ( in m il l io n s or d o l l a r s J.
BY Y E A R S.

M OE ' L S.
P R
A O o E PO E
G S
YS
VA S | 5 1 1 2 2 3W5E0L5 S 5r C ML?E7. 8 8 9 9 1 1 5 1E5 L Y1S0 OSC YA S
EP
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-

CHART

12

C H ART 13

—

—

—

—

—

Labor Bui. 54
NA^ge: L o s s o r E m p lo ye e s , A s s is t a n c e to E mployees b y L abor Organizations, and Employers’
L o s s in S trikes , b y S t a t e s , 18 SB to 1 9 0 0
\A / A G E

STA TE .
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—

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C o n n e c t ic u t
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C H AR T 14




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—

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W e s t V irg in ia
W isc o n sin
A ll o th e r S t a t e s

i

STRIKES AND LOOKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1111

These three charts involve some of the most important features of
the statistics of strikes—the losses of employees and employers as the
result of industrial disturbances of this character. It should be kept
in mind, however, in considering these figures, that they represent the
immediate, and in many instances only tem p ora l, losses. The com­
putation of wage losses was of necessity based solely on the number of
employees thrown out of work, their average wages, and the number of
working days which elapsed before they were reemployed by their
former employers or elsewhere. In many industries, however, the
working days per year average somewhat less than the possible three
hundred and thirteen days, owing to seasons of entire or partial cessa­
tion of work, while many causes, such as sickness, voluntary lay-offs,
etc., operate to prevent employees from working full time even when
the opportunity is offered. These facts could not of course be con­
sidered in the computation of losses either to employees or to employers,
although it is often found that a strike in a particular establishment is
followed by a period of unusual activity, during which both the
employees and the employer make up a portion and sometimes all of
the time lost on account of the strike.
Bearing in mind, therefore, the fact that a certain proportion of
these losses are but temporary, attention is directed first to the table
and chart showing the figures for losses on account of strikes, and
assistance rendered to strikers, arranged by years. It is shown that
the entire wage loss for the twenty-year period by reason of strikes
amounted to the enormous sum of $257,863,478, making an average
wage loss of $42 to every employee involved in strikes during the
period. The figures for lockouts, as ascertained by the Bureau,
indicate a much greater loss per employee on account of the latter
class of disturbances, the average loss being $97 to each employee
involved. The greatest wage loss to employees on account of strikes
in any one year was in 1894, when it amounted to $37,145,532—a loss
more than double that in any other year of the period. The entire
amount of assistance rendered employees on strike by their labor
organizations during the twenty-year period was $16,174,793—a sum
representing but 6.27 per cent of the total wage loss incurred. The
loss to employers during the period on account o f strikes is shown to
have been $122,731,121. I f the number of establishments involved
in strikes during the twenty-year period be considered in this connec­
tion it is seen that the average loss per establishment was $1,044.
These losses were due in a large measure to the inability of employers
to fill contracts by reason of the cessation of production and on account
of the property losses entailed during strikes. The greatest firm loss
in any year ($18,982,129) is shown for 1894, which was also the year
of greatest wage loss on account of strikes.
The distribution by industries of losses to employees and employers,




1112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

and assistance to employees, is clearly shown by Chart 13 and the table
upon which it is based. It is seen that of the total wage loss of
employees ($257,863,478) during the twenty-year period, $106,503,470,
or 41.30 per cent* was incurred by workmen in the coal and coke
industry; $29,929,510, or 11.61 per cent, by those in the metal and
metallic goods industry; $20,452,292, or 7.93 per cent, by those in the
building trades; $13,517,259, or 5.24 per cent, by those in the trans­
portation industry; $12,798,427, or 4.96 per cent, by those in the cotton
and woolen goods industry, etc. The total wage losses incurred by
employees in the five above-mentioned classifications amounted to
$183,200,958, or 71.04 per cent of the entire wage losses during the
period. Likewise, the greatest losses to employers on account of
strikes were in these five industries, the figures being $30,870,466, or
25.15 per cent of the total loss to employers during the period, in the
coal and coke industry; $27,531,256, or 22.43 per cent, in the transpor­
tation industry; $10,941,990, or 8.92 per cent, in the metal and metallic
goods industry; $9,613,624, or 7.83 per cent, in the building trades;
and $4,820,058, or 3.93 per cent, in the cotton and woolen goods indus­
try. The total of the employers’ losses in the five classifications
amounted to $83,777,394, or 68.26 per cent of the entire loss k>
employers during the period.
Chart 14, showing in a similar manner the distribution of losses
and assistance, by States, also presents features of great interest. The
table on which this chart was based shows that of the total wage loss
($257,863,478) during the period $84,123,837, or 32.62 per cent, was
incurred by employees involved in strikes in the State of Pennsylvania;
$32,390,065, or 12.56 per cent, in Illinois; $30,993,325, or 12.02 per
cent, in New York; $15,963,320, or 6.19 per cent, in Ohio; $15,459,873,
or 6 per cent, in Massachusetts, etc. It is thus seen that the total
wage losses incurred by employees on strike in the States of Penn­
sylvania, Illinois, New York, Ohio, and Massachusetts amounted to
$178,930,420, or 69.39 per cent of the entire loss to employees during
the period. The greatest financial assistance to employees on strike
was also rendered by their labor organizations in these States, the total
amount, $11,450,466, being 70.79 per cent of the amount of $16,174,793
representing the aggregate of the assistance rendered strikers in the
entire country during the period. Likewise the loss to employers in
these States formed a large proportion of the total loss to employers
throughout the country during the twenty years. O f the entire loss
to employers ($122,731,121), $26,652,943, or 21.72 per cent, was
incurred by employers in the State of Illinois; $24,236,204, or 19.75
per cent, by those in Pennsylvania; $16,044,601, or 13.07 per cent, by
those in New York; $7,572,758, or 6.17 per cent, by those in Ohio,
and $6,571,484, or 5.35 per cent, by those in Massachusetts. The total
loss to employers in the five States mentioned amounted to $81,077,990,




STRIKES AND LOOKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1113

or 66.06 per cent of the entire loss in the United States during the
period.
The distribution of losses and assistance in the twenty cities princi­
pally affected by strikes has already been shown.
The proportion which the three items of employees’ loss, employers’
loss, and assistance to employees bear to each other is well shown in
the following chart:
C h a r t 1 5 .—Per cent of wage loss of employees, assistance to employees by labor
organizations, and employers’ loss in strikes during 20 years, 1881 to 1900.

C h a r t 15.

Of the total amount shown for these
three items ($396,769,392), $257,863,478, or 64.99 per cent, represents the
wage loss of employees on account of
strikes during the twenty-year period;
$16,174,793, or 4.08 per cent, the
assistance rendered to employees by
labor organizations, and$122,731,121,
or 30.93 per cent, the loss of employ­
ers.
The following five tables, furnish­
ing data as to the results of strikes,
form the basis of the final series of
charts relating to this subject:

RESULTS OF STRIKES ORDERED-BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND NOT SO ORDERED, BY
YEARS, 1881 TO 1900.
[This table does not include results for 37 establishments where strikes were still pending, etc., and
for 10 strikes involving 104 establishments for which information was not obtainable as to whether
ordered or not ordered by labor organizations.]

Year.

Per cent of establishments in Number Per cent of establishments in
Number
which strikes ordered by of strikes which strikes not ordered by
of strikes labor organization—
labor organizations—
not or­
ordered
dered by
by labor
Suc­
labor or­
Suc­
Suc­
organiza­
Suc­
Failed.
ganiza­ ceeded. ceeded
Failed.
ceeded
tions.
ceeded.
partly.
tions.
partly.

1881.............................
1882..............................
1883..............................
1884.............................
1885.............................
1886.............................
1887.............................
1888..............................
1889..............................
1890..............................

222
218
271
239
361

65.61
56.38
64.26
55.79
63.70

6.46
9.56
18.39
3.26
10.50

27.93
34.06
17.35
40.95
25.80

249
236
207
204
284

48.25
44.75
26.25
30.79
26.20

8.67
3.76
4.07
6.90
7.08

43. 08
51.49
69. 68
62. 31
66.72

760
952
616
724
1,306

33.49
48.38
56.17
45.61
53.99

20.46
7.19
4.99
21.37
10.17

46.05
44.43
•38.84
33.02
35.84

672
483
288
351
525

41.65
26.96
25.00
49.93
39.86

7.38
7.24
8.86
9.26
8.45

50. 97
65. 80
66.14
40.81
51.69

1891.............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894.............................
1895.............................

1,284
918
906
847
658

38.46
39.33
53.94
37.35
59.25

8.10
8.75
10.89
13.67
10.05

53.44
51.92
35.17
48.98
30.70

432
380
399
501
555

36.76
39.19
28.42
43.94
27.21

11.68
8.16
6.19
12.12
9.18

51.56
52. 65
65.39
43.94
63.61

1896.............................
1897..............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900..............................

662
596
638
1,115
1,164

62.47
59.67
69.72
76.33
48.06

6.55
29.51
6.15
14.19
21.95

30.98
10.82
24.13
9.48
29.99

363
482
418
682
615

29.93
30.83
33.96
36.56
29.94

15.69
12.54
7.64
14.92
7.03

54.38
56.63
58. 40
48.52
63.03

T otal...............

14,457

52.86

13.60

33.54

8,326

35.56

9.05

55.39




1114

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB,

RESULTS OF STRIKES ORDERED BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AND NOT SO ORDERED, BY
INDUSTRIES, 1881 TO 1900.
[This table does not include results for 37 establishments where strikes were still pending, etc., and
for 10 strikes involving 104 establishments, for which information was not obtainable as to whether
ordered or not ordered by labor organizations.]
Per cent of establish­ Number Per cent of establish­
Number
ments
in
which
ments
in
which
of
of
strikes not ordered by
strikes ordered by
strikes
strikes
labor organizations—
labor organizations— not or­
ordered
dered by
by labor
Suc­
labor
Suc­
organiza­ Suc­ ceeded Failed.
Suc­
organiza­ ceeded. ceeded Failed.
tions. ceeded. partly.
partly.
tions.

Industry.

Boots and shoes..............................
Building trades........ .....................
Clothing..........................................
Coal and c o k e ...............................
Cotton and woolen goods...........
Food preparations........................
Furniture................... .....................
Glass..................................................
Machines and machinery...........
Metals and metallic goods.........
Printing and publishing.............
Public ways and works...............
Stone quarrying and cutting....
T obacco.................................
Transportation..............................
Wooden goods...............................
All other industries.....................

639
3,989
1,365
1,303
211
308
333
188
300
1,055
657
105
612
1,102
554
227
1,509

40.59
55.24
74.02
18.54
21.97
66.68
35.09
46.22
57.95
51.78
42.39
60.17
52.33
41.93
54.07
36.88
47.08

9.56
13.18
7.83
33.59
18.28
1.77
10.75
8.72
10.64
10.22
10.08
13.85
19.23
6.11
10.86
2.85
16.41

49.85
31.58
18.15
47.87
59.75
31.55
54.16
45.06
31.41
38.00
47.53
25.98
28.44
51.96
35.07
60.27
36.51

223
451
273
1,209
922
100
72
186
152
1,024
108
503
244
407
708
67
1,677

34.54
52.23
55.20
33.44
23.99
39.35
14.12
19.76
25.15
28.09
29.71
35.30
51.85
60.52
32.66
14.95
29.58

4.82
9.21
4.83
10.23
11.67
3.70
7.06
5.54
10.78
9.97
2.17
11.82
6.17
11.04
9.70
7.98

60.64
38.16
39.97
56.33.
64.34
56. 95
78.82
74.70
64.07
61.94
68.12
52.88
41.98
28.44
57.64
85.05
62.44

Total.......................................

14,457

52.86

13.60

33.64

8,326

35.56

9.05

55.39

RESULTS OF STRIKES, BY STATES, 1881 TO 1900.
[This table does not include results for 37 establishments in which strikes were still pending, etc.]
Establishments in which strikes—
State.

Strikes.
Suc­
ceeded.

Suc­
ceeded
partly.

Failed.

Total.

Per cent of establishments
in which strikes—
Suc­
ceeded.

Suc­
ceeded
partly.

Failed.

Alabama.....................
California...................
Colorado.....................
Connecticut.............
F lorida.......................
Georgia.......................
Illinois........................
Indiana................. .
Io w a............................
Kentucky..................
Maine..........................
Maryland...................
Massachusetts.........
M ichigan...................
Minnesota.................
Missouri.....................
New Hampshire___
New Jersey ...............
New York...................
O h io............................
Pennsylvania...........
Rhode Island...........
Tennessee.................
Texas..........................
V irgin ia....................
West Virginia...........
W isconsin.................
All other States........

210
341
213
586
231
190
2,640
552
351
223
172
242
1,705
344
383
406
128
805
6,460
1,571
2,846
199
236
144
115
180
556
764

110
347
227
389
423
71
11,643
504
451
447
71
514
2,163
495
875
1,243
48
1,274
25,869
2,017
7,066
118
170
347
107
175
986
1,488

56
57
101
73
226
95
1,733
536
125
145
38
179
1,003
141
218
612
32
.775
2,658
1,089
4,254
41
75
77
35
163
309
479

328
543
505
559
206
412
7,407
924
832
302
145
356
1,929
538
540
1,661
110
1,160
9,302
2,602
7,118
250
407
150
107
423
1,273
2,420

494
947
833
1,021
855
578
20,783
1,964
1,408
894
254
1,049
5,095
1,174
1,633
3,516
190
3,209
37,829
5,708
18,438
409
652
574
249
761
2,568
4,387

22.27
36.64
27.25
38.10
49.48
12.28
56.02
25.66
32.03
50.00
27.95
49.00
42.45
42.16
53.58
35.35
25.26
39.70
68.38
35.34
38.32
28.85
26.08
60.45
42.97
23.00
38.40
33.92

11.33
6.02
12.13
7.15
26.43
16.44
8.34
27.29
8.88
16.22
14.96
17.06
19.69
12.01
13.35
17.41
16.84
24.15
7.03
19.08
23.07
10.02
11.50
13.42
14.06
21.42
12.03
10.92

66.40
57.34
60.62
54.75
24.09
71.28
35.64
47.05
59.09
33.78
67.09
33.94
37.86
45.83
33.07
47.24
57.90
36.15
24.59
45.58
38.61
61.13
62.42
26.13
42.97
55.58
49.57
55.16

Total.................

22,793

59,638

15,325

42,509

117,472

50.77

13.04

36.19




Res u lts

of

S

t r ik e s

and not




O rder ed

by

L a b o r O r g a n iz a t io n s ,

s o O r d e r e d , 1881 t o 1 9 0 0 .
BY Y E A R S .

. PHQTO-LITHO., WASHINGTON, D. C.

Res u lts

of

S




O rdered b y L a b o r O r g a n iz a t io n s ,
so O r d e r e d , 1881 t o 1 9 0 0 .

t r ik e s

and not

BY INDUSTRIES.

■

-S u cce co e o .

* S ucceeded Partlv.

Q

- ^ ed.
THE NORRIS PETERS CO. PHOTO-1 IlHO. WASHINGTON. D. C.

R e s u l t s or S

t r ik e s , b y
PER

CENT

or

S U C C E E D E D .-

S

tates.

1861

E S T A B L IS H M E N T S
SUCCEEDED
40

-50.

to

IN

W H IC H

PARTLY.
JO .

AND
_70_

A labam a
C a lif o r n ia
C o lo rado
C o n n e c t i c u t _____

r lorida__________
G e o r g ia ___________ l
Il lin o is _____________
In d i a n a
Iowa
K e n tu c k y
M a in e
M
M

a r y l a n d ______
a s s a c h u s etts

M ic h ig a n _________
M in n e s o t a _______
M is s o u r i ______
N e w H a m p s h ir e
N e w J e r s e y ___
N e w V b R K _____
O hio
P e n n s y l v a n ia
R h o d e Is l a n d .
T c n n c s s e c — _____
T exas.
V ir g in ia
W e s t V irginia
■W isconsin
A l l o t h e r S t a t e s _____________

TgTA^,




1900.

RlS PETERS

S T R IK E S

TAILED .
80.

J f l-

100

R

esults

o r S t r ik e s

E mployees T

to

1881

to

B B = Succexoed

R esults

= S ucceeded Rsrtly

S t r ik e s U n d e r t a k e n

of

W

h r o w n o u t of

ork,

1900, by Y e a r s .

EZH=Failf.d

for

F iv e L e a d in g C a u s e s ,

1881 t o 1 9 0 0 .
PER

C A U SE OR

O B JE C T.

C E N T O F E S T A B L I S H M E N T S IN W H I C H S T R I K E S
S U C C E E D E D , S U C C E E D E D P A R T L Y A N D F A IL E D .
10

FOR

IN C R E A S E

A G A IN S T

OF

R E D U C T IO N

FOR

R E D U C T IO N

FOR

LABOR

OTHER

30

OF

40

50

OF

W AGES

60

-

H O U R S ________

70

: —

S T R I K E S _______________

-

C A U S E S _______________ ____

80

90




_
_

-

100

—

:-

~

-

l

- j
_

_
_
-

T O T A i---------------------------------I= Succeeded

_

U N IO N IS M _________________

S Y M P A T H E T IC
ALL

20

W A G E S ___________

-

—
9 H * Succeeded Partly
NORRIS PETERS CO., PHOTO-LITHO.. WASHINGTON. O. C.

STRIKES AND LOOKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1115

RESULTS OF STRIKES TO EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY YEARS, 1881 TO 1900.
[This table does not include results for employees in 37 establishments in which strikes were still
pending, etc.]
Employees Per cent of employees thrown out
of work by strikes which—
thrown
out of
work by Succeeded. Succeeded
Failed.
partly.
strikes.

Year.

1881...........................................................................................
1882 .........................................................................................
1883
..................................................................................
1884..................................................... .....................................
1885............................................................................................

129,521
154,671
149,763
147,054
242,705

42.93
29.58
36.82
35.86
47.54

13.50
4.60
11.37
3.43
9.83

43.57
65.82
51.81
60. 71
42.63

1886...........................................................- ..............................
1887............................................................................................
1888
......................................................................................
1889 ........................................................................................
1890............................................................................................

507,796
379,676
147,704
249,559
351,912

38.48
33.60
27.83
28.89
45.12

14.61
6.97
7.54
25.09
13.77

46.91
59.43
64.63
46.02
41.11

1891............................................................................................
1892............................................................................................
1893............................................................................................
1894............................................................................................
1895............................................................................................

298,939
206,671
264,524
660,425
392,403

27.02
29.58
23.44
17.79
39.86

7.65
7.95
15.79
20.83
11.14

65.33
62.47
60.77
61.38
49.00

1896............................................................................................
1897............................................................................................
1898............................................................................................
1899................................. ............. ...........................................
1900.....................................„.... ..............................................

241,170
408,391
249.002
417,072
504.002

41.39
38.90
43.64
54.48
28.81

14.31
37.29
9.24
14.30
38.75

44.30
23.81
47.12
31.22
32.44

T otal...................... .......... ............ ..............................

6,102,960

35.02

16.72

48.26

RESULTS OF STRIKES UNDERTAKEN FOR FIVE LEADING CAUSES, 1881 TO 1900.
[This table does not include results for 37 establishments in which strikes were still pending., etc.]
Establishments in­ Per cent of establishments in
volved in strikes.
which strikes—
Cause or object of strike.
Succeed­ Succeed­
Number. Per cent.
ed partly.
ed.

Failed.

For increase of wages.....................................................
Against reduction of w ages..................................... ... .
For reduction of hours....................................................
For labor unionism (or against nonunionism)........
Sympathetic strikes.........................................................
All other causes................................................................

52,117
9,173
13,116
8,209
4,075
30,782

44.35
7.81
11.16
6
.99
3.47
26.22

55.27
38.06
49.43
45.39
25.03
52.35

26.35
12.07
8 66
.
3.39
2.33
10.14

18.38
49.87
41.91
51.22
72.64
37.51

T otal.........................................................................

117,472

10 0
0 .0

50.77

13.04

36.19

From these tables were constructed the following charts, reproduc­
tions of which are given opposite page 1114:
Chart 16. — R e su lts

of strikes ord ered b y la b o r organizations a n d n o t so ordered,

b y years, 1881 to 1900.

Chart 17.— R e su lts

of strikes ord ered b y lab o r organ ization s an d n o t so ord ered ,

b y industries, 1881 to 1900.

Chart 18. — R e su lts
Chart 19.— R e su lts

o f strikes, b y States, 1881 to 1900.
of strikes to e m p lo y e e s th r o w n ou t of w o rk , b y years, 1881 to

1900.

Chart 20.— R e su lts

of strikes u n d erta k e n for 5 lea d in g causes, 1881 to 1900.

Chart 16 and the table upon which it is based take up separately
strikes ordered by labor organizations and not so ordered, showing
for each the per cent of establishments in which the strike succeeded,
succeeded partly, and failed. A total of 14,457 strikes were ordered
1(W 3 - N o . 54— 0 4 ------- 11




1116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

by labor organizations as against 8,326 not so ordered. Of the former,
success was gained in 52.86 per cent of the establishments involved,
partial success was gained in 13.60 per cent, while in 33.54 per cent
the strikes failed. In the strikes not ordered by labor organizations,
success was gained in only 35.56 per cent of the establishments
involved, partial success in 9.05 per cent, while in 55.39 per cent the
strikes failed. An examination of the data for each of the years of
the period shows practically similar results as regards the strikes
ordered and not ordered by labor organizations. In each year of the
period except 1891 and 1892 it is found that the majority of the strikes
ordered by labor organizations resulted in at least partial success for
the strikers, and while a large proportion of the strikes not ordered by
labor organizations were also successful, it is quite clear that strikes
carried on under the auspices of labor organizations were more gener­
ally successful than those not so assisted. Taking into consideration
all strikes which occurred during the twenty-year period, the report
of the bureau shows that success was gained in 50.77 per cent of the
establishments involved, partial success was gained in 13.04 per cent,
while the strikes failed in 36.19 per cent.
Chart 17 shows similar facts by industries for strikes ordered and
not ordered by labor organizations, while chart 18, showing the data
by States, differs somewhat, inasmuch as it does not show the facts
separately for strikes ordered and not ordered by labor organizations.
The next chart, 19, shows the results of strikes, so far as employees are
concerned, for each year of the period ending with 1900. It is seen
that of the 6,102,960 employees thrown out of work in establishments
for which the results of strikes were reported, 35.02 per cent were
thrown out by strikes which succeeded, 16.72 percent by strikes which
succeeded partly, and 48.26 per cent by strikes which failed.
Chart 20 summarizes the results of strikes undertaken for leading
causes, showing for each of the five leading causes of strikes the per
cent of establishments in which strikes succeeded, succeeded partly,
and failed. It is also shown that during the period 44.35 per cent of
all strikes involved a demand for increase of wages, while 7.81 were
undertaken to prevent a reduction of wages. In 11.16 per cent the
demand was for a reduction in hours, in 6.99 per cent for labor union­
ism, while 3.47 per cent of strikes were undertaken in sympathy with
striking employees in other establishments. It is thus seen that in
73.78 per cent of the establishments involved in strikes the strike was
undertaken for one of the five causes mentioned above, while but
26.22 per cent of establishments were involved in strikes which were
undertaken for all other causes combined. It is also shown by this
chart that the strikes for increase of wages, which involved over 44
per cent of the total number of establishments in which strikes




STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1117

occurred during the period, succeeded in 55.27 per cent of the estab­
lishments, met with partial success in 26.35 per cent, while they failed
in but 18.38 per cent. Strikes undertaken to prevent a reduction of
wages, however, were not so successful, success being entirely gained in
but 38.06 per cent of the establishments involved, partial success being
gained in 12.07 per cent, while failure resulted in 49.87 per cent. The
strikes for reduction of hours failed in but 41.91 per cent of the estab­
lishments involved, while those for labor unionism failed in 51.22 per
cent. A much greater percentage is recorded for sympathetic strikes,
such strikes meeting with absolute failure in as large a proportion as
72.64 per cent of the establishments involved.
The final chart of the series, 21, “ Per cent of strikes undertaken
for leading causes during twenty years, 1881 to 1900,” which immedi­
ately follows, brings out very clearly the proportion of strikes under­
taken for each of the causes previously mentioned, as compared with
the entire number of strikes for all causes during the period.




C h a r t 21.




WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE, 1890 TO 1903.
B Y G. W . W . HANGER.

A review of the work of the Bureau of Labor discloses the fact that
in almost every report there is found more or less space given to the
important subject of wages. One of the most interesting of its collec­
tions of data of this character is that published in the Bulletin for
September, 1898, consisting of data for certain skilled trades in leading
cities in the United States and in Europe for each year of the period
from 1870 to 1898. Twenty-five occupations, susceptible of accurate
definition and common to each of the countries canvassed, were included
in the statement and an effort was made to secure data for each from
leading cities in the United States, Great Britain, France, and Bel­
gium.
In considering the preparation of the exhibition of the Bureau at
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition it was concluded that the abovementioned data were not available because of the fact that recent years
were not covered, and it was therefore decided to undertake the col­
lection of representative figures for Europe for the period from 1890
to 1903. The number of occupations covered was limited to 13 impor­
tant and well-defined trades, and the inquiry was prosecuted not only
in Great Britain, France, and Belgium, but also in Germany. The
inquiry was extended to cover hours of labor as well as wages.
The figures for the United States which it was designed to bring
into comparison with this collection of foreign data were the result of
an extensive investigation into wages, hours of labor, etc., upon
which the Bureau had been engaged for the past two or three years
and which was just nearing completion.
The results of these investigations, which it is believed are thor­
oughly representative of the course of wages and hours of labor in the
various countries and which also indicate the level of wages in the
same occupation, are given in the table following.
The exhibit of the Bureau, so far as it covers wages and hours of
labor, consists of 13 charts, each of which clearly indicates for an occu­
pation the trend as well as the level of wages and hours of labor in each
of the countries covered. Reproductions of these charts accompany
the table.




1119

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

1120

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE, 1890 TO 1903.
B L A C K S M IT H S .
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Year.

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.

United
States.
(a)

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France.

$0.2677
.2681
.2672
.2677
.2617
. 2602
.2643
.2604
.2587
.2637
.2685
.2757
.2844
.2951

SO 1652
.
.1650
.1671
.1654
.1674
.1695
.1716
.1740
.1747
.1770
.1724
.1722
.1742
.1740

SO 1175
.
.1099
.1129
.1101
.1020
.1069
.1136
.1209
.1129
.1173
.1300
.1235
.1228
.1237

SO.1474
.1474
.1474
.1474
.1573
.1573
.1573
.1608
.1617
.1617
.1617
.1617
.1617
.1629

Bel­
gium.

#

United
States.
(°)
59.41
59.20
59.37
59.03
58.68
59.18
58.93
58.96
59.20
58.98
58.87
57.78
57.17 56.56

Great
Britain.
54.00
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67

Ger­
many.

France.

62.00
67.50
61.94
61.95
61.88
61. 38
61.38
59. 88
62.50
59. 99
60.00
60.00
58. 49
59.90

Bel­
gium.

60.34
60.34
60.34
60. 34
60.34
60. 34
60. 34
60.34
60.34
60. 34
60. 34
60.34
60.34
60.19

B O IL E R M A K E R S .
Wages per hour.
Year.

1890...........
1891...........
1892...........
1893...........
1894...........
1895...........
1896...........
1897...........
1898...........
1899...........
1900...........
1901...........
1902...........
1903...........

Hours per week.

United
States.

Ger­
many
Great
Britain. (Berlin
only).

France.

Bel­
gium.

SO.2594
.2577
.2585
.2583
.2614
.2629
.2626
.2607
.2617
.2654
.2773
.2794
.2800
.2848

SO 1595
.
.1603
.1711
.1646
.1636
.1645
.1683
.1677
.1727
.1744
.1736
.1735
.1737
.1719

SO.0986
.0881
.0931
.0912
.0892
.0955
.0961
.0937
.1024
.1059
.1091
.1088
.1055
.1123

SO.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
. 1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1455
.1455
.1455

SO.0742
.0735
.0735
.0749
.0745
.0746
.0749
.0749
.0749
.0749
.0746
- .0751
.0751
.0753

United
States.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many
(Berlin
only).

France.

59.25
59.23
58.88
58.39
58.45
58.47
58.02
58.11
58.30
58.06
57.36
56.82
56.33
56.24

54.00
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67

64.00
75.00
64.00
64.00
64.00
63.00
63.00
68.00
68.00
64.00
60.00
60.00
57.00
60.00

63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
61.50
61.50
61.50

Bel­
gium.

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

B R IC K L A Y E R S .
Wages per hour.
Year.

Hours per week.

United
States.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France.

Bel­
gium.

1890........... SO.4316
1891...........
.4365
1892...........
.4431
1893...........
.4436
1894...........
.4325
1895...........
.4367
1896...........
.4337
1897...........
.4361
1898...........
.4331
1899...........
.4597
.4672
1900...........
.4912
1901...........
1902..........
.5178
.5472
1903...........

SO.1757
.1791
.1859
.1859
..1892
.1892
.1960
.1994
.1994
.2028
.2028
.1994
.2062
.2062

SO.1103
.1096
.1092
.1094
.1098
.1062
.1155
.1166
.1236
.1247
.1274
.1303
.1299
.1328

SO.1277
.1277
.1277
.1277
.1277
.1277
.1277
.1325
.1325
.1325
.1325
.1325
.1325
.1325

SO 0700
.
.0693
.0686
.0687
.0681
.0683
.0670
.0677
.0729
.0731
.0782
.0821
.0820
.0845

United
States.

Great
Britain.

53.22
52.80
52.19
51.63
51.96
51.56
51.50
51.11
50.47
49.24
49.32
48.62
48.27
47.83

52.67
52.67
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51/83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83

Ger­
many.
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50

Bel­
France. gium.
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00

62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00

a The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for blacksmiths in the foundry and
machine shop industry only.




WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE.

1121

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE, 1890 TO 1903—Continued.
CARPENTERS.

Wages per hour.
Year.

United
Great
States. Britain.
(«)

Ger­
many.

France.

Bel­
gium.

SO.1690
.1757
.1791
.1791
.1791
.1825
.1893
.1926
.1926
.1994
.2028
. 2028
.2028
.2028

S . 1025
O
. 1042
.1010
.1015
.0998
.1043
.1085
.1090
.1105
.1188
. 1215
.1250
.1263
.1301

$0.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544

S . 0713
O
.0711
.0714
.0722
.0730
.0719
.0737
.0723
.0727
.0728
.0728
.0729
.0728
.0712

1890.......... SO.2713
.2730
1891.......
1892.......... ! .2825
. 2744
1893..........
1894..........
.2693
.2692
1895..........
1896..........
.2740
.2753
1897..........
1898..........
.2790
1899..........
.2839
1900..........
.3049
1901..........
.3190
1902-..........
.3403
1903..........
.3594

Hours per week.
1
l
United Great
GerStates. Britain. many, j France.
(a)
55.94
55.56
55.12
55.22
55.27
55.05
54.67
54.32
54.02
53.42
51.86
50.74
49.70
49.46

52.67
51.83
51.00
51.00
51.00
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17

59.41
59.49
59.28
59.36
59.45
59.26
59.05
56.17
55.89
55.79
55.47
55.37
55.48
55.30

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

Bel­
gium.
64.87
64.93
64.51
64.61
64.54
64.78
64.60
64. 68
64.67
64. 77
64.65
64. 71
64.77
64.73

C O M P O S IT O R S .
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Year.

1890...........
1891...........
1892...........
1893...........
1894...........
1895...........
1896...........
1897...........
1898...........
1899...........
1900...........
1901...........
1902...........
1903...........

Ger­
many
United
Great
States. Britain. (Nurem­ France.
berg
(*)
only).
SO.3980
.3997
.4013
.3933
.3796
.3827
.3897
.3925
.3934
.4086
.4071
.4252
.4352
.4467

SO.1572
.1651
.1689
.1692
.1693
.1689
.1695
.1697
.1697
.1699
.1699
.1730
.1768
.1795

SO.1065
.1048
.1109
.1141
.1153
.1238
.1215
.1295
.1282
.1294
.1299
.1364
.1369
.1411

SO 1207
.
.1207
.1207
.1207
.1207
.1207
.1207
.1207
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1303

Bel­
gium.

SO 0788
.
.0756
.0772
.0762
.0790
.0794
.0796
. 0825
.0820
.0825
.0833
.0820
.0907
. 0955

United
States.
(6)

53.15
52.62
52.58
53.13
52.75
52.73
52.58
52.47
52.06
51.26
51.09
50.37
49.96
49.81

Ger­
many
Great (Nurem­ France.
Britain.
berg
only).
54.33
52.67
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
51.67
50.83
50.00

57.40
57.78
57.32
57.10
56.36
53.41
53.60
51.16
51.13
51.47
50.80
50.47
51.21
51.08

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

Bel­
gium.

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00

H OD C A R R IE R S .
Wages per hour.
Year.

1890...........
1891...........
1892...........
1893...........
1894...........
1895...........
1896..........
1897...........
1898...........
1899...........
1900...........
1901...........
1902...........
1903...........

Hours per week.

United
Great
States. Britain.

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

Bel­
gium.

SO.2259
.2248
.2314
.2325
.2303
.2320
.2335
.2322
.2343
.2518
.2498
.2546
.2676
.2863

SO.0675
.0689
.0680
.0691
.0680
.0684
.0714
.0712
.0742
.0758
.0807
.0805
.0811
.0849

SO 0965
.
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965

SO 0471
.
.0472
.0476
.0479
.0413
.0493
.0460
.0472
.0527
.0532
.0559
.0566
.0431
(«)

SO 1217
.
.1217
.1250
.1250
. 1250
.1318
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250

United
Great
States. Britain.
52.78
52.54
51.80
51.64
52.03
51.53
51.45
51.42
51.01
49.79
49.79
49.35
48.56
47.98

52.67
52.67
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83

Ger­
many.
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50

France
(Paris
only).

Bel­
gium.

66.00
62.00
66.00
62.00
66.00
62.00
66.00
62.00
66.00
62.00
62.00
66.00
66.00
62.00
63.57
62.00
63.71 “ 62.00
63.83
62.00
64.04
62.00
64.46
62.00
64.42
62.00
63.91
(c)

a The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for carpenters in the building
industry only.
b The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for compositors, newspaper, only,
c No data obtained.




1122

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE, 1890 TO 1903—Continued.
IR O N m O L D E B S .
Wages per hour.
Year.

1890...........
1891...........
1892...........
1893...........
1894...........
1895...........
1896...........
1897...........
1898...........
1899...........
1900...........
1901...........
1902...........
1903...........

United
Great
States. Britain.
(a)
$0.2540
.2565
.2548
.2557
.2472
.2476
.2507
.2525
.2503
.2568
.2694
.2739
.2894
.3036

$0.1678
.1678
.1677
.1683
.1680
.1700
.1698
.1756
.1764
.1790
.1790
.1766
.1765
.1787

Hours per week.

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

Bel­
gium.

«0.1009
.1051
.1059
.1024
.0939
.1008
.1072
.1017
.1028
.1102
.1140
(&)
(*)
(*)

80.1119
.1158
.1079
.1158
.1181
.1204
.1245
.1253
.1239
.1256
.1245
.1255
.1282
.1310

(6)
(6)
( b)
(6)
( b)
(*)
(*>
)
80.0611
.0619
.0608
.0640
.0646
.0659
.0692

United
Great
States. Britain.
(«)
59.51
59.60
59.49
59.18
59.10
69.29
59.24
59.17
59.32
59.14
59.07
58.47
57.65
56.80

54.00
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
63.67
53.67
53.67

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
(&)
(»)
(*

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

Bel­
gium.
(b)

(&
)
( b)
(b)

(&)
(&)
( b)
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

LABO RERS, GENERAL.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Year.

1890...........
1891...........
1892...........
1893...........
1894...........
1895...........
1896...........
1897...........
1898...........
1899...........
1900...........
1901...........
1902...........
1903...........

United
Great
States. Britain.
(o)

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

Bel­
gium.

80.0948
.0984
.0950
.0954
.0955
.0950
.0958
.0975
.0997
.1015
.1022
.1028
.1052
.1019

80.0641
.0632
.0629
.0630
.0634
.0640
.0643
.0645
.0676
.0704
.0711
.0763
.0768
.0797

80.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965

80.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0549
.0549
.0549
.0549

80.1507
.1511
.1519
.1493
.1419
.1440
.1415
.1445
.1466
.1457
.1461
.1585
.1643
.1675

United
Great
States. Britain.
( C)

59.02
59.02
59.02
58.84
58.76
58.88
58.92
58.80
58.44
58.71
58.27
57.98
56.66
56.39

54.17
53.33
53.33
53.33
53.33
53.33
53.33
53.33
52.50
52.50
52.50
52.50
52.50
52.50

Ger­
many.
59.98
60.01
60.07
60.06
59.96
60.06
60.29
59.80
59.74
59.62
56.70
56.62
56.68
56.36

France
(Paris
only).
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
. 60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

Bel­
gium.
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00

M A C H IN IS T S .
Wages per hour.
Year.

1890.
1891.
1892.
1898.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.

United
States.
(d)

Ger­
many
Great
Britain. (Berlin
only).

France.

80.2409
.2426
.2452
.2443
.2336
.2338
.2388
.2391
.2374
.2415
.2484
. 2560
.2644
.2707

80.1534
.1594
.1590
.1585
.1588
.1590
.1607
.1663
.1654
.1685
.1684
.1677
.1691
.1677

80.1256
.1256
.1257
. 1270
.1272
.1278
.1279
.1312
.1335
.1325
.1325
.1331
.1310
.1326

80.0973
.1040
.1046
.1027
.1107
.1090
.1057
.1115
.1129
.1110
.1211
.1155
.1141
.1310

Hours per week.
Bel­
gium.

United
States.
(<
*)

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many
(Berlin
only).

France.

59.52
59.47
59.24
59.03
59.07
59.08
59.01
58.96
59.11
58.72
58.56
57.37
56.56
56.12

54.00
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67

64.00
65.00
60.00
68.00
64.00
63.00
63.00
64.00
70.00
64.00
64.00
60.00
57.00
60.00

61.90
61.89
61.89
61.89
61.89
61.88
61.88
61.82
61.83
64.18
64.18
61.50
61.50
61.50

Bel­
gium.

a The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for iron molders in the foundry and
machine shop industry only.
b No data obtained.
c The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for laborers in the building industry
only.
d The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for machinists in the foundry and
machine shop industry only.




W ages and Hours of Labor : United States
and E urope -1 8 9 0 to 1903.
BLACKSMITHS.
AVERAGE W A G E S PER HOUR.

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1902

1903

70
65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

35

35

30

30

25

25

20

20

15

15

10

10

5

5

AVERAGE HOURS PER W EEK.

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1902

1903

85

85

80

80
75
70

/
f \

65

60

60

55

55
50

45
t~

45

_ 1_
__

--- 1 = UNITED STATE8.




V.

1 = GREAT BRITAIN.

C=T)

= GERMANY.

M

= FRANCE, i----- I = BELGIUM.

W ages

and hours of Labor :
and Europe-1890 to

United States
1903.

BOILERMAKERS.

= UNITED STATES.




d = 3

=

GREAT BRITAIN.

CTZ3

= GERMANY, f l i = FRANCE.

BERLIN ONLY.

CZZ3

= BELGIUM.

W ages

and Hours of Labor :
and Europe-1890 to

United States
1903.

BRICKLAYERS.
AVERAGE W A G E S PER HOUR.

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

70

65

60

1903

70

65

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1902

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

35

35

30

30

25

25

20

20

15

15

10

10
5

AVERAGE HOURS PER W EEK.

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1902

1903

85

85

80

80

75

75

70

70

65

65

60
55

s

60
55

50

50

45

45

r ~ ^ = UNITED STATES.




I------ 1 = GREAT BRITAIN.

B E 3 = GERMANY.

QMMi s FRANCE.

I------1 = BELGIUM.

W ages

Hours of Labor: United States
and Europe-1890 to 1903.

and

CARPENTERS.
AVERAGE W A G ES PER HOUR.

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1902

1903

70

70

65-

65

60

60

-

55

55
50

45

45
4Q

40
35

35
30
25

25

20

20

I5

15

10

10

5

AVERAGE HOURS PER W EEK.

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

85

1903

85

80

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1902

80

75

75

70

70

65

65

60

60
99

50
45
a

50
45

= UNITED S TA TE *.




I T T * = GREAT BRITAIN.

C Z T I = GERMANY.

M B = FRANCE.

I------ 1 = BELGIUM.

W ages

Hours of Labor: United States
and Europe-1890 to 1903.

and

COMPOSITORS.
AVERAGE W A G ES PER HOUR.

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1902

1903

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

35

35

30

30

25

25

20

20

(5

15

—

iO

10

5

5

AVERAGE HOURS PER W EEK.

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1890

1891

1892

1893

>894

1895

1896

1897

1898

>899

1900

1901

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1902

>903

85

85

80

80

75

75

70

-

'

65

70
65

60

60
W

--

55

50

50

= UNITED STATES.




45

_
_

_____
C ~ 3 = GREAT BRITAIN.

t ~ 3 = GERMANY.
NURCMBCRC ONLY.

B B B = FRANCE.

m

= BELGIUM.

W ages

and hours of Labor :
and Europe-1890 to

United States
1903.

HOD CARRIERS.
AVERAGE W A G E S PER HOUR.

CENTS
per h o u r .

1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

70

1903

70

65

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1902

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

35

35

30

30
a**0

25

25

20

20

15

15
'*

5

5

AVERAGE HOURS PER W EEK.

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1895

1897

1898

S899

1900

1901

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1902

1903

85

85

80

80

75

75

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55
tmmm

mmmm

■ ^r r
^r

50

50

45

45
'

EZZ3 = UNITED STATES.




I ~ 3 = GREAT BRITAIN.

CZZ 3 =

GERMANY.

M B = FRANCE.
PARIS ONLY.

I ~ ~ 1 = BELGIUM.

W ages

and Hours of Labor :
and Europe-1890 to

United States
1903.

IRON MOLDERS.
AVERAGE W A G E S PER HOUR.

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894.

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

,
1902

CENT8
PER HOUR.

1903

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

35

35

30

30

25

25

20

20

IS

IS

I0

10

1

5

5

___
AVERAGE HOURS PER W EEK.

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1902

1903

85

85

80

80

75

75

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

= UNITED STATES.




f ~ 3 = GREAT BRITAIN.

C ~ 3 = GERMANY.

■ ■ ■ = FRANCE.
PARIS ONLY.

r ~ I = BELGIUM.

W ages and Hours of Labor : United States
and Europe -18 90 to 1903:
LABORERS-GENERAL,
AVERAGE W AG ES PER HOUR.

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1890

1891. 1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1902

1903

i

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

-

50

50

45

45

40

40

35

35

30

30

25

25

20

20

IS

15

10

fO

5

5

-

AVERAGE HOURS PER W EEK.

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1390

1891

1892

ie93

1894

1895

<896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

HOURS
PER WEEK.
<902

<903

85
80

80
75
70
65

60
55

60
55

—•w

50
45
= UNITED STATES.




45
—

= GREAT BRITAIN.

C U D = GERMANY.

90B A = FRANCE.
PAfMS ONLY.

I------- 1s BELGIUM.

W ages and Hours of Labor - United States
.
and E urope -1 8 9 0 to 1903.
MACHINISTS.
AVERAGE W A G E S PER HOUR.

cents

PER HOUR.
1890

1891

ie92

1893

1894

1895

1895

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1902

1903

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

35

35

30

30

25

25

20

*

20

-

15

15

10

10

5

5

-

AVERAGE HOURS PER W EEK.

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

HOUR8
PER WEEK.
1902

1903

85

85

80

80
—

75
70

75
—

-

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

-

50

50

45

45

= UNITED STATES.




GZJH =

GREAT BRITAIN.

C H J = GERMANY.
BERLIN ONLY.

B f l B = FRANCE.

C IZ3 = BELGIUM.

W ages

Hours of Labor: United States
and Europe-1890 to 1903.

and

PAINTERS.

C = 2 3 = UNITED STATES.




CZ13 = GREAT BRITAIN.

C = 3 = GERMANY.

= FRANCE.

C
----- 1 = BELGIUM.

W ages

Hours of Labor: United States
and Europe-1890 to 1903.

and

PLUMBERS.
AVERAGE W A G ES PER HOUR.

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1901

CENTS
PER HOUR.
1902

1903

70

70

65

65

60

60

55

55

50

50

45

45

40

40

35

35

30

30

25

25

20

20

15

15

J

10

10

5

5

AVERAGE HOURS PER W EEK.
PER WEEK.

HOURS
PER WEEK.
1890

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

!897

1898

1899

1900

1901

85

80

75

75

70

1903

85

80

HOURS
1902

70
65

65

\
-A

55

\
55
50

50

= UNITED STATES.




= GREAT BRITAIN.

C H U = GERMANY.

B B I = FRANOE.
PANIS ONLY.

r ~ 1 = BELGIUM.

W ages

Hours of Labor : United States
and Europe-1890 to 1903.

and

STONE c u t t e r s .

I = UNITED STATE8.




GZ23 = GREAT BRITAIN.

C Z 2 •= GERMANY.
NUREMBERG ONLY.

3 H H = FRANCE.

C H 3 = BELGIUM.

W ages

and hours of labor :




and

Europe-1890
st o n e

to

m a s o n s

United States
1903.

.

PA*1S ONLY.

WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE,

1123

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE, 1890 TO 1903—Continued.
P A IN T E R S , H OU SE.
Wages per hour.
Year.

1890.........
1891.........
1892.........
1893.........
1894.........
1895.........
1896.........
1897.........
1898.........
1899.........
1900.........
1901.........
1902.........
1903.........

Hours per week.

Great
United
States. Britain.

Ger­
many.

France.

Bel­
gium.

SO.1554
.1605
.1639
.1639
.1639
.1656
.1656
.1689
.1723
.1757
.1757
.1757
.1774
.1774

SO.0934
.0938
.0956
.0965
.0992
.1004
.1021
.1041
.1053
.1094
.1147
.1143
.1170
.1194

SO 1231
.
. 1231
.1231
.1255
.1313
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255

SO.0603
. 0602
.0602
.0604
.0604
.0604
.0583
.0649
.0652
.0653
.0685
.0676
.0652
.0667

SO 2680
.
.2712
.2747
.2795
.2737
.2720
.2742
.2778
.2827
. 2892
.3054
.3170
.3303
.3450

United
Great
States. Britain.
55.23
54.86
54.43
53. 86
54. 01
53. 87
53. 61
53. 28
52. 79
52.27
50. 91
49.85
49.27
48.89

54. 33
54.33
52. 67
52. 67
52. 67
52. 67
51.00
51.00
51. 00
51.00
51.00
51.00
51.00
51.00

Ger­
many.

France.
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

56.50
56.50
56. 50
56. 50
56. 50
56.50
56. 25
56.25
56.25
56.25
56.25
56.25
56.25
56.25

Bel­
gium.
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00

PLU M BERS.
Wages per hour.
Year.

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.

United
Great
States. Britain.

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

SO 3464
.
.3488
.3511
.3552
.3515
.3546
.3571
.3598
.3638
.3684
.3811
.3935
.4184
.4429

SO.0946
.0953
.0955
.0955
.0925
.0926
.0908
.0938
.0965
.1004
.1008
.1091
.1083
.1148

SO 1501
.
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
. 1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
. 1501
.1501
.1501

$0.1757
.1757
.1825
.1825
.1825
. 1892
.1926
.1960
.1960
.2027
.2027
.2027
.2029
.2027

Hours per week.
Bel­
gium.
SO.0793
.0779
.0786
.0724
.0738
.0736
.0772
.0772
.0772
.0784
.0800
.0724
.0772
.0784

United
Great
States. Britain.
54.33
54.09
53.86
53.36
53.28
53.08
52.86
52.67
52.53
52.28
51.40
50.77
49.52
48.91

50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
49.17
49.17
49.17
49.17
49.17
49.17
49.17
49.17

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

59.75
•59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.70
59.70
56.70
56.70
56.70
56.68

63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

Bel­
gium.
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

STO N ECU TTERS.
Wages per hour.
Year.

Ger­
United
many
Great
States. Britain. (Nurem­ France.
(a)
berg
only).

1890........... SO.3730
1 8 9 1 .......
.3803
1892...........
.3750
1893...........
.3618
1894...........
.3593
1895...........
.3611
1896...........
.3590
1897...........
.3524
1898...........
.3467
1899...........
.3594
1900...........
.3923
1901...........
.3868
1902...........
.3938
1903...........
.4225

SO.1689
.1723
.1791
.1859
.1859
.1859
.1893
.1893
.1960
.1960
.1960
.1960
.1994
.1994

SO.0985
.0978
.1042
.1052
.0992
.1027
.1116
.1129
.1164
.1166
.1104
.1188
.1126
.1177

SO 1400
.
.1424
.1424
.1424
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448

Hours per week.

Bel­
gium.

SO 0698
.
.0690
.0662
.0655
.0681
.0724
.0653
.0676
.0668
.0646
.0668
.0674
.0677
.0685

Ger­
many
United
Great
States. Britain. (Nurem­ France.
(a)
berg
only).
52.73
52.54
52.70
53.12
52.84
52.67
52.77
52.99
53.04
51.70
50.20
49. 96
49. 67
48. 67

51.00
51.00
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17

60.00
60.00
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59. 50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
54.00

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

Bel­
gium.

65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00

a The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for stonecutters, granite, only.




1124

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE, 1890 TO. 1908—Concluded.
S T O N E M ASO N S.
Wages per hour.
Year.

1890...........
1891...........
1892.........
1893...........
1894...........
1895...........
1896...........
1897...........
1898...........
1899...........
1900...........
1901...........
1902...........
1903...........

United
States.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

$0.3722
.3732
.3673
.3644
.3440
.3485
.3547
.3628
.3581
.3719
.3788
.4007
.4304
.4579

$0.1774
.1808
.1842
.1910
.1910
.1943
.1977
.1977
.2045
.2045
.2045
.2045
.2078
.2078

80.1103
.1096
.1092
.1094
.1098
.1062
.1155
.1166
.1236
.1247
.1274
.1303
.1299
.1328

80.1404
.1404
.1404
.1404
.1404
.1404
.1404
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448

Hours per week.
Bel­
gium.
80.0700
.0693
.0686
.0687
.0681
.0683
.0670
.0677
.0729
.0731
.0782
.0821
. 0820
.0845

United
States.

Great
Britain.

54.54
54.51
54.49
54.17
54.34
54.05
53.97
53.05
52.43
52.73
51.89
51.23
50.19
49.54

51.00
51.00
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17

Ger­
many.
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
56.50
56.50
56. 50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50

France
(Paris
only).
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00

Bel­
gium.
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00

It should be borne in mind in connection with this table that while
the wages for each foreign country were collected in two or three
of the large centers of industry, those for the United States cover
a vastly greater area, representing the smaller as well as the larger
centers of industry. While the trend of wages in these occupa­
tions, as shown by the figures and charts, may be accepted as approxi­
mately correct, a greater difference between the level of wages in the
United States and in Europe would probably have been shown had
the investigation in this country been limited to two or three of the
largest centers, as was necessary in the European countries. Bearing
in mind, then, that the figures given in the preceding table do not show
the maximum difference in the level of wages in the United States and
Europe, the following table has been constructed to indicate the degree
of difference shown for the establishments covered. The average
hourly wages as well as the average hours per week in each occupa­
tion, as shown for the United States, is^in this table placed at 100,
while the average wages and hours in each of the European countries
are expressed as percentages of the averages for the United States.
The table follows:




WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE.
LEVEL OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN 1903 IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE.
Blacksmiths.

Boiler makers.

Bricklayers.

Carpenters.

1125
IN THE

Compositors.

Country.
Wages. Hours. Wages. Hours. Wages. Hours. Wages. Hours. Wages. Hours.
United States......... a 100.0 a 100.0
59.0
94.9
Great Britain.........
105.9
Germany..................
41.9
106.4
55.2
France......................
Belgium ..................
(/)
to

100.0
60.4

100.0
95.4

d 39.4

d 106.7

51.1
26.4

109.4
106.7

Hod carriers.

100.0
37.7
24.3
24.2
15.4

Iron molders.

100.0
108.4
118.1
131.7
129.6

b 100.0
56.4
36.2
43.0
19.8

5100.0
101.4
111.8
121.3
130.9

Laborers, general.

c 100.0

40.2
e 31.6
29.2
21.4

c 100. 0
100.4
e 102. 5
120.5
108.4

Machinists.

Country.
Wages.
United States.........
Great Britain.........
Germ any.................
France.................... .
Belgium ..................

100.0
43.7
29.7
g 33.7
(/) .

Hours.
100.0
108.0
124.0
g 133.2
CO

Painters, house.

Wages.
a 100.0
58.9
(/)
g 43.1
22.8

Hours.
a 100.0
94.5
CO

g 105.6

105.6

Plumbers.

Wages.
5100.0
60.8
47.6
g 57.6
32.8

Hours.

Wages.

Hours.

b 100.0

a 100.0

93.1
99.9
g 106.4
111.7

62.0
<*48.4
49.0

a 100.0
95.6
<*106.9
109.6

CO

CO

Stonecutters.

Stone masons.

Country.
Wages.
United States.........
Great Britain.........
Germany...................
France......................
Belgium ...................

Hours.

100.0
51.4
34.6
36.4
19.3

100.0
104.3
115.1
122.7
135.0

Wages.
100.0
45.8
25.9
g 33.9
17.7

Foundry and machine shop industry only.
5 Building industry only.

a

c Newspaper industry only.
d Berlin only.

Hours.
100.0
100.5
115.9
g 110.4
122.7

Wages.

Hours.

h 100.0

h 100.0

47.2
e 27. 9
34.3
16.2

103.1
e111.0
123.3
133.6

Wages.
100.0
45.4
29.0
0 31. 6
18.5

Hours.
100.0
101.3
114.0
0133.2
125.2

e Nuremberg only.
/N o data obtained.
0 Paris only.
h Stonecutters, granite, only.

Taking, for example, the occupation of carpenters it is seen that
with the average hourly wages for the United States in 1903 repre­
sented as 100, the average hourly wages for Great Britain were but
56.4 per cent of that figure, or a little more than half the average
wages paid in the United States; the wages for Germany were but
36.2 per cent, or a little more than one-third of those paid in the United
States; the wages for France were but 43 per cent, or considerably
less than one-half those paid in the United States; and the wages for
Belgium were but 19.8 per cent, or less than one-fifth those paid in the
United States. In other words, while the wages of carpenters in the
United States in 1903 averaged nearly 36 cents per hour, those of
Great Britain averaged slightly over 20 cents, those of Germany about
13 cents, those of France about 15^ cents, and those of Belgium but
slightly over 7 cents. The figures for wages in this and the other
occupations covered indicate that.the United States stands preeminent
as the country of high wages.
A consideration of the weekly hours of labor shows that with the
hours of carpenters in the United States having a relative value of
100, the hours of work in this occupation in Great Britain in 1903
were 1.5 per cent greater than those in the United States; those in
Germany nearly 12 per cent greater; those in France nearly 21| per
cent greater, and those in Belgium 31 per cent greater. Or, stating
the level in actual figures, while the average hours of labor per week




1126

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

of carpenters in the United States in 1903 were 49.41, those in Great
Britain were 50.17; those in Germany 55.30; those in France 60, and
those in Belgium 64.73.
It should be remembered that the absolute increase or decrease in
wage rates and hours of labor in all industries can not be assumed
from the results given in the previous tables and the charts relating
thereto. While the figures presented should be considered as relating
to the particular occupations covered, it is nevertheless safe to say
that they are at least indicative of the general course of wages in all
occupations and industries. This is very clearly shown by the results
of the extensive investigation begun by the Bureau in the winter of
1900-1901 and just completed. Although the detailed report (the
Nineteenth Annual) covering the subject of wages will not be pub­
lished and available for distribution until early in 1905, a summary
statement covering practically all of the leading manufacturing and
mechanical industries of the country has appeared in the Bulletin of the
Bureau for July, 1904 (No. 53). The number of industries represented
there is 67, while the data were secured from a total of 519 distinctive
occupations in 3,429 establishments. Bulletin No. 53, which may
be had on application to the Commissioner of Labor, covers not
only wages, but also hours of labor, number of employees, and cost of
living for each year of the period from 1890 to 1903, inclusive. The
concrete results of this extensive collection of figures are shown in
the following table and explanatory text:
COURSE OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE UNITED STATES, 1890 TO 1903, WHEN
WEIGHTED ACCORDING TO AGGREGATE WAGES PAID IN EACH INDUSTRY AS REPORTED
BY THE CENSUS OF 1900.
[Relative numbers computed on basis of average for 1890-1899 = 100.]
Employees.

Year.

1890 ...................................
1891...................................
1892 ...................................
1893 ...................................
1894 ...................................
1895 ...................................
1896 ...................................
1897 ...................................
1898 ...................................
1899 ...................................
1900 ...................................
1901...................................
1902 .................: ................
1903 ...................................

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of
Per cent of
Per cent of
increase ( + ) or
increase ( + ) or
increase ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( —) Relative decrease ( —) Relative decrease ( —)
number. in 1903 as com­ number. in 1903 as com­ number. in 1903 as com­
pared with
pared with
pared with
year specified.
year specified.
year specified.
94.8
97.3
99.2
99.4
94.1
96.4
98.6
100.9
106.4
112.1
115.6
119.1
123.6
126.5

+33.4
+30.0
+27.5
+27.3
+34.4
+31.2
+28.3
+25.4
+ 18.9
+12.8
+ 9.4
+ 6.2
+ 2.3
(«)

100.7
100.5
100.5
100.3
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.6
- 99.7
99.2
98.7
98.1
97.3
96.6

- 4 .1
- 3 .9
-3 .9
-3 .7
-3 .2
- 3 .5
- 3 .2
- 3 .0
- 3 .1
- 2 .6
- 2 .1
* - 1 .5
- .7
(a)

100.3
100.3
100.8
100.9
97.9
98.3
99.7
99.6
100.2
102.0
105.5
108.0
112.2
116.3

+16.0
+16.0
+15.4
+15.3
+18.8
+18.3
+16.6
+16.8
+16.1
+14.0
+10.2
+ 7.7
+ 3.7
(«)

a The figures in this column give opposite each year the per cent of increase or decrease (indicated
by + or —) which the 1903 figures show as compared with the year specified. Thus, opposite the
year 1890, under employees, appears +33.4; this shows that the per cent of increase in the number of
employees in 1903 as compared with 1890 was 33.4; opposite 1890, under hours per week, appears —4.1;
this shows that the per cent of decrease in the hours of labor per week in 1903 as compared with 1890
was 4.1; in like manner, under wages per hour, appears +16.0; this shows that the per cent of
increase m the wages per hour in 1903 as compared with 1890 was 16.0. The figures opposite each
year should be read in like manner. Opposite the year 1903, of course, no figures can be placed.




WAGES IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE.

1127

The first column of the table shows the relative number of persons
employed in all of the establishments investigated that were in opera­
tion during each year of the period. This column probably does not
show the full extent of the changes that have taken place in the indus­
tries of the United States during the period covered; as just stated, it
measures only the changes that have taken place in those establish­
ments that were in operation each year of the period. No figures are
known to exist showing the decrease in the number of employees
caused by the shutting down of establishments for one or more years
of the period, or by the permanent closing of establishments. Neither
are there any figures showing the increase in the number of wage­
workers caused by the opening o f new establishments during.these
years. The figures in this table relating to employees are of great
value, however, for they show the changes that have taken place in a
large number of establishments, and undoubtedly indicate to some
extent the changes that have taken place in the number of persons
employed in all industries throughout the country. The table shows
that the lowest number employed was in the year 1894, when 94.1
per cent as many persons were employed as during the average period
from 1890 to 1899. The highest point reached in the period covered
was in 1903, when 26.4 per cent more persons were employed than
the average for the 10-year base period. The next column shows the
per cent of increase or decrease in the number of persons employed
in 1903 as compared with preceding years. Thus in 1903 there were
employed 33.2 per cent more persons than in 1890, 34.3 per cent more
than in 1894, and 2.3 per cent more than in 1902, etc. So far as these
establishments are concerned it is seen that the number of employees
engaged therein have gradually increased since the year 1894. It is
seen that in the last year of the period, 1903, a greater number of
workmen were employed than in any previous year, and in this last
year the number employed was 34.3 per cent greater than in 1894, or
more than one-third more.
The next section of the table relates to the hours of labor. The
relative number shown is a comparison of the hours of work per week
in each year with the average hours worked per week during the 10year period from 1890 to 1899. In 1890 the hours of work per weel^:
were 0.7 per cent more than the average hours worked during the
10-year base period, while in 1903 the hours of work were but 96.6
per cent of the average for the base period; that is, 3.4 per cent less
than the average hours worked during the period from 1890 to 1899.
The next column shows the per cent of increase or decrease of hours
per week in 1903 when compared with previous years; thus in 1903
the hours of work were 4.1 per cent less than in 1890, and 0.7 per
cent less than in 1902. The tendency toward a gradual reduction of
the hours of labor of the workman is clearly shown here.



1128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The third section of the table relates to the wages per hour paid in
all of the industries covered by the report. In 1890 wages were 0.3
per cent higher than the average wages paid during the ten years
from 1890 to 1899. In 1891 they were 0.2 per cent higher. The low­
est point reached was in 1894, when wages were 97.9 per cent o f the
average wages for the 10-year period; or, in other words, 2.1 per
cent lower than the average for the 10-year period. From 1894 the
movement has been gradually upward to 1903, when the average wages
per hour were 116.3 per cent of the average for the base period; or,
in other words, 16.3 per cent higher than the average wages per hour
during the 10-year period, 1890 to 1899. It should be observed that
the per cent of change between one year and another is not the result
of the subtraction of the two relative numbers. For example: The
relative wages in all industries was 97.9 in 1894 and 116.3 in 1903;
the difference between these relative numbers is 18.4. The per cent
of increase in wages, however, from 1894 to 1903 was not 18.4. This
difference, 18.4, is 18.8 per cent of 97.9, the number with which the
comparison was made, making wages per hour in 1903 18.8 per cent
higher than wages per hour in 1894. The column following the rela­
tive wages shows the per cent of increase or decrease in the average
wages per hour in 1903 as compared with the preceding years. In
this column it is seen that wages per hour in 1903 were 16 per cent
higher than in 1890, 15.4 per cent higher than in 1892, 18.8 per cent
higher than in 1894, 3.6 per cent higher than in 1902, etc.
A chart embodying the figures contained in the above table and also
data as to cost of living during the same period (a discussion of which
will be found elsewhere in this Bulletin) forms a part of the exhibit of
the Bureau of Labor at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. A repro­
duction of this chart (Chart 35) is presented herewith.




W ages

H ours of w o r k
Number o r E mployees

► e l a t iv e F igures . 1890 to I903; Un ite d S tates .
R

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD

CZD =R E L A TIV E NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.




’•

[A

verage

for

1890

to

1 8 9 9 H 0 0 .]

IN 2567 WORKINGMEN'S FAMILIES.

COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES.
B Y G. W . W . H A N G E R .

While the Bureau of Labor in 1890 and 1891 in its Sixth and
Seventh Annual Reports published data in great detail relative to the
cost of living of workingmen’s families whose heads were engaged in
the iron, steel, coal, coke, iron ore, cotton, woolen, and glass indus­
tries, the great changes in economic conditions since these reports
were issued rendered this material of little value as the basis for an
exhibit of the work of the Bureau along these lines. It was peculiarly
fortunate, therefore, that the forthcoming Eighteenth Annual Report
became available in sufficient time to permit of its use for this purpose.
This report, a summary of which has appeared in the Bulletin of the
Bureau of Labor for July, 1901 (No. 53), is the annual report for the
year 1903, and presents the results of an investigation prosecuted in
every section of our country into the cost of living of workingmen’s
families and the retail prices of the principal staple articles of food
consumed by such families. As stated, this investigation covered two
subjects, distinct in character, yet closely allied; that into cost of living
covered the year 1901, and its object was to determine the cost of hous­
ing, fuel, lighting, food, clothing, etc., in the average workingman’s
family in the United States, while that into retail prices covered the
period from 1890 to 1903 and had for its object the collection of data
which would show the extent of increase or decrease in the retail prices
of the staple articles of food during the period and thus render it pos­
sible to determine, approximately at least, the changes in cost of living
in the several years covered.
COST OF LIVING.
In carrying out the investigation, reports of their actual expendi­
tures for a year were secured from 25,440 families residing in the
principal industrial localities in 33 States. Among the occupations
represented are mechanics of all kinds, railroad employees, common
laborers, clerks earning less than $ 1,200 per year, etc.
The reports, which were secured directly from the husband or wife,
or both, by the personal visits of agents of the Bureau, show the age
and sex of the various members of the family; the amount earned by




1129

1130

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

each member; the family income for the year from all sources; the
number of weeks worked during the year by the head of the family;
the number of rooms occupied; the amount expended for rent, or, if
the house was owned by the occupant and encumbered, the amount
paid for interest and on principal; the amounts expended for food,
clothing, fuel, lighting, and sundries; also the amount of surplus or
deficit at the end of the year.
From 2,567 families reports were secured showing in detail the
expenditure for each of the principal articles of food and the quantity
consumed; the expenditure for clothing for husband, wife, and chil­
dren; for taxes; insurance; labor organizations, etc.; religious pur­
poses; furniture; books and newspapers; amusements; liquors;
tobacco; medical attendance, etc.; also the disposition of the surplus,
if any, and the method of meeting the deficit, if expenditures exceeded
income.
The charts on exhibit relating to family conditions and cost of living
in 25,440 families present in graphic form some of the most interest­
ing facts disclosed by the investigation. In the list of these charts
which follows reference is made by number to the tables which furnish
the data for each:
CHARTS RELATING TO 25,440 FAMILIES.
Average size of the families investigated, by geographical divisions and general
nativity of head of family (Table 1).
Average size of the families investigated, by nativity of head of family (Table 2).
Per cent of families having an income from children at work, by geographical divi­
sions and general nativity of head of family (Table 3).
Per cent of families having an income from children at work, by nativity of head of
family (Table 4).
Per cent of children 5 or under 16 years of age, at work, at school, at work and
school, and at home, by geographical divisions and general nativity of head of
family (Table 5).
Per cent of children 5 or under 16 years of age, at work, at school, at work and
school, and at home, by nativity of head of family (Table 6).
Per cent of wives at work, bv geographical divisions and general nativity of head of
family (Table 7).
Per cent of wives at work, by nativity of head of family (Table 8).
Per cent of families having boarders or lodgers, by geographical divisions and gen­
eral nativity of head of family (Table 9).
Per cent of families having boarders or lodgers, by nativity of head of family (Table
10).

Per cent of total income from husbands, wives, children, boarders and lodgers, and
other sources, by geographical divisions and general nativity of head of family
(Table 11).
Per cent of total income from husbands, wives, children, boarders and lodgers, and
other sources, by nativity of head of family (Table 12).
Average income and expenditure per family, by geographical divisions and general
nativity of head of family (Table 1).




GOST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES.

1131

Average income and expenditure per family, by nativity of head of family (Table 2).
Per cent of total income expended, by geographical divisions and general nativity of
head of family (Table 1).
Per cent of total income expended, by nativity of head of family (Table 2).
Per cent of families reporting a surplus, a deficit, or neither a surplus nor a deficit,
by geographical divisions and general nativity of head of family (Table 13).
Per cent of families reporting a surplus, a deficit, or neither a surplus nor a deficit,
by nativity of head of family (Table 14).
Average income of husbands at work, by geographical divisions and general nativity
(Table 15).
Average income of husbands at work, by nativity (Table 16).
Average income of wives at work, by geographical divisions and general nativity of
head of family (Table 17).
Average income of wives at work, by nativity of head of family (Table 18).
Average expenditure per family for food for the year, by geographical divisions and
general nativity of head of fcmily (Table 1).
Average expenditure per family for food for the year, by nativity of head of family
(Table 2).
Average expenditure per family for rent for the year for families paying rent, by
geographical divisions and general nativity of head of family (Table 1).
Average expenditure per family for rent for the year for families paying rent, by
nativity of head of family (Table 2).
Average expenditure per family for clothing for the year, by geographical divisions
and general nativity of head of family (Table 1).
Average expenditure per family for clothing for the year, by nativity of head of
family (Table 2).
Average expenditure per family for fuel for the year, by geographical divisions and
general nativity of head of family (Table 1).
Average expenditure per family for fuel for the year, by nativity of head of family
(Table 2).
Average expenditure per family for lighting for the year, by geographical divisions
and general nativity of head of family (Table 1).
Average expenditure per family for lighting for the year, by nativity of head of
family (Table 2).
Average number of rooms per family and per individual, by geographical divisions
and general nativity of head of family (Table 19).
Average number of rooms per family and per individual, by nativity of head of
family (Table 20).
Per cent of families owning homes, by geographical divisions and general nativity of
head of family (Table 21).
Per cent of families owning homes, by nativity of head of family (Table 22).
Per cent of owned homes free from incumbrance, by geographical divisions and gen­
eral nativity of head of family (Table 21).
Per cent of owned homes free from incumbrance, by nativity of head of family
(Table 22).
Per cent of heads of families idle and average weeks idle, by geographical divisions
(Table 23).
Per cent of heads of families idle and average weeks idle, by nativity (Table 24).
Per cent of heads of families idle and average weeks idle, by principal causes
(Table 25).
10193—No. 54—04----- 12




1132

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

It is to be regretted that it is not possible to reproduce in this Bul­
letin all of the charts relating to cost of living and retail prices exhib­
ited by the Bureau at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. It is
deemed necessary, however, to economize space as much as possible
and the charts considered least important will therefore be omitted.
Of the 11 charts, the titles of which have been given in the preceding
list, a reproduction will be found opposite of that entitled “ Per
cent of total income from husbands, wives, children, boarders and
lodgers, and other sources, by geographical divisions and general
nativity of head of family.”
The classification of. data by geographical divisions as adopted m
many of the tables in this article and in the graphic presentations
relating thereto is considered both desirable and necessary. The
classification of States, so far as they were covered by the investiga­
tion of the Bureau, is the same as that used by the United States
Census, and is as follows:
North Atlantic States:
Maine.
New Hampshire.
Massachusetts.
Rhode Island.
Connecticut.
New York.
New Jersey.
Pennsylvania.
South Atlantic States:
Delaware.
Maryland.
District of Columbia.
Virginia.
West Virginia.
North Carolina.
South Carolina.
Georgia.




North Central States:
Ohio.
Indiana.
Illinois.
Michigan.
Wisconsin.
Minnesota.
Iowa.
Missouri.
Kansas.
South Central States:
Kentucky.
Tennessee.
Alabama.
Louisiana.
Texas.
Western States:
Colorado.
California.
Washington.

P er C ent of T otal I ncome from Husbands, W ives, C hildren,
Boarders and Lodgers, and O ther Sources, by G eograph­
ical Divisions and G eneral N ativity of Head of F amily.
GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISION
AND GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD
OF FAMILY.

20

40

60

80

North A tlantic

TO T AL

South Atlantic

TO T AL

North C entral

TO T AL

South C entral

W estern

= FRO M HUSBANDS.
IT-




C~2

= FROM W IVES.

) = FROM BO ARD ERS AND LODCERS.

C T ~) = FROM CHILDREN.

SOB = FROM OTHER SO URCES.

COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES

1133

The 25 tables containing the data which form the basis of the 41
charts follow:
Table 1 . —NUMBER OF FAMILIES, AVERAGE SIZE OF FAMILY, INCOME AND EXPENDI­
TURE PER FAMILY, AND PER CENT OF TOTAL INCOME EXPENDED, BY GEOGRAPHICAL
DIVISIONS AND GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY. •
[The average shown for each item of expenditure relates to those families only that reported
expenditures for such items; the total expenditure per family is for all families.]
Families.

Total
in­
Geographical division
come
and general nativity
Aver­ per
of head of family.
fam­
Total. age
size.
ily.

North Atlantic States:
Native....................
Foreign.................

7,359
6,423

Rent.

Per
Total
ex­ cent of
total
pendi­
in­
Other ture come
per
Light­ Cloth­ Food. pur­
Fuel.
ex­
fam­
ing.
ing.
poses.
pend­
ily.
ed.

4.53 $748.81 $130.73 $30.66
5.11 763.15 123.93 30.33

$7.79 $93.08 $306.31 $135.47 $696.44
8.17 94.20 327.49 136.27 713.01

93.01
93.43

4.80 755.49 127.63

30.51

7.97

93.60 316.18 135.84 704.16

93.21

1,995
198

5.11 683.06 97.95
5.68 768.75 107.20

30.54
31.12

6.12 86.08 289.09 142.42 641.80
6.85 103.11 354.07 152.11 734.55

93.96
95.55

• T otal................... 13, 782
South Atlantic States:
Native....................
Foreign.................

Average expenditure of families having
an expenditure for—

T otal...................

2,193

5.16 690.80

98.68

30.60

6.19

87.62 294.96 143.30 650.18

94.12

North Central States:
Native....................
Foreign.................

4,227
3,113

4.68 756.82 107.62
5.39 744.55 100.23

30.48
36.30

7.50
7.45

96.81 308.09 171.28 713.63
99.36 328.90 149.28 702.42

94.29
94.34

T otal...................

7,340

4.98 751.62 105.02

32.95

7.48

97.89 316.92 161.95 708.88

94.31

South Central States:
Native....................
Foreign.................

1,027
194

5.21 670.64 94.21
5.26 700.73 103.19

23.86
24.95

4.96
5.05

87.11 278.33 153.45 635.74
93.98 294.76 172.19 665.33

94.80
94.95

5.22 675.42

95.38

24.04

4.97

88.20 280.94 156.43 640.44

94.82

T otal...................

1,221

Western States:
Native....................
Foreign.................

553
351

3.96 883.14 148.86
4.42 883.78 144.78

34.69
35.09

8.07 118.21 311.18 142.30 741.75
8.25 121.95 327.77 152.20 748.59

83.99
84.70

T otal...................

904

4.14 883.39 147.48

34.84

8.14 119.66 317.62 146.14 744.41

84.27




1134

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able 2 . —NUMBER OF FAMILIES, AVERAGE SIZE OF FAMILY, INCOME AND EXPENDI­
TURE PER FAMILY, AND PER CENT OF TOTAL INCOME EXPENDED, BY NATIVITY OF
HEAD OF FAMILY.
[The average shown for each item of expenditure relates to those families only that reported
expenditures for such items; the total expenditure per family is for all families.]
Average expenditure of families having
Per
Total cent of
an expenditure for—
Total
ex­
in­
total
pendi­ in­
come
ture come
Other per
Aver­ per
Light­ Cloth­ Food. pur­
fam­ Rent. Fuel.
ex­
Total. age
fam­ pend­
ing.
ing.
ily.
poses. ily.
size.
ed.
Families.

Nativity of head of
family.

United States...............

15,161

Austria-Hungary........
Canada..........................
Denmark......................
England........................
France ..........................
Germany......................
Ireland..........................
I t a l y ..............................
Netherlands.................
N orw a y......................
Russia............................
Scotland......................
S w ed en ........................
Switzerland.................
W a le s ............................
Other foreign...............

283
1,012
103
930
86
2,883
2,983
256
104
154
443
251
502
57
119
113

Total foreign. . .
United States and fore ig n ............................

4.67 $742.00 $118.54 $30.28

$7.31 $93.71 $302.82 $147.84 $691.58

96.22
115.38
116.04
128.46
130.67
117.20
121.63
98.85
83.89
110.11
105.39
124.21
125.20
129.86
120.15
122.59

32.19!
32.3o;
34.17
33.40
33.19
32.51
31.36
27.49
38.41
33.93
31.87
32.15
33.56
34.42
32.44
31.06

7.21
8.34
8.53
8.42
7.58
7.45
8.05
6.79
7.77
8.20
7.76
8.62
7.99
7.33
6.75
8.08

10,279

5.18 760.57 118.16

32.21

25,440

4.88 749.50 118.40

31.06

5.04
5.16
5.05
4.90
4.95
5.24
5.26
5.02
5.72
5.32
5.70
5.08
4.78
4.88
5.26
4.84

674.43
793.26
758.80
822.04
749.97
745.37
774.73
611.19
675.12
762.30
661.92
857.46
766.15
774.24
803.30
710.76

87.53
101.57
99.27
106.65
95.95
98. 69
95.77
68.68
86.67
100.85
83.83
106.38
91.88
92.85
111.04
86.48

313.48
325.70
311.38
337.08
309.36
324.27
341.14
271.16
276.00
324:50
316.73
339.20
320.14
314.39
336.83
304.82

114.82
139.69
142.25
152.00
158.25
147.23
140.53
100.19
123.64
145.22
117.41
176.35
142.16
155.20
144.56
134.60

93.20

646.88
720.51
688.71
754.07
706.30
702.94
726.25
566.85
604.97
715.80
655.06
782.87
708.32
716.67
730.05
682.49

95.92
90.83
90.76
91.73
94.18
94.31
93.74
92.75
89.61
93.90
98.96
91.30
92.45
92.56
90.88
96.02

7.87

96.88 327.82 141.73 710.53

93.42

7.53

94.99 312.92 145.37 699.24

93.29

Table 3 , —PER CENT OF FAMILIES HAVING AN INCOME FROM CHILDREN AT WORK, BY
GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Geographical division and general nativity of head of family.

Per cent
of fami­
lies.

North Atlantic States:
Native.......................................................................................................................................................
F oreign.....................................................................................................................................................

17.31
26.61

T otal.......................................................................................................................................................

21.64

South Atlantic States:
Native.........................................................................................................................................................
F oreign.................................................................................................................................... ................

27.42
40.40

T otal.......................................................................................................................................................

28.59

North Central States:
Native..................................................................................... ...................................................................
F oreign.....................................................................................................................................................

16.82
28.85

T o ta l.......................................................................................................................................................

21.92

South Central States:
Native.......................................................................................................................................................
F oreign...................................................................................................................................................

22.01
36.08

T otal.......................................................................................................................................................

24.24

Western States:
Native.......................................................................................................................................................
F oreign.....................................................................................................................................................

12.66
16.81

T otal.......................................................................................................................................................

14.27




1135

COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES.

Table 4 . —PER CENT OF FAMILIES HAVING AN INCOME FROM CHILDREN AT WORK, BY
NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Nativity of head of family.

Per cent
of fami­
lies.

United States................................................

18.65

Austria-Hungary.........................................
Canada............................................................
Denm ark.......................................................
England.........................................................
France............................................................
Germany.......................................................
Ireland...........................................................
Italy ................................................... ..........
Netherlands..................................................

22.25
23.02
17.48
23.55
18.60
33.58
30.31
16.02
28.85

Per cent
of fami­
lies.

Nativity of head of family.

Norw ay...................... ..............................
Russia...........................................................
Scotland.....................................................
Sw eden.......................................................
Switzerland.......................................... .....
W a le s.........................................................
Other foreign.... ..................................

18.18
22.80
23.51
10.76
29.82
35.29
20.35

Total foreign...................................

27.40

United States and foreign.............

22.19

Table 5 . —PER CENT OF CHILDREN 5 OR UNDER 16 YEARS OF AGE AT WORK, AT SCHOOL,
AT WORK AND AT SCHOOL, AND AT HOME, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND GEN­
ERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Geographical division and general nativity of
head of family.

At work
and at At home. All chil­
dren.
school.

At work.

At
school.

North Atlantic States:
Native...........................................................................
Foreign......... .............................................................

3.60
4.60

76.50
78.67

0.50
.36

19.40
16.37

100.0
100.0

T otal.........................................................................

4.11

77.62

.43

17.84

100.0

South Atlantic States:
Native...........................................................................
Foreign.......................................................................

12.00
8.09

61.57
77.02

1.35
.65

25.08
14.24

100.0
100.0

T otal.........................................................................

11.59

63.17

1.28

23.96

100.0

North Central States:
Native.........................................................................
Foreign.......................................................................

2.53
4.36

79.24
78.42

.82
.99

17.41
16.23

100.0
100.0

T otal......................................................................

3.43

78.83

.91

16.83

100.0

South Central States:
Native...........................................................................
Foreign.......................................................................

8.20
8.86

62.24
69.15

L 11

28.45
21.99

100.0
. 100.0

T otal.........................................................................

8.31

63.31

.93

27.45

100.0

Western States:
Native...........................................................................
Foreign........................................................................

1.28
.98

82.94
82.27

.18
.25

15.60
16.50

100.0
100.0

T otal.........................................................................

1.16

82.65

.21

15.98

100.0




1136

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table 6 .—PER CENT OF CHILDREN 5 OR UNDER 16 YEARS OF AGE AT WORK, AT SCHOOL,
AT WORK AND AT SCHOOL, AND AT HOME, BY NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Nativity of head of family.

At
work.

At
school.

At work
and at
school.

At
home.

All chil­
dren.

4.80

74.17

0.75

20.28

100.0

Austria-Hungary.........................................................
Canada....... 7.......................................................................
Denmark.......................................................................
England.........................................................................
France................................ .........................................
Germany.....................................................................
Ireland..........................................................................
Italy...............................................................................
Netherlands..................................................................
Norway.........................................................................
Russia............................................................................
Scotland..................................................................... .
Sweden.........................................................................
Switzerland..................................................................
Wales.............................................................................
Other foreign................................................................

6.78
4.18
2.87
4.16
2.86
5.32
4.38
3.95
4.23
1.44
5.27
3.48
1.74
4.71
8.46
6.00

72.11
81.54
77.01
78.56
78.09
77.92
79. 69
75.38
82.54
80.93
70.95
81.28
80.00
89.41
73.02
73.34

.25
.55
.58
.94

1.59
1.33

20.86
13.73
19.54
16.34
19.05
15.98
15.51
20.06
13.23
17.63
23.52
14.97
17.97
5.88
16.93
19.33

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total foreign......................................................

4.57

78.47

.57

16.39

100.0

United States and foreign................................

4.70

76.10

.67

18.53

100.0

.78
.42
.61
.26
.27
.29

.

Table 7 .—PER CENT OF WIVES AT WORK, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND GENERAL
NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Geographical division and general nativity of head of family.

Per cent
of wives
at work.

North Atlantic States:
9.04
Native............................................................................................................................................
Foreign........................................................................................................................................
9.44
Total..........................................................................................................................................

9.23

South Atlantic States:
14.50
Native............................................................................................................................................
Foreign........................................................................................................................................
10.88
Total............................. ............................................................................................................

14.17

North Central States:
Native............................................................................................................................................
................................ ...................................................................... .................................
Foreign

5.99
6.38

Total..........................................................................................................................................

6.16

South Central States:
Native................................................. .........................................................................................
Foreign........................................................................................................................................

12.52
8.95

Total..........................................................................................................................................

11.96

Western States:
Native............................................................................................................................................
Foreign........................................................................................................................................

4. 00
2.33

Total..........................................................................................................................................

3.36




1137

COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES

Table 8 .—PER CENT OF WIVES AT WORK, BY NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.
Per cent
of wives
at work.

Nativity of head of family.
United States............................................

8.95

Austria-Hungary.....................................
Canada............ .........................................
Denmark..................................................
England....................................................
France........................................................
Germany...................................................
Ireland......................................................
Italy.........................................................
Netherlands.............................................

7.12
5.13
8.74
6.30
13.10
9.86
9.33
9.06
.99

Per cent
of wives
at work.

Nativity of head of family.

Norway....................................................
Russia........................................................
Scotland...................................................
Sweden....................................................
Switzerland.............................................
W ales........................................................
Other foreign..........................................

4.61
8.66
6.50
6.07
8.77
1.71
13.39

Total foreign...................................

8.29

United States and foreign..............

8.68

Table 9 .—PER CENT OF FAMILIES HAVING BOARDERS OR LODGERS, BY GEOGRAPH­
ICAL DIVISIONS AND GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Geographical division and general nativity of head of family.

Per cent
of families
having
boarders
or lodgers.

North Atlantic States:
Native........................................................................................................................................
Foreign....................................................................................................................................

21.78
25.38

Total......................................................................................................................................

23.46

South Atlantic States:
Native........................................................................................................................................
Foreign....................................................................................................................................

27.67
35.86

Total.................................................................................................................................

28.41

North Central States:
Native................................................................... ....................................................................
Foreign....................................................................................................................................

19.54
25. 67

Total......................................................................................................................................

22.14

South Central States:
Native..................................................................................... ..................................................
Foreign.....................................................................................................................................

24.05
23.20

Total......................................................................................................................................

23.91

Western States:
Native........................................................................................................................................
Foreign.....................................................................................................................................

14.29
18.80

Total................................................................................................... .,.................................

16.04

Table l O .—PER CENT OF FAMILIES HAVING BOARDERS OR LODGERS, BY NATIVITY OF
HEAD OF FAMILY.

Nativity of head of family.

Percent of
families
having
boarders or
lodgers.

United States.........................................

21.15

Austria-Hungary..................................
Canada ...................................................
Denmark...............................................
England.................................................
France....................................................
Germany...............................................
Ireland...................................................
Italy.......................................................
Netherlands..........................................

17.31
26.58
15.53
25.38
29.07
23.00
29.84
20.31
28.85




Nativity of head e f family.
r

Per cent of
families
having
boarders or
lodgers.

Norway.................................................
Russia...............................................
Scotland...............................................
Sweden............................................... .
Switzerland..........................................
W ales....................................................
Other foreign.........................................

19.45
23.02
23.51
23.31
24.56
26.05
24.78

Total foreign................................

25.40

United States and foreign..........

23.26

1138

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table 1 1 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL INCOME FROM HUSBANDS, WIVES, CHILDREN, BOARD­
ERS AND LODGERS, AND OTHER SOURCES, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND GEN­
ERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.
i

Per cent of total income from—
Geographical division and general na­
tivity of head of family.

Hus­
bands.

Wives. Children.

Boarders Other
and
lodgers. sources.

Total.

North Atlantic States:
Native..................................................
Foreign.................................................

82.31
74.11

1.73
1.77

7.03
12.39

7.06
10.01

1.87
1.72

100.0
100.0

T otal.................................................

78.45

1.75

9.55

8.45

1.80

100.0

South Atlantic States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

76.30
68.14

1.94
1.65

11.00
16.60

9.08
11.98

1.68
1.63

100.0
100.0

T otal.................................................

75.48

1.91

11.56

9.37

1.68

100.0

North Central States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

85.93
76.74

.80
.96

6.27
12.22

5.63
7.80

1.37
2.28

100.0
100.0

T otal.................................................

82.07

.87

8.77

6.54

1.75

100.0

South Central States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

80.32
70.65

1.67
1.27

9.37
17.27

6.61
7.86

2.03
2.95

100.0
100.0

T otal.................................................

78.73

1.60

10.67

6.82

2.18

100.0

Western States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

85.80
80.08

1.02
.61

7.26
10.62

4.71
7.15

1.21
1.54

100.0
100.0

83.58

.86

8.57

5.65

1.34

100.0

.

T otal.......... ........ .............................

Table 1 3 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL INCOME FROM HUSBANDS, WIVES, CHILDREN, BOARD­
ERS AND LODGERS, AND OTHER SOURCES, BY NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.
Per cent of total income from—
Nativity of head of family.

Hus­
bands.

Wives.

Children.

Boarders Other
and
lodgers. sources.

Total.

United States..............................................

82.64

1.46

7.45

6.77

1.68

100.0

Austria-Hungary.......................................
Canada ........................................................
Denmark....................................................
England......................................................
France................... ......................................
Germany....................................................
Ireland........................................................
Italy.............................................................
Netherlands...............................................
Norway........................................................
Russia..........................................................
Scotland......................................................
Sweden........................................................
Switzerland........................... .....................
Wales...........................................................
Other foreign..............................................

78.09
76.31
85.00
79.81
77.65
74.88
68.69
81.27
76.85
84.49
79.45
76.39
84.49
78.30
75.27
81.80

1.65
1.05
2.55
1.01
2.80
1.65
1.61
1.76
.74
1.27
1.75
.89
1.02
1.82
.34
3.19

10.96
9.92
5.09
8.63
8.28
14.44
15.75
8.50
11.96
6.44
10.05
12.23
3.50
10.21
13.67
7.14

6.49
10.70
4.99
8.70
10.18
7.23
12.05
6.83
8.95
5.95
7.26
8.66
8.18
8.83
9.90
5.95

2.81
2.02
2.37
1.85
1.09
1.80
1.90
1.64
1.50
1.85
1.49
1.83
2.81
.84
.82
1.92

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total foreign....................................

74.95

1.47

12.43

9.25

1.90

100.0

United States and foreign..............

79.49

1.47

9.49

7.78

1.77

100.0




1139

COST OF LIVING- AND RETAIL PRICES.

Table 1 3 .—PER CENT OF FAMILIES REPORTING A SURPLUS, A DEFICIT, OR* NEITHER A
SURPLUS NOR A DEFICIT, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND GENERAL NATIVITY OF
HEAD OF FAMILY.
Per cent of families reporting—
Geographical division and general nativity of head of family.

North Atlantic States:
Native...................................................................................................
Foreign.................................................................................................
Total.................................................................................................
South Atlantic States:
Native............................................................................. ......................
Foreign.................................................................................................
Total ............................................................................................

Deficit.

Neither
surplus nor
deficit.

55.38
51.44 j

16.18
17.28

28.44
31.28

53.54

16. 70

29.76

41.25
30.30 !

19. 60
23.23

39.15
46.47

Surplus.

40.26

19.93

39.81

North Central States:
Native.....................................................................................................
Foreign...................................................... .*
.........................................

45.90
42.95

12.51
17.83

41.59
39.22

Total...................................................................................................

44.64

14.77

40.59

South Central States:
Native.....................................................................................................
Foreign.................................................................................................

45.67
33.51

22.10
17.01

32.23
49.48

Total___.*...........................................................................................

43. 74

21.29

34.97

Western States:
Native.....................................................................................................
Foreign.................................................................................................

83.72
79.77

3.44
4.56

12.84
15.67

Total...................................................................................................

82.19

3.87

13.94

Table 1 4 .—PER CENT OF FAMILIES REPORTING A SURPLUS, A DEFICIT, OR NEITHER
A SURPLUS NOR A DEFICIT, BY NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.
Per cent of families reporting—
Nativity of head of family.
Surplus.

Deficit.

Neither
surplus
nor deficit.

United States................................................................................................

51.25

15.55

33.20

Austria-Hungary.........................................................................................
Canada..........................................................................................................
Denmark......................................................................................................
England........................................................................................................
France ..........................................................................................................
Germany........................... ...........................................................................
Ireland..........................................................................................................
Ita ly ...........................................................................................................
Netherlands................................................................... .............................
Norway........................................................................................................
Russia.......... ......................................'.........................................................
Scotland.......................................................................................................
Sweden..........................................................................................................
Switzerland.................................................................................................
W ales............................................. .............................................................
Other foreign............................................................................................

40. 99
60.67
58.25
56. 67
47.67
43.70
48.41
53.52
55.77
50.65
32.96
62.95
52.19
45.61
56.30
46.02

25. 79
11.86
12.62
16.02
15.12
16.82
18.50
20.70
21.15
15.58
25.96
14.34
11.36
12.28
19.33
15.93

33.22
27.47
29.13
27. 31
37.21
39.48
33.09
25.78
23.08
33. 77
41.08
22.71
36.45
42.11
24.37
38.05

Total foreign.....................................................................................

49.09

17.12

33.79

United States and foreign................................................................

50.38

16.18

33.44




1140

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table 1 5 .—AVERAGE INCOME OF HUSBANDS AT WORK, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS
AND GENERAL NATIVITY.

Geographical division and general nativity.

Average
income of
husbands.

North Atlantic States:
Native.......................................................................................................................................
$638.14
Foreign......................................................................................................................................
594.56
618.00

South Atlantic States:
557.21
Native.......................................................................... ..............................................................
Foreign.......................................................................................................................................
563.71
557.79

Total............................................................................................................... .......................

North Central States:
Native........................................................................................................................................
663.38
Foreign......................................................................................................................................
588.58
631.84

Total................................ .................................................................... .................................

South Central States:
572.68
Native.......................................................................................................................................
Foreign......................................................................................................................................
568.31
572.03

Total.......................................................................................................................................

Western States:
Native................................................................................................................................ j
».__
828.13
Foreign......................................................................................................................................
759.65
Total......................................................................................................................................

801.24

Table 1 6 .—AVERAGE INCOME OF HUSBANDS AT WORK, BY NATIVITY.
Average
income of
husbands.

United States___

$637.22

Austria-Hungary
Canada ...............
Denmark............
England..............
France.................
Germany............
Ireland...............
Italy....................
Netherlands.......

543.94
620.02
671.01
673.40
596.21
588.11
574.33
508.67
518.80




Nativity.
Norway.................................................
Russia....................................................
Scotland............ ..................................
Sweden...................................................
Switzerland..........................................
W ales..................................................
Other foreign........................................

Average
income of
husbands.

sssggg:

Nativity.

$652.

615.
602.74

Total foreign..............................

597.19

United States and foreign.........

621.12

COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES

1141

Table 1 7 .—AVERAGE INCOME OF WIVES AT WORK, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND
GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Geographical division and general nativity of head of family.

North Atlantic States:
Native........................................................................................................................................

Average
income of
wives.

3145.48
146.77
146.09

South Atlantic States:
Native........................................................................................................................................
Foreign....................................................................................................................................

93.19
119.81

Total......................................................................................................................................

95.02

North Central States:
Native..............................................................................................................................
Foreign.......................................................................................................................... .........

102.24
113.76

Total......................................................................................................................................

107.28

South Central States:
Native........................................................................................................................................
Foreign.............................. ................................................................................................

90.54
101.24

Total......................................................................................................................................

91.80

Western States:
Native.......................................................................................................................................
Foreign...................................................................................................................................

226. 73
238.38

Total......................................................................................................................................

229.83

Table 1 8 .—AVERAGE INCOME OF WIVES AT WORK, BY NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Nativity of head of family.

Average
income of
wives.

United States........................................

3122.43

Austria-Hungary..................................
Canada ..................................................
Denmark...............................................
England.................................................
France....................................................
Germany _
.............. __........__
Ireland..................................................
Italy.......................................................
Netherlands..........................................

157.00
164.83
221.67
135.03
164.09
126.74
139.14
119.45




520.00

Nativity of head of family.

Average
income of
wives.

Norway.................................................
Russia..........................................
Scotland...............................................
Sweden.................................................
Switzerland..........................................
Wales....................................................
Other foreign.......................................

3213.29
134.99
119.63
130.35
160.40
160.00
170.70

Total foreign..............................

138.32

United States and foreign.........

128.52

1142

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR

Table 1 9 .—AVERAGE NUMBER OF ROOMS PER FAMILY AND PER INDIVIDUAL, BY
GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.
Rooms
per
family.

Rooms
per indi­
vidual.

5.37
5.02

Geographical division and general nativity of head of family.

1.21
1.01

North Atlantic States:

Total.........................................................................................................................

5.21

1.11

South Atlantic States:
Native.'.........................................................................................................................
Foreign.......................................................................................................................

4.75
5.36

.97
.95

Total.........................................................................................................................

4.81

.97

North Central States:
Native...........................................................................................................................
Foreign.......................................................................................................................

4.46
5.12

.97
.98

Total.........................................................................................................................

4.74

.98

South Central States:
Native .......................................................................................................................
Foreign ....................................................................................................................

3.75
4.07

.74
.78

...............................................- ...............................................................

3.80

.75

Western States:
Native.........................................................................................................................
Foreign.......................................................................................................................

4.66
4.77

1.19
1.11

Total.........................................................................................................................

4.70

1.16

Total

Table ‘2 0 .—AVERAGE NUMBER OF ROOMS PER FAMILY AND PER INDIVIDUAL, BY
NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.
Rooms
per
family.

Rooms
per indi­
vidual.

United States..............................

4.90

1.08

Austria-Hungary............ ...........
Canada .........................................
Denmark.....................................
England.......................................
France..........................................
Germany.......................................
Ireland — ..................................
Italy..............................................
Netherlands................................
Norway.........................................
Russia...........................................
Scotland............... .......................
Sweden.........................................
Switzerland..................................
Wales............................................
Other foreign..............................

4.16
5.60
5.24
5.39
4.86
4.90
5. 0
a
3.67
5.76
5.28
4.43
5.39
5.03
5.18
5.51
4.76

.85
1.10
1.07
1.13
1.00
.95
.99
.77
1.05
1.02
.81
1.06
1.11
1.10
1.05
1.04

Nativity of head of family.

Total foreign.....................

5.03

1.00

United States and foreign

4.95

1.04




1143

COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES

T able S I .—PER CENT OF FAMILIES OWNING HOMES AND PER CENT OF OWNED HOMES
FREE FROM INCUMBRANCE, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND GENERAL NATIVITY
OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Geographical division and general nativity of head of family.

Per cent of
owned
Percent of
families homes free
owning
from
incum­
homes.
brance.

North Atlantic States:
Native.................................................................................................................
Foreign................................................................................................................

11.65
15.29

55.66
51.93

Total..................................................................................................................

13.34

53.67

South Atlantic States:
Native.................................................................................................................
Foreign...............................................................................................................

18.50
30.30

63.96
41.67

Total..................................................................................................................

19.56

60.84

North Central States:
Native..................................................................................................................
Foreign.................................................................................................................

18.41
39.99

57.20
50.36

Total..................................................................................................................

27.56

52. 99

South Central States:
Native..................................................................................................................
Foreign................................... ..........................................................................

18.01
35.57

64.32
81.16

Total..................................................................................................................

20.80

68.90

Western States:
Native..................................................................................................................
Foreign................................................................................................................

25.14
40.17

70.50
78.01

Total............................................... ..................................................................

30.97

74.29

Table 2 2 .—PER CENT OF OWNED HOMES FREE FROM INCUMBRANCE, BY NATIVITY
OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Nativity of head of family.

Per cent of
owned
Per cent of
families homes free
owning
from
incum­
homes.
brance.

United States.............................................................................................................

15.36

59.06

Austria-Hungary.................................................................................... .................
Canada .......................................................................................................................
Denmark....................................................................................................................
England................. ! ..................................................................................................
France.........................................................................................................................
Germany......................................................................................................................
Ireland.......................................................................................................................
Italy............................................................................................................................
Netherlands...............................................................................................................
Norway.......................................................................................................................
Russia.........................................................................................................................
Scotland......................................................................................................................
Sweden.......................................................................................................................
Switzerland.................................................................................................................
Wales...........................................................................................................................
Other foreign.............................................................................................................

17.31
15.22
34. 95
19.89
25.58
32.33
21.56
11.72
46.15
38.96
16.03
19.12
32.27
26.32
27.73
7.96

57.14
40.91
58.33
58.92
77.27
56.97
56.30
66.67
29.17
16.67
43.66
54.17
36.42
53.33
69. 70
66. 67

Total foreign..............................................: .....................................................

24.29

53.18

United States and foreign......................... ^
...................................................

18.97

56.02




1144

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table 2 3 .—PER CENT OF HEADS OF FAMILIES IDLE AND AVERAGE WEEKS IDLE, BY
GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.

Geographical division.

Per cent
idle.

Average
Average
weeks idle weeks idle
based on
based on total heads
those idle. of families.

North Atlantic States.................................. ......................................
South Atlantic States..........................................................................
North Central States............................................................................
South Central States............................................................................
Western States........................... ..........................................................

49.30
51.71
48. 42
74.98
30.85

9.59
9.01
8. 83
9.22
11.33

Total............................................................................................

49.81

9.43

.

4.73
4.66
4.28
6 91
3.50
4.70

Table 2 4 .—PER CENT OF HEADS OF FAMILIES IDLE AND AVERAGE WEEKS IDLE, BY
NATIVITY.

Nativity.

Per cent
idle.

Average
Average
weeks idle weeks idle
based on
based on total heads
those idle. of families.

United States.........................................................................................

48.09

9.00

4.33

Austria-Hungary...............................................................................
Canada....... ...........................................................................................
Denmark................................................................................................
England..................................................................................................
France ...................................................................................................
Germany...............................................................................................
Ireland........................................................................................ ..........
I ta ly .......................................................................................................
Netherlands...........................................................................................
Norway ..................................................................................................
Russia....................................................................................................
Scotland..................................................................................................
Sweden........................... .......................................................................
Switzerland...................................................................................... .
W ales.....................................................................................................
Other foreign.........................................................................................

57.66
39.78
49.49
51.10
58 33
54.60
51.41
65.60
68 27
54.61
66.90
50 62
42.28
68.52
64 96
53.21

9 05
9.50
7.94
10.42
11.94
9 45
10.87
10.71
8.29
8.29
11.22
10.98
8.95
7.66
10.28
8.74

5.22
3.78
3.93
5.33
6.97
5.15
5.59
7.03
5.66
4.53
7 51
5. 56
3.78
5.25
6.68
4. 65

Total foreign...............................................................................

52.35

10.04

5.26

United States and foreign.........................................................

49.81

9.43

4 70

T able 2 5 .—PER CENT OF HEADS OF FAMILIES IDLE AND AVERAGE WEEKS IDLE, BY
PRINCIPAL CAUSES.

Cause of idleness.

Accident................................................................................................
Bad weather.........................................................................................
Establishment closed..........................................................................
Sickness..................................................................................................
Sickness and establishment closed....................................................
Sickness and slack work.....................................................................
Sickness and unable to get work........................................................
Sickness and vacation..........................................................................
Slack work.............................................................................................
Strike...................... ..............................................................................
Unable to get work...............................................................................
Vacation.......................................................................... .....................




Per cent
Per cent
idle based idle based Average
on total
on those weeks idle.
heads of
idle.
families.
0.83
1.12
2.14
11.22
.48
.83
1.84
.55
6.50
1.03
16.58
3.21

1.66
2.25
4.30
22.54
.95
1.67
3.70
1.11
13.05
2.07
33.29
6.45

8.98
9.32
8.58
7.71
11.91
10.33
14.15
5.32
9.79
9.65
10.90
2.61

1145

COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES.

The charts on exhibit relating to the cost of living in the 2,567
families which reported their expenditures in detail are given in the
following list, reference being made by number in each case to the
table which furnishes the data forming the basis for the graphic
presentation:
CHARTS RELATING TO 2,567 FAMILIES WHICH REPORTED EXPENDI­
TURES IN DETAIL.
Average cost per family of certain articles of food consumed in 1901, by geographical
divisions (Table 26).
Average cost per family of certain articles of food consumed in 1901, for the United
States (Table 26).
Average expenditure per family for various purposes in 1901, by geographical divi­
sions (Table 27).
Average expenditure per family for various purposes in 1901, for the United States
(Table 27).
Average cost of food per family each year, 1890 to 1903, by geographical divisions
(Table 28).
Average cost of food per family each year, 1890 to 1903, for the United States (Table
28).

Of the above six charts the second, fourth, and sixth are reproduced
herewith and are numbered, respectively, 37, 38, and 39. The three
tables which follow contain the data upon which the six charts were
based.
T able £ 6 .—AVERAGE COST PER FAMILY OF CERTAIN ARTICLES OF FOOD CONSUMED IN
1901, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND FOR THE UNITED STATES.

Article.

Fresh beef...................................................
Salt beef......................................................
Fresh pork..................................................
Salt pork......................................................
Poultry........................................................
F ish .............................................................
Other meat.................................................
Flour, meal, and bread.............................
Rice.............................................................
Potatoes......................................................
Other vegetables.........................................
Eggs.............................................................
M ilk.............................................................
Butter.........................................................
Cheese.................... ....................................
Lard............................................................
Molasses......................................................
Sugar...........................................................
Coffee...........................................................
T ea..............................................................
Fruit............................................................
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments..........
Other food..................................................
Total..................................................




North
South
North
South
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
States
States
States
States
States
States
(90
(2,567
(1.415
(219
(721
(122
families). families).
families). families). families). families).
$54.27
8.18
12.83
12.19
10.18
10.06
12.26
31.65
1.94
13.77
16.08
18. 44
24.29
29. 77
2.55
8.15
1.51
16.67
9. 70
6.33
15.31
4.06
17.91

$41.08
1.13
10.48
26.79
8.44
5.21
3.86
30. 44
2. 77
9.29
20.75
15.55
13.02
25. 76
2.65
12.72
2.01
14.15
10. 58
4.40
15. 22
3.21
19.13

$46.06
2.20
18.39
11.25
9.34
5. 67
8.68
24.58
1.92
13.01
22.03
15.24
19.67
28.48
2.87
10.34
1.53
14.63
12. 91
4.22
17.15
4.80
26.63

$37.84
.33
15.60
28.09
5. 93
3.95
1.40
32.23
3.70
11.54
16.62
13.20
12.25
21.74
3.36
14.31
2.93
15.70
12.22
2.69
11. 52
4.41
21.12

$54.13
. 66
4.04
11.06
7.15
6.90
5.35
20. 78
.91
9.84
35.41
11.01
20.46
31.81
.69
5.44
3.28
14.49
8.06
3.43
40.53
1.49
11.61

$50.05
5.26
14.02
13.89
9.49
8.01
9. 78
29.20
2.05
12.93
18. 85
16.79
21.32
28.76
2.62
9.35
1.69
15.76
10.74
5.30
16.52
4.12
20.40

338.10

298.64

321. 60

292. 68

308 53

326. 90

1146
Table

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
2

7 .—AVERAGE EXPENDITURE PER FAMILY FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN 1901, BY
GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND FOR THE UNITED STATES.
North Atlantic States.

Expenditure for—

South Atlantic States.

Aver­
age per
family,
based
on fam­
ilies
having
an ex­
pendi­
ture.

Aver­
age per
family,
based
on fam­
ilies
having
an ex­
pendi­
ture.

Per
cent of
fami­
lies
having
an ex­
pendi­
ture.

Aver­
age per
family,
based
on all
fami­
lies.

Per
cent of
fami­
lies
having
an ex­
pendi­
ture.

Aver­
age per
family,
based
on all
fami­
lies.

Food.................................. . 100.00 $338.10 $338.10 100.00 $298.64 $298.64
74.31
75.80
98.03
Rent....................................... 87.70 131.34 115.19
Mortgage:
7.59
64.86
Principal........................
3.18 «145.89
6.85 110.88
c3.82
36.50
3.50
9.59
Interest.........................
5.51 «75.02
32.52
32.52
31.79 100.00
31.79
Fuel....................................... 100.00
6.41
6.41
8.81
8.81 100.00
Lighting................................ 100.00
Clothing:
33.62
31.79
30.34
34.18
Husband........................ 98.37
95.43
22.79
22.47
26.77
27.18
98.63
Wife....... ......................... 98.52
44.59
44.93
85.84
51.94
Children........................ 86.64
51.86
16.22
6.07
15.14
4.91
37.44
Taxes.................................... 32.44
Insurance:
4.62
1.27
4.16
1.21
27.40
29.12
Property.........................
21.92
19.99
32.00
68.49
67.21
29.74
L ife................................
Organizations:
1.72
3.74
8.75
19.63
39.15
9.55
Labor..............................
6.14
4.18
11.43
36.53
Other..............................
11.90
51.59
6.59
8.55
8.14
77.17
9.81
Religion................................ 82.97
2.44
2.07
4.30
4.61
56.62
Charity.................................. 44.95
30.28
30.74
69.41
21.33
34.44
Furniture and utensils....... 87.92
5.46
8.19
79.45 . 6.87
8.45
Books and newspapers....... 96.89
7.99
11.59
54.79
14.58
14.96
Amusements and vacation. 77.46
19.48
9.07
12.69
23.72
46.58
Intoxicating liquors.......... 53.50
11.79
9.31
12.34
10.05
79.00
Tobacco ................................ 81.48
23.96
28.83
83.11
25.77
19.18
Sickness and death.............. 74.42
58.94
63.28
32.15
31.97
93.15
99.43
Other purposes....................

North Central States.
Per
cent of
fami­
lies
having
an ex­
pendi­
ture.

Aver­
age per
family,
based
on fam­
ilies
having
an ex­
pendi­
ture.

Aver­
age per
family,
based
on all
fami­
lies.

100.00 $321.60
70.18 114.16

$321.60
80.12

9.71 «152.10
13.31 a43.57
100.00
33.98
100.00
8.01

&14.61
c5.44
33.98
8.01

98.61
99.17
93.62
35.51

35.99
25.73
58.04
21.75

35.49
25.52
54.34
7. 72

36.34
66.44

5.63
28.94

2.04
19.22

37.45
34.40
77.39
57.84
83.91
96.26
63.66
49.38
76.42
81.41
99.45

10.22
11.91
8.83
4.53
26.90
9.69
24.99
30.38
18.19
28.27
61.08

3. 83
4.10
6.83
2.62
22.57
9.33
15. 91
15.00
13.90
23.02
60.75

a Not including payments made by 6 families in which principal and interest were combined.
b Including interest paid by 6 families.
cNot including interest paid by 6 families, included in principal.




Labor Bui. 54
A v e r a g e C o s t p e r Fa m il y o r C e r t a in A r t ic l e s o r Food
C onsum ed

in

1901, t o r

[p r o m

C H A RT 37




r e p o r t s

the
or

U n it e d S t a t e s .

2507

t a m il ie s ] .

Labor Bui. 54
A

E

ver ag e

x p e n d it u r e

per

fo r

Fa m

il y

U

th e

S

n it e d

[rROM REPORTS O r 2 567

PER C EN T O r
EXPENDITURE F O R -

V

tor

P

a r io u s

t a t e s

S20 40 00 80 100

140

180

1901,

in

.

FAMILIES].

AVERAGE PER FAMILY
B A S E D ON A L L FAMILIES.

AVERAGE PER FAMILY BASED
ON FAMILIES HAVING AN EXPENDITURE

FAMILIES HAVING
AN EXPENDITURE.

u r p o s e s

220

200

300

S20 40 00 80 100

140

180

220

2 60

300

100.00

F

ood

R

en t

M

ortgage

80.87
|P

r i n c i p a i _________

[In

t e r e s t

_________

7.91

uel

L

ig h t in g
usb a nd

W

l o t h in g

C

it e

___________

_______________

-

-

—

—

__________

3432

e l ig io n

|C

a b o r

[O

r g a n iz a t io n s

R

— —

88.76

h il d r e n

-

— -■

— —
1 1

.1

...

_________________________

43.73

Ij

1 .

.

________ 80.33 _ _______ 1
_

h a r it y

31.07

ooks

9474.

1

A

m u s em en ts

a n d

70.39

11

L

-

—

__

—

-

N

In

t o x ic a t in g

T

o b a c co

S

ic k n e s s

ew sp a p er s

P

M

---------

v c a t io n

iq u o r s

-------------- _______ 30.72________

------------------------------------------ ________ 79.20_______
a n d

D

e a t h

ur po ses

CHART 38




--------------

------------------------L—

70.70

- -

—

-

-

84.33

B

1
1

1

rU R N ITU R E AND UTENSILS _ _
and

- -

-

______ _________ 3877_________ 1 _

th er

\

.

1

1

31.40
[P r o p e r t y .
1
[ L i r e ________________ _________ 0 5 6 0 _________

surance

o t h e r

-

1

9871

[L

1O

.

_ ._____. .9 8 .1 3 _________

a x e s

In

- - —
1

.100.00
H

T

-

99.96

F

C

--

5.53

— - - —

1

L
*-

1L

1

1
.1
.1
11

—

Labor Bui. 54
Average C ost or F ood

1890 to 1903, tor the
[rR O M

CHART 39




REPOR TS

Family, E ach Y
United S t a t e s .

per

O F 256 7 FAMILIES].

ear,

1147

COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES,

Table 3 7 .—AVERAGE EXPENDITURE PER FAMILY FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN 1901, BY
GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND FOR THE UNITFD STATES—Concluded.
South Central States.

Expenditure for—

Per
cent of
fami­
lies
having
an ex­
pendi­
ture.

Aver­
age per
family,
based
on fam­
ilies
having
an ex­
pendi­
ture.

Aver­
age per
family,
based
on all
fami­
lies.

Food..................................... 100.00 $292.68 $292.68
72.75
91.51
Rent....................................... 79.51
Mortgage:
Principal........................
4.10 «182.50 b 7.07
.82
Interest.........................
(«)
(a)
24.44
Fuel....................................... 99.18
24.64
4.77
Lighting.............................. 100. 00
4.77
•
Clothing:
Husband........................ 96.72
29.60
28.63
97.54
19.03
Wife......................... .
19.51
Children........................ 90.98
47. 79
52.53
6.08
Taxes................. ................. 44.26
13.74
Insurance:
1.69
Property........................ 22.95
7.35
26.06
16.66
L ife ................................ 63.93
Organizations:
Labor ............................. 24.59
2.58
10.50
2.97
Other..............................
29. 51
10.08
6.97
Religion................................ 77.05
9.05
4.34
2.49
Charity.................................. 57.38
30. 75 19.91
Furniture and utensils....... 64. 75
5.48
6.49
Books and newspapers....... 84. 43
4.64
Amusements and vacation. 34.43
13.47
14.09
7.39
Intoxicating liquors............ 52.46
11.04
75.41
8.33
Tobacco............ ...................
25. 63 23.95
Sickness and death.............. 93.44
99.18
84.51
83.81
Other purposes....................

Western States.

United States.
Aver­
Per age per
cent of family,
fami­ based
lies on fam­
having ilies
an ex­ having
pendi­ an ex­
ture. pendi­
ture.

Aver­
age per
family,
based
on all
fami­
lies.

100.00 $308.53 $308.53
73.33 143.55 105.27

100.00 $326.90
80.87 122.92

$326.90
99.49

7.78
7.78
100.00
100.00

141.86
17.14
35.05
7.71

11.03
1.33
35.05
7.71

5.53 cl45.82
7.91 e 53.73
99.96
32.24
100.00
8.15

d 8 . 15
/ 3.98
32.23
8.15

98.89
100.00
87. 78
33.33

37.07
36.53
64.11
8.88

36.66
36.53
56.28
2.96

98.13
98.71
88. 78
34.32

34.38
26. 37
54.15
16.86

33.73
26.03
48.08
5.79

48.89
34.44

6.11
30.35

2.99
10.45

31.40
65.80

4.89
29.55

1.53
19.44

52.22
32.22
74.44
71.11
100.00
100.00
100.00
25.56
71.11
36.67
100.00

25.39
13.00
12.24
7.48
14.64
14.0?
14.79
11.91
11.63
25.17
40.79

13.26
4.19
9.11
5.32
14.64
14.02
14.79
3.05
8.27
9.23
40.79

36.77
43.75
80.33
51.07
84.53
94.74
70.39
50.72
79.20
76.70
98.91

10.52
11.84
9.49
4.68
31.13
8.82
17.44
24.53
13.80
26.78
45.63

3.8>
5.18
7.62
2.39
26.31
8. 35
12.28
12.44
10.93
20.54
45.13

Aver­
Per age per
cent of family,
fami­ based
lies on fam­
having ilies
an ex­ having
pendi­ an ex­
ture. pendi­
ture.

Aver­
age per
family,
based
on all
fami­
lies.

a Not including payment made by 1 family, in which principal and interest were combined.
b Including interest paid by 1 family.
c Not including payments made by 13 families, in which principal and interest were combined.
d Including interest paid by 13 families.
<?Not including interest paid by 1 family, included in principal.
f Not including interest paid by 13 families, included in principal.

*10193—No. 54—04-----13




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

1148

Table 2 8 .—AVERAGE COST OE FOOD PER FAMILY EACH YEAR, 1890 TO 1903, BY GEO­
GRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND FOR THE UNITED STATES.
[Based on the average cost per family in 1901 and the course of retail prices of food indicated by the
relative prices weighted according to family consumption.]

Year.

1890 ..............................................................
1891..............................................................
1892 ...............................................................
1893 ................................ .............................
1894 ..............................................................
1895 ...............................................................
1896 ..............................................................
1897 ..............................................................
1898 .................................................... ..........
1899 ..............................................................
1900 ..............................................................
1901........................... ...................................
3902 ..............................................................
1903 .......... ....................... ............................

South
North
South
North
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
States
States
States
States
States
States
(90
(2,567
(122
(219
(721
(1,415
families). families).
families). families). families). families).
$330.35
333.26
329.70
337.13
320.34
315.50
313.23
812.91
319.05
321.31
326.80
338.10
356.83
353.92

$282.72
285.23
282.44
288.30
279.36
275.73
270.42
271.26
277.41
280.76
286.07
298.64
312.33
310.65

$310.08
316.75
308.57
319.48
304.93
297.05
286.74
289.77
298.26
299.78
305.54
*621.60
338.57
335.85

$279.54
283.64
275.71
283.37
273.79
268.59
263.11
266.40
270. 50
273. 51
276.80
292. 68
310. 75
311.85

$332.61
335.72
324.90
317.80
306.68
298.65
287.84
286.29
294.01
304.21
302.97
308.53
322.43
317.49

$318.20
322.55
316.65
324.41
309.81
303.91
296. 76
299.24
306.70
309.19
314.16
326.90
344. 61
342.13

For purposes of comparison by size of family, by size of income,
etc., those families having certain attributes were selected from the
whole number investigated. The families thus selected are termed
“ normal,” the “ normal” family for the purposes of this study being
one which has—
The husband at work;
A wife;
Not more than five children, and none over 14 years of age;
No dependent, boarder, lodger, or servant;
Expenditures for rent, fuel, lighting, food, clothing, and sundries.
The charts on exhibit relating to the expenditures for various pur­
poses in 11,156 normal families are given in the following list, refer­
ence being made by number in each case to the table which furnishes
the data forming the basis for the graphic presentation:
CHARTS RELATING TO 11,156 “ NORMAL” FAMILIES.
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families, by size
of family (Table 29).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes'in normal families, by size
of income (Table 30).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
no children, by size of income (Table 31).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
one child, by size of income (Table 32).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
two children, by size of income (Table 33).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
three children, by size of income (Table 34).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
four children, by size of income (Table 35).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
five children, by size of income (Table 36).




1149

COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES.

Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families, by
geographical divisions and general nativity of head of family (Table 37).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families, by
nativity of head of family (Table 38).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
no children, by geographical divisions and general nativity of hea l of family
(Table 39).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
one child, by geographical divisions and general nativity of head of family (Table 40).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
two children, by geographical divisions and general nativity of head of family
(Table 41).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
three children, by geographical divisions and general nativity of head of family
(Table 42).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
four children, by geographical divisions and general nativity of head of family
(Table 43).
Per cent of total expenditure made for various purposes in normal families having
five children, by geographical divisions and general nativity of head of family
(Table 44).

Of the above sixteen charts the second is reproduced on page 1150.
The sixteen tables which follow contain the data upon which the six­
teen charts were based:
Table 2 9 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES, BY SIZE OF FAMILY.
Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Families with—

No children.................................................
One child....................................................
Two children.............................................
Three children..........................................
Four children.............................................
Five children.............................................
All families.......................................

Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

40.33
41.74
43.21
44.56
45.69
47.24*

20.23
18.48
17.81
17.44
16.76
16.54

12.43
12. 64
13.03
13.17
13.36
13.85

4.76
4.67
4.59
4.45
4.23
4.52

1.14
1.14
1.13
1.10
1.08
1.04

21.11
21.33
20.23
19.28
18.88
16.81

43.13

18.12

12.95

4. 57

1.12

20.11

Table 3 0 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES, BY SIZE OF INCOME.
Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Families having income—
Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

Under $200...................................................
$200 to $300...................................................
$300 to $400..................................................
$400 to $500..................................................
$500 to $600..................................................
$600 to $700..................................................
$700 to $800...................................................
$800 to $900................................ ..................
$900 to $1,000...............................................
$1,000 to $1,100............................................
$1,100 to $1,200 ............................................
$1,200 and over............................................

50.85
47.33
48.09
46.88
46.16
43.48
41.44
41.37
39.90
38.79
37.68
36.45

16.93
18.02
18. 69
18.57
18.43
18.48
18.17
17.07
17.58
17.53
16.59
17.40

8.68
8.66
10.02
11.39
11.98
12.88
13.50
13.57
14.35
15.06
14.89
15.72

6.69
6.09
5.97
5.54
5.09
4.65
4.14
3.87
3.85
3.77
3. 63
3.85

1.27
1.13
1.14
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.10
1.11
1.16
1.08
1.18

15.58
18.77
16.09
16.50
17.22
19.39
21.63
23.02
23.21
23.69
26.13
25.40

Total families...................................

43.13

18.12

12.95

4.57

1.12

20.11




1150

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table 3 1 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING NO CHILDREN, BY SIZE OF INCOME.
Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Families having income—

Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

Under $200......................... .........................
$200 to $300.......... . . . . . .................................
$300 to $400............... : .................................
$400 to $500...................................................
$500 to $600...................................................
$600 to $700...................................................
$700 to $800...................................................
$800 to $900...................................................
$900 to $1,000............................. .................
$1,000 to $1,100............................................
$1,100 to $1,200 ............................................
$1, 200 and over..........................................

48.40
46.55
45.41
44.43
43.30
40.08
37.74
38.08
37.67
36.41
31.30
36.33

17.61
21.17
20.11
19.93 *
20.49
20.20
20.67
20.17
20.26
19.17
20.11
18.73

8.94
7.00
9.81
10.96
11.58
12.44
13.16
13.88
13.80
13.49
15.10
14.60

7.10
6.46
6.01
5.56
5.18
4.75
4.21
4.30
4.21
4.01
4.17
3.84

1.33
4 1.17
1.12
1.10
1.16
1.18
1.11
1.09
1.16
1.22
1.26
1.22

16.62
17.65
17.54
18.02
18. 29
21.35
23.11
22.48
22.90
25.70
28.06
25.28

Total families......................... .........

40.33

20.23

12.43

4.76

1.14

21.11

Table 3 2 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING ONE CHILD, BY SIZE OF INCOME.
Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Families having income—

Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

Under $200................. .................................
$200 to $300...................................................
$300 to $100...................................................
$400 to $500...................................................
$500 to $600...................................................
$600 to $700...................................................
$700 to $800..................................................
$800 to $900...................................................
$900 to $1,000...............................................
$1,000 to $1,100............................................
$1,100 to $1,200 ............................................
$1,200 and over............................................

53.55
46.11
47.08
44.69
44.57
41.91
39.85
39.74
39.01
37.32
37.25
33.85

14.64
15.47
18.40
18.59
18.53
18.88
18.97
17.25
18.08
18.36
16.12
17.31

7.71
8.43
9.41
11.47
11.74
12.81
13.09
13.37
14.11
15.00
16.28
13.95

7.45
5.82
5.88
5.60
5.08
4.69
4.24
4.17
4.03
3.98
3.39
3.63

1.34
1.18
1.16
1.15
1.15
1.13
1.12
1.10
1.15
1.09
1.11
1.20

15.31
22.99
18.07
18.50
18.93
20.58
22.73
24.37
23.62
24.25
25.85
30.06

Total families...................................

41.74

18.48

12.64

4.67

1.14

21.33

Table 3 3 . —PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING TWO CHILDREN, BY SIZE OF INCOME.
# Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Families having income—

Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

Under $200...................................................
$200 to $300..................................................
$300 to $400...................................................
$400 to $500...................................................
$500 to $600...................................................
$600 to $700...................................................
$700 to $800...................................................
$800 to $900...................................................
$900 to $1,000...............................................
$1,000 to $1,100............................................
$1,100 to $1,200 ............................................
$1,200 and over............................................

52.21
48.12
48.69
47.47
45.98
43.59
41.66
41.08
39.64
37.60
38.74
35.13

14.68
17.19
18.09
18.48
17.96
17.88
17.54
17.06
17.90
18.68
16.16
16.97

5.87
9.40
10.57
11.47
12.16
12.82
13.31
13.84
14.49
16.36
14.40
16.59

7.64
5.89
5.88
5.61
5.03
4.60
4.06
4.07
3.97
4.14
3.89
4.09

1.63
1.04
1.15
1.15
1.11
1.16
1.11
1.15
1.10
1.20
1.08
1.19

17.97
18.36
15.62
15.82
17.76
19.95
22.32
22.80
22.90
22.02
25.73
26.03

Total families....................................

43.21

17. 81

13.03

4.59

1.13

20.23




P er C ent

of

T otal Expenditure M ade
N ormal F amilies, by Size

mm =

foo d .

C-----1 = RENT.




I------ 1 = CLOTHINC.
CZ3

= FUEL.

for

V arious P urposes

of I ncome.

■ ■

= LICHTINC.

I------1 = SUNDRIES.

in

1151

COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES

Table 3 4 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING THREE CHILDREN, BY SIZE OF INCOME.
Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Families haying income—
Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

Under $200...................................................
$200 to $300..................................................
$300 to $400..................................................
$400 to $500..................................................
$500 to $600..................................................
$600 to $700..................................................
$700 to $800..................................................
$800 to $900..................................................
$900 to $1,000 ...............................................
$1,000 to $1,100.............................................
$1,100 to $1,200.............................................
$1,200 and over............................................

46.71
48.17
48.81
49. 21
47.95
44.93
43.39
42.80
39.93
39.95
41.78
38.69

17.41
18. 30
18.85
18.09
17.93
17.93
17.10
16.66
16.77
16.82
15.36
17.14

12. 64
11.32
10.11
11.54
12.27
12.85
13.77
13.45
14.76
14.96
13.92
16.18

5.33
5. 98
6.29
5.34
5.02
4.58
4.12
3.74
3.78
3.89
3.57
3.90

0.87
1.08
1.16
1.11
1.08
1.02
1.16
1.10
1.09
1.19
1.06
1.21

17.04
15.15
14.78
14. 71
15.75
18. 69
20.46
22.25
23.67
23.19
24.31
22.88

Total families....................................

44.56

17.44

13.17

4.45

1.10

19.28

Table 3 5 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING FOUR CHILDREN, BY SIZE OF INCOME.
Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Families having income—

Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Under $200...................................................
$200 to $300..................................................
$300 to $400..................................................
$400 to $500..................................................
$500 to $600..................................................
$600 to $700 .................................................
$700 to $800..................................................
$800 to $900..................................................
$900 to $1 000...............................................
$1 000 to $1 100............................................
$1100 to $1 200 ............................................
$1 200 and over............................................

56.95
56.52
51.67
50.51
49. 72
47.20
44.07
43.63
42.18
41.02
39.54
38.68

20.65
14.01
17.97
17.29
17.47
17.97
16.72
15.56
15.71
15.07
15.58
17.05

6.41
9.92
10.03
11.57
12.05
13.45
14.39
12.81
13.95
15.24
14.07
18.66

5.13
5.77
5.85
5.48
5.18
4. 79
3.99
3.14
3.19
3.05
3.12
3.87

Total families...................................

45.69

16.76

13.36

4.23

Lighting. Sundries.
1.24
1.45
1.05
1.04
1.09
1.09
1.12
1.06
1.08
1.08
.92
1.14
I

9. 62
12.33
13.43
14.11
14.49
15.50
19.71
23.80
23. 89
24. 54
26. 77
20. 60

1.08

18.88

Table 3 6 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING FIVE CHILDREN, BY SIZE OF INCOME.
Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Families having income—

Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Ful.

Lighting. Sundries.

Under $200..................................................
$200 to $300 .................................................. v 47.93
52.75
$300 to $400..................................................
$400 to $500..................................................
50.65
50.36
$500 to $600..................................................
48.62
$600 to $700..................................................
46. 73
$700 to $800..................................................
43.42
$800 to $900..................................................
$900 to $1,000...............................................
44.19
$1,000 to $1,100............................................
41.83
$1,100 to $1,200 ............................................
39.96
$1,200 and over............................................
42.14

16.76
17.43
17.14
17.09
17.04
16.66
15.24
14.74
17.26
14.17
15.40

10.07
10.92
11.70
12.48
13. 90
14.45
14. 74
16.63
14.12
15.77
17.64

6.46
5.99
5.59
5.10
4.49
4.47
3.61
3.98
3.41
3.44
3.75

0.96
1.19
1.08
1.10
.98
1.03
.99
1.05
1.21
.94
.84

17.82
11.72
13.84
13.87
14.97
16.66
22.00
19.41
22.17
25.72
20.23

47.24

16.54

13.85

4.52

1.04

16.81

Total families...................................




1152

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR

T able 3 7 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD
OF FAMILY. •
Geographical division and general nativity of head of family.

Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

North Atlantic States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

42.26
44.45

19.97
19.33

13.04
12.30

4.55
4.53

1.15
1.21

19.03
IS. 18

Total...................................................

43.17

19.70

12.73

4.54

1.18

18.68

South Atlantic States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

43.39
46.77

16.56
16.35

12.69
12.28

4.96
4.50

.97
.91

21.43
19.19

43.64 |

16.54

12.67

4.93

.96

21.26

42.33
46.17

15.15
15.46

13.04
12.99

4.23
5.51

1.08
1.09 ,

24.17
18.78

Total...................................................
North Central States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................
Total...................................................

43.47 |

15.25

13.02

4.61

1.08 j

22.57

South Central States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

41.48
43.09 /

16.29
17.38

13.19
12.45

3.89
3.94

.82
.74

24.33
22. 40

Total..................................................

i
41.67 |

16.41

13.11

3.89

.81

24.11

Western States:
Native ..................................................
Foreign.................................................

40.38
41.87 j|

20.29
19.62

15.65
15.44

4.66
4.63

1.06
1.08

17. 96
17.36

40.85 ;
i

20.08

15.58

4.65

1.07

17.77

Total...................................................

Table 3 8 . —PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES, BY NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.
Per cenfof total expenditure made for—
Nativity of head of family.
-------------------------------- w-------------------------

Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel. - Lighting. Sundries.

United States..............................................

42.26

18.02

13.13

4.45

1.10

21.04

Austria-Hungary.......................................
Canada ........................................................
Denmark....................................................
England......................................................
France.........................................................
Germany......................................................
Ireland........................................................
Italy.............................................................
Netherlands...............................................
Norway................................................. .....
Russia.........................................................
Scotland......................................................
Sweden........................................................
Switzerland.................................................
Wales...........................................................
Other foreign.............................................

49.45
43.50
44.93
43.19
41.73
44.56
45.49
45.70
43.84
46.02
47.71
42.95
43.67
43.58
44.23
43.50

16.24
17.65
17.11
18. 79
18.49
17.95
19. 37
18.63
16.87
16.15
17.46
17.37
18.62
19.53
18.25
18.84

12.54
14.01
12.42
13. 62
13.67
12.48
11.79
11.81
12.97
12.33
11.82
13.18
13.02
10.70
13. 92
12.44

5.06
4.86
4.98
4.58
4.58
4.81
4.63
4.80
6.71
4.95
4.95
4.55
4.91
5.00
4.66
4.90

1.18
1.15
1.22
1.18
1.08
1.14
1.16
1.28
1.35
1.12
1.31
1.13
1.16
1.18
1.04
1.16

15.53
18. 83
19.34
18.64
20.45
19.06
17.56
17.78
18.26
19.43
16. 75
20.82
18.62
20.01
17.90
19.16

Total foreign.....................................

44.'79

18.31

12.59

4.78

1.17

18.36

United States and foreign..............

43.13

18.12

12.95

4.57

1.12

20.11




COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES

1153

T a b l e 3 9 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS

NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING NO CHILDREN,
GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Geographical division and general na­
tivity of head of family.

BY

PURPOSES IN
GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND

Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

North Atlantic States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

39.52
41.55

21.72
20.82

12.19
11.80

4.64
4.53

1.17
1.22

20. 76
20.08

Total...................

40.24

21.40

12.05

4.60

1.19

20.52

r

South Atlantic States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

41.54
40.93

16.80
17.24

11.64
14.41

4.88
3.63

.93
.90

24.21
22.89

.93 |

24.17

Total...................

41.52

16.81

11.72

4.85

North Central States:
Native ...................
Foreign.................

"89.80
43.34

17.99
16.80

13.77
12.49

5.34
5.67

1.13
1.11

21. 97
20. 59

Total...................

40.91

17.61

13.37

5.44

1.13

21.54

South Central States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

38.23
40.84

16.73
17.18

12.83
12.41

3.81
3.64

.81
.69

27.59
*25.24

Total...................

38.65

16.80

12.77

3.78

79

27.21

Western States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

39.00
40.40

21.87
21.95

13.82
13. 65

4. 75
5.15

1.14
1.26

19.42
17.59

Total...................

39.47

21.90

13. 76 *

4.88

1.18

18. 81

4 0 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING ONE CHILD, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND GENERAL
NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

T able

Geographical division and general na­
tivity of head of family.

Per cent of total expenditure made forFood.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

North Atlantic States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

40.74
42.87

20.22
20.13

12. 62
11.41

4.51
4.53

1.21
1.24

20 70
19.82

Total...................

41.53

20.19

12.17

4.52

1.22

20. 37

South Atlantic States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

42.85
46.09

16.07
14.67

12.04
13.17

5.10
4.63

.96
.85

22.98
20.59

Total...................

43.11

15.95

12.14

5.06

.95

22. 79

North Central States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

41. 32
44. 33

15. 77
15.73

13.30
13.03

4.74
5.71

1.07
1.11

23.80
20.09

Total...................

42.14

15, 76

13.23

5.01

1.08

22. 78

South Central States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

39.50
44.20

16.01
16.01

13.18
13. 29

3.87
4.47

.81
.70

26. 63
21.33

Total...................

39.89

16.01

13.19

3.92

.80

26.19

Western States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

41.05
41.74

20.83
19.68

15.15
15.07

4.49
4.59

.98
.96

17.50
17.96

Total...................

41.23

20.53

15.13

4.52

.97

17. 62




1154

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e 4 1 . —PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE

FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING TWO CHILDREN, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND
GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Geographical division and general nativity of head of family.

Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

North Atlantic States:
Native........................... .............. .......
Foreign.................................................

42.65
44.27

19.56
19.15

13.36
12.38

4.60
4.58

1.14
1.24

18.69
18.38

Total....................................... ...........

43.32

19.39

12.96

4.59

1.18

18.56

South Atlantic States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

43.93
48.93

16.78
18.07

12.26
12.27

5.05
4.63

1.04
.98

20.94
15.12

Total...................................................

44.13

16.83

12.26

5.03

1.04

20.71

North Central States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

42.42
45.91

#4.91
15.53

12.93
12.61

4.22
5.39

1.09
1.09

24.43
19.47

Total...................................................

43.36

15.08

12.85

4.53

1.09

23.09

South Central States:
Native...................................................
•Foreign................................ : ...............

41.53
42.44

16.35
16.89

13.30
10.93

3.93
4.13

.86
.64

24.03
24.97

Total...................................................

41.61

16.39

13.10

195

.84

24.11

Western States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

40.41
41.97

19.57
21.24

16.51
14.84

4.85
4.62

1.10
1.14

17.56
16.19

Total............................. .....................

40.71

19.89

16.19

4.81

1.11

17.29

T a b l e 4 2 . —PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE

FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING THREE CHILDREN, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND
GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.
Per cent of total expenditure made for—
. nativity of head of family.

Food.

Rent.

Clothing,

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

North Atlantic States:
"N ative...................................................
Foreign........................ .........................

44.20
45.57

19.02
18.74

13*60
12.66

4.48
4.50

1.13
1.19

17.57
17.34

Total...................................................

44.83

18.89

13.17

4.49

1.16

17.46

South Atlantic States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

43.60
44.37

17.35
17.72

13. 76
12.08

4.94
4. 51

1.00
.96

19.35
20.36

43.69

17.40

13.57

4.89 |

.99

19.46

43.37
47.38

14.27
15.20

12.63
13.05

3.79
5.48

1.07
1.05

24.87
17.84

Total...............................................
North Central States:
Native...................................................
Foreign............... ................................
Total.............................................

44.62

14.56

12.76

4.32

1.06 |

22.68

South Central States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

44.30
43.39

16.72
16.99

12.77
13.85

4.12
4.01

.80
.78

21.29
20.98

Total...................................................

44.17

16.76

12.93

4.10

.80

21.24

Western States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

40.4443.43

19.35
18.25

16.53
15.68

4.58
4.33

1.09
.96

18.01
17.35

Total...................................................

41.49

18.96

16.23

4.49

1.05

17.78




COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES

1155

T a b l e 4 3 . — PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS

PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING FOUR CHILDREN, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND
GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

Geographical division and general
nativity of head of family.

Per cent of total expenditure made forFood.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

North Atlantic States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

45.89
47.08

18.93
18.16

13.65
13. 23

4.53
4.52

1.09
1.17

15.91
15.84

Total...................

46.48

18.55

13.44

4.52

1.13

15. 88

South Atlantic States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

44.30
53.81

16.48
16.35

14.36
9.55

4.64
5.19

.91
.98

19.31
14.12

Total...................

45.14

16.47

13.93

4.69

.92

18.85

North Central States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

43.33
48.54

13.76
14.98

12.66
13.39

3.16
5.29

1.05
1.14

26.04
16. 66

Total...................

44.84

14.12

12.87

3. 78

1.07

23.32

South Central States:
Native................. .
Foreign.................

45. 26
46.98

15.42
16.82

13.35
10.86

3.70
3. 78

.80
.88

21.47
20.68

Total...................

45.45

15.58

13.08

3.71

.80

21.38

Western States:
Native...................
Foreign.................

42.18
41.39

17.87
18.08

18.58
17.97

4.22
4.05

.80
1.12

16.35
17.39

Total...................

41.75

17.99

18.25

4.13

.97

16.91

4 4 .—PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURE MADE FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES IN
NORMAL FAMILIES HAVING FIVE CHILDREN, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND
GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.

T able

Geographical division and general na­
tivity of head of family.

Per cent of total expenditure made for—
Food.

Rent.

Clothing.

Fuel.

Lighting. Sundries.

North Atlantic States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

46.05
48. 72

18.21
17.79

14.27
12.92

« 4.35
.
4.57

1.08
1.14

16.04
14.86

Total..................................................

47.37

18.00

13.60

4.46

1.11

15.46

South Atlantic States:
Native..................................................
Foreign.................................................

47.59
47.27

14.03
13.52

13. 33
13. 34

4. 99
3.34

.84
.65

19.22
21.88

Total..................................................

47.55

13.97

13. 33

4. 80

.82

19.53

North Central States:
Native..................................................
Foreign.................................................

46.86
49.18

14.10
13.81

13.44
14.07

4.01
5.59

.97
1.02

20.62
16.33

Total..................................................

47.90

13.97

13. 72

4.71

1.00

18.70

South Central States:
Native...................................................
Foreign.................................................

44.28
44.03

16.25
25.29

14. 74
12.09

3.84
3.75

.83
.90

20.06
13.94

Total..................................................

44.25

17.24

14.45

3.83

.83

19.40

Western States:
Native..................................................
Foreign.................................................

43. 79
43.63

17.12
15.20

18.55
18.43

4.26
4.47

.94
.95

15.34
17.32

Total...................................................

43.68

15.79

18.47

4.41

.94

16. 71




1156

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

CONSUMPTION OF FOOD.
In order to make an exact comparison of expenditures for food the
relative amount of food consumed by the different members of the
family must be taken into consideration. Inasmuch as the amount of
food consumed in a family depends not only on the number of children,
but also on their ages, it is necessary to ascertain the relative consum­
ing powers of the different members of the u normal” families. As
the result of careful comparison and study, it was assumed as gener­
ally true—
1. That all husbands consume a like amount of food.
2. That the wife consumes 90 per cent as much food as the husband.
3. That a child from 11 to 14 years of age, inclusive, consumes 90 per cent as much
food as the husband.
4. That a child from 7 to 10 years of age, inclusive, consumes 75 per cent as much
food as the husband.
5. That a child from 4 to 6 years of age, inclusive, consumes 40 per cent as much
food as the husband.
6. That a child 3 years of age or under consumes 15 per cent as much food as the
husband.

The consumption of food in the normal family may then be expressed
as follows:
Husband.....................................
100
W ife ......................................................................................................................... 90
Children from 11 to 14 years, inclusive.................................................................. 90
Children from 7 to 10 years, inclusive................................................................... 75
Children from 4 to 6 years, inclusive...................................................................... 40
Children 3 years of age or under........................................... .............................. 15

Assigning to each member of the family the appropriate weight in
consuming power, a series of charts was constructed showing the yearly
cost of food per 100 units of consumption, that is, per adult male. A
list of these charts, covering 1,043 6 normal ” families reporting expend­
4
itures in detail, follow, the usual reference being made by number to
the table which furnishes the data forming the basis for the graphic
presentation:
CHARTS RELATING TO 1,043 “ NORMAL” FAMILIES REPORTING
EXPENDITURES IN DETAIL.
Average yearly cost of various articles of food per 100 units of consumption, by
general nativity of head of family (Table 45).
Average yearly cost of various articles of food per 100 units of consumption, by
geographical divisions (Table 46).
Average yearly cost of food per 100 units of consumption, by geographical division
and size of family (Table 47).
Average yearly cost of food per 100 units of consumption, by general nativity of
head of family and size of family (Table 48).




1157

COST OF LIVING AND DETAIL PRICES

None of the above charts is reproduced. The four tables which
follow contain the data upon which the four charts were based:
T a b l e 4 5 .—AVERAGE YEARLY COST OF VARIOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD PER 100 UNITS OF

CONSUMPTION, BY GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY.
Article.

Native.

Fresh beef........................................................................................................
Salt beef...........................................................................................................
Fresh pork......................................................................................................
Salt pork..........................................................................................................
Poultry.............................................................................................................
Fish...................................................................................................................
Other meat.......................................................................................................
Flour, meal, and bread.................................................................................
Rice..................................................................................................................
Potatoes............................................................................................................
Eggs............................................... -..................................................................
Milk..................................................................................................................
Butter....................................... ........................................................................
Cheese.............................................................................................................
Lard.................................................................................................................
Molasses..........................................................................................................
Sugar................................................................................................................
Coffee ........................................................................................................
Tea....................................................................................................................

Foreign.
813.95
1.36
3.36
3.13
2.54
2.21
3.01
8. 23
.59
3.84
4. 76
6.82
7.37
.87
1.94
.40
3.99
2.73
1.73

813.70
1.12
3.67
3. 71
2.86
1.99
2.74
7.79
.64
3.48
4. 70
6.52
7.55
.64
2.82
.53
4.09
3.23
1.47

Total.
813.78
1.20
3.57
3. 51
2. 75
2.06
2.83
7.93
.62
3.60
4. 72
6.62
7.49
.72
2.52
.49
4.05
3.07
1.57

T a b l e 4 6 . —AVERAGE YEARLY COST OF VARIOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD PER 100 UNITS OF

CONSUMPTION, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.

Article.

Fresh beef......................
Salt beef.........................
Fresh pork....................
Salt pork........................
Poultry...........................
Fish................................
Other meat....................
Flour, meal, and bread.
Rice...............................
Potatoes.......... ..............
Eggs................................
Milk................................
Butter.............................
Cheese.............................
Lard................................
Molasses.........................
Sugar..............................
Coffee..............................
Tea..................................

South
North
Atlantic Atlantic
States.
States.
814.95
1.82
3.31
3.47
2.88

2. 36
3.41
8.79
.60
3.89
5.23
7.03
7.77
.79
2.18
.47
4.22
2.95
1.94

811.62
.55
3.06
7.05
2.34
2.00

1.04
8.45
1.40
3.14
4.47
3.94
6.68

.63
3.92
.64
4.17
2.91
1.60

North
Central
States.

South
Central
States.

811.93
.34
4. 72
2.45
2. 85
1.60
2.52
6.25
.52 „
3. 25
4.12
6.80
6.94
.67
2. 96
.35
3. 56
3.56
.96

$9.59
3.01
7.42
1.72
1.08
.16
7.96
1.06
3.32
3.06
2.85
6.02

.83
4.24
1.07
4.55
2.63
.96

Western
States.
815.67
.17
1.08
3.08
1.96
1.90
1.66

6.23
.24
2. 77
3. 35
6. 51
9.34
.17
1.33
.89
4.26
2.16
.91

T a b l e 4 7 . —AVERAGE YEARLY COST OF FOOD PER 100 UNITS OF CONSUMPTION, BY

GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS AND SIZE OF FAMILY.

Size of family.

North
South
Atlantic Atlantic
States.
States.

No children.................................................................
One child.....................................................................
Two children...................... .........................................
Three children............................................................
Four children..............................................................
Five children..............................................................

8123.96
112.25
103. 29
89. 32
75. 88
64.99

8112.16
98. 68
78. 69
67.35
84.80
62. 74

All families........................................................

94. 51

87.29




North
Central
States.

South
Central
States.

Western
States.

8107.41
8128.10
84.74
109.54
81.19
88.97 '
86.31
64.47
67.17
75.08
66. 73
62.73

8136.37
111. 10
87.79
81.77
74.67
75.40

79.26

89.54

87.17

1158

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

.

T able 4 8 . —AVERAGE YEARLY COST OF FOOD PER 100 UNITS OF CONSUMPTION, BY

GENERAL NATIVITY OF HEAD OF FAMILY AND SIZE OF FAMILY.
Size of family.

Native.

Foreign.

No children..................................................... *...............................................
One child.........................................................................................................
Two children..................................................................................................
Three children................................................................................................
Four children..................................................................................................
Five children.................................................................................... ............

$119.85
109.94
95.24
85.06
78.13
69.75

$124.41
106.81
100.34
87.71
71.61
60.48

$121.01
109.20
96.82
86.05
75.52
66.16

All families.............................................................................................

92,95

88.09

91.31

Total.

RETAIL PRICES.
The general family conditions as regards its composition of the fam­
ily, sources of income, amount of income, amount of expenditure, etc,,
having been shown in the preceding tables and charts constructed
therefrom, it was deemed desirable to include in the exhibit a series of
charts showing the course of the retail prices of at least a number of the
principal articles of famity consumption as given in Bulletin 53 of the
Bureau and in the forthcoming Eighteenth Annual Report, nowin press.
The figures cover the years from 1890 to 1903, and are the result of
an investigation covering 814 retail establishments in the same locali­
ties from which the data for the previous tables were obtained. Prices
were secured from the books of retail merchants, representing actual
sales, for 30 distinct articles of food entering largely into family
consumption and the averages include data from all sections of the
country. In order to show the changes from year to year relative
prices or index numbers were computed and on these were based the
charts relating to retail prices. These relative prices consist of a series
of percentages showing the per cent the average price in each year
was of the average price for the lCM^ear period from 1890 to 1899.
This average price for a period was deemed more representative of
average conditions than the price for any one year, and was therefore
selected as a base for all articles. Charts were exhibited showing the
trend of prices during the period for a selected list of 10 articles,
while another series of 6 charts were presented showing the trend of
prices of all food during the period for each of five geographical divis­
ions of the country and for the United States as a whole. The following
is a list of the titles of the 16 charts, each title being followed by an indi­
cation of the table containing the figures from which the chart was
constructed:
CHARTS SHOWING RETAIL PRICES.
Relative prices of fresh beef, 1890 to 1903 (Table 49).
Relative prices of butter, 1890 to 1903 (Table 49).
Relative prices of eggs, 1890 to 1903 (Table 49).
Relative prices of wheat flour, 1890 to 1903 (Table 49).
Relative prices of lard, 1890 to 1903 (Table 49).
Relative prices of fresh pork, 1890 to 1903 (Table 49).




1159

COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES.

Relative prices of bacon, 1890 to 1903 (Table 49).
Relative prices of smoked ham, 1890 to 1903 (Table 49).
Relative prices of Irish potatoes, 1890 to 1903 (Table 49).
Relative prices of sugar, 1890 to 1903 (Table 49).
Relative prices of food in the North Atlantic States, weighted according to family
consumption, 1890 to 1903 (Table 50).
Relative prices of food in the South Atlantic States, weighted according to family
consumption, 1890 to 1903 (Table 50).
Relative prices of food in the North Central States, weighted according to family
consumption, 1890 to 1903 (Table 50).
Relative prices of food in the South Central States weighted according to family
consumption, 1890 tp 1903 (Table 50).
Relative prices of food in the Western States, weighted according to family con­
sumption, 1890 to 1903 (Table 50).
Relative prices of food in the United States, weighted according to family con­
sumption, 1890 to 1903 (Table 50).

The figures on which the sixteen charts are based are given in the
following tables:
T a b l e 4 9 .—RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF VARIOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1903.

[Average price for 1890 to 1899=100.]
Beef,
fresh.

Year.

1890..........
1891..........
1892..........
1893..........
1894..........
1895..........
1896..........
1897.........
1898..........
1899..........
1900..........
1901..........
1902..........
1903..........

T able

Butter.

99.2
99.7
99.5
99.3
98.3
98.9
99.3
100.3
101.9
103.8
106.5
110.9
118.6
111.2

99.2
106.4
106.8
109.9
101.7
97.0
92.7
93.1
95.1
97.7
101.4
103.2
111.5
110.6

Eggs.

Flour,
wheat.

100.6
106.9
106.8
108.1
96.3
99.3
92.8
91.4
96.2
101.1
99.9
105.7
119.1
125.9

Pork,
fresh.

Lard.

109.7
112.5
105.1
96.1
88.7
89.0
92.7
104.3
107.4
94.6
94.3
94.4
94.9
101.4

98.2
99.8
103.6
117.9
106.9
100.1
92.5
89.8
93.9
97.1
104.4
118.1
134.3
126.5

97.0
98.7
100.5
107.0
101.8
99.7
97.4
97.6
98.6
101.7
107.7
117.9
128.3
127.1

Pork,
salt,
bacon.
95.8
96.6
99.1
109.0
103.6
99.4
96.7
97.4
100.2
102.9
109. 7
121.0
135.6
139.5

Pork,
salt,
ham.

Pota­
toes,
Irish.

98.7
99.3
101.9
109.3
101.9
98.8
97.6
98.2
95.1
99.2
105.3
110.2
119.4
121.3

109.3
116.6
95.7
112.3
102.6
91.8
77.0
93.0
105.4
96.1
93.5
116.8
117.0
115.0

Sugar.

118.6
102.7
96.2
101.5
93.8
91.8
96.6
95.7
101.3
101.7
104.9
103.0
96.0
96.3

5 0 .—RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD WEIGHTED ACCORDING TO FAMILY
CONSUMPTION, 1890 TO 1903.
[Average price for 1890 to 1899 = 100.]
Year.

1890..............................................................
1891..............................................................
1892................................... ..................... .
1893..............................................................
1894..............................................................
1895..............................................................
1896..............................................................
1897..............................................................
1898..............................................................
1899..............................................................
1900..............................................................
1901..............................................................
1902..............................................................
1903..............................................................




North
South
Atlantic Atlantic
States.
States.

North
Central
States.

South
Central
States.

Western
States.

101.2
102.1
101.1
103.2
100.0
98.7
96.8
97.1
99.3
100.5
102.4
106.9
111.8
111.2

102.3
104.5
101.8
105.4
100.6
98.0
94.6
95.6
98.4
98.9
100.8
106.1
111.7
110.8

102.1
103.6
100.7
103.5
100.0
98.1
96.1
97.3
98.8
99.9
101.1
106.9
113.5
113.9

107.7
108.7
105.2
102.9
99.3
96.7
93.2
92.7
95.2
98.5
98.1
99.9
104.4
102.8

102.3
103.2
102.1
104.4
99.2
97.7
97.0
96.9
98.8
99.5
101.2
104.7
110.5
109.6

United
States.
102.4
103.8
101.9
104.4
99.7
97.8
95.5
96.3
98.7
99.5
101.1
105. 2
110.9
110.1

1160

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Reproductions of the last six charts above named numbered 41 to 46
follow:
Chart 41.

Relative P rices op F ood in the N orth Atlantic States ,
W eighted A ccording to F amily C onsumption, 1890 to 1903.
[A V E R A G E P R IC E F O R 1890 T O 1899 = 100.]

C h a r t 42.

R elative P rices of F ood in the South Atlantic States ,
W eighted A ccording to Family C onsumption, 1890 to 1903.
C A V E R A C E P R I C E F O R 1890 T O 1899 = 100.1

Relative Prices of F ood in the N orth C entral States ,
W eighted A ccording to F amily C onsumption , 1890 to 1903.




[ A V E R A G E P R IC E F O R 1890 T O 1899 = 100.]

COST OF LIVING AND DETAIL PEICES.

1161

C h a r t 44.

Relative P rices op F ood in the South C entral States ,
W eighted A ccording to F amily C onsumption, 1890 to 1903.
[ A V E R A G E P R IC E F O R 1890 T O 1899 = 100.1

Relative P rices of F ood in the W estern States ,
W eighted According to F amily C onsumption, 1890 to 1903.
[A V E R A G E P R IC E F O R 1890 T O 1899 = 100.1

CH>fRT46.

R elative P rices of F ood in the U nited States ,
W eighted A ccording to F amily C onsumption , 1890 to 1903.




[ A V E R A G E P R IC E F O R 1890 T O 1899 = 100.1

1162

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The relative prices weighted according to family consumption for the
five geographical divisions and for the United States as a whole, as
shown in the last table, are based on the retail prices ascertained from
the books of 814 retail merchants, as previously stated, and a special
inquiry, covering 2,567 families, into the quantity and cost of each of
the various articles of food consumed during a year. The figures
showing the average quantity and cost of the food consumed in the
2,567 families during the year are shown in the following table:
AVERAGE QUANTITY AND COST PER FAMILY OF THE VARIOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD
CONSUMED.
Article.

Quantity.

Fresh beef...............................................................................................................
Salt beef..................................................................................................................
Fresh hog products................................................................................................
Salt hog products...................................................................................................
Other m eat.............................................................................................................
Poultry....................................................................................................................
Fish...........................................................................................................................
Eggs...................................................... ■
..................................................................
M ilk...................... . .................................................................................................
Butter......................................................................................................................
Cheese...................... 1..............................................................................................
Lard.........................................................................................................................
T e a.......... *...............................................................................................................
Coffee........................................................................................................................
Sugar........................................................................................................................
Molasses...................................................................................................................
Flour and meal......................................................................................... .............
Bread........................................................................................................................
R ice.........................................................................................................................
Potatoes............................................................................................................... .
Other vegetables.....................................................................................................
Fruit..........................................................................................................................
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments.......................................................................
Other food...............................................................................................................

349.7 pounds..
48.6 pounds...
114.2 pounds..
110.5 pounds..
77.7 pounds...
67.7 pounds...
79.9 pounds...
_
85.2 dozen_
354.5 quarts...
117.1 pounds..
16.0 pounds...
84.4 pounds...
10.6 pounds...
46.8 pounds...
268.5 pounds..
3.6 gallons....
680.8 pounds..
252.7 loaves__
25.1 pounds...
14.7 bushels...

Total food.....................................................................................................

Cost.
$50.05
5.26
14.02
13.89
9.78
9.49
8.01
16.79
21.32
28.76
2. 62
9. 35
5.30
10.74
15.76
1.69
16.76
12.44
2.05
12.93
18.85
16.52
4.12
20.40
326.90

In this connection the following table is also of interest as showing
the per cent of the total expenditure of these families that was dis­
bursed for each of the principal items entering into the cost of living:
PER CENT OF THE AVERAGE TOTAL EXPENDITURE OF 2,567 FAMILIES DISBURSED FOR
THE PRINCIPAL ITEMS ENTERING INTO THE CQST OF LIVING.
Item.
Food...........................................................
Rent...........................................................
Principal and interest on mortgage on
hom e.....................................................
F u el...........................................................
Lighting..... ...............................................
Clothing....................................................
Taxes.........................................................
Insurance.......................................................

Labor and other organization fees.........
Religious purposes...................................

Per cent.
42.54
12.95
1.58
4.19
1.06
14.04
.75
2.73
1.17
.99

Item.
Charitv......................................................
Furniture and utensils...........................
Books and newspapers...........................
Amusements and vacation....................
Intoxicating liquors................................
Tobacco ....................................................
Sickness and death............................. .
Other purposes.........................................

Per cent.
0.31
3.42
1.09
1.60
1.62
1.42
2.67
.5.87
100.00

As stated in the Bulletin from which the data for these charts have
been taken, the changes in cost of living as shown by the results of
the investigation of the Bureau relate to food alone, and it is seen in




COST OF LIVING AND RETAIL PRICES.

1163

the above table that food represents 12.51 per cent of all family
expenditures in the 2.567 families covered. The per cent of increase
in the cost of food in 1903, the last year of the period, over 1896, the
year of lowest prices, is shown to be 15.5 per cent. It is thus seen
that food, constituting 12.51 per cent of family expenditures, shows
an increase in cost of 15.5 per cent in 1903 as compared with 1896.
An analysis of the remaining articles, constituting 57.16 per cent of
family expenditure, leads to the conclusion expressed in the Bulletin
that the increase in the retail prices of these articles, comparing 1903
with the year of lowest prices, did not reach that just given as the
increase in cost of food, and that it is therefore a safe and conserva­
tive conclusion that the increase in the cost of living as a whole in
1903, when compared with the year of lowest prices was less than
15.5 per cent, the figures given as the increase in cost of food as
shown by the investigation of the Bureau.
W HOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES.
In conclusion, it should be stated that this investigation of the
Bureau of Labor into retail prices was the first undertaken in this
country which covered a long series of years. The wholesale price
index of the Bureau, published annually in the March Bulletin and
other collections of data relating to wholesale prices have been avail­
able for some years and have been used to some extent' as indicating
the trend of cost of living. It will readily be seen, however, that
they do not represent accurately the cost to the small consumer. In
their general trend retail prices usually follow the wholesale prices,
but they are less sensitive, fluctuating within narrower limits and less
rapidly. This is very well shown in the series of charts named in
the following list:
CHARTS SHOWING WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Relative wholesale and retail prices of fresh beef, 1890 to 1903 (Table 51).
Relative wholesale and retail prices of butter, 1890 to 1903 (Table 51).
Relative wholesale and retail prices of eggs, 1890 to 1903 (Table 51).
Relative wholesale and retail prices of wheat flour, 1890 to 1903 (Table 51).
Relative wholesale and retail prices of lard, 1890 to 1903 (Table 51).
Relative wholesale and retail prices of bacon, 1890 to 1903 (Table 51).
Relative wholesale and retail prices of smoked ham, 1890 to 1903 (Table 51).
Relative wholesale and retail prices of Irish potatoes, 1890 to 1903 (Table 51).
Relative wholesale and retail prices of sugar, 1890 to 1903 (Table 51).
Relative wholesale and retail prices of food in the United States, 1890 to 1903
(Table 51).

The entire series of ten charts included in the above list are repro­
duced opposite page 1164. The data which form the basis of these
graphic presentations are found in the following table, which shows
10193—No. 54—04---- 14




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

1164

the relative wholesale and retail prices of the 9 articles of common
consumption for each year of the period from 1890 to 1903, and also
simple averages of relative figures, wholesale and retail, for all food:
T able 5 1 . —RELATIVE WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES OP VARIOUS ARTICLES OP
FOOD, 1890 TO 1903.
[Average price for 1890 to 1899=100.]
Beef, fresh.
Year.

1890...........
1891______
1892...........
1893..........
1894...........
1895...........
1896...........
1 8 9 7 .......
1898...........
1899...........
1900...........
1901...........
1902...........
1903...........

Whole­
sale.
89.2
106.2
98.8
105.4
. 97.0
102. 7
90.5
99.7
101.3
108.3
104.3
102.1
125. 9
101.7

Butter.

Retail.

Whole­
sale.

99.2
99.7
99:5
99.3
98.3
98.9
99.3
100.3
101.9
103.8
106.5
110.9
118.6
111.2

100.4
116.1
116.4
121.3
102.2
94.5
82.3
84.1
86.8
95.8
101.7
97.7
112.1
105.7

Retail.
99.2
106.4
106.8
109.9
101.7
97.0
92.7
93.1
95.1
97.7
101.4
103.2
111.5
110.6

99.1
110.0
110.4
114.5
93.5
102.0
88:7
87.5
92.6
101.6
100.7
106.7
122.7
123.2

Pork, salt, bacon. Pork, salt, ham.

Flour, wheat.

Eggs.
Whole­
sale.

Retail.

Retail.

Whole­
sale.

100.6
106.9
106.8
108.1
96.3
99.3
92.8
91.4
96.2
101.1
99.9
105.7
119.1
125. 9

120.9
125.6
104.2
89.3
77.6
84.4
91.2
110.1
109.0
87.9
88.3
87.4
89.7
97.1

109.7
112.5
105.1
96.1
88.7
89.0
92. 7
104.3
107.4
94.6
94.3
94.4
94.9
101.4

96.8
100.9
117.9
157.5
118.2
99.8
71.7
67.4
84.4
85.0
105.5
135.3
161.9
134.1

Potatoes, Irish.

Year.
Whole­
sale.

1890...........
1801..........
1892............
1893...........
1894...........
1895...........
1896...........
1897...........
1898...........
1899______
1900...........
1901...........
1902...........
1903...........

Retail.

Whole­
sale.

Retail.

Whole­
sale.

Retail.

89.3
103.7
116.6
154.7
111. 8
96.3
73.1
79.9
89.4
85.8
111.5
132.3
159.3
142.6

95.8
96.6
99.1
109.0
103.6
99.4
96.7
97.4
100.2
102.9
109.7
121.0
135.6
139.5

101.1
99.8
109.3
126.9
103.6
96.2
95.8
90.9
82.0
93.8
104.2
109.2
123.1
129.2

98.7
99.3
101.9
109.3
101.9
98.8
97.6
98.2
95.1
99.2
105.3
110.2
119.4
121.3

119.3
154.9
91.1
134.5
122.8
86.7
39.4
65.7
102.1
83.6
74.9
113.0
119.4
105.2

109.3
116.6
95.7
112.3
102.6
9L8
77.0
93.0
105.4
96.1
93.5
116.8
117.0
115.0




Lard.

Whole­
sale.

Sugar.
Whole­
Whole­ Retail,
sale.

130.5
99i7
92.1
102.3
- 87.0
87.9
95.9
95.1
105.2
104.2
112.8
106.8
94.2
98.2

118.6
102.7
96.2
10L 5
93.8
91.8
96.6
95.7
101.3
101.7
104.9
103.0
96.0
96.3

Retail.
98.2
99.8
103.6
117.9
106.9
100.1
92.5
89.8
93.9
97.1
104.4
118.1
134.3
126.5

All food (simple
averages).
Retail
sale
(54 arti­ (30 arti­
cles).
cles) .
112.4
115.7
103.6
110.2
99.8
94.6
83.8
87.7
94.4
98.3
104.2
105.9
111.3
107.1

102.1
103.4
101.8
104.1
100.3
98.2
95.8
96.3
98.5
99.6
101.5
105.5
110.9
110.8

R elative W holesale

and

Retail P rices

of

F resh Beef,

1890 to 1903.
[AVERACE PRICE FOR 1800 T O 1890 = 100.]

RLT E
E A IV
P IC S 1 8 9 0
R E.

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1 89 6

1897

1 89 8

1899

1900

ISO

158
156
154
152
ISO

145
146
144
142
140
138
136
134
132
130
128
126
124
122
120
118
116
114
112
110
108
106
102

iL

7

IV
V

100
98
96
94

- f

I
1

90
88
86
84
82
80

74
72
70
68
66
64
62
60




= W H OLESALE P R IC E S ,

m— m =

R E T A IL P R IC E S.

1901

1902

1903

R elative W holesale




and

R etail P rices

of

1890 to 1903.

m mm

= W H O LESALE P R IC E S .

M M

= R E TA IL P R IC E S .

Butter,

R elative W holesale

and

R etail P rices

of

Eggs,

1900

1901

1890 TO 1903.
[A V E R A C E P R IC E F O R 1890 T O 1899 = I0 0 J

RLT E
E A IV
P IC S 1 8 9 0
R E.

1891

1892

1893

1894

1895

1896

1 89 7

1 89 8

1899

1902

1 90 3

ISO
158
156
154
162
ISO
148
146
144

-

142
140
138
136
134
132
130
128
126

J
rf*
] /
l
a
7

124
122
120
118
116

/ /

114

vl

112

r

MO
108

/

106
104
102
100
98

/

[/

f

1

vr
\
\
X

V

96
94
92
90
88

T
/

j
ft
y /
f
/
/

y
/
r

86
84
82
80
78
76
74
72
70
68
66
04
62
60




= W H O LE S ALE P R IC E S .

**■»■ = R E TA IL P R IC E S .

/

R elative W holesale




R etail P rices
1890 TO 1903.

and

of

W heat F lour,

[AVERACE PRICE FOR 1890 T O 1899 = 100.]

= W H O LE S A LE P R IC E 8 .

= R E TA IL P R IC E S .

Relative W holesale




and

Retail P rices

1890 TO 1903.
CAVERACE PRICE FOR 1890 T O 1800 = 100.]

of

L ard*

R elative W holesale




and

R etail P rices

of

1890 TO 1903.

mrnm

= W HOLESALE P R IC E S .

M M

= R E TA IL P R IC E S.

Bacon,

R elative W holesale

and

Retail P rices

of

Smoked Ham,

1890 to 1903.
[AVERACE PRICE FOR 1890 T O 1809 = 100J

RLTV
EAI E
PI E. 1890
RCS
ISO
158
156
154
152
ISO
148
146
144
142
140
138
136
134
132
130
128
126
124
122
120
118
116
114
M2
110
108
106
104
102
100
""
98 _
96 —
94
92
90
88
86
84
82
SO
78
76
74
72
70
68
66
64
62
60

1891

1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900

1901

1902 1903

>

/

J
/1

/

/

/
/

_y f

.

w
f

M

1

w

f

y
x
/

-.




\

i p^

Jk

\ t
\j

/
M

X

___
----- --

*

___

ft

w

\ ft

V

-" 5

m
^

__ ^

\>

y

y

N

/
/

—

/

#
M
M
M

L_

\

A
_\

>f

--

.

_
.

= W H OLESALE P R IC E S .

.

r
~

r

_

S M B = R E TA IL P R IC E S .

-

Relative W holesale

Retail P rices
1890 TO 1903.

and

of I rish

Potatoes,

[AVERACE PRICE FOR 1660 T O 1899 = 100J
RELATIVE
PRICFS.

1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903

150
187
184
181
178
175
172
169
166
163
160
157
154
151
143
146
142
139
136
133
130
127
124
121
118
115
112
109
106
103
100
97
94
91
88
85
82
79
76
73
70
67
64
61
58
55
52
49
46
43
40




= W H OLESALE P R IC E S ,

m mm

= R E TA IL P R IC E S.

R elative W holesale

Retail P rices
1890 TO 1903.
and

of

Sugar,

[AVERAGE PRICE FOR 1890 TO 1899 = 100.]

RLT E
EAI
V
PI E. 1390 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 J90I 1902 1903
RS
C
too
158
156
164
152
150
148
146
144
142
140
138
136
134
132
130
128
126
124
122
120
113
116
114
112
110
108
106
104
102
100
98
96
94
92
90
88
86
84
82
80
78

76
74
72
70
68
66
64
62
60




mmm

= W H OLESALE P R IC E S ,

mmm

= R E TA IL P R IC E 8.

R elative W holesale and R etail P rices of Food
in the U nited States, 1890 to 1903.
CAVERACE PRICE FOR 1890 TO 1899 = 100.:
RELATIVE
PRICES.

1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903

160
158
156
154
162
160
Ht8
146
144
142
140
138
136
134
132
130
128
126
124

122
120
118
116
114

112
110
108
106
104

102
100
98
96
94
92
90

8
8
86
84
82
80
78
76
74
72
70

6
8
66

64
62
60




m am -

w h o l e s a l e p r ic e s

,

m

=

r e t a il p r ic e s

.

WHOLESALE PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES, 1800 TO 1003.
• B Y G. y f . W . H A N G E R .

In the year 1902 the Bureau of Labor established an index of whole­
sale prices in the United States similar to those carried on for many
years in Great Britain and several countries on the Continent of
Europe. It being the purpose of the Bureau to establish a permanent
and representative index which might be continued from year to year
along exactly similar lines, a thorough preliminary study was made of
the most important indexes previously constructed and the methods
adopted, in order to ascertain the advantages and disadvantages of each
and to benefit to the fullest extent from previous experience.
While statisticians and economists are more or less familiar with
the method, it may not be amiss to give, for the benefit of the general
reader, an explanation of the significance of index numbers or relative
prices as they are sometimes termed. Briefly, the term index number
is applied to the method adopted to measure the variation from time
to time in the prices of a group of commodities or of commodities
generally. While variations in the prices of single commodities may
readily be seen by the-inspection of a series of quotations covering a
period of years, it is not possible to measure the changes in the prices
of a number of commodities, generally dissimilar in character, with­
out first reducing the initial prices to a common basis. For example,
the course of the price of wheat may readily be determined from an
inspection of a series of quotations showing its average price per
bushel for a series of years, but it would be quite impossible to meas­
ure the variations from year to year in the general price level of a
group of commodities, such as wheat, steel rails, cotton sheetings, and
coal, without first bringing the facts for each to some common basis.
The method of index numbers accomplishes this by establishing the
course of prices of each article as measured by some base or standard
(for example, the average price for a single year or a period of years),
usually expressing its average price for each year as a percentage of
the average price for the year or period which has been adopted as
the base or standard. These percentages, showing the variations
based on a comparison of the price in each year with the year or
period adopted as the base, while just as expressive of the variations




1165

1166

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

in the price of each commodity as the actual quotations, are especially
valuable because they lend themselves readily to combination in order
to secure information as to the variation in the general price level
from year to year of ail commodities considered.
Index numbers are used mainly to indicate the changes in the value
of money from year to year. Sir R. Giffen, in the second report of
the committee appointed for the purpose of investigating the best
method of ascertaining and measuring variations in the value of the
monetary standard (Report of the British Association, 1888) states
the purposes for which this measurement is undertaken as follows:
1. The fixation of rents or other deferred payments extending over
long periods of time, for which it has been desired to obtain a cur­
rency of a more stable sort than money is supposed to be.
2. To enable comparisons to be made between the value of money
incomes indifferent places, which is often an object of great practical
interest; not only to individuals contemplating residential changes,
but also governments and other large spending bodies, spending
money in widety distant places, having to consider this question.
3. To enable historians and other students making comparisons
between past and present to give an approximate meaning to the
money expressions which they deal with, and say roughly what a
given fine, or payment, or amount of national revenue or expenditure
in a past age would mean in modern language. To which some would
add:
4. To afford a measure of the extent to which/trade and industry
have been injuriously affected by a variation in prices, and of the cor­
rection which it would be desirable to apply to the currency.
Mr. Fountain in the “ Report on Wholesale and Retail Prices in the
United Kingdom, in 1902,” recently published by the board of trade
of England, indicates two methods of approaching the subject, as
follows:
The method of index numbers has been suggested or employed by
persons regarding the phenomena of prices from two different stand­
points. The first or theoretical point of view is closely bound up with
the so-called “ quantity theory” of money. The object of this group
of investigators is, in general, to obtain some measure of the changes
in prices due to changes in the quantity in circulation of the precious
metal or metals constituting the monetary standard of any eountiy for
the time being. Jevons, for instance, who appears to have been the
first to employ the method, or at least the first to elevate it to the rank
of a scientific method, adopted it with the object of ascertaining the
effect on prices of the great gold discoveries. The second or practi­
cal point of view has for its object the obtaining of some measure of
the change in the purchasing power of money between two periods of
time. For those who make use of the method from this point of view
no theory as to the source of those changes is involved. It is apparent
that there is considerable difference in the amount of the commodities
that can be obtained, whether in the large markets or by the retail
consumer, for a certain quantity of gold at the two epochs, and it is
desired to measure this difference.




WHOLESALE PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES.

1167

In the construction of an index number several considerations of
great importance arise—such as the selection of a base or standard;
the calculation of relative prices for individual articles and their com­
bination into an index number for all commodities; the weighting of
the different articles entering into the general index number; the
selection of the commo'dities for which prices are to be included; the
method of ascertaining the prices, etc. Bearing in mind that the
index number or relative price of any given article at a given date is
the percentage which the price of that article at that date is of the
price of the same article at a date or during a period which has been
selected as a base or standard, it is seen that a consideration of first
importance is the selection of this base or standard. This varies
greatly in the different indexes which have been presented to the
public.
In the London Economist’s index numbers the average price for the
years 1845 to 1850, inclusive, is taken as the base; in those calculated
by Mr. Sauerbeck, and published in the Journal of the Royal Statis­
tical Society, the average for the eleven years 1867 to 1877 is taken; in
Doctor Soetbeer’s index numbers the average for the four years 1847
to 1850 is used, while in the United States Senate Finance Committee’s
statement of relative prices (Senate Report No. 1394, Fifty-second Con­
gress, second session) the price for the year 1860 is taken as the base
or standard. In order to secure the index number or relative price
for any article at any date in the period covered, the price of the arti­
cle for that date is divided by the price at the date or by the average
price for the period selected as the base. The quotient obtained mul­
tiplied by 100 is the per cent that the price at that date is of the base
or standard price, and is called the index number or relative price.
For example, the percentage for flour in 1885 in Mr. Sauerbeck’s series
of index numbers is 63, meaning that the average price of flour in
1885 was 63 per cent of the average price of the same article during
the base period (1867 to 1877). This base being always 100, a fall of
37 per cent is indicated.
These percentages having been made in the case of each separate
article included in the particular scheme under consideration, and for
each year of the period covered, a series of total index numbers or
relative prices for each of the years covered is usually constructed by
adding together the index numbers of all the articles for each year and
dividing the result by the number of articles considered, thus securing
an average of the same. This course has been followed by Sauerbeck,
Soetbeer, the United States Senate Finance Committee, and some
others. In the case of the London Economist index numbers, however,
simply the sum of the index numbers of the individual articles is used.
For example, the total of the index numbers for the base period (1845
to 1850) is 2,200, or the sum of the base figures (100) for the 22 articles




1168

BULLETIN* OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

considered, and the total of the percentages for 1873 is 2,947. These
sums, however, may be readily reduced to the average form given in
other series of index numbers by dividing each by 22, the number of
articles considered. It will be seen, then, that the index numbers or
relative prices for all the commodities combined do not represent aver­
ages of the actual prices of such dissimilar commodities as a loaf of
bread, a pound of meat, a ton of pig iron, etc., but are averages of
the index numbers or relative prices of the articles.
Another subject that must be considered in the construction of an
index number is the weight which is given to the various commodities
in the calculation of the general index for all commodities. An exami­
nation of the most important index numbers shows that none of them
is weighted in accordance with any exact principle, and while the
matter may not be considered of prime importance in indexes in which
a careful selection of articles has been made, the objection to giving
equal weight to articles of ver}^ unequal importance is well founded
and must be recognized, especially in the case of indexes comprising a
comparatively small number of commodities. In the index of the
London Economist, for example, but 22 commodities are included and
some of these are of very small importance as articles of consumption
or of commerce. This has been seen by the authors of this index and
their tables are accompanied in every instance by the following note:
The total index number does not, of course, present a full and accu­
rate representation of the variations of prices, inasmuch as it can not
allow for the relative importance of the different articles. Wheat, for
example, reckons for no more in the total index number than indigo;
and during the years of the high price of cotton and cotton fabrics the
total index number is, in a measure unduly raised by that special cause.
Still, the total index number, read with the needful qualifications, may
afford important inferences.
In the effort to remove the above objection, Mr. R. H. Inglis Palgrave endeavored, in a memorandum submitted in 1886 to the Royal
Commission on the Depression of Trade and Industry, to weight the
Economist’s index numbers according to the relative importance of
the commodities. For the new index numbers the average price for
the years 1865 to 1869 is taken as the basis, instead of that for the
years 1845 to 1850. The value of the quantity of each of the articles
considered, annually consumed in the United Kingdom, is next calcu­
lated fromdts production and imports less exports. The value of the
total annual consumption of these articles in each of the years con­
sidered is next found by simple addition. The consumption of each
article in any given year is then divided by the total'consumption
of all articles in that year, a percentage being thus secured which
represents the relative importance of the particular article as regards
total consumption. The Economist’s base sum of 2,200 is then multi­
plied by this per cent in order to bring the figures to a number which



1169

WHOLESALE PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES.

will show the importance or weight of each article in a total of 2,200.
The resulting numbers are then multiplied by the Economist’s index
numbers of the several articles for the year, reduced to the basis of
the average price of the years 1865 to 1869, and the numbers thus
obtained represent in the case of each article the index number for
the year, weighted according to the importance of the consumption of
the article as compared with the total consumption of the selected
articles. These calculations may be understood more readily by means
of an example. The following are the figures for 1885, showing the
value of the consumption in the United Kingdom of the 19 articles
used by Mr. Palgrave, the relative importance of that consumption,
if the total consumption be represented as 2,200, and the index num­
ber for each article for 1885, on the basis of average price of the years
1865 to 1869, weighted according to the importance of the consump­
tion of the article as compared with the total consumption of the
selected articles:
INDEX NUMBERS WEIGHTED ACCORDING TO RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF COMMODITIES
AS REGARDS CONSUMPTION IN 1885.

Article.

Cotton, r a w ........................................ ......................................................
Silk...............................................................................................................
................
Flax and hemp....................................................................... T
W d o l............................................................................................................
Meat..............................................................................................................
Ir o n ...................... •
......................................................................................
Copper........... ................................. ...........................................................
Lead.............................................................................................................
T in .............................................................; .................................................
Tim ber............................................ ............................................................
Tallow..........................................................................................................
Leather and hides....................................................................................
Indigo..................................... ....................................................................
Oils..............................................................................................................
Coffee..........................................................................................................
Sugar............................................................................................................
Tea................................................................................................................
Tobacco .......................................................................................................
Wheat and flour........................................................................................

Relative
impor­
Value of
consumption tance of
consump­
during the
tion in a
year 1885.
total of
2,200.

£31,600,000
1.400.000
5.900.000
17.100.000
63.000.
000
18.000.
000
4.680.000
1.550.000
1.800.000
19.650.000
3.340.000
9, 600,000
600,000
5.900.000
930,000
17.920.000
8.500.000
3.500.000
49,350,000
264,320,000

263
12
49
142
524
150
39
13
15
164
28
80
5
49
8
149
71
29
410
2,200 [

Index
number
(basis of
1865-1869),
each
article
weighted
according
to con- ^
sumptionT

'

101
6
30
99
535
123
23
7
12
176
24
88
6
34
5
79
49
30
242
1,669

It is seen that the value of the total ’consumption of the 19 articles
.in 1885 was £264,320,000. The relative importance of any article—
wheat and flour, for example—is found by dividing the consumption
of that article (£49,350,000) by the total consumption {=£264,320,000),
giving a per cent of 18.67, which is in turn multiplied by 2,200 (the
Economist base) to find its importance as regards that number. The
result is 410, as given in the table under “ Relative importance.”
The figures for the other articles in the list are calculated in a similar
manner. In the Economist’s index numbers, in which each article is



1170

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

given an equal importance, the drop in the price of wheat is shown to
be 41 per cent from the. base period (1865 to 1869), or, in other words,
it is sho wn that the depression in price has sent the index number of
that article down to 59.(a) Therefore the index number of wheat
weighted according to its relative importance in the consumption in
1885 is shown to be 59Xf^, or 241.90, and is entered at 242. The
new index numbers for the remaining articles are calculated in a
similar manner, the total furnishing a new weighted index number for
the year.
The following table gives for the }^ears, 1865 to 1885 the Economist’s
index numbers reduced to the basis of the average for the years 1865
to 1869, each commodity having equal weight, and the same index
numbers as weighted by Mr. Palgrave according to the method just
explained, together with percentages showing the results as based on
100 for the base period, 1865 to 1869. These latter are secured by
dividing each total by 22, the number of articles considered.
COMPARISON OF ECONOMIST’S AND PALGRAVE’S INDEX NUMBERS, REDUCED TO SAME
BASIS.

Year.

Economist’s index Palgrave’ s index
numbers, each com­ numbers, each com­
modity weighted
modity having
according to con­
equal weight.
sumption.
Total.

Average.

Total.

Average.

2,434
2,449
2,156
1,982
1,979

1^65 .
1866 .
1867 .
1868 .
1869 .
Average
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
3882
1883
1884
1885

Ill
111
98
90
90

2,366
2,434
2,179
2,058
1,963

107
111
99
94
89

2,200

100

2,200

i o

1,995
3,981
.2,132
2,237
2,207
2,098
2,044
2,064
1,910
1,676
1,918
1,782
1,830
1,755
1,660
1,550

91
90
97
102
100
95
93
94
87
76
87
81
83
80
75
70

1,975
2,046
2,397
2,298
2,378
2,125
2,186
2,205
2,081
1,806
1,967
2,054
1,908
1,924
1,750
1,669

90
93
100
104
108
97
99
100
95
82
89
93
87
88
80
76

This table shows that while in several years prices exhibit different
tendencies, yet on the whole those differences are not great. The
weighted average, however, is generally somewhat higher than the
simple one. This index, it will be noted, is constructed according to
a Mr. Palgrave states that ‘ ‘ the Economist index number for January, 1885, gives
60, not 59; but as the average price of wheat for the year was below the January
price, 59 has been taken as a more correct measure for a calculation extending over
the entire year.”




o

WHOLESALE PRICES 1ST THE UNITED STATES.

1171

what has been termed the 4 fluctuating weights method ” first suggested
4
by Drobisch in 1871 in the Jahrbuch fur Nationalokonomie. The
obvious objection to this method, as first stated by Laspevres and
afterwards by Mr. Fountain, is that 4 a mere change in the proportion
4
of the different articles consumed, without any alteration in the price
of any of them, will lead to an alteration in the index number.”
The 4 fixed weights method” of weighting, as explained by Mr.
4
Arthur Ellis in a supplement to The Statist of June 8, 1878, consists
in using fixed weights consisting of the average consumption in a
single year or for a series of years. In his index the facts for the
year 1869 are taken both for the base or standard price and for rela­
tive weights. In respect to this method Mr. Fountain states that 4 an
4
index number constructed on this principle is at least capable of inter­
pretation; for it measures the change in the amount of money that
would have to be paid for certain articles, these articles representing,
as nearly as possible, the national consumption in a certain mean year.
If the items of national consumption may be supposed to remain
practically constant over a period of years, this method is a good one
so far as this period extends. But it is not fitted, without alteration,
to comparisons over a considerable period of time.”
While each of the 45 quotations comprised in the index numbers
constructed by Mr. Augustus Sauerbeck is treated as being of equal
importance, a certain weighting is roughly made by using a greater or
less number of quotations according to the general importance of the
commodity, which is determined by its consumption in the United
Kingdom. Thus wheat is given 3 quotations—English wheat, Ameri­
can wheat, and flour—while barley, maize, etc., have but 1 quotation
each. Two brands of coffee are quoted, but in computing averages
for the group and for all commodities the mean of the two index num­
bers is taken, giving but the weight of a single quotation to this article.
Other less important articles are treated in a similar manner. Great
care seems to have been taken in this selection of articles, and the
index numbers from time to time have been subjected to tests to deter­
mine their correctness in indicating the actual course of prices. The
most important of these is based on the production in the United
Kingdom of the articles considered at the prices used in these price
tables, and the imports at board of trade values, thus measuring a con­
siderable proportion by a different set of prices. According to this
method the quantities in the United Kingdom for a given year or period
are multiplied by the prices at that period in order to secure an 4 esti­
4
mated actual value” for the period. These quantities are also multi­
plied by the average prices for the base period (1867 to 1877) to secure
the 4 nominal values at average prices of 1867-1877.” The new index
4
number is then the per cent secured by dividing the value of the
quantities consumed at the given date, at the prices for that date, by the




1172

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

value of the same quantities at the base prices. The results of these
calculations are shown in the following table, taken from the Journal
of the Royal Statistical Society:
MOVEMENTS OF FORTY-FIVE COMMODITIES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM (PRODUCTION
AND IMPORTS).

Year.

1848-1850 (average)........................................................................
1859-1861 (average)...................................................................... s
1869-1871 (average)........................................................................
1871-1875 (average)........................................................................
1874-1876 (average)........................................................................
1879-1881 (average)........................................................................
1884-1886 (average)........................................................................
1889-1891 (average)........................................................................
1894-1896 (average)........................................................................
1896.....................................................................................................
1897.....................................................................................................
1898.....................................................................................................
1899....................................................................................................
1900 (a) ............................................................................................

Nominal val­
Relative
ues at average prices ac­
Estimated
actual value in prices of 1867- cording to
1877, showing this table,
each period.
increase in
1867-1877
quantities.
=100.
£219,800,000
350,100,000
456.600.000
548.800.000
537.800.000
489.700.000
445.700.000
504.100.000
453.700.000
461.200.000
465.100.000
498.700.000
519.800.000
599.200.000

£294,800,000
382.700.000
484.600.000
526.300.000
538.400.000
578.500.000
610.100.000
685.200.000
723.500.000
743,000,000
732.200.000
772.400.000
772.500.000
762.800.000

74.6
91.5
94.2
104.3
99.9
84.6
73.0
73.6
62.7
62.0
63.5
64.6
67.3
78.6

a 1900 subject to correction after publication of the complete mineral produce returns.

From the table it is seen that in the earlier years the average for
periods is used, while since 1896 that for each year is given. Col­
umns 2 and 8 are calculated in the manner heretofore explained.
Column 4 is secured by dividing column 2 by column 8, and, as
explained, represents the new index numbers weighted according to
production and imports. These do not differ greatly from the simple
index numbers. For example, the average of the simple index num­
bers for the years 1884 to 1886 is 72.8 as against 78 for the weighted
index number; for 1889 to 1891 it is 72 as against 78.6; for 1894 to
1896 it is 62 as against 62.7; for 1896 it is 61 as against 62; for 1897 it
is 62 as against 68.5; for 1898 it is 64 as against 64.6; for 1899 it is 68
as against 67.8, while for 1900 it is 75 as against 78:6.
An examination of the above statements with reference to the
weighted and unweighted indexes of the London Economist and of
Mr. Sauerbeck, as well as the testimony' of prominent statisticians and
economists leads to the conclusion that with a careful selection of the
commodities to be included in an index with a view to giving approxi­
mately greater importance to those entering most largely into con­
sumption and commerce, the unweighted index will differ from the
weighted but slightly even in the extent of variation from year to year,
while almost without exception the movement will be in the same
direction. Sir R. Giffen, in the report of the committee previously
referred to, gives expression to the following conclusion in regard to
the matter of weighting:
The articles as to which records of prices are obtainable being
themselves only a portion of the whole, nearly as good a final result



WHOLESALE PEICES

IN

THE TTNTTEJD STATES.

1173

may apparently be arrived at by a selection without bias, according to
no better principle than accessibility of records, as by a careful atten­
tion to weighting. * * * Practically the committee would recom­
mend the use of a weighted index number of some kind, as, on the
whole, commanding more confidence. * * * A weighted index
number, in one aspect, is almost an unnecessary precaution to secure
accuracy, though, on the whole, the committee recommend it.
In the memoradum prepared by Mr. Fountain for the “ Report on
Wholesale and Retail Prices in the United Kingdom in 1902,” before
referred to, the following statement is made as the result of his study
of the subject:
Laspeyres, too, in his paper in the Jahrbuch fur Nationalokonomie
for 1871, considers that, having regard to the doubts introduced by
doubtful price quotations, the slight difference between the weighted
and unweighted mean is not of sufficient practical importance to justify
the additional trouble involved in making use of the former. Again,
in the reports on the prices of imports and exports, elsewhere referred
to, a large number of systems of weighting are given; but it is found
that the practical effect of adopting one rather than the other is very
slight. In fact, in normal years, when nothing of an exceptional
character occurs to affect to any great extent the general level of
prices, the adoption of a scientific system of weighting is desirable
rather for the purpose of anticipating theoretical criticism than
because of the practical difference in the result.
As regards the sources of the price quotations which serve as the
basis of the various indexes it may be stated that in most cases market
prices have been used. The London Economist index, for example,
is based on “ trade prices current,” or wholesale prices as reported
for Friday of each week by responsible firms engaged in trade in the
London and Manchester markets. Sauerbeck’s index is based on
prices for wholesale transactions collected by Mr. Sauerbeck himself
either from trustworthy trade journals or from leading firms in various
lines of trade. The index of the United States Senate Finance Com­
mittee was likewise based on wholesale prices secured in most instances
directly from the books of merchants and manufacturers, the excep­
tions being those obtained from trade journals, large buyers, etc. The
prices which served as the basis for the index number were usually
prices for a given date (as January 1, April 1, July 1, or October 1)
of each year, although in a few instances they were average prices for
the year. The index number of Dr. Adolf Soetbeer, on the other
hand, was based on the prices of the bureau of commercial statistics
of Hamburg. The following statement explains the method of ascer­
taining these prices and indicates their special value for purposes of
comparison:
All goods imported into Hamburg are reported to the bureau of
commercial statistics. These reports contain a statement of the kind
of goods and their weight, to which is added their value, calculated by




1174

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

the price of the article upon the day in question on the Hamburg
exchange. For goods not quoted on the exchange the invoice value,
plus freight, insurance, and other charges, must be given. The yearly
trade statements are made up from these reports. Having the total
quantity and total value, the calculation of the average price is a sim­
ple arithmetical calculation. But in view of the peculiar circumstances
of Hamburg as a free harbor, and of the fact that the declared values
are based on ruling Hamburg prices, the results have a high value
quite unusual for import prices.
BUREAU OF LABOR INDEX NUMBER.
The index number established by the Bureau of Labor in 1902 and
published in the March%
Bulletin of that year (No. 39) covered the period
from 1890 to 1901, inclusive. As originally proposed, this index has
been continued along exactly similar lines each year since its inception.
The second statement, including data for the year 1902, appeared in the
Bulletin for March, 1903 (No. 45); and the third, including data for
the year 1903, appeared in the Bulletin for March, 1904 (No. 51).
The following description of the most important features of this index
and the methods adopted in connection therewith is drawn largely from
explanatory matter prepared to accompany the figures as published
in Bulletins 39, 45, and 51.
The price data which constitute the basis of the Bureau of Labor
index consist of 250 series of quotations for the entire period covered,
1890 to 1903, and 10 additional series for some portion of the period.
Although commodities of great importance are represented by more
than one series of quotations, no article of a particular description has
been so represented. For example, wheat flour is represented by
two series of wheat quotations, 6 spring patents” and “ winter
6
straights,” each of these particular descriptions of flour, however,
being represented by but one series of quotations.
After a careful consideration of the various methods of weighting
prices it was thought impossible as well as inadvisable to attempt the
adoption of any of the methods heretofore proposed. Under these
circumstances it was realized that the greatest care must be exercised
in the choice of the commodities to be included in order that a simple
average of their relative prices should fairly represent the general
price level. Only important and thoroughly representative articles in
each group were therefore selected, and the number included (260) is
larger than has heretofore been used in similar compilations, it "being
recognized that the use of a large number of articles carefully selected
minimizes the effect on the general price level of an unusual change in
the price of any one article or of a few articles.
It has been indicated that more than one series of quotations have




WHOLESALE PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES.

1175

been used in the case of commodities of great importance. This has
been done for the purpose of roughly giving a greater weight to these
important commodities for the want of any other satisfactory method
of accomplishing this object. The same means have been employed
satisfactorily by Sauerbeck in his index, as previously explained, and
the approximate accuracy of the method has been proved by various
tests based on the amount of production, etc. Allusion has already
been made to the various methods of weighting which have been adopted
in connection with previous compilations of relative prices. The
method employed by some European statisticians of measuring the
importance of each commodity by its annual consumption by the nation
is impossible of use in this country, owing to the lack of even approxi­
mately accurate figures for the annual consumption in the United
States of most of the commodities included in the Bureau’s index.
While the method adopted by the Bureau of using a large number of
representative staple articles and selecting them in such a manner as
to make them, to a large extent, weight themselves may be open to
objection, it is believed that the results secured thereby are, on the
whole, quite satisfactory. Upon a casual examination it may appear
that under this method a comparatively unimportant commodity—
such, for instance, as cotton-seed meal—has been given the same weight
or importance as one of the more important commodities, such as
wheat. A closer examination, however, shows that cotton-seed meal
enters into no other commodity included in the index, while wheat
is not only quoted as a raw material, but enters into the two descrip­
tions of wheat flour, the two descriptions of crackers, and the three
descriptions of loaf bread.
The commodities covered by the 260 series of quotations are classi­
fied under 9 general groups, as follows:
Farm products, 16 series of quotations.
Food, etc., 54 series of quotations.
Cloths and clothing, 76 series of quotations.
Fuel and lighting, 13 series of quotations.
Metals and implements, 38 series of quotations.
Lumber and building materials, 27 series of quotations.
Drugs and chemicals, 9 series of quotations.
House furnishing goods, 14 series of quotations.
Miscellaneous, 13 series of quotations.

The prices used in this index are invariably those for wholesale
transactions. In this connection it may be appropriate to state that
while wholesale prices have been used by some to indicate the trend
of cost of living, it is obvious that the only correct measure of the
extent of increase and decrease in cost of living from year to year is
found in the quotations of retail prices or the actual prices paid by
the small consumer. Until recently no adequate collection of retail
prices covering a long series of years was available for the United



1176

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

States, and wholesale prices were sometimes erroneously used to indi­
cate the extent of increase and decrease in the cost of living. The
Bureau has, however, also established a retail price index for the pur­
pose of ascertaining more accurately the extent of variation from year
to year in the cost of living of workingmen’s families. The concrete
results of this very complete collection of retail prices by the Bureau
of Labor are now available, having been published in the Bulletin of
the Bureau for July, 1904 (No. 53), and the detailed facts will shortly
appear in its forthcoming Eighteenth Annual Report. The present
Bulletin reproduces the summary figures in connection with the descrip­
tion of the charts relative to cost of living and retail prices and a
comparison of the course of wholesale as compared with the retail
prices of food is shown in both tabular and graphic form on page 1164.
This comparison shows that the wholesale are more sensitive than the
retail prices and more quickly reflect changes in conditions. It is
true that the latter usually follow the former, but generally not in the
same proportion. The margin between them in the case of some com­
modities is so great that slight variations in the wholesale price do not
affect the retail, and variations in the former which last for a short
time only do not usually result in corresponding variations in the
latter.
The sources of the price quotations included in the index of whole­
sale prices, now being considered, are standard trade journals, officials
of boards of trade, chambers of commerce and produce exchanges,
and leading manufacturers or their selling agents. The quotations are
usually those for the‘New York market, except for such commodities
as have their primary market in some other locality. For grains,
live stock, etc., for example, Chicago prices are quoted; for fish,
except salmon, Boston prices; for tar, Wilmington, N. C., prices; for
white pine, Buffalo prices, etc. The prices for textiles are those in
the great distributing markets, such as New York, Philadelphia, and
Boston. Of the 260 quotations included, 126 were for the New York
market, 20 for the Chicago market, and 76 for the general market,
the small number remaining being for other localities representing
the primary markets of the various commodities. In this connection
it should be stated that special care was taken in the case of each com­
modity to secure prices throughout the period for an article of precisely
the same kind and grade. In order that the average for each year
might be fairly representative, weekly quotations were secured in the
case of all articles subject to frequent fluctuation in price, such as but­
ter, cheese, eggs, grain, live stock, meats, etc. In the case of articles
whose prices are more stable, however, monthly or annual quotations
were taken. Of the 260 indexes of commodities included in the gen­
eral price index, 38 are based on weekly, 211 on monthly, and 11 on
annual quotations. The average price for the year in each case is



WHOLESALE PKICES IN THE UNITED STATES.

1177

obtained by simply dividing the sum of the quotations for a given
commodity by the number of quotations secured. Where a range of
prices was shown, the mean price for each date was found and this was
used in computing the yearly average. It is of course understood
that the construction of a strictly scientific average price for the year
would involve the consideration of data as to the quantity marketed
and the price for which each unit of quantity was sold. It is, how­
ever, manifestly impossible to secure these details, and even were it
possible the work of compilation would not be justified by the results.
It is believed that the method adopted, which is also that quite generalty used in the construction of other index numbers, secures results
which are quite as valuable for all practical purposes.
Having considered the method of collecting the quotations for the
commodities selected for inclusion in the index and of computing
yearly averages therefrom, it is important to consider also the method
of calculating the index numbers or relative prices for each commodity
and their combination into indexes representing groups of commodi­
ties or commodities as a whole. The first step in the reduction of a
series of actual prices to relative prices is the adoption of a base or
standard price with relation to which the prices for each year may be
expressed. The relative price or index price of a commodity for each
year is, therefore, the price expressed as a percentage'of this base, the
results being obtained by dividing the average price for each year by
the base or standard price. This base or standard may be either the
average price for a single year or the average for two or more years.
If the price for a single year be adopted, it is essential that the year
be a normal one so far as prices are concerned, for if, on the one hand,
prices are high in the year adopted as the base, any subsequent fall will
be unduly emphasized, while, on the other hand, if prices are low any
subsequent rise will be emphasized. Upon examination of the prices
of the 260 commodities included in this index it was seen that an
entirely normal condition as regards prices of all commodities was
not presented in any one year in the period. For this reason it was
decided that the average price for a number- of years would better
reflect average or approximately normal conditions, and form a more
satisfactory base than would the price for any single year. The period
adopted as the base is that from 1890 to 1899—a period of ten years—
and the average price for this period, or the base price, was found by
adding together the average prices for all of the ten years and divid­
ing the sum by 10. As already stated, the relative prices are calcu­
lated in the usual manner by dividing the average price for each year
by the average price for the base period, the results representing
simply the percentage which the price for each year is of the base
price. The base price always represents 100 under this method, and
the percentages for each year enable one to measure readily the rise



1178

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

and fall from year to year of the prices of any single commodity. In
order to secure the relative prices or index numbers of a group of
commodities, or of all commodities, the sum of the relative prices for
each year is divided by the number of commodities or quotations.
EXHIBIT CHARTS.

The exhibit of the Bureau at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, so
far as wholesale prices are concerned, consists of three series of charts.
The first series shows the trend of the relative prices or index num­
bers of the eight important groups of commodities, of .raw and manu­
factured products compared, and of all commodities, the period cov­
ered in each case being the years from 1890 to 1903, inclusive; in the
second series of charts a comparison is shown of the relative prices or
index numbers of certain groups of related articles; while in the third
series a comparison is made of the actual prices of certain groups of
related articles.
The following is a list of the first series of charts, indication being
given in each case of the table which furnishes the figures on which it
is based:
.
,
Relative prices of farm products, 1890 to 1903 (Table 1).
Relative prices of food, etc., 1890 to 1903 (Table 1).
Relative prices of cloths and clothing, 1890 to 1903 (Table 1).
Relative prices of fuel and lighting, 1890 to 1903 (Table 1).
Relative prices of metals and implements, 1890 to 1903 (Table 1).
Relative prices of lumber and building materials, 1890 to 1903 (Table 1).
Relative prices of drugs and chemicals, 1890 to 1903 (Table 1).
Relative prices of house furnishing goods, 1890 to 1903 (Table 1).
Relative prices of raw and manufactured commodities, 1890 to 1903 (Table 2).
Relative prices of all commodities, 1890 to 1903 (Table 1).

Reproductions of the above ten charts are given on the opposite
page. The tables presenting the figures on which these charts were
based follow:
T able 1 . —SUMMARY OF RELATIVE WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1903,
BY GROUPS.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.]

Year.

1890.........
1891.........
1892.........
1893.........
1894.........
1895.........
1896.........
1897..........
1898.........
1899..........
1900.........
1901.........
1902.........
1903..........

Farm
prod­
ucts.

10
1 .0

121.5
111.7
107.9
95.9
93.3
78.3
85.2
96.1

10
0.0

109.5
116.9
130.5
118.8

Food,
etc.

112.4
115.7
103.6

11 .2
0

99.8
94.6
83.8
87.7
94.4
98.3
104.2
105.9
111.3
107.1




Cloths
and
cloth­
ing.
113.5
111.3
109.0
107.2
96.1
92.7
91.3
91.1
93.4
96.7
106.8 *

10
1.0
10 .0
2
106.6

Fuel
and
light­
ing.
104.7
102.7

11
0 .1
10
0.0

92.4
98.1
104.3
96.4
95.4
105.0
120.9
119.5
134.3
149.3

Lumber
House
Drugs
Metals
and
furnish­ Miscel­ All com­
and
and
modi­
building
ing . laneous.
chemic­
imple­
ties.
mate­
goods.
ments.
als.
rials.
119.2
111.7
106.0
100.7
90.7
92.0
93.7

86.6

86.4
114.7
120.5
111.9
117.2
117.6

11
1 .8
12
0 .8

108.4

101.9
96.3
94.1
93.4
90.4
95.8
105.8
115.7
116.7
118.8
121.4

11
0.2
103.6
102.9
100.5
89.8
87.9
92.6
94.4
106.6
111.3
115.7
115.2
114.2

11 .6
2

11
1 .1
10
1 .2

106.5
104.9

10
0 .1

96.5
94.0
89.8
92.0
95.1
106.1
110.9

11 .2
2

113.0

110.3
109.4
106.2
105.9
99.8
94.5
91.4
92.1
92.4
97.7
109.8
107.4
114.1
113.6

112.9
111.7
106.1
105.6
96.1
93.6
90.4
89.7
93.4
101.7
110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6

Labor Bui. 54
Relative P rices

of

F arm P roducts, 1890

[A V E R A C E P R IC E F O R IS90 T O 1899 = 100.1

CHART 57




to

1903.

Labor Bui. 54
R elative P rices

of

Food, Etc ., 1890

[A V E R A C E P R IC E F O R 1890 T O 1899 = 100.]

C H A R T 58




to

1903.

Labor Bui. 54
Relative P rices

of

C loths

and

C lothing,

[A V E R A C E P R IC E F O R 1890 T O 1899 = 100.’

CHART 59




1890 to 1903.

Labor Bui. 54
R elative P rices

of

F uel

and

L ighting,

[A V E R A C E P R IC E F O R 1890 T O 1899 = 100.]

CHART 60




1890 to 1903.

Labor Bui. 54
Relative P rices

of

M etals

and I mplements,

[A V E R A C E P R IC E F O R 1890 T O 1899 = 100.1

CHART 61




1890 to 1903.

Labor Bui. 54
R e l a t i v e P r ic e s

of

L um ber

and

B u il d in g M a t e r ia l s ,

1890 TO 1903.
[AVERACE PRICE FOR 1890 TO 1899 = 100.]

CHART 62




Labor Bui. 54
R e l a t i v e P r ic e s

of

D rugs

and

C

h e m ic a l s ,

CAVERACE PRICE FOR 1890 T O 1899 = 100.]

CHART 63




1890

to

1903.

Labor Bui. 54
R elative P rices

of

House F urnishing G oods , 1890

[A VERAC E P R IC E FO R 1890 TO 1899 = 100.]

C H A R T 64




to

1903.

Labor Bui. 64
R elative P rices

of

A ll C ommodities , 1890

[A V E R A C E P R IC E F O R 1890 T O 1899=100.]

CH AR T 65




to

1903.

R elative P rices




of

R aw and M anufactured C ommodities ,
1890 TO 1903.

[A VE R A C E P R IC E FO R 1890 T O 1899 = 100.]

1179

WHOLESALE PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES.

As previously indicated, this and similar tables should be read as
follows: Taking for example the column showing the relative wholesale
prices for all commodities, and bearing in mind that all of the figures
represent percentages of the base price, which is uniformly 100, we
see that the relative price of all commodities, or the general price
level in 1890, was 112.9, or 12.9 higher than the base price, which, it
will be remembered, is the average price for the ten-year period from
1890 to 1899; the general price level for all commodities declined
slightly to 111.7 in 1891, being in this year 11.7 per cent higher than
the base price; it declined to 106.1 in 1892, and was in this year 6.1
percent above the base price; it .declined slightly to 105.6 in 1893,
being 5.6 per cent above the base price; it declined still further to
96.1 in 1894, being in this year 3.9 per cent below the base price, etc.
T a b le 2 .—RELATIVE WHOLESALE PRICES OP RAW COMMODITIES, MANUFACTURED COM­
MODITIES, AND ALL COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1903.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.]

Year.

1 8 9 0 .......................................................................................................................
1891..........................................................................................................................
1892..........................................................................................................................
1893
4
........................................................................................................
1894..........................................................................................................................
1895..........................................................................................................................
1896..........................................................................................................................
1897..........................................................................................................................
1898...................................................................................... ...................................
1899...........................................................................................................................
1900..........................................................................................................................
1901..........................................................................................................................
............................ ............................................................................................
1902
1903...........................................................................................................................

Manufac­
Raw
tured
All com­
commod­
commod­ modities.
ities.
ities.
115.0
116.3
107.9
104.4
93.2
91.7.
84.0
87.6
94.0
105.9
111. 9
111.4
122.4
122.7

112.3
110.6
105.6
105.9,
96.8
94.0
91.9
90,1
93.3 '
100.7
110.2
107.8
110.6
111.5

112 9
111.7
106.1
105.6
96.1
93.6
90.4
89.7
93.4
101.7
110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6

Many students of price statistics desire to distinguish between raw
commodities and manufactured commodities, or those which have been
prepared for consumption by the application of manufacturing proc­
esses and in which manufacturing labor forms a considerable part of
the cost. To meet the wishes of this class of readers, the commodi­
ties included in this price series have been divided into the two
classes, raw and manufactured, and simple averages made for each
class. Of course, hard and fast definitions of these classes can not be
made, but the commodities here designated as raw may be said to be
such as are marketed in their natural state and such as have been sub­
jected to only a preliminary manufacturing process, thus converting
them into a marketable condition, but not to a suitable form for final
consumption, while the commodities here designated as manufactured
are such as have been subjected to more than a preliminary factory
manipulation and in which the manufacturing labor cost constitutes an
important element in the price. In the group designated as raw are
included all farm products, beans, coffee, eggs, milk, rice, nutmegs,
10193—N 54—04---- 15
o.



1180

BULLETIN OF THE BURE AH OF LABOR.

pepper., tea, vegetables, raw B ilk, wocfl, -coal, e r o d e petroleum, copper
ingots, pig lead, pig iron, fear silver, spelter, pig tin, brimstone, jute,
and rubber—?atotal of & articles. All the other articles are classed
0
as ananufaotnred (commodities.
In 1890 -and 1891, when prices in general were high, the raw com­
modities were higher than the manufactured, and remained so until
1893, when prices of raw commodities declined andmanufactured com­
modities were slightly above the prices of 1892. From 1891 to 1896
there was a marked decline in both groups, the raw being lower -than
the manufactured in each of these years. In 1897 raw advanced and
manufactured declined. From 1898 to 1900 there was a decided
advance in both groups each year, raw advancing to a higher point
than manufactured. In 1901 there was a very slight decline in raw
and a more marked decline in manufactured. In 1902 both raw and
manufactured commodifies made a decided advance. In 1903 raw
commodities advanced to a point beyond the highest point previously
reached in the 14 years under consideration, and manufactured com­
modities advanced to a level exceeded by that of one year only—1890.
For the 14 years included in this table, with the single exception of
1893, it will be seen that during the years of high prices raw com­
modities were higher than manufactured, and during the years of low
prices, with the exception of 1898, raw were lower than manufactured.
The titles of the second series of charts are given in the following
list, together with the necessary indication of the table which contains
the data upon which they are based:
Relative prices of live cattle and dressed beef, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of live cattle and green hides, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of live hogs and bacon, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of live hogs and cured ham, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of live hogs and mess pork, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of live sheep and mutton, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of live sheep and wool, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of com and com meal, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of wheat and wheat flour, 11890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of wheat flour and loaf bread, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of 96° centrifugal (raw) sugar and granulated sugar, 1890 to 1903
(TableS).
Relative prices of 'raw cotton .and =caHco, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of raw cotton and print cloths, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of raw cotton and cotton sheetings, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of raw cotton and cotton shirtings, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of wool and woolen suitings, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of wool and woolen underwear, 1890 to 1903 ((Table 3)..
Relative prices of woohand woolen dress goods, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative .prices of wool and worsted yarns, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of green hides and leather, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of leather and boots and shoes, 1890 to 1903 (Table 3).
Relative prices of crude petroleum and refined petroleum for export, 1890 to 1903
(Table 3).
Relative prices «of crude petroleum and refined 150° water white petroleum, 1890
to 1903 (Table 3).




1181

WHOLESALE PBICES IN THE UHITED STATES,

All of the above charts are based on the figures given in the follow­
ing table. It is to be regretted that lack of space prevents their
reproduction in this Bulletin.
T a b le 8 . —RELATIVE WHOLESALE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF RELATED ARTICLES,
1890 TO 1903.
[Average price for 1890-1899 = 100.]
Hogs and hog products.

Cattle and cattle products.
Year.
Cattle.
1890.........
1891.........
1892.........
1893.........
1894.........
1895.........
1896.........
1897_____
1898.........
1899.........
1900.........
1 9 0 1 ......
1902.........
1903.........

Hides,
green.

Beef,
fresh.
89.2
106.2
98.8
105.4
97.0
102.7
90.5
99.7
101.3
108.3
104.3
102.1
125 9
101.7

89.5
109.2
95.4
103.0
96.3
103.7
88.3
99.5
102.2
113.2
111.3
116.6
139.5
105.8

Corn and
corn meal.

Bacon.

Hams,
smoked.

89.2
89.3
99.2
103.7
116.6
115.7
148.6
154.7
112.2
111. 8
96.6
96.3
78.3 • 73.1
79.9
82.8
89.4
85.6
85.8
91.8
111. 5
115.5
132.3
134.5
155.2
159.3
137.2
142.6

101.1
99.8
109.3
126.9
103.6
96.2
95.8
90.9
82.0
93.8
104.2
109.2
123.1
129.2

Hogs.

99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
124.8

Wheat, flour, and
bread.

Year.
Corn.

1890.........
1891.........
1892.........
1893.........
1894.........
1895.........
1896.........
1897.........
.1898.........
1899.........
1900.........
1901.........
1902.........
1903.........

Loaf
Meal. Wheat. Wheat bread.
flour.

103.8
151.0
118.3
104.2
113.7
104.0
67.8
66.9
82.6
87.6
100.2
130.6
156.9
121.1

100.8
142.0
114.0
105.8
105.6
103.3
77.4
76.5
83.7
91.2
97.0
115.5
148.2
124.7

118.9
128.1
104.9
90.1
74.4
79.9
85.4
105.8
117.8
94.7
93.7
95.7
98.7
105.1

120.9
125.6
104.2
89.3
77.6
84.4
91.2
110.1
109.0
87.9
88.3
87.4
89.7
97.1

100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8
98.7
94.4
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8

Wool.

1890.........
1891.........
1892.........
1893.........
1894.........
1895.........
1896.........
1897.........
1898.........
1899.........
1900.........
1901.........
1902.........
1903.........

132.1
125.8
113.2
101.6
79.1
70.1
70.6
88.7
108.3
110.8
117.7
£6.6
100.8
110.3

Suit­
ings.

113.1
113.1
113.4
112.7
98.3
89.2
87.8
•88.7
103.4
106.1
115.8
104.9.
105.8
109.0




Under­
wear
(all
wool).

Wom­
en’s
dress
goods
(all
wool).

106.2
110.0
110.0
110.0
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4

117.6
123.0
124.1
114.7
90.6
82.7
74.1
82.2
88.5
102.7
118.7
107.9
109.8
114.4

Mess
pork.

Sheep.

Mutton.

119.3
117.8
125.2
103.8
73.6
78.4
78.7
94.2
104.9
104.3
112.0
92.0
103.2
98.4

104.4
97.2
99.1
157.6
121.4
101.7
76.8
76.6
84.8
80.3
107.5
134.2
154.2
143.1

Sugar.

123.7
114.9
121.2
106.5
80.2
82.2
82.9
96.6
98.0
94.3
96.4
89.5
97.9
98.7

Wool.
132.1
125.8
113.2
101.6
79.1
70.1
70.6
88.7
108.3
110.8
117.7
96.6
100.8
110.3

Cotton and cotton goods.

Cotton, Calico,
96°cenPrint Sheet­ Shirt­
Cotrifu- Granu­ upland
lated.
mid­
checo cloths. ings. ings.
gal.
dling. prints.
141.1
101.1
85.7
95.1
83.5
84.1
93.7
92.1
109. 5
114.3
118.2
104.4
91.5
96.1

130.5
99.7
92.1
102.3
87.0
87.9
95.9
95.1
105.2
104.2
112.8
106.8
94.2
98.2

142.9
110.8
99.0
107.2
90.2
94.0
102.0
92.2
76.9
84.7
123.8
111.1
115.1
144.7

117.5
104.0
117.5
113.0
99.5
94.9
94.9
90.4
81.4
87.3
94.9
90.4
90.4
91.1

117.7
103.5
119.3
114 6
96.8
100.9
90.9
87.6
72.6
96.3
108.6
99.3
108.9
113.3

Hides, leather, and
boots and shoes.

W ool and woolen goods.

Year.

Sheep and sheep products.

117.6
112.3
103.8
107.7
95.9
94.6
97.4
91.8
86.7
92.2
105.9
101.8
101.4
110.6

112.9
110.2
107.4

no. 2

99.9
97.6
97.9
92.0
83.8
87.8
100.4
98.9
98.8
103.2

Petroleum.
Refined.

Worst­ Hides,
ed
yarns. green.

122.3
123.4
117.2
109.5
91.3
74.0
72.9
82.5
100.5
106.7
118.4
102.2
111.7
118.0

99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
124.8

Leath­
er.

Boots
and
shoes.

Crude.

100.6
100.9
97.0
96.9
91.5
108.0
95.2
96.1
104.4
109.3
113.2
110.8
112.7
112.0

104.8
103.5
102.7
100.9
99.4
98.7
99.6
97.2
96.3
96.8
99.4
99.2
98.9
100.2

95.4
73.6
61.1
70.3
92.2
149.2
129.5
86.5
100.2
142.1
148.5
132.9
135.9
174. £

For ex­ 150° fire
port. test,w.w.

112.9
105.5
93.8
80.4
79.4
109.6
108.2
92.0
96.8
121.9
131.6
115.4
113.1
132.5

111.8
98.8
89.2
81.5
81.5
103.6
116.7
101.1
102.1
114.0
133.5
123.JL
124.5
153.1

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

1182

The titles of the third series of charts are given in the following
list, together with the usual indication of the table which contains the
data upon which they are based:
Actual prices of live cattle and dressed beef, 1890 to 1903 (Table 4).
Actual prices of wheat and wheat flour, 1890 to 1903 (Table 4).
Actual prices of 96° centrifugal (raw) sugar and granulated sugar, 1890 to 1903
(Table 4).
Actual prices of rawTcotton and cotton yarns, carded, white, mule spun, northern
(cones 22-1), 1890 to 1903 (Table 4).
Actual prices of scoured Ohio fine fleeced wool and worsted yarns (2-40s Australian
fine), 1890 to 1903 (Table 4).
Actual prices of crude petroleum and refined petroleum for export, 1890 to* 1903
(Table 4).
Actual prices of crude petroleum and refined 150° water-wT
hite petroleum, 1890 to
1903 (Table 4).
Actual prices of foundry No. 2 pig iron and 8-penny wire nails, 1890 to 1903
(Table 4).
Actual prices of foundry No. 2 pig iron and steel rails, 1890 to 1903 (Table 4).
Actual prices of steel billets and galvanized barb wire, 1890 to 1903 (Table 4).
Actual prices of steel billets and 8-penny wire nails, 1890 to 1903 (Table 4).

Nine of the charts named above are reproduced herewith in con­
nection wilth Table 4, which gives the figures on which they are based:
T able

4 .—ACTUAL WHOLESALE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO 1903.

CATTLE: Steers, good to extra.
[Average monthly price per hundred pounds in Chicago; averages of the quotations on Tuesday of
each week from the Daily Trade Bulletin.]
Month.
Jan.............
F eb.............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
June...........
J u ly ............
A u g ...........
S ep t...........
O c t.............
N o v ...........
D ec.............

Month.
Jan.............
F eb .............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
June...........
J u ly ...........
A u g ...........
S e p t...........
O c t.............
N o v ............
D ec.............

1890.
$4.0875
4.2782
4.5782
4.5425
4.6219
4.6157
4.2800
4.3188
4.6700
4.6938
4.6782
4.6475

1897.
94. 9001
4.9750
5.0725
5.0500
5.0625
4.9725
4.9032
4.9200
5.0969
5.1188
4.9600
4.9813




1891.
$4.8563
5.0000
5.2425
5.6313
5.7344
5.6900
5.7688
5.6657
5.6400
5.6250
5.4532
5.5450

1898.
$4.9938
5.0500
5.1650
5.0657
4.9275
5.0313
5.0719
5.2450
5.2750
6.3813
5.1900
5.1782

1892.
$5.0001
4.8032
4.6350
4.2813
4.3950
4.3844
5.1063
4.9250
5.0313
4.9313
5.0475
5.0469

1899.
95.4125
5.3001
5.2813
5.3219
5.2150
5.2500
5.4625
5.9175
6.2532
6.3100
6.2407
6.2782

1893.
95.3250
5.43^5
5.3157
5.3688
5.4325
5.3532
4.9907
4.5950
5.0219
5.1825
5.2000
4.9907

1900.
$6.0825
5.6813
5.4250
5.3782
5.3875
5.4438
5.4325
5.6438
5.7376
5.6250
5.5844
5.5938

1894.
95.2700
4.7094
4.5313
4.3032
4.2550
4.5282
4.4975
4.6063
5.5032
5. 4000
5.3969
5.0876

1901.
95.6975
5.5875
5.6407
5.6525
5.6469
5.8657
5.8600
5.8000
5.9219
6.1625
6.1594
6.2025

1895.
95.0725
4.9844
5.5282
5.8025
5.6032
5.5313
5.3925
5.4000
5.3344
4.9475
4.6001
4.4325

1902.
96.5657
6.4313
6.4719
6.7050
7.0344
7.2907
7.6100
7.6969
7.6475
7.5844
7.1438
6.0150

1896.
94.4500
4.3188
4.1650
4.0876
4.1125
4.1600
4.2626
4.3938
4.6825
4.7938
4.8751
4.8650

1903.
95.6094
5.3407
5.3650
5.4282
5.2594
6.1550
5.1313
5.2126
5.4075
5.4126
5.2250
5.2500




P rices

of

L ive C a t t l e

and

= L IV E C A T T L E .

D ressed B eef , 1890

= D R E S S E D BEEF.

to

1903.

WHOLESALE PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES,
T able 4 . —

1183

ACTUAL WHOLESALE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO 1903—Continued.
B E E F : F r e s li, n a t iv e sid es.

[Average monthly price per hundred pounds in New York; averages of the quotations on Tuesday
of each week from the New York Tribune.]
Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
J u n e .........
July...........
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O ct.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............

Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
J u n e .........
J u ly___ 1..
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O ct.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

86. 6250
6.4375
6.5313
6.8500
7.1563
7.0625
6.7750
6.9375
7.0250
7.0625
6.7813
7.1250

$7.3125
7.5000
7.6750
8.9375
9.2188
8.8750
8.8750
8.2188
8.0000
7.8438
7.8750
7.9250

$8.0000
7.3750
7.1000
7.0000
7.1500
6.8750
7.7500
7.9750
8.0625
7.7500
7.8500
8.6250

88.8500
8.6250
8.7500
8.7500
8.7250
7.9531
7.5000
7.4000
7.7500
8.1500
7.3125
7.6875

87.6500
6.8125
6.4688
6.8438
7.2000
7.5000
8.0000
6.9375
7.8750
7.9750
8.0313
8.2500

88.1250
8.2813
8.7500
9.2750
8.5313
7.7500
7.6500
7.5938
7.5000
7.3000
7.1250
7.1500

1901.

1902.

1897.
9 7.5625

7.5313
7.5750
7.8125
7.7500
7.9250
7.2188
7.6500
7.8750
7.8750
7.7500
7.7500

1898.
$7.5313
7.7188
7.7000
7.8125
7.7250
7.6250
7.8125
7.9500
7.9688
7.9750
7.8125
8.0313

1899.
88.1500
8.3438
8.1563
8.0625
7.9750
8.1563
8 .4375
8.4750
8.7500
8.6750
8.4375
8.5313

1900.
88.4000
8.0000
8.0000
7.8125
7.7250
7.9063
8.0000
8.5313
8.4063
8.1500
7.9375
7.5313

' 87.4500
7.4063
7.2500
7.7750
8.1563
8.3125
8.1500
7.8125
8.1875
7. 6500
7.9063
8.3250

88.3125
8.5000
8. 5625
10.0500
10.3750
10.4375
10.7000
10.3125
10.0000
10.0000
9.6250
9.3500

1896.
87.1563
6.8125
6.6250
6.5938
6.6563
6.6000
6.8125
7.1250
7.3250
7.1250
7.3438
7.5250

1903.
88.9700
8.0000
8.0280
8.1875
8.0650
7.7760
7.5975
7.5000
7.5500
7.5650
7.5000
7.4520

W H E A T : C o n tr a c t g r a d e s , c a sli.
[Average monthly price per hundred pounds in Chicago; averages of the quotations oii Tuesday of
each week from the reports of the Chicago Board of Trade.]
Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
J u n e .........
July...........
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O ct.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............

Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
Mar ...........
Apr.............
M ay...........
J u n e .........
J u ly...........
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O ct.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............

1890.
81.2742
1.2453
1.3125
1.4307
1.5675
1.4680
1.4725
1.6763
1.6408
1.6870
1.5920
1.5055

1897.
81.3022
1.2448
1.2333
1.1823
1.2003
1.1550
1.2247
1.4192
1.5547
1.4417
1.4692
1.4772




1891.
81.4972
1. 5763
1.6613
1.7838
1.7292
1.6193
1.4945
1.6175
1.5983
1.5870
1.5592
1.5172

1898.
81.5473
1.6838
1.7100
1.8230
2.4692
1.4723
1.2843
1.1592
1.0935
1.0938
1.1138
1.1097

1892.
81.4490
1.4640
1.3922
1.3367
1.3725
1.3448
1.3080
1.2807
1.2185
1.2143
1.1883
1.1880

1899.
81.1625
1.1958
1.1723
1.2125
1.2168
1.2487
1.1950
1.1843
1.1958
1.1838
1.1318
1.1167

1893.
81.2285
1.2347
1.2412
1.2787
1.2017
1.0843
1.0712
1.0027
1.1098
1.0565
1.0105
1.0272

1900.
81.0808
1.0958
1.0870
1.1010
1.0925
1.2425
1.2777
1.2388
1.2602
1.2367
1.1963
1.1700

1894.
81.0043
.9537
.9468
.9943
.9348
.9698
.9118
.9070
.8870
.8532
.9038
.9130

1901.
81.2355
1.2272
1.2398
1.1885
1.2185
1.1788
1.1013
1.1945
1.1620
1.1555
1.2008
1.2782

1895.
80.8763
.8430
.8968
.9568
1.1563
1.2552
1.1215
1.0672
.9740
.9893
.9515
.9413

1902.
81.2790
1.2495
1.2203
1.2102
1.2450
1.2142
1.2607
1.1998
1.2840
1.2040
1.2113
1.2382

1896.
80.9927
1.0823
1.0517
1.0718
1.0188
.9483
.9328
.9412
.9925
1.1750
1.2958
1.3158

1903.
81.2355
1.2563
1.2140
1.2647
1.3015
1.3040
1.3227
1.3852
1.4150
1.3643
1.3290
1.3848

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

1184
T able 4 .—

ACTUAL WHOLESALE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO 1003—Continued.
IHLOUjR: W h e a t.

[Average monthly price per hundred pounds in New York of spring patents and winter straights;
averages of the quotations on Tuesday of each week from the reports of the New York Produce
Exchange.]
Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r............
A pr.............
M a y ...........
June...........
J u ly...........
A u g ...........
S ep t...........
O c t.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............

Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r ...........
A p r ............
M a y ...........
June...........
J u ly ...........
A u g ----- . . .
Sept...........
O c t.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............

1890.
82.3294
2.2624
2.2545
2.3699
2.5303
2.4315
2.4464
2.6866
2.7832
2.7535
2.6563
2.5778

1897.
82.3023
2.2131
2.1888
2.1429
2.1540
2.0625
2.0504
2.4043
2.6020
2.4697
2.4273
2.3996

1891.
82.5463
2.6005
2.6288
2.7997
2.7663
2.6633
2.5606
2.6068
2.6046
2.5128
2.5001
2.4770

1898.
82.3693
2.4267
2.4528
2.5287
3.2436
2.4936
2.2210
2.0255
1.8798
1.8113
1.8125
1.7826

1892.
82.4283
2.4043
2.3673
2.3007
2.2793
2.2513
2.2098
2.1633
2.0823
2.0456
2.0089
1.9755

1899.
81.8610
1.8686
1.8160
1.8384
1.8520
L 8878
1.8160
1.7857
. 1.7937
1.8329
1.7889
1.7586

1893.
81. 9962
1. 9851
1.9324
1.9340
1.9477
1.8543
1.7714
L 7640
1.8208
1.7946
1.7538
1.7443

1900.
81.7551
1.7570
1.7331
1.7427
1.7245
1.9053
2.0077
1.8926
1,8973
1.8929
1.8622
1.8336

1894.
81.7347
1.6885
1.6773
1.6757
1.6390
1.6327
1.6314
1.5737
1.5322
1.4936
1.5354
1.6008

1901.
81.8801
1.8686
1.8718
1.8431
1.8399
1.8113
1.7628
1.7794
1.7634
1.7283
1.7889
1.8571

1895.
81.5906
1.5545
1.5896
1.6441
1.9643
2.1572
1.9273
1.7858
1.6741
1.7628
1.7347
1.6964

1902.
81.8782
1.8751
1.8766
1.8801
1 .927>
1.9213
1.9056
1.8304
1.8061
1.8048
1.8112
1.8265

1896.
81.7379
1.8670
1.8380
1.8766
1.8144
1.7781
1.7252
1.6996
1.7156
2.0472
2.2657
2.3151

1903.
81.8718
1.9037
1.8992
1.8830
1.9356
2.0268
2.0584
2.1269
2.1352
2.1365
2.1190
2.1301

S U G A R : 96° c e n t r ifu g a l (r a w ).
[Average monthly price per pound in New York, including import duty; averages of the quotations
on Thursday of each week from Willett & Gray’s Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal.]

Month.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar
Apr.
May
June.
July
Aug
Sept.
O ct.,
Nov ,
Dec.

Month.
Jan..
Feb..
Mar .
Apr..
M ay.
June.
J u ly .
Aug .
Sept.
O ct..
Nov .
Dec..

1890.
$0.0553
.0551
.0542
.0536
.0532
.0531
.0532
.0557
.0588
.0581
.0531
.0514

1897.
80.0318
.0322
.0325
.0331
.0328
.0345
.0360
.0375
.0388
.0384
.0384
.0404




1891.
$0.0528
.0559
.0562
.0352
.0325
.0338
.0336
.0342
.0346
.0334
.0349
.0339

1898.
80.0412
.0415
.0410
.0416
.0423
.0429
.0413
.0423
.0435
.0424
.0439
.0440

1892.
$0.0347
.0343
.0331
.0313
.0309
.0312
.0309
.0323
.0361
.0347
.0338
.0340

1899.
80.0428
.0433
.0440
.0458
.0466
.0463
.0445
.0452
.0438
.0431
.0427
.0425

1893.
80.0347
.0342
.0344
.0384
.0409
.0438
.0417
.0365
.0374
.0394
.0317
.0293

1900.
80.0433
.0446
.0439
.0443
.0449
.0464
.0480
.0486
.0499
.0476
.0438
.0440

1894.
80.0291
.0323
.0308
.0283
.0284
.0309
.0314
.0350
.0375
.0363
.0350
.0325

1901.
80.0433
.0423
.0403
.0414
.0427
.0425
.0420
.0402
.0375
.0377
.0373
.0373

1895.
80.0302
.0303
.0300
.0300
.0330
.0331
.0325
.0327
.0333
.0354
.0338
.0356

1902.
80.0355
.0364
.0346
.0345
.0348
.0343
.0335
.0339
.0347
.0356
.0375
.0393

1896.
80.0380
.0403
.0415
.0427
.0413
.0367
.0339
.0341
.0314
.0306
.0330
.0323

1903.
80.0383
.0370
.0372
.0361
.0367
.0358
.0363
.0378
.0388
.0388
.0378
.0359

WHOLESALE PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES,
T able 4 . —

1185

ACTUAL WHOLESALE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO 1903—Continued.
S U G A R : G r a n u la te d ,

[Average monthly price per pound in New York, including import duty; averages of the quotations
on Thursday of each week from Willet & Gray’s Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal.]

Month.
Jan............
Feb............
M ar..........
Apr............
May..........
June........
Julv..........
A u g..........
Sept..........
Oct: ..........
N o v..........
Dec............
Month.
Jan............
Feb............
M ar..........
A p r ..........
Mav..........
June.........
July..........
A u g..........
Sept..........
Oct............
N o v..........
Dec............

1890.
$0.0630
. 0622
.0611
.0603
.0599
.0635
.0605
.0613
.0649
.0642
.0600
.0591
• 1897.
80.0404
.0407
.0414
.0433
.0426
.0441
.0461
.0472
.0480
.0482
.0472
.0484

1891.
80.0593
.0632
.0631
.0450
.0433
.0411
.0426
.0415
.0433
.0426
.0414
.0407
1898.
80.0493
.0495
.0486
.0499
.0510
.0508
.0508
.0508
.0517
.0474
.0486
.0485

1892.
80.0395
.0392
.0422
.0423
.0422
.0426
.0419
.0432
.0486
.0472
.0463
.0460
1899.
80.0471
.0472
.0482
.0493
.0508
.0518
.0521
.0512
.0488
.0480
.0480
.0480

1893.
80.0460
.0455
.0453
.0492
.0511
. 0522
.0526
.0508
. 0508
. 0508
.0447
.0420
1900.
80.0485
.0500
.0494
.0494
.0505
.0550
.0582
.0587
.0588
.0549
. 0536
.0532

1894.
80.0397
.0409
.0409
.0398
.0389
.0394
.0411
.0452
.0460
.0435
.0403
. 0376
1901.
80.0528
.0524
.0506
.0513
.0526
.0522
.0518
. 0507
.0500
.0484
.0468
.0456

1895.
80.0374
.0371
.0385
.0386
.0428
. 0435
.0435
.0428
.0432
.0441
.0426
.0444
1902.
80.0446
.0451
.0450
.0451
.0443
.0442
.0441
.0441
.0443
.0441
. 0436
.0460

1896.
80.0465
.0467
.0478
.0509
.0499
.0466
.0445
.0454
.0447
.0398
.0410
.0410
1903.
80.0463
.0458
.0465
.0466
.0473
.0472
.0478
.0483
.0480
.0459
.0445
.0435

CO T TO N : U p la n d , m id d lin g .
[Average monthly price per pound in New York; averages of the quotations on Tuesday of each week
from the New York Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
June...........
J u ly ...........
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O c t.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............

Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
June.........
J u ly ...........
A u g ...........
S e p t...........
O ct.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............

1890.
80.1063
.1119
.1139
.1169
. 1223
.1222
.1218
.1191
.1060
.1027
.0961
.0931

1897.
80.0723
.0717
.0731
.0745
.0772
.0776
.0794
.0800
.0708
.0631
.0588
.0589




1891.
80.0936
.0914
.0898
.0892
.0892
.0855
.0822
.0802
.0855
.0850
.0819
.0796

1898.
80.0591
.0613
.0619
.0625
.0641
.0645
.0617
.0593
.0564
.0541
.0541
.0577

1892.
80.0752
.0723
.0686
.0703
.0735
.0753
.0728
.0725
.0725
.0809
.0915
.0972

1899.
80. 0613
.0653
.0636
.0623
.0621
.0622
.0616
.0624
.0644
.0728
.0763
.0764

1893.

1894.

80.0966
.0919
.0897
.0814
.0775
.0794
.0809
.0764
.0814
.0828
.0814
.0788

80.0804
.0784
.0753
.0763
.0726
.0731
.0711
.0692
.0677
.0603
.0575
.0573

1900.

1901.

80.0776
.0881
.0981
.0975
.0965
.0913
.1003
.0986
.1047
.1018
.1002
.1006

80.1046
.0947
.0859
.0834
.0813
.0850
.0848
.0817
.0844
.0830
.0797
.0846

1895.
80.0569
.0561
.0605
.0669
.0702
.0717
.0706
.0756
.0833
.0916
.0866
.0845

1902.
80.0827
.0859
.0903
.0935
.0952
.0931
.0921
.0897
.0894
.0876
.0844
.0868

1896.
80.0823
.0805
.0783
.0795
.0825
. 0766
.0727
.0809
.0854
.0800
.0794
.0730

1903.
80.0893
.0959
.1013
.1051
.1143
.1244
.1245
.1275
.1227
.0981
.1106
.1278

1186

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able 4 . —

ACTUAL WHOLESALE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO 1903—Continued.

C O T T O N Y A R N S : C a r d e d , w h i t e , m u le -s p u n , N o rth e rn , co n e s, 22/1.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Month.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893. 1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899. 1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

J a n ........... «$0.21* a$0.22 a$0.23 $0.22 $0.19* $0.17* $0.20! $0.17! $0.18* $0.16* $0.21* $0.22* $0.17* $0.19*
.22
.19* .17
.20* .17* . 18* .16* .22* .22
F e b ........... a . 21* a. 22 a. 23
.17* •19*
.22* .19
M ar........... a. 21* a. 22 a . 23
.17* .19* •17* .18*! .16* .22! .21* . 17* .20*
.17* .18! .17* .18* .16! .23* .21
A p r ............ a. 22 a . 22 a. 23* .21* .18
.18
.20*
M a y .......... a . 22* a. 22 a. 23* .22
.18
.18
.18* .17
.18* .16! .23* .19
.18
.21*
J u n e ,........ a. 22 a. 22* a . 23* .21
.17! .17* .18* .16! .23
.18! .18* .22*
.17* .18
.21
J u l y ,,..:.. « . 22 g . 22* a . 24
.17* .17! .17* .18* .18
.17
.23 ' .18* .17! .23*
A u g . . . . . . . a . 22 a. 22! a. 23* .21* .17* .18
. 23
.17
.18* .17! .17
.17* .23*
.18
S e p t.......... a . 22* a. 22f a. 23* .20* .17* .18! .17! .18* .17* .17! .23* .17* .18
.22*
o c t . ; ........ a. 22* a. 23 a. 23* .20! .17* .19
.18
.18* .17* .18* .23* .17* .19* .21*
.21
.17* .19* .17! .18* .17
N o v .,........ a. 22* a. 23 a. 22
.20* .23
.17* .19* .21!
.20! .17
.19! .18
.18* .16* .20! .22* . .17! .19* .23
D e c ............ a . 22* a . 23 a. 21

W O O L : O h io , fin e fleece (X a n d X X g r a d e ), sco u red .
[Price per pound in the Eastern markets (Baltimore, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia) on the
first of each month.]
Month.
Jan.............
F e b ........
Mar . . . ___
A p r ............
M a y ...........
J u n e ..........
J u l y :.,....
A u g :......
Sept...........
O c t.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............
Month.
Jan.........
Feb.............
M a r ...........
A p r............
M a y ............
J u n e .........
J u ly ...........
Aug ............
Sept............
oct'.-:.........
N o v : ..........
D e c ............

1891.

1890.

1892.

$0.7283
.7283
.7065
.7065
.6957
.6739
.6848
.6848
.6848
.6522
.6413
.6413

$0.7283
.7174
.7065
.7065
.7065
.7174
*7174
,7174
.7065
.7174
.7283
.7174

$0.6413
.6304
.6087
.5978
.5978
. 6087
.6087
.6087
.6087
. 6087
.6087
.6141

1898.

1897.
$0.4130
.4130
.4239
.4565
. 4674
.4674
.4674
.5109
.5326
.5870
.6087
.5978

1899.

$0.6087
.6304
.6304
.6304
.6087
.6087
.6087
.6196
.6196
.6196
.5978
.5978

$0.5761
.5761
.5761
.5435
.5652
.5870
.6196
.6413
.6630
.6739
.6957
.7609

1893.
$0.6141
.6413
. 6576
.6576
. 5978
. 5326
. 5326
.5217
. 5000
.5000
.5000
.5109
1900.
$0.7609
.7609
.7500
.7065
.6848
.6630
.6196
.6196
.5978
.5870
.5761
.5870

1894.
$0.5000
.4891
.4565
. 4565
.4783
.4565
. 4348
. 4348
.4348
.4022
.4022
.3913
1901.
$0.5652
.5543
.5435
.5435
.5435
. 5326
.5435
.5435
.5435
.5435
.5435
.5435

1895.
$0.3804
.3696
.3587
.3587
. 3587
.3478
. 3913
.3913
. 3913
.3913
.3913
.3913
1902.
$0.5543
.5543
. 5543
.5435
.5543
.5435
.5652
.5870
.6087
.6087
.6087
.6413

1896.
$0.4130
.4130
.4130
.4130
.3804
.3696
.3696
.3696
.3696
.3913.
.4130
.4130
1903.
$0.6383
.6489
.6383
. 6277
.6064
.6170
.6721
.6721
.6809
.6809
.6809
.6915

W O R S T E D Y A R N S : 2 -4 0 s, A u s t r a lia n fine.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Month.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1

1894. 1895.

1896. 1897. 1898.

1899. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903.

Jan............. $1.25 $1.25 $1.20 $1.17 $1.10 $0.75 $0.72 $0.73 $1.00 $1.00 $1.30 $1.07 $1.10 $1.20
.72
.75
.75 1.02
.98 1.30 1.05 1.10 1.20
F e b ............ 1.25
1.25
1.20 1.15 1.10
M a r ...........
1.22* 1.25
1.24 1.15 1.10
.75
.72
.74 1.02
.99 1.30 1.03 1.10 1.20
A p r ............ 1.22* 1.25
1.24 1.15 1.10
.75
.73
.74
.98 1.00 1.30 1.00 1.10 1.20
1.24 1.15 1.00
.75
.74
.95 1.00 1.25 1.00 1.10 1.17*
M a y ............ 1.22* 1.25
.73
J u n e .......... 1.22
1.25
1.24 1.12 1.00
.75
.73
.76 1.02 1.02 1.22 1.00 L 10 1.17*
1.22
1.22* 1.24 1.12
.75
J u ly...........
.85
.73
.76 1.05 1.05 1.20 1.02 1.12* 1.17*
Aug ...........
1.22
1.22* 1.24 1.12
.80
.74
.73
.80 1.09 1.10 1.20 1.03 1.12* 1.17*
Sept...........
1.22
1.22* 1.20 1.12
.74
.80
.73
.95 1.09 1.15 1.15 1.05 1.12* 1.17*
1.22
.74
O c t.............
1.22* 1.19 1.12
.72 1.10 1.05 1.20 1.10 1.06 1.15 1.15
.80
.72
1.22* 1.19 1.12
.72 1. ID 1.05 1.30 1.07 1.07* 1.17* 1.15
.75
Nov ............ 1.22
.72
1.22
.75
.72 1.05 1.05 1.30 1.07 1.10 1.17* 1.15
Dec.............
1.19 1.12
1.20
a Records destroyed.




Price estimated by person who furnished data for later years.




P rices

of

W heat

and

W h e a t F l o u r , 1890

to

1903.

P rices




of

96°C e n t r if u g a l (R a w ) S u g a r

an d

G r a n u l a te d S u g ar , 1890

to

1903.

Prices of Raw C otton and C otton Y arns (C arded, W hite, M ule-spun, Northern, C ones, 22/1)
1890 to 1903.




RAW C O TTO N .

C O T T O N YARNS.

P rioes




of

S coured O hio F ine F l e e c e W o o l and W orsted Y arns (2-40 s A u str a lia n F ine )
1890 TO 1903.

WHOLESALE PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES,
T able

1187

4 .—ACTUAL WHOLESALE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO 1903—Continued.
P E T R O L E U M : C ru d e, P e n n s y lv a n ia .

[Average monthly price per gallon at wells; quotations furnished by Miss Belle Hill, of the United
States Geological Survey.]
Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
June...........
J u ly...........
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O c t.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............

Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
June...........
J u ly...........
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O c t.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............

1890.
$0.0252
.0250
.0214
.0197
.0212
.0213
.0212
.0213
.0195
.0191
.0172
.0160

1897.
SO.0210
.0215
.0219
.0204
.0207
.0205
.0183
.0169
.0166
.0160
.0155
.0155

1891.
SO 0177
.
.0187
.0177
.0170
.0166
.0162
.0158
.0152
.0139
.0144
.0140
.0141

1898.
SO 0155
.
.0161
.0187
.0176
.0196
.0207
.0222
.0233
.0242
.0269
.0277
.0280

1892.
SO.0149
.0143
.0136
.0138
.0137
.0129
.0125
.0131
.0129
.0122
.0124
.0127

1899.
SO.0279
.0274
.0269
.0269
.0269
.0270
.0292
.0304
.0344
.0359
. 0375
.0393

1893.
SO.0127
.0137
0155
0164
.0140
.0143
.0137
.0140
.0154
.0168
.0176
.0186

1900.
SO.0397
.0400
.0400
.0369
.0332
.0299
.0299
.0299
.0293
. 0263
. 0254
.0259

1894.
SO.0190
.0192
.0195
.0201
.0205
.0213
.0198
.0193
.0198
.0198
.0198
.0218

1901.
SO.0285
.0298
.0307
.0287
.0256
. 0250
.0270
.0298
.0299
.0310
.0310
.0288

1895.
SO.0236
.0249
.0261
.0426
.0415
.0366
.0349
.0300
.0291
.0296
.0353
.0338

1902.
SO.0274
.0274
.0274
.0280
.0286
.0287
.0290
.0290
.0290
.0305
.0329
.0355

1896.
SO 0340
.
. 0325
.0306
.0292
. 0275
.0273
. 0258
.0250
.0267
.0274
.0276
.0233

1903.
SO.0363
.0357
.0357
.0360
.0361
.0357.
.0363
. 0371
.0374
.0401
. 0426.
.0449

P E T R O L E U M : R e fin e d , in b a r r e ls , c a r g o lo ts , fo r e x p o r t.
[Price per gallon, New York loading, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and
Drug Reporter.]
Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
J u n e .........
J u ly...........
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O ct.............
N o v ...........
Dec.............

Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
J u n e .........
J uly...........
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O ct.............
Nov - .........
D ec.*.........

1890.
SO 0750
.
.0750
.0740
.0720
.0720
.0720
.0710
.0720
.0735
.0740
.0760
.0730

1897.
SO.0620
.0625
.0630
.0655
.0605
.0615
.0605
.0575
.0575
.0580
.0540
.0540




1891.
SO.0740
.0745
.0750
.0690
.0720
.0690
.0690
.0670
.0630
.0625
.0620
. 0645

1898.
SO.0540
.0540
.0590
. 0575
.0600
.0615
. 0625
.0640
.0650
.0688
.0740
.0730

1892.
SO 0645
.
.0645
.0640
.0610
.0610
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0610
.0610
.0590
.0550

1899.
SO.0750
.0740
.0735
.0725
.0695
.0720
.0735
.0780
.0825
.0895
.0925
.0965

1893.
SO.0540
. 0530
.0530
. 0545
. 0510
. 0515
.0515
.0515
.0515
.0515
.0515
.0515

1900.
SO.0990
.0990
.0990
.0960
.0905
.0800
.0785
.0805
.0805
.0745
.0745
.0725

1894.
SO.0515
.0515
.0515
.0515
.0515
.0515
.0515
. 0515
.0515
.0515
.0515
. 0515

1901.
SO.0760
.0760
.0795
.0775
.0725
.0690
.0690
.0750
.0750
.0765
. 0765
.0765

1895.
SO.0580
. 0590
•.0630
•.0735
.0825
. 0800
.0780
.0710
.0710
.0710
.0710
.0750

1902.
SO 0720
.
.0720
.0720
.0720
.0740
.0740
.0740
.0720
. 0720
.0720
.0745
.0805

1896.
SO 0800
.
.0760
.0710
.0720
.0695
. 0665
.0690
.0660
.0680
.0690
.0700
.0650

1903.
SO 0830
.
. 0820
.0820
.0835
.0835
.0855
.0855
.0855
.0855
.0880
.0930
.0950

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR

1188
T

able

4 .—

ACTUAL WHOLESALE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO 1903—Continued.

P E T R O L E U M : R e fin e d , 15 0 ° fire test, w a t e r w h it e , in b a r r e ls , p a c k a g e s
in c lu d e d ( jo b b in g lots).
[Price per gallon in New York on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
J u n e .........
J u ly ...........
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O c t.............
N q v ...........
Dec ...........

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900. 1901.

1902. 1903.

.
.
.
.
.
.
*0.10* SO.09* SO 08* SO.07* SO.07* $0.07* $0.10* SO 09 S L09 SO 09* SO.12* SO 11 SO 11 SO 13
O
.09* .12* .11
.11 .13
.09
.09*
.08* .07* .07* .07* •09| .09
.10*
.09
1 .11 .13
.09
.09* .12* .1
.08* •07* .07* .08* .11
.09*
.10*
1
.10 .08* .08 .07* .07* .09* .11* .09 .09 .09* .12 .11 .1 .13*
1
1
.10 .08* .08 .07* .07* .10* . 10* .09 .09 .09* .12 .1 .1 .13*
.10* .11
.09*
.09
.09* .12
.13*
.08*
.08
0
.07* .07* .10* .1 1 .09
.09* .09* .11* .10* .11
.13*
.09*
.07* .07* .10
. 10* .09
. 08*
.07*
.09
.09* .11* .11
.11 .13*
.09
.09*
•08|
.07* .07* .07* •09| .10
.09
.09* •Ilf .1
1 .1 .13*
1
.09*
.08*
.07* •09f .10
.09
.07* .07*
.11* .11
.11 .1 .13*
1
.09
.09
.09*
.08*
.07* .07* .07* .09* .10
.1 .11 .15
1
.09* .12
. 11
.09*
.08*
.07* .07* .07* .09* .10
.09
.09* .12* .11
.09
.11 .12 .15
.09|
.08*
.07* .07* .07* .09* .10

P I E IR O N : F o u n d r y No. 2.
[Price per .100 pounds, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Month.
Jan.............
Feb.............
Mar ...........
Apr. - .........
May - .........
J u n e .........
July...........
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O ct............*
.
N o v ...........
Dec.............
Month.
Jan.............
Feb__ _____
M a r ...........
Apr.............
M a y ...........
J u n e .........
J u ly...........
A u g ...........
Sept...........
O ct.............
Nov ...........
Dec.............

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

SO 8371
.
. 8594
.8371
.7924
.7310
.7645
.7366
.7310
.7310
.7310
.7199
.7199

SO.7087
.6752
.6975
.7087
.6641
.6808
.7031
.6975
.6864
.6864
.6752
. 6641

SO.6585
.6585
. 6417
.6350
.6306
.6083
.5971
.5971
.5971
.5859
.5859
.5826

SO. 5603
.5748
.5748
.5748
.5748
.5681
.5636
.5525
.5413
.5301
.5246
.5246

SO.5078
.4855
.4855
. 4743
.4721
.4855
.4855
. 4855
. 4855
.4855
. 4855
.4721

SO.4520
.4408
.4330
.4475
.4520
.4743
.5469
.5748
.5748
.6417
.6306
.5859

1897.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

SO. 4855
.4743
.4632
.4520
.4408
.4219
.4297
. 4297
.4319
.4520
.4743
.4554

SO 4542
.
.4442
.4442
.4464
.4464
.4464
. 4464
.4431
.4554
.4464
.4464
.4520

SO. 4632
.4743
.5837
• . 6752
.6641
.7478
.8203
.8817
.9487
.9710
1.0324
1.0324

SI. 0212
1.0268
.9989
1.0022
.9598
.8817
.8147
.6975
.6529
.6194
.6250
.6138

SO.6417
.6306
.6585
.6752
.6864
.6641
.6529
.6306
.6306
.6362
. 6808
.6975

SO.7422
.7422
.8817
.8817
.9598
.9598
1.0100
1.0156
1.0268
1.0603
1.0938
1.0045

1896.
SO.5748
.5748
. 5748
.5413
.5413
.5301
.5301
. 5078
.4855
. 4855
.4632
.4967

1903.
$1.0603
1.0156
1.0201
. 9754
.9487
.9263
.8873
.7813
.6975

.6696
.6473
.6250

N A IL S : W ir e , 8-p e n n y , fe n c e a n d co m m o n .
[Price per 100-pound keg on the first of each month f. o. b, mills or Pittsburg; quotations computed
from base prices published in the Iron Age.]
Month.

1890..

1891.

Jan........... S3.375 S2.55
Feb...........
3.375 2.625
Mar .......... 3.30
2.625
Apr...........
3.10
2.60
M a y .......... 2.825 2.50
June......... 2.75
2.50
J u ly.......... 2.75
2.475
A u g .......... 2.875 2.425
S ep t.........
2.925 2.40
O ct...........
2.85
2.35
2.75
2.30
N o v .........
2.70
2.25
D ec...........




1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1899. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903.

S2.20 $2.00 SI. 70 SI. 4375 $2.85 s i .525 11.55 si. 45 S3.30 $2.30 S2.10 S2.00
2.20 2.00 1.725 1.50
2.85 1.425 1.55 1.70 3.30 2.40 2.15
2.00
2.20 2.05 1.65 1.50
2.10
3.00 1.50
1.60 1.95 3.30 2.40 2.15
2.20 2. L 1.625 1.50
5
2.10
3.00 1.55
1.40 2.10 3.30 2.40 2.15
2.25 2.15 1.60 1.475
3.15 1.45
1.40 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.15
2.10
2.175 2.00 1. >0 1.80
3.15 1.475 1.40 2.45 2.30 2.40 2.15
2.10
2.225 1.95 1.75 2.15
3.15 1.40
2.10
L40 2.45 2.30 2.40 2.15
2.275 1.95 1.725 2.65
3.15 1.35
1.35 2.60 2.30 2.40 2.15
2.10
2.225 2.025 1.65 2.85
3.15 1.50
1.40 2.75 2.SO 2.40 2.15
2.10
2.175 1.975 1.60 2.85
3.15 1.60
1.45 2. 90 2.30 2.40 2.00
2.10
2.10 1.85 1.60 2.85
3.15 1.55
1.40 3.05 2.30 2.275 1.975 2.10
2.05 1.80 1.50 2.85
1.35 1.50
1.35 3.05 2.30 2.20 1.975 2.00

WHOLESALE PRICES IK THE UNITED STATES
T

able

1189

4 . -ACTUAL WHOLESALE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO 1903—Continued.

STEEL RAILS.
[A v e r a g e m o n t h ly p rice p er 100 p o u n d s a t m ills in P e n n s y lv a n ia ; q u o ta tio n s fr o m th e B u lle t in of th e
A m e r ic a n Ir o n a n d S teel A sso c ia tio n .]

M o n th .

F e b ................
M a r ..............
M a y ..............
J u n e ............
J u l y ..............
A u g ..............
S e p t ..............
O e t ................
N o v ..............
D e c ................

M o n th .

J a n ................
F e b ................
M a r ..............
Apr
M a y ..............
J u n e ............
J u l v ..............
A u g ..............
S e p t ..............
O c t ................
N o v ..............
D e c ................

1890.

81. 5737
1.5625
1. 5179
1.4955
1.3996
1.4063
1.4063
1.3951
1.3616
1.3393
1.2946
1.2723

1897.

81.1161
.8929
.8036
.8036
.8036
.8036
.8036
.8036
.8036
.8036
.8036
.8036

1891.

81.2946
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3 393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393

1898.

80.8036
.8036
.8036
.8036
.8036
.7813
.7589
.7813
.7813
.7813
.7589
. 7813

1892.

81.3393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393
1. 3393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393
1.3393

1899.

80.8259
.9040
1.1071
1.1496
1.1250
1.2165
1.2612
1.3839
1.4509
1.5179
1.5625
1.5625

1893.

81.2946
1.2946
1.2946
1.2946
1.2946
1.2946
1.2946
1.2946
1.2946
1.2277
1.1161
1.0714

1900.

81.5625
1.5268
1. 5625
1.5625
1.5625
1.5625
1.5625
1.5625
1.3504
1.1607
1.1607
1.1607

1894.

81.0714
1.0714
1.0714
1.0714
1 .0 714
1.0714
1.0714
1.0714
1.0714
1.0 714
1. 0714
1.0714

1901.

81.1607
1.1607
1.1607
1.1607
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1. 2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500

1895.

.

80.9821
.9821
.9821
.9821
.9821
.9821
1.0714
1.0714
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500

1S02.

81.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2000
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500

1896.

81.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500

1903.

81. 2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500

STEEI, BILLETS.
[A v e r a g e m o n t h ly p rice p e r 100 p o u n d s a t m ills at P ittsb u rg ; q u o ta tio n s fr o m th e B u lle tin o f th e
A m e r ic a n Ir o n a n d S teel A sso c ia tio n .]

M o n th .

J a n ................
F e b ................
M a r ..............
A p r ................
M a y ..............
J u n e ..............
J u l y ..............
A u g ..............
S e p t ..............
O c t ................
N o v ..............
D e c ................

M o n th .

J a n ................
F e b ................
M a r ..............
A p r ................
M a y ......... ..
J u n e ..............
J u l y ..............
A u g ..............
S e p t ..............
O c t ................
N o v ..............
D e c ................

1890.

81.6504
1.5875
1.4344
1.2723
1.2415
1.3603
1. 3772
1.3563
1.3460
1.2862
1.2335
1.1763

1897.

80.7098
.6920
.6973
.6540
.6232
.6304
.6250
.6379
.6920
.7388
.7085
.6696




1891.

81.1451
1.1549
1.1746
1.1317
1.1438
1.1357
1.1518
1.1272
1.1161
1.1094
1.0853
1.0938

1898.

80.6696
.6750
.6862
.6830
.6670
.6585
.6585
. 6973
.7143
. 7054
.6750
.70 98

1892.

81.1161
1.0714
1.0415
1.0210
1.0076
1.0183
1. 0397
1.0750
1.0821
1.0513
1.1085
1.0268

1899.

80. 7616
.8424
1.0826
1.1272
1.2304
1.4228
1.5089
1.6237
1.8527
1.8527
1.7411
1.6237

1893.

80.9710
.9625
.9973
1.0143
.9683
.9763
. 9540
.9205
.8567
.8009
.7728
.7531

1900.

81.5402
1.4777
1.4732
1.4286
1.2902
1.2165
.9375
.8125
.7616
.7500
.8567
.8817

1894.

80.7188
.7116
.6902
.7004
.7924
.8304
.7924
.7924
.7723
.7143
.6915
.6746

1901.

80.8817
.9067
1.0210
1.0714
1.0714
1.0879
1.0714
1.0 804
1.1103
1.1920
1.2054
1.2277

1895.

80.6603
.6701
.6670
.6884
.7254
.8415
. 9402
.9844
1.0871
.9906
.8884
.7589

1902.

81.2321
1.3112
1.3951
1.4063
1.4375
1.4451
1.4174
1.4174
1.3839
1.3571
1.2723
1.3036

1896.

80.7411
.7897
.7674
.8839
.8728
.8670
.8705
.8580
.8665
.8808
.8879
.8036

1903.

81.3214
1.3393
1. 3670
1.3482
1.3504
1.2888
1.2232
1.2054
1.2054
1. 2054
1.0714
1.0268

1190
T

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

able

4 .—ACTUAL WHOLESALE PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES, 1890 TO 1903—Concluded.
B A R B W I R E : G a lv a n iz e d .

[A v e r a g e m o n t h ly p r ice p er 100 p o u n d s in C h ic a g o ; q u o ta tio n s fr o m th e Ir o n A g

M o n th .

1890.

J a n ................ S3.8500
3.9250
F e b ------. P. .
M a r .............. 3.9063
A p r ................ 3.7 350
M a y .............. 3.4188
J u n e ............ 3.4 625
J u l y .............. 3.5000
A u g .............. 3.5 000
3.4 875
S e p t ............
O c t ................ 3.5 000
N o v . . . . . . . 3.2 625
D e c ................ 3.2 500

1891.

1892.

1893.

S3.2750
3.2500
3.3320
3.3320
3.3320
3.3320
3.3320
3.2830
3.2830
2.9585
2.9585
2.9585

S2.9585
2.9458
2.8850
2.8250
2.8 125
2.7650
2.7 750
2.6900
2.6625
2.5 750
2.6500
2.6500

S 2.65
2 .6 0
2 .6 0
2 .6 0
2 .6 0
2 .5 5
2.5 2 5
2 .5 0
2 .4 5
2 .4 0
2 .4 0
2 .3 5




1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

S 2.25 s i . 90 S2.025 SI. 90 SI. 90
2 .2 5
1 .9 0
1.9 75 1 .8 5
1 .9 0
1.9 5
2 .3 0
1 .9 0
1 .9 0
1 .9 5
1 .9 0
2 .0 5
1 .8 0
1.8 75
2 .2 0
2 .1 5
1 .9 5
2 .1 5
1 .8 0
1 .8 0
1 .7 5
2 .2 0
2 .1 0
2 .0 0
1.8 0
2 .2 5
2 .1 5
1 .7 5
1.8 0
2 .0 0
2 .2 5
2 .5 5
1 .6 5
1 .9 0
1 .8 0
2 .8 5
1 .8 0
2 .2 0
1 .8 5
1 .8 0
2 .1 5
2 .8 5
1.8 25
1 .8 5
1 .8 0
2 .8 5
2 .0 0
1 .8 5
1.8 25
1 .8 0
1 .9 0
2 .0 0
1 .9 5
1 .8 0
1.8 25

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

S 2.05 S 4.13 S 2.95 S 3.01
2 .2 5
4 .1 3
3 .0 5
3 .1 0
2.625 4 .1 3
3 .0 5
3 .1 0
2 .8 0
3 .8 8
3 .0 5 : 3 .1 0
2 .9 5
3 .1 3
3 .0 5
3 .1 0
3 .2 0
3 .1 3
3 .0 5
3 .1 0
3 .3 0
3 .1 0
3 .0 5
3 .0 6
3 .4 0
3 .1 0
3 .0 5
3 .0 0
3.6 75 3 .0 0
3 .0 5
3 .0 0
3.7 75 3 .0 0
3 .0 5
2 .6 8
3 .8 8
3 .0 0
3 .0 5
2 .6 0
4 .1 3
3 .0 0
3 .0 0
2 .6 0

S 2.68
2 .7 5
2 .8 0
2 .7 7
2 .7 5
2 .7 5
2 .7 5
2 .7 5
2 .7 5
2 .7 5
2 .7 5
2 .6 0

P rices




of

C rude P e t r o l e u m

an d

R efin ed 150°W a t e r - w h ite P e tr o l e u m , 1890

to

1903.

P rices




of

F o u n d r y N o . 2 P ig I ron

an d

E ig h t - penny W ire N ails , 1890

to

1903.




m— m

= F O U N D R Y N O . 2 P IC IR O N .

M M

= S T E E L R A IL S .

P rices
P IC P R
RE E
10
0
P U D.
O NS

1890

1891

of

1892

S t e e l B il l e t s

1894

1893

and

G a lv a n iz ed B arbed W ire, 1890

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

$4,125
4.000
3.875
3.750
3.625
3.500
3.375
3.250
3.125
3.000
2.875
2.750
2.625
2.500
2.375
2.250
2.125

2.000
1.875
1.750
1.625
1.500
1.375
1.250
1.125
1.000

.875
.750
.625




m b

= S T E E L B IL L E T S ,

m m m = G A L V A N IZ E D

B A R B E D W IR E .

to

1900

1903.

1901

1902

1903

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE IN THE UNITED STATES
BY EMPLOYERS.
BY G. W . W . HANGER.

One of the most important features in the industrial life of the last
decade has been the rapid development on the part of both large and
small employers of labor of a growing interest in the welfare of their
employees. It has been recognized more and more fully that the
establishing of cordial relations between employers and employees
invariably results in a greater industrial efficiency on the part of the
workman, and in a great measure obviates the costly and sometimes
destructive industrial disturbances which have been so unfortunately
frequent during the past twenty years. Interest and confidence on the
one hand have developed in the workman a livelier and more intelligent
regard for the welfare of the business of his employer, while on the
other hand they have prompted a frank, rational, and more unselfish
discussion of all the various causes which have been so productive of
strikes and lockouts, and thus have frequently given rise to a spirit
of mutual concession so necessary to an equitable and peaceful adjust­
ment of these industrial disputes which have proved not only harmful
to the business of the employer but injurious to the comfort and wel­
fare of the employee.
These measures for the betterment of the condition of the workman
have taken a great variety of forms, and have been directed not only
to his improvement industrially and financially, but also in a physical,
social, intellectual, moral, and domestic way. Special efforts in one or
more of the above directions have been put forth from time to time
by a rapidly increasing number of employers.
The establishing by employers of industrial schools has furnished
workmen with a surer basis for the exercise of the knowledge gained
by practical work in their various occupations and has given them the
means of rising more rapidly in the industrial scale by the taking up
of more skillful and more highly paid occupations, while the establish­
ment of manual-training classes or schools has given the children of
the workman the opportunity of gaining early in life not only a degree
of knowledge of the simpler elements of mechanical work, but also a
manual facility with various tools that better fits them for entrance
into active work in the industrial world.




mi

1192

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Of the various special means afforded the workman by the employer
for direct financial betterment, one of the most important, per­
haps, is that of sharing with him the profits of his business. This
share of the workman usually takes the form of a cash dividend based
on the amount of his wages and measured by the varying business
prosperity of the establishment in which he is employed. The spe­
cial interest of the workman in the business of his employer is sought
in some instances by encouraging and assisting him in the purchase of
stock in the establishment. In other instances his interest is enlisted
and intensified by the offering of prizes for valuable suggestions rela­
tive to improvement in methods of work and in the means of produc­
tion, while in still other instances rewards are given for faithful
service or zeal and interest in the work of the establishment. Some
employers have promoted the financial and material welfare of their
employees by establishing or assisting in establishing building and
kindred associations, by furnishing savings-bank facilities, etc.
The physical condition of employees has likewise been considered
by many employers, and its improvement encouraged by the forming
of recreation clubs of many kinds among their employees. Gymna­
siums have been built and instructors in physical culture and calis­
thenics provided. In many factories excellent bathing facilities are
now found where formerly no adequate provision was made, and quite
generally it is found that greatly improved sanitary appliances of
various kinds have replaced the conditions of a decade ago. The fur­
nishing o f hot lunches and even dinners to employees at a nominal
price is a feature of very many establishments, while the provisions
for caring for the sick and disabled are most complete in some indus­
trial concerns. Free sick and agcident insurance are sometimes given,
while in other cases free medical attendance and hospital facilities are
provided. The encouragement by employers of the formation of
beneficial organizations of employees has also resulted in increased
comfort in sickness and accidents, while the actual contribution by the
employer of the whole or a part of the wages of the disabled employee
is the practice in some establishments. In enumerating some o f the
means taken for the betterment of the physical condition of employees,
reference should also be made to the gradual shortening of the hours
of labor in very many establishments, thus giving greater opportu­
nity for the enjoyment of recreations which tend toward health and
contentment.
Nothing has perhaps contributed more to the cordial relations exist­
ing between the employer and employees in some establishments than
the efforts made by the former to promote the social welfare of his
working people. -In many cases more or less elaborate halls and meet­
ing places have been provided where employees are welcomed and
entertained in a variety of ways. Concerts, musical entertainments,



HOUSING OF THE WOBKING PEOPLE.

1193

lectures, etc., are given, while in many cases social, musical, and other
clubs of employees contribute the entertainment. Dances and other
social gatherings are frequent, while provision is also made in very
many instances for those who desire to engage in billiards, cards, and
other games.
In many establishments provision is made also for the intellectual
betterment of the employees. The efforts in this direction consist in
educational classes and clubs, in free lectures, in free libraries, etc.
Special encouragement is given in many cases, also, to the efforts made
for the moral welfare of employees. Sunday schools are organized
and general 'religious work aided in every possible way.
The effort to aid employees in the betterment of home conditions
is a most important feature of the work of many establishments.
Sewing, cooking, and housekeeping classes are organized and placed
under the instruction of competent teachers. Landscape and kitchen
gardening are encouraged, and in many cases instruction is given and
seeds, plants, shrubs, etc., are furnished free to employees and their
families, prizes being given for the best results of work in this field.
Attention is also given to instruction in regard to the exterior and
interior decoration of the home.
Among the most important of all the work done in this particular
direction, perhaps, is the provision for improved and sanitary work­
ing and living conditions for employees. In the enumeration of the
means of betterment put forth by employers it has been possible to
give but a suggestion of the very many forms which this welfare
movement has taken. Likewise, in planning for an exhibit which
should illustrate this movement in the United States, it was seen to be
quite impossible to consider more than a small proportion of the vari­
ous means which have been employed to improve conditions. In view
of the comparatively limited space which could be given to an exhibit
of this character, it was deemed best to concentrate attention on some
special form of the movement. The interest of the public in housing
conditions in general, both in this country and abroad, marked as the
subject for investigation and exhibit the housing of the working
people in the United States by employers. Sixteen industrial estab­
lishments have very kindly contributed the photographs, plans, and
information which serve as the basis for the exhibit itself and the brief
description which follows. It is believed that the work of these
establishments in the direction of furnishing and encouraging better
housing conditions, so far as their employees are concerned, is thor­
oughly representative of the various forms which this particular effort
has taken. It has not been possible to ascertain that other establish­
ments in the United States have been engaged to any great extent in
similar work, although every effort was made to cover the field as
thoroughly as possible. To illustrate the housing work of these



1194

BULLETIN OF THE -BUREAU OF LABOR.

establishments an exhibit was prepared consisting of 285 photographs
and plans, and a part of these are reproduced herewith. The 16 estab­
lishments contributing to the exhibit are as follows:
American Waltham Watch Company, Waltham, Massachusetts.
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, Pueblo, Colorado.
J. B. & J. M. Cornell Company, Coldspring, New York.
The Draper Company, Hopedale, Massachusetts.
Ludlow Manufacturing Associates (133 Essex street, Boston, Massachusetts), Lud­
low, Massachusetts.
Maryland Steel Company, Sparrows Point, Maryland.
N. O. Nelson Company, St. Louis, Missouri.
Niagara Development Company, Niagara Falls, New York.
Peacedale Manufacturing Company, Peacedale, Rhode Island.
Pelzer Manufacturing Company, Pelzer, South Carolina.
Plymouth Cordage Company, North Plymouth, Massachusetts.
John B. Stetson Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
S. D. Warren & Co. (Cumberland Mills), Westbrook, Maine.
Westinghouse Airbrake Company, Wilmerding, Pennsylvania.

In a large proportion of these establishments it will be seen that
houses were built for the special purpose of renting to employees at
the lowest possible figure consistent with the cost of a modern sanitary
dwelling; in some establishments, on the other hand, the purpose was
to build houses for sale to employees practically at cost and on easy
terms. In one of the establishments no houses were built, but a large
boarding house was provided for the accommodation of its unmarried
female employees, of which there was a large number. In another
establishment which did not build houses the encouragement of better
housing conditions consisted in the organization of a building and loan
association among its employees and the free distribution of stock of
this association to certain employees as a reward for efficiency and zeal
in their work. It will be seen also that the efforts looking to the bet­
terment of conditions among the employees of these establishments
were not confined to the particular subject of housing but extended in
many other directions. These are briefly mentioned in connection with
the descriptions which follow.
AMERICAN WALTHAM WATCH COMPANY, WALTHAM, MASSACHUSETTS.

Although this company does not at the present time give its atten­
tion to the building of dwellings for its employees, it has for many
years maintained a large boarding house, erected for the accommoda­
tion of its unmarried female employees. The present structure is the
result of additions made to a building erected by the company in 1865
for the purpose of providing comfortable housing facilities for such
employees at the lowest possible cost.
The original building was 2 i stories in height, but with the
growth and development of the company’s business and the intro­




HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1195

duction of modern methods of manufacture, permitting the employ­
ment of a much larger proportion of female help than formerly, the
need of making greater provision for the comfortable housing of that
class of labor became apparent. To meet this need and also to insure
against an unreasonable price for girls’ board on the part of private
boarding houses, the company greatly enlarged the old building, fur­
nished it throughout, and fixed a price for board easily within the reach
of all. The late John Swinton, of New York, whose reputation as a
writer devoted to the interests of labor is well known, spent a week
as the guest of this house in 1887, and the account furnished by him,
supplemented by more recent data supplied by the company, has been
freely drawn upon in the preparation of this description. The
u Adams House,” as it is called, is a roomy, four-story, wooden struc­
ture, with a wide piazza in front, and surrounded by well-kept and
attractive grass plots. The sleeping rooms, of which there are at the
present time 67, are plainly but comfortably furnished, well lighted,
well ventilated, and heated by steam. The usual articles of furniture
are a table, a washstand, a chest of drawers with looking-glass, an
armchair, a rocker, and an ordinary chair, and a broad, comfortable
bed. A small closet serves for keeping trunks and clothes, and on the
walls, which are neatly papered, are a few pictures. Each of these
rooms is occupied by two young women, who are expected to keep
them in good condition and are encouraged to adorn them with
engravings, books, growing flowers, etc. At the present time two
near-by houses are leased to furnish additional dormitories for those
who desire to board at the house, even though they are compelled to
room outside.
The dining hall is capable of accommodating all the boarders at once.
In all, meals are served to about 300 persons. To Mr. Swinton we are
indebted for the following highly interesting description of this fea­
ture of the establishment:
I found the table supply to be varied and abundant, or rather super­
abundant. The bill of fare for the first day may be given here as a
fair example of the daily table. The house bell was rung at 6 o’clock,
and in half an hour we were all ready for breakfast, which, too, was
ready for us. We had the best of beefsteak, with baked potatoes,
boiled eggs, white and brown bread, biscuits, doughnuts and snaps,
butter and condiments, coffee and tea. Clean table napkins were beside
every plate. At a few minutes after 12 the great rush of the hungry
damsels is repeated. For dinner we had soup, scalloped oysters, roast
beef and mutton, boiled potatoes, celery and pickles, pudding and pie,
with tea, coffee, and pitchers of milk. For supper we had cold meats,
cheese, various kinds of bread, and u fixings,” and again coffee, tea, or
milk. Another day we had poultry at dinner; another morning we
had country sausage, besides omelette and chops, as well as ham, for
breakfast; another evening we had canned fruits for supper. At all
10193-No. 54—04-----16




1196

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

the meals throughout the week there were daily variations in the fare.
As for the appetites, so far as a stranger could take notice of such a
thing, they were somewhat amazing to a man who is unaccustomed to
sitting down at table with such an array of Yankee girls.
The price of board and lodging in this establishment is fixed at $3
per week, the company not wishing to profit from its management,
but being satisfied to see only an equality of income and expense. This
rate influences in a large degree the prices charged by keepers of other
boarding houses in the city for female operatives.
There are two large parlors tastefully furnished which are open at
all hours to every boarder. A cheerful, homelike atmosphere per­
vades the house and no restraint is placed upon the freedom and move­
ments of the inmates. As might be expected from the high class of
wage-earners to which these young girls belong, the social life of the
house is both animated and recreative. To quote Mr. Swinton again:
In the evening there were lively times all over the house. Bevies of
Tis were seen everywhere. They sang, they romped, they thrummed
e piano, they played games, and a few took side-long glances at the
visitor, who gazed with interest upon them. Some of them went out
a-visiting or a-shopping. Some went to “ sociables,” public or pri­
vate, some attended the grand and dress reception to invited guests in
our big parlor, two or three more may have gone to prayer meeting,
a half dozen struck into a walking match on the highway, some gath­
ered in gossiping groups, while others, I was told, stayed in their
rooms to stitch, or to read or write. Soon after 9 o’clock they begin
to retire, and by 10 all is quiet in the house, though the watchman is
alwa}7 there to answer the bell.
s
The entire business of the house is managed for the company by an
experienced agent and his wife, who procure the supplies, hire the
servants, superintend the kitchen, provide the table, and look after
the general service.
There is also a boarding house for men, not maintained directly by
the company, but at which the latter, in return for certain privileges
granted, has the authority to prescribe the rates. These rates are
$4.50 per week each for two men occupying the same room. Married
men are charged $3 a week for their wives* board. At this house, as
at the other, there are many persons who engage only table board,
preferring to secure their lodging elsewhere. It should be understood
that it is a privilege, not a requirement, for anyone to board at either
of these houses. All employees are free to select such quarters as
may suit them, either with the families of fellow-operatives or in other
households of the city. The utmost freedom prevails in this respect.
“ The advantage that the company secures to the employees by the
two big boarding houses under its supervision, direct and indirect, is
that by this means the prices of board are established for the whole
town, so far as concerns the watch-factory men and women, at as low
rates as are consistent with good living and proper quarters.” In the

S




HOUSING OF THE WOBKING PEOPLE.

1197

early days of the company’s existence many houses, mostly of modest
proportions, but sufficiently ample for the demands of the times, were
constructed and rented to the company’s employees at very reasonable
prices. The company at that time had a large amount of unoccupied
land, much of which had been laid out in streets and building lots, on
which the houses were erected. In that way, in connection with pri­
vate enterprise, sufficient accommodations were provided for the fami­
lies of employees.’ With the growth and development of the watch
industry in Waltham the demand for houses increased, and the liberal
wages paid enabled many employees to build homes for themselves,
and on a scale of much greater expense than those originally built, the
value of many of them, including the ground, ranging from $2,000 to
$5,000. In this way practically all of the land owned by the company
was sold and built upon. Nearly all of the houses erected by the com­
pany have since been purchased either by the occupants or by those
desiring investment.
More than one-fourth of the married employees now own their
homes, and the proportion is increasing year by year. These are
probably among the best homes for workers in the countiy. The
company now owns very little unoccupied land, and does not contem­
plate building additional tenements, but it has always shown itself
ready to lend financial assistance to deserving employees desiring to
build homes for themselves. For this there is now very little occa­
sion, however, as there is'in the city of Waltham a cooperative bank,
or building and loan association, started fnainly by workers in the
watch factor}^ which has become one of the largest, as it is one of the
oldest, institutions of the kind in the State.
While the company is sincerely interested in the comfort and well­
being of its employees, it has aimed to avoid anything suggestive of
paternalism. Its 3,400 working people, nearly all of whom are
Americans by birth, are of a high class and entirely able to care for
themselves, the rate of wages maintained being sufficient to enable
them to live comfortably.
The Watch Factory Mutual Relief Association was organized in
order to secure to its members the advantages of mutual aid in case of
need. This organization had a membership, on January 1, 1899, of
1,033 men and women. Its constitution provides, among other fea­
tures, for a visiting committee, whose duty it shall be to render
timely assistance to sick members, who are entitled to draw from the
treasury the sum of $4 per week for a period not exceeding ten weeks.
In the event of death $50 is paid for funeral expenses. The cost to
each member is 25 cents a month and the company contributes $200 a
year. The surplus on hand January 1, 1899, amounted to $1,772.87.
The work of the association is carried on in the factory during work­
ing hours.



1198

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Provision for the intellectual and social life of its workers is left by
the company to the community, of which its employees form so
important a part, and which possesses, among other advantages, a fine
public library, an excellent school system (including a manual train­
ing school), lecture courses, musical organizations, and all the higher
forms of social amusements. Many of the workingmen and women
are stockholders in the company. The most amicable relations have
always existed between this company and the people in its employ.
No strike has ever occurred to mar the friendly feeling, employers
and employees recognizing the existence of mutual rights and mutual
obligations.
COLORADO FUEL AND IRON COMPANY.

This company which operates a large number of coal, iron, and other
mines scattered throughout Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and New
Mexico, in addition to rolling mills at Laramie, a huge steel plant
at Pueblo, and two railway systems, and whose pay rolls carry the
names of nearly twenty thousand employees, has for a number of
years been directing its efforts in a practical and intelligent manner
toward bettering the condition of the vast army of people dependent
on its various enterprises for support.
Among the numerous measures adopted for the accomplishment of
this end, the substitution by the company of neat and comfortable
dwellings for the usual squalid and insanitary miner’s shack (Plate 76)
must be reckoned one of the most important. Numbers of such houses
have been constructed by the company at all of its leading mining
camps and manufacturing centres forming, by their varied color and
design, most picturesque and attractive villages. To those familiar
only with the old style of mining communities, with their rude log
cabins or adobe huts, these modern cottages, equipped in many cases
with running water and electric lights, are a source of great surprise.
Tercio and Redstone are two good examples of the villages recently
founded by the company. Other notable examples are those of Primero, Segundo, El Moro, Sunrise, and Smiths Canon. At Coalbasin,
in 1901, the company erected over 70 cottages. They are warm and
comfortable, containing from 3 to 6 rooms plastered and finished
throughout in modern style. At Segundo about 150 houses have
recently been completed. These are all plastered and neatly finished
within, provided with porches and projecting eaves, and painted in
varied and harmonious colors. Arranged in regular order upon
streets, they appear to decided advantage by the side of the older and
more poorly disposed dwellings of the place.
The group of dwellings erected at Jansen, Las Animas Countj^, for
the occupancy of the company’s railway employees is also worthy of
mention.




Lab o r Bu i. 51

PLATE 76— TYPICAL OLD-STYLE DWELLINGS OF MINING EMPLOYEES




C o l o r a d o F u e l a n d Ir o n C o m p a n y

Lab o r Bu i. 54

PLATE 77— HOUSES FOR MINING EMPLOYEES, SEGUNDO, COLORADO




PLATE 78— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, ROUSE, COLORADO
C o l o r a d o F u e l a n d Ir o n C o m p a n y

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLF.

1199

Although a detailed description of the houses built by the company at
the various mining camps and other places of industry for the accom­
modation of employees can not be attempted here, the accompanying
photograph (Plate 77) showing a portion of Segundo will give one a
fair idea of the general st}de and appearance of these buildings. They
usually contain from 4 to 6 rooms each, and, while very simple in
arrangement and in architectural effect, they are comfortable, con­
venient, sanitary, and homelike. The price charged for rent is uni­
form throughout all the camps, being fixed at $2 a room per month,
or $8 for a 4-room house.
In a number of camps the company has erected houses for the
accommodation of teachers of the public schools and kindergartens,
which are intended to serve as models for camp housekeepers and to
furnish a center for sociological work. In these the teachers have as
many rooms reserved for their use as are needed, leaving the remainder
of the house to the occupancy of a family in order that the teachers
may not live entirely alone. At Redstone a small cottage has been set
apart as a special object lesson to employees. It is furnished through­
out in inexpensive but artistic style and is designed to show how much
can be accomplished in the way of making a home attractive with a
small outlay of time and money. “ Casa Vivienda,” at Pueblo, is
another example of the model home. The style and size of the houses
vary according to the class of employees for which they are intended.
In order to unite and systematize the various efforts being put forth
for the betterment of social conditions among its employees, the com­
pany organized, in 1901, a sociological department, which has already
demonstrated its practical utility in the field to which its energies
have been directed. The order creating this department stated that
it “ shall have charge of all matters pertaining to education and sani­
tary conditions and any other matters which should assist in bettering
the conditions under which our men live.” Dr. R. W. Corwin, chief
of the company’s corps of surgeons, was appointed superintendent,
with a staff of officers and assistants to aid in carrying forward the
work. The aim of the department is, in the words of Doctor Corwin,
to be “ not only an aid to the companj^, but a benefit to the employees
and their families, a means of educating the younger generation, of
improving the home relations, and furthering the interests of the men,
making them better citizens and more contented with their work.”
It makes its influence felt in the public schools, where it urges that
good buildings and equipments be provided, competent teachers
chosen, and free text-books and supplies furnished to pupils.
Owing to the diverse elements combined in the 32 nationalities
speaking 27 languages which are represented in the different mining
camps and other properties of the compan}^ and to the fact that these
camps are scattered over an expanse of territory more than 1,000 miles



1200

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

in extent, the task before the department is a unique and by no means
simple one. Many of the companv’semployees are drawn f rom the lower
classes of foreign immigrants, Italians, Austrians, Germans, and Mexi­
cans predominating, whose primitive ideas of living and ignorance of
hygienic laws render the department’s work along the line of improved
housing facilities and instruction in domestic economy of the utmost
importance. In cooperation with the medical department maintained
by the company considerable sanitary improvement has been made
throughout the system. New camps have been laid out with reference
to proper sanitation, model dwellings have been erected, old houses
have been renovated and remodeled, and general sanitary measures,
such as the cleaning out of cisterns and wells and the systematic re­
moval of garbage and other refuse, have been instituted. Among
other features introduced by the department for the betterment of
social conditions at the various mining camps and other communities
are clubs for adults and for children, reading rooms, circulating libra­
ries, kindergartens, industrial classes, recreation halls, entertainment
courses, and instruction in cooking and sewing.
In addition to these agencies a weekly magazine, “ Camp and Plant,”
has been established, which has proved an invaluable aid to the depart­
ment in bringing the various camps and works into closer touch and
in furnishing a medium through which the people can be reached.
This magazine is well edited, illustrated with half-tone engravings from
photographs taken in the different camps and plants of the compan}^,
and is filled with useful information and news. Portions of it are
printed in Italian, German, and other languages for the benefit of
foreign employees. The subscription price is $1 per year, and the
magazine enjoys a well-deserved popularity among the miners and
other workingmen in the company’s employ.
At the end of each fiscal year the department issues a report review­
ing the work accomplished during the year and advocating such
changes and innovations in the social-betterment system as are deemed
expedient. These reports as well as the magazine, Camp and Plant,
have been freely drawn upon for the information contained in this
description.
The system of public schools in operation at all of the leading points
where works of the company are located is wortt^ of more than casual
mention. In these schools a uniform course of study has been adopted,
so that children may not be placed at a disadvantage in case of removal
from one camp to another. Text-books are in most cases furnished
to pupils free of charge, equipment of the most approved character is
provided, only the best and most capable teachers are employed, and
every effort is made to impart instruction of the most thorough and
substantial character. Circulating art collections, reference libraries,
and other progressive features have been introduced into nearly all the



HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1201

schools, and the children have been encouraged to raise money for the
purchase of pianos, books, flags, and pictures and casts for the decora­
tion of their rooms. The school buildings are, as a rule, handsome and
comfortable structures, furnished with modern appliances and well
lighted and ventilated throughout. A fair type is that shown in the
photograph (Plate 80) which represents the new schoolhouse at Redstone,
recently erected by one of the prominent officials of the company and
presented to the people of that place. These buildings, though differ­
ing in size and in minor details of finish and ornamentation, are prac­
tically all of the same design. The schoolrooms measure about 30 by
33 feet and are calculated to seat 50 pupils each. Ceilings are 11 feet
high in the lower story and 10 feet in the upper, thus providing each
child with from 200 to 220 cubic feet of air. Each room has windows
on the back and side which admit an abundance of light, without injury
to the eye of teacher or pupil. Folding partitions between rooms
allow them to be thrown into one whenever occasion requires. Ven­
tilation registers in the corners of each room have their flues connected
with a ventilator stack in the center of the roof. A vestibule about
16 by 18 feet serves as a place for hats and coats, and rear exits on
each floor afford a means of escape in case of fire.
Comfortable four-room structures have recently been completed at
Primero, Segundo, and Tercio. At Orient a company, building has
been converted into a neat and attractive schoolhouse, while at Coalbasin the building has been thorough^ remodeled and put in firstclass condition throughout. At several of the newer camps company
houses have been utilized for school purposes until suitable buildings
could be erected. In all cases where sufficient funds for the establish­
ment and maintenance of public schools are not available, the company
willingly advances the necessary amount until the school districts can
meet these expenses.
A feature of the educational system to which special emphasis is
given is the kindergarten. It is recognized that this institution not only
takes the child in hand at its most impressionable period, but that it
furnishes a center from which radiate influences that affect the whole
social betterment situation. The morning hours from 9 to 12 are
devoted to the regular kindergarten work, consisting of songs, games,
nature studies, and various kinds of easy construction work, such as
weaving rag and zephyr mats and rugs, braiding straw hats and bas­
kets, and making pieces of miniature furniture. In the afternoon the
same room is utilized, under the supervision of the teacher, by classes
of boys and girls engaged in weaving, basketry, carving, sewing, and
cooking, by physical culture clubs, mothers’ clubs, and other gather­
ings of a social or industrial nature. In the evening the room is at the
disposal of adults for dances, concerts, lectures, and other entertain­
ments. A few of the kindergartens are housed in buildings erected



1202

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

especially for their use, but in most cases they occupy rooms in the
public school.
The Pueblo Normal and Industrial School offers to teachers of the
public schools and kindergartens a course of training during a portion
of the summer vacation by means of which they may better equip
themselves for their work. The building, which was formerly used
as a hospital, has been thoroughly renovated and refitted, and, although
the school is yet in the experimental stage, its good results are already
becoming manifest. As an adjunct to this school there has recently
been created an industrial home in which crippled employees and the
widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives in the company’s
service are given the means of earning a livelihood. In it the young
are to be given an opportunity to learn a trade, the adults to work
upon whatever they can do best and to receive therefor the highest
possible prices. Mattresses of excellent quality are already being
turned out and it is the intention to begin at an early date the manu­
facture of brooms, brushes, rugs, laces, hammocks, and other articles.
It is planned that the institution shall become eventually self-sustaining
and, though yet in its infancy, much good is expected from its estab­
lishment. The Polytechnic Club rooms are also located in this build­
ing. The membership of this club is made up largely of engineers
from the Minnequa steel works.
In a number of the camps night schools have been established which
are well attended, particularly by the foreign employees. The branches
taught are English language, reading, writing, and arithmetic, and in
some cases history and geography. These schools are self-sustaining,
each pupil being charged $1 per month to cover the cost of tuition,
light, and fuel. Circulating libraries have been placed in most of the
communities where they are proving a powerful factor for intellectual
and moral development. Each library contains fifty volumes of fiction,
history, biography, and travel, and the boxes are exchanged often
enough to keep each camp provided with a fresh supply of books.
Another distinctly educational feature introduced by the company
is the reading room. In this is always found a number of the latest
magazines, newspapers, and periodicals, in addition to a reference
library of maps, encyclopedias, and other standard works. One of
the best examples is that known as the Minnequa Reading Room, at
Pueblo, where the entire second floor of a large brick building, com­
prising a reading room, a card and game room, and two smaller rooms,
is given up to the employees of the steel works as a place of recrea­
tion. At Orient and at Engle also there are well furnished reading
rooms in connection with which are rooms for cards and other games.
The expense of maintaining these institutions is met by means of dues,
fees, and subscriptions, and by the proceeds from entertainments,
supplemented whenever necessary by liberal contributions from the
company.



Lab o r B u i. 54




PLATE 79— STREET IN REDSTONE, COLORADO

PLATE 80— SCHOOLHOUSE, REDSTONE, COLORADO
C o l o r a d o F u e l a n d Ir o n C o m p a n y

Lab o r B u i. 54




PLATE 81— CLUBHOUSE, PRIMERO, COLORADO

PLATE 82— CLUBHOUSE, REDSTONE, COLORADO
C o l o r a d o F u e l a n d Ir o n C o m p a n y

La b o r B ill. 54

PLATE 83— REDSTONE INN, BUILT FOR USE OF EMPLOYEES

PLATE 84— MINNEQUA HOSPITAL, BUILT FOR USE OF EMPLOYEES




C o l o r a d o F u e l a n d Ir o n C o m p a n y

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1203

Boys’ and girls’ clubs are also contributing to the social development
of the various communities. These clubs meet once a week and
engage in games, dances, contests, gymnastics, and various kinds of
musical and literaiy exercises. In the boys’ clubs military drills and
athletics are quite popular, while with the girls special attention is
given to cooking and sewing and other practical domestic work. The
attendance upon these clubs is most encouraging and much practical
work is being accomplished by them. Classes in household and
domestic economy have also been organized among the women of most
of the camps.
At Sunrise, Wyo., and Starkville, Colo., recreation halls have
been built, in which the men may congregate to read, chat, smoke,
and play games. The hall at Sunrise is equipped with a stage for
entertainment purposes and contains an alcove which is used as a
library. At the latter place the building, which is popularly known
as “ Harmony Hall,” contains two large rooms, one used for kinder­
garten, the other for library and recreative purposes, and two smaller
apartments utilized as kitchen and cloakroom. These buildings are
quite popular with the employees and many socials, musicales, and
other entertainments take place within their walls.
Clubhouses have been erected by the company at several points.
These are intended as a check to the drink habit so prevalent among
the men by furnishing a place where intoxicants can be purchased
only under certain well-defined regulations, and where various forms
of wholesome amusement are provided to take the place of the debas­
ing and demoralizing features of the saloon. The accompanying pho­
tograph (Plate 81) shows the clubhouse at Primero, where liquors of
all kinds can be had, but where no drunkenness or disorder is allowed.
This is the only place in the village where intoxicants are sold. At the
Floresta anthracite mine two rooms in the boarding house have been
fitted up with billiard and card tables and provided with periodicals
and writing materials for the accommodation of the miners. No pro­
vision is made for the sale of liquor. The Coalbasin clubhouse is a
one-story frame building, of four rooms and cellar, with a front
veranda. The bar is located immedjatety in the rear of the porch and
is furnished in a very plain and unattractive manner; no display of
bottles, pictures, or other suggestions to drink being permitted. To
the right as one enters is the billiard and pool room, while to the left
is a room for cards and games. On the extreme left is a reading
room equipped with the latest magazines, newspapers, and periodicals.
The furniture and furnishings are plain, but neat, and everything is
conducted in a quiet and orderly manner. The following rules show
how the affairs of the club are regulated:
1. The clubhouse will be open for the use of members from 9 a. m.
to 10 p. m., daily, except Saturdays, when it will remain open until
11 p. m.



1204

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

2 . Members whose occupations are such as to require special work­
ing' clothes are requested not to remain in the clubrooms in their
working clothes.
8.
No credit will be given to members or visitors. All charges
must be paid at the time the}7are incurred.
^
4. No gambling will be allowed in the club, but playing games of
cards for small stakes will be permitted, the stakes in no event to
exceed the following limits:
Poker—Penny ante and twenty-five cent limit.
Billiards—25 cents per cue.
Pool—10 cents per cue.
5. Women or children residing in or near Coalbasin will not be
allowed to visit the clubroom except at such times as may be specified
by the board of directors.
6. Strangers, including women and children, will be permitted to
visit the clubroom for purposes of inspection between 9 a. m. and 5
p. m., except Sundays and holidays, if provided with a permit from
the board of directors.
7. No books or papers shall be taken from the clubrooms.
8. Members will be charged for a n y damage done to the furniture
or fixtures of the club due to their carelessness or design.
9. No subscription paper shall be circulated, nor any article exposed
for sale in the clubhouse without the authority of the board of direc­
tors.
10. Notices shall not be posted on the bulletin board, except upon
authority of the board of directors.
11. All talking in the reading room is prohibited.
12. No member shall use the billiard or pool tables for more than
three successive games to the exclusion of others desiring to play.
“

n o -t r e a t in g

.”

rule

.

In order to promote the temperate use of wine, beer, and liquors,
which may be sold in the clubhouse, no member or visitor shall be
permitted to purchase or pay for a drink or drinks for any other mem­
ber or visitor.
Membership in the club may be active or associate, only active mem­
bers having the right to vote. Associate members are charged only
half the dues paid by active members.
At Redstone a beautiful clubhouse and theater (Plate 82), complete
in all respects, has recently been erected. Here is found a commo­
dious lounging and drinking room, furnished with large leathercushioned armchairs, settees, and tables for serving refreshments.
An ample fireplace at each end of the room gives comfort and cheer on
winter evenings, and entertainment is furnished by a large Regina
music box and a graphophone. All kinds of the best grades of liquors
may be had here at reasonable prices, while temperance drinks, sand­
wiches, and cakes are served at cost. Rules similar to those in force
at the Coalbasin club are intended to check any tendency toward excess.
Adjoining the lounging room is the large well-lighted billiard room,



HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1205

equipped with one convertible and two pool tables. A card and game
room furnished with cards, chess, dominoes, and other games, and a
reading room, supplied with popular magazines and newspapers, are
also reached through the lounging room. On the second floor is the
hail, used for theatrical purposes, and provided with a full set of stage
scenery, electric stage lights, and other up-to-date features. In the
basement are located bathrooms, toilet and dressing rooms, liquor
storage rooms, arid the board of directors’ room, and secretary’s office.
A furnace, also located in the basement, supplies steam heat throughout
the building. On certain evenings of each month the privileges of the
club are extended to the wives and daughters of members, when whist
and euchre parties, billiards, pool, and instrumental music, and light
refreshments lend interest and pleasure to the occasions. Active mem­
bership in the club may be obtained on payment of an initiation fee
of $1 and six months’ dues in advance, at 50 cents a month.
The Redstone Inn (Plate 83), whose guests are nearly all employees
of the company, is equipped with electric lights, steam-heating appa­
ratus, hot and cold water, lounging and reading rooms, and all the
other conveniences of a first-class modern hotel.
A washhouse is arranged for the accommodation of those who work
about the company’s coke ovens and coal tipple at Redstone. Its
equipment comprises 21 white enameled wash basins, supplied with hot
and cold water, 2 closets and an inclosed shower bath located at one end
of the room, and lockers for those desiring to change their soiled
working clothes for other attire. The floor is of cement and so laid
as to permit daily flushing.
Other betterment features at Redstone are a village garden, in which
employees may raise their own vegetables without cost for plowing
and irrigation, and a village stable in which a horse or cow may be
kept by payment of a small monthly rental.
A hospital and medical department has been organized with a large
central institution at Pueblo, known as the Minnequa Hospital (Plate
84), and branches or emergency hospitals at all of the leading camps.
These are in charge of skilled physicians and surgeons, whose duty it
is to care for sick and injured employees and to exercise general
supervision over sanitary conditions at their respective stations. The
total number of cases treated at the various hospitals during the year
ending June 30, 1903, was 82,821.
The Minnequa Hospital at Pueblo was completed in 1902 at a cost
approximating a quarter of a million dollars, and is without doubt
one of the handsomest and best equipped institutions of its kind in
existence. The entire hospital plant, including grounds and buildings, covers 13 acres and comprises a central or administrative build­
ing, three ward and operating buildings, a hospital for communicable




1206

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

diseases, a physician’s residence, a recreation hall for convalescents, a
kitchen and a dining room, a laundry, a light and power plant, a well
and pumping station, and a stable and ambulance barn. The hospital
now accommodates 210 patients, and it is planned to add other wards
as they are needed.
J.

B . A N D J. M. C O R N E L L C O M P A N Y ,

C O L D S P R IN G ,

NEW

YORK.

The dwellings erected by this company for the housing of their
employees were designed by the president of the company, Mr. J. M.
Cornell, and, while they were built with economy, in order that the
price of rent might put them within the reach of the great mass of the
company’s employees, much care and thought were given in order to
secure the comfort of those for whose use they were built.
Every house has a good cellar in which is installed a furnace. The
first floor consists of a hallway, parlor, dining room, and kitchen, the
latter containing a range and being supplied with hot and cold water.
On the second floor are four large bedrooms, with closets, and a bath­
room with exposed plumbing. A well-ventilated attic over these bed­
rooms insures comfort during the heated season.
A fair idea of the general architectural arrangement of these cot­
tages may be gained by reference to the accompanying illustrations
(Plate 85) which represent one of the houses.
These houses are all painted white for the first story, the shingles
on the second story and those on the roof being stained in various and
harmonious colors, so that each house is different from the others in
appearance. The lots upon which they are situated measure about 50
by 80 feet each, and are ornamented with attractive flower beds and
hedges in front and by trees planted between the houses. The
beauty of the surroundings is much enhanced by the rows of widespreading shade trees bordering the highway in front.
The rent asked for the cottages is $12 and $15 per month. This
price yields the company only about 5 per cent on the investment.
They are within easy walking distance of the company’s works and
are much sought after by the employees.
A tract of land has recently been purchased upon which it is pro­
posed to erect a clubhouse for the men, to be equipped with billiard
tables, bowling alleys, and a gymnasium, and to contain a large hall
for meetings. This undertaking is expected to result in much good to
the workingmen in the foundry, by furnishing them the means of
healthful recreation and pleasant social intercourse.
It is also proposed to open a cooperative store at which employees
may purchase their household supplies at wholesale prices. No store
orders would be issued, however, employees being free to trade else­
where should they so desire. During a portion of the time coal has
been sold to them at cost, thus saving them about 50 cents per ton.



La b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 85— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN A

J. B. & J. M. C o r n e l l C o m p a n y

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1207

The facilities for the education of the children of employees are of
the best, there being in the village a large public school, well con­
ducted, which prepares boys and girls for college. The company,
however, has nothing to do with the school.
The providing of dwelling houses for their employees is compara­
tively a new undertaking for this company. Prior to the removal of
their works from their location at Twenty-sixth street and Eleventh
avenue, New York City, in 1898, the need of making such provision
was not apparent. But with the establishment of the plant at Cold­
spring it was found necessary to provide more comfortable homes for
the workingmen than could be found at the place, especially as practi­
cally all available houses had been taken up.
T H E D R A P E R C O M P A N Y , H O P E D A L E , M ASSACH U SETTS.

The tract of land upon which are situated the houses built by this
company for the use of its employees contains about 30 acres and was
laid out by a distinguished landscape artist, who prepared the plans
for the entire work before any of the improvements were made. The
company next built new macadamized roads, with concrete sidewalks,
put in sewer and water pipes, and obtained building plans from several
different architects in order to secure variety in the construction of
the houses. As will be seen from the photographs (Plates 86 to 88)
the buildings are all of wood, the exteriors consisting of shingles
painted in various harmonious colors. Their construction is such that
while all have about the same amount of room on the inside, their out­
side appearance is quite different. Each house contains two tene­
ments, each of which comprises a parlor or living room, a dining room,
a kitchen, and a pantry and hall on the first floor, three sleeping rooms
and a bathroom on the second floor, and a good storage room in the attic.
A few have a fourth bedroom in the attic. The floors of the lower hall,
the dining room, kitchen, pantry, and bathroom are of hard maple, the
rest of the house being finished in white wood, either painted or in the
natural color. Every house has a good cemented cellar, and many
are furnished with gas and electric lights and other modern con­
veniences. The two sets of drawings reproduced in connection with
the photographs serve to illustrate the general style and architectural
arrangement of all dwellings erected by the company. The handsome
appearance presented by these houses is greatly augmented by the
well-kept lawns surrounding them, beds of bright-colored flowers,
neatly trimmed hedges and attractive shade trees all contributing to
the general effect.
The company sees that all buildings are kept in good repair and
insists upon a strict observance of proper sanitary regulations on the
part of the occupants. The premises are well drained, vaults are cleaned
out, and ashes and garbage removed at stated periods; and particular



1208

BULLETIK OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

care is taken that the yards, both front and back, shall be kept in per­
fectly clean condition. The photograph entitled U study in back
A
yards” (Plate 88) gives a fair idea of what is being done along this line.
Prizes amounting to $300 are distributed each year by the company to
those tenants whose yards are kept in the best condition. The amounts
thus awarded in 1002 were divided as follows: One first prize, $10;
twelve second prizes, $7.50 each; forty third prizes, $5 each. These
prizes are based upon the general condition of the premises, both in
front and in rear of the houses, special attention being given to the
care of the grass and consideration to anything else that may have been
done. This plan has been in operation eight or ten years and has
proved an excellent one, for, in addition to -being an incentive to the
tenant, it obliges a committee from the company to inspect the prem­
ises at frequent intervals, and this in itself leads to the discovery of
anything that may need attention.
The rentals of these houses has been fixed by the company at $3 per
week for each tenement not supplied with heating apparatus, or $3.50
per week for such tenements as have furnaces. As the houses cost in
round figures about $4,500 each, or about $2,250 for each tenement,
exclusive of the land on which they stand, this price yields the com­
pany only a small income after deducting water rates, insurance, repairs,
and depreciation.
The Draper family, of which four officers of the present company
are members, began its manufacturing career in the place about the
year 1856. The village owes its name to Rev. Adin Ballou, who
founded here, in 1841, a Christian Socialist community which he hoped
would justify his ideas and his aspirations, but which, for want of a
sufficient financial foundation, was not a success.
The stable population of the town at the present time numbers only
about 2,000 persons, while the company, which manufactures all kinds
of machinery for cotton mills, has in its employ, at times, as many as
3,000 men. A considerable proportion of these men are skilled
mechanics who are restless and much inclined to move away after a
time. For this reason few of them care to own homes of their own,
preferring to pay the moderate rent charged for the company’s houses.
Under these conditions the company now owns a large percentage of
the dwellings in the place and plans are being prepared for about
twenty additional houses to be erected in the near future.
A fine church, of stone, costing some $60,000, has been erected by
George A. and Eben S. Draper, in memory of their parents, while
another member of the company, Mr. J. B. Bancroft, has built, as a
memorial to his wife, a beautiful public library (Plate 89) at a cost of
$40,000. The school building (Plate 90) and the town hall are also
gifts of the company.




Lab o r B u i. 54




PLATE 86— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN B
T he Draper C om pany

Lab o r B u i. 54




PLATE 87— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN C
T he D raper C om pany

Lab o r B u i. 54




PLATE 88— A STUDY IN BACK YARDS

PLATE 89— BANCROFT MEMORIAL LIBRARY

PLATE 90— GRAMMAR SCHOOL BUILDING
T he Draper C o m pany

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1209

Mr. Nicholas Paine Gilman, the well-known writer and sociologist,
in his “ Dividend to labor,” alludes to Hopedale as “ one of the most
finished and best kept manufacturing villages anywhere to be found.”
“ There is,” he asserts, “ a large absence of the usual depressing
features, and evidences abound of private taste and the employer’s
liberality.”
LU DLO W

M A N U F A C T U R IN G ASSO C IATE S, L U D L O W , M ASSA C H U SE TTS.

The history of the social-welfare work of this company is extremely
interesting. The property at Ludlow was first developed as a small
cotton mill in 1824, and after various changes in ownership was finally
reorganized as a hemp and jute mill in 1868. All of the mill buildings
in existence at the present time are comparatively modern structures,
however, the oldest having been built in 1878. The mill buildings,
shops, and engine and boiler rooms contain over 14 acres of floor
space, while the warehouses cover 10 acres of ground and are con­
nected with the mills and the railroad by 3£ miles of tracks and sidings,
served by two locomotives.
The following account of the efforts of the company for the better­
ment of the working and living conditions of its employees is taken
largely from a statement prepared by its treasurer, Charles W.
Hubbard.
Mr. Hubbard states that it has been the aim of the corporation to
make the village an attractive place in which to live. Apart from
philanthropic motives, the managers believe that by so doing they will
be able to attract a superior class of operatives. When the present
corporation first purchased the property there were but two streets,
containing a church, a single-room schoolhouse, and a few old-fashioned
tenements. During the last thirty years the corporation has built 4
miles of good streets, and has partly constructed, at its own expense,
the waterworks, gas works, and electric-light plant, lighting the village
streets without charge. It has provided and now owns the church, one
of the schoolhouses, the Masonic hall, and all except a few of the
houses in the village. The original intention was to encourage private
ownership of cottages, but after several sales were made this was
deemed undesirable, except in the case of small farms outside of the
village. While the original purchaser might be satisfactory, the
property was liable to pass into undesirable hands, and the enforcing
of restrictions as to pigpens, hen yards, and other nuisances might be
resented. The cottages sold have been bought back as opportunity
offered.
The first houses built were planned by the architects without suffi­
cient regard for the requirements of the people who were to live in
them, but of recent years the managers have made a careful study of
plans in order to provide, at the least possible cost, cottages which



1210

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

will meet all requirements. Each new set of cottages, as built, has
been planned to remedy some defect in a previous plan, to incorporate
some improvement suggested, or to lessen the cost of construction.
The tenants have been asked for criticisms and suggestions, which have
been acted upon when approved. Different families have different
ideas. Some prefer stairs opening from the kitchen, some from a
front hall, some wish the bathroom upstairs, others downstairs, etc.;
hence a variety of plans for dwellings of substantially the same size and
cost have been followed. In planning these houses the following con­
siderations have been constantly in mind: Economy of room, economy
of heating, economy of work in the care of house and children, the
largest available amount of sunlight, economy of cost, and simple and
well-proportioned outlines.
The earlier experiments made by this company in the building of
homes for its working people were regarded as failures. Shortly after
the acquisition of its property at Ludlow the company erected a few
cottages which seem to have been planned more with reference to
outside appearance than to meet the requirements of the occupants.
Moreover these houses were found to be too expensive for the class of
people they were intended to shelter and in many cases they were not
property cared for by the tenants. The company next constructed a
number of large tenement houses—some accommodating as many as
eight families—but they proved even more unsatisfactory than the
single cottages and the plan was soon abandoned. After a careful
study of the matter a second and successful attempt was made to intro­
duce individual houses, these being simply, but conveniently con­
structed and renting for a comparatively low sum. For several years
all houses constructed b}r the company conformed to this general plan,
with the exception of a few two-tenement houses, containing four
rooms each, with separate front and rear entrances, which were built
for the sake of economy in providing small flats for newly married
couples.
With the large increase in population during recent years, however,
it was found that the construction of so many single cottages was
tending to spread the village over too large an area, and in order to
economize space and also to give a choice in the selection of a home, a
block of six-room and nine-room houses was built, also 24 suites of
rooms, some of them over stores, and some in a separate block, each
apartment or house having a bathroom. It is stated that the apart­
ments at the present time seem to be unpopular, apparently because
it is the fashion in the village to have a separate cottage, and operatives
who have lived in flats in other villages refuse to accept a better one in
Ludlow, and demand a cottage.
From the accompanying photographs and floor plans (Plates 91 to 93)
which have been furnished by the company as representative of the



La b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 91— LUDLOW COTTAGE
L ud lo w

M a n u f a c t u r in g A s s o c ia t e s

Lab o r Bu i. 54




PLATE 92— PLYMOUTH COTTAGE
L ud lo w

M a n u f a c t u r in g A s s o c ia t e s

La b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 93— WESTON COTTAGE
L u d l o w M a n u f a c t u r in g A s s o c ia t e s

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1211

dwellings erected for its employees, it will be seen that the houses are
neat and substantial structures, of pleasing architectural design and
with attractive surroundings. Almost all are two stories in height,
well finished, painted within and without, and supplied with running
water and other modern conveniences. A cooking range and a sink
are found in the kitchen, while a large cellar furnishes a place for
storing fuel and provisions. The houses are warm and comfortable*
well lighted and ventilated, and convenient in arrangement through­
out. The monthly rental, with bath, varies from $ for a four-room
(>
apartment in a large double house to $9 for an eight-room cottage.
To this must be added a charge of $1.25 per month for full water
privileges, making the total rent $7.25 and $10.25, respectively.
From the statement furnished by Mr. Hubbard it is learned that
the social-welfare work of the company has by no means been confined
to the providing of houses for its employees, but includes other veiy
important features. These are described in the following language:
At first the village contained one ungraded school with a single
teacher. A large increase of operatives in 1878 required two addi­
tional teachers, whose classes were held temporarily in the church
vestry. The Ludlow Company then decided to build and own the
schoolhouse. Accordingly, a schoolhouse containing six class rooms*
a lecture hall, and school parlor was built and rented to the town at
the nominal sum of $100 a year. The managers had hoped to intro­
duce instruction in cooking and sewing, and that plan was not favored
by the town committee. Considerable friction arose between the
corporation and the town authorities in regard to the management of
the school. Finally the corporation refrained from making any
attempt at improvements in the school work, but continued to give the
use of the schoolhouse, and until within a few years had paid a quarter
of the salaries. Two years ago the growth of the village required
additional room, and an eight-room schoolhouse was built by the town..
Perfect harmony now exists between the corporation and the town
officers, and it is believed that suggestions from the former in regard
to the management of the school would be welcomed by the town.
In 1878 the corporation fitted up a few rooms in an old building as
a library and reading room, with a small number of carefully selected
books. In 1888 a new library was erected as a memorial of the late
treasurer by his widow and children. This library building was given
to the town under certain restrictions. At the same time the corpo­
ration presented to the town all the books belonging to its library,
and has since paid for additions of books, as well as all salary and
maintenance expenses. The library now contains 7,000 volumes, and
55 magazines are to be found in the reading room. The patronage is
fairly satisfactory and is increasing, and the building will probably
continue to meet all the requirements of the town.
When the first library was started in 1878 a room fitted with various
small games was set apart as a smoking room but the attendance
became so disorderly that after several forcible ejections the room was
closed. During the succeeding years the general tone of the village
10193—No. 54—04----- 17



1212

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

improved, and in 1895 the attempt was again made. An unused part
of a new mill was fitted with bowling alleys, pool tables, and other
games. At this time an organization was formed which still continues.
This association of the employees, known as the Men’s Club, has its
board of directors, and many of the heads of departments of the cor­
poration have taken an active interest in its development, thereby
giving stability and continuity to the movement. In 1898 the associa­
tion was crowned out of its quarters, as the space was needed for mill
purposes; but on the completion of the building now occupied the
whole upper floor was reserved and equipped for permanent social
rooms. The association has been actively interested in athletics, and
by always insisting upon clean sports and gentlemanly behavior it has
been able to arrange games for its teams in a class above that occupied
by teams from the neighboring mill towns. During the last year the
corporation has laid out an athletic field of about six acres, containing
a quarter-mile running track, and fields for baseball and football; all
inclosed by a high board fence. This will be under the control of the
Athletic Association. In addition to the social rooms occupied by the
association the corporation has, for the past three years, furnished
space for gymnastic and basket-ball work in the mill buildings. The
discipline of self-control, and the demand for fair play in ail sports
has had an influence in every department of town ana home life. Men
learn to work together by cooperating in team work and in social
activity, and success in athletics has fostered a pride in the village
which will help work in other lines.
An institute for women, known as the Girls’ Institute, has been sup­
ported for the past three years. The old office building was remodeled
and refitted to meet the needs of a social and industrial girls’ club.
Parlor, reading room, office, class, and game rooms were suitably fur­
nished. Physical culture has been the most popular and perhaps most
useful of its educational features. Notwithstanding hard work in the
mills, interest in physical training has been intense among the young
women, and apparently with beneficial results. The instruction has
T
been in Swedish gymnastics, somewhat modified to make them popular
and recreative, and in games, principally basket-ball in winter and
tennis in summer. Cooking, sewing, and kindred domestic classes have
been carried on with success by the institute. The social features have
been dances among the girls themselves, and a reading and entertain­
ment class giving monthly entertainments.
In the spring of 1908 the girls organized as uThe Ludlow Girls’
Institute Association,” and have, through their board of directors,
outlined and directed their own work. The nominal fee of 25 cents
quarterly is paid by each, and is used to meet the incidental expenses
of the organization. This association now has about 75 members,
each member being a regular attendant at one or more of the classes.
In order to add to the attractions of the village, in 1892 a hall was
built for the local lodge of Masons. The upper story was arranged
for the sole use of the order, and was fitted up in a manner to meet all
their requirements, wffiile the lower floor was arranged for social gath­
erings of the Masons and other societies or fraternities in the village.
This building has proved quite popular, and has added much to the
social life of the village.
A savings bank was started in 1888. The corporation furnished a
room, free of rent, and paid the salary of the treasurer of the bank.



HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1213

One or two leading men of the company also acted as trustees, but
they were in no other way connected with the bank. After a few
years the bank was able to pay all its expenses, and now has deposits
of about $220,000, and occupies a very neat bank office.
The advisability of starting a corporation store has been discussed
several times, but no action has been taken until recently, the corpo­
ration having started a restaurant, in connection with which they sell
bread, pastry, and cooked foods. Believing that the credit system is
a curse to manufacturing villages, they have run this store on a cash
basis. The result has been that the operatives generally confine their
purchases to stores which give them less for their money but allow
them credit and deliver at their doors. Unless the operatives realize
the saving’ they can make by paying cash and buying of the corpora­
tion store, it is doubtful if it can be continued.
A cooperative store has been suggested by the operatives but has
never been favored by any of the leading men in whom the manage­
ment places confidence, and consequently has never received support
or encouragement, and the difficulties of securing cash payments would
probably ruin any undertaking of this sort.
The following general remarks, which conclude the statement fur­
nished by this company, are of special interest in connection with the
subject of industrial betterment, owing to the earnest, painstaking,
and evidently successful efforts which it has made during a period
extending over many years:
To those who read accounts of social betterment, it may seem a
most simple and easy matter to create a model community. Build
attractive houses, establish an institute with a trained social secretary,
and they think the rest will follow. How little they realize how much
time, work, tact, patience, perseverance, and charity will be required
to bring about the desired result. They will encounter racial preju­
dices, local and personal jealousies. They will have to repress the
inefficient would-be leaders and to draw out the efficient but reluctant
ones. We often read glowing accounts of social betterment carried
on by such and such a concern; shortly afterwards of the establish­
ment being the center of a disastrous strike; later, possibly, that the
whole attempt at social betterment has been given up as a failure.
Then it is safe to say that it was not conceived in the right spirit nor
carried on in the right spirit; that it was either dictated by self-inter­
est or executed in a spirit of condescending patronage. Social better­
ment, to be successful, must first be free of any suspicion that it is
designed to take the place of wages; second, it must not be too pater­
nal, or suggest that the recipient of its benefits does not know how to
obtain them himself; third, the ideals aimed at must not be too far
removed from actual conditions; fourth, as far as possible, and contin­
ually more and more, the people should assume the management.
It may be stated generally that experiments in social betterment
have been judged too hastily to have been successes, or to have been
much greater successes than they really were. Many have been fail­
ures. Of these we rarely hear; and yet failures are often as instructive
as successes; and a knowledge o'f previous failures would save many
future ones.



1214

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
M A R Y L A N D STEE L COM PANY, SPARROW

P O IN T , M A R Y L A N D .

The large and important industrial plant operated by this company
is located on the Patapsco River, about 10 miles from Baltimore, and
employs between 4,000 and 5,000 workmen. Its erection was begun
in 1887, a tract of unimproved land containing about 1,100 acres hav­
ing been purchased as a suitable, location. At the present time the
establishment comprises four blast furnaces with a capacity of 300
tons each per day, a Bessemer steel converting mill, a blooming mill,
rail and billet mills, and a large coke plant which manufactures
fuel for the works from bituminous coal and furnishes illuminating
gas to the city of Baltimore. In addition to the various mechanical
shops required for the steel works, there is the marine department, in
which are built steel vessels of all kinds, from tugboats to the largest
ocean steamships, and the dock department, where have recently been
constructed for the United States Government two of the largest float­
ing docks in the world.
Aside from its extensive manufacturing operations, the Maryland
Steel Company has devoted much attention to the subject of providing
comfortable and sanitary houses for the people in its employ. A large
tract of land, embracing several hundred acres adjacent to the mill
property, has been laid out in streets and building lots, upon which
the company has erected about 800 houses for the accommodation of
^empk^ees. These are neat frame and brick structures, as a rule two
stories or more in height and equipped with baths and underground
sewerage (Plates 94 to 100). Artesian water of the purest quality is
supplied to all the houses. A few of the buildings are of the tenementhouse type, but by far the greater part are individual cottages, well
finished throughout and painted in attractive colors. The number of
rooms varies from five or six in the smaller dwellings to twelve or
fifteen in the larger, a few houses containing an even greater number
of rooms. As the monthly rental of these houses averages less than
$2 per room, it is seen that the company receives but a moderate return
on the money invested, after deducting the necessary expenses for taxes
and repairs. About 50 per cent of the men employed in the works
occupy homes which are the property of the company, the remainder
coming daily by rail and trolley car from Baltimore and intervening
points.
It has been the aim of the company to make Sparrow Point note­
worthy a3 an attractive and healthful place of residence for its
employees. The broad streets, laid out at right angles and lined with
shade trees, are kept in repair by the management, which has also
provided electric lights, schoolhouses, a fire department, and police
force, as well as a thorough system of public sanitation. The various
religious denominations have handsome and commodious houses of



Lab o r Bu i. 54




PLATE 94— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN D
M aryland St e e l C om pany

Lab o r B u i. 54




PLATE

95— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, FLAN E
M a r yla n d St e e l C o m pa n y

/ V - 0 '-

Lab o r Bvi] 54

Porch.




PLATE 96— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN F
M a r y la n d St e e l C o m pany

La b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 97— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN H
M aryla n d St e e l C om pany

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 98— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES. PLAN J
M ar ylan d St e e l C om pany

L a b o r B ill. 51




M aryland St e e l C om pany

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 100— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN L
M aryland St e e l C om pany

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 101— KINDERGARTEN BUILDING

PLATE 102— SCHOOL BUILDING
M ar ylan d St e e l C om pany

L a b o r B u i. 54




M aryland St e e l C om pany

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE,

1215

worship on lots donated by the company. A free kindergarten (Plate
101) was opened at Sparrow Point in 1892. Another department of
the public school s}^stem is the manual training school, in which more
than 160 boys are learning the rudiments of mechanical work and
drawing. There is also a school of domestic science, with sewing and
cooking classes for the girls. A spacious clubhouse (Plate 103) cost­
ing more than $5,000 and furnished throughout in tasteful and attract­
ive style, provides a place for social gatherings of the employees.
Several acres of woodland along the river front have been retained as
a pleasure park, where rest and recreation may be enjoyed after the
day’s work. The town is entirely free from the demoralizing effect
of the saloon, the sale of liquor not being permitted within 2 miles of
the public school. The citizens constitute a self-supporting and lawabiding community, in which prosperity and contentment are prevailing
characteristics.
N. O. N E LSO N M A N U F A C T U R IN G C O M P A N Y , L E C L A IR E , IL L IN O IS .

A good example of home ownership is that furnished by the village
of Leclaire, which was founded in 1890 by N. O. Nelson. The village
occupies a tract of land containing 125 acres, adjacent to Edwardsville,
Illinois, and about 18 miles northeast of St. Louis, Missouri. Believing
that nothing contributes so greatly to the welfare and contentment of
the American workingman as the possession of a comfortable home,
this company endeavors to provide houses for its employees on terms
that put them within the reach of all who desire them. The price
charged for land, including improvements, varies from $2 to $2.50 per
front foot. To this is added 6 per cent interest, dating from 1892. The
company builds the houses on plans mutually agreed upon and charges
for them the cost of raw material and labor, plus the average profit
made by the manufacturing business. As the firm has its own planing
mills and wood-working force, the net cost of a house to the purchaser
is considerably less than if bought in the usual wa}L Payments are
made monthly, the amounts varying from $12 to $20, according to the
price of the house, the wages of the buyer, and the size of his
family. The attempt is made to provide a house for everyone desir­
ing it and to make the payments such as he can afford. The company
states that no difficulty has ever been experienced in keeping up the
installments. In the event the purchaser desires to remove and dispose
of his property, the company voluntarily refunds the amount paid for
the house, after deducting therefrom rent for the time occupied.
There is no intention to provide houses for rent, except in a few cases
for temporary occupancy. These bring from $8 to $12 per month.
The accompanying photographs and floor plans (Plates 105 to 107)
illustrate the several different types of dwellings erected by the com­
pany. It will be observed that no particular style of architecture has



1216

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

been adopted bat that all the houses are planned to meet the require­
ments of good taste, economy, and convenience. Electric lights,
plumbing of the most approved type, and an abundance of pure run­
ning water are provided. Householders are charged $5 per year for
full water privileges, including sprinkling and irrigation, and 25
cents per month for lights. Nearly all of the houses are built on
lots containing one-third of an acre of ground and are placed at
a sufficient distance from the street to allow for ample front yards.
A large steam-heated greenhouse, maintained by the company,
supplies residents with plants and flowers free of charge for beauti­
fying the grounds surrounding their homes. The winding cinder
roads, bordered with spreading shade trees, the groups of orna­
mental shrubbery and plants, and the carefully cultivated flower
beds in and about the factory grounds and parks give the place an
attractiveness rarely to be found in a manufacturing community.
Employees may here enjoy the advantages of a city with the freedom
and economy of country life. All who wish can keep their own
poultry and cow, grow their own vegetables and fruits, and yet live
within easy reach of their place of employment.
Although the company spares no effort to render Leclaire an attrac­
tive place in which to live, it does not require its employees to reside
there. Many have homes in the adjoining town of Edwardsville,
where they constitute a most important and progressive element of
the population. On the other hand, a considerable number of persons
living in the village are not employed by the company, being attracted
thither by the numerous advantages offered all residents.
The company supports a school system which has as a fundamental
principle the union of industrial training with education from books.
This begins with a kindergarten, in which the children are taught
among other things the cultivation of vegetables and flowers. Later a
regular school course, supplemented by manual training, is introduced.
The plan provides that boys 12 y e a r s of age shall be given light work
for one hour each day in the factories or on the company’s farm, for
which service they receive adequate remuneration. As they grow older
their hours of labor are increased and the time devoted to study cor­
respondingly curtailed until the age of 18 is reached, when they are
graduated from school and employed at full time and wages in the works
of the company. Recently the plan has been adopted of admitting to
the school a certain number of boys about 16 years of age, who perform
manual work under the direction of teachers during half the day and
devote the remaining time to study. These boys are charged nothing
for tuition and are boarded at the company’s expense. Boys and girls
whose homes are in Leclaire or Edwardsville may attend the school
without the payment of tuition fees. The school fund is endowed
with $10,000 of the stock of the company, and every effort is made to



L a b o r B u i. 51




PLATE 104— SCHOOL AND LIBRARY BUILDING

PLATE 105— HOUSE OWNED BY EMPLOYEE
N. O. N elso n

M a n u f a c t u r in g C o m p a n y

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 106— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN N
N . O . N e l s o n M a n u f a c t u r in g C o m p a n y

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 107— HOUSE OWNED BY EMPLOYEE
N . O . N e l s o n M a n u f a c t u r in g C o m p a n y

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1217

provide training that will fit the pupil for the active prosecution of his
chosen trade. The school building measures 40 by 50 feet and contains
4 large rooms and a hall (Plate 104). The rooms are separated by
sliding partitions so that two or more can be thrown into a single hall
for public gatherings, lectures, and other forms of entertainment. The
building also houses an excellent public library of about 1,400 volumes,
to which additions are constantly being made. The affairs of the school
and of the library are looked after by the Leclaire School and Library.
Association, formed in 1894 and composed of the home-owning resi­
dents of the village.
A building formerly occupied by a club of unmarried men as a coop­
erative boarding establishment, and equipped with electric lights,
steam heat, and other modern conveniences, has been converted into a
clubhouse for meetings and other social purposes. There is also
a billiard room and bowling alley, to which employees have free access.
Illustrated lectures on popular subjects, concerts, and other forms of
literary and social entertaihment are provided at stated periods during
the winter months by a literary society composed of operatives. The
employees have also a well-trained band of 30 members, uniformed
and otherwise aided by the company, which furnishes music on spe­
cial occasions. A baseball park and a skating pond are included among
the other attractions.
A profit-sharing system was adopted by the company in 1880, in
pursuance of which interest was allowed on its capital at the usual
commercial rate and the remaining profits were evenly divided between
capital and labor, after setting aside 2£ per cent for educational pur­
poses and 5 per cent for a provident fund. Interest was regarded as
the proper wages of capital; the educational fund was for the purpose
of providing a free library, while the provident fund was to be used
in caring for the families of deceased employees and for such as were
incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or accident. Under this
plan dividends of 8 and 10 per cent were paid for a number of years.
These amounts were paid in cash or in the company’s stock, according
to the wish of the employee, until 1890, when the rule was adopted of
issuing stock for all dividends to employees. These shares were, how­
ever, redeemed at par whenever the holder for any reason desired to
leave the service of the company.
In 1894 the rules were altered so that profit-sharing dividends were
allowed to only such employees as saved 10 per cent of their wages
when working full time and receiving full pay and invested this
amount in the company’s stock. The purpose of this requirement was
“ to offer a substantial inducement for men when in good health and
having steady employment to save something for the future, and also to
make the sharing in the business profits dependent on each one doing
something toward it in a direct and personal way.” The plan was also



1218

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

further modified by increasing the dividend paid on wages to 2 per
cent as against 1 per cent on capital, and by charging the expenditures
for beneficial and educational purposes directly to the expense account
of the company instead of providing for them by means of a specific
fund. The company states that, owing to dull times and the consider­
able outlays for social and industrial betterment at Leclaire, no divi­
dends have been paid for the last six years, but that the plan has not
been abandoned and that much is expected from it in the future.
As a proof that the policy adopted by this company in dealing with
its employees has resulted in entire satisfaction to both parties, it is
said that the affairs of the company are in a most prosperous condi­
tion, and that the employees are contented and happy, labor difficul­
ties and disturbances being practically unknown.
N IA G A R A D E V E L O P M E N T C O M P A N Y , N IA G A R A F A L L S , N E W Y O R K .

Twelve photographs in the exhibit represent views of different parts
of Echota, the industrial village recently created by the T
iagara
Development Company, at Niagara Falls, New York. Althougl some
of these views were taken several years ago, since which time the
number of dwellings in the place has about doubled, they' conv ey a
'fair idea of the general style of architecture adopted by the company
in the construction of its houses (Plates 108 to 112). These houses
vary greatly in size and general interior arrangement, some being
individual cottages, containing from five to eight rooms each, with
bath and cellar, and generally heated by furnace; others being in the
nature of double and three-tenement houses, the former having six
rooms, with bath, furnace, and cellar, and the latter having five rooms
without bath; while still others are designed to accommodate four
families. Separate front and rear entrances are provided in all double
and three-tenement houses, and all houses are furnished with electric
lights, water, and other modern conveniences.
The lots are generally about 115 feet deep, affording ample room
for yards and lawns. All houses are placed 20 feet back from the
street line, the intervening space being covered with flowers and grass.
The streets are usually 50 feet in width, with a macadamized road­
way of 25 feet in the center and rows of shade trees on either side.
Practically all of the dwellings, about 100 in number, are occupied
by officers and employees of the Niagara Falls Power Company and of
the industries located on its lands and using the power generated by
it. The architecture of these houses combines a general uniformity
of design with a pleasing variety in form and detail. All are painted
in the colors adopted by the company (yellow and white) and present a
very attractive appearance. The rentals charged by this company
range, according to the size and construction of the houses, from $9 to




L a b o r B u i. 54




nn

PLATE 108— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN P
N ia g a r a D e v e l o p m e n t C o m p a n y

L a b o r B u i. 54




FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN Q
N ia g a r a D e v e l o p m e n t C o m p a n y

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 110— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN R
N ia g a r a D e v e l o p m e n t C o m p a n y

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 111— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN S
N ia g a r a D e v e l o p m e n t C o m p a n y

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 112— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN T
N ia g a r a D e v e l o p m e n t C o m p a n y

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1219

$12 for tenements in houses of two, three, and four tenements, and

from $16.50 to $28 for houses accommodating but one family. These
rentals include in all cases water, electric lights, and the care of
streets and lawns.
A large building on one of the principal thoroughfares of the village
contains a general store on the lower floor, while the upper story has
been handsomely fitted up as a public hall, which has been placed at
the service of the residents of the village.
A large brick school building has been erected in the village by the
city of Niagara Falls, and the company has built an attractive rail­
way station on the line of the New York Central and Hudson River
Railroad. The company has also erected a large plant for th$ disposal
of the village sewage. A description of the excellent drainage and
sewerage system of the village may be of interest in this connection
by reason of the peculiar physical conditions encountered in its con­
struction. The following facts relating to this difficult undertaking
have been taken from an article written by Mr. John Bogart, one of
the consulting engineers for the Cataract Construction Company, and
published in Cassier’s Magazine for July, 1895:
The tract of land upon which the village is located contains about 84
acres and is of oblong shape, being about 3,000 feet long in a direc­
tion parallel with the Niagara River and about 1,500 feet in width.
The whole area of the village, as well as that of the land between it
and the river, distant about 1,000 feet at its nearest point, is very flat
and slopes very slightly to the river bank. An extreme surface
variation of only 4 feet was noted over the whole 84 acres of meadow,
land upon which the village now stands. The average level of the
river is about 3 feet lower than the lower parts of the village, but the
water of the river occasionally rises to very near this elevation. It
was therefore impracticable to carry the drainage of these grounds to
the river with sufficient fall in pipes or gutters to quickly relieve the
surface from the water of rainfalls, while to conduct the requisite sub­
drainage directly to the river was simply impossible. The character
of the soil which consists of a few inches of surface loam overlying a
stratum of hard, tenacious clay, with rock foundation, rendered the
ground heavy and sticky during wet weather and dry and dusty at
other times. These conditions had to be removed in order to provide
for the smooth roads, grassy lawns, trees, and flower gardens contem­
plated in the plans. Moreover, with the coming of the colonists,
ground in such condition would have proved a fertile field for the
spread of malaria and kindred diseases. It was necessary also to pro­
vide an outlet for the sewage of the houses. As with the drainage a
direct discharge into the river was rendered impracticable by reason
of the latter’s elevation. Under these circumstances a scheme was
evolved by the company that has proven an entire success. The prin­
cipal pipes of the drainage system follow the streets; those to convey
sewage are in the alleys. The latter are at a higher elevation than the
drain tiles, thus permitting house connections for sewage without dis­
turbing the drainage system. The drain tiles are 2 inches in diameter,




1220

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

being laid about 40 feet apart and from 4 to 6 feet below the surface.
They have open joints, no mortar or cement being used, but around
the joints is wrapped a double thickness of cheese cloth. The 2-inch
tiles deliver into lines of 3-inch tiles laid in the same way and placed
generally in the streets under the grass surfaces, but so disposed as to
draw the water fully from the ground under and on both sides of the
paved parts. The 3-inch tiles lead at frequent intervals to receiving
basins in the center of the streets, from which the effluent is conducted
by lines of vitrified pipes to a large masonry well located at the sewage
disposal works. From the well the drainage water is pumped directly
into the outlet chamber of the disposal plant, whence it passes into a
small stream flowing into the Niagara River. The whole village is
underlaid by this drainage system, which has completely changed the
physical and sanitary conditions of the ground, it being no longer
heavy and muddy after rains or dry and dusty during the warm sea­
son. The level of the ground water has been lowered fully 4 feet,
which is, virtually, and for all horticultural and sanitary purposes,
precisely as though the whole surface had been lifted 4 feet.
The sewerage system is entirely separate and takes no storm or
drainage water. The pipes, whose minimum diameter is 6 inches, have
cemented joints and are flushed automatically at regular periods.
Through them the sewage is conducted to a compartment of the well
already mentioned, whence it is pumped into an elongated tank or dis­
position chamber so arranged as to insure a very slow passage of the
fluid. Here it is treated automatically, by the action of float valves,
with milk of lime and a solution of perchloride of iron. Sedimenta­
tion and precipitation of the solids follow, floating substances being
intercepted by screens. Chlorine is delivered through perforated
pipes near the bottom of the tank. When a certain quantity of the
purified fluid has passed over a weir into a terminal tank, it flows, by
siphonage, into the effluent chamber, from which, with the drainage
water, it enters the stream. A second set of chambers is provided so
that, while one set is in use, the deposited material in the other may
be removed by a system of traveling buckets for use upon the culti­
vated grounds of the company. The building which shelters the well,
the pumps, and the deposition chambers also contains the dynamo for
the electric-light service of the village.
Recently the city of Niagara Falls has extended its tunnel trunk
sewer to a point in Echota, and arrangements are now being made to
connect the sewerage and drainage system of this district with this
trunk sewer, which will obviate the further necessity of pumping and
treating the sewage of the village. This tunnel sewer discharges at
the lower river level below the falls.
Mr. Bogart states in his article that—
It is the intention of the company, as soon as the character of the
settlement is firmly established, to give its tenants an opportunity to
purchase their homes on easy terms, thus avoiding the evils which
have at times resulted from the too positive application of the proprie­
tary system. '




HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1221

P E A C E D A L E M A N U F A C T U R IN G . C O M PA N Y , P E A C E D A L E , R H O D E IS L A N D .

The Peacedale Manufacturing Company is one of the oldest manu­
facturing institutions in the United States, haying been founded in
1801 and incorporated in 1848. Shortly after the date of its incorpo­
ration the company began its first specific efforts in the way of the bet­
terment of conditions among its employees. The exhibit, so far as it
relates to this company, consists of photographs of a number of the
houses built by the company for rental to its employees (Plate 113)
and also photographs of houses owned by employees (Plate 114), and
of the Hazard Memorial Hall (Plate 115) in which most of the village
societies are housed. The company tenements are plain, well-built,
comfortable houses, and though not especially modern in design, are
always kept in excellent repair.
Among the houses illustrated one very attractive cottage of 8 rooms,
surrounded by trees and shrubbery, rents for $8.33 per month.
Another eight-room cottage in a very desirable location rents for
$12.50 per month. Cottages of 7 rooms rent for sums ranging from
$7.50 to $10 per month. Another class of houses contains two and
three tenements of varying sizes. The tenements in the two-tenement
houses contain from 6 to 11 rooms each, and rent for from $4.42 to
$11 per month according to location, etc., while the tenements in the
three-tenement houses contain from 3 to 8 rooms each and rent for
from $3.45 to $6.92 per month. A number of very attractive homes
have also been built by employees of the company.
The following excellent account of the various societies and organi­
zations instituted among the employees and other features contributing
to their social betterment has been furnished by Mr. William C. Greene,
the treasurer of the company:
The village organizations of Peacedale are not generally in the
hands of the manufacturing company as such, but have been in most
cases started and to a great extent carried along by the owners of that
property. The fact that the stockholders of the corporation have
always lived here and been a part of the village life itself has proved
a valuable item in the growth of the place. As early as 1854 the vil­
lage children were taught singing on a week-day afternoon, and gath­
ered into Sunday school on Sunday by one of the mill owners and his
wife. In 1856 a building was put up with accommodation for the
library founded some two years earlier, a reading room, and a hall in
which a church was organized. These rooms were used until 1872,
when the church was built, and till 1891, when the library was moved
to its present quarters. Most of the organizations named below are
thus village rather than company matters, but at the same time the
company, its owners, and employees practically make up the village.
The Hazard Memorial at present harbors most of these organiza­
tions. The building was erected in 1891 to the memory of Rowland
Gibson Hazard. It contains a library, which now holds about 10,000
volumes, a hall seating 600 people, several class rooms, a gymnasium,



1222

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

etc. The building, of stone and wood, is an important part of the vil­
lage architecture, and was deeded by the sons of Mr. Hazard to trus­
tees to hold in perpetuity for the use of the whole community. The
hall is not let to any traveling show or organization and for no enter­
tainments that are not considered by the trustees to be for the better
interests of the village. The rental to such people as can hire it is
nominal. It is used for fairs, concerts that are gotton up for special
town purposes, etc. Its cost was between $40,000 and $50,000.
The library is carried on in the interests of the whole town and is
managed by a board of directors that represent the different villages.
It is used principally by Peacedale and Wakefield, and in the summer
is drawn upon by Narragansett Pier and other near-by summer resorts.
It is entirely free. It has not only the library proper, but a reading
room, which is open during the season until 8 o’clock every night.
The library has funds that have been given to it from time to time,
and is supported by them and contributions from various interested
people. The town has once or twice made an appropriation to buy
books, and the State contributes an annual sum for the same purpose.
The choral society was organized some fifteen years ago, and has
grown to be one of the leading features of Peacedale. A conductor,
Dr. Jules Jordan, comes down from Providence once a week during
the season, and there is a chorus of 75 to 100 voices who make up the
membership of the society. They give three concerts each year, and
have done some fine music, as 6 The Creation,” “ The Messiah,” “ The
6
Elijah,” Rossini’s “ Stabat Mater,” Sullivan’s “ Golden Legend,” and
about 100 other works. This choral society has not only helped the
village in itself, by giving concerts and affording the singers of the
place an opportunity, but it has an indirect value in developing the
local musical talent, as shown in an excellent church choir, and especi­
ally in another feature of Peacedale which we will call the “ Sunday
musics.” The choral society is formally organized, has a president,
treasurer, board of directors, etc., and the members pay $3 each per
annum. There is an admission fee to the concerts, but the whole sum
realized from these sources is not sufficient to carry on the work, and
the deficiency is made up by the owners of the mill property.
A few years ago the “ Sunday musics” were begun by Miss Hazard
and her sister, who simply went into the hall on a Sunday afternoon
and played and sang for fifteen or twenty minutes, while a few people
from the outside straggled in. From that it has grown to be tin
informal concert each Sunday afternoon for the season, from Christ­
mas until Easter. The several Sundays during the time are allotted
to musical people in the village and town, and each one gets up a pro­
gramme that will take from half an hour to an hour. The music is
not wholly sacred. The concerts are attractive to the people of the
village and town, who come in large numbers, and the hall very fre­
quently contains from two hundred and fifty to five or six hundred
people on a pleasant Sunday afternoon. The musicians are almost
entirely local, though once in a while we have some first-class per­
former from the outside. There is no formal organization, and no
charge of any sort connected with this work.
The boys’ room was started about eight years ago, and is simply
arranged. The membership is confined to boys under 16, and made up
almost wholly of sons of mill men. The club numbers from 50 to 100.
They come to the Memorial building at 7 o’clock each Friday evening,



L a b o r B u i 54




PLATE 113— HOUSES FOR EMPLOYEES
P e a c e d a l e M a n u f a c t u r in g C o m p a n y

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 114— HOUSES OWNED BY EMPLOYEES

PLATE 115— HAZARD MEMORIAL BUILDING
P e a c e d a l e M a n u f a c t u r in g C o m p a n y

HOUSING OE 'JHE WORKING PEOPLE.

1223

and are first given military drill, arid then amused with table games
like checkers, etc., and also have a chance at light gymnastics and
shooting with a rifle. They go home at half past 8. There is no
charge of any sort in connection with this organization.
In the basement of the Memorial building there is the gymnasium
used by the boys’ club as above, several bath and dressing rooms, and
a room utilized by the young men as a smoking and reading room. For
the privileges of the gymnasium, baths, ana reading rooms, etc., the
members each pay $2.50 per annum. There are a few magazines and
papers taken regularly for this club and others supplied from the
library upstairs. The work is under the charge of the superintendent
of the building, who maintains order, collects dues, etc.
The village supports a literary society which meets every two weeks
during the season extending from October to May. It is regularly
organized with a president, secretary, treasurer, etc., and was begun
a good many years ago. The entertainments are not wholly of a lit­
erary character. They are largely contributed by local talent, and
consist of lectures, concerts, dramatic performances, light operas, etc.
Lecturers are frequently hired from outside, and one concert of the
choral society is included as a regular number in the literary society’s
course. One night a year is given up to the issuing of a number of
the South County Magazine, so called, which is rather a unique pro­
duction. Though called a magazine, it is in manuscript, and read to
the meeting and illustrated by living pictures, tableaux, drawings,
etc. The membership consists of all those who buy season tickets,
and the charges amount to about 15 cents per night.
In the Memorial building several local circles of the King’s Daugh­
ters society, which are branches of the regular organization of that
name, hold their meetings. About 150 women and girls belong to
these circles, and sewing, both making and mending garments, knit­
ting, etc., is done. One circle owns a sick-room outfit, bedside table,
rolling chair, and other articles of use in sickness, which are loaned as
occasion requires, and these circles look after the needy and suffering,
if any there may be, in the village.
There is also maintained in the village what is called the u Neighbor­
hood Guild.” This conducts, under the care of a competent teacher,
several classes each day in sewing, cooking, home nursing, etc. A
nominal fee is charged for instruction in each of these branches, and
the work is proving very successful.
A class in carpentry is also taught once a week by a competent man,
and for this service also a nominal fee is asked.
These several societies afford an opportunity for much useful and
pleasant work. They tie the village together, and tend to raise the
general level of the place, and on the whole appear worth while in the
minds of those who have given this work their time and attention for
many years past. The owners of the property feel that the efforts
which "they have made, extending now over a long series of years,
have aided in bringing about a cordial feeling among all parties who
work for the company, and in raising the general morale of the vil­
lage. Certainly Peacedale has a body of very efficient and steady
help, and the changes among the employees are few. A number of
families have been here for several generations, and the company has
never experienced any serious labor difficulties.




1224

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR.

P E L Z E R M A N U F A C T U R IN G C O M P A N Y , P E L Z E R , SOUTH C A R O L IN A .

The four mills operated by this company, with 110,000 spindles and
a full complement of looms, constitute one of the largest cotton manu­
facturing plants in the South. The number of employees approxi­
mates 2,800, all of whom reside in houses which are the property of the
mill corporation. These cottages, of which there are about 1,000 in the
place, contain an average of four rooms each (Plate 116). The main
rooms are usually 16 feet square, while the back or shed rooms measure
about 14 by 16 feet. The yards are ornamented with flowers and
shrubs and each house is provided with a plat of ground sufficiently
large for gardening purposes. Tenants are required to keep their
premises in good, clean condition, and prizes are offered by the com­
pany for the most attractive looking cottages and yards.
Water is supplied to employees free of charge and a large tract of
meadow land is set apart for the pasturing of cows. All sanitary and
street work is paid for by the company, which spares no effort to
render life in the village pleasant and attractive to its inhabitants.
The rental of the houses has been fixed at the remarkably low price
of 60 cents per room per month, or $2 for an ordinary cottage. This
rate, it is stated, is barely sufficient to pay taxes and repairs and yields
the company no return whatever on the money invested. While it is
true that these dwellings are far inferior in construction to those of
a representative industrial community in the North, at the same time
it is claimed that they are amply sufficient to meet the requirements
of those who occupy them, the mild climate and somewhat primitive
methods of life prevailing in this section rendering more elaborate
housing facilities unnecessary.
The town of Pelzer, in which the factories are located, contains a
population of about 6,000 persons, all of whom are more or less
dependent for their livelihood upon the mills. The town is not incor­
porated, but is held as private property by the mill corporation,
which owns every house and every foot of land in the place. No
home ownership is allowed, the policy of the company being one of
absolute industrial control, coupled with a large regard for the general
welfare of its employees. There are five churches in the place, neat
and commodious in construction, which are well attended by the
operatives. In the matter of providing educational facilities for its
employees the company has taken an advanced position. Two wellequipped schools, with kindergarten departments annexed, are main­
tained (Plate 117). These are open ten months in the year and are
absolutely free to all residents of the place. There are also night classes
for those whose work prevents their attending the day sessions. As a
condition of obtaining employment in the mills, parents are required




L a b o r B u i. 51




PLATE 116— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES

PLATE 117— SCHOOLHOUSES
P e l z e r M a n u f a c t u r in g C o m p a n y

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1225

to sign an agreement in which this clause is inserted: “ I do agree
that all children, members of my family, between the ages of 5 and 12
years, shall enter the school maintained by said company at Pelzer,
and shall attend every school day during the school session, unless
prevented by sickness or other unavoidable causes.” In addition to
this each child who attends school a month without absence receives a
prize of 10 cents. About $50 a month is thus expended. When it
is remembered that there is no compulsory school law in South
Carolina, and that the length of the public school term is not more
than four months per year, the comparative educational advantages’
offered at Pelzer appear very great. As an evidence of the great
good being accomplished by these schools, it may be said that when
they were first started probably 75 per cent of the adult population of
the place could not read or write. Now this percentage has been
reduced to 15 or 20, and the illiterates are chiefly newcomers from the
rural districts near by. About $5,000 is expended annually by the
company in the maintenance of the schools.
The corporation has also established a circulating library containing
6,000 volumes of approved standard literature. This library is
installed in a building known as 4 The Lyceum,” which is fitted up in
‘
a very tasteful and attractive manner. The main apartment of the
building has been set aside as a reading room for women and in addi­
tion to the books contains about twenty-five of the leading newspapers
and periodicals. Another room is reserved for the use of men, while
T
a third room is furnished with tables and other facilities for carrying
on social games. The library is open every evening from 6 o’clock
until half past 10 and all day on Sunday. No charge whatever is made
for its use. The company also provides a course of free lectures on
history and travel, accompanied by stereopticon illustrations, which
has proved of great educational value. Athletics and outdoor sports are
given special encouragement. The employees have organized several
baseball teams which have been uniformed and otherwise aided by the
companjr. A fine bicycle race track is kept up, upon which the mem­
bers of the Smyth Wheel Club give exhibitions of fancy riding and
compete for prizes offered by the company. The Smyth Rifles, also
named in honor of the president of the corporation, possess the distinc­
tion of being the only military organization in any of the South
Carolina mills. This company is composed entirely of young men
operatives and is a part of the regular State militia. There is also a
brass band fully equipped with fine instruments and numbering 36
members which constitutes the band of the regiment to which the
company belongs. These organizations participate in the annual
encampment of the State forces and are assisted by the corporation in
all necessary ways.




1226

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

A savings bank is conducted by officers of the company, in which
employees are encouraged to deposit their surplus earnings, receiving
interest thereon at the rate of 1 per cent per quarter.
There are no company stores at Pelzer. Beyond owning the build­
ings occupied by the several mercantile firms doing business in the
place, the mill management has no connection whatever with them.
The largest of these concerns is a stock company, with a paid-up capital
of $25,000, whose shares, of the value of $25 each, are nearly all owned
by the factory operatives, who elect a manager to conduct the business.
This establishment is in a most prosperous condition, and substantial
dividends are paid to shareholders at regular periods.
In thus making provision for the well-being and happiness of their
employees, the officers of the Pelzer Manufacturing Company believe
that they are putting their capital where it will yield them the very
best returns possible, at the same time fulfilling the duty incumbent
upon them as employers to assist their working people to better things
by supplying them with such means for the betterment of their condi­
tion as they could not otherwise enjoy. As a result of this policy the
most friendly relations exist between the company and its employees,
no labor difficulties having occurred in the factory since its establish­
ment in 1881.
P L Y M O U T H C O R D A G E C O M P A N Y , N ORTH P L Y M O U T H , M ASSACH USETTS.

An extremely interesting and complete account of the w'ork of this
company along the lines of general betterment is available through
the courtesy of Mr. G. F. Holmes, its treasurer, who has also con­
tributed largely to the interest of the exhibit of the Bureau of Labor
by furnishing a number of excellent photographs illustrating the hous­
ing and other betterment work of the company.
The Plymouth Cordage Company is situated at North Plymouth,
about 2 miles from the old historic town of Plymouth, and has many
natural advantages for the development of industrial betterment. Mr.
Holmes states that—
The officers of the company saw these advantages several years ago
and determined to start upon a plan for the development of the sur­
roundings. Not only did they consider the development of the prop­
erty, but also the development of those who were employed by them,
who were giving them most of their time in the mill and were unable
to partake of the slight advantages that then existed for the develop­
ment of their physical and mental activity. There was a decided lack
of social life here, there being nothing to create interest outside of the
mill life, which is necessarily narrowing. It was our desire to change
these conditions of our employees, to educate them, to teach the boys
and girls to help themselves, to direct them, through a library, to the
higher education, to show them how to better their surroundings and
appreciate them. As many of the employees are foreigners it is our



HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1227

desire to educate them in American ways of doing things, with the hope
of making them better citizens and bettering their condition at the
same time.
Beginning with the development of these ideas, naturally the first
place that we looked into and changed was the mill where the employees
spent most of their time. In the construction of a new mill which
was at that time in process of building, their surroundings, comfort,
and health were carefully considered. The best sanitary appliances
were put in and all toilet rooms were finished with asphalt floors; the
side walls were lined with white enamel brick, all plumbing being
exposed, which gave us a toilet room that was easily kept clean. With
good sanitary conditions the next point was that of fresh air. A mod­
ern system of ventilation was installed. Through this system the air
is taken from outdoors by large fans, and, in winter, is forced over
coils of steam piping. After becoming heated the air is forced through
ducts to the different floors above. The windows are dropped at the
top and the bad air has a chance to get out, thus making a complete
system of ventilation. During the summer months the air is taken
from outdoors by the same system, but of course it does not pass over
steam pipes. The mill thus ventilated in summer is from 3° to 4°
cooler than our No. 1 mill, where the system is not installed. In
rooms where dust or fumes accrue they are removed by a system
of exhaust fans that help materially to keep the air clean and pure.
The girls’ work is made as comfortable as possible for them, and they
are allowed stools which they may use when they are tired or when
the character of the work does not necessitate their standing. The
drinking water is obtained from springs situated about the mills, and
every precaution is taken to have it free from any pollution, tests
being made at intervals to guard against any chances of sickness.
The old dirt roads that once surrounded the mills have been replaced
by macadam roads, lawns have been created, shrubbery planted, vines
started around the mills, and the whole appearance changed. It was
interesting to see, after the development had started, the exact influ­
ence created. It was, however, as we expected it would be. The
employees took home with them the lessons we were endeavoring to
teach. They started to fix up their own grounds; walks that had never
seen the edging knife were edged, and lawns were carefully cut, which
at once began to lend an entirely different character to the homes of
the employees.
The company at this time possessed several tenement houses, which
contained groups of four and eight tenements under one roof. These
tenements contained a living room 9 feet 11 inches by 12 feet 1 inch;
kitchen, 13 feet 8 inches by 14 feet 5 inches with entry 5 feet 7 inches
by 9feet 6inches; two rooms, 12 feet 1 inch by 15 feet and 14 feet 5inches
by 15 feet, both with large closets. The houses were situated within
5 feet of the road, allowing only a small front yard. Each house was
allotted a garden, where, during the summer, the employees could
raise their own vegetables. The only plumbing in these houses con­
sisted of one sink situated in the small, entry. The rent was from $1.50
to $1.75 per week. With the building of the new houses the old type
was discarded, and on the new tract of land which was purchased lots
were laid off about 100 feet wide, and 150 feet deep. Two-family
houses were then planned and built along more modern lines, the
10193—No. 54—04---- 18



1228

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

cottage effect being borne in mind as much as possible. These houses
are illustrated by the photographs and plans annexed (Plates 118 and
119). A glance will show that these are far more picturesque than the
old ones, and lend themselves to more individual treatment. They con­
tain on the first floor, kitchen, 13 feet 2 inches by 16 feet 6 inches; par­
lor, 10 feet by 12 feet 6 inches; dining room, 11 feet 1 inch by 12 feet
3 inches, and bathroom, 5 feet by 7 feet. Upstairs, one type has four
bedrooms, another three, and another two. These houses are situated
about 30 feet from the road, giving them sufficient lawn in front, which
lends itself to adornment with flower beds or shubbery. In the rear
is the garden and also hen yards, with ample space for the clothes
yard. They are built of wood, and shingled, and range in rental price
from $1.90 to $2.50 a week per tenement. We are at present building
a few houses along these lines, which we can rent at about the same
price as the old tenement blocks, $1.50 to $1.75.
Situated on a hill overlooking the houses and the mill is the Loring
Reading Room (Plate 122), which was presented to the company by Mr.
Augustus P. Loring, now president of the company, as a memorial to
his father, Caleb William Loring, who held the office before him, and
who, at the time of his last visit to Plymouth, had expressed his desire
to do something which would add to the happiness and welfare of the
operatives in the mills. The library has been of great benefit to the
community. This is well shown by the records of circulation and
attendance. The circulation of books during 1900-1901 was 7,378;
during 1901-2, 10,681, and during 1902-3, 10,869. The attendance
classified as to that of adults and children during these years was
as follows: 1900-1901, adults, 10,975, children, 16,386; 1901-2,
adults, 12,099, children, .15,269, and 1902-3, adults, 14,344, children,
12,560. The children were allowed during the first year to come
both in the afternoon and evening. In 1901-2 this was changed, the
children being allowed only in the afternoon. This accounts for
the increase in adult attendance and decrease in children. The library
contains about 4,000 volumes of fiction, history, and travel, and is. in
charge of a trained librarian and assistant. The librarian spends part
of the time visiting the people and the schools to help and cooperate
with them in their work. Books are sent to the sick; also, books
which are not contained in the library may be procured from any other
library.
As we leave the library, a little farther down the hill is situated
Harris Hall, which bears the name of the partial giver of the hall, Mr.
Edward K. Harris, in memory of Mr. James Harris, a director of the
company and treasurer from 1834 to 1837. The building is used for a
dining hall as well as for social gatherings of different kinds. About
three years ago there was a call for hot coffee and tea among the men,
and the company refitted a small room for a dining room, with the
necessary tea and coffee urns. After a while there came a call for
sandwiches, and then for dinner. It was impossible to get up a dinner
in these quarters. However, a suitable place was soon found in the gift
of Mr. Harris. The dining room has been established about a year,
the main idea being to give a good, cheap, substantial dinner for 10 to
12 cents, with tea, coffee, pies, and cake that one could buy extra if
he desired to.




HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1229

Dinners taken from one week’s menu are as follows:
Monday.
Pot roast, boiled potato,mashed turnip..............................................................$0.10
Apple pie.....................................................
02
Cottage pudding, lemon sauce................................................................................. 03
01
Doughnuts.....................................
Rolls.......................................................................................................................... 01
Coffee.........................................................................................................................02
T e a ............................................................................................................................ 02
M ilk ......................................................
02
Tuesday.
Meat pie, mashed potato............................................................................................10
Cranberry pie............................................................................................................ 02
Apple pie...................................................................................
02
Layer cake................. ..................... .*.............................. ....................................... 03
Doughnuts................................
01
R olls................................................................
01
Wednesday.
Boiled lamb, caper sauce, scalloped potato............................................................. 12
Cream p ie ............................................................................................
.03
Mince and apple pie........................................................................... ..................... 02
Doughnuts....... ....................... .'................................................................................01
Rolls...........................................................................................
Chocolate............................................................................. _................................... 03
T h u rsd a y .

Boiled ham, mashed potato, macaroni.................................................................... 10
Custard p ie................................................................... . ..........................................03
Apple pie...................................................................„............................................. 02
.01
Gingerbread..................: .................. 1....................... . ...................................
Doughnuts..................................................................................................................01
Rolls.......................................................................................................................... 01
Friday.
Baked haddock, mashed potato, scalloped onions.................................................... 12
Squash pie..................................................................................................................03
Cocoanut pie..........................................................................................
02
01
Doughnuts..............................
Rolls............................................
01

There is no service; the men are obliged to wait upon themselves.
They buy their coffee at one place, move on to the next, buy their din­
ner, and then take it to their table. The dining hall contains the fol­
lowing rooms: On the first floor is a serving room, a large dining room
for men, that will hold about 200, and leading off the main room is a
smaller room for the office help. The men’s toilet rooms are also situ­
ated on this floor. The lower part of the building is given up to a
dining room for the girls, with rest rooms and toilet. The kitchen,
cold-storage cellar, and manager’s room are also situated on this floor.
The material is the best of its character that we can procure. Every­
thing is made in our own kitchen, so that we are perfectly sure of the
material that goes into the food.
The total of each of the articles sold at Harris Hall during the past
year is as follows: 9,539 cups of coffee, 2,414 cups of tea, 435 cups of



1230

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOE.

chocolate, 4,214 glasses of milk, 4,383 pieces of pie, 6,262 dinners,
14,747 rolls, 2,906 doughnuts, and 574 miscellaneous dishes.
The hall, with its large verandas and spacious interior, lends itself
also to social functions, such as band concerts, dances, and club meet­
ings of different kinds.
The girls in our mill formed a social club seven or eight years ago,
the members then numbering between 8 and 10. The girls started
up work in sewing, courses in English and Italian, and in art. From
year to year the club has grown so that now there are enrolled in its
membership some 80 girls, most of whom work in the mill. However,
there are a few young ladies who have had the advantages of higher
education who have been induced to join. They have brought in new
ideas and have helped a great deal in raising the standard of the club,
for they bring to bear the influence that tends to develop the char­
acter and stimulate the desire of higher ideals in life.
A small dwelling house, which is situated at the entrance to the fac­
tory, was turned into a school building. A kindergarten was started
under the direction of a trained kindergartner. The first year the
school contained about 23 scholars, the second year about 30. The third
year we found it necessary to engage an assistant, the number then
reaching 40. This winter the school has enrolled 53 scholars. The
kindergarten in many ways is a great help, not only to the children
but also to their mothers, for it takes the children away from the
house in the busiest part of the day and gives the mother time to do
her work unmolested, while the children return with new ideas and
brighter faces. The teachers make visits about the houses and inter­
est the mothers in the children’s work. They also bring a little social
life once a month when they have mothers’ meetings at Harris Hall.
The largest gathering of this kind occurs at Christmas time, when the
children are given a Christmas tree. The proud mothers seated about
the hall, seeing their little tots marching around the tree, singing and
clapping their hands, begin to smile simultaneously with the children
as their little faces beam with delight at the sparkling stars and trim­
mings of the tree.
The second step in the school was the addition of a sloyd depart­
ment (Plate 123). A room was fitted up with ten benches. The school
at first was only for the boys who worked in the mill, the other boys
of the family having the advantage in the public schools. The school
is carried on four evenings a week, making 40 boys enrolled in the
course. Later the girls became interested in the work, so a girls’
class of 10 was added, making 50 in all. In connection with this work
we have established classes in basketry and the making of cane seats
to chairs.
Another branch of the industrial work is the cooking school. Prob­
ably there is no branch of the school that does more real good than
this. The children are allowed to attend the school at the age of 11
years. The school is held in the afternoon after the public schools,
from 4 to 6 o’clock. Good, plain cooking is taught—how to make a
dinner from cheap cuts of meat, the proper food to buy, and the cor­
rect combinations to use to build up the tissues of the body and brain.
The making of bread, pastry, preserves, jellies, and the preparation of
cereals are also touched upon. The course in cooking is three years.
Generally the girls leave then and come to work in the mill.



L a b o r B u i. 54




1119

PLATE 118— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN V
P ly m o u th C ordage C om pany

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 119—HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN X
P ly m o u th C ordage C om pany

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 120—HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES

PLATE 121—HOUSE OWNED BY EMPLOYEE
P ly m o u th

C ordage C om pany

L a b o r B u i. 54




-it
*

PLATE 122—LORING READING ROOM

PLATE 123—SLOYD SCHOOL
P lym outh

C ordage C om pany

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1231

On June 13, 1903, the directors were given a dinner at Harris Hall,
the menu being as follows:
L ittle N e c k clam s.
C o n so m m e .
O liv es.
R ad ish e s.
S alted a lm o n d s.
F ille t o f sole, tartar sauce.
C u cu m b ers.
F ille t of b eef, m u sh r o o m sauce.
P ota to ba lls.
A sparagus.
T o m a to salad.
F ro zen p u d d in g .
S traw b erry ice cream .
A lm o n d cake.
Spon ge cake.
C h eese.
C rackers.
C offee.

The cooking-school girls prepared most of the food and served it at
the tables. The children that attend the school number about 40. If
there is anyone in the community who is very ill, the children are
shown how to prepare food for invalids and how to present it attract­
ively, after which a few of the pupils carry it to those afflicted. It
not only teaches them how to prepare the food, but also shows them
the pleasure of doing for others.
The men who work in our machine and carpenter shops were
desirous of studying mechanical drawing, and courses were started
for them; also, there are several boys who have become interested in
the work. The first year is given up to the fundamental principles
of drawing; the second year takes up descriptive geometry and draw­
ing of different parts of machinery; the third-year work takes up the
more advanced machine work; the fourth-year work takes up ele­
mentary design. Several carpenters have taken up the course, in
which case we have altered it to correspond more with their line of
work. The men have benefited very much by the course, and some
of them, who at the outset were unable to read a plan, can now work
intelligently from one.
A band was organized about two years ago, the company furnishing
the rooms to practice in and advancing the money with which to pro­
cure many of the instruments. The band plays at all baseball games
that are held on the grounds and also plays morning and afternoon at
our Labor Day show. During the winter months the band gives
concerts every two weeks in Harris Hall, the proceeds of which are
divided with several benefit societies which have been organized by
the employees: The United Workers’ Circle of King’s Daughters, the
Old Colony Mutual Benefit Association, and the Gerrpan Brotherhood.
As the company is situated some distance from the town, many
small groceries spring up to supply the employees with their staples
of food. The company, not satisfied with existing conditions, bought
out some of the stores and started a large one under the head of the
employees’ cooperative store. The company furnished sufficient capi­
tal to start the store along the following lines: That the company
would not receive any interest on the money invested; that it should
be a cooperative business entirely for the employees’ benefit, they
to receive their share of the profits pro rata as their accounts showed
on the books.
Naturally the taking over of old stock and the starting of anew
enterprise necessitates time to tell whether or not it will prove to be
a success in every way. There is one thing certain, and that is they



1232

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

get far better material than formerly for the same amount of money,
from a clean and well-kept store. All groceries are delivered by three
teams which cover the scattered territory.
Some of the company’s property skirts the shore of Plymouth Bay,
and here we have established a bathing beach where the employees
may enjoy themselves. The slope of the land made it necessary to
build it out and restrain same by a parapet wall. This, however, had
its advantages, as it made a splendid playground for the children,
where they could dig in the sand and enjoy the fresh breezes of the
ocean without wetting their feet and dresses. It makes a splendid
park in which the people may gather. On Sunday afternoons whole
families may be seen enjoying themselves—the father and mother tak­
ing a dip while the little ones are busy making sand houses on the
beach. On several Sundays there were from 600 to 700 people spend­
ing the afternoon watching the bathers as they dove and swam about.
There are two bath houses, one for the men and boys and the other for
the women and the girls. The company furnishes suits for the bathers
at the low rental of 1 cent per suit; also towels at 1 cent each. Suits
are also on sale at wholesale prices. The bath houses are in charge of
an experienced man, who teaches the boys and girls to swim, dive, and
float. During the last two summers there have been more than 9,000
baths taken. One generally finds the beach lined with young people
every afternoon, except Saturday.
On Saturday afternoon the interest of the crowd centers around the
ball field, which is situated back of the office building. Every Satur­
day afternoon, weather permitting, a game is held between our own
club and a visiting team. The team has been growing stronger each
year, winning the majority of the games played. Each year they
have played against stronger teams, and this resulted last year in sev­
eral games nearing the standard of some of the leagues. The games
were witnessed by 700 to 800 people each, and are free, with the
exception that they give what they think they can afford to help defray
the expenses of the visiting team.
All of the baseball games, and, in fact, most of the social work is
reported in a paper that is published once a month, called The P ly­
mouth Cordage Chronicle. The paper is published in three languages,
English, German, and Italian.
Two years ago there were courses carried on in agriculture, horti­
culture, and poultry, to show and educate the people in the handling
of gardens, etc. There were so few that were able to take advantage
of the lectures that it seemed advisable to issue them through a paper;
they could then be brought out to all the people at once. This proved
a success, and the whole social work was then brought before them by
this medium.
All the work that is done in the schools and in the houses of the
employees is in anticipation of a fair that is held on Labor Day.
Labor Day, in its true sense here, brings out the work that the people
have done all summer. As early as 5 o’clock in the morning the em­
ployees leave their homes with wheelbarrows, little carts, and arms filled
with vegetables. It needs only a few little donkeys with packs on their
backs to lend to the scene a true Italian setting of the early morning
market time in Verona or Perugia. Boys and girls are running here
and there to deposit their handiwork on the proper table, while the
quacking of ducks or the crowing of a rooster announces the arrival



HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1233

of a new poultry guest to show off his feathers in the coming compe­
tition with his neighbors. Children laden with flowers, which almost
hide their tiny faces behind their blossoms as they sway back and forth
in the breezes, lend a cheerful greeting as they enter the miniature
fair. It requires a tent 160 feet long and 60 feet wide to cover the
exhibition of vegetables, fruit, fancywork, flowers, school work,
cooking, poultry, and handiwork. The company also offers prizes for
vegetables and flower gardens that are kept up in the best manner
during the summer, also one for the places, trees, and vines. The
places are visited by a competent judge three times during the sum­
mer, and a complete record is kept. The prize winners are posted in
the tent.
The fair is open on Labor Day from 12 to 6 o’clock, and also on the
day following from 7 a. m. to 6 p. m. During the morning, while
articles are being put to rights, the people are gathering on the ball
field, which has been laid out for athletic contests which have been
scheduled to begin at 9 o’clock. The Plymouth Cordage Band, of 42
pieces, starts the event moving with a band concert from 9 to 9.30.
Last September there were over 5,000 people to witness the sports
that began at 9.30.
Programme.
9 .0 0 .
9 .3 0 .
9 .3 5 .
9 .4 5 .
9 .5 5 .
1 0 .0 0 .
1 0 .1 0 .
1 0 .1 5 .
1 0 .3 0 .
1 0 .3 5 .
1 0 .4 0 .
1 0 .4 5 .
1 0 .5 5 .
1 1 .0 5 .
1 1 .3 0 .
1 1 .3 5 .
1 1 .5 0 .
2 .0 0 .
3 .0 0 .

B a n d concert.
R u n n in g race, 18 years o ld a n d o v e r ; b e st tw o ou t o f th re e, 2 0 0 ya rd s.
B a sk e t contest.
F ish p on d , for girls.
S tilt race, fo r b o ys.
T h re e -le g g e d race, 200 yards.
S econd h e a t ru n n in g race.
H a lf-m ile fo o t race.
Sack race, 60 yards.
T h ir d heat ru n n in g race.
H ig h ju m p .
B lin d fo ld w h ee lb a rro w race, for b o y s.
H ittin g th e d u m m y , for girls.
R e la y race, W a l k v. M ill, 8 00 yards.
O n e m ile b ic ycle race.
O b stacle race.
G rea sed p ole an d barrel, for b o ys.
B a n d concert.
B a seb a ll gam e.

In the grouping of 5,000 people the combination of colors was
exceedingly interesting and varied, which lent to the scene a decidedly
picturesque and unique effect. After the people had watched their
friends lose or gain the coveted prizes they left their seats for an
inspection o f the tent. Many of the people returned in the afternoon
to witness the final baseball game of the season. If we take into
account the people who attended the different events during the day,
the fair was witnessed by nearly 8,000 people. This shows quite a
growth from the first fair that was held four years ago in a small
house. One room, 12 by 14 feet, was given up to vegetables; one
room, 14 by 15 feet, to poultry, and one room, 12 by 12 feet, to flowers;
the attendance being about 800.
Often during the games on Labor Day, and the ball games, slight
accidents are apt to happen; also, in a null where hundreds of people
are working about moving machinery the chances of accident are many,
so a room was fitted up with the necessary equipment to care for such
matters. But with the hospital came the question of who should



1234

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

care for it, and trained nurses were engaged to take charge of the
work. Their work at present lies not only in the small hospital, but
much of their time is given up to making visits to all of our employees
who are sick or in need of their services, administering to them the
proper care and bringing to our attention existing conditions about
the places and houses that should be changed. In cases of extreme
sickness one nurse gives her attention during the day and the other at
night. The company furnishes the nurses with a house in close prox­
imity to the houses and mill. During the past six months there were
about 750 cases that required their attention. In many cases we have
had the sincere thanks of our employees, and they all feel that it has
filled a long-felt want.
Many times when acute diseases make it impossible to stem the cur­
rent, and when men who have worked among us for many years are
taken away, their wives and children oftentimes would be left in pov­
erty but for the benefit societies that have been formed among the
workingmen and women. There are three societies that carry on this
work:
The United Workers’ Circle of King’s Daughters, this society rais­
ing money by fairs and distributing it among those requiring assistance.
The German Brotherhood was organized the 1st day of September,
1883, with a membership of 28 men and a capital stock of $224. The
membership has increased to 72, and at date of writing the society has
$600 in the bank. The society has—
C o lle c te d fro m th e m e m b e rs d u rin g th e e x iste n c e o f th e s o c i e t y ............... .... $ 5 ,5 6 6 .6 0
P aid o u t for d ea th s o f m e m b e r s , 11 in n u m b e r ......................................................... p.
6 5 5 .0 0
P a id o u t fo r d e a th s o f w ive s o f m e m b e r s ..........................................................................
2 7 2 .0 0
P a id o u t for sic k n e s s ........................................................................................................................
4 ,5 9 0 .0 0

The Old Colony Mutual Benefit Association was organized June 27,
1878. The dues of the association ar$ $4 a year. This gives an acci­
dent benefit of $4 a week for twenty weeks; also includes a death bene­
fit of $150.
T h e association h as r e c e i v e d ..................................................................................................... $8, 863. 78
P a id o u t in sick n e ss a n d d e a th b e n e f i t s ............................................................................
7, 7 0 7 .4 8
I t h a s on d e p o s i t .......................................................................................................... .....................
1 ,1 5 6 . 30

If the employees are not fortunate enough to belong to these socie­
ties the men are generally ready to start a paper through the mills for
their benefit.
T H E J O H N B . STETSON C O M P A N Y , P H I L A D E L P H I A , P E N N S Y L V A N IA .

This company, now incorporated as a joint-stock company with a
capitalization of $4,000,000, was established in January, 1865. Its
product consists of high-grade fur-felt hats and its manufacturing
operations include not only the making of hats but also other branches
o f industry connected therewith, such as the manufacture of machines
for use in the factory, the weaving of silk bands and bindings, the
printing of hat tips and the commercial printing of the factory, the
making of paper hatboxes, the making of the block upon which
the hat is formed, leather cutting, etc. From information recently
secured by Mr. Frank J. Sheridan, a special agent of the Bureau of




HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1235

Labor, it appears that the number of employees during 1903 aggre­
gated over 2,400, of which over 1,900 were males and over 500
females. The number employed in 1903 was more than double that
employed in 1898 (1,144) and nearly three times that employed in
1895 (945). The production likewise amounted to 102,181 dozens of
hats in 1903, as against 44,492 dozens in 1898 and 37,996 dozens in
1895. It was also ascertained that steady employment has not only
been offered during the past fourteen years, the term for which a
record was available, but that the company has made special efforts
to encourage steady and continuous work by its employees.
A very complete and comprehensive system of betterment has been
in operation by this company for some years, resulting not only in
better and more comfortable working and living conditions to the
employees, but also in a greater personal interest of the employees in
the business of the company and a correspondingly better quality of
product. The forms of betterment adopted have been varied and in
some respects unique, but their effectiveness and good results have
been most marked. A brief description of some of the features of
this work will be given in the following pages.
While this company does not build houses to rent to its employees, it
has encouraged saving and home building among them in the strongest
possible way. For some years it has offered to its employees as a
reward for efficient service shares in a building and loan association
conducted under the auspices of the company, upon which money for
the purchase of homes (but for no other purpose) can be borrowed at
any time. These shares, which are paid for and carried to maturity
by the company without any cost whatever to the holder, are designed
to take the place of extra wages and are given only to such operatives
as show unusual efficiency in their work. The number of employees
for whom such stock was maintained at the date of the last report was
203, the total number of shares being 1,418, and the largest number
held by one person 30. Twenty-eight homes have been acquired by
employees under the operation of this plan (Plate 124). In addition to
these, this association, which was organized in 1879, has been the means
through which 11 houses have been purchased with stock maintained by
employees themselves, and 24 with old shares matured, making a total
of 63 homes up to the present time secured through the medium of
the building and loan association. It is stated that 15 per cent of the
adult male employees of the company now own their homes, while 289
now hold shares in the association.
The Stetson savings fund was established in 1897, the purpose being
to encourage operatives to save their money by making deposits in
small weekly amounts. These deposits are limited to such portions
of an employee’s earnings as, in the opinion of the management, he




1236

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

can permit to remain for his future use, $10 being the maximum amount
received from any one individual in a week. The company allows 5
per cent interest on deposits which are allowed to remain until the
end of the fiscal year. I f withdrawn during the year the deposit is
not entitled to interest. At the time of the last report the depositors
numbered 228, or about 10 per cent of the entire number of persons
employed by the company. The amount on deposit, with the accrued
interest, was $17,381.90, making an average of $76.24 for each
depositor.
A system of profit sharing possessing very unique and unusual fea­
tures was adopted by the company in 1902. At a meeting of the
stockholders in the fall of that year it was decided to place at the dis­
posal of the president and board of directors 5,000 shares of the
increased common capital stock, of a par value of $100 each, to be used
by them for distribution among the company’s employees under such
terms and conditions as they deemed proper. The plan, as adopted,
differs from the usual form of profit sharing in that the allotment of
stock to an employee is not conditioned upon his age or upon the
length of time he has been in the company’s employ, nor is the amount
of stock allotted to him dependent on the salary he receives. More­
over, the stock eventually becomes the absolute property of the
employee without any expense to him whatever. The following state­
ment concerning the operations of the plan has been furnished by the
company:
Certificates for the allotted stock are issued in the name of five trus­
tees, and the certificates are not transferred to the names of the indi­
viduals until the expiration of fifteen years, except in the event of the
death of the employee or his severing his connection with the company.
As dividends on the allotted stock are declared and paid, each indi­
vidual is credited with his proportion of the dividends less 5 per cent
on the balance due on the stock at the close of the year. When the
accumulation of dividends, less the interest charge, amounts to the
par value of the stock, the employee is then paid the full amount of
dividends that are declared each year, but, as stated above, he can not
come into possession of the certificate itself until fifteen years have
elapsed. The object of this provision is at once apparent—it insures
a steady income for the employee so long as he is in our employ, by
preventing him disposing of his stock.
The employee has the privilege of drawing from the dividends
declared each year an amount equal to 5 per cent of the par value of
the stock. If he avails himself of this privilege the stock is not paid
for as quickly as if he were to allow all the dividends to accumulate.
In the event of death there is handed to the executors a certificate of
stock of the par value of the amount that stands to the employee’s
credit on the books. If the employment of the individual is termi­
nated because of his physical or mental condition preventing him dis­
charging his duties, settlement is made in the same way as in the event
of death; but if the employee is discharged for cause, there is handed
him a check for the amount at that time to his credit on the books.



HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1237

That the difference between paying by check and by certificate may
be understood, it is necessary to state that at this time the stock is
selling on the market for 177. While the market value of the~stock
during the year has ranged from 165 to 177, it has been allotted the
employees at par—$100 per share.
Up to the present time 3,000 shares of the common stock of the
company, in lots of five shares and upward, have been distributed
among employees under the terms of this plan. The number of jour­
neymen to whom shares have been allotted is 244, and the total num­
ber of shares so allotted 1,225. As the dividends paid on the stock
of the John B. Stetson Company have averaged about 17 per cent
for the last several years, with a probable increase for 1903 consequent
upon an increased amount of business done, it is estimated that the
accumulation of dividends, less the interest charge, will equal the par
value of this stock in about six years.
The beneficial fund maintained by the company is also worthy of
special notice. This fund is supported by a monthly assessment of
25 cents on each adult worker, apprentices under 18 years of age pay­
ing 15 cents per month. Employees incapacitated for work by reason
of illness or injury are paid $5 a week for a period of five weeks in
each year, or $3 a week if under 18 years of age. In case of death
the sum of $100 is allotted for funeral expenses to adults and $75 to
apprentices. The report of the association for the year ending Novem­
ber 9,1903, shows that during that period 382 employees received sick
benefits from the fund in various amounts up to $25, while $2,100 was
paid on 22 cases of death.
A novel feature introduced by the company in 1897 was the adoption
of a system of premiums for regular and faithful work in the sizing
department, where the roving habits of the workmen, many of whom
were of foreign birth, had become a source of serious annoyance and
inconvenience to the management. To remedy these conditions it was
decided to offer to the men who worked steadily throughout the year
an amount equal to 5 per cent of the total wages earned, this amount
to be presented to such employees in the form of a Christmas gift.
Under the operation of this plan 35 per cent of the sizers employed in
1897 remained until the end of the year. For the three succeeding
years the premium was increased to 10 per cent, with the result that
the number of steady workers increased from 50 to 80 per cent of the
entire number. In 1901 and 1902, with 15 per cent premium paid,
the percentage reached 88 while last year 92 per cent of the total
,
force in the sizing department received 20 per cent increase on their
wages as a reward for faithful service. The result of this beneficent
policy has been not only to insure larger incomes to the men, and at
the same time instil into their minds the principles of steady and con­
stant application to their work, but it has also enabled the company to



1238

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

calculate with greater certainty the amount of work that can be turned
out of this department in a stated time. As the wages paid in the siz­
ing department are by the piece, it is seen that from a monetary stand­
point the company receives no direct return for its outlay, as might
be the case were the men working by the day or by the week.
The presentation of life-insurance policies to employees is another
form of reward adopted by the company. These policies are mainly
on the twenty and twenty-five year endowment plan, the premiums
being paid by the company, and the accumulated dividends turned
over to the beneficiary when the policy becomes due. A t the present
time there are in force 18 policies of insurance, two of which are for
$10,000 and the remainder $5,000 each. Since the adoption of the
plan 9 policies, aggregating $200 000 have matured.
,
,
It has long been the custom of the compan}^ to present to apprentices
upon the completion of their term of service, a sum of money equal to
$1 for every week spent in the establishment, or $208 for the full
four-year period. This amount is regarded as in no way connected
with their wages, but is a gift by the management to those who have
faithfully fulfilled their obligations to the company. A customary
feature of the Christmas celebration at the factory is the distribution
of prizes among those apprentices whose work for the year has been
pronounced of more than ordinary merit. These prizes vary in value
from five-dollar notes to watches costing as much as $50, special prizes
of still greater value, including money and paid-up shares in the build­
ing and loan association, being awarded apprentices who have made
notably good records. It is also the custom of the company on Christ­
mas eve to present every man in its employ with a hat or a turkey and
every girl with a pound of the best candy or an order for a pair of
gloves, regardless of price or quality.
For the social and intellectual culture of its employees the company
has erected at one end of the factory buildings a large assembly hall,
capable of seating 2,000 persons, which is furnished with a grand and
a parlor organ and a piano. There is also a parlor for evening social
meetings. A large Sunday school, whose membership includes at
times as many as 1,400 persons, meets in the assembly hall. An
organization similar to the Young Men’s Christian Association, known
as the John B. Stetson Union, is doing much good among the male oper­
atives. The Christian Endeavor and choral societies are both growing
forces. A large library and reading room which contains 2,000 choice
volumes and many of the leading newspapers and periodicals is also
maintained. Books are furnished employees free of charge.
A medical department under the charge of a leading physician has
been established by the company and operatives are treated at a nom­
inal price, or gratuitously when necessary. A hospital building 75
by 102 feet and four stories in height is now being erected for this



L a b o r B u i. 54

PLATE 124—TYPICAL HOUSES PURCHASED BY EMPLOYEES WITH THE AID OF BUILDING
AND LOAN ASSOCIATION STOCK GIVEN BY THE COMPANY FOR EFFICIENT WORK




J. B.

Stetso n C om pany

HOUSING 01’ THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1239

department. The Union Mission Hospital, conducted in connection
with the establishment, has been in operation some years and is fully
equipped with all modern appliances.
As a result of the numerous efforts put forth by the John B. Stetson
Company for the moral and material well-being of its employees, it is
claimed by the management that not only has the quality and quantity
of the work done in the factory greatly improved, but that there has
been a substantial increase in the company’s business and profits.
S. D . W A R R E N & C O ., C U M B E R L A N D M IL L S , M A IN E .

Although most of the houses built by this company were erecteu a
number of years ago, and consequently are lacking in some of the
features possessed by more recently constructed buildings, they are,
nevertheless, among the most tasteful and conveniently arranged
dwellings of their class to be found anywhere. One type of house
built by this company is one and one-half stories in height and is built
of wood, with brick foundation (Plate 125). The interior accommoda­
tions consist of a hallway, a parlor, a dining room, and a kitchen on the
first floor, and four sleeping rooms of fair size and a smaller chamber
on the second floor. A porch, over which the upper story projects,
occupies one corner of the house. The interior is neatly papered in
attractive patterns, the floors and woodwork being finished in oil or
painted. The kitchen is provided with a hinged table and a sink, and
each bedroom has a large clothespress. A cellar with cemented floor
serves as a storeroom for fuel and provisions. In this is located the
water-closet, which connects with the sewer outside. Kerosene is
used for lighting and coal and wood for heating and cooking. Gar­
bage is deposited in a can provided for the purpose and is removed at
stated periods. The exterior of the house is kept neat and attractive
in appearance by the company, which also sees that the interior is in
proper condition before a tenant moves in. If any changes or repairs
are made while the tenant is occupying the building he must bear the
expense.
The lot upon which this house stands has a frontage of 50 feet and
is 100 feet in depth. The building occupies 720 square feet, leaving
a considerable space at the side and rear for yard and garden. The
rental is fixed at $9.35 per month, including full water privileges. As
the value of the house is estimated at $1,500, not including the land,
this is considered a very moderate return to the company on the
investment. The rent is calculated on the following basis:
Per year.
F iv e p er cent of $ 1 ,5 0 0

( v a l u e ) .........................................................................................................$75. 00

T a x e s ......................................................................................................................................................

22. 00

W a t e r ..............................................................................................................................................................

10. 00

I n s u r a n c e .....................................................................................................................................................

1 .5 0

T o t a l ................................................................................................................................................... 108. 50




1240

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The same rule is applied in determining the rental of other
houses.
Another type of house, similar as to general plan and interior
arrangement, but differing somewhat externally, contains two rooms
on the lower floor and four chambers above. The common kitchen or
living room of these houses is quite large, and they have always been
quite popular with the operatives. The rental, with water, is $8.17
per month.
A number of dwellings owned by employees of the company were
built under the following conditions; Believing it better policy to
encourage operatives to acquire homes of their own than to build
and rent to them, the company some years ago purchased a tract of
unimproved land in the vicinity of the mills, put in sewers and other
improvements, laid out streets, and sold lots to employees, at a price
which did not more than cover the cost of the land with its improve­
ments. Money for the construction of houses was advanced at 4
per cent interest, building plans were furnished free of cost, and each
worthy employee was given an opportunity of securing a home, even
when he had nothing to offer in the way of security. Under this plan
nine houses, ranging in value from $1,500 to $3,000, were erected, and
the scheme would probably have had a much larger development but
for the fact that, shortly after it was put into operation, an electric
road was built through the village, connecting it with Portland a few
miles away. This road had the effect of concentrating the building
improvements of the village along its line and rendering the company’s
property, which was somewhat remote, less attractive to the operatives
than it would otherwise have been.
In 1895 the company owned 96 houses, with a total estimated valu­
ation of $150,000. Of this number 12 contained four rooms, 8 five
rooms, 30 six rooms, 39 seven rooms, 3 eight rooms, 3 nine rooms,
and 1 twelve rooms each. In addition there were 2 boarding houses,
with fifteen and twenty rooms, respectively, for the accommodation of
unmarried employees.
These dwellings are seldom vacant, and there is practically no loss
of rental. A most generous policy is observed by the company in
dealing with its tenants. Ejection is never permitted. When a tenant
is sick and unable to meet his payments, he is allowed to defer them
until such time as may suit his convenience. Subrenting is not per­
mitted, but tenants may receive boarders if they desire. The com­
pany states that houses for one family have given the greatest degree
of satisfaction and that they are the ones most preferred by employees.
The paper mills operated by the company afford employment to
about 1,000 persons, representing approximately 400 families. The
larger part of these are now owners of their own homes, having been




L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 125—HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN Y

S. D.

W arren &

C om pany

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1241

able to save sufficient means to build for themselves. In this they
have been encouraged and helped by the company, which considers
home-ownership a very important factor in promoting the welfare and
contentment of the workingman.
A free library and reading room, maintained by the company, is an
important educational factor in the community. This contains about
4,000 volumes of standard reading matter, in addition to which are
found all the leading magazines and other publications. It is situated
on the second floor of the building in which the company’s offices are
located, and is much frequented by the employees. The original cost
of the library was about $5,000, and some $300 a year is required to
defray running expenses. A literary society, composed of women
employees, meets regularly in the library. There is also a large hall,
erected by the company at a cost of nearly $10, 000 which is used for
,
lodge and other society gatherings.
W E S T IN G H O U S E A IR B R A K E

C O M P A N Y , W IL M E R D IN G , P E N N S Y L V A N IA .

The plan of providing dwellings for their employees was first
adopted by this company some twelve or thirteen years ago, at the
time of the removal of its factory from Allegheny to Wilmerding. A
tract of unoccupied land adjoining the works was purchased, upon which
the company constructed a number of houses very economically by
making large contracts at cash prices. These dwellings were sold to
employees at about cost and upon terms which enabled them to pay
for the properties in monthly installments extending over a period of
ten or fifteen years. In this way a number of houses were acquired
by the better class of operatives; but the plan was afterwards aban­
doned, as it was found that the liberality of the terms induced pur­
chases by persons who had not previously formed the habit of saving
and who found it very difficult to keep up with their payments, espe­
cially during slack times. Under the plan now in force the purchaser
of any property is required to pay about one-fifth of the purchase
money in cash upon delivery of deed. He then executes a purchasemoney mortgage, payable in five years, with interest payable quarterly
at the rate of 5 per cent per annum. While no requirement is made,
it is expected that the purchaser shall reduce the principal of the mort­
gage quarterly by such payments on account as he may be able to make.
This plan enables him, during hard times, to keep the transaction in
good shape by merely paying the interest, while, on the other hand,
when good wages are earned, he can discharge such part of the prin­
cipal of his mortgage as he may desire.
The houses built by this company are of excellent construction and
most pleasing architectural style. The photographs shown herewith
illustrate the different types of dwellings erected, while copies of a




1242

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

number of the building plans afford information as to their arrange­
ment and construction. Among the best of the different classes of
houses is a two-story brick dwelling, containing seven rooms, includ­
ing the attic, renting for $22 per month (Plate 126). Another class of
dwellings is that built to accommodate two families (Plate 127). This
is in the nature of a double house, each side having six rooms besides
the attic, and renting for $18 per month. Each tenement has a hallway,
a large parlor, a dining room, and a kitchen on the first floor, while the
second floor consists of three bedrooms, one 13 by 14 feet, the other
two of fair size, and a well-arranged bathroom. The attic measures
about 20 feet square, making a convenient place for storage purposes,
while a large cellar, extending under the entire house, affords ample
room below ground.
A row of brick buildings contains a number of tenements, ten in all,
each having seven rooms and being provided with separate entrances,
both front and rear (Plate 128). The first story contains a hallway,
a living room or parlor, a kitchen, and a bathroom. On the second
floor are three large bed chambers, while two more rooms are finished
off in the attic. Each tenement is provided with a good cellar. The
rental of these houses has been fixed by the company at $16 per month,
with the exception of those on the corners, which rent for $18 a
month.
All of the foregoing houses are equipped with gas ranges for the use
of natural gas, hot and cold water, porcelain-lined bath tubs, inside
lavatories and electric-light fixtures. Some have gas furnaces for
heating, while others have open fireplaces for gas. All have slate
roofs.
The company has also built a series of cottage flats for the use of
small families. These buildings, of which seven have been erected,
contain ten flats of three rooms and bath on the first floor, and ten
flats of four rooms and bath on the second floor, with separate entrances
to each. Each is provided with a good cellar, and some of the more
recently constructed ones have wide porches at the back. These flats
are'well constructed and have proved quite popular, the moderate rent
asked putting them within the reach of many who could not pay the
prices charged for the larger and more expensive houses.
A number of frame dwellings of different types have also been built
at various times. These rent at prices ranging from $14 to $22 per
month. The lots upon which these houses are located are from 30 to
40 feet in frontage and from 100 to 120 feet in depth. Practically all
houses have bathrooms and a number are heated by furnace as well
as by fireplaces.




L a b o r B u i. 64




PLATE 126—HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN Z
W e s t i n q h o u s e A ir B r a k e C o m p a n y

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 127— HOUSE FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN AA
W

e s t in g h o u s e

A ir B r a k e C o m p a n y

L a b o r B u i. 54




PLATE 128—HOUSES FOR EMPLOYEES, PLAN BB
W e s t i n g h o u s e A ir B r a k e C o m p a n y

HOUSING OF THE WORKING PEOPLE.

1243

In order to encourage the beautifying of homes and surroundings
the company has adopted the plan of awarding prizes to those of its
tenants whose yards and lawns are kept in the best condition. In 1902
the prizes offered were as follows: For ground as a whole, first prize,
$25; second, $20; third, $15; fourth, $10, and three prizes of $5 each.
Special prizes: For best work in flower culture, $10; for best work in
vegetable culture, $10; for best lawn, $5; for best window or porch
box, $5. A number of smaller prizes were also distributed among
those whom the judges decided to be worthy of them. Competition
for these prizes is not restricted to the company’s employees, but is
open to all residents of the village in which the works are located.
10193— N o . 54— 04 -------19







PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES.
B Y G. W . W . H A N G E R .

For many years the maintenance of public baths at public expense
has been a feature of municipal government in the leading countries
of Europe. In the United States, however, the movement for public
baths has assumed importance only during recent years. The value
of these institutions from both a social and economic point of view
can not be denied. They not only offer the means to personal cleanli­
ness to those who can afford but meager facilities in their homes or
tenements and thereby stimulate in a powerful way a feeling of selfrespect and a desire for self-improvement among this class, but they
also promote health and afford recreation. It has been urged that
they serve to ward off disease, and it is quite certain that in thus con­
serving the health and earning capacity of working people their
economic value must be recognized.
Previous to 1890 but few cities in the United States offered any
public facilities for bathing, and these, with the exception of the
service furnished by a small gymnasium in Boston, consisted entirely
of such as could be used during the warm season only. Boston, New
York, Brooklyn, and several smaller cities had established floating
baths on the shores of adjacent waters; Boston had also established
two beach baths, while Philadelphia and Chicago had constructed
pools for summer bathing. The inadequacy of these facilities was
recognized by all, and the suggestion of a practical method of sup­
plying hot-water cleanliness baths which should be available in winter
as well as in summer was made at about this time. It is stated by Dr.
Harvey E. Fisk that the first plea for the rain or shower baths in this
country was made by Dr. Simon Baruch, of New York, in 1889. Doctor
Baruch had investigated the working of the public baths of Germany,
and upon his return earnestly urged the adoption of this type of bath.
A report, which was made by him as chairman of the committee on
hygiene of the New York County Medical Society, is quoted in part
as embodying the result of his investigation of the subject:
Modern hygiene has, by simplifying the methods of applying its
principles, attained remarkable achievements. Its chief advances have
been made by the recognition of cleanliness as the essence of true sani­
tation. Just as the modern surgeon has, by gradual step and deductive
reasoning, reached the conclusion that in strict cleanliness of his
person, of his instruments, and of the surface to be treated is to be




1245

1246

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

found a true asepsis, so has the modern sanitarian come to realize that
strict cleanliness applied to the air, to food, to clothing, and to the
person fulfills the chief indications of true hygiene.
This learned body does not need to have the importance of personal
cleanliness impressed upon it by stilted phrases, nor need your com­
mittee dwell upon the immense sanitary advantages accruing from the
maintenance of the functions of the skin by the disciplinary and
depurative action of the bath. These are truisms with which even
the lay public are sufficiently familiar.
How to secure to the needy classes—among whom diseases arising
from, and encouraged by, lack of cleanliness are most rife—access to
baths which will not repel them by expensiveness, loss of time, and
lack of convenience, is a subject that your committee has carefully
considered and practically investigated.
The baths which our city authorities have wisely and efficiently pro­
vided during the summer months have proved successful in the encour­
agement they have given to that portion of the community whose
only means of obtaining a bath is in our open waters. Cleanliness
and refreshment are thus secured to a small but needy portion of the
community. But these are chiefly utilized by the younger and more
vigorous portion of it, because they involve a certain expenditure of
energy and resolution. In winter, when thick clothing and unventi­
lated dwelling rooms most encourage the accumulation of excreta and
filth upon the skin, these open baths are entirely unavailable.
Your committee would recommend the erection, in the midst of our
populous tenement districts, of public baths which, by their accessibility
and freedom from expense, would tempt the populace into the practice
of bathing as a habit. This would be bathing for cleanliness, a true
sanitary measure whose power for preventing the origin and spread
of disease need not be insisted upon in this society. The problem has
already been practically solved in Germany, where, under the stimu­
lus of Lassar’s labors, public baths have been erected in several large
cities, which fulfill their objects most admirably and which may serve
as examples worthy of imitation. In this city also a number of benev­
olent gentlemen have formed a society for the promotion of public
baths. Prizes have been offered for the best plans of such buildings,
and, judging from the character of the gentlemen engaged in the
work, it will doubtless be carried to a successful issue.
Several points should be constantly held in view in the construction
of public baths:
First. They must be located in the very center of the overcrowded
districts.
Second. Their exterior must be modest, so as not to repel the poor
and lowly by their architectural pretensions.
Third. They should be so constructed that a cleansing bath may be
obtained without trouble or expense, or at a very trifling expense, and
without sacrifice of much time.
The distinguishing characteristic of the public baths which may
now be found in many German cities and in some large factoi'ies is
the abolition of the bath tub and the substitution of a warm rain or
shower bath for the old-fashioned tub bath.
The advantages of such warm shower baths, falling with consider­
able force, from a reservoir of some height, upon the body, are selfevident.



PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1247

First. The outlay for tubs is avoided, as well as the cost of their
wear and tear.
Second. The avoidance of filling, emptying, and necessary scrubbing
of the tub for each bath economizes labor and expense.
Third. The time necessary for a cleansing shower bath is far less.
Fourth. The cleansing is much more thorough.
Fifth. The space needed for the shower or rain bath is one-half of
that required for the tub bath.
Sixth. The economy of water is enormous. The tub bath requires,
according to Lassar’s calculation, 200 liters of water, while for the
rain bath 10 liters are ample.
Seventh. The danger of oofhmunicating disease is placed beyond
the possibility of careless attendants even.
Eighth. The refreshing effect of the shower, whose temperature
may be gradually reduced after the cleansing, is valuable, and prevents
danger from the relaxing effects of a warm tub bath.
The Volksbad, in Vienna, which your chairman has personally visited,
is situated in the center of the laboring population in the rear of a
building. It has separate entrances for the sexes, and is divided into
cells 80 centimeters deep and 1 meter wide, with passageways of 1
meter. There are 42 cells for males and 28 for females. In the ceil­
ing of each cell a large shower nozzle is constructed, which is supplied
with water at 95° F. Upon payment of 5 kreutzer (about 2 cents) the
applicant receives a towel, an apron or mantle, a piece of soap, and
the key of a closet in which he places his clothes. He turns the water
on, soaps himself thoroughly, and again opens the valve of the shower,
which descends with so much force that it aids the bather in the cleans­
ing process. In five minutes he finds himself more clean than he would
become in a longer period in a tub bath, the water of which must
become soiled before its termination.
In addition to these advantages, the soiled water at once flows from
the body upon an inclined asphalt floor into a gutter and thence into
the sewer.
The next bather may now enter without previous preparation of the
cell, or at least after a rapid flushing of it, because not a particle of
detritus is left behind by the preceding bather.
The economy of space arising from the possibility of erecting the
bath on the first or second floor of any tenement house in an inex­
pensive locality—in the neighborhood of some factory using steam—
the economy in executive and manual labor, and the extreme facility of
utilization are factors that must commend the warm shower or rain
baths to health authorities and philanthropists.
The attachment of these simple baths to the public schools would be
a great boon to the poor, relieve the tenement districts greatly, fur­
nish a potent preventive of disease, and cultivate the inestimable habit
of cleanliness among the young. As the school buildings are usually
heated by steam, the heating of water for bathing purposes would be
comparatively inexpensive.
That expenditure of money for the prevention of disease is the most
profitable application of public funds has become an accepted fact in
modern government. In no direction would money be more benefi­
cently and profitably expended than in the construction of these public
baths, into which the passer-by may be tempted by ease of access,



1248

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

promise of comfort, and freedom from expense. A river bath in sum­
mer requires some resolution, some.energy; but a warm shower bath
in a well-lighted, well-ventilated, and pleasantly warm room, with
facilities for drying and dressing, is a luxury that may tempt the
laziest and dirtiest tramp.
The people especially who have literally 6 earned their bread by the
6
sweat of their brow ” should find, without outlay or trouble, in their
own vicinity, a comfortable place where they may rid themselves of
the filth accumulated upon their persons by their daily labor.
That the life, liberty, and property of every citizen, rich or poor,
shall be protected is the chief axiom
our Government; that their
health, more precious than all these, be protected, is an idea whose
dawn gives promise of better and brighter days for the poor and lowly,
who, owing to their helplessness, should be our special care. A tithe
of the amount spent in the execution of quarantine to bar out disease,
the erection of conduits to furnish pure and abundant water, the
inspection of food, etc., would, if applied to the construction of public
baths, enormously aid our health authorities in their important mission.
Shortly after the date of the above report and after consultation
with Doctor Baruch the New York Association for Improving the
Condition of the Poor constructed a large bath house embodying the
features recommended. This bath, known as the People’s Bath, is
still in operation and has been an unqualified success from its opening.
Several smaller rain or shower baths, also under the control of philan­
thropic associations, were constructed in New York shortly thereafter,
and the movement gradually gained strength and impetus, finally
resulting in municipal interest and action in a number of the cities of
the country.
It is probably true that the establishment o f municipal public baths
was greatly retarded by the opinion, quite generally held and expressed,
that houses in our cities usually contained bathrooms and that the
need of public facilities o f this character was not so great as in other
countries. This opinion, however, was very effectually corrected by
the results of several investigations which were undertaken in various
cities. Doctor Rohe, of Baltimore, Md., in an address before the
American Medical Association in 1887, declared that from investiga­
tions conducted in 18 cities which at that time had no free public
baths it was found that less than one-fourth of the residences were
equipped with bath tubs. Among these cities were Baltimore, M d.;
Cincinnati, Ohio; St. Louis, M o.; Milwaukee, W is., and Minneapolis,
Minn. It is stated in his address that “ five-sixths of the inhabitants
of these cities have no facilities for bathing, except such as are
afforded by pail and sponge, or a river, lake, or other body of water
which may be easily accessible; but in winter even such sources of
cleanliness are cut off.”
Later investigations, of an official character and otherwise, confirmed
Doctor Rohe’s statements in the most conclusive manner. The ten­
ement-house census of Boston, conducted in 1892 by the Massachusetts



PUBLIC BATHS

IN

1249

THE UNITED STATES.

bureau of statistics of labor, revealed similar conditions in this typ­
ical modern city. It was shown that of the total number of families
and individuals residing in the city, 71,665 families, comprising
311,396 individuals, lived in rented tenements. Of this number, only
18,476 families, comprising 82,716 individuals, lived in tenements
which were provided with bathing facilities. It was thus shown that
but 25.78 per cent of the families, or 26.56 per cent of the individuals,
residing in rented tenements were supplied with bathrooms, while
nearly three-fourths of this class of the population were without such
conveniences. The above represented the average condition, for the
whole city, of families and individuals residing in rented tenements. In
certain individual wards the average conditions were very much worse.
In one ward, for example, it is stated that less than 1 per cent of the
population living in rented tenements had access to bathrooms, while
in another the per cent of the population having such facilities was
but 1.99. The conditions thus revealed surely justify the excellent
provision which this city has since made for public bathing accommo­
dations for this class of its population.
The results of a more extensive investigation, conducted by the
Federal Bureau of Labor in 1893, are also of interest in this connection,
showing, among other matters of deep social and economic interest, the
facilities for bathing available in the most congested slum districts of
Baltimore, Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia. The entire number
of persons reported as living in the selected districts on April 1,1893,
the date of the investigation, was as follows: Baltimore, 18,048;
Chicago, 19,748; New York, 28,996, and Philadelphia, 17,060. It is
explained in the report that the districts selected contain but a portion
of the whole slum population of the cities included in the investigation.
An estimate of the total slum population is given as follows: Baltimore,
about 25,000; Chicago, 162,000; New York, 360,000, and Philadelphia,
35,000. It should be stated that the districts selected were among the
worst in these cities—the centers of the slum population.
The following summary, which shows, for the selected district in
each city, the number and per cent of families and individuals who
had or who had not a bathroom in the house or tenement which they
occupied, is reproduced from the report:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF FAMILIES AND INDIVIDUALS IN HOUSES OR TENEMENTS
HAVING AND NOT HAVING BATHROOMS.
Population of houses or tenements
haying bathrooms.
Number.

City.

Families.
Baltimore...................
Chicago......................
New Y o r k .................
Philadelphia.............




296
110
138
560

Per cent.

Indi­
Families.
viduals.
1,663
748
1,888
3,080

7.35
2.83
2.33
16.90

Population of houses or tenements
not having bathrooms.
Number.

Indi­ Families.
viduals.
9.21
3.79
6.51
18.05

3,732
3,771
5,774
2,753

Per cent.

Indi­
viduals. Families.
16,385
19,000
27,108
13,980

92.65
97.17
97.67
83.10

Indi­
viduals.
90.79
96.21
93.49
81.95

1250

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The summary shows that in the selected district of Baltimore but
7.35 per cent of all families, comprising but 9.21 per cent of the total
population, had bathrooms; the per cent of families and individuals
not having bathrooms being respectively 92.65 per cent and 90.79 per
cent. The condition in the selected district of Chicago was even
worse, but 2.83 per cent of all families, comprising 3.79 per cent of
all persons, having bathrooms. The worst conditions, however, were
found in the selected district of New York, in which but 2.33 percent
of families had bathrooms. The Philadelphia district showed a
greater proportion of families having bathrooms than any of the
other cities, ‘the per cent being 16.90.
An additional investigation, comprehending 480 houses in the selected
district of New York and 378 in that of Philadelphia, was made in
order to ascertain how many persons in each house were compelled to
use the same bathrooms, water-closets, and privies. Out of a total of
480 houses visited for this purpose in New York, but 17 had bath­
rooms, while in Philadelphia, out of a total of 378 houses visited, but
67 had bathrooms. The average persons to a bathroom in the houses
having bathrooms were 8.14 in New York and 7.42 in Philadelphia.
The table which follows shows the details for each specified number
of persons to a bathroom in each house. It should be borne in mind
that these figures referred only to the houses having bathrooms, 96.67
per cent of the houses in the districts investigated in New York and
82.28 per cent in Philadelphia being entirely without such accommo­
dations, as previously shown. It is stated that the above averages,
although for but a small portion of the slum districts of the two cities,
are thought to be fairly representative of the whole. The table
relating to bathrooms follows:
NUMBER OF PERSONS TO A BATHROOM.,
Houses.
Persons to a bathroom.

1 or under 2 ...................................................................................................................................
2 or under 3 ...................................................................................................................................
3 or under 4 ...................................................................................................................................
4 or under 5...................................................................................................................................
5 or under 6...................................................................................................................................
6 or under 7....................................................................................................... ...........................
7 or under 8...................................................................................................................................
8 or under 9................................................................................................ .................................
9 or under 10.................................................................................................................................
10 or under 11...............................................................................................................................
11 or under 12...............................................................................................................................
12 or under 13...............................................................................................................................
13 or under 14...............................................................................................................................
15 eft under 16...............................................................................................................................
16 or under 17...............................................................................................................................
17 or under 18...............................................................................................................................
21 or under 22...............................................................................................................................
24 or under 25...............................................................................................................................
1 0or under 111................................................ _.........................................................................
1
Total houses................................................................................................................




New
York.

Philadel­
phia.

2
3
2
3
1

1
1
1
1

l'
1
17

2
2
8
4
4
6
13
10
5
5

1
2
1
2

1
1
67

PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1251

It is gratifying.to note that each of the four cities included in the
investigation of the Bureau of Labor has since provided more or less
adequate facilities for public bathing.
Other investigations merely ,add to the evidence pointing to the
almost entire absence of bathing facilities among a certain class of
the inhabitants o f American cities. The New York Tenement House
Committee of 1894 reported concerning 255,000 inhabitants of the
tenements which had been inspected under its supervision that but
306 had access to bath tubs in the houses in which they lived. An
investigation in Grand Rapids, Mich., a comparatively small city,
revealed the fact that but 5 per cent of its inhabitants had the use of
private bath tubs. A recent report of the Philadelphia Public Baths
Association states that in a typical block adjoining their public bath
and washhouse at Gaskill and Lithgow streets an actual count showed
that there was but one bath tub for each 155 people. In a paper read
before the Contemporary Club of Davenport, Iowa, in 1901, Mr. B. F.
Tillinghast stated that in that city one-half of the dwellings were with­
out a public water supply and that less than 16 per cent of the popu­
lation had access to bath tubs.
Recognizing the conditions as regards bathing facilities in their
larger cities, the legislators of at least two States have enacted laws
looking to the provision of public accommodations of this character.
The law of Massachusetts is merely permissive, while that of New York
is mandatory so far as concerns cities of over 50,000 population, and
its requirements have been sustained by the supreme court.
The law of Massachusetts, first enacted in 1874, and now appearing
as sections 20 and 21 of Chapter 25 of the Revised Laws of 1902, is as
follows:
S e c t i o n 20 A town which accepts the provisions of this and the
.
following section, or has accepted the corresponding provisions of
earlier laws, by a two-thirds vote at an annual meeting, may purchase
or lease lands, and erect, alter, enlarge, repair and improve buildings
for public baths and washhouses, either with or without open drying
grounds, and may make open bathing places, provide them with the
requisite furniture, fittings and conveniences, provide instruction in
swimming, and may raise and appropriate money therefor.
Sec. 21. Such town may establish rates for the use of such baths
and washhouses, and appoint officers therefor, and may make by-laws
for the government of such officers, and authorize them to make regu­
lations for the management thereof and for the use thereof by non­
residents of said town.

The law of New York was enacted in 1895 and reads as follows:
S e c t i o n 1. All cities of the first and second class shall establish and
maintain such number of public baths as the local board of health may
determine to be necessary; each bath shall be kept open not less than
14 hours each day, and both hot and cold water shall be provided.




1252

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The erection and maintenance of river or ocean baths shall not be
deemed a compliance with the requirements of this section. Any
city, village, or town having less then 50,000 inhabitants may estab­
lish and maintain free public baths, and any city, village, or town may
loan its credit or may appropriate its funds for the purpose of estab­
lishing such free public baths.
Sec. 2. This act shall take effect immediately.
For many years summer baths have been supported by appropria­
tions from the city treasury in a number of cities having a water
frontage, while the movement for all-the-year cleansing baths has had
enlisted in its support many associations of a philanthropic character, as
well as a growing number of public and private citizens distinguished
alike for their public spirit and benevolence. It is not a matter of special
concern at this time whether this support is due to the altruistic spirit
of the age; whether to a realization that the conditions of the very
poor as regards facilities for securing cleanliness are a menace to the
public health and public welfare, or whether to the belief that such
conditions strongly tend to lessen the economic value of a large pro­
portion of the working classes of our cities. This movement, which
began with the establishment of a number of bath houses in several
cities under private philanthropic control, has grown and progressed
to the extent that most of the larger cities of the country are at present
operating all-the-year public cleanliness baths at the public expense.
That these ‘ 6steps toward the public supply of positive social oppor­
tunity” have elevated the material and moral tone of the poorer
classes in these cities is evident to the careful observer.
The great interest in the subject, the rapid multiplication of munici­
pal establishments of this character, and the lack of any publication
furnishing even a brief account of such establishments in the United
States, suggested the desirability of preparing an exhibit illustrating
municipal public baths as a part of the exhibit of the Bureau of Labor
at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. This exhibit consists of a large
number of photographs illustrating their interior and exterior appear­
ance, and numerous plans illustrating the floor plans, elevations, and
construction of typical municipal public baths. A number of these
photographs, plans, etc., have been reproduced and are published in
connection with the description of the baths in the various cities. So
far as could be ascertained these descriptions cover every city in the
country which maintains institutions of this character. The final
pages are devoted to a description of certain typical baths established
through private philanthropy or as commercial enterprises. The
description of typical baths of this description is thought to be justi­
fied, owing to their importance as illustrating, in some cases, the
beginnings of the movement, and in others their usefulness in furnish­
ing facilities not yet afforded by the city in which located.



PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1253

As a result of the investigation made it has been ascertained that
in 34 cities of the United States more or less adequate provision for
public baths has been made by the municipality. Other cities are
carefully considering the establishment of houses and in some cases,
notably in St. Louis, appropriations have been made for the purpose.
The following table shows the names of the cities in which municipal
public baths have been established and the number, kind, equipment,
cost, etc., of the baths in each. Following the statement of munici­
pal baths in the same table will be found similar information concern­
ing the previously mentioned typical baths operated by philanthropic
associations or by individuals as private enterprises.




1254

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
STATISTICS OF PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

City.

Name of bath.

Number and When Material of which
kind of baths. open­
constructed.
ed.

M
UNICIPAL.
1

1901 Brick and mar­
ble.
1893 Wood..............
1894 W ood ..........
1894 WVood..........
1900 Brick and stone.
1902 Brick and stone.
1897 Wood...................

27

Albany, N. Y ....... Municipal Bath................. .......... 1 shower and
pool.
Baltimore, M d .... Canton Bath................................ 1 beach............
Baltimore, M d .... Winan’s Beach Bath................... 1 beach............
Baltimore, Md___ Gwynn’s Falls Bath................... 1 beach............
Baltimore, Md___ Walters Bath No. 1...................... 1 shower.........
Baltimore, Md___ Walters Bath No. 2..............-.___ 1 shower.........
Boston, Mass....... Wood Island Park Bath, Beach 1 beach............
No. 1.
Boston, Mass....... Dewey Beach Bath, Beach No.2. 1 beach............
Boston, Mass....... L Street Bath, Beach No. 3......... 1 beach............
Boston, Mass....... Savin Hill Bath (males), Beach 1 beach............
No. 4.
Boston, Mass....... Commercial Point Bath, Beach 1 beach............
No. 5.
Boston, Mass....... North End Park Bath, Beach 1 beach (<*)___
No. 6. (d)
Boston, Mass....... Spring Street Bath, Beach No. 7.. ] beach............
Boston, Mass....... Savin Hill Bath (both sexes)___ 1 beach............
Boston, Mass....... Municipal Floating Baths......... 12 floating.......
Boston, Mass....... Orchard Park Bath.................... 1 pool...............
Boston, Mass....... East Boston Bath, Gymnasium 1 shower..........
No. 1.
Boston, Mass....... South Boston Bath (D street), 1 shower..........
Gymnasium No. 2.
Boston, Mass....... South End Bath (Taylor street), 1 shower..........
Gymnasium No. 3.
Boston, Mass....... Harrison Avenue Bath, Gym­ 1 shower..........
nasium No. 4.
Boston, Mass....... Elmwood Street Bath, Gymna­ 1 shower..........
sium No. 5.
Boston, Mass....... Charlesbank Gymnasium Bath 1 shower..........
(men).
Boston, Mass....... Charlesbank Gymnasium Bath 1 shower..........
(women).
Boston, Mass....... Wood Island Park Gymnasium 1 shower..........
Bath.
Boston, Mass....... Dover Street Bath...................... 1 shower..........
Boston, Mass....... Cabot Street Bath........................ 1 shower and
pool.
Boston, Mass....... North End Bath.......................... 1 shower..........

28

Boston, Mass.......

1899

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

Paul Revere School Bath..........

1 shower..........

1898
1866
1900
1870

Wood...................

1898

Brick and gran­
ite.
Wood...................
Wood.................
Wood...................
Wood...................
Wood...................

1898
1901
</)
1898
1897
1899

Wood...................

1901

Wood...................

1900

Brick...................

1900
1889

In public build­
ing.
Wood...................

1891

Wood...................

1895

Wood...................

1899
(0

Brick and stone.
Brick and stone.

(*)

Brick and terra
cotta.
In school build­
ing.
Brick and con­
crete.
Wood...................
Wood...................
Brick and stone.

29

Boston, Mass....... State Bath at Revere Beach . . . .

30
31
32

Boston, Mass....... State Bath at Nantasket Beach. 1 beach............ 1902
Bridgeport, Conn. Seaside Park Bath...................... 1 beach............ 1901
Brookline, Mass.. Municipal Bath........................... 1 shower and 1897
pool.
Brooklyn, N. Y ... Municipal Floating Baths......... 5 floating......... 1875
Brooklyn, N. Y ... Pitkin Avenue Bath................... 1 shower.......... 1903
Brooklyn, N. Y ... Hicks Street Bath........................ 1 shower.......... 1903
Buffalo, N. Y ....... Municipal Bath No. 1................. 1 shower.......... 1897
Buffalo, N. Y ....... Municipal Bath No. 2................. 1 shower.......... 1901
Cambridge, Mass. Captain’s Island Beach Bath . . . 1 river beach.. 1899
Chicago, 111......... Lincoln Park Beach Bath......... 1 beach............ 1902
Chicago, 111......... Twenty-fifth Street Beach Bath. 1 beach............ 1900
Chicago, 111......... Seventy-ninth Street Beach Bath 1 beach............ 1900
Chicago, 111......... McKinley Natatorium............... 1 pool............... 1903
Chicago, 111......... Carter H. Harrison Bath............ >1 shower.......... 1894
Chicago, 111......... Martin B. Madden Bath............ 1 shower........... 1897
Chicago, 111......... Municipal Bath No. 3................... 1 shower.......... 1900

33

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

45

Wood...................
Wood.................
Wood...................

1 beach............ 1897

Wood...............
Brick and stone.
Brick and stone.
Brick and stone.
Stone and wood.
Wood...................
Wood.......... .
Wood...................
Canvas tents___
Granitoid..........
Brick and stone.
Brick, terra cotta
Brick and stone.

Different hours.
For males only.
Separate houses.
Here is combined a great playground, with piers, bath houses, open air gymnasium, etc., all repre­
senting a value of about $1,000,000, including land, pier, and buildings,
e Floating pool for very small children.
/1866 to 1897.
g Separate houses in some cases, different hours in others.
h Large room divided by curtains.
a
b
c
d




1255

PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES
STATISTICS OF PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES.

Equipment.
Swimming tanks.
In
Hot
service. Show­
ers. Tubs. wa­
ter.
Num­
ber.

Size (feet).

Sepa­
Sepa­ rate Living
In­
rate wait­ rooms
struc­ Dress­ Public baths ing
tion in ing laun­ for rooms for suswim­ rooms. dry. males for perinming.
and fe­ males tendmales. and fe­ ent.
males.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

2

Yes.

1

26 by 69.......... Yes..

38

N o ... No(a) No(«) Yes..

1

Summer
3 None
Summer
2 None
Summer None None
23
2
All year
All year
26
2
2 None
Summer

No..
No..
No..
Yes.
Yes.
No..

None
None
None
None
None
None

N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
Yes..

40
104
50
23
26
250

N o ... ( b)
N o ...
(&
)
.(b)
N o ...
N o ...
(&
)
N o ...
N o ... (6)
( b)
Yes.. Y es.. Yes.. N o ...
Yes.. Yes.. Yes.. N o ...
N o ... Yes.. (c)
N o ...

2
3
4
5
6
7

Yes..
150
Yes.. 1,200
Yes..
1

N o ... N o ... Yes.. N o ...
N o...
N o... Yes.. (c)
N o ...
N o ... (&
)
(&
)

8
9
10
11

All year

Summer
Summer
Summer

8

2 None No.. None
35 None No.. None
1 None No.. None

Summer

2 None No.. None

Yes..

150

N o... N o ... Yes.. N o ...

Summer

8 None No.. None

Yes..

600

N o ... Yes.. Yes.. N o...

12

N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...

No (a) N o ...
Yes.. N o ...
N o ...
(ff)
No (a) N o ...
No( i) N o...

13
14
15
16
17

Summer
2 None
Summer
4 None
Summer None None
Summer
2 None
All year
11 None

el
No..
18 by 35..........
No.. None
12 30 by 65..........
No..
No..
1 30 by 80..........
Yes. None

Y es..
N o ...
N o ...
Yes..
N o ...

15
85
216
2

All year

18 None

Yes. None

N o ...

hi

N o ... No (<) No (<) N o ...

18

All year

6 None

Yes. None

N o ...

32

N o ... No(i) No (<) N o...

19

hi

No(«)
N o...
(ff)
No (a)
No( i)

All year

6 None Yes. None

N o...

hi

N o ... No(<) No( i) N o...

20

All year

6 None

Yes. None

N o ...

hi

N o ... No( i) No (i) N o...

21

All year

9 None

Yes. None

N o ...

1

N o ...

( b)

All year

5

2

Yes. None

N o ...

16

N o ...

Summer

5 None

Yes. None

N o ...

1

N o ...

N o ...
(m)

52
(m)

All year
All year

52
9 Yes. None
1 25 by 75..........
24 None Yes.

( b)

N o...

22

(*)

(k)

N o ...

23

(6)

(6)

N o...

24

N o ... Yes.. Yes.. Yes..
(m)
No(i) No(i) (m)

25
26

67 None Yes. None

(m)

41

(»)

13 None Yes. None

N o ...

30

N o ... Yes.. Yes.. N o ...

28

Summer

20 None No.. None

N o ... 1,700

N o... N o ... N o ... N o ...

29

Summer
Summer
All year

8 None No.. None
2
2 No.. None
1 26 by 80..........
15
3 Yes.

N o...
N o...
Yes..

392
142
48

N o... N o ... N o ... N o ...
N o... Yes.. N o ... N o ...
N o ... No(a) No (a) N o ...

30
31
32

(m)
Summer None None No..
5
All year
6 Yes. None
90
All year
56
8 Yes. None
ol
Yes. None
All year
20
ol
Yes. None
All year
30
Summer
5 None No.. None
Summer
2 None No.. None
Summer None None No.. None
Summer None None No.. None
Summer
14 None Yes.
1 150 by 300.......
All year
34 !
l Yes. None
All year
31 !
l Yes. None
All year
15 I
!
1 Yes. None

Yes..
N o...
N o...
N o...
N o...
N o...
No...
N o...
N o...
N o...
N o...
N o...
N o...

300
96
64
14
18
48
4
54
2
206
34
31
15

N o ... No(<) No(f) N o...
N o ... Yes.. Yes.. N o...
N o ... Y es.. Yes.. N o...
No(a) No(a) Yes..
(P)
Yes.. Yes.. Yes..
(P)
N o ... N o ... («)
N o...
N o ... Y es.. Yes.. N o .N o ... N o ... Yes.. N o...
N o ... N o ... Yes.. N o ...
N o... No( i) No(i) N o .N o... No(i No (i) Yes..
Y es.. No( i) Not*) N o ...
N o ... No (*’) No(*) N o ...

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
4g
44
45




(m)

(m)

All year

No( i) No(i)

i Different days.
j Females’ room divided by curtains.
fcFor females only.
I Under construction.
wNot reported.
n Every school day.
oFor infants.
j? Facilities for washing and drying underclothing.
0. Separate dressing rooms.

27

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
STATISTICS OF PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued.

L
arnal
lm er.

City.

Number and When Material of which
constructed.
kind of baths. open­
ed.

Name of bath.

municipal—Con’d.

46
47
48

Chieago, 111......... Robert A. Waller Bath............... 1 shower..........
Chicago, 111.......... Fourteenth Street Bath.............. 1 shower..........
Chicago, 111.......... Twenty-second Street Bath....... 1 shower..........

49
50

Chicago, 111..........
Chicago, 111..........

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

Cleveland, Ohio..
Cleveland, Ohio..
Cleveland, Ohio..
Detroit, Mich.......
Hartford, Conn. . .
Hoboken, N. J ___
Holyoke, Mass___
Kansas City, Mo..
Louisville, K y ___
Milwaukee, Wis ..
Milwaukee, W is..
Milwaukee, Wis ..

63

Milwaukee, Wis .. South Side Natatorium..............

64

Milwaukee, W is.. North Side Natatorium..............

65

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

Minneapolis, Minn
Newark, N. J ........
Newark, N. J ........
Newark, N.J.........
Newton, Mass.......
New York, N .Y ...
New Y ork,N .Y ...
New York, N .Y ...
New York, N .Y ...
Philadelphia, Pa..
Portland, M e ___.
Providence, R. I ..
Rochester, N .Y ...
St. Paul, Minn___
Springfield, Mass.
Syracuse, N .Y ___

81
82
83
84
85

Taunton, Mass___
Troy, N. Y ............
Utica, N .Y ............
Washington, D. C .
Worcester, Mass ..

66

67
68

Kosciuszko Bath..........................
Douglas Park Natatorium and
Gymnasium.
Edgewater Park B ath...............
Gordon Park Bath......................
Orange Street Bath.....................
Belle^Island Park Bath..............
Municipal Floating Baths.........
Municipal Floating Bath..........
Municipal Baths, Wards 1,2,4,6.
Municipal Bath...........................
Municipal Bath...........................
Lake Michigan Baths.................
Milwaukee Ttiver Bath....... .....
West Side Natatorium...............

Lake Calhoun Bath.....................
Summer Avenue Bath................
Morris Avenue Bath...................
Walnut Street Bath.....................
Municipal Baths (CharlesRiver)
Municipal Floating Baths.........
Rivington Street Bath................
East 109th Street Bath.................
West 41st Street Bath.................
Municipal Baths..........................
Municipal Bath...........................
Municipal Floating Baths.........
Municipal Bath...........................
Harriet Island Bath....................
Municipal Floating Bath..........
Municipal Bath...........................

1 shower.......... 1904
1 pool ( 6 )......... 1896
1 beach............
1 beach............
1 shower..........
1 river beach ..
2 floating.........
1 floating.........
4 pool...............
1 pool...............
1 shower..........
3 beach............
1 river beach ..
1 shower and
•pool.
1 shower and
pool.
1 shower and
pool.
1 beach............
1 pool...............
1 pool...............
1 pool...............
(<)
15 floating.......
1 shower..........
1 shower..........
1 shower..........
15 pool (»»).......
1 shower..........
2 floating.........
1 shower..........
1 river beach ..
1 floating.........
1 shower and
pool.
1 floating.........
1 shower___*
__
1 pool...............
W
1*
floating.........

88

Municipal Floating Bath..........
First Street Bath..........................
Municipal Bath...........................
Municipal Bath...........................
Municipal Floating Bath (wo­
men).
Worcester, Mass .. Municipal Floating Bath (men) 1 floating.........
Yonkers, N. Y ___ Municipal Bath No. 1................. 1 shower..........
Yonkers,N.Y . . . . Municipal Bath No. 2................. 1 shower.

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96

Allegheny, Pa___
Boston, Mass.........
New York, N .Y ...
New York, N .Y ...
Philadelphia, Pa.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Pittsburg, Pa.......

86
87

1901
1900
1898

1895
1902
1904
1894
(<
*)
1888
(9)

1901
1902
1901
1902
1890
1895

Brick and stone.
Brick...................
In public build­
ing.
Brick, terra cotta
Brick, terra cotta
Wood...................
Wood...................
Brick and stone.
W ood.................
Wood...................
Wood................
Wood...................
Stone and cement
Brick............ ......
Wood...................
Wood...................
Brick (steel tank)

1901
1904
1904
(«)
1901
1878
1899
1900
1889
1900

Brick (cement
tank).
Brick (cement
tank).
Wood...............
Brick...................
Brick...............
Brick...................
Wood...................
Wood...............
Brick...................
Brick and stone.
Brick and stone.
(°)
In public ouilding
Wood...................
Brick...................
Wood...................
Wood...................
Wood...................

1895
1901
1893
(r)
1898

Wood..... .............
Brick...................
(/)
Wood...................
Wood...................

1897
1896
1898

Wood...................
Brick and marble
Brick and stone.

1903
1896
1891
1895
1898
1903
1903
1903

Brick...................
Wood...................
Brick, terra cotta.
Corrugated iron.
Brick...................
Brick...................
Brick...................
Brick and stone..

1897
1890
1893

Brick and stone..
Brick and stone..
Wood...................

1903
1901
1896
1902
1897
ft

NONMUNICIPAL.

97
98
99

Phipps Gymnasium and Bath...
Marine Park Bath......................
People’s Baths.............................
Riverside Association Bath.......
Gaskill Street Bath, No. 1...........
Wood Street Bath, No. 2 ............
NewGaskill Street Bath (women)
Peacock Bath...............................

1 shower..........
1 beach............
1 shower___.. .
1 shower....... ..
1 shower....... .
1 shower..........
1 shower___.. .
1 shower and
pool.
Pittsburg, Pa....... People’s Bath............................... 1 shower..........
San Francisco, Cal .Tames Lick Bath.......................... ltu b .................
San Francisco, Cal Lurline Bath................................ lpool (u) . . . . . .

Different days.
Open to air.
Separate dressing rooms.
One opened in 1902; other not reported.
Separate houses.
Not reported.




(/One in 1899, one in 1901, and two in 1902.
h Spring, summer, and fall.
i l river beach, 1 floating.
il898 and 1890.
fcDifferent hours.
l First in 1870.

. 1257

PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES,
STATISTICS OF PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued.

Equipment.
Swimming tanks.

In
Hot
service. Show­
ers. Tubs. wa­
ter.

Num­
ber.

Size (feet).

Sepa­
Sepa­ rate Living
Inrate wait­ rooms
struc- Dress­ Public baths ing
tion in ing laun­ for rooms for suswim­ rooms. dry. males for perinming.
and fe. males tendmales. and fe­ ent.
males.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

All year
All year
All year

20
1 Yes. None
12 None Yes. None
7 None Yes. None

N o ...
N o ...
N o...

20
12
7

N o ... No(ct) No(a) Yes..
N o ... N o ... N o ... N o ...
N o ... N o ... N o... N o ...

46
47
48

All year
Summer

20 None Yes. None
12 None Yes.
2

N o ...
55 by 120; 55 by Yes..

20
192

N o ... No(«) No(a) Yes..
N o ... Yes.. Y es.. N o ...

49
50

N o ...
Y es..
N o...
N o ...
23 by 48.......... N o ...
Yes..
CO
20 by 50..........
(O
40 by 60.......... N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
33 by 83i......... N o ...

80
450
37
123
72
150
132
40
14
90
81
112

N o ...
N o ...
Yes..
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

Summer
Summer
All year
Summer
Summer
Summer
Summer
Summer
All year
Summer
Summer
All year

None None
None None
37
2
None None
None None
None None
8 None
10 None
12
2
None None
2 None
18 None

No..
No..
Yes.
No..
No..
No..
No..
No..
Yes.
No..
No..
Yes.

None
None
None
None
2
1
4
1
None
None
None
1

N o ...
N o ...
Y es..
Y es..
(O
No(«)
No(a)
No a
Yes..
N o ...
Y es..
No(a)

Yes.. N o ...
Yes.. N o ...
Yes.. No...
Yes..
(0)
N o ...
(«)
No a); N o ...
Noa) N o ...
No a) N o ...
Y es.. N o ...
N o ... N o ...
Yes.. N o ...
No(<') Yes..

All year

15

7

Yes.

1

30 by 80..........

N o ...

56

N o ... No(a) No(a) N o ...

63

All year

20

6

Yes.

1

27§ by 77f....... N o ...

38

N o ... No(a) No(a) Y es..

64

Summer None None No..
None None Yes.
(*)
12 None Yes.
(*)
(h)
8 None Yes.
Summer None None No..
Summer None None No..
All year
67
10 Yes.
All year
96
7 Yes.
All year
96
7 Yes.
Summer None None No..
All year
11 None Yes.
Summer None None No..
All year
15 None Yes.
Summer None None No..
Summer None None No..
All year
16
20 Yes.

None
1
1
1
1
15
None
None
None
15
None
2
None
None
1
1

100 N o ... N o ... Y es.. N o ...
N o ...
17 bv 75.......... Y es..
33 N o ... No(a) Y es.. N o ...
28 by 50.......... Yes..
59 N o ... No (a) Yes-.. N o ...
25 by 50.......... Yes..
35 N o ... No (a) Y es.. N o ...
20 by 50.......... N o ...
48 N o ... No(fc) No(fc) N o ...
Yes.. CO
N o ... No(«) No(a) N o ...
CO
67 N o ... Y es.. Yes.. Y es..
N o ...
103 N o ... Y es.. Yes.. N o ...
N o ...
103 N o ... Y es.. Yes.. N o ...
N o ...
50 by 100 (p ) .. N o ... 1,125 N o ... No(fc) No(fc) N o ...
N o ...
11 N o ... No(fc) No(fc) N o ...
20 N o ... Yes.. ( O
25 by 75.......... Y es..
N o ...
15 N o ... No(fc) No(fc) Y es..
N o ...
Yes.. CO
N o ... Yes.. Yes.. Y'es..
20 by 55.......... N o ...
36 N o ... No(fc) No(fc) N o ...
36 by 96.......... N o ...
37 N o ... No(fc) No(fc) Yes..

65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

Summer
All year
Summer
Summer
Summer

None
24
None
None
None

None
2
None
None
None

No..
1
CO
Yes. None
1
CO
CO
No..
2 30by 60; 22by44
1 8i by 25..........
No..

N o ...
N o ...
CO

Y es..
Y es..

15
24
100
47

N o ... Yes.. Yes.. N o ...
N o ... ( 0
N o ...
(s)

81
82
83
84
85

N o ... (0
N o ...
(0
N o ... Yes.. Y es.. Y es..
N o ... Y es.. Yes.. Yes..

86
87
88

Y es..
N o...
N o ...
N o ...
Yes..
N o ...
Y es..
N o ...

Yes.. N o ...
N o ... N o ...
Y es.. Yes..
Y es..
(*)
Y e s . . Yes..
Yes.. Yes..
N o ...
(0
(*)
Yes.. Yes.. N o ...

89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96

N o... Yes.. Yes.. Y es..
N o ... Yes.. Yes.. Y es..
N o ... No(fc) Yes.. Yes..

97
98
99

(f)

Summer None None No..
1 8xl9|
All year
24
2 Yes. None
All year
22
2 Yes. None

Yes..
N o ...
N o ...

55
26
24

All year
Summer
All year
All year
All year
All year
All year
All year

N o ...
N o ...

28
476
36
u31
44
30
10
16

20
8 Yes. None
32 None Yes. None
23
3 Yes. None
31 None Yes. None
40
4 Yes. None
30 None Yes. None
5
5 Yes. None
10
4 Yes.
1 l l i by 26.........

All year
32
All year None
All year
CO

2
60
CO

Yes. None
Yes. None
Yes.
1

m Some open at top.
n First in 1885.
o Some brick and stone,
p Approximate.

N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...
N o ...

N o...
N o ...
70 by 150......... Yes..

34
60
CO

CO

CO

CO

CO

Yes..
Yes..
Y es..
(0
Yes..
Yes..

r Beach in 1891, floating baths in 1903.

some wood.

gl river beach, and 2 floating.




CO

N o ... No(fc) No(fc) N o ...
Yes.. Yes.. Yes.. Yes..

s For females only.
t For males only.
u Not including Turkish and Hydriatic.
v Salt water.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
STATISTICS OF PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES.—Continued.

L
arnal
im -

Cost or value, including betterments.

Number of baths during fiscal
year.

City.
Land.

sr.

Buildings.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

MUNICIPAL.

1

Albany, N. Y .......

$8,500.00

$29,890.10

$38,390.10

39,791

4,253

44,044

2

Baltimore, Md___
Baltimore, Md___
Baltimore, Md___
Baltimore, Md___
Baltimore, Md___
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.(i)..
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass........
Boston, Mass........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.......
Boston, Mass.........
Boston, Mass.........
Bridgeport, Conn.
Brookline, Mass...
Brooklyn, N. Y . ..
Brooklyn, N. Y . . .
Brooklyn, N. Y .. .
Buffalo, N. Y .........
Buffalo, N. Y ........
Cambridge, Mass..
Chicago, 111..........
Chicago, 111..........
Chicago, 111..........
Chicago, 111..........
Chicago, 111..........
Chicago, 111..........
Chicago, 111..........
Chicago, 111..........
Chicago, 111...........
Chicago, 111..........
Chicago, 111..........
Chicago, 111..........
Cleveland, Ohio...
Cleveland, Ohio...
Cleveland, Ohio...
Detroit, M ich.......
Hartford, Conn .. .
Hoboken, N. J.......

(*)
(*)
(<
*)
3,900.00
4,000.00

1,500.00
1,800.00
550.00
40,000.00
23,a50.00
12,000.00
10,000.00
60,000.00
1,000.00
15,000.00
55,000.00
5,000.00
2,000.00
48,000.00
10,000.00
25,000.00
35,000.00

c l ,500.00
cl, 800.00
e550.00
43,900.00
27,050.00
h 12,000.00
*10,000.00
*60,000.00
Cl, 000.00
c 15,000.00
*55,000.00
*5,000.00
15,500.00
48,000.00
*10,000.00
35,000.00
*35,000.00
(b)
29,000.00

15,035
23,799
12,375
51,211
45,824
58,120
76,950
700,000
25,849
20,221
90,092
12,665
39,970
40,000
40,119
42,000
50,000
25,000
25,000
25,000
24,688
None.
6,174
236,510
(°)
(«)
12,500
71,417
13,261

None.
None.
None.
19,894
6,981.
40,000
70,078
227,108
None.
20,000
89,000
8,000
34,060
24,000
20,000
28,000
34,000
11,000
11,000
7,000
None.
1,711
None.
118,255
(°)
(°)
12,500
42,366
9,644
(*)
17,315
330,000
(*)
(*)
s3,352
s 19,938
(*)
(U
10,718
21,135
14,794
44,006
20,278
27,142
15,522
None.
None.
(*)
(<)
(<)
(<)
(*)
4,863
36,800
7,500

15,035
23,799
12,375
71,105
52,805
98,120
147,028
927,108
25,849
40,221
179,092
20,665
74,030
64,000
60,119
70,000
84,000
36,000
36,000
32,000
24,688
1,711
6,174
354,765
(°)
(°)
25,000
113,783
22,905
s 13,500
54,735
1,100,000
(*)
(*)
77,675
116,975
40,880
s 60,000
201,408
82,260
89,122
174,276
120,647
99,237
97,505
31,867
29,460

3
4
5
6

7
8

9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

(0)
(9)
(9)
(b)
(b)
(0)
(0)

13,500.00
None.
(9)

10,000.00
(S
')
(b)
9,000.00

( b)

20,000.00
(*)
16,^500.00
13,000.00
17,000.00
22,500.00
20,000.00
21,000.00
80,846.00
95,000.00
100,000.00
(0
130,000.00
461,200.00
31,000.00
31,000.00
253,403.46
200,000.00
85,000.00
50,000.00
3,430.00
*3,430.00
61,000.00
48,000.00
75,000.00
75,000.00
79,300.00
83,300.00
54,564.00
57,064.00
8,300.00
14,800.00
18,965.00
16,365.00
*4,500.00
4,500.00
4, 526.95
*4,526.95
500.00
*500.00
(V)
(v )
40,000.00 *40,000.00
16,699.40 c 16,699.40
15,361.00 c 15,361.00
5,322.00
7,326.51
10,062.00
13,856.60
2,200.00
3,200.00
31,500.00
31,500.00
14,800.00
18,150.00
l 46,692.45 lh 46,692.45
3,000.00
2,000.00
18,000.00 1/18,000.00
25,000.00
28,100.00
16,180.00 *16,180.00
8,156.00
8,156.00
11,000.00
11,000.00

3,(500.00
22
5,500.00
23
1,000.00
24
14,154.00
25
26
(<)
331,200.00
27
28
(P)
53,403.46
29
35,000.00
30
31
(0)
(*)
13,000.00
37,420
32
None.
770,000
33
4,000.00
34
(*)
2,500.00
35
(*)
s 74,323
6,500.00
36
s 97,037
2,600.00
37
38
(<)
(9)
39
(<)
(9)
190,690
40
(9)
61,125
41
(9)
74,328
42
(9)
130,270
43
h
100,369
44
(b)
2,004.51
72,095
45
81,983
3,794.60
46
31,867
1,000.00
47
(fc)
29,460
48
3,350.00
49
(*)
(*)
s 50,000
50
(9)
(<)
1,000.00
9,088
51
(*)
52
19,070
(*)
3,100.00
53
(*)
41,341
46,204
54
(9)
46,000
82,800
None.
55
37,500
None.
45,000
56
*Fr ie 3 days each week to residents,
bhe sised.
cB i] ilding and equipment only; land leased,
iRe at free.
ilding and equipment only; land rent free,
rIn< sluding income from laundry,
7 Pll blic land.
hBv ilding and equipment only; on public land,
i Nc t reported.
/He re is combined a great playground, with piers, bath houses, open-air gymnasium, etc., all repreatin g a value of about $1,000,000, including land, pier, and buildings.
fcLi >cated in public building.
H i eluding gymnasium.
ee to boys and girls on Saturdays.

eBu




1259

PUBLIC BATHS IH THE UNITED STATES.
STATISTICS OF PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES.—Continued.
Number of baths during
fiscal year.
Charge for baths.
Free.

For
pay.

Total.

Nonresidents 25c., residents
25,456 18,588
44,044
10c.(a)
Suit 5c. per hour, if furnished.
12,835
2,200
15,035
Suit 5c. per hour, if furnished.
15,000
23,799
8,799
Suit 5c. per hour, if furnished.
10,607
12,375
1,768
Adults 3c., children l c ............
None. 71,105
71,105
Adults 3c., children l c ............
52,805
None. 52,805
Towel lc., suit 5c., if furnished.
98,120
(*)
(*)
147,028
Towel lc., suit 5c., if furnished.
(<)
(<)
927,108
Towel lc., suit 5c., if furnished.
(<)
(*)
25,849
Towel lc., suit5c., if furnished.
(«)
(9
40,221
Towel lc., suit 5c., if furnished.
(<)
(<)
179,092
Towel lc., suit 5c., if furnished.
(<)
20,665
Towel lc., suit 5c., if furnished.
(<)
(4
74,030 None.
74,030
None..........................................
64,000
Towel lc., suit 5c., if furnished.
(*)
(*)
60,119
Towel lc., suit5c., if furnished.
(<)
(<)
70,000
Towel lc., soap lc., if furnished
(i)
(<)
84,000
Towel lc., soap lc.,if furnished
(9
(*)
36,000
Towel lc., soap lc., if furnished
(<)
(*)
36,000
Towel lc., soap lc. ,if furnished
( l)
(<)
32,000
Towel lc., soap lc., if furnished
(*)
(*)
24,688 None.
24,688
None..........................................
1,711 None.
1,711
None..........................................
6,174 None.
6,174
None..........................................
354,765
Towel lc., soap 1c . ( m ) ..............
(«)
(*)
(°)
(°)
(°)
(°)
(°)
(°)
(°)
(°)
None..........................................
25,000 None.
25,000
(r)
113,783
None. 113,783
(r)
22,905
None. 22,905
None.......................................... *13,500 None. s 13,500
5 to 25c; free at times..............
9,360 45,375
54,735
None.......................................... 1,100,000 None. 1,100,000
None..........................................
None.
(*)
(*)
None..........................................
None.
(*)
(*)
77,675 None.
None..........................................
77,675
None.......................................... 116.975 None.
116,975
(u)
40,880
(4
Suit 5c., if furnished...............
s60,000
(4
(*)
None.......................................... 201,408 None.
201,408
None..........................................
82,260 None.
82,260
None..........................................
89,122 None.
89,122
174,276
None.......................................... 174,276 None.
None.......................................... 120,647 None.
120,647
None..........................................
99,237 None.
99,237
None..........................................
97,505 None.
97,505
None..........................................
31,867 None.
31,867
None..........................................
29,460 None.
29,460
None..........................................
None.
(*)
(*)
None.......................................... *50,000 None. *50,000
(IV)
9,088
9,088
None.
(w)
None. 19,070
19,070
(*)
<*)
(*)
(*)
Locker 5c., dressing room 10c*.
12,121 34,083
46,204
82,800
None..........................................
82,800 None.
45,000 None.
None..........................................
45,000

Cost of
Income mainte­
from
Date of end­
baths nance and ing of fiscal
during operation
year.
during
year.
year.

$1,868.00

$6,060.00

115.00
350.00
439.95
850.00
88.40
317.00
/2 ,397. 00
6,250.00
1,493.84
5,340.95
150.00
3,500.00
75.00
3,000.00
1,000.00 16,000.00
25.00
700.00
20.00
2,100.00
300.00 14,000.00
25.00
1,700.00
None.
800.00
250.00 24,000.00
25.00
1,500.00
125.00
8,000.00
150.00 10,000.00
60.00
5,500.00
60.00
5,500.00
60.00
5,500.00
None. l 3,000.00
None. 13, 0 0 0
0 .0
None. l 3,300.00
^3,500.00 «18,000.00
(°)
(°)
(o)

None.
23,242.85
6,645.70
None.
6,691.00
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
1,134.71
313.00
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
686.15
1,495.65
(*)
2,864.00
None.
None.

(o)

800.00
29,566.89
7,868.04
250.00
8,198.08
20,969.37
(*)
w
1,990.13
4,8^3.29
2,193.95
1,032.00
1,000.00
500.00
6,489.77
4,390.27
4,396.50
3,572.35
3,782.37
1,034.55
868.61
4,445.72
1,035.57
2,132.16
(*)

2,300.00
2,473.27
1,500.00

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Dec. 31,1902

1

Dec. 31,1902
Dec. 31,1902
Dec. 31,1902
Dec. 31,1902
Mar.31,1903
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1903
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1904
Jan. 31,1903
Jan. 31,1903
Jan. 31,1903
Jan. 31,1903
(°)
(°)
May—, 1902
Dec. 31,1902
Dec. 31,1902
Dec. 31,1902
Jan. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1902
(*)

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

(*)

Dec. 31,1902
Dec. 31,1902
Nov. 30,1903
Dec. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1903
(*)

Dec. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1903
Dec. 31,1903
(*)
Dec. 31,1902
Dec. 31,1901
Dec. 31,1902

wFor year ending January 31,1904.
oNot reported; bath under construction.
Located in school building.
« Equipment only.
r Suit, towel, and dressing room, 25c.; towel and dressing room, 20c.—children, 10c.
s Estimated.
t Not reported; only recently opened.
u When furnished, suit, towel, and locker, 10c.; suit, towel, and dressing room, 15c.; dressing room,
10c.; extra towels, 3c.
v Canvas tents donated; on public land.
wRoom and towel, 5c.; room, towel, and suit, 10c.
sc Donated.
y Building and equipment only; land donated.
z Suit and towel free.
P

10193—No. 54—04---- 20




1260

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
STATISTICS OF PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES—Concluded.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Cost or value, including betterments.

Number of baths during fiscal
year.

City.
Land.

Buildings.

Total.

Males.

Females.

Total.

municipal—conc’d.

57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88

Holyoke, Mass —
Kansas City, Mo ..
Louisville, Ky —
Milwaukee, Wis...
Milwaukee, Wis...
Milwaukee, Wis...
Milwaukee, Wis...
Milwaukee, W is...
Minneapolis,
Minn.
Newark, N. J .........
Newark, N. J .........
Newark, N. J .........
Newton, Mass.......
New Y o rk ,N .Y ...
New York,N. Y . . .
New Y ork,N .Y .. .
New York, N. Y ...
Philadelphia, Pa..
Portland, Me.........
Providence, R. I ..
Rochester,N.Y ...
St. Paul, Minn.......
Springfield, Mass..
Syracuse, N .Y .......
Taunton, Mass___
Troy, N .Y ..............
Utica, N. Y ............
Washington, D. C .
Worcester, Mass. ..
Worcester, Mass. . .
Yonkers, N. Y .......
Yonkers, N. Y .......

(0
$1,400.00
None.
(a)
4,000.00
6,883.00
5,500.00
(0

$6,207.00
12,000.00
4,000.00
2,000.00
(a)
23,136.89
24,363.36
50,000.00
3,500.00

1,500.00
2,500.00
1,500.00
(c)
None.
(0
19,000.00
33,750.00
60,000.00
(«)
None.
10,000.00
(fc)
None.
10,000.00
None.
1,000.00
(«)
(c)
None.
None.
2,000.00
1,200.00

13,000.00
18,000.00
16,000.00
700.00
(0
100,000.00
108,630.00
100,873.00
115,827.00
2,357.00
1,600.00
5,500.00
30,000.00
2,000.00
2,000.00
600.00
13,000.00
(0
12,000.00
3,500.00
3,500.00
9,350.00
9,765.00

14,500.00
20,500.00
17,500.00
d 700.00
(<)
d 100,000.00
127,630.00
134,623.00
J 175,827.00
d 2,357.00
1,600.00
15,500.00
1 30,000.00
2,000.00
12,000.00
600.00
14,000.00
6,077.45
<*12,000.00
3,500.00
3,500.00
11,350.00
10,965.00

(a)

j

$6,207.00
12,000.00
5,400.00
2,000.00
(«)
27,136.89
31,246.36
55,500.00
d 3,500.00

b
d

30,000
33,524
10,180
(e )

{e )

10,000
3,156
3,959

40,000
36,680
14,139
(«)
82,000
335,170
232,455
(/)
41,000

(e)

315,380
198,838
(/)
35,000

(•)
19,790
33,617
C
O
6,000

38,902
29,639
47,395
(e)
(«)
521,805
(/)

2,956
3,561
7,325
(«)
(«)
255,112
(/)

4,343,044
28,000
18,632
44,500
158,722
29,350
064,537
(«)
44,205
(«)
(e)
None.
18,268

110,064
2,000
18,172
8,500
45,359
650
o 3,187
(0
29,887
(«)

to

W

to

(e)

11,495
None.
(0
(0

41,858
33,200
54,720
6,727
5,200,000
776,917
to
to
4,453,108
30,000
36,804
53,000
204,081
30,000
J 69,667
P
5,000
74,092
(0
33,496
11,495
18,268
a 19,496
26,673

NONM
UNICIPAL.
89
90
91

Allegheny, Pa___
Boston, Mass.........
New York, N. Y ..

10,000.00
35,000.00
(«)

77,000.00
20,000.00
27,025.58

87,M00.00
55,000.00
627,025.58

18,060
18,285
«103,493

1,961
7,691
«15,336

92
93

New York, N .Y ..
Philadelphia, Pa .

(«)
5,750.00

(e)
24,153.70

(«)
29,903.70

43,809
55,704

None.
6,673

n

20,021
25,976
118,829
43,809
62,377

94

Philadelphia, Pa .

2,328.83

19,912.58

22,241.41

tO

(0

(/)

95

Philadelphia, Pa .

1,949.00

7,049.32

8,998.32

None.

to

to

96
97

Pittsburg, Pa........
Pittsburg, Pa.......

(0
20,000.00

10,000.00
25,000.00

*10,000.00
45,000.00

14,612
81,665

98
99

San Francisco, Cal
San Francisco, Cal

125,000.00
(0

(e )

(«)
(0

(e )

(0

9,615
3,900
(0
(0

24,227
85,565
Q 55,719

(0

Leased.
Building and equipment only; land leased.
Public land.
Building and equipment only; on public land.
Not reported.
/N o t reported; only recently opened.
0Suit, towel, and dressing room 20c., towel and dressing room 10c., children’s trunks and dressing
room 10c., children’s trunks 5c., care of suit for season $2, boys with their own suits, free.
h Suit, closet, and towel, 5c., if furnished; Saturdays, 10c.
i $10,000 to $12,000.
j Not including cost of public land On which 8 of the bath houses were built,
fcNot reported; partly donated.
l Not including cost of land, not reported.
m Towel, suit, and soap 2c., if furnished; private cabinet, locker, suit, and 2 towels, 5c.
a
b
c
d
e




PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES.
STATISTICS OF PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES—Con<

Number of baths during
fiscal year.
Charge for baths.

Cost of
Income mainte­
from
baths nance and
during operation
during
year.
year.

,rtal

m
-

Free.

None..........................................
Suit 5c., if furnished...............
None..........................................
None..........................................
None..........................................
None..........................................
None..........................................
w
(h)
\h)

(*)
One nominal, other free.........
None..........................................
None...................... ...................
None..........................................
None..........................................
None.....................................
None..........................................
None..........................................
None..........................................
(m)

None..........................................
Private tub sulphur baths 25c.
None..........................................
None..........................................
(e)
Suits, children 10c., adults 15c.
None..........................................
None..........................................
5c., including towel and soapr .
5c., including towel and soapr.

5 c ...............................................
(f)
Towel and soap 5c., if fur­
nished.
Towel, soap, and water 5 c ___
Towel and soap 5c., if fur­
nished.
Towel and soap 5c., if fur­
nished.
Towel and soap 5c., if fur­
nished.
Towel and soap 5c. ( v ) ............
Towel and soap 5c., if fur­
nished.
10c..............................................
(*)

For
pay.

Total.

40,000
32,296
14,139
(«)
82,000
335,170
232,455
(/)
(*)

None.
4,384
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
(/)
(«)

40,000
36,680
14,139
(«)
82,000
335,170
232,455
(/)
41,000

None.
$219.20
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
(/)
593.00

$1,377.48
715.50
1,440. 00
700.00
1,820.87
6,000.00
5,000.00
(/)
800.00

41,858
38,757
3,101
3,517
33,200
29,683
51,015
3,705
54,720
6,727
(e)
(e)
5,200,000 None. 5,200,000
776,917
776,917 None.
None.
(/)
(/)
None.
(/)
(/)
4,453,108 None. 4,453,108
30,000 None.
30,000
36,804
36,804 None.
53,000 None.
53,000
204,081
n 173,469 «30,612
30,000 None.
30,000
1,943
67,724
69,667
5,000 None.
5,000
74,092 None.
74,092
(e)
(e)
(e )
33,496
(«)
(«)
11,495 None.
11,495
18,268 None.
18,268
19,496 319,496
(e)
36,673
6,673
(e )

150.01
175.84
185.25
(«)
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
None.
(«)
None.
485.75
None.
None.
(e)
537.85
None.
None.
974.80
333.65

1,481.60
1,481.60
1,481.59
292.15
36,000.00
34,000.00
(/)
(/)
11,000.00
1,200.00
1,012.32
3,000.00

1,001.05
5,637.20

2,000.00
(*)
5,968.41

89
90
91

43,809 2,190.45
3,
62,377 m 520.20

2,428.17
5,002.64

92
93

None. 20,021
None. 25,976
5,795 113,034
None.
3,923

43,809
58,454

20,021
25,976
118,829

. ( e)

(e )

1,000.00
3,343.94
400.00
1,800.00
403.33
2,934.40
300.00
300.00
(«)
(*)




57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

66

67
68

69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86

87
88

(/)

(/)

(/)

(/)

(f)

94

(/)

(/)

(/)

(/)

(f)

95

7,586
7,566

16,641
77,999

(O
None.

55,719
(e)

854.05
3,959.76

1, 200.00
2,809.72

96
97

?9,015. 72
3 55, 719 m
(e)
(e)

7,969. 65
(e)

98
99

24,227
85,565

Estimated.
Free baths only.
Including 1,943 pay baths; sex of bathers not reported.
3 Not including free baths not reported.
r Children free.
s Eight months ending December 31,1903.
t Men’s suit and towel, 10c.; women’s, 15c.; shower, 15c.; shower and suit, 20c.; ■
lality of suit.
u Not including $150.95 income from laundry.
v For persons 12 years of age or over; under 12, free.
vo Including income from invested funds.
#Tank baths—adults, 25c.; children, 15c.; tub, 30c.; Russian, tank, and show*
n
o

P

r.

1262

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

MUNICIPAL BATHS.
This table furnishes a general survey of the conditions in the country
at the present time. The municipal baths in existence may be classi­
fied in a general way into five types: The beach bath, the floating
bath, the pool bath, the shower bath, and the combined shower and
pool bath. The beach and the floating baths may be said to represent
the earliest type of bath, while the showed bath represents the latest
development in this direction.
Beach baths, with the simplest of accommodations, have been in
existence for many years. The L Street Beach in Boston is, however,
the oldest of them for which information could be secured, having
been established in 1866. Boston now maintains 10 beach baths; M il­
waukee, 4 ; Chicago, 3; Baltimore, 3, while one or two are found in
Cleveland, O hio; St. Paul and Minneapolis, M in n .; Cambridge, M ass.;
Detroit, M ic h ., and Bridgeport, Conn. A description of a typical bath
of this character will be found on pages 1278 and 1279.

W h ere a

natural beach exists, these are perhaps the least expensive of baths,
inasmuch as the only provision necessary is accommodation for dress­
ing. These dressing rooms are in many cases exceedingly simple and
inexpensive, while in other cases they are elaborate and costly. The
Massachusetts State beaches at Revere and Nantasket, for example,
are splendidly equipped, as will be seen later on, and the cost per bath
is correspondingly great, while the beach baths maintained by the city
of Chicago are simple in equipment, the cost per bath being only about
half a cent.
Floating baths were established by the city of Boston as early as
1866 and b y the city of New Y o rk as early as 1870. Boston still
maintains 12 o f these houses, New Y o r k 15, and Brooklyn 5. One or
two baths of this character are maintained also by Providence, R. I . ;
Hoboken, N . J . ; Springfield, Taunton, W orcester, and Newton, M a ss.;
H artford, Conn., and W ashington, D . C.

A description of a typical

bath of this kind will be found on page 1331.

Briefly, these struc­

tures consist of a platform placed upon floats, the bathing pool occu­
pying the center of the platform , while the dressing rooms are situated
around the pool.

The pool itself is built in such a way as to allow

the free circulation of the water through the slats or boards of which
its sides and bottom are constructed.

These baths may be simple and

inexpensive, or, as in the case of the Boston and the New Y o rk
baths, may be large and costly. The floating houses are useful only
for summer bathing and can be adopted only by cities having a
water frontage.

During the bathing season they are moored at con­

venient points on the water front, while in winter they are assembled
at some central point of shelter where they may undergo needed
repairs. Baths o f this character are especially suited to small cities
which have available a river, lake, or other body of water free from



PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1263

pollution. It is probable that this type of bath will gradually disap­
pear from the larger cities, owing to the increasing difficulty of secur­
ing convenient sites and pure water. New Y o rk has already experi­
enced great difficulty in this direction, and a number of smaller towns
situated on rivers have been compelled to abolish their floating houses
on account of the increasing pollution of the water.
Pool baths are of various kinds. The first established by any A m er­
ican city, so far as known, was constructed in 1885 by Philadelphia.
That city was compelled to abolish its floating baths at that time owing
to the pollution of the water, replacing them with pools in various
parts of the city. It now has in operation 15 pool baths. Chicago
has two elaborate baths of this character, while simpler ones are found
in Hoiyoke (4) and Boston (1), M ass.; Newark, N. J. (3); Utica, N. Y .
(1), and Kansas City, M o. (1). The pool baths when not constructed
in connection with shower baths are, so far as known, available only in
warm weather. The pools or tanks are constructed of various mate­
rials and, as will be seen in the table, are of varying size. The sim­
plest form consists of a tank surrounded by dressing rooms. In some
cases the tank, as well as the dressing room, is roofed over, while in
others it is without cover.
The three kinds of baths just mentioned, it will be noted, are avail­
able only in the warm season— perhaps four months in the year.
W h ile they are excellent as affording recreation and facilities for
securing a degree of cleanliness, it is apparent that the best results
can not be secured thereby. H ot water is essential not only to a
thorough cleansing of the body, but also to render possible the giving
of baths during the season when baths are most needed and when the
facilities for bathing are most lacking. The tub bath, while serving
a useful purpose under certain circumstances, has now been almost
entirely abandoned in public baths. It is now very generally conceded
that the shower or rain bath is best adapted for all public purposes.
A s has been stated, these baths have been in use for many years in
many of the public baths in Great Britain and the continent of Europe.
Their general establishment by municipalities in this country, how­
ever, began about ten years ago.

Baths of this character were,

indeed, established by private philanthropic enterprise some years
previously through the efforts of Doctor Baruch and others, and had
been introduced in the Charlesbank gymnasium baths by the city of
Boston as early as 1889.

I f the two modern types of baths, consisting

of showers alone, or showers in connection with a pool are considered
together, it is seen that Milwaukee established the W e s t Side Natatorium in 1890, Chicago opened the Carter H . Harrison Bath in 1894,
while other cities followed their example during the succeeding years.
A t the present time 39 baths of these types are now in operation by vari­
ous cities in the United States, and many more are under construe


1264

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

tion. O f the houses devoted especially to the furnishing.of shower
baths, Boston, M ass., maintains 10; Chicago, 111., 7; New Y ork , N. Y .,
3; Brooklyn, N. Y . , 2; Baltimore, M d ., 2; Buffalo, N. Y ., 2 ; Yonkers,
N. Y ., 2 ; while 1 each is maintained by Rochester and T roy, N. Y .;
Cleveland, O hio; Louisville, K y ., and Portland, M e.

O f the houses

containing a pool in addition to the shower equipment, Milwaukee,
W is ., maintains 3, and Brookline, M ass., and Syracuse and A lban y,
N. Y ., 1 each.
The great superiority of the shower over any other form of public
bath is indicated in the report of Doctor Baruch, previously quoted,
and by the experience of those cities which have adopted it.

Adequate

descriptions o f the municipal establishments of this character now in
existence will be found under the accounts given of the baths in the
various cities in the succeeding pages. New Y ork and Brooklyn have
recently opened elaborate bath houses in which the equipment con­
sists almost entirely of showers. These cities have also planned a
number of additional houses, one of which will contain a pool of tem ­
pered water in addition to the shower equipment. A description of
this particular house, as well as the architect’s plans, will be found on
page 1334.

Chicago maintains seven excellent houses of this char­

acter, and Boston has a large establishment, the Dover Street bath
house, in addition to nine smaller shower baths, which are conducted
in connection with its public gymnasiums. This city now has under
construction a very large and complete house on Cabot street and has
provided for another in the North End. Baltimore has two excellent
houses, which also contain public laundries. Buffalo also has two
handsome indoor baths. Milwaukee has for some years maintained
two houses combining the facilities for shower and pool baths, and in
1903 opened another house of this character. Brookline, M ass., has
one of the most attractive and best equipped houses in the country,
considering the size of the city and the cost of the establishment, while
other cities maintain less expensive houses.
The tabular presentation of the statistics of public municipal baths
in the United States shows that in a number of the larger cities as well
as in some of the smaller ones special effort has been made to estab­
lish a series of baths which shall be within easy reach of the classes
which are without other bathing facilities.

The determination of a

policy as to the sites and sizes of the municipal houses which shall
supply the needs of a city is a matter of great importance.

In certain

cities it has been seen that one or more handsome and expensive houses
have been erected at central points, while in others the policy has been
to provide a greater number of small and inexpensive houses favor­
ably situated for the use of the classes for whose special need they
have been established.

Local conditions as to the distribution of the

various classes of the population will, of course, have much to do with



PUBLIC BATHS IN THE UNITED STATES.

1265

the size and character of the houses to be provided. Dr. E . M . H art­
well, after a careful study of the literature relating to them, expresses
the conviction that—
European experience emphatically teaches the impolicy of lavish
outlay of public money on imposing buildings occupying costly sites.
Baths for the people should be centrally located in populous districts,
where they are easily accessible. Numerous relatively-small and com­
paratively inexpensive self-contained bath houses are vastly more
desirable and useful than are structures of the costly monumental
type for which architects and municipal councilors have too often
shown so marked a predilection.
Dr. Hartwell also states that these opinions are held by the more
intelligent and experienced of the officials who are charged with the
practical care and oversight of public baths, both in Great Britain and
on the Continent.
In a pamphlet published by the Public Bath Commission of Boston
it is stated as the policy of that city that the means for free public
bathing—
Should be furnished through a considerable number of establish­
ments designed for local use, rather than by one or two on a large
scale at central points. In other words, the people o f a given neigh­
borhood should not have to go too far in order to avail themselves of
such facilities. I f the bath is within half a mile to a mile of the home,
it will be readily and extensively used; if it is 2 or 3 miles away, its
use will be greatly restricted. This fundamental proposition has been
recognized by Boston from the outset. Thirty years ago, when the
system was established, a number of baths were opened, each in a d if­
ferent section of the city. The site for a bath is always selected with
special reference to its accessibility to the neighborhood that the bath
is intended to serve.
W h ile, on the whole, this policy is believed to be entirely correct,
it is urged that the establishment of large indoor houses is also justi­
fied in the case of cities having a large and congested slum population
located in one or more sections. Boston has recognized the need for
these larger establishments in certain sections by the building of the
large indoor bath in Dover street and by the provision for other
houses of this character in the congested sections surrounding the
sites of the proposed North End and Cabot street houses.
New Y ork and Brooklyn, as well as Boston, supply the means for
summer bathing by a considerable number of floating bath houses
moored along the water front at accessible points. The indoor houses
which have been built in the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn are
both large and handsome structures, costing from $50,000 to $135,000
each. These houses, however, are so favorably situated in the centers
of the most congested slum districts that the capacity of each is being
tested constantly by the crowds seeking admittance.
Owing possibly to a somewhat different distribution of the popula­
tion for whose needs provision was to be made, the city of Chicago has




1266

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

adopted a much more inexpensive style of indoor shower bath— one of
smaller capacity and of less expensive construction.
O f the seven
baths of this character in Chicago the largest and most expensive cost
but $18,150.

A careful study of the conditions in each of the cities

which have established public baths reveals the fact that, without
exception, the greatest possible care was exercised that its baths, in
both situation and character, should be adapted to the wants of the
classes standing in greatest need of such facilities.
It is also to be inferred from the table that experiences differ in the
various cities as to the desirability of furnishing baths entirely free
o f any expense. It is very earnestly advocated by the officials of some
cities that the charge of a small fee for the use of baths, towels, soap,
etc., is highly desirable as promoting a feeling of self-respect among
the patrons o f the houses and an appreciation of the privileges afforded.
On the other hand it is claimed in other cities that bathing should be
entirely free in order that none may be deprived of such privileges.
A fte r a consideration of the various opinions expressed, it is believed
that municipal baths to be most effective should be either entirely free
or that the fees should be so small *as to render their use accessible to
all classes.
The following table shows the municipal baths in the United States
which furnish a service absolutely free of all expense to bathers.
These are classified according to the type of bath.
The table also
shows the cost to the municipality of each bath furnished, the figures
given being drawn from information received as to the number of
bathers and the expenses of maintenance and operation during the last
fiscal year for which data were available in each city.
COST O F M A IN T E N A N C E P E R B A T H IN M U N IC IP A L P U B L IC B A T H S
W H I C H N O F E E IS C H A R G E D F O R B A T H I N G P R I V I L E G E S .

IN

[Arranged under each group according to date of opening.]

BEACH BATHS.
City.

Number
of baths.

Chicago, 111...............
Chicago, 111...............
Boston,