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54th C o n g r e s s , ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. ( D o c u m e n t
1st Session.
)
( No. 33.

BULLETIN
OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.
No. 1—NOVEMBER, 1895.




ISSUED EVERY OTHER MONTH.

EDITED B Y

CARROLL I). WRIGHT,
COMMISSIONER.

OREN W . W EAVER,
CHIEF CLERK.

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE,

1895.




C O N TE N TS.
Page.

Introduction...............................................................................................................................
5-8
Strikes and lockouts in the United States from January 1,1881, to June 30,1894. 9-25
Strikes and lockouts in Great Britain and Ireland in recent years.....................
26-35
Strikes in France in recent years......................................................................................... 36-41
Strikes in Italy in recent years............................................................................................... 42-44
Strikes in Austria in recent years......................................................................................... 45-47
Private and public debt in the United States, by George K. Holmes, formerly
special agent in charge of division of farms, homes, and mortgages in Eleventh
C en su s................................
48-59
Digest of recent reports of state bureaus of labor statistics................................... 60-83
Connecticut....................................................................................................................... 60-64
Indiana................................................................................................................................. 64-69
Michigan............................................................................................................................. 69-71
Minnesota..............................................................................................................................71-77
Missouri............................................................................................................................... 77-80
W isconsin........................................................................................................................... 81-83
Digest of the report by Miss Collet on the statistics of employment of women
and girls in England and W ales....................................................................................... 84-94
Employer and employee under the common law, by Victor H. Olmsted and
Stephen D. Fessenden, of the Department of Labor............................................. 95-107
Bureaus o f statistics of la b o r ......................................................................................... 108-111




3




B U L L E T I N
OF THE

D E P A R T M E N T
N o.

1.

OE L A B O R

WASHINGTON.

N

ovem ber

,

1895.

INTRODUCTION.

During the last session of the Fifty-third Congress Hon. Lawrence
E. McGann, chairman of the Committee on Labor of the House of
Representatives, introduced a bill (H. R. 8713) providing for the pub­
lication of the Bulletin of the Department of Labor. This bill was
referred to the Committee on Labor January 29, 1895, and February 1
the committee made the following report, which was committed to the
Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union:
The Committee on Labor, to whom was referred House bill 8713, have
had the same under consideration, and beg leave to report that the bill
provides that the Commissioner of Labor shall publish a bulletin of the
Department o f Labor, at intervals not to exceed two months, contain­
ing current facts as to the condition of labor in this and other coun­
tries, condensations of state and foreign labor reports, facts as to the
condition of employment, and such other facts as may be deemed of
value to the industrial interests of the country.
The following communication from the Commissioner of Labor, Hon.
Carroll D. Wright, sets forth potent arguments in favor of the passage
of the bill:
D epartm ent

,

of

L abor,

,

Washington D. C., February 1 1895.
M y D e a r S i r : I have the honoi to acknowledge the receipt o f your letter of yes­
terday, inclosing a copy of hill (H. R. 8713) providing for the publication of the
Bulletin o f the Department of Labor, with suggestion that you would like my views
thereon.
In response I have to say that I have very carefully examined, not only the hill,
which sgems to me to be fully adequate for the purpose for which it is intended, but
the plan for which it provides. The Department of Labor is authorized by its
organic law to publish an annual report, and also such special reports as may be
deemed best, either by the Commissioner of Labor or in response to resolutions of
either branch of Congress or a request of the President, and it has in the past fully
complied with these provisions, sending to Congress annually a report relating to
some specific and extensive investigation, and also various special reports not requir­
ing so extensive work as the annual reports.
I suppose the Department would have the right to make a special report at regular
intervals, but in order to do so it would need a larger appropriation than that now
made for its use. Your bill, therefore, supplies this lack, and further, it would enable
the printing office to bring out a regular bulletin without the necessity of delay in
sending it to Congress. After very careful consideration of the whole subject I
therefore feel like indorsing fully the purpose of the bill, especially as foreign gov­
ernments are now doing precisely what your bill aims to accomplish. The English




5

6

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

department o f labor, which was established only recently, is now publishing, very
successfully and with great acceptance to the 'industrial interests o f the country, a
labor gazette. The French department o f labor does the same thing, and so, too,
does that of Ne*w Zealand, and now the Russian government, which has recently
established a department o f labor, is publishing a gazette. It would seem right,
therefore, that the United States, which has been the pioneer of labor departments
in the world, should publish a bulletin.
This would have been done before, I presume, had it not been for the suggestion
that such bulletins should contain information relative to the lack o f labor in dif­
ferent parts o f the country. I believe that all now agree that such announcements
from an official source would do more harm than good, and therefore the movement
has never taken shape; but the publication contemplated by your bill avoids this
particular, and to my mind objectionable, feature o f a bulletin, and with this objec­
tion removed I think it would be greatly for the interest of the industries o f this
country that such a bulletin should be established.
Should you look for precedents in our own government, you will find them in the
Department of Agriculture, the Geological Survey, and the Bureau o f Education.
All o f these offices, while not publishing bulletins at regular intervals, publish them
quite frequently, and they are o f very great use.
I think our Department is now so constituted that it could bring out at least
bimonthly the bulletin contemplated by your bill, and fill its pages with most useful
facts relative to the condition of labor in this and other countries— facts which do not
naturally and would not generally come within the scope of an annual report. Here
would be the great use and great advantage o f the bulletin. The annual reports
must necessarily be the results of patient and laborious investigation. The bulletins
would contain more fragmentary matter, but yet o f vital importance. As I read
your bill, it is not contemplated that a bulletin should contain theoretical matter of
introduce discussions on debatable questions, nor should it become the organ o f any
propaganda, but its whole function is to be confined to the collection and publication
o f current but important facts.
The increased expense would be so small that I should not suppose that would
stand in the way of the passage of the bill. I am very glad to see that your com­
mittee has reported it favorably, and I hope it will secure the favorable action o f
Congress.
I am, very respectfully,
C a r r o l l D. W r i g h t ,
Commissioner.

Hon. L a w r e n c e E. M c Gan n , M. C.,
Chairman Committee on Labor, House o f Representatives .

Your committee therefore recommend that the bill be passed.
The bill which Mr. McGann introduced, and which the committee
reported favorably, provided for a bulletin at intervals not to exceed
two months and not to exceed 100octavo pages 5 and to contain current
facts as to the condition of labor in this and other countries, conden­
sations of state and foreign labor reports, facts as to conditions of
employment, and such other facts as may be deemed of value to the
industrial interests o f the country. This bill passed the House of
Representatives February 26,1895, and was favorably reported in the
Senate, but instead of its passing the Senate as a bill, it was incorpo­
rated, in an abbreviated form, as a provision in the act making the
appropriations for the Department of Labor, as follows:
The Commissioner of Labor is hereby authorized to prepare and pub­
lish a bulletin of the Department of Labor, as to the condition of labor
in this and other countries, condensations o f state and foreign labor
reports, facts as to conditions of employment, and such other facts
as may be deemed of value to the industrial interests of the country,*
and there shall be printed one edition of not exceeding ten thousand
copies o f each issue of said bulletin for distribution by the Department
of Labor.
This amendment was accepted by the House and the bill containing
it was approved March 2,1895. It is under this provision of the legis­




INTRODUCTION.

7

lative appropriation act that the Bulletin of the Department of Labor
is issued.
It will be noticed that the authorization under the legislative appro­
priation act is somewhat different from that contained in the bill as it
passed the House. In that bill there were limitations as to issue and
intervals of issue, but the law as it stands contains no limitations nor
restrictions either as to the size of the bulletin or the intervals at which
it shall be published, the only condition being that not more than 10,000
copies of each issue of the bulletin shall be printed. Notwithstanding
this broad and unrestricted authorization, we feel it right and just to
conform, in a general way, to the terms embodied in the House bill.
We shall therefore undertake to limit the size of the bulletin to about
100 octavo pages and, at present, to issue it every other month. The
principles which will guide us in the preparation of the bulletin are
fully indicated in the letter to the chairman of the House Committee
on Labor just quoted. We need not, therefore, make any restatement
on that point.
Our plan now is to have at least five regular departments of infor­
mation in each issue, as follows:
First. A liberal portion of each issue to be occupied with the results
of original investigations conducted by the Department or its agents.
Second. A digest of foreign labor reports.
Third. A digest of state labor reports.
Fourth. The reproduction, immediately after their passage, of new
laws that affect the interests of the working people whenever such are
enacted by state legislatures or Congress$ also the reproduction of the
decisions of courts interpreting labor laws or passing upon any subject
which involves the relations of employer and employee) attention like­
wise will be called to any other matters pertaining to law which may
be of concern and value to the industrial interests of the country and
which might not be obtained without expense or trouble from other
sources.
Fifth. A miscellaneous department, in which brief statements of fact
or paragraphs of interest may find a place.
In conducting special investigations, the results of which are to
appear in the bulletin, it may be sometimes that such results will take
up the*whole o f the bulletin. The endeavor, however, will be to pre­
serve the regular departments, as a rule, as just stated, departing
therefrom only when the importance of the facts to be published war­
rants such departure.
The bulletin will not be devoted in any way to controversial mat­
ters, the enunciation of theories, nor used iu any sense for propagan­
dises We shall undertake to present all the matters in an attractive
and straightforward way, and while statistical tables will have to be
employed constantly, the aim will still be to give proper space to read­
ing matter. There are very many questions constantly coming up on




BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

which information can not be secured except by inquiry at original
sources. Such questions we hope to be able to consider whenever they
arise, and to give the results a place in the bulletin.
W e shall not attempt in any way to compete with the press, but in
general our aim will be to furnish to the public facts and information
relating to industrial affairs which can not readily be secured in any
other way. So, merely ephemeral matters will not be given a place
in the pages of the bulletin, but those matters which have a more or
less permanent value and which will take their place in the industrial
history of the country will be treated. Readers of the bulletin, there­
fore, will not look for accounts of passing events, unless such accounts
are necessary for future use. In other words, all those matters which
are dealt with fully and comprehensively by the press of the country
as the days go by ought not to be and will not be used to fill up the
pages of the bulletin. The field for the bulletin is wide enough with­
out making it in any sense a newspaper.
The Department now has three channels of communication with the
public. By its organic law it is authorized to make an annual report,
and special reports when called upon by Congress or by the President
or when considered expedient by the head of the Department, and how
this more popular way of disseminating information by means of a
regularly published bulletin. The annual reports will, as heretofore,
consist of the results of investigations which require a large force and
considerable time. They are in a sense scientific productions, and can
not legitimately be brought to a popular basis in any broad sense. The
special reports authorized by the organic law of the Department are
those resulting from more thoroughly individual investigations, those
where but one or two persons can economically work upon one subject.
The annual reports are the results of inquiries made by the schedule
system and where any number of people can be employed. The special
reports are studies of conditions where the schedule system can not be
so generally applied. The bulletin, as against the annual or the special
reports, will contain such matters as can not in the nature of things
find a place in the annual or special reports $ but it is confidently
expected that through the bulletin the Department will be able to bring
much of its work closer home to the people.
The editors will take personal supervision of the preparation of the
bulletin, and it will be their aim to constantly elevate its standard.




STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES EROM
JANUARY 1, 1881, TO JUNE 30, 1894.

The Third Animal Report of the Commissioner of Labor, entitled
Strikes and Lockouts, furnished tables covering the details of all
strikes and lockouts occurring in the United States for the six years
beginning with January 1,1881, and ending with December 3 1,1886r
together with summaries recapitulating the facts shown therein. The
Tenth Annual Report (soon to be printed) is a volume of about 1,200
pages consisting of similar tables and summaries for the strikes and
lockouts which occurred during the seven and one-half years beginning
with January 1,1887, and ending with June 30,1894, being modeled on
the lines laid down in the former report.
The two general tables relating to strikes and lockouts in the Tenth
Annual Report furnish the facts in detail for each strike and lockout
of one or more days’ duration which occurred in the United States
from January 1,1887, to June 30, 1894. In addition to the strikes and
lockouts occurring within the above period the report shows the facts for
certain strikes and lockouts which occurred in the latter part of 1886,
and which were omitted from the Third Annual Report because of the
incompleteness at that time of the data relating to them. A com­
paratively small number of disturbances of less than one day’s dura­
tion, 1,582 in all, have been excluded from consideration in these tables.
TJhey consist mainly of cases of misunderstanding, in which there was
but a few hours’ cessation of work and no financial loss or assistance
involved. For this reason full information concerning them could
rarely be secured, and they have not been considered sufficiently
important to be classed as strikes.
In the Third Annual Report it was found necessary to make the
establishment the unit in the tabular presentation, and not the strike
or lockout. Generally each line there represented either a strike or a
lockout in a single establishment, or a general strike or lockout in two
or more establishments; but there were some instances where the facts
were not so treated. In the Tenth Annual Report experience and a
great amount of care have made it possible to make the strike or lock­
out the unit in all cases.
In order that the increase or diminution of strikes during the years
embraced in the Third and Tenth Annual Reports on this subject may




9

10

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

be determined, the following table, showing the number of strikes in
each year from January 1, 1881, to June 30,1894, is presented:
STRIKES B Y Y E A R S, J A N U A R Y 1, 1881, TO JU N E 30, 1894.

Year.

Strikes.

1882...........................................................................................
1883..........................................................................................
1886...........................................................................................
1887...........................................................................................
1888..........................................................................................
1889...........................................................................................

1894 (6 months) ....................................................................
T otal............................................................................ |

Employees
Average
Establish­ establish­ thrown out of
employ­
ments to a
ments.
ment.
strike.

471
454
478
443
645
1,432
1,436
906
1,075
1,833
1, 718
1,298
1,305
896

2,928
2,105
2,759
2,367
2,284
10,053
6,589
3,506
3,786
9,424
8,117
5,540
4,555
5,154

6.2
4.6
5.8
5.3
3.5
#7 .0
4.6
3.9
3.5
5.1
4.7
4.3
3.5
5.8

129,521
154,671
149,763
147,054
242, 705
508,044
379,726
147,704
249,559
351,944
299,064
206,671
265,914
482,066

14,390

69,167

4.8

3,714,406

The figures for the years from 1881 to 1886, inclusive, have been
taken from the Third Annual Report. As stated in that report, the
figures showing the number of strikes in each of these years are
estimates, although they are believed to be approximately correct.
For the period covered by the Tenth Annual Report, namely, January
1, 1887, to June 30,1894, inclusive, the figures showing the number of
strikes may be accepted as absolute. The figures showing the number
of establishments and the number o f employees thrown out of employ­
ment by strikes may be accepted as correct for the whole period from
1881 to 1894, inclusive. In using this table it should be borne in mind
that the figures for 1894 are for the first six months of that year only,
the investigation having been closed June 30,1894.
By this table it is shown that the average number of establishments
to each strike for the thirteen and one-half years was 4.8, the high­
est average being 7 establishments to each strike in 1886, the lowest
average being 3.5 establishments to each strike in 1885, 1889, and
1893. *As stated in tbe Third Annual Report, the strikes for 1880 were
reported by Mr. Joseph D. Weeks, special agent of the Tenth Census,
according to whose report the number was 610. The number o f estab­
lishments involved was not reported. Commencing with 1881 the num­
ber of establishmerts involved was 2,928. In 1882 the number dropped
to 2,105, while in 1883 it rose to 2,759, or nearly that of 1881. In 1884
and 1885 the number fell rapidly, there being 2,367 in 1884, while in
1885 the number of establishments involved in strikes was smaller
than in any previous or succeeding year of the period, namely, 2,284.
In 1886 the number rose to 10,053, the greatest number in any of the
years considered. In 1887 it dropped to 6,589; in 1888 it dropped still
further, to 3,506, and remained nearly stationary in 1889 at 3,786, while
in 1890 the number again rapidly rose to 9,424, a number almost as
great as that for 1886. In the next year, 1891, the number dropped
to 8,117, dropping still further in 1892 and 1893, to 5,540 and 4,555,



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

11

respectively. For the first six months of 1894 the number was 5,154,
indicating that if there was a proportionately large number in the last
six months of that year it would reach in round numbers 10,300, a
number slightly greater than that for 1886, in which the largest number
of establishments were involved in strikes.
The total number of establishments involved in strikes during the
whole period of thirteen and one-half years was 69,167, Of this num­
ber 4.23 per cent had strikes in 1881, 3.04 per cent had strikes in 1882,
3.99 per cent had strikes in 1883, 3.42 per cent had strikes in 1884, 3.30
per cent had strikes in 1885, 14.53 per cent had strikes in 1886, 9.53
per cent had strikes in 1887, 5.07 per cent had strikes in 1888, 5,47 per
cent had strikes in 1889, 13.63 per cent had strikes in 1890,11.74 per
cent had strikes in 1891,8.01 per cent had strikes in 1892,6.59 per cent
had strikes in 1893, and 7.45 per cent had strikes in the first half of
1894.
O f the 6,067 establishments having lockouts during the period of
thirteen and one-half years 0.15 per cent were in 1881, 0.69 per cent
were in 1882,1.93 per cent were in 1883,5.83 per cent were in 1884, 3.02
per cent were in 1885, 24.87 per cent were in 1886, 21.11 per cent were
in 1887, 2.97 per cent were in 1888, 2.18 per cent were in 1889, 5.34 per
cent were in 1890, *9 per cent were in 1891,11.80 per cent were in 1892,
5.03 per cent were in 1893, and 6.08 per cent were in the first half of 1894.
The percentage is highest for both strikes and lockouts in 1886. The
next highest percentages occur in 1890 and 1891 for strikes, and in 1887
and 1892 for lockouts.
During the seven and one-half years included in the Tenth Annual
Report Illinois shows the largest number of establishments affected, both
by strikes and lockouts, there being 10,060 of the former and 1,193 of the
latter. Next come New York, with 9,540 establishments involved in
strikes and 723 in lockouts, and Pennsylvania with 8,219 involved in
strikes and 490 in lockouts. During the six years immediately preceding
those included in this report, the facts for which appeared in the Third
Annual Report, the state in which the greatest number of establish­
ments were affected by strikes was New York, with 9,247, followed by
Illinois, with 2,768, and Pennsylvania, with 2,442. The greatest number
affected by lockouts was 1,528, found in New York, followed by 147 in
Massachusetts and 130 in Pennsylvania, the number in Illinois being
127. Combining the facts for both these periods, in order to secure a
statement for the thirteen and one-half years included in both of the
reports of the Department on strikes and lockouts, we find the greatest
number of establishments affected by strikes to have been in New
York, 18,787, followed by Illinois, with 12,828, and Pennsylvania, with
10,661. The states appear in the same order in lockouts, the number
o f establishments affected being 2,251 in New York, 1,320 in Illinois,
and 620 in Pennsylvania.
The industries most affected by strikes during the seven and oneRalf years included in the Tenth Annual Report were the building



12

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

trades, with 20,785 establishments involved; coal and coke, with 5,958;
clothing, with 3,041; tobacco, with 2,506; food preparations, with 2,398;
stone quarrying and cutting, with 1,993; metals and metallic goods,
with 1,834; transportation, with 1,327; printing and publishing, with
608; boots and shoes, with 607; furniture, with 459; wooden goods, with
409, and brick, with 406 establishments. The industries most affected
by lockouts were the building trades, with 1,900; stone quarrying and
cutting, with 489; clothing, with 431; brewing, with 150; boots and
shoes, with 130; metals and metallic goods, with 128, and transporta­
tion with 112 establishments involved. For the immediately preced­
ing period of six years, 1881 to 1886, included in the Third Annual
Report, the greatest frequency of strikes was found in the building
trades, with 6,075 establishments affected; tobacco, with 2,959; mining
(practically the same as coal and coke in the Tenth Annual Report),
with 2,060; clothing, with 1,728; metals and metallic goods, with 1,570;
transportation, with 1,478; food preparations, with 1,419; furniture,
with 491; cooperage, with 484; brick, with 478; stone quarrying and
cutting, with 468; lumber, with 395; boots and shoes, with 352; wooden
goods, with 240, and printing and publishing, with 223 establishments.
The lockouts for that period involved 773 establishments in the cloth­
ing industry, 531 in the building trades, 226 in the tobacco industry,
155 in boots and shoes, 76 in metals and metallic goods, etc.
A combination o f the facts for strikes for the two periods, selecting
the 13 industries most largely affected, shows that out of 69,167 estab­
lishments involved in strikes during the period from January 1,1881,
to June 30, 1894, 62,038, or 89.69 per cent, were in the following 13
industries: Building trades, 26,860 establishments; coal and coke,
8,018; tobacco, 5,465; clothing, 4,769; food preparations, 3,817; metals
and metallic goods, 3,454; transportation, 2,805; stone quarrying and
cutting, 2,461; boots and shoes, 959; furniture, 950; brick, 884; printing
and publishing, 831, and cooperage, 765.
In the lockouts which occurred during the thirteen and one-half
years, six industries bore a very large proportion of the burden, involv­
ing 4,914 establishments, or 81 per cent, out of a total of 6,067 estab­
lishments. The industries and number of establishments involved in
each are as follows: Building trades, 2,431; clothing, 1,204; stone
quarrying and cutting, 513; boots and shoes, 285; tobacco, 277, and
metals and metallic goods, 204.
The total number of employees involved or thrown out of employment
in the whole number of strikes from 1881 to 1886, inclusive, as shown
by the Third Annual Report, was 1,323,203. The number as shown by
the Tenth Annual Report, for the period from January 1,1887, to June
30, 1894, was 2,391,203. Adding these numbers together, it is seen
that 3,714,406 persons were thrown out of employment by reason of
strikes during the period of thirteen and one-half years from January
1,1881, to June 30,1894. The number of strikers during the first six
years of this period was shown to have been 1,020,156; during the latter



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

13

seven and one-half years it was 1,834,218. The number of strikers
during the whole period of thirteen and one-half years was therefore
2,854,374.
From 1881 to 1886 there were 103,038 new employees
engaged after the strikes, of which 37,483 were brought from other
places than those in which the strikes occurred. The per cent of new
employees after strike of the total number of employees before strike—
1,660,835—was therefore 6.20. The per cent of the employees brought
from other places of the number of new employees after strike was 36.38.
For the succeeding seven and one half years, the period involved in
the Tenth Annual Report, there were 239,431 new employees after the
strikes, of which 115,377 were brought from other places. For this
period the per cent of new employees after strike of the total number
of employees before strike, 4,300,410, was 5.57, and the per cent of
employees brought from other places of the number of new employees
after strike, 48.19. Combining the facts for both periods, it is seen
that there were, during the thirteen and one-half years, 342,469 new
employees engaged after the strikes, and that 152,860 of that number
were brought from other places. The new employees after the strikes
were 5.74 per cent of the total number of employees before the strikes,
5,961,245, while 44.63 per cent of the new employees after the strikes
were brought from other places than those in which the strikes occurred.
In the Third Annual Report it was shown that during the period
from 1881 to 1886, inclusive, 2,214 establishments were involved in lock­
outs, there being 175,270 employees in the establishments before the
lockouts occurred, while the number actually involved or locked out
was 160,823. There were 13,976 new employees secured at the close
of lockouts, 5,682 being brought from other places than those in
which the lockouts occurred. For the period of seven and one-half
years involved in the Tenth Annual Report lockouts were ordered in
3,853 establishments, having 274,657 employees before the lockouts, of
which 205,867 were thrown out of employment in consequence thereof.
These establishments secured 27,465 new employees after the lockouts,
16,300 of whom were brought from other places. Combining these
facts as to lockouts for the two periods involved, it is seen that during
the thirteen and one-half years from January 1,1881, to June 30,1894,
lockouts occurred in 6,067 establishments in which 449,927 employees
were engaged. O f this number 366,690, or 81,50 per cent, were thrown
out of employment by the lockouts. In these establishments there were
41,441 new employees engaged after the lockouts, of whom 21,982 were
brought from other places than those in which the lockouts occurred.
The per cent of new employees after the lockouts of the total number
of employees before lockouts was, therefore, 9.21, and of employees
brought from other places of the number of new employees after lock­
outs 53.04.
It should be remembered in considering the figures relating to the
number o f establishments, the number of employees, etc., that they
do not represent the actual number of different individual establish­



14

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

ments or different individual employees who were involved in strikes or
lockouts in a given industry or in a given year, because in many cases
there have been two or more strikes or lockouts in the same establish­
ments in the same year, and in such cases the establishment and the
number of employees are duplicated or triplicated, as the case may be,
in the totals derived by addition. In the figures showing the number
of “ employees for whom strike was undertaken” in the tables for strikes
there is even more duplication of the kind mentioned. For instance, a
sympathetic strike may occur in which the employees strike to enforce
the demands of certain employees in another establishment. The num­
ber o f employees for whom the strike was undertaken, would in that
case be the number for whom it was undertaken in that other establish­
ment. The same employees would, therefore, appear in that column in
two places in the primary tables, first in connection with the establish­
ment in which they were employed, and second in the establishment
in which the sympathetic strike occurred, thus unavoidably being
duplicated in tables derived by addition.
As previously stated, a small number of strikes occurring in 1886,
21 in all, which were unavoidably omitted from the Third Annual Report,
have been tabulated in the later one. Wherever the facts shown by
the two reports are given by years this number and the various facts
relating thereto have been added to the figures for 1886 as shown by
the Third Annual Report. In the statements previously made, by
states and by industries, they have not been so added, but appear in
the totals for the period involved in the later report. The number is
so small as to make no appreciable difference when comparing the two
reports, and to have eliminated them in the later and added them to
the Third Annual Report would have involved the reader in many dif­
ficulties.
The following table, classifying the employees involved in strikes
and lockouts as to sex, combines the facts shown in the Third Annual
Report with those shown in the Tenth Annual Report:
S E X OF EM PLOYEES T H R O W N OUT OF EM PLOYM ENT, J A N U A R Y 1, 1881, TO
JU N E 30, 1894.
Lockouts.

Strikes.
Employees
thrown out of
employment.

Males
(per cent).

Females
(per cent).

Employees
thrown out of
employment.

Males
(per cent).

1881..............................
1882..............................
1883..............................
1884..............................
1885..............................
1886..............................
1887..............................
1888..............................
1889..............................
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894 (6 months)........

129,521
154,671
149,763
147,054
242,705
508,044
379,726
147,704
249,559
351,944
299,064
206,671
265,914
482,066

94.08
92.15
87.66
88.78
87.77
86.17
91.77
91.50
90.48
90.53
94.90
93.57
93.06
95.13

5.92
7.85
12.34
11.22
12.23
13.83
8.23
8.50
9.52
9.47
5.10
6.43
6.94
4.87

655
4,131
20,512
18,121
15,424
101,980
59,630
15,176
10,731
21,555
31,014
32,014
21,842
13,905

83.21
93.80
73.58
78.93
83.77
63.02
94.76
79.53
73.91
72.49
59.13
96.02
84.95
95.83

16.79
6.20
26.42
21.07
16.23
36.98
5.24
20.47
26.09
27.51
40.87
3.98
15.05
4.17

T otal................

3,714,406

91.22

366,690

77.47

22.53

Year.




8.78-

Females
(per cent).

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

15

An examination of the Tenth Annual Report shows that during
the seven and one-half years included in it 69.39 per cent of all the
establishments affected by strikes and 75.91 per cent of all affected by
lockouts were located in the five states of Illinois, Massachusetts, New
York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. During the six years immediately pre­
ceding the above period, it is shown in the Third Annual Report that
74.84 per cent of all establishments in the country, so far as strikes
were concerned, and 89.48 per cent of all the establishments in the coun­
try, so far as lockouts were concerned, were found in the same states.
The following table, combining these facts for the entire period of thir­
teen and one-half years included in the Third and Tenth Annual
Reports, shows the percentages for each year for the five states named:
ESTABLISH M ENTS IN V O L V E D IN ILLINOIS, M ASSACH USETTS, N E W YORK, OHIO,
A N D P E N N S Y L V A N IA , J A N U A R Y 1, 1881, TO JU N E 30, 1894.
Strikes.
Year.

Lockouts.

Per cent of
Per cent of
Establish­
Establish­
Total estab­
Total estab­
establish­
establish­
lishments in ments in the
lishments in ments in the
ments
in
the
ments
in the
the United
the United five selected
five selected
five
selected
five
selected
states.
States.
States.
states.
states.
states.

1881......................
1882......................
1883......................
1884......................
1885......................
1886......................
1887......................
1888......................
1889......................
1890......................
3891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894 (6 months). .

2,928
2,105
2,759
2,367
2,284
10,053
6,589
3,506
3, 786
9,424
8,117
5,540
4,555
5,154

2,154
1,499
2,046
1,896
1,586
7,675
4,761
2,404
2,275
6,990
5,776
3, 200
3,186
3,762

73. 57
71.21
74.16
80.10
69.44
76.35
72.26
68.57
60.09
74.17
71.16
57.76
69.95
72.99

9
42
117
354
183
1,509
1,281
180
132
324
546
716
305
369

4
23
105
306
140
1,403
1,188
114
65
203
339
522
190
304

44.44
54.76
89.74
86.44
76.50
92.98
92.74
63.33
49.24
62.65
62.09
72.91
62.30
82.38

T o ta l........

69,167

49,210

71.15

6,067

4,906

80.86

These five states contained 51 per cent of all the manufacturing
establishments, and employed 56 per cent of the capital invested in the
mechanical industries of the United States, taking the census o f 1890
as the basis o f computation.
The distribution of strikes and lockouts, by cities, during the seven
and one-half years from January 1, 1887, to June 30,1894, is shown in
the following tables:




16

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

SU M M A R Y OF STRIKES I N T H E P R IN C IP A L CITIES, J A N U A R Y 1,1887, TO JUNE 30,1894.
[In the case of many general strikes extending through different cities it was found impossible to sub­
divide the facts and credit them to the several cities involved. In such cases the whole strike has
generally been tabulated against the city most largely affected.]
Employees
Total Establish­ thrown out W age loss of
of employ­ employees.
strikes.
ments.
ment.

City.

Assistance
to employees Loss of
by labor or­ employers.
ganizations.

New York, N . Y .......................
Brooklyn, N .Y ..........................
Chicago, 111................................
Boston, M a s s ............................
Allegheny and Pittsburg, Pa.
Philadelphia, P a.......................
Saint Louis, M o........................
Cincinnati, Ohio.......................
Milwaukee, W i s .......................
Lynn, M ass................................
Fall River, Mass......................
San Francisco, Cal...................
Baltimore, M d ..........................
New Haven, Conn...................
Newark, N . J ............................
Cleveland, Ohio........................
Rochester, N . Y ........................
Indianapolis, I n d .....................
Haverhvl, Mass........................
Minneapolis, Minn...................
Paterson, N . J ..........................
Buffalo, N . Y ............... ..............
Jersey City, N. J ......................
Saint Paul, M in n .....................
Troy, N . Y .................................

2,614
671
528
257
251
240
111
109
100
100
95
92
92
82
69
64
56
51
51
50
47
46
46
45
42

6,467
1,271
8,325
911
4,142
1,132
1,064
580
1,237
110
156
337
280
205
324
314
237
309
76
169
117
408
113
255
123

215,649
31,768
282,611
25,574
300,822
59,527
19,693
17,577
20,778
4,027
30,232
7,254
11,192
5,287
11,538
11,322
9,314
7,851
5,271
7,615
22,326
14,079
7,819
22,475
3, 649

$6,449,385
914,045
8,846,494
800,882
7,379,765
2,002,219
848,357
736,306
1,265,049
147,028
500,264
480,387
424,149
206,340
500,896
208,738
478,702
116,429
97,239
167,524
1,019,768
459,758
90,020
780,325
68,031

$792,817
145,848
1,886,788
173,564
722,706
194,277
96,506
72,886
112,862
9,871
22,429
96,854
18,604
35,588
58,734
26,324
11,781
10,353
6,660
18,399
26,757
19,950
1,330
24,520
3,769

$3,545,766
532,780
14,444,034
589,982
2,599,487
836,568
572,933
572,272
799,700
86,488
118,319
415,625
187,552
40,568
154,460
117,207
300,621
161,102
78,495
189,400
555,200
818,015
12,275
1,017,795
39,802

T o ta l................................

5,909

28,662

955,250

34,988,100

4,590,177

28,786,446

S U M M A R Y OF LOCKOUTS IN TH E PRIN CIPAL CITIES, J A N U A R Y 1,1887, TO JU N E 30,1894.
[In the case of many general lockouts extending through different cities it was found impossible to
subdivide the facts and credit them to the several cities involved. In such cases the whole lockout
has generally been tabulated against the city most largely affected.]
Assistance
Employees
Total Establish­ thrown out Wage loss of to employees Loss of
of employ­ employees. by labor or­ employers.
lockouts. ments.
ment.
ganizations.

City.

New York, N. Y . . .
Boston, M a ss.........
Chicago, 111...........
Allegheny and Pitt
Philadelphia, P a ..
Cincinnati, Ohio..
San Francisco, Cal
Haverhill, Mass—
Saint Paul, M inn..
Brooklyn, N . Y . . .
Saint Louis, M o . . .
Milwaukee, W i s ..
Minneapolis, Minn
Indianapolis, In d .
Rochester, N. Y . . .
Richmond, Y a ----Buffalo, N .Y .........
Seattle, W ash........
Detroit, M ich ........
Springfield, M ass.
New Haven, Conn
Baltimore, M d ----Newark, N . J ........
Woburn, Mass —
Albany, N . Y ........

Pa­

T otal............

43
19
18
15
14
13
12
10
10
9
8
7
7
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
4
3

393
128
1,151
385
82
' 96
42
57
55
64
42
25
7
116
81
15
30
23
11
8
8
6
49
19
77

19,959
3,072
48,612
11,572
9,262
3,908
776
7,436
1,056
2,360
1,006
752
1,650
1,135
18,271
117
930
423
1,264
208
64
239
2,974
1,577
1,512

$587,801
212,434
3,576.817
5,353,764
447,958
211, 375
67, 763
101,606
30,780
68,424
217,247
245,755
28,250
65,224
462,260
10,503
72,438
19, 600
56,201
1,230
3,344
7,240
139,536
78,646
42,267

$83,112
40,450
70,050
250,025
62,585
27,508
13,170
5,900
8,303
6,092
45,249
12,375
2,828
900
3,159
2,274
365
2,628
14,642

244

2,970

140,135

12,108,463

671,818

840
2,684
12,350
4,329

$370,442
97, 111
2,789,910
727,959
510,575
60,339
18,200
60,400
46,150
121,225
48,140
505,600
26,100
20,000
205,545
650
13,670
4,040
5,500
11,755
15,725
7,950
29,700
45,600
12,000
5,754,286

in the case of both strikes and lockouts the cities shown are the 26
in which the greatest number of these disturbances occurred during
the period included in the report. It will be noticed that the cities are



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

17

practically the same in both classes of disturbances, only 6 cities in
each table being different.
Considering the table for strikes, it is seen that out of a total of
10,488 strikes for the entire country, 5,909, or 56.34 per cent, occurred
in the 26 cities included in that table. The number of establishments
involved in strikes in the United States during the period was shown
as 46,863, of which number 28,662, or 61.16 per cent, occurred in the 26
cities. The wage loss to employees through strikes in the 26 cities was
$34,988,100 as against $111,993,143 for the entire country, and the loss
to employers $28,786,446 as against $51,888,833. These 26 cities con­
tained 34.26 per cent of all the manufacturing establishments, and
employed 38.88 per cent of the capital invested in the mechanical indus­
tries of the United States, taking the census of 1890 as the basis of
computation. Seven of the 26 cities, New York, Brooklyn, Chicago,
Boston, Allegheny, Pittsburg, and Philadelphia, reported 4,561 strikes,
or 43.49 per cent, of all the strikes which occurred in the United States
during the period involved, and 22,248 establishments, or 47.47 per
ceht, of the whole number of establishments involved.
O f the 22,304 establishments involved in strikes during the six years
covered by the Third Annual Report (1881 to 1886), as was there shown,
the strikes in 18,342, or 82.24 per cent of the whole, were ordered by
labor organizations, while of the 2,214 establishments in which lock­
outs occurred 1,753, or 79.18 per cent, were ordered by combinations of
employers. The facts for the seven and one-half years included in the
Tenth Annual Report (January 1,1887, to June 30,1894) are as follows:
Excluding from consideration seven strikes for which no report touch­
ing this point could be secured, 7,295, or 69.60 per cent of the whole
number of strikes (10,481), were ordered by labor organizations, while
of the 442 lockouts occurring during this period but 81, or 18.33 per
cent, were ordered by an employers’ organization. It will be noticed, in
the preceding statement, that for the former period the establishment
forms the basis of the percentages, while for the latter the strike or
lockout forms the basis. This is unavoidable, owing to the difference
in the tabulation of the facts for this point in the two reports. It does
not, however, materially affect the comparableness of the percentages.
Bearing this in mind, the facts for each year in this respect may be
clearly seen in the percentage table which follows:
STRIKES A N D LOCKOUTS ORDERED B Y OR G AN IZATIO N S, J A N U A R Y 1, 1881, TO
JUNE 30,1894.
Year.

Strikes Lockouts
(percent). (percent).

1881
..............................
1882
...................................
1883..........................................
1884..........................................
1885..........................................
1886
...................................
1887..........................................

89—No. 1---- 2



75.58
76.01
83.98
82. 85
70.93 j
87.53
66.34

22.22
26.19
41. 03
79.10
71.58
81.89
25.37

Year.
1888.........................................
1889.........................................
1890 .........................................
1891.......................................'.
1892 .........................................
1893 .........................................
1894 (6 months).....................

Strikes Lockouts
(percent). (per cent).
68.14
67.35
71.33
74.84
70. 72
69. 43
63. 80

20.00
11.11
14.06
13.04
22.95
21.43
14.29

18

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Combining the facts for the period involved in the Third Annual
Report with those for the period included in the later report, the fol­
lowing table shows by years, in the form of percentages, the proportion
of the establishments involved in both strikes and lockouts which were
closed in consequence of such disturbance:
ESTABLISH M ENTS CLOSED, J A N U A R Y 1, 1881, TO JU N E 30, 1894.
Ydar.
1881...........................................
1882...........................................
1883...........................................
*1884...........................................
1885...........................................
1886...........................................
1887...........................................
1888...........................................

Lockouts
Strikes
(percent). (percent).
55.81
54.01
63.57
64.72
71.58
58.24
57.55
53.45

33.33
59.52
58.12
37.85
79.23
67.93
83.84
55.00

Year.

Strikes
Lockouts
(percent). (per cent).

1889.........................................
1890.........................................
1891.........................................
1892 .........................................
1893.........................................
1894 (6 months)....................

61.89
56.25
56.66
65.60
65.64
60.50

59.09
63.89
65.93
66.90
40.98
14.91

A verage....................

59.56

63.90

Referring to the Third Annual Report, it is seen that from 1881 to
1886, inclusive, of the 22,304 establishments subjected to strikes,
13,411, or 60.13 per cent, were temporarily closed, and of the 2,214 estab­
lishments in which lockouts occurred, 1,400, or 63.23 per cent, were
closed. The duration of stoppage, or the average days closed, for
strikes was 23 days and for lockouts 28.4 days. The facts as shown
in the Tenth Annual Report for the seven and one-half years from Jan­
uary 1, 1887, to June 30,1894, are that of 46,863 establishments sub­
jected to strikes 27,787, or 59.29 per cent, were closed, 42 being closed
permanently or having strikes still pending June 30, 1894, the remain­
der being only temporarily closed; while of the 3,853 establishments
involved in lockouts 2,477, or 64.29 per cent, were closed, 23 being closed
permanently or having lockouts still pending June 30,1894, the remain­
der being only temporarily closed. The average days closed on account
of strikes, excluding the 42 above mentioned, was 22.3 days, and on
account of lockouts, excluding the 23 above mentioned, 35.4 days.
Combining the facts for the two periods, as shown by the preceding
figures, it is seen that during the thirteen and one-half years from
January 1, 1881, to June 30, 1894, out of a total of 69,167 establish­
ments in which strikes occurred, 41,198, or 59.56 per cent, were closed,
while of the 6,067 establishments subjected to lockouts, 3,877, or
63.90 per cent, were closed. The duration of stoppage, or days closed,
in the 41,156 establishments which were temporarily closed, was 22.5
days, while in the 3,854 establishments temporarily closed by reason of
lockouts the average time closed was 32.8 days.
The duration of strikes or lockouts themselves—that is, the average
length of time which elapsed before the establishments resumed opera­
tions and were running normally, either by reason of the strikers or
employees locked out having returned to work or by their places hav­
ing been filled by others—applies to all establishments, whether closed
or not, and differs of course from the figures given for duration of
entire stoppage of work,'which applies only to establishments entirely




19

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

closed. The following table shows the average duration or days to
date when strikers or employees locked out were reemployed or their
places filled by others for each of the years included in the Third and
Tenth Annual Eeports. A small number of establishments which were
closed permanently in consequence of strikes or lockouts, or in which
strikes or lockouts were still pending, have of course been omitted in
computing the averages:
D U R ATIO N OF STRIKES A N D LOCKOUTS, J A N U A R Y 1, 1881, TO JU N E 30, 1894.
[The duration involves the number of days from date of strike or lockout to date when employees
returned to work or when their places were filled by others.]
Strikes.
Year.

Lockouts.

Aver­
Aver­
age
age
Estab­
Estab­
dura­
lish­
lish­
dura­
tion
tion
ments.
ments.
(days).
(days).

1881....................... 2,928
2,105
1882......................
2,759
1883......................
1884......................
2,367
2,284
1885......................
1886........... , ........ 10,053
6,589
1887......................
3,506
1888......................

12.8
21.9
20.6
30.5
30.1
23.4
20.9
20.3

9
42
117
354
183
1,509
1,281
180

32.2
105.0
57.5
41.4
27.1
39.1
49.8
74.9

Strikes.
Year.

w
1889.....................
1890....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893....................
1894 (6 months).

Lockouts.

Aver­
Aver­
Estab­
age
Estab­
age
lish­
dura­
lish­
dura­
tion
ments.
tion
ments.
(days).
(days).
3,786
9,424
8,117
5,540
4,555
5,154

26.3
24.2
34.9
23.4
20.6
37.8

132
324
546
716
305
369

57.5
73.9
37.8
72.0
34.7
18.7

Total.......... 69,167

25.4

6,067

47.6

According to the Third Annual Report, for the years 1881 to 1886,
of the firms against whom strikes were instituted 46.52 per cent granted
the demands of their employees; in 13.47 per cent of the establish­
ments partial success in attaining the objects for which the strikes were
instituted was gained, while failure followed in 39.95 per cent of the
establishments; a small number of establishments, constituting 0.06
per cent of the whole number, had strikes still pending December 31,
1886. In the lockouts during those years the firms gained their point
in 25.47 per cent o f the establishments; in 8.58 per cent they partially
succeeded and in 60.48 per cent failed; in 5.47 per cent of the whole
number o f establishments involved the lockouts were still pending
December 31,1886.
For the period included in the Tenth Annual Report, out of the
whole number of establishments affected by strikes, viz, 46,863, success
in their demands was gained by the employees in 20,397 establishments,
or 43.52 per cent; partial success was gained in 4,775 establishments, or
10.19 per cent; and failure followed in 21,687 establishments, or 46.28
per cent o f the whole number; for 4 establishments, or 0.01 per cent,
either the results were not reported or the strikes were still pending
June 30,1894. Out of the 3,853 establishments having lockouts, 1,883,
or 48.87 per cent of the whole number, succeeded in gaining their
demands; 391, or 10.15 per cent, partially succeeded, and 1,558, or 40.44
per cent, failed; in 21 establishments, or 0.54 per cent of the whole
number, the lockouts were still pending June 30,1894. The percent­




20

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

ages for each of the years included in the two reports are shown as
follows:
RESULTS FOR ESTABLISH M ENTS, J A N U A R Y 1, 1881, TO JU N E 30, 1894.
Per cent of establishments in
strikes which—

Per cent of establishments in
lockouts which—

Year.
Succeeded.

Succeeded
partly.

Failed.

Succeeded Succeeded
partly.

Failed.

1881...........................................................
1882...........................................................
1883...........................................................
1884...........................................................
1885...........................................................
1886...........................................................
1887...........................................................
1888...........................................................
1889...........................................................
1890...........................................................
1891...........................................................
1892...........................................................
1893...........................................................
1894 (6 months).....................................

61.37
53 59
58.17
51.50
52.80
a 34.45
45.64
52. 22
46.49
c52.64
37.87
39.31
d50.82
23.83

7.00
8.17
16.09
3.89
9.50
a 18.82
7.19
5.48
18.91
clO. 01
8.29
8.70
d 10.32
15.66

31.63
38.24
25.74
44.61
37.70
a 46.58
47.17
42.30
34. 60
c37.34
53.84
51.99
d38.79
60.51

88.89
64.29
56.41
27.97
38.25
619.48
34.19
74.44
40. 91
65.74
63.92
69.13
c39.02
21.95

.28
3.28
612.06
1.25
3.89
25.76
5.56
14.29
25.28
e 17.05
1.36

35.71
43«59
71.75
58.47
660.44
64.56
21.67
33.33
28.70
21.79
5.59
«37.05
76.69

T otal............................................

J%4.49

/1 1 .2 5

/4 4 . 23

040.33

09.58

047.75

11.11

a Not including 15 establishments in which strikes were still pending December 31, 1886.
6 Not including 121 establishments in which lockouts were still pending December 31, 1886.
e Not including 1 establishment not reporting.
d Not including 3 establishments in which strikes were still pending June 30, 1894.
e Not including 21 establishments in which lockouts were still pending June 30, 1894.
/ N o t including 19 establishments for the reasons stated in notes a, c, and d.
g Not including 142 establishments for the reasons stated in notes b and e.

For the thirteen and one-half years ending June 30,1894, as shown
by this table, out of a total of 69,167 establishments affected by strikes
the employees were successful in gaining their demands in 30,772, or
44.49 per cent, and partly successful in 7,779, or 11.25 per cent, while
in 30,597 establishments, or 44.23 per cent, they failed; in a very small
number of establishments, constituting 0.03 per cent of all the estab­
lishments involved, the results of strikes were not obtainable. O f the
6,067 establishments in which lockouts occurred during the same period,
the firms gained their point in 2,447 establishments, or 40.33 per cent
of the whole number involved; in 581, or 9.58 per cent, they were partly
successful, while in 2,897, or 47.75 per cent, they failed; in the remain­
ing 142, or 2.34 }>er cent of the establishments, the results of the
lockouts were not obtainable.
The results of strikes from 1881 to 1886, so far as they concerned
employees, as shown in the Third Annual Eeport, were as follows:
The number of persons thrown out of employment, in the 10,375 es­
tablishments having successful strikes, was 518,583; in the 3,004 estab­
lishments in which strikes were partly successful 143,976 employees
were involved, while in the 8,910 establishments in which the strikes
were failures 660,396 persons were thrown out of employment. The
results of strikes in 15 establishments, involving 248 persons, were not
reported. While the establishments in which strikes succeeded const!
tuted 46.52 per cent of the establishments in which strikes occurred,
the number of persons thrown out of employment in the successful




STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

21

strikes constituted but 39.19 per cent of the whole number of persons
involved; the number of establishments involved in partly successful
strikes was 13.47 per cent of all establishments, while the number of
persons involved in such strikes was only 10.88 per cent of the whole
number of persons. The number of establishments in which strikes
failed constituted 39.95 per cent of the whole number, while 49.91 per
cent of the number of persons thrown out of employment were involved
in such strikes. The number of establishments in which the results of
strikes were not reported constituted 0.06 per cent of the entire num­
ber, the number o f persons thrown out of employment in such estab­
lishments being 0.02 per cent of the entire number of persons thrown
out of employment.
The results for the succeeding seven and one-half years, from Jan­
uary 1, 1887, to June 30,1894, so far as they concerned employees, asshown in the Tenth Annual Report, are as follows: In the 20,397 estab­
lishments having successful strikes 669,992 persons were thrown out
of employment; in the 4,775 establishments in which strikes were
partly successful 318,801 employees were involved, while in the 21,687
establishments in which strikes failed, 1,400,988 persons were thrown
out of employment. The results were not reported in 19 establish­
ments in which 1,422 persons were involved. While the establishments
in which strikes succeeded constituted 43.52 per cent of the establish­
ments in which strikes occurred, the number of persons thrown out of
employment in the successful strikes constituted 28.02 per cent of the
whole number of persons involved; the number of establishments
involved in partly successful strikes was 10.19 per cent of all establish­
ments, while the number of persons involved in such strikes was 13.33
per cent of the whole number. The number of establishments in which
strikes failed was 46.28 per cent of the whole number, while 58.59 per
cent of the whole number of persons thrown out of employment were
involved in such strikes. In 0.01 per cent of the entire number of
establishments, including 0.06 per cent of the number of persons thrown
out of employment, the results of strikes were not reported.




22

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The following table combines the facts for the two reports, showing
the results, so far as employees are concerned, for the strikes during
an uninterrupted period of thirteen and one-half years, beginning Jan­
uary 1,1881, and ending June 30,1894 :
RESULTS OF STRIKES FOR EMPLOYEES. J A N U A R Y 1, 1881, TO JU N E 30, 1894.
Number thrown out of employment.
Year.

1881................................
1882................................
1883...............................
1884................................
1885................................
1886................................
1887 ................................
1888................................
1889................................
1890................................
1891................................
1892/................................
1893................................
1894 (6 months)...........

Per cent thrown out of
employment.
In partly
strikes
success­ Inwhich
ful
failed.
strikes.

In partly
In success­ successful
ful strikes.
strikes.

In strikes
which
failed.

17,482
7,112
17,024
5,044
23,855
a 74,167
26,442
11,130
62, 607
b 48,444
22,885
16,429
c41,765
88,391

56,439
101,813
77,599
89,274
103.475
a 238,229
225,655
95,468
114,853
b 144,681
195,413
129,117
e 160,741
328, 627

129,521
154,671
149,763
147,054
242,705
508.044
379,726
147,704
249,559
351,944
299,064
206,671
265, 914
482,066

42.93
29.58
36.82
35.86
47.54
a 38.46
33.61
27.83
28.89
645.12
27.01
29.58
c23.32
13.49

13.50
4.60
11.37
3.43
9.83
a 14.60
6.96
7.54
25.09
M 3.76
7.65
7.95
c l5 .71
18.34

43.57
65.82
51.81
60.71
42.63
a 46.90
59.43
64.63
46.02
641.11
65.34
62.47
e 60.45
68.17

d 462,777 d 2,061,384

3,714,406

d 32.00

d 12.46

d 55.50

55,600
45,746
55,140
52.736
115,375
a 195,400
127,629
41,106
72 099
b 158,787
80,766
61,125
c62,018
65,048

Total................... d 1,188,575

In total
strikes.

In suc­
cessful
strikes.

a Not including 248 engaged in strikes still pending December 31, .1886.
6 Not including 32 engaged in strikes not reporting result.
c Not including 1,390 engaged in strikes still pending June 30,1894.
dNot including 1,670 for the reasons stated in the preceding notes.

The totals as given in this table show that the number of persons
thrown out of employment in the 30,772 establishments having suc­
cessful strikes was 1,188,575. In the 7,779 establishments in which
partial success was gained 462,777 employees were involved, while in
the 30,597 establishments in which strikes failed 2,061,384 persons
were thrown out of employment. The last three columns of the table
show for each year, and for the thirteen and one-half years, the per
cent o f employees in establishments in which the strikes succeeded,
partly succeeded, or failed. Taking the total for the period of thirteen
and one-half years, it is seen that 32 per cent of the whole Dumber of
persons thrown out of employment succeeded in gaining the object for
which they struck; 12.46 per cent succeeded partly, while 55.50 per
cent, or over half of the whole number, failed entirely in gaining their
demands. A small proportion of the whole number, 0.04 per cent, for
the various reasons stated in the notes to the table, made no report as
to the result.
The Third Annual Report shows that for the years included therein
(1881 to 1886) seventeen of the causes for which strikes were undertaken
included 90.28 per cent of all the establishments, leaving the remain­
ing 297 causes operative in only 9.72 per cent of establishments in
which strikes occurred. Even four leading causes were found to cover
77.16 per cent of the establishments. The following table was there
given as clearly bringing out these facts:




STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

23

L E A D IN G CAUSES OF STRIKES, JANUAR Y" 1, 1881, TO DECEMBER 31, 1886.
Cause or object.

Establish­
Per cent.
ments.

For increase of wages...................... ......................................................................................
For reduction of hours............... ............................................................................................
Against reduction of wages...................................................................................................
For increase of wages ancl reduction of hours..................................................................
For reduction of hours and against being compelled to board with employer.........
For change of hour of beginning work.............................................................................
For increase of wages and against the contract system................................................
For increase of wages and against employment ot nonunion men..............................
In sympathy with strike elsewhere.....................................................................................
For 9 hours’ work with 10 hours’ p a y .................................................................................
Against employment of nonunion men, foremen, etc................................. _..................
For increase of wages and recognition of union.............................................................
For adoption of union, etc., scale of prices......................................................................
Against increase of hours.......................................................................................................
For increase of wages and enforcement of union indenture rules...................... .......
For reduction of hours and wages......................................................................................
For reinstatement of discharged employees, foremen, etc............................................

9,439
4,344
1,734
1,692
800
360
238
215
173
172
162
145
142
138
132
126
124

42.32
19.48
7.77
7.59
3.59
1.61
1.07
.96
.77
.77
.73
.65
.64
.62
.59
.56
.56

Total of 17 leading causes...........................................................................................
A ll other causes (297)...............................................................................................................

20,136
2,168

90.28
9.72

Total for the United States..........................................................................................

22, 304

100.00

An examination of the causes for which strikes were undertaken
during the period of seven and one-half years included in the Tenth
Annual Beport, shows that the seventeen principal causes included
81.23 per cent of all the establishments, leaving the remaining 574
causes active in only 18.77 per cent of the establishments subjected to
strikes during the period. Five of Jthe leading causes included a very
large proportion of all establishments, the per cent being 61.42 of the
whole number involved. The following table, showing the number and
per cent o f establishments falling under each of the seventeen principal
causes, during the period of seven and one-half years involved in this
report, brings out these percentages in detail:
L E A D IN G CAUSES OF STRIKES, J A N U A R Y 1, 1887, TO JU N E 30, 1894.
'Cause or object.

Establishments. Per cent.

For increase of w ages.................................................................. ..........................................
For reduction of hours............................................... ............................................................
Against reduction of wages...................................1............................................................
In sympathy with strike elsewhere.....................................................................................
For increase of wages and reduction of hours.................................................................
Against employment of nonunion men.............................................................................
For adoption of new scale.....................................................................................................
For recognition of union.........................................................................................................
For adoption of union scale...................................................................................................
For adoption of union rules and union scale....................................................................
For increase of wages and recognition of union.............................................................
To compel World’s Fair directors to employ none but union men in building trades.
For reinstatement of discharged employees....................................................................
For payment of wages overdue............................................................................................
For increase of wages, and reduction of hours on Saturday.........................................
Against being compelled to board with employer, and for reduction of hours and
recognition of union............................................................................................................
For fortnightly payment.........................................................................................................

12,041
6,199
3,830
3,620
3,095
1,688
1,559
1,314
844
783
686
472
468
383
378

25.69
13.23
8.17
7.73
6.60
3.60
3.33
2.80
1.80
1.67
1.46
1.01
1.00
.82
.81

366
342

.78
.73

Total of 17 leading causes..........................................................................................
A ll other causes (574)...............................................................................................................

38,068
8,795

81.23
18.77

Total for the United States........................................................................................

46,863

100.00




24

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

One of the most important features of the tabulation is the state­
ment of the losses of the employees and of the employers by reason of
strikes and lockouts. These figures were collected with the greatest
possible care, and although in many cases only an estimate could be
secured the results as given are believed to be a very close approxima­
tion to the exact losses. It is natural to suppose that after the lapse
of several years exact figures could not be secured concerning facts of
which no record is kept in most instances. The figures here given are
for the immediate, and in many instances only temporary, losses of
employees and ^employers. In most businesses there are seasons of
entire or partial idleness among its employees, owing to sickness, vol­
untary lay-offs, running slack time, etc., the working days per year
being on an average from 200to 250 days out of a possible 313. When
a strike or lockout occurs in an establishment whose business is of such
a character it is often followed by a period of unusual activity, in
which the employee and employer both make up the time lost by reason
o f the temporary cessation of business on account of the strike.
The employer may in some instances be subjected to an ultimate loss
by reason of his inability to fill contracts already made, but it may be
accepted as a fact that much of the loss in the cases of both employer
and employee is only temporary. It was found impossible, however,
for the agents of the Department to take these facts into considera­
tion, inasmuch as in many instances a period of six months or even a
year must have elapsed before the whole or even a part of such loss
was made up. The computation of wage loss has, therefore, been
based on the number of employees thrown out of employment, their
average wages, and the number of working days which elapsed before
they were reemployed or secured work elsewhere. The amounts repre­
senting employers’ losses are the figures (in most cases, estimates)
furnished by the firms themselves, the Department’s agents being in­
structed to consider, as well as they could, their probable correctness.
In the summaries by years the figures can not represent absolute accu­
racy for a given year, because many strikes beginning in one year ended
in another; the entire loss and assistance, as well as the other facts
included in the tabulation, have been placed in the year in which the
strike or lockout began. These differences may, however, counterbal­
ance each other, and the reported results thus be nearly accurate.
Bearing in mind, then, the difficulties in ascertaining the exact losses
o f employees and employers as a result of strikes and lockouts, refer­
ence may be had to the following table showing the amount of loss
to employees and to employers and the amount of assistance granted
employees by their labor organizations for a period of thirteen and
one-half years from January 1, 1881, to June 30,1894.




STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN THE UNITED STATES.

25

W A G E LOSS OF EMPLOYEES, ASSISTANCE TO EMPLOYEES, AN D LOSS OF EMPLOYERS,
J A N U A R Y 1, 1881, TO JUNE 30, 1894.
Strikes.

Lockouts.
To date when employees
locked out were reem­
ployed or employed
elsewhere.

To date when strikers
were reemployed or
employed elsewhere.
Year.
Assistance
to employ­
Wage loss of ees by labor
employees.
organiza­
tions.

Loss of
employers.

$3,372,578
9,864, 228
6,274,480
7, 666,717
10,663,248
14,992,453
16. 560, 534
6, 377, 749
10,409, 686
13, 875,338
14,801, 714
10, 772, 622
9, 938,048
28,238,471

$287,999
734, 339
461,233
407,871
465, 827
1,122,130
1,121,554
1,752,668
592,017
910,285
1,132,557
833, 874
563,183
528,869

$1,919,483
4,269, 094
4,696, 027
3,393,073
4,388,893
12,357,808
6,698,495
6,509,017
2,936, 752
5,135,404
6,177,288
5,145,691
3, 406,195
15,557,166

T otal...................... | 163, 807,866

10,914,406

82,590, 386

1881.....................................
1882.....................................
1883
.......................
1884
.......................
1885
.......................1
1886
.......................
1887
.......................
1888
.......................
1889
.......................
1890
.......................
1891
.......................
1892
.......................
1893
.......................
1894 (6 months)...............

Loss of
Assistance employers.
to employ­
Wage loss of ees by labor
employees. organiza­
tions.
$18. 519
466, 345
1,069,212
1,421,410
901,173
4,281,058*
4,233,700
1,100,057
1, 379, 722
957,966
883,709
2,856,013
6,659,401
457,231
26,685,516

$3,150
47,668
102,253
314,027
89,488
549,452
155,846
85,931
115,389
77,210
50,195
537,684
364,268
31,737

$6,960
112,382
297,097
640,847
455,477
1,949,498
2,819,736
1,217,199
307,125
486,258
616,888
1,695,080
1,034,420
596,484

2,524,298

12,235,451

The loss to employees in the establishments in which strikes occurred,
for the period of thirteen and one-half years, was $163,807,866; the
loss to employees through lockouts for the same period was $26,685,516;
or a total loss to employees by reason of these two classes of industrial
disturbances of $190,493,382. The number of establishments involved
in strikes during this period was 69,167, making an average loss of
$2,368 to employees in each establishment in which strikes occurred.
The number o f persons thrown out of employment by reason of strikes
was 3,714,406, making an average loss of $44 to each person involved.
The number of establishments involved in lockouts was 6,067, making
an average loss of $4,398 to employees in each establishment in which
lockouts' occurred, while the number of employees locked out was
366,690, making an average loss of $73 to each person involved. Com­
bining the figures for strikes and lockouts, it is seen that the wage loss
to employees as above stated was $190,493,382 and the number of
establishments involved 75,234, while 4,081,096 persons were thrown
out of employment. These figures show an average wage loss of $2,532
to the employees in each establishment and an average loss of $47 to
each person involved.
The assistance given to strikers during the thirteen and one-half
years, so far as ascertainable, was $10,914,406; to those involved in
lockouts, $2,524,298, or a total sum of $13,438,704. This sum repre­
sents but 7.05 per cent of the total wage loss incurred in strikes and
lockouts, and is probably too low. In addition to this sum, which
includes only assistance from labor organizations, much assistance was
furnished by outside sympathizers, the amount of which the Depart­
ment had no means of ascertaining.
The loss to employers through strikes during this thirteen and onehalf years amounted to $82,590,386; their losses through lockouts
amounted to $12,235,451, making a total loss to the establishments or
firms involved in strikes and lockouts during this period of $94,825,837.



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND IN
RECENT TEARS.

Since 1888 the statistical and other information concerning labor dis­
turbances in Great Britain and Ireland has been published in the annual
reports of the Labor Department of the Board of Trade under the title
o f Reports by the Chief Labor Correspondent on Strikes and Lockouts,
and the information presented herewith has been obtained from those
reports. The report for 1888, being the first, is not so comprehensive
as those for subsequent years 5 for this reason, and also to enable a
uniform presentation of the various facts, the report for the year 1889
is taken as the starting point, the figures being shown as far as prac­
ticable for each year up to and including 1893.
The number o f strikes reported for each year is shown in the follow­
ing statement:
STRIKES, 1889 TO 1893.
Division.

1889.

1890.

1891.

England. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wales . . . . . . ...................................... . . . . . . . __________
Scotland..................................... .
Ireland...................... ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. .........

813
53
246
33

716
88
156
68

667
63
125
38

Total..........................................................................

1,145

1,028

893

1892.

*

1893.

Total.

512
52
110
18

509
48
175
36

3,217
304
812
193

692

768

4,526

In counting the number of strikes that occurred in 1889, wherever
full details were obtained of separate establishments engaged in a gen­
eral strike, each establishment was considered as one strike. It was
not always possible, however, to obtain full details for all the separate
establishments affected by a general strike. In those instances a large
number o f establishments were counted in the annexed table as only
one strike. Owing to the difficulty of ascertaining the actual number
of establishments affected and of distinguishing between the number
of distinct strikes and the number of establishments involved, the sys­
tem was changed for 1890 and subsequent years so that each strike,
whether general or merely local, was counted as one, irrespective of
the number of establishments affected. Under these circumstances it
can not be inferred that the strike movement in 1890 was not as violent
as in 1889, as the above table seems to indicate. A more accurate com­
parison for the two years may be made by saying that in 1889 there
were 3,164 distinct establishments affected by the 1,145 strikes, but the
system of enumeration then adopted was not so clear as in 1890, when
4,382 distinct establishments were reported, supposing where no infor­
mation is given that only one establishment is concerned.
26




STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

27

In some of the following statements the two classes of labor disputes,
strikes and lockouts, have been combined, but when practicable they
have been treated separately. Comparatively few lockouts occurred in
the United Kingdom during the period from 1889 to 1893. The following
statement gives the number reported for each year; the great decrease
from 1889 to 1890 is probably accounted for by the change in the method
of enumeration previously referred to in connection with strikes:
LOCKOUTS, 1889 to 1893Year.
1889
...........................................................
1890 ................................................................
1891
................................................

Number.
66
12
13

Year.

Number.

1892.................................................................
1893.................................................................

8
14

T otal..................................................

113

Statistics concerning the cause or object of strikes and their success
or failure are probably of more importance and interest than those on
any other branch of the subject. Space will not permit a detailed
statement of the numerous causes and objects of strikes as presented
in the several reports. The grouping adopted in the following state­
ment is in a measure arbitrary with this office:
RESULTS OF STRIKES B Y CAUSES, 1889 TO 1893.

Cause or object.

Year.

For increase of wages, and the same combined
with secondary causes.

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

T otal..........................................................................
Against reduction of wages, and the same com­
bined with secondary causes.

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

Total..........................................................................

76
109
68
59
68

60
45
26
17
12

768
514
317
260
256

940

635

380

160

2,115

12
34
52
40
72

8
14
31
19
45

20
30
32
50
67

5
5
14
15
14

45
83
129
124
198

117

199

53

579

20
'23
17
4
6

10
4
8
3
3

4
10
12
3
7

2
5
1
3
2

36
42
38
13
18

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

(a)
10
14
7
6

70

Total..........................................................................
Against conditions of work, materials, subcon­
tracting. shop rules, fines, etc.

290
152
74
59
60

210

T otal..........................................................................
For reduction of hours; for uniformity of hours,
and against increase of hours without coi respond­
ing increase of wages.

342
208
149
125
116

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

T otal..........................................................................
For introduction or enforcement of scale of prices,
disputes as to former agreements, etc.

Suc­
Suc­ ceeded
Not re­
ceeded. partly. Failed. ported. Total.

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

28
(a)
6
6
4
1

36
(a)

1

13
(a)

147
(a)

5
3
2
2

2
1
1

23
23
14
10

b 37

b 17

612

64

670

c78
57
87
52
39

c40
36
34
21
23

c57
59
60
58
48

c5
12
14
10
5

cl80
164
195
141
115

c313

c 154

c282

c46

c 795

a Inseparably combined with strikes of 1889 for the cause immediately following.
6 Not including strikes of 1889 inseparably combined with those of the same year for the cause
immediately following.
e Including strikes of 1889 for the cause immediately preceding.




28

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.
RESULTS OF STRIKES B Y CAUSES, 1889 TO 1893-Concluded.

Cause or object.

Year.

Against employment of nonunion men, and for
adoption or enforcement of union rules, etc.

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

T otal..........................................................................
Disputes between classes of work people as to work,
wages, etc.

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

T otal..........................................................................
Defense of or objection to fellow work people
(apart from unionism).

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

Total ........................................................................ 1.............
rWVvnse of or ohject.ion t,o superior officials......... .....

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

T otal..........................................................................
Tn sympathy with other strikes anrl disputes....... .

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

T otal..........................................................................
Cause not known......... ................................. . . ________

Total________ ________________________________

5
30
24
24
32

2
4
5
3
9

17
56
50
27
32

5
10
5
5
1

29
100
84
59
74

115

23

182

26

346

9
6
12
7
18

4
7
7
4
11

3
12
10
5
14

2
2
2
2

18
25
31
18
45

52

33

44

8

137

7
9
10
14
5

6
1
11
4
6

12
23
14
19
15

4
2
1
2
2

29
35
36
39
28

45

28

83

11

167

3
2
3
10
8

1
4
3

11
5
6
4
*5

2
4
1
1

15
13
16
15
14

26

8 ,

31

8

73

7
1
1

8
2
2
1
2

20
19
7
2
10

1

1

5
12
4
1
6

5

10 Ii

28

15

58

1
1

2
1
4

3
7
11
7

5
10
17
7

4

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

1
1

2

2 ji

7

28

39

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

476
384
369
283
303

i
368 |
230
181
117
159

207
322
263
228
264

94
92
80
64
42

1,145
1,028
893
692
768

1,284

372

4,526

T otal.........................................................................
A 11 can ses__ _____ ____________________ _____________

Suc­
Not re­
Suc­
Failed.
Total.
ceeded. ceeded
ported.
partly.

i

1,815

1,055

The vast majority of the labor troubles in the United Kingdom have
their origin in disputes as to wages. Chiefly they are differences as to
amount of wages, although sometimes they are disputes concerning the
principle or mode of payment, or of altered systems of work affecting
the amount or mode of payment. Considering the total for five years
it appears that over half, or 59.5 per cent, of all the strikes were caused
by questions concerning the advance or reduction of wages, and that of
the strikes for this object 42.7 per cent were successful, 27.9 per cent
partly successful, 21 5 per cent unsuccessful, and for 7.9 per cent the
result was not reported. Of the total number of strikes for all pur­
poses that occurred during the five years 40.1 per cent were successful,
23.3 per cent partly successful, 28.4 per cent unsuccessful, and for 8.2
per cent the result was not reported.



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

29

In connection with the success or failure of strikes it is instructive to
consider the number of persons affected. While the number of per­
sons affected is not shown for all of the strikes reported, it is given for
a sufficient number to indicate the relative number of persons affected
by the disturbances that terminated successfully or otherwise for the
workmen, and a summary of the totals for the different years is as
follows:
PERSONS AFFEC TED B Y STRIKES, 1889 TO 1893, B Y RESULTS.
[Persons affected means persons thrown out of work, whether actually striking or not.]

Result.

Total
strikes.

Year.

Strikes for which per­
sons affected were
reported.
Number.

Succeeded........................................................................................

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
!

T otal.......................................................................................
Succeeded partly...........................................................................

1889
5890
1891
1892
1893

Total.......................................................................................
Failed................................................................................................

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

T o ta l.......................................................................................

304
275
289
235
271

93,524
213,867
68.247
48,852
400,141

1,815

1,374

824,631

368
230
181
117
159

274
188
156
103
148

177,476
66,029
98,127
113,414
155,249

1,055

869

610,295

207
322
263
228
264

171
254
212
203
233

40,472
101,902*
92,763
70, 978
76,430

1,284

1, 073

382,545

94
92
80
64
42

32
21
19
27
13

10,528
11,183
7,748
3,554
1, 709

372

112

34,722

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

1,145
1,028
893
692
768

781
738
676
568
665

322, 000
392,981
266,885
236,798
633,529

4,526

3,428

l, 852,193

T o ta l......................................................................................
Aggregate........................................................................................

476
384
369
283
303

1889
1890
1891
1892
1893

T o ta l.......................................................................................
Not reported...................................................................................

Persons
affected.

Of the 4,52G strikes that occurred during the five years covered by
this statement, particulars concerning the number of persons affected
and the results were obtained for 3,428, or 75.7 j>er cent. These strikes
affected 1,852,193 persons. The strikes that terminated successfully
affected 44.5 per cent of the total number of persons5 those that suc­
ceeded partly, 32.9 per cent; unsuccessful, 20.7 per cent, and those for
which the result was not reported, 1.9 per cent. The successful and
partly successful strikes combined affected 77.4 per cent of the total
number of persons. The average number of persons affected by each
of the successful or partly successful strikes was G40, by the unsuc­
cessful strikes 357, and by the strikes for which definite information as
to the result was not obtained 310.



30

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The time over which industrial stoppages extend, when considered in
connection with the number o f persons affected, conveys an idea o f the
magnitude of the disturbances. The statistics on this subject for the
different years are presented in the following statement:
DU R ATIO N OF STRIKES, 1889 TO 1893.
Strikes for which duration
was reported.
Total
strikes.

Year.

Days of duration.
Number.
Number.

Average
per
strike.

1889.........................................................................................................
1890.........................................................................................................
1891.........................................................................................................
1892.........................................................................................................
1893.........................................................................................................

1,145
1,028
893
692
768

840
794
687
555
575

15,100
13,724
16,528
17,800
16,927

18.0
17.3
24.1
32.1
29.4

Total...........................................................................................

4,526

3,451

80,079

23.2

The number of really large strikes is shown by the following analysis:
In 1891 there were 9 strikes, of those reporting the number of persons
affected, in which 5,000 persons and upward were involved; 45 in which
1,000 to 5,000 persons were affected, and 622 in which less than 1,000
persons were affected. The Report by the Chief Labor Correspondent
on the Strikes and Lockouts of 1892 reports for that year but 8 strikes
and lockouts affecting 5,000 persons and upward, 34 affecting 1,000 to
5,000, and 530 affecting less than 1,000. In 1893, 10 strikes and lock­
outs involved 5,000 persons and upward, 31 from 1,000 to 5,000, and
638 less than 1,000.
The number of persons affected by labor disputes, and the duration
of such disputes, though interesting in themselves, become more impor­
tant when brought into relation with each other. This has been done
for both strikes and lockouts in the statements which follow so as to
show the average days of time lost by the persons affected.
T IM E LOST A N D PERSONS A F FEC TED B Y STRIKES A N D LOCKOUTS, 1890 TO 1893.
[Persons affected means persons thrown out of work.]
Strikes and lockouts for which both persons
affected and lost time were reported.
Year.

Total
strikes
and
lockouts. Number.

Days of lost time.
Persons
affected.

Number.

Average
per
person
affected

1890
........................................................................
1891..............................................................................
1892 ..............................................................................
1893 ..............................................................................

1,040
906
700
782

652
606
503
586

373,650
258,718
351,243
627,969

7,317,469
6,809,371
17,248,376
31,205,062

19.5
26.3
49.1
49.7

Total.................................................................

3,428

2,347

1,611,580

62,580,278

38.8




STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

31

D U R ATIO N OF A N D PERSONS AF FEC TED B Y STRIKES A N D LOCKOUTS IN 1893, B Y
INDUSTRIES.
[Persons affected means persons thrown out of work.]
Strikes and lockouts foi which both persons affected
and duration were reported.
Industries.

Total
strikes
and
lock­
outs.

Num­
ber.

198

jDays of duration. Days of lost time.
Persons
affected.

Aver­
Number. age per
dispute.

Number.

Aver­
age per
person
affected

Building and furnishing trades,
coach making and coopers.............
Clothing (including saddle and har­
ness trade).........................................
Domestic (a) .........................................
Labor (6)................................................
Metal (including shipbuilding, en­
gineering, etc.).................................
Mining and quarrying........................
Printing, paper, and book trades...
Textile trades.......................................
Transport (land and water).............

155

19,976

5,882

37.9

866,971

43.4

82
25
30

59
16
19

10,266
5,529
1,247

1,885
501
134

31.9
31.3
7.0

204,513
388,569
7,646

19.9
70.3
6.1

136
156
7
105
43

113
110
4
80
30

29, 662
501,724
286
44,790
14,489

3,802
3,063
116
1, 583
370

33.6
27.8
29.0
19.8
12.3

863,578
27,977,893
7,119
422,184
466, 589

29.1
55.7
24.9
9.4
32.2

Total............................................

782

586

627,969

17, 336

29.6

31, 205,062

49.7

a Comprises food and drink preparation, tobacco, brash makers, and glass and pottery trades.
b Comprises chemical and gas workers, public cleansing, agricultural, general, unskilled, and female
labor.

In the majority of cases the largest disputes in point of numbers
were also those for which the duration was the longest. For this rea­
son the average duration per dispute is considerably less than the
average number of working days lost per person involved.
With one exception the preceding statements have presented the
statistics by totals for years only. In the following summary the strikes
and lockouts of the four years from 1890 to 1893 are arranged by general
groups of trades. This statement shows the number of disturbances
in each group, the number for which the persons affected were reported,
and the number of persons affected by such strikes and lockouts.




32

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

PERSONS AFFEC TED B Y STRIK ES A N D LOCKOUTS, 1890 TO 1893, B Y INDUSTRIES.
[Persons affected means persons thrown out of work. I t will he noticed that the figures reported
below do not agree in every case with the figures given on page 30. The explanation is not known.]

Industries.

Strikes and lockouts for which persons affected Averwere reported.
age per­
sons
Number.
Persons affected.
affected
per
1890. 1891. 1892. 1893. 1890. 1891. 1892. 1893. 1890. 1891. j 1892. 1893. dispute.
Total strikes and
lockouts.

Building trades----Chemical and gas
works....................
Cabinetmaking and
furniture trades..
Clothing trades___
Coach building and
coopers .................
Domestic trades----Food, tobacco, and
drink preparation
Glass and pottery
trades....................
Labor (agricultural
and general un­
skilled) .................
Leather and rubber
trades.....................
Metal trades (in­
cluding
ship­
building) ...............
Mining and quarry­
in g ..........................
Paper,
printing,
and bookbinding
trades....................
Textile trades.........
Transport................
Theatrical
em­
ployees .................

117

149

149

170

83

123

115

10

4

3

5

7

4

o

18
78

18
66

9
56

20
80

15
47

11
55

7
49

5
10

9
11

6
8

8
5

3
5

8
7

5
6

21

18

12

9

18

17

11

12

8

11

6

10

29

18

19

25

21

11

5

5

2

9

201

165

129

136

101

132

109

156

80

11
241
164

20
217
62

7
137
41

7
105
43

8
183
105

Total...............

1,028

782

739,

700

5

1,218

200
487

12

9

7

10

11

12

3

5

149, 123

108

I

!

427

156
103
65
530

680
627

477
425

2,495
56

175
69

3,704

3,271

1,516

549

161

3,070

3,534 20,369

5,211

975

17

2,293

1,967

1,031

958

102

2

498

169

717

30

74

1

96

86

124 83,936 60, 502 39,759 30,309
!
133 140,292 51,427 120,386 506,182

2,072

14
164

7
117
35

356 1,291
7
381
708
89 42,035 44,837 102,722 45,274
34 72,875 32,499 12,878 15,589

76
425
620

688

576j 679 392,981267,460 356,799 636,386

i 42

2

l

193

118
15 2,142
366
317
312
71 29,317 40,992i 36,431 10,821
6
5

2
906

152 12,558 25,229* 18,175 17,738

|......

700

1

422

350
617

Considering the totals for the four years, the greatest number of dis­
turbances are reported for the textile trades, while those involving
the greatest number of employees are in mining and quarrying. The
textiles rank second in the number of persons affected, the metal trades
second in number of disturbances and third in number of persons
affected, the building trades third in number of disturbances and
fourth in number of persons affected, while mining and quarrying, the
first in the number of persons, is fourth in number of disturbances.
The magnitude of the average disturbance in the different trades is also
indicated in the above statement by the average number of persons
affected, the average being obtained from the totals of the four years.
The disturbances in the mining and quarrying industries affected, on
an average, the largest number of persons, and were followed in point
o f magnitude by the glass and pottery trades.
Having presented data as to the number, magnitude, and immediate
results of strikes, the Statistics next in order are those pertaining to
the modes of settling the disputes. The different methods of settling




STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

33

strikes and the number of persons affected by each class during 1891,
1892, and 1893 are shown in the following summary:
MODE OF SETTLEM ENT OF STRIKES, 1891 TO 1893.
[Persons affected means persons thrown out of work, whether actually striking or not.]
Strikes settled.

Med* of settlement.

Tear.
Number.

Strikes for which
persons affected
were reported.
Number.

Persons
affected.

By conciliation

1891
1892
1893

468
341
388

373
283
347

120,579
55,763
132,393

By conciliation (by mediation)

1891
1892
1893

9
4
8

9
4
8

9,464
76,144
300,622

By arbitration.

1891
1892
1893

18
19
25

15
17
24

12,387
32,637
12,124

By submission of work people.

1891
1892
1893

130
115
119

103
108
104

65,724
37,224
63,676

By hands being replaced.

1891
1892
1893

87
79
104

67
66 i
90

6,149
3,729
4,273

By conciliation and submission.

1891
1892
1893

41
33
44

36 ,
30
43 j

20,249
21,996
114,277

By conciliation and hands being replaced.

1891
1892
1893

11
13
6

9 !
11
6

1,927
1,748
803

By submission and hands being replaced

1891
1892
1893

39
22
22

37
20
20

20,410
3,891
1,977

By disappearance or withdrawal of cause of dispute without
mutual agreement.

1891
1892
1893

12
2
3

9
2
3

2,268
112
425

Indefinite; no details obtainable as to settlement, or establish­
ment closed.

1891
1892
1893

78
64
49

18
27
20

7,728
3,554
2,959

Much the larger proportion of the strikes for each of the three years
covered by this statement were settled by conciliation. Next to con­
ciliation the greatest number of strikes, according to the classification
adopted, appear to have been settled by the submission of the work
people.
While the available information concerning loss or gain resulting
from strikes is not as complete as could be desired, the information
secured is of value when considered in connection with the other sta­
tistics on this general subject. According to returns received from
employers with regard to the cost of strikes in 1893, there were 257
strikes which directly affected (a) 139,168 persons whose weekly wages
a W hat the distinction is between those directly affected and those indirectly
affected is not made clear, but it is believed that the former expression refers to
strikers only, and the latter to others thrown out of employment in consequence o f
the strike.

89—No. 1-----3




34

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

before the strikes amounted to $863,045, and 43 strikes which indirectly
affected 18,714 persons whose weekly wages before the strikes amounted
to $124,904. In 123 strikes, affecting 120,127 persons, an estimated
fixed capital of $78,522,559 was laid idle, and 80 strikes, affecting 104,811
persons, laid idle property whose estimated ratable value was $3,416,911.
In 109 strikes, affecting 135,230 persons, the estimated outlay by employ­
ers in stopping and reopening works and in payment of fixed charges
and salaries was $1,676,354, and the cost to employers in resisting 6
strikes, affecting 8,487 persons, was $34,980.
Keports from trade unions relating to loss and gain from strikes indi­
cate that in 1893 there were 265 strikes, affecting 239,898 persons,
whose weekly wages before the strikes amounted to $1,260,107. Weekly
wages both before and after the strikes were reported for 209 strikes,
affecting 236,527 persons, whose weekly wages were $1,237,931 before
and $1,287,554 after the strikes. In 73 strikes the weekly gain in
wages to the 116,249 persons affected was $39,024, and in 21 strikes
the weekly reduction to the 2,523 persons affected was $1,557. In 224
strikes, which affected 223,679 persons, the estimated wage loss during
the strikes was $8,952,929, the amount expended by trade unions in
support of 240 strikes affecting 92,608 persons was $617,457, and the
amount expended from other than trade-union funds in support of 37
strikes, affecting 21,171 persons, was $119,701. In 313 strikes 88,910 of
the number affected belonged to trade unions.
The statistics for lockouts have, of necessity, been included in some
of the preceding statements presenting the data for strikes. In some
instances it was practically impossible to obtain a separation of the per­
sons affected by the lockout from those affected by the strike; there­
fore the statistics for lockouts as a distinct class of labor disturbances
are not as complete as may be desired. The following statement gives
the number o f persons affected by and the duration of the lockouts in
the United Kingdom, so far as reported, for the years 1891,1892, and
1893:
DU R ATIO N OF A N D PERSONS A F FE C TE D B Y LOCKOUTS, 1891 TO 1893.
[Persons affected means persons thrown out of work.]
] Lockouts for which persons
affected were reported.
Year.

Total
lockouts.

Lockouts for which duration
was reported.

i!

!
Average
Average
persons
!
Persons
Days of days of
Number.
|
affected
Number.
duration
i affected.
duration.
per
1 lockout.
lockout.
i
i

1891..............................................
1892..............................................
1893 ..............................................

13
8
14

ii
8
14

575
120,001 !
2,857

Total.................................

35

33

123,433




i

52
15,000 i
204 !

6
6
11

224
186
409 1

37.3
31.0
37.2

3,740

23

819

35.6

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

35

The prevailing causes or objects of lockouts and the manner of their
termination, i. e., whether successful or otherwise from the employers’
point of view, are shown by the following statement:
RESULTS FOR LOCKOUTS B Y CAUSES, 1891 TO 1893.

Cause or object.

Against advance of wages and other demands...........

Suc­
Suc­
re­
Year. ceeded.
ceeded Failed. Not
ported.
partly.
1891
1892
1893

1

1

1

1

2

1

2
1
1

1891
1892
1893

2

Against, or to enforce alteration of working arrange­
ments, rules, methods of payment, foreign mate­
rials, short lime, etc.

1891
1892
1893

2
2

1
4

Unionism, as to employment of union or nonunion
men, union rates of wages, eto.

1891
1892
1893

4
1
3

1

To end a long-standing strike............. ......................

1892

All causes..............................................................................

1891
1892
1893

To enforce a reduction of wages................................ . .

T otal............................................................................

Total.

2

4

1
3
1

1

1

2
5
7
8
1
4

1

1

9 i
l !
7 •

1
2
6

3
4
1

1

13
8
14

1? |

9

8

1

35

In 17 of the 35 lockouts reported for the three years the employers
accomplished the object for which the lockout was organized, in 8
lockouts they failed, in 9 cases they were partly successful, there being
1 lockout for which the result was not reported.
According to returns received from employers with regard to the
cost of lockouts in 1893 there were 6 lockouts which directly affected
837 persons whose weekly wages before the lockouts amounted to
$7,144. In 1 lockout, affecting 637 persons, an estimated capital of
$121,663 was laid idle, and 2 lockouts, affecting 664 persons, laid idle
property whose estimated ratable value was $39,467. In 3 lockouts,
affecting 772 persons, the cost to the employers in stopping and reopen­
ing works, and in payment of fixed charges and salaries, was $1,898.
Eeports from trade unions relating to loss and gain from lockouts
indicate that in 1893 there were 7 lockouts, affecting 1,763 persons,
whose weekly wages before the lockouts amounted to $13,436. Weekly
wages both before and after the lockouts were reported for 5 lockouts,
affecting 1,437 persons, whose weekly wages were $10,604 before and
$11,392 after the lockouts. In 1 lockout the weekly gain in wages to
the 650 persons affected was $788. In 5 lockouts, affecting 1,743 per­
sons, the estimated wage loss during the lockouts was $48,874, the
amount expended by trade unions in defense against 5 lockouts, affect­
ing 778 persons, was $15,680, and the amount expended from other
than trade-union funds in defense against 2 lockouts, affecting 364
persons, was $112. In 9 lockouts 1,706 of the number affected belonged
to trade unions.




STRIKES IN FRANCE IN RECENT TEARS.

The report of the French Office da Travail, Statistique des Graves
et des Recours a la Conciliation et a l’Arbitrage Survenus Pendant
PAnn6e, 1894, gives some interesting figures as the result of its annual
inquiry into the subject of strikes and lockouts in France. The report
shows that during 1894 there were 391 strikes, involving 1,731 estab­
lishments and 54,576 strikers, and a loss of work on the part of the
strikers and their fellow-employees amounting to 1,062,480 days. In
1893 there were strikes affecting 4,286 establishments and 170,123
strikers. The loss to employees reached 3,174,000 working days.
In 1894, out of the total of 391 strikes, 84, or 21.48 per cent of them,
succeeded; 129, or 32.99 per cent, succeeded partly, and 178, or 45.53 per
cent, failed entirely. In 1893 the proportions were: 158 strikes, or 24.92
per cent, succeeded; 206, or 32.49 per cent, succeeded partly, and 270,
or 42.59 per cent, failed. In 1894, taking into account the number of
strikers involved, 23.63 per cent of the strikers succeeded, 45.41 per cent
succeeded partly, and 30.96 per cent failed. In 1893 the proportions in
regard to number of strikers were 21.27 per cent, 26.36 per cent, and
52.37 per cent, respectively.
O f the strikes reported in 1894, in 295 cases but 1 establishment was
involved; in 32 cases from 2 to 5 establishments were involved; in 18
cases from 6 to 10 establishments; in 26 cases from 11 to 25; in 17 cases
from 26 to 50; in 2 cases from 51 to 100, and in 1 case 125.
The two following tables summarize the strikes and strikers for 1894,
classifying them by industries and by results. The first table shows
for each industry the number of strikes and the number of establish­
ments involved, classifying them according as the strikes succeeded,
succeeded partly, or failed. The total strikes and establishments are
also shown. The second table shows for each industry the number of
strikers, classifying them according as they were involved in successful
strikes, partly successful strikes, or in strikes that failed. The total
strikers and days o f work lost are also given. The column in this table
headed “ Days of work lost” refers here, as well as in the tables which
follow, to days lost not only by strikers but by those employees who
were thrown out of work by the strike.




37

STRIKES IN FRANCE.
STRIKES IN 1894, B Y INDUSTRIES.
Succeeded partly.

Succeeded.

Failed.

Total.

Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
lish­ Strikes. lish­ Strikes. lish­
Strikes. lish­ Strikes.
!
ments.
ments. |
ments.
ments.

Industry.

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries............................................
M ining...........................................
Quarrying.....................................
Food products..............................
Chemical industries.....................
Printing.........................................
Hides and leather........................
Textiles proper............................
Clothing and cleaning...............
Woodworking..............................
Building trades (woodwork)... !
M fttfll TAiining________________
Metallic goods.............................. i
Prcnin^D-mAt^l ^nrlr__________ 1
Stonecutting and polishing, 1
glass and pottery w orks........
Building trades (stone, earthen­
ware, glass, etc.)......................
Transportation and handling..
T otal....................................

16
2 !
15

5
2
5

1

2
1
7
13
2
6
2
1

3
1
80
67
2
45
34
1
41
2

io
2

iI

i

13
4
i
4
1

10

1
:
!

!
23 '

44
5
5
&
2

io

36
4
17
50
5
1
11
140
49
19
90
2
28

3
1
4
4
5
8
11
55
3
11
2

13
1
5
29
5
8
87
126
21
19
13

28
1

46
1

21
7
13
8
11
10
- 28
112
10
22
9
3
48
3

65
7
37
79
13
10
178
333
72
83
137
3
115
3

3

35

12

17

20

75

18
3

105
22

14
1

225
1

23
7

94
74

55
11

424
97

84

459

129

713

178

559

391

1,731

5

1
STRIKERS IN 1894, B Y INDUSTRIES.

Industry.

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries..........................
Mining______ _________________________________. . . .
Oiiarrviua'........................................................................
Food products.................................................................
Chemical industries...... ............. .................................
Printing............................................................................
Hides and leather...........................................................
Textiles proper.................................................................
Clothing and cleaning...................................................
Woodworking_________________ ______________ ___
Rnilding trodos (woodwork)_____ ________ ___. . . .
Metal rodning_________________________________. . . .
Metal lie. goodn_____________ __________________ _
Preeinna-matal work............................................... .
Stonecutting and polishing, glass and pottery
works.................................... ..................................
Building trades (stone, earthenware, glass, etc.). . .
Transportation and handling.... .......... .............. .......
Total........................................................................

In sue- j In partly In strikes
Total ! Days of
cessful isuccessful which
strikers. !work lost.
strikes.
strikes.
failed.
1
530 !
150 !1
427
850
10
1, 567
4,044
130
518
108
18
583
8
2,268
1,466
220 j
12,897

1, 255
2,415
620
143
781
65
507
14,549
235
265
396
1,198
521

873
11

2.413
2,765
1,427
321
2,557
161
4,628
23,461
995
1,206
536
1,216
1,977
19

23,003
178,964
13,216
1,237
7,088
3,413
47,086
308,225
50,524
26,151
10,197
57,112
36,758
301

74
1,740
20

1,459
2,752
895

3,801
5,958
1,135

266,978
29,763
2,464

24,784

16,895

54,576

1,062,480

628
200
380
178
926
86
2,554
4,868
630
423
32
'

From these tables it appears that the textile industries proper had
the greatest number of strikes during the year, 112, or nearly 30 per
cent of the whole number—building trades (stone, earthenware, glass,
etc.) following with 55, and metallic goods with 48. Judged by impor­
tance of the disturbances as shown by the number of strikers and days
of work lost, the textile industries proper still lead with 23,461 strikers
and 308,225 days lost. According to number of strikers, building
trades (stone, earthenware, glass, etc.) come second with 5,958 strik­
ers, and hides and leather third with 4,628 strikers. According to days
of work lost, however, stonecutting and polishing, glass and pottery
works come second, and mining, which had but 7 strikes, comes third.




38

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The following summaries, by causes, show for each cause the same
facts that in the preceding tables were shown for each industry:
STRIKES IN 1894, B Y CAUSES.
Succeeded.
Cause or object.

Succeeded partly.

Failed.

Total.

Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Strikes. lish­ Strikes. lish­ Strikes. lish­ Strikes.
lish­
ments.
ments.
ments.
ments.

For increase of wages...............
Against reduction of w ages...
For increase of hours of labor.
For reduction of hours of labor,
with present or increased
w ages.........................................
Relating to time and method of
payment of wages, etc...........
For or against modification of
conditions of work...................
Against piecework.....................
For or against modification of
shop rules..................................
For abolition or reduction of
fines............................................
Against discharge o f work­
men, foremen, or directors,
or for their reinstatement—
For discharge of woikmen,
foremen, or directors.............
Against the employment of
women_____________________
For discharge of apprentices
or limitation in number._____
To support the demands of
neighboring woodcutters—

37
18
2

290
50
2

69
28

12

145

6

4

5

8
4

49 1
5

2

2 |
!

3

2

2

4 i|

3

3

14

16

1

1

1

Total (a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

108

i

2 iI

i

6
3
1I

6 i11

2

604
28

73
34
1

215
83
17

179
80
3

61

12

105

30

2

3

34

34
5

19
2

138
2 :

3

3

3 |

4

5

5

11

11

1 0

2

9

!

8

|1

41
221
12
8

19

37

28

50

34

35

50

53

4

4

5

5

2

2

2

2

211

753

!

33
9 :!

1
129

311
1

1

571

1,109
161
19

680

448

1

2,004

1

a A considerable number of strikes were due to two or three causes, and the facts in such cases have
been tabulated under each cause. Hence the totals for this table necessarily do not agree with those
for the table on the preceding page.
STRIKERS IN 1894, B T CAUSES.

Cause or. object.

In suc­
cessful
strikes.

In partly
In strikes
success­
Total
Days of
which
ful
strikers. work lost.
failed.
strikes.

Fnr innrfinsft nf wages_______ . . . ____ . . . . . . ______
Against reduction of w a g e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
For increase of hours of labor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . __ . . . .
For reduction of hours of labor, with present or
increased wages________________________________
Relating to time and method of payment of
wages, etc.......................... - ..........................................
For or against modification of conditions of w ork..
A gainst, piecework_______________________________
For or against modification of shop rules.. . . . . . . . .
For abolition or reduction of fines... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Against discharge of workmen, foremen, or direct­
ors, or for their reinstatement............. ............. .
For discharge of workmen, foremen, or directors.
A gainst the employment, of women______________
For discharge of apprentices or limitation in num­
ber ________________________________________. . . . . .
To support the demands of neighboring woodcutters__________________________________________

7,664
3,620
430

16,602
2,979

6,434
2,662
306

30,700
9,261
736

601,899
150,655
1,386

1,044

385

951

2,380

38,392

198
1,486
324
53
103

116
316
288
128
507

337
4,540
215
148
384

651
6,342
827
329
994

4,622
243,734
14,045
1,875
6,353

662
1,601
30

2,551
210

2,008
4,376
193

5,221
6,187
223

246,609
239,536
5,978

32

489

Total ( a ) ________ ___________________________

17,245

32
30
24,082

22,586

30

90

556,813

1,555,663

a A considerable number of strikes were due to two or three causes, and the facts in such cases have
been tabulated under each cause. Hence the totals for this table necessarily do not agree with those
for the table on the preceding page.
b Figures here apparently should be 63,913; those given are, however, according to the original.

It will be seen that more than one-half of all the strikes were caused
by some difference in regard to wages, 179 being for an increase of
wages and 80 being against a reduction of wages. Strikes for a reduc*




39

STRIKES IN FRANCE.

tion in the hours of labor were comparatively few, there being but 30
such during the year.
The number of strikers per 1,000 working people employed in each
industry (according to the census of 1891) is shown in another short
table as follows:
STRIKERS PER 1,000 EMPLOYEES IN 1894, B Y IN D U STR IES.

Industry.

Strikes, j Strikers.

Strikers
per 1,000
work
people.

Days of
work lost.

I

Agriculture and forestry (woodmen and charcoal burners
on ly)............................................................................................
M ining............................................................................................ .
Quarrying........................................................................................
Food products................................................................................
Chemical industries.................................................................... .
Printing............................................................................... ...........
Hides and leather.......................................................................... .
Textiles proper...............................................................................
Clothing and cleaning..................................................................
Woodworking................................................................................
Building trades (woodwork).......................................................
Metal refining............................................................................... .
Metallic goods............................................................................... .
Precious-metal work....................................................................
Stonecutting and polishing, glass and pottery works.........
Building trades (stone, earthenware, glass, etc.)...............
Transportation and handling....................................................

112
10

T otal......................................................................................

21 i

33.63
| 20.23

11

2,413
2,765
1,427
321
2,557
161
4,628
23,461
995
1,206
536
1,216
1,977
19
3,801
5,958
1,135

*36." 54
615.08
4.61

23,003
178,964
13,216
1,237
7,088
3,413
47,086
308,225
50,524
26,151
10,197
57,112
36,758
301
266 978
29,763
2,464

391

54,576

19.83

1,062,480

7 I
13

8
11 I

10 i

28 i
22 1
9 !
3 !

48:

3 !
20 !
55 '

2.50
69.89
1.66
37.16
22.65
1.41 •
13. 07
(a )

12.74
6.51

a Included with building trades (stone, earthenware, glass, etc.).
6 Includes building trades (woodwork).

This table shows perhaps better than any other the relative amount
of disturbances in the various industries. It will be seen that in all
industries shown, 19.83 out of every 1,000 persons employed were en­
gaged in strikes during the year. In textile industries proper, where
are found nearly 30 per cent of all the strikes, are found 22.65 strikers
per 1,000 employees, a slight excess over the average of all industries,
while in building trades (stone, earthenware, glass, etc.) and metallic
goods, respectively second and third as regards number of strikes, are
found but 15.08 and 6.51 strikers per 1,000 employees.
The strikes and strikers, classified by results and by the duration of
the strikes, are presented in the table which follows:
STRIKES A N D STRIKERS, B Y D U R A TIO N OF STRIKES, 1894.
Strikes.
Days of duration.

Suc­
ceeded.

Suc­
ceeded
partly.

Strikers.

Failed.

Total.

Suc­
ceeded.

Suc­
ceeded
partly.

Failed.

Total.

7 or under.................
8 to 15........................
16 to 30......................
31 to 100.....................
101 or over...............

58
14
6
5
1

72
34
10
12
1

102
34
20
18
4

232
82
36
35
6

a 8, 591
1,796
234
2,076
70

7,722
4,298
2,024
9, 075
1,665

8,270
2,587
3,353
1,435
1,250

24,713
8,681
5,611
12,586
2,985

Total.................

84

129

178

391

12,897

24, 784 j

16,895

54, 576

a Figures here apparently should be 8,721; those given are, however, according to the original.




40

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

It will be seen that most of the strikes, whether successful or not, are
of short duration. Nearly 60 per cent in 1894 lasted but a week or less,
and only about 10 per cent were of more than a month’s duration.
Duration of strikes is presented in another way in the following short
table. The strikes are here classified according to number o f strikers
involved,.and for each group the results and days of duration are shown.
DUR ATION OF STRIKES IN 1894, B Y NUM BER OF STRIKERS IN V O L V E D .
Strikes.
Strikers involved.

Suc­
Suc­
ceeded. ceeded Failed.
partly.

25 or under............................
26 to 50........................ ...........
51 to 100.................................
101 to 200...............................
201 to 500...............................
501 to 1,000........... ...............
1,001 to 5,000.:......................
5,001 or over..........................

21
16
23
IQ
10
2
2

Total............................

84

Days of duration.
Total.

1 to 7.

119
78
94
53
30
7
9
1

75
49
58
26
16
6
2

20
18
16
16
12

391

232

82

27
71
34
28
36
35
21
22
10
10
1
4
5
2
1 !
i.............
129 j
178

8 to 35. 16 to 30.

31 to
100.

11
7
9
6
1
2
36

101 or
over.

12
4
9
4
2

1
2
1

3
1

2

35

6

This table shows that a large number of the strikes are not only of
short duration, but that they are small as regards number of strikers
involved. In 119 cases 25 strikers or less were involved, and in 291
cases, 100 strikers or less.
Earlier reports of the Office du Travail give the facts for the years
1890 to 1893. A comparison o f the figures for the several years shows a
considerable variation in the number and importance of labor disturb­
ances during the several years presented.
The first of the following tables gives the facts, so far as reported, as
to number of strikes, establishments involved, strikers, and days of work
lost for the years 1890 to 1894.
STRIKES, ESTABLISH M ENTS, STRIKERS, A N D D A Y S OF W O R K LOST, 1890 TO 1894.
Year.

1
Strikes. Establish­ Strikers.
ments.

Days of
work lost.

1890..................................................................................................
1891..................................................................................................
1892..................................................................................................
1893..................................................................................................
1894..................................................................................................

313
267
261
634
391

a 813
c402
e466
4,286
1,731

b 118,929
i d 108,944
1 / 4 7 , 903
1
170,123
|
54,576

920,000
3,174,000
1,062,480

T otal...................................................................................

1,866

7,698

500,475

5,156,480

a In 33 strikes the number of establishments was not reported.
l>In 8 strikes the number of strikers was not reported.
e In 24 strikes the number of establishments was not reported,
d in 2 strikes the number of strikers was not reported,
sin 16 strikes the number of establishments was not reported.
/ I n 8 strikes the number of strikers was not reported.

A second table shows the number and per cent of strikes which sue*
ceeded, succeeded partly, and failed in each of the years of the same
period, 1890 to 1894.




41

STRIKES IN FRANCE,
NUM BER A N D PER CENT OF STRIKES B Y RESULTS, 1890 TO 1894.
Succeeded.

Succeeded
partly.

Failed.

Not reported.

Total.

Year.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

1890..........................
1891..........................
1892..........................
1893..........................
1894..........................

82
91
56
158
84

26.20
34.08
21.46
24.92
21.48

64
67
80
206
129

20.45
25.10
30.65
32.49
32.99

161
106
118
270
178

51.44
39.70
45.21
42.59
45.53

6
3
7

1.91
1.12
2.68

313
267
261
634
391

100
100
100
100
00

T otal...........

471

25.24

546

29.26

833

44. 64

16

.86

1,866

100

The per cent of successful strikes during the five years reported varies
from 21.48 in 1894 to 34.08 in 1891, and the average for the period is
25.24 per cent. The average of those which succeeded partly is 29.26
per cent and of those which failed 44.64 per cent.
The last table deals with strikers in the same way. It shows the
number and per cent of strikers who were involved in strikes which
succeeded, succeeded partly, and failed.
NUM BER A N D PER CENT OF STRIKERS, B Y RESULTS OF STRIKES, 1890 TO 1894.
In successful
strikes.

In partly suc­ In strikes that
failed.
cessful strikes.

Not reported.

Total.

Year.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

1890..........................
1891.........................
1892..........................
1893..........................
1894..........................

13,361
22,449
9,774
36,186
12,897

11.23 1 28,013
20.61 ' 54,237
23,820
20.40
21.27
44,836
24,784
23.63

23.55
49.78
49.73
26.36
45.41

76,075
32,109
14,179
89,101
16,895

63.97
29.47
29.60
52.37
30.96

1,480
149
130

1.25
.14
.27

118,929
108,944
47,903
170,123
54,576

100
100
100
100
100

T otal...........

94,667

18.92 j 175,690

35.10

228,359

45.63

1,759

.35

500,475

100




Per
cent.

STRIKES IN ITALY IN REGENT YEARS.

The Statistica degli Scioperi avvenuti nelP Industria e nelP Agricoltura durante gli anni 1892 e 1893 furnishes the data for the accompany­
ing statement concerning strikes in Italy in recent years.
The number of these industrial disturbances during each of the years
from 1879 to 1893 is shown in the following table, together with the
number of strikers involved in strikes reporting as to number involved:
NUM BER OF STRIKES A N D STRIKERS, 1879 TO 1893.
Strikes.
Year.

Strikers.

1879 ...............
1880...................
1881...................
1882 .................
1883...................
1884...................
1885 ...................
1886...................

32
27
44
47
73
81
89
96

28
26
39
45
67
81
86
96

4, Oil
5,900
8,272
5,854
12,900
23,967
34,166
16,951

Strikers.

Strikes.

Report­
Aver­
num­ Total. age per
Total. ing
ber of
strike.
strikers.
1
143
227
212
130
193
296
397
177

Year.
Total.

1887.................
1 1888.................
j 1889 .................
| 1890 .................
1891.................
; 1892.................
! 1893 .................

Report­
ing num­ Total.
ber of
strikers.

Aver­
age per
strike.

25,027
28,974
23,322
38,402
34,733
30,800
32,109

868
293
187
289
271
263
253

69
101
126
139
132
119
131

68
99
125
133
128
117
127

During the last two years included in the table strikes occurred with
greater frequency in Lombardy and Piedmont than in any other of the
provinces of Italy, they being the centers of industrial activity. In
Sicily, however, quite a large number occurred also. These were con­
fined mostly to the sulphur mines, where almost the whole of the work­
men struck and where the difficulties were most frequent.
The distribution of the strikes as to the causes for which undertaken
for the period from 1878 to 1891, for 1892, and for 1893 is shown in the
following table:
CAUSES OF STRIKES, 1878-1891, 1892, A N D 1893.
[In each of the years under consideration some of the strikes have been omitted, neither cause of
strike nor number of strikers having been reported.]
1892.

1878-1891.
Cause or object.

Strikes.

Strikers.

Strikes.

1893.

Strikers.

Strikes.

Strikers.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent.
60
4

39
4

34
3*

6,642
1,790

22
6

51
11

42
9

13,386
1,519

42
5

23,207

9

23

20

7,551

25

22

18

3,931

12

5,646
62,843

2
25

4
44

630
3*
39 13,571

2
45

1
36

1
30

300
12,492

1
40

100 254,668

100

114
5

30,184

100

121
10

100

31,628

100

For increase of wages.
For reduction of hours
Against reduction of
w ages........................
Against increase of
hours..........................
Other causes.................

522
70

52 152,908
7 10,064

110

11

20
276

2
28

Total classified.
Not f*-1assifiAd

998
77

Q-rand totalr__ T 1,075

42



119

100

131

43

STRIKES IN ITALY.

In the last of the five groups are combined many causes, among which
may be mentioned the following: Differences as to manner o f payment
of wages, whether weekly or fortnightly, etc.; as to the amount and
methods of fines; as to cooperation of strikers; as to special technical
conditions, etc. The per cent columns bring out very clearly the pro­
portion of strikes falling under each cause. During the period from
1878 to 1891 61 per cent o f the strikers engaged in strikes for the pur­
pose o f ameliorating their condition, while in 1892 28 per cent and in
1893 47 per cent of all persons involved were engaged in such strikes.
On the other hand, only 11 per cent of the strikers were engaged in
struggles to prevent a decrease of wages for the period from 1878 to
1891, 27 per cent in 1892, and only 13 per cent in 1893.
The table which follows shows the results of strikes for the period
from 1878 to 1891, for 1892, and for 1893, so far as the strikers were con­
cerned, classifying the strikes as having succeeded, partly succeeded,
or failed in the object or cause for which they were undertaken.
RESULTS OF STRIKES, 1878-1891, 1892, A N D 1893.
[In each of the years under consideration some of the strikes have been omitted, neither cause of
strike nor number of strikers having been reported.]
Succeeded.
Cause or object.

Strikes.

Failed.

Succeeded partly.

Strikers.

Strikes.

Strikers.

Strikes.

Strikers.

Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ Per Num­ |Per Num­ Per
ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. cent. ber. iCent. ber. cent.
|
1
For increase of wages:
1878-1891.................
1892..........................
1893..........................
Forreduction of hours:
1878-1891.................
1892..........................
1893..........................
Against reduction of
wages:
1878-1891.................
1892..........................
1893..........................
Against increase of
hours:
1878-1891.................
1892..........................
1893..........................
Other causes:
1878-1891.................
1892..........................
1893..........................

36
7
9

13
16
25

9,553
2,398
1,705

A ll causes:
1878-1891.................
1892..........................
1893..........................

159
24
34

16
21
28

62,336
8,636
9,197

88
9
15

17
23
30

43,931
1,078
6,071

29
16
45

242
13
18

46
33
35

74,650
2,050
4,713

49
31
35

192
17
18

37
44
35

34,327
3,514
2,602

22
53
20

14
1
5

20
25
46

3,612
1,500
581

36
84
38

28
1
4

40
25
36

2,449
40
815

24
2
54

28
2
2

40
50
18

4,003
250
123

40
14
8

14
7
5

13
30
23

2,700
3,660
840

12
48
21

47
7
10

43
30
45

11,744
1,628
1,341

50
22
34

49
9
7

44
40
32

8,763
2,263
1,750

38
30
45

7

35

2,540

45

8
2
1

40
50
100

2,750
350
300

49
56
100

5
2

25
50

356
280

44

15
18
14

104
10
13

38
23
36

27,441
1,764
6,601

44
13
53

136
27
14

49
61
39

25,849
9,409
4,186

41
69
33

24
29
29

429
33
46

43 119,034
29
5,832
38 13,770

47
19
44

410
57
41

41
50
34

73,298
15,716
8,661

29
52
27

*

6

As shown by the total columns, during the years from 1878 to 1891
24 per cent o f the strikers, or persons involved in strikes, succeeded in
gaining the object for which they Struck, 47 per cent succeeded partly,
while 29 per cent failed. In 1892 29 per cent succeeded, 19 per cent
succeeded partly, and 52 per cent failed, while in 1893 29 per cent suc­
ceeded, 44 per cent succeeded partly, and 27 per cent failed. The




44

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

results o f strikes for any of the causes shown may be found in the same
manner by reference to the table.
The classification of strikes, for 1892 and 1893, according to the indus­
tries in which strikers were engaged is shown in the following table:
STRIKES, B Y INDUSTRIES, 1892 A N D 1893.
1892.

1893.

Strikes.
Industry.
Total.

Weavers, spinners, and carders.............
Miners and ore diggers..............................
Mechanics......................................................
Founders........................................................
Day laborers..................................................
Masons and stonecutters..........................
Kiln and furnace tenders..........................
Printers.........................................................
Hat makers....................................................
Tanners.........................................................
Joiners.............................................. ............
Omnibus drivers and conductors...........
Cart drivers..................................................
Porters and coal carriers...... ....................
Other industries...........................................
T otal.................................................... !
!

41
19
3
1
13
5
6
5
3
1
3
3
1
4
11
119

Strikes.

Report­
ing num­ Strikers.
ber of
strikers.
41
19
3
1
12
5
6
5
3
1
3
3
1
4
10*
117

Report­
ing num­ Strikers.
ber of
strikers.

Total.

7,679
8,280
568
70
2,026
1,940
439
345
306
12
500
2,470
60
2,610
3,495

44
19
5
2
9
6
2
1
1
6

44
18
5
2
9
4
2
1
1
6

14,061
3,840
415
390
3,960
380
250
10
32
447

5
4
7
20

5
3
7
20

3,627
220
1,300
3,177

30,800

131

127

32,109

The textile, mineral, and metallurgic industries, and that of public
works, in which most of the common labor is engaged, are more largely
represented in strikes because in those industries the workmen are
more generally organized.
Immediately following is shown, for a series of years, from 1879 to
1893, the total and average days lost by reason of strikes.
D A Y S OF W O R K LOST B Y REASON OF STRIKES, 1879 TO 1893.
Days of work lost.

Strikes.
Year.

1879...................
1880...................
1881...................
1882...................
1883...................
1884...................
1885...................
1886...................

Report­
ing
Total. number
of days
lost.
32
27
44
47
73
81
89
96




28
26
38
45
65
78
82
95

Days of work lost.

Strikes.

Aver­
age per
strike.

Year.

Total.

21,896
91,899
95,578
25,119
111,697
149,215
244,393
56,772

782
3,535
2,515
558
1,718
1,913
2,980
598

1887.................
1888.................
1889.................
1890.................
1891.................
1892.................
1893.................

Report­
ing
Total. number
of days
lost.
69
101
126
139
132
119
131

66
95
123
129
123
114
122

Total.

218,612
191,204
215,880
167,657
258,059
216,907
234,323

Average per
strike.

3,312
2,013
1,755
1,300
2,098
1,903
1,921

STRIKES IN AUSTRIA IN RECENT YEARS.

Volume X I of the Foreign Reports o f the British Royal Commission
on Labor gives the leading facts in regard to strikes in Austria dur­
ing 1891 and 1892, quoting from Zusammenstellungen der in den Jahren
1891 und 1892 stattgefundenen Arbeitseinstellungen im Gewerbebetriebe, Vienna, 1892 and 1893.
The two tables immediately following are summaries of strikes by
industries for the years 1891 and 1892, respectively. They show the
number o f strikes, establishments involved, total employees in such
establishments, employees striking, and total days of work lost by
strikes. These two tables show also the causes or objects for which
the strikes were undertaken, classifying them under three heads, viz:
For increase of wages or that and other demands, against reduction
of wages, and ail other. The number of strikes which succeeded, suc­
ceeded partly, and failed is also shown:
STRIKES IN 1891, B Y INDUSTRIES.
Lit will be observed that the addition of the items in this table will not in all cases produce the totals
given. The figures, however, are all as given in the report before referred to, the original not being
accessible.!
Cause or object.

Employees.

Result.
I

For inIndustry.

Bakers.................
Builders.............
Brewers...............
Bookbinders. . . .
Printers,engrav­
ers, and type
founders.........
Cement manu­
facturers .........
Railway
con­
tractors ...........
Glass and china
manufacturers
Glovers................
Military outfit­
ters ...................
Manufacturers of
wooden goods .
Hatters.............
Cork manufac­
turers............. .
Leather manu­
facturers.........
Hackney coach­
men .................
Metal workmen
Paper and cellu­
lose manufac­
turers . . . . . . . . .

Strikes.

Estab­
lish­
ments. Total. Strik­
ers.

444 3,
55| 2,288

Days
lost.

107

972 a 21,855
1,392
5,231
17
17
79
766

3,250

2,236 a 75,251

1|
40;

17

20




24

265

155

155

451 6,313

698

4,353

8

6

12

140

32

64

34
5

658
5

1*
12
13;

of
wages Against
Suc­
All
reduc­
Suc­
or that tion of other. ceeded. ceeded Failed.
and
partly.
wages.
other
de­
mands.

10

7

401

126

249

148
2,447

148
1,338

148
12,911

852

104

542

7l......4f-

a About,

45

46

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,
STRIKES IN 1891, BY INDUSTRIES-Concluded.

[It will be observed that the addition of the items in this table will not in all cases produce the totals
given. The figures, however, are all as given in the report before referred to, the original not being
accessible. ]
Cause or object.

Employees.

Industry.

Estab­
Strikes. lish­
Strik­
ments. Total. ers.

Pipe manufacturers...............
Brush makers__
Shipping.............
Dockers. / ...........
Manufacturers of
fancy boxes. . . .
Tailors.................
River conserva­
tors . . ...............
Shoemakers........
Textile manufac­
turers ...............
Joiners and cabi­
netmakers........
Sugar refiners...

1
1!
1
1i

Total.........
1

1
l
i
i

Days
lost.

Result.

For in­
crease
of
Against
wages
Suc­
A ll
Suc­
or that reduc­
tion of other. ceeded, ceeded Failed.
and
partly.
wages.
other
de­
mands.

1

1

8
17
100
800

8
3
100
30

64
27
300
90

1
1;

1
35
79 1,656

35
492

490
3,444

1
1

1
8i
1
18:
1
6
1!

1
72
556 10,846

72
720
2,547 a87,363

1
4

3

1

4

4

1
1

2,929

26,529

10

300
130

4,678
1,170

2

104M .916 40,486 514,025 6247,076
!

55

18 6,585
70
i

401
537

a About.

1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
4

3

4

6

8

4

2

2

2
1

34

23

26

651

1
15

6 See prefatory note to table.
STRIKES I N 1892, B Y INDUSTRIES.

[It will be observed that the addition of the items in this table will not in all cases produce the totals
given. The figures, however, are all as given in the report before referred to, the original not being
accessible.]
Employees.
i
Industry.

Painters.........
Builders.................
Binders...................
Manufacturers of
cardboard goods.
Manufacturers of
cellular
linen
clothing and mil­
itary stocks........
Turners...................
Innkeepers.............
Glass and china
manufacturers ..
Coffee sorters....... .
Leather manufac­
turers ............... .
Hackney coachmen
Malt manufactur­
ers ........................
Metal workers___
M illers....................
Pipe makers...........
Compositors...........
Shoemakers...........
Trunk makers........
Textile manufac­
turers ...................
Joiners and cabinetmakers . . . . . .

Estab­
Strikes. lish­
Strik­ Days
ments. Total. ers.
lost.

1
6
4
1

l
9
9
9
34' 2.241 2,049 19,401
6
749
158 1,548
I
2' 111
222
111

1
4
1

1
14
92 1,250
1
4

14
140
442 13,941
4
4

3
1

5
1

64 2,341 2,222 62,609
1
400
200
200

3
1

1
1

1
8
180
1,200 1,200 1.200

8
2,400

1
15
2
1
1
5
1

1
42
65
42
16 4,415 1,444 12,607
2
22
13
25
1
11
18
22
1
1
4
4
5
363
238 1,756
1
19
10
60

39

48 10,515 5,420 33,114




Cause or object.

4

24

206

206

1,607

Result.

For in­
crease
of
wages Against
Suc­
reduc­
A ll
Suc­
or that tion
of other. ceeded. ceeded Failed.
and
partly.
other wages.
de­
mands.
1
5
2

1

1

2
2

1

1

1
1

2

2

1

2

2
1

!............

1
1

1

4
1
1

4

5

8
2

1

1
1

1

2

1
7
1

2

1

3

1

1
5

17

1
2
2

2

8

*

1
1
1

12

17

21..«»*•»

2

2

14
1

1
1
10

47

STRIKES IN AUSTRIA,
STRIK ES IN 1892, B Y INDUSTRIES-Concluded.

[It will be observed that the addition of the items in this table will not in all cases produce the totals
given. The figures, however, are all as given in the report before referred to, the original not being
accessible. ]
Employees.

Industry.

Cause or object.

Result.

j!
For in­
|
i
crease
i
Estab­
of
Against
Strikes. lish­
wages
Suc­
Strik­ Days
All
reduc­
Sue
ments. Total. ers. lost. or that tion of other.
ceeded. ceeded Failed.
and
partly.
other wages. i
de­
i
mands.

Wheelwrights........
Manufacturers of
underlinen.........
Water company
Match manufac­
turers ..................
Total.............

1

12

20

30

l

460

3
3: 509
123
533
11
i!
66
86
66
1
!
1
1
14
70
14
1
l1
101 j 1,519^24,621 14,025 150,992

2
1

1

1
1

a 46

21

1

2
1

29

46

1
34

26

a See prefatory note to table.

The following table shows the distribution of strikes in Austria in
1891 and 1892 by districts, giving the number of strikes, establish­
ments involved, employees, and strikers:
STRIKES IN 1891 A N D 1892, B Y DISTRICTS.
[It will be observed that the addition of the items in this table will not in all cases produce the totals
given. The figures, however, are all as given in the report before referred to, the original not being
accessible.]
Establishments.

Strikes.

Employees.

Strikers.

District.
1891.
Lower Austria.....................................
Upper Austria.......................... ..
Salzhnrg...................... ......................
S tyria...... .............................................
Carinthia..............................................
Carniola................................................
Coast lands...........................................
Tyrol and Vorarlberg........................
Bohemia................................................
Moravia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....................
Silesia.... .............................................
Galicia . . . . . . . . ...... ..................... .
Bukowina______ __________________
Dalmatia............................ ..................
T otal...........................................




35
3
2
2
2
1
4
27
24
3
1
104

1892.
28
1
1 !
3 |
!
2 1
3 !
1 i
35 |
24
1
2

1891.
22

3
2
2
2
1
68
599
26
90
1

101 a 1,916

1892.

1891.

1,336 17,111
1
60
4
476
3 !
80
2 !
641
9 I
800
1 |
440
127 16,852
24 I 4,737
1 1
il |
255
34
i
1,519 j «40,486

a See prefatory note to table.

1892.

1891.

7,285
4
19
18

5,875
59

410
1,270
46
10, 740
4,645
66
118

24,621

474
36
124
30
275
5,023
1,892
227
10
14.025

1892.
2,520
4
19
16
260
1,270
44
8,004
1,855
22
109

14,123

PRIVATE AND PUBLIC DEBT IN THE UNITED STATES.
B Y GEORGE K . HOLMES.

There is an elaborate network of debts and credits associated with
production and trade, and growing out of the numerous wants and
necessities of men, to satisfy which they in many cases use borrowed
or hired wealth. The maufacturer may have a mortgage on his factory
and be in debt for materials, the jobber and wholesale merchant are
indebted to him, while the retail merchants owe them. The retail mer­
chants have customers who are indebted to them, and these customers
are more or less creditors. It is therefore practically impossible to
ascertain the true amount of the private debts of the people. The dif­
ficulty can be illustrated by the following familiar example: A owes B
$10, B owes O $10, and O owes A the same amount) a ten-dollar bill
handed by the first to the second, by the second to the third, and by
the third to the first will satisfy the three debts, yet in any statistics
o f private debt under this illustration the total would be $30.
In undertaking to arrive at the amount of private debt it is impossi­
ble to offset credits against debts in cases similar to the foregoing. The
best that can be done is to ascertain the amounts of the various classes
of debts which are offset iittle, it any, by credits and regard their sum
as the minimum amount of debt, somewhere above which is the true
amount.
The results of an effort to do this are presented in the accompanying
statement of the minimum debt of the United States in 1890. The
amounts of the funded and unfunded debt of railroad and street railway
companies, and the amount of the funded debt of telephone companies
are obtained from the reports of the Eleventh Census of the United
States. To the reported debt of railroad companies has been added an
estimate of the debt not reported. The totals for the other items in the
statement have been taken from similar official or authentic reports (a),
or are carefully prepared estimates.
a Bulletins and final reports o f the Eleventh Census, Poor’s Manual of Railroads,
the Manual of American Waterworks, reports of the Massachusetts gas and electric
light commissioners, and reports of the Comptroller of the Currency.

48




49

PRIVATE AND PUBLIC DEBT IN THE UNITED STATES.

M IN IM U M DEBT OF TH E UN ITED STATES, 1890.

Description of debt.

Amount.

Per cent
of group
total.

RAILROAD COMPANIES.

Funded debt reported...............................................................................
Funded debt not reported (estimated in proportion to mileage)..
Unfunded debt reported, not including unpaid dividends.............
Unfunded debt not reported (estimated in proportion to mileage)
T o ta l............................................................................

$4,631,473,184
286,218, 553
707,986, 820
43,752,557
5,669,431,114 j

STREET RAILWAY COMPANIES.

Funded debt..........................................................................
Unfunded debt......................................................................
Total

151,872,289
30,368,465
182,240,754 |

Total for railroads and street railway companies.....................................

5,851, 671,868

QUASI PUBLIC CORPORATIONS.

Railroad companies ($329,971,110 estimated)........................................................ ! 5,669,431,114
Street railway companies............................................................................................
182,240, 754
Telephone companies, funded debt............................................................................
4,992,565
Telegraph companies ($2,556,808 estimated)...........................................................
20,000,000
Public water companies, not owned by municipalities ($26,488,939 estimated).
89,127,489
Gas companies (estimated)..........................................................................................
75,000,000
Electric lighting and power companies (estimated)............................................
45,000,000
Transportation companies, not otherwise specified, and canal, turnpike,
bridge, and other quasi public corporations (estimated to make round total).
114,208,078

91.44
2.94
.08
.32
1.44
1.21
.73

6,200,000,000

100.00

292,611,974
393,029,833
361,311,796

27.95
37.54
34.51

1,046,953,603 j

100.00

T o ta l......... ...........................................................................................................

1.84

REAL ESTATE MORTGAGES.

On homes occupied by o'ivners.
In the 420 cities and towns of from 8,000 to 100,000 population.
In the 28 cities of 100.000 population and over.............................
Outside of cities and towns of 8,000 population and over...........
T o ta l..............................................................................................
On farms and homes occupied by owners.
On farms..........................................................................................
On homes......................................................* ................................
T o ta l.....................................................................................

1,085,995,960 j ,
1,046,953,603 j
2,132,949,563 j

50.92
49.08
100.00

On acre tracts.
On farms occupied by owners.............
On hired farms and other acre tracts.

1,085,995,960
1,123,152,471

49.16
50.84

T o ta l..............................................

2,209,148,431

100.00

1,046, 953,603
2,763,577,951

27.48
72.52

3,810,531,554

100.00

2,209,148,431
3,810,531,554

36.70
63.30

6,019,679,985

100.00

Eeal estate mortgages.................................................................................................
Crop liens in the South (estimated)..........................................................................
Crop liens outside of the South, and chattel mortgages (estimated)...............
National banks, loans and overdrafts....................................................................
Other banks, loans and overdrafts, not including real estate mortgages----National, state, and local taxes.................................................................................
Other net private debt (estimated to make round total).....................................

6, 019, 679,985
300, COO, 000
350,000,000
1,904,167,351
1,172,918,415
1,040,473, 013
1,212,761,236

50.16
2.50
2.92
15.87
fi.77
8.67
10.11

T otal.....................................................................................................................

12,000,000,000

100.00

On lots.
On homes occupied by owners............................................
On hired homes, business real estate, and all other lots.
T otal................................................................................
On all real estate.
On acre tracts
On lots.............
T o ta l. . .
INDIVIDUALS AND PRIVATE CORPORATIONS.

89—No. 1-----4



50

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

M IN IM U M DEBT OF TH E U N IT ED STATES, 1890—Concluded.

Description of debt.

Amount.

Per cent
of group
total.

AGGREGATE PRIVATE DEBT.

$6,200,000,000
12,000,000,000

34.07
65.93

18,200,000,000

100.00

891,960,104
228,997,389
145,048,045
724,463,060
36,701,948

44.00
11 30
7.15
35.74
1.81

* ...................

2,027,170,546

100.00

Private debt........... ....................................................................................... ...........
Public debt................... ..................

18,200,000,000
2,027,170,546

89.98
10.02

T otal......................................................................................................................

20,227,170,546

100.00

In d iv id u a ls and p r iv a te

corporations____ _______________________ _____ ____

T o t a l ...................... ................................................................... . . . . . . . . ______
PUBLIC DEBT, LESS SINKING FUND.

United States_

_________ ____________________- ____________________________

O m rn tics____________________________ . . . . . . . . . . . ____

____________ . . . _______________
Municipalities__ ‘____ _____________________________________________________ _
S0V100I d is tr ic ts ............................................................ ................. ............... .............
T o ta l..........................................................................
AGGREGATE PRIVATE AND PUBLIC DEBT.

Some of the classes of corporations enumerated in the foregoing
statement, such as transportation companies not otherwise specified,
canal, turnpike, and bridge companies, do a cash business, and others
a business that is so nearly for cash that there is comparatively little
in amount of credits to offset against their debt. The amount of credits
o f such corporations is undoubtedly much more than balanced by the
wages that they owe just before pay day.
Debtors who place mortgages on their real or personal estates are
creditors to some extent, how far it is impossible to estimate $ but these
persons are not regarded as appreciably a creditor class, as they would
need to be if their combined debt of $6,669,679,985 was to be reduced
much on this account. On the other hand, the borrowers from banks,
not including borrowers on real estate security, may be supposed to be
creditors to a considerable degree. National banks can not lend on
real estate mortgages, and therefore these securities are excluded from
the loans of other banks.
The public revenue, too, is derived from persons who are creditors as
well as debtors, and a large portion of it, as in the case of crop liens,
is not a debt that continues throughout the whole year. Notwith­
standing this, it is included in the statement of debt, partly because it
is a conspicuous and disagreeable debt burden and partly to account
for some of the debt which can not be ascertained in its entirety.
It is believed that the total of the preceding statement expresses the
minimum debt of the people of the United States in 1890. Only 12.14
per cent of it is estimated, no part of it is duplicated, and the supposi­
tion is that the accepted debt offset by credit is more than equaled by
the omitted debt. In addition to showing the amounts, the statement
gives the percentages that the different amounts are of the totals of the
respective groups of debts. For instance, of the grand total, 89.98 per




51

PRIVATE AND PUBLIC DEBT IN THE UNITED STATES.

cent is classed as private and 10.02 per cent as public debt 5 the realestate mortgage debt forms 50.16 per cent of the total debt of individ­
uals and private corporations, and the debt of railroad companies 91.44
per cent o f the debt of quasi public corporations.
The relative importance of the different classes of debts is shown by
the following statement, in which the various items of debt are con­
verted into percentages of the total debt of $20,227,170,546:
PEE. CENT OF EA C H CLASS OF DEBT OF TH E AG G K E G A T E DEBT, 1890.
Description of debt.

Per cent.

QUASI PUBLIC CORPORATIONS.

Bailroad companies (partly estimated)................................................................................................ .
Street railway companies..........................................................................................................................
Telephone companies, funded debt.........................................................................................................
Telegraph companies (partly estimated)..............................................................................................
Public water companies, not owned by municipalities (partly estimated)..................................
Gas companies (estimated)......................................................................................................................
Electric lighting and power companies (estimated)..........................................................................
Transportation companies, not otherwise specified, and canal, turnpike, bridge, and other
quasi public corporations (estimated)................................................................................................

28.03

.10
.22
.56
30.65

Total
INDIVIDUALS AND PRIVATE CORPORATIONS.

Keal estate mortgages............................ •-.............................................................
Crop liens in the South (estimated).................................................................. .
Crop liens outside of the South, and chattel mortgages (estimated).........
National banks, loans and overdrafts................................................................
Other banks, loans and overdrafts, not including real estate mortgages
National, state, and local taxes...........................................................................
Other net private debt (estimated)....................................................................

29.76
1.48
l. 73
9.41
5.80
5.15
6. 00
59.33

Total
PUBLIC DEBT, LESS SINKING FUND.

United States..
States.................
Counties...........
Municipalities .
School districts

4.41
1.13
.72
3.58
.18

Total............

10.02

Grand total

iooToo

Estimated..........................
Statistically established

12.14
87.86

Of the different groups of debts that of individuals and private cor­
porations stands first, forming 59.33 per cent of the total, while quasi
public corporations form 30.65 per cent. The real-estate mortgage debt
alone is 29.76 per cent of fhe grand total, and is followed by that of
railroad companies, 28.03 per cent. Among the items of public debt
that of the United States is first, and forms 4.41 per cent, while the
debt of municipalities is 3.58 per cent of the total.
There is a great difference between the significance of a debt incurred
to acquire the ownership of capital or the more durable property to be
used productively and to be retained and used by the debtor and to
be kept available for the payment on his debt, and that of a debt in­
curred for the purchase of property soon to be consumed unproductively
or for the purchase of evanescent property. The debt of the quasi public
corporations originally stood for substantially an equal amount of
capital, and it stands for the same at the present time, except in the



52

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

cases of such corporations (almost entirely railroad companies) as have
become bankrupt to such a degree that their property is not sufficient
to pay their debts.
The statistical information concerning the purposes for which private
debts were incurred is exceedingly limited, except that represented by
real estate mortgages or by incumbrances on farms and homes occu­
pied by owners, which formed the subject of special investigations at
the eleventh census of the United States. The purposes for which this
class of debts were incurred are condensed to eight groups, and pre­
sented in the accompanying statement. This statement not only gives
the amount of the debt incurred for the different purposes, but shows
the per cent that each item is of the respective totals of the three gen­
eral groups of debts based on farms occupied by owners, on homes
occupied by owners, and the combination, on farms and homes occupied
by owners.
PURPOSES OF INCUMBRANCES ON FAR M S A N D HOMES.
*
[The debts included under this classification consist almost entirely of real estate mortgages.]

Purposes of debt.

Amount.

Per cent
of group
total.

ON FARMS OCCUPIED BY OWNERS.

Debt incurred for—
Purchase of real estate................................................ .....................................
Real estate improvements...................................................................................
Real estate purchase and improvements combined (not included in the
two items next preceding)...............................................................................
Business.............................................- .................................................................. .
Purchase of the more durable kinds of personal property......................
Farm and family expenses................................................................................
Various combinations of purposes, not otherwise specified.....................
A ll other purposes..............................................................................................
T otal....................................................................................................................

$ 699, 176,464
49, 168,733

64.38
4.53

57, 689,492
21, 139,559
12, 904,822
30, 684,018
184, 840,230
30, 392,642

5.31
1.95
1.19
2.82
17.02
2.80

1, 085, 995,960

100.00

554, 334,083
229, 412,937

52.95
21.91

66, 793,837
84. 715.323
2, 037,624
18, 589,629
64, 706,846
26. 363.324

6.38
8.09
.19
1.78
6.18
2.52

1, 046, 953,603

100.00

1, 253, 510,547
278, 581,670

58.77
13.06

124, 483,329
105, 854,882
14, 942,446
49, 273,647
249, 547, 076
56, 755,966

5.84
4.96
.70
2.31
11.70
2.66

2, 132, 949,563

100.00

ON HOMES OCCUPIED BY OWNERS.

Debt incurred for—
Purchase of real estate.......................................................................................
Real estate improvements.................................................................................
Real estate purchase and improvements combined (not included in the
two items next preceding)...............................................................................
Business........................................................................................................* ........
Purchase of the more durable kinds of personal property........................
Family expenses..................................................................................................
Various combinations of purposes, not otherwise specified......................
A ll other purposes...............................................................................................
Total
ON FARMS AND HOMES OCCUPIED BY OWNERS.

Debt incurred for—
Purchase of real estate.......................................................................................
Real estate improvements..................................................................................
Real estate purchase and improvements combined (not included in the
two items next preceding)...............................................................................
Business..................................................................................................................
Purchase of the more durable kinds of personal property.......................
Farm and family expenses................................................................................
Various combinations of purposes, not otherwise specified......................
A ll other purposes...............................................................................................
Total

The purchase of real estate appears as the principal purpose for which
debts were incurred, tbe total for this purpose, when not associated
with any other, being 58.77 per cent of the combined debt on farms and
homes occupied by owners. Real estate improvements, when not asso


PRIVATE AND PUBLIC DEBT IN THE UNITED STATES.

53

dated with any other purpose, rank second, being 13.06 per cent of the
combined debt. The details given in this statement show at a glance
the different incentives for debt. By a further condensation of pur­
poses, it appears that real estate purchase and improvements, when
not associated with any other purpose, are represented by the following
percentages: For farms, 74.22 per cent; for homes, 81.24 per cent; for
farms and homes, 77.67 per cent. Beal estate purchase and improve­
ments, business, and the purchase of the more durable kinds of personal
property are: For farms, 93.68 per cent; for homes, 95.56 per cent; for
farms and homes, 94.65 per cent (a). Thus it appears that almost the
entire incumbrance on farms and homes occupied by owners was due to
the acquiring of capital and the more durable kinds of property.
The crop lien of the South was a necessity that grew out of the con­
ditions in which the farmers found themselves at the close of the civil
war. They had their farms and some mules and implements, but
beyond that they were poor and could not maintain themselves, to say
nothing of paying wages until the harvesting of the next crop, and the
ex-slaves, perhaps hardly more than their former masters, were in need
of immediate subsistence. In this strait, credit was obtained with the
merchants for an advance of supplies until the harvesting of the crop,
which, being mostly cotton, but partly tobacco, was as good as cash at
the time of harvest. The plantations were next more or less sub­
divided into holdings to be cultivated by the negroes on shares. Land­
lords and tenants secured the merchants for advancements by crop
liens and by mortgages on farm animals. That system has continued
with little abatement until the present time, and the debt that accom­
panies it is mostly a subsistence debt, but to some extent a debt for
capital. The crop liens and chattel mortgage debt of the more recently
settled regions partake largely of the latter character.
The purposes of the loans obtained from banks can not be definitely
described. It is a matter of common understanding that they are
mostly for capital, since banks would not lend to persons, and friends
would not indorse for them, if they intended to use the borrowed money
so as to weaken their financial responsibility.
The tax debt aims to have for its compensation the maintenance of
justice, the promotion of public works, of education, and of undertak­
ings for the general good; and the same may be said of the public debt.
The miscellaneous undescribed debts are those that grow out of trade,
production, and services of many varieties. It is impossible to say
how far they stand for capital, or for wealth to be preserved or to be
consumed.
After the foregoing review of the significance of the various classes
of debt, it is apparent that at least about nine-tenths of it was incurred
for the acquirement of capital and of the more durable kinds of prop­
erThese per cents do not appear in the statement, as they are partly composed of
incumbrance taken from some of the “ various combinations o f purposes, not other­
wise specified.”




54

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

erty, leaving not more than one-tenth, and, as the purposes of the incum­
brances on farms and homes indicate, very likely much less' than onetenth, as a consumption debt, or for debt necessitated by misfortune.
Not only is the repayment of the debt obligatory upon the debtor,
but he commonly agrees to pay interest upon the loan at a certain
rate. Upon the source from which he derives the wealth with which
to pay interest depends the degree of “ burden,” if any, that it is to
him. There is a difference to him whether the source is the earnings
of the borrowed wealth used as capital, or the earnings of his labor, or
the principal of the borrowed wealth itself. The complaint of many
of the Western and Southern farmers for several years past has been
that they paid interest, if at all, out of the earnings of their labor, if
not out of their capital. As already shown, by far the principal por­
tion of the debt of individuals and of private and quasi public corpo­
rations represents productive capital in their hands.
Statistics o f rates of interest now available make it possible to com­
pute, approximately, the amount of the interest paid on the public and
private debt in 1890. This has been done, and the results are presented
in the following statement, which shows the debt and the amount and
rate of interest for the different classes of debt:
AM OUNT A N D R A T E OF IN TER EST, 1890.

Description of debt.

Debt.

Interest.

Rate
per
cent.

PRIVATE DEBT.

Railroad companies, funded debt (partly estimated)............... $4,917,691,737
151,872,289
Street railway companies, funded debt.........................................
4,992,565
Telephone companies, funded debt................................................
20,000,000
Telegraph companies (partly estimated).....................................
Public water companies, not owned by municipalities (partly
89,127,489
estimated).........................................................................................
75,000,000
Gas companies (estimated) ...............................................................
45,000,000
Electric lighting and power companies (estimated)...................
Transportation companies, not otherwise specified, and canal,
turnpike, bridge, and other quasi public corporations (esti­
114,208,078
mated)..................................................................................................
Real estate mortgages......................................................................... 6,019,679,985
300,000,000
Crop liens in the South (estimated)................................................
350,000,000
Crop liens outside the South, and chattel mortgages (estimated)
1,904,167,351
National banks, loans and overdrafts............................................
1,172,918,415
Other banks/ loans and overdrafts, not including real estate
mortgages...........................................................................................
Three-fourths of other net private debt (estimated) (c). *—
909,570,927

a $221,499,702
8,945, 278
294,062
1,178,000

4.50
b 5.89
55.89
55.89

5,249,609
4.417.500
2.650.500

5.89
55.89
55.89

6,726,856
397,442,792
120,000,000
35,000,000
125,675,045
77,412,615

55.89
6.60
c40.00
clO.OO
<26.60
<26.60

65,069,965

C7.00

16,074,228,836

1,071,561,924

6.67

United States.......................................................................................
891,960,104
States.......................................................................... ..........................
Counties............................ , ...................................................................
Municipalities..................................................................................... l 1,135,210,442
School districts..................................................................................... J

28,997,603

4.08

65,541,776

5.29

2,027,170,546

94,539,379

4.85

Private debt........................................................................................... 16,074,228,836
Public debt............................................................................................
2,027,170,546

1,071,561,924
94,539,379

6.67
4.85

Total............................................................................................. 18,101,399,382

1,166,101,303

6.44

Total............................................................................................
PUBLIC DEBT.

Total............................................................................................
PRIVATE AND PUBLIC DEBT.

a Actually paid and not including interest due and unpaid.
5 The rate for water companies is adopted.
c Arbitrarily adopted.
d The rate for real estate mortgages is adopted.




55

PRIVATE AND PUBLIC DEBT IN THE UNITED STATES.
AM OUNT A N D R AT E OF INTEREST, 1890-Concluded.

Description of debt.

Debt.

Interest.

*
i

Rate
per
cent.

REAL ESTATE MORTGAGES.

On farms occupied by owners.......................................................... $1, 085, 995,-960
1,046,953,603 !
On homes occupied by owners.........................................................
On farms and homes occupied by owners..................................... 2.132,949,563 |
On homes occupied by owners in the 420 cities and towns of
from 8,000 to 100,000 population..................................................
292,611,974 1
On homes occupied by owners in the 28 cities of 100,000 popu­
393, 029,833 !
lation and over...................................................................................
i
On homes occupied by owners outside of cities and towns of
361,311,796 |
8,000 population and over...............................................................
On acre tracts....................................................................................... 2,209,148,431
On lo ts.................................................................................................... 3,810,531,554 1
On ali real estate................................................................................... 6,019,679,985
i

$76,728,077
65,182, 029
141,910,106'!

7.07
6.23
6.65

18,417,745

6.29

22,584.509

5.75

24,179,775
162,652,944
234,789,848
397,442,792

6.69
7.36
6.16
.6.60

____

The interest on real estate mortgages is given at 6.60 per cent, which
is the rate adopted for the loans of all banks. On the crop liens of the
South a high average rate is paid, how high it is not known. Numer­
ous and extensive inquiries, many of them answered by merchants
and cotton buyers who hold or have held crop liens, point to the con­
clusion that the average rate on these liens must be as high as 40 per
cent, rarely going as low as 25 per cent, and often going as high as 75
per cent and more.
From the report of the bureau of labor statistics of Illinois it ap­
pears that the average rate of interest on chattel mortgages in that
state was 7.83 per cent in 1887. There is reason to believe that the
rate on chattel mortgages farther west and in the South, and the crop
liens west of the Mississippi River, is higher than this, and the gen­
eral rate of 10 per cent is adopted for crop liens outside of the South
and for chattel mortgages.
Some of the estimated “ other net private debt,” which has been
placed at $1,212,761,230, does not bear interest, such as the debt owing
to physicians, to lawyers, for labor, and the like, and for the want of
any knowledge of its proportions its amount is arbitrarily assumed to
be one-fourth of the total of the class to which it belongs, and the
average rate of interest on the remaining three-fourths to be 7 per
cent.
The average rates of interest on the total public debt, the debt of
the United States, and the local public debt are taken from the report
on wealth, debt, and taxation, which forms a part of the report of the
eleventh census of the United States. No attempt has been made to
correct any of these rates according as the bonds of corporations,
public as well as private and quasi public, have been sold above or
below par, nor according a’s there has been default of payment, except
in the latter case, for railroad companies.
The total interest-bearing private debt is $16,074^28,836, and the
total interest paid $1,071,561,924, the average rate being 6.67 per cent,
tfhile the average rate on the debt of the United States is 4.08 per




56

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

cent, this low rate being partly determined by the debt’s freedom from
taxation. While the average rate on real estate mortgages is 6.60 per
cent, it goes as high as 7.07 per cent on farms occupied by owners and
7.36 per cent on acre tracts.
The material is not statistically or otherwise ascertainable to deter­
mine with what ease or difficulty, as the case may be, debtors pay
their debts and the interest on them. Numerous voluntary explana­
tions bearing on this point have been made by mortgage debtors and
by debtors who own their farms and homes subject to incumbrance.
From these explanations it would be impossible to form any definite or
tangible conclusion; they are too often doubtful, because remote and
involved in political and economic theories.
Whether a ratio between the debt and the wealth possessed by the
debtors indicates more than the debt’s security to the creditors depends
upon the earnings of the borrowed wealth, or, i f it has no earnings,
uj>on the income of the debtors.
Subject to these qualifications the accompanying statement is pre­
sented, which gives the amount of debt, the wealth, and the percentage
that the debt is o f the wealth. The figures given in the column headed
wealth represent in some cases only the value of the property on which
the debt given is a lien; in other cases they represent the value o f all
o f the property in the class to which the debt belongs, although some
of the property is not incumbered. These latter are railroad, street
railway, and telephone companies, the gas companies in Massachusetts
first mentioned, and taxed real estate and untaxed mines.
PER CENT OF D EBT OF W E A L T H , 1890.

Description of wealth.

■Railroad companies__ . . . . . . . . . ____. . . . . . . . . . . . ____________ $5,669,431,114
182,240,754
Street railway companies..............................................................
4,992,565
Telephone companies.....................................................................
6.892.329
Gas companies in Massachusetts (a)...........................................
Gas companies in Massachusetts owing debt ( a ) _________
6.892.329
Tncumbered farms occupied by owners_____ _______________ 1,085,995,960
1,046,953,603
■Incumbered homes occupied bv owners.....................................
2,132,949,563
Incumbered farms and homes occupied by owners.................
Incumbered homes occupied by owners in the 420 cities and
292,611,974
towns of from 8,000 to 100,000 population..............................
Incumbered homes occupied by owners in the 28 cities of
100,000 population and over.................................. .................
393,029,833
Incumbered homes occupied by owners outside of cities
361,311,796
and towns of 8,000 population and over..................................
6,019,679,985
Taxed real estate and untaxed mines.........................................
The United States............................................................................ 20,227,170,546
a 1891.

Wealth.

Debt.

$8,401,508,804
283,898,519
72,341,736
b 20,322,329
b 14,475,229
3,054,923,165
2,632,374,904
5,687,298,069

Per cent
debt is of
wealth.
67.48
64.19
69.01
33.92
47.61
35.55
39.77
37.50

739,846,087

39.55

934,191,811

42.07

958,337,006
36,025,071,490
65,037,091,197

37.70
16.71
31.10

b Capital stock and bonds.

The percentage that the debt is of the wealth with which it is com­
pared ranges from 16.71 per cent for the taxed real estate and untaxed
mines to 69.01 per cent for telephone companies. The percentage in
the case of incumbered farms or homes occupied by owners ranges
from 35.55 per cent on farms to 42.07 on homes in the 28 cities with a




PRIVATE AND PUBLIC DEBT IN THE UNITED STATES.

57

population of 100,000 and over, the percentage of incumbrance being
less on farms than on homes. The percentage on homes is highest in
the cities with a population of 100,000 and over, falls to 39.55 per cent
in the cities with a population of from 8,000 to 100,000, and to the
lowest point, 37.70 per cent, on those homes that are outside the cities
of 8,000 population and over, the percentage of incumbrance being
considerably less in the rural than in the urban districts. The total
private and public debt is 31.10 per cent of the wealth of the United
States; this percentage measures as a minimum,the extent to which
the wealth of the country has passed into the possession of debtors.
The comparison between debt and wealth is continued in the next
statement, which exhibits the values of various annual products and
classes of property. This statement is necessarily more or less imper­
fect as a comparison, but it contains amounts of which it may be desired
to make some use in connection with the subject under consideration.
DEBT A N D IT S IN TER EST COMPARED W IT H VALU ES, 1890.
Description.
Private and public debt.....................................
Interest paid on the private and public debt.
Product of
Product of
Product of
Product of

manufactories, less cost of materials
farms........................................................
fisheries..................................................
mines and quarries...............................

Total products of productive industries
Capital employed in manufacturing.....................................................................
Value of farms...........................................................................................................
Value of live stock on farms and ranges, farm implements, and machines
Capital employed in the fisheries..........................................................................
Value of mines and quarries and products on hand..........................................
Total capital invested in productive industries................................................
Value of farms, live stock on farms and ranges, farm implements, and machines
Wages and salaries paid in manufacturing....................................................................
Value of machinery and mills and products on hand, raw and manufactured—
Value of telegraph and telephone property, shipping, and canals.......................... .
Value of gold and silver coin and bullion...................................................................... .
Income of railroad companies..........................................................................................
Property insurance risks in force......................................................................................
Increase of wealth, 1880 to 1890..........................................................................................
Increase of wealth, 1889 to 1890..........................................................................................

Amount.
$20,227,170,546
1,166,101,303
4,211,239,271
2,460,107,454
44,277,514
587,230,662
7,302,854.901
6.139,397,785
13,279,252,649
2,703,015,040
43,602,123
1,291,291,579
23,456,559,176
15,982,267,689
2,283,216,529
3,058,593,441
701,755,712
1,158,774,948
1,204,335,951
18,691,434,190
21,395,091,197
2,819,902,791

Per capita averages based on the number of debtors convey an idea
of the general level of debt among them, but when the averages are
based on the total population the idea conveyed must be that of the
social level of debt. The per capita, or social level of debt, is shown in
the following statement for some of the principal groups of debts:




58

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,

PER C A P IT A DEBT, 1890.
Description of debt-

Per capita
debt.

Quasi public corporations:
Railroad and street railway companies.................................................
Other quasi public corporations..............................................................
Total............................................................................................................

99

Individuals and private corporations:
Real estate mortgages on incumbered farms, etc.................................
Other real estate mortgages......................................................................
Banks, loans and overdrafts, no* including real estate mortgages
National, state, and local taxes................................................................
Other.............................................................................................................. .

34
62
49
17
30

Total................................................................................................................................................

192

Total quasi public and private debt.......................................................................................
Public debt................................................................................................................................................

291
32

Total private and public debt..................................................................................................

323

On incumbered farms and homes occupied by owners, crop liens, chattel mortgages,
taxes, and “ other net private debt” .........................................................................................

80

The per capita private debt is $291, public debt $32, the total being
$323, or $1,594 per family. Few families owe this amount; and the
foregoing analysis shows the sources of the debt that contributes to
most o f the averages. It comes largely from the capital of railroad
and other quasi public corporations, from real estate purchases and
improvements, and from the loans of banks.
I f to the crop liens and chattel mortgages are added the taxes, “ other
net private debt,” and the public debt, the total will include most of
the debt to which debtors are most sensitive, although some of it is
capital. The total o f this group of debts is $4,930,404,795, that is, $79
per capita, or $388 to each family of 4.93 persons in 1890.
The reports of the eleventh census supply some averages of debt
computed upon the number of debtors. Each family owning the farm
it occupies under incumbrance owes an average incumbrance of $1,224;
home, $1,293; farm or home, $1,257; home in the 420 cities and towns of
from 8,000 to 100,000 population, $1,363; home in the 28 cities of 100,000
population and over, $2,337; home outside of the cities and towns of
8,000 population and over, $846. The average mortgage on acre tracts
made during the ten years from 1880 to 1889, inclusive, was for $1,032;
on lots, $1,509; on all real estate, $1,271; on lots in the 27 counties
containing the 28 cities of 100,000 population and over, $2,798; mort­
gages made by quasi public corporations are not included.
To what extent real estate may be mortgaged is a matter of opinion,
depending in the aggregate upon the consensus of opinion o f lenders
as to the degree o f risk they will take. The degree of risk varies as
between city and country, as between improved and unimproved real
estate, and as between one region and another. The real estate mort­
gage debt has reached $6,019,679,985, and the estimated true value of
taxed real estate and untaxed mines with which this amount may be
compared is $36,025,071,490. The taxed real estate and untaxed mines,




PRIVATE AND PUBLIC DEBT IN THE UNITED STATES.

59

valued as above, constitute the real estate upon a part of which the
above-mentioned mortgage debt is an incumbrance, and include little
real estate o f quasi public corporations.
I f it is practically possible to mortgage real estate for one-half of its
value and no more, the existing mortgage debt is 33.42 per cent of the
limit; if for three-fifths of its value. 27.85 per cent of the limit; if for
two-thirds, 25.06 per cent of the limit.
High real estate values make possible a large mortgage debt, and as
a general rule where real estate values are highly concentrated the
same is true of mortgage debt. Among the 2,781 counties covered by
the census investigation of mortgages there are 27 that contain the 28
cities of 100,000population and over, and the mortgage debt on the real
estate in these counties is 40.51 per cent of the entire real estate mort­
gage debt of the whole country. In the 338 counties containing the
448 cities and towns of 8,000 population and over the mortgage debt is
69.40 per cent of the total. There are 29 counties in each of which the
mortgage debt is $25,000,000 and over, and the total mortgage debt on
the real estate in these counties is 43.34 per cent of the total for the
whole country. The 76 counties each having real estate with a mort­
gage debt of $10,000,000 and over, represent 55.20 per cent of the total,
and the 158 counties each having an existing mortgage debt of $5,000,000
and over 64.71 per cent of the total.




REGENT REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR STATISTICS.

In this number of the Bulletin a digest of the reports of the state
bureaus of labor statistics in Connecticut, Indiana, Michigan, Min­
nesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin is given, and will be followed, in sub­
sequent numbers, by similar presentations for the reports o f the
bureaus in other states. As far as possible quotations have been
made from the results of the original investigations conducted by the
different bureaus.
CONNECTICUT.
The Tenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of Con­
necticut for the year ending November 30,1894, is devoted to the fol­
lowing subjects: Savings and loan associations, 150 pages; effects of the
industrial depression,98pages; child labor, 27 pages; effect of reduced
working time on production, 30 pages; trade and industrial education,
70 pages. The presentation under each of these heads, with the excep­
tion of the last, is the result of an original investigation into conditions
prevailing in Connecticut.
Savings and Loan A ssociations.—The general plan of operation
o f these associations, their origin, introduction, and growth in the
United States, and their present importance is discussed. The devel­
opment o f the associations in Connecticut is given in detail, and the
statistics for the sixteen local associations in existence during the
year are summarized and presented separately. The draft of a pro­
posed law to regulate these associations in the state is given in full,
with the laws of several other states on the same subject.
Some of the leading facts shown for the operations of the sixteen
associations in Connecticut during 1894 are summarized as follows:
SAVIN G S A N D L O A N ASSOCIATIONS, 1894.
A ssets.......................................................................................................................................................

$790,605.02

Liabilities:
Capital or share account..............................................................................................................
Other liabilities, including undivided profits................................................................._____

$722,440.02
68,165.00

T o ta l.......................

60




790,605.02

REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— CONNECTICUT.

61

Receipts:
Cash on hand at beginning of year..........................................................................................
Cash receipts in last fiscal year, exclusive of loans repaid................................................
Loans repaid........................................................... - .......................................................................

$44,605.76
272,447.58
101,993.99

T o ta l..............................................................................................................................................

419,047.33

Disbursements:
Real-estate loans.............................................................................................................................
W ithdraw als...................................................................................................................................
Expense account.............................................................................................................................
Other disbursements, including cash on hand........................................................................

$192,947.68
134,043.95
6,092.64
85,963.06

T o ta l..............................................................................................................................................

419,047.33

Profits:
Net (expense of management deducted)...................................................................................

$37,947.77

Gross profits.................................................................................................................................

42,980.12

Number of loans to pay for homes....................................................................................................
Number of loans for other purposes................................................................................................

59
157

Total number of loans...............................................................................................................

216

Loans repaid, number............................................................................................................................
1,078
Loans repaid, amount............................................................................................................................
$364,015.18
Loans outstanding at end of last fiscal year.................................................................................
$732,966.97
Number of shares outstanding at end or last fiscal year...........................................................
20,493
Value of shares at maturity................................................................................................................ $4,108,850.00
Per cent management expenses are of receipts.............................................................................
1.97
Per cent borrowers are of shareholders...........................................................................................
22.03
Per cent loans are of shareholders...................................................................................................
28.37
Number of shareholders at end of last fiscal year, men.............................................................
Number of shareholders at end of last fiscal year, women........................................................
Number of shareholders at end of last fiscal year, minors.......................................................

2,251
568
169

Total number of shareholders..................................................................................................

2,988

Effects of the Industrial D epression.—The statistics pre­
sented on this subject were obtained directly from the books of 378 lead­
ing establishments, representing the principal industries in different
parts of the state and giving employment to 48.17 per cent of the total
number of employees in all industries, according to the United States
census of 1890. As 1892 was a fairly prosperous year it was requested
that the number of employees, wages paid, and hours of labor for that
year be used in comparison with similar data for each month of the period
of depression extending from June, 1893, to August, 1894, inclusive. The
number of days entirely shut down and changes in wage rates during the
period of depression were also called for. The results are given in detail
for each establishment, and summarized in convenient form for the differ­
ent industries. The extent of the depression is indicated by a tabular
statement showing the percentages that the time, number of employees,
wages, etc., are of the totals for each establishment when working under
the conditions existing in 1892. The summary for all industries shows
that the working time during the period of depression was about twothirds of the full time, and the average number of employees was 84.83
per cent of the average number in 1892, while the average monthly
payment in wages had decreased about 25 per cent. A large majority
of the industries retained on the pay rolls a large percentage of the
ordinary number of employees. The reduction made necessary by the
depression was largely in the working time, and this is reflected with
the nearest approach to accuracy in the lessening of the payments on
account of wages. Of the larger industries woolen goods manufacture




62

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

felt most keenly the effect of the depression, the monthly wage pay­
ments being reduced to 61.34 per cent of the average in 1892. The fol­
lowing is a reproduction of a portion of the summary table presenting
these facts:
PERIOD OP DEPRESSION, PROM JUNE, 1893, TO AUGUST, 1894, COMPARED W I T H
NORM AL CONDITION OF 1892.

Industry.

Boots and shoes and leather goods.
Brass and brass goods.....................
Carriages and carriage parts.........
Cutlery and tools..............................
Firearms............................................
Hardware............................................
H a ts ....................................................
Hosiery and knit goods..................
Machine shops..................................
Manufactures of cotton goods-----Musical instruments and parts —
Paper boxes and envelopes............
Paper mills.........................................
Printing and bookbinding............. .
Rubber and elastic goods...............
S ilk ......................................................
Silver-plated ware............................
Woodworking...................................
Woolen goods...................................

Per cent
hours
worked of
full time.

70.86
70.19
60.25
53.10
53.05
63.96
79.74
70.21
65.77
65.82
46.66
78.61
84.88
89.47
82.50
63.59
59.67
70.16
57.77

Per cent
Per cent
monthly
average
average
number
employed wages paid
of average of monthly
number
average
in 1892.
in 1892.

86.88
84.39
79.26
85.16
59.86
80.13
92.42
81.20
82.32
81.03
59.90
84.18
95.55
90.21
92.31
92.50
86.77
87.50
74.56

77.34
76.27
71.29
63.87
57.46
75.75
78.56
74.82
74.10
83.74
56.25
82.29
87.28
87.28
80.08
75.42
68.95
74.60
61.34

A little more than one-half of the establishments represented reduced
the rate of wages. The most common percentage of reduction was 10.
In several of the industries not over one-third of the establishments
reported reductions in wage rates, and in one industry, that of printing
and bookbinding, no changes in wage rates were reported. Changes in
the wage rates, average employees and wages, time the establishments
were idle, and the production during the depression as compared with
1892, together with percentages similar to those shown in the above
statement, are given in detail in the report for each of the 378 estab­
lishments, grouped under the different industries.
Child Labor.—To show the desirability of extending the age limit
from 13 to 14 years at which children could leave school and seek
employment, the bureau continued the investigation of the Connecticut
board of education, referred to in the report o f the secretary for 1892-93.
Information was obtained from the grammar schools of the state as to
the average age at which pupils completed the highest grammar grade,
the per cent not completing the grammar school course, the per cent
leaving school upon attaining their thirteenth year, and other data on
the subject. Fifty-eight of the 74 schools reporting for 1894 stated that
the average age at completion was more than 14 years. In the majority
of schools reporting, the percentage of children who do not complete
the grammar school course exceeded 50.




REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— CONNECTICUT.

63

The repiies to the question concerning the average age at completing
the grammar school course are summarized as follows:
AGES A T COMPLETION OF G R A M M A R SCHOOL COURSE.
Schools reporting.
Average age at completion of highest grammar grade.

Over 12 and under 13 years............................................................
Over 13 and under 14 years............................................................. 1
Over 14 and under 15 years............................................................. !
Over 15 years.......................................................................................|

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

6
9
11

9
11
16

1
6
23
17

10
26
22

1894.
1
15
29
29

In commenting on the results of child labor and educational laws in
other states as compared with Connecticut the commissioner states:
“ There are employed in New York factories 15 children for each 1,000
employees, in Massachusetts 18 per 1,000, and in Connecticut 21 per
1,000.” The calculations are based on the United States census of
1890. The beneficial results of extending the age limit are treated
under the appropriate heads of “ Strength of body and of character,”
“ Greater skill and increased comforts,” “ Would not intensify competi­
tion,” etc.
Effect of Reduced W orking Time on Production.—Informa­
tion on this subject was obtained from about 100 establishments. The
questions called for the effect of a decrease in working time on piece
earnings and on production per employee. The answers are published
in full for each establishment, by industries.
The following statement concerning establishments engaged in the
manufacture of hats is illustrative of the data furnished for the different
industries:
H A T -M A K IN G ESTABLISH M ENTS CLOSING A T NOON ON S A T U R D A Y .

Location of establishment.

Months
Plan
closed at
adopted
noon
in—
Saturday.

___ ___________ ______
Norwalk
"NTnrwa.llc____ ________ ______ ____ . . . . . . .
N rti*walk ............................................... .....
Norwalk______________ _________________
Norwalk.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Danbury ........................................................
Norwalk.......................... ........................
T){|,TihiiTy (/?) __________ _____ ___________
a Except where machinery is used.
b A ll piecework.

12
32
12
12
12
3
12
12

1890
1890
1890
1890
1891
1891
1892

Reduc­
tion in
weekly
wages.

Usual
Effect on Effect on
produc­ number
piece
of em­
earnings. tion per
employee. ployees.

Y e s........
Y e s........
Y e s........
Y e s........
Y e s ........
(b)
Y e s........
Y e s........

None
None
None
None
None
None
None
(d)

...
...
...
...
.. .
...
...

None (a).
N o n e __
None
None . . .
None . . .
None . . .
None . . .
(d)

200
12
100
150
60
10
60
20

c Closing at 3 p. m. Saturday.
d Proportionately less.

More than one-half of the establishments making returns reported
that there had been no reduction in production following a decrease in
the working hours; 31 reported a reduction in product proportionate to
the reduction in working time; 7 reported a slight reduction in product;
6 did not report whether the reduction was proportionate or otherwise.
The conditions prevailing in the different industries, as shown by the




64

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

answers of each establishment, are discussed in detail. The statistical
presentation is preceded by a general treatise on the subject under
consideration.
Trade and Industrial Education.—This subject is treated in
textual form, and covers the methods prevailing in foreign countries
and in various institutions in the United States, the data being
gathered largely from the Eighth Annual Report of the Commissioner
of Labor of the United States.
INDIANA.
The Fifth Biennial Report of the Department of Statistics of Indiana
for the years 1893 and 1894 opens with a summary of the data con­
cerning different industries and a reproduction of the labor laws of the
state. The subjects discussed in the report are as follows: Women
wage earners of Indianapolis, 108 pages; labor organizations, 57 pages;
domestic labor, 57 pages; coal mining statistics, 123 pages; the iron
industries, 35 pages; the wood industries, 70 pages; miscellaneous
industries, 53 pages; the glass industry, 33 pages; economic, social,
and census statistics, 83 pages; cereal crops and farm animals, 50
pages; railroad statistics, 31 pages.
W omen W age Earners of Indianapolis.—The statistics relating
to this subject are compiled from the reports of 500 working women in
Indianapolis engaged in 20 different industries. The reports were
secured by a personal canvass, a representative number being selected
for each industry. The questions were designed to obtain detailed
information under the following heads:
1. Origin: viz, nativity of girl and of parents, whether city or
country reared, and occupation of father.
2. Personal and industrial surroundings.
3. Wages and earnings.
4. Expenses and savings.
All but 31 of the 500 girls involved were born in the United States,
and 359 were born in Indiana. Eleven working girls’ parents were
natives to every 9 girls’ parents who were foreign. Eighty-four per
cent of the girls were reared in the city. Forty per cent of the girls’
fathers were mechanics, 31 per cent laborers, 15 per cent tradesmen,
6 per cent professional men, and 8per cent in miscellaneous occupations.
Nine-tenths of the girls were unmarried, and 86 per cent were living at
home.
The facts presented in the following statement have been selected
from the tables showing statistics concerning the origin and personal
and industrial surroundings of the working girls of Indianapolis:




65

REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— INDIANA.

P A R E N T A G E , CONJUGAL CONDITION, A N D A G E OF W O M EN W A G E EARNERS,
IN D IA N A P O L IS.
Reared in—
Industry or occu­
pation.

City.

Occupation o f father.

Conjugal condition.

Profes­ Mis­
Coun­ La­
Mar­
M e­ Trades­
try. borer. chanic man. sional cella­ Single. ried.
man. neous.
1
1

Bindery.....................
Bookkeeping...........
Candy factory..........
Card factories.........
Carpet sewers..........
Chain, etc., makers.
Cotton m ills.............
Dressmaking...........
Hair dressing..........
Laundry...................
Millinery...................
Pants, shirts, etc . . .
Paper box factory..
Pork packing house
Saleswomen.............
Sten ographers, etc..
Tslftpbnnft.... ............
Tils yrnrks...............
Tobacco factory. . . .
yyonion mills______

59
9
10
15
10
6
15
22
8
27
26
39
9
9
95
17
10
15
10
10

4
5
8
2
13
4
21
1
1
5
3

Total...............

421

79

13

9
2

3
11
1
4
10
11
3
24
6
30
4
7
17
2
1
6
1
3

28
5
5
7
4
3
9
12
6
10
10
21
6
2
36
4
7
12
7
6

1
28
6
1
1
2
1

157

200

75

5

5

2
1
1
4
4
6
6

7

2
1
1
4
3
7
2
1

3
3
2
2
3
2
1
i
4

12
6
1

28

40

Av­
W id­ erage
age.
owed.

53
3
4
10
1
9
20
8
2
10
1
1
18
26
3
1
10
2
36
2
26
3
1
50
6
4
10
9
1
95
3
2
18
2
10
i
12
7
1
9
______
1
i
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
__
10
i
449

27

24

24.4
24.7
22.6
19.7
32.5
19.8
20.3
28.5
20.9
26.3
25.2
27.2
19.9
26.0
* 23.3
22.7
21.3
22.4
22.5
23.7
a 23.7

The averages obtained from some of the other important subdivisions
of the inquiry are given in the following summary:
W ORKING TIM E, EARNINGS, A N D EXPENSES OF W O M EN W A G E EARNERS,
IN D IA N A P O LIS.
G irls w h o sav e
m oney.

A verage—

In d u stry or o ccu p a ­
tion .

H ou rs o f w ork.
A ge of
b e g in ­
n in g
w ork.

E arn­
W e e k s U n p r o ­ in g s o f E xp e n s e s
o f p a st
o f v a c a ­ d u c t iv e
pa st
S atu r­
ye a r.
w eeks.
tio n .
yea r.
d a y.

17.4
19.7
15.7
14.9
18.5
17.2
14.5
18.7
15.4
16.1
17.0
17.6
17 3
17.5
16.6
18.3
15.8
17.2
14.9
13.8

10.0
8 .7
10.0
10.0
9 .5
10.3
10.0
9 .4
9 .7
10.0
9 .4
10.2
9 .5
8 .9
9 .3
8 .3
9 .0
8 .0
8 .2
10.0

9 .0
8 .3
8 .5
9 .5
9 .2
8 .0
9 .5
10.1
13.3
8 .0
13.0
7 .6
8.3
8 .9
13.0
7 .9
9.0
5 .0
7 .6
10.0

a 16.7

a 9 .4

a 9 .1

B in d e r y .............................
B o o k k e e p in g ...................
C an d y f a c t o r y .................
C ard f a c t o r ie s .................
C arp et s e w e r s .................
C ham , e tc., m a k e r s ----(Lofton m il ls ____________

D r e s s m a k in g ..................
H a ir d r e s s in g .................
L a u n d r y ...........................
M i l l i n e r y .........................
P a n ts, s h irts, e t c ..........
P on
a rl lin
fa pfnrv
X
a yv
UUar laVDvt
j •••••
P o r k p a c k in g h o u s e .. .
S a le s w o m e n .....................
S ten ogra p h ers, e t c -----T e le p h o n e .........................
T ile w o r k s .......................
T o b a c c o f a c t o r y .............
W o o le n m ills ...................
A v e r a g e ...............

D a ily ,
except
S atu r­
day.

1 .0
1.6
.8
.2
.7
1.3
.6
1 .6
1 .0
1.7
.2
1 .7
1 .6
1 .8
.2
.8
i............

a. 9

5 .3
4 .0
7 .0
12.3
7.3
16.2
8 .1
9 .1
4 .3
5 .4
14.9
6 .9
7 .9
11.0
4 .8
7.1
5.3
5.1
4 .8
20.0

$260
494
220
169
269
156
201
255
248
300
427
250
124
190
265
346
241
158
209
227

$253.28
448.60
215.00
166.50
266.50
146.00
201.00
231.78
245.60
283.00
392.87
230.90
124.00
185.00
246.10
319.90
223.00
*155.50
204.50
219.50

a 8 .3

a 250

a 237.97

N um ­
b er.

A vera g e
s a v in g s
fo r yea r.

7
4
1
1
1
1

$57.60
113.25
50.00
25.00
25.00
100.00

10
2
10
10
13

69.66
12.00
67.92
102.39
88.15

2
25
6
4
1
2
2

25.00
75.60
87.00
45.00
25.00
22.50
37.50

102

a 51.43

a These averages were apparently obtained by adding together the industry averages and dividing
the sum by the total industries, 20, and hence take no account of the number of individuals in each
industry. True averages might vary considerably from those here given.

Labor Organizations.—Two forms of blanks were used in gather­
ing the statistics of labor organizations—one contained interrogatories
submitted to the secretaries of the organizations and the other inter89—No. 1-----5



66

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

rogatories to which the members were requested to furnish replies.
Information was solicited concerning average wages, working hours,
days employed, apprentices, dues and benefits, age, nativity, conjugal
condition, number in family, number who owned homes or shares in
building and loan associations, etc. Two hundred and seventeen
organizations, representing 66 trades and callings, with a membership
o f 19,081, were reported by the secretaries. The average daily wages
for the entire state was given as $2.34, and the average working hours
per day 9.7. The average daily wages for apprentices was 98 cents.
The average weekly dues of labor organizations was reported as 11.3
cents. One thousand one hundred and forty-two individual members
reported their average age as being 33 years and their average daily
wages $2.40. Of the number reported 895 were native born, 244 owned
their homes, and 249 owned shares in building and loan associations,
the shares aggregating in value $126,621. The statistics for each
organization are given in detail as reported by the secretaries and by
the members. The results are summarized by cities, and it is believed
the tables represent fully 90 per cent of all the labor organizations of
the state.
D omestic Labor.—The inquiry in regard to domestic labor was
designed to ascertain the actual economic condition of domestic labor
in the principal cities of the state. Six hundred and thirty-eight rep­
resentative reports were secured from the eight largest cities, the num­
ber for each city being in proportion to the population. Care was taken
to secure the reports from different sections of the respective cities.
The results are presented by totals for the different cities under the
following general heads:
1. Personal condition of domestics.
2. Parents of domestics.
3. Work and wages of domestics.
4. Earnings, expenses, and savings of domestics.
The statistics are analyzed with great care and at considerable length.
Only a few of the important facts can be presented here, and they may
be summarized as follows:
DOMESTIC LABOR.
Number.
City.
White.

Indianapolis
Evansville ..
Fort W ayne.
Terre Haute.
New Albany
South Bend..
Richmond...
Lafayette . . .

168
79
70
57
81
45
34
36

Total..
Per cent........

520
82




Col­
ored.
66
23
5
17
1
6
118
18

Born in—

Reared in—

Foreign
Total. United coun­
States.
tries.

City or
town.

Read and
write.

Country. Yes.

No.

234
102
70
62
48
46
40
36

166
95
48
53
45
20
35
25

68
7
22
9
3
26
5
11

90
33
30
22
17
20
24
24

144
69
40
40
31
26
16
12

193
92
67
57
41
45
37
33

41
10
3
5
7
1
3
3

638

487
76

151
24

260
40

378
60

565
89

73
11

BEPOBTS OP STATE BUBEAUS OP LABOB— INDIANA.

67

DOMESTIC LABOR—Concluded.
Occupation.
City.

House­
work.

Cook.

Average—

Other
Earnings Places
Saved in
domestic Age. of past employed past year.
work.
in.
year.

Tfidianfinnlia_______ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evansville. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fort W ayne........................
Terre Haute......................................
New Albany............. ........................
South Bend................................... .
Richmond_______________ . . . . . . . .
Lafayette___ ____________________

120
60
54
50
80
38
28
27

61
24
7
g
11
5
5
6

53
18
9
4
7
3
7
3

26
26
23
26
27
23
26
24

$145.77
121.27
118.35
124.40
117.22
145.12
122.25
130.94

1.8
1.6
1.7
1.9
1.6
1.7
1.5
1.5

$23.86
17.19
15.45
14.45
21.46
27.35
25.67
28.61

Total.........................................
Per cent___ ______________________

407
64

127
20

104
16

a 25

131.97

a 1.7

a 21.75

a These averages were apparently obtained by adding together the city averages and dividing the
sum by the total cities, 8, and hence take no account of the number of individuals in each city. True
averages might vary considerably from those here given.

Coal Mining.—The statistics relating to coal mining, as reported
by the operators of 71 coal mines in Indiana, representing an invested
capital of $1,374,440 and a yearly wage account of $2,473,806, are shown
for each mine; also individual reports for 961 miners representing 81
mines. The data were obtained by a personal canvass, u and may be
said to show, not approximately, but correctly, the matters which it
was designed to call out by the questions.” The questions addressed
to the miners obtained informaton concerning age, social relations, na­
tivity, hours of work, cost of and price paid for mining coal, daily wages,
net earnings, etc. The presentation is a complete showing for the coal
mining industries of the state.
Iron, W ood, Glass, and Miscellaneous Industries.—The
statistics of iron industries, wood industries, miscellaneous industries,
and the glass industry were compiled from returns secured on a per­
sonal canvass of 375 establishments, 101 of which were engaged in
various iron industries, exclusive of blacksmith and repair shops,
163 in the manufacture of articles in which wood is the exclusive or
chief material, 45 in the manufacture of glass, and 66 in miscellaneous
industries. The establishments report the employment of 40,253 hands,
and of this number individual reports were secured from 2,423, dis­
tributed as follows: 577 in the iron, 1,035 in the wood, 134 in the glass,
and 677 in the miscellaneous industries. The reports of the proprietors
and of the employees, respectively, are published in detail by cities,
industries, and occupations.
The proprietors’ reports furnish data as to capital, cost of materials,
value of products, working time, number of employees, total wages,
highest and lowest daily wages, and average wages of boys and of
women and girls; also as to strikes and increase or decrease in wages.
The following statements show the totals for the different groups of
industries under the principal heads of this branch of the inquiry:




BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

68

V A L U E OF PRODUCTS, W A G E S, ETC., IN VAR IO U S INDUSTRIES.
Estab­ Buildings,
grounds,
lish­
and ma­
ments. chinery.

Industry.

Trnn___ ______. . . ..................................................
W o o d ........................ ............................................

Cost of
materials.

Value of
products

Total
wages.

___ _______ __ _________ _

MifiP.ftllanfloiiH............. ............ . . . . _____ _______

101
163
45
66

$5,830,231
4,615,430
4,987,635
4,358,993

$9,146,897 $18,069,340
9,994,589 18,403,267
1,865,805
6,493,518
15,816,082 21,009,450

$4,174,891
4,900,008
2,950,758
2,459,808

Total.............................................................

375

19,792,289

36,823,373

14,485,465

63,975,575

A V E R A G E D A IL Y W A G E S IN VAR IO U S INDUSTRIES.
Employees.
Industry.

Average daily wages.

Women
and girls. Boys.

Men.

Boys.

Iron................................. 10,514
W ood.............................. 11,393
G la s s.............................. 5,163
4,035
Miscellaneous...............

1,250
1,842
1,536
466

146
310
195
3,403

Total..................... 31,105

5,094

4,054

Skilled labor.
Women
andgirls. High­ Low­
est.
est.

$0.74
.71
.82
.79

$1.04
.90
.67
.88

$3.75
2.85
9.48
3.20

Unskilled labor.

$1.92
1.72
3.34
1.82

High­
est.

Low­
est.

$1.50
1.48
1.99
1.45

$1.13
1.11
1.26
.91

The employees’ statements contain data as to age, apprenticeship,
number of years engaged in present occupation, working time, highest,
lowest, and average wages, social condition, income, expenses, etc., for
the different classes of employees in each industry treated.
The principal facts reported by the employees are summarized as
follows:
CONDITION, EAR N IN G S, ETC., OF EM PLOYEES IN VAR IO U S IN D U ST R IE S.
Employees.

Average.

Savings.

Wages.

Industries.

Num­
A n ­ Em­ Total
ber Mar­ Sin- Own­ Rent­
Hours Days nual ploy­ savings
ing
per
ees
re­ ried. gle.
ing. High­ Low­ Aver­ per year. in­
for
port­
homes.
est.
est.
age. day.
come. who year.
saved.
ing.
468
774
108
255

109
261
26
422

223
356
22
76

232 $2.65 $2.26 $2.45
397 2.15 1.93 2.03
85 4.80 4.08 4.41
161 1.86 1.44 1.59

T o ta l.... 2,423 1,605

818

677

875

Iron................... 577
W o o d ............... 1,035
Glass................. 134
Miscellaneous. 677

9.1
9
8.4
10

257 $610
274
558
212 1,022
259
448

168
199
83
61

$24,164
22,621
11,345
8,459

511

66,589

Economic, Social, and Census Statistics.—Under this caption
are presented county, city, and town indebtedness and expenses, also real
estate transfers, mortgages, and satisfactions recorded in the several
counties of the state. These tables show also the number and condi­
tion of inmates of asylums, number o f divorces, with the causes o f com­
plaint, number of persons naturalized, and number of jail incarcerations.
Some o f the results of the Eleventh Census of the United States are
reproduced.




REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— MICHIGAN.

69

Cereal Crops and Farm A nimals.—The figures and analysis given
relating to cereal crops and farm animals constitute a full presentation
of the agricultural industries of the state, by county and by state totals.
Railroads.—The statistics relating to railroads show in the usual
form the totals for 31 roads that were in operation in the state in 1893
and 25 in 1894, some companies not furnishing their reports for 1894 in
time to be included.
MICHIGAN.
The Twelfth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial
Statistics of Michigan, for the year ending February 1,1895, presents
the results of investigations into the following subjects: Farm laborers,
male, 23G pages; domestic labor, female, 101 pages; statistics from farm
proprietors, 109 pages; miscellaneous agricultural statistics, 55 pages;
strikes, 21 pages; prisons and prison labor, 4 pages.
Farm and D omestic Labor.—The statistics presented under the
titles of “ Male farm laborers” and “ Female domestic labor” are the
results obtained from reports made by 5,600 male farm laborers and
2,300 female domestic laborers. The data were collected by the enu­
merators while engaged in taking the state census. The schedules con­
tained numerous questions as to nationality, age, working time, wages,
extras, increase or decrease in wages during given periods, effect of
immigration on occupation, etc., as well as questions concerning social
conditions. Some of the important results of both investigations are
combined in the following summary:
LABORERS ON F AR M S A N D DOMESTIC SER VAN TS.

Items.

Total number considered............................................. ............. .........................................
Americans . . . . . . . . . . . __. . . ........................................ ................................................ . . . .

f^p.rm ans_______ ________________________ ____ _______ ___________________________
A 11 nthnr n n.t.ion nl itin s ____________________ _______ ____ ____________________ _______. . . . . . . . .
A vp.rfl.gft m o n th ly v a g M ............................... ......................................... ............ . . . . . ____
A vAPftgft w e e k ly w agfls ................ .................. .............................. ....... .................... ......................

Male farm Female
domes­
laborers.
tics.
5,600
3,219
726
1,655
$17.84

$0.92
Average dailv wages.............................................................................................................
Total eai*ninga past, y e a r ........... ............ ............ ..................... .................................................... $1,018,388
$181.85
Average yearly earnings.... ......................... - .................................................- ..................
Amount of money saved past year.................................................... .............................. $196,891
$77.67
Average amount for those who saved..............................................................................
335
Num ber reporting increase in wages past fi ve years.........
3,395
Number reporting decrease in wages past five years.....................................................
146
Number who say times better than five years ago............... ................................. .
4,542
Number who say times worse than five years ago..................................... ........... .
3,466
N umber who say immigration injures their occupation......................................... .
$0.557
Average daily wa^es of foreigners in native land.............................. .
Number of foreigners who say conditions for saving money are better than in
1,099
native land..................................... ................................................... .......................... .

2,300
1,431
312
557
$1.85
$0.59
$168,464
$73.24
$34,528
$34.80
324
675
177
1,367
834
$0.25
348

In some of the returns answers were not given to all the questions.
It therefore does not follow that the difference between the number
given for any particular item in the above summary and the total num­
ber considered represents the number reporting the reverse from what
is shown. The report presents the statistics in detail for each laborer,
male and female, from whom returns were received.




70

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Statistics from F arm Proprietors.—These facts were furnished
by 935 farmers in Michigan. The effort was made to obtain reports from
a reasonable number in each county, that the showing might be general
for the state. The inquiries not only covered the question of wages and
the condition o f wage workers on farms, but also questions pertaining
to the staple products of the farms. The average yield and cost o f pro­
duction of leading crops are shown. The number o f farmers reporting
profit and no profit in stock raising, in dairying, and in poultry raising
is also given.
The details shown by the tables are numerous and worthy of careful
study, but only a few of the many important results can be stated.
The average number of years in which those reporting had been engaged
in farming was 25.7. Four hundred and fifty-four employed female
help, the average weekly wages for such labor being $1.94. The average
monthly wages for males was $18.85. Adding the value o f extras, such
as fuel, pasture for cow, house rent, etc., made the average daily wages
paid male farm laborers for the entire state over $ 1. The average
yield and the average cost of raising per acre, including interest on
value of land, is shown for a number of farm products, the results being
summarized as follows:
A V E R A G E Y IE L D A N D COST PER ACRE OF R A ISIN G C E R T A IN F A R M PRODUCTS.

Yield per acre.

Cost of raising per
acre.

Product.
Farmers Average Farmers
reporting. (bushels). reporting. Average.
W heat____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___. . . . . . .
Barley______. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
"Pftt.ntnfts___ ____ T____________________ „_____________________
Bean a ____________________ ____________________________. . . ____
Clover se e d ...................... ............................................ .
M int.......................................................................................................
a Tons.

859
849
864
161
763
254
239
268
881
13

18.8
57.4
35.1
28.5
107.9
16.1
16.4
2.2
a l .4
518.3

737
696
692
167
558
237
189
214
688
11

$9.78
10.35
7.74
7.84
14.84
8.42
7.71
4.90
5.42
15.16

b Pounds.

About 56 per cent of the farmers reporting are satisfied that there is
a profit in dairying, less than 37 per cent that there is a profit in fat­
tening cattle for market, and only 15 per cent that there is a profit in
raising horses for sale. Two-thirds o f those canvassed say there is a
profit in raising poultry for market, and 82 per cent that there is profit
in fattening hogs for market. Six hundred and thirty-four of the 935
reporting say there is profit in farming, 162 say there is no profit, and
139 do not answer the question.
These statistics are followed by general remarks from a number of
leading farmers in different sections of the state on methods, profits,
and the desirability of farming as an industry.
Miscellaneous A gricultural Statistics.—The presentations
under the head o f miscellaneous agricultural statistics are compilations




REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— MINNESOTA.

?1

from the United States census of 1890 and the state census of 1894.
They show the size and value of farms with the value and quantity o f
farm products, by counties and by townships.
Strikes.—Each strike that occurred in the state during 1894 is
described, and is followed by general information concerning some of
the large strikes that occurred elsewhere.
Prisons and Prison Labor.—The number of inmates in the state
prison and in the different houses of correction during 1894 is given.
The number engaged on contract work, with the average price per day
for their work, is shown ; also the number engaged on state work.
MINNESOTA.
The Fourth Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor of Minnesota is
for the years 1893 and 1894. In the introduction to the report the law
approved April 19, 1893, changing the name of the office from the
Bureau o f Labor Statistics to the Bureau of Labor, is quoted, and the
general work o f the bureau outlined. The contents o f the report are
as follows: Chattel mortgages and pawnbrokers’ loans, 43 pages 5 agri­
cultural statistics, 66 pages; the apprentice system, 257 pages; mort­
gage statistics, 164 pages; factory inspection, 125 pages.
Chattel Mortgages and Pawnbrokers’ Loans.—The statisti­
cal information presented under this title is the result of an examina­
tion of the contracts, leases, mortgages, and other instruments, having
the force of chattel mortgages, filed at the city clerk’s office of Minne­
apolis during the year 1893. For the pawnbrokerage business o f the
city during the same year the data were obtained from the returns made
to the chief of police.
The instruments classified as chattel mortgages are divided into two
general classes— the first including those executed to secure the cost
price of goods purchased and the second those executed to guarantee
the repayment of borrowed money. Some of the principal facts con­
cerning the first class are summarized as follows:
INTER EST ON CH ATTEL MORTGAGES, M INNEAPOLIS, 1893.
Goods purchased.
Interest or credit charge.

Number
of instru­
ments.

House­
hold
goods.

g ij per centpAr STinum - - ___
Seven per cent per annum . . .
Eight per cent per annum-------Ten per cent per wnntn_____
No interest charged.................
TN
AO
arlnitinn
_____
JJ 1t
VtanAr
pvl V
vT
Uif.
l tlUU
Atlv J l ..• •
••••

20
100
842
842
3,591
5,540

5
13
781
2,888
5,540

Total.................................

10,935

9,227




Carriages,
Musical
wagons, Merchan­ Farm ma­ Miscella*
instru­
live
dise.
chinery.
neous.
ments. • stock, etc.
7
76
763
23
124

2
4
15
20

2
1
6
2
68

3

11
15
56
21
488

993

41

79

4

591

i

72

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The number of instruments under the head of “ no interest charged”
is slightly greater than it actually should be by the inclusion of a few
for which the record contained no information as to the interest charged.
Household goods and musical instruments taken together make up
about 93 per cent of the sales where chattel mortgages were executed
to secure the cost price of the articles purchased. The selling price of
the goods purchased by residents of Minneapolis, on the chattel mort­
gage system, during the year 1893 amounted to $772,537.36. The
instruments making the record of these sales show a cash payment at
the time of purchase o f $110,827.90, leaving a debt of $661,709.46.
The average duration of the credit was 5.35 months. These amounts
do not include sales for cash or unsecured credit, nor for secured credit
to parties residing outside of the city limits.
The chattel mortgages given to secure the repayment of borrowed
money are also divided into two classes—those at legal and those at
usurious and extortionate rates of interest. The division, however,
can only be made approximately. O f chattel mortgages made to se­
cure loans and not known to be extortionate in their interest charges
there were 2,171 in 1893, representing an indebtedness o f $515,845.06,
the average for each mortgage being $237.61, with a duration of 5.36
months. It is believed, however, that some 500 of these loans were at
usurious interest, which would reduce the number at strictly legal
interest to 1,671, representing a mortgage debt of $495,600.06, the aver­
age o f the loans being $296.59, and the life of the mortgage 5.75 months.
There were 2,211 usurious loans reported for the year, the face of
the mortgage debt amounting to $89,310.02, on which the borrowers
probably realized about $80,000 in cash. The borrowers giving these
mortgages, so far as could be ascertained, always executed liens for
sums about 10 per cent greater than the loans secured by them. The
average debt for these loans was $40.49, hence the average loan or
money obtained was, approximately, $36. Two-thirds of these loans
were secured on household goods. Selecting 95 typical usurious loans,
the rate of interest was found, upon inquiry of the borrowers, to
range from 41 to 480 per cent per annum. Including the loans classed
as legal, but probably usurious, there were, approximately, 2,700 usuri­
ous loans in the city during the period covered, representing $ 110,000,
upon which the borrowers obtained less than $ 100,000 in cash.
There were twenty-five licensed pawnbrokers doing business in Min­
neapolis in 1893, who paid as license fees $2,458.34. Twenty-three thou­
sand and ninety loans were reported by these brokers, the total amount
borrowed being $142,248.12, and the average for each pledge $6.16.
There were 5,425 purchases reported by pawnbrokers, the total amount
paid therefor being $15,055.19.
The statistics of chattel mortgages and pawnbrokers’ loans are pre­
sented in detail and accompanied by an extended textual discussion,
in which various loan institutions in the United States and in foreign
countries, established primarily for'the relief of the poor, are described.



REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— MINNESOTA.

73

A gricultural Statistics.—This is the result of an inquiry started
in the summer of 1893 and designed to ascertain something o f the
actual and relative prosperity, the elements of success, and the causes
o f failure among the farmers of the state. The data were obtained by
agents o f the bureau, who secured reports from 1,555 farm owners and
243 farm tenants. In securing these reports counties and townships
were selected that were supposed to be representative of the entire
state. All the farms in each township selected were visited, and so
far as possible returns were secured from each. The following summa­
ries indicate the character of some of the principal branches of the
inquiry and the results obtained:
V A L U E OF A G R IC U L T U R A L PROPERTY.

State or country of
birth.

Farm­
ers.

Ten­
ants.

Years’ farming in Value of possessions
at beginning.
Minnesota.

Value of present
possessions.

Farmers.

Ten­
ants.

Farmers.

Tenants.

Farmers.

Tenants.

Minnesota...................
United States.............
Germany....................
Great Britain.............
Scandinavia...............
Bohemia......................
British Possessions..
Other countries..........

144
377
317
95
464
94
47
17

39
78
49
5
58
7
6
1

1,725
6,950
6,157
2,289
6,960
1,576
1,044
382

382
740
307
63
518
33
25
8

$196,305
437,707
266.930
72,100
142,486
71,660
48,700
3,610

$10,755
26,440
15,525
1,050
17,375
1,000
850

$793,466
2,891,937
1,843,318
615,234
1,630,047
338,096
274,898
62,708

$43,860
119,504
67,690
3,906
55,313
5,752
6,091
2,722

T otal.................
Averages....................

1,555

243

27,083
17

2,076
9

1,239,498
797

72,995
300

8,449,704
5,434

304,838
1,254

INDEBTEDNESS OF FAR M ER S A N D A G R IC U L T U R A L T E N A N TS.

State or country of birth.

Amount of indebted­
ness.
Farmers.

Minnesota.....................................................................................
United States..............................................................................
Germany.......................................................................................
Great Britain...............................................................................
Scandinavia................................................................................
Bohemia.........................................................................................
British Possessions......................................................... ...........
Other countries............................................................. .............

$103,237
311,997
166,818
53,224
284,922
60,691
23,965
3,900

T otal.......................: ..........................................................
Averages.......................................................................................

1,008,754
649

Net possessions.

Tenants.
•
$5,560
17,016
9,784
600
14,255
2,295
1,500

Farmers.

Tenants.

$690,229
2,579,940
1.676,500
562,010
1, 345,125
277,405
250,933
58,808

$38,300
102,488
57,906
3,306
41,058
3,457
4,591
2,722

51,010
210

7,440,950
4,785

253,828
1,045

The information contained in each of the 1,798 reports is shown in
detail, including the several items constituting the total value of pres­
ent possessions given in the above statement. The results are sum­
marized and the averages shown by counties and by nationalities. The
following statements are taken from the comments on the figures:
The possession of a sufficient amount of capital at the outset is the
most potent single factor in the accumulation of farm wealth.
O f the 1,798 farmers visited, 17, or less than 1 per cent, had, by rea­
son o f debts and insufficient capital, dropped back from farm ownership
to tenancy, while 235 had risen from tenancy to farm ownership after
an average life as tenant of four years.




74

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,

A little less than one-half of the tenants visited had such a small
amount o f capital that they rented farms for one-half of the produce, the
landlord furnishing live stock, farm implements, and seed, or a large
proportion thereof.
Thirty-one o f the 1,555 owners, at some time in their lives, had lost a
farm by mortgage foreclosure, but were able in a short time to retrieve
their fortunes and regain their earlier place as farm owners.
The American-born farmer is seen to succeed considerably better than
any body o f newcomers from Europe.
The A pprentice System .—The treatment of the subject of the
apprentice system is almost entirely textual. The history of the
apprentice system is traced from its origin in the ancient craft or trade
guilds of the Middle Ages. The relation between apprenticeship and
strikes is treated at considerable length. The statistics of strikes
involving the apprentice question, as published for Great Britain, the
United States, and the state of New York, are reproduced to show the
extent of the disturbances into which it enters as a factor. While in
all three reports the apprentice question is shown to have been the
source o f some trouble, only a very small proportion of the industries
have any serious trouble over it.
In order to secure as much information as possible in regard to the
relation between apprenticeship and trade unions, and especially to
ascertain whether the unions were controlled by the foreign-born popu­
lation and whether the American boys were discriminated against in
securing membership, the bureau obtained from members of trade
unions in the state statements showing for each workman his birth­
place, where he learned his trade, the years served as apprentice, and
kindred information. Returns were received from 1,985 workmen, and
of this number 58.54 per cent were born in the United States and 41.46
per cent were foreign born. On the other hand returns from 133,762
males of voting age in the state showed that only 38 per cent were
native born. In other words, the percentage of native born workmen
in the trade unions, or 58.54 per cent, was 1.5 times as great as the
percentage of native born in the voting population, or 38 per cent.
There were 1,624 members of the trade unions, or 81.86 per cent, who
acquired their trade in the United States, while only 361, or 18.14 per
cent, acquired their trade in foreign lands.
The attitude of a number of national and international labor organi­
zations toward apprentices and cheap labor is discussed. The rules
and regulations of the several organizations on this subject are quoted,
and in those unions where the membership is composed largely of
foreign-trained craftsmen facts are presented showing the cause or
reason for the same. Where the unions are known to have had strikes
in recent years relating to the employment of apprentices, all available
facts relating to the dispute are presented. The actions of several
associations o f employers on the apprentice question are referred to,
particular attention being given to the attitude o f the National Asso­
ciation of Builders of the United States of America on this subject.




REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— MINNESOTA.

75

The last 11 pages of the discussion of the apprentice system consist
of a summary in which the history o f the system and its present status
in the industries and trade unions of the United States is given in con­
cise statements.
Mortgage Statistics.—The different sections of this subject are
treated under the following heads: First, real estate mortgage indebted­
ness; second, mortgage foreclosures; third, redemptions of mortgage
foreclosures. Under the first head are shown data relating to the mort­
gages placed on record, the amount of taxable land as reported by the
state auditor, and the general agricultural statistics gathered by the
United States census, and comparisons between the same and deduc­
tions therefrom. These statistics, as a rule, cover the period from 1880
to 1889, but for eight typical counties the bureau secured and presents
statistics of mortgages and taxable land for each year from 1859 to 1893.
All o f the statistics presented under this general head of mortgages
were gathered with the thought that possibly such information would
throw new light upon the true relation of mortgage debt to the devel­
opment and financial prosperity of the average Western community,
agricultural or urban. In addition to statistical tables presenting the
data o f mortgages, agriculture, and taxable property by counties and
groups o f counties, the report contains graphic tables showing the
leading facts for the different branches of the investigation. In the
discussion o f the figures the increase or decrease of the actual or rela­
tive mortgage debt in the different counties is traced, and careful
explanation given of the various causes controlling the results shown.
The amount o f mortgages placed on record in Minnesota and the
acres mortgaged increased relatively, as well as actually, with some
irregularity, from 1861 until about 1880. Since that date it has rela­
tively continuously, though irregularly, decreased. In 1893 there was
relatively 1 acre of farm land mortgaged for every 2.2 acres thus
mortgaged in 1880, and there was $1 of incumbrance on such farms
for every $1.80 o f such incumbrance in the earlier year. While there
had been this relative decrease of farm mortgages there had been
a slight increase in the total actual amount of outstanding mortgage
debt. But the farm debt of 1893 was, if any larger than that of 1880,
increased by an amount so slight that such addition could not have
exceeded 1 per cent of the property accumulated by the farmers of
Minnesota and added to their former possessions between 1880 and 1893.
The statistics relating to mortgage foreclosures are contained in five
tables, which give the number, amount, and acreage of foreclosures by
counties and groups of counties for each year during the period from
1880 to 1893, and for eight typical counties from 1859 to 1893, with per­
centages o f taxable land sold on foreclosure and o f mortgaged acres
foreclosed.
The percentage o f foreclosures of the mortgages executed and the
general movement of foreclosure in city and agricultural property are




76

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

treated separately. The discussion shows the salient changes in the
condition of agriculture and the causes affecting wheat prices and farm
prosperity and the foreclosure of farm mortgages in the past thirty-five
years in Minnesota.
The following extracts are selected from a list of fifteen conclusions
reached after a careful analysis of the figures:
When the foreclosures of one year are compared with the mortgages
recorded four years before [four years being the life of the average
mortgage], it is found that the foreclosures on farm and acre property
in the agricultural counties of the state in 1892 and 1893 were rela­
tively 40 to 50 per cent smaller in number and in acres and amounts
involved than in 1884 and 1885.
Between the years^ 1880 and 1881 and the years 1892 and 1893 the
foreclosures on acre property so decreased that relatively only one farm
was sold in the latter years by foreclosure where three farms were sold in
the earlier, and that one acre of land was foreclosed where two had for­
merly been, and that the amounts o f foreclosure sales had declined so,
relatively, that only $1 of such sales is now occurring where in 1880
there were $4 o f the same.
The foreclosures of 1892 and 1893 were relatively only one-fifth as
numerous as twenty-four years before, in 1869 and 1870. The acres
sold were only one-fourth and the amounts involved one-fifth as great
in the latter as in the earlier years.
In the history o f the state there can be traced two sources of mort­
gage foreclosure: One arises from the imperfection of the farm owner,
that which is due to his lack of experience, his shiftlessness and want
o f character, or knowledge, or energy; the other is crop failures and
varying prices for wheat.
In thirty-five years the rates of interest for farm loans have decreased
from the prevailing rate o f from 3 to 10 per cent a month in Mower
County in 1859 and 1860 to an average o f not far from 8 per cent per
annum in 1893.
Crop failures by the introduction of diversified farming have ceased
to be as great a possible factor for evil as between 1876 and 1881.
Wheat prices as a special disturbing factor are becoming of less and
less importance with the passage of years.
The data relating to the redemptions of mortgage foreclosures are
not considered as complete or perfect. The redemptions for which sta­
tistics were secured include only those transactions whereby the origi­
nal owner recovered possession by means of a legal instrument, placed
upon record, usually designated a redemption. Many owners whose
lands had been sold under foreclosure proceedings, instead of securing a
redemption, obtained a quitclaim deed o f the land. These redemp
tions by quitclaim deeds make up at least one-third of the total re­
demptions of the state, and in some counties one-half.
The statistics are presented only by groups o f counties, and cover
the period from 1880 to 1893, and for a group of eight typical counties
from 1859 to 1893. From the textual consideration of the subject are
taken the following extracts:
In the state as a whol e there is an increase in the foreclosures on
acres, but a greater one in redemptions. The reverse is the case with




REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— MISSOURI.

77

lots, and shows that the financial condition of the farmers and owners
of acre property has increased more than their debts, while the oppo­
site is the case with the owners of other real estate.
In the sixty-five agricultural counties of the state there were in 1880
and 1881 for every 100 foreclosures on acre property 16 redemptions,
while in 1892 and 1893 there were 22.6. In the earlier years there were
for every $100 of foreclosures $12.03 of redemptions, while in the latter
years there were $16.21.
Comparing all foreclosures and redemptions in the city counties it is
found that in 1880 and 1881 there were for every 100 foreclosures 33.3
redemptions, while in 1892 and 1893 there were only 6.4, or only one-sixth
as many. In 1880 and 1881 for every $100 of foreclosures on property
in city counties there were $20.84 of redemptions, while in 1892 and
1893 there were only $5.53, or barely one-fourth as much.
Making allowance for the redemptions by quitclaim deeds in Minne­
sota (for which no data were secured) it becomes apparent that from
one-fourth to one-third of all farm mortgages foreclosed in the state
during the last few years were, or will be, redeemed by the owners of
the farms.
Factory Inspection.—-This subject constitutes Part II of the
report of the bureau. Guards for dangerous machinery is the first
subject treated, the discussion containing 16 illustrations of various
machines to which different forms of guards have been attached. The
statistics of accidents in the factories and mines of the state show
the character of the machine on which the accident happened, or the
cause of the same, and the character of the injury. There were 631 acci­
dents reported between April 1,1893, and December 31,1894. Fortythree of these were reported by mines and 588 by factories.
The laws of the state regulating the employment of women and
children, and various laws bearing on labor and labor organizations,
are quoted and amendments recommended.
The condition o f guards for switch rails, guard rails, and frogs in
1893 and 1894 on the various railroads in the state is shown.
Between May 1, 1893, and December 31, 1894, the inspectors visited
1,388 different factories and mills in the state. A t the time of the first
inspection in 1893 these establishments employed 38,866 operatives, of
whom 34,436 were males and 4,430 females. The name and address,
facts concerning employees and wages, and the various changes in
the buildings and machinery ordered by the inspectors are given for
each factory inspected. The detail tables are summarized according to
the character of the changes ordered and by industries.
MISSOURI.
The Sixteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics and
Inspection of Missouri is for the year ending November 5,1894. The
first pages of this report contain a discussion of existing conditions
and tendencies of the times, and a synopsis of the current work of
other labor bureaus. The substance of the report is divided as fol­
lows: Earnings of employees in lead mines, 33 pages; statistics of




78

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

manufactures, 149 pages; factory inspection, 35 pages; crimes and
costs, 125lpages; building and loan associations, 138 pages; strikes,
19 pages.
E arnings of Employees in Lead Mines.—Under this subject
reports for 1,281 employees in three representative lead mines in differ­
ent sections of the state, concerning the number of working days, days
actually worked, and actual and average earnings are given in detail
for each employee. The results are summarized as follows:
T IM E A N D E A R N IN G S OF EM PLOYEES OF L E A D M INES, 1893.
Name of company.
Items.

Total.
Doe Run.

Total number of men employed......................................................
Number of men required to nave done the work if each man
had worked each working day in the year..............................
Per cent of days worked of working days in period...............
Average daily wages for days worked in period.......................
Average daily wages for working days in period.....................
Average earnings for each man......................................................
Average number of days each man worked................................
Average number of working days to each man........................
W hat the average annual earnings would have been if each
man had worked every working day in period at the aver­
age rate of daily wages for days worked..................................

Center
Creek.

Victor.

1,281

709

161

411

318+
79+
$1.60
$1.27
$123.41
77 —
97 —

206
79.73
$1.49
$1.19
$129.23
90.50+
113.73+

71+
82+
$1.82
$1.51
$251.72
137
166

40+
73+
$1.76
$1.29
$53.41
30+
41+

$497+

$440.20

$564.20

$545.60

Statistics of Manufactures.—The statistics of manufactures
collected by the bureau are preceded by a reproduction and discussion
of the results of the United States census. The bureau secured reports
from 757 private firms and 716 corporations. The number of male and
female partners and stockholders, aggregate and average values of cap­
ital, stock used, wages, goods made, and proportion of business done
are shown by industries, the summary for all industries being as fol­
lows:
M A N U F A C T U R IN G INDUSTRIES. 1893.
Establishments reporting:
Number of private firms.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number of corporations ................................................................. .......................................

757
716

Total...................................................................................................................................

1,473

Number of partners:
Males .............
T^emales............. ............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___. . . . . . . . _____________________

1,062
21

Total................................................................................................. ............... ...............

1 083
8 “5\o
COOOrH
•

Number of stockholders:
Malfla________________ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ______________
Females............................................................................................. ............. ............. .
"Pa-Toks, trustees, e tc_____ _____________. . . . . . __________________________________
Total...................................................................................................................................

7,307

Amount of capital invested.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

$101,457,303

Stock of material used.......................... ............................................................................ .
Other supplies.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

$82,095,133
$11,481,109

Total...................................................................................................................................

$93,576,242

Value of goods made and work__________________ . . . . . . . . _____________________________
Average proportion of business, per cent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average number of days in operation.............................................................. .......................

$25,840,921
$153,896,260
67
274




REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— MISSOURI.

79

The report also shows, by industries, the smallest, greatest, and
average number of employees; also the number of male and female
employees, respectively, engaged during each month, and the number
at specified weekly rates of wages. The summary under the last-named
classification for the 1,473 establishments is as follows:
CLASSIFIED W E E K L Y W A G E S IN 1,473 M A N U F A C T U R IN G ESTABLISHMENTS, 1893.
Weekly wages.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Ujldfir $ 5 ............................................................................................... •......... .....
$ 5 and under$6 .....................................................................................
$fi f|.Tid mider $ 7 _____ _________________________ _________________________
$7 and under $ 8 ....................................................................................................
$8 and under $ 9 ..................................................... .......................... .
$9 and under $10............................................. ....................................................
$10 and under $1 2 ...................... .......... ..................................... ......................
$12and under $15................................................ ................................................
$15 and under $20.................................................................................................
$20 and o v e r..................................................................................... .....................

4, 594
1,677
2,515
.3,790
4,354
8,962
6,343
8,494
5,775
1,760

4,088
2,515
1,934
918
580
314
167
196
101
4

8,682
4,192
4,449
4,708
4,934
9,276
6,510
8,690
5,876
1,764

T o ta l.................................................................................................. - ........

48,264

10,817

59,081

Factory Inspection.—In the part of the report relating to this
subject a synopsis of the orders issued by the inspectors, and the com­
pliance or noncompliance, is given; also the names and addresses of
the factories. The approximate number of employees in the different
industries in Saint Louis, their condition, surroundings, and wages are
shown in connection with the results of the inspection in the other
principal cities of the state.
Crimes and Costs.—Under the head of crimes and costs the char­
acter of the misdemeanors and felonies, the number of cases in each
class, with the number of convictions and acquittals, also the amount
of the costs paid by the state and counties, are shown for each county
and class of crime. The statistics are preceded by an extended ana­
lytical text explaining the figures and making useful deductions. The
totals for the state show 10,780 cases (not persons) of misdemeanor
during the year, for which the counties paid costs amounting to
$245,941.59. There were 3,291 cases of felony, in which the costs
amounted to $286,104.89, the average cost for each case reported being
$86.93, as compared with $22.81 for each case of misdemeanor. In
addition to the items mentioned, the tables show, by counties, for each
day of 1893 the number of persons delivered to the penitentiary, their
color, age, nativity, occupation, sex, conjugal condition, and term o f
sentence.
Building and Loan A ssociations.—The statistics of building and
loan associations are shown in detail for each association, the results
being presented in eight tables: No. 1, showing assets; No. 2, liabili­
ties; No. 3, receipts; No. 4, disbursements; No. 5, gross profits; No. 6,
net profits; No. 7, authorized capital, par value of shares, membership
fee, plan, premium, and rates of premium; No. 8, record of shares,
record of shareholders, homes paid for, and homes partially paid for.
The laws of other states and the different plans of conducting associa­
tions are discussed.



80

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,

The building and loan associations in the city of Saint Louis are
treated separately from those in the state exclusive of the city, and the
totals combined. Three hundred and fifty-five active associations are
given for the year 1894, reports being received from 314, while 41 known
to be in existence failed to make reports. One hundred and eighty-nine
o f the associations were in the city of Saint Louis and 166 in the state
outside of the city. Three hundred and seventy-six associations were
reported for the state in 18935 21 others had been incorporated in 1893
making the total number of associations having a nominal existence
397. If to the number 355, supposed to be active in 1894, be added
those in liquidation and chartered in 1894 previous to July 1, the total
number will be about the same as 1893. Some of the totals shown for
all associations for 1894 are summarized as follows:
BU ILD IN G A N D L O AN ASSOCIATIONS, 1894.
Items.

Saint Louis.

State, exclusive
of Saint Louis.

Total.

$22,308,446.15

$11,101,149.88

$33,404,596.03

Liabilities:
Value of shares outstanding, including gain........ $17,995,099.59
Other liabilities, including undivided profits........
4,308,346.56

$9,136,053.10
1,965,096.78

$27,131,152.69
6,273,443.34

Total.............................................................................

22,303,446.15

11,101,149.88

33,404,596.03

Receipts:
Cash on hand at close of last fiscal year.................
Cash receipts in last fiscal year, exclusive of
loans repaid_______ - ____________. . . ____________
Losps repaid_________ __________. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

$230,535.81

$225,219.72

$455,755.53

8,728,627.45
1,866,675.95

3,345,618.68
829,169.12

12,074,246.13
2,695,845.07

Total................................................................ ...... . . .

10,825,839.21

4,400,007.52

15,225,846.73

Disbursements:
Loans on mortgage security.......................................
TVithd rawaIs___________________ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Borrowed money repaid..............................................
Other disbursements, including cash on hand.. . .

$1,929,614.95
2,787,142.86
4,329,279.38
1,779,802.02

$1,682,241.23
1,630,897.03
379,253! 81
707,615.45

$3,611,856.18
4,418,039.89
4,708,533.19
2,487,417.47

Total..............................................................................

10,825,839.21

4,400,007.52

15,225,846.73

$2,374,584.35
5,307,559.68

$776,321.93
2,340,237.16

$3,150,906.28
7,647,796.84

Gross profits...............................................................

7,682,144.03

3,116,559.09

10,798,703.12

Number of shares issued during the year.....................
Number of shares withdrawn during the year...........
Number of shares loaned on during the year...............
Present total number of shares loaned on.....................
Present total number of free shares................................
Present total number of all shares...................................
Total number of borrowers................................................
Total number of nonborrowers.......................................
Total numbensf persons who are shareholders............
Homes secured and paid for..............................................
Number of homes partially paid for................................

21,687.95
63,069.33
7,201.51
95,162.01
122.858.98
218.020.99
7,287
20,608
27,895
111
7,226

39,560.00
42,289.75
10,129.29
48,112.39
112,411.67
160,524.06
10,474
22,730
33,204
1,082
7,004

61,247.95
105,359.08
17,330.80
143,274.40
235,270.65
378,545.05
17,761
43,338
61,099
1,193
14,230

Profits:
Expenses.............. ........................... ...................... ..
Net profits , ____ ->________________ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Strikes.—A brief account is given of two interstate strikes—the
strike originating with the employees of Pullman’s Palace Car Com­
pany, of Pullman, Illinois, and the coal miners’ strike of April 21 5 also
o f several minor strikes in the city of Saint Louis.
The report is accompanied with an industrial map showing the loca­
tion o f all mines and railroads in the state and a resume of the mineral
statistics.




REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— WISCONSIN.

81

WISCONSIN.
The Sixth Biennial Report of the Commissioner of Labor, Census
and Industrial Statistics of Wisconsin, for the years 1893 and 1894,
treats of the following subjects: The building trades,64 pages; statis­
tics o f manufactures, 55 pages; synoptical report of and orders issued
by inspectors of factories and workshops, 206 pages.
Building Trades.—The first presentation consists of reports from
persons engaged in various branches of the building trades in different
sections o f the state. Answers were obtained to questions concerning
apprenticeship, system of promotion of apprentices, did best workmen
serve as apprentices in Europe, trouble in hiring first-class workmen,
hours of labor, strikes, etc. Reports from employers, representing 2,674
employees, giving the actual wages per hour, are also shown, the
statistics being grouped by occupations and cities and covering all
branches of the building trades. The wages paid per hour in these
trades in the city of Milwaukee are placed in comparison with the
wages in similar trades in the several cities of the United States.
Considering the general average rate per hour for all the trades
involved, the results for some of the cities are given as follows:
RATES OF W A G E S PER HOUR IN BUILD IN G TRADES IN VARIOUS CITIES, 1893.

City.
Milwaukee, W isconsin........
Atlanta. Georgia...................
Buffalo, New York...............
Butte, Montana.....................
Charleston, South Carolina.
Cleveland, Ohio.....................
Jacksonville, Florida............
Kansas City, Missouri........
Lowell, Massachusetts........
Newark, New Jersey...........
Omaha, Nebraska.................
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Wages
per hour.
$0.296
.213
. 40U

.476
.216
.301
.240
.286
.274
.332
.344
.325

Statistics of Manufactures.—The statistics of manufactures show
for each of 84 different industries the number and per cent of employees
receiving stated daily wages including the per cent receiving less than
$1 per day. The total amount of wages paid in different industries in
the state is shown for each year from 1888 to 1893, inclusive, and the
average annual earnings per employee in the different industries for
each year from 1889 to 1893, inclusive.
89—No. 1-----6




82

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The following statement presents the average annual wages paid in
some of the leading industries treated in the summary table:
A V E R A G E A N N U A L W A G E S P A ID I N VAR IOUS INDUSTRIES, 1889 TO 1893.
Industry.

Beef and pork packing..................................... .
Clothing................................................................... .
flnflf'AAand spir*,A milla___________________ . . . . ______
Flour and feed.................. ..................................... .
Furniture not including chairs.................................
Iron works, malleable............................ .
Lumber, laths, and shingles.........................................
Marble, cut stone........................................ ...................
Paper and pulp................................. ............................
Plumbers’ and gas-fitters’ supplies..........................
Printing, publishing, and bookbinding....................
Railway shops.............. .....................
Rolling mills ................................................................
Sash, doors, and blinds .......................... .
Textiles...........................................................................
Tobacco..................................................... .
Wagon stock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wagons, carriages, etc.... ................. .
"Windmilla, tanka, and pnmps____________________

1889.

1890.

1891.

1892.

$427.58
531.17
538.17
785.60
656.72
400.69
350.75
334.84
456.99
404.10

$558.41
498.89
271.55
723.12
609.32
370.21
546.03
524.12
522.38
404.03

$515.87
571.75
519.90
500.00
709.84
467.67
409.77
532.29
587.32
368.54

518.09
509.14
552.71
373.15
314.14
453.21

441.14
525.93
592.08
349.88
269.06
455.77

447.09
569.12
475.42
378.46
253.62
426.24

366.35
467.25

463.09
825.56

421.44
500.01

$543.98
496.30
500.03
597.56
657.64
366.64
394.73
348.25
479.40
412.96
485.83
455.97
496.51
784.25
309.54
230.18
324.48
418.02
411.30
539.71

1893.
$649.34
438.17
376.43
922.65
470.22
338.84
405.21
341.10
390.10
406.00
409.05
476.82
536.28
668.19
387.22
276.92
542.60
399.06
354.50
530.57

! Comparisons are also made between the total wages and the number
of employees in different industries in the city of Milwaukee and those
in the state exclusive of the city.
An idea o f the magnitude of the different industries in Milwaukee
and in the state exclusive of the city may be obtained from the follow­
ing statement, which shows the total for fifteen selected industries:
EM PLOYEES A N D TO TAL W A G E S IN F IF T E E N SELECTED IN DUSTRIES IN
M IL W A U K E E A N D IN W ISCONSIN, 1893.

Milwaukee.
Industry.
Employees.
Agricultural implements................................
Beer and m a lt....................................................
Boots and shoes................................................
Cigars..................................................................
Clothing...............................................................
Cut stone, marble..............................................
Flour and feed................................................ . .
Furniture, chairs..............................................
Iron works, foundries, and machine shops.
Nails, tacks.........................................................
Railway repair shops.......................................
Sash, doors, and blinds...................................
Tobacco............................................................. .
Wagons, carriages, and sleighs....................
Woolens and worsteds.....................................

363
3,678
1,680
400
1,065
173
457
694
2,976
489
208
1,305
313
430
1,020

Wages.
$212,071
1,926,289
427,532
136,651
547,527
81,060
257,616
229,502
1,641,811
154,100
115,640
541,910
125,843
147,941
205,212

State, exclusive of
Milwaukee.
Employees.

W ages.

2,259
*654
1,777
505
1,028
309
1,572
3,772
2,054
179
5,737
2,481

$1,459,980
542,001
823,662
221,199
239,661
87,766
560,567
1,485,163
883,370
64,862
3,129,262
1,311,354

2,758
1,458

900,694
530,201

The percentages of employees at stated daily rates of wages in facto­
ries, in 1893, are shown for the state, and on examining the total repre­
senting 102,865 employees, it is found that 48.55 per cent received $1,25
and under $2 per day, while but 1.47 per cent received $3.50 and under
$4 per day. The results are summarized so as to permit of a ready
comparison o f the relative number at each rate in the different indus­
tries.




REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— WISCONSIN.

83

The amount of loss by fire in factories for each industry from 1885 to
1893, inclusive, is also shown.
Factory Inspection.—The report headed “ Synoptical report of
and orders issued by inspectors of factories and workshops” is full of
interesting detail concerning the different factories inspected. It gives
the description and value of each building, with the number of male
and female employees. The summary table shows for each industry
the value o f new factory buildings, also the value of new machinery
added, for 1891-92 and 1893-94, respectively. The totals for 1893-94
are also shown by localities, and the orders of the inspectors for repairs
or additions are given in full.




REPORT BY HISS COLLET ON THE STATISTICS OF EMPLOYMENT
OF WOMEN AND GIRLS IN ENGLAND AND WALES.

This report of 152 pages, prepared for the labor department of the
British Board o f Trade, gives statistics bearing on the employment of
females in England and Wales, based principally on the following
sources of information:
1. Returns made to the labor department in 1894 by cotton, woolen,
and worsted manufacturers as to the employment of married women in
their mills—specially procured for this report.
2. The statistics o f occupations of women and girls at different ages
in urban sanitary districts with over 50,000 inhabitants—compiled from
the census sheets.
3. The published returns of inquiries recently conducted on the
required scale and according to uniform methods—to be found in the
census returns o f occupations in 1891, and in the board o f trade
returns of rates of wages in textile trades in 1886.
The report is divided into three parts, dealing, respectively, with
census returns of occupations in 1891, labor department returns of the
employment o f married women in 1894, and board of trade returns of
rates o f wages in the cotton, woolen, and worsted industries in 1886.
In Part I the census returns of the employment of women and girls
in 1891 are compared with those for 1881. In making comparison the
increase o f population has been taken into account, the numbers of
working females being expressed in ratios o f the female population over
10 years o f age, and these numbers are brought into comparison with
the numbers of working males in the same occupations, expressed in
similar ratios o f the male population.
In Part II statistics from employers in the cotton, woolen, and
worsted industries are given, showing the number and proportion o f
females employed in their mills who in 1894 were married or widowed,
and the summarized results are compared with those of the census, as
far as possible, with a view to testing their accuracy.
In Part III the broad results of the board of trade rates of wages
returns for 1886 are summarized so far as they relate to the employment
of women and girls in the cotton, woolen, and worsted industries in
England, and an attempt is made to discover whether there is any indi­
cation o f a relation between the rates o f wages and the employment of
married women.
The census statistics, presented in Part I o f the report, show that
more than four-fifths o f the working females reported in 1891 were em­
ployed in 18 classes or groups of occupations, there having been 349
84



EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND GIRLS IN ENGLAND AND WALES.

85

such classes. Less than 1 per cent of the working females were
employed in each o f the remaining classes or groups of occupations, and
the total number employed in the 331 classes was only 67 per 1,000 of
the total female population over 10 years of age.
The following table, derived from tables in Part I, shows the number
of working females per 10,000 females 10 years of age and over engaged
in each of the 18 classes of occupations referred to above, in each of
which upward of 1 per cent of the total number of working females
were employed in either 1891 or 1881, and the number of working
females per 10,000 females 10 years of age and over employed in the
remaining 331 classes of occupations, in each of which less than 1 per
cent of the total number of working females were employed. It also
shows the number o f working females in 1891, at certain age periods,
per 10,000 females at such periods, by occupations, and the decennial
increases or decreases in the numbers employed:
W O R K ING F EM ALES IN 1891 A T C E R T A IN AG E PERIODS PER 10,000 F E M A L E S A T
SUCH PERIODS.
10 and under 15 years.

15 and under 25 years.

Compared with
1881.

Occupation.

Number.

Number.
DeIncrease. crease.
Employing more than 1
per cent of females who
work:
Domestic servants........
Milliners; dressmakers,
and staymaker9........
Cotton goods opera­
tives ............................
Laundry and bath
employees...................
School teachers, profes­
sors, and lecturers...
Charwomen...................
Tailoresses....................
Worsted goods opera­
tives ............................
Woolen goods opera­
tives ............................
Nurses, midwives, etc.
Shirtmakers and seam-

Total,

Decrease.

189

InDe­
crease. crease.

902

41

732

305

27

555

11

2

130

37
2
32

1
20

245
24
148

87

9

117

7

45

32

1

106
18

14

51
48

3

- of females who work

In-

108

Shoe, boot, patten, and
clog makers (a).........
Drapers and mercers..
Grocers and chocolate
makers and dealers..
Boarding and lodging
housekeepers...........
Hotel servants.............
Silk, satin, velvet, and
ribbon factory oper­
atives ..........................
Farm laborers and
servants.......................
Total

Compared with
1881.
Number.

2,744

665

25 and under 45 years.

Compared with
1881.

11
4

83
91

6

3

31
4
93

17

40

258

21

164
5

2
64

14
47
16
24

137

102

16
2

66

11
7
3
25
40

39
33
35

11

11
14

38
35

24

9
13

23

3

46

19

23

12

8

7

30

31

18

13

5,242

75

2,363

1,365
261

1,6

57

331
25

45

28
8

5

90

51

120

Total female population... 1,612,709 214,608 j

1,094

197

597

122

2,960

2,884,756 389,921

60

4,006,447 511,665

a Dealers, who were included in the census returns for 1881, were not included in those for 1891.




86

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

W O R K IN G FEM AL ES IN 1891 A T C E R T A IN AG E PERIODS PER 10,000 FEM ALES A T
SUCH PERIODS—Concluded.
45 and under 65 years.
Compared with
1881.

Occupation.
Number.

InDe­
crease. crease.
Employing more than 1
per cent of females who
work:
Domestic servants........
Milliners, dressmakers,
and staymakers........
Cotton goods opera­
tives ............................
Laundry and bath
employees...................
School teachers,profes­
sors, and lecturers...
Charwomen...................
Tailoresses....................
Worsted goods opera­
tives ............................
Woolen goods opera­
tives ............................
Nurses, midwives, etc.
Shirtmakers and seam­
stresses ......................
Shoe, boot, patten, and
clog makers (b)-----Drapers and mercers..
Grocers and chocolate
makers and dealers..
Boarding and lodging
housekeepers...........
Hotel servants............
Silk, satin, velvet, and
ribbon factory oper­
atives..........................
Farm laborers and
servants......................
Total......................
Employing under 1per cent
o f females who work----Total..........................

>years and over.

Num­
ber.

A ll ages over 10 years.

Compared with
1881.

Compared with
1881.
Number.

In-

De­
crease.

InDe­
crease. crease.

22

479

276

218

94

363

19

87

13

290

13.

297

200

162

15

53
213
58

16
129

126
92
78

16

61

21
102

54
47

73

46

17
19

40
40

73

23

40

102

((36

14

39

10

21

a 13

21
1,885

1,148

612

450

2,497

Total female population.. 2,191,964 240,251

766,014 112,932

161

a l9

2,775

36

667

73

3,442

37

11,461,890 1,469,377

a An actual decrease as well as a relative one.
b Dealers, who were included in the census returns for 1881, were not included in those for 1891.

The decrease in the numbers employed in occupations connected with
the textile industries is shown at every age period above 15 years.
The increase in the number of laundry and bath employees 15 and
under 25 years of age is explained by the statement that laundry
work in steam laundries attracts girls and young women more than was
the case under the hand system.
The numbers employed as teachers, professors, and lecturers, and
as nurses, midwives, etc., show an increase at the most efficient age
periods, which, it is said, indicates an advance in the quality of their
work.
A large decrease is shown, at every age period, in the number of
shirtmakers and seamstresses. The report says that the decrease in
these occupations would have been still more marked in the number
employed who were 15 and under 25 years o f age were it not for the




EMPLOYMENT OP WOMEN AND GIRLS IN ENGLAND AND WALES.

87

growth of the factory system in the manufacture of shirts and under­
clothing; and to the factory system, and the consequent growth of the
ready-made clothing trade, must be traced the great increase in the
number of tailoresses.
The foregoing table shows that in 9 of the 18 specified occupations
in each of which over 1 per cent of the working females were employed
in 1891 or 1881 the employment of females increased relatively to popu­
lation; these 9 occupations in 1891 employed 812 in every 10,000 females
10 years of age and over, or 90 more than in 1881. The other 9 specified
occupations in 1891 employed 1,963 females in every 10,000 of 10 years
of age and over, or 126 less than in 1881.
In the remaining occupations, in each of which less than 1 per cent
of the working females were employed, 667 females per 10,000 of 10
years of age and over were employed in 1891, or 73 more than in 1881.
A striking fact shown by this table is the decrease in the proportion
of females between the ages of 15 and 25 employed in domestic service,
and the increase in the number so employed above the age of 25. The
decrease is said to be due to a probably diminished supply of young
servants; and the consequent improved condition of older servants
accounts for the increase in their number. It is also said that as the
proportion of children under 10 years of age and the proportion of
married to single persons in 1891 were less than in 1881, the need for
servants had to some extent diminished.
In order to compare the rate of progress in the employment of
females with that o f males in certain occupations employing both sexes
the following table is given, showing the numbers of working males in
1891, at certain age periods, per 10,000 males at such periods, in the
selected occupations, and the increase or decrease in the number
employed in each occupation since 1881.
W O R K ING M A LE S IN 1891 A T C ER T AIN A G E PERIODS PER 10,000 M A L E S A T SUCH
PERIODS, IN OCCUPATIONS L A R G E L Y FOLLOW ED B Y W O M EN .
10 and under 15 years.
Occupation.

Cotton goods operatives.. .
Worsted goods operatives.
Woolen goods operatives..
Silk, satin, velvet, and rib­
bon factory operatives.. .
Tailors
________ ________
Shoe, boot, patten, and clog
molrArfl
_ ______
TlranAra
______ ___
TT/vtal QATWflTltfl
____
Schoolteachers, professors,
€kU
t\
A ICvlUIvIO
Iaa+.tirara
C
IU
Farm laborers and serv­
ants, teamsters, etc—




Num­
ber.

225

66
35

12
20
58

11
7

10
402

Compared with
1881.
De­
In ­
crease. crease.

22
10
2
1

15 and under 25 years.

Numher.

277
45
75

Compared with
1881.
InDe­
crease. crease.

2

2

15

120
201

7

21
1

94
81

2

18

21
1
7

3

62

25

76

860

200

25 and under 45 years.

Number.

195
31
59

Compared with
1881.
In ­
Decrease. crease.

8
3

13
128

3

199
64
51

23
3

66
589

1

8
13

127

88

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

W O R K IN G M ALES IN 1891 A T C ER T AIN A G E PERIODS PER 10,000 M ALES A T SUCH
PERIODS, 1N OCCUPATIONS L A R G E L Y FOLLOW ED B Y W OMEN-Concluded.
45 and under 65 years.
Occupation.

Cotton goods operatives....................................................
Worsted goods operatives................................................
Woolen goods operatives..................................................
Silk, satin, velvet, and ribbon factory operatives...
T a ilo r s .......................... .....................................................
Shoe, boot, patten, and clog makers..............................
Drapers.................................................................................
Hotel servants....................................................................
School teachers, professors, and lecturers...................
Farm laborers and servants, teamsters, etc.................

Num­
ber.

Compared with
1881.
In ­
Decrease. crease.

135
26
59

14
4
9

141
256
45

35
43

20
20

37
809

12

4
3
5
250

65 years and over.

Number.

51
14
38
24
143
245
19
7

12

990

Compared with
1881.
In­
De­
crease. crease.
26

6
21
20
21
47
4
320

In four occupations employing females and males the former have
made distinct advances; in one of these, hotel servants, the number
of males also show an advance; in another, drapers, the number o f male
employees 25 and under 45 years of age show a decrease; in the other
two, tailors and shoemakers, boys and youths show an increase. The
decrease in the last two occupations in the numbers employed at the
age periods above the 15-25 period is said to be probably due to
changes in the organization of the trades to which these occupations
belong, and the decrease in the number of males 25 and under 45 years
o f age in the shoe trade is partly due to the exclusion o f dealers in
the census returns for 1891, who were included in those for 1881. A
decrease in the numbers of both sexes employed as farm laborers and
servants, teamsters, etc., is shown at every age period.
There was a remarkable increase in the employment of children of
both sexes under the age of 15 years. It is suggested that the increase
shown by the census of 1891 over the number as reported by the cen­
sus o f 1881 may be partly due to concealment of employment of chil­
dren in 1881. As to the employment of female children, the increase
seems to be attributable to the growth of urban population, such
increase having occurred in counties containing one or more towns of
over 50,000 inhabitants in which the population has increased at a
higher rate than the urban population generally. This inference is sup­
ported by the fact that the increase in the employment of girls under
15 years of age was greatest in industries in which the chances of
employment are much greater in towns than in rural districts, in
several branches of which the extended use o f machinery and the
minute subdivision of labor render it easier for children to find work
than formerly.
In the table giving the employment of females at certain age periods
it is shown that in every 10,000 females 10 and under 15 years of age
1,626 were employed, equivalent to 16.26 per cent. The census returns
for 1891 show that in 34 towns, including London, with over 50,000
inhabitants each, the percentage was lower than this, ranging in the




EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND GIRLS IN ENGLAND AND WALES.

89

different towns from 6.2 to 16 per cent, while in 28 towns of over 50,000
population the percentage was higher, ranging from 17 to 58.1 per cent.
The age period at which the largest percentage of females is employed
is that from 15 to 20 years. The census of 1891 shows that in England
and Wales 68.6 per cent of females between these ages were employed
in the various occupations. In 30 towns each with a population of
upward o f 50,000 the percentage was lower than this, ranging from
49.2 to 67.1 per cent, while in 32 towns each having populations of
over 50,000 the percentage was higher, ranging from 68.8 to 95.3 per
cent.
In discussing the employment of women over 20 years of age, with
special reference to married and widowed women, the report says that
the age period between 20 and 25 years is that at which the female
worker has, perhaps, the most industrial freedom; she is then not only
in her prime industrially, but generally has the option of exchanging
wage-earning employment for domestic life. In England and Wales
70 per cent of the females at this age period were returned as unmar­
ried; but the large towns showed considerable divergence from this
average, the percentages ranging from 41 to 85.
Tables are given showing the percentages of working married and
widowed females at different age periods in 19 industrial towns in
England in 1891 and 1881, and the inference is drawn that in these
towns, most affected by female labor, to which the tables relate, the
percentage of working married women is diminishing. It is mentioned
as a noteworthy fact that in all these factory centers there is a marked
diminution in the proportion of working married women between the
ages of 20 and 25 years.
The conditions governing married female labor in the north of Eng­
land are quite different from those in the south. In the north there
has been a large demand for female labor, and married women have
been attracted by the high wages obtainable in the textile industries,
especially in the cotton trade. The women of the north have not re­
garded industrial employment as being merely a means o f support
prior to marriage, but have looked upon it, more than upon domestic
management, as their life occupation, and they work with a view to
saving or for greater comfort in living. These causes tend to make
them efficient workers and to develop industrial ambition.
In the south of England, where the factory industries are small and
a large proportion of female employment is in domestic service, work­
ing girls look forward to marriage as a release from wage earning
employment, and in the upper industrial classes marriage usually gives
such release. The girl before marriage rarely aims at becoming a
very efficient worker, and if in later life she finds it necessary to again
support herself she is unable to gain employment except in ordinary
domestic service. In the lower industrial grades females frequently
remain at work after marriage because of the small earnings or irreg­




90

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

ular employment of their husbands. The effect of these conditions on
the quality of female labor is disadvantageous, and the married female
labor is of a poor kind.
Part II of the report deals with statistics collected by the labor
department from manufacturers in 1894, relative to unmarried, married,
and widowed females employed by them in cotton, woolen, and worsted
mills in Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, and the west of England.
Eeturns were received from 1,654 manufacturers, of whom 968 were in
the cotton industry, 315 in the woolen, 340 in the worsted, and 31 in
the mixed woolen and worsted. These returns relate to the employ­
ment o f 246,825 females, distributed among the industries as follows:
Cotton, 176,456 5 woolen, 20,045; worsted, 46,540; mixed woolen and
worsted, 3,784.
The females employed in the cotton and other industries, to whom
the labor department statistics relate, are classified as “ half-timers,”
who were 11 and under 13 years of age; as “ young persons,” who were
13 and under 18 years of age, and as “ women 18 years of age and over.”
This classification is in accordance with the terms of the English fac­
tory act, which defines the terms “ half-timer,” “ young person,” and
“ women” in such a manner as to include all females legally employed
in factories under these headings.
In the cotton industry 12,536 of the 176,456 females employed, or 7.1
per cent, were half-timers; 45,398, or 25.7 per cent, were young persons;
118,522, or 67.2 per cent, were women 18 years of age and over. Of
the 118,522 women, 38,991, or 32.9 per cent, were either wives or
widows; the ratio of married and widowed to the total number of
females, exclusive of half-timers, was 23.8 per cent, or nearly onefourth; o f the total number o f females, including half-timers, 22.1
per cent, or more than one-fifth, were married or widowed; of the
38,991 women who were married or widowed, 4,841, or 12.4 per cent,
were widowed.
Great differences exist in the percentages in different localities; for
example, in 10 urban sanitary districts each with over 50,000 inhabitants
the percentages o f women over the age of 18 who were married or
widowed ranged from 9.8 to 44.7 per cent.
In the woolen industry the statistics show that of the 20,045 females
to whom they relate, 200, or 1 per cent, were half-timers; 3,364, or 16.8
per cent, were young persons, and 16,481, or 82.2 per cent, were women
18 years o f age and over. O f the 16,481 women, 4,906, or 29.8 per cent,
were either married or widowed. The ratio of married and widowed
to the total number of females, exclusive of half-timers, was 24.7 per
cent, or about one-fourth.
The relative number of half-timers reported in this industry was so
small that the ratio of wives and widows to the total number o f work­
ing females was nearly the same as their ratio to the total number exclu­
sive o f half-timers, being 24.5 per cent. Of the 4,906 woolen operatives




EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND GIRLS IN ENGLAND AND WALES.

91

reported as married or widowed, 844, or 17.2 per cent, were reported as
widowed.
In the worsted industry 3,944, or 8.5 per cent, of the 46,540 working
females were half-timers; 13,288, or 28.5 per cent, were young persons,
and 29,308, or 63 per cent, were women 18 years of age and over. Of
the 29,308 women, 6,269, or 21.4 per cent, were either married or wid­
owed. The ratio of married and widowed to the total number of work­
ing females, exclusive of half-timers, was 14.7 per cent, or slightly more
than one-seventh; the ratio of married and widowed to the total num­
ber of working females, inclusive of half-timers, was 13.5 per cent, or
nearly one-seventh. O f the 6,269 wives and widows, 1,111, or 17.7 per
cent, were widows.
In the mixed woolen and worsted industry 83, or 2.2 per cent, of the
3,784 female operatives were half-timers; 792, or 20.9 per cent, were
young persons, and 2,909, or 76.9 per cent, were women 18 years of age
and over. O f the2,909 women, 686, or 23.6 per cent, were either married
or widowed. The ratio of the married and widowed to the total num­
ber of working females, exclusive of half-timers, was 18.5 per cent, and
to the total number, inclusive of half-timers, 18.1 per cent. Of the 686
wives and widows, 108, or 15.7 per cent, were widows.
The total number of females in all the industries to which the statis­
tics relate was 246,825. Of this number 16,763, or 6.8 per cent, were
half-timers; 62,842, or 25.5 per cent, were young persons, and 167,220,
or 67.7 per cent, were women 18 years of age and over. O f the 167,220
women, 50,852, or 30.4 per cent, were either married or widowed. The
ratio of the married and widowed to the total number of working females,
exclusive o f half-timers, was 22.1 per cent, and to the total number,
inclusive of half-timers, 20.6 per cent. O f the 50,852 wives and widows,
6,904, or 13.6 per cent, were widows.
The following statement shows the number of working females, by
industries, concerning whom statistics were gathered by the labor
department in 1894, classified as “ half-timers,” those 11 and under 13
years of age; “ youngpersons,” those 13 and under 18 years of age, and
“ women 18 years of age and over,” of whom the number unmarried,
married, and widowed are given. The percentage that each class is of
the total number o f working females in each industry is also given.




92

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

W O R K IN G FEM AL ES I N C E R T A IN INDUSTRIES, 1894.
Cotton.

Woolen.

Worsted.

Mixed woolen
and worsted.

Total.

Working females.
Num
ber.

Per
cent.

Num
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Under 18 years of age:
Half-timers............. 12,536
Young persons . j. . 45,398

7.1
25.7

3,364

16.8

1.0

3,944
13,288

8.5
28.5

83
792

20.9

2.2

16,763
62,842

25.5

T otal_____ ______ 57,934

32.8

3.564

17.8

17,232

37.0

875

23.1

79,605

32.3

45.1
19.4
2.7

11,575
4,062
844

57.7
20.3
4.2

23.039
5,158
1, 111

49.5

2,223
578
108

58.8 116,368
15.3 43,948
2.8 6,904

47.1
17.8

24.5

6,269

13.5

18.1

20.6

29,308

63.0

2,909

76.9 167,220

67.7

46,540 j 100.0

3,784

100.0 246,825

100.0

200

6.8

18 years of age and over:

Unmarried............. 79.531
Married ................... 34,150
4,841
Widowed.................
Total, married
and widowed.. 38,991

22.1

4,906

Total, 18 years of
age and o v er... 118,522

67.2

16,481

82.2

Grand total......... 176,456

100.0

20,045

100.0

11.1
2.4

686

50,852

2.8

Part III of the report presents statistics relating to female labor at
the principal centers of the cotton, woolen, and worsted industries in
England, taken from the Board of Trade Return of Rates of Wages
in the Principal Textile Trades in the United Kingdom.
Owing to the vagueness of the distinction made by employers
between women and girls, working females are classified as “ halftimers” and “ full-timers,” no attempt being made to distinguish be­
tween u women” and u young persons.”
The wages* covered by the statistics were the average wages for a
week in October, 1886. These are shown to have been $3.51 for
67,843 females working full time in the cotton manufacture in Lanca­
shire and Cheshire; $3.20 for 10,909 females working full time in the
woolen manufacture in Yorkshire and Lancashire; $2.78 for 18,855
females working full time in the worsted and stuff manufacture in
Yorkshire; $2.60 for 1,757 females working full time in the woolen
manufacture in the west of England.




93

EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND GIRLS IN ENGLAND AND WALES.

The following statement shows the number and per cent of females
working full time, above referred to, in the industries specified, at and
between different weekly wage rates:
F EM AL ES W O R K IN G FU LL T IM E IN CE R T A IN IN D U ST R IE S A T A N D B E T W E E N
CER TAIN W E E K L Y W A G E RATES, 1886.
Under $2.43.

$2.43 and
under $3.65.

$3.65 and
under $4.87.

$4.87 and
under $6.08. $6.08and over.

Total.

Industry.
Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

8,216

192

Cotton (a) —

7,245

10.7

30,482

44.9

21,708

32.0

Woolen (&)...
Woolen (c). . .

1.159
796

10.6

64.0
54.7

2,767

25.3

10

12.1
.1

45.3

6,973
961

T o t a l ....

1,955

15.4

7,934

62.6

2,767

21.9

10

.1

Worsted and
stuff (d) —

6,902

36.6

11,838

62.8

115

.6

Grand total 16,102

16.2

50,254

50.6

24,590

24.7

a In Lancashire and Cheshire.
6 In Yorkshire and Lancashire.

Per
cent.

Num­
ber.

0.3

67,843
10,909
1,757

12,666
18,855

8,226

8.3

192

.2

99,364

Per
cent.

100
100
100
100
100
100

c In west of England.
d In Yorkshire.

The board of trade statistics for 1886 are considered in connection
with those collected by the labor department in 1894. From the latter
it appears that in 1894 the proportion of young persons to women was
considerably higher in worsted than in cotton mills, 31.2 per cent of
the full timers being young persons in the former case and 27.7 per
cent in the latter. Moreover, only 21.4 per cent of the adult females
in the worsted mills were married or widowed, as compared with 32.9
per cent in the cotton mills. Supposing somewhat similar conditions
to have prevailed in 1886 as in 1894, it would follow that the average
age of the cotton operatives was higher than that of the worsted
operatives. Making all allowance for such difference in age, it would
seem that the average wages were lower in the worsted than in the
cotton industry.
The change that has taken place in the woolen manufacture since
1886 makes it most unlikely that the proportion of young persons to
adult women employed in 1894 approximated to that prevailing in 1886.
The proportion of adult females in woolen mills was abnormally high in
1894, having been 83 per cent of full-timers, as compared with 72.3 per
cent in the cotton mills. This high proportion of adult females was
most probably due to the employment of girls in worsted instead of in
woolen mills. Notwithstanding the high proportion o f adult females,
the percentage of females either married or widowed in the Yorkshire
woolen mills was less than the percentage in the cotton mills, having
been 28.1 per cent in the former case and 32.9 per cent in the latter.
In 1886, before the stream of young workers was diverted from the
woolen to the worsted cloth manufacture, the percentage of married
females was probably lower still.




94

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Comparing the three industries, it was found that the higher average
o f wages coincide with a higher percentage of adult females either
married or widowed. Comparing estimated average wages of young per­
sons in the cotton and worsted mills, the average in the worsted mills
was considerably lower than in the cotton mills, although the average
age o f young persons would be about the same.
An examination o f the relation between average wages and the per­
centage o f married women employed in cotton mills in different dis­
tricts pointed to the conclusion that in the north o f England one of the
causes o f an exceptionally high rate of employment of married women
was the high rate of wages that could be earned. In so far as this
conclusion is correct, it may be inferred that a falling in wages of
working females in the great textile trades would be followed by a
diminution in the employment of married women, if the wages o f male
operatives remained unchanged.
With the relation between wages and the employment of married
women in the north of England must be compared the conditions
found in the woolen mills in the west of England, where the average
weekly wage in 1886 was much lower than the average in Yorkshire
and Lancashire, but where the percentage of working females who were
either married or widowed was extremely high in 1894.
In conclusion, it is said that the current view that the employment
o f female labor is rapidly extending, and that women are replacing
men to a considerable extent in industrial occupations, is not confirmed.
On the whole, the proportion of working females remained practically
stationary in the decade 1881-1891, there having been 34.05 working
females over 10 years of age per 100 in 1881 and 34.42 per 100 in 1891,
the slight increase being attributed to the increased number of females
under 25 years of age with definite occupations, and to the increased
employment of middle-class women.
The employment o f married and elderly women has, on the whole, di­
minished, as has also the employment of women in casual occupations.
There has been an increase in the employment of females under the
age of 25 years, which has, however, been concurrent with a similar
extension in the employment of young men and boys.
As to the substitution o f female for male labor, the census returns
show that 83.24 per cent of males over 10 years of age were industrially
employed in 1881 and 83.10 per cent in 1891. In either year there were
less than 17 males in every 100 who could possibly have been added to
the ranks of the employed, whereas there were nearly 66 females in
every 100 upon which to draw for an increase in wage earners, yet in
1891 this available female surplus had only been diminished by less
than 1, and it appears to be clearly shown that male labor has not been
displaced to any marked extent by the employment of females.




EMPLOYEE AMD EMPLOYEE UNDEB THE COMMON LAW .
B Y VICTOR H . OLMSTED AND STEPHEN D. FESSENDEN.

The relations existing between employers of labor and their employ­
ees, and the reciprocal duties, obligations, and rights growing out of
those relations, are, in the absence of legislative enactments, governed
by the common law in regard to master and servant, the words master
and servant being legally synonymous with the words employer and
employee.
The common law consists of principles, usages, and rules of action,
applicable to the government and security of persons and property,
which have grown into use by gradual adoption, without legislative
authority, and have received, from time to time, the sanction of the
courts o f justice.
The great body of the common law of the United States consists of
the common law o f England, and such statutes thereof as were in force
prior to the separation of this country from England, and applicable
to circumstances and conditions prevailing here. These laws have
been adopted as the basis of our jurisprudence in all the states except
Louisiana, and many of the most valued principles of the English com­
mon law have been embodied in the constitutions of the United States
and the several states.
In many details, however, the common law of the United States now
differs widely from that of England by reason of modifications arising
from different conditions and established by American adjudications,
that branch of the common law governing the relation of master and
servant has undergone some changes, although in the main it is the
same in this country as in England. It is not the purpose of this
article to point out such changes or differences, but to state the prin­
ciples and rules o f the common law now prevailing throughout the
United States, except where they have been changed or modified by
legislative enactments.
The statement which follows is derived from articles in the American
and English Encyclopedia of Law on the subject of “ Master and ser­
vant” and kindred topics, and from standard legal works treating of
the subject under consideration. The reader should bear in mind that
any rule or principle of the common law, as given in this statement,
conflicting with a statute which has not been declared invalid or
unconstitutional by the courts, is modified or changed by the statute,
and that the statute instead of the common law now governs.




96

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Master and Servant : Definitions.—A master is variously de­
fined as one who has in his employment one or more persons hired
by contract to serve him either as domestic or common laborers; one
who has the superior choice, control, and direction, whose will is repre­
sented not merely in the ultimate result of the work in hand, but in
all its details; one who is the responsible head of a given industry; one
who not only prescribes the end, but directs, or may at any time direct
the means and methods of doing the work; one who has the power
to discharge; a head or chief; an employer; a director; a governor.
A servant is one who is employed to render personal service to his
employer otherwise than in the pursuit of an independent calling, and
who, in such service, remains entirely under the control and direction
of the latter.
The Relation : I ts Creation and E xistence.—The relation of
master and servant is created by contract, either express or implied,
where both parties have the requisite legal qualifications for entering
into a valid contract. The relation exists only where the person sought
to be charged as master employs and controls the other party to the
contract of service, or expressly or tacitly assents to the rendition of
the particular service by him. The master must have the right to
direct the action of the servant, and to accept or reject his service.
The relation does not cease so long as the master retains his control or
right of control over the methods and manner of doing the work, or
the agencies by which it is effected. Furthermore, the relation exists
where the servant is employed, not by the master directly, but by an
employee in charge of a part of the master’s business with authority
to engage assistance therein.
The Contract of Service.—A contract of employment is one by
which an employer engages an employee to do something for the bene­
fit of the employer, or of a third person, for a sufficient consideration,
expressed or implied. The authority of a subordinate to employ an
agent or servant includes, in the absence of restrictive words, author­
ity to make a complete contract, definite as to the amount of wages, as
well as to all other terms.
Ordinarily, when an adult person solicits employment in a particular
line of work, the solicitation carries with it an implied assertion that
the one seeking employment is competent to perform the ordinary
duties of the position sought; and it is an implied condition of every
contract of service that the employee is competent to discharge the
duties of his employment.
A servant is presumed to have been hired for such length of time as
the parties adopt for the estimation o f wages; for example, a hiring at a
yearly rate is presumed to be for one year; at a daily rate, for one day;
a hiring by piecework, for no specified time; but such fact does not,
in the absence of other evidence, necessarily fix the period of hiring.
Where an employee has been hired to work by the week or month, the




EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE UITDER THE COMMON LAW.

97

burden of proof is upon him to show any change in the contract of
employment as to the term of service.
It is a general rule that where a person enters into a contract of serv­
ice for a fixed compensation, he, prima facie, agrees to give his employer
his entire time; but this rule is not inflexible.
A contract for service running for a longer period of time than one
year, to be valid, must be in writing and signed by the party against
whom it may be sought to be enforced, or by his authorized agent.
In the absence of an express contract of hiring, a person may recover
compensation for services where the same were rendered under such
circumstances as to show that he expected such compensation as a
matter of right, and that the person for whom they were rendered was
bound to know that he claimed compensation, or was legally entitled
thereto. Where one person performs labor for another, a request and
a promise to pay the reasonable worth of such labor are presumed by
law, unless it is understood that the labor is to be gratuitously per­
formed, or it is performed under such circumstances as to repel the
presumption of a promise to pay.
Where there is an express contract the servant must be furnished
with employment by the master during the period covered by its terms.
If by the terms of the contract the servant is employed to work by the
day, week, month, or year, and nothing is said as to the time of pay­
ment for his services, the wages are due and may be demanded at the
close of each day, week, month, or year, as the case m aybe; but in
such case, as upon all questions relating to the interpretation of con­
tracts, custom has a strong bearing.
A man can contract to furnish his own services and those of his
wife, and if she makes no separate claim can sue for them; and if such
contract needs ratifying, the testimony of the wife in support of his
demand will be a sufficient ratification.
A wife is not responsible for the wages of her husband’s employee,
notwithstanding the fact that she sometimes pays such wages.
When a master agrees to pay his servant what he considers the
servant’s services to be reasonably worth, or, where he agrees to pay
the same wages as shall be paid to other men in his employ filling
similar positions, and there is no showing that the master has other
employees in similar positions, the servant is entitled to recover, in a
suit for wages, what his services were actually worth. And where the
master and servant agree as to the existence of the contract of service,
but disagree as to the wages to be paid, the question of compensation
must be left to a jury.
Unless otherwise agreed, the wages of an employee must be paid in
cash. The master has no right to handle, or invest, or in any manner
apply such wages, whether beneficial to the servant or not, but must
pay them directly to him.
89—Ko. 1----- 7




98

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

An employer may discharge an employee before the expiration of the
term of service stipulated in the contract for good and sufficient cause,
as, for incompetency. The discharge must be couched in such terms
as to leave no doubt in the employee’s mind of the employer’s desire to
terminate the relation.
In a majority of the states a contract for service for a specified time
is considered apportionable, and an employee who has been discharged
for cause is entitled to compensation for the work he has actually
performed.
Where one has contracted to employ another for a certain period of
time, at a specified price for the entire time, and discharges him wrong­
fully before the expiration thereof, the wrongfully discharged employee
is entitled to recover an amount equal to the stipulated wages for the
whole period covered by the contract, less the* sum earned, or which
might have been earned in other employment during the period covered
by the breach. Upon dismissal a servant, under the law, must seek other
employment, but extraordinary diligence in such seeking is not required
o f him. He is only required to use reasonable efforts, and he is not
bound to seek employment or render service of a different kind or grade
from that which he was engaged to perform under the violated contract,
nor to seek employment in a different neighborhood 5 and if he fails to
secure employment and works on his own account the value of such
work can not be deducted from his claim.
Where an employee for a fixed period, at a salary for the period, pay­
able at intervals, is wrongfully discharged, he may pursue one of four
courses—
1. He may sue at once for the breach of contract, in which case he
can only recover his damages up to the time of bringing the suit.
2. He may wait until the end of the contract period, and then sue
for the breach.
3. He may treat the contract as existing, and sue at each period of
payment for the wages then due.
4. He may treat the contract as rescinded, and sue immediately for
the value of his services performed, in which case he can only recover
for the time he actually served.
An employee is entitled to recover damages from a person who mali­
ciously procures his discharge, provided he proves that the discharge
resulted in damage to him.
An employer is entitled to maintain an action against anyone who
knowingly entices away his servant, or wrongfully prevents the serv­
ant from performing his duty, or permits the servant to stay with him
and harbors such servant with the intention of depriving the master
o f his services.
Combinations and Coercion of Servants.—Everyone has the
right to work or to refuse to work for whom and on what terms he
pleases, or to refuse to deal with whom he pleases; and a number o f




EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE UNDER THE COMMON LAW.

99

persons, if they have no unlawful object in view, have the right to agree
that they will not work for or deal with certain persons, or that they
will not work under a fixed price or without certain conditions.
The right o f employees to refuse to work, either singly or in combi­
nation, except upon terms and conditions satisfactory to themselves, is
balanced by the right of employers to refuse to engage the services of
anyone for any reason they deem proper. The master may fix the wages,
and other conditions not unlawful, upon which he will employ work­
men, and has the right to refuse to employ them upon any other terms.
In short, both employers and employees are entitled to exercise the
fullest liberty in entering into contracts of service, and neither party
can hold the other responsible for refusing to enter into such contracts.
It has been held, however, that employers in separate, independent
establishments have no right to combine for the purpose of preventing
workmen, who have incurred the hostility of one of them, from secur­
ing employment upon any terms, and by the method commonly known
as blacklisting debarring such workmen from exercising their voca­
tion, such a combination being regarded as a criminal conspiracy.
On the other hand, a combination of employees having for its pur­
pose the accomplishment of an illegal object is unlawful; for instance,
a conspiracy to extort money from an employer by inducing his work­
men to leave him and deterring others from entering his service, is
illegal; and an association which undertakes to coerce workmen to
become members thereof or to dictate to employers as to the methods or
terms upon which their business shall be conducted, by means of force,
threats, or intimidation interfering with their traffic or lawful employ­
ment of other persons is, as to such purposes, an illegal combination.
Unlawful interference by employees, or former employees, or persons
acting in sympathy with them, with the business of a railroad com­
pany in the hands of a receiver, renders the persons interfering liable
to punishment for contempt of court.
Employer’s Liability for I njuries of Employees.—Where
a person employs an independent contractor to do work for him, and
retains or exercises no control over the means or methods by which the
work is to be accomplished, he is not answerable for the wrongful acts
o f such contractor; and the same rule governs as between a contractor
and a subcontractor. Under these circumstances an employer would
not be liable for an injury sustained by a workman in the course of his
employment for which he would have been liable had the work been
performed under his own direction.
An employer is ordinarily liable in damages to his employee who
sustains an injury through the employer’s negligence. Such negli­
gence may consist in the doing of something by the employer which,
in the exercise o f ordinary care and prudence, he ought not to have
done, or in the omission of any duty or precaution which a prudent;
careful man would or ought to have taken.




too

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

An important duty on the part of a master is to furnish his servant
with such appliances, tools, and machinery as are suited to his employ­
ment and may be used with safety; and if a master fails to use ordi­
nary care in the selection or care of such appliances his ignorance of
a defect therein will not excuse him from liability for an injury caused
thereby; he is responsible for all defects in machinery or appliances of
which he should have known, but failed through negligence to learn
of, or which, having learned of, he has failed to remedy.
A railroad company is liable for injuries to its employees occasioned
by the company’s negligence in failing to keep its track or roadbed in
proper condition; but such company is not bound to furnish an abso­
lutely safe track or roadbed, its duty only being to use all reasonable
care in keeping them in safe condition.
A railroad company is likewise liable if it fails to keep its track clear
of obstructions and structures dangerously near the same; but such
company is not negligent because it erects and maintains structures
and contrivances for use in the operation of its road merely for the
reason that they may be dangerous to employees operating the com­
pany’s trains.
It is negligence for such a company to fail to use safe and appropri­
ate engines; or to have the boilers of its engines properly tested; or
to furnish suitable freight or passenger cars, and proper and safe
attachments and appliances to be used in connection therewith; and
such company can not divest itself of its duty to use due care and dili­
gence with respect to the cars of other companies to be moved and
handled by its employees, in seeing that such cars are in safe condition
to be so moved and handled, by contracts with such other companies
that they shall keep their cars in repair.
It is negligence in such a company to permit its employees to disobey
its orders, and it is liable for injuries arising from the careless or reck­
less running of its trains, or the starting thereof without notice, or the
running o f its trains at immoderate speed.
Railroad companies, and employers o f every description, are negli­
gent if they fail to protect a servant who is exposed to danger; but
such a company is not absolutely bound to take all possible precautions
against storms, or against washouts, landslides, or other obstructions
which may be dangerous to its employees. And if the mill o f a man­
ufacturing corporation is properly constructed for the carrying on o f its
ordinary business, the corporation is not liable to an employee who has
been injured by a fire, not caused by the negligence of the corporation,
because it failed to provide means o f escape from the fire; nor is such
corporation liable for an accident resulting in injury to an employee
from its failure to fence the ordinary machinery used in the servant’s
employment; if, however, there is a custom in reference to the adoption
o f certain safeguards in a given business, so general that the employer
is presumed to have knowledge of it, he is guilty of negligence if he
fails to adopt such safeguards,




EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE UNDER THE COMMON LAW.

101

A master is not chargeable with negligence when an employee is
injured through the use of a machine for an improper or dangerous
purpose, for which it was not intended or provided, but is guilty of
negligence when he exposes an employee to dangers not obvious or
fairly incident to the employment, or where he introduces new and
unusual machinery, involving unexpected danger, without notice to his
employee.
Employers are not, as a rule, required to furnish the best and latest
improved machinery, but only such as is reasonably safe and suitable.
Eailroad companies, however, are ordinarily bound to adopt new inven­
tions as soon as they have been proved by satisfactory tests to be safer
than the appliances in use.
While it is the duty of an employer to exercise reasonable care in
keeping buildings, machinery, tools, etc., in suitable and safe condition
for use, and to this end he should frequently inspect the machinery, etc.,
used by his employees, the system of inspection need not be carried to
such an extent as will embarrass the operation of his business.
A master who sets a servant at work in a place of danger without
giving him such warning and instruction as the youthfulness, inexpe­
rience, or lack of capacity on the part of the servant reasonably re­
quires, is guilty of negligence, and liable to the servant for an injury
arising therefrom. The fact, however, that a master sets a minor
servant to work at a more dangerous occupation than that in which he
was originally employed does not, in itself, render the master liable for
ftn injury resulting therefrom, unless under all the circumstances the
setting him at such work was a negligent act; but the master will be
held more strictly accountable in such a case than in the case of an
adult.
Proprietors o f manufucturing establishments are charged with the
duty of exercising ordinary care in providing their employees with suit­
able places in which they can work in reasonable safety, and without
exposure to dangers not within the usual scope of their employment.
It is the duty o f employers to make and promulgate such rules and
regulations for the government of their employees as will, if observed,
give them reasonable protection $ and employees are bound to obey all
the lawful and reasonable commands of their employers, though such
commands may seem harsh and severe.
It is also the duty of employers to have a sufficient number of trust­
worthy, competent employees to properly and safely perform the labor
required in the business in which they are engaged.
When certain duties are imposed upon an employer by legislative
enactment or municipal ordinance, designed for the protection of his
employees, it is negligence on his part to fail to comply with such re­
quirements, and he is liable to his employees for injuries arising from
such negligence, unless it can be clearly shown that they assumed the
risk.




102

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

An employer can not avoid his liability to an employee for injuries
sustained by the latter through his negligence by means of a contract
with such employee which provides that in consideration of the employ­
ment he shall be exempt from such liability. Such a contract is against
public policy and void. The supreme court of the state of Georgia
has, however, sustained the validity of contracts of this character.
Contributory Negligence by E mployees.—It is a general rule
that when an employee suffers an injury through the negligence o f
his employer he is not entitled to recover damages for such injury if
his own negligence contributed thereto. Under this rule, where master
and servant have equal knowledge of the danger of the service and the
means of avoiding it, and the servant while engaged in the perform­
ance o f his duties is injured by reason of his own inattention and neg­
ligence, the master is not liable; and where the servant is told to do a
particular thing and is not directed as to the time or manner in which
the work is to be done, it being left to his discretion, so that he is given
some control over the means, time, and manner of doing it, he is guilty
of contributory negligence if he does not use the safest means, time,
and method of accomplishing the work and is injured while so engaged,
and can not recover damages from the master; nor can he recover
such damages if injured by the use of a defective appliance under his
own exclusive care; nor where he had knowledge of a defect in an
appliance used by him, through which he is injured, and failed to notify
the master thereof, if no blame was imputable to the latter in failing
to discover such defect, or in failing to furnish a safe and suitable
appliance.
But an employee’s right to recover damages for an injury is not
affected by his having contributed thereto unless he was at fault in so
contributing, and he may recover, notwithstanding his contributory
negligence, if the master, after becoming aware of the danger, failed
to exercise ordinary care to prevent the injury or willfully inflicted the
damage.
When an employee in the course of his employment finds himself
exposed to imminent peril due to the master’s negligence, and in the
terror o f the moment adopts a course exposing him to greater peril and
is injured, such action on his part does not constitute contributory neg­
ligence, and will not relieve the master from liability.
An employee is not guilty of contributory negligence if, when injured,
he was exercising ordinary care to avoid injury, and discharging his
duties in a careful and prudent manner, and the injury was sustained
by reason o f negligent failure on the part of the employer to exercise
ordinary care for the employee’s safety, as failure to warn the employee
of extraneous risks and unusual dangers known to the employer but
unknown to the employee, or to instruct an immature or inexperienced
servant and warn him of the dangers attending his work not obvious
to one o f his capacity or experience; to provide suitable machinery,




EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE UNDER THE COMMON LAW.

103

tools, and appliances for carrying on the work at which the servant is
employed; to inspect and repair machinery, tools, and appliances; to
provide a safe place for the servant to work, the ordinary risks of the
business excepted; to guard against a danger to a servant of which the
master has been notified, or which he has promised to obviate, or which
he has assured the servant did not exist; to make and promulgate proper
rules and regulations for the conduct of the employment in which the
servant is engaged; to employ and retain a sufficient number of com*
petent and trustworthy servants to properly and safely carry on the
business. The employee does not assume the risk of injury by reason
of the negligent failure of his employer in fulfilling any of the duties
incumbent upon him, and, as before stated, is not guilty of contributory
negligence when injured by such failure, if he himself was without fault
in the discharge of his duty.
Contributory negligence is purely a matter of defense in actions by
employees for damages resulting from injuries sustained during the
course of their employment, and the burden of proving it is upon the
master who seeks thereby to avoid liability for such damages.
A ssumption of Risks by Employees.—Where an employment
is accompanied with risks of which those who enter it have, or are
presumed to have, notice, they can not, if they are injured by exposure
to such risks, recover compensation for the injuries from their employer;
by contracting to perform hazardous duties the employee assumes such
risks as are incident to their discharge, and he assumes not only the
risks existing at the beginning of his employment, but also such as arise
during its course, if he had or was bound to have knowledge thereof.
He does not, however, assume the risk of dangers arising from unsafe
or defective methods, machinery, or other instrumentalities, unless he
has, or may be presumed to have, knowledge or notice thereof, and the
burden of proving that an injured employee had such knowledge or
notice of the defect or obstruction causing the injury is upon the
employer.
The employee assumes all risk of latent defects in appliances or
machinery, unless the master was negligent in not discovering the
same; but the experience, or lack of experience, of the employee is to
be considered in determining whether or not he is chargeable with
knowledge of such defects as are not obvious and of the danger
arising therefrom.
Another risk assumed by employees is that of the master’s method
of conducting his business. I f the employee enters upon the service
with knowledge of the risk attending the method, he can not hold
the master responsible for injuries arising from the use of such method
though a safer one might have been adopted; but in order to relieve
the master from liability the method must amount to a custom or mode
of carrying on the business, and not consist merely of an instance
or any number o f instances of culpable negligence on the part of the
master.




104

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Negligence of Fellow -Servants.—The general rule at common
law is that he who engages in the employment of another for the per­
formance of specified duties and services, for compensation, takes upon
himself the natural and ordinary risks and perils incident to the per­
formance of such services. The perils arising from the carelessness
and negligence of those who are in the same employment are no excep­
tion to this rule, and where a master uses due diligence in the selection
of competent, trusty servants and furnishes them with suitable means
to perform the services in which he employs them, he is not answerable
to one o f them for an injury received in consequence of the careless­
ness or negligence of another, while both are engaged in the same
service.
Various attempts have been made by judges and text writers to lay
down some rule or formula by which to determine what servants of a
common master may-be said to be fellow-servants assuming the risk of
each other’s negligence. The following are well-known definitions:
Persons are fellow-servants where they are engaged in the same com­
mon pursuit under the same general control.
All who serve the same master, work under the same control, derive
authority and compensation from the same common source, and are
engaged in the same general business, though it may be in different
grades or departments of it, are fellow-servants who take the risk of
each other’s negligence.
The true test of fellow-service is community in that which is the test
o f service; which is subjection to control and direction by the same com­
mon master in the same common pursuit. I f servants are employed and
paid by the same master, and their duties are such as to bring them
into such a relation that the negligence o f the one in doing his work
may injure the other in the performance of his, then they are engaged
in the same common pursuit, and being subject to the same control they
are fellow-servants.
All servants in the employ of the same master, subject to the same
general control, paid from a common fund, and engaged in promoting
or accomplishing the same common object, are to be held fellow-servants
in a common employment.
It is said that these definitions are faulty, and of little practical value
by reason of their being stated so broadly and in such general and
comprehensive terms, nevertheless they give a correct idea as to who
have been determined by many courts to be fellow-servants within the
rule exempting the master from liability for the negligence o f one of
them resulting injuriously to another.
The principal limitation contended for on the general rule in regard
to fellow-servants is that there is such a servant as vice-principal, who
takes the place of the master and is not a fellow-servant with those
beneath him; and there is a variation o f this idea to the effect that
every superior servant is a vice-principal as to those beneath him. The
doctrine of vice-principal is, however, repudiated by the courts of many
o f the states.




EMPLOYEE AND EMPLOYEE UNDER THE COMMON LAW.

105

The master, as such, is required to perforin certain duties which have
been hereinbefore specified, and the person who discharges any of these
duties, no matter what his rank or grade, no matter by what name he
may be designated, can not be a servant within the meaning of the
general rule on fellow-servants. The liability of the master for the
nonperformance of such duties as the law implies from the contract of
service, does not rest upon the ground of guarantee of their perform­
ance, but upon the fact of the presence or absence of negligence of the
master in their i>erformance.
Whether one is acting as the representative of the master or merely
as the fellow-servant with others employed by the same master, does
not depend upon his rank or title, but upon the character of the duties
he is performing at the time another servant is injured through his
negligence; if at such time the offending servant was in the perform­
ance of a duty which the master owed his servants, he was not a fellowservant with the one injured, but a vice-principal, for the rule is
fundamental that a master can not rid himself of a duty he owes to his
servants by delegating his authority to another and thus escape respon­
sibility for negligence in the performance of such duty.
If, however, at the time of the injury the negligent servant was not
engaged in the performance of duty due from the master to his serv­
ants, but was discharging a duty which was due from the servant to the
master, he was a fellow-servant to the one injured, engaged in the same
common business, and the master would not be liable for the injuries
sustained by reason of his negligence.
It is held by the courts of some of the states that, as industrial
enterprises have grown, and, because of the division of labor and the
magnitude of operations, have been divided into distinct and separate
departments, a laborer in one department is not a fellow-servant with a
laborer in another and separate department of the same establishment.
Incompetency of Fellow -Servants.—If an employer know­
ingly employs or retains an incompetent servant he is liable for an injury
to a fellow-servant sustained through the incompetency of the servant
so employed or retained, provided the injured servant did not know and
had not the means of knowing the incompetency of his fellow-servant.
A master is not, however, liable for injuries to one servant by the negli­
gence of another on the ground of unskillfulness of the latter unless the
injuries were caused by such unskillfulness.
A master does not warrant the competency of his servants, but must
use all ordinary care and diligence in their selection and retention. If
he has not been negligent in selecting a servant, and subsequently
obtains knowledge of the servant’s incompetence and still retains him,
he is liable to another servant for any injury resulting from said




106

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

incompetence. I f tlie employer had no actual notice of the servant^
incompetence, if it was notorious and of such a character that with
proper care he would have known of it, he will still be liable.
If a person, knowing the hazards of his employment as it is conducted,
voluntarily continues therein without any promise by the master to do
any act to render the same less hazardous, the master will not be liable
for an injury he may sustain therein, unless it is caused by the willful
act of the master. No servant is entitled to damages resulting from
the incompetence of a fellow-servant when he knew of such incompe­
tence and did not inform his employer of the same.
When it is alleged that the master has been guilty of selecting or
retaining an incompetent servant, the burden of proof of said allega­
tion is on the plaintiff. Neither incompetency nor unskillfulness will be
presumed; they must be proved.
A master who has employed skillful and competent general agents
or superintendents is liable for injuries received by inferior servants
through the negligence of those employed by such general agents or
superintendents without due care or inquiry, or retained by them after
knowledge of their incompetence.
While the servant assumes the ordinary risks, and, as a general rule,
such extraordinary risks of his employment as he knowingly and vol­
untarily encounters, he is not required to exercise the same degree of
care as the master in investigating the risks to which he may be
exposed; h$ has the right to assume that the appliances and machinery
furnished Kim by the master are safe and suitable for the employment
in which he is engaged; and to assume, when engaged in an occupa­
tion attended with danger and requiring engrossing duties, that the
master will not, without proper warning, subject him to other dangers
unknown to him, and from which his occupation necessarily distracts
his attention; and he has the right to rely upon the taking by the
master o f all usual and proper precautions against accident, and his
faithful fulfillment of all the duties devolving upon him.
I f an employee is ordered by his master into a situation of danger
and obeys, he does not assume the risk unless the danger was so obvi­
ous that no prudent man would have obeyed the order; and the master
will be liable for any injury resulting to him by reason of such danger­
ous employment. If, however, he leaves his own place o f work for one
more dangerous, in violation of the master’s direction, he can not
recover for an injury sustained after such change.
I f the servant, upon being ordered to perform duties more dangerous
than those embraced in his original employment, undertakes the same
with knowledge o f their dangerous character, unwillingly and from
fear o f losing his employment, lie can not, if injured, recover damages
from the master} nor can he recover such damages where the injury




EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE UNDER THE COMMON LAW.

107

results from an unexpected cause during the course of his employment;
nor where the injury is sustained in the performance of a service not
within the scope o f his duty, if his opportunity for observing the dan­
ger is equal to that of his employer; and where an employee volun­
tarily assumes a risk he thereby waives the provisions of a statute made
for his protection.




BUREAUS OF STATISTICS OF LABOR.

In Belgium the Office du Travail (Ministere de VIndustrie et du Tra­
vail) was established in 1895 at Brussels, the official head of the office
being entitled Chef1 A superior council of labor (conseil superieur du
travail), which made investigations and reports on matters relating to
labor, has been in existence since April 7,1892. November 12,1894, a
separate labor bureau, similar to the American and French type, was
created under the Department of Agriculture, Industry, and Public
Works. But in 1895 this department was separated into two depart­
ments, known as Department of Agriculture and Public Works, and
Department o f Industry and Labor, and the newly created labor
bureau was made a division under this latter department.
In France the Office du Travail (Ministere du Commerce, de VIndustrie,
des postes et des Telegraphes) was established July 21,1891, at Paris,
the official head of the office being entitled Directeur. The publications
of the bureau consist of special reports on particular subjects, of which
a number are issued each year, and since January 1,1894, a monthly
bulletin, Bulletin de VOffice du Travail.
In Germany the Kommission fu r Arbeiterstatistik was established
June 1,1891, at Berlin. This is a permanent commission which issues
special reports from time to time on particular questions and reports of
the minutes of its meetings. The material collected by it is compiled
by the Imperial Statistical Bureau.
In Great Britain the Labor Department o f the Board of Trade was
established in 1893 at London, the official head of the office being enti­
tled Commissioner. A service for the collection and publication of
statistics of labor has been in existence under the Board of Trade since
March 2,1886. In 1893 this service was greatly enlarged and given its
present name. Its reports, therefore, date from 1886-87, and consist of
annual reports of operations and statistical abstracts, annual reports on
strikes and lockouts, annual reports on trades unions, annual reports
on wages (contemplated), special reports, and, since May, 1893, a
monthly Labor Gazette.
In Switzerland the Secretariat Ouvrier Suisse was constituted Decem­
ber 20,1886, at Berne. The Secretariat is an officer o f the federation of
labor organizations, but is subsidized by the government, which directs
him to make certain reports. His publications consist of annual and
special reports.
108




BUREAUS OF STATISTICS OF LABOR.

109

In Ontario, Canada, a Bureau of Industries was organized under the
Commissioner of Agriculture, March 10,1882, the official head of the
Bureau being styled Secretary. Annual and occasional special reports
are issued.
In New Zealand a Bureau of Industries was created in 1892. In the
following year the designation of the bureau was changed to that of
Department of Labor. Its publications consist of annual reports and
a monthly journal commenced in March, 1893, under the title Journal
of Commerce and Labor, which after the issue of a few numbers was
changed to that of Journal of the Department of Labor.
We have been informed unofficially that an office for the collection
of labor statistics has recently been established in Spain.
The above statement is believed to include information concerning
all bureaus of foreign governments specially created for the collection
and publication of statistics relating to labor. It is not a statement,
however, of the extent to which foreign governments publish labor
statistics, as a great deal of valuable information on this subject is
contained in the publications of the central statistical bureaus or other
offices o f foreigu governments.




110

BULLETIN OP THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.
BUREAUS OF LABOR STATISTICS IN T H E U N IT ED STATES.

[In some instances there have been changes in the official titles of officers.
exist at present.]

State.

Missouri. . . . . . . . . __ ___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illinois...............................................................
California.................................. .....................
Wisconsin______ _______________. . . . . . . __
New Y o rk ..................................... .
M ir.higan______________________ . . . . . . . ___
Maryland____________________________ ___
Io w a ..... ............................................... . . . . . . .
United States.............................. .
TTansaa__________________________________
North Carolina.........
Ma.ippi_______________________________ ____
Minnesota............... ................ ........................
Colorado.......................................................
Rhode Island.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___
Nebraska____ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
West Virginia.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
North Dakota............................................
U ta h .............................................. J . ................
Tennessee.........................................................
Montana................ .......................... .
New Hampshire.........
W ashington......................................................

They are given as they

Official name of the office.

Bureau of Statistics of Labor________________ ____________
Bureau of Industrial Statistics__________________________
Bnrean of Labor Statistics______ _______ ________________
Bureau of Statistics of Labor____________________________
Bureau of Statistics of Labor and Industries____________
Bureau of Statistics__ _________________ _________________
Bureau of Labor Statistics and In sp e c tio n ......................
Bnrean of Labor Statistics_______________________________
Bureau of Labor Statistics................................. .......................
Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics_______________
Bnrean of Labor Statistics.......................................................
Bnrean of Labor and Industrial Statistics___________ ,
Bnrean of Industrial Statistics and Information
Bureau of Labor Statistics_______________________________
Department of Labor_________________________________
Bnrean of Labor and Industrial Statistics___________ TTT
Bureau of Labor Statistics.........................................................
Bnrean of Industrial and Labor Statistics. . .
Bureau of Labor Statistics.................. - ....................................
Bureau of Labor Statistics........... ..........................................
Bureau of Industrial Statistics______ ________________
Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics............................
Bureau of Labor..................................... ............................. .........
Department of Labor and Statistics........ ...................... .........
Bureau of Statistics...................................................................
Bureau of Labor Statistics and Mines...................................
Bureau of Agriculture, Labor, and Indnstry.........................
Bureau of Labor...........................................................................
Bureau of Statistics, Labor, Agriculture, and Immigration.

a From organization to May 11,1874, commissioner.
b Reestablished. A like bureau had been established July 12,1873, which, after making one report,
was abolished July 23, 1875.
c Reorganized. See preceding note.
d T o March 9, 1889, annual.
e This act created a bureau of labor statistics, and was repealed by an act approved March 23,1883,
which created a Bureau of Labor Statistics and Inspection.




BUREAUS OF STATISTICS OF LABOR.

Ill

B U R E A U S OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S I N T H E U N IT E D STATUES.
[In some instances there have been changes in the official titles of officers.
exist at present.]
Date of act of es­
tablishment.

Year of
organ­
ization.

June 23,1869.........
April 12,1872........
April 23,1885 (6)..
May 5,1877.............
March 2 7 ,1 8 7 8 ....
March 29,1879----May 19,1879(e) . . .
May 29,1879.........
March 3, 1883........
April 3, 1883.........
May 4, 1883...........
June 6,1883...........
March 27, 1 8 8 4 ....
April 3,1884.........
June 27,1884 ( / ) . . .
March 5,1885........
February 28,1887..
March 7,1887........
March 8,1887........
March 24,1887........
March 29,1887........
March 31,1887........
February 22,1889..
October 1,1889----March 13,1890........
March 23,1891........
February 17,1893..
March 30,1893........
March 19,1895........

1869
1872
C1885
1877
1878
1879
1879
1879
1883
1883
1883
1883
1884
1884
/ 1 885
1885
1887
1887
1887
1887
1887
1887
<*>
1889
(D
1891
1893
1893
<l)

Locality of the
office
(post-office).

Title of head of office.

B o ston ...............
Harrisburg........
Hartford.............
Columbus.........
Trenton.............
Indianapolis----Jefferson C ity..
S priii giield........
San Francisco...
Madison.............
Albany...............
Lansing.............
Baltimore...........
Des Moines........
Washington___
Topeka...............
Raleigh...............
Augusta.............
Saint Paul..........
Denver...............
Providence........
Lincoln...............
Charleston.........
Bismarck...........
Salt Lake C ity..
Nashville...........
Helena.................
Concord.............
Olympia.............

Chief.................................
Chief (a)............................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner \...............
Chief.................................
Chief.................................
Commissioner.................
Secretary ........................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Chief.................................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Commissioner.................
Deputy Commissioner (t)
Commissioner...................
Deputy Commissioner (j)
Commissioner...................
Commissioner...................
Territorial Statistician..
Commissioners.................
Commissioner...................
Commissioner...................
<*)

They are given as they

Issue of reports.

Annual.
Annual.
Annual.
Annual.
Annual.
Biennial, (d)
Annual.
Biennial.
Bienuial.
Biennial.
Annual.
Annual.
Biennial.
Biennial.
Annual and special. (g)
Annual.
Annual.
Annual.
Biennial. (h)
Biennial.
Annual.
Bienuial.
Annual.
Biennial.
Annual.
Annual.
Annual.
Annual.
(l)

/T h i s office was created June 27, 1884, under the title of Bureau of Labor and the Commissioner
appointed January 31, 1885. By an act passed June 13, 1888, the office yras established as the Depart­
ment of Labor.
g Also, bimonthly bulletins are to be published beginning with November, 1895*
h To April 24, 1889, annual.
i The secretary of state is ex officio commissioner.
j ^The governor is ex officio commissioner.
* First report issued December 1,1894.
I No report yet issued.