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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR

BULLETIN
OF THE

BUREAU OF LABOR




NO. 8 8 -M A Y , 1910
ISSUED EVERY OTHER MONTH

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1910




CONTENTS.
Cost of living of families of moderate incom e in Germany in 1907-8:
page.
Scope of investigation........................................................................................... 697-699
General summary of results................................................................................. 699-705
Income and expenditures of families, b y size of family and amount of
expenditure......................................................................................................... 705-722
Income, according to size of fam ily........................................................... 705-709
Expenditures, according to size of fam ily................................................ 709-715
Expenditures of families, classified b y amount of expenditure........... 715-722
Incom e and expenditures of families, according to size of locality............ 722-729
Incom e and expenditures, according to occupation of head of fam ily....... 730-749
Expenditures in families of wage-earners and families of salaried persons 750-763
Units of expenditure in normal families.......................................................... 764-775
Quantities of food consum ed............................................................................... 776-784
Consumption of alcohol........................................................................................ 784-789
Partial bibliography of studies on the cost of livin g...................................... 789-794
Trend of wages in Germany, 1898 to 1907:
In troduction ........................................................................................................... 795,796
M in in g ..................................................................................................................... 796-802
Building tra d e s..................................................................................................... 803-808
Metal-working industries...................................................................................
809
Printing trades............................................................................................. .......... 809,810
Transportation industries............................................................. ..................... 810-812
Wages and hours of labor in German woodworking industries in 1906 ............ 813-823
Wages and hours of labor in Austria, 1906 and 1907:
Summary...................................
824-826
Stone, earth, and clay industries..................................................................... 826-828
Metal-working and machine building industries.......................................... 828-830
Woodworking industries..................................................- ................................. 830, 831
Industry of leather, hides, e t c ............................ —---------------- ------------------ 831, 832
T extile in d u stry ................................................................................................... 833, 834
Clothing industry........ ........................................................................................ 835, 836
Paper industry....................................................................................................... 836-838
Food products in d u stry ...................................................................................... 838-840
Building trades..............................................................................- ..................... 840, 841
Transportation industries................................................................................... 841,842
Digest of recent reports of state bureaus of labor statistics:
Pennsylvania—Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs, Part
III, Industrial Statistics, 1908: Industrial accidents— General statis­
tics of manufactures and mining— Iron, steel, and tin-plate produc­
tion— Coal mining.............................................................................................. 843-845
Virginia—Twelfth Annual Report: Industrial Statistics............................... 846,847
Wisconsin— Thirteenth Biennial Report: Industrial accidents and em­
ployer’s liability—Manufacturing returns for 1906 and 1907— Free
employment offices—Labor conditions in the public utilities—Women
workers in the Milwaukee tanneries............................................................. 847-852




m

IV

CONTENTS,

Digest of recent foreign statistical publications:
page.
Belgium: Report on the municipal funds of Ghent for the relief of unem­
ploym ent.............................................................................................................. 853-858
Germany: Reports on condition of public service employees in the
principal German cities................................................................................... 858^867
Decisions of courts affecting labor:
Decisions under statute law ................................................................................. 868-892
Accident insurance— employer’s indemnity— employment in viola­
tion of the law as to age—employment of children endangering life
or lim b— construction of statute ( Unnewehr v. Standard Life and
Accident Insurance Co.)............................................................................. 868-871
Em ployer and employee— blacklisting—statement of cause of dis­
charge— constitutionality of statute (St. Louis Southwestern Ry.
Co. v. E ixon )............................................................................................... 871-873
Em ployers’ liability—actions—removal from state to federal courts—
joinder of employer and employee ( Jacobson v. Chicago, Rock
Island and Pacific Ry. Co.)....................................................................... 873. 874
Em ployers’ liability— employment of children—prohibited em ploy­
ment as bar to recovery—proximate cause— purposes of statute
(Moran v. Dickinson)................................................................................. 874,875
Em ployers’ liability—factory inspection law— violations—assump­
tion of risk— waiver of provisions of statutes ( Valjago v. Carnegie
Steel Co.)...................................................................................................... 875-877
Em ployers’ liability—negligence—rcomparative negligence— con­
struction of statute (Zeratsky v. Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul
Ry. C o.)........................................................................................................ 877-880
Em ployers’ liability—negligence of fellow-servant—joint liability
(Coalgate Co. v. Bross)............................................................................... 880,881
Em ployers’ liability—railroads—federal and state statutes (Dew­
berry v. Southern Ry. Co.).........................................................................
882
Employers’ liability—railroads—statute requiring headlights— vio­
lation (St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Ry. Co. v. W h ite)... 882,883
Employers’ liability—railway relief societies—receipt of benefits as
bar to action for damages— contracts made in another State (Hamil­
ton v. Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Ry. C o.).................................. 883,884
Em ployment of children—compensation—place of making contract
(Commonwealth v. Griffith)....................................................................... 884,885
Hours of labor— eight-hour day— violations— information ( United
States v. Breakwater C o.).......................................................................... 885, 886
Hours of labor— employment in mines—constitutionality of statute
(E x parte Martin)................................ ...................................................... 886,887
Inspection of bakeries—hours of labor—constitutionality of statute
(State v. Miksicek)....................................................................................... 887,888
Laundry regulations— location—restriction of employment— police
power (E x parte San Chung)................................................................... 888,889
Payment of wages— semi-monthly pay day— contracts waiving pro­
visions of statutes—regulation of corporations— constitutionality of
statute (Arkansas Stave Co. v. State)..................................................... 890-892
Decisions under common law ............................................................................. 892-906
Accident insurance— employers’ indemnity— scope of policy— ordi­
nary repairs (Home Mixture Guano Co. v. Ocean Accident <Sc Guar­
antee Corp.j Ltd.)........................................................................................ 892-894
Contracts for service—substantial performance—satisfaction of
employer (Handy v. Bliss)........................................................................ 895, 896




CONTENTS.
Decisions of courts affecting labor— Concluded.
Decisions under common law— Concluded.
Employer and employee—termination of relation—assumed risks
(Willmarth v. Cardoza)...............................................................................
Employers’ liability—incompetence of fellow-servant— evidence of
employer’ s knowledge ( Northern Pacific Ry. Co. v. Lundberg)----Employers’ liability— last clear chance (Herr v. St, Louis and San
Francisco Ry, C o.)......................................................................................
Employers’ liability— misrepresentation of age (.Lupher v. Atchison,
Topeka and Santa Fe Ry. C o . ) ...............................................................
Employment of children—injury—right of father to recover damages
(Braswell v. Garfield Cotton Oil Mill Co.)..............................................
Labor organizations— unincorporated associations—nature—em bez­
zlement b y officer (Rhode v. United States)..........................................
Negligence of fellow-servant— liability of one workman for injuries
to another (Brower v. Northern Pacific Ry. C o.)..................................
Railroad companies—postal clerks—status—liability for injuries
(Barker v. Chicago, Peoria and St. Louis Ry. C o . ) ..............................
Index to volume 20........................................................................................................




V
Page.

896,897
897-899
899
900, 901
901,902
902-904
904,905
905,906
907-920




BULLETIN
OF

BUREAU
No. 88.

THE

OF L A B O R .

WASHINGTON.

May,

1910.

COST OP LIVING OP FAM ILIES OP MODERATE INCOME IN GER­
MANY IN 1907-8.
SCOPE OF THE INVESTIGATION.

The Imperial Statistical Office of Germany recently published a
detailed study of the cost of living of 852 families of wage-earners
and salaried persons in Germany during 1907 and part of 1908. (°)
Because of the importance of the topic and the thoroughness of
its treatment, a statement of the results obtained in this investi­
gation is here given for the benefit of American readers.
Except in five cases, the 852 families included had incomes of not
more than 5,000 marks ($1,190), and the period covered by the
investigation was from January 1, 1907, to April 30, 1908. To
secure the data, the families included were given account books,
in which were to be entered the individual items of expenditure
as they were made, without any attempt at classification of kinds
of expenditure. These accounts were to be kept for a period of
twelve months, and were to be collected at the end of each month
by the statistical or other office in charge of the family’s accounts.
The classes of persons included were not restricted to workmen,
but included salaried persons, such as teachers, government officials,
officials in private employ, etc., selected on the basis of income.
The usual experience was met with of having a large number of
families undertake the keeping of accounts with a much smaller
number to finish out the year. Schedules were distributed in 30
cities, though not all of these were included in the final tabulation
of the schedules obtained.
« Erhebung von Wirtschaftsrechnungen minderbemittelter Familien im Deutsehen
Reiche. Sonderheft zum Reichs-Arbeitsblatte. Bearbeitet im Kaiserlichen Statistischen Amte, Abteilung fur Arbeiterstatistik. Berlin, 1909.
697




698

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The families included in the investigation were selected by the
various municipal statistical offices, with the aid of sick insurance
funds, workmen's associations, and similar organizations. Many
of the accounts used in the investigation were paid for, the rates
varying from 5 marks to 25 marks ($1.19 to $5.95) per set of accounts
for twelve months. As a result of the work undertaken, 960 com­
plete accounts, for one year, were finally collected, and of these
852 were included in the tabulation. The schedules excluded were
in part those in which the presence of income in kind prevented
a clear discussion of the relation of income and expenditure, in
part those of families which had received special pecuniary aid
(charitable relief, etc.), and in part of single persons not conducting
“ normal" households. The tabulation of the information obtained
was done in part by the Imperial Statistical Office and in part by
the various municipal statistical offices which cooperated in the
investigation.
Of the 852 families included in the study, 840 had married couples
as the heads of the family; in 8 cases the head of the family was a
widower, in 2 cases a widow, and in 2 cases adult sons. The total
number of persons included was 3,952 or an average of 4.64 persons
per household. This included the persons who received board and
lodging in the family, but not those who received only lodging. In
other words, there were 840 husbands, 840 wives, 8 widowers, 2
widows, and 2 sons as heads of families. There were 1,948 children
under 15 years of age, 174 children over 15 years of age, and
138 other persons. The number of children under 15 years of age
was 2.29 per family, while the number of children of all ages was 2.49
per family. The 138 other persons consisted of 12 male and 48 female
relatives, 50 female house servants, and 22 male and 6 female per­
sons not relatives who received board and lodging. No family had
more than one domestic servant, so that there were 50 families which
employed help of this kind; of the families employing servants, 24
were families of teachers, 24 of subordinate officials, and 1 of the
widow of a commercial employee; 1 servant was housekeeper for a
widower. For the whole Empire, the number of persons per household
in the year 1905 was 4.7, as compared with 4.6 in the present investiga­
tion of 1907-8. The composition of the families included in the investi­
gation is, however, somewhat different from the average family
shown by the census for the whole Empire; the census showed that
S.5 per cent of persons in the household consisted of nonrelated
persons, including 2.2 per cent of servants, while in the investiga­
tion only 3.5 per cent of the persons were nonrelated, including 1.2
per cent of servants. These variations are due principally to the
fact that the families included in this investigation did not include




699

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

the lodgers to whom rooms, etc., were sublet. The number of chil­
dren in the families included in the investigation is somewhat higher
than that of the average for the whole Empire, although this may be
due, in part, to the fact that foster children, etc., are classed in
the investigation with other children, while in the census they are
classified separately.GENERAL SUMMARY OF RESULTS.

As shown in the tables on pages 725 and 726, the total income of
the 852 families was $444,501.21, while the total expenditure was
$453,006.07, leaving a total deficit of $8,504.86. This general pres­
ence of a deficit is discussed at some length, because it would not dis­
appear if certain items classed for bookkeeping purposes as expendi­
tures, but which are really savings and which amount to $5,206.62,
were deducted. In fact, the households which show items of sav­
ings among the expenditures usually do not show a deficit, so that
by omitting the families with items marked “ savings” in their ex­
penditures, the sum of the deficit would be even greater. The sum
of all the deficits in the 439 families having deficits amounted to
$20,046.05, or an average of $45.66 per family having a deficit. On
the other hand, the sum of the surpluses was $11,541.19, distributed
among 406 families, or an average per household having a surplus
of $28.43.
The presence or absence of deficits in the 852 families grouped by
amount of total expenditures is shown in the following table:
NUMBER OF FAMILIES HAVING A SURPLUS OR DEFICIT, CLASSIFIED B Y TO TAL
F A M ILY E X P E N D IT U R E .

Classification of expenditure.

Under 1,200 M. ($285.60)...................................................................................
1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80).................................................................
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476).....................................................................
2,000 to 2,500 M. ($476 to $595)..........................................................................
2,500 to 3,000 M. ($595 to $714).........................................................................
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952).........................................................................
4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190).......................................................................
Over 5,000 M. ($1,190).......................................................................................

Number of families
Number
having—
of families
in each
class.
Surplus. Deficit.
13
171
234
190
103
102
34
5

9
91
119
93
43
38
11
2

4
79
114
97
60
59
23
3

It should be noted that the deficits occur more frequently in the
families having a higher grade of expenditure. The general presence
of deficits according to the accounts furnished has caused some
doubt as to the accuracy of the statements in the schedules, and the
general conclusion is that in many cases this apparent deficit is due
to the failure to make a complete return of the income. The present




700

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

report mentions the following as some of the omissions in the income
accounts: Workmen’s income from gratuities, tips, etc., the earn­
ings from housework of wives of men in salaried positions, and the
various small additions to the incomes of husbands which have not
been reported to the families, while gifts of food, etc., from relatives
and other persons are often likewise not included. Attention is also
called to the fact that in some instances municipal employees are
included in the investigation, and it is believed that such employees
did not care to have the officials of the municipal statistical offices
know the full extent of their outside incomes. Other sources of in­
come frequently not reported consist of loans, withdrawals from sav­
ings banks or other cooperative sources, income from the selling
of clothing and furniture, and the like. On the other hand, many
items of expenditure also have not been included, either consciously
or otherwise, though it may be said that counterbalancing these
items are often those which are accounted for, as arrears of rent,
articles obtained on credit, etc. Attention should, however, be called
to the fact that the larger the household budget, the more numerous
and more diversified will be the income and expenditure items, and
naturally omissions will occur more frequently. It is noteworthy
that the accounts of officials and teachers in many cases show only
the salary received and do not include any receipts from subsidiary
income or unusual income. Taken altogether, however, it is prob­
able that expenditures are reported more accurately than receipts,
and this fact probably accounts for at least a part of the deficit
shown by the accounts. It should be stated that in discussing the
household budgets of families of moderate incomes it is not unusual
for the actual consumption to exceed the income, the widespread
credit system of the country being the cause of the excess of expendi­
tures. In view of the fact that the expenditures of workmen’s
families must be carefully restricted in order to remain within the
income under normal circumstances, it is ea'sy to understand that
the unexpected stopping of income on account of unemployment,
sickness, etc., will at once disturb the whole balance of the budget.
For social reasons many expenditures are regarded by some of the
families as almost unavoidable, this being particularly the case with
families of officials and teachers, which show a larger number of
deficits and deficits of larger amounts than is the case with work­
men’s families.
For all of the 852 households the average income was $521.72, the
average expenditure was $531.70, and the average deficit was $9.98.
The average income of the 852 families included in the study was
received from the sources specified in the following table:




701

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

AV E R AG E INCOME P E R FAM ILY OF 852 FAMILIES, B Y SOURCE OF INCOME.

Source of income.

Principal earnings of husband.........................................................................
Subsidiary earnings of husband......................................................................
Earnings of wife................................................................................................
Contributions of children.................................................................................
Subletting..........................................................................................................
Miscellaneous cash income...............................................................................
Income in kind:
Owns home, or house free of rent.............................................................
Farm or garden..........................................................................................
Cattle keeping............................................................................................
Other returns..............................................................................................

Average income.
Number
of
families. Amount. Per cent
of total.
850
326
278
112
207
652

$429.67
12.16
14.34
8.76
10.49
41.63

82.4
2.3
2.7
1.7
2.0
8.0

40
75
31
22

2.91
.70
.59
.47

.6
.1
.1
.1

As shown by the preceding table, the principal earnings of the
husband form over 80 per cent of the family income. The average
income as given in the table is affected by the presence of large
amounts in the sources other than the income of the husbands, as, for
instance, of two widows whose accounts show no income under the
first of the items in the above table. Income of husbands from sub­
sidiary sources is shown in over one-third of the cases, while in less
than one-third of the families income from earnings of the wife is
shown. The term “ children,” as used in this table, includes children
under 15 years of age, and income has been received from them in
about one-eighth of the families. That this source of income is not
more frequent is explained by the presence of a large number of
families of salaried officials and of teachers among the households
included, but even among workmen’s families and those engaged
in the better-paid skilled trades families without income from earn­
ings of children predominate; in addition, a considerable number of
young married couples and of childless couples are included in the
list of families. It is also quite possible that the income from children’s
earnings has not been fully and completely reported. The income
from the subletting of rooms is perhaps concealed less frequently than
the subsidiary income from other sources. From this source about
one-fourth of the families derive part of their income. More than
three-fourths of the families reported income received from miscel­
laneous sources, the average of which, except earnings of husband, is
the highest of any source of income cited in the table. The items
included under this head consist of interest on capital, withdrawals
from savings, receipts in payment of loans, from articles sold, divi­
dends, etc., from cooperative societies, winnings in games and lot­
teries, benefits from trade-unions and other benefits, and the like.
They may be summed up as consisting mainly of increases of assets,
using up of property, loss of property, and the like.




702

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

For the 852 families the average expenditure, according to the
principal groups of expenditure, is shown in the following table:
A VERAG E E X PE N D ITU R E PER FAMILY OF 852 FAMILIES, B Y PRINCIPAL GROUPS
OF E XPE N D ITU R ES.
Expenditure for—

Amount. Per cent.

Foods and drinks................................................................................................................
Clothing, laundry, etc........................................................................................................
Dwelling (rent and maintenance of).................................................................................
Heating and lighting..........................................................................................................
Miscellaneous......................................................................................................................

$242.17
67.22
95.50
21.62
105.19

45.55
12.64
17.96
4.07
19.78

According to the preceding table, not far from one-half of the total
expenditures of the families included in the tabulation is required
for food, drinks, etc. This is the well-known ratio of expenditure
for this purpose in families of small means, and occurs in families of
this class in practically all countries. The following table gives the
per cent of the ratio of expenditure for various purposes shown by
six different investigations of families of small means made since
the year 1897 in Germany, Denmark, and the United States:
DISTRIBUTION OF EXPE N D ITU R ES, B Y PRINCIPAL GROUPS OF E XPEN DITU RES,
IN FAMILIES OF M ODERATE MEANS, AS SHOWN B Y SIX INVESTIGATIONS.
14 teach­
852 fami­ ers’ fami­ 908 fami­
lies in
lies in
lies in
Germany Ham­
Berlin in
in 1907-8. burg in 1903.(6)
1903.(o)

44 families in
Nuremberg in
1899.(0

50 fami­
lies in
Den­
mark in
1897. (d )

11,156
families
in the
United
States
in 1903.(0

Per cent of total expenditure per
family for—
Foods and drinks.....................
Clothing, laundry, etc............
Dwelling (rent and mainte­
nance o f)................................
Heating and lighting...............
Other expenditures..................

45.55
12.64

37.28
11.41

49.7
8.1

49.63 to 58.69
8.53

48.36
16.14

43.13
12.95

17.96
4.07
19.78

18.66 V
3.97
28.68

20.3 /
21.9 {

14.08 to 15.07

13.29
4.43
17.78

18.12
5.69
20.11

Amount of expenditure.................

1531.70

$369.48

$617.80

$788.71

$

$420.75 $178.58 to $522.32

« Haushaltungs-Rechnungen hamburgischer Volksschuliehrer. Hamburg, 1906.
6 Lohnermittelungen u. Haushaltrecnnungen der minderbemittelten Bevolkerung im Jahre, 1903.
(Berliner Statistik, herausgegeben vom Statistischen Amte der Stadt Berlin.)
c Haushaltungs-Rechnungen Niirnberger Arbeiter.
Bearbeitet im Arbeiter-Sekretariat Niirnberg
von A. Braun. Niirnberg, 1901.
d Danske Arbejderfamiliers Forbrug, 1. Afdeling: Byarbejdere, 2. Afdeling: Landarbejdere, Danmarks
Statistik, Statistfeke Meddelelser, 4. series, vol. 6, part 6, and vol. 11, part 2. Kopenhagen, 1900,1901.
« Cost of Living and Retail Prices of Food. Eighteenth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor.
Washington, 1904.
/ Not reported.

The per cents shown for the five other investigations cited are
strikingly similar to the per cents shown in the present investigation.
In all but one of the investigations the expenditure for house rent and
maintenance of the house ranks next to expenditure for food and
food products, the proportion being 17.96 per cent in the present
investigation. If to this item be added the related expenditures for
heat and light, consisting of about 4 per cent, the total expenditure



703

COST OF LIVING IN GEKMANY, 1907-8.

under this head will amount to approximately 22 per cent of all
expenditures. The item next in rank is that for clothing, linen,
laundry, cleaning, etc., which amounts to about 13 per cent of the
total. The items named of course are the necessaries of existence
and only after these needs have been supplied can other economic
needs be considered.
The items which compose the average of 45.5 per cent for food
products are of especial interest. The following table shows for the
852 families this average distributed among the various items of food :
A V ERAG E AMOUNT AND PE R CENT OF EXPEN DITU RES FOR FOOD, ETC., OF 852
FAMILIES.
Average expenditures.
Kind.

Meat (including ham, bacon, etc.) ........................................................................
Sausage..............................................................................................................
Fish (including smoked fish)...........................................................................
Butter................................................................................................................
Suet, margarine, etc..........................................................................................
Cheese................................................................................................................
Eggs...................................................................................................................
Potatoes.............................................................................................................
Green vegetables...............................................................................................
Salt, spices, oils.................................................................................................
Sugar, sirup, h o n e y .........................................................................................
Flour, rice, legumes, etc...................................................................................
Fruit..................................................................................................................
Bread and pastry..............................................................................................
Coffee and coffee substitutes...................................................................................
Tea, chocolate, cocoa........................................................................................
Milk ..............................................................................................................................
Other drinks at home:

Per cent Per cent
all ex­ of expend­
Amount. ofpendi­
itures
tures.
for food.
$45.36
14.00
3.79
21.37
9.16
3.97
7.47
7.90
6.24
2.29
6.31
7.07
7.01
39.31
6.29
2.12
24.40

8.5
2.7
.7
4.0
1.7
.8
1.4
1.5
1.2
.4
1.2
1.3
1.3
7.4
1.2
.4
4.6

18.7
5.8
1.6
8.8
3.8
1.6
3.1
3.3
2.6
.9
2.6
2.9
2.9
16.2
2.6
.9
10.1

Alnoholin.......................... ........... ......................................................................
Nonalcoholic................................ ......................................................................

7.89

Total..................................................................................................................

8.15

1.5

3.4

Other food products..................................................................................................
Cigars and tobacco ....................................................................................................

.61
4.92

.1
.9

.3
2.0

Expenditure in restaurants:
Meals.....................................................- .............................................................

Ainoholin drink.*?
............................_.................................... ..... ..........
Nonalnoholin drinks........ ..................................................................................
N ot specified_ _...................................................................................................

.26

4.38
8.37
1.28
.34

Total........................................................................................................

14.37

2.7

5.9

Total for foods and drinks......................................................................
Total expenditure................................................... ...............................

242.17
531.70

45.5
100.0

100.0

The most important item of expenditure for food products is that
for meat, the average for all families being $45.36, or if the item of
sausage be added to that for meat, which is $14, and that of fish,
which is $3.79, the total for meats and similar products would be
$63.15, or 26.1 per cent of all the expenditures for food. The next
item of importance is that of bread and baker’s wares, which take
16.2 per cent of the expenditure for food, and which is followed by
milk with 10.1 per cent, butter with 8.8 per cent, while expenditures



704

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

in restaurants take 5.9 per cent of food expenditures. These expend­
itures for food products may be summed up by stating that 53.5
per cent are for animal food products, 30.5 per cent are for vegetable
food products, while 16 per cent is an expenditure for miscellaneous
foods, including luxuries, such as tobacco, beverages, etc. If the
items of expenditure for alcoholic beverages, consisting principally
of beer, consumed at home and in restaurants, be added together,
the sum is found to.be 6.7 per cent of the expenditures for food and
3.1 per cent of the total expenditures for all purposes.
The group of miscellaneous expenditures, the total of which is
nearly 20 per cent of all expenditures of the 852 families, is
composed of the following items:
A V E RAG E AMOUNT AND PER CENT OF EXPE N D ITU R ES FOR MISCELLANEOUS
PURPOSES OF 852 FAMILIES.
Average expendi­
tures.
Item.

Health and physical care....................................................................................................
Education, school fees, etc.................................................................................................
Intellectual and social purposes.........................................................................................
State, commune, church, etc. (including taxes)..............................................................
Provident (insurance, relief funds, etc.)...........................................................................

Per cent
of all
Amount. expendi­
tures.

Personal service...................................................................................................................
Presents, gifts, e tc...............................................................................................................
Debts and interest..............................................................................................................
Trade and occupational expenses......................................................................................
Other cash expenditures.....................................................................................................
Expenditures in kind.........................................................................................................
Savings................................................................................................................................

$12.11
7.36
21.13
7.61
18.06
6.89
3.25
3.18
5.52
2.09
11.51
.37
6.11

2.28
1.38
3.97
1.43
3.40
1.30
.61
.60
1.04
.39
2.16
.07
1.15

Total miscellaneous..................................................................................................

105.19

19.78

Transportation............................................................................... .................................

The largest amount in the preceding table is that spent for intellec­
tual and social purposes, being almost 4 per cent of the total expend­
iture for all purposes; the average amount of this expenditure per
family is $21.13, which consists of $12.54 for newspapers, for books,
and for organizations, while $8.59 was expended for recreation.
The item of expenditure for provident purposes, including insurance,
as stated above, is lower than it is in reality, as many of the work­
men and others have had deductions made from their wages and
salaries under the compulsory insurance system, and the item as
given in the table includes only expenditure for voluntary insurance.
The item marked expenditures for health and similar purposes con­
sists principally of payments for physicians’ services, for medicines,
care for lying-in, etc. Because of the provision made by the com­
pulsory sick insurance funds, invalidity insurance institutes, and
accident insurance organizations under the compulsory insurance
system which relieve families of expenses under this head, the aver­



705

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

age of expenditures for this purpose is not high. The item of ex­
penditure for state, municipal, and church purposes, including taxes,
rates, etc., is small, which is in part explained by the fact that work­
men’s expenditures for legal purposes are usually for cases which
come before the industrial courts, where the cost to the workman is
but small. The expenditure for education, for school fees, and for
school supplies is 1.38 per cent of the total expenditure, though
here there is a marked distinction between expenditures of work­
men’s families and those of families of officials and salaried persons.
The expenditures of the workmen’s families for this purpose are but
0.6 per cent, while those for officials, teachers, and salaried persons
range from 1.2 to 2.4 per cent of the total expenditures for all
purposes.
The report shows for selected families fluctuations in income from
month to month; thus, for instance, one workman’s family shows
an income of 326.17 marks ($77.63) in March and 122.99 marks
($29.27) in January; another family had 170.97 marks ($40.69) in
June and 57.70 marks ($13.73) in April; still another family showed
356.56 marks ($84.86) in August and 117.36 marks ($27.93) in June.
The fluctuations in expenditure are not as great as in the case of
the income; thus, for instance, one family shows expenditures of
250.20 marks ($59.55) in October and 81.99 marks ($19.51) in July;
another family has 303.99 marks ($72.35) in August and 138.21
marks ($32.89) in February, etc.
INCOME AND EXPENDITURES OF FAM ILIES, B Y SIZE OF FAM ILY AND
AMOUNT OF EXPEN D ITU RE.
INCOME, ACCORDING TO SIZE OF FAM ILY.

Of the 852 families included in the investigation, the number of
families classified by the size of family, together with the average
income of each class, is shown in the following table:
CLASSIFICATION OF 852 FAMILIES, B Y SIZE OF FAMILY, W ITH AVERAG E INCOME OF
EACH CLASS.

Number of persons in the
family.

Number
of
families.

Average
annual
income.

Number of persons in the
family.

Number
of
families.

2..................................................
3..................................................
4..................................................
5..................................................
6..................................................

74
150
197
205
112

$492.28
480.10
502.36
530.84
583.19

7..............................................
8..............................................
9..............................................
10..............................................
11..............................................

C6
30
14
3
1

Average
annual
income.
$543.27
528.06
611.50
657.87
720.82

According to the preceding table, the general tendency is for larger
families to have larger incomes. The influence which the size of the
family exerts upon the income of the family is shown in a variety of
ways. Naturally the increase in the size of the family requires the



706

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

heads of the families to make greater exertions to seek new sources
of income to supply the increasing needs, while on the other hand the
increase in the size of the family occurs at the same time with the
increase in the age of the head of the family, and in the case of officials,
teachers, salaried persons, etc., the income tends to increase with
length of service in the position. In the case of workmen, also, up
to a certain point there is to be expected an increase in the wageearner’s income with advancing years. The greater needs of the
larger families tend to force the children to seek employment at an
earlier age, though the presence of a large number of children usually
indicates that the older children are of working age. To show the
influence of the size of the family upon the source of income the
' following table gives the income by sources according to the size of
the family:
A V E R AG E AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF INCOME FROM SPECIFIED SOURCES OF 852
FAMILIES, B Y SIZE OF FAMILY.
AMOUNT.
Income from Number of persons ofNumber
families Principal Subsid­
Contri­
in the family.
reporting. earnings iary earn­ Earnings bution
of
of hus­
ings of
of wife. children.
band.
husband.

Sub­
letting.

Other
cash
income.

$5.56
9.60
11.21
10.64
13.03
7.96
20.95
3.20
12.38

$26.68
27.30
37.28
45.23
67.50
52.57
36.87
39.15
29.11
16.66

$1.82
5.08
4.75
3.06
4.36
7.06
6.83
23.51

Income
in kind.

10................................
11................................

74
150
197
205
112
66
30
14
3
1

$429.49
414.92
418.85
435.84
454.20
432.44
412.00
464.61
490.05
451.64

$5.75
7.11
14.24
12.05
17.97
10.85
12.99
14.50
34.76
168.50

$22.98
12.90
12.73
15.17
16.48
11.33
9.83
2.36
14.86

2 to 4...........................
5 to 6..........................
Over 6........................

421
317
114

419.33
442.33
432.70

10.21
14.14
13.88

14.59
15.63
9.82

2.68
9.14
30.14

9.64
11.48
10.84

31.86
53.10
45.86

4.35
3.52
8.98

All families.......

852

429.67

12.16

14.34

8.76

10.49

41.63

4.66

1.1
2.0
2.2
2.0
2.2
1.5
4.0
.5
1.9

5.4
5.7
7.4
8.5
11.6
9.7
7.0
6.4
4.4
2.3

0.4
1.0
1.0
.5
.7
1.2
1.3
3.8

2..................................

C..................................
7..................................
8..................................

$3.19
3.30
8.85
9.65
21.06
28.58
64.17
76.71
60.21

23.80

PER CENT.
2..................................
3..................................
4..................................
5..................................
6..................................
7..................................
8..................................
9..................................
10................................
11................................

74
150
197
205
112
66
30
14
3
1

87.2
86.4
83.4
82.1
77.9
79.6
78.0
76.0
74.5
62.7

1.2
1.5
2.8
2.3
3.1
2.0
2.4
2.4
5.3
23.4

4.7
2.7
2.5
2.9
2.8
2.1
1.9
.4
2.2

2 to 4...........................
5 to 6...........................
Over 6........................

421
317
114

85.1
80.5
78.3

2.1
2.6
2.5

3.0
2.8
1.8

.5
1.7
5.5

1.9
2.1
2.0

6.5
9.7
8.3

.9
.6
1.6

All families.......

852

82.4

2.3

2.7

1.7

2.0

8.0

.9

0.7
.7
1.7
1.7
3.9
5.4
10.5
11.7
8.3

3.3

According to the preceding table, the income of the head of the
family is in general higher in the case of the larger families, this being



707

COST OF LIVING IN GEKMANY, 1907-8.

true both for the main and subsidiary sources of income. The income
of the wife, on the other hand, shows a tendency to decrease when the
number of children is large, this being partly due to the need for her
services in the care of the smaller children. On the other hand, the
income provided by the children shows a tendency to increase with
the larger number of children. The income from the subletting of
the dwelling fluctuates in an irregular manner. Miscellaneous cash
income tends to increase with the size of the family up to families with
6 persons, when it shows a tendency to decrease. The income received
from articles in kind shows a general tendency to increase with the
increase in the size of the family.
Throughout the report, the 852 families are classified by amount of
expenditure. In the following table these classes of expenditure are
shown, together with the average income of the families in each grade
of expenditure:
A VERAG E INCOME OF 852 FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y T O TAL FAM ILY E X P E N D ITU R E.

Classification of expenditure.

Average
income
Grade of Number
of
fami­
of fami­
expendi­ lies in
lies in
ture.
each
each class.
grade.

Under 1,200 M. ($285.60).................................................................................
1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80)................................................................
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476).....................................................................
2,000 to 2,500 M. ($476 to $595)..........................................................................
2,500 to 3,000 M. ($595 to $714).........................................................................
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952).........................................................................
4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190).......................................................................
Over 5,000 M. ($1,190).......................................................................................

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

13
171
234
190
103
102
34
5

$266.83
345.05
432.23
522.83
629.22
771.87
921.81
1,333.29

Under 2,000 M. ($476)......................................................................................
2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714).........................................................................
Over 3,000 M. ($714)..........................................................................................

1 to 3
4 to 5
6 to 8

418
293
141

391.42
560.23
827.93

In the preceding table and throughout the report the families
are classified rather by the amount of expenditure than by the
amount of income. This method of classification is followed prin­
cipally because expenditures have been more accurately reported
than income, and because as a matter of fact the income as herein
reported shows approximately the same classification of families as
the expenditures. The fact that some families show an excess of
expenditures over receipts indicates that a few have attempted to
live on a higher scale than was warranted by the income, but accord­
ing to the writers of the report practically none of the families have
lived greatly in excess of the standard which their income war­
ranted. In one case in the preceding table, that of the families of
the grade marked “ 7,” whose income is from 4,000 ($952) to 5,000
marks ($1,190), the average income was less than the expenditures,
47150— Bull. 88—10----- 2




708

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

but except for this one instance the average income of each group
was not far from the average amount of expenditure.
The following table gives the number of families in which the
sources of income of the kind specified appear, the families being
classified by grades of expenditure:
NUMBER OF FAMILIES IN WHICH THE SPECIFIED SOURCES OF INCOME A R E SHOW N,
CLASSIFIED B Y TO TAL FAM ILY E X P E N D IT U R E .
Number of families receiving an income from—

Classification of expenditure.

Income in kind, derived
Num­
from—
ber of
Sub­
Prin­
fami­
Con­
sidi­
lies cipal ary Earn- tribu­
Other
re­ earn- earntion Sub­
cash Owns
let­
port­
Farm Keep­ Other
of ting. in­ home
i n f ,D
o
f
in­
or has or
,
D
o?
ing.
wife. chil­
ing
come. house
hus­ hus­
dren.
gar­ of cat­ come
in
free den.
band. band.
tle. kind.
from
rent.

Under 1,200 M. ($285.60)................
1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80)
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476)..
2,000 to 2,500 M. ($476 to $595)....
2,500 to 3,000 M. ($595 to $714).......
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952)..
4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190)..
Over 5,000 M. ($1,190)....................

13
171
234
190
103
102
34
5

12
171
234
190
102
102
34
5

4
67
103
77
34
31

Under 2,000 M. ($476).....................
2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714)....
Over 3,000 M. ($714)......................

418
293
141

417
292
141

174
111
41

182
90
6

All families...........................

852

850

326

278

8

7
79
96
77
13
6

1
9
24
44
17
15
2

1

2
23
77
65
20
13
6
1

8
114
182
153
83
83
24
5

34
61
17

102
85
20

304
236
112

19
12

112

207

652

40

2

3

6

11
8
10
1

1
9

6
9
8
4

4
6
6
2
3

21
31
23

9
17

11
8

75

31

22

8
13
13
18
16

5

2

3

1

5

3

In the preceding table the husband has a subsidiary source of
income most frequently in the families with expenditures of 1,600
to 2,000 marks ($380.80 to $476) and 2,000 to 2,500 marks ($476
to $595), these families comprising approximately one-half of all the
households. The income from the wife’s earnings appears most fre­
quently in the case of families with the two lowest grades of income,
and, in fact, such income appears in over one-half of the families in the
lowest class, while in the two highest grades of expenditure the income
from this source does not appear. The income from the earnings of
children is less frequent in the families with the lowest grade of
expenditure and most frequent where the expenditures are from
2,000 to 2,500 marks ($476 to $595); in the highest grade such
income appears either not at all or only seldom. The income from
subletting occurs most frequently in the case of expenditures of from
1,600 to 2,000 and 2,000 to 2,500 marks ($380.80 to $595), and in
the last-named grade occurs in over one-third of the families in that
class.
The amount of income derived from sources specified for families
with varying degrees of expenditures is shown in the following table:




709

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,

A V ERAG E AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF INCOME FROM SPECIFIED SOURCES OF 852
FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y T O T A L F A M ILY E X P E N D IT U R E .
AMOUNT.
Income from—
Num­
ber of Princi­ Sub­
fami­
Con­
pal
sidiary Earn­ tribu­
lies
earn­
earn­ ings of tion of Sub­
report­ ings
of ings of wife.
chil­ letting.
ing.
hus­
hus­
dren.
band. band.

Classification of expenditure.

Under 1,200 M. ($285.60).....................
1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80)...
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476)........
2,000 to 2,500 M. ($476 to $595)............
2,500 to 3,000 M. ($595 to $714)............
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952)............
4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190).........
Over 5,000 M. ($1,190)..........................

13 $220.99
171 304.94
234 363.39
190 420.15
103 509.31
102 629,43
34 752.33
5 792.28

Under 2,000 M. ($476)..........................
2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714)............
Over 3,000 M. ($714).............................

418
293
141

Total...........................................

852

Under 1,200 M. ($285.60)......................
1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80)...
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476)........
2,000 to 2,500 M. ($476 to $595)............
2,500 to 3,000 M. ($595 to $714)............
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952)............
4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190).........
Over 5,000 M. ($1,190)..........................

13
171
234
190
103
102
34
5

82.8
88.4
84.1
80.4
80.9
81.5
81.6
59.4

Under 2,000 M. ($476)..........................
2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714)............
Over 3,000 M. ($714).............................

418
293
141

Total...........................................

852

Other
cash
in­
come.

Income
in
kind.

$1.31
5.24
11.81
9.84
16.55
18.07
18.06
130.93

$30.03
13.88
11.96
22.86
13.90
8.63

$0.20
1.94
3.39
12.35
16.96
19.71
6.75

$1.97
2.01
13.09
15.69
12.87
7.46
7.38
37.41

$11.95
15.34
26.59
35.77
52.26
77.82
134.48
356.44

$0.38
1.70
2.01
6.17
7.36
10.75
2.81
16.23

335.05
451.50
664.84

8.79
12.20
22.07

13.31
19.71
6.25

2.70
13.97
15.89

8.21
14.70
8.50

21.53
41.57
101.37

1.83
6.59
9.03

429.67

12.16

14.34

8.76

10.49

41.63

4.66

0.5
1.5
2.7
1.9
2.6
2.3
1.9
9.8

11.3
4.0
2.8
4.4
2.2
1.1

0.1
.6
.8
2.4
2.7
2.6
.7

0.7
.6
3.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
.8
2.8

4.5
4.4
6.2
6.8
8.3
10.1
14.6
26.7

0.1
.5
.4
1.1
1.3
1.4
.4
1.3

85.6
80.6
80.3

2.3
2.2
2.7

3.4
3.5
.8

.7
2.5
1.9

2.1
2.6
1.0

5.5
7.4
12.2

.4
1.2
1.1

82.4

2.3

2.7

1.7

2.0

8.0

.9

PER CENT.

EXPENDITURES, ACCORDING TO SIZE OF FAMILY.

The average expenditure per family of the 852 families included
in the study was $531.70, distributed among the following items:
F ood.................................................................................................................................. $242.17
Clothing............................................................................................................................
67. 22
Dwelling...........................................................................................................................
95.50
Heating and lighting.....................................................................................................
21. 62
Miscellaneous.................................................................................................................. 105.19

Classified according to the size of the family, the average amount
of expenditure in each family is shown in the following table:
A V E R A G E E XPE N D IT U R E OF 852 FAMILIES, B Y SIZE OF FAMILY.
Expenditure per
family.

Expenditure per
family.
Number of persons in the
family.

2..................................................
3..................................................
4..................................................
5..................................................
6..................................................




Number of persons in the
family.

Number
of fam­
ilies.

Average
amount.

74
150
197
205
112

$490.51
483.58
507.43
539.28
600.75

7................................................
8................................................
9................................................
10..............................................
11..............................................

Number
of fainlies.
66
30
14
3
1

Average
amount.

$570.40
555.78
668.65
654.45
727.30

710

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

In general the expenditures of the family increase with the size of
the family, and on the whole the tendencies correspond with those
mentioned on pages 705 to 707 regarding income. The purposes for
which these expenditures are made are shown in the following table,
giving the amount and the percentage of income expended for each
purpose, the families being classified by size:
A V E R AG E AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF E X P E N D ITU R ES FOR SPECIFIED PURPOSES
OF 852 FAMILIES, B Y SIZE OF FAM ILY.
AMOUNT.

Expenditure for—

74 fami­ 150 fam­
lies of 2 ilies of 3
persons persons
each.
each.

197 fam­ 205 fam­ 112 fam­
ilies of 4 ilies of 5 ilies of 6
persons persons persons
each.
each.
each.

66 fami­
lies of 7
persons
each.

30 fami­
lies of 8
persons
each.

14 fami­ 3 fami­
lies of 9 lies of 10 Allfampersons persons ilies.(o)
each.
each.

Foods, drinks, etc... $198.98 $213.31 $226.89 $252.43 $268.82 $277.12 $281.52 $340.52 $380.84
Clothing, laundry,
55.80
79.92
etc..* ..................... 59.26
64.06
76.48
70.88 104.91
68.01
79.28
Dwelling (rent and
94.10
84.62
maintenance o f).. 101.84
96.07
94.41 100.99
92.36
85.58
88.06
21.06
Heating, lighting___ 19.66
20.15
24.31
23.78
21.00
21.68
22.51
22.85
94.02 112.31
All other................... 110.77
98.25 101.32 102.75 126.71 101.93
88.71
Total............... 490.51

483.58

507.43

539.28

600.75

570.40

555.78

$242.17
67.22
95.50
21..62
105.10

668.65

654.45

531.70

45.5

PER CENT.
Food, drink, etc.......
Clothing, laundry,
etc..........................
Dwelling (rent and
maintenance o f ) . .
Heating, lighting___
All other...................

40.6

44.1

44.7

46.8

44.7

48.6

50.7

50.9

58.2

12.1

11.5

12.6

12.6

13.3

13.4

12.7

15.7

12.1

12.6

20.8
4.0
22.5

19.9
4.2
20.3

18.5
4.2
20.0

17.5
4.0
19.1

16.8
4.0
21.2

16.2
3.9
17.9

15.4
4.3
16.9

13.2
3.4
16.8

12.9
3.2
13.6

18.0
4.1
19.8

a Including 1 family of 11 persons.

The expenditures for foods, etc., increase regularly with the size
of the family, though the amount of the increase is not exactly
proportionate to the increase in the size of the family. The expend­
itures for clothing, however, do not increase as rapidly as the number
of persons in the family, nor as regularly as in the case of expenditures
for food. The expenditures for dwelling, which form one of the
most elastic items in the budget, show, on the contrary, a tend­
ency to decrease with the increase in the size of families. The effect
of the size of a family on the several items of expenditure is shown
in the following summary table, in which the families are classed
by the number of persons in the family:




COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, lOOT-S.

711

A V E R A G E AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF EXPE N D ITU R E FOR SPECIFIED PURPOSES
OF 852 FAMILIES, BY FAM ILY GROUPS.
Average expenditure per family
for—

Expenditure for—

421 fami­ 317 fami­
lies of 2 lies of 5
or 6
to 4
persons persons
each.
each.

Per cent of expenditure for—

114 fami­ 852 fami­ 421 fami­ 317 fami­ 114 fami­
lies of lies of 2 lies of 2
of 852 fami­
lies of 5 lies
lies of 2
more
more
to ll
to 4
or 6
to 11
than 6
than
6
persons
persons
persons
persons
persons each.
persons
each.
each.
each.
each.
each.

Foods, drinks, etc................... $217.15
Clothing, laundry, etc............
60.27
Dwelling (rent and mainte­
96.16
nance of)...............................
20.49
Heating, lighting....................
All other.................................. 101.89

$258.22
72.22

$289.95
78.97

$242.17
67.22

43.8
12.2

46.0
12.9

49.8
13.6

45.5
12.6

96.73
22.61
111.21

89.64
23.03
100.61

95.50
21.62
105.19

19.4
4.1
20.5

17.2
4.0
19.9

15.4
4.0
17.2

18.0
4.1
19.8

495.96

560.99

582.20

531.70

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Total..............................

The increase in the size of the family is accompanied by a more
rapid increase in the amount expended for food than in the total
amount of all expenditures, so that in the case of families with two
persons the expenditures for food are approximately 40 per cent, and
in the case of the families of the largest size, but not including those
with ten persons, the expenditures for food are about 50 per cent of
the total expenditures.
The expenditures for foods according to the number of persons in
the family is shown in the following table:
AVE R AG E AMOUNT AND PE R CENT OF E XPEN DITU RE FOR FOOD OF 851 FAMI­
LIES (a), B Y SIZE OF FAMILY.
AMOUNT.

Item.

74 fam­ 150 fam­ 197 fam­ 205 fam­ 112 fam­
ilies of ilies of ilies of ilies of ilies of
2 per­ 3 per­ 4 per­ 5 per­ 6 per­
sons
sons
sons
sons
sons
each.
each.
each.
each.
each.

66 fam­ 30 fam­ 14 fam­ 3 fam­
ilies of ilies of ilies of ilies of
7 per­ 8 per­ 9 per­ 10 per­
sons
sons
sons
sons
each.
each.
each.
each.

Meat (including ham, bacon,
etc.)..................................... $38.02 $42.14
12.89
Sausage................................... 12.36
3.43
Fish (including smoked fish)
3.80
18.12
Butter..................................... 18.83
3.92
6.09
Suet, margarine, e tc..............
Cheese.....................................
3. 54
3.87
7.28
Eggs........................................
6.28
Potatoes..................................
6.39
5.07
Green vegetables...................
6.06
6.13
2.03
Salt, spices, oil.......................
1.45
4.52
4.66
Sugar, sirup, honey...............
4.21
Flour, rice, legumes, etc.......
5.57
Fruit.......................................
6.40
7.75
Bread and pastry................... 21.94
28.10
Coflee and coffee substitutes.
5.59
5.29
2.12
1.96
Tea, chocolate, cocoa.............
22.23
Milk........................................
16.09
9.12
Other drinks at home............
8.17
Other food products..............
.49
.40
5.04
Cigars and tobacco...............
6.85
15.87
Expenditures in restaurants. 22.22

$44.53
14.21
3.72
18.87
8.07
3.75
7.55
6.89
5.81
2.03
5.79
6.65
6.64
34.12
5.69
2.01
24.12
8.03
.53
4.74
13.14

$46.58 $48.56
14.54
14.88
3.68
4.08
22.22
25.49
9.71
11.60
4.20
4.15
8.21
7.69
8.23
9.75
6.58
6.66
2.37
2.73
6.95
6.90
7.44
8.61
7.67 . 7.47
40.68
48.83
6.54
7.09
2.22
2.18
26.25
27.51
8.68
7.38
.60
.43
4.90
4.58
14.18
12.25

$49.56
14.49
3.67
25.16
12.78
3.92
6.81
10.46
6.03
3.14
8.25
8.47
6.32
58.67
7.51
2.14
27.03
7.49
.76
4.39
10.06

$44.69
14.51
4.21
26.37
17.28
3.91
5.40
10.83
6.31
3.04
7.94
10.74
6.32
62.50
6.98
2.33
25.21
5.76
.60
3.22
13.38

$61.88
12.37
7.13
27.52
16.95
5.03
9.32
13.79
6.24
2.52
14.02
11.47
6.13
75.17
8.74
2.94
31.67
5.92
5.30
4.97
11.44

$63.33
21.16
7.10
42.93
17.80
7.82
6.41
10.23
8.03
3.59
7.59
7.40
7.19
72.98
9.16
.99
31.16
8.87
.43
5.67
41.00

Animal foods.......................... 102.84
Vegetable foods...................... 49.55
Other foods and drinks......... 46.59

116.05
57.25
40.01

124.82
65.90
36.17

135.39
77.55
39.49

143.96
88.22
36.64

143.42
98.20
35.49

141.58
104.63
35.31

171.87
126.82
41.83

197.71
113.42
69.71

All expenditure for
foods.......................... 198.98
Total expenditure....... 490.51

213.31
483.58

226.89
507.43

252.43
539.28

268.82
600.75

277.11
570.40

281.52
555.78

340.52
668.65

380.84
654.45




a One family of 11 persons is not included.

712

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

AVE R AG E AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF E X PE N D ITU R E FOR FOOD OF 851 FAMI­
LIES ( a ), B Y SIZE OF FAM ILY—Concluded.
P ER CE N T OF TO T A L EXPENDITURES.

Item.

74 fam­ 150 fam­ 197 fam­ 205 fam­ 112 fam­
ilies of ilies of ilies of ilies of ilies of
2 per­ 3 per­ 4 per­ 5 per­ 6 per­
sons
sons
sons
sons
sons
each.
each.
each.
each.
each.

66 fam­ 30 fam­ 14 fam­ 3 fam­
ilies of ilies of ilies of ilies of
7 per­ 8 per­ 9 per­ 10 per­
sons
sons
sons
sons
each.
each.
each.
each.

Meat (including ham, bacon,
etc.).....................................
Sausage...................................
Fish (including smoked fish).
Butter....................................
Suet, margarine, etc..............
Cheese.....................................
Eggs........................................
Potatoes.................................
Green vegetables...................
Salt, spices, oil.......................
Sugar, sirup, h on ey..............
Flour, rice, legumes, etc........
Fruit.......................................
Bread and pastry..................
Coffee and coffee substitutes.
Tea, chocolate, cocoa.............
Milk........................................
Other drinks at home............
Other food products..............
Cigars and tobacco................
Expenditures in restaurants.

7.8
2.5
.8
3.8
.8
.7
1.3
1.0
1.2
.3
.9
.9
1.6
4.5
1.1
.4
3.3
1.7
.1
1.4
4.5

8.7
2.7
.7
3.7
1.3
.8
1.5
1.3
1.3
.4
1.0
1.1
1.3
5.8
1.2
.4
4.6
1.9
.1
1.0
3.3

8.8
2.8
.7
3.7
1.6
.7
1.5
1.4
1.2
.4
1.1
1.3
1.3
6.7
1.1
.4
4.8
1.6
.1
.9
2.6

8.7
2.7
.7
4.1
1.8
.8
1.5
1.5
1.2
.4
1.3
1.4
1.4
7.6
1.2
.4
4.9
1.6
.1
.9
2.6

8.1
2.5
.7
4.2
1.9
.7
1.3
1.6
1.1
.5
1.1
1.4
1.2
8.1
1.2
.4
4.6
1.2
.1
.8
2.0

8.7
2.5
.6
4.4
2.2
.7
1.2
1.8
1.1
.6
1.5
1.5
1.1
10.3
1.3
.4
4.7
1.3
.1
.8
1.8

8.0
2.6
.8
4.8
3.1
.7
1.0
2.0
1.1
.6
1.4
1.9
1.1
11.3
1.3
.4
4.5
1.0
.1
.6
2.4

9.3
1.9
1.1
4.1
2.5
.8
1.4
2.1
.9
.4
2.1
1.7
.9
11.2
1.3
.4
4.7
.9
.8
.7
1.7

9.7
3.2
1.1
6.6
2.7
1.2
1.0
1.6
1.2
.5
1.2
1.1
1.1
11.1
1.4
.1
4.8
1.3
.1
.9
6.3

Animal foods..........................
Vegetable foods......................
Other foods and drinks.........

21.0
10.1
9.5

24.0
11.8
8.3

24.6
13.0
7.1

25.2
14.4
7.2

24.0
14.5
6.2

25.0
17.3
6.3

25.5
18.8
6.4

25.8
18.9
6.2

30.3
17.3
10.6

Expenditure for foods...........

40. C

44.1

44.7

46.8

44.7

48.6

50.7

50.9

58.2

a

One family of 11 persons is not included.

In the preceding table the most important items of expenditure
are those for meat and for bread, and it is especially noticeable in the
preceding groups that in the case of the larger families the per cent
expended for bread, etc., is larger than that expended for meat, while
in the case of the smaller familes the contrary is true. On the whole,
however, the proportion expended for animal foods increases with the
size of the family, and the same is true for vegetable foods.
In the following table the average amount expended for clothing,
etc., by size of family, is given for three classes of families.
A V E R A G E EXPE N D ITU R ES FOR CLOTHING, L A U N D R Y , ETC., OF 852 FAMILIES, BY
FAMILY GROUPS.
Average expenditure per family
of—
ibvm.
2 to 4 5 or 6 Over 6
All
persons. persons. persons. families.
Clothing...............................................................................................
$47.94
Linen (including bed linen).........................................................................
5.54
Laundry and cleaning of clothing and linen..............................................
6.79
Total ..................................................................................................




60.27

$58.40
6.18
7.64

$65.54
5.97
7.46

$54.18
5.84
7.19

72.22

78.97

67.22

713

COST OP LIVING IN GEBMANY, 1907-8.

In spite of the increased need for additional clothing, linen, etc., of
the larger families, the amount of the increase as shown in the pre­
ceding table is but small, and similarly the increases in expenditures
for laundry, cleaning, etc., show but slight increases in the larger
families as compared with the smaller families.
The expenditures for miscellaneous purposes are shown in the
following table for 852 families, classified into three groups.
A V E R A G E AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF EXPE N DITU R ES FOR MISCELLANEOUS PUR­
POSES OF 852 FAMILIES, B Y FAM ILY GROUPS.
Average amount per
family.

Per cent of total ex­
penditures.

421
114
421
317
317
114
fami­
fami­
fami­
fami­
fami­
fami­
lies of lies of lies of lies of lies of lies of
2 to 4 5 or 6 over 6 2 to 4 5 or 6 over 6
persons persons persons persons persons persons
each.
each.
each.
each.
each.
each.

Item.

Health and physical care..
Education, school fees, etc.
Intellectual and social purp
State, commune, church, etg. v^ iu u m {
Provident (insurance, relief funds, etc.)
Transportation................................
Personal service..............................
Presents, gifts, etc..........................
Debts and interest..........................
Trade and occupational expenses.
Other cash expenditures................
Expenditures in kind....................
Savings............................................
a

$12.87
4.18
22.45
7.50
17.66
7.49
2.71
3.22
4.17
1.49
11.43
.13
6.57

$11.80
9.87
20.29
8.07
19.33
6.78
3.98
3.27
6.81
3.23
11.32
.36
6.09

$10.14
12.14
18.59
6.72
16.00
4.95
3.23
2.70
6.90
1.12
12.35
1.31
4.46

2.6
.8
4.5
1.5
3.6
1.5
.6
.7
.8
.3
2.3
(a)
1.3

2.1
1.8
3.6
1.4
3.5
1.2
.7
.6
1.2
.6
2.0
.1
1.1

1.7
2.1
3.2
1.1
2.7
.8
.6
.5
1.2
.2
2.1
.2
.8

Less than 0.1 per cent.

In the preceding table the most important item is that of expendi­
tures for health and for physical care, this item including physician’s
services, medicines, etc., baths, and similar purposes. It shows a regu­
lar decrease in the actual amounts and in the proportional amounts
with the increase in the size of the family. The item of expenditures
for education, school fees, school supplies, etc., naturally increases
with the size of the family, both as to the actual amounts expended
and the per cent of total expenditures. As was to be expected, the
amount expended for intellectual and social purposes decreases as
the size of the family increases. The two items of expenditure for
state, commune, etc., and for insurance, relief funds, etc., both in­
crease from the smaller families "up to the families with six persons,
but are smaller for families with more than six persons. The expendi­
tures for payment of debts and for payment of interest show a tend­
ency to increase with the size of the family, as the larger families
would be expected to incur debts more frequently than the smaller.
In the preceding table the data relating to expenditures for miscel­
laneous purposes are given for families classed into three groups.
In the following table the same averages are given for families classed
into nine groups.



714

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

AV E R AG E AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF E X PE N D ITU R ES FOR MISCELLANEOUS P U R ­
POSES OF 851 FAMILIES, (a) B Y SIZE OF FAM ILY.
AMOUNT.
74
fami­
lies of
2 per­
sons
each.

150
fami­
lies of
3 per­
sons
each.

197
fami­
lies of
4 per­
sons
each.

205
fami­
lies of
5 per­
sons
each.

112
fami­
lies of
6 per­
sons
each.

66
fami­
lies of
7 per­
sons
each.

30
fami­
lies of
8 per­
sons
each.

14
fami­
lies of
9 per­
sons
each.

Health and physical care...... $15.65
Education, school fees, e t c ...
1.57
Intellectual and social pur­
poses.................................... 26.87
State, commune, church,
etc. (including taxes).........
7.73
Provident (insurance, relief
funds, etc.).......................... 14.02
Transportation......................
10.92
Personal service.....................
3.76
Presents, gifts, etc.................
3.72
Debts and interest.................
4.14
Trade and occupational ex­
penses..................................
2.00
Other cash expenditures....... 11.82
Expenditures in kind............
.23
Savings...................................
8.36

$11.64
3.70

$12.75
5.52

$11.20
6.92

$12.91
15.25

$9.54
13.65

$12.10
10.68

$10.50
10.87

$3.98
3.29

20.88

21.98

20.38

20.13

18.28

18.12

19.29

26.94

7.40

7.50

7.71

8.73

6.47

6.30

8.69

8.90

17.79
7.27
2.74
3.83
3.69

18.94
6.38
2.29
2.58
4.56

18.34
6.72
3.90
3.32
3.98

21.14
6.90
4.14
3.18
12.00

15.93
4.47
3.51
2.83
8.21

15.51
4.19
2.67
2.09
3.99

18.99
7.83
3.85
2.48
8.95

10.76
8.86
.21
6.84

1.10
11.03
.06
7.12

1.59
11.59
.14
5.49

2.63
11.33
.29
6.04

4.34
11.29
.49
6.19

.84
12.39
1.06
4.75

1.93
10.64
2.31
3.50

.23
17.03
.68
2.92

1.70
7.71
9.52

Item.

3
fami­
lies of
10 per­
sons
each.

PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES.
Health and physical care___
Education, school fees, e t c ...
Intellectual and social purState, commune, church, etc.
(including ta x e s)..............
Provident (insurance, relief
funds, etc)...........................
Transportation......................
Personal service.....................
Presents, gifts, etc.................
Debts and interest.................
Trade and occupational ex­
penses........................... .
Other cash expenditures..
Expenditures in kind___
Savings..............................

3.2
.3

2.5
.8

2.5
1.1

2.1
1.3

2.2
2.5

1.7
2.4

2.2
1.9

1.6
1.6

0.6
.5

5.5

4.3

4.3

3.8

3.4

3.2

3.3

2.9

4.1

1.6

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.5

1.1

1.1

1.3

1.4

2.9
2.2
.8
.7
.8

3.7
1.5
.5
.8
.7

3.7
1.3
.5
.5
.9

3.4
1.3
.7
.6
.7

3.5
1.2
.7
.5
2.0

2.8
.8
.6
.5
1.4

2.8
.8
.5
.4
.7

2.8
1.2
.6
.4
1.3

1.6
1.4
(&)
1.0

.4
2.4
(»)
1.7

.2
2.3
(6)
1.5

.3
2.3
(*)
1.1

.5
2.1
.1
1.1

.7
1.9
.1
1.0

.2
2.2
.2
.8

.3
1.9
.4
.6

(&)
2.6
.1
.4

.3
1.2

a One family of 11 persons not included.

1.5

&Less than 0.1 per cent.

In the following table the per capita expenditures for the principal
purposes are shown according to the size of the family:




715

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,

E X PE N D ITU R ES P E R CAPITA FOR PRINCIPAL ITEMS OF E X PE N D ITU R E OF 852
FAMILIES, BY SIZE OF FAM ILY.
Per capita expenditure for—
Number of persons in family.
Food.

Dwelling Heating
and
Other
Total
Clothing. (rent
and
mainte­
expenses. expenses.
nance of). lighting.

2 persons........................................................
3 persons........................................................
4 persons........................................................
5 persons........................................................
6 persons........................................................
7 persons........................................................
8 persons........................................................
9 persons........................................................
10 persons......................................................
11 persons......................................................

$99.49
71.10
56.72
50.49
44.80
39.59
35.19
37.83
38.09
37.24

$29.63
18.60
16.02
13.60
13.32
10.93
8.86
11.66
7.93
11.05

$50.92
32.02
23.52
18.88
16.83
13.19
10.70
9.78
8.46
6.25

$9.83
6.72
5.26
4.34
4.05
3.21
2.97
2.54
2.10
3.96

$55.38
32.75
25.33
20.55
21.12
14.56
11.75
12.48
8.87
7.62

$245.25
161.19
126.85
107.86
100.12
81.48
69.47
74.29
65.45
66.12

2 to 4 persons................................................
5 or 6 persons................................................
Over 6 persons..............................................

65.96
48.24
38.04

18.31
13.49
10.36

29.21
18.07
11.76

6.22
4.22
3.02

30.95
20.77
13.20

150.65
104.79
76.38

All families..........................................

52.21

14.49

20.59

4.66

22.68

114.63

In the preceding table the last column shows that for all of the 852
families the per capita expenditure for all purposes was $114.63.
There is, of course, a tendency to a gradual decrease in the amount
expended per capita in the larger families, though this does not hold
true in the case of the very large families.
EXPENDITURES OF FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED BY AMOUNT OF EXPENDITURE.

The objects for which the family income is expended, according to
the amount of income of the family, is given special consideration in
the report. The following table gives the classification used in group­
ing the families by amount of expenditure, together with tho average
expenditure of the families in each class:
A VERAG E

E XPE N D ITU R ES

OF 852 FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED
E XPE N D ITU R E.

BY

Classification of expenditure.

Under 1,200 M. ($285.60).....................................................................................................
1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80)..................................................................................
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476).......................................................................................
2,000 to 2,500 M. ($476 to $595)...........................................................................................
2,500 to 3,000 M. ($595 to $714)................................................... .......................................
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952)...........................................................................................
4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190).........................................................................................
Over 5,000 M. ($1,190).........................................................................................................

TO TAL

FAM ILY

Number Average
of
families expendi­
per
in each ture
family.
group.
13
171
234
190
103
102
34
5

$255.65
342.07
428.86
526.64
645.85
805.96
1,031.19
1,396.69

Classified into the five principal groups of expenditure, the average
amounts expended by the families as grouped in the preceding table
are shown in the following table both for the amounts and for the
percentage distribution of the total expenditures.




716

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

AV E R AG E AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF E X PE N D ITU R ES FOR SPECIFIED PURPOSES,
OF 852 FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y T O T A L FAM ILY E X P E N D ITU R E.
AMOUNT.

Items.

13 fami­
lies ex­
pending
under
1,200 M.
(1285.60).

171 fami­ 234 fami­ 190 fami­ 103 fami­ 102 fami­
lies ex­ lies ex­ lies ex­ lies ex­ lies ex­
pending pending pending pending pending
1,200 to 1,600 to 2,000 to 2,500 to 3.000 to
1,600 M. 2,000 M. 2,500 M. 3,000 M. 4.000 M.
($285.60 ($380.80 ($476
($595
($714
to
to
to
to
to
$380.80). $476).
$595).
$714).
$952).

34 fami­
lies ex­
pending
4.000 to
5.000 M.
($952
to
$1,190).

5 fami­
lies ex­
All
pending fami­
over
5,000 M lies.
($1,190).

Foods and drinks—
Clothing, laundry,
e t c ..........................
Dwelling (rent and
maintenance o f) ...
Heating and lighting.
Miscellaneous e x ­
penditures.............

$138.64

$186.71

$218.53

$253.21

$275.60

$307.17

$338.70

23.50

32.44

49.37

66.39

92.23

113.26

151.77

208.33

67.22

51.00
15.83

58.90
16.62

77.01
19.10

92.62
20.94

116.54
25.42

149.17
29.44

198.78
32.00

207.52
42.60

95.50
21.62

26.68

47.41

64.86

93.47

136.05

206.93

309.93

514.49

105.19

Average total..

255.65

342.07

428.86

526.64

645.85

805.96 1,031.19 1,396.69

531.70

$423.74 $242.17

PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES.
Foods and drinks...................
Clothing, laundry, etc...........
Dwelling (rent and mainte­
nance o f ) ............................
Heating and lighting.............
Miscellaneous expenditures..

54.2
9.2

54.6
9.5

51.0
11.5

48.1
12.6

42.7
14.3

38.1
14.0

32.8
14.7

30.3
14.9

45.5
12.6

20.0
6.2
10.4

17.2
4.8
13.9

18.0
4.5
15.0

17.6
4.0
17.7

18.0
3.9
21.1

18.5
3.6
25.8

19.3
3.1
30.1

14.9
3.1
36.8

18.0
4.1
19.8

All five kinds of expenditure show an increase with the grade of
expenditure of the family, but the degree of increase shows con­
siderable variation for the different items. The outlay for foods in
the families of highest grade of expenditure is approximately three
times that of the families with the lowest grade of expenditure.
The expenditures for clothing, etc., show a much more rapid increase,
being approximately nine times as much in the family with the
highest expenditures as compared with the families having the lowest
expenditures. The third item, that for dwelling, in the families with
the highest grade of expenditure is approximately four times what it
is in the families with the lowest grade. The expenditure for heating
and lighting shows the least increase of any of the classes of expendi­
ture here given, while that for miscellaneous purposes shows the
largest increase of all, the families with the highest grade of expendi­
ture having approximately twenty times that of families of the
lowest grade. In other words, the families with the highest amount
of expenditure show the lowest percentage disbursed for absolute
necessaries in each instance and a marked increase in the items for
other purposes. The most irregular item is that for house rent, etc.;
in the families with the lowest grade of expenditures this item com­
prises about 20 per cent of the expenditures, in the next five grades
of expenditure it fluctuates between 17.2 and 18.5 per cent, while
in families with the very highest grade of expenditure it is much
less than in any of the others, though in the grade of expenditures
next to the highest it is practically the same as in the lowest grade.
As by far the most important item in all of the families is that of
expenditures for food, the following table shows the average amounts



COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

717

spent on the principal items of food, with the 852 families grouped
into eight classes of expenditure:
A V E RAG E AMOUNT AND PE R CENT OF EXPE N D ITU R ES FOR FOOD, OF 852 FAMILIES,
CLASSIFIED B Y TO TAL FAM ILY EXPE N D ITU R E.
AMOUNT.

Kind.

Meat (including ham, ba­
con, etc.)..........................
Sausage...............................
Fish (including smoked
fish)..................................
Butter.................................
Suet, margarine, etc..........
Cheese.................................
Eggs....................................
Potatoes.............................
Green vegetables................
Salt, spices, oil...................
Sugar, sirup, honey...........
Flour, rice, legumes, e tc...
Fruit...................................
Bread and pastry..............
Coffee and coffee substi­
tutes ................................
Tea, chocolate, cocoa.........
Milk....................................
Other drinks at home.......
Other food products..........
Cigars and tobacco............
Expenditures in restau­
rants................................
Animal foods......................
Vegetable foods..................
Other foods and drinks___

190 fam­ 103 fam­
ilies ex- ilies ex­
pending
??000to 2,500 to
2,500 M. 3,000 M.
($595
($476
to
to
$714).
$595).

102 fam­
ilies ex­
pending
3.000 to
4.000 M.
($714
to
$952).

34 fami­
lies ex­
families
pending 5expend­
4.000 to ing over
5.000 M. 5,000 M.
($952
($1,190).
to
$1,190).

13 fami­
lies ex­
pending
under
1,200 M.
($285.60).

171 fam­
ilies ex­
pending
1,200 to
1,600 M.
($285.60
to
$380.80).

234 fam­
ilies ex­
pending
1,600 to
2,000 M.
($380.80
to
$476).

$23.24
5.86

$32.12
12.72

$38.75
13.46

$46.37
14.27

$56.86
14.96

$62.08
15.60

$69.27
16.76

$85.94
23.98

1.28
11.80
4.55
2.15
4.08
6.80
4.51
2.38
3.54
5.78
2.52
25.53

2.85
13.43
8.30
3.12
5.17
6.78
4.28
2.13
5 01
6.42
3.63
32.51

3.44
18.43
10.28
3.88
6.39
7.59
5.02
1.86
5.98
6.41
5.86
37.62

3.89
21.15
9.78
4.45
7.66
8.63
6.28
2.41
6.64
7.13
6.64
41.08

4.06
27.56
9.84
4.21
9.16
8.42
7.43
2.69
6.67
7.48
8.75
42.36

5.20
30.25
7.56
4.33
10.81
8.41
9.29
2.66
8.14
8. 55
11.27
46.11

5.50
36.84
7.19
4.71
10.28
8.46
11.07
2.70
7.83
9.23
15.98
48.80

9.72
50.55
6.99
6.28
13.74
11.69
14.36
4.15
6.37
8.60
17.58
53.38

4.92
.86
14.82
5.92
.06
2.75

5.27
1.08
20.26
7.49
.35
3.27

5.56
1.79
22.83
6.51
.37
4.05

6.84
2.03
25.16
8.78
.52
5.22

7.14
2.73
25.47
9.58
.74
5.61

7.34
3.76
30.51
9.42
1.40
7.00

8.03
3.70
33.90
10.59
1.39
8.75

6.83
2.85
35.49
16.77
1.28
12.95

5.29

10.52

12.45

18.28

13.88

17.48

17.72

34.24

67.78
48.68
22.18

97.97
58.63
30.11

117.46
68.48
32.59

132.73
76.40
44.08

152.12
81.11
42.37

166.34
91.77
49.06

184.45
101.37
52.88

232.69
111.98
79.07

Expenditures f o r
foods......................

138.64

186.71

218.53

253.21

275.60

307.*17

338.70

423.74

Total expenditures..

255.65

342.07

428. 86

526.64

645.85

805.96

1,031.19

1,396.69

PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES.
M eat (in c lu d in g h a m , ba­
c o n , e t c .) ...............................
S ausage..................... ................
F ish (in clu d in g s m ok ed
f is h )........................................
B u t t e r .......................................
Suet, m argarine, e t c .............
C h eese.......................................
E g g s ...........................................
P o ta to e s ...................................
G reen v e g e ta b le s ...................
Salt, spices, o i l .......................
Sugar, siru p , h o n e y .............
F lou r, rice, legu m es, e t c . . .
F r u it ..........................................
B read and p a s t r y ............... .*
C offee a n d co ffe e su bsti­
tutes ......................................
T ea, ch ocola te, c o c o a ..........
M ilk ...........................................
O th er drin k s a t h o m e .........
O th er food p ro d u c ts ............
Cigars an d t o b a c c o ...............
E xp e n d itu re s in restau­
rants.......................................

9.1
2.3

9 .4
3 .7

9 .0
3.1

8 .8
2 .7

8 .8
2 .3

7 .7
1 .9

6 .7
1 .6

6 .2
1 .7

.5
4 .6
1 .8
.8
1 .6
2 .6
1 .8
.9
1 .4
2 .3

.8
3 .9
2 .4
.9
1 .5
2 .0
1 .3
.6
1 .5
1 .9
1.1
9 .5

.8
4 .3
2 .4
.9
1 .5
1 .8
1 .2
.4
1 .4
1 .5
1 .4
8 .8

.7
4 .0
1.9
.8
1 .4
1 .6
1 .2
.5
1 .3
1 .3
1 .3
7 .8

.6
4 .3
1.5
.7
1 .4
1 .3
1 .2
.4
1 .0
1 .2
1 .4
6 .6

.6
3 .8
.9
.5
1.3
1 .0
1 .2
.3
1 .0
1.1
1 .4
5 .7

.5
3 .6
.7
.5
1 .0
.8
1.1
.3
.8
.9
1 .5
4 .7

.7
3 .6
.5
.4
1 .0
.8

1 .9
.3
5 .8
2 .3
(«) ,
1.1

1 .5
.3
5.9
2 .2
.1

1 .3
.4
5 .3
1 .5
.1

1 .3
.4
4 .8
1 .7
.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.1
.4
3 .9
1 .5
.1
.9

.9
.5
3 .8
1 .2
.2
.9

.8
.4
3.3
1 .0
•1
.8

2.1

3.1

2 .9

3 .5

2.1

2 .2

1 .7

2 .5

20.5
11.4
6 .2

17.9
9 .8
5.1

16.6
8 .0
5 .7

38.1

32.8

30.3

f.O
10.0

A n im a l fo o d s ..........................
V egeta ble fo o d s .....................
O ther food s and d rin k s ___

26.5
19.1
8 .6

E xp e n d itu re s f o r
food s...........................

54.2




28.5
17.3
8 .8

27.3
16.1
7 .6

25.1
14.5
8.5

23.5
12.7
6.5

54.6

51.0

48.1

42.7

o Less than 0.1 per cent.

1.0

.3
.5
.6
1.3
3 .8
.5
.2
2 .5
1 .2

.1
.9

718

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

At the bottom of each of the preceding tables the food products are
classed into animal, vegetable, and other foods; the expenditure
for each of these three classes increases with the prosperity of the
family, while with the exception of expenditures for animal food in
the case of families having the lowest expenditures, the percentage
of the total expenditures regularly decreases for each of them. The
most conspicuous change in these three groups is that shown in the
proportion of income spent on vegetable food products; for the
family with the lowest grade of expenditure this item takes 19.1 per
cent of the total expenditures, while in the highest grade of expend­
itures it is less than one-half of this proportion. The expenditures
for animal food comprise 26.5 per cent of all the expenditures in the
families of the lowest grade, and this shows a general tendency to
decrease, and in the family with the highest grade of expenditure
comprises only 16.6 per cent of the total expenditures.
The separate items of food are also of special interest on account
of their importance in the total expenditures of the families. The
amounts paid for meats, etc., increased from $23.24 in the families*
with the lowest grade of expenditure to $85.94 in the families with
the highest grade of expenditure. The amounts expended for sau­
sage fluctuate considerably, but show the same tendency to an
increase as for other meat products. Expenditures for fish increase
gradually with the various classes, and the difference between the
extremes of expenditure for this item of food is quite marked, the
families of the highest grade showing approximately eight times the
amount expended for this item by the families of the lowest grade
of expenditure. The absolute amounts expended for potatoes in­
crease but slightly, while the expenditures for green vegetables rise
quite rapidly. Next to meat products, the amount expended for
bread and pastry is the most important of the expenditures for foods;
this item averages $25.53 in the families with the lowest grade of
expenditure, and rises to $53.38 in families with the highest grade of
expenditure. Furthermore, while it comprises 10 per cent of all ex­
penditures of families of the lowest grade, it comprises only 3.8 per
cent in the case of families of the highest grade of expenditure. For
milk the expenditures increase from $14.82 in the lowest grade to
$35.49 in the highest grade of expenditure, the increase being con­
stant throughout the classes of increasing expenditures. The item
of expenditures for cigars, tobacco, etc., is $2.75 in families of the
lowest grade, and increases regularly up to $12.95 in families of the
highest grade of expenditure; it is interesting to note that this expend­
iture forms almost the same per cent of the total expenditures




7 19

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

throughout all the classes of expenditures used in the preceding
tables.
In the preceding table the families were classed into eight groups
according to expenditures. The same data presented in summary
form for three classes of families grouped according to their expendi­
tures are presented in the following table, which also gives the ratios
which the items of food comprise of the total expenditure and of the
expenditure for fo od :
A V E R AG E

E XPE N D ITU R ES

FOR FOOD IN 852 FAMILIES, GROUPED
F A M ILY E X P E N D IT U R E .

BY

TOTAL

Expenditure for food in families, with total expenditures of—Under 2,000 M. ($476).

2,000 to 3,000 M:. ($476 ‘
to $714).

Over 3,000 M. ($714).

Kind.
Per
Per
Per
Per
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
cent ofcent
cent ofcent
age
food
age
age
food
of
of
amount. total.
expend­ amount. total.
expend­ amount.
itures.
itures.
Meat, (including ham,
bacon, etc.)....................
Sausage..............................,
Fish (including smoked
fish)................................
Butter................................
Suet, margarine, etc.........
Cheese................................
Eggs...................................
Potatoes............................
Green vegetables..............
Salt, spices, oil.................
Sugar, sirup, honey.........
Flour, rice, legumes, e t c ..
Fruit..................................
Bread and pastry...............

Coffee and coffee substi­
tutes ...............................
Tea, chocolate, cocoa........
M ilk.,................................
Other drinks at home.......
Other food products.........
Cigars and tobacco...........
Expenditures in restau­
rants...............................

Per
Per
cent ofcent
food
of
total. expend­
itures.

$35.56
12.91

9.2
3.3

17.5
6.4

$50.06
14.51

8.8
2.6

19.2
5.6

$6466
16.17

7.3
1.8

20.3
5.1

3.13
16.17
9.29
3.52
5.82
7.23
4.70
1.99
5.51
6.39
484
35.16

.8
4.2
2.4
.9
1.5
1.9
1.2
.5
1.4
1.6
1.2
9.1

1.5
8.0
46
1.7
2.9
3.6
2.3
1.0
2.7
3.1
2.4
17.3

3.95
23.40
9.80
4 37
8.18
8.56
6.69
2.51
6.65
7.25
7.39
41.53

.7
41
1.7
.8
1.4
1.5
1,2
.4
1.2
1.3
1.3
7.3

1.5
9.0
3.7
1.7
3.1
3.3
2.6
.9
2.5
2.8
2.8
15.9

5.43
32.56
7.45
4.49
10.79
8.54
9.89
2.72
8.00
8.72
12.63
47.02

.6
3.7
.9
.5
1.2
1.0
1.1
.3
.9
1.0
1.4
5.3

1.7
10.2
2.3
1.4
3.4
2.7
3.1
.9
2.5
2.7
4.0

5.42
1.47
21.53
6.89
.35
3.69

1.4
.4
5.5
1.8
.1
1.0

2.7
.7
10.6
3.4
.2
1.8

6.94
2.27
25.27
9.06
.60
5.36

1.2
.4
4.5
1.6
.1
.9

2.7
.9
9.7
3.5
.2
2.0

7.49
3.71
31.51
9.97
1.39
7.64

.9
.4
3.6
1.1
.2
.9

2.3
1.2
9.9
3.1
.4
2.4

14.7

11.44

2.9

5.6

16.73

2.9

6.4

18.13

2.1

5.7

Animal foods.....................
Vegetable foods.................
Other foods and drinks...

107.94
63.84
31.25

27.8
16.4
8.1

53.2
31.4
15.4

139.55
78.06
43.47

24.6
13.8
7.5

53.5
29.9
16.6

173.06
9480
51.05

19.6
10.7
5.9

54.3
29.7
16.0

Expenditure
for
foods.....................
Total expenditures.

203.03
387.97

52.3

100.0

261.08
568.54

45.9

100.0

318.91
881.22

36.2

100.0

Next to the expenditure for food as presented in the two preceding
tables, the expenditures for miscellaneous purposes are of especial
interest. The following table shows the data relating to the expendi­
tures for miscellaneous purposes in which the families are grouped into
eight classes.




720

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

AVERAG E AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF E XPE N D ITU R ES FOR MISCELLANEOUS PU R­
POSES OF 852 FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y TO T AL FAM ILY E X P E N D ITU R E.
AMOUNT.

Items.

Health and physical care..
Education, school fees, etc.
Intellectual and social pur­
poses................................
State, commune, church,
etc. (including taxes)___
Provident (insurance, re­
lief funds, etc.)...............
Transportation................. *
Personal service.................
Presents, gifts, etc.............
Debts ana interest............
Trade and occupational
expenses.........................
Other cash expenditures..
Expenditures In kind.......
Savings...............................

171 fam­
ilies ex­
pending
1,200 to
1,600 M.
($285.60
to
$380.80).

234 fam­
ilies ex­
pending
1,600 to
2,000 M.
($380.80
to $476).

$3.39
.62

$4.33
1.44

$6.36
2.27

$9.29
4.85

$16.03
8.45

$27.55
18.33

$47.93
37.89

$36.73
107.44

7.20

11.86

15.52

20.52

27.14

35.11

48.39

65.78

1.82

3.92

5.24

5.87

9.95

15.98

17.45

39.74

3.70
1.62
.13
.25
1.77

10.90
4.06
.30
1.11
1.06

13.46
5.39
.64
1.45
1.63

16.90
8.10
1.93
3.16
3.99

21.91
8.17
5.52
2.98
11.09

28.98
9.54
9.66
9.37
15.15

44.14
13.11
13.72
7.62
18.71

80.80
18.80
36.41
9.90
7.14

1.94
2.21

1.11
5.40
.59
1.34

1.79
6.89
.37
3.84

1.93
10.69
.20
6.05

2.01
13.93
.47
8.41

1.97
23.93

63.38
29.75

li.36

1.60
34.98
1.27
23.12

2.6
7.7

13families
expend­
ing under
1,200 M.
($285.60).

2.02

190 fam­
ilies ex­
pending
2,000 to
2,500 M.
($476
to $595).

103 fam­ ^ f a m ­
ilies ex- ilies ex­
pending
?5 0 0 to 3.000 to
3,000 M. 4.000 M.
($714
($595
to $714). to $952).

34 families
expend­
ing 4,000
to 5,000 M.
($952 to
$1,190).

5 families
expend­
ing over
5,000 M.
($1,190).

18.61

PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES.
Health and physical care..
Education, school fees, etc.
Intellectual and social pur­
poses................................
State, commune, church,
etc. (including tax es).. . .

Provident (insurance, re­
lief, funds, etc.)..............
Transportation...................
Personal service.................
Presents, gifts, etc.............
Debts and interest.............
Trade and occupational
expenses..........................
Other cash expenditures..
Expenditures in kind.......
Savings...............................

1.3
.2

1.3
.4

1.5
.5

1.8
.9

2.5
1.3

3.4
2.3

4.7
3.7

2.8

3.5

3.6

3.9

4.2

4.4

4.7

4.7

.7

1.1

1.2

1.1

1.5

2.0

1.7

2.9

1.4
.6
.1
.1
.7

3.2
1.2
.1
.3
.3

3.1
1.3
.1
.3
.4

3.2
1.5
.4
.6
.8

3.4
1.3
.8
.5
1.7

3.6
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.9

4.3
1.3
1.3
.7
1.8

5.8
1.4
2.6
.7
.5

.8
.9

.3
1.6
.2
.4

.4
1.6
.1
.9

.4
2.0
(«)
1.1

.3
2.2
.1
1.3

.2
3.0

.2
3.4
.1
2.2

4.5
2.1

.8

1.4

1.3

a Less than 0.1 per cent.

As shown by the preceding table, the average expenditure for
health and for physical care increases rapidly with the increase in
the standard of living of the family, though families with the highest
expenditures show a smaller average for this purpose than families in
the two lower classes. This increase is probably explained by the fact
that the families with the higher grades of expenditures are officials,
teachers, etc., who, as a rule, are not connected with compulsory insur­
ance funds or other relief funds providing medical attendance, medi­
cines, etc. The detailed items included in this average, but not given
in the above table, show that the families with expenditures of less
than 2,000 marks ($476) have average expenditures of $3.62 for health,
etc., and an average of $1.82 for physical care, the latter item being
about one-half the former. On the other hand, families with expend­
itures of over 3,000 marks ($714) have an average expenditure of
$29.40 for health, etc., purposes, and an average expenditure of only



721

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

$3.40 for physical care, etc. The expenditures for education, school
fees, school supplies, etc., show a very rapid increase with the increase
in the standard of living. In the families with the higher expendi­
tures, this is explained by the fact that children are sent to schools
where fees are required instead of to free schools. The amount
expended for intellectual and social purposes increases gradually
with the increase in the total expenditures, and the per cent of the
total expenditures formed by this item shows a similar tendency to
increase gradually. The detailed statements furnished by the report
on this topic show that the amount expended under this head for
newspapers, books, clubs, etc., does not increase very rapidly and
that the large increase in the total is due principally to the expendi­
tures for what is designated “ pleasure purposes.” The expenditures
for provident purposes, such as insurance, relief funds, etc., indicate
that in all the families about the same amount of the income is put
aside for this purpose except in the case of the families with the lowest
grade of expenditures and those with the highest grade. One of
the most interesting items included in the table is that of savings;
it would be expected that the absolute amount put aside would in­
crease with the standard of living of the family, though the propor­
tion of total expenditures devoted to this purpose does not increase
as rapidly as one might expect. This may in part be due to the fact
that the families with the higher grades of expenditures are principally
the families of officials, teachers, etc., who are usually entitled to
retirement pensions for which they are not required to contribute.
The data in the preceding table are reproduced in briefer form
in the following table in which the 852 families are grouped into 3
classes according to the amount of their expenditures:
AVERAGE EXPEN DITU RES FOR MISCELLANEOUS PURPOSES OF 852 FAMILIES,
GROUPED B Y TO TAL FAM ILY E XP E N D IT U R E.
Average amount.

293 fam­
293 fam­
418 fam­ ilies 141 fam­ 418 fam­ ilies 141 fam­
ilies expend­ ilies
ilies expend­ ilies
expend­ ing expend­ expend­ ing expend­
ing
from
from
ing
ing
ing
under 2.000 to over
under 2.000 to over
2,000 M. 3.000 M. 3,000 M. 2,000 M. 3.000 M. 3,000 M.
($476). ($476 to ($714). ($476). ($476 to ($714).
$714).
$714).

Item.

Health and physical care.................................................
Education, school fees, etc...............................................
Intellectual and social purposes......................................
State, commune, church, etc. (including taxes)............
Provident (insurance, relief funds, etc.).........................
Transportation.................................................................
Personal service...........................................................
Presents, gifts, etc............................................................
Debts and interest............................................................
Trade and occupational expenses...................................
Other cash expenditure...................................................
Expenditures in kind......................................................
Savings..............................................................................




Per cent of total.

a

$5.44
1.88
13.77
4.59
12.11
4.73
.48
1.27
1.40
1.52
6.14
.45
2.76

$11.66
6.11
22.85
7.30
18.66
8.12
3.19
3.10
6.49
1.95
11.83
.30
6.88

Less than 0.1 per cent.

$32.79
26.20
39.40
17.18
34.47
10.73
11.59
8.97
15.73
4.06
26.80
.30
14.45

1.4
.5
3.6
1.2
3.1
1.2
.1
.3
.4
.4
1.6
.1
.7

2.0
1.1
4.0
1.3
3.3
1.4
.6
.5
1.1
.3
2.1
.1
1.2

3.7
3.0
4.5
2.0
3.9
1.2
1.3
1.0
1.8
.5
3.0
(0>1.6

722

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF ik B O R .

The expenditures of the 852 families, classified by grade of expend­
iture, are shown in the following table in the form of per capita
statements for the five principal groups of expenditure:
E XPEN DITU RES P E R CAPITA FOR SPECIFIED PURPOSES OF 852 FAM ILIES, CLASS­
IF IE D B Y TO TAL FAM ILY E X P E N D IT U R E .
Expenditure per capita for—

Classification of families and expenditures.

Foods
and
drinks.

Dwell­
Cloth­
ing
Heat­ Miscel­
(rent ing
ing,
and laneous Total.
laun­
and
pur­
dry,
main­ light­
ing.
poses.
etc. tenance
of).

13 families expending under 1,200 M. ($285.60).............. $37.55
171 families expending 1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to
$380.80)........................................................................... 43.68
234 families expending 1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476). 48.52
190 families expending 2,000 to 2,500 M. ($476 to $595).. 54.18
103 families expending 2,500 to 3,000 M. ($595 to $714).. 56.43
102 families expending 3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952).. 60.48
34 families expending 4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190). 63.98
5 families expending over 5,000 M. ($1,190).................... 70.62

$6.37

$13.81

$4.29

$7.22

$69.24

7.59
10.96
14.20
18.89
22.30
28.67
34.72

13.78
17.09
19.82
23.86
29.37
37.55
34.59

3.88
4.24
4.48
5.21
5.80
6.04
7.10

11.09
14.40
20.00
27.86
40.75
58.54
85.75

80.02
95.21
112.68
132.25
158.70
194.78
232.78

418 families expending under 2,000 M. ($476)...............
293 families expending 2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714)..
141 families expending over 3,000 M. ($714)...................

46.30
55.00
61.77

9.49
15.90
24.39

15.69
21.28
31.61

4.10
4.74
5.91

12.89
22.84
47.00

88.47
119.76
170.68

Average for 852 families.........................................

52.21

14.49

20.59

4.66

22.68

114.63

With the increase in the standard of living of the families, there is
at once an increase in the per capita amount expended in the groups
which may be designated as those in which substitutions or econo­
mies are possible. Thus, in the group of clothing, laundry, etc., the
families with the lowest grade of expenditure spend $6.37 per capita,
while the families with the highest grade spend $34.72 per capita;
this is especially marked in the case of the expenditures for miscel­
laneous purposes, where the families with the lowest grade spend
$7.22 per capita, as compared with $85.75 per capita in families with
the highest grade of expenditure. The per capita expenditures for
food are not quite doubled, while the per capita expenditures for
dwelling are not quite three times in the families with the highest
grade of expenditure as compared with those in the lowest grade.
INCOME AND EXPENDITURES OF FAM ILIES, ACCORDING TO SIZE OF
LOCALITY.

The 852 families included in the investigation come from 125
localities. It is interesting to know that by far the great majority of
the families included in the investigation come from large cities
having a population of 100,000 or over. The following table presents
a summary of the information on this point:




723

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,
NUM BER OF FAMILIES LOCATED IN PLACES OF EACH CLASSIFIED SIZE.

Number
of
families
furnish­
ing
schedules.

Classification.

Population.

I. Large c i t i e s . ...........................................................
II. Medium-size cities.....................................................
III. Small towns..............................................................
IV. Villages......................................................................
V. Rural districts................................... ........................

100,000 and more....................................
20,000 to 100,000......................................
5,000 to 20,000.........................................
2,000 to 5,000...........................................
Less than 2,000.......................................

701
81
34
16
20

It is obvious that the average expenditures of the families included
will be strongly influenced by the fact that the study is principally one
of families residing in large cities, and furthermore that the study of
the expenditures of families residing in places other than great cities
will show greater fluctuations because of the smaller number of
instances from each type of community. The cities in which the
largest number of families resided are shown in the following list:
CITIES FROM WHICH TEN OR MORE FAM ILY SCHEDULES W ER E OBTAINED.
Number
of
families
included.

City.

Hamburg....................................................
Greater Berlin.............................................
Breslau........................................................
Dresden.......................................................
Schoneberg..................................................
Lubeck........................................................
Nuremberg..................................................
Kiel..............................................................
Strassburg...................................................
Chemnitz.....................................................

179
73
67
64
52
46
45
43
29
26

Number
of
families
included.

City.

Cassel.........................................................
Cologne......................................................
Munich......................................................
Dusseldorf.................................................
Deutsch-Wilmersdorf...............................
Altona........................................................
Barmen......................................................
Frankfort on the Main.............................
Magdeburg................................................

23
21
19
12
11
10
10
10
10

It should be mentioned that of the above cities, Schoneberg and
Deutsch-Wilmersdorf are municipalities practically adjoining Berlin
but with separate governments.
The average income of the families according to the size of the
locality is shown in the following table:
AVERAGE INCOME OF FAMILIES AND AVERAG E EARNINGS OF THE HUSBAND,
ACCORDING TO SIZE OF LOCALITY.

Average
income
per
family.

Average
salary or
earnings
of the
husband.

II. Medium-size cities........................................................................................................
III. Small towns................................................................................................................
IV. Villages........................................................................................................................
V. Rural districts.............................................................. - ..............................................

$509.31
522.72
646.42
718.05
583.52

$420.25
433.18
559.54
542.01
435.17

All localities..............................................................................................................

521.72

429.67

Classification.

L Large el ties

.............................................................................................................................

47150— Bull. 88— 10----- 3




724

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

According to the preceding table the average income of the family
shows a tendency to be larger in the smaller localities, though an
exception to this rule is formed by the rural district; this, however,
is due to the fact that in the large cities the majority of the families
reporting were workmen’s families, while in the smaller localities
the greater number of schedules was received from families of
salaried persons, such as officials, teachers, etc.
It is of interest to compare the family income and the husband’s
income in the large cities. In the following table these data for 17
cities are shown:
A V E RAG E INCOME OF FAMILIES AND A V E RAG E EARNINGS OF HUSBAND IN 17 CITIES.

Cities from which at least 10
schedules were received.

Greater Berlin..............
Hamburg......................
Munich.........................
Dresden........................
Breslau.........................
Cologne.........................
Frankfort on the Main.
Nuremberg...................
Dusseldorf....................

Average
Average salary or
income earnings
per
of tbe
family.
hus­
band.
$712.56
516.29
392.25
425.25
508.23
506.22
632.84
443.28
402.24

$622.95
435.67
310.21
338.26
409.97
430.72
458.75
342.11
378.92

Cities from which at least 10
schedules were received.

Chemnitz.............................:. .
Magdeburg...............................
Altona......................................
Strassburg................................
Kiel..........................................
Barmen....................................
Cassel........................................
Lubeck.....................................

Average
Average salarv or
income earnings
per
of the
family.
hus­
band.
$438.59
394.85
438.96
436.98
443.71
396.97
573.55
410.51

1369.99
321.73
354.63
347.90
355.39
341.70
412.98
343.92

In the preceding table are included the cities from which at least
ten schedules were received, the cities being arranged according to
the number of inhabitants as reported by the census of 1905. On
the whole, the data in the table show that there is considerable
variation in the earnings of the husband as compared with the total
income of the family when arranged by size of locality.
The following tables show the total income, the total expenditure,
and the expenditures for items of food of the 852 families included
in the study. The families are grouped by size of locality in which
they reside, but in addition a special group is given of localities with
less than 30,000 inhabitants, to permit of a comparison of communi­
ties of this size with all other communities.




725

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF INCOME FROM SPECIFIED SOURCES OF 852 FAMILIES,
ACCORDING TO SIZE OF LOCALITY OF RESIDENCE.
AMOUNT.
Localities
with less
than
30,000 in­
habitants.

Large
cities.

Mediumsize cities.

70 fami­
lies with
335 per­
sons. («)

701 fami­
lies with
3,212 per­
sons.^)

81 fami­
lies with
405 per­
sons. (c)

Small
towns.

Rural
All locali­
Villages. districts.
ties.

Source.
34 fami­
16 fami­ 20 fami­
lies with lies with lies with
161 per­
71 per­
103 per­
sons, (d)
sons. («) sons. ( /)

852 fami­
lies with
3,952 per­
sons. (?)

Principal earnings of hus­
band............................... 136,399.91 $294,593.37 $35,087.70 $19,024.33 $8,672.18 $8,703.40 $366,080.98
Subsidiary earnings of
8,434.43
280.66
husband.......................... 1,149.01
224.83
10,361.72
778.27
643.53
114.24
11,715.88
57.12
11.42
Earnings of wife................
389.18
45.70
12,219.30
7,022.50
Contribution of children..
59.95
377.46
59.95
7,459.91
30.94
Subletting..........................
7,874.87
244.19
487.78
8,936.62
573.97
212.65
25,958.63
Other casn income............ 5,012.33
2,116.00 1,812.32 1,084.01
4,501.21
35,472.17
469.18
Income in kind................. 1,914.29
1,423.58
523.86
921.24
3,970.51
632.65
Total........................ 45,137.51

357,023.26

42,340.44

21,978.23 11,488.80 11,670.48

444,501.21

PER CENT.
Principal earnings of hus­
band...............................
Subsidiary earnings of
husband..........................
Earnings of wife................
Contribution of children..
Subletting..........................
Other cash income............
Income in kind.................

80.6

82.5

82.9

86.6

75.5

74.6

82.4

2.6
.3
.1
1.1
11.1
4.2

2.3
3.3
2.0
2.2
7.3
.4

1.8
.9
.9
1.4
10.6
1.5

1.3
.3

1.9
.1

.1
9.6
2.1

2.1
15.8
4.6

5.5
.4
.5
1.8
9.3
7.9

2.3
2.7
1.7
2.0
8.0
.9

a Consisting of 67 married couples, 2 widowers, 1 son as head of family, 155 children under 15, 6 grown
children. 37 other persons.
6 Consisting of 692 married couples, 6 widowers, 2 widows, 1 son as head of family, 1,586 children under
15,148 grown children, 85 other persons.
c Consisting of 81 married couples, 207 children under 15, 20 grown children, 16 other persons.
d Consisting of 32 married couples, 1 widower, 1 son as head of family, 74 children under 15, 4 grown
children, 17 other persons.
e Consisting of 15 married couples, 1 widower, 30 children under 15,1 grown daughter, 9 other persons.
/Consisting of 20 married couples, 51 children under 15,1 grown daughter, 11 other persons.
g Consisting of 840 married couples, 8 widowers, 2 widows, 2 sons as heads of families, 1,948 children under
15,174 grown children, 138 other persons.




726

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

AMOUNT AND PE R CENT OF EXPE N D ITU R ES FOR SPECIFIED PURPOSES OF 852
FAMILIES, ACCORDING TO SIZE OF LOCALITY OF RESIDENCE.
AMOUNT.
Localities
with less
than 30,000
inhabi­
tants.

Large
cities.

Mediumsize cities.

Small
towns.

Rural
All locali­
Villages. districts.
ties.

Groups.
70 families 701 families 81 families 34 families 16 families 20 families 852 families
with 335 with 3,212 with 405 with 161 with 71 with 103 with 3,952
persons,
persons.
persons, persons. persons. persons.
persons.
(a)
(d)
(<0
(*)
<*)
( /)
«0
Foods and drinks.............. $17,792.08 $169,386.04 $19,150.66 $8,698.49 $4,043.62 $5,049.97 $206,328.78
44,254.21
Clothing and cleaning...... 6,991.10
3,300.16 1,643.67 2.047.27
6,027.59
57,272.90
Dwelling (rent and main­
66,523.89
tenance o f)..................... 7,577.19
7,266.11
4,029.58 1,945.00 1,602.61
81,367.19
Heating and lighting........ 2,105.75
14,402.02
1,911.08
956.34
612.24
537.17
18,418.85
Health and physical care. 1,475.54
1,069.10
7,768.91
758.37
474.21
242.96
10,313.55
839.82
Education, schoolfees, etc.
4,492.40
512.38
937.95
276.25
51.19
6,270.17
Intellectual and social
purposes......................... 2,405.81
13,744.10
1,120.80
1,852.96
713.87
571.15
18,002.88
State, commune, church,
etc. (including taxes). . .
4,754.26
734.24
994.25
530.18
234.53
229.54
6,482.75
Insurance, relief funds, etc. 2,424.82
1,675.82
11,288.06
1,110.68
767.16
546.97
15,388.69
Transportation.................
474.04
167.74
5,134.55
260.58
117.94
188.36
5,869.17
816.08
236.02
Personal service................
1,719.37
447.67
165.92
202.49
2,771.47
323.13
2,248.26
132.62.
Presents, gifts, etc............
133.10
128.40
61.63
2,704.01
2,830.21
306.86
Debts and interest............ 1,053.06
820.99
392.14
354.06
4,704.26
Occupational expenses__
31.93
15.36
1,388.15
359.69
11.19
5.38
1,779.77
Other cash expenses......... 1,744.00
7,225.63
838.88
1,091.91
356.96
295.13
9,808.51
Expenditures in kind.......
9.52
91.15
90.39
134.96
50.69
30.94
316.50
3,891.62
Savings..............................
763.38
551.62
573.71
51.87
137.80
5,206.62
Total........................ 47,903.13
Surplus ( + ) or deficit (—). —2,765.62

361,142.07 43,960.87 23,762.85 11,715.91 12,424.37
—4,118.81 —1,620.43 —1,784.62 —227.11 —753.89

453,006.07
—8,504.86

PER CENT.
Foods and drinks.............
Clothing and cleaning___
Dwelling (rent and main­
tenance o f).....................
Heating and lighting........
Health and physical care..
Education, school fees, etc.
Intellectual and social
purposes.........................
State, commune, church,
etc. (including taxes) . .
Insurance, relief funds,etc.
Transportation.................
Personal service................
Presents, gifts, etc............
Debts and interest...........
Occupational expenses___
Other cash expenses.........
Expenditures in kind___
Savings..............................

37.1
14.6

46.9
12.3

43.6
13.7

36.6
13.9

34.5
14.0

40.6
16.5

45.5
12.6

15.8
4.4
3.1
1.7

18.4
4.0
2.2
1.2

16.5
4.4
2.4
2.1

17.0
4.0
3.2
2.1

16.6
4.6
2.1
2.4

12.9
4.9
3.8
.4

18.0
4.1
2.3
1.4

5.0

3.8

4.2

4.7

6.1

4.6

4.0

2.1
5.1
1.0
1.7
.7
2.2
.1
3.6
.2
’1.6

1.3
3.1
1.4
.5
.6
.8
.4
2.0

1.7
3.8
.6
.5
.3
1.9
.8
1.9
.3
1.3

2.2
4.7
.7
1.9
.6
1.3
.1
4.6
(*)
2.4

2.0
6.6
1.0
1.7
1.1
3.4
.1
3.0
.4
.4

1.9
4.4
1.5

1.4
3.4
1.3
.6
.6
1.0
.4
2.2
.1
1.1

w u

l .Z s

.5
2.9
<*)
2.4
.3
1.1

a Consisting of 67 married couples, 2 widowers, 1 son as head of family, 155 children under 15, 6 grown
children, 37 other persons.
6 Consisting of 692 married couples, 6 widowers, 2 widows, 1 son as head of family, 1,586 children under 15,
148 grown children, 85 other persons.
c Consisting of 81 married couples, 207 children under 15,20 grown children, 16 other persons.
d Consisting of 32 married couples, 1 widower, 1 son as head of family, 74 children under 15, 4 grown
children, 17 other persons.
« Consisting of 15 married couples, 1 widower, 30 children under 15,1 grown daughter, 9 other persons.
/Consisting of 20 married couples, 51 children under 15,1 grown daughter, 11 other persons.
g Consisting o f840 married couples, 8 widowers, 2 widows, 2 sons as heads of families, 1,948 children under
15,174*grown children, 138 other persons.
n Less that 0.1 per cent.




727

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

A M O U N T E X P E N D E D F O R FO O D B Y 852 F A M IL IE S , A C C O R D IN G TO SIZE OF L O C A L IT Y
OF R E S ID E N C E .

Amount expended for food by families residing in—

Items.

Localities
with less
than 30,000
inhabit­
ants.
70 fami­
lies with
335 per­
sons, (o)

Large
cities.

Mediumsize cities.

Small
towns.

Rural All local­
Villages. districts.
ities.

701 fami­ 81 fami­ 34 fami­ 16 fami­ 20 fami­ 852 fami­
lies with lies with lies with lies with lies with lies with
3,212 per­ 405 per­ 161 per­
71 per­
103 per­ 3,952 per­
sons.^) sons, (c) sons.^) sons.^) sons. ( / ) sons.(fif)

Meat (incl. ham, bacon, etc.).. 13,597.92 $31,533.45 $3,514.81 $1,655.46
467.42
918.90
9,984.71 1,028.06
Sausage....................................
2,595.23
357.46
165.40
Fish (incl. smoked fish).........
447.69
Butter....................................... 1,893.38 14,147.12 2,169.36
912.31
6,739.23
185.12
409.83
657.07
Suet, margarine, etc................
2,826.44
346.29
118.64
209.17
Cheese.......................................
621.05
330.16
5,026.60
Eggs..........................................
704.47
557.72
628.91
5,547.80
289.89
Potatoes....................................
460.33
441.59
4,416.96
254.38
Green vegetables.....................
176.50
1,570.98
95.47
Salt, spices, o i l ........................
202.57
560.22
250.93
Sugar, sirup, honey.................
618.94
4,199.93
269.19
Flour, rice, legumes, etc.........
531.10
556.69
4,939.14
305.29
Fruit.........................................
4,866.60
504.16
599.57
Bread and pastry.................... 2,659.48 27,585.37 3,247.46 1,303.12
4,403.62
510.12
210.83
Coffee and coffee substitutes..
443.77
1,440.82
210.34
96.77
Tea, chocolate, cocoa..............
152.81
Milk..........................................
906.16
1,671.95 17,060.41 2,112.37
Other drinks at home.............
588.90
5,766.12
585.85
323.61
19.05
64.12
Other food products................
409.70
43.11
174.71
400.01
361.08
Cigars and tobacco..................
3,427.55
Expenditures in restaurants..
364.57
761.63 10,898.27
582.53
Total............................... W.7,792.08 169,386.05 19,150.65

8,698.48

$786.38 $1,156.09 $38,646.19
207.42 11,931.67
244.06
59.76
55.94
3,233.79
524.82 18,209.86
456.25
84.09
140.63
7,806.14
46.73
43.80
3,381.90
126.21
248.10
6,352.12
112.74
155.09
6,734.43
86.62
100.59
5,318.88
44.35
62.75
1,950.05
152.15
215.86
5,379.09
129.21
158.29
6,026.93
146.95
147.33
5,970.33
624.92
731.43 33,492.30
120.46
112.48
5,357.51
61.60
51.97
1,803.97
441.30 20,844.73
324.49
131.24
134.05
6,940.87
30.94
14.13
516.93
121.62
103.69
4,188.65
178.79
218.27 12,242.43
4,043.62

5,049.97 206,328.77

a Consisting of 67 married couples, 2 widowers, 1 son as head of family, 155 children under 15, 6 grown
children. 37 other persons.
6 Consisting of 692 married couples, 6 widowers, 2 widows, 1 son as head of family, 1,586 children under 15,
148 grown children, 85 other persons.
c Consisting of 81 married couples, 207 children under 15,20 grown children, 16 other persons.
d Consisting of 32 married couples, 1 widower, 1 son as head of family, 74 children under 15,4 grown chil­
dren, 17 other persons.
« Consisting of 15 married couples, 1 widower, 30 children under 15,1 grown daughter, 9 other persons.
/ Consisting of 20 married couples, 51 children under 15,1 grown daughter, 11 other persons.
q Consisting of 840 married couples, 8 widowers, 2 widows, 2 sons as heads of families, 1,948 children under
15, 174 grown children, 138 other persons.
* Figures do not add, but are reproduced as given in original report.

Unfortunately the number of families in the two smallest groups of
communities is so small that special circumstances unduly affect the
distribution of the items under each head. The proportion of income
derived from various sources has already been discussed, but a com­
parison of the relative proportion of the family income derived from
the sources mentioned in the large cities, as contrasted with localities
with less than 30,000 inhabitants, is of interest. The item of prin­
cipal earnings of husband shows a tendency to be higher in the large
cities, that of subsidiary earnings of husband shows but little dif­
ference, while the proportion of income derived from the earnings
of the wife and the contribution of the children is distinctly higher




728

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

in the large cities as compared with the localities with less than 30,000
inhabitants. Miscellaneous cash income and income in kind are
distinctly higher in the last named localities.
A similar comparison of the expenditures shows a marked decrease
in the proportion devoted for food, etc., 46.9 per cent being expended
in the large cities and 37.1 per cent in the localities with less than
30,000 inhabitants, while the proportion expended for clothing, etc.,
in the last named localities, is larger than that spent in the large cities.
The difference is more than made up by the smaller percentage devoted
to expenditures for dwelling.
In the following table the average expenditures of the 852 families
for the three principal groups of expenditures according to the size of
the locality are shown:
AVERAGE EXPEN DITU RES FOR FOOD, CLOTHING, AND D W E LLIN G OF 852 FAMI­
LIES, ACCORDING TO SIZE OF LOCALITY.
Average expenditures for—
Classification.
Food.

Total
Dwelling expend­
and itures.
Clothing. (rent
mainte­
nance of).

Large cities......................................................................................
Medium-size cities...........................................................................
Small towns.....................................................................................
Villages............................................................................................
Rural districts.................................................................................

$241.63
236.43
255.84
252.73
252.50

$63.13
74.42
97:06
102.73
102.36

$94.90
89.70
118.52
121.56
80.13

$515.18
542.73
698.91
732.25
621.22

All localities...........................................................................

242.17

67.22

95.50

531.70

The total expenditures naturally show the same general tendencies
as the total income. In the separate items, as given in the preceding
table, the expenditures for food are smallest in the medium-size cities,
and are less in the villages and rural districts than they are in the
small towns. The expenditures for clothing are larger in the smaller
localities, being highest in the village and rural districts. The
expenditures for dwelling show a tendency to be higher in the smaller
localities, though the expenditures in the rural districts, where they
are lowest of all, form an exception to this rule. These facts are in
all probability due to the presence of families with the higher
grades of expenditure in the smaller communities.




729

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1901-8.

The following table shows the same information for 17 large cities:
A VERAG E E XP E N D IT U R E S FOR FOOD, CLOTHING, AND DW ELLING OF 852 FAMILIES
IN 17 CITIES.
Average expenditures
family for—
Locality.
Food.

$284.21
246.13
216.59
209.56
239.67
262.85
267.06
234.34
214.52
239.15
201.98
208.97
248.72
223.08
222.68
258.91
209.95

Greater Berlin.............
Hamburg.....................
Munich........................
Dresden.......................
Breslau........................
Cologne........................
Frankfort on the Main
Nuremberg..................
Dusseldorf...................
Chemnitz.....................
Magdeburg..................
Altona..........................
Strassburg...................
K iel..............................
Barmen.......................
Cassel...........................
Lubeck........................

per

Total
Dwelling expendi­
tures.
(rent
and
Clothing.
mainte­
nance of).
$102.13
55.80
37.88
44.22
65.23
76.53
77.02
47.36
51.61
54.87
43.06
61.85
59.71
58.91
46.83
72.43
48.63

$171.29
92.90
61.73
69.55
95.06
90.69
128.84
75.91
80.88
57.05
54.59
85.48
69.88
80.33
60.03
99.13
61.03

$750.41
502.76
392.15
422.12
519.11
522.56
643.53
451.55
412.43
440.86
378.64
435.14
462.99
451.63
392.79
566.44
411.80

The distribution of the family expenditure for various purposes
is shown in the following table for the five classes of localities:
PER; CENT OF E XPE N D ITU R ES FOR SPECIFIED PURPOSES OF 852 FAMILIES IN
CLASSIFIED LOCALITIES.
Per cent of total expenditures for specified purposes in—
Item.
Large
cities.
Foods and drinks.........................................
Clothing, laundry, etc..................................
Dwelling (rent and maintenance of)...........
Heating, lighting..........................................
Health and physical care.............................
Education, school fees, etc..........................
Intellectual and social purposes..................
State, commune, church, etc. (including
taxes).........................................................
Provident (insurance, relief funds, etc.). . .
Transportation..............................................
Personal service............................................
Presents, gifts, etc........................................
Debts and interest.......................................
Trade and occupational expenses...............
Other cash expenditures..............................
Expenditures in kind..................................
Savings..........................................................
a

Medium
size cities.

Small
towns.

Rural All locali­
Villages. districts.
ties.

46.9
12.3
18.4
4.0
2.2
1.2
3.8

43.6
13.7
16.5
4.4
2.4
2.1
4.2

36.6
13.9
17.0
4.0
3.2
2.1
4.7

34.5
14.0
16.6
4.6
2.1
2.4
6.1

40.6
16.5
12.9
4.9
3.8
.4
4.6

45.5
12.6
18.0
4.1
2.3
1.4
4.0

1.3
3.1
1.4
.5
.6
.8
.4
2.0

1.7
3.8
.6
.5
.3
1.9
.8
1.9
.3
1.3

2.2
4.7
.7
1.9
.6
1.3
.1
4.6

2.0
6.6
1.0
1.7
1.1
3.4
.1
3.0
.4
.4

1.9
4.4
1.5
1.3
.5
2.9

1.4
3.4
1.3
.6
.6
1.0
.4
2.2
.1
1.1

n .!

(‘ L

.3
1.1

Less than 0.1 per cent.

It must be remembered that the families in the large cities are
principally workmen’s families, while the families in the smaller
places are principally those of officials and of teachers. This explains
why the expenditures for the items other than the necessities of
existence are so much higher in the smaller than in the larger
localities.



730

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

INCOME AND EXPEN D ITU R ES, ACCORDING TO OCCUPATION OF HEAD
OF FAM ILY.
INCOME, BY OCCUPATIONS.

The occupation of the head of the family influences the family
budget to almost the same degree as the size of the family and its
standard of hying. The occupation is not only of great importance
in determining the amount of the income, but also strongly influ­
ences the direction and amount of the expenditures. In the present
study two principal groups of occupations are recognized; the first
group consists of wage-earners, or workmen engaged in industrial,
commercial, or other establishments, while the second large group
comprises persons who are designated as salaried persons or officials,
and includes government officials of various ranks, teachers in either
public or private institutions, and salaried persons in the employ of
private establishments. The following table gives a summary state­
ment of the income of each class of occupation, together with a
statement of the source of income:
A V E RAG E INCOME OF FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y OCCUPATION OF HEAD OF FAMILY,
W ITH AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF INCOME FROM SPECIFIED SOURCES.
AMOUNT.
Income from

Occupation of head of family.

All families....................................
A . Workmen................................
I. Industrial establishments.
a. Skilled.........................
b . Unskilled....................
jlI . Commercial
establish­
ments............................
III. Not classified..................
B. Salaried persons in private
employ.......................................
C. Teachers...................................
D . Officials of secondary rank___
E. Subordinate officials...............

Num­
ber
of
fam­ Total.
ilies
in
each
class.

Husband.
Prin­
cipal
earn­
ings.

852 $521.72 $429.67
522 436.82 358.88
436 444.10 365.68
382 448.79 373.53
54 410.91 310.12

Contri­
Earn­ bution
Other In­
Subsid­ ings of of the Sublet­
cash in­ come
ting.
in
iary
chil­
wife.
come. kind.
earn­
dren.
ings.
$12.16
9.77
10.25
10.63
7.57

$14.34
18.86
17.60
15.61
31.70

$8.76
10.59
10.20
10.10
10.91

$10.49
12.61
13.32
12.42
19.69

$41.64
24.32
25.15
24.93
26.70

$4.66
1.79
1.90
1.57
4.22

53
33

413.48
378.14

327.06
320.27

6.55
8.64

26.46
23.31

15.75
7.36

10.90
6.02

24.80
12.54

1.96

36
79
139
67

581.12
784.06
681.09
496.07

478.88
655.23
565.66
403.16

7.69
42.91
6.47
9.79

18.97
1.67
2.43
5.88

7.87
3.33
16.61

6.11
1.35
8.24
10.61

59.17
66.97
87.85
40.85

2.43
15 92
7.11
9.17

PER CENT.
All families....................................
A. Workmen................................
I. Industrial establishments.
a. Skilled.........................
b . Unskilled.....................
II. Commercial
establish­
ments.............................
III. Not classified..................
B. Salaried persons in private
employ.................................
C. Teachers...................................
D. Officials of secondary rank.. .
E . Subordinate officials...............




852
522
436
382
54

100
100
100
100
100

82.4
82.2
82.3
83.2
75.5

2.3
2.2
2.3
2.4
1.8

2.7
4.3
4.0
3.5
7.7

1.7
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.7

2.0
2.9
3.0
2.8
4.8

8.0
5.6
5.7
5.6
6.5

0.9
.4
.4
.3
1.0

53
33

100
100

79.1
84.7

1.6
2.3

6.4
6.2

3.8
1.9

2.6
1.6

6.0
3.3

.5

36
79
139
67

100
100
100
100

82.4
83.6
83.1
81.3

1.3
5.5
.9
2.0

3.3
.2
.4
1.2

1.4

1.0
.2
1.2
2.1

10.2
8.5
12.9
8.2

.4
2.0
1.0
1.9

.5
3.3

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

731

According to the preceding table the highest income reported by
the families is that of the teachers; this is followed by the officials of
secondary rank, salaried persons in private employ, subordinate offi­
cials, skilled industrial workmen, workmen in commercial establish­
ments, unskilled industrial workmen, and workmen not classified.
The principal source of income, of course, consists of the earnings of
the husband, which ranges from 84.7 per cent of the total family income
in the case of workmen not classified to 75.5 per cent in the case of
unskilled industrial workmen. The subsidiary income of the husband
is most important in the case of teachers, where it forms 5.5 per cent
of the total family income. This subsidiary income, according to
the report, is principally derived from giving private instruction and
from services rendered in connection with churches. The subsidiary
income of the husband is of least importance in the families of offi­
cials of secondary rank, where it forms only 0.9 per cent of the total
family income. The income of the wife is of greatest importance
in the case of the families of unskilled industrial workmen, where
it forms 7.7 per cent of the total family income, and is of least
importance in the families of teachers. The highest per cents of the
family income derived from the earnings of the children are shown
in the families of workmen engaged in commercial establishments
and in the families of subordinate officials, in both cases being over
3 per cent of the total family income, while the children of teachers
show no contribution atrall to the family income. The income derived
from subletting of the dwelling is most important in the case of the
workmen and of the lower grade officials. It should be stated that
the teachers and the officials, but especially the teachers, live princi­
pally in the smaller communities, where the opportunities of securing
an income from subletting are not so frequent as in the case of the
workmen who live in the large cities, which may perhaps explain the
relative unimportance of this item of income in the families of officials.




732

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

The income of 40 different occupations included in the investiga­
tion, with the source of income, is shown in the following table:
A V E RAG E AMOUNT OF INCOME AND P E R CENT D E R IV E D FROM SPECIFIED SOURCES,
OF 852 FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y OCCUPATION OF H EAD OF FAM ILY.
Per cent of family income fr o m -

Num­
ber of
fami­
lies.

Occupation of head of family.

Civil engineers, constructors............................
Teachers............................................................
Officials of secondary rank...............................
Salaried persons in private firms.....................
Molders.............................................................
Printers, lithographers....................................
Independent business men (industrial).........
Machinery setters up, mounters, etc..............
Commercial employees....................................
Compositors......................................................
Subordinate officials.........................................
Locksmiths.......................................................
Skilled workmen in building trades (not in­
cluding masons, carpenters, painters).........
Skilled workmen in various trades................
Carpenters.........................................................
Masons..............................................................
Dock and wharf laborers.................................
Skilled workmen in metal industries (not in­
cluding molders, tinsmiths, blacksmiths,
locksmiths)....................................................
Skilled workmen in machinery trades (not
including shipwrights, machine builders). .
Officials of secondary rank not permanently
appointed.......................................................
Gardeners..........................................................
Skilled workmen in food industries (not in­
cluding bakers)..............................................
Blacksmiths......................................................
Tinsmiths.........................................................
Cabinetmakers..................................................
Painters.............................................................
Saddlers.............................................................
Bakers and* confectioners.................................
Shipwrights, ship carpenters..........................
Skilled workmen in woodworking (not in­
cluding cabinetmakers)................................
Street-railway workers...........*.........................
Tailors............................................................. .
Laborers, not specified.....................................
Textile workers................................................
House servants, messengers............................
Skilled workmen in clothing trades (not in­
cluding tailors)..............................................
Unskilled industrial workmen.......................
Coachmen, teamsters.......................................
Street laborers...................................................
Women (widows, heads of families)...............
a

Aver­ Prin­ Sub­
Con­
age in­ cipal sidi­
come earn- ary Earn- tribu­ Sub­ Other In­
earntion let­ cash come
per
ln f
in­
‘ o f
of
in
family.
chil­ ting. come. kind.
‘ o f
wife.
hus­
dren.
band. hus­
band.

3 1881.99
79 784.05
129 698.13
17 616.94
11 495.96
10 523.33
4 525.74
6 578.29
19 549.07
16 471.56
67 496.07
21 442.24

85.5
83.6
83.2
83.4
94.4
88.8
87.0
79.4
81.4
89.7
81.3
88.9

1 .4
5 .5
.6
2 .3
.6
1.7
.1
.2
.3
4 .6
2 .0
1.3

0 .2
.3
2 .8
.7

0 .5
1.0
1.2

2 .0
1.2
3 .7
.5
1 .2
.9

13.5
1.8
.3
3 .3
.8

2.1
4 .0

13.1
8.5
13.3
9 .5
3.1
5 .6
.7
1.2
10.9
4 .9
8 .2
4 .1
7 .0
5 .7
6 .8
5 .0
3 .7

.2
.9
.2
1 .1
.3

.2

0 ,2
1.0
.2
3 .8
5 .4
4 .5
1.9

18
31
20
41
17

477.41
450.59
480.47
462.48
459.93

81.4
85.9
80.5
82.4
82.4

.3
1 .2
2 .3
2 .2

2 .7
1 .6
4 .3
3 .7
4 .5

5 .0
2 .8
3 .0
4.1
5 .4

3 .4
1.9
2 .9
1.5
3 .7

21

450.32

83.5

2 .0

5 .7

.2

2 .4

6 .0

11

437.32

85.2

.8

7.1

3 .2

3 .7

10
12

461.27
447.66

80.0
82.3

8 .2
5 .5

2 .3
.5

5.1
2 .8

4 .4
3 .4

7
12
10
42
26
11
7
10

479.11
432.93
444.70
432.00
424.98
423.49
446.77
426.85

75.7
81.6
79.1
81.4
81.5
81.2
76.3
79.4

3 .0
5 .2
.5
1.9
3 .8
3 .9
9 .6
7 .4

6 .3
5 .2
6.1
4 .4
6 .6
2 .6
2 .7
3 .7

.8
.2

9 .2
2 .3
3 .7
3 .7
2 .0
5 .2
6 .6
.9

5 .8
3 .2
8 .8
5 .5
5 .7
7.1
4 .0
8 .4

15
7
8
33
10
9

388.52
412.10
397.13
398.14
402.84
379.87

87.2
79.4
81.3
84.7
79.4
82.1

.9
1 .0
1.6
2 .3
.4
1.7

4 .6
2 .2
.5
6 .2
6 .7
2 .6

.6
3 .2
.5
1.9
5 .3
2 .0

.8
5 .3
7 .8
1.6
.7
1.5

5 .9
8 .0
8 .2
3 .3
7 .4
8 .5

6
54
7
13
2

399.83
410.91
350.80
410.49
482.03

78.0
75.5
82.8
70.5

2.1
1.8
2 .2
3 .8

(o)

2 .9
7.7

4 .0
2 .7
2.3
3 .7
7.7

2 .9
4 .8
.4
1.3
5 .8

10.1
6 .5
12.3
3 .8
4 .9

16.9
81.6

3 .7
.8
1.8
3.1
.3

2 .0
1.1
.8
.1
4 .3

1 .9

1 .8
1 .7
(«)

.1

.9
.1
.1
1 .6
1 .0

Less than 0.1 per cent.

In the preceding table the occupations are arranged in the order
of the amount of the principal earnings of the husband. It is notice­
able that, arranged in this order, the arrangement of the families is
different from what it would be if they were placed in order of total
family income, indicating that the degree to which the husband’s
income is supplemented by income from other sources varies greatly
in the different occupations. Among the workmen included in



733

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

the lists of the preceding table the highest earnings are shown by
molders, printers, lithographers, machine mounters, compositors,
locksmiths, and other skilled workmen. Attention should be called
to the fact that the earnings of the workmen included in this inves­
tigation are by no means typical earnings or average earnings for
persons engaged in the occupations specified; the fact that the per­
sons were able to furnish household accounts for a year indicates
that an automatic selection was made of the more intelligent and
thrifty workmen. On the other hand, by far the great majority of
the workmen came from large cities, where the rates of wages are
above the average, which accounts for the earnings of the persons
included being somewhat above the average. In the preceding
table the percentages show that the subsidiary income of the hus­
band is most important in the case of the bakers, who apparently
use their spare time to engage in some subsidiary occupation, while
this item is lacking altogether in only one occupation, namely, that of
wharf and dock laborers. The income from the earnings of the wife
is most important in the case of families of unskilled workmen, where,
on account of the low income received, all possible sources of income
must be utilized. The contribution of the children to the income
of the family shows the highest amount and the highest percentage
in the case of machine builders and machine mounters. It is inter­
esting to note that such contribution is entirely absent in the case
of the civil engineers, teachers, printers and lithographers, inde­
pendent business men, skilled workers in the machine industry,
officials of secondary rank not permanently appointed, skilled
workmen in the food industries, and saddlers.
EXPENDITURES, BY OCCUPATIONS.

In the following table are shown the absolute amounts and the
relative amounts of the average expenditures of the families classified
according to groups of occupations:
AVERAGE EXPE N D ITU R ES OF FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y OCCUPATION OF HEAD
OF FAMILY, W ITH AMOUNT AND PER CENT OF EXPEN DITU RES FOR SPECIFIED
PURPOSES.
AMOUNT.

Occupation of head of family.

All families..................................
A. Workmen........................
I. Industrial..................
a. Skilled.................
b. Unskilled............
II. Commercial..............
III. Not classified.........
B. Salaried persons in pri­
vate firms.....................
C. Teachers..........................
D. Officials of secondary
rank.............................
E. Subordinate officials.......




Number
of
Total
families expendi­
in each
ture.
class.

Foods
and
drinks.

Dwelling Heating All other
Clothing (rent
and
and
and
expendi­
mainte­ lighting.
laundry. nance
ture.
of).

852
522
436
382
54
53
33

1531.70
436.74
443.05
447.90
408.72
417.06
385.01

$242.17
227.30
228.79
230.64
215.65
222.55
215.29

$67.22
48.71
49.12
49.93
43.36
50.14
41.06

$95.50
74.38
75.30
75.32
75.24
71.47
66.79

$21.62
18.56
18.53
18.80
16.62
19.20
17.94

$105.19
67.79
71.31
73.21
57.85
53.70
43.93

36
79

572.40
815.57

234.03
283.05

72.93
120.53

107.09
171.17

19.83
30.27

138.52
210.55

139
67

726.38
503.69

275.25
246.80

103.35
69.77

130.71
91.45

28.56
21.29

188.51
74.38

734

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

A V E R A G E E XPE N D ITU R ES OF FAM ILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y OCCUPATION OF HEAD
OF FAM ILY, ETC.—Concluded.
PER CENT.

Occupation of head of family.

All families..................................
A. Workmen........................
I. Industrial..................
a . Skilled.................
b. Unskilled............
II. Commercial..............
III. Not classified.........
B. Salaried persons in pri­
vate Anns....................
C. Teachers..........................
D. Officials of secondary
rank.............................
E. Subordinate officials___

Number
Total
of
families expendi­
in each
ture.
class.

Foods
and
drinks.

Clothing Dwelling
All other
(rent and Heating
and
and
expendi­
mainte­ lighting.
ture.
laundry. nance
of.

852
522
436
382
54
53
33

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

45.5
52.0
51.6
51.5
52.8
53.4
55.9

12.6
11.2
11.1
11.2
10.6
12.0
10.7

18.0
17.0
17.0
16.8
18.4
17.2
17.3

4.1
4.3
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.6
4.7

19.8
15.5
16.1
16.3
14.1
12.8
11.4

36
79

100
100

40.9
34.7

12.7
14.8

18.7
21.0

3.5
3.7

24.2
25.8

139
67

100
100

37.9
49.0

14.2
13.9

18.0
18.2

3.9
4.2

26.0
14.7

According to the preceding table, the lowest total expenditures are
shown b y the workmen not classified; next to these come the
unskilled industrial workmen, both as regards amount of the total
expenditure and the expenditure for food and for clothing. Among
the workmen the skilled industrial workmen have the highest total
expenditures, as well as the highest expenditures for food and dwell­
ing; next to these follow the subordinate officials, while the highest
of the total expenditures as well as the highest expenditures in the
various groups are shown by the officials of subordinate rank and by
the teachers. Arranged in the form of per cent of total expenditure,
the highest proportion of the total expenditure spent for food prod­
ucts is shown by the workmen not classified, who expend 55.9 per
cent of their total expenditures for this purpose. The lowest ex­
penditure for food purposes is shown by teachers, with 34.7 per cent
of the total expenditures. The expenditures for clothing are highest
in the case of teachers, where it is 14.8 per cent of the total expendi­
tures, followed by the officials of secondary rank and the subordinate
officials, while the unskilled industrial workers show the smallest
outlay for clothing, having devoted 10.6 per cent of their total ex­
penditure to this purpose. The expenditures for dwelling show the
influence of the different sizes of the localities as well as the influence
of the occupation of the family reported; thus, teachers devote 21.0
per cent of their total expenditures for the purposes of dwelling,
while the proportion spent by the skilled industrial workers is the
lowest of any of the groups. The proportion of the total expendi­
tures devoted to the miscellaneous items is highest in the case of
officials of secondary rank, where it is 26.0 per cent, with the teachers
25.8 per cent, and with salaried persons in private employ 24.2
per cent.




735

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

In the following table, the absolute amounts as well as the relative
amounts expended for the principal groups is shown for 40 occupa­
tions, the different occupations being arranged in the order of total
average expenditures:
A V E R A G E AMOUNT OF E XPE N D ITU R ES AND P E R CENT E X P E N D E D FOR SPECIFIED
PURPOSES OF 852 FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y OCCUPATION OF H E A D OF FAMILY.
Per cent of expenditure for

Occupation of head of family.

Civil engineers, constructors.............................
Teachers........I....................................................
Officials of secondary rank................................
Salaried persons in private firm........................
Printers,"lithographers.......................................
Machinery setters up, mounters, etc...............
Commercial employees............../ . .....................
Officials of secondary rank not permanently
appointed........................................................
Independent business men (industrial)...........
Masons................................................................
Skilled workmen in food industries (not in­
cluding bakers)..............................................
Carpenters...........................................................
Skilled workmen in building trades (not in­
cluding masons, carpenters, painters)..........
Molders...............................................................
Compositors........................................................
Gardeners...........................................................
Dock and wharf laborers...................................
Skilled workmen in various trades...................
Skilled workmen in metal industries (not in­
cluding molders, tinsmiths, blacksmiths,
locksmiths)......................................................
Tinsmiths...........................................................
Bakers and confectioners..................................
Blacksmiths........................................................
Street-railway workers.....................................
Cabinetmakers...................................................
Skilled workmen in machinery trades (not in­
cluding shipwrights, machine builders).......
Shipwrights, ship carpenters.............................
Painters...............................................................
Street laborers.....................................................
Locksmiths.........................................................
Saddlers...............................................................
Women (widows, heads of families).................
Unskilled industrial workmen..........................
Tailors.................................................................
Skilled workmen in clothing trades (not in­
cluding tailors)...............................................
Textile workers..................................................
Laborers not specified.......................................
Skilled workmen in woodworking (not in­
cluding cabinetmakers).................................
House servants, messengers..............................
Coachmen, teamsters.........................................

Num­
ber of
fami­
lies.

Average
expendi­
ture per
family.

Dwell­
ing
All
Cloth­
Heat­ other
Food ing
and (rent
and
and
and ing
ex­
laun­
light­
drink.
main­
pendi­
dry. tenance
ing.
tures.
of).

3
79
129
17
10
6
19
67

$837.81
815.57
744.38
611.14
566.91
561.77
537.74
503.69

33.2
34.7
37.4
41.5
47.7
55.9
40.2
49.0

16.4
14.8
14.3
13.4
13.1
11.3
12.1
13.9

17.1
21.0
17.9
18.1
14.7
16.5
19.3
18.2

3.1
3.7
3.9
3.0
4.3
2.8
3.9
4.2

30.2
25.8
26.5
24.0
20.2
13.5
24.5
14.7

10
4
41

494.20
484.26
477.84

48.3
43.5
53.4

12.3
9.1
11.8

20.7
17.5
15.5

4.2
4.7
3.8

14.5
25.2
15.5

7
20

476.89
476.18

47.6
51.3

11.0
11.8

17.1
17.8

3.6
3.9

20.7
15.2

18
11
16
12
17
31

474.29
471.35
456.83
454.96
448.76
448.48

54.4
53.8
46.6
54.0
48.0
•50.8

10.8
10.7
10.7
10.3
11.7
11.2

15.4
15.1
16.7
19.1
20.0
17.0

4.6
4.3
4.7
4.5
4.1
4.4

14.8
16.1
21.3
12.1
16.2
16.6

21
10
7
12
7
42

445.97
440.34
435.93
435.41
432.87
431.75

48.9
51.9
50.9
51.8
50.2
52.5

11.3
10.2
11.9
11.7
14.1
11.5

17.2
16.4
17.4
16.1
17.5
16.1

3.8
3.8
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.1

18.8
17.7
14.7
16.3
13.6
15.8

11
10
26
13
21
11
2
54
8

429.84
429.14
428.85
428.13
427.93
420.29
412.22
408.72
403.37

49.3
49.7
49.3
58.1
51.9
49.9
50.7
52.8
50.8

11.5
10.9
11.5
12.0
9.5
11.3
8.4
10.6
10.4

18.7
17.9
17.3
14.8
18.3
20.7
12.0
18.4
14.5

4.1
3.7
4.4
4.6
4.5
4.2
7.0
4.1
5.8

16.4
17.8
17.5
10.5
15.8
13.9
21.9
14.1
18.5

6
10
33

399.94
391.04
385.01

54.1
54.5
55.9

7.8
11.2
10.7

17.2
17.1
17.3

4.2
4.8
4.7

16.7
12.4
11.4

15
9
7

381.17
376.32
356.12

53.9
51.9
65.2

10.1
12.7
9.7

17.4
16.2
14.5

4.0
5.3
5.2

14.6
13.9
5.4

The highest expenditures for food are shown by the machine
mounters, who are followed by the teachers, the officials of secondary
rank, the civil engineers, etc., while it is of interest to note that the
independent business men, who show one of the lowest rates of
expenditure for food, rank tenth in the order of total expenditures.
Throughout the table it is noticeable that the occupations which



736

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

require the greatest physical exertion are accompanied by the highest
expenditures for food. The extremes of the expenditures for food
show that the machine mounters spent $313.81, while the house
servants had the lowest amount, with $195.16. In the percentage
table the general rule is that the higher the total expenditures the
lower will be the proportion of the total for food. Thus, the occu­
pations of engineer, teacher, and secondary official have the highest
total expenditures, but show the lowest proportion of expenditures
for food; the engineers have 33.2 per cent, the teachers 34.7 per cent,
and the secondary officials have 37.4 per cent of their total expend­
itures devoted to this purpose. The greatest proportion of their
total expenditures devoted to foods is shown in the case of coach­
men, teamsters, etc., who have 65.2 per cent, street laborers with
58.1 per cent, workmen not classified and machine mounters with
55.9 per cent, while the following all show over 52 per cent of the
total expenditures devoted to food: Textile workers, building-trades
workers, clothing workers, gardeners, woodworkers, molders, masons,
unskilled industrial workmen, and cabinetmakers.
The expenditures for clothing are highest in the 5 groups showing
the highest total expenditures. These are civil engineers with $137,
or 16.4 per cent of the total, teachers with $120, or 14.8 per cent of
the total, and secondary officials with $106, or 14.3 per cent of the
total, etc. The lowest expenditures for clothing are the expendi­
tures of workers in clothing trades (not including tailors) with $31,
or 7.8 per cent, who most probably prepare much of their own
clothing; these are followed by coachmen, etc., with $34, or 9.7 per
cent, women who are heads of families with $34, or 8.4 per cent, etc.
The expenditures for dwelling are the highest in the case of the
four occupations having the highest total expenditures. The occu­
pation of teacher shows the highest amount with $171, or 21 per cent
of the total expenditures, being followed by the civil engineers with
$143, or 17.1 per cent of the total expenditures. On the other hand,
the lowest expenditures are shown in the case of women who are
heads of families with $49, or 12 per cent of the total expenditures,
and by the coachmen with $51, or 14.5 per cent of the total expend­
itures. In general, the order of the families arranged by amount of
expenditure for dwelling is the same as the order in the case of total
expenditures.
The highest amount expended for heat and light is shown in the
case of the teachers with $30, or 3.7 per cent, and secondary officials
with $29, or 3.9 per cent, then by the women conducting households
with $29, or 7 per cent.
The expenditures for miscellaneous purposes include items which
are not absolutely necessary for existence, and their amount is




737

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

naturally greatest in the case of families with the largest expenditures.
In the families included in the preceding table the highest amount
for this purpose is $253, in the case of civil engineers, and it is the
lowest in the case of coachmen, etc., where it is only $19. The
highest proportion of total expenditures devoted to this purpose
occurs in the case of civil engineers with 30.2 per cent, followed by
officials of secondary rank with 26.5 per cent, teachers with 25.8
per cent, independent business men with 25.2 per cent, and salaried
persons in private employ with 24 per cent of the total expenditures.
The lowest proportion devoted to this purpose occurs in the case of
coachmen with only 5.4 per cent, street laborers with 10.5 per cent,
workmen not otherwise specified with 11.4 per cent, gardeners with
12.1 per cent, and textile workers with 12.4 per cent of the total
expenditures.
The average expenditures for food of the persons included in the
study, classified as industrial workmen, as commercial workmen, as
other workmen, as salaried persons in private firms, as teachers, as
officials of secondary rank, and as subordinate officials, are shown
in the following table:
A V E R A G E E XP E N D IT U R ES FOR FOOD OF 852 FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y GROUPS
OF OCCUPATION OF H EAD OF FAM ILY.
Average expenditure per family.
Workmen.
Item.

Commercial.

Salaried
Offi­ Subor­
per­
of dinate
Teach­ cials
sons
in
sec­
Labor­
ers.
pri­
ondary offi­
ers not
cials.
vate
rank.
speci­
firms.
fied.

Industrial.
Un­
Skilled. skilled.

All
fami­
lies.

Meat (incl. ham, bacon, e t c .). $41.08
Sausage................................... 13.83
3.66
Fish (incl. smoked fish ).......
Butter..................................... 19.09
Suet, margarine, etc.............. 10.32
Cheese.....................................
4.13
6.67
Eggs........................................
8.10
Potatoes..................................
Green vegetables...................
5.46
2.05
Salt, spices, oil.......................
Sugar, sirup, honey...............
5.82
Flour, rice, legumes, etc.......
6.70
Fruit.......................................
6.05
Bread and pastry.................. 38.76
Coffee and coffee substitutes.
5.85
1.84
Tea, chocolate, cocoa.............
Milk........................................ 22.69
7.02
Other drinks at home...........
.54
Other food products..............
4.75
Cigars and tobacco...............
Expenditures in restaurants. 16.24

$38.84
11.20
3.18
12.39
11.12
3.29
6.08
8.86
4.78
2.40
6.14
7.20
4.36
40.20
6.08
1.28
22.11
8.98
.45
4.02
12.67

$39.10
13.32
2.94
14.44
10.60
4.73
6.29
8.19
5.75
2.55
5.78
7.21
4.68
38.61
6.43
1.12
24.10
9.82
.25
2.89
13.76

$38.25
14.17
3.22
13.93
11.73
3.84
5.00
8.35
4.57
2.20
5.14
6.16
4.00
36.13
7.14
1.20
20.68
10.29
.20
4.78
14.30

$44.61
13.41
3.56
22.54
6.77
3.36
6.95
6.66
6.80
1.94
5.55
6.09
7.57
37.89
6.29
1.94
23.73
7.40
.57
4.54
15.83

$59.49
15.84
5.11
30.83
5.21
3.45
8.57
6.13
8.77
2.04
7.64
6.67
12.21
38.87
6.46
3.64
26.84
8.76
1.15
8.53
16.85

$55.31
14.79
4.08
27.92
6.07
3.74
10.71
8.18
8.22
3.12
7.27
8.37
9.64
39.91
6.92
3.05
29.86
9.52
.83
5.57
12.16

$45.85
14.16
4.06
24.83
11.48
4.62
7.39
8.03
5.63
2.23
6.98
7.92
5.87
44.55
7.08
1.86
25.29
8.92
.48
3.26
6.31

$40.47
13.52
3.51
17.60
10.52
4.09
6.47
8.20
5.36
2.15
5.81
6.77
5.61
38.73
6.01
1.67
22.64
7.71
.48
4.49
15.49

Animal foods.......................... 121.47
Vegetable foods...................... 70.89
Other foods and drinks......... 38.29

108.22
71.55
35.88

115.51
70.22
36.82

110.82
64.34
40.13

124.94
70.57
38.52

155.33
80.30
47.42

152.49
81.58
41.18

137.68
78.97
30.15

118.82
70.48
38.00

Expenditures for foods. 230.65
Total expenditures___ 447.90

215.65
408.72

222.55
417.06

215.29
385.01

234.03
572.40

283.05
815.57

275.25
726.38

246.80
503.69

227.30
436.74




738

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

In the preceding table the average expenditures for food for the
classes mentioned show that the highest expenditure occurs in the
case of the teachers; following this group come secondary officials,
subordinate officials, salaried persons in private firms, skilled indus­
trial workmen, workmen in commercial establishments, unskilled indus­
trial workmen, and workmen not specified. There is, however, a wide
variation in the separate articles of food used by the different classes
of persons just mentioned. The most important item of expenditure
for food is that for meat, etc., and the variations in expenditures for
this item follow closely the general expenditure for all food. It
varies between $59.49 in the case of teachers and $38.25 in the case of
workmen not specified. The highest expenditures for sausage and fish
combined are shown in the case of the teachers, and the lowest in the
case of unskilled industrial workmen. The expenditures for suet,
margarine, etc., are lowest in the case of the.teachers, who have only
$5.21 for this item, and highest in the case of the laborers not specified,
who averaged $11.73 for this item; apparently these articles are
substitutes for butter, the highest expenditures for which are shown
by the teachers, with $30.83, and the lowest by the unskilled industrial
workmen, with $12.39. The expenditures for eggs are highest in the
three classes of persons where the expenditures for meat are highest,
though the variation between the group using the highest amount,
namely, officials of secondary rank, who expend $10.71 for this
purpose, and the group expending the smallest amount, namely,
the workmen not specified, where the amount is $5, is noticeable.
The same thing is true of the expenditures for milk, where the varia­
tion, however, is not as great.
In the case of potatoes, a high expenditure for this item seems to
indicate that potatoes are used in place of meat; this expenditure is
highest in the case of the unskilled workmen, where it is $8.86, and
lowest in the case of the teachers, where it is $6.13. Practically the
same thing applies in the case of flour, rice, legumes, etc. The
most important item of vegetable foods, bread, fluctuates but little
in the various groups of persons. The highest expenditure for this
item is shown in the case of subordinate officials, where it is $44.55
and the lowest in the case of the workmen not specified, where it is
$36.13. The importance of bread as an item of food in the house­
holds where the expenditures for meat are low is therefore a matter
of relative importance rather than a question of the absolute amounts
expended. From the data in the table it may be concluded that
green vegetables are regarded as items which can most readily be
dispensed with among the vegetable foods, though the statements of




COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

739

expenditures here given do not always include articles grown in the
home garden and therefore probably do not include all of this type
of food consumed by the families included in the study.
The expenditures for coffee seem to indicate that this article is
often used as a substitute for more nutritious foods; the highest
expenditures for this item being shown in the case of the workmen
not specified, where it is $7.14, and the lowest in the case of the
skilled industrial workmen, where it is $5.85. The items marked
“ Other drinks at home” and “ Expenditures in restaurants” are
principally expenditures for beer; if the two items of expenditure be
added together, the highest amount paid on this account is shown
by the teachers, where it is $25.61, followed by workmen not specified,
where it is $24.59, workmen in commercial establishments, with
$23.58, skilled industrial workmen, with $23.26, salaried persons in
private employ, with $23.23, officials of secondary rank, with $21.68,
unskilled workmen, where it is $21.65, and subordinate officials $15.23.
On the whole, the variation in the amounts expended by the various
groups is slight, except in the case of subordinate officials, which show
an unusually low expenditure. A somewhat similar arrangement of
the groups of persons is found in the expenditures for cigars and
tobacco. The highest expenditure is shown by the teachers, where
it is $8.53, followed by the officials of secondary rank, with a much
smaller expenditure of $5.57. The lowest expenditure is shown by
the workmen in commercial establishments, with $2.89.
A t the bottom of the preceding table is given a summary of the
expenditures for food, in which the articles are classified as animal
foods, vegetable foods, and other foods. The highest expenditures
for animal foods, as well as for vegetable foods, are found in the case
of the teachers and the two classes of officials. The lowest expendi­
tures for animal foods are shown in the case of the unskilled industrial
workmen, the workmen in commercial establishments, and the work­
men not specified.
Next to the expenditures for food, the items of expenditure for
“ miscellaneous” purposes show the greatest variation for the five
groups of families classified by occupation. The average expenditures
for this purpose and the per cent of the total expenditures which they
form are shown in the following table:
47150— B u ll. 88— 10------4




740

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

A V E R A G E A M O U N T A N D P E R C E N T O F E X P E N D I T U R E S F O R M IS C E L L A N E O U S
P U R P O S E S , O F 862 F A M IL IE S , C L A S S IF IE D B Y G R O U P S O F O C C U P A T IO N O F H E A D
O F F A M IL Y .

AMOUNT.
Expenditures for miscellaneous purposes in families of—
Workmen.
Salar
Offi­
ried
of
per­ Teach­ cials
Industrial.
sec­
sons in
ond­
ers,
Com­ Not
All
pri­
ary
work­
Un­ mer­ classi­ vate
rank.
men. All
Skill­ skill­ cial. fied. firms.
classes. ed.
ed.

Item.

Health and physical care___
Education,school fees, e tc..
Intellectual and social pur­
poses....................................
State, commune,church, etc.
(including taxes)................
Provident (insurance, relief
funds, etc.)..........................
Transportation.......................
Personal service.....................
Presents, gifts, etc.................
Debts ana interest.................
Trade and occupational ex­
penses..................................
Other cash expenditures.......
Expenditures in kind............
Savings...................................

Sub­
ordi­ All
nate fami­
offi­ lies.
cials.

$6.70
2.77

$5.96
2.92

$6.07 $5.17 $4.59 $4.10 $13.90 $33.76 $25.38 $7.78 $12.10
7.90 18.70 17.45 6.17
3.12 1.49 2.57 1.13
7.36

17.30

18.68

19.31 14.21 10.11 10.69

4.57

4.90

13.21
6.13
.49
1.88
1.86

13.48
6.32
.41
2.12
1.93

1.85
7.53
.31
4.18

1.89
7.88
.33
4.49

20.55

43.89

28.43 10.31

2.75

9.30

14.93

15.06

5.94

7.61

13.59 12.69 12.05 11.60
6.69 3.68 5.33 4.82
.15 1.31
.17
.45
.94
.34
2.20 1.52
.63
1.79 3.00 1.99

21.13
9.67
6.43
6.45
8.05

27.35
10.86
12.30
8.63
5.39

32.62 13.08
7.47 4.92
8.01
.18
4.65 1.63
16.07 8.95

18.06
6.89
3.25
3.17
5.52

1.49
6.04

1.40
16.78

.18

16.95

1.23
24.85
.70
7.97

3.37
18.91
.46
10.62

2.16
8.49
.50
4.27

2.09
11.51
.37
6.11

4.1
2.3

3.5
2.4

1.5
1.2

2.3
1.4

5.05

1.97
8.10
.14
4.73

3.82

1.31
6.35
1.66
2.80

3.05

1.74
5.52
.35
4.15

21.13

PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES.
Health and physical care___
Education, school fees, etc. . .
Intellectual and social pur­
poses....................................
State,commune,church, etc.
(including taxes)................
Provident (insurance, relief
funds, etc.)..........................
Transportation.......................
Personal service.....................
Presents, gifts, etc.................
Debts and interest.................
Trade and occupational ex­
penses..................................
Other cash expenditures.......
Expenditures in kind............
Savings...................................

1.3
.6

1.4
.7

1.4
.7

1.3
.4

1.1
.6

1.1
.3

2.4
1.4

4.0

4.2

4.3

3.5

2.4

2.8

3.6

5.4

3.9

2.0

4.0

1.1

1.1

1.1

.9

.7 '

.7

1.6

1.8

2.1

1.2

1.4

3.0
1.4
.1
.4
.4

3.0
1.4
.1
.5
.4

3.0
1.5
.1
.5
.4

(«)

3.1
.3

2.9
1.3
.3
.2
.5

3.0
1.2
(°)
.1
.2

3.7
1.7
1.1
1.1
1.4

3.4
1.3
1.5
1.1
.7

4.5
1.0
1.1
.6
2.2

2.6
1.0

(«)

.3
1.8

3.4
1.3
.6
.6
1.0

.4
1.7
.1
1.0

.4
1.8
.1

.4
1.8
(o)
1.1

.3
1.5
.4
.7

.4
1.3
.1

.4
1.6

.3
2.9

.1
3.0
.1

1.0

(«)

3.0

1.0

.5
2.6
.1
1.5

.4
1.7
.1
.9

.4
2.2
.1
1.1

1.0
a

.4
.7

Less than 0.1 per cent.

As was to be expected, the expenditures for health and physical
care show that both the greatest absolute amounts and the highest
proportion occur in the case of the teachers. Similarly the expendi­
tures for education, school fees, school supplies, etc., are highest in
the case of the teachers and officials of secondary rank, due to the
fact that the workmen usually avail themselves of the free schools
instead of those where fees are charged. The expenditures for intel­
lectual and social purposes are naturally highest in the groups having
the highest income, due to the fact that these items are usually
regarded as luxuries. The lowest expenditures for this purpose are
shown by the workmen in commercial establishments and by the sub­
ordinate officials, in whose families they form 2.4 per cent and 2 per



COST OF LIVING IN GERM ANY, 1907-8.

741

cent of the total expenditures. The expenditures for State, com­
mune, etc. (including taxes and rates), are highest in the case of the
highest incomes, where they are not far from 2 per cent of the total
expenditures, and are lowest in the case of the lowest incomes, which
in this case are the incomes of workmen not classified, where this item
forms 0.7 per cent of the total expenditures. The report calls atten­
tion to the fact that this is an evidence that the direct taxes in use in
most German States and local governments more readily reach
incomes which are fixed and definite than incomes which fluctuate
greatly. The highest expenditures for provident purposes (insurance,
relief funds, etc.), for transportation, and for personal service are
found either in the case of the teachers or in the case of the officials of
secondary rank. The item marked “ savings,” as is freely admitted,
was probably not reported completely, but as far as the returns go
the highest amount is shown in the case of the salaried persons in
private employ, where it was $16.95, or 3 per cent of the total expend­
itures. The next highest amount for this purpose is shown by the
officials of secondary rank, with $10.62, or 1.5 per cent of the total
expenditures, being both absolutely and relatively much less than
that of the first-named group. The lowest amount is shown for
workmen not classified, where it is 18 cents, or less than one-tenth
of 1 per cent of the total expenditures.
The budgets of the 852 families included, classified by occupations,
are given in the following table, in which are shown, first, the aver­
age income subdivided into 7 groups; second, the average expendi­
tures subdivided into 17 groups; and, third, the expenditures for food
divided into 21 subgroups. The expenditures for food are, of course,
the items given in the first part of the table, marked “ 1. Foods and
drinks.”




742

BU LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
A VERAG E INCOME, E XP E N D IT U R E , AND E XP E N D IT U R E FOR FOOD OF
INCOME.
Metal working industry.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Gardeners
(12 families
with 43
persons).

Items.

Amt.

Molders
(11 families
with 48
persons).

P.ct. Amt.

Tinsmiths
(10 families
with 51
persons).

P.ct. Amt.

P.ct.

Blacksmiths Locksmiths
(12 families (21 families
with 44
with 89
persons).
persons).
Amt.

P.ct. Amt.

P.ct.

Principal earnings of hus­ 1368.33 82.3 $468.04 94.4 $351.86 79.1 $353.05 81.6 $393.46 88.9
band.
Subsidiary earnings of hus­
24.50 5.5
2.84
2.04
.5 22.39 5.2 5.61 1.3
band.
Earnings of wife...................
2.44
.5
3.28
.7
27.35 6.1
22.56 5.2
4.02
.9
Contributions of children...
16.36 3.7
6.20 1.2
7.90 1.8
3.28
.8
3.46
.8
Subletting............................
12.63 2.8
16.29 3.7
10.16 2.3
17.60 4.0
Other cash income..............
15.39 3.4
15.60 3.1
39.02 8.8
14.03 3.2
18.09 4.1
Income in kind....................
8.01 1.8
.24 («)
7.46 1.7
Total...........................

447.66 100.0

100.0

444.70 100.0

432.93 100.0

442.24 [100.0

EXPENDITURE.
1
2
3
4
5

6

7

8
9

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Foods and drinks............... $245.89 54.0 $253.46 53.8 $228.57 51.9 $225.34 51.8 $221.89 51.9
Clothing and cleaning.........
46.86 10.3
50.35 10.7
44.82 10.2
50.80 11.7
40.67 9.5
Dwelling (rent and mainte­
86.89 19.1
71.12 15.1
72.17 16.4
70.09 16.1
78.35 18.3
nance of).
Heating and lighting...........
20.56 4.5
20.41 4.3
16.85 3.8
17.62 4.1
19.33 4.5
Health and physical care...
9.55 2.1
5.37 1.1
5.40 1.2
5.73 1.3
6.39 1.5
Education, school fees, e tc..
1.20
.3
4.35
.9
3.69
.8
.80
.2
2.48
.6
Intellectual and social pur­
10.42 2.3
23.28 4.9
18.68 4.3
19.86 4.6
17.15 4.0
poses.
State, commune, church,
.6
2.86
8.47 1.8
3.27
.8
6.17 1.4
5.67 1.3
etc. (including taxes).
Insurance, relief funds, etc .
14.84 3.3
13.40 2.9
19.44 4.4
13.14 3.0
11.21 2.6
Transportation....................
5.48 1.2
4.20
.9
5.95 1.4
9.75 2.2
6.57 1.5
Personal service...................
.34
.1
.24
.1
.02 (a )
.18 (a)
.13 (a)
Presents, gifts, e t c ..............
.14 (a)
2.45
.5
1.03
.2
.2
.98
1.31 1 .3
3
.2
Debts and interest..............
.75
4.33 1.0
1.19
.24
Occupational expenses.......
.1
.59
.4
2.08
1.06
.2
.2
.95
.2
.7 7
Other cash expenditures. . .
6.31 1.4
7.12 1.5
7.20 1.6
6.97 1.6
8.85 2.1
Expenditures in kind.........
Savings.................................
2.28
.5
5.05 1.1
7.86 1.8
5.83 1.3
6.92 1.6
Total...........................
Surplus (+) or deficit (—
) :.

454.96 100.0 471.35 100.0
-7 .3 0
+24.61

440.34 100.0
+4.36

435.41 100.0 427.93 100.0
-2 .4 8
+14.31

EXPENDITURE FOR FOOD.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Meat (including ham, ba­
con, etc.).
Sausage................................
Fish (including smoked
fish).
Butter..................................
Suet, margarine, etc............
Cheese...................................
Eggs.....................................
Potatoes...............................
Green vegetables.................
Salt, spices, oil....................
Sugar, sirup, honey............
Flour, rice, legumes, etc......
Fruit....................................
Bread and pastry................
Coffee and coffee substitutes.
Tea, chocolate, cocoa..........
Milk......................................
Other drinks at home.........
Other food products............
Cigars and tobacco..............
Expenditures in restaurants

$50.93

$41.54

$39.67

$45.25

$40.21

19.33
3.91

16.63
4.61

13.23
4.73

16.06
3.85

15.54
3.66

17.66
9.62
5.08
8.25
8.69
6.10
1.79
6.72
7.10
6.82
33.19
7.31
2.07
31.55
9.44
.16
2.95
7.22

27.73
8.05
4.47
6.79
8.89
5.79
2.24
6.95
7.50
7.27
39.46
6.74
2.63
21.52
7.41
.24
5.77
21.23

17.84
12.38
4.73
5.95
7.25
4.69
1.64
5.27
7.11
5.99
39.27
5.64
2.50
28.30
6.96
.96
5.67
8.79

12.71
12.31
5.41
7.34
7.55
5.50
2.09
4.88
5.36
5.12
32.14
5.33
2.27
21.84
10.00
.21
5.33
14.79

18.88
11.26
4.04
4.87
7.83
5.71
1.51
5.32
5.97
6.05
36.51
5.43
1.64
21.74
8.85
.35
5.41
11.11

Total...........................

245.89

253.46

228.57

225.34

221.89




a Less than one-tenth o f 1 per cent.

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY,

1907- 8.

743

852 FAM ILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y OCCUPATION OF HEAD OF FAM ILY.
INCOME.

Skilled
workmen
in various
trades
(21 families
with 91
persons).

Amt.

Industries of machinery, instruments,
and apparatus.
Ship car­
Machine
penters and
builders,
shipwrights mounters,
(10 families etc. (6 fami­
with 39
lies with 28
persons).
persons).

P.ct. Amt.

P.ct. Amt.

Other
skilled
workmen
(11 families
with 44
persons).

P.ct. Amt.

workers
(10 families
with 51
persons).

P.Ct. Amt.

Leather
industry:
Saddlers
(11 families
with 43
persons).

P.Ct. Amt.

P.ct.

$376.02 83.5 $338.88 79.4 $459.10 79.4 $372.63 85.2 $319.75 79.4 $344.13 81.2
9.01

2.0

31.55

7.4

25.63
.72
10.76
27.21
.97

5.7
.2
2.4
6.0
.2

16.02
.83
3.84
35.73

450.32 100.0

.2

3.43

3.7
.2
.9
8.4

6.81 1.2
77.99 13.5
25.98 4.5
6.88 1.2

426.85 100.0

578.29 100.0

1.53

.8

1.61

.4

30.87

7.1

14.06
16.33

3.2
3.7

26.82
21.22
3.02
29.94
.48

6.7
5.3
.7
7.4
.1

437.32 100.0

402.84 100.0

Wood­
working:
Cabinet­
makers
(42 families
with 210
persons).

Amt.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

P.ct.

$351.54 81.4

1

16.43

3.9

8.08

1.9

2

10.93

2.6

21.94
30.06

5.2
7.1

19.16
13.50
16.02
23.70

4.4
3.1
3.7
5.5

3
4
5
6
7

423.49 100.0

432.00 100.0

$218.02 48.9 $213.31 49.7 $313.81 55.9 $211.85 49.3 $213.14 54.5 $209.60 49.9
50.47 11.3
46.76 10.9
63.73 11.3
49.35 11.5
43.75 11.2
47.62 11.3
76.58 17.2
76.90 17.9
92.44 16.5
80.61 18.7
66.65 17.1
86.82 20.7

$226.53 52.5
49.73 11.5
69.68 16.1

EXPENDITURE.

16.77
5.85
4.54
20.56

3.8
1.3
1.0
4.6

6.00

1.3

4.68

14.17 3.2
7.74 1.7
.21 («)
2.06
.5
.3
1.45
1.92
.4
10.92 2.5

15.29
8.38
.36
5.22
4.91
3.14
4.70
5.95

1.4

8.71

2.0

445.97 100.0
+4.35

16.07
4.00
2.50
16.97

3.7
.9
.6
4.0

15.98
4.30
2.97
20.36

2.8
.8
.5
3.6

1.1

5.41

1.0

3.00

.7

5.05

1.3

3.6
2.0
.1
1.2
1.1
.7
1.1

15.98
10.03
.35
2.62

2.8
1.8
.1
.5
.......... . . . . .
1.67
.3
9.71 1.7

16.15
4.01
.40
1.93
.24
.48
9.61

3.8
.9
.1

2.1
.5
.2
.7
.1

4.99

1.2

8.37
1.93
.75
2.83
.32
.17
4.52
.48
4.22

2.41

.4

429.14 100.0 561.77 100.0
+16.52
-2 .2 9

17.60
6.57
2.58
20.47

4.1
1.5
.6
4.8

.1
.1
2.2

18.67
5.36
2.15
12.68

4.8
1.4
.5
3.2

(a )

1.2
.1
1.1

429.84 100.0 391.04 100.0
+7.48
+11.80

17.64
5.30
1.38
17.45

4.2
1.3
.3
4.1

3.59

.8

12.88 3.1
5.56 1.3
.1
.41
.2
.88
.02 (a)
2.52
.6
5.70 1.4
2.92

.7

420.29 100.0
+3.20

1
2
3

17.83
5.35
2.63
20.04

4.1
1.2
.6
4.6

4.67

1.1

8

14.49 3.4
5.14 1.2
.18 (a)
2.24
.5
1.25
.3
1.94
.5
7.57 1.8

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

2.48

.6

4
5
6
7

431.75 100.0
+ .25

EXPENDITURE FOR FOOD.
$40.54

$41.73

$70.26

$41.41

$30.90

$39.88

$36.14

1

14.81
3.32

11.33
5.52

16.81
11.24

16.89
3.08

14.05
2.20

15.14
2.80

15.52
3.27

2
3

14.56
11.21
4.22
6.47
7.35
5.25
1.72
5.85
5.75
5.24
35.57
5.58
1.99
20.05
5.94
.33
5.68
16.59

16.61
16.07
5.64
7.56
8.00
4.67
1.23
4.60
7.45
7.49
34.49
5.26
1.42
18.32
3.47
.33
5.21
6.91

19.32
20.69
10.62
7.43
13.41
7.90
1.78
8.11
7.39
6.68
50.39
7.93
3.84
19.11
5.10
.51
5.99
19.30

15.07
10.32
3.57
8.80
7.41
5.60
2.26
5.53
5.91
6.56
32.90
4.20
1.63
19.86
6.03
.53
3.03
11.26

24.13
9.75
2.81
6.20
8.96
6.61
4.09
4.93
7.35
6.66
41.73
6.88
1.28
17.37
3.94
.40
3.90
9.00

16.13
10.56
3.61
8.27
7.31
4.21
1.30
5.50
5.79
6.04
33.81
5.82
1.92
21.53
6.77
.42
2.43
10.36

19.21
8.83
3.69
6.04
8.85
5.31
2.15
6.01
6.50
5.58
43.72
5.70
2.02
22.92
7.22
.41
4.33
13.11

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

218.02 ‘

213.31

313.81

211.85

213.14

209.60

226.53




744

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,
A V E R A G E INCOME, E X P E N D IT U R E , AND E X P E N D IT U R E FOR FOOD OF 852
INCOME.
Foods and drinks.

Marginal
num­
ber.

Items.

Woodworking: Other
skilled
workmen (15
families
with 78
persons).

1

3
4
5
6
7

Other
skilled
workmen
(7 families
with 26
persons).

P.ct. Amt.

P.ct. Amt.

Amt.

2

Bakers and
confection­
ers (7 fami­
lies with 38
persons).

Clothing and cleaning.

Tailors (8
families
with 42
persons).

P.ct. Amt.

Other
skilled
workmen
(6 families
with 29
persons).

P.ct. Amt.

P.ct.

Principal earnings of hus­ 1338.58 87.2 $341.08 76.3 $362.42 75.7 $322.83 81.3 $311.67 78.0
band.
42.77 9.6
14.54 3.0
6.34 1.6
Subsidiary earnings of hus­
3.46
.9
8.30 2.1
band.
17.87 4.6
12.10 2.7
30.10 6.3
2.11
Earnings of wife...................
.5
11.50 2.9
3.42
.8
2.47
.6
Contributions of children...
2.05
.5
16.12 4.0
3.10
.8
29.43 6.6
44.08 9.2
31.10 7.8
Subletting...........................
11.69 2.9
23.04
4.0
5.9
17.97
27.97 5.8
32.52 8.2
Other cash income..............
40.55 10.1
.1
Tnnnmft in kind....................
.18
Total...........................

388.52 100.0

446.77 100.0

479.11 100.0

397.13 100.0

399.83 100.0

EXPENDITURE.
1

Foods and drinks................ $205.41 53.9 $221.86 50.9 $227.17 47.6 $205.07 50.8 $216.50 54.1
38.41 10.1
52.58 11.0
51.77 11.9
42.13 10.4
31.03 7.8
66.36 17.4
75.68 17.4
81.66 17.1
58.56 14.5
68.96 17.2

2 Clothing and cleaning.........
4
5
6
7
8

9

10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17

Dwelling (rent and main­
tenance of).
Heating and. lighting..........
Health and physical care.. ..
Education, school fees, etc .
Intellectual and social pur­
poses.
State, commune, church,
etc. (including taxes).
Insurance, relief funds, etc..
Transportation.....................
Personal service...................
Presents, gifts, etc...............
Debts and interest..............
Occupational expenses.......
Other cash expenditures - ..
Expenditures in kind.........
Savings.................................
Total..........................
Surplus ( + ) or deficit ( —) . .

15.37
4.47
2.12
12.79

4.0
1.2
.6
3.4

4.51

1.2

15.00 3.9
5.12 1.3
.02 («)
1.09
.3
1.31
.3
.84
.2
3.68 1.0
4.67

1.2

22.12
5.24
2.45
17.07

5.1
1.2
.6
3.9

8.06

1.8

4.07

.9

17.28 4.0
.4
1.71
.13 («)
1.47
.3
.3
1.43
2.33
.5
6.48 1.5

15.40
10.22
2.15
.83

3.2
2.1
.5
.2

.59
9.02

.1
1.9

13.23

2.8

.85

.2

381.17 100.0 435.93 100.0
+10.84
+7.35

17.14
8.75
7.96
26.12

3.6
1.8
1.7
5.5

476.89 100.0
+2.22

23.54
4.81
2.82
14.25

5.8
1.2
.7
3.5

4.32

16.79
7.75
1.65
16.39

4.2
1.9
.4
4.1

1.1

6.24

1.6

15.95 4.0
2.87
.7
.1
.18
.16 («>
.2
.59
19.10 4.7
7.09 1.8

15.53
6.03
.09
3.64
1.15
1.97
4.31

3.9
1.5

1.91

.5

1.93

.5

403.37 100.0
-6 .2 4

.3
.5
1.1

399.94 100.0
-.1 1

EXPENDITURE FOR FOOD.
1 Meat (incl. ham, bacon,etc.).
2 Sausage................................
3 Fish (mcl. smoked fish)___
4 Butter..................................
5 Suet, margarine, etc............
6 Cheese..................................
7 Eggs.....................................
8 Potatoes...............................
9 Green vegetables.................
10 Ssdt, spices, oil....................
11 Sugar, sirup, honey.............
12 Flour, rice, legumes, etc___
13 Fruit....................................
14 Bread and pastry................
15 Coffee and coffee substitutes.
16 Tea, chocolate, cocoa...........
17 Milk......................................
18 Other drinks at home.........
19 Other food products............
20 Cigars and tobacco..............
21 Expenditures in restaurants.

$34.26
12.10
1.94
19.62
8.77
3.19
5.89
8.33
5.19
1.75
5.65
6.22
6.15
42.58
4.95
1.42
21.48
3.42
.03
1.75
10.72

$42.40
14.24
3.54
10.82
16.26
6.24
4.90
8.89
4.05
1.95
6.35
6.97
5.67
43.76
4.97
1.72
21.45
6.00
.87
3.85
6.96

$34.11
12.01
4.45
13.20
12.82
6.16
7.04
7.42
4.04
1.53
4.38
4.82
4.27
38.54
6.11
.58
15.14
4.53
.47
4.58
40.97

$32.81
14.92
3.86
13.92
13.71
3.59
6.13
7.94
4.25
1.49
6.48
6.29
3.46
37.16
5.61
1.65
27.45
4.79
.14
2.89
6.53

$32.33
11.09
2.00
17.81
6.16
2.07
4.90
5.97
5.12
3.19
6.73
7.45
5.02
41.66
4.94
1.37
28.60
7.47
.25
3.76
18.61

T o ta l...........................

205.41

221.86

227.17

205.07

216.50




a Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

745

COST OF LIVING IN GERM ANY, 1907-8.
FAMILIES, C LASSIFIED B Y OCCUPATION OF H E A D OF^FA M ILY —Continued.
INCOME.
Building trades.

Masons (41
families
with 196
persons).

Carpenters
(20 families
with 94
persons).

Amt. P.ct. Amt.

Publishing and printing.

Painters
(26 families
with 99
persons).

Other
skilled
workmen
(18 families
with 90
persons).

P.ct. Amt. P.ct. Amt.

Book
printers
Compositors
(16 families and lithog­
with 67
raphers (10
persons).
families with
57 persons).

P.ct. Amt.

P.ct. Amt.

P.ct.

1380.94 82.4 1386.66 80.5 $346.39 81.5 1388.44 81.4 $422.89 89.7 $464.95 88.8
10.15

2.2

11.34

2.3

15.99

3.8

1.59

.3

21.59

4.6

17.24
19.17
6.88
23.21
4.89

3.7
4.1
1.5
5.0
1.1

20.58
14.43
14.03
32.54
.89

4.3
3.0
2.9
6.8
.2

28.05
1.15
8.44
24.45
.51

6.6
.3
2.0
5.7
.1

12.74
24.02
16.10
33.36
1.16

2.7
5.0
3.4
7.0
.2

2.49
1.65

.5
.3

22.94

4.9

477.41 100.0

471.56 100.0

8.83

19.94
29.09
.52

Skilled
workmen
in various
trades (31
families
with 140
persons).

Amt.

P.ct.

$386.95 85.9
5.31

1.2

2.

3.8
5.6
.1

7.38
12.77
8.59
25.46
4.13

1.6
2.8
1.9
5.7
.9

3
4
5
6
7

450.59 100.0

$255.23 53.4 $244.42 51.3 $211.53 49.3 $258.13 544 $213.02 46.6 $270.47 47.7
49.02 10.7
51.00 10.8
56.09 11.8
74.03 13.1
56.45 11.8
49.23 11.5
73.12 15.4
76.21 16.7
74.01 17.3
83.60 14 7
74.21 15.5
84.81 17.8

$227.97 50.8
50.12 11.2
76.06 17.0

480.47 100.0

424.98 100.0

1

1.7

523.33 100.0

462.48 100.0

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

EXPENDITURE.

18.33
6.46
4.87
17.09

3.8
1.4
1.0
3.6

3.63

.8

11.51
7.73
.35
4.46
2.99
1.97
9.38
.12
3.06

2.4
1.6
.1
.9
.6
.4
2.0

«7

477.84 100.0
-15.36

21.83
4.95
2.39
16.09

46
1.0
.5
3.4

21.26
8.06
5.70
38.02

4.01

.9

4.55

1.1

5.10

1.1

7.04

1.5

7.69

1.4

11.92 2.5
8.23 1.7
.19 (a)
.2
1.00
3.95
.8
2.75
.6
7.00 1.5

13.72
10.49
.64
2.47
2.55
2.43
7.99
.36
5.15

3.2
2.4
.1
.6
.6
.6
1.9
.1
1.2

14.20
7.33
.55
1.71
.79
2.22
9.56
1.16
4.16

3.0
1.5
.1
.4
.2
.5
2.0
.2
.9

12.35
7.32
.26
4 05
1.08
.35
9.26

2.7
1.6
.1
.9
.2
.1
2.0

3.83

.8

12.60
5.99
465
2.09
3.37
.86
16.92
.52
5.84

2.2
1.0
.8
.4
.6
.1
3.0
.1
1.0

5.16

1.1

428.85 100.0
-3 .87

47
1.8
1.3
8.3

2415
6.63
403
43.47

3.9
1.7
.4
3.8

476.18 100.0
+4.29

18.94
5.47
2.80
16.52

4.4
1.3
.6
3.8

18.71
8.15
1.99
17.80

43
1.2
.7
7.7

474 29 100.0 456.83 100.0 566.91 100.0
+3.12
+ 14 73
-43.58

19.55
6.01
2.99
, 18.57

1
2
3

44
1.3
.7
41

4
5
6
7

6.36

1.4

8

12.87
6.50
.41
1.90
3.15
1.19
8.52
.31
6.00

2.9
1.4
.1
.4
.7
.3
1.9
.1
1.3

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

448.48 100.0
+2.11

EXPENDITURE FOR FOOD.
$50.72
12.95
441
23.20
10.82
3.87
7.26
9.79
5.64
2.29
5.77
7.43
5.57
41.48
7.30
1.46
22.46
7.07
.25
5.57
19.92

$38 98
11.63
400
16.99
13.36
411
6.24
9.11
6.07
2.31
7.01
6.65
6.37
39.61
6.37
1.30
21.81
9.06
.29
5.22
27.93

$37.84
9.14
3.27
16.46
9.43
3.80
7.09
6.16
5.39
1.56
497
5.90
5.76
30.10
472
1.29
23.27
7.45
.19
5.33
22.40

$43.39
13.08
3.62
23.31
8.62
3.82
7.74
7.47
5.92
3.22
6.62
7.99
5.20
44 69
6.90
1.69
25.78
10.01
.95
5.16
22.95

$3462
15.06
400
19.99
7.85
412
6.06
7.37
5.44
1.83
5.73
6.71
7.44
32.68
451
3.10
19.07
495
.63
6.27
15.59

$4400
1480
454
23.93
9.21
3.29
6.79
7.40
5.39
1.71
7.09
6.93
7.45
49.51
7.05
2.30
29.09
12.39
.68
6.15
20.77

$42.16
11.85
2.11
22.22
6.49
3.80
6.57
7.02
5.69
2.26
5.34
7.47
7.23
38.34
5.16
2.12
2411
5.81
2.27
433
15.62

255.23

244.42

211.52

258.13

213.02

270.47

227.97




1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

746

BU LLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
A V E R A G E INCOME, E X P E N D IT U R E , AND E X P E N D IT U R E FOR FOOD OF 852
INCOME.
Commerce and transpor­
tation.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

All skilled
workmen
(382 families
with 1,737
persons).

Items.

P.ct. Amt.

Amt.

P.ct.

Amt.

P.ct.

Amt.

Dock and
wharf
laborers
(17 families
with 68
persons).

P.ct. Amt.

P.ct.

$373.53 83.2 $310.12 75.5 $365.68 82.3 $311.80 82.1 $379.12 82.4

1

Principal earnings of hus-

2

Subsidiary earnings of hus­
band.
Earnings of wife..................
Contributions of children. .
Subletting...........................
Other cash income..............
Income in kind....................

3
4
5
6
7

Unskilled
All indus­
industrial
trial work­
workmen
men (436
House ser­
(54 families families with vants,
mes­
with 264
2,001 per­
sengers (9
persons).
sons).
families
with 38
persons).

10.63

2.4

7.57

1.8

10.25

2.3

6.59

1.7

15.60
10.11
12.42
24.93
1.57

3.5
2.2
2.8
5.6
.3

31.70
10.91
19.69
26.70
4.22

7.7
2.7
4.8
6.5
1.0

17.60
10.20
13.32
25.15
1.90

4.0
2.3
3.0
5.7
.4

9.67
7.63
5.74
32.23
6.21

2.6
2.0
1.5
8.5
1.6

448.79 100.0

Total..........................

410.91 100.0

444.10 100.0

379.87 100.0

20.43
24.90
17.21
16.89
1.38

4.5
5.4
3.7
3.7
.3

459.93 100.0

EXPENDITURE.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Foods and drinks................ $230.65 51.5 $215.65 52.8 $228.79 51.6 $195.16 51.9 $215.44 48.0
49.93 11.2
Clothing and cleaning.........
49.12 11.1
43.36 10.6
47.86 12.7
52.45 11.7
75.32 16.8
Dwelling (rent and mainte­
75.24 18.4
75.31 17.0
60.84 16.2
89.53 20.0
nance of).
Heating and lighting..........
18.80 4.2
16.62 4.1
18.53 4.2
19.91 5.3
18.50 4.1
Health and physical care...
6.07 1.4
5.17 1.3
5.96 1.4
4.91 1.3
7.26 1.6
Education and school fees..
3.12
.7
.4
2.92
1.49
.7
3.49
.9
1.92
.4
Intellectual and social pur­
19.31 4.3
14.21 3.5
18.68 4.2
9.17 2.4
17.17 3.8
poses.
5.05 1.1
State, commune, church,
3.82
.9
4.89 1.1
5.96 1.6
2.83
.6
etc. (including taxes).
Provident (insurance, relief
13.59 3.0
12.69 3.1
13.48 3.0
12.96 3.4
12.44 2.8
funds, etc.).
Transportation....................
6.69 1.5
3.68
6.32 1.4
.9
3.11
.8
11.26 2.5
.45
Personal service...................
.1
.15 (a)
.41
.1
.21 (*)
3.70
.8
.5
Presents, gifts, etc...............
2.20
1.52
.4
2.12
.5
.3
1.16
.2
1.03
Debts ana interest..............
.4
1.78
3.00
.4
.7
1.93
.6
2.17
2.53
.6
.4
Occupational expenses.......
1.97
.3
1.31
.4
.22
1.89
.1
1.65
.4
Other cash expenditures.. .
8.10 1.8
6.35 1.5
7.88 1.8
7.37 2.0
7.64 1.7
.1
.14
Expendituresln kind.........
.4
1.66
.33
1.08
.3
Savings................................
4.73 %
2.80
i.82
.7
4.49 1.0
.5
2.33
.5
Total..........................
Surplus ( + ) or deficit ( —).

447.90 100.0
+.89

408.72 100.0
+2.19

443.05 100.0
+1.05

376.32 100.0 448.76 100.0
+3.55
+11.17

EXPENDITURE FOR FOOD.
1

Meat (including ham, ba­
con, etc.).
2 Sausage................................
3 Fish(including smoked fish)
4 Butter..................................
5 Suet, margarine, etc............
6 Cheese..................................
7 Eggs.....................................
8 Potatoes...............................
9 Green vegetables.................
10 Salt, spices, oil.....................
11 Sugar, sirup, h on ey............
12 Flour, rice, legumes, etc___
13 Fruit.....................................
14 Bread and pastry................
15 Coffee and coffee substitutes
16 Tea, chocolate, cocoa...........
17 Milk......................................
18 Other drinks at home.........
19 Other food products............
20 Cigars and tobacco..............
21 Expenditures in restaurants

$41.08

$38.84

$40.81

$34.18

$38.88

13.83
3.66
19.09
10.32
4.13
6.67
8.10
5.46
2.05
5.82
6.70
6.05
38.76
5.85
1.84
22.69
7.02
.54
4.75
16.24

11.20
3.18
12.39
11.12
3.30
6.08
8.86
4.78
2.40
6.14
7.20
4.36
40.20
6.08
1.28
22.11
8.99
.45
4.02
12.67

13.50
3.60
18.26
10.42
4.03
6.60
8.19
5.38
2.10
5.86
6.76
5.84
38.94
5.88
1.77
22.61
7.26
.53
4.65
15.80

13.43
2.31
24.71
7.65
3.38
4.19
6.36
4.93
1.35
4.62
5.75
5.39
37.84
4.82
1.50
16.28
5.15
.16
3.51
7.65

14.09
3.81
14.71
16.61
6.99
7.32
9.28
5.51
1.32
5.43
5.69
6.35
35.06
6.81
.93
17.87
4.83
.26
3.28
10.41

Total...........................

230.65

215.65

228.79

195.16

215.44




a Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

747

COST OF LIVING IN GERM ANY, 1907-8.
FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y OCCUPATION OF HEAD OF FAM ILY—Continued.
INCOME.
Salaried per­
sons in pri­
vate employ.

Commerce and transportation.

Coachmen,
teamsters
(7 families
with 26
persons).

Street
railway
workers
(7 families
with 39
persons).

Amt. P.ct. Amt.

Street
laborers
(13 families
with 60
persons).

Laborers
Total work­
not specified
men (522
(33
families
families
with Workmen in Mar­
Total
with
145
2,377
per­
commercial ginal
workmen
persons).
establish­
sons).
(53 families
num­
ments (19
with 231
families with ber.
persons).
76 persons).

P.ct. Amt. P.ct. Amt. P.ct. Amt. P.ct. Amt.

P.ct.

$290.44 88.2 $327.29 79.4 $289.14 70.5 $327.06 79.1 $320.27 84.7 $358.88 82.2

Amt.

P.ct.

$446.73 81.4

1

.3

2

4.3
2.4
2.9
5.6
.4

20.61 3.7
9.66 1.8
10.65 1.9
59.73 10.9

3
4
5
6
7

436.82 100.0

549.07 100.0

$232.11 65.2 $217.27 50.2 $248.53 58.1 $222.55 53.4 $215.29 55.9 $227.31 52.0
50.15 12.0
41.06 10.7
61.13 14.1
51.26 12.0
48.71 11.2
34.44 9.7
71.47 17.2
66.79 17.3
74.38 17.0
75.68 17.5
63.57 14.8
51.76 14.5

$216.32 40.2
65.02 12.1
103.96 19.3

2.2

4.29

1.0

15.75

3.8

6.56

1.6

8.64

2.3

9.77

2.2

.07 (a)
8.16 2.3
1.32
.4
43.19 12.3

9.16
13.00
21.79
33.07
3.50

2.2
3.2
5.3
8.0
.9

69.50 16.9
14.99 3.7
5.49 1.3
15.62 *3.8

26.46
15.75
10.90
24.79
1.96

6.4
3.8
2.6
6.0
.5

23.31
7.36
6.02
12.54

6.2
1.9
1.6
3.3

18.86
10.59
12.61
24.32
1.79

412.10 100.0

410.49 100.0

7.62

350.80 100.0

413.48 100.0

378.14 100.0

1.69

EXPENDITURE.

18.52
3.71
.33
3.22

5.2
1.0
.1
.9

20.07
1.92
5.13
7.33

4.6
.5
1.2
1.7

19.50
2.78
2.60
6.72

4.6
.6
.6
1.6

19.19
4.59
2.57
10.11

4.6
1.1
.6
2.4

17.94
4.10
1.13
10.69

4.7
1.1
.3
2.8

18.56
5.70
2.77
17.30

4.3
1.3
.6
4.0

21.19
13.22
3.84
22.82

1
2
3

3.9
2.5
.7
4.3

4
5
6
7
8

1.71

.5

2.18

.5

2.52

.6

3.05

.7

2.75

.7

4.57

1.1

8.58

1.6

4.54

1.3

16.09

3.7

12.80

3.0

12.05

2.9

11.60

3.0

13.21

3.0

17.67

3.3

9

.5
2.14
.07 («)
.4
1.59
.5
2.30
.5
2.13
.9
3.96

5.33
1.31
.94
1.99
1.74
5.52
.35
4.15

1.3
.3
.2
.5
.4
1.3
.1
1.0

4.82 1.2
.17 (a)
.1
.33
.2
.63
.4
1.49
6.04 1.6

6.13
.49
1.88
1.86
1.85
7.53
.31
4.18

1.4
.1
.4
.4
.4
1.7
.1
1.0

9.03
1.10
7.16
12.00
.26
15.81

1.7
.2
1.3
2.2
.1
2.9

i9.76

3.7

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

417.06 100.0
-3 .5 8

385.01 100.0
-6 .87

.6
2.16
.47
.1
.02 (a)
.2
.67
.07 (<*)
.5
1.71
.68

.2

2.87
.7
.10 ( a )
.16 (a)
1.15
.3
4.82 1.1
4.73 1.1
12.24

2.8

5.66

1.3

356.12 100.0 432.87 100.0 428.13 100.0
-17.64
-5 .32
-20.77

.18 («)

436.74 100.0
+.08

537.74 100.0
+11.33

EXPENDITURE FOR FOOD.
$39.46

$43.27

$40.35

$39.10

$38.25'

$40.47

$45.10

1

9.53
2.14
9.53
8.27
3.06
5.88
8.16
5.99
4.55
4.59
8.10
2.29
32.10
5.12
.78
32.62
14.66
.34
1.37
33.47

12.05
2.60
11.13
7.90
3.46
5.37
7.71
4.07
1.94
7.19
8.54
3.74
49.36
5.37
1.41
22.66
13.79
.51
1.61
3.49

14.94
2.85
11.41
7.49
4.28
7.10
8.30
7.42
4.25
6.91
9.02
3.78
41.48
8.32
1.12
33.83
14.85
.07
3.47
17.29

13.32
2.94
14.44
10.60
4.73
6.29
8.19
5.75
2.55
5.78
7.21
4.68
38.61
6.43
1.12
24.10
9.82
.24
2.89
13.76

14.17
3.21
13.92
11.73
3.83
5.00
8.34
4.57
2.19
5.14
6.16
3.99
36.12
7.14
1.20
20.76
10.29
.20
4.78
14.30

13.52
3.51
17.60
10.52
4.09
6.47
8.20
5.36
2.15
5.81
6.77
5.61
38.73
6.01
1.67
22.64
7.71
.48
4.49
15.49

12.19
3.56
22.61
5.48
2.72
5.95
4.90
6.90
1.75
4.63
5.09
6.44
32.95
5.35
2.42
22.58
6.44
.64
4.84
13.78

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

232.11

217.27

248.53

222.55

215.29

227.30

216.32




748

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
A V E R A G E INCOME, E X P E N D IT U R E , AND E X P E N D IT U R E FOR FOOD OF 852
INCOME.
Officials of
secondary
rank.

Salaried persons in pri­
vate employ.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Other in­
dustries
(17 families
with 91
persons).

Items.

Total
(36 families
with 167
persons).

Independent Civil engi­
business
neers and
men (in­
constructors
dustrial)
(3 families
Perma­
(4 families
with 16
nently ap­
with 15 *
persons).
pointed
persons).
(129 families
with 600
persons).

Amt. P.ct. Amt. P.ct. Amt. P.ct. Amt. P.ct. Amt. P.ct.
1

Principal earnings of hus-

2

Subsidiary earnings of hus­
band.
Earnings of wife..................
Contributions of children...
Subletting...........................
Other cash income..............
Income in kind....................

3
4
5
6
7

$514.82 83.4 $478.89 82.4 $459.89 87.5 $754.22 85.5 $580.91 83.2

Total..........................

14.39

2.3

1.3

.30

.1

17.13
5.88
1.03
58.55
5.14

2.8
1.0
.2
9.5
.8

18.96 3.3
7.87 1.4
6.11 1.0
59.17 10.2
.4
2.43

10.55

2.0

28.56
3.83
22.61

5.4
.7 "ii5 .0 9 'i3.*i
4.3

616.94 100.0

581.12 100.0

7.69

525.74 100.0

12.68

1.4

881.99 100.0

4.06

.6

1.78
.3
3.59
.5
7.04 1.0
93.09 13.3
7.66 1.1
698.13 100.0

EXPENDITURE.
Foods and drinks................ $253.82 41.5 $234.03 40.9 $210.93 43.5 $277.95 33.2 $278.09 37.4
Clothing and cleaning.........
81.78 13.4
72.93 12.7
44.18 9.1 137.30 16.4 106.66 14.3
Dwelling (rent and mainte­
110.58 18.1 107.09 18.7
84.58 17.5 143.54 17.1 132.96 17.9
nance of).
Heating and lighting...........
18.32 3.0
19.84 3.5
22.76 4.7
26.25 3.1
29.18 3.9
Health and physical care...
14.66 2.4
13.90 2.4
6.25 1.3
27.58 3.3
26.79 3.6
Education, school fees, etc..
12.44 2.0
7.90 1.4
4.62
.9
47.39 5.6
18.36 2.5
Intellectual and social pur18.01 3.0
20.55 3.6
8.30 1.7
21.76 2.6
29.72 4.0
pOSOS*
State, commune, church,
10.10 1.7
9.30 1.6
13.46 2.8
12.40 1.5
15.79 2.1
etc. (including taxes).
Insurance, relieffunds, etc..
25.00 4.1
21.13 3.7
12.38 2.6
34.35 4.1
33.97 4.6
Transportation....................
10.40 1.7
9.67 1.7
7.22 1.5
19.89 2.4
7.68 1.0
Personal service...................
12.39 2.0
6.43 1.1
28.11 5.8
16.46 2.0
8.52 1.1
Presents, gifts, etc...............
5.66
.9
6.45 1.1
5.60 1.2
5.96
.7
4.77
.6
Debts and interest..............
3.64
8.05 1.4
.6
30.58 6.3
21.37 2.5
16.49 2.2
Occupational expenses.......
2.69
.4
1.40
1.42
.3
.3
8.08 1.0
3.63
.5
Other cash expenses...........
17.85 2.9
16.78 2.9
.8
3.87
19.92 2.7
30.27 3.6
.1
Expenditures in kind.........
.50
Savings................................
13.80 2.3
16.95 3.0
.9
7.26
11.35 1.5
Total..........................
Surplus ( + ) or deficit ( —) ..

611.14 100.0
+5.80

572.40 100.0 484.26 100.0 837.81 100.0 744.38 100.0
+8.72
+41.48
+44.18
-46.25

EXPENDITURE FOR FOOD.
Meat (including ham, ba­
con, etc.).
Sausage...............................
Fish (including smoked fish)
Butter........................
Suet, margarine, e tc..
Cheese........................
Potatoes...............................
Green vegetables.................
Salt, spices, oil.....................
Sugar, sirup, honey............
Flour, rice,legumes, etc......
Fruit....................................
Bread and pastry................
Coffee and coffee substitutes
Tea, chocolate, cocoa..........
Milk.............. ......................
Other drinks at home..........
Other food products............
Cigars and tobacco..............
Expenditures in restaurants
Total..................




$44.07

$44.62 ,

$40.14

$59.20

$56.38

14.78
3.56
22.46
8.22
4.07
8.07
8.63
6.70
2.16
6.59
7.20
8.84
43.41
7.34
1.42
25.01
8.48
.49
4.20
18.12

13.41
3.56
22.54
6.77
3.36
6.95
6.66
6.80
1.94
5.56
6.09
7.57
37.89
6.29
1.95
23.73
7.40
.57
4.54
15.83

20.69
3.93
26.44
3.24
2.23
9.33
4.85
5.76
.85
5.18
3.94
4.50
28.42
5.89
2.91
24.79
2.74
.64
3.84
10.62

11.54
3.57
26.93
8.43
4.66
7.90
6.50
8.13
2.05
8.61
8.50
12.16
40.03
4.28
3.65
22.74
5.96
.82
.53
31.76

14.44
4.17
28.54
5.83
3.77
10.87
8.33
8.31
3.19
7.27
8.40
9.85
40.01
6.99
3.09
29.80
9.67
.85
5.63
12.70

253.82

234.03

210.93

277.95

278.09

a Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

749

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,
FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y OCCUPATION OF HEAD OF FA M ILY—Concluded.
INCOME.
Officials of secondary
rank.

Not perma­
nently
appointed
(10 families
with 48
persons).

Amt.

P.ct.

Subordinate
officials
(67 families
with 339
Total
(139 families persons).
with 648
persons).

Amt.

P.ct. Amt.

Teachers
(79 families
with 360
persons).

P.ct.

P.ct. Amt.

Females,
heads of
families
(2 families
with 10
persons).

Amt.

P.ct.

1368.98 80.0 1565.66 83.1 $403.16 81.3 $655.23 83.6
37.60

8.2

6.47

.9

9.79

2.0

42.91

5.88
16.61
10.61
40.85
9.17

1.2
3.3
2.1
8.2
1.9

1.67

10.77

2.3

23.72
20.20

5.1
4.4

.4
2.43
.5
3.33
8.24 1.2
87.85 12.9
7.11 1.0

461.27 100.0

681.09 100.0

496.07 100.0

1.35
66.97
15.92

All families.

Total.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Av.

P.ct.

$366,080.98 $429.68 82.4

1

5.5

10,361.72

12.16

2.3

2

.2 $393.28 81.6
36.99 7.7
.2
27.97 5.8
8.5
23.79 4.9
2.0

12,219.30
7,459.91
8,936.62
35,472.17
3,970.51

14.34
8.76
10.49
41.63
4.66

2.7
1.7
2.0
8.0
.9

3
4
5
6
7

784.05 100.0

482.03 100.0

444,501.21

521.72 100.0

EXPENDITURE.
$238.64 48.3 $275.25 37.9 $246.80 49.0 $283.05 34.7 $209.06 50.7
60.70 12.3 103.35 14.2
34.51 8.4
69.77 13.9 120.53 14.8
49.54 12.0
101.66 20.7 130.71 18.0
91.45 18.2 171.16 21.0
20.57
7.27
5.71
11.86

4.2
1.5
1.1
2.4

28.56
25.38
17.45
28.43

3.9
3.5
2.4
3.9

5.63

1.1

15.06

2.1

15.24
4.78
1.38
3.04
10.51

3.1
.9
.3
.6
2.1

32.62
7.47
8.01
4.65
16.07
3.37
18.91
.47
10.62

4.5

5.98 *‘ i.*2
1.23

.2

1.0

1.1
.6
2.2
.5
2.6
.1
1.5

494.20 100.0 726.38 100.0
—32.93
—45.29

21.29
7.78
6.17
10.31

4.2
1.5
1.2
2.0

5.94

1.2

14.93

1.8

13.08 2.6
4.92 1.0
.18 (a)
.3
1.63
8.95 1.8
.4
2.16
8.49 1.7
.1
.50
.9
4.27

27.35
10.86
12.30
8.63
5.39
1.23
24.85
.70
7.97

3.4
1.3
1.5
1.1
.7
.1
3.0
.1
1.0

30.27
33.76
18.70
43.89

3.7
4.1
2.3
5.4

29.00
6.23
31.62
11.23

7.0
1.5
7.7
2.7

.12 («)
3.23
3.93
12.88
4.88

.8
1.0
3.1
1.2

11.49
4.50

2.8
1.1

503.69 100.0 815.57 100.0 412.22 100.0
—31.52
—7.62
+69.81

$206,328.78 $242.17 45.5
67.22 12.6
57,272.90
81,367.19
95.50 18.0
18,418.85
10,313.55
6,270.17
18,002.88

21.62
12.11
7.36
21.13

1
2
3

4.1
2.3
1.4
4.0

4
5
6
7

6,482.75

7.61

1.4

8

15,388.69
5,869.17
2,771.47
2,704.01
4,704.26
1,779.77
9,808.51
316.50
5,206.62

18.06
6.89
3.25
3.18
5.52
2.09
11.51
.37
6.11

3.4
1.3
.6
.6

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

453,006.07

1.0

.4
2.2
.1
1.1

531.70 100.0
—9.98

EXPENDITURE FOR FOOD.
$41.60

$55.31

$45.85

$59.49

$57.84

$38,646.18

$45.36

1

19.38
2.95
19.90
9.24
3.31
8.63
6.21
7.02
2.23
7.27
8.00
6.92
38.62
5.98
2.47
30.67
7.64
.57
4.82
5.21

14.79
4.08
27.92
6.07
3.74
10.71
8.18
8.22
3.12
7.27
a 37
9.64
39.91
6.92
3.05
29.86
9.53
.83
5.57
12.16

14.16
4.06
24.83
11.48
4.62
7.39
8.03
5.63
2.23
6.98
7.92
5.87
44.55
7.08
1.86
25.29
8.92
.48
3.26
6.31

15.84
5.10
30.83
5.21
3.45
a 57
6.13
8.77
2.04
7.64
6.67
12.21
38.87
6.46
3.64
26.84
a 76
1.15
8.53
16.85

a78
2.49
23.75
4.14
.59
2.87
7.58
6.75
1.88
8.54
6.78
9.31
37.40
4.01
2.12
18.76
3.58
.72
1.17

11,931.67
3,233.79
18,209.86
7,806.14
3,381.90
6,352.12
6,734.43
5,318.88
1,950.06
5,379.09
6,026.93
5,970.33
33,492.30
5,357.51
1,803.97
20,844.73
6,940.87
516.93
4,188.65
12,242.43

14.00
3.80
21.37
9.16
3.97
7.45
7.90
6.24
2.29
6.31
7.07
7.01
39.31
6.29
2.12
24.47
8.15
.61
4.92
14.37

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

23a 64

275.25

246.80

283.05

209.06

206,328.77

242.17




750

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

EXPENDITURES IN FAMILIES OF W AGE-EARNERS AND FAMILIES OF
SALARIED PERSONS.

As indicated above, there is a marked difference in the character
of expenditure of the two groups of persons designated as workmen
and as officials of various kinds. The information already presented
shows considerable difference in the expenditures of these classes
of persons, even where the income is the same. In the investigation
there are 522 families the heads of which are clearly workmen and
218 families of officials and teachers.
The average total expenditure in the case of the workmen’s families
was $436.74 as compared with a similar average for officials of
$758.70. As a whole, therefore, the families of officials have a much
larger income than the families of the workmen, and in any com­
parison of the two groups of persons not only the difference in social
status but also the difference in the standard of living must be con­
sidered. The following table shows for 740 families, consisting of 522
workmen’s families and 218 officials’ families, the principal groups
of expenditure of each of these two classes:
A V E R A G E AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF SPECIFIED E XPE N D ITU R ES IN 740 FAMILIES,
CLASSIFIED AS W ORKMEN'S AND AS OFFICIALS' FAMILIES.
Expenditure per family.

Group.

Amount.

Per cent.

522 work­ 218 offi­ 522 work­ 218 offi­
men's
cials'
men's
cials'
families. families. families. families.
Foods and drinks............................................................................
Clothing and cleaning.....................................................................
Dwelling (rent and maintenance o f)..............................................
Heating and lighting......................................................................
Miscellaneous...................................................................................

$227* 30
48.71
74.38
18.56
67.79

$278.07
109.58
145.37
29.18
196.50

52.0
11.2
17.0
4.3
15.5

36.7
14.4
19.2
3.8
25.9

Total.......................................................................................

436.74

758.70

100.0

100.0

According to the preceding table the amount of the total expendi­
tures in the families of officials is approximately 74 per cent higher
than the amount in the workmen’s families. The groups included in
these expenditures show the following variations: The amount of the
expenditure for food in officials’ families is 22 per cent more than it
is in workmen’s families; the expenditures for clothing in officials,
families is more than double what it is in workmen’s families; the
expenditure for dwelling in officials’ families is not quite double what
it is in the workmen’s families, while the expenditure for heating and
lighting in officials’ families is only about 50 per cent higher than it is
in workmen’s families. The expenditure for miscellaneous purposes
is about three times as much in the case of the officials’ families as



751

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,

in the case of the workmen’s families. The percentage distribution
shows a marked difference. The most conspicuous difference is that
over one-half of the expenditures in workmen’s families are for food,
while about one-third of the expenditures in officials’ families are for
this purpose.
In order to make a comparison of these types of families according
to the size of the family, the following table presents the data for
the principal items of expenditure, with the families classified accord­
ing to the number of persons, but including only the families with
less than ten persons:
AV E R AG E AM OUNT AN D P E R CENT OF SPECIFIED E XPE N D ITU R ES IN FAMILIES
OF W ORKM EN AND FAMILIES OF OFFICIALS, CLASSIFIED B Y NUMBER OF PER­
SONS IN FAM ILY.
AMOUNT.
Expenditures forNum­
ber of
persons
in
family.

Families of—

Workmen.............................................
Officials................................................. }
W orkmen.............................................
Officials................................................. i
Workmen............................................. {
Officials................................................. |
W orkmen.............................................
Officials................................................. I
Workmen............................................. 1
Officials................................................. f
W o rk m en __________________ _______
Officials................................................. r
W orkmen.............................................
Officials................................................. }
Workmen.............................................
Officials................................................. !

Num­
Dwell­
ber of
ing
Heat­
families Foods Cloth­
ing
(rent
ing
Other
report­ and
and
ex­
and
and
Total.
ing.
drinks. laun­ mainte­ light­ penses.
dry.
ing.
nance
of).

f
2 1
/
3 \
/
4 1
J

5 1
a J

6 1
/
7 1
J
8 l
J
• l

49
19
98
33
127
53
125
56
56
32
36
17
19
4
9
4

$192.73
220.43
201.97
239.33
215.39
263.04
238.93
287.86
243.15
316. 47

$43.12.
93.53
42.68
92.95
45.13
112.38
50.79
105.05
52.69
127.05

$82.19
149.66
73.87
159.35
7418
142. 77
74.16
139. 70
74.20
144.15

$16.97
26.44
18.28
26.51
18.22
28.13
18.62
29.04
19.69
32.81

$73.85
170.30
67.46
184 76
67.79
190. 49
69.19
179.83
65.38
245.97

$408.86
660.36
404 26
702.90
420.71
736.81
451.69
741.48
455.11
866.45

329.74
267.78
313.91
331.16
371.27

119.97
53.81
127.03
88.88
148.09

156.89
74.75
127. 45
81.05
102.28

32.96
22.86
32.23
19.58
31.87

210.83
61.90
231.17
64.90
239.25

850.39
481.10
831.79
585.57
892.76

10.5
14 2
10.6
13.2
10.7
15.2
11.3
14 2
11.6
14 7
12.2
141
11.2
15.3
15.2
16.6

20.1
22.7
ia 3
22.7
17.6
19.4
16.4
la s
16.3
16.6
14 2
ia 4
15.5
15.3
13.8
11.5

4.2
4.0
45
3.8
4.3
as
4.1
3.9
4.3
3.8
3.8
3.9
47
3.9
3.3
3.6

ia i
25.7
16.6
26.3
16.2
25.9
15.3
24 3
14 4
28.4
13.5
24 8
12.9
27.8
11.1
26.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0'
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

257.31

55.84

64 87

17.16

61.96

457.14

PER CENT.
W orkmen.............................................
Officials.................................................
Workmen.............................................
Officials.................................................
W orkmen.............................................
Officials.................................................
W orkmen.............................................
Officials.................................................
W orkmen.............................................
Officials.................................................
W orkmen.............................................
Officials....................................... *.......
W orkmen.............................................
Officials.................................................
W orkmen.............................................
Officials.................................................

i
I
I
i

(

2 1
/
3 \
/
* 1
/
8 1
J

}
i

6 \
/
7 \
J

}
>
f

8 1
J

2 l

49
19
98
33
127
53
125
56
56
32
36
17
19
4
9
4

47.1
33.4
50.0
34 0
51.2
35.7
52.9
3a 8
53.4
36.5
56.3
3a 8
55.7
37.7
56.6
41.6

On the whole, the facts already mentioned regarding the two
types of family apply to families when classified by the number of
persons in each. In the following table the families of workmen and



752

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

of officials have been classified according to the amount of expendi­
ture, the classes being the same as those used earlier in the discussion.
AV E R AG E AMOUNT AND P E R CENT OF E X P E N D IT U R E S IN FAMILIES OF W ORKM EN
AND FAMILIES OF OFFICIALS, CLASSIFIED B Y AMOUNT OF EXPE N D ITU R ES.
AMOUNT.
Expenditure for-

Families
of—

Num­
Dwell­
ber of
Cloth­
Heat­
ing
fami­
ing
(rent
ing
Other
lies in­ Foods
and
ana
and
ana expend­ Total.
cluded. drinks. laun­ mainte­ fight­
itures.
dry.
nance
ing.
of).

Classification.

Workmen.. Under 1,200 M ($285.60)..............
W orkmen.. \From 1.200 to 1,600 ($285.60 to
Officials___ | $380.80).....................................
Workmen.. 1From 1,600 to 2,000 M ($380.80
Officials___ / to $476)......................................
Workmen.. (From 2,000 to 2,500 M ($476 to
Officials___ f $595)...........................................
W orkmen.. \From 2,500 to 3,000 M ($595 to
Officials___ f $714)..........................................
W orkmen.. \From 3,000 to 4,000 M ($714 to
Officials___ / $952) ..........................................
Officials___ From 4,000 to 5,000 M ($952 to
$1,190).
Officials___ Over 5,000 M ($1,190)..................
Workmen.. >uiicier z,uuu m
............
Officials___
Workmen.. {.From 2,000 to 3,000 M ($476 to
Officials___ f $714)..........................................
Workmen.. In
™ , o,uuu
o non lw
>v/ver
m
............
Officials___

/
\
)

l
/
1
/
\

/
1

f
1
/
1
/
\

11 $141.22
154 187.51
2 189.83
196 220.70
io 183.15
127 261.15
28 226.89
24 320.86
60 251.67
io 409.81
82 295.19
31 342.98
5
361
12
151
88
10
118

$23.84
32.07
28.90
47.07
65.37
62.22
79.75
83.87
96.61
108.45
113.02
156.05

$51.18
57.36
70.69
75.60
82.26
88.16
104.25
97.94
127.21
106.63
157.06
201.91

$15.72
16.65
17.89
18.35
30.72
20.04
23.82
20.85
27.45
31.14
30.16
32.83

$26.71 $258.67
47.95 341.54
37.04
344.35
65.06
426.78
82.81
444.31
88.50
520.07
116.39
551.10
108.45
631.97
150.92
653.86
11L34
767.37
216.34
811.77
300.25 1,034.02

423.74 208.33
204.12
39.97
184.26* 59.30
270.64
65.67
91.24
243.79
409.81 108.45
313.19 128.36

207.52
67.07
80.33
89.71
119.90
106.63
170.98

42.61
17.54
28.58
20.16
26.30
31.14
31.39

514.49 1,396.69
56.59
385.29
75.18
427.65
91.67
537.85
139.93
621.16
111.34
767.37
251.02
894.94

P ER CENT.
W orkmen.. Under 1,200 M ($285.60)............ .
Workmen.. \From 1,200 to 1,600 M ($285.60 to
Officials___ f $380.80).....................................
Workmen.. \From 1,600 to 2,000 M ($380.80
Officials___ f to $476)......................................
W orkmen.. \From 2,000 to 2,500 M ($476 to
Officials___ / $595)........................................
Workmen.. \From 2,500 to 3,000 M ($595 to
Officials___ / $714) ........................................
Workmen.. \From 3,000 to 4,000 M ($714 to
Officials___ / $952).......................................
Officials___ From 4,000 to 5,000 M ($952 to
$1,190).
Officials___ Over 5,000 M ($1,190)................ .
Workmen.. }under 2,000 M ($476)..................
Officials___
W orkm en.. \From 2,000 to 3,000 M ($476 to
Officials___ f 9 7 1 4 ) .........................................
Workmen.. JOver 3,000 M ($714).....................
Officials___

11
154
2
196
10
127
28
24
60
10
82
31

54.6
54.9
55.1
51.7
41.2
50.2
41.2
50.8
38.5
53.4
36.4
33.2

9.2
9.4
8.4
11.0.
14.7
12.0
14.5
13.3
14.8
14.1
13.9
15.1

19.8
16.8
20.5
17.7
18.5
17.0
18.9
15.5
19.4
13.9
19.3
19.5

6.1
4.9
5.2
4.3
6.9
3.9
4.3
3.3
4.2
4.1
3.7
3.2

10.3
14.0
10.8
15.3
18.7
16.9
21.1
17.1
23.1
14.5
26.7
29.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

5
361
12
151
88
10
118

30.3
53.0
43.1
50.3
39.2
53.4
35.0

14.9
10.4
13.9
12.2
14.7
14.1
14.4

14.9
17.4
18.8
16.7
19.3
13.9
19.1

3.1
4.5
6.7
3.8
4.2
4.1
3.5

36.8
14.7
17.5
17.0
22.6
14.5
28.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

In discussing the preceding table it should be remembered that
the workmen’s families live principally in the large cities, while the
families of officials live principally in the small cities and rural dis­
tricts. For this reason the prices paid by the workmen’s families
are probably higher than are paid by families of officials, especially
the prices for food and for dwelling. Another factor which should be
kept in mind is that the detailed data given elsewhere in the report
show that the workmen’s families, as a rule, are composed 6f a



COST OF LIVING IN GERM ANY, 1907-8.

753

larger number of persons than the officials' families. In the preced­
ing table the amount expended for food is higher in the case of the
workmen's families than in the officials' families, and this is true
for each grade of expenditure except the second grade, and the differ­
ence becomes greater with the increase in the amount of expenditure.
The item of expenditure for miscellaneous purposes shows clearly the
greater amount expended for such purposes by the officials' than by
the workmen's families. The detailed tables presented in the report
show, for instance, that the officials frequently take vacation jour­
neys and excursions of considerable extent, which require both
larger means and leave of absence.
The difference in the standard of living of wage-earners and of
salaried persons was referred to in the discussion of income and
expenditures according to occupation of the head of the family.
Comparatively few studies have been made of the cost of living of
persons receiving salaries of practically the same level as workmen.
Some of the differences in the two large groups of occupations have
already been pointed out, such, for instance, as the fact that salaried
persons show a tendency to select smaller communities as places of
residence; the size of the family is, in general, somewhat smaller, and
the consumption of certain important articles of food shows a marked
difference in the case of salaried persons as compared with work­
men. The greater regularity of income of the salaried persons, their
higher standard of general education, and the possibility of making
better provision in the way of insurance, etc., influence their expendi­
tures in many ways.
To permit the reader to make a more detailed comparison of the
two types of families, the following table is presented, in which the
families of workmen and the families of salaried officials have their
income and expenditures presented in considerable detail, the families
being classed according to the grade of expenditure and according to
the size of the family.




754

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
D E T A ILE D COMPARISON OF A V E R A G E E X P E N D IT U R E S P E R F A M IL Y
I.—FAMILIES. C LASSIFIED B Y AMOUNT OF E X PE N D ITU R E.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Items.

1,200 to 1,600 M.
Under
($285.60 to $380.80).
1,200 M.
(1285.60).
Work­
men: 11
Work­
families, (a) men: 154 Officials:
families. 2 families.

1,600 to 2,000 M.
($380.80 to $476).

Work­
men: 196
families.

Officials:
10 families.

Per Amt. Per Amt. Per Amt. Per Amt. Per
Amt. cent.
cent.
cent.
cent.
cent.
POODS AND DRINKS.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Meat (including ham, bacon, etc.) . . .
Sausage.................................................
Fish (including smoked fish)..............
Butter...................................................
Suet, margarine, etc.............................
Cheese...................................................
Eggs......................................................
Potatoes................................................
Green vegetables..................................
Salt, spices, oil.....................................
Sugar, sirup, honey.............................
Flour, rice, legumes, etc......................
Fruit......................................................
Bread and pastry.................................
Coflee and coffee substitutes..............
Tea, chocolate, cocoa...........................
Milk.......................................................

$23.16
6.14
1.35
11.94
4.56
2.50
4.00
7.34
4.94
2.39
3.59
5.57
2.68
25.68
5.12
.71
14.14

9.9 $32.35
2.4 12.68
.5 2.78
4.6 13.27
1.8 8.25
1.0 3.11
1.5 5.21
2.8 6.87
1.9 4.24
.9 2.20
1.4 4.97
2.2 6.40
1.0 3.62
9.0 32.80
2.0 5.20
.3 1.04
5.5 19.94

18
19

Other drinks at home:
A lcoholic.......................................
Nonalcoholic..................................

6.46
.08

7.63
.15

6.54

9.5 $18.12 5.3 $38.55
3.7 17.22 5.0 13.70
.8 2.86
.8 3.37
3.9 9.53 2.8 18.24
2.4 3.98 1.1 10.49
.9 2.38
.7 3.99
1.5 8.02 2.3 6.52
2.0 5.52 1.6 7.69
1.2 5.12 1.5 5.02
.6 2.46
.7 1.86
1.5 6.75 1.9 5 97
1.9 13.40 3.9 6.41
1.1 2.43
.7 5.81
9.6 29.18 8.5 37.58
1.5 6.45 1.9 5.54
.3
.11 («)
1.74
5.8 42.07 12.2 22.62
2.23
.07

9.0 $36.02
3.2 9.07
.8 2.24
4.3 15.47
2.5 7.58
.9 1.93
1.5 6.09
1.8 5.44
1.2 4.75
.4 1.80
1.4 6.04
1.5 7.48
1.4 8.49
8.8 30.14
1.3 5.13
.4 3.16
5.3 20.88

6.70
.23

8.1
2.0
.5
3.5
1.7
.4
1.4
1.2
1.1
.4
1.4
1.7
1.9
6.8
1.2
.7
4.7

2.89
.15

20

Total...........................................

2.5

7.78

2.3

2.30

.7

6.93

1.6

3.04

.7

21
22

Other food products.............................
Cigars and tobacco...............................

.07 («)
2.82 1.1

.35
3.35

.1
1.0

.01 (<0
4.79 1.4

.37
4.36

.1
1.0

.67
2.71

.1
.6

23
24
25

Expenditure in restaurants:
Foods ............................................
Alcoholic drinks...........................
Nonalcoholic drinks.....................

<23.89
3.18
<26.32
2.73
.07 ....... <2.80 .......

26

Total...........................................

5.98

2.3 11.10

3.3

2.49
«2.94
4.22
<9.22
.42 ....... e 1.21 .......
7.13

2.1 13.94

3.3

1.14
2.53
1.35 .......
5.02

1.1

Total expenditures for foods 141.22 54.6 187.51 54.9 189.83 55.1 220.70 51.7 183.15 41.2
and drinks.
ALL OTHER*
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

Clothing, linen, cleaning:
Clothing......................................... 18.03
Linen (including bed linen):....... 2.38
Cleaning......................................... 3.43
Total........................................... 23.84
Dwelling (rent and maintenance of):
Rent..........................................
Gardens, etc..................................
Maintenance and cleaning of
dwelling.

43.08
.09
8.01

.....

24.84
3.02
4.21

......

22.43
.54
5.93

9.2 32.07

9.4 28.90

49.01
.31
8.04

66.83

......

3.86

......

37.22
4.65
5.20

52.40
4.84
8.13

8.4 47.07 11.0 65.37 14.7
63.40
.32
11.88

62.03
.77
19.46

Total........................................... 51.18 19.8 57.36 16.8 70.69 20.5 75.60 17.7 82.26 18.5

35
36

Heating and lighting:
Heating and fires.......................... 11.59
Lighting......................................... 4.13

37

Total...........................................

15.72

..... 12.63 ...... 12.13 ...... 13.30 ...... 25.15
4.02

5.76

5.05

5.57

6.1 16.65

4.9 17.89

5.2 18.35

4.3 30.72

« In this grade of expenditure there were no families of officials.
b In this grade of expenditure there were no families of workmen.
cLess than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
d Average for 153 families.
« Average for 193 families.




6.9

755

COST OF LIVING IN GERM ANY, 1907-8,
IN FAMILIES OF W O R K M E N AND FAMILIES OF OFFICIALS.
I.—FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y AMOUNT OF EXPENDITURE.
2,000 to 2,500 M. ($476
to $595).
Work­
men: 127
families.

Officials:
28 families.

2,500 to 3,000 M. ($595
to $714 ).

Work­
men: 24
families.

Officials:
60 families.

to 5,000 Over 5,000
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 4,000
M. ($952
to $952).
M. ($1,190).
to $1,190).
Work­
men: 10
families.

Officials:
Officials:
82 families. 31 families.

Mar­
ginal
Officials:
5families.(*) num­
ber.

Per Amt. Per Amt. Per Amt. Per
Per
Per
Pet
Per
Amt. cent.
cent.
cent.
cent. Amt. cent. Amt. cent. Amt. cent. Amt. cent.

$46.67
14.46
4.18
20.06
11.45
4.93
7.13
9.43
6.38
2.31
6.40
7.13
6.86
42.95
7.10
1.98
24.94

9.0 $48.38
2.8 13.16
.8 3.49
3.8 22.60
2.2 3.94
.9 2.51
1.4 8.63
1.8 7.34
1.2 5.97
.4 3.24
1.2 7.09
1.4 6.16
1.3 6.29
8.3 31.40
1.4 5.75
.4 2.35
4.8 22.55

8.47
.24 .......

8.8 $63.40 10.0 $53.12
2.4 14.73 2.3 14.34
.8 3.73
.6 4.81
4.1 23.88 3.8 27.93
.7 17.32 2.7 5.57
.5 6.21 1.0 3.28
1.6 9.98 1.6 9.19
1.3 11.91 1.9 6.77
1.1 7.75 1.2 7.03
.6 3.02
.5 2.51
1.3 6.75 1.1 6.50
1.1 9.04 1.4 6.34
1.1 9.31 1.5 8.59
5.7 53.64 8.5 34.99
1.0 8.48 1.4 6.37
.4 3.23
.5 2.59
4.1 29.09 4.6 24.41

8.13
.38 .......

9.32
.35

......

8.1 $88.42 11.5 $59.23
2.2 16.24 2.1 15.75
.6 8.20 1.1 4.97
4.3 31.56 4.1 29.26
.8 24.56 3.2 5.85
.5 7.01
.9 3.97
1.4 10.63 1.4 11.08
1.0 15.36 2.0 7.68
1.1 11.21 1.4 9.43
.4 2.68
.3 2.70
1.0 8.39 1.1 8.21
1.0 10.48 1.4 8.50
1.3 10.68 1.4 11.42
5.4 77.54 10.1 42.24
1.0 9.11 1.2 7.03
.4 3.15
.4 3.97
3.7 29.24 3.8 32.12

8.85
.35 .......

5.69
.37 .......

9.16
.40

7.3
1.9
.6
3.6
.7
.5
1.4
.9
1.2
.3
1.0
1.1
1.4
5.2
.9
.5
4.0

$69.78
17.50
5.30
38.09
6.89
4.65
10.27
8.25
11.10
2.85
7.94
9.56
16.10
49.97
8.20
3.84
34.55

6.7
1.7
.5
3.7
.7
.4
1.0
.8
1.1
.3
.8
.9
1.6
4.8
.8
.4
3.3

10.04
.36

$85.94
23.98
9.72
50.55
6.99
6.28
13.74
11.69
14.36
4.15
6.37
8.60
17.58
53.39
6.83
2.84
35.50

6.2
1.7
.7
3.6
.5
.4
1.0
.8
1.0
.3
.5
.6
1.3
3.8
.5
.2
2.5

16.68
.08

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

8.71

1.7

8.51

1.5

9.67

1.5

9.20

1.4

6.06

.8

9.56

1.2

10.40

1.0

16.76

1.2

20

.43
5.40

.1
1.0

.88
5.85

.2
1.1

.54
7.81

.1
1.2

.84
5.32

.1
.8

5.85
6.68

.8
.9

.90
7.19

.1
.9

1.42
8.84

.1
.9

1.28
12.95

.1
.9

21
22

<4.80
<6.79 ......
<2.30 .......

8.01
7.47
2.00

24.43
8.43
1.38 .......

23
24
25

34.24

26

/ 6 . 54
/13.57 ......
/1.44 .......
22.25

2.92
4.12
13.53
6.47 . . •. . 14.20 ...... 0 8 .1 2
1.41 ....... 1.97 ....... 01.44

4.3 10.80

2.0 20.29

3.2 13.05

* 3.17

..... *16.26 . . . . .
...... *2.26 ......
2.0 26.75

3.5 14.13

1.7

261.15 50.2 226.89 41.2 320.86 50.8 251.67 38.5 409.80 53.4 295.19 36.4

48.33
7.30
6.59

......

65.37
6.44
7.94

......

67.91
8.36
7.60

......

79.49
6.36
10.76

......

92.00
6.50
9.95

......

91.71
9.05
12.26

62.22 12.0 79.75 14 5 83.87 13.3 96.61 14.8 108.45 14.1 113.02 13.9
73.18
81.40
.40 ......
.57
14.58 ...... 22.28

......
......

7429
.47
23.18

......

100.99
89.88
122.04
.69 ..... 1.47 ......
1.13 ......
25.09 ...... 16.06 ...... 33.55 ......

88.16 17.0 104.25 18.9 97.94 15.5 127.21 19.4 106.63 13.9 157.06 19.3
14.84
5.19
20.03

......

17.90
5.93

3.9 23.83

14.85
6.00

19.12
8.33

4 3 20.85

3.3 27.45

......

......

24.02
7.12

4.2 31.14




1.7

2.5

423.74 30.3

130.05
11.30
14.70

177.42
13.86
17.05

27
28
29

156.05 15.1

208.33 14.9

30

149.42
1.85
50.64

163.98
2.97
40.57

31
32
33

201.91 19.5

207.52 14.9

34

18.98
11.18

......

18.55
14.28

4.1 30.16

3.7

32.83

......

/Average for 125 families.
g Average for 59 families.
* Average for 9 families.
<Average for 81 families.

47150—Bull. 88—10--- 5

17.48

342.98 33.2

35
36

24.56
18.05
3.2

42.61

3.1

37

756

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
D E T A I L E D C O M P A R IS O N O F A V E R A G E E X P E N D I T U R E P E R F A M IL Y
I . —F A M IL IE S , C L A S S IF IE D B Y A M O U N T O F E X P E N D I T U R E —Concluded.

Mar­
ginal
num-

Items.

1,200 to 1,600 M.
Under
($285.60 to $380.80).
1,200 M.
($285.60).
Work­
men: 11
Work­
families, (a) men: 154 Officials:
families. 2 families.

1,600 to 2,000 M.
($380.80 to $476).

Work­
Officials:
men: 196 10
families.
families.

Per Amt. Per
Per
Per
Per
Amt. cent.
cent, Amt. cent. Amt. cent. Amt. cent.
all other—concluded.

Health and physical care:
Health expenditures...................
Physical care................................
Total..........................

3.67

Education, school fees, etc.
Intellectual and social expenditures:
Newspapers, books, clocks, etc...
Recreation....................................
44

Total.
State, commune, church, etc. (includ­
ing taxes):
Taxes and rates...........................
Legal protection..........................

Grand total.

$4.06
2.22

1.4

4.19

1.2

6.28

.2

1.47

.4

.03

$3.58
2.16
1.8

5.74

(c)

$6.96
1.87
8.83

2.0

1.94

1.19

.3

1.3

6.93
1.07

9.28
2.88

6.42
4.64

12.48
4.18

9.04
8.70

8.00

3.1 12.16

3.6 11.06

3.2 16.66

3.9 17.74

1.78
.24

3.80
.03

4.72

5.19

6.14

2.02

Total.
Insurance, relief funds, etc................
Transportation....................................
Personal service..................................
Gifts, presents, etc.............................
Debts and interest.............................
Trade and occupational expenses...
Miscellaneous ex
Expenditures i
Savings—

$2.62
1.57

$2.17
1.50

4.27
1.28
.16
.29
2.09
.20
2.26
1.81

3.83

1.1

4.72

1.4

1.6 11.04
.5 4.16
.1
.31
.1 1.02
.8 1.16
.1 1.19
5.54
.61
1.27

3.2
1.2
.1
.3
.3
.4
1.6

9.49
.30
.22
1.28

2.7 13.83
.1 5.61
.1
.42
.4 1.
1.14
2.02
1.1 6.75
.24
4.19

.8

.2

3.66

.4

5.19

1.2

4.0

6.14

1.4

3.2 18.92
1.3 5.87
.1 5.72
.3 3.19
.3 1.67
.5
.20
1.6 7.22
.1 2.86
1.0 3.26

4.3
1.3
1*3
.7
.4
.1
1.6
.6
.7

258.67 100.0 341.54 100.0 344.35 100.0 426.78 100.0 444.31 100.0

II.—FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y NUMBER OF PERSONS.
Families with 2 persons.
Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Items.

Workmen:
49 families.

Officials and
teachers:
19 families.

Families with 3 persons.
Workmen:
98 families.

Officials and
teachers:
33 families.

Amt.

Per
cent.

Amt.

Per
cent.

Amt.

Per
cent.

Amt.

Meat (including ham, bacon, etc.)___ $35.96
Sausage.................................................
12.76
Fish (including smoked fish)..............
3.34
Butter................................................... 17.70
Suet, margarine, etc............................
4.59
Cheese...................................................
3.98
Eggs......................................................
5.90
Potatoes................................................
5.57
Green vegetables..................................
4.95
Salt, spices, oil.....................................
1.32
Sugar, sirup, hon ey............................
4.43
Flour, rice, legumes, etc......................
3.96
Fruit.....................................................
6.04
Bread and pastry................................. 21.90
Coffee and coffee substitutes...............
5.47
Tea, chocolate, cocoa...........................
1.90
Milk....................................................... 16.74

8.8
3.1
.8
4.3
1.1
1.0
1.4
1.4
1.2
.3
1.1
1.0
1.5
5.3
1.3
.5
4.1

$45.22
12.45
5.04
22.25
2.52
2.81
7.08
4.04
8.07
1.87
4.39
4.57
11.19
23.04
5.06
2.84
14.28

6.8
1.9
.8
3.4
.4
.4
1.1
.6
1.2
.3
.7
.7
1.7
3.5
.8
.4
2.1

$38.91
12.06
3.21
15.90
6.92
3.93
6.33
6.77
5.25
1.92
4.59
5.79
5.51
27.69
5.50
1.60
21.11

9.6
3.0
.8
3.9
1.7
1.0
1.6
1.7
1.3
.5
1.1
1.4
1.4
6.8
1.4
.4
5.2

$50.26
14.22
4.04
23.45
4.63
3.54
8.65
6.21
8.84
2.59
4.91
5.37
8.86
28.86
5.77
2.95
23.80

Per
cent.

FOODS AND DRINKS.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

a In this grade of expenditure there were no families of officials.
b In this grade of expenditure there were no families of workmen.




7.1
2.0
.6
3.3
.7
.5
1.2
.9
1.2
.4
.7
.8
1.3
4.1
.8
.4
3.4

757

COST OF LIVING IN GEBMANY, 1907-8.
IN FAM ILIES OF W ORKM EN AND FAMILIES OF OFFICIALS—Continued.
I.—FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y AMOUNT OF EXPENDITURE—Concluded.
2,000 to 2,600 M. ($476
to $595).

2,500 to 3,000 M. ($595
to $714).

to 5,000 Over 5,000
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 4,000
M. ($592
M. ($1,190).
to $952).
to $1,190).

Work­
men: 127
families.

Work­
men: 24
families.

Work­
men: 10
families.

Officials:
28 families.

Officials:
60 families.

Mar­
ginal
Officials: num­
5 families. (6) ber.

Officials:
Officials:
82 families. 31 families.

Amt. Per Amt. Per Amt. Per Amt. Per Amt. Per Amt. Per Amt. Per Amt. Per
cent.
cent.
cent.
cent.
cent.
cent.
cent.
cent.

$6.32
$4.99
$13.85
$2.88
$19.17
$28.14
2.51 ....... 2.29 ....... 2.48 ....... 3.04 ....... 2.18 ....... 3.47 .......
7.50

1.4 16.14

2.9

5.36

.7

8.18

12.98
14.85
7.25 ....... 14.05 .......

16.66
12.75

4.67

.9

22.10

4.48
.05

3.67

4.2 27.03

......

4.53

.9

8.90
.33

4.9 29.41

......

$32.85
3.89

38
39

.8 22.21

3.4

8.50

1.1 31.61

3.9

49.50

48

36.74

2.6

40

6.76

1.0

410

.5 19.29

2.4

40.77

3.9

107.44

7.7

41

1.3

15.62
13.36
17.48
14 55 ....... 13.74 ....... 18.86
4 6 27.91

4.3 29.36

4.47
12.76
.01 .......
.03 .......

1.7

4.48

.7 12.79

15.32 2.9 21.73 3.9
8.75 1.7 7.19 1.3
.20 (c)
6.00 1.1
3.32
.6 2.43
.4
2.71
.5
.5 2.65
.22 (c)
2.37
.5
10.26 2.0 15.19 2.8
.17 (c)
6.61 1.3 4.90
.9

14.73
9.93
1.93
'3.46
5.04
2.25
13.05

2.3 25.88
1.6 7.25
.3 7.69
.6 2.55
.8 1419
.3 1.09
2.1 14 33
.80
1- 7 7.46

9.23

$46.01
3.49

7.58

.......

.......

4.5

47.72

16.87
.52 .......

17.39
.37

23.93
41.85
46

65.78

42
43
47

39.05
.69

44

45
46

7.58

1.0 17.39

2.1

17.76

1.7

39.74

2.9

47

4.0 14 09
1.1 9.44
1.2 5.32
.4 5.73
2.2 7.89
.2 2.94
2.2 11.26
.1
1.1 5.14

1.8 31.35
1.2 8.62
.7 9.51
.8 9.61
1.0 14.83
.4 1.74
1.5 24.12

3.8
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.8
.2
3.0

5.8
1.4
2.6
.7
.5
45
2.1

1.5

42
1.3
1.4
.7
1.5
.1
3.4
.1
1.3

80.80
18.80
36.41
9.90
7.14
63.38
29.75

.7 11.93

43.58
12.92
14 05
7.58
14 98
1.04
35.51
1.39
13.45

18.61

1.3

48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

520.07 100.0 551.10 100.0 631.97 100.0 653.85 100.0 767.37 100.0 811.77 100.0 1,034 02 100.0 1,396.69 100.0

57

10.63

1.9

3.8 36.34

20.92
26.80

II.—FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y NUMBER OF PERSONS.
Families with 4 persons.
Workmen:
127 families.

Amt.

Per
cent.

$39.69
14.51
3.34
15.20
9.37
3.87
6.83
7.11
5.09
2.01
5.50
6.48
5.25
34.11
5.70
1.55
22.66

9.4
3.5
.8
3.6
2.2
.9
1.6
1.7
1.2
.5
1.3
1.5
1.3
8.1
1.4
.4
5.4

Officials and
teachers:
53 families.

Amt.

$57.91
14.46
4.60
27.82
4.73
3.55
9.80
6.64
8.34
2.22
6.75
7.35
10.68
34.26
5.85
3.31
28.22

Per
cent.

7.9
2.0
.6
3.8
.6
.5
1.3
.9
1.1
.3
.9
1.0
1.5
4.7
.8
.4
3.8




Families with 5 persons.
Workmen:
125 families.

Amt.

$42.06
13.89
3.49
18.21
11.74
4.21
7.05
8.83
5.74
2.35
6.27
7.27
5.89
41.28
6.24
1.70
23.83

P er
cent.

9.3
3.1
.8
4.0
2.6
.9
1.6
1.9
1.3
.5
1.4
1.6
1.3
9.1
1.4
.4
5.3

Families with 6 persons.

Officials and
teachers:
56 families.

Amt.

$57.90
16.24
3.93
30.72
5.96
3.73
11.08
7.55
8.45
2.51
8.29
7.34
11.85
40.70
7.39
3.19
32.10

Per
cent.

7.8
2.2
.5
4.2
.8
.5
1.5
1.0
1.1
.3
1.1
1.0
1.6
5.5
1.0
.4
4.3

Workmen:
56 families.

Officials and
teachers:
32 families.

Amt.

Per
cent.

Amt.

Per
cent.

$40.13
13.79
3.64
20.49
12.98
4.01
5.93
9.79
5.36
2.27
6.76
7.64
6.08
48.07
6.37
1.88
25.09

8.8
3.0
.8
4.5
2.8
.9
1.3
2.1
1.2
.5
1.5
1.7
1.3
10.6
1.4
.4
5.5

$59.64
16.28
4.90
33.13
8.65
4.12
10.74
10.07
'
9.38
3.71
7.07
11.21
9.93
49.87
8.09
2.79
33.10

6.9
1.9
.6
3.8
1.0
.5
1.2
1.2
1.1
.4
.8
1.3
1.1
5.8
.9
.3
3.8

c Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.
D E T A I L E D C O M P A R IS O N O F A V E R A G E E X P E N D I T U R E P E R F A M I L Y
II.—F A M IL IE S , C L A S S IF IE D B Y N U M B E R O F P E R S O N S —Continued.

Families with 2 persons.
iarnal
imer.

Workmen:
49 families.

Items.

Families with 3 persons.

Officials and
teachers:
19 families.

Officials and
teachers:
33 families.

Amt.

Amt.

Amt.

P .ct. Amt.

food and drinks—concluded.
Other drinks at home:
A lcoholic.......................................
Nonalcoholic.................................

$7.54
.34

$9.47
.33

20

Total...........................................

7.88

1.9

9.80

1.5

7.68

1.9

9.41

1.3

21
22

.25
6.12

.1
1.5

.91
9.24

.1
1.4

.34
4.12

.1
1.0

.58
7.25

.1
1.0

23
24
25

Other food products.............................
Cigars and tobacco...............................
Expenditures in restaurants:
F o o d ..............................................
Alcoholic drinks...........................
Nonalcoholic drinks.....................

7.57
12.53
1.87

26

Total...........................................

18
19

27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

P.ct.

Workmen:
98 families.

P.ct.

$7.56
.12

10.47
9.57
3.72

P.ct.

$9.24
.17

5.43
9.98
1.43

4.10
9.49
1.55

21.97

5.4

23.76

3.6

16.84

4.2

15.14

2.2

Total expenditures for foods 192.73
and drinks.
ALL OTHER.
Clothing, linen, cleaning:
Clothing........................................
32.67
Linen (including bed lin e n )........
5.87
Cleaning........................................
4.58

47.1

220.43

33.4

201.97

50.0

239.33

34.0

43.12

10.5

Total...........................................
Dwelling (rent and maintenance of):
R e n t ..............................................
Gardens, e tc ..................................
Maintenance and cleaning of
dwelling.
Total...........................................
Heating and lighting:
Heating and fires..........................
Lighting........................................

76.74
6.04
10.75

65.73
.61
15.85
82.19

93.53

33.31
4.35
5.02
14.2

119.64
1.72
28.30
20.1

11.88
5.09

149.66

22.7

73.87

92.95

13.2

117.99
1.47
39.89
18.3

13.4*5
4.83

159.35

22.7

16.92
9.59

Total...........................................
Health and physical care:
Health expenditures...................
Physical care................................

16.97

40

Total...........................................

8.47

2.1

35.86

5.4

5.41

1.3

27.51

3.9

41

Education, school fees, etc..................
Intellectual and social expenditures:
Newspapers, books, clocks, etc. . .
Recreation....................................

.80

.2

3.22

.5

1.74

.4

9.45

1.3

13.36
5.53

44

Total...........................................

18.89

45
46

State, commune, church, etc. (includ­
ing taxes):
Taxes and rates............................
Legal protection...........................

4.62
.08

37
38
39

42
43

6.05
2.42

26.44

10.6

62.01
.37
11.49

17.20
9.24
4.2

42.68

74.73
7.50
10.72

4.0

31.79
4.07

42.01

4.5

3.46
1.95

17.43
24.58
4.6

18.29

17.92

17.72
17.37
4.4

4.52
.04

13.19

3.8

24.45
3.06

12.50
5.42
6.4

26.51

35.09

5.0

15.35
.07

47

Total...........................................

4.70

1.2

13.19

.2.0

4.56

1.1

15.42

2.2

48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

Insurance, relief funds, etc..................
Transportation.....................................
Personal service....................................
Gifts, presents, etc...............................
Debts and interest...............................
Trade and occupational expenses___
Miscellaneous expenses........................
Expenditures in kind..........................
Savings.................................................

12.31
10.46
.48
2.15
.86
2.12
8.82

3.0
2.6
.1
.5
.2
.5
2.2

13.24
7.20
.37
2.61
.73
1.45
7.50
.10
4.62

27.67
8.18
6.54
7.07
10.93
.12
20.89

3.9
1.2
.9
1.0
1.6
(a)
3.0

.9

3.1
1.6
.8
.7
.9
.3
2.3
.1
1.6

3.3
1.8
.1
.6
.2
.4
1.9

3.79

20.83
10.56
5.31
4.72
5.91
1.87
15.45
.88
10.49

15.89

2.3

57

Grand t o ta l...............................




408.86 100.0

660.36 100.0

a Less than one-tenth o f 1 per cent.

404.26 100.0

702.90 100.0

COST OF LIVING IN GERM ANY, 1907-8.

759




SgSSSSSg&ifc is & &

i

S6

J

S SS

£

£82

§ 883

§ SSK8

ESS

IN FAMILIES OF W ORKM EN AND FAMILIES OF OFFICIALS—Continued.
II.—FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y NUMBER OF PERSONS—Continued.

760

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
D E T A I L E D C O M P A R IS O N O F A V E R A G E E X P E N D I T U R E S P E R F A M IL Y
II.—F A M IL IE S , C L A S S IF IE D B Y H U M B E R O F P E R S O N S —Continued.

Families with 7 persons.
Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Items.

Officials and
teachers:
17 families.

Workmen:
36 families.

Per
Per
Amount. cent.
Amount. cent.
FOODS AND DRINKS.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Meat (including ham, bacon, etc.).................................................
Sansapp
_T....... ........... I___ I..................................................
Fish (Including smnlrcd fish)_ ......................................................
Butter............w. ....................1..........................................................
Suet, margarine, etc........................................................................
Cheese__ 7....... ...............................................................................
Eggs..................................................................................................
Potatoes...........................................................................................
Green vegetables..............................................................................
Salt, spices, oil.................................................................................
Sugar,‘ sirup, honey ........................................................................
Flour, rice ‘ legumes, etc..................................................................
F ru it... . . '..T .___ 1 .........................................................................
Bread anri pastry............................................................................
Coffee and pr»fFee‘ substitutes.........................................................
Tea chocolate, cocoa.......................................................................
Milk..................................................................................................

$42.25
15.06
3.28
19.62
14.82
4.20
6.06
10.95
4.97
2.87
7.19
7.71
4.45
57.46
6.91
1.47
24.15

18
19

Other drinks at home:
Alcoholic.
............................. ...........................................
Nonalcoholic................................... ........... ..............................

8.86
.21

20

Total................................. ...................................................

9.07

2.0

6.96

.8

21
22

Other food products........................................................................
Cigars and tobacco_________________________________________

.68
4.12

.2
.9

1.36
6.53

.2
.8

23
24
25

Expenditure in restaurants:
F o o d ..........................................................................................
Alcoholic drinks.......................................................................
Nonalcoholic d rin k s...............................................................

2.66
6.78
.58

26

Total..................................................................................... .

10.02

2.2

13.70

1.6

Total expenditures for foods and drinks .............................

257.31

56.3

329.74

38.8

ALL OTHER.
Clothing, linen, cleaning:
Clothing.............................................. .....................................
Linen (including bed linen)....................................................
Cleaning.....................................................................................

44.76
4.57
6.51

30

Total.......................................................................................

55.84

31
32
33

Dwelling (rent and maintenance of):
Rent...........................................................................................
Gardens, etc..............................................................................
Maintenance and cleaning of dwelling...................................

54.98
.11
9.78

34

T o ta l......................................................................................

64.87

35
36

Heating and lighting:
Heating and fires......................................................................
Lighting....................................................................................

12.80
4.36

27
28
29

9.2
3.3
.7
4.3
3.2
.9
1.3
2.4
1.1
.6
1.6
1.7
1.0
12.6
1.5
.3
5.3

$68.21
14.63
4.75
33.64
8.04
3.84
10.24
8.65
7.40
4.36
10.69
9.75
10.98
60.26
7.86
4.16
33.73

8.0
1.7
.6
4.0
.9
.4
1.2
1.0
.9
.5
1.3
1.1
1.3
7.1
.9
.5
4.0

6.82
.14

3.67
8.53
1.50

99.95
8.71
11.31
12.2

119.97

14.1

114.74
2.19
39.96
14.2

156.89

18.4

21.89
11.07

Total.......................................................................................
Health and physical care:
Health expenditures................................................................
Physical care.............................................................................

17.16

40

Total.......................................................................................

3.91

.9

25.20

3.0

41

3.81

.8

40.35

4.7

42
43

Education, school fees, etc............ ................................................
Intellectual and social expenditures:
Newspapers, books, clocks, etc................................................
Recreation.................................................................................

44

Total.......................................................................................

37
38
39




3.8

2.33
1.58

3.9

22.63
2.57

11.05
3.26
14

32.96

16.14
16.83
3.1

32.97

3.9

761

COST OE LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,
IN FAM ILIES OF W ORKM EN AND FAM ILIES OF OFFICIALS-Continued.
II.—FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y NUMBER OF PERSONS-Continued.
Families with 8 persons.

Workmen:
19 families.

Families with 9 persons.

Officials and
teachers:
4 families.

Officials and
teachers:
4 families.

Workmen:
9 families.

Families with
10 persons.

Families with
11 persons.

Workmen:
2 families.

Workmen:
1 family.

Amt.

Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
cent. Amount. cent. Amount. cent. Amount. cent. Amount. cent. Amount. cent.

338.77
10.74
4.21
21.49
18.59
4.42
4.41
10.91
5.93
3.10
7.99
11.08
6.00
62.71
6.43
1.78
24.12

8.1
2.2
.9
4.5
3.9
.9
.9
2.3
1.2
.6
1.7
2.3
1.2
13.0
1.3
.4
5.0

353.02
24.05
5.41
36.22
8.33
3.35
8.11
12.69
7.34
2.59
8.05
12.00
7.71
58.24
6.52
5.71
31.61

6.4
2.9
.7
4.4
1.0
.4
1.0
1.5
.9
.3
1.0
1.4
.9
7.0
.8
.6
3.8

5.69
.24

5.29
.23

359.29
10.88
8.01
23.16
22.96
5.58
7.79
15.61
6.89
2.38
8.31
10.70
5.28
77.09
7.54
1.91
27.97

10.1
1.9
1.4
4.0
3.9
.9
1.3
2.7
1.2
.4
1.4
1.8
.9
13.2
1.3
.3
4.8

4.75
.25

369.67
15.05
4.53
36.90
5.95
3.68
13.83
10.95
4.85
3.07
26.60
13.47
8.60
69.91
10.91
5.61
40.68

7.8
1.7
.5
4.1
.7
.4
1.6
1.2
.5
.3
3.0
1.5
1.0
7.8
1.2
.6
4.6

7.35
.28

364.63
22.93
7.42
39.03
19.48
10.65
5.77
11.97
7.46
3.29
6.00
6.42
8.73
92.87
8.81
1.10
31.21

9.5
3.4
1.1
5.8
2.9
1.6
.8
1.7
1.1
.5
.9
.9
1.3
13.7
1.3
.2
4.6

10.56
.10

385.93
8.72
4.37
4.91
70.63
4.88
1.37
25.33
11.41
3.51
7.97
12.94
8.65
107.02
15.35
.42
28.30

11.8
1.2
.6
.7
9.7
.7
.2
3.5
1.5
.5
1.1
1.8
1.2
14.7
2.1
(a)
3.9

3.39
.20

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

1

2

3
4
5

6

7
8
9

10

11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

5.52

1.2

5.93

.7

5.00

.9

7.63

.9

10.66

1.6

3.59

.5

20

.37
3.16

.1
.7

.79
4.25

.1
.5

6.73
4.87

1.1
.8

3.34
5.91

.4
.7

.42
7.62

.1
1.1

.12
2.20

(a)
.3

21
22

.70
4.45
.66

3.47
7.49
1.03

2.78
12.37
.90

1.41
8.30
.42

11.17
38.45
2.16

23
24
25

2.06

16.05

3.3

11.99

1.4

13.21

2.3

10.13

1.1

51.78

7.6

2.06

.3

267.78

55.7

313.91

37.7

331.16

56.6

371.27

41.6

418.25

61.7

409.68

56.3

43.03
4.81
5.97
53.81

11.2

61.83
.62
12.30
74.75

127.03

15.3

15.5

127.45

15.3

4.31
2.21

32.22

15.2

81.05

3.9

19.57

13.8

16.6

102.28

3.3

31.87

73.49

99.15
13.20
9.25
10.9

71.40
.57
7.80
11.5

79.77

3.6

25.13

11.8

29
16.7

30

68.69

9.4

34

33

36.68
6.83
3.7

.28
1.76

23.47
1.77

.121.60
59.50
1.17
8.02

17.28
7.85

26.20
5.67

2.70
2.06

39.28
1.88

148.09

62.50
4.06
6.93

85.77
.24
16.27

15.04
4.53

24.04
8.18
4.7

88.88

122.63
14.37
11.09

68.00
.23
12.82

107.30
1.42
18.73

17.51
5.35
22.86

76.85
5.37
6.66

112.00
6.96
8.07

43.51

26

35
36
6.0

3.57
1.05

37
38

6.52

1.4

41.16

5.0

4.76

.8

25.24

2.8

2.04

.3

4.62

.6

40

3.44

.7

24.00

2.9

4.16

.7

28.61

3.2

3.14

.5

.98

.1

41

10.99
3.56
14.55

10.05
4.89

15.80
27.11
3.0

42.91

5.2




14.94

9.98
21.62
2.6

31.60

17.50
.79

12.16
14.58
3.5

26.74

o Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

3.9

18.29

42
43
2.5

44

762

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
D E T A ILE D COMPARISON OF A V E R A G E E XP E N D IT U R E S P E R FAM ILY
II.—FAM ILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y NUMBER OF PERSONS—Concluded.

Families with 7 persons.
Marginal
num­
ber.

Items.

Workmen:
36 families.

Officials and
teachers:
17 families.

Per Amount. Per
Amount. cent.
cent.
all other —concluded.

45
46

State, commune, church, etc. (including taxes):
Taxes and rates........................................................................
Legal protection........................................................................

$3.73

47

Total.......................................................................................

3.73

0.8

13.81

1.6

48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

Insurance, relief funds, etc.............................................................
Transportation................................................................................
Personal service...............................................................................
Gifts, presents, etc...........................................................................
Debts and interest...........................................................................
Trade and occupational expenses.................................................
Miscellaneous expenses...................................................................
Expenditures in kind.....................................................................
Savings.............................................................................................

12.49
3.25
.15
1.72
4.71
.73
8.81
.87
3.47

2.7
.7
.0
.4
1.0
.2
1.9
.2
.8

24.97
7.78
13.20
6.62
14.44
.28
19.62
2.28
9.31

2.9
.9
1.6
.8
1.7
<«)
2.3
.3
1.1

57

Grand to ta l...........................................................................




a Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

$13.13
.68

457.14 100.0

850.39 100.0

763

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,
FAMILIES OF W ORKM EN AND FAMILIES OF OFFICIALS—Concluded.
II.—FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y NUMBER OF PERSONS-Concluded.
Families with 9 persons.

Families with 8 persons.

Workmen:
19 families.

Amt.

Per
cent.

Officials and
teachers:
4 families.

Amt.

Officials and
teachers:
4 families.

Families with
11 persons.

Workmen:
2 families.

Workmen:
1 family.

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Per
Per
Per
Per
Per
cent. Amount. cent. Amount. cent. Amount. cent. Amount. cent.

$16.94

14.10

Workmen:
9 families.

Families with
10 persons.

$7.28

$12.75
.22

$6.90

$1.78

45
46

4.10

0.8

16.94

2.0

7.28

1.2

12.97

1.4

6.90

1.0

1.78

0.3

47

11.74
3.98
.38
.51
2.75
1.75
6.54
3.65
1.99

2.4
.8
.1
.1
.6
.4
1.4
.8
.4

34.23
4.43
12.15
6.59
8.36
6.03
27.48

4.1
.5
1.5
.8
1.0
.7
3.3

13.60
4.36
.46
3.76
4.52
.36
5.43

2.3
.8
.1
.6
.8
.1
.9

34.11
17.05
12.43
.22
21.14

3.8
1.9
1.4
(«)
2.4

8.79
7.44
.01
7.47

1.3
1.1

2.55
1.46

.4
.2

.8

1.28

.2

5.2
.3
.8

1.3
1.0
.3
.4
.1
.8
1.4

6.90

46.36
2.38
7.14

9.12
7.08
1.83
3.08
.36
6.08
10.08

14.28

2.1

20.52

2.8

48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

727.30 100.0

57

481.10 100.0

831.79~ 100.0




585.57 100.0

892.76 100.0

677.46 100.0

764

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
UNITS OF EXPENDITURE IN NORMAL FAMILIES.

In any discussion of the cost of living, as shown by household
accounts, the difficulty is always met of having to compare families
composed of entirely different types of persons. In discussing the
income and expenditures of a family it is naturally of importance to
know whether at the head of the family there is a married couple, a
widower, or a widow; whether the principal support of the family is
the husband or the wife, whether there are grown children or only small
children in the hom e; whether there are relatives or servants belong­
ing to the household, and whether there are boarders or lodgers in the
home. If families which are compared have the same number of
persons, the facts just mentioned are even of greater importance in
studying the differences in families.
In order to distinguish families composed of different types of per­
sons, Engel adopted the now well-known method of distinguishing
the family members according to age and sex, and classifies the fami­
lies, not according to the number of persons, but according to the
number of “ units,” computed on the basis of the cost of living for a
new-born child. If the cost of maintenance of such a child is assumed
to be 1, with each year of life the cost will increase one-tenth, and
in the case of males will reach a stationary point at the age of 25,
and in the case of females will reach the stationary point at the age
of 20. On this basis Engel computes the cost of maintenance of a
full-grown male at 3.5, and that of a full-grown female at 3.0. A
number of studies of the cost of living have followed this method of
using “ units” to show the cost of living in certain types of families,
usually designated as normal families; this was done, for instance, in the
investigation of the United States Department of Labor in 1903, the
Danish investigation of 1897, and the study of the household accounts
of public-school teachers in Hamburg, made in 1903. In each of these
investigations different types of units have been used. As a matter
of fact, the standards adopted by Engel are open to criticism in cer­
tain respects: In the first place, for each separate year of age, Engel
uses a different number of units, and in the second place, the minute­
ness of the measurements he adopted produces inaccurate propor­
tions, because at best the standards used are only an approximation
of the actual conditions. In addition, it is doubtful whether Engel's
assumption that the relative cost of maintenance of adults is two
or three times that of children is not too high for the adults, since
for such a comparison not only the expenditures for food but the
total cost of living should determine the proportions adopted. In
the opinion of the writers of the present report, both the United




765

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

States and the Danish reports also overestimate the importance of
expenditures for nutrition.
In the present report the system of units adopted consists of the
following: For a grown male person (15 years of age and over) the
unit is 1, while for a grown female person (15 years of age and over)
the unit is 0.8. For children under 15, the units are—
Units.

Children
Children
Children
Children
Children

13 to 14 years of age..........................................................................................
0. 5
10 to 12 years of age................................................................................................... 4
7 to 9 years of a g e ......................................................................................................3
4 to 6 years of age......................................................................................................2
under 4 years of age.................................................................................................. 1

In the following table a comparison is made of the four studies
just mentioned with the present study:
COMPARISON OF STANDARD UNITS OF CONSUMPTION PE R PERSON USED IN FIVE
RECENT INVESTIGATIONS OF THE COST OF LIVING.
Number of standard units of consumption per person of specified age as used in—

Age
(years).

Engel’s studies of
Belgian families. («)

Male.

Under 1 ...
1..............
2 ..............
3..............
4..............
5..............
6..............
7..............
8..............
9..............
10..............
11..............
12..............
13..............
14..............
15..............
16..............
17..............
18..............
19..............
20..............
21..............
22..............
23..............
24..............
25..............
Over 2 5 ...

Female.

28.6
31.4
34.3
37.1
40.0
42.9
45.7
48.6
51.4
54.3
57.1
60.0
62.9
65.7
68.6
71.4
74.3
77.1
80.0
82.9
85.7
88.6
91.4
94.3
97.1
100.0
100.0

28.6
31.4
34.3
37.1
40.0
42.9
45.7
48.6
51.4
54.3
57.1
60.0
62.9
65.7
68.6
71.4
74.3
77.1
80.0
82.9
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7

U. S. Department
of Labor, 1903.(5)

Male.

15
15
15
15
40
40
40
75
75
75
75
90
90
90
90
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

Female.

15
15
15
15
40
40
40
75
75
75
75
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90
90

Danish report of
1897.(c)

Hamburg German
Imperial
Statistical Office
report,
1903. (d )
report, 1907-8. ( « )

Male.

Female.

Male and
female.

17.6
17.6
24.0
28.8
31.2
34.4
35.2
36.0
37.6
38.4
40.0
44.0
48.0
52.8
56.8
59.2
60.8
63.2
65.6
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0

50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
62.5
62.5
62.5
62.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

22
22
30
36
39
43
44
45
47
48
50
55
60
66
71
74
76
79
82
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

Male.

10
10
10
10
20
20
20
30
30
30
40
40
40
50
50

(A
(A
(A
(/)
(A
(/)
(/)
100
100
100
100
100

Female.

(A
(jA
m
(A
iA
(/)
(/)

10
10
10
10
20
20
20
30
30
30
40
40
40
50
50

80
80
80
80
80

a Engel, Die Lebenskosten belgischer Arbeiterfamilien fruher und jetzt. Dresden, 1895, page 4ff.
&Eighteenth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1903. Cost of Living and Retail Prices of
Food. Washington, 1904. page 19.
c Danske Arbejderfamiliers Forbrug, 1.
Afdeling, Byarbejdere, Danmarks Statistik, Statistiske
Meddelelser, 4. series, vol. 6. Part 6, Kopenhagen, 1900, page 18ff.
d Haushaltungsrechnungen hamburgiscner Volksschullehrer, Hamburg, 1906, page 24.
«391 normal families only.
/Families with grown up children are not considered as normal families.

It should be noted that in the present investigation the unit
adopted for children of the youngest age is the lowest of any of the




766

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

investigations included. The report states that in the opinion of
the writers the consumption by children of the items other than
food makes a much smaller demand on the family income as com­
pared with an adult than is the case in the consumption of food of
children as compared with that of a grown person. Estimating the
needs of small children at about one-tenth and of half-grown children
at about one-half of the total needs of an adult male is, according
to the report, not placing their consumption at too low a rate, and
under any circumstances such a classification is necessarily more or
less arbitrary.
The unit standard adopted in the present investigation is regarded
as being too arbitrary to be applied to all of the families included in
the report. For instance, this standard can not be used in the case
of families where there are boarders, lodgers, or other nonmembers
of the family in the household. The principle is therefore adopted
that in making a computation by units only such families should
be included in which all of the members participate with their full
incomes and full expenditures in the cost of maintaining the house­
hold. For this reason families with grown children were not regarded
as normal families, since in such cases the children usually pay to the
parents a certain amount for household expenses, but in part main­
tain themselves from the residue of their incomes. Selected on this
basis, there were 391 so-called “ normal” families out of the total
of 852 families included in the study. The average number of per­
sons for a normal family was 4.3, and the number of “ units” was 2.34
per normal family. The principal features of expenditure in such
families are shown in the following table, giving the average expend­
itures of the 391 normal families for the five groups of expenditure
in the form of averages per family, per person, and per male adult.
A V E R AG E EXPE N D ITU R ES FOR SPECIFIED PURPOSES PE R FAM ILY, PE R PERSON,
AND PE R ADU LT MALE IN 391 NORMAL FAMILIES.
In 391 normal families the av­
erage expenditure was—
Classification.
Per fam­
ily.
Foods and drinks..............................................................................................
Clothing and laundry..................................................................................
Dwelling (rent and maintenance o f)...............................................................
Heating and lighting........................................................................................
Miscellaneous.....................................................................................................
Total.......................................................................




Per per­ Per male
son.
adult.

$227.98
64.99
90.49
20.38
98.43

$53.35
15.21
21.17
4.77
23.03

$97.43
27.77
38.67
8.71
42.07

502.27

117.53

214.65

767

COST OP LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

In order to show more clearly the average expenditure in the 391
normal families, arranged in the form of average expenditure per
adult male, the data for the normal families are given, first, for these
families classified by the number of persons in the family, and, second,
by the grade of expenditure of the family. Classified according to
the number of persons in the family, the average expenditure for
an adult male for the principal classes of expenditure are as follows:
A V E RAG E E XPEN DITU RES FOR SPECIFIED PURPOSES PE R ADULT MALE IN 391
NORMAL FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y NUMBER OF PERSONS IN FAM ILY.
Computed expenditures per adult male forNumber
Number of persons in family. of normal
families.

Foods
and
drinks.

Dwelling Heating All other
Clothing (rent
and
and
and
expend­
mainte­ lighting.
laundry. nance
iture.
of).

Total.

9....................................................

43
89
93
93
43
21
5
4

$113.66
103.55
97.70
97.04
88.95
83.26
91.77
78.02

$34.26
28.54
28.87
26.79
23.79
27.78
22.25
22.54

$57.38
46.50
39.08
34.56
29.06
34.18
23.42
19.35

$10.42
10.20
9.27
7.79
7.34
7.54
6.97
6.48

$69.67
48.88
43.45
36.21
31.67
32.03
29.21
30.55

$285.39
237.67
218.37
202.39
180.81
184.79
173.62
156.94

2 to 4............................................
5 to 6............................................
Over 6..........................................

225
136
30

102.61
94.32
83.91

29.64
25.78
26.04

44.98
32.71
30.09

9.82
7.63
7.28

49.91
34.68
31.33

236.96
195.12
178.65

7....................................................

According to the preceding table, in families of larger size the
average expenditure per adult male shows a decrease, or, in other
words, there is an actual restriction of the expenditures as compared
with the need. For instance, the average total expenditure per adult
male in families with 9 persons is 46 per cent less than the average
in the case of the families containing 2 persons. This restriction
appears in all the groups of expenditures, though it is least in the case
of expenditure for food, where, in the case of families containing 9
persons, it is 31 per cent less than in the case of families containing
2 persons. The average expenditures for clothing per adult male in
the families with 9 persons are 34 per cent less than the same expendi­
tures in families containing 2 persons, and the expenditures per adult
male for heating and lighting in the case of the families with 9 per­
sons are 38 per cent less than is the case with the families containing
2 persons. The greatest restriction is shown in the average expendi­
ture per adult male for dwelling, where the families with 9 persons
show an expenditure of 66 per cent less than the same expenditure
in the case of families with 2 persons. For miscellaneous expendi­
tures per adult male, the families with 9 persons show an expenditure
56 per cent less than the families with 2 persons.




768

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The average expenditure per adult male for the 391 normal families
classified according to the grade of expenditure is shown in the follow­
ing table:
A VERAG E E XPE N D ITU R ES FOR SPECIFIED PURPOSES P E R ADU LT MALE IN 391
NORMAL FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y TOTAL FA M ILY E XP E N D IT U R E .

Classification of expenditure.

Num­
ber
of
nor­
mal
fami­
lies.

Computed expenditure per adult male for—
Aver­
age
num­
ber
Dwell­
Cloth­
of
ing
All
Heat­
per­ Foods
ing
(rent
ing
other
and
sons
and
and
and
ex­
Total.
per drinks. laun­ mainte­ light­ pendi­
fam­
dry.
nance
ing.
tures.
of).
ily.

Under 1,200 M. ($285.60)............................
1,200 M. to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80) . . .
1,600 M. to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476)...........
2,000 M. to 2,500 M. ($476 to $595).............
2,500 M. to 3,000 M. ($595 to $714).............
3,000 M. to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952).............
4,000 M. to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190)..........

6
110
108
72
39
43
13

2.8
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.1
4.4
4.6

$69.76
80.93
92.69
102.88
109.31
123.91
124.83

$12.87
14.62
21.64
28.97
44.65
49.25
59.97

$24.90
25.45
31.63
37.29
52.37
63.34
89.93

$7.32
7.22
7.98
8.48
11.11
11.60
11.69

$15.76
20.57
28.60
42.27
65.79
87.67
108.39

$130.61
148.78
182.54
219.89
283.23
335.78
394.81

Under 2,000 M. ($476)..................................
2,000 M. to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714).............
3,000 M. to 5,000 M. ($714 to $1,190)...........

224
111
56

4.2
4.3
4.4

86.42
105.07
124.14

18.01
34.32
51.89

28.45
42.43
69.88

7.59
9.37
11.62

24.39
50.29
92.77

164.86
241.48
350.30

With the higher standard of consumption, the expenditures com­
puted in the form of average expenditures per adult male show an
increase both in the total and in each group of expenditures given in
the table. While the families with the lowest grade of expenditure
have a total expenditure of less than 1,200 marks ($285.60), and the
families with the highest grade of expenditures have a total of from
4,000 to 5,000 marks ($952 to $1,190); in other words, more than
three times the lowest amount, the average expenditure per adult
male for heating and fighting is approximately two-thirds greater
in the families with the highest grade of expenditure as compared
with those of the lowest, and the expenditures for food are about 96
per cent higher in the families with the highest grade of expenditures
as compared with the lowest. On the other hand, the average
expenditure per adult male for dwelling is more than three times in
the highest grade what it is for the lower, the expenditure for clothing
is more than five times, and the expenditure for miscellaneous pur­
poses is more than seven times the amount expended by the lowest
grade. The data in the table may be summed up by stating that,
while the total expenditure per adult male increased more than three
times, the expenditures for heating and lighting and for food increased
less than 100 per cent, while the other expenditures increased from
300 to 700 per cent.
Since the greatest increase in expenditures took place in the class
of miscellaneous expenditures, it is of interest to show the particular
items on which these expenditures were made. The following table




769

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,

shows for the 391 families, classified by the number of persons, the
amount expended per adult male for the items included in the mis­
cellaneous group:
A V E RAG E E X PE N D ITU R ES FOR MISCELLANEOUS PURPOSES P E R ADU LT MALE IN
391 NORM AL FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y NUMBER OF PERSONS IN FAMILY.
Computed expenditure per adult male
in families of—
Miscellaneous expenditure.
2 to 4
persons.

5 or 6
persons.

Over 6
persons.

All nor­
mal fami­
lies.

Health, and physical care................................................................
Education, school fees, etc..............................................................
Intellectual and social purposes.....................................................
State, commune, church, etc, (including taxes)...........................
Provident (insurance, relief funds, etc.).......................................
Transportation.................................................................................
Personal service...............................................................................
Presents, gifts, etc...........................................................................
Debts and interest..........................................................................
Trade and occupational expenses...................................................
Other cash expenditures................................................................
Expenditures in kind.....................................................................
Savings.............................................................................................

$5.91
2.36
11.44
3.76
8.87
3.72
.94
1.70
2.52
.59
5.14
.05
2.91

S3.33
2.58
6.96
2.82
6.50
2.13
.42
.85
1.79
.84
3.74
.10
2.62

S3.12
5.21
5.92
2.32
4.59
1.92
.83
.59
1.80
.15
3.42
.39
1.07

S4.63
2.75
9.13
3.24
7.50
2.91
.73
1.25
2.16
.64
4.42
.11
2.60

Total miscellaneous............................................................

49.91

34.68

31.33

42.07

For the most of the expenditures shown in the preceding table the
average amount expended per adult male decreases as the size of the
family increases.




770

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Arranged according to the grade of expenditure, the average
expenditures per adult male are shown in the-following table:
AV E R AG E E XPE N D ITU R ES FOR MISCELLANEOUS PURPOSES PE R ADULT MALE IN 391
NORMAL FAMILIES, CLASSIFIED B Y TOTAL FAM ILY E XP E N D IT U R E .
Computed expenditure per
adult male in families hav­
ing total expenditure of—
Miscellaneous expenditure.

Under'
1,200 M.
($286.60),
224
families.

2,000 M.
to 3,000
M. ($476
to $714),
111
families.

Health and physical care.................................................................................
Education, school fees, etc................................................................................
Intellectual and social purposes......................................................................
State, commune, church, etc. (including taxes)............................................
Provident (insurance, relief funds, etc.).........................................................
Transportation..................................................................................................
Personal service................................................................................................
Presents, gifts, etc.............................................................................................
Debts and interest............................................................................................
Trade and occupational expenses....................................................................
Other cash expenditures..................................................................................
Expenditures in kind.......................................................................................
Savings..............................................................................................................

$2.01
.87
6.45
2.06
6.35
2.14
.13
.60
.60
.60
2.41
.11
1.17

$5.08
2.82
10.61
3.67
9.36
3.77
.78
1.39
2.66
.80
5.71
.15
3.60

$13.59
9.66
16.36
6.91
12.03
4.15
2.88
3.47
7.09
.86
9.60

Total miscellaneous...............................................................................

24.40

60.29

92.77




Over
3,000 M.
($714),
56 fami­
lies.

6.28

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

771

In the preceding table the total expenditures per adult male in the
highest class of expenditure are approximately four times the average
for the families with the lowest grade of expenditure. Of the various
items included in the table, the least increase in the highest grade as
compared with the lowest grade of expenditure is shown in the item
for transportation, while the greatest increase is shown in the item
for personal service, which in the highest grade is approximately
twenty times the average per adult male in the lowest grade.
Because of the importance of this type of family, the data are given
in greater detail in order to present a full statement of the consump­
tion of such families. The following table gives for the 391 normal
families the total expenditures, the average expenditures per family,
and the average expenditures per adult male for the items specified,
with the families grouped according to the grade of expenditure and
according to the number of persons in each family.
47150— Bull. 88— 10----- 6




772

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
E X P E N D IT U R E S IN 391 NORM AL FAMILIES,
Expenditures for specified purpose
in families expending—

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Under
1,200 M.
($285.60).

6
17
2.8
11.9

Number of families....................................................................
Number of persons....................................................................
Average number of persons per family....................................
Persons expressed in units (adult male= 1).............................

From 1,200 From 1,600
to 1,600 M. to 2,000 M.
($285.60 to ($380.80 to
$380.80).
$476).
110
465
4.2
251.1

108
464
4.3
251.3

TOTAL EXPENDITURES.
$830.10 $20,321.83 $23,294.21
153.15
3,670.47
5,438.18
296.31
6,389.45
7,948.10
87.11
1,812.73
2,004.88
21.03
391.82
620.37
5.80
183.18
260.21
1,382.74
48.78
1,886.23
15.72
433.36
608.76
29.58
1,252.00
1,468.47
16.37
487.07
598.92
.82
26.74
39.31
1.88
118.79
184.78
18.68
110.23
178.83
1.24
105.16*
149.39
514.41
714.05
9.57
31.30
23.77
18.11
128.19
453.97

Foods, drinks, etc......................................................................
Clothing, cleaning, etc..............................................................
Dwelling (rent and maintenance o f).......................................
Heat and light...........................................................................
Health and physical care..........................................................
Education, school fees, etc........................................................
Intellectual and social purposes................................ ...............
State, commune, church, etc. (including taxes).....................
Insurance, relief funds, etc........................................................
Transportation..........................................................................
Personal service.........................................................................
Presents, gifts, etc.....................................................................
Debts and interest.....................................................................
Occupational expenses..............................................................
Other cash expenditures...........................................................
Expenditures in kind................................................................
Savings........................................................................................
Total.................................................................................

1,554.25

37,359.47

45,872.43

$215.69
50.35
73.59
18.56
5.75
2.41
17.46
5.64
13.60
5.55
.36
1.71
1.66
1.38
6.61
.22
4.20

EXPENDITURE PER FA M ILY.
1 Foods, drinks, e tc .....................................................................
2 Clothing, cleaning, etc...............................................................
3 Dwelling (rent and maintenance o f ) ......................................
4 Heat and light...........................................................................
5 Health and physical care..........................................................
6 Education, school fees, etc........................................................
7 Intellectual and social purposes................................................
8 State, commune, church, etc. (including taxes).....................
9 Insurance, relief funds, etc........................................................
10 Transportation..........................................................................
11 Personal service.........................................................................
12 Presents, gifts, etc.....................................................................
13 Debts and interest....................................................................
14 Occupational expenses..............................................................
15 Other cash expenditures...........................................................
16 Expenditures in kind...............................................................
17 Savings.......................................................................................

$138.35
25.52
49.39
14.52
3.50
.97
8.13
2.62
4.93
2.73
.14
.31
3.11
.21
1.59
3.02

$184.74
33.37
58.09
16.48
3.56
1.67
12.57
3.94
11.38
4.43
.24
1.08
1.00
.96
4.68
.28
1.16

Total.................................................................................

259.04

339.63

424.74

$92.69
21.64
31.63
7.98
2.47
1.04
7.51
2.42
5.84
2.38
.16
.74
.71
.59
2.84
.09
1.81
182.54

EXPENDITURE PER ADULT M ALE.
Foods, drinks, etc......................................................................
Clothing, cleaning, etc..............................................................
Dwelling (rent, maintenance o f)..............................................
Heat and light...........................................................................
Health and physical care..........................................................
Education, school fees, etc........................................................
Intellectual and social purposes...............................................
State commune, church, etc. (including taxes)......................
Insurance, relief funds, etc.......................................................
Transportation...........................................................................
Personal service.........................................................................
Presents, gifts, etc.....................................................................
Debts and interest.....................................................................
Occupational expenses..............................................................
Other cash expenditures...........................................................
Expenditures in kind...............................................................
Savings.......................................................................................

$69.76
12.87
24.90
7.32
1.77
.49
4.10
1.32
2.48
1.38
.07
.16
1.57
.10
.80
1.52

$80.93
14.62
25.45
7.22
1.56
.73
5.51
1.72
4.98
1.94
.11
.47
.44
.42
2.05
.12
.51

Total.................................................................................

130.61

148.78




773

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,
CLASSIFIED B Y TO TAL FAM ILY E XP E N D IT U R E .
Expenditures for specified purpose in families expending—
From 2,000 F rom 2,500 From 3,000 From 4,000
to 2,500 M. to 3,000 M. to 4,000 M. to 5,000 M.
($595 to
($714 to
($952 to
($476 to
$1,190).
$714).
$952).
$595).
72
319
4.4
174.0

39
158
4.1
90.0

43
188
4.4
103.0

13
60
4.6
33.6

Under
2,000 M.
($476).

224
946
4.2
514.3

From 2,000
to 3,000 M.
($476 to
$714).

Over
3,000 M.
($714).

All
families.

56
248
4.4
136.6

391
1,671
4.3
914.9

$16,956.88
7,087.92
9,546.14
1,587.75
1,856.35
1,318.48
2,235.36
943.60
1,643.34
566.53
392.95
474.04
968. 84
117.01
1,297.30
858.20

$89,142.11
25,409.55
35,381.40
7,966.98
4,230.55
2,512.60
8,354.40
2,968.82
6,884. 35
2,664.02
665.02
1,146.95
1,975.03
584. 49
4,043. 44
96.25
2,381.63

63,750.75 j 47,850. C9

196,387.59

I ll
477
4.3
264.0

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

TOTAL EXPENDITURES.
$17,901.24
5,041.00
6,487.78
1,474. 99
649. 59
360.90
1,670.12
475.70
1,330. 35
735.26
65.43
286.45
265.26
127.82
890.77
7.14
490.59

$9,837.86
4,01&84
4,713.64
999.51
691. 40
384.04
1,131.17
491.68
1,140.62
259.86
139.76
81.01
433.18
83.86
617.33
34.03
432.56

$12,762.65
5,073.03
6,524.37
1,194.79
1,293.36
911.39
1,554.93
756.18
1,065. 37
409.29
362.73
354.15
781.90
89.80
982.18

$4,194.23
2,014.89
3,021.77
392.96
562.99
407.09
680.43
187. 41
577.97
157. 25
30.22
119.89
186.95
27.21
315.12

468.84

389.35

$44,446.13
9,261.79
14,633.85
3,904.72
1,033.22
449.18
3,317.75
1,057.85
2,750.04
1,102.36
66.87
305.46
307.75
255.79
1,238.04
55.07
600.28

38,260.39

25,490.35

34,584.96

13,265.73

84,786.15

$27,739.10
9,059.84
11,201.41
2.474.51
1,340.99
744.94
2,801.28
967.38
2,470.97
995.12
205.20
367.46
698. 44
211.69
1,508.10
41.17
923.15

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

EXPENDITURE PER FAM ILY.
$248.63
70.01
90.11
20.48
9.02
5.01
23.20
6.61
18.48
10.21
.91
3.98
3.68
1.78
12.37
.10
6.81

$252.25
103.05
120.86
25.63
17.73
9.85
29.01
12.61
29.24
6.66
3.58
2.08
11.11
2.15
15.83
.87
11.09

$296.81
117.98
151.73
27.79
30.08
21.20
36.16
17.58
24.77
9.52
8.43
8.24
18.18
2.09
22.84
10.90

531.39

653.60

804.30

$322.63
154.99
232. 45
30.23
43.31
31.31
52. 34
14.42
44.46
12.10
2. 32
9.22
14.38
2.09
24.24

$249.90
81.62
100.91
22.30
12.08
6.71
25.24
8.72
22.26
8.97
1.85
3.31
6.29
1.91
13.58
.37
8.31

$302.80
126.57
170.47
28.35
33.15
23.54
39.92
16.85
29.35
10.12
7.02
8.46
17.30
2.09
23.17

29.95

$198.42
41.35
65.33
17.43
4.61
2.01
14.81
4.72
12.28
4.92
.30
1.36
1.37
1.14
5.53
.25
2.68

15.32

$227.99
64.99
90.49
20.38
10.82
6.43
21.37
7.59
17.55
6.81
1.70
2.93
5.05
1. 49
10.34
.25
6.09

1,020. 44

378.51

574.33

854.48

502.27

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

EXPENDITURE PER ADULT M ALE.
$102.88
28.97
37.29
8.48
3.73
2.07
9.60
2.73
7.64
4.22
.38
1.65
1.53
.73
5.12
.04
2.83

$109.31
44.65
52.37
11.11
7.68
4.27
12.57
5.46
12.67
2.89
1.55
.90
4.81
.93
6.86
.38
4.81

$123.91
49.25
63.35
11.60
12.56
8.85
15.10
7.34
10.34
3.97
3.52
3.44
7.59
.87
9.54
4.55

219.89

283.22

335.78




$105.08
34.32
42.43
9.35
5.08
2.82
10.61
3.67
9.36
3.77
.78
1.39
2.65
.80
5.71
.16
3.50

$124.14
51.89
69.88
11.62
13.59
9.65
16.37
6.91
12.03
4.14
2.88
3.47
7.09
.86
9.50

11.59

$86.42
18.01
28.45
7.59
2.01
.87
6.45
2.06
5.35
2.14
.13
.59
.60
.50
2.41
.11
1.17

6.28

$97.43
27.80
38.67
8.71
4.62
2.75
9.13
3.24
7.50
2.91
.72
1.25
2.16
.64
4.42
.10
2.60

394.81

164.86

241.48

350.30

214.65

$124.83
59.97
89.93
11.69
16.75
12.12
20.25
5.58
17.20
4.68
.90
3.57
5.56
.81
9.38

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

774

EULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
E XPE N D ITU R ES IN 391 NORMAL FAMILIES,.
Expenditures for families composed of follow­
ing number of persons:

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

Number of families...............................................
Number of persons...............................................
Average number of persons per family...............
Persons expressed in units (adult m a le = l).......

2 persons.

3 persons.

4 persons.

5 persons.

43
86
2
77.4

89
267
3
179.2

93
372
4
208.6

93
465
5
234.2

$22,728.07
6,275.33
8,093.06
1,823.91
868.70
585.16
1,769.02
731.53
1,621.28
521.72
124.26
184.29
351.11
226.80
925.25
13.80
555.87

TOTAL EXPENDITURE.
1 Foods, drinks, etc.................................................
2 Clothing, cleaning, etc..........................................
3 Dwelling (rent and maintenance o f)...................
4 Heat and light......................................................
5 Health and physical care.....................................
6 Education, school fees, etc...................................
7 Intellectual and social purposes..........................
8 State, commune, church, etc. (including taxes).
9 Insurance, relief funds, etc..................................
10 Transportation......................................................
11 Personal service....................................................
12 Presents, gifts, etc................................................
13 Debts and interest................................................
14 Occupational expenses.........................................
15 Other cash expenditures......................................
16 Expenditures in kind..........................................
17 Savings..................................................................

$8,797.23
2,652.16
4,441.19
806.29
715.50
77.65
1,393.35
337.51
661.26
534.32
63.22
200.85
251.21
92.83
577.40
16.66
470.30

$18,555.66
5,115.11
8,332.89
1,827.58
950.07
460.23
1,892.78
657.61
1,623.82
686.77
228.63
368.81
321.51
67.98
956.82
544.49

$20,379.26
6,022.39
8,152.55
1,933.61
1,086.02
559.59
2,037.18
754.88
1,840.72
507.48
146.44
220.64
598.44
111.83
856.94
5.00
340.17

Total................................................ ...........

22,088.93

42,590.76

45,553.14

47,399.16

$244.39
67.48
87.02
19.61
9.34
6.29
19.02
7.87
17.43
5.61
1.34
1.98
3.77
2.44
9.95
.15
5.98

EXPENDITURE PER FAM ILY.
Foods, drinks, etc.................................................
Clothing, cleaning, etc..........................................
Dwelling (rent ana maintenance of)...................
Heat and light......................................................
Health and physical care.....................................
Education, school fees, etc...................................
Intellectual and social purposes..........................
State, commune, church, etc. (including taxes).
Insurance, relief funds, etc..................................
Transportation......................................................
Personal service....................................................
Presents, gifts, etc................................................
Debts ana interest................................................
Occupational expenses.........................................
Other cash expenditures......................................
Expenditures in kind..........................................
Savings..................................................................

$204.59
61.68
103.28
18.75
16.64
1.81
32.40
7.85
15.38
12.42
1.47
4.67
5.84
2.16
13.43
.39
10.94

$208.49
57.47
93.63
20.54
10.67
5.17
21.27
7.39
18.25
7.72
2.57
4.14
3.61
.76
10.75
6.12

$219.13
64.76
87.66
20.79
11.68
6.02
21.91
8.12
19.79
5.46
1.58
2.37
6.43
1.20
9.21
.05
3.66

Total............................................................

513.70

478.55

489.82

509.67

$97.05
26.79
34.56
7.79
3.71
2.50
7.55
3.12
6.92
2.23
.53
.79
1.50
.97
3.95
.06
2.37
202.39

EXPENDITURE PER ADULT MALE.
Foods, drinks, etc.................................................
Clothing, cleaning, etc.........................................
Dwelling (rent and maintenance of)...................
Heat and light......................................................
Health and physical care.....................................
Education, school fees, etc...................................
Intellectual and social purposes..........................
State, commune, church, etc. (including taxes)..
Insurance, relief funds, etc....................................
Transportation.....................................................
Personal service....................................................
Presents, gifts, etc................................................
Debts and interest................................................
Occupational expenses.........................................
Other cash expenditures......................................
Expenditures in kind...........................................
Savings..................................................................

$113.66
34.27
57.38
10.42
9.24
1.00
18.00
4.36
8.54
6.91
.82
2.59
3.25
1.20
7.46
.21
6.08

$103.55
28.54
46.50
10.20
5.30
2.57
10.56
3.67
9.06
3.83
1.28
2.06
1.79
.38
5.34
3.04

$97.70
28.87
39.08
9.27
5.21
2.68
9.77
3.62
8.82
2.43
.70
1.06
2.87
.53
4.11
.02
1.63

Total............................................................

285.39

237.67

218.37




775

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,
CLASSIFIED B Y NUMBER OF PERSONS IN FAMILY.

Expenditures for families composed cf following number of persons:

6 persons.

7 persons.

8 persons.

9 persons.

43
258
6
118.9

21
147
7
€5.4

5
40
8
16.5

4
36
9
14.7

2 to 4
persons.

5 or 6
persons.

225
725
3.2
465.2

Over 6
persons.

All fam­
ilies.

136
723
5.3
353.1

30
223
7.4
96.6

391
1,671
4.3
914.9

$33,303.98
9,104.41
11,548.50
2,695.95
1,176.98
912.43
2,459.15
994.42
2,294.71
750.46
147.04
299.34
630.28
296.92
1,322.23
37.22
923.53

$8,105.98
2,515.48
2,906.28
703.55
301.99
502.71
571.94
224.40
443.84
184.98
79.69
57.31
173.58
14.92
330.06
37.37
103.14

$89,142.11
25,409.55
35,381.40
7,966.98
4,230.55
2,512.60
8,354.40
2,968.82
6,864.35
2,664.02
665.02
1,146. S5
1,975.03
584.49
4,043.44
96.25
2,381.63

68,897.55

17,257.22

196,387.59

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

TOTAL EXPENDITURE.
810,575.91
2,829.08
3,455.43
872.04
308.28
327.27
690.13
262.89
673.43
228.74
22.78
115.05
279.18
70.12
396.98
23.42
367.66

$5,444.86
1,816.98
2,235.45
493.39
201.28
372.38
457.50
159.13
250.56
117.96
53.65
39.72
82.32
12.79
233.64
37.37
76.48

$1,514.29
367.13
386.39
114.94
23.16
105.41
61.71
33.68
80.74
22.86
23.67
16.58
30.24
.39
57.37

81,146.84
331.38
284.43
95.22
77.55
24.92
52.73
31.59
112.53
44.16
2.37
1.01
61.02
1.74
39.05

26.18

.48

$47,732.16
13,789.66
20,926.63
4,567.47
2,751.58
1,097.47
5,323.30
1,750.00
4,125.81
1,728.58
438.29
790.30
1,171.16
272.64
2,391.15
21.66
1,354.96

21,498.39

12,085.46

2,864.74

2,307.02

110,232.82

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

EXPENDITURE PER FAM ILY.
$245.95
65.79
80.36
20.28
7.17
7.61
16.05
6.11
15.66
5.32
.53
2.68
6.49
1.63
9.23
.55
8.55

$259.28
86.52
106.45
23.50
9.58
17.73
21.79
7.58
11.93
5.62
2.55
1.89
3.92
.61
11.13
1.78
3.64

$302.86
73.43
77.28
22.99
4.63
21.08
12.34
6.72
16.15
4.57
4.74
3.32
6.05
.08
11.47
5.24

.12

499.96

575.50

572.95

576.75

$286.71
82.85
71.11
23 80
19.39
6.23
13.18
7.90
28.13
11.04
.59
.25
15.26
.43
9.76

$212.14
61.29
93.01
20.30
12.23
4.88
23.66
7.78
18.34
7.68
1.95
3.51
5.20
1.21
10.63
.09
6.02'

$244.88
66.95
84.92
19.83
8.66
6.71
18.08
7.31
16.87
5.52
1.08
2.20
4.63
2.18
9.72
.27
6.79

$270.20
83.85
96.88
23.45
10.07
16.76
19.06
7.48
14.79
6.17
2.66
1.91
5.78
.50
31.00
1.24
3.44

$227.99
64.99
90.49
20.38
10.82
6.43
21.37
7.59
17.55
6.81
1.70
2.93
5.05
1.49
10.34
.25
6.09

489.92

506.60

575.24

502.27

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

EXPENDITURE PER ADULT MALE.
$88.95
23.79
29.06
7.34
2.59
2.75
5.81
2.21
5.66
1.92
.19
.97
2.35
.59
3.34
.20
3.09

$83.25
27.78
34.18
7.54
3.08
5.70
7.00
2.43
3.83
1.80
.82
.61
1.26
.20
3.57
.57
1.17

$91.78
22.25
23.42
6.97
1.40
6.39
3.74
2.04
4.89
1.39
1.43
1.00
1.83
.02
3.48
1.59

180.81

184.79

173.62




$78.02
22.54
19.35
6.48
5.27
1.70
3.59
2.15
7.65
3.00
.16
.07
4.15
.12
2.66
.03

$102.61
29.64
44.98
9.82
5.91
2.36
11.44
3.76
8.87
3.72
.94
1.70
2.52
.59
5.14
.05
2.91

$94.32
25.78
32.71
7.64
3.33
2.58
6.96
2.82
6.50
2.13
.42
.85
1.78
.84
3.74
.10
2.62

$83.91
26.04
30.09
7.28
3.12
5.21
5.92
2.32
4.59
1.92
.83
.59
1.80
.15
3.42
.39
1.07

$97.44
27.77
38.67
8.71
4.62
2.75
9.13
3.24
7.50
2.91
.73
1.25
2.16
.64
4.42
.11
2.60

156.94

236.96

195.12

178.65

214.65

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

776

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
QUANTITIES OF FOOD CONSUMED.

It is evident that information relating to the quantities of food
consumed is at least as important as the amount of expenditures for
food, since the quantities show the purchasing power of the money
expended and form what might be called the physiological budget of
the family. Unfortunately the household accounts kept for the pres­
ent investigation reported the quantities only imperfectly. For this
reason the investigation makes no attempt to show the quantities of
the food articles consumed for all of the articles, and only data for
150 workmen’s families, with an average of 4.76 persons, and 60
officials’ families, with an average of 4.68 persons in each, were com­
piled for 9 articles of food.
The following tables show the quantities of these 9 articles of food
consumed, the families being classed as workingmen’s families and as
families of officials. The first table gives a summary of the data con­
tained in the second table.




777

COST OE LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

A VERAG E QU AN TITY OF SPECIFIED ARTICLES OF FOOD CONSUMED PER FAM ILY
AND PER PERSON.
Quantities consumed—
Per family.
Item.
Unit of
quantity.

Per individual.

Work­
Work­
Officials
Officials
men (150
(60
men (150
(60
families). families). families). families).

Meats.............................................................................. Pounds.
Sausage........................................................................... ...d o ......

222.66
65.70

281.74
65.70

46.74
13.89

60.19
14.11

Meats and sausage together.......................................... ...d o .......

288.30

347.44

60.63

74.30

77.60
62.83
40.34

97.66
47.40
28.22

16.31
13.23
8.38

20.94
10.14
5.95

965.39
32.41
532.89

1,040.57
32.19
687.07

202.82
6.83
111.90

222.22
6.83
146.67

Butter.............................................................................
Other fats.......................................................................
Cheese.............................................................................
Eggs................................................................................
Potatoes..........................................................................
Coffee..............................................................................
M ilk ...............................................................................




...d o .......
...d o .......
...d o .......
Number
Pounds.
...d o .......
Quarts..

778

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
QUANTITIES OF SELECTED ARTICLES OF
TOTAL QUANTITIES CONSUMED.
a

. F amilies, Classified

A mount of E xpenditure.
Expenditures for
food and drinks.

Num­
ber of
fami­
lies.

Total ex­
penditure.

Families with expenditure of—
900 to 1,200 M. ($214.20 to $285.60)..............................
1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80)...........................
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476)...............................
2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714)....................................

4
35
71
40

$995.79
11,973.08
30,374.53
21,696.05

$555.53
6,463.37
16,110.47
10,722.40

55.8
54.0
53.0
49.4

All families...............................................................

150

65,039.45

33,851.77

52.1

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

1
2
3
4

by

Classification.

Amount.

Per
cent of
total.

6. F amilies, Classified by N umber of P ersons.

1
2
3
4
5
G
7
8

Families of—
2 persons.......................................................................
3 persons.......................................................................
4 persons.......................................................................
5 persons.......................................................................
6 persons.......................................................................
7 persons.......................................................................
8 persons.......................................................................
9 persons.......................................................................

10
23
36
36
26
10
6
3

$3,892.55
9,617.92
15,172.36
15,464.71
11,511.49
5,032.09
2,759.85
1,588.48

$1,795.04
4,673.10
7,795.51
8,120.56
6,270.64
2,691.73
1,606.65
898.54

46.1
48.6
51.4
52.5
54.5
53.5
58.2
56.6

All families...............................................................

150

65,039.45

33,851.77

52.1

AVERAGE QUANTITIES CONSUMED PER FAMILY.
a

1
2
3
4

. F amilies, Classified by

A mount of E xpenditure.

Families with expenditure of—
900 to 1,200 M. ($214.20 to $285.60), average size of
family 3.50 persons...................................................
1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80), average size of
family 4.23 persons..................................................
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476), average size of
family 4.85 persons...................................................
2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714), average size of
family 5.20 persons...................................................

4

$248.95

$138.88

55.8

35

342.09

184.67

54.0

71

427.81

226.91

53.0

40

542.40

268.06

49.4

All families, average size 4.76 persons.....................

150

433.60

225.68

52.1

5. F amilies, Classified by N umber of P ersons.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Families of—
2 persons.......................................................................
3 persons.......................................................................
4 persons.......................................................................
5 persons.......................................................................
6 persons.......................................................................
7 persons.......................................................................
8 persons.......................................................................
9 persons.......................................................................

10
23
36
36
26
10
6
3

$389.25
418.17
421.46
429.58
442.75
503.21
459.98
529.49

$179.50
203.18
216.54
225.57
241.18
269.17
267.78
299.51

46.1
48.6
51.4
52.5
54.5
53.5
58.2
56.6

All families...............................................................

150

433.60

225.68

52.1




779

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,
FOOD CONSUMED B Y WORKINGMEN’ S FAMILIES.
TOTAL QUANTITIES CONSUMED.
a

.

F amilies, Classified by A mount of E xpenditure .

Quantities consumed of the following articles:

Butter Suet,etc. Cheese
Sausage
Meat
(pounds). (pounds). (pounds). (pounds). (pounds).

Eggs
(num­
ber).

Coffee
Potatoes
(pounds). (pounds).

Milk
(quarts).

815.0
6,628.6
15,540.6
10,405.3

120.6
2,077.2
4,498.9
3,156.5

286.8
2,047.4
6,148.6
3,172.9

101.9
2,134.0
4,025.6
3,163.6

135.6
1,081.6
3,183.4
1,651.7

986
11,840
24,993
20,983

3,102.7
31,312.4
64,023.6
46,366.3

82.2
1,014.8
2,303.8
1,462.5

1,526.3
16,873.3
38,929.6
22,598.8

33,389.5

9,853.2

11,655.7

9,425.1

6,052.3

58,S02

144,805.0

4,863.3

79,928.0

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

1
2
3
4

6. F amilies, Classified by N umber of P ersons.

1.746.0
5.291.0
8.321.5
7.458.6
6.110.0
2.172.0
1.509.1
781.3

541.9
1.504.2
2.131.2
2,258.4
1,856.7
916.2
407.4
237.2

649.7
1.937.6
2,525.1
2.816.6
2,151.7
753.3
638.7
183.0

289.7
875.0
1,821.9
2.090.8
1.931.9
1,450.4
534.2
431.2

352.1
921.5
1,099.2
1,384.1
1,134.9
447.5
592.0
121.0

2,862
8,470
15,902
15,039
9,660
3,867
1,707
1,295

5.066.2
17,781.2
30,137.1
35,176.4
27,609.7
14,440.6
7,912.5
6.681.3

226.0
640.0
1,010.1
1,278.9
973.3
411.6
190.2
133.2

4.121.4
11,330.3
18,993.2
19,218.6
16,849.9
5,344.3
2.098.5
1,971.8

33,389.5

9,853.2

11,655.7

9,425.1

6,052.3

58,802

144,805.0

4,863.3

79,928.0

AVERAGE QUANTITIES CONSUMED PER FAMILY.
a

. Families, Classified by

A mount of E xpenditure.

203.7

30.2

71.6

25.6

34.0

247

775.8

20.5

381.6

1

189.4

59.3

58.4

61.1

30.9

338

894.6

29.1

482.1

2

218.9

63.3

86.6.

56.7

44.8

352

901.9

32.4

548.3

3

260.1

78.9

79.4

79.1

41.2

525

1,159.2

36.6

565.0

4

222.7

65.7

77.6

62.8

40.3

392

965.4

32.4

532.9

6. F amilies, Classified by N umber of P ersons.

174.6
229.9
231.3
207.2
235.0
217.2
251.5
260.4

54.2
65.5
59.3
62.8
71.4
91.7
67.9
79.1

65.0
84.2
70.1
78.3
82.7
75.4
106.5
61.1

28.9
38.1
50.7
58.0
74.3
145.1
89.1
143.7

35.3
40.1
30.6
38.4
43.7
44.8
98.8
40.3

286
368
442
418
372
387
285
432

506.6
773.2
837.1
977.1
1,061.7
1,444.0
1,318.8
2,227.1

22.7
27.8
28.0
35.5
37.5
41.2
31.7
44.3

412.1
492.6
527.6
533.8
648.1
534.5
349.8
657.3

222.7

65.7

77.6

62.8

40.3

392

965.4

32.4

532.9




1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

780

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
QUANTITIES OF SELECTED ARTICLES OF
TOTAL QUANTITIES CONSUMED.
a

F amilies, Classified by A mount of E xpenditure.
Expenditure for
foods and drinks.

Marginal
num­
ber.

1
2
3
4
5

Num­
ber of
fam­
ilies.

Amount.

Per
cent of
total
expend­
iture.

Families with expenditure of—
1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80)...........................
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476)...............................
2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714)....................................
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952)....................................
4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190).................................

4
12
28
14
2

$1,407.63
5,200.71
17,143.10
11,620.06
1,994.29

$687.88
2,507.48
6,805.73
4,364.18
686.16

48.9
48.2
39.7
37.6
34.4

All families...............................................................

60

37,365.79

15,051.43

40.3

b

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Total
expendi­
ture.

F amilies, Classified by N umber of P ersons.

Families of—
2 persons.......................................................................
3 persons.......................................................................
4 persons.......................................................................
5 persons.......................................................................
6 persons.......................................................................
7 persons.......................................................................
8 persons.......................................................................

1
12
16
15
9
6
1

$726.54
7,311.25
9,487.12
9,784.41
5,511.64
4,104.13
440.70

$228.15
2,683.79
3,622.26
3,964.12
2,511.97
1,779.85
261.29

31.4
36.7
38.2
40.5
45.6
43.4
59.3

AU famUies...............................................................

60

37,365.79

15,051.43

40.3

48.9

AVERAGE QUANTITIES CONSUMED PER FAMILY.
a. F amilies, Classified by A mount of E xpenditure.

1
2
3
4
5

Families with expenditure of—
1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80), average size of
family 4.25 persons.
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476), average size of
family 5.25 persons.
2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714), average size of family
4.39 persons.
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952), average size of famfly
4.79 persons.
4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190), average size of
fairnly 5.50 persons.

4

$351.91

$171.97

12

433.39

208.96

48.2

28

612.25

243.06

39.7

14

830.00

311.73

37.6

2

997.14

343.08

34.4

All families, average size of family 4.68 persons.. .

60

622.76

250.86

40.3

b.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

F amilies, Classified by N umber of P ersons.

Families of—
2 persons.......................................................................
3 persons.......................................................................
4 persons.......................................................................
5 persons.......................................................................
6 persons.......................................................................
7 persons.......................................................................
8 persons.......................................................................

1
12
16
15
9
6
1

$726.54
609.27
592.95
652.29
612. 40
684.02
440.70

$228.15
223.65
226.39
264.28
279.11
296.64
261.29

31.4
36.7
38.2
40.5
45.6
43.4
59.3

All families...............................................................

60

622.76

250.86

40.3




781

COST O F LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.
FOOD CONSUMED B Y OFFICIALS’ FAMILIES.
TOTAL QUANTITIES CONSUMED.
F amilies, Classified by A mount of E xpenditure.

Quantities consumed of the following articles:

Sausage Butter Suet, etc. Cheese
Meat
(pounds). (pounds). (pounds). (pounds). (pounds).

Eggs
(num­
ber).

Potatoes
Coffee
(pounds). (pounds).

Milk
(quarts).

773.6
2,568.6
8,043.3
4,710.6
813.0

182.7
622.6
1,955.5
1,002.9
184.3

240.5
952.8
2,913.4
1,464.5
287.3

362.9
684.9
1,073.0
659.2
69.2

145.9
322.5
570.8
598.8
49.2

1,131
4,498
15,828
11,725
2,129

3,172.0
11,643.2
28,917.7
16,915.0
1,794.1

126.5
360.2
821.9
568.9
52.7

1,761.0
7,648.4
17,779.1
12,658.8
1,378.4

16,909.1

3,948.0

5,858.5

2,849.2

1,687.2

35,311

62,442.0

1,929.2

41,225.7

p

Mar­
ginal
num­
ber.

1
2
3
4
5

F amilies, Classified by N umber of P ersons.

198.4
2,947.6
4,313.5
4,352.8
2,723.8
2,045.4
327.6

73.2
744.5
790.1
1,166.0
669.1
428.6
76.5

107.8
784.4
1,436.7
1,502.0
1,016.3
688.3
123.0

5.5
366.6
820.8
704.4
524.0
391.3
36.6

33.5
350.3
359.4
265.7
328.9
329.6
19.8

572
5,735
8,404
10,731
5,296
4,206
367

420.0
10,122.9
13,504.7
15,122.2
12,742.2
9,027.6
1,502. 4

26.0
311.5
416.0
502.6
377.9
269.8
25.4

296.5
5,741.2
10,252.9
11,144.1
6,972.7
5,919.9
898.4

16,909.1

3,948.0

5,858.5

2,849.2

1,687.2

35,311

62,442.0

1,929.2

41,225.7

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

AVERAGE QUANTITIES CONSUMED PER FAMILY.
a

. F amilies,

Classified by A mount of E xpenditure.

193.3

45.6

60.2

90.8

36.6

283

793.2

31.7

440.2

1

214.1

51.8

79.4

57.1

26.9

375

970.3

30.1

637.4

2
3

287.3

69.9

104.1

38.4

20.3

565

1,032.9

29.3

635.0

336.4

71.7

104.7

47.2

42.8

838

1,208.1

40.6

904.2

4

406.5

92.2

143.7

34.6

24.7

1,065

897.1

26.5

689.2

5

231.8

65.7

97.7

47.4

28.2

589

1,040.0

32.2

CS7.1

b.

F amilies, Classified by N umber of P ersons.

198.5
245.6
269.6
290.1
302.7
340.8
327.6

73.2
61.9
49.4
77.8
74.4
71.4
76.5

107.8
82.0
89.7
100.1
112.9
114.6
123.0

5.5
30.6
51.4
47.0
58.2
65.3
36.6

33.5
29.1
22.5
17.7
36.6
54.9
19.8

572
478
525
715
588
701
367

420.0
843.5
844.1
1,008.2
1,415.8
1,504.7
1,502.4

26.0
26.0
26.0
33.5
41.9
45.0
25.4

296.5
478.5
640.8
743.0
774.8
986.6
898.4

281.8

65.7

97.7

47.4

28.2

589

1,040.6

32.2

687.1




1
2
3
4
5
6
7

782

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The item in the preceding tables of greatest interest is that for
meats. The official statistics show that the average per capita con­
sumption of meat for the whole Empire was 52.41 kilograms (115.54
pounds) in the year 1907; per individual in workmen's families the
average consumption of meat, including sausage, according to the
present investigation was 27.5 kilograms (60.63 pounds), and per
individual in officials' families the average was 33.7 kilograms (74.30
pounds), or in each case much lower than the average for the whole
country. In the report this difference is explained: First, because
the families included in the investigation comprise many young chil­
dren and few unmarried young persons; in the second place, the
present investigation does not include meats consumed in restaurants,
nor is the quantity given of meats produced by the families them­
selves, such as home-slaughtered swine, etc. Furthermore, the
families included in the investigation are families of moderate means,
as compared with an average for the population of the whole Empire.
The consumption of meats in the families of officials is higher than
in the families of workmen, and is of a higher grade in so far as
the officials' families consume smaller quantities of sausage. The
amounts of meat and sausage consumed by these two classes of fami­
lies, arranged by total expenditures, are as follows:
A V E R A G E AMOUNT OF MEAT AND SAUSAGE CONSUMED IN FAMILIES OF W O R K ­
MEN AND OF OFFICIALS, CLASSIFIED B Y TO TAL FAM ILY E X P E N D IT U R E .

Classification of expenditure.

Under 1,200 M. ($285.60).....................................................................................................
1,200 M. to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80).............................................................................
1,600 M. to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476).................................................................................
2,000 M. to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714)......................................................................................
3,000 M. to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952)......................................................................................
4,000 M. to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190)...................................................................................

Work­ Officials’
men’s
families
families (pounds).
(pounds).
233.91
248.68
282.19
339.07

238.98
225.00
357.15
408.07
498.68

The amounts given in the above statement of the consumption of
meat in officials' families are somewhat lower than the actual con­
sumption, because in some cases meat (including poultry) produced
on the home farm is not included in the reports.
When arranged by number of persons in the family, the per capita
consumption of meat decreases with the increase in the size of the
family. Thus, in workmen's families composed of two persons the
consumption is 103.8 kilograms (228.84 pounds), while in the case of
families containing 9 persons the consumption is 154 kilograms
(339.51 pounds), while in the case of the families of officials contain­
ing 3 persons the consumption is 139.5 kilograms (306.77 pounds),




783

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

and in the case of families containing 7 persons the consumption is
187 kilograms (412.26 pounds). The consumption of meat, there­
fore, does not increase in proportion with the size of the family,
which is explained by the fact that the larger families must necessarily
restrict expenditures, and in the second place, that the number of
persons in excess of 2 is usually composed of small children.
The consumption of butter and of suet and other fats shows that
the last-named articles are frequently used as substitutes for butter.
The consumption in workmen’ s families and in families of officials is
as follows:
A V E RAG E AMOUNT OF B U T TE R AND OF SUET AND OTHER FATS CONSUMED B Y
FAM ILIES OF W ORKM EN AND OF OFFICIALS.

Article.

Work­ Officials’
men’s
families
families (pounds).
(pounds).

Butter..................................................................................................................................
Suet, fats, etc......................................................................................................................

77.60
62.83

97.66
47.40

Total..........................................................................................................................

140.43

145.06

In the case of officials’ families the consumption of suet, etc., is
highest in the large families.
The consumption of cheese, which is regarded as a cheap and nutri­
tious substitute for meat, is considerably higher in the workmen’s
families than in the officials’ families.
Eggs, which are comparatively high in price in the large cities, are
consumed in much greater quantities by the officials than by the
workmen; this is in part due to the fact that the officials live in rural
districts, where the eggs produced on the home farm are used, and
where eggs are comparatively low in price.
The consumption of potatoes is much higher among the work­
men’s families than among the families of the officials, even when the
same grades of expenditure are considered.
The consumption of coffee, including coffee substitutes, is approxi­
mately the same by the two types of families, being 32.41 pounds in
the workmen’s families and 32.19 pounds in the case of the officials’
families. The quantity consumed seems, however, to vary with the
income in the case of the workmen’s families, while in the case of the
officials’ families the consumption does not seem to vary in the same
degree.
The consumption of milk is an item of special importance in fami­
lies of moderate means. The statistics of the imperial health office
show that in 1907 the per capita consumption for the whole popula­




784

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

tion of Berlin was 112.54 quarts, in Munich 138.53 quarts, in Ham­
burg 145.3 quarts. As compared with these averages, the present
investigation shows that the per capita consumption in the work­
men’s families was 111.9 quarts, and in the case of the families of
officials was 146.67 quarts. The per capita consumption of milk is
higher in the larger families, being caused by the presence of young
children.
CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL.

The information relating to the consumption of alcoholic drinks is,
on the whole, given very inaccurately. For 155 Workmen’s fami­
lies and 60 officials’ families sufficiently detailed information was
obtained to make the data available for separate tabulation. In the
following table the percentage which expenditures for alcohol forms
of the total expenditures is shown for the 155 families of workmen
and 60 families of officials, classified by the amount of expenditure:
PROPORTION OF TOTAL E XPEN DITU RES FOR ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES IN FAMILIES
OF W ORKMEN AND OF OFFICIALS.
Per cent of total ex­
penditure for al­
coholic drinks in
families of—
Classification of expenditure.
WorkOfficials
men (155 (60 fami-

families).

Families with expenditure of—
900 M. to 1,200 M. ($214.20 to $285.60)..
1,200 M. to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80)
1,600 M. to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476)...
2.000 M. to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714).........
3.000 M. to 4,000 M. ($714 to $952)........
4.000 M. to 5,000 M. (S952 to $1,190)
All families

5.6
5.7
4.6
4.3

4.8

lies).

2.5
2.7
2.3
2.4
2.5

According to the preceding table the absolute amounts expended
for alcoholic beverages increase with the grade of expenditure in
families, but as compared with the total expenditures in the case of
workmen’s families there is a tendency for the percentages of total
expenditures to decrease, while in the case of the families of officials
the variation is but slight.




785

COST OF LIVING IN 6EBM ANY, 1907-8,

As this topic is of considerable interest, the following tables give in
detail the expenditures for alcoholic beverages in a selected number
of workmen’s families and officials’ families:
CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES IN W ORKM EN’S FAMILIES.
I.—TOTAL CONSUMPTION.
F amilies with a T otal E xpendituee of 900 to 1,200 M. ($214.20 to $285.00).
Expenditure for
alcoholic bever­
ages.
Classification.

Num­
ber of Total ex­
fami­ penditure.
lies.
Amount.

Kind of beverage.

Beer.
Per
cent of.
total
expend­ Quantity
Cost.
iture. (quarts).

Wine. Brandy.

Families of—
3 persons...........................
4 persons...........................
5 persons...........................

2
3
1

$535.82
804.32
282.83

$40.67
41.42
8.31

7.6
5.1
2.9

687.4
599.1
92.6

$40.10
35.84
8.31

$1.01

$0.57
4.57

All families....................

6

1,622.97

90.40

5.6

1,379.1

84.25

1.01

5.14

F amilies with a T otal E xpenditure of 1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60 to $380.80).
Families of—
2 persons...........................
3 persons...........................
4 persons...........................
5 persons...........................
6 persons...........................
7 persons...........................

4
15
21
8
2
2

$1,309.01
5,292.73
7,144.17
2,772.40
687.55
708.68

$78.92
333.05
366.36
157.89
20.46
60.64

6.0
6.3
5.1
5.7
3.0
8.6

1,185.6
4,611.1
5,743.6
2,259.0
322.3
946.0

$72.49
316.34
338.08
142.88
19.41
56.06

$3.98
5.88
3.60
.09

$6.42
12.73
22.41
11.41
1.05
4.49

AH families....................

52

17,914.54

1,017.32

5.7

15,067.6

945.26

13.55

58.51

F amilies with a T otal E xpenditure of 1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476).
Families of—
2 persons...........................
3 persons...........................
4 persons...........................
5 persons...........................
6 persons...........................
7 persons...........................
9 persons...........................

4
10
14
17
7
3
1

$1,649.00
4,361.70
6,101.80
7,262.75
3,092.96
1,287.20
459.67

$79.48
208.68
316.10
340.40
137.03
28.81
7.38

4.8
4.8
5.2
4.7
4.4
2.2
1.6

1,049.3
3,203.8
4,515.4
4,286.4
1,857.7
379.9
108.1

$74.26
195.62
279.58
315.66
125.11
26.19
7.04

$2.08
2.88
6.34
9.25
2.04
2.33
.10

$3.13
10.18
30.17
15.50
9.89
.29
.24

All families....................

56

24,215.08

1,117.88

4.6

15,400.6

1,023.46

25.02

69.40

F amilies with a T otal E xpenditure of 2,000 to 3,000 M. ($479 to $714).
Families of—
2 persons...........................
3 persons...........................
4 persons...........................
5 persons...........................
6 persons............................
7 persons...........................
8 persons...........................
9 persons...........................

1
6
5
16
2
5
4
2

$523.68
3,066.69
2,617.62
8,780.17
1,060.95
2,921.63
2,150.07
1,136.00

$35.26
116.94
125.34
419.84
37.55
112.38
80.32
30.52

6.7
3.8
4.8
4.8
3.5
3.8
3.7
2.7

421.3
1,604.6
1,648.9
5,648.6
441.8
1,415.3
1,154.3
389.1

$33.55
97.71
112.79
379.20
33.12
102.84
78.29
30.47

$1.36
14.20
4.80
11.39
2.68
3.97
.48

$0.35
5.03
7.75
29.25
1.75
5.57
1.55
.05

Total..............................

41

22,256.81

95a 15

4.3

12,723.9

867.97

38.88

51.30




786

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES IN W ORKMEN'S FAMILIES—Concluded.
I.—TOTAL CONSUMPTION—Concluded.
Summary : T otal E xpenditure for A lcoholic B everages in F amilies, Classified by T otal
F amily E xpenditure.
Expenditure for
alcoholic bever­
ages.
Num­
ber of Total ex­
fami­ penditure.
lies.

Classification.

Families with expenditure
of—
900-1,200 M. ($214.20 to
$285.60)..........................
1,200-1,600 M. ($285.60 to
$380.80)..........................
1,600-2,000 M. ($380.80 to
$476)...............................
2,000-3,000 M .($476 to $714)
All families....................

Kind of beverage.

Beer.
Per
cent of
Amount. total
expend­ Quantity
Cost.
iture. (quarts).

Wine. Brandy.

6

$1,022.97

$90.40

5.6

1,379.1

$84.25

$1.01

$5.14

52

17,914.54

1,017.32

5.7

15,067.6

945.26

13.55

58.51

56
41

24,215.08
22,256.81

1,117.88
958.16

4.6
4.3

15,400.6
12,723.9

1,023.47
807.97

25.02
38.88

69.40
51.29

155

06,009.40

3,183.76

4.8

44,571.2

2,920.95

78.46

184.34

Summary : T otal E xpenditure for A lcoholic B everages in F amilies, Classified by N umber of
P ersons.
Families of—
2 persons...........................
3 persons...........................
4 persons...........................
5 persons...........................
6 persons...........................
7 persons...........................
8 persons...........................
9 persons...........................

9
33
43
41
12
10
4
3

$3,481.69
13,256.93
16,667.91
18,815.32
5,124.29
4,917.51
2,150.08
1,595.67

$193.65
699.36
849.22
918.13
203.35
201.83
80.32
37.90

5.6
5.3
5.1
4.9
4.0
4.1
3.7
2.4

2,656.2
10,106.9
12,507.0
12,194.0
2,714.4
2,741.2
1,154.3
497.2

$180.31
649.77
766.29
837.73
185.96
185.09
78.29
37.51

$3.44
21.07
18.03
24.24
4.71
6.40
.48
.09

$9.90
28.51
64.90
56.16
12.68
10.35
1.55
.29

All families....................

155

66,009.40

3,183.76

4.8

44,571.2

2,920.95

78.46

184.34

II.—AVERAGE CONSUMPTION.
F amilies Classified by Grade of E xpenditure.
Families with expenditure
of—
900 to 1,200 M. ($214.20 to
$285.60), average size of
family 4.00 persons.......
1,200 to 1,600 M. ($285.60
to $380.80), average size
of family 3.90 persons...
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80
to $476), average size of
family 4.48 persons.......
2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to
$714), average size of
family 5.29 persons.......

6

$270.49

$15.07

5.6

229.8

$14.04

$0.17

$0.86

52

344.51

19.56

5.7

289.7

18.18

.26

1.13

56

432.41

19.96

4.6

275.1

18.28

.45

1.24

41

542.85

23.37

4.3

310.4

21.17

.95

1.25

All families, average size
of family 4.48 persons...

155

425.87

20.54

4.8

287.5

18.84

.51

1.19

F amilies Classified by N umber of P ersons.
Families of—
2 persons...........................
3 persons...........................
4 persons...........................
5 persons...........................
6 persons...........................
7 persons...........................
8 persons...........................
9 persons...........................

9
33
43
41
12
10
4
3

$386.85
401.72
387.63
458.91
427.02
491.75
537.52
531.89

$21.52
21.19
19.75
22.39
16.95
20.18
20.08
12.63

5.6
5.3
5.1
4.9
4.0
4.1
3.7
2.4

295.1
306.2
290.9
297.5
226.2
274.1
288.6
165.7

$20.03
19.69
17.82
20.43
15.50
18.51
19.57
12.50

$0.38
.64
.42
.59
.39
.64
.12
.03

$1.10
.86
1.51
1.37
1.06
1.04
.39
.10

All families....................

155

425.89

20.54

4.8

287.5

18.84

.50

1.19




787

COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8,
CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES IN FAMILIES OF OFFICIALS.
I.—TOTAL CONSUMPTION.
F amilies with a T otal E xpenditure from 1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80 to $476).
Kind of beverage.
Expenditure for
alcoholic drinks.
Classification.

Num­
ex­
ber of Total
fami­ pendi­
ture.
lies.
Amount.

Beer.

Per
cent of Quantity
total
expen­ (quarts).
diture.

Wine. Brandy
Cost.

Families of—
2 persons...........................
4 persons...........................
5 persons...........................
6 persons...........................
8 persons...........................

1
2
1
2
1

$467.22
932.19
395.59
928.68
440.70

$22.62
22.49
10.60
10.13
13.37

4.8
2.4
2.7
1.1
3.0

219.4
381.6
99.3
105.4
134.0

$16.47
20.77
6.76
7.19
10.22

$5.00
.23
2.46
.70
1.07

$1.15
1.50
1.38
2.24
2.07

All families....................

7

3,164.38

79.21

2.5

939.7

61.41

9.46

8.34

F amilies with a T otal E xpenditure from 2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to $714).
Families of—
2 persons...........................
3 persons...........................
4 persons...........................
5 persons...........................
6 persons...........................
8 persons...........................

1
10
6
10
3
1

$686.89
6,180.17
3,793.56
6,023.89
1,865.72
639.89

$18.93
266.84
77.33
131.86
21.98
4.81

2.8
4.3
2.0
2.2
1.2
.8

262.7
3,023.2
879.7
1,377.1
256.6
48.4

$15.66
225.36
60.73
100.09
19.08
4.45

$0.50
30.06
5.20
24.37
.65
.36

$2.77
11.41
11.40
7.41
2.25

All families....................

31

19,190.12

521.75

2.7

5,847.7

425.37

61.14

35.24

F amilies with a T otal E xpenditure from 3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 TO $952).
Families of—
2 persons...........................
3 persons...........................
4 persons...........................
5 persons...........................
6 persons...........................
7 persons...........................
8 persons...........................

1
2
6
4
4
3
1

$726.55
1,789.77
4,752.91
3,304.87
3,419.93
2,445.17
877.71

$28.68
54.73
102.27
90.08
63.82
46.92
7.76

3.9
3.1
2.2
2.7
1.9
1.9
.9

220.5
416.9
1,097.2
863.7
656.6
519.4
101.1

$23.75
43.21
79.97
68.42
58.39
31.55
7.32

$3.71
10.08
16.41
15.80
3.06
6.30

$1.23
1.44
5.89
5.85
2.38
9.07
.44

All families....................

21

17,316.91

394.26

2.3

3,875.4

312.61

55.36

26.30

F amilies with a T otal E xpenditure from 4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to $1,190).
Families of—
4 persons...........................

1

$1,039.32

$24.89

2.4

192.2

$18.21

$5.01

Summary : T otal E xpenditure for A lcoholic B everages in F amilies, Classified by T otal
F amily E xpenditure.

Families with—
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80
to $476)..........................
2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to
$714)...............................
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 to
$952)...............................
4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to
$1,190)............................

7

$3,164.38

$79.21

2.5

939.7

$61.41

$9.46

$8.34

31

19,190.11

521.75

2.7

5,847.7

425.37

61.14

35.24

21

17,316.91

394.26

2.3

3,875.5

312.60

55.36

26.30

1

1,039.32

24.89

2.4

192.2

18.21

5.01

1.67

All families....................

60

40,710.72

1,020.11

2.5

10,855.1

817.59

130.97

71.55

47150— Bull. 88— 10------7




788

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOE,

CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVE RA G E S IN FAMILIES OF OFFICIALS—Concluded.
I.—T O T A L C O N SU M PTIO N —Concluded.
Summary : T otal E xpenditures for A lcoholic B everages in F amilies by N umber of P ersons.
Kind of beverage.
Expenditure for
alcoholic drinks.
Num­
ex­
ber of Total
fami­ pendi­
ture.
lies.

Classification.

Amount.

Beer.

Per
cent of Quantity
total
expend­ (quarts).
iture.

Wine. Brandy
Cost.

Families of—
2 persons...........................
3 persons..........................\
4 persons...........................
5 persons...........................
6 persons...........................
7 persons...........................
8 persons...........................

3
12
15
15
9
3
3

$1,880.66
7,969.94
10,517.98
9,724.34
6,214.33
2,445,17
1,958.30

$70.23
321.56
226.98
232.55
95.94
46.92
25.93

3.7
4.0
2.2
2.4
1.5
1.9
1.3

702.6
3.440.1
2,550.7
2.340.2
1,018.6
519.4
283.5

$55.87
268.57
179.68
175.27
84.66
31.55
21.99

$9.21
40.15
26.85
42.63
4.41
6.29
1.43

$5.15
12.85
20.46
14.64
6.87
9.07
2.51

All families....................

60

40,710.72

1,020.11

2.5

10,855.1

817.59

130.97

71.55

II.—AV E R AG E C O N SU M PTIO N .
F amilies Classified by A mount of E xpenditure.
Families with total expendi­
tures of—
1,600 to 2,000 M. ($380.80
to $476)..........................
2,000 to 3,000 M. ($476 to
$714)...............................
3,000 to 4,000 M. ($714 to
$952)...............................
4,000 to 5,000 M. ($952 to
$1,190)............................

7

$452.05

$11.31

2.5

134.2

$8.77

$1.35

$1.19

31

619.04

16.83

2.7

188.6

13.72

1.97

1.14

21

824.62

18.77

2.3

184.5

14.89

2.64

1.25

1

1,039.32

24.89

2.4

192.2

18.21

5.01

1.67

All families....................

60

678.51

17.00

2.5

180.9

13.63

2.18

1.19

F amilies Classified by N umber of P ersons.
Families of—
2 persons...........................
3 persons...........................
4 persons...........................
5 persons...........................
6 persons...........................
7 persons...........................
8 persons...........................

3
12
15
15
9
3
3

$626.88
664.16
701.20
648.29
690.48
815.06
652.77

$23.41
26.80
15.13
15.50
10.66
15.64
8.64

3.7
4.0
2.2
2.4
1.5
1.9
1.3

234.2
286.7
170.0
156.0
113.2
173.1
94.5

$18.62
22.38
11.98
11.69
9.41
10.52
7.33

$3.07
3.35
1.79
2.84
.49
2.10
.48

$1.72
1.07
1.36
.98
.76
3.02
.84

All families....................

60

678.51

17.00

2.5

180.9

13.63

2.18

1.19

The household accounts secured in the case of 155 workmen’s
families and 60 officials’ families had fairly complete statements of
expenditures for alcoholic beverages, and these were used in the pre­
ceding tables.
In the case of workmen, the consumption of alcoholic beverages
per family was $15.07 in case of families with the lowest grade of ex­
penditure, and $23.37 in case of families with from $476 to $714.
While these amounts show a considerable increase, the proportion
which they formed of the total expenditure for all purposes gives one
a different impression of the variation in expenditure. The table may



COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

789

be summed up by stating that the average expenditure per family for
families of less than $380.80 expenditure is approximately 5J per cent
of all expenditures, while for families with over $380.80 total expendi­
ture the average expenditure for these beverages is approximately
4J per cent of the total expenditures. Of the amounts expended on
the different kinds of alcoholic beverages, the amount spent for wines
is extremely small, but increases with the prosperity of the family;
the amount expended for brandy is likewise small, but considerably
larger than that devoted to wines. All but a small part of the expend­
iture for alcoholic beverages is therefore devoted to beer, in the case
of workmen being $18.84 out of an average of $20.54 per family for
all alcoholic beverages. In the workmen’s families classified by the
size of the family, there is a constant decrease in the proportion of the
total expenditures devoted to beverages as the family increases in size.
In the families of officials the percentage of total expenditure
devoted to alcoholic beverages is much smaller than in the case of
workmen, and this is true for families with the same grade of expend­
iture and families of the same number of persons. The most marked
difference in the consumption of beverages in officials’ families, as
compared with workmen’s families, consists in the larger amount
expended for wines by the former; the average per family for all fami­
lies expended for wines is 51 cents in the case of workmen, and $2.18
in the case of officials. The amounts expended for brandy, on the
other hand, are practically identical.
PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF STUDIES ON THE COST OF LIVING.

The report also gives a partial bibliography of recent studies on the
cost of living of workmen’s families in Germany, and makes refer­
ence to a few of the better known studies in foreign countries. The
list, with brief summaries of the contents of each volume, is as
follows:
STUDIES OF COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY.
Frief, Die wirtschaftliche Lage der Fabrikarbeiter in Schlesien und die zum Besten
derselben bestehenden Einrichtungen. Breslau, 1876.
Contains budgets of 235 Silesian workingmen’s families, the data being collected in
the year 1875 b y means of schedules.
Ausgaben der arbeitenden Klasse. Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Berlin. V II.
Jahrgang (1879), Berlin, 1881, page 136 £f., and V III. Jahrgang (1880), Berlin,
1882, page 164.
Statistik von Haushaltrechnungen minderbemittelter Bevolkerungsklassen im Jahre
1900. (Veroffentlichungen des Statistischen Amtes der Stadt Berlin. Beilage,
1902.)
Lohnermittelungen u. Haushaltrechnungen der minderbemittelten Bevolkerung im
Jahre 1903. (Berliner Statistik, herausgegeben vom Statistischen Amte der Stadt
Berlin.)




790

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The first of the three preceding Berlin studies included 15 families whose expendi­
tures were ascertained in the year 1879 after the close of the year. For the second
study the Berlin statistical office distributed household account books in the summer of
1880 for the preceding year, but published the accounts of 2 families only. The study
of the year 1900 included the income and expenditures of 142 families; the returns
included wage-workers, artisans, a few subordinate officials, and mercantile employees.
The 1903 report was also a schedule study, but included families which had kept not
only accounts but also data from estimates; the report included 1,155 families, of
which 908 were tabulated. The occupations included wage-earners, artisans, and
subordinate officials, with expenditures ranging from 600 to 4,000 marks ($142.80 to
$952).
Schnapper-Arndt, Gottlieb, Ausgaben einer Familie von 6 Personen auf einer Hallig.
(Zeitschrift fur die gesamte Staatswissenschaft. 35. Bd.) Tubingen, 1879.
Schnapper-Amdt, Gottlieb, Monographie und Wirtschaftsrechnung einer armen
Weisszeugnaherin in einer kleinen Stadt Suddeutschlands.
Schnapper-Amdt, Gottlieb, Beschreibung der Wirtschaft und Statistik der Wirtschaftsrechnungen der Familie eines Uhrschildmalers im badischen Schwarzwald.
(Zeitschrift fur die gesamte Staatswissenschaft. Bd. 36. Jahrg. 1880, page 133.)
Schnapper-Amdt, Gottlieb, Fiinf Dorfgemeinden auf dem Hohen Taunus. (Staats
und sozialwissenschaftliche Forschungen. 4. Bd., 2. Heft.) Leipzig, 1883.
Schnapper-Arndt, Gottlieb, Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Privatwirtschaftsstatistik.
(Sonderabdruck aus dem Bulletin de Plnstitut International de Statistique.
Bd. X I I I ., 2.) Leipzig, 1903.
Sozialstatistik.

(Abschnitt Privatwirtschaftsstatistik.)

Leipzig, 1908.

The first three of the preceding reports are accounts of investigations made b y
Professor Schnapper-Amdt. The third volume gives an inventory of a household, a
description of the method of living, and a discussion of the sources of incom e and of
the expenditures. The volume describing the five village communities of Upper
Taunus contains a minute description of the conditions of a road worker and of a nail
maker who also conducted a farm; the latter family kept full accounts for a number
of months.
Concordia, Zeitschrift des Yereins zur Forderung des Wohles der Arbeiter.
1879 ff.
Contains a series of household accounts.

Mainz.

Ballin, Paul, Der Haushalt der arbeitenden Klassen. Berlin, 1883.
The volum e contains a discussion of various investigations of the cost of living of
workmen, gives a bibliography, and compares the results of a series of statistical studies
on the cost of living; it also contains a statement of the expenditures of 6 families
made in the years 1880,1881, and 1882, among the families being 3 living in Berlin, one
an official, one a retired person, and one a merchant.
Schlieben, Untersuchungen liber das Einkommen und die Lebenshaltung der Handweber im Bezirke der Amtshauptmannschaft Zittau. (Zeitschrift des Kgl. Sachs.
Statistischen Bureaus. X X X I . Jahrg.) Dresden, 1885.
Contains the accounts of 52 families of hand weavers in 18 localities.
Jahres-Berichte der Konigl. Sachsischen Gewerbe- und Berg-Inspektoren fur das
Jahr 1885. Dresden, 1886.
Contains the accounts of expenditures of 5 families of wage-earners and artisans,
based on data for one or two weeks.
Hampke, Karl, Das Ausgabebudget der Privatwirtschaften. Jena, 1888.
Gives a discussion of the literature on cost of living, together with the accounts of
6 families living in Halle; the families were wage-earners, artisans, factory workers,




.COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1907-8.

791

retired persons, and officials of secondary rank. The basis for the information con­
sisted of family account books kept for periods of from one to four years during the
period 1882 to 1886.
Frankfurter Arbeiterbudgets. (Schriften des Freien Deutschen Hochstifts.) Frank­
furt a. M., 1890.
Contains the complete household accounts of 3 families for the year 1888, discussed
b y members of the society named; an inventory of the household effects is also given.
Nasse, R ., Uber die Haushaltung der Bergarbeiter im Saarbruckenschen und in
Grossbritannien (Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik, I II. Fge., IV .
B d.) Januar 1891.
Contains the yearly expenditures of 10 mine w o rk e d families for the year 1889,
taken from account books.
Die soziale Lage der Zigarrenarbeiter im Grossherzogtume Baden. (Beilage zum
Jahresberichte des Grossh. Badischen Fabrikinspektors fur das Jahr 1889; bearbeitet von Worrishoffer). Karlsruhe 1890.
Contains the income and expenditure accounts of 39 families, prepared b y the heads
of the families.
Die soziale Lage der Fabrikarbeiter in Mannheim und dessen nachster Umgebung.
(Herausgegeben von Wftrrishoffer, Vorstand der Grossh. Badischen Fabrikinspektion.) Karlsruhe, 1891.
Contains the income accounts of 25 city and 25 rural workmen’s families, together
with the account of 30 unmarried workingmen. Also gives the household accounts
of 12 city and 16 rural workmen’s families, obtained b y personal interviews with
the workingmen.
May, Max, Zehn Arbeiter-Budgets. Berlin, 1891.
May, Max, W ie der Arbeiter lebt. Berlin, 1897.
The first of the two preceding volumes contains 10 budgets of workmen employed
in a textile establishment; the establishment employed 1,200 persons who had been
requested b y the employer to keep full accounts; the volume gives the accounts of
a wage period of two weeks.
The second volume gives the accounts of 20 families, together with a description of
the dwellings; the report includes wage-earners, artisans, and working women in
large, medium, and small cities and in rural districts. The data were taken from house­
hold account books, most of which were kept for an entire year. The incomes ranged
from 647 marks to 2,019 marks ($153.99 to $480.52).
Kuhna, Die Ernahrungsverhaltnisse der industriellen Arbeiterbevolkerung in Oberschlesien. Leipzig, 1894.
Contains a statement of the expenditures for food and the consumption of food
products for 407 workingmen’s families in Upper Silesia and for 43 workingmen’s
families in other districts; the data relate to November and December, 1891.
Jahresbericht der Gewerbe-Aufsichtsbeamten im Konigreiche Wiirttemberg fur das
Jahr 1898. Page 147ff.
Contains 5 household budgets of workingmen’s families in Wurttemberg; the data
were obtained b y personal interviews.
Abelsdorff, W., Beitrage zur Sozialstatistik der Deutschen Buchdrucker. (Volkswirtschaftliche Abhandlungen der badischen Hochschulen. IV. Bd. 4. H eft.)
Leipzig, 1900.
Contains the accounts of 15 printers, machine foremen, and compositors in Munich,
Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, Heidelberg, Schwetzingen, Metz, Berlin, Hamburg, Leipzig,
and Bromberg. The basis for the study consisted of household accounts which were
kept b y the families during the two months of October and November, 1897.




792

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Haushaltungs-Rechnungen Nfirnberger Arbeiter. Bearbeitet im Arbeiter-Sekretariat Niirnberg von A. Braun. Nfirnberg, 1901.
Contains the household accounts of 44 workingmen’s families in Nuremberg, which
were kept for the year February 1, 1899, to January 31, 1900. The annual expendi­
tures ranged from 725 marks to 2,194 marks ($172.55 to $522.17), and the number of
persons in a family ranged from 2 to 10.
Die soziale Lage der Pforzheimer Bijouteriearbeiter. Bearbeitet von Fabrikinspektor Fuchs and herausgegeben von der Grossh.-Badischen Fabrikinspektion.
Karlsruhe, 1901.
Gives the total income of 37 families and the expenditures of 19 families, the data
being obtained b y interviews.
Die Verhaltnisse der Industriearbeiter in 17 Landgemeinden bei Karlsruhe. Bear­
beitet von Fabrikinspektor Fuchs und herausgegeben von der Grossh.-Badischen
Fabrikinspektion. Karlsruhe, 1904.
Contains a discussion of the population, the industries, the working classes, the
sources of income, the housing conditions, the health conditions, and the moral and
intellectual conditions of working families in the territory specified, as well as the
household accounts of 14 families. The basis for the last-named data was obtained
from account books kept by 14 workingmen’s families during six weeks of May and
June, the accounts, however, including the expenditures for nutrition only. An
appendix gives a full statement of the conditions of 50 workmen’s families, together
with the same data for 8 single men and 6 single women workers.
Inventarien von 87 Dresdner Arbeiterhaushaltungen. (MitteilungendesStatistischen
Amtes der Stadt Dresden. 13. H eft.) Dresden, 1904.
Die Dresdner Kleinverkaufspreise der wichtigsten Lebensmittel in den letzten Jahren
und der Einfluss der eingetretenen Preisanderungen auf das Ausgabebudget einer
Arbeiterfamilie. (Mitteilungen des Statistischen Amtes der Stadt Dresden. 16.
H eft.) Dresden, 1907.
The first of the two preceding volumes gives an inventory of the property of work­
m en’s families, intended to be used as the preliminary account for current statistics
of the cost of living. The data were obtained by personal interviews upon findings of
schedules, the information being obtained relating to occupation, average income,
number of persons belonging to the household, size, location, and rental of the dw ell­
ing, property, debts, supplies of food and fuel, number and value of the pieces of
furniture, number of the household and kitchen utensils, number of pieces of clothing,
of linen, etc., as well as of other articles of value. The report contains the accounts of
87.families, of which 41 were kept for the full year from April 1,1903, to March 31,1904.
From the accounts of 25 of these families, the families containing from 4 to 7 persons,
the cost of the principal items of expenditure— especially food—was obtained and
reproduced in No. 16 of the publication specified.
Feuerstein, H ., Lohn und Haushalt der Uhrenfabrikarbeiter des badischen Schwarz waldes. (Volkswirtschaftliche Abhandlungen der badischen Hochschulen. V II.
B d., 4. Erganzungsband.) Karlsruhe, 1905.
Contains the accounts of 26 families, of which 21 are based on account books kept for
periods ranging from two to twelve months in the years 1903 and 1904.
Erhebung der Konigl. Bayerischen Fabriken- und Gewerbe-Inspektoren fiber d ie
wirtschaftliche Lage der gewerblichen Arbeiter Bayerns. Beilageheft zu den
Jahresberichten ffir 1905.
Gives the cost of living of 36 families, part of the information being based on
family account books kept for one or more months.
Haushaltungs-Rechnungen hamburgischer Volksschullehrer. Hamburg, 1906.
The statistical committee of the Hamburg society, “ Gesellschaft der Freunde des
vaterlandischen Schul- und Erziehungswesens,” obtained the household accounts




COST OF LIVING IN GERMANY, 1901-8.

793

for 14 families, which were kept for the whole of the year 1903 b y 14 permanently
appointed school-teachers. The accounts of 20 other families, which were not entirely
complete, are reproduced in the appendix.
Keller, Karl v., Wirtschaftsrechnungen. (Zeitschrift fur die gesamte Staatswissenschaft. 62. Jahrg., 4. Heft.) Tubingen, 1906.
Keller, Karl v., Wirtschaftsrechnungen. Leipzig, 1908.
The first volum e gives the household accounts of the author for the ten-year period
1895 to 1905. The] second volume gives the same accounts for the year 1906-7; the
income ranged from 2,057 to 3,569 marks ($489.57 to $849.42).
Ffirth, Henriette, Ein mittelbfirgerliches Budget fiber einen zehnjahrigen Zeitraum.
Jena, 1907.
Contains the family accounts of a merchant in the city of Frankfort on the Main
for the period 1896 to 1905.
Mulert, O., YierundzwanzigostpreussischeArbeiter und Arbeiterfamilien. Jena, 1908.
Reproduces the budgets of 10 workmen’s families in rural districts; the data were
obtained b y interviews.
Gerloff, W ., Haushaltungsrechnungen zweier Volkssehullehrer. (Annalen des
Deutschen Reichs. 41. Jahrg. No. 3.) Mfinchen, 1908.
Gives the household accounts of a teacher in Stettin for the years 1901 to 1906, as
well as o f a teacher in Crefeld for the years 1904 to 1906.
Cost of living in German towns. Report of an enquiry b y th e British Board of Trade
into working class rents, housing, and retail prices. London, 1908.
Contains 5,046 budgets of workmen for a “ normal” week in the year 1905.
STUDIES OF COST OF LIVING IN OTHER COUNTRIES.
BELGIUM.

Salaires et budgets ouvriers en Belgique. Brussels, 1892.
An official investigation of the accounts of 188 workingmen’s families who kept
full accounts for the month of April, 1891.
Engel, E ., Die Lebenskosten belgischer Arbeiterfamilien frfiher und jetzt.
1895.
Gives a discussion of the Belgian investigation of 1891.

Dresden,

DENMARK.

Danske Arbejderfamiliers Forbrug, 1. Afdeling: Byarbejdere, 2. Afdeling: Landarbejdere, Danmarks Statistik, Statistiske Meddelelser. Series 4, vol. 6, part
6 and vol. 11, part 2. Kopenhagen, 1900,1901.
Contains the yearly accounts of 50 city and 218 rural workingmen in the year 1897,
obtained from account books.
Rubin, M. Consommation de families d ’ouvriers danois.
International de Statistique. X I I I . 3.) Rom, 1903.
Gives a discussion of the preceding investigation.

(Bulletin de l ’ Institut

FRANCE.

Le Play: Les ouvriers europ^ens. Paris, 1855.
Le Play: Les ouvriers des deux mondes. Sammelwerk, seit, 1856. Paris.
The first of the preceding volumes gives a minute description of 36 accounts and
budgets of workingmen’s families in different countries. The second volume, pub­
lished b y the “ Soci6t6 internationale des Etudes pratiques d ’^conomie sociale,”
founded b y Le Play, contains current household accounts of workingmen’s families
in different countries.




794

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Cost of Living in French Towns. Report of an enquiry by the British Board of Trade
into working class rents, housing, and retail prices. London, 1909.
Contains 5,605 workmen’s budgets for a “ norm al” week in the year 1905.
Enqu6te sur le travail k dom icile dans l ’ industrie de la lingerie. Office du Travail.
Bd. 1 , 1907; Bd. II, 1908. Paris.
Volume I contains 66, and volume II contains 9 household accounts of female home
workers, obtained from interviews.
GREAT BRITAIN.

Returns of expenditure b y workingmen. Labor statistics. London, 1889.
Contains 34 weekly budgets obtained b y means of schedules.
Booth, Charles: Life and Labor of the People in London. London, 1892.
The first volume contains 30 household accounts of London families, the accounts
having been kept for five weeks.
Cost of Living of the Working Classes. Report of an enquiry b y the Board of Trade
into working class rents, housing, and retail prices. London, 1908.
Contains 1,944 workingmen’ s budgets for one week in the year 1905.
SWITZERLAND.

Landolt, Carl, Zehn Baseler Arbeiterhaushaltungen (Zeitschrift fur Schweizerische
Statistik. 27. Jahrg., 3. H eft). Bern, 1891.
Landolt, Carl, Methode und Technik der Haushaltsstatistik. Leipzig, 1894.
Landolt, Carl, Lohnstatistik und Haushaltungsbudgets (Schweizerische Blatter fur
Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik. I II. Jahrg., Nr. 19). Bern und Leipzig, 1895.
The first volume contains the household accounts of 10 workingmen’s families in
Basel, which were kept for one year; the second gives the accounts of the family of a
designer in a lace factory in St. Gall; in the third volume are given the household
accounts of 11 families, together with 4 families in Thurgau.
UNITED STATES.

Cost of Production. Sixth and seventh annual reports of the Commissioner of Labor.
Washington, 1890 and 1892.
Cost of Living and Retail Prices of Food’. Eighteenth annual report of the Commis­
sioner of Labor. Washington, 1904.
The first two volumes give the budgets of 8,544 families containing 44,158 persons,
the third volume gives the cost of living for 25,440 families containing 128,108 persons.
These are the costs for one year computed from interviews made b y officials; in only a
few cases were household accounts used as a basis for the data. The investigation was
restricted to families whose annual income did not exceed $1,200.
More, Louise Bolard, Wage-earners’ budgets. (Greenwich House series of social
studies, No. 1.) New York, 1907.
Contains 200 family budgets and 50 household accounts, the latter being based on
account books kept for periods varying from one week to one year.




TREND OF W AGES IN GERMANY, 1898 TO 1907.

For Germany there is no official compilation of wage statistics in
the various industries, and until recently there was no comprehensive
unofficial study of the rates of wages. In connection with the
revision of the imperial financial system, the imperial treasury
department commissioned Dr. R. R. Kuczynski, director of the
municipal statistical office of SchOneberg, to prepare a memorial on
the trend of wages in Germany since the founding of the Empire. (a)
Part of the statistics contained in this study are herewith presented
in summaryform for the ten-year period 1898-1907 for the information
of American readers.
In preparing this study a variety of sources was used, but they
consist principally of publications of federations of trade unions, of
publications of employers' associations, of trade agreements, and in a
few cases of official reports such as those relating to mines, railroads,
and the mercantile marine. In a few instances wage data were
secured from the pay rolls of establishments, but on the whole the
information secured in this manner forms an unimportant part of
the study.
As far as possible the writer of the report has endeavored to give
the “ prevailing” rate of wages in the industries discussed, meaning
thereby the rate received by the majority of the workers. As stated
below, this in many cases was not feasible and instead the “ median”
(mittlere) rates are given whenever no one of the rates in use was
received by a majority of the workers. The “ median” rate, as
used in this discussion, is found b y arranging the rates of wages in a
column ranging from lowest to highest with the number of working­
men receiving each .rate attached; that rate which has just as many
workers above it as below it, is the “ median” rate.
Since the study is one of the trend of wages, the writer has not
given the approximate number of persons receiving the rates of
wages cited, and in only a few instances was he able to obtain the
number of hours per day worked by the persons in receipt of the daily
wages given. As, however, the tables in every case give both the
rates per hour and the rates per day, the information clearly indicates
a Die Entwicklung der gewerblichen Loehne seit der Begruendung des Deutschen
Reiches von Dr. R . R . Kuczynski, Direktordes Statistischen Amts der Stadt Schoneberg, Berlin, 1909. Gedruckt in der Reichsdruckerei.




795

796

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOK.

the general trend of wages in the industries for which information
could be secured.
The study relates to the wage development in the mining industry,
the building trades, the stoneworking industries, the woodworking
industries, the printing trades, and the transportation industries.
Some information is also given as to the large metal working estab­
lishments, but as the statistics furnished are the wages taken from the
pay rolls of a single establishment only, the present summary gives
only the average rates as disclosed by the books of the largest German
establishment in this industry.
Throughout the study the writer has been careful not to make a
comparison between the cities for which he compiled wage data. As
the present summary is for the purpose of showing the general trend
of wages only and not the actual rates in use in the various industries,
such a comparison has been made in the following pages to emphasize
the general trend.
M INING.

Statistics of wages of mine employees have not been published for
the German Empire as a whole. The only complete statistics of
earnings of a large number of mine employees relate to Prussia and
appear in an official periodical of the Prussian Government entitled
“ Zeitschrift fur das Berg-, Hutten- und Salinenwesen im Preussischen
Staate.” B y a ministerial decree, dated July 22, 1872, the superior
mining offices of Prussia are authorized to require periodical reports of
earnings from the mines within their districts. In pursuance of
this decree, statistics of mine w ork ed earnings have been compiled
by the various superior mining offices, and since 1882 have been
published in the Annual Report of the Department of Mines of
Prussia, and in the annual supplement to the periodical just men­
tioned. Since 1886 the statistics of the mine workers in the various
branches have been published in complete and comparable form for
the whole of Prussia. (a)
In the present report the official Prussian statistics have been
used to show the trend of wages of mine workers, the data being given
b y the branches of industry, and with the earnings per shift of the
different classes of workers in each district. The table relating to
the hard-coal industry gives the earnings per shift and per year and
the relative earnings, with 1907 as the basis, in the various mining
districts where this product is obtained, for the decade 1898-1907.
a The statistics of wages of coal-mine workers for the period 1886-1903 are given in
some detail in the Twelfth Special Report of the Commissioner of Labor, entitled,
Coal Mine Labor in Europe, pp. 310-325.




797

TREND OF WAGES IN GERMANY, 1898 TO 1907.
EARNINGS OF EM PLOYEES IN HARD-COAL MINES, 189S TO 1907.
ACTUAL EARNINGS.

Miners.

Other un­
derground
workers.

Male adult
surface
workers.

Women.

Boys.

All workers.

Year.
Per
shift.

Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per
an­ shift. an­ shift. an­ shift. an­ shift. an­ shift. an­
num.
num.
num.
num.
num.
num.

UPPER SILESIAN DISTRICT.

1898....................................... $0.74
1899....................................... .78
1900....................................... .85
1901....................................... .84
1902....................................... .80
1903....................................... .80
1904....................................... .81
1905....................................... .83
1906....................................... .88
1907....................................... .95

$204 $0.64
.68
213
.75
234
.75
231
.73
215
.73
220
.73
222
.77
231
.82
247
.89
269

$191 $0.56
197
.58
.63
218
.64
219
.63
208
.63
208
209
.63
221
.64
240
.67
264
.71

$162 $0.22
.24
168
183
.26
186
.27
181
.25
.24
182
.23
183
.24
187
.25
197
213
.28

$60 $0.23
.24
62
.26
70
72
.27
69
.26
.26
66
.26
65
.27
67
.28
71
.30
78

$64 $0.65
66
.68
74
.74
.74
76
73
.70
73
.71
74
.71
75
.73
79
.77
.82
85

$183
191
209
208
195
198
199
206
220
239

.64
.67
.71
.69
.65
.65
.66
.70
.73
.78

193
201
217
207
190
197
201
210
220
236

LOW ER SILESIAN DISTRICT.

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................

.32
.34
.36
.37
.35
.35
.35
.37
.37
.38

.69
.72
.78
.75
.69
.70
.71
.75
.78
.85

208
218
236
223
202
210
214
224
236
257

.66
.69
.74
.72
.67
.68
.68
.72
.75
.80

201
211
226
216
196
203
206
217
227
242

.57
.59
.63
.64
.61
.62
.63
.65
.67
.71

174
181
193
193
181
187
190
199
206
216

.24
.25
.27
.27
.25
.24
.24
.25
.27
.28

73
74
79
79
72
71
73
76
81
84

1.08
1.15
1.23
1.19
1.09
1.10
1.14
1.15
1.26
1.42

330
355
379
344
313
336
337
326
396
445

.71
.75
.80
.80
.77
.78
.79
.81
.87
.96

229
244
261
244
227
242
239
235
275
307

.72
.76
.79
.79
.77
.78
.80
.81
.86
.92

243
256
268
257
249
260
266
272
299
323

.29
.30
.30
.30
.28
.28
.29
.29
.30
.33

84
86
88
84
79
81
81
80
87
95

.89
.94
.99
.97
.91
.92
.95
.96
1.04
1.16

280
299
317
291
269
287
288
282
334
372

.93
.95
.98
.97
.97
.98
1.00
1.02
1.05
1.09

273
276
284
283
283
289
293
295
305
317

.64
.65
.67
.69
.70
.70
.73
.75
.76
.81

203
200
201
203
207
209
217
223
228
242

.67
.68
.71
.72
.72
.72
.75
.78
.80
.84

200
201
219
221
221
223
235
240
249
260

.27
.26
.26
.27
.27
.27
.29
.31
.31
.33

61
66
72
75
74
75
80
85
86
91

.81
.82
.85
.84
.85
.86
.88
.90
.92
.96

242
243
248
248
250
254
261
265
272
282

.89
.94
1.06
1.03
1.00
1.01
1.04
1.09
1.18
1.26

267
282
320
309
294
301
304
319
353
381

.67
.71
.79
.80
.78
.79
.81
.86
.95
1.02

210
224
252
248
238
244
250
262
290
323

.65
.67
.72
.74
.75
.77
.79
.82
.87
.89

216
226
240
244
243
252
257
268
292
309

.26
.28
.30
.29
.28
.28
.30
.31
.34'
.37

76
79
84
82
80
80
83
86
96
106

.78
.82
.92
.90
.88
.90
.93
.97
1.05
1.10

240
254
284
277
266
274
278
292
322
346

98
104
110
112
103
104
105
110
112
115

DORTMUND DISTRICT.

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................
SAARBRPCK DISTRICT.

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................
AIX-LA-CHAPELLE DISTRCT.

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................




798

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
EARNINGS OF EM PLOYEES IN H A RD-COAL MINES, 1898 TO 1907—Concluded.
RELATIVE EARNINGS (1 9 0 7 = 1 0 0 ).

Miners.

Other underground
workers.

Male adult
surface
workers.

Boys.

Women.

All workers.

Year.
Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per
Per an­
an­
an­ shift. an­ shift. an­ shift. an­
shift. num.
shift. num.
shift. num.
num.
num.
num.
UPPER SILESIAN DISTRICT.

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................

77
82
89
88
84
84
85
88
92
100

76
79
87
86
80
82
82
86
92
100

72
76
84
85
82
82
82
86
91
100

72
75
83
83
79
79
79
84
91
100

78
81
89
90
88
88
88
90
94
100

76
79
86
88
85
86
86
88
93
100

81
83
93
94
91
88
86
87
91
100

77
79
90
92
88
85
84
86
92
100

78
82
90
92
90
89
90
91
94
100

76
78
87
90
86
86
87
88
93
100

78
82
90
89
85
86
86
89
93
100

77
80
87
87
82
83
83
86
92
100

81
85
92
88
82
82
84
88
92
100

81
85
92
87
79
82
83
87
92
100

83
87
93
90
84
85
85
90
94
100

83
87
94
89
81
84
85
90
94
100

80
83
89
90
86
87
88
92
95
100

81
84
89
89
84
87
88
92
95
100

86
87
94
94
87
85
86
90
95
100

87
88
94
94
85
84
86
90
95
100

84
89
95
98
92
91
91
96
98
100

86
91
96
97
90
90
91
95
97
100

82
86
92
89
83
84
85
90
93
100

82
85
92
88
81
84
85
89
93
100

76
81
86
83
76
78
80
81
88
100

74
80
85
77
70
75
76
73
89
100

74
78
83
83
80
81
83
84
90
100

75
80
85
79
74
79
78
77
90
100

78
82
86
86
84
85
86
88
93
100

75
87
90
79
83
93
80
91
86
77
86
81
82
87
84
88
93 • 92
100
100

88
90
92
89
83
86
85
84
92
100

77
81
86
84
78
80
82
83
90
100

75
80
85
78
72
77
77
76
90
100

85
87
90
89
89
90
92
94
96
100

86
87
90
90
89
91
92
93
96
100

79
80
83
85
86
86
89
92
94
100

84
83
82
84
85
86
89
92
94
100

80
81
85
85
85
86
90
92
95
100

77
77
84
85
85
86
90
92
96
100

82
81
80
82
83
82
88
94
95
100

67
72
79
83
82
83
88
94
95
100

85
86
89
88
89
90
92
95
97
100

86
86
88
88
89
90
93
94
97
100

71
74
84
82
80
81
83
87
94
100

70
74
84
81
77
79
80
84
93
100

66
70
77
78
76
77
80
85
93
100

65
69
78
77
74
75
77
81
90
100

73
75
81
82
84
86
88
91
98
100

70
73
78
79
79
82
83
87
95
100

71
75
79
77
75
75
79
83
92
100

72
74
79
78
75
76
79
82
91
100

70
74
83
81
80
82
84
88
95
100

69
73
82
80
77
79
80
84
93
100

LOWER SILESIAN DISTRICT.

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................
DORTMUND DISTRICT.

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................
s a a r b r O c k d is t r ic t .

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................
AIX-LA-CHAPELLE DISTRICT.

1889.......................................
1890.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................




799

TREND OF WAGES IN GERMANY, 1898 TO 1907.

According to the data just given, if the average annual earnings
for 1907 in Upper Silesia, Lower Silesia, the Dortmund, and the
Aix-la-Chapelle districts are taken as one hundred, the averages in
1907 are from 9 to 22 per cent higher than in 1900; in the same wayin the Saar district, the average annual earnings in 1907 were about
14 per cent higher than in 1900. On the whole there is a steadyincrease in the annual earnings since 1897 in all the districts pro­
ducing hard coal.
Earnings in the soft coal or bituminous mines relate only to the
superior mining district of Halle and for the various classes of workers
are as follows:
EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN SOFT-COAL MINES, 1898 TO 1907.
ACTUAL EARNINGS.

Miners.

Other
under­
ground
workers.

Male
adult
surface
workers.

Boys.

Women.

All
workers.

Year.
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
an­
an­
an­
an­
an­
an­
shift. num.
shift. num.
shift. num.
shift. num.
shift. num.
shift. num.
HALLE DISTRICT.

1898....................................... $0.75
1899....................................... .79
1900....................................... .85
1901....................................... .85
1902....................................... .80
1903....................................... .81
1904....................................... .83
1905....................................... .87
1906....................................... .92
1907....................................... .98

$228 $0.63
239
.66
.71
258
.71
256
242
.69
246
.69
254
.71
264
.73
281
.77
297
.83

$193 $0.61
199
.64
.69
216
216
.69
210
.67
209
.68
218
.70
222
.72
236
.77
252
.79

$186 $0.33
195
.34
209
.37
210
.37
202
.36
207
.35
213
.36
219
.37
234
.39
240
.42

$97 $0.37
101
.37
111
.40
110
.40
105
.39
104
.40
107
.40
109
.40
117
.42
124
.45

$110 $0.65
111
.68
118
.73
119
.73
117
.70
119
.71
119
.73
121
.75
124
.80
134
.86

$198
207
222
221
212
215
222
228
243
260

RELATIVE EARNINGS (1 9 0 7 = 1 0 0 ).'
HALLE DISTRICT.

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................

77
81
87
87
82
83
85
89
95
100

77
81
87
86
81
83
86
89
95
100

77
76
79
79
86
86
86 ' 86
84
84
83
83
87
86
88
88
94
93
100
100

78
82
87
88
85
86
89
92
98
100

77
81
87
88
84
86
89
91
98
100

79
82
90
89
86
85
86
89
94
100

78
81
89
89
85
83
86
88
94
100

81
83
88
89
87
88
88
90
93
100

82
83
88
89
87
89
89
91
93
100

76
80
85
85
82
83
85
87
93
100

76
80
85
85
81
83
85
88
93
100

For all workers included in the preceding table the average
annual earnings show a rapid increase in the decade included, being
more than 30 per cent higher in 1907 than they were in the year 1898.
For salt mining and salt making the earnings are for the superior
mining district of Halle and are as follows:




800

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,
EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN SALT MINES AND W O R K S, 1898 TO 1907.
ACTUAL EARNINGS.

Miners.

Other un­
derground
workers.

Male adult
surface
workers.

Boys.

All workers.

Year.
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
an­
an­ shift.
an­
an­
an­
shift. num.
num. shift. num. shift. num. shift. num.
HALLE DISTRICT.

1898............................................................. $0.91
1899............................................................. .92
1900............................................................. .95
1901............................................................. .97
1902............................................................. .91
1903............................................................. .92
1904............................................................. .93
1905............................................................. .96
1906............................................................. .99
1907............................................................. 1.04

$274 $0.82
275
.85
.89
287
292
.89
.84
268
.84
269
278
.83
.85
287
296
.88
.91
309

$250 $0.83
258
.83
271
.87
269
.88
249
.83
251
.81
249
.81
257
.83
265
.84
272
.87

$255 $0.29
.30
256
.31
265
269
.30
251
.29
243
.29
.26
247
250
.28
255
.28
265
.30

$87 $0.85
91
.87
93
.90
90
.91
.85
87
82
.85
.85
78
82
.88
82
.90
.94
90

$259
262
272
275
254
253
258
264
271
282

RELATIVE EARNINGS (1 9 0 7 = 1 0 0 ).
HALLE DISTRICT.

1898.............................................................
1899.............................................................
1900.............................................................
1901.............................................................
1902.............................................................
1903.............................................................
1904.............................................................
1905.............................................................
1906.............................................................
1907.............................................................

88
89
92
94
88
89
90
93
95
100

89
89
93
94
87
87
90
93
96
100

90
94
98
98
92
93
91
94
96
100

92
95
100
99
92
92
92
95
98
100

95
95
99
101
95
93
93
95
96
100

96
97
100
102
95
92
93
94
96
100

95
100
102
98
96
94
87
91
91
100

96
101
103
100
97
92
87
91
91
100

91
92
95
96
91
91
91
93
96
100

92
93
96
97
90
90
91
94
96
100

Since 1898 the average annual earnings of salt workers show a
rise up to the year 1901, followed by a drop in the years 1902 and 1903,
and a gradual increase from that time until 1907.
The trend of wages of ore miners is shown first for copper ore
miners, and second for iron ore miners. For the copper ore miners
in the superior mining district of Halle, the earnings per shift and
the average annual earnings are as follows:
EARNINGS OF EM PLOYEES IN COPPER MINES, 1898 TO 1907.
ACTUAL EARNINGS.

Miners.

Other un­
derground
workers.

Male adult
surface
workers.

Boys.

All workers.

Per
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
an­
an­
an­ shift.
an­ Per an­
shift. num.
shift. num. shift. num.
num. shift. num.
HALLE DISTRICT.

1898............................................................. $0.77
1899............................................................. .81
1900............................................................. .86
1901............................................................. .83
1902............................................................. .71
1903............................................................. .74
1904............................................................. .78
1905............................................................. .81
1906............................................................. .87
1907............................................................. .89




$232 $0.76
.79
245
258
.85
253
.85
216
.76
224
.77
238
.81
248
.81
263
.83
.86
271

$233 $0.70
244
.72
260
.75
.76
258
231
.68
235
.69
250
.71
246
.75
254
.78
262
.82

$213 $0.29
219
.32
.32
229
232
.32
206
.28
212
.27
219
.28
.32
230
.32
240
252
.34

$87 $0.73
96
.76
96
.80
98
.79
85
.68
83
.70
86
.73
96
.77
97
.81
104
.84

$220
230
241
238
206
213
225
235
248
257

801

TEE ND OF WAGES IFF GERMANY, 1898 TO 1907.
EARNINGS OF EM PLOYEES IN COPPER MINES. 1898 TO 1907—Concluded.
RELATIVE EARNINGS (19 0 7 = 1 0 0 ).

Miners.

Other un­
derground
workers.

Male adult
surface
workers.

Boys.

All workers.

Year.
Per
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
an­ Per an­
an­ shift.
an­
an­
shift. num.
num. shift. num. shift. num. shift. num.
HALLE DISTRICT.

1898.............................................................
1899.............................................................
1900.............................................................
1901.............................................................
1902.............................................................
1903.............................................................
1904.............................................................
1905.............................................................
1906.............................................................
1907.............................................................

86
91
96
94
80
83
87
91
97
100

86
90
95
93
80
83
88
91
97
100

89
92
99
99'
88
90
95
94
97
100

89
93
99
99
88
90
96
94
97
100

85
88
92
93
83
85
87
92
96
100

85
87
91
92
82
84
87
91
95
100

85
94
95
95
82
80
82
93
94
100

84
92
92
94
82
80
83
93
93
100

86
90
95
93
80
83
87
92
97
100

86
90
94
93
80
83
88
91
97
100

The rates given in the above table are for the well-known Mansfeld
copper mines which are subject to the jurisdiction of the superior
mining office of Halle. According to the data in the table, the earn­
ings of all workers increased from 1898 up to 1900 and 1901, when a
heavy decrease occurred, but since that time each year has shown a
large increase over the preceding.
The earnings of the iron ore workers for the three mining districts
of Siegen-Nassau, of the rest of the district on the right of the Rhine
and of the district on the left of the Rhine, are as follows:
EARNINGS OF EM PLOYEES IN IRON MINES, 1898 TO 1907.
ACTUAL EARNINGS.

Miners.

Other un­
derground
workers.

Male adult
surface
workers.

Boys.

Women.

All em­
ployees.

Year.
Per PeF- » Per Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
an­
an­ shift.
an­ Per
an­
an­
an­
shift. num.
num. shift num. shift. num. shift. num. shift. num.
SIEGEN-NASSAU DISTRICT.

1898....................................... $0.75
1899....................................... .85
1900....................................... .90
1901....................................... .82
1902....................................... .72
1903....................................... .75
1904....................................... .76
1905....................................... .82
1906....................................... .97
1907....................................... 1.05

$214 $0.66
245
.72
257
.77
229
.75
196
.70
215
.71
213
.74
232
.76
.83
277
300
.85

$207 $0.62
218
.69
238
.74
230
.70
206
.64
218
.66
227
.66
237
.70
261
.78
264
.83

$184 $0.33
206
.37
220
.40
208
.37
.33
187
.33
196
.33
197
.35
207
.40
237
.44
249

$89 $0.30
.33
99
106
.35
.34
99
.31
88
.33
89
92
.33
.34
99
109
.37
119
.39

$81 $0.69
89
.78
94
.83
89
.76
83
.68
89
.70
88
.71
88
.76
101
.88
105
.95

$197
225
237
215
187
203
202
217
256
274

DISTRICT TO THE RIGHT OF
THE RHINE (EXCEPT SIE­
GEN-NASSAU).

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................




.72
.77
.81
.75
.71
.73
.74
.80
.91
.97

202
214
226
208
199
205
208
223
253
277

.58
.63
.69
.71
.67
.65
.66
.67
.76
.82

171
196
215
219
204
200
198
207
231
249

.58
.61
.65
.63
.59
.60
.62
.64
.70
.74

171
181
194
187
181
182
186
191
209
229

.32
.34
.36
.34
.31
.31
.32
.33
.36
.39

87
91
96
93
88
88
90
92
100

no

.28
.31
.33
.31
.31
.31
.31
.34
.33
.35

74
83
84
86
86
84
84
92
87
94

.65
.69
.73
.68
.64
.66
.67
.71
.80
.86

184
196
207
193
186
189
193
204
229
250

802

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
EARNINGS OF EM PLOYEES IN IRON MINES, 1898 TO 1907-Concluded.
A C T U A L E A R N IN G S —Concluded.

Miners.

Other un­
derground
workers.

Male adult
surface
workers.

Women.

Boys.

All em­
ployees.

Year.
Per Per Per Per Per Per Per
Per Per
Per Per
an­
an­ Per an­
an­
an­
an­ shift.
shift. num.
num. shift. num. shift. num. shift. num. shift. num.
DISTRICT TO THE LEFT OF
THE RHINE.

1898....................................... $0.62
1899....................................... .66
1900....................................... .67
1901....................................... .65
1902....................................... .63
1903....................................... .64
1904....................................... .66
1905....................................... .68
1906....................................... .74
1907....................................... .79

$175 $0.60
184 .62
.63
188
185
.63
175
.64
182
.64
.63
189
193
.65
214
.67
222
.66

$179 $0.55
185
.57
194
.57
198
.57
192
.54
199
.55
206
.56
205
.59
215
.62
205
.64

$162 $0.25
163
.26
167 .26
168
.26
156
.26
161
.27
166
.27
173
.28
185
.30
198
.32

$68 $0.27
69
.29
.30
74
.31
69
.31
69
.31
73
74
.33
.34
78
82
.36
89
.38

$79 $0.57
.eo
85
87
.60
.59
89
85
.57
86
.58
94
.59
95
.62
98
.66
102
.70

$164
169
173
172
162
166
173
179
193
205

75
84
91
85
75
75
76
81
91
100

75
83
90
84
74
75
78
83
92
100

79
85
91
87
80
85
85
87
94
100

77
84
90
85
79
84
84
84
96
100

72
82
87
80
71
74
74
80
93
100

72
82
87
79
74
74
79
93
100

83
87
92

82
89
94
91
89
90
91
98
94
100

79
89
92
91
90
89
98
93
100

75
80
85
80
75
77
78
83
94
100

74
78
83
77
75
76
77
82
92
100

71
77
79
81
81
82

78
83

81
85

86

86

87
84
85
92
93
96
100

85
82
83
85

80
83
85
84
79
81
85
87
94
100

RELATIVE EARNINGS ( 1 9 0 7 -1 0 0 ) .
SIEGEN-NASSAU DISTRICT.

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................

71
81

71
82

86

86

78
85
90

78
69
72
72
78
92
100

76
65
72
71
77
92
100

82
83
87
89
97
100

74
79
84
77
73
75
76
82
93
100

73
77
82
75
72
74
75
81
91
100

71
77
84
87
82
80
81
83
93
ICO

82
80
79
83
93
100

79
84
85
82
80
82
84
87
95
100

79
83
85
83
79
82
85
87
96
100

90
93
95
95
96
96
95
98
101
100

87
90
95
97
93
97
100
100
105
100

88

78
83
90
87
78
82
86

90
99
100

74
83
89
85
77
80
80
84
94
100

74
83
88

84
75
79
79
83
95
100

68

DISTRICT TO THE RIGHT OF
THE RHINE (EXCEPT SIEGEN-NASSAU).

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................

69
79
87
88

78
82
88

85
79
80
83
85
94
100

75
79
85
82
79
80
81
83
91
100

80
81
83
85
93
100

79
83
87
84
80
80
81
83
91
100

81
82
84
85
79
81
83
87
93
100

79
79
81
81
81
83
82
87
93
100

77
77
83
77
78
83
83
87
92
100

88

88

DISTRICT TO THE LEFT OF
THE RHINE.

1898.......................................
1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................

86

89
90
89
85
86
88

93
98
100

86
88

96
100

88

94
100

In each of the three districts the maximum earnings in the period
preceding 1907 occurred about the year 1900; in 1907 the average
annual earnings of all employees were from 15 to 21 per cent higher
than in 1900.
To sum up the general trend of earnings in all of the mining dis­
tricts referred to above it may be stated that there are two high
points in the earnings, occurring in the years 1900 and 1907, and that
in the last-named year the earnings were uniformly higher than in
any preceding year.



803

TREND OF WAGES IN GERMANY, 1898 TO 1907.
BUILDING TRADES.

In the following tables either the ‘ 1prevailing ’ ’ rates or th e 1‘ median’ ’
rates of wages are used. The term “ median” is defined on page 795;
the “ prevailing” rate of wages is the rate received by the majority
of the workers included in the table.
The data relating to the earnings of building-trade workers were
obtained principally from trade-union investigations and studies made
by employers’ associations, though the pay rolls of a few establish­
ments were also used.
MASONS.

In the following table is shown the wages per hour and per day for
masons in five large cities:
WAGES OF MASONS, 1899 TO 1908.
ACTUAL WAGES.
Berlin
Hamburg (pre­
(median rates). vailing rates).

Dresden (pre­
vailing rates).

Nuremberg
Elberfeld
(median rates). (median rates).

Per
hour.

Year.

1899........................... SO/143
1900...........................
.149
1901...........................
.155
1902...........................
.155
1903...........................
.161
1904...........................
.167
1905...........................
.174
1906...........................
.179
1907...........................
.179
1908...........................
.179

Per
day.

Per
hour.

Per
day.

Per
hour.

Per
day.

Per
hour.

Per
day.

Per
hour.

SI. 29
1.34
1.39
1.39
1.44
1.50
1.56
1.61
1.61
1.61

10.143
.155
.155
.155
.155
.167
.179
.190
.190
.190

SI. 43
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.50
1.61
1.71
1.71
1.71

SO. 109
.107
.102
.102
.108
.115
.121
.131
.138
.140

SI. 09
1.07
1.02
1.02
1.08
1.15
1.21
1.24
1.24
1.26

SO. 102
.102
.102
.102
.102
.112
.121

SI. 02
1.02
1.02
1.02
1.02
1.06
1.13

.133
.140

1.24
1.31

SO. 102
.109
.109
.109
.109
.109
.117
.117
.136
.136

SI. 07
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.17
1.17
1.29
1.29

73
73
73
73
73
80
86

78
78
78
78
78
81
86

75
81
81
81
81
81
86
86
100
100

83
85
85
85
85
85
90
90
100
100

(a)

(a)

Per
day.

RELATIVE W AGES (1 9 0 8 = 1 0 0 ).
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................

80
83
87
87
90
93
97
100
100
100

80
83
87
87
90
93
97
100
100
100

75
81
81
81
81
88
94
100
100
100
a

83
86
86
86
86
88
94
100
100
100

78
76
73
73
77
82
86
93
98
100

87
85
81
81
86
91
96
98
98
100

(a)

95
100

(a)

95
100

Not reported.

In the preceding table the. rates for Berlin, Nuremberg, and Elberfeld are the “ median” rates of wages, while those for Hamburg and
Dresden are the “ prevailing” rates. In Berlin both the hourly and
daily rates show the same tendency for the period included in the
table. In Hamburg, on the other hand, for the ten-year period there
is a larger increase in the rates per hour than in the rates per day,
indicating a shortening of the working day. The same tendency is
observed in Dresden and Elberfeld.
The average rates per hour for masons for the various sections of
the empire were compiled by a special investigation of the central
47150— Bull. 88— 10----- 8




£04

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

federation of masons. The following table, taken from the report
of this investigation, shows these rates for 16 sections of the coun­
try for the years 1895, 1900, and 1905.
A VERAG E H O U R LY WAGES OF MASONS, 1895,1900, AND 1905.
Rates per hour.
uisinci.
1895.*

1900.

Silesia.................................................................................................................
Thuringian states..............................................................................................
Mecklenburg (both duchies)...........................................................................
Pomerania..........................................................................................................
Province of Saxony and Anhalt......................................................................
Bavaria (including the Palatine)....................................................................
W urttemberg.....................................................................................................
Posen, East and West Prussia.........................................................................
Kingdom of Saxony..........................................................................................
Baden, Alsace-Lorraine, etc.............................................................................
Hessen-Nassau and Hessen-Darmstadt................................... ...... ................
Rhine Province.................................................................................................
Hanover, Bremen, Brunswick, etc.................... ............................................
Westphalia, Lippe............................................................................................
Province o f Brandenburg.................................................................................
Sleswick-Holstein, Hamburg, Lubeck............................................................

$0,063
.062
.068
.066
.069
.080
.075
.076
.077
.077
.078
.085
.088
.082
.100
.120

$0,080
.080
.074
.088
.089
.093
.086
.090
.097
.093
.097
.099
.100
.098
.130
.123

$0,083
.086
.087
.089
.090
.094
.095
.096
.099
.102
.102
.107
.108
.111
.138
.148

Average................................................................................................ ..

.082

.099

.109

1905.

In the preceding table it will be noticed that the sections of the
country are arranged in the order of the rates as prevailing in the
year 1905. The highest rates are shown for Sleswick-Holstein,
Nuremberg, Lubeck, and for the province of Brandenburg; in these
districts, the rates are apparently determined by the large cities of
Hamburg, Lubeck, and Berlin and the rate is considerably above the
average for all the areas included.
An interesting indication of the trend of wages of masons is also
given in the source used in the preceding table; this report gives the
data for 1,406 areas in which wage agreements existed in 1895, 1900,
and 1905. The following tables show the prevailing rates of wages
per hour and the average annual income of masons for the three
years already used in the 1,406 areas for which wage agreements
existed.
R ATES OF WAGES AND A V E RAG E ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MASONS, 1895, 1900, AND 1905.
Wage agreement
areas.
Rates per hour.

Wage agreement
areas.
Average annual earnings.

1895. 1900. 1905.
25 Pf. ($0.06) and under..........
25 to 30 Pf. ($0.06 to $0.071)...
30 to 35 Pf. ($0,071 to $0.083)..
35 to 40 Pf. ($0,083 to $0.095)..
40 to 45 Pf. ($0,095 to $0.107)..
45 to 50 Pf. ($0,107 to $0.119)..
50 to 55 Pf. ($0,119 to $0.131)..
55 to 60 P f. ($0,131 to $0.143)..
60 to 65 PL\$0.143 to $0.155)..
65 to 70 P f. ($0,155 to $0.167)..
70 to 75 P f. ($0,167 to $0.179)..
75 to 80 P f. ($0,179 to $0.190)..




272
509
365
178
55
15
7
1
2

52
307
437
287
229
59
21
7
2
3

8
131
397
352
252
143
81
16
12
4
7
1

1895. 1900. 1905.
400 to 500 M. ($95 to $119)..............
500 to 600 M. ($119 to $143)............
600 to 700 M. ($143 to $167)............
700 to 800 M. ($167 to $190)............
800 to 900 M. ($190 to $214)............
900 to 1,000 M. ($214 to $238).........
1,000 to 1,100 M. ($238 to $262).......
1,100 to 1,200 M. ($262 to $286).......
1,200 to 1,300 M. ($286 to $309).......
1,300 to 1,400 M. ($309 to $333)...
1,400 to 1,500 M. ($333 to $357).......
1,500 to 1,600 M. ($357 to $381).......
1,600 to 1,700 M. ($381 to $405).......

22
228
419
344
215
131
25
12
1
7

i

53
218
357
325
225
155
55
8
3
5

4
92
279
379
275
162
135
40
26
4
5
3

805

TREND OF WAGES IN GERMANY, 1898 TO 1907.

A superficial examination of the preceding table shows at once a
distinct movement of the trade-agreement areas from the lower rates
to the higher rates in each of the years mentioned. For the hourly
rates in 1895 there are but very few areas with a rate in excess of
40 Pf. ($0,095), while in 1900 and 1905 the localities with rates in
excess of 40 Pf. ($0,095) are quite numerous. Similarly with the
average annual earnings; in 1895 very few areas showed annual
earnings in excess of 1,000 marks ($238), in 1900 a large number of
areas showed much higher earnings, while in 1905 over one-fourth of
all areas had earnings in excess of 1,000 marks ($238), and for the first
time a few areas with annual earnings in excess of 1,500 marks ($357)
were reported.
CARPENTERS.

The rates of wages of carpenters in the four cities of Berlin, Dresden,
Nuremberg, and Elberfeld are shown in the following table:
WAGES OF CARPENTERS, 1899 TO 1908.
A C T U A L

Berlin (median
rates).

W A G E S.

Dresden (prevail­
ing rates).

Nuremberg (medi­
an rates).

Elberfeld (medi­
an rates).

Per hour. Per day. Per hour. Per day. Per hour. Per day. Per hour. Per day.
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................

$0,143
.149
.155
.155
.161
.167
.174
.179
.179
.179

$1.29
1.34
1.39
1.39
1.44
1.50
1.56
1.61
1.61
1.61

$0,107
.107
.101
.101
.108
.115
.121
.131
.138
.140

R E L A T IV E

1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................

80
83
87
87
so
93
97
100
100
100

W A G E S

76
76
72
72
77
82
86
93
98
100

80
83
87
87
90
93
97
100
100
100
a

$1.07
1.07
1.01
1.01
1.08
1.15
1.21
1.24
1.24
1.26

$0,096
.098
.100
.100
.100
.109
.117
.119
.131
.138

(a)

$0.96
.98
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.04
1.11
1.13
1.24
1.31

$0.107
.107
.107
.114
.126
.131
.131
.143
.143

74
74
76
76
76
79
84
86
95
100

W 75
75
75
80
88
92
92
100
100

(a)

$1.07
1.07
1.07
1.14
1.26
1.24
1.24
1.36
1.36

(1 9 0 8 = 1 0 0 ).

85
85
80
80
86
91
96
98
98
100

70
71
72
72
72
79
84
86
95
100

(Q)

79
79
79
84
93
92
92
100
100

Not reported.

According to the relative figures given in the preceding table, the
wages of carpenters in three of the four large cities have increased onefourth or more in the decade ending with 1908. There is some
difference in the rate of increase in the hourly and the daily wages, but,
with the exception of the daily rate in Dresden, the level of wages is
at least one-fourth higher in 1908 than in 1899.




806

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
BUILDING TRADES’ LABORERS.

The data for the wages of helpers and laborers in the building trades
were obtained principally from publications of employers’ associations,
though the rates as found on the books of a few firms were also used.
WAGES OF H ELPERS AND LABORERS IN THE BUILDING TRADES, 1899 TO 1908.
Actual wages.
rear.

Berlin
(median
rates).
Per
hour.

1899................... $0,083
1900................... .095
1901................... .095
1902................... .095
1903................... .107
1904................... .107
1905................... .114
1906................... .119
1907................... .119
1908................... .119

Per
day.

Nuremberg
(median
rates).
Per
hour.

$0.83 $0,064
.064
.95
.95
.064
.95
.067
.96
.067
.96
.071
.079
1.03
1.07
.083
.095
1.07
.102
1.07

Relative wages (1908== 100).
Elberfeld
(median
rates).

Per
day.

Berlin
(median
rates).

Per
hour.

Per
day.

Per
hour.

$0.64 $0,086
.64
.083
.64
.083
.67
.083
.67
.083
.68
.086
(a)
.74
(a)
.79
.112
.90
.112
.97

$0.90
.87
.83
.83
.83
.86
(«)

70
80
80
80
90
90
96
100
100
100

(a)

1.06
1.06

Per
day.
78
89
89
89
90
90
96
100
100
100

Nuremberg
(median
rates).
Per
hour.
63
63
63
65
65
70
77
81
93
100

Per
day.
66
66
66
69
69
70
77
81
93
100

Elberfeld
(median
rates).
Per
hour.
77
74
74
74
74
77

(a)
( a)

100
100

Per
day.
85
82
78
78
78
81
( a)

(a)

100
100

<*Not reported.

Both the hourly and daily rate of the helpers and laborers in the
building trades, as given in the preceding table, show that the great­
est increases took place in the period in question in Nuremberg; the
increase in the hourly rate in Elberfeld was over 25 per cent and in
the daily rate over 15 per cent. Berlin also shows a large increase;
since 1899 the hourly rate has increased nearly one-half and the daily
rate over one-fourth. For the three cities included in the table, the
rates per hour have increased from one-fourth to nearly one-half and
the rates per day have increased between 15 and 50 per cent.
PAINTfcRS.

The wages of painters have been obtained principally from trade
agreements, though data furnished by private establishments were
also used to some extent. For three large cities the trend of wages of
painters in the last decade has been as follows:
WAGES OF PAINTERS, 1899 TO 1908.
Actual wages.

Year.

Berlin
(median
rates).
Per
hour.

1899................... $0,112
1900................... .119
1901................... .119
1902................... .119
1903................... .131
1904................... .131
1905................... .131
1906................... .155
1907................... .155
1908................... .155

Per
day.

Hamburg
(prevailing
rates).

Relative wages (1908== 100).
Nuremberg
(median
rates).

Berlin
(median
rates).

Per
hour.

Per
day.

Per
hour.

Per
day.

Per
hour.

$1.01
(«)
(a)
1.07
1.07 $0.133
.133
1.07
.143
1.18
.143
1.18
1.18
.143
.155
1.39
.155
1.39
.155
1.39

(«)

$1.20
1.20
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.39
1.39
1.39

$0.100
.100
.100
.100
.100
.105
.114
.117
.119
.121

$1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
.99
1.03
1.05
1.07
1.09

73
77
77
77
85
85
85
100
100
100




( a)

a

Not reported.

Per
day.
73
77
77
77
85
85
85
100
100
100

Hamburg
(prevailing
rates).

Nuremberg
(median
rates).

Per
hour.

Per
day.

Per
hour.

(a)
(a)

(o)
(a)

82
82
82
82
82
86
94
96
98
100

86
86
92
92
92
100
100
100

86
86
92
92
92
100
100
100

Per
day.
92
92
92
92
92
91
94
96
98
100

807

TREND OF WAGES IN GERMANY, 1898 TO 1907.

The greatest increases in the rates are those shown for Berlin,
where the increase was over one-third for both the hourly and the daily
rates. The development in Hamburg shows an increase of 16 per
cent in both the hourly and the daily rates, while in Nuremberg the
hourly rates show an increase of over 20 per cent and the daily
rates of nearly 10 per cent in the period covered. For painters,
therefore, the rates per hour show increases of about one-fourth or
more, and the rates per day show increases of about one-tenth to
one-third, the greatest increase occurring in the largest city of the
empire.
PLUMBERS, GAS F IT T E R S , AND STEAM FITTERS.

For plumbers and allied workers the data were obtained almost
entirely from wage agreements. The trend of wages in three large
cities for the decade 1899-1908 is as follows:
W AGES OF PLUMBERS, GAS FITTERS, AND STEAM FITT E R S, 1899 TO 1908.
Actual wages.

Ycsr

Berlin
(median
rates).
Per
hour.

Per
day.

Hamburg
(prevailing
rates).
Per
hour.

Relative wages (1908== 100).
Nuremberg
(median
rates).

Berlin
(median
rates).

Per
hour.

Per
day.

Per
hour.

$1.19 $0,086
.094
1.24
.086
1.24
.084
1.24
1.24
.088
.107
1.29
.107
1.29
.119
1.50
.119
1.50
.119
(«)

$0.86
.94
.86
.84
.88
1.02
1.02
1.13
1.13
1.13

71
69
84
85
85
85
85
100
100
100

Per
day.

Per
day.

Hamburg
(prevailing
rates).
Per
hour.

Per
day.

Nuremberg
(median
rates).
Per
hour.

Per
day.
./

1899..'............... $0.109
1900................... .107
1901................... .130
1902................... .131
1903................... .131
1904................... .131
1905................... .131
1906................... .155
1907................... .155
1908................... .155

$1.10 $0.119
.131
.96
1.17
.131
.131
1.18
.131
1.18
.143
1.18
.143
1.18
.167
1.39
.167
1.39
(a)
1.39
a

79
69
84
85
85
85
85
100
100
100

71
79
79
79
79
86
86
100
100

(a)

79
83
83
83
83
86
86
100
100

(a)

72
79
72
71
74
90
90
100
100
100

76
83
76
75
78
90
90
100
100
100

Not reported; 1907 is used as 100 for the relative wages.

The three cities show approximately the same development, and
in each case the increase in the hourly rates has been somewhat
greater than the increase in the daily rates. In each of the three
cities the increase has been much in excess of 25 per cent for the
above periods.
PLUMBERS’ H ELPERS.

The data for wages of plumbers' helpers were secured from wage
agreements and from the books of private establishments. The
trend of wages for this trade in Berlin and Nuremberg is as follows:




808

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
W AGES OF PLUM BERS’ H E LPER S AND L ABO RERS, 1899 TO 1908.
Relative wages (1908=100).

Actual wages.
Nuremberg (median rates).

Berlin (median
rates).

Berlin (median
rates).

Nuremberg (medi­
an rates).

Per hour. Per day. Per hour. Per day. Per hour. Per day. Per hour. Per day.
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................

SO.071
.071
.083
.083
.095
.095
.095
.113
.113
.113

SO. 71
.64
.75
.75
.86
.86
.86
1.02
1.02
1.02

SO. 060
.060
.060
.060
.060
(a)
(a)
(a)

SO. 60
.60
.60
.60
.60

(a)

(o)
(a)

.090
.090
a

63
63
74
74
84
84
84
100
100
100

.86
.86

70
63
74
74
84
84
84
100
100
100

66
66
66
66
66

(a)
(a)
(a)

(*)

(a)
(a)

100
100

69
69
69
69
69

100
100

Not reported.

The increase in the rates has been slightly greater in Berlin than in
Nuremberg, but both show an increase of about 50 per cent or more
in the wage rates paid in the trade during the decade ending in 1908.
STONE CTJTTEBS.

The data relating to the wages of stonecutters were obtained
principally from trade-union publications, though the books of a num­
ber of private establishments were also used in securing the informa­
tion. For the cities of Berlin, Hamburg, and Nuremberg the rates in
the decade 1899-1908 are as follows:
WAGES OF STONECUTTERS, 1899 TO 1908.
Relative wages (1908=100).

Actual wages.
Berlin
(prevailing
rates).
Per
hour.
1899................... j0< 155
1900................... .167
1901................... .167
1902................... .167
1903................... .167
1904................... (a)
1905................... .186
1906................... .190
1907................... .202
1908................... .202

Nuremberg
(median
rates).

Hamburg
(prevailing
rates).

Per
hour.

Per
day.

Per
hour.

SI. 31 SO. 159 SI. 43 $0,114
1.33
.119
.159
1.43
1.33
.119
.171
1.46
1.33
.119
.171
1.46
.124
1.33
.171
1. 46
(a)
(a)
.148
( a)
1. 49
.186
.148
1.58
(a)
(a)
1.52
.155
1.62
.202
1.72
.167
.214
1.62
1.81
.167

$1.14
1.19
1.19
1.19
1.11
1.33
1.33
1.39
1.50
1.50

76
82
82
82
82

Per
day.

Per
hour.

Per
day.

Berlin
(prevailing
rates).

a

(a)

92
94
100
100

Per
day.
81
82
82
82
82
(a)

92
94
100
100

Hamburg
(prevailing
rates).
Per
hour.
74
74
80
80
80

(a)

87

(a)

94
100

Per
day.
79
79
81
81
81

(a)

87

(a)

94
100

Nuremberg
(median
rates).
Per
hour.
69
71
71
71
74
89
89
93
100
100

Per
day.
76
79
79
79
74
89
89
93
100
100

Not reported.

The rates as given for Nuremberg show the most rapid increase,
while in the other two cities the increases are from one-fourth to
one-third.




809

TREND OF WAGES IN GERMANY, 1898 TO 1907.
METAL-WORKING INDUSTRIES.

On account of the absence of compilations of wage statistics in
the metal-working trades, the only information available which
includes a large number of workmen is a statement showing the aver­
age daily earnings paid to employees in the Krupp plant at Essen.
For the 10-year period 1897-1906, these averages were:
AVERAGE D A IL Y EARNINGS IN THE K R U PP PLANT AT ESSEN, 1897 TO 1906.

Year.

1897...........................................
1898...........................................
1899...........................................
1900__ i .....................................
1901...........................................

Actual
earnings.

Relative
earnings
(1906=
100).

$1.07
1.09
1.12
1.14
1.10

84
85
88
89
87

Year.

1902...........................................
1903...........................................
1904...........................................
1905...........................................
1908...........................................

Relative
Actual earnings
earnings. (1906=
100).
$1.08
1.09
1.16
1.22
1.27

84
85
91
96
100

For all employees in the plant, if the average daily earnings in
1906 be taken as 100, the average for 1897 would be 84; from this
year there is a gradual increase up to 1900, when a slight reaction
occurs and the level remains below that of 1900 until the year 1904,
when it rises above the level of 1900, and in the year 1905 was still
higher and in 1906 reached the highest point since the beginning of
the plant. While an average of this kind is not of great value, in
the present instance it may safely be used as the basis for the state­
ment that there has been an increase of nearly 20 per cent in the
general level of wages in the largest metal-working establishment in
Germany during the period 1897 to 1906.
PRINTING TRADES.

For compositors and pressmen in the book printing trades statistics
as to the prevailing minimum weekly rates of wages are found in the
trade agreements made between the employers’ association and the
printers’ union. These wage agreements cover practically the whole
Empire, and specify the minimum weekly rate which must be paid to
journeymen printers over 24 years of age in the localities designated.
The rate specified in the trade agreement may, under certain circum­
stances, be reduced for persons below the age of 24, but on the whole
these reductions are of minor importance.
In the following table the minimum weekly wages for journeymen
printers over 24 years of age are given for the 25 largest cities of the
Empire, the cities in the table being arranged according to popula­
tion, as reported by the census of 1905:




810

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

MINIMUM W E E K L Y W AGES OF JOURNEYMEN PRINTERS OVER 24 Y EA R S OF AGE,*
1886 TO 1909.
A C T U A L

Locality.

Berlin..........................................
Hamburg.....................................
Munich........................................
Dresden.......................................
•Leipzig.........................................
Breslau........................................
Cologne........................................
Frankfort on the Main...............
Nuremberg..................................
Dusseldorf..................................*.
Hanover......................................
Stuttgart.....................................
Chemnitz.....................................
Magdeburg..................................
Charlottenburg...........................
Essen...........................................
Stettin.........................................
Konigsberg..................................
Bremen........................................
Duisburg.....................................
Dortmund...................................
Halle............................................
Altona..........................................
Kiel..............................................
Mannheim...................................

Oct. 1,
1886.

Jan. 1,
1889.

$5.85
5.85
5.37
5.49
5.49
5.37
5.37
5.49
5.37
5.37
5.37
5.37
5.37
5.29
5.85
5.61
5.37
5.37
5.37
5.12
5.37
5.29
5.85
5.37
5.12

R E L A T IV E

Berlin..........................................
Hamburg.....................................
Munich........................................
Dresden.......................................
Leipzig.........................................
Breslau........................................
Cologne........................................
Frankfort on the Main...............
Nuremberg..................................
Dusseldorf...................................
Hanover......................................
Stuttgart......................................
Chemnitz.....................................
Magdeburg..................................
Charlottenburg...........................
Essen...........................................
Stettin.........................................
Konigsberg.................................
Bremen.......................................
Duisburg.....................................
Dortmund...................................
Halle............................................
Altona..........................................
Kiel..............................................
Mannheim...................................

79
79
77
79
77
78
78
79
78
78
78
77
80
79
79
82
80
82
77
78
80
81
79
75
75

W A G E S.

Jan. 1,
1890.

July 1,
1896.

$5.85
5.85
5.37
5.49
5.49
5.37
5.37
5.49
5.37
5.37
5.37
5.37
5.37
5.29
5.85
5.61
5.37
5.37
5.37
5.12
5.37
5.29
5.85
5.37
5.12

$6.10
6.10
5.61
5.73
5.73
5.61
5.37
5.73
5.61
5.37
5.61
5.61
5.37
5.29
6.10
5.61
5.37
5.37
5.61
5.12
5.37
5.29
6.10
5.61
5.37

W A G E S

(1 9 0 9 = 1 0 0 ).

79
79
77
79
77
78
78
79
78
78
78
77
80
79
79
82
80
82
77
78
80
81
79
75
75

82
82
80
82
80
82
78
82
82
78
82
80
80
79
82
82
80
82
80
78
80
81
82
79
78

$6.25
6.25
5.87
5.87
5.87
5.75
5.50
5.87
5.75
5.50
5.75
5.75
5.50
5.41
6:25
5.75
5.50
5.50
5.75
5.25
5.50
5.41
6.25
5.75
5.50

84
84
84
84
82
84
80
84
84
80
84
82
82
81
84
84
82
84
82
80
82
83
84
81
80

Jan. 1,
1902.

Jan. 1,
1907.

Jan. 1,
1909.

$6.69
6.69
6.29
6.29
6.43
6.16
6.02
6.29
6.16
6.02
6.16
6.29
6.02
5.89
6.69
6.16
6.02
5.89
6.16
5.76
6.02
5.89
6.69
6.43
6.02

$7.44
7.44
6.99
6.99
7.14
6.84
6.69
6.99
6.84
6.69
6.84
6.99
6.69
6.55
7.44
6.84
6.69
6.55
6.84
6.55
6.69
6.55
7.44
7.14
6.69

$7.44
7.44
6.99
6.99
7.14
6.84
6.84
6.99
6.84
6.84
6.84
6.99
6.69
6.69
7.44
6.84
6.69
6.55
6.99
6.55
0.69
6.55
7.44
7.14
6.84

90
90
90
90
90
90
88
90
90
88
90
90
90
88
90
90
90
90
88
88
90
90
90
90
83

100
100
100
100
100
100
98
100
100
98
100
100
100
98
100
100
100
100
98
100
100
100
100
100
98

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

In the preceding table the rates show a marked increase in 1909
as compared with 1896. The year 1907 varies but seldom from the
rate agreed upon for 1909, but 1902 and 1896 are both much lower
than the 1909 rate.
RAILROAD SERVICE.

The largest railway system in Germany is that of the PrussianHessian state railway system for which wage data are available for a
number of years for specified occupations. In the following table is
given the total daily compensation, including the various extras




811

TREND OF WAGES IN GERMANY, 1898 TO 1907,

customary to railway employees, in the way of travel allowances,
etc., of the classes of workers employed in the service of the system
just mentioned:
AVERAG E D A IL Y EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES OF THE PRUSSIAN-HESSIAN STATE
R A IL W A Y SYSTEM, 1S98 TO 1907.
A C T U A L

E A R N IN G S .

1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. 1900. 1907.

Class of employees.

Technic?,! office employees, draftsmen,
etc........................................................... $1.49 $1.53 $1.60 $1.64 $1.67 $1.71 $1.73 $1.72 («)
Employees engaged on inside work......... .72
.73
.73
.73
.77
.73
.76
.77 $0.79
Employees engaged in station work,
freight handlers, etc............................... .60
.63
.64
.61
.64
.64
.65
.67
.69
Track walkers, section hands, etc., clerks
for foremen, etc...................................... .45
.52
.48
.50
.51
.51
.51
.53
.56
Engineers, conductors, etc., clerks for
.62
.62
.64
.64
operation service........................ ........... .61
.63
.63
.65
.68
Other train-service men...........................
.54
.50
.51
.53
.55
.56
.55
.58
.61
.64
Workmen engaged on inside work.......... .62
.64
.64
.65
.66
.67
.68
.72
.62
.64
Workmen engaged in train operation___ .58
.64
.60
.63
.66
.68
.72
Maintenanco-of-way employees................ .51
.54
.52
.56
.55
.55
.55
.57
.60
Shopworkers of the lower grades.............. .68
.70
.72
.74
.70
.71
.69
.76
.80
Shopworkers of the higher grades............ .99
.98 1.00 1.01 1.03 1.02 1.02 1.05 1.06
.82
Artisans and mechanics, time rates......... .79
.84
.83
.85
.87
.90
.79
.95
Artisans and mechanics, piece rates........ .98
.98
.98
.99
.99 1.00
.99 1.01 1.06
Skilled workers on shopwork, time rates. .64
.64
.72
.74
.66
.70
.78
.70
.82
Skilled workers on shopwork, piece
.88
.87
.86
.88
.92
.87
.89
rates........................................................ .86
.98
.63
.64
.64
Other shopmen time rates...................... .60
.61
.66
.67
.69
.73
.82
.82
Other shopmen, piece rates.....................
.80
.81
.81
.83
.83
.84
.88
Apprentices (shopworkers)......................
.26
.26
.26
.26
.25
.26
.26
.25
.26
Average for all employees..............

.61

.63

. 65

.65

.66

.66

.67

.69

.73

(a)

$0.83
.72
.60
.70
.64
.76
.75
.63
.86
1.09
.98
1.09
.86
1.02
. 75
.91
.26
.76

a Not reported.
R E L A T IV E

Class of employees.

E A R N IN G S (1 9 0 7 = 1 0 0 ).

1898. 1899. 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. 1906. 1907.

Technical office employees, draftsmen,
etc...........................................................
Employees engaged on inside work.........
Employees engaged in station work,
freight handlers, etc..............................
Track walkers, section hands, etc.,
clerks for foremen, etc...........................
Engineers, conductors, etc., clerks for
operation service....................................
Other train-service men...........................
Workmen engaged on inside work..........
Workmen engaged in train operation___
Maintenance-of-way employees................
Shop workers of the lower grades.............
Shopworkers of the higher grades...........
Artisans and mechanics, time rates.........
Artisans and mechanics, piece rates........
Skilled workers on shopwork, time rates.
Skilled workers on shopwork, piece
rates........................................................
Other shopmen, time rates......................
Other shopmen, piece rates......................
Apprentices (shopworkers)......................
Average for all employees..............

87
86

89
88

93
88

95
88

97
88

99
92

101
93

100
93

(a)
96

(a)
100
100

83

85

87

89

89

89

90

92

96

75

80

85

86

80

86

87

88

95

100

87
78
81
77
80
79
92
80
89
74

88
80
83
79
83
80
90
81
90
74

89
82
84
82
85
81
92
83
91
77

90
84
84
83
87
81
93
85
90
81

90
85
85
85
87
82
95
85
89
81

91
86
86
86
87
83
94
87
91
83

91
87
87
88
88
85
94
89
90
86

93
90
89
90
91
88
97
92
92
90

97
96
94
96
95
93
98
97
97
95

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

84
79
88
100

84
81
89
98

86
83
90
101

85
84
89
101

85
85
90
100

87
87
91
100

88
89
91
100

90
91
92
98

90
97
97
99

100
100
100
100

80

83

86

86

87

87

89

91

96

100

a Not reported; 1905=100.

Taking the year 1907 as 100, the earnings in the preceding table
show advances of from 8 to 26 points during the decade in question.
The average for all of the employees, with 1907 as 100, shows a rate
in 1898 of 80, or an increase of 20 points.



812

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
SEAMEN.

The average monthly wages of seamen on the Baltic and the
North Seas are shown in the following table for the ports mentioned:
M ONTH LY WAGES (INCLUDING RATIONS) OF ABLE-BODIED SEAMEN IN THE BALTIC
PORTS, 1897 TO 1906.
Actual wages.
Year.

1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902...'.......................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................

Pome­ SleswickEast and rania
and Holstein
West
Mecklen­
and
Prussia.
burg.
Liibeck.
$11.33
12.52
12.05
13.07
13.63
13.52
13.82
13.78
13.87
14.31

$11.50
11.70
12.37
13.46
14.03
13.88
13.78
13.95
14.05
14.12

$11.78
13.90
13.13
13.43
14.01
14.33
14.17
13.54
14.38
14.22

Relative wages (1906=100).

All
Baltic
ports.

$11.55
12.58
12.47
13.40
13.92
13.90
13.90
13.78
14.13
14.20

Pome­ SleswickEast and rania
and Holstein
West
Mecklen­
and
Prussia.
burg.
Liibeck.
79
88
84
91
95
94
97
96
97
100

81
83
88
95
99
98
98
99
99
100

All
Baltic
ports.

83
98
92
94
99
101
100
95
101
100

81
89
88
94
98
98
98
97
99
100

M ONTH LY WAGES (INCLUDING RATIONS) OF ABLE-BODIED SEAMEN IN THE PORTS
ON THE NORTH SEA, 1897 TO 1906.
Actual wages.

Relative wages (1906=100).

SleswickHolstein.

Ham­
burg.

Hano­
ver,
All
SlesOlden­
burg, Brem­ ports on wicken.
HolNorth
and
stein.
Sea.
Rhine
ports.

1897........................... $32.86
13.13
1898...........................
13.19
1899...........................
14.42
1900...........................
14.33
1901...........................
14.23
1902...........................
14.04
1903...........................
13.97
1904...........................
13.94
1905...........................
14.19
1906...........................

$12.76
13.29
13.96
14.87
15.11
15.14
15.10
15.16
15.10
15.77

$14.91
15.04
15.10
15.52
15.16
15.28
15.10
14.99
15.10
15.59

Year.

$13.22
13.45
13.66
14.30
14.61
14.51
14.70
14.61
14.66
15.09

$13.16
13.59
13.99
14.79
14.89
14.90
14.92
14.88
14.88
15.42

91
93
93
102
101
100
99
98
98
100

Ham­
burg.

Hano­
ver,
All
Olden­ Brem­ ports
on
burg,
North
en.
and
Sea.
Rhine
ports.

81
84
89
94
96
96
96
96
96
300

96
96
97
100
97
98
97
96
97
100

88
89
91
95
97
96
97
97
97
100

85
88
91
96
97
97
97
96
97
100

AVE R AG E M ONTHLY WAGES OF ABLE-BODIED SEAMEN ON THE BALTIC AND THE
N O R T H SEAS, 1897 TO 1906.

Year.

3897...........................................
1898...........................................
1899...........................................
1900...........................................
1901...........................................

Actual
wages.

$12.86
13.45
13.73
14.55
14.73

Relative
wages
(1906=
100).
85
89
90
96
97

Year.

1902...........................................
1903...........................................
1904...........................................
1905...........................................
1906...........................................

Actual
wages.

SI 4.75
14.74
14.70
14.74
15.18

Relative
wages
(1906=
100).
97
97
97
97
100

The monthly rates given in the above tables are for able-bodied
seamen and include maintenance. Taking the average for the Empire
in 1906 as 100, there has been an advance of 15 points since 1897.
In the ports of the North Sea the same increase has taken place,
while in the Baltic ports the increase has been even greater.



W AGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN GERMAN WOODW ORKING
INDUSTRIES IN 1906.

In November, 1906, the Federation of German Woodworkers made
an investigation of the wages and hours of labor in the woodworking
industries of the Empire. On account of the importance of these
industries in Germany and because of the large number of persons
included in the investigation, the results of this study are of interest
in giving an idea of the hours of labor and level of wages paid. While
the information was collected in November, 1906, and relates to
prevailing hours of labor and earnings at that date, the information
in tabulated form was not published until 1909.
The industrial census of June 12, 1907, presents the data for the
woodworking industries in a group designated as “ W ood and cut
materials;” while this census group of woodworking industries is not
identical with the groups covered by the trade-union investigation,
it shows the importance of these industries in Germany. The census
group of wood and cut material industries on June 12, 1907, gave
employment to 787,754 persons, to which should be added 15,605
persons classed as servants living with the persons engaged in the
industry. The number of dependents of the persons gainfully em­
ployed was 1,185,737, making a total of 1,989,096 persons whose live­
lihood depended on the woodworking and allied industries of the
Empire. These 787,754 persons formed 2.61 per cent of the popula­
tion gainfully employed.
The investigation made by the union took place in November, 1906,
a time when the woodworking industries were at a high point of
activity. The investigation covered only establishments in which
one or more wage-earners were employed, and therefore did not include
“ one-person” establishments. The table following indicates the
scope of the investigation by giving the number of establishments
included and the number of persons employed in them, the estab­
lishments being classified according to branch of industry.




813

814

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND OF EMPLOYEES INCLUDED
IN THE INVESTIGATION OF W OODW ORKING INDUSTRIES, 1906, B Y BRANCH
OF INDUSTRY.
Employees.

Establishments.
Branch of industry.

Num­
ber.

Per
cent.

Young
Females. persons.

Males.

Joiners..................................... 12,514
573
Turners...................................
304
Brush makers.........................
359
Basket makers........................
52
Cork cutters............................
796
Wheelwrights.........................
161
Gilders.....................................
62
Wooden-shoe makers..............
172
Box makers.............................
26
Toy makers.............................
149
All other..................................

82.5
3.8
2.0
2.4
.3
5.2
1.1
.4
1.1
.2
1.0

153,808
6,850
4,388
2,856
524
3,551
3,357
447
2,817
725
2,981

4,114
1,428
2,202
202
202
417
29
137
238
1,717

2,868
449
362
82
40
26
246
8
159
43
276

Total.............................. 15,168

100.0

182,304

10,686

4,559

Ap­
pren­
tices.

Total.

12,398
399
306
157
15
283
204
13
86
10
30

173,188
9,126
7,258
3,297
781
3,860
4,224
497
3,199
1,016
5,004

81.9
4.3
3.4
1.6
.4
1.8
2.0
.2
1.5
.5
2.4

13,901

211,450

100.0

Per
cent.

The information relating to the establishments and persons
employed in them was obtained by sending a member of the union
to each establishment with a schedule of inquiries relating to methods
of wage payment, rates of wages, average weekly earnings, and hours
of labor. As disclosed by the above table, the number of persons
included was in excess of 200,000, and of these over 180,000 were
adult males. The leading occupation of the persons included was
that of joiner (in both the furniture and building trades) and this
trade formed about 82 per cent of the persons included. The
15,000 establishments included were classed according to the princi­
pal occupation of the persons employed in them, but each estab­
lishment was counted only once. The size of the establishments
included and the number of persons employed in establishments of
each class in 1906, with a comparison of the results obtained by a
similar investigation in 1902, are as follows:
NUMBER AND PE R CENT OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND OF EM PLOYEES INCLUDED IN
THE INVESTIGATION, 1906 COMPARED W ITH 1902, B Y SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT.
Per cent of—

Establish­
ments.

Employees.

Size of establishment.

1902.

1906.

1 to 5 persons.............. 4,939 7,407
6 to 10 persons............. 2,181 3,164
11 to 30 persons........... 2,054 3,144
31 to 50 persons...........
475
709
51 to 100 persons.........
358
481
101 to 200 persons........
143
188
Over 200 persons.........
44
75

1902.

1906.

14,555
16,632
36,189
18,472
23,896
19,610
14,603

21,138
24,152
54,866
27,635
33,227
25,950
24,482

Average
employ­
ees em­
Increase in ployed
per
Establish­ Employees.
1906 as
establish­
ments.
compared
ment.
with 1902.

1902. 1906. 1902. 1906.

48.5
21.4
20.1
4.7
3.5
1.4
.4

48.8
20.9
20.7
4.7
3.2
1.2
.5

10.1
11.6
25.1
12.8
16.6
13.6
10.2

10.0
11.4
26.0
13.1
15.7
12.2
11.6

Total.................. 10,194 15,168 143,957 211,450 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0




Estab- Per­
lish- sons. 1902. 1906.
ments.
50.0
45.1
53.1
49.3
34.4
31.5
70.5

45.2
2.6
2.9
45.2
7.6
7.6
51.6 17.6 17.5
49.6 38.9 39.0
39.0 66.7 69.1
32.3 137.1 138.0
67.7 331.9 326.4

48.8 46.9

14.1

13.9

WAGES AND HOURS IN GERMAN WOODWORKING INDUSTRIES.

815

According to the preceding table, in 1906 about one-half of the
establishments employed 1 to 5 persons, about one-fifth employed 6
to 10 persons, and another fifth employed 11 to 30 persons, so that
approximately 90 per cent of the establishments employed 30 persons
or less. The average size of the establishments in 1906 is indicated
by the fact that for the 90 per cent of the establishments just men­
tioned the average number of persons employed was 7.3, while for all
establishments together the average number of persons per establish­
ment was 13.9.
HOURS OF LABOR.

The weekly hours of labor of all the persons included in the inves­
tigation showed an average of 57.0. For the different occupations,
however, there are some variations from this rate. The averages for
all the persons included show the following:
A VERAG E HOURS OF LA BO R P E R W E E K , B Y OCCUPATIONS.
Average
hours per
week.

Occupation.

Joiners........................................................
Turners......................................................
Brush makers............................................
Basket makers..........................................
Cork cutters...............................................

Average
hours per
week.

Occupation.

56.7
57.3
59.0
59.7
59.5

58.6
55.8
59.9
58.3
62.0

Wheelwrights............................................
Gilders.......................................................
Wooden-shoe makers................................
Box makers................................................
Toy makers................................................

Such averages as the preceding are of little value because the
number of persons working a specified number of hours per week
is not given.
In the first of the following tables is given, for 29
occupations or branches of industry, the hours of labor by establish­
ments, and in the second table the hours of labor by the number of
persons working each group of hours.
NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND OF EMPLOYEES IN THE W OODW ORKING INDUS­
TRIES HAVING A SPECIFIED NUMBER OF HOURS OF LABO R P E R W E E K , 1906, B Y
OCCUPATION OR BRANCH OF IN DU STRY.
E S T A B L IS H M E N T S .

Hours of labor per week.
Occupation or branch 48
of industry.
and 49 to 52 to
un­ 51.
53.
der.
Joiners.........................
Musical instruments..
Pattern making..........
Chair making..............
Clock-case m aking___
Sewing-machine-stand
making.....................
P h o t o graphic-appa­
ratus making...........
Parquetry working__
Harmonica making
Wood ware factories.. .

20
2

1
14




54.

55.

244 2,129 1,389
82
84
71
23
29
2
21
16
1
5

4
4

57.

56.

77
8
6
4

60.

841 2,426
21
26
194
58
21
43
9
17

61 to 64 to 66. Over
63. 65.
66.

243

446 1,258
24
36
41
23
5
54
1
1

468
7
29
6
10
1

10

10

1

1
11

1
1
4
22

2
9
5
32

2
1
1
22

2

3

1

4

2

31
22

7
8
1
14

1

3

8

3
6

15
1
8
13

22

59.

58.

23
12
2

285
3
17
6

422
3
5
1

1
1
2
30

5

87
15
2
1
2

816

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

N U M B E R O F E S T A B L IS H M E N T S A N D O F E M P L O Y E E S IN T H E W O O D W O R K IN G IN D U S ­
T R I E S H A V IN G A S P E C IF IE D N U M B E R OF H O U R S O F L A B O R P E R W E E K , 1906, B Y
O C C U P A T IO N O R B R A N C H O F IN D U S T R Y —Concluded.

E STA B L ISH M E N TS—Concluded.
Hours of labor per week.
Occupation or branch 48
of industry.
and 49 to 52 to
un­ 51.
53.
der.
Wood-curtain manu­
facture ......................
Machinery factories. . .
Carriage and wagon
factories....................
Shipyards....................
Sawmills
___ ___
Other factories............
Turners........................
Cane making...............
Button making...........
Comb making..............
Brush making.............
Basket making............
Cork cutting________
Wheelwright work. . . .
Gilders' work..............
Wooden-shoe making.
Box making................
Toy making.................
Miscellaneous..............
Total..................

1

3
1

19
10

!
....... !

2

1
5
5
2

2

53

£5.

54.

11
18

8
26
15
2
3
1
2
2
g
2
15

76
10
2
9
14
30
3
134
55

3
5
4
3
23
2
2
4
25
9
1
55
35

5

17

1

8

9

426 2,703 1,777

56.

2
3

57.

5
2

1
5
1
1
6
9
1
5
6

29
12
1
1
20
16
2
41
13
1
6
6

145

59.

58.

€0.

61 to 64 to 66. Over
63. 65.
66.

9
29

1
15

2
56

6
138

1
26

5
2
4
1
29
8
2
1
19
14
4
62
3
3
11
1
18

3
1
2
2
23
2
11
3
28
24
4
33
5
4
5

9
5
6
11
43
3
12
6
52
64
8
33
17
4
31
1
30

15
33
40
32
72
7
16
9
80
106
22
257
13
30
49
3
36

1

2

7
3
24
3
1
3
17
12

27
5
22
2
2
1
20
23

39
3
5
10
1
3

40
5
12
13
17

466

559

670 1,654

9

708 1,389 3,720

1
22

17
3
26
1
20
1

2
3

24
6

1
14
4
35
15
2
3
sn
20
2
7
i
2
i
7!____
3i
«
058

191

220 4,709 28,664 17,837 1,329 4,861 12,248 5,481 9,820 17,267 1,823 1,630 2,100

445

EM PLOYEES.
Joiners.........................
Musical instrument
makers......................
Pattern makers...........
Chair makers...............
Clock-case makers.......
S e w in g -m a c h in e stand makers...........
Photographic - a p p a ratus workers...........
Parquetry workers___
Harmonica makers.__
Woodware - f a c t o r y
workers....................
Curtain-factory work­
ers .............................
Machine-factory work­
ers.............................
Wagon-factory work­
ers.............................
Shipyard workers.......
Sawmill workers.........
Workers in other fac­
tories.........................
Turners........................
Cane makers................
Button makers...........
Comb makers..............
Brush makers..............
Basket makers............
Cork cutters.................
Wheelwrights..............
Gilders.........................
Wooden-shoe makers..
Box makers................
Toy makers.................
Miscellaneous..............
Total..................

73 2,411 5,468 4,288
376
370
154
35
180
11
152

231
50
115

605 1,732
275
620
238 1,987
14
37

235

204

141

318

60

556
221

70
146
12

7

37
37

181
15
173

10

194

569

473

91

23

23
200

205
27

303

164

196

44

35

170

45

22

17

123

477

22

32

485
575
25

32
504
185
33
14
4
13
51
66
13
224

536
179
14
149
178
205
55
509
992

19
183
50
45
98
1,274
31
2
297
996

77

256

2

247

168

2
155
105
15

38

5
26
17
61
144
45
6
57
101

265 1,212
475
514
730 2,072
450 1,008 1,274
662 1,413
344
6

983 1,154
18
16
80

250
462
33

118
128
464

99
43
32

195
36
1
49

111

97
284
H7

93
21
41

161
44
39

586 1,987

739

829

327

14

21

740

446 1,237 2,446

325

250

123

12

1,936
19
I
73

719 1,117 1,284
28
360 2,800
43
269
755

250 301
1
72 827

73
433

431

107

295
400
16
65
571
117
3
231
608
32
110
246

27

1
18
78
324
272
231
382
426
271
18
23
168
47
725
846
476
30
68
457 269
258
639 1,236 1,074
101
897 1,161
160
13
59
449
100
473
252 1,251
148
21
174
802
329
11
87
66
193
169
97
661 1,076
05
294
12
814 1,389
637 1,037|

33
365
57
32
252
575
166

19
196
70
150
32
398
137

175
62
24
288
28
24

228
40
109
438
279

164
29

21
47
39
11
859
124
74
195
79
25
23
179
23

16

23
141
7
50
6
7
102

875 8,591 39,595 28,297 2,575 9,403 23,233 12,933 25,325 40,981je, 315j6,808 4,764 1,550




WAGES AND HOURS IN GERMAN WOODWORKING INDUSTRY.

817

In the preceding table the hours of labor are given in complete
hours; where an establishment worked a given number of hours and
a fraction of an hour, the number of hours was rounded off by omitting
the fraction if it was thirty minutes or less; if the fraction of an hour
was in excess of thirty minutes the number of hours was increased
to the next higher figure.
The tables in the report show also the number of hours of labor per
day, and, on the whole, the information arranged in this form shows
practically the same results as that given in the preceding table,
though a slight variation is met because a few establishments work
shorter hours on Saturdays and a small number have shorter hours
on Monday.
The table may be summed up by stating that 4.5 per cent of the
woodworkers have 51 hours and under per week, 32.1 per cent have
52 to 54 hours, 16.6 per cent have 55 to 57 hours, 37.5 per cent have
58 to 60 hours, 3.0 per cent have 61 to 63 hours, 3.3 per cent 64 to 66
hours, and 3.0 per cent have 66 hours and over.
W AGE RATES AND EARNINGS.

The schedule of inquiry used in the investigation asked each
employee whether he was a time or a piece worker, the amount of
the hourly wages or hourly earnings, as well as the weekly earnings.
The number of persons for whom wage data were secured was 167,277
adult males out of a total of 182,304 adult males. Information was
also secured as to the earnings of women employees and of young
persons, and is given below.
The information obtained showed that in 1906, as compared with
previous investigations, there was a tendency for time work to super­
sede piecework in the method of payment of wages. Thus, of the
persons included in an investigation made in 1897, 53.8 per cent were
pieceworkers; an investigation in 1902 showed 49.9 per cent were
pieceworkers, while of the persons included in the present (1906)
investigation 45.5 per cent were pieceworkers. The editor of the
report, however, is of the opinion that special circumstances led to
the inclusion of more time workers in the present investigation than
was the case with the preceding studies.
In the following table is shown the average weekly earnings of all
the adult males grouped in six wage classes in 1906, with a compari­
son of the averages shown by a similar investigation for the year
1902.




818

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ADULT MALES IN W OODW ORKING INDUSTRIES, 1902 AND
1900, CLASSIFIED B Y W AGE GROUPS.
Number and per cent of adult males
1902.

Wage group.

Number.
15 marks and under ($3.57)......................................................
Over 15 to 20 marks ($3.57 to $4.76).........................................
Over 20 to 25 marks ($4.76 to $5.95).........................................
Over 25 to 30 marks ($5.95 to $7.14)........................................
Over 30 to 35 marks ($7.14 to $8.33)......................................... }
Over 35 marks ($8.33)...............................................................
Total................................................................................

1906.

Per cent.

7,490
20,195
23,910
12,808
2,748
67,151

11.2
30.1
35.6
19.0
4.1 /\
100.0

Number.
10,814
30,344
45,056
46,899
20,504
12,952
o 166,569

Per cent
6.3
18.2
27.1
28.2
12.3
7. '
100

a On account of a strike in progress at the time of this investigation, 708 workers are not included in this
total.

As compared with 1902, the 1906 earnings show a well-defined
tendency to a higher level; in 1902 the proportion of wage-earners with
weekly earnings of over 25 marks ($5.95) was 23.1 per cent, while in
1906 the proportion had increased to 48.2 per cent.
The average weekly earnings of the adult male wage-earners in the
principal occupations are as follows:
PER CENT OF ADU LT MALES IN W OODW ORKING INDUSTRIES, 1906, CLASSIFIED B Y
W AGE GROUPS AND B Y BRANCHES OF INDUSTRIES.
Per cent of adult males with average weekly earnings of—
Occupation.
$3.57 and
under.

$3.57 to
$4.76.

$4.76 to
$5.95.

$5.95 to
$7.14.

$7.14 to
$8.33.

Joiners...........................................................
Turners.........................................................
Brush makers...............................................
Basket makers..............................................
Cork cutters.................................................
Wheelwrights...............................................
Gilders...........................................................
Wooden-shoe makers...................................
Box makers...................................................
Toy makers...................................................
Miscellaneous................................................

4.8
16.2
28.3
18.7
33.3
2.9
5.1
30.4
17.6
25.5
13.2

16.2
31.5
37.0
34.0
38.2
15.3
17.0
54.7
28.9
66.9
30.4

27.1
22.9
26.3
33.3
22.6
30.9
29.4
12.4
23.8
7.0
30.3

30.0
18.7
7.9
11.9
5.3
30.0
31.0
1.5
17.9
.6
17.9

13.3
7.6
.5
1.8
.6
15.2
11.1
1.0
6.7
3.5

4.7

All occupations, 1906 ........................
All occupations, 1902 ........................

6.5
11.2

18.2
30.1

27.1
35.6

28.2
19.0

12.3
«4.1

7.7




a

Earnings of over $7.14.

Over
$8.33.
8.6
3.1
.3
5.7
6.4
5.1

WAGES AND HOURS IN GERMAN WOODWORKING INDUSTRIES.

819

According to the preceding table the occupation with the lowest
average earnings is that of toy making, which has only 7.6 per cent
of the persons engaged in it with earnings in excess of 20 marks
($4.76); the wooden-shoe makers show similar unfavorable rates,
only 14.9 per cent having earnings in excess of 20 marks ($4.76).
The occupations with the most favorable rates of earnings are those
of joiner, wheelwright, and gilder, in which the wages of the majority
ranged between 20 and 30 marks ($4.76 and $7.14).
As in some of the occupations, there is a marked difference in the
earnings of the pieceworkers and time workers. The following table
is given to show the average weekly earnings for 1906 by 19 groups
of occupations for piece and for time workers:
NUMBER OF ADULT MALE PIECEW ORKERS AND TIME W O R K E RS IN EACH OCCU­
PATION AND TH E IR AVERAG E W E E K L Y EARNINGS, 1906.
Average weekly earnings of adult males.
Occupation.

Pieceworkers.
Number.

Total.

Time workers.

Earnings.

Number.

Earnings.

Number.

Earnings.

Joiners.......................................
Musical-instrument makers....
Chair makers.............................
Polishers....................................
Pattern makers........................
Parquetry workers...................
Turners.....................................
Cane makers.............................
Button makers.........................
Comb makers...........................
Brush makers...........................
Basket makers.........................
Cork cutters..............................
Wheelwrights...........................
Gilders.......................................
Wooden-shoe makers...............
Box makers...............................
Machine workers......................
Other woodworkers.................

39,157
8,521
2,063
3,824
2,079
540
3,036
993
1,594
439
2,071
1.715
'183
2,823
693
309
1,277
2,361
2,443

$6.67
6.89
4.99
5.74
7.44
7.99
5.50
6.33
4.31
5.39
4.40
4.72
4.66
6.59
6.49
4.16
5.83
5.48
5.31

49,057
2,659
433
4,004
2,484
135
1,898
376
160
372
776
209
278
2,999
782
35
1,320
15,181
7,998

$5.99
5.91
5.43
6.26
6.46
4.18
5.64
5.84
5.38
5.31
4.73
5.17
4.07
5.97
5.98
4.31
4.72
5.53
4.31

88,214
11,180
2,496
7,828
4,563
675
4,934
1,369
1,754
811
2,847
1,924
461
5,822
1,475
344
2,597
17,542
10,441

$6.29
6.66
5.06
6.01
6.90
7.22
5.55
6.19
4.41
5.36
4.49
4.77
4.31
6.27
6.22
4.17
5.27
5.52
4.55

Total................................

76,121

6.31

91,156

5.73

167,277

5.99

The average weekly earnings for all pieceworkers was $6.31, as
compared with $5.73 for the time workers, the former being 10.1 per
cent higher than the latter. The largest group was that of joiners,
and here the pieceworkers average 11.3 per cent above the time
workers, while the next largest group, the musical-instrument
makers, shows that the pieceworkers averaged 16.6 per cent higher
than the time workers.
47150— Bull. 8S— 10----- 9




820

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR,

The average rate per hour paid to the time workers in 19 occupations
is shown in the following table:
NUMBER OF ADU LT MALE W O R K E R S IN EACH OCCUPATION RECEIVING THE CLAS­
SIFIED H O U R L Y RATES OF WAGES, 1906.

Occupation.

Number of time workers reporting hourly rates receiving
the following rates per hour.
Num­ Aver­
ber of
age
time weekly
6.2 to 7.1 7.4 to 8.3 8.6 to 9.5 9.8 to 10.7
work­ earn­
6
10.5
6.9
9.3
8.1
ings. cents.
ers.
cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents. cents.

Joiners...................................... 49,057
Piano makers........................... 2,659
433
Chair makers...........................
4, C04
Polishers..................................
Pattern makers........................ 2,484
135
1,898
Turners....................................
376
Cane m akers...........................
160
372
Comb makers...........................
776
Brush makers..........................
209
Basket makers.........................
Cork cutters.............................
278
Wheelwrights.......................... 2,999
782
Gilders.....................................
35
Wooden-shoe makers..............
Box makers.............................
1,320
Machine workers..................... 15,181
Other woodworkers................
7,998

$5.99
735 1,006 1,321 2,552 2,007 4,088 3,106 4,791
72
62
33
47
71
33
55
98
5.91
12
30
13
20
21
24
30
18
5.43
164
130
89
85
112
130
118
93
6.26
314
208
39
45
126
75
17
173
6.46
1
3
2
2
4.18
142
101
87
88
95
5.64
38
51
95
1
9
2
5
3
5.84
1
1
2
5.28
2
9
9
6
9
8
7
4
5.31
20
25
46
13
31
27
18
4.73
46
17
4
5.17
8
3
7
7
10
5
2
4
ii
31
11
5
4.07
201
276
32
89
119
235
5.97
89
185
11
14
7
10
9
9
8
5.98
9
2
3
8
4.31
oi
51
39
ioi
4.72
80
56
55
61
854
600
844
495
825
819
537
5.53
873
248
215
413
726
455
188
4.31 1,097
531

2,333
69
9
83
182
2
79
3

Total............................... 91, 156
Per cent...................................

5.73 3,108 3,019 2,796 4,668 3,266 6,263 4,826 6,891
7.9 11.3
4.9
4.6
5.3 10.3
7.6
5.1

3,619
5.9

7
4
6
1
167
32
44
507
91

Number of time workers reporting hourly rates receiving the
following rates per hour.

Occupation.

Total
re12.1
15.7 16.7 port­
13.3
14.5
10.9
ing
to cents rates.
to
to
to
15.5
to
11.9
13.1
14.3
11.7 cents. 12.9 cents. 14 cents. 15.2 cents. 16.4 and
cents.
cents.
cents. over.
cents.
cents.

Joiners......................................
4,410 2,440 3,391 1,111 1,773
Piano makers...........................
92
19
22
18
48
Chair makers...........................
9
2
8
19
16
Polishers..................................
131
56
241
99
48
Pattern makers........................
250
41
198 . 167
57
1
1
Parquetry workers..................
Turners....................................
56
11
81
60
25
Cane makers________ _______
1
2
2
2
4
1
Button makers...............................
3
5
6
Comb makers..................................
16
10
1
Brush makers.................................
1
Basket makers...............................
2
Cork cutters....................................
2
4
Wheelwrights..........................
116
119
82
56
99
Gilders......................................
37
32
7
10
6
Wooden-shoe makers..............
Box makers.................................. .
1
1
6
31
16
Machine workers.....................
911
604
597
186
407
Other woodworkers.................
56
30
13
7
16
Total...............................
Per cent....................................

879
20
9
32
53

562
11
4
30
12

604
5

249
3

37
19

38
13

24

3

10

2

5

2

5

82
7

45
4

38
6

12
1

8
148
9

6
166
2

* 4
61
1

86

6,258 3,681 4,511 1,550 2,411 1,276
10.2
6.0
7.4
3.9
2.1
2.5

847
1.4

790
1.3

404
0.7

680 38,038
14
792
1
245
12 1,728
155 2,144
2
14
6 1,054
34
8
110
231
55
86
35 2,077
2
221
13
621
79 9,599
3 4,101
989 61,171
1.6 100.0

The occupations most numerously represented in the preceding
table are those of joiners, pattern makers, wheelwrights, machine
workers, polishers, turners, and “ other” woodworkers. The num­
ber of persons in the lower wage classes varies but little until a
rate of 12.1 cents to 12.9 cents per hour is reached; however, a few
of the higher wage classes show a considerable number of persons



WAGES AND HOURS IN GERMAN WOODWORKING INDUSTRIES.

821

receiving those rates, while the number receiving 16.7 cents, the
highest rate, is almost 1,000.
The report also shows the earnings of the woodworkers in the estab­
lishments classified by size of establishment, as shown in the follow­
ing table:
AVERAGE W E E K L Y EARNINGS OF W OODW ORKERS IN ESTABLISHMENTS CLASSI­
FIED B Y SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT, 1906.
Per cent employed and average weekly earnings in establishments em­
ploying—

Occupation or
branch of
industry.

1 to 5
persons.

6 to 10
persons.

Aver­
Per age Per
cent. earn­ cent.
ings.

11 to 30
persons.

5.67 11.4

51 to 100
persons.

101 to 200
persons.

200 per­
sons and
over.

Aver­
age
earn-

’i f '
per­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­ sons.
age Per age Per age Per age Per age Per age
earn­ cent. earn­ cent. earn­ cent. earn­ cent. earn­ cent. earn­
ings.
ings.
ings.
ings.
ings.
ings.

Joiners............. 14.5 $5.70 16.4 $8.11 32.4
Musical instru­
.7 5.90 2.8 6.34 14.2
ments ..........
Pattern making 10.4 6.01 14.9 6.31 32.6
Chair making.. 2.0 5.21 2.8 6.00 19.1
Clock-case mak­
.3 6.28 2.0 5.07 10.1
ing ...............
S e w in g -m a ­
.7 7.22 3.3
chine stands. .2 5.57
Photograph ic
apparatus. . . 3.5 6.67 12.1 6.55 2a 9
P a rq u etry
working....... 6.4 7.79 10.5 8.80 35.9
H a r m o n ic a
making......... 2.9 4.38 5.3 3.86 34.6
Wooden ware
factories....... 1.0 5.42 4.8 5.26 20.7
W ooden-cur­
tain factories. 9.4 6.04 , 8.7 6.32 38.9
Machine facto­
ries................ 6.1 5.47 10.1 5.67 22.2
Wagon and car­
.3 7.09 1.0
riage factories ...
Shipyards....... .4 *5."75* .9 6.48 6.9
Sawmills......... 3.5 4.90 8.7 4.72 32.4
Other factories. 19.6 5.11 9.5 5.31 41.6
Turners........... 19.6 5.31 17.0 5.29 39.7
Cane making.. 2.0 6.32 6.9 6.39 32.1
Button makmg .9 6.20 1.3 4.72 17.5
Comb making. .8 5.95 2.7 5.59 29.2
Brush making. 4.7 4.92 4.7 4.96 17.0
Basket making 18.2 4.54 13.6 4.72 21.4
Cork cutting__ 5.4 4.88 17.9 4.59 35.5
Wheelwrights . 36.9 5.86 16.6 6.15 23.2
Gilding............ 3.3 6.95 6.3 6.62 19.3
W ooden-shoe 21.7 4.06 18.5 4.78 35.8
makmg.. . . . .
Box making... 4.8 5.08 8.3 6.29 31.0
Toy making__ .5 4.45 4.9 4.01 12.3
Miscellaneous.. 3.2 5.67 2.9 4.93 12.7
All em­
ployees, j10.0

31 to 50
persons.

6.05 26.0

$6.44 12.7 $8.39 12.8 $6.30
6.60 15.9
6.56 21.0
4.81 7.7

6.58 24.6
6.95 16.9
4.65 32.6

7.5 $5.99

3.7 $5.77

$6.21

6.31 15.9
7.37 4.2
4.51 24.2

6.25 25.9 7.05
6.45
4.60 ii.'e' *3. S)i

6.55
6.70
4.68

5.18 17.2

4.38 25.6

4.95

8.6

5.13 36.2

4.81

4.85

5.44

4.96 18.3

5.08 51.4

5.97 24.7

6.08

5.80

1.4

6.58 11.6

6.76 23.5

5.77 28.4

6.60

6.45

7.08 27.4

6.81

3.22 13.3

4.66

6.84

4.40 45.6

4.72 11.6

4.18

4.89 13.4

4.37 27.5

4.55 15.1

6.47 11.1

7.09

5.91 15.3

5.94 12.9

6.25
5.84
4.49
5.60
5.38
6.24
5.32
5.46
4.51
4.79
4.68
6.14
6.25
4.07

6.31
5.66
4.67
5.19
5.55
6.24
3.94
5.45
3.79
5.21
4.91
6.46
5.80
3.99

3.8
5.3
18.4
7.8
14.1
32.1
10.5
21.9
5.3
10.5
11.1
11.8
22.8
12.7

6.5

10.1
11.0
23.9
21.5
3.8
15.4
34.9
18.9
20.4
5.1
7.0
5.0
17.1
11.3

4.52
4.44 17.5

4.87

4.69

31.9

5.65

6.36

6.41 13.5

6.43 19.9

7.17

6.26

6.06
5.95
4.06
6. 37
3.46
6.15
4.23
4.84
4.19
4.45
4.36
6.98
5.73
3.74

6.86 67.4 6.48
6.77 40.3 .6.75
5.80 ... .....

6.50
6.55
4.61
5. 61
5.25
6.12
4.39
5.20
4.44
4.80
4.31
6.14
6.02
4.15

17.4
35.2
13.1

...

5.8
11.5
34.9
9.5
22.4
7.9
23.1
6.5
20.4
.......

5.77 20.9
3.80 I&9
5.52 11.1

5.21 13.5
4.02 37.5
4.80 16.7

5.69 14.7
3.94
5.99 23.6

6.20 13.1

6.11 15.7

5.87

4.*00
5.12
4.03
4.31
4.34
4.03
3.44
6.31
6.15
.........

...
...
i7.*6* 4.*86*
25.5 4.66
23.3 5.18
10.8 5. £0
....... .........

3.85 6.8
28.9
4.53 29.8

4.59
4.22
5.23

12.2 5.78 11.6

6.21

5.31
4.01
5.25
6.02

The data in the preceding table seem to indicate that the earnings
of wage-earners in the establishments with 1 to 5 persons show a tend­
ency to be smaller than the average for all the establishments. On
the whole, the rates of wages can not be said to vary in accordance
with the size of the establishment.
In the preceding tables the earnings of adult males are given. Out
of the total number of 211,450 persons included in the investigation,



822

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR,

10,686 persons/or 5.0 per cent, were women wage-earners and 4,559,
or 2.2 per cent, were young persons. Expressed in the form of ratios,
to each 100 adult males there were 5.9 women wage-earners and 2.5
young persons included in the investigation.
The average weekly earnings of the women wage-earners reporting
as to earnings are shown in the following table for 26 occupations
or branches of the industries:
ESTABLISHMENTS, WOMEN EM PLOYED IN EACH BRANCH OF IN DU STRY AND TH EIR
AVERAG E W E E K L Y EARNINGS, AND AV E R AG E W E E K L Y EARNINGS OF ADULT
MALES IN TH E SAME BRANCH OF IN DU STRY, 1906.
Total women
wage-earners.
Occupation or branch of
industry.

Joiners.......................................
Musical-instrument makers...
Chair makers............................
Clock-case makers....................
Sewing-machine-stand makers.
Photographic-apparatus makParquetry workers...................
Harmonica makers...................
Woodenware factories..............
Wooden-curtain factories.........
Wagon and carriage factories..
Sawmills....................................
Turners.....................................
Cane makers.............................
Button makers.........................
Comb makers............................
Brush makers...........................
Basket makers..........................
Cork cutters..............................
Gilders......................................
W ooden-shoe makers...............
Box makers..............................
Toy makers...............................
Miscellaneous............................
Total...............................

Estab­
lish­
ments.

Num­
ber.

To each
100
adult
males
em­
ployed.

Average weekly earnings of women
reporting as to earnings.

Average
weekly
earnings
Piece­
Time
Total re­
of adult
workers.
workers.
porting.
males in
same
branch of
Num­ Earn­ Num­ Earn­ Num­ Earn­ industry.
ber. ings. ber. ings. ber. ings.

121
55
32
33
13

920
1,219
299
513
370

1.0
8.1
5.4
23.9
13.7

324 $2.68
652 3.22
103 3.13
334 2.29
218 2.83

3
3
12
64
13
1
14
45
37
39
37
124
26
27
64
6
17
20
33

10
19
67
509
58
45
82
164
271
623
370
2,202
202
202
417
29
137
238
1,717

.7
10
3
2.0
2
17.4
162
9.9
21
8.0
42
.8
3.0
9
6.7
70
17.5
35
33.9
313
36.0
147
50.2 1,233
7.1
148
27
38.5
12.4
179
6.5
9
102
4.9
32.8
5
57.6
305

«842 610,686

5.9 4,453

2.45
2.14
3.57
2.26
3.52
3. 43
2.12
2.71
2.69
2.19
2.68
2.23
2.69
2.63
3.23
2.22
2.47
2.57
3.01

654 $2.47
837 3.01
111 3.06
482 2.29
262 2.71

$6.21
6.55
4.68
4.85
5.80

10
14
65
402
36
42
24
160
127
589
278
1,702
163
158
353
27
120
15
748

2. 45
2,04
2.21
2.08
3.60
3. 43
1.93
2.32
2.40
2.05
2.60
2. 24
2.67
2.39
2.99
2.02
2.50
2.24
2.59

6. 45
6.84
4.52
4.69
6.36
6.50
4.61
5.25
6.12
4.39
5.20
4.42
4.78
4.30
6.00
4.14
5.28
4.00
5.23

2.24 7,379

2.47

5.99

330 $2.27
185 2.29
8 2.14
148 2.29
44 2.08
11
63
240
15

2.01
2.17
1.95
3.70

15 1.83
90 2.02
92 2.30
276 1.88
131 2. 51
469 2.24
15 2.43
131 2. 34
174 2. 74
18 1. 92
18 2.71
10 2.07
443 2.30

2.62 2,926

a Including 3 establishments employing 1 person each.
b Including 3 employees for whom averages were not computed.

According to the preceding table the occupations in which women
wage-earners are numerically of greatest importance are those desig­
nated as miscellaneous trades, brush making, cork cutting, comb
making, button making, toy making, etc. In these occupations the
presence of women wage-earners is of considerable importance in
influencing the level of wages, and according to the writer of the
report, the presence of the women wage-earners has had a tendency to
reduce the level of wages in the branches named.
The preceding tables show that piecework is a more frequent
method of wage payment among women wage-earners than among
adult males. The highest average weekly earnings are shown by the



WAGES AND HOURS IN GERMAN WOODWORKING INDUSTRIES.

823

women engaged in the wooden-curtain trade, wagon and carriage
factory workers, chair factories, musical instruments, gilders, sewingmachine stands, etc. The lowest average weekly earnings are shown
in button making, parquetry factories, wooden-shoe makers, saw­
mills, etc.
Although the young persons are numerically not important as wageearners in the wood-working industries, the report gives a summary of
their average earnings in 29 occupations. The term “ young person ”
as used in the report does not indicate persons of a specified age; it
includes those generally designated in the trades as “ young persons”
and comprises the young employees working as errand boys, messen­
gers, etc., and other young persons permanently employed but not
recognized as having reached the state of working at a specific occu­
pation. The average earnings of the young persons reporting as to
earnings are as follows:
ESTABLISHMENTS, YOUNG PERSONS EM PLOYED IN EACH BRANCH OF INDUSTRY,
AND TH EIR A V E R AG E W E E K L Y EARNINGS, AND A VERAG E W E E K L Y EARNINGS OF
ADULT MALES IN THE SAME BRANCH OF IN D U STRY , 1906.
Total young
persons
employed.
Occupation or branch of
industry.

Estab­
lish­
ments.

1,307
325
37
299
42
95

1.4
2.2
.8
5.4
2.0
3.1

Box makers...............................
Toy makers..............................
Miscellaneous............................

7
5
15
65
16
17
5
3
31
4
60
37
36
23
70
38
10
18
47
4
40
12
37

43
17
52
378
38
33
66
5
122
9
108
85
123
133
362
82
40
26
246
8
159
43
276

3.1
1.8
13.5
7.3
5.2
.5
1.1
.1
4.4
1.8
4.4
5.4
6.6
13.0
8.2
2.8
7.6
.7
7.3
1.8
5.6
5.9
9.3

T ota l..............................

1,374

4,559

2.5

ers..............................................

Parquetrv workers...................
Harmonica makers...................
Wooden ware factories..............
Wooden-curtain factories.........
Machine factories.....................
Wagon and carriage makers. ..
Shipyards................................
Sawmills....................................
Other factories..........................
Turners.....................................
Cane workers............................
Button makers.........................
Comb makers...........................
Brush makers...........................
Basket makers..........................

Cork entters................ ...............
W heelwrights..............................

Gilders......................................

W ooden-shoe makers.................

Average

earnings
of adult
Piece­
Time
Total
To each
males
in
workers.
reporting.
workers.
100
same
Num­ adult
branch
ber.
males
of in­
em­
Earn­ Num­ Earn­ Num­ Earn­ dustry.
ployed. Num­
ber. ings. ber. ings. ber. ings.

601
93
21
37
10
12

Joiners.......................................
Musical-instrument makers.. .
Pattern makers........................
Chair makers............................
Clock-case makers.....................
Sewing-machine-stand makers.
Photographic-apparatus mak­

Average weekly earnings of young
persons reporting as to earnings.

29 $2.89
31 3.26
27
2
32

3.02
2.74
2.86

34
3
2
4

2.04
3.09
1.67
3.39

12

2.30

8
9
72
4
161
20

2.29
2.70
2.00
3.99
2.18
2.96

18

2.84

18

2.62

67

2.04

553

529 $2.79
97 2.62
13 2.43
34 1.84
16 2.63
48 2.26

558 $2.79
128 2.78
13 2.43
61 2.36
18 2.64
80 2.50

5
12
49
128
21
9
2
3
62
6
55
23
32
95
81
33
20
12
134
5
102
11
66

5
12
49
162
24
11
6
3
74
6
63
32
104
99
242
53
20
12
152
5
120
11
133

2.33
1.90
1.56
2.25
3.16
2.94
3.18
4.28
2.43
3.05
2.20
2.22
2.04
2.27
2.13
2.40
2.13
3.29
2.29
1.57
2.35
2.77
2.18

6.45
6.84
4.52
4.69
6.36
6.26
6.50
6.55
4.61
5.61
5.25
6.12
4.39
5.20
4.42
4.78
4.30
6.11
6.00
4.14
5.28
4.00
5.23

2.44 2,256

2.43

5.99

2.41 1,703

2.33
1.90
1.56
2.31
3.17
3.23
2.74
4.28
2.46
3.05
2.18
2.04
2.15
2.20
2.03
2.06
2.13
3.29
2.22
1.57
2.31
2.77
2.33

16.21
6.55
6.70
4.68
4.85
5.80

With the exception of the harmonica branch, there is no branch of
the woodworking industries in which young persons exceed 10 per
cent of all wage-earners employed.



W AGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN AUSTRIA, 1906 AND 1907.

The Austrian Bureau of Labor Statistics recently published a com­
pilation of the trade agreements made between employers and work­
men in the years 1906 and 1907. (°) Some of the data on this topic
for 1905 were published in the monthly bulletin of the same office,
but on account of the scattered nature of the material available the
first compilation is not sufficiently extensive to give an indication
of the rates of wages or of the hours of labor of the industries affected.
SUMMARY.

In the following pages is given a summary of the 1906 and 1907
compilations in so far as the material relates to the hours of labor
and rates of wages. It should be remembered that the rates and
hours specified in the trade agreements are for the organized work­
men, and therefore would have a tendency to include the better-paid
workmen.
The 1907 report gives in its introduction a summary of the data
included in the agreements. The following table gives this summary
for the hours of labor:
HOURS OF LABOR PER D A Y IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN AUSTRIA, 1907. *
Number of workmen with hours per day of—
Industries and occupa­
tions.

8f.

9.

Stone, clay, and glass:
Stone workers............
Clay diggers................
Potters, brick makers.
Glass and porcelain
workers....................
All others....................

109

080
46
534

Total........................

109

8.

8h

Metal working, machin­
ery, etc., industries:
Enameling fa c t o r y
workers....................
Iron and metal cast­
ers________________
Blacksmiths................!.........
Tool makers............... i.........
Locksmiths.................1.........
Iron c o n s t r u c tio n , 1
shop workers.....................
Wire drawers..............j.........
Tinsmiths................... 1......... 135
Coppersmiths............. 1.........
Workers on metal 1
wares........................1.........

91-

10.

n .

030

1

268
091

1,260

91.

669

101. 101. 10|.

11.

12.

70
173

170

691

1,068

54
81

4C0
41
15
209

669

243

1,945
3,530
400
105
193

124

7

184
60

120

1,481
91

1,794

366
54
40

21

579
379
280

10

130

90

oD ie kollektiven Arbeits- und Lohnvertrage in Oesterrick im Jahre 1906. Herausgegeben vom k . k . Arbeitsstatistischen Amte im Handelsministerium. Wien, 1908.
Die kollektiven Arbeits- und Lohnvertrage in Oesterreich. Abschliisse und
Erneuerungen des Jahres 1907. Herausgegeben vom k. k. Arbeitsstatistischen Amte
im Handelsministerium. Wien, 1909.
824




825

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN AUSTRIA, 1906 AND 1907.

HOURS OF L A B O R P E R D A Y IN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN AU STR IA , 1907—Continued.
Number of workmen with hours per day of—
Industries and occupations.
8.
Metal working, machin­
ery, etc., industries—
Concluded.
Jewelers, gold and sil­
ver smiths................
Polishers, etc..............
Workers in machine
factories...................
Workers in vehicle,
etc., factories...........
Electrical apparatus
workers....................
Makers of surgical,
etc., instruments. . .
All other.....................

8*.

8|.

290

9.

74
99
180

9i-

291
425

Woodworking industries:
Sawmill workers.......
Coopers........................
Joiners of all kinds___
Turners.......................
T o ta l...:.................

271

970

368

18,846 3,959

145 2,452

159

42 1,300

13

10|.

11.

12.

32

1,400

134
656

117

949
87 108

320

1,962

35

790

117

1,036 108

50

120

Total........................

927
600

188
343

Total........................

654

Paperhangers and uphols­
terers .............................

101

Clothing industries:
Tailors........................
Shoemakers................
All others___________

263

343

12

125
327

15

120

57

515

19,504

369
20

5,017
51

904

24,572

9,068
1,665

1,944
330
30

190 129
45 171

686
38
17

6

2,304

235 300

741

6

Total........................

275

10,733

Paper industries:
Makers of paper goods.
Bookbinders...............
All others.............I__

327
54

11

Total........................

381

11

1,439

1,439

120

120
16
42

66
5,877.

700
200

1,222

5,189
150

200

1,222

11,282

Chemical industries..........
Building trades:
Masons, etc.................
Masons and carpenters
Carpenters.................. 1i . . . . . . . . . . .

158
44

42

138

54

700

152

2,366

35

118

Textile industries:
Spinners and weavers.
Finishers, d y e r s ,
and printers............
All others....................

121
1,064 3,889

947
1,015

809




lOJ. 10h

320

Leather, hides, etc., in­
dustries:
Tanners.......................
Leather fancy goods
workers....................
Saddlers and harness
makers.....................
Brush makers.............

Total........................

10.

1,007

Total........................

Food products industries:
Flour millers..............
Bakers........................
Meat dryers, salters,
etc............................
Brewers, maltsters__
All others...................

9|.

62

6,548 2,020
423

9*.

19
610
288

532

8,562
4,012
3,418

955
120

9,446
600
2,334

605
8

170
882

613

1,052

.. . !.........
1

53

330
70

25

58

826

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

HOURS OF LABO R PE R D A Y IN SELCTED OCCUPATIONS IN AU STR IA , 1907—Concluded.
Number of workmen with hours per day of—
Industries and occupations.

8.

8*.

8*.

Building trades—Con'd.
Painters......................
All others....................

116

Total........................

116

Printing industries:
Pressmen

__

9.

91.

37
10

18

9f.

9|.

485
700

10*.

10J. 10£

11.

12.

357
85

335 1,160 17,177 1,143 12,822

70

355

564

Lithographers, etc___

400

Total........................

400

564

Commercial e s t a b l i s h ­
ments

68

10.

482

...........

Transportation industries.

1,520

314

Engineers and firemen in
various establishments.

215

1,800
4

41

12

Grand total............. 1,100 745 1,060 26,461 6,502 34,980 5,751 55,240 178 3,212 452 2,102

64

The following table reproduces the summary of the rates of wages
contained in the agreements made in the year 1907:
MINIMUM D A IL Y RATES OF W AGES IN FIVE LARGE CITIES IN AU STRIA, 1907.
Occupation.

Vienna.

Gratz.

Innsbruck. Prague.

$0.97 $0.80-$0.87
Stonecutters..........................................................
Stove mounters............. ................................ .....
$1.02- $1.22
Core makers......................................................... $0.79- .88
*
.81- 1.02
Molders.................................................................
Smelters................................................................ .86- 1.10
Casters..................................................................
.81- 1.08
Rough filers, etc................................................... .66- .81
1.10
Pattern makers....................................................
Skilled workers in machine shops.................... . . 77- . 82
.88- .99
Blacksmiths.........................................................
Blacksmiths' helpers.... ...................................... .80- .82
Turners.......
.............................. _................ .77- .88
Locksmiths............................ ................ ...........
.83- .95
. 51- . 58
Metal grinders............................................... ..... 1.02- 1.08
Tinsmiths.
..................................... .82- .95
Skilled workers in metal-working sh o p s..........
.66- .77
Other workers in metal-working shops.............. .58- .62
Coopers..... .........................................................
.88- 1.02
.61- 1.02
Joiners..................................................................
Dyers....................................................................
Men's tailors........................................................ .81- 1.15
.75- .88
.65- .73
Shoemakers.......................................................... . 61- 1.22
.92
.88- 1.32
Brewers................................................................
Coopers in breweries............................................ 1.22- 1.32
.88
B a k ers.... ............. ........................... ................. .75- 1.25
.78- 1.05
Plasterer??
.................................................
1.52
Masons
......................... ..................
.77
Carpenters
.................................................
.77

Briinn.

$0.61
.81
.76
.81
.61
.81
$0.65- .81
.77
.57- .65
$1.02
.49- .53
.66
.41- .60
.78
.75

In the following pages is given a condensed statement of the hours of
labor and rates of wages of the various industries included in the
compilation of trade agreements for 1906 and 1907.
STONE, EARTH, AND CLAY INDUSTRIES,

In the following tables are shown the hours of labor and the mini­
mum time rates for the occupations covered by the agreements entered
into in the stone, earth, and clay industries in 1906 and 1907.



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN ATJSTRTA, 1906 AND 1907.

827

HOURS OF LABOR PER D A Y IN STONE, EA R TH , AND CLAY INDUSTRIES, 1906 AND 1907.
1906.
Number of trade agreements
for specified hours.
Hours per day.
Other
Vienna. localities.
1

9......................................................................................
9J.....................................................................................
9J.....................................................................................
10.....................................................................................
10J...................................................................................
l l ! ...................................................................................

Total.

1
1
2
4
1
2

2
1
2
4
1
2

1
6
2
9
24
2

1
8
3
12
24
2

Number Number
of estab­ of work­
lishments
men
included. included.

(a)
(a)
(a)

346
(°)

199
1,044
350
251

(a )

(a)
(a)

1907.
8|.....................................................................................
9......................................................................................
91.....................................................................................
9J.....................................................................................
10.....................................................................................
i d ...................................................................................
a

2
1
3

1
50
15
33
69
6

109
1,260
691
1,068
669
243

Not reported.

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES PER D A Y IN STONE, E A R TH , CLAY, ETC., INDUS­
TRIES, 1906 AND 1907.
1906.
Rates of wages per day in—
Occupation.
Vienna.

Stonecutters....................................................................................................
Pottery workers:
Shop workers...........................................................................................
Kiln workers............................................................................................
Stove mounters........................................................................................
Repair men..............................................................................................
Potters’ helpers........................................................................................
W omen potters........................................................................................
Brickmakers..................................................................................................

Other local­
ities.
$0.61-30.81

$0.88-SI. 08
1.02- 1.08
1.08- 1.52
.91- 1.02

.65
.65
.65
.65
.35-53
.24
.28-. 43

1907.
Rates of wages per day i n Occupation.

Stonecutters.
Stone polish­
ers ..............
Potters..........
Stone mount­
ers ..............
Clay diggers..

Salz­
Vienna. burg.

Gratz.

$0.97

$0.89

$0.80-$0.87

.97

.73

.63

Lower
Austria.

Carniola.

Innsbruck
and Meran.

$0.-81

$0.71

$0.61-31.02
1.02- 1.22

Northwest
Bohemia.

Moravia.

$1.02-31.22
$0.47-$0.d

in 1906 the largest number of workingmen had a daily working
time of 10 hours, and of the 12 agreements on record, the shortest
number of daily working hours was 9 and the highest number of daily
working hours was 11. In the 52 trade agreements made in the year
1907, the greatest number of workingmen had a daily rate of from 9



828

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

to 9J hours; one agreement, covering 100 men, provided for a work­
ing day of slightly less than 9 hours, while the highest working time
agreed upon was 10| hours. The 1907 agreement, therefore, showed
a tendency to a shorter working day.
The minimum time wages given in the above table show in 1906 a
rate for stonecutters of from 60 to 80 cents per day. Of the agree­
ments made in the year 1907, none show a rate of less than 80 cents.
In 1906 the agreements for areas outside of Vienna for pottery workers
show a general rate of about 65 cents per day; the agreements for
potters made in 1907 for the areas outside of Vienna show a distinct
tendency to a higher level.
The preceding table may be summed up, therefore, by stating that
the tendency for the two years mentioned has been for the hours of
labor to decrease and for the minimum daily rates of wages to increase.
METAL W ORKING AND MACHINE BUILDING INDUSTRIES.

The hours of labor and the rates of wages adopted in the agreements
put into force in 1906 and 1907 in the metal working and machine
building industries are shown in the following tables:
HOURS OF L A BO R IN M ETAL W ORKIN G AND MACHINE BUILDING INDUSTRIES
PE R D A Y IN 1906 AND PE R W E E K IN 1907.
1906.
Number of trade agree­
ments for specified hours.
Hours per day or week.
Other
Vienna. localities.
8 .......................................................................................
s i .....................................................................................
9 : .....................................................................................
91.....................................................................................
91.....................................................................................
9 f .....................................................................................




1907.

o Not reported.

1
38
3
21
1
2

1
8
1
16
1
4

Total.
1
1
46
4
37
2
6

Number
of establishments
included.

(a)
(a)
a
(«)
(«)

(a)

(«)

Number
of work­
men in­
cluded.

411
1,200
13,093
610
4,086
294
1,171

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN AUSTRIA, 1906 AND 1907.

829

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES P E R D A Y IN M ETAL W OR KIN G AND MACHINE
BUILDING INDUSTRIES, 1906 AND 1907.

1906.
Rates of wages per day
in—

Rates of wages per day
in—

Occupation.

Occupation.
Vienna.

Foundry men:
Molders..................... . $0.88-S0. 95
Molders for polished
ware....................... .
1.00
Core makers............... .88- 1.17
Smelters.................... . .84- 1.10
Dressers.................... .
.95
Casters........................ .73- .81
Rough filers.............. . .69- .88
F o u n d r y m e n 's
helpers....................
.61- .77
Novelty goods makers:
Skilled workers........ .
.81
Helpers....................... .34- .68
Women workers....... . .27- .37
Iron furniture makers:
Foremen.....................
1.10
Independent work­
men.........................
.95
.79
Skilled mechanics___
Helpers.......................
.60
File cutters:
Blacksmith work.......
1.10
Other file work..........
.91
Locksmiths, foremen.......
.95
Locksmiths.......................
.81

Other
localities.

SO. 61

Vienna.
Grinders............................
$1.02
Polishers, women.............
.68
Tinsmiths:
Skilled workers.......... 80.88- .95
Helpers.......................
.69
W omen....................... .38- .58
Metal alloy workers:
Belt makers, etc.........
.81
Metal stampers...........
.95
Skilled helpers...........
.75
Other helpers.............
.61
W omen....................... .37- .47
Machine factory workers:
Skilled workers.......... .71- .82
Blacksmiths...............
.91
Blacksmiths’ helpers. .71- .73
Turners.......................
1.02
Pattern makers..........
General skilled helpers .60- .73
Helpers, laborers, etc. .56- .69
Workers in electro-tech­
nical establishments:
Mounters, etc.............
Helpers.......................
Skilled mechanics___

Other
localities.

80.41-80.75

.41- .81
.41- .81
.61
1.22
.57- .61
.30- .49
.81- .91
.61
.81

1907.
Rates of wages per day in—
Occupation.
Vienna.

Lower
Austria
(excluding
Vienna).

Bohemia.

Briinn.

Molders..........................................................
81.17
$0.82 $0.61-$0.65
$0.61
Core makers................................................... 80.79- .88
.81
Hand and machine molders......................... .81- 1.02 $0.74- .82
.71- .81
.76
Smelters and blowers.................................... .86- 1.10
.67
.82
.71- .73
.81
Casters............................................................ .81- 1.08
Rough filers and dressers............................. .82- .88
.53
.61
Casting polishers...........................................
.66- .81
.67
.81
1.10
1.10
Pattern makers..............................................
.60 $0.65- .81
.72- .80
Mechanics in machine, etc., shops.............. .77- .82
.61
.77
.88.99
.77.93
Blacksmiths...................................................
.57- .65
.72- .75
Blacksmiths’ helpers.......................... .......... .86- .82
.82- .88
Coppersmiths................................................
Lathe men (running 2 la th e s )......................
.91
.88- .95
Turners .............................................................
.75- .82
.77- .88
.69- .81
Locksmiths.................................................... .83- .95
Metal stampers..................................................
.95
Girdle makers........... .................................. .82- .88
1.02
Polishers....................................................... 1.02- 1.08
Tin workers_ r...............................................
82- .95
.78- .82
.80
Scale makers................................................. .73- .80
File cutters ............. - ....................................
. 81- 1.02
.61- .96
^killed machine h a n d s ..................................
.58- .72
.66- .77
.49- .53
Other general w orkers....................................
.55- .58
.58- .62
Polishers w o m e n ............................................
.68
Other women workers
...............................
.33- .38
.27- .47

Moravia
(exclusive
of Briinn.)

$0.57-$0.62
.61- .71
.61- .64
.71
.57
.64
.60- .66
.64
.48

.61
.81
.81
.45- .53
.42- .46

The hours of labor in the agreements made in 1906 show that by far
the greater number of workingmen affected had a 9-hour day (54
hours per week), and the hours of labor for the next largest number of
workers was that of 9J or 9J (55J to 57 hours per week). In 1907 the



830

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

greatest number of workers likewise had a 9-hour day (54 hours per
week); on account of the greater number of agreements made in 1907
a greater variation in the hours of labor is shown than was the case in
the agreements made in 1906. There is, therefore, not much differ­
ence in the hours of labor.
The minimum time rates of wages in 1907, as compared with 1906
show on the whole that in 1907 there was a tendency to a higher rate
for the occupations in which the comparison is possible.
WOODWORKING INDUSTRIES.

The hours of labor and the wages in the woodworking industries
as specified in the trade agreements made in 1906 and 1907 are shown
in the following tables:
HOURS OF LABO R PE R D A Y IN W OODW ORKIN G INDUSTRIES, 1906 AND 1907.
1906.
Number of trade agreements
for specified hours.
Hours per day.
Other
Vienna. localities.

9.......................................................................................
9J.....................................................................................
9|.....................................................................................
9|.....................................................................................
10.....................................................................................

11
1
4

10£.......................................................................
11.........................................................................

Total.

5
4

3
13

1
1

Number Number
of estab- of work­
lishmen in­
ments
included. cluded.

(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
( a)
(a)

16

1

8
3
13

1
1

8,660
60
1,174
170
903

(a)

209

1907.
8 i.....................................................................................
9 : .....................................................................................
9 i.....................................................................................
9|.....................................................................................
10.....................................................................................
l o j ...................................................................................
i o f ...................................................................................
a

l
10

1

2
1
10
2
16
2
3

1
12
1
10
2
16
2
4

81
693
3
105
24
93
2
10

320
1,962
35
790
117
1,036
108
327

Not reported.

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES PER D A Y IN W OODW ORKING INDUSTRIES, 1906
AND 1907.
1906.
Rates of wages per day in—
Occupation.
Vienna.
Joiners in building and furniture trades................................................... .........
Machine hands in joinery work............................................................................
Parquetry workers................................................................................................
Sawmill workers..................................................................................................
Workers on novelties.............................................................................................
Grinding and polishing.......................................................................................
Turners...................................................................................................................
Skilled workers on boxes, cabinets, etc...............................................................
Comb and fan makers........................................................................................




$0.82
.73
$0.62- .77

Other locali­
ties.
$0.53-80.77
.61- .77
.43- .61

.81
.6 i-

.68
.75
.68

.53

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN AUSTRIA, 1906 AND 1907.

831

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES PE R D A Y IN W OODW O RK ING INDUSTRIES, 1906
AND 1907—Concluded.

1907.
Occupation.

Locality.

Rate of
wages per
day.

Board sawyers.......... Lower Austria
50. Cl
(e x c lu d in g
Vienna).
Board sawyers’ help­ Lower Austria
.53
(e x c lu d in g
ers.
Vienna).
Coopers..................... Vienna............... $0.88- 1.02
Coopers..................... Lower Austria
.81
(e x c lu d in g
Vienna).
.61- 1.02
Coopers..................... Gratz.................
Coopers..................... Moravia..............
.75
.95
Box makers.............. Vienna...............
Joiners....................... Lower Austria
.75
(e x c lu d in g
Vienna).

Occupation.

Rate of
wages per
day.

Locality.

Joiners....................... L inz.................
$0.69
Joiners....................... Styria (exclud.73
cluding Gratz).
Joiners....................... Klagenfurt.........
.63
Joiners....................... Laibach.............. $0.57- .61
Joiners....................... Meran................
.77- .85
Joiners....................... North and north­ .61- .68
west Bohemia.
Joiners....................... All other Bohe­
.61
mia.
Joiners....................... Brunn................
.66
Table makers............ Vienna...............
.82
Turners..................... Vienna...............
.68
Wood curtain makers Vienna...............
.81

The hours of labor, as shown by the trade agreements made in
1906, show that in that year 9 was the largest number of hours
most of the men worked, with the next highest number working at
9^ hours. In 1907 there is a greater variation in the hours, but again
the greatest number of workers have either 9, 9£, or 10 hours. On
the whole, the agreements do not show much change in the number
of hours per day.
In regard to the wages, the occupations are not sufficiently dupli­
cated in the two years to make a comparison, but the agreements
for 1907 show many rates in excess of those for 1906.
In the woodworking industries it may be stated that the hours
of labor show little difference, but that the rates of wages seem to
indicate a tendency to a higher level.
INDUSTRY OF LEATHER, HIDES, ETC.

The following tables show the hours of labor and the rates of
wages in the leather, hides, etc., industries in the agreements made
in the years 1906 and 1907:
HOURS OF LABOR PE R D A Y IN LE A T H E R IN DU STRY, 1906 AND 1907.
1906.
Number of trade agreements
for specified hours.
Hours per day.

Other
Vienna. localities.

9......................................................................................
9£.....................................................................................
10.....................................................................................




4
2

Total.

10
7

4
12
7

3
2
3

3
3
2
3

Number Number
of estab­ of work­
lish­
men in­
ments
cluded.
included.
84
729
448

(a)

(«)

(a)

!
1907.
3

« Not reported.

81
3
5
3

927
188
120
57

832

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES PER D A Y IN LE AT H E R INDUSTRY, 1906 AND 1907.
1908.
Rates of wages per day in—
Occupation.
Vienna.

Tanners..................................................................................................................
Tannery laborers...................................................................................................
Dressers..................................................................................................................
Setters-up (on binders).........................................................................................
Tub workers..........................................................................................................
Machine workers...................................................................................................
Skilled helpers.......................................................................................................
Day laborers..........................................................................................................
Women workers....................................................................................................
Trunk and bag makers.........................................................................................
Beit and harness makers......................................................................................
Saddlers..................................................................................................................

Other
localities.

$0.95-SI. 02
.75- .85

.61
.39
.81
.81
.81

$0.68-SO.81
.08- .98
.54- .78
.98- 1.02
.64
.68- .85
.54- .61
.41- .47
.24
.54- .61
.54- .75
.54

1907.
Bates of wages per day in—
Occupation.
Vienna.

Tannery laborers........................................................................................
Other leather workers................................................................................
Harness makers and saddlers....................................................................
Belt makers.................................................................................................
Leather fancy goods workers.....................................................................

10.73
.88
.82

Lower Aus­
tria (exclud­ Moravia.
ing Vienna).
$0.95-SI. 02
.85

SO. 71

The numbers for leather workers included in the above table show
that the hours of labor in 1906 were principally 9£ or 10. In the
agreements made in 1907 the largest number of vrorkmen had a 9-hour
day, followed by those with a 9§ or 9 f hour day; in other words,
there is a distinct tendency for a shorter day in the 1907 agreements
as compared with 1906.
In 1906 the rates of wages of tannery laborers outside of Viennavaried from 68 to 98 cents per day, while in 1907 they were from 95
cents to $1.02 per day in the agreements made in those two years.
The rates for belt makers, harness makers, and saddlers in Vienna in
1906 were approximately 81 cents per day. The agreements made in
1907 show rates varying from 73 to 88 cents per day.
The hours of labor, therefore, show a tendency to become shorter
in the two years, while the rates of wages for general laborers show a
tendency to remain about the same.




833

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN AUSTRIA, 1906 AND 1907.
TEXTILE INDUSTRY.

The hours of labor and rates of wages in the textile industry, accord­
ing to the agreements made in 1906 and 1907, are shown in the follow­
ing table:
HOURS OF L A BO R P E R D A Y IN T E X T IL E IN DU STRY, 1906 AND 1907.
1906.
Number of trade agreements
for specified hours.
Hours per day.
Vienna.

9.......................................................................................
9J.....................................................................................
9|.....................................................................................
10.....................................................................................
10|...................................................................................
i d ...................................................................................

4
1
3
4

Other
localities.

Total.

11
4
1

4
2
3
15
4
1

4
2
2
25
3

5
3
6
25
3

1

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments
included.
(a)

Number
of work­
men in­
cluded.

600
130
455
3,025
704
112

(a)
(a)

(a)
(a)
(a)

1907.
9............................................................... .......................
9 4 ................................... .
94.....................................................................................
10.....................................................................................
104...................................................................................
a

1
1
4

22
7
78
143
3

654
343
904
24,572
1,439

Not reported.

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES PER D A Y IN T E X T ILE IN D U STRY , 1906 AND 1907.
1906.
Rates of wages per day in—
Occupation.
Vienna.
Spinners.................................................................................................................
Piecers....................................................................................................................
Spinners’ helpers, m ale........................................................................................
Spinners’ helpers, fem ale.....................................................................................
Weavers.................................................................................................................
Ribbon weavers, m ale.........................................................................................
Ribbon weavers, fem ale......................................................................................
Elastic-ribbon weavers.........................................................................................
Embroiderers.........................................................................................................
Passementerie workers:
Skilled workers, male.....................................................................................
Skilled workers, female..................................................................................
Other workers, male.......................................................................................
Other workers, female....................................................................................
Passementerie workers in gold braid and church work:
Skilled workers, male.....................................................................................
Skilled workers, female..................................................................................
Other workers, male.......................................................................................
Other workers, fe m a le ..........................................................................................

W omen weavers.............................................................................................
Dyers:
Skilled workers...............................................................................................
Helpers, male..................................................................................................
Helpers, female...............................................................................................
Silk finishers:
Preliminary workers, male............................................................................
Preliminary workers, female
...............................................
Finishers, male...............................................................................................
Finishers, female.............................................................................................
Carbonizers.....................................................................................................
Ronghers
..
........................... ...........................................................
W ashers...........................................................................................................
Print workers:
Print workers, male........................................................................................
Print workers, female....................................................................................




$0.88
.44
.88
.88

Other
localities.
§0.57
.43
0.27- .39
.26- . 32'
.41- .57

0.80-SI. 17
.44- .66
.60
.37
.68
.41
.51
.30
.68
.61- .68
.34

.75- .81
.47- .61
.34

1.02
.64
.75
.37
.52
.49
.53
.68
.34

.43- .68
.22- .34

834

Bu l l e t i n

op

the

bureau

of

labor.

M IN IM U M T IM E B A T E S O F W A G E S P E R D A Y IN T E X T I L E I N D U S T R Y , 1806 A N D 1907—
C oncluded.

1907.
Bates of wages per day in—
Bohemia.

Occupation.
Vienna.

Willow tenders.................
Fine carders, male............
Fine carders, female.........
Strippers............................
Coarse carders, female___
Spinners............................
Setters-up..........................
Piecers...............................
$0.54
Warpers, female................
Preparers...........................
.71
Spoolers.............................
.47
Winders.............................
Weavers............................
.71
Sample weavers................
Nappers.............................
Dyers.................................
Fullers...............................
Koughers...........................
Embroiderers....................
. 88
Chenille weavers........... $0.88- 1.02
Printers................. ........... . 81- 1.08

Upper
Austria. North and
northwest.

Moravia.
Silesia.

Other.

Briinn.

Other.

$0. 41-$0.55
.50- .61
.37- .47
$0.32
.54- .68
.30
.27- .36
$0.53-$0.61
.28
.37- .41
$0.35

.45

.54

$0.49- .51
.33- .39

.49- .64

.71
.41- .45
.71

$0.45

.41
.35

.44- .53
.26.41.43.35-

.69
.37
.60
.55
.39

$0.30-S0.36
.37
.47- .49
.47- .53
.47- .49

The hours of labor in the textile industries in the agreements of 1906
are principally 10 hours per day; the next largest number of em­
ployees are those employed 10J hours per day, while following this
come the hours of 9 and 9 f per day. In 1907 by far the greatest num­
ber of workers have a 10-hour day, while the next largest number have
a lOJ-hour day. In 1907 none of the agreements made provided for
an 11-hour day. In general it may be said that the hours of labor
show a tendency to remain about the same level in 1907 as compared
with 1906, except that the year 1907 shows no workers with an 11-hour
day, while there were a few such in 1906.
The rates of wages in the two sets of agreements contain a few
occupations for which a comparison may be made: In 1906 the rate
for spinners was 57 cents per day; the agreements concluded in
1907 show rates varying from 53 to 61 cents per day; for weavers the
rates an 1906 are from 41 to 57 cents per day; in 1907 from 37 to 45
cents per day; in 1906 the rates for embroiderers and similar special
trades showed rates from 40 cents to $1.17 per day; in 1907 a few
workmen included show rates of from 88 cents to $1.02 per day. The
general tendency of the rates of wages may be said to remain about
the same.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN AUSTRIA, 1906 AND 1907.

835

CLOTHING INDUSTRY.

The hours of labor and rates of wages in the clothing industry, as
disclosed by trade agreements in 1906 and 1907, are shown in the
following tables:
HOURS OF LABO R PER D A Y IN THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY, 1906 AND 1907.
1906.
Number of trade agreements
for specified hours.
Hours per day.
Other
Vienna. localities.
8 i.....................................................................................
9 ; .....................................................................................
9J.....................................................................................
10.....................................................................................
10-V...................................................................................
i o i ...................................................................................
11.....................................................................................
12.....................................................................................
121...........................................................................................

3
3
10
1
1

Total,

1

1

4

7
4

1
14
1
2
11
1
1

24
2
2
12
1
1

1
2
7
2
2
8
1

3
7
10
2
2
9
1

Number
of estab­
lishments
included.

(a)

Number,
of work­
men in­
cluded.

<•)
2,204
1,099
21,519
84
225
3,808
50
14

(a)
(a)
(a)

(°)
(a )
(a)
(a)
(a)

1907.
9.
9§
10

2
5
3

10:|...................................................................................
11
12

1

io:\ ...................................................................................

a

42
780
572
47
122
281
1

.275
10,733
2,304
235
300
741
6

Not reported.

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES IN THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY, PER D A Y
IN 1906 AND PE R W E E K IN 1907.
1906.
Rates of wages per day in—
Occupation.
Vienna.




1.02- l! 49
.61- .91
.61
1.02
. 54- .61
.37
.54
.61
.88
.81
.68- .88
.41- .68

SO. 5 4 -$ 0 . 89
. 85- 1. 42
.34- .53
S

47150— Bull. 88— 10----- 10

$0.81-SI. 15
.81
. 75- 1.02
. 91- 1.22

4
CO

Men’s tailors...................................................................................................
Men’s tailors (merchant tailors’ work).........................................................
Military tailors................................................................................................
Tailors on women’s suits, males...................................................................
Tailors on women’s suits, females................................................................
Cutters of white goods....................................................................................
Workers-on white goods................................................................................
Shoemakers.....................................................................................................
Straw-hat and women’s felt-hat workers....................................................
Laundry work:
Ironers......................................................................................................
Machine ironers.......................................................................................
Laundresses..............................................................................................
Laborers, male.........................................................................................
Chemical cleaning work:
Independent cleaners..............................................................................
Rippers.....................................................................................................
Ironers, male...........................................................................................
Ironers, female.................................................... ....................................

Other locali­
ties.

.61
.51

836

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES IN THE CLOTHING IN D U STRY , PE R
IN 1906 AND PE R W E E K IN 1907—Concluded.

DAY

1907.
Occupation.

Locality.

Vienna...............
Salzburg............
Gratz..................
Styria.................
Marienbad.........
Silesia.................
Moravia..............
Vienna...............
Salzburg............
Innsbruck..........
Vienna...............
Vienna...............
Vienna...............
Vienna...............
Vienna...............
Vienna...............
Vienna...............
Lower Austria
(e x c lu d in g
Vienna).
Shoemakers..................................................................................................... Stvria..............
Shoemakers..................................................................................................... Innsbruck..........

Men’s tailors....................................................................................................
Men’s tailors....................................................................................................
Men’s tailors....................................................................................................
Men’s tailors....................................................................................................
Men’s tailors....................................................................................................
Fitters..............................................................................................................
Tailors on women’s suits, males....................................................................
Tailors on women’s suits, males....................................................................
Tailors on women’s suits, males....................................................................
Tailors on women’s suits, females.................................................................
Children’s suit makers...................................................................................
Cleaners and ironers.......................................................................................
Makers of shoe uppers, males........................................................................
Makers of shoe uppers, females......................................................................
Shoemakers’ helpers.......................................................................................
Shoemakers.....................................................................................................
Shoemakers.....................................................................................................

Wages per
week.
$4.87-$6.90
3.90- 5.36
4.47- 5.28
4.06- 4.87
6.50
4.06- 4.87
4.47- 5.68
6.09- 7.31
6.70
4.87- 6.09
3.05- 3.65
3.25- 5.28
6.50
4.26- 5.68
2.84- 3.25
1.83- 2.44
3.65- 7.31
2.84- 3.65
3.65- 4.06
3.90- 4.38

In 1906 the hours of labor of the clothing workers showed that the
greatest number of employees had a ten-hour day; the next largest
number had an eleven-hour day, while the third largest number had
a nine-hour day. In 1907 the greatest number of workmen affected
by the agreements made had a working day of 9J hours, the next
largest number having a ten-hour day. While the number of work­
men affected in 1907 is smaller than in 1906, there is to be noticed a
tendency to shorten the working day.
The rates of wages of men’s tailors in Vienna show no change from
1906 to 1907; in 1906 in the areas other than Vienna the weekly rates
vary between $3.24 and $5.34, while in 1907 a number of localities
show rates in excess of the 1906 rates. For tailors on women’s suits
(males) the 1907 rates show the same upper limit as the 1906 rates,
but the 1907 minimum rates are somewhat higher than the 1906; the
rates for the areas outside of Vienna in 1907 are too few in number
to form a comparison.
In the clothing trade it may be stated that there is a slight ten­
dency toward a reduction of hours, but, the data for wages are not
sufficient to permit of a comparison being made.
PAPER INDUSTRY.

The following table shows the hours of labor and the rates of wages
contained in the trade agreements made for the paper industry in
the years 1906 and 1907:




837

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN AUSTRIA, 1906 AND 1907.
HOURS OF LABOR PER D A Y IN PA PE R IN DU STRY, 190G AND 1907.
1906.
Number of trade agreements
for specified hours.
Hours per day.
Other
Vienna. localities.
8|.....................................................................................
9.......................................................................................
9*.....................................................................................

2
1

Total.

3
3

2
4
3

3
1
1

4
1
1

Number
of establishments
included.

Number
of work­
men in­
cluded.

789
3,335
326

(a)

(a)
(a)

1907.
9.......................................................................................
9J.....................................................................................
10.....................................................................................
a

1

23
1
1

Not reported.

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES IN PAPER IN D U STRY , PER DA Y IN 1906 AND PER
W E E K IN 1907.
1906.
Rates of wages per day in—
Occupation.
Vienna.

Bookbinding establishments:
Bookbinders....................................................................................................
Rulers..............................................................................................................
Rulers, machine workers...............................................................................
Women workers, hand work.........................................................................
Women workers, machine work....................................................................
Printing establishments:
Bookbinders....................................................................................................
Workers on cutting machines.......................................................................
Helpers............................................................................................................
Women workers, hand work........................................................................
Women workers, machine work...................................................................

$0.75-$0.88
.81- .88
1.02
.41- .44
.54

Other
localities.

$0.54-$0.81
.54- .68
.24- .34
.41

.78- .81
.88
.57
.41- .44
.47- .54

1907.
Rates of wages per week in—
Occupation.
. Laibach.

Bookbinders, journeymen.......................................................
$4.87
Bookbinders, journeymen, highest grade...............................
Paper cutters and marblers.....................................................
5.28
6.09
Gilders........................................ •............................................
Women workers, with one year's experience......................... $1.62- 2.03
2.84
Women workers on machine and special work.....................

Trieste.

North
Bohemia.

$4.67

$4.06
4.87
4.87
$1.62- 2.03
2.44

Moravia.

$3.25-^3.65
4.47
1.22- 1.62
2.03

As only 9 agreements are recorded for 1906 and 6 agreements for
1907, a comparison of the two years can not safely be made. In
1906, however, 4 agreements covering 3,335 workmen show that the
most frequent working day was that of nine hours.
The weekly rates of wages for bookbinders in 1906 in the areas
outside of Vienna are practically the same as in 1907, and the same
holds true of women workers doing hand work.



838

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

As far as the data available gives any information, it may be stated
that the hours of labor and rates of wages in the two years show prac­
tically no change.
FOOD PRODUCTS INDUSTRY.

The hours of labor and rates of wages specified in the agreements
made in 1906 and 1907 in the food products industries are as follows:
HOURS OF LABOR PE R D A Y IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN DU STRY, 1906 AND 1907.
1906.
Number of trade agreements
for specified hours.
Hours per day.
Other
Vienna. localities.
9.......................................................................................
9i ...................................................................................
10.....................................................................................
101...................................................................................
11.....................................................................................
H i .................................................................................

1
2
6
1
1

16
5
3

Total.

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments
included.

1
2
22
5
4
1

(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(<*)

1
1
4
32
8
19
3

35
1
7
1,195
8
35
10

Number
of work­
men in­
cluded.

12
48
3,972
342
1,783
95

1907.
8 . , . . . , ............................................................................
9 ...................................................................................
9£.....................................................................................
10.....................................................................................
101...................................................................................
H .....................................................................................
1 2 .....................................................................................
a

1
1
2

4
30
8
19
3

700
200
1,222
11,282
613
1,052
58

Not reported.

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN DU STRY P E R D A Y AND
PE R W E E K IN 1906 AND P E R W E E K IN 1907.
1906.
Rates of wages per day in—
Occupation.
Vienna.

Flour-milling establishments:
Watch hands (without board)......................................................................
Watch hands (with board)............................................................................
Polishers (witnout board).............................................................................
Polishers (with board)...................................................................................
Dressers (without board)...............................................................................
Bakeries:
Second hands..................................................................................................
Black-bread mixers........................................................................................
White-bread mixers.......................................................................................
Table workers.................................................................................................
Mixers.............................................................................................................
Tub workers...................................................................................................
First hands.....................................................................................................
Oven men.......................................................................................................
Journeymen....................................................................................................
Candy makers:
Skilled w orkers ...............................................................................................
Helpers............................................................................................................
W om en w ork ers.....................................................................................................

Meat drying and smoking establishments:
First and second lianas..................................................................................
Third hands
Tablemen

Helpers

.............
_

......................................................................
......................................................................

...........................................................................................




Other locali­
ties.

$0.68
.44
.64
.37
.61
$0.54- . 75
.61- .95
.68- .88
.71- . 75
.61-1.05
.71- . 75
. 81-1.08
.75-1.15
.47- .81
$0.81
.54
.24
$0.91- 1.05
.68- .78
.54
.41

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN AUSTRIA, 1906 AND 1907.

839

MINIMUM TIME R ATES OF W AGES IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN DU STRY PER D A Y AND
PE R W E E K IN 1906 AND PE R W E E K IN 1907—Concluded.

1906.
Rates of wages per week in—
Occupation.
Other locali­
ties.

Vienna.
Brewers and malsters:
Foremen, first hands......................................................................................
Malsters...........................................................................................................
Driers.............................................................................................................
Driers and heaters.........................................................................................
Malt mixers and millers.................................................................................
Cellar men.......................................................................................................
Brewers...........................................................................................................
Coopers............................................................................................................
Boilers.............................................................................................................
Drawers-off.....................................................................................................
Helpers, men..................................................................................................
Helpers, women.............................................................................................
Laborers, men................................................................................................
Laborers, women...........................................................................................

$6.09-$7.11
4.26- 4.87
3.76- 4.47
4.36- 4.95
5.08- 5.48
7.11
5.48- 6. 50
5.48- 6. 50
6.09- 8. 32
6.09- 7.11
4.06- 4. 87
2.44- 2.84
2.68- 3.41

$5.89
$3.35- 4.87
3.35- 4.41
3.55- 4.87
4.87
6.09- 6.50
4.57- 6.09
5.08- 6.09
5.89- 7.31
4.82- 6.50
4.06- 4.87
2.03- 2.64
2.33- 3.17
2.19- 2.44

1907.
Rates of wages per week in­

occupation.

Lower Austria.

Vienna.

Styria.

Other
Other
localities. Gratz. localities.

Camiola. Tyrol. Prague.

North
and
north­ Moravia.
west
Bohemia.

Flour-mill worker Millers.........
Roller m en..
Dressers.......
Extra hands.
Brewery work­
ers:
Brewers.......
Coopers........
Malsters.......
Helpers........

Women

$5.89
$4.87-5.36
4.38-4.97
3.90-4.77
$5.28-$7.92
7.31- 7.92
5.48- 5.
4.26- 5.28

4.67- 7.11
4.87-7.71
4.673.25-5.08

$5.49
5.30
6.09
4.17

$5.12
$4.03-5.15

$5.08
4.67

3.55-4.78

4.26

3.98-5.49 $4.07-$4.55
4.17-5.21 4.07- 4.83
4.07-5.02 3.60- 4.55
2.94-3.
3.31- 3.60

3.45 2.23-3.05
workers. . .
White and black
bread bakers:
Oven m e n ,
mixers, etc. 6.09- 7.31 4.47-6.09
T u b work­
ers a n d
4.06
trough men 5.48- 6.
Table men,
j ourn eymen bak­
ers, etc___ 4.87- 5.68 3.65-4.87

1.95 1.71-1.95 1.71- 1.95

hands___ 4.47- 5.28 3.65-4.47
B la c k -b r e a d
bakers:
Oven m e n , 7.31- 7.51
mixers,etc.
Journeymen,
etc........... . 6.09- 6.29

4.06- 4.47

5.28- 5.6

3.78-4.50

$4.67 $3.78-4.87 $4.26-4.50
4.47 3.79-4.87
3.79
4.06
4.1 2.84-4.36
3.55 3.65-4.06 2.07-3.27
1.58-1.71

u

4.06- 4.47

Second




$4.50

$3.90
3.29

4.876.i

4.63

840

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

In 1906 the hours of labor for the greatest number of workmen
included in the agreements were 10 per day; the next highest number
had 11 hours per day. In 1907 the greatest number had again 10
hours per day, while a number of agreements for a not inconsiderable
number of workmen were from 8 to 9J hours per day. On the whole
it may be stated that there is a tendency to a shorter working day
in 1907 as compared with 1906.
The rates of wages given in the preceding table show that in the
case of brewers in Vienna, the rates in 1907 were in excess of those for
1906; in the areas outside of Vienna, the rates seem to be the same
in both years. The rates for coopers in Vienna in 1907 are distinctly
above those for 1906, while in the areas outside of Vienna, there seems
to be a tendency for a lower rate in 1907 as compared with 1906.
BU ILDIN G T R A D E S .

The hours of labor and rates of wages in the trade agreements in the
building trades made in 1906 and 1907 are as follows:
HOURS OF LABOR PER D A Y IN BUILDING TRAD ES, 1906 AND 1907.
1906.
Number of trade agreements
for specified hours.
Hours per day.
Vienna.

8|.....................................................................................
9.......................................................................................
9*.....................................................................................
9*.....................................................................................
9§.....................................................................................
10.....................................................................................
10*...................................................................................
l o j ...................................................................................

2
2
6

i

All other
locali­
ties.

Total.

7
1
21
3
16
1

2
9
1
27
3
16
1
1

2
3
9
56
10
66
1
4

3
4
9
56
10
66
1
4

Number
of establishments in­
cluded.

09
09
09
09
09
09
09
09

Number
of work­
men in­
cluded.

2,100
6,529
180
54,718
260
6,486
284
200

1907.
1
1

8|
9.

»L
»!•
10 .
10
10* .

*




O’

Not reported.

38
22
38
675
37
583
3
9

116
335
1,160
17,177
1,143
12,822
70
355

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR IN AUSTRIA, 1906 AND 1907,

841

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES PER D A Y IN BUILDING TRAD ES, 1906 AND 1907.
Rates of wages per day in—
Occupation.

Vienna.

Other localities.

!
1906.

1907.

1906.

$1.42
Plasterers............................................................................
Masons (“ facade” ) .............................................................
$1.35
1.29
11.12
Masons, dashed work.........................................................
1.22
1.25
1.35
Masons................................................................................
1.04 $0.57- .96
.96
Masons on canal work........................................................
.91
Masons on bridge work......................................................
.85- 1.02
Masons’ helpers on canal work.........................................
.75
Masons' helpers on tunnel work.......................................
1.02
Scaffold men.......................................................................
.73
.77
.58
Laborers, diggers, etc........................................................
.28- .57
.60
.48
Women laborers.................................................................
.46
.35
1.08
Carpenters..........................................................................
.57- .81
1.02
.41- 1.00
.95
Painters..............................................................................
.82
.66- .82
.88
Painters’ helpers................................................................
.99
Inside painters and decorators.........................................
.96
.51- .99
.66- .82
.85
.85
Inside painters and decorators’ helpers...........................
.89
.81
Roofers................................................................................
.93
.89
Glaziers...............................................................................
.82
.71- 1.02
Plumbers............................................................................
.62
.61- .65
Plumbers’ helpers.................................................. : ..........
1.02
1.02
Tile layers...........................................................................
.97
Gas and steam fitters.........................................................
.97
Sewer workers.................................................................... $0.53- . 81 $0.53- . 81
i

1907.

$1.16
1.25
$0.67- 1.04
Qfi
.85- L02
.73
1.00
.28- .60
.37
.81
1.00
.82
1.00
.82

.69.41.66.51.66-

.71- 1.02
.61- .65

In 1906 by far the greatest number of workmen covered by the
agreements had a working day of 9J hours; the next largest number
had a day of 10 hours, while the third largest number had a day of
9 hours. In 1907 the same numbers of hours are also found most
frequently.
The wages of the building trades workers are given in the report
in such form that a comparison can be made of most of the occupa­
tions. In Vienna the great majority of the occupations show a
tendency to a higher rate in 1907. In the areas outside of Vienna
the same thing holds true.
TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRIES.

The hours of labor and weekly minimum rates of wages as fixed by
the trade agreements made in the year 1907 in the transportation
industries are given in the following table. As very few agreements
were made in the year 1906 for these industries, no data are available
for that year.
POU RS OF LABO R PER D A Y IN TRAN SPORTATION INDUSTRIES, 1907.
Number of trade agreements
for specified hours.
Hours of labor.
Vienna.

9......................................................................................
.....................................................................................

9 i .....................................................................................

i

f

:

.............................................




a

Not reported.

1

Other
localities.
1
1
2
1

Total.

2
1
2
1

Number Number
of estab- of work­
lishmen
ments
included. included.

<«)

(a)
(a)

(a)

1,520
314
1,800
215

842

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

MINIMUM TIME RATES OF WAGES IN TRAN SPORTATION INDUSTRIES, 1907.
Occupation.

Vienna:
Teamsters......................................
Laborers, drayage work...............
Teamsters, dravage work.............
Laborers, warehouses.-.................
Freight handlers...........................
Furniture movers.........................
Laborers, coal yards.....................

Rates of
wages per
week.

$4.87
6.09
5.48
5.48
5.28
6.09
$5.28-5.48

a

Occupation.

Aussig:
Teamsters...................................
Brunn:
Street-railway drivers.................
Street-railway conductors..........
Street-railway switchmen...........
Trieste:
Dock laborers on land.................
Dock laborers on board ship.......

Rates of
wages per
week.

$4.57
$4.26- 5.12
4.07- 4.36
3.79- 4.03
o 1.02 -1.22
a 1.22 -1.42

Per day.

The hours of labor specified in the agreements made in 1907 range
almost entirely from 9 to 9J per day. A small number of work­
men, however, have an 11-hour day...
The weekly rates of wages in Vienna for labor of this type vary from
$4.87 to $6.09 and are higher than the rates given in other localities
except for dock laborers in Trieste, where a somewhat higher rate
prevails.




RECENT REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR STATISTICS.
PENNSYLVANIA.

A n n u a l Report o f the Secretary o f Internal A ffa irs o f the Commonwealth
o f Pennsylvania .
Vol. X X X V I, 1908.
Part III, Industrial

Statistics.

John L. Rockey, Chief of Bureau, 315 pp.

In the first of the three parts composing this report brief special
articles are presented upon the subjects of the unemployed, the
Portland cement industry, farm products, the liquor business, the
coal-mining industry, and industrial accidents. In the second part is
given special reports on the industrial conditions in the cities of
Altoona, Chester, Lancaster, Wilkes-Barre, Williamsport, and York.
I n d u s t r i a l A c c i d e n t s .— There occurred, during 1908, in anthra­
cite mining 618 fatal and 3,526 nonfatal accidents, in bituminous
mining 531 fatal and 3,005 nonfatal accidents, in the iron and steel
industry 75 fatal and 1,815 nonfatal accidents, in the pig-iron
industry 47 fatal and 374 nonfatal accidents, in other industries
77 fatal and 3,890 nonfatal accidents, making a total loss of 1,348
lives and the injury of 12,610 persons.
G e n e r a l S t a t i s t i c s o f M a n u f a c t u r e s a n d M i n i n g .— The third
section of the report embraces data gathered from 3,848 establish­
ments of the State engaged in the manufacturing and the mining
industries, giving a record of the capital invested, value of products,
average value of product per employee, days in operation, number of
working people (men, women, and minors), aggregate wages paid,
average yearly earnings, average daily wages, etc.
The 3,848 establishments considered in the investigation had
invested in plants and working capital a total of $1,126,406,543, and
the market value of production for the year aggregated$l,271,940,258.
The various industries employed a total of 753,000 wage-earners
(651,707 men, 83,809 women, and 17,484 minors), to whom were paid
in wages the sum of $327,917,035 to the men, $22,187,798 to the
women, and $2,999,905 to the minors. For each employee the
average value of product for the year amounted to $1,681.11.
I r o n , S t e e l , a n d T i n - P l a t e P r o d u c t i o n .— The following sum­
mary statements show the more important items for the year 1908
relating to the production of pig iron, steel, rolled iron and steel, and
tin plate:




843

844

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
PIG IRON.

Capital invested.................................................................................................... $191,397,048
6,973,621
Gross tons of production.....................................................................................
Realized value...................................................................................................... $110, 987,346
Value of basic material....................................................................................... $60,334,368
Average days in operation..................................................................................
262
Average number of adult male em ployees.....................................................
12, 954
Aggregate wages paid adult male em ployees.................................................
$7,264,174
Average yearly earnings of adult, male em ployees.......................................
$560. 77
Average daily wages of adult male em ployees..............................................
$2.14
Cost of labor per ton.............................................................................................
$1.04
Tonnage per man per da y..................................................................................
2
STEEL.

Gross tons of production:
Bessemer.........................................................................................................
Open-hearth, acid process..........................................................................
Open-hearth, basic process.........................................................................
Crucible and other processes......................................................................

2,109,242
509,832
4,838,892
52, 733

Total............................................................................................................

7,510,699

ROLLED IRON AND STEEL.

Capital invested................................................................................................... $380,811,415
Gross tons of production:
Muck and scrap bar.....................................................................................
Slabs, blooms, billets, tin-plate and sheet bars, e tc...........................
Rails................................................................................................................

30,648
1,757,301
488,080

Iren and steel structural shapes.........................................................................

840, 918

Cut nails and spikes.....................................................................................
Plates and sheets (a) ...................................................................................
Other rolled products..................................................................................

23,460
1,496., 865
3,245,269

T otal............................................................................................................

7, 882,541

Value of product (not including the black-plate works).............................. $273,608,969
Average number of employees (not including those in black-plate works).
92,049
Average number of adult male employees (not including those in blackplate works).......................................................................................................
91,340
Aggregate wages paid all em ployees................................................................ $51,974,293
Aggregate wages paid adult male em ployees................................................. $51,803,245
Average yearly earnings of all employees......................................................
$564. 64
Average yearly earnings of adult male em ployees.......................................
$567.15
Average value per ton .........................................................................................
$36.04
Cost of labor per ton ............................................................................................
$6.85
TIN PLATE W ORKS.

Capital invested (19 plants)................................................................................. $9,835,222
Pounds of production of black plate (tinned and not tinned).................... 674,146, 662
Value of production of black plate (not tinn ed).............................................
$689,904
Pounds of production of sheets and plates other than black....................... 60,214,815
Value of production of sheets and plates other than black.......................... $1,221,546
Pounds of production of tin and terne plate.................................................... 649,040,248
Value of product..................................................................................................... $23,057,702
a Including 290,342 tons of black plate and other sheets made b y the black-plate
works.




BEPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— PENNSYLVANIA.
Average number of employees............................................................................
Average number of adult male em ployees.......................................................
Aggregate wages paid all em ployees..................................................................
Aggregate wages paid adult male employees...................................................
Average days in operation...................................................................................
Average yearly earnings of all employees........................................................
Average yearly earnings of adult male employees.........................................
Average daily wages of all employees...............................................................
Average daily wages of adult male employees................................................

845

8, 263
7, 939
$5,310, 638
$5,211, 623
231
$642. 70
$656.46
$2. 78
$2.84

C o a l M i n i n g .— The following statement presents a summary of
the operations of the anthracite and of the bituminous coal mines in
the State during 1908, the coke workers not being included:
AN TH RACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL-MINE OPERATIONS, 1908.

Items.

Anthracite
coal.

Number of mines in operation...............................................................................
286
43,482
Miners........................................................................................... - .........................
84,541
Inside workmen......................................................................................................
Outside workmen...................................................................................................
48,354
Aggregate wages paid to miners............................................................................ $29,2'% 424
Aggregate wages paid to inside workmen............................................................. $38,078,958
Aggregate wages paid to outside workmen..........................................................
$20,149,468
222
Average days in operation.....................................................................................
$496.13
Average yearly earnings (all employees)..............................................................
$673.34
Average yearly earnings (miners only).................................................................
$2.23
Average daily wages (all employees)....................................................................
$3.03
Average daily wages (miners only).......................................................................
63,016,935
Number of tons mined and marketed...................................................................
................................................................. $150,010,163
Market value of product...............
1,615
Average tons mined per miner per year...............................................................
7.0
Average tons mined per miner per day................................................................
a

Miners, pick, $447; miners, machine, $446.81.

Bituminous
coal.
1,227
120,196
27,539
19,196
$53,718,095
$15,960,860
$10,147,273
238
$458.29

(a)

$1.93

0>)

115,102,716
$116,281,591
948
4.1

6 Miners, pick, $1.90; miners, machine, $1.88.

In addition to the above coal-mining operations there were 58
plants, employing 1,906 persons, engaged in washing anthracite coal
from culm banks at the mines. The plants washed 3,071,220 tons of
coal, which had a market value of $3,225,782. Wages were paid
aggregating $802,966, or an average yearly earning per employee of
$421.28. Also there were 21 plants engaged in dredging coal from
the Susquehanna and Schuylkill rivers, giving an average employ­
ment of 104 days to 123 men, to whom wages amounting to $23,065
were paid. There were 55,473 tons of coal raised, having a market
value of $52,204.
Of the 1,227 bituminous coal mines there were 299 from which
coal was coked. During the year there were 28,969 coke ovens in
service, producing 13,857,007 tons of coke, of a value at plant of
$27,948,737. There were 9,459 coke workers, to whom were paid
wages amounting to $3,794,415, or an average yearly wage of $401.14.
Of 135,023 employees of the anthracite mines for whom nationality
was reported 45,827 were Americans. Returns from 484 bituminous
coal companies (that do not coke coal) showed that of the 139,382
employees for whom nationality was reported 42,353 \^ere Americans
and 95,294 were foreigners, and 1,735 were negroes.



846

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
VIRGINIA.

Twelfth A n n u a l Report o f the Bureau o f Labor and Industrial Sta­
tistics fo r the State o f V irg in ia . 1909. James B. Doherty, Com­

missioner. 303 pp.
The subjects presented in this report are industrial statistics, 223
pages; labor organizations, 4 pages; labor laws, 30 pages; factory
inspection, 6 pages; decisions of courts, 38 pages.
I n d u s t r i a l S t a t i s t i c s .— A series of tables is given for 41 indus­
tries, showing for 1908 the number of establishments reporting for the
year, the value of product, capital invested, amount paid for wages,
rent, taxes, and insurance, number of wage-earners, by occupation,
with average daily pay, number and average monthly pay of persons
employed on salary, number of hours of work per day and days in
operation for each establishment, wage changes, and also totals and
averages for each industry. For each industry comparisons with 1907
are presented. Statistics are also given of the average daily wages of
employees of 50 steam and 25 electric railways, and of accidents on
steam and electric roads.
The following table shows for 1907 and 1908, for each of the indus­
tries in the State which reported an output in 1908 exceeding
$1,000,000, the number of establishments reporting, capital invested,
value of product, and aggregate wages paid:
CAPITAL INVESTED, VALUE OF PRODUCT, AND WAGES PAID IN 22 INDUSTRIES, 1907
AND 1908.
Estab­
lishments.

Capital invested.

1907. 1908.

1907.

Value of product.

Wages paid.

Industry.

Boots and shoes...................
5
Breweries.............................
7
Canneries.............................
97
Carriages, wagons, and
buggies.............................. 33
Cigars, cigarettes, and che­
roots.................................. 46
Cotton mills......................... 10
Flour and grist mills........... 176
Iron and machine works___ 55
Knitting mills.....................
10
Overalls and shirts.............. 16
Paper and pulp mills..........
9
Paper and tin ooxes...........
6
Printing, engraving, and
bookbinding..................... 74
Sash, doors, and blinds....... 20
Sawmills............................... 293
Silk mills.............................
3
Tanneries............................. 22
Tobacco factories................ 26
Trunks and bags.................
6
Wooden ware, b a s k e t s ,
boxes, and shooks............ 31

1908.

1907.

1908.

6 $1,212,000 $1,752,500 $2,904,700 $2,755,147
6 2,905,845 2,560,199 1,749,848 1,831,518
453,450
817,150 1,012,222
403,848
108
30

1,044,989

1,075,053

1,417,290

1,184,409

39 1,459,729 1,234,779 8,641,417 6,676,600
11 7,227,929 7,494,875 6,443,061 7,030,298
166 3,042,483 3,220,122 11,648,764 10,590,312
63 16,636,757 18,198,293 18,634,098 13,186,308
315,623
459,742 2,403,808 2,289,427
13
442,709
498,119 1,522,488 1,213,818
16
9 3,545,000 3,099,024 3,078,195 3,300,529
178,500
205,246 1,050,093 1,244,067
7
86
24
224
4
24
27
6

1,206,441
1,009,005
(a)
706,599
2,415,180
2,277,753
889,854

725,886
2,991,850
2,421,511
901,427

39

2,187,476

2,488,841

a

1,614,432
831,142
( a)

2,467,346 2,531,997
1,787,480 1,650,635
7,805,095 7,097,379
2,049,186 1,896,960
6,392,000 6,641,236
10,125,327 10,871,320
2,644,420 1,799,214
5,028,144

5,808,300

1907.

1908.

$553,810
206,814
136,058

$527,023
253,218
109,064

293,651

257,003

1,392,530 1,112,588
1,331,625 1,349,981
273,359
281,137
5,998,962 4,601,271
478,955
477,431
228,439
279,373
436,054
391,258
293,364
284,098
674,775
670,430
335,008
354,043
2,638,331 1,682,927
185,513
207,629
447,246
509,827
1,010,562
976,715
392,242
542,348
1,111,297 1,066,845

Not reported.

In 1908 there were 221 general contracting firms in the building
trades which reported the value of work constructed during the year



REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— VIRGINIA.

847

as amounting to $6,040,704, and 111 firms of plumbers, gas fitters,
and tinners which reported the value of work done during the year
as amounting to $1,439,640.
The reports on steam and electric railways operating in the State
show for 1908 the average daily wages paid by each road in each
occupation and the average daily wages paid b y all roads. The fol­
lowing is a summary of the data presented:
AVERAGE D A IL Y W AGES OF STEAM AND OF ELECTRIC R A IL W A Y EMPLOYEES, 1808,
AND INCREASE IN WAGES OVER 1907.

Steam railroad employees.

General office clerks..................
Station agents...........................
Other station men.....................
Engineers...................................
Firemen.....................................
Conductors................................
Other trainmen.....................
Machinists.................................
Carpenters.................................
Other shopmen.........................
Section foremen........................
Other trackmen........................
S w it c h m e n ,fla g m e n , and
watchmen...............................
Telegraph operators and dis­
patchers..................................
Employees, floating equip­
ment....................................
Other employees.......................

Average
daily
wages.

Increase
over
1907.

$2.19
1.87
1.45
4.47
2.35
3.32
1.95
2.93
2.29
1.94
1.78
1.21

a $0.02
.08
.03
o .l4
a.08
o .l5
.01
.10
.12
.15
.02
a 07

1.36

o.22

2.14

.04

1.66
1.48

.21
o .l5
a

Electric railway employees.

General office clerks................
Conductors...............................
Drivers.....................................
Motormen................................
Starters....................................
Watchmen...............................
Switchmen...............................
Road men................................
Hostlers....................................
Linemen..................................
Engineers.................................
Firemen...................................
Electricians..............................
Machinists and mechanics___
Other employees.....................

Average
daily
wages.
$1.96
1.87
1.33
1.90
2.10
1.53
1.48
1.35
1.50
1.88
2.38
1.47
2.54
2.12
1.55

Increase
over
1907.
$0.23
.07
«.0 2
.09
o.09
o.Ol
.06
«.09
o.07
.07
.16
.03
.22
.13
.13

Decrease.

On the steam railroads in Virginia during 1908 there resulted from
the movement of trains the accidental killing of 62 employees, 1 pas­
senger, and 159 others, and the injury of 710 employees, 200 pas­
sengers, and 234 others; from causes other than the movement of
trains there resulted the accidental killing of 5 employees, and the
injury of 833 employees, 1 passenger, and 4 other persons. On the
electric railways during 1908 there were accidentally injured 289
passengers, 19 employees, and 75 other persons; and 6 passengers,
3 employees, and 13 others were killed.
WISCONSIN.

Thirteenth B ie n n ia l Report o f the Bureau o f Labor and Industrial
Statistics, 1907-1908. J. D. Beck, Commissioner, xi, 1,173 pp.

This report consists of seven parts, as follows: Industrial accidents
and employers’ liability, 143 pages; manufacturing returns for 1906
and 1907, 332 pages; industrial hygiene and the police power, 28
pages; factory inspection, child-labor permits, and free employment
offices, 176 pages; bakery inspection and proceedings of bakers’
institute, 160 pages; labor conditions in the public utilities, 184 pages,
and women workers in the Milwaukee tanneries, 149 pages.



848

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

I n d u s t r i a l A c c i d e n t s a n d E m p l o y e r s ’ L i a b i l i t y .— During the
year ending October, 1907, 13,571 accidents were reported by the
physicians of Wisconsin, of which number 53 per cent- happened to
workmen while at work. The employer is liable for damages to his
workmen only when it can be proven that the employer’s negligence
was the cause of the accident. Attempts to prove negligence at law
are stated to be expensive and create hostility between workmen and
employers. The cost to the State of settling cases can not, orf the
whole, be considered excessive, but the cost per case is large compared
with the cost under a system of workmen’s insurance. The cost to
the employer varies with the industry but averages from five-tenths
to six-tenths of 1 per cent of the wages bill. This is chiefly for
liability insurance premiums; less than half of this money reaches
the victim of the accident. The workingman can under no system
of compensation escape the most serious part of the cost of an indus­
trial accident— the pain and mutilation involved. A study of indi­
vidual cases shows also that the instances of positive financial distress
resulting from accidents are numerous, and seldom are the damages
collected adequate.
In the following table is presented a summary of the returns received
by mail from 306 workmen injured while at work:
COMPENSATION RECEIVED B Y INJURED EM PLOYEE IN 306 CASES.
Cases.

Per cent.

Received nothing from employer......................................................................................
Received amount of doctor hills only...............................................................................
Received amount of part of doctor bills only...................................................................
Received something m addition to doctor bills...............................................................
Received something, but not doctor bills........................................................................

72
99
16
91
29

23.5
32.4
4.9
29.7
9.5

Total..........................................................................................................................

396

100.0

No one will deny that when a man is injured he needs money.
Where shall he get it ?
The answer of Great Britain: The British Parliament has said the
employer must pay damages to every one of his workmen who is
injured.
The answer of Germany: Germany compels its workers to be
provident. The workman must contribute to an old-age and sick
msurance fund, and the latter includes disability for thirteen weeks.
But the cost of insuring the workman further against accidents falls
solely upon the employer.
The answer of France: The employer must pay a specified compen­
sation in practically all cases of injury.
The burden rests entirely upon the employer in all of the addi­
tional countries: Belgium, British Columbia, Cape of Good Hope,
Denmark, Finland, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway,
Queensland, Russia, South Australia, Spain, Sweden, Western Aus­
tralia.
The burden is divided but rests largely on employers in the follow­
ing additional countries: Austria, Greece, Hungary, Luxemburg.



REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— WISCONSIN.

849

In the United States the workman must rely largely on his own
savings, or personal insurance, or on the charity of employer, the
public, or fellow-workmen, because in the majority o f cases the
employer can not be proved negligent.
The suggestion is made that the burden of all accidents be placed
upon the employer, regardless of the question of negligence. The
industry is responsible for more than half the accidents, and putting
the* burden on the employer is, to the extent that he can shift the
burden to the consumer in the shape of higher prices, one way of
making the industry responsible. The possibility of the feigning of
incapacity by workmen is not considered a serious one. Fraud is an
element that must be contended with in fire and other forms of
insurance as well. In answer to the question of constitutionality, it
is pointed out that the supreme court of Wisconsin has upheld abso­
lute liability regardless of negligence when imposed as a penalty.
(Quackenbush, Admx. v. W. and M. it. R. Co., 62 Wis. 411, and 71
Wis. 472.)
A second suggestion, more adaptable to American conditions, is
to have the employer contribute to a common fund such an amount
as he probably would have to pay if he continued with the law of
negligence, release him from the liability to damage suits, and then
distribute the money on the insurance principle, the employee being
encouraged to carry as much additional insurance as he could.
Employers’ liability insurance now costs in Wisconsin an average
of 50 to 60 cents for each $100 of wages. It is very probable that this
expense would be increased by weakening the defense of the employer
in the courts. In the railroad industry, in Wisconsin, the fellowservant doctrine has been abolished and the doctrine of contributory
negligence has been seriously modified. Similar modifications are
practically inevitable for other hazardous industries if the present
system of liability be retained.
The following estimate is made of the cost of compensation for
industrial accidents in Wisconsin under the plan outlined above:
To pay regardless of negligence for each fatal industrial accident
three times the annual earnings, and for nonfatal accidents one-half
wages during disablement after the second week up to one year,
together with an additional payment of $500, or less, according to
the degree of the injury, to those permanently injured, and for all
cases first medical aid, would cost at a maximum as follows for
manufacturing establishments reported in the federal census of 1905:
Fatal accidents, at three years’ earnings.......................................................... $164,290.80
Nonfatal, during total disability for one year after the first two weeks, at
one-half wages....................................................................................................
83,880.37
150,125.00
Permanent disability—additional.....................................................................
Medical fees, first aid, at $5 per case................................................................ ' 20,525.00
Administrative expenses (15 per cent).............................................................
73,909. 62
Total.............................................................................................................




492,730.79

850

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

This would be approximately 68.9 cents per $100 of the wages
bill, or $3.25 per man per annum, employed, on an average. In
some industries it would be less and in some more. If these same
manufacturers had been insured at existing employers’ liability rates,
the cost would have been about $416,204.61, which is 58 cents per
$100 of wages, or $2.75 per man per annum.
M a n u f a c t u r i n g r e t u r n s f o r 1906 a n d 1907.— Each of the 62
larger manufacturing industries of the State is taken up separately,
the statistics pertaining to the industry being arranged in six tables.
Thirteen minor industries are treated similarly but more briefly.
The data in all cases are so arranged as to permit of a comparison
between those of 1906 and those of 1907. It is possible, therefore,
to determine in the case of each industry whether there was an
advance or a retrogression during the period covered by the report.
The following summary table is based upon the returns from all
establishments (2,699 reporting in 1906 and 2,748 reporting in 1907):
MANAGEMENT AND OPERATION OF 75 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES. 1906 AND 1907.
Items.

1900.

1907.

Number of private firms....................................................................................................

1,224

1,141

Number of male partners...................................................................................................
Number of female partners................................................................................................

2,100
124

1,960
134

2,224

2,094

Total number of partners.......................................................................................
Number of corporations.....................................................................................................

1,475

1,607

Number of male stockholders.........................................................................................
Number of female stockholders.........................................................................................

21,512
3,428

29,139
4,128

Total number of stockholders..............................................................................
Smallest number of persons employed............................................... ...................
Greatest number of persons employed.......................................................................
Average number of persons employed..........................................................................
Average days in operation...............................................................................................
Average annual earnings...................................................................................................

24,940

33,267

121,886
131,914
128,487
309
$499.34

115,169
142,314
134,665
297
$518.81

In 1907, based upon 61 leading industries only, the value of goods
made and work done amounted to $371,988,590.53 and the value of
stock used and other material consumed in production amounted to
$224,799,129.26. There was devoted to wages and salaries $73,128,553.66 and to profit and minor expenses $74,060,907.61.
I n d u s t r i a l H y g i e n e a n d t h e P o l i c e P o w e r .— This section is a
reproduction of a paper read before the International Tuberculosis
Congress by Dr. H. B. Favill. This paper advocates a broad study
of health as related to labor conditions, followed by legislation for the
regulation of industrial establishments, directed especially toward
securing a sufficient supply of fresh air during working hours as a
preventive of tuberculosis.




851

REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR— WISCONSIN.

F r e e E m p l o y m e n t O f f i c e s .—A summary of the operations of the
four free employment offices of the State for the years ending June 29,
1907, and June 27, 1908, is set out in the following table:
OPERATIONS OF FREE EMPLOYMENT OFFICES, 1907 AND 1908.
Year ending June 29,1907.
Sex and office.

Applica­
tions for
employ­
ment.

Males:
Milwaukee..........................
Superior.............................
La Crosse............................
Oshkosh.............................

Applica­
tions for
help.

Year ending June 27,1908.
Applica­
tions for
employ­
ment.

Positions
filled.

Applica­
tions for
help.

Positions
filled.

5,545
5,970
1,718
1,305

5,572
5,973
1,727
1,312

5,545
5,970
1,718
1,305

4,194
6,201
1,593
1,146

4,195
6,201
1,593
1,157

4,194
6,201
1,593
1,145

Total...............................
Females:
Milwaukee..........................
Superior.............................
La Crosse............................
Oshkosh.............................

14,538

14,584

14,538

13,134

13,146

13,133

992
618
635
639

1,116
807
776
699

992
618
635
639

1,077
672
631
642

1,150
757
680
682

1,077
672
631
642

Total...............................

2,884

3,398

2,884

3,022

3,269

3,022

L a b o r C o n d i t i o n s i n t h e P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s .— This section con­
tains a description of the working conditions and the actual hours
and wages of employees in the gas, street railway, electric light and
power, water, and telephone industries in the principal cities of the
State.
W o m e n W o r k e r s i n t h e M i l w a u k e e T a n n e r i e s .— The report
of this investigation, while limited to the three or four hundred women
employed in the tanneries of Milwaukee, contains much of interest
to the investigator of conditions surrounding the employment of
women. In the present case women were employed to fill the places
of striking men. A description is given of the work performed by
them, their wages, hours of labor, and the effect of the work upon
their health.
The average earnings of 215 women during a period of six months
is shown in the following table by classified groups and departments:
CLASSIFIED W E E K L Y EARNINGS OF 215 WOMEN IN M ILW AUKEE TANNERIES
DURING SIX MONTHS.
Per cent of women earning—
Department.
Less than
$5.

$5 and
under $8.

$8 and
under 310.

$10 and
over.

Store and sorting...............................................................
Coloring and Russia finishing...........................................
Chrome finishing................................................................
Ironing................................................................................

53
36
15

47
61
66
38

3
19
56

6

Total.........................................................................

22

58

18

2

47150— B ull. 88— 10----- 11




852

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

One hundred and twenty-nine of the women were visited in their
homes. Text and tabular statements are given of housing conditions,
income of the families, and personal employment history.
In conclusion it is stated that—
Unless we change the present demoralizing condition we will con­
tinue to see women, worn out by the work of their youth, unable
to do their part in making happy and successful homes. Their chil­
dren, if not given better opportunities, go through the same course
and keep up the circle of vicious inefficiency. We can look for better
conditions only with the increased intelligence and efficiency of the
more fully developed girl, working in cooperation with an employer
who recognizes that she is entitled in the workshop to cleanliness; to
good sanitation, light, and air; to protection from dangerous machin­
ery; to the removal of all brutalizing conditions, and of all conditions
which place undue strain upon her moral character, even to excluding
her from employment in certain industries. She should be entitled
to every safeguard to health, such as shortening the work period;
the opportunity for a nourishing noon meal; the prevention or undue
strain upon her body, and breaks during the working hours for bodily
rest. And finally we must come to a realization sooner or later of
the expediency of demanding a wage that will sustain minimum con­
ditions of health and decency.




E E C E N T F O E E IG N S T A T IS T IC A L P U B L IC A T IO N S .
BELGIUM.

Fonds intercommunal de Chomage de VAgglomeration gantoise. R ap­
port sur le jonctionnement du Fonds pendant les annees 1906,1907, et
1908, presente au Conseil communal de Gand. 1909. 84, 4,19 pp.

This report, by Louis Yarlez, president of the council administering
the funds, covers the operations of the municipal funds of Ghent and
vicinity for relief in cases of unemployment, and is the fourth in the
series. The plan in use was adopted after a report by a special com­
mission on unemployment in April, 1900. (For a reproduction of the
law establishing the fund and a brief account of its workings, see
Bulletin No. 76, pp. 822-826.)
In the present report is set forth first a statement of the methods in
use, followed by statistics of operations for each year, and summary
tables showing the main statistical facts for the whole period of the
operation of the funds. Several pages are given to a more general
presentation of provisions in case of unemployment, both in Belgium
and in other European countries, while appendixes reproduce the
fundamental statute under which the Ghent system operates and the
detailed regulations adopted by the administrative council in accord­
ance with the authority given it by the last article of this statute.
The report explains the system as follows:
Contrary to that which has been sometimes said, the Ghent unem­
ployment fund is not a fund for unemployment insurance, nor is it,
as was formerly proposed to the communal council of Ghent, and as
it has been erroneously described in certain foreign localities, a system
of grants of subsidies to workmen’s organizations, especially syndi­
cates, making provision for unemployment insurance. It is neither
of these, nor is it anything but a new application of an old principle,
and presents very few features of originality.
In reality it establishes a new system which the communal council
of Ghent adopted October 29, 1900, with the approval of all the
political and social parties represented in its constituency, for the
distribution of encouragements, real and effective, to all workmen
who are willing to take serious measures against the consequences of
unemployment.
Whatever method the workman may use, whether of individual or
collective savings, of mutual insurance, or other provision, the fund is
available for the increase of the provision made by individual effort,
sub j ect to three limitations: That individual provision will be increased
in an amount not to exceed 100 per cent, only the first franc (19.3
cents) of the individual provision to be thus increased, and no aid to
be extended for more than sixty days in any year. In practice, the
funds have usually sufficed to give aid affording an increase of the
individual savings in an amount varying from 50 to 75 per cent.




853

854

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

While the encouragement of individual effort is the point kept in
mind throughout, the practical working of the system is through asso­
ciation channels, since it is found that it is only in the cooperative
provision, either of insurance funds or of savings funds of organized
workmen, that the necessary individual basis for subsidies is laid.
In 1908 there were 31 assurance funds and 4 savings funds, members
of which brought themselves within the provisions of the system of
assistance and thus gained standing as affiliated associations.
The financial support of the funds is drawn principally from grants
made by the city of Ghent and its suburbs, though since the previous
report the Province of East Flanders and the Kingdom of Belgium
have undertaken to assist. This has been chiefly in the way of pro­
viding for expenses of administration. The assistance from the
Province is as yet but of slight account; the Kingdom’s contribution
in 1908 to the Ghent fund amounted to 2,645 francs ($510.49). The
grant from the city of Ghent is the principal source of subsidies, being
regularly 20,000 francs ($3,860) for each of the years 1906, 1907, and
1908. In 1908 supplemental grants on account of special distress
brought the total for the year to 41,500 francs ($8,009.50).
The following table shows the principal facts connected with the
operation of the fund since its establishment in 1901, during which
year it was in operation but five months, to and including the year 1908:
OPERATIONS OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT FUND OF GHENT AND SUBURBS, 1901 TO 1903.
Affiliated associations.
Year.
Number.

1901(a) ...............................
1902....................................
1903....................................
1904....................................
1905....................................
1906....................................
1907....................................
1908....................................

28
33
34
32
32
33
34
43

Average
member­
ship.

Unemployed mem­
bers.

Number.

13,000
12,300
12,300
12,000
12,200
13,300
17,500
18,000

Per cent.

2,089
3,250
2,711
3,010
2,019
2,601
3,583
7,539

16.1
26.4
22.0
25.1
16.5
19.6
.20.5
41.9

Relief and benefit funds.

Year.

1901(a) ..............
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................
1907.....................
1908.....................

Granted by cities.
Supplied
by asso­
ciations. Regular Special
grants. assist­
ance.

Total.
Total.

$3,449.91 $1,206.99
$1,206.99 $4,656.90
7,953.67 3,121.02
3,121.02 11,074.69
6,852.50 3,663.54 $546.41 4,209.95 11,062.45
8,144.16 4,508.99 470.97 4,979.96 13,124.11
6,862. 94 3,494.76 413.86 3,908.62 10,771.56
8,062.70 3,505.76 324.09 3,829.85 11,892.55
8,007.07 4,502.71 108.37 4,611.08 12,618.15
19,131.33 9,013.34
9,013.34 28,144.67




a

Days of unemployment.

Five months only.

Per
cent
of
funds
sup­
plied
by in­
divid­
uals.

Number.

Average Average
per per­
per
member. son unem­
ployed.

6,676
31,325
30,296
36,402
34,965
35,751
38,529
82,579

0.5
2.5
2.5
3.0
2.9
2.7
2.2
4.6

3.2
9.6
11.2
12.1
17.3
13.8
10.8
11.0

Cost of un­
employ­
ment.

Costs of
Total
admin­
istra­ expendi­
tures.
tion.
Per Per
mem­ bene­
fici­
ber. ary.

74 $0.36 $2.23 $147.07
72
.90 3.41 353.58
63
.88 4.01 351.65
62 1.09 4.36 359.56
64
.88 5.33 379.99
.89 4.57 402.06
68
64
.72 3.53 405.21
68 1.60 3.73 530.75

$1,354.06
3.474.60
4.561.60
5,339.52
4.288.61
4,231.90
5,074.19
9,684.02

FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS---- BELGIUM.

855

This table shows an increase in the number of associations coming
into relations with the fund, and a marked growth in the number of
members, particularly in 1907. The number of persons unemployed
and of days of unemployment was more than twice as great in 1908
as in any previous year; the cost of unemployment per member was
likewise increased in this year, but not in the same ratio. The cost of
unemployment per beneficiary was not so great in 1908 as in several
previous years, having been greatest in 1905, when the number of
persons unemployed was least. The growth of the cost of adminis­
tration has been practically steady, while the amount of total expendi­
tures has fluctuated considerably. The percentage of contributions
resulting from the personal efforts of the beneficiaries was greatest
during the first two years of the operation of the fund, before the
suburbs of Ghent took part. The rate has been well maintained
throughout, however, and rebuts the assumption that with the estab­
lishment of a system of assistance the beneficiaries would increasingly
shift the burden of unemployment to the subsidizing municipalities.
In view of the large demand on the contributors to the fund in 1908,
the report emphasizes the importance of establishing a reserve fund
of sufficient magnitude to provide means for supplying the needs of
periods of unusual distress. As a matter of fact, the amount remain­
ing on hand at the close of the year 1908 was greater than for any
previous year, being 8,172 francs ($1,577) as against 6,870 francs
($1,326) in 1907, and 6,055 francs ($1,169) in 1906. But 649 francs*
($125) remained at the close of 1904, and obviously the amount of
the balances does not suggest that the matter of providing an effective
reserve has yet been given serious attention.
The outlook for permanency is regarded as favorable, both on
account of the degree of success attained locally and because of the
increased confidence and support which the plan has commanded
since its inauguration, the suburbs uniting in it in 1903, the Province
in 1907, and the Kingdom in 1908. Adjacent localities are also
reported as coming into working relations with this fund. While dis­
claiming the idea of philanthropy, and not asking for donations or
legacies on that ground, the administrative council submits reasons
why it believes that it is both appropriate and desirable that employ­
ers should voluntarily grant aid to the fund, classing the risk of unem­
ployment as a trade risk, against which a form of insurance may
properly be provided no less than against accidental injuries.
The experience of this fund in the matter of abuses indicates the
necessity of a careful supervision of the claims, a duty which naturally
devolves upon the associations of which the beneficiaries are mem­
bers, since it is through association channels that the matters of basal
savings and of claims are arranged. An illustration of the necessity
of other care than that provided by the association appeared in the
case of a tailors' trade fund for savings, the membership of which



856

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR.

never exceeded 100, while the demands on the fund for unemploy­
ment relief grew rapidly from 26 francs ($5.02) in 1901 to 135 francs
($26.06) in 1902, 633 francs ($122.17) in 1903, 1,078 francs ($208.05)
in 1904, 1,578 francs ($304.55) in 1905, and 1,617 francs ($312.08)
in 1906. A special inquiry conducted during 1907 led to the adoption
of restrictive regulations, defining unemployment in the trade
affected, which is subject to wide seasonal fluctuations, and requiring
employers’ certificates in verification of the statements of claimants.
The influence of the discovery of the abuses practiced by this asso­
ciation led to voluntary action on the part of the local labor exchange
in the way of scrutinizing the associations and members’ claims for
the prevention of frauds. A measure that a number of associations
have adopted as a preventive of abuse is one that does not allow
beneficiaries to come upon the fund oftener than once in two years.
This was found to be necessary on account of the practice of a num­
ber of persons to regularly exhaust the possibilities of the fund each
year without an effort to secure employment so long as such assist­
ance was forthcoming. A further administrative change consists
in the ignoring of reductions of hours or of half-day employment in
times of reduced production unless there is a loss of as much as four
half days per week. This regulation became effective in 1907, and
with the beginning of 1909 a rule was adopted by which no grants
from the fund would be allowed unless unemployment amounted to
at least three full days in the year. This rule was expected to be
particularly effective, without violating the principles for which the
fund was established, in reducing the applications for subsidies
in cases of minor importance, as those resulting from breakage of
machinery in factories, or other brief interruptions in employment.
From the data in hand it was computed that the enforcement of
this rule in 1907 would have reduced the number of subsidized days
on account of unemployment caused by breakage of machinery from
2,048 to 581, or a reduction of 72 per cent; the compensated days
of waiting for work from 1,747 to 991, or a reduction of 43 per cent;
the days of actual unemployment compensated from 18,170 to
14,941, or a reduction of 18 per cent; and of unemployment in the
building trades from 9,398 days to 7,874 days, or a reduction of 16
per cent, the average reduction amounting to 23 per cent. The
amount which will be saved under the new rule it is expected will
make a very considerable addition for the benefit of those cases of
distress on account of prolonged unemployment that have been cut
off heretofore by reason of scarcity of funds. The principal effect
is anticipated, however, in the adjustment of the terms during
which the affiliated associations will provide unemployment bene­
fits, so that while the actual outlay will be diminished but little, if at
all, the value of the system of relief will be enhanced. There was a
proposition to require unemployment in the building trades to con­



FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— BELGIUM.

857

tinue for at least one week before subsidies should be granted, but this
was rejected, the general feeling being that this would unduly benefit
the smaller number who might be unemployed for long periods at the
expense of those who might be out of work for a short time only.
The matter is not considered as definitely settled, however, and a
special committee is said to be investigating the conditions in the
building trades with a view to determining the most suitable arrange­
ment for adoption.
What is considered the most important measure adopted to prevent
the undue prolongation of unemployment is the compulsory registra­
tion of beneficiaries at the local labor exchange in order that the
unemployment may be known to be involuntary and not unneces­
sarily prolonged. The labor exchange cooperates through its
managing committee with the administrative council on the one hand
and the affiliated associations on the other, with the object of super­
vising the distribution of subsidies; while the administrative council
itself has appointed two subcommittees, one to exercise control over
the insurance funds and the other over the savings funds which are in
affiliation with the unemployment fund. This system was devised
to determine whether or not the unemployment was actual and
involuntary, and came into operation in October, 1907. The members
of these committees are drawn from the various social and political
parties of the city, representing socialists, antisocialists, liberals, and
neutrals, with a view to securing adequate and impartial inspection
of the different classes of associations. Quarterly inspections are
provided for, with reports to the central body as to the conditions
found. The investigations for the period since they were begun were
made by taking 383 cases of unemployment by chance and making
personal inquiries into the existing conditions. The inquiries seemed
to be frankly met, and there was little, if any, indication of intentional
fraud. The classes of causes of unemployment that gave rise to
discussions in the central council were disputes with the employer,
disputes between workmen, refusal to accept employment outside the
regular trade of the employee, reduction of wages, desire to change in
order to improve conditions, dismissal on account of the voluntary
departure of the husband or wife, and suspicion on the part of the
employer that he had been reported for paying less than the minimum
wage rate.
In conclusion the report expresses the conviction of its author that
the statements as to work done and measures adopted will satisfy the
minds of certain members of the council as to the efficiency of the
measures in force for the control of the operations of the fund. The
fact that the principal measures suggested by the council have been
promptly and spontaneously adopted by the associations, and that
the members of the council itself, while sometimes at first quite
divided as to recommendations, have, after discussion, been unan­



858

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

imous in their action, gives assurance of satisfactory and successful
administration. The hope is entertained that the city of Ghent
may prove to have inaugurated an efficient system of aid in cases
of unemployment, becoming itself the head of an organization for
mutual insurance against the distresses resulting from loss of work.
GERM ANY.

D ie Regelung des ArbeitsverJidltnisses der Gemeindearbeiter in deutschen
Stadten. I. Erhebungen iiber Arbeitslohn und Arbeitszeit, 1902 und
1907. Bearbeitet im Kaiserlichen Statistischen Amte, Abteilung
fur Arbeiterstatistik, 1908. 36, 144* pages. II. D ie Arbeitsverordnungen und sonstigen Bestimmungen zur Regelung des Arbeitsverhdltnisses. Ib. 1909. 240 pp.

These volumes issued by the German Imperial Statistical Office,
division for industrial statistics, present the facts gathered by that
office concerning the public service employees of the principal cities
of Germany. The first volume takes up the subject of wages and
hours of labor; while the second presents the number and social
condition of city employees; the regulations of employment by
statute, etc.; regulations by local ordinances, commissions, and the
like; and a discussion of the right of organization and the associa­
tions in existence among city employees. An appendix contains
brief chapters on special cities and particular groups of employees.
The inquiry as to wages and hours of labor is a comparative one,
the conditions on the 1st of March, 1902, being compared with those
in existence on the 1st of July, 1907. The investigation in 1902
covered the majority of the cities having a population of above
50,000, 54 cities having actually furnished the data desired. The
inquiry of 1907 was restricted to such of these cities as had local
statistical offices, resulting in a reduction of the number of cities
reporting to 34, while one of these was reported in 1902 only by the
use of data showing conditions at a date differing from that re­
ported for in the other cities. This city is omitted in many of the
tables for this reason, so that the report may be taken as covering
only 33 cities with comparable statistics. Even in these cases
statistics as to classes of employees by industry are found to
present many points that are not comparable, so that the classifica­
tion into groups of skilled and unskilled workers affords the most
satisfactory basis for a general presentation.
The municipal undertakings are rather various, covering the usual
public service of construction, repair, and cleaning of streets, and
including generally the supply of water, gas, and electricity, fire
protection, street railways frequently, and a variety of other service,
as in connection with harbors, building inspection, public gardens,
playgrounds and baths, markets, slaughterhouses, the disposition of



FOREIGN

STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— GERMANY.

859

garbage, etc. The report states that of 54 cities having a population
of more than 50,000, there were in 1905-6 but 9 in which the gas
works were in private hands. In a like number of cities having elec­
tric plants there were but 13 that were privately owned and operated,
besides 3 plants owned by municipalities but leased by private
parties. Of 55 cities, 4 were supplied with water by privately owned
systems, while 51 provided for their own water supply. By the
extension of the various activities of the municipal governments and
by their growth in population, the total number of employees
increased from 18,907 in 1886 to 67,452 in 1907, an increase of 256.8
per cent.
The following table shows the number of city laborers, including
foremen and overseers, at each period in the cities under considera­
tion, together with the population of these cities at the nearest
census, and the percentage such employees form of the total popu­
lation.
POPULATION OF 33 GERMAN CITIES IN 1900 AND 1905, AND NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE
OF MUNICIPAL EMPLOYEES IN 1902 AND 1907.
Employees (including foremen, etc.).
Population.
1902.

Increase, 1902 to
1907.

1907.

Cities.

Per cent
Per cent
of popu­ Number. of popu­
Number. lation
in
lation in Number. Per cent.
1900. ( a )
1905. (a)

1900.

1905.

499,932
396,146
456,324
422,709
372,529

538,983
516,996
503,672
470,904
428,722

3,419
3,631
1,682
1,968
3,583

0.68
.92
.37
.47
.96

3,478
5,406
1,901
2,915
5,357

0.65
1.05
.38
.62
1.25

59
1,775
219
947
1,774

1.7
48.9
13.0
48.1
49.5

288,989
261,081
213,711
235,649
376,699
189,305
118,862
206,913
189,483
163,297
142,733
156,609
161,501
151,041
107,977
141,131
156,966
141,944
135; 245
117,033
128,226
106,034
97,185
73,888
86,111
82,098
80,931
61,504

334,978
294,426
253,274
250,024
249,286
239,559
231,360
224,927
223,770
214,861
175;577
169,916
168,320
167,678
163,772
163,693
162,853
156,080
144,095
136,808
136,397
120,467
111,249
105.3*81
100,953
91,541
83,766
74,098

3,312
1,543
2,212
776
1,225
700
221
799
1,316
1,121
612
440
491
463
421
1,323
564
653
585
397
395
342
680
427
673
1,022
258
409

1.15
.59
1.04
.33
.69
.37
.19
.39
.69
.69
.43
.28
.30
.31
.39
.94
.36
.46
.43
.34
.31
.32
.70
.58
.78
1.24
.32
.66

4,417
1,924
2,637
797
1,505
1,384
1,023
941
2,192
1,812
1,385
'798
646
608
959
1,786
606
799
658
552
569
526
930
637
1,277
1,180
375
549

1.32
.65
1.04
.32
.60
.58
.44
.42
.98
'.84
.79
.47
.38
.36
.59
1.09
.37
.51
.46
.40
.42
.44
.84
.60
1.26
1.29
.45
.74

1,105
381
425
21
280
684
802
142
876
691
773
358
155
145
538
463
42
146
73
155
174
184
250
210
604
158
117
140

33.4
24.7
19.2
2.7
22.9
97.7
362.9
17.8
66.6
61.6
126.3
81.4
31.6
31.3
127.8
35.0
7.4
22.4
12.5
39.0
44.1
53.8
36.8
49.2
89.7
15.5
45.3
34.2

Total (a ).......... 6,319,586 7,408,386

37,663

.60

52,529

.71

14,866

28.3

Munich.......................
Dresden......................
Leipzig.......................
Breslau.. . . ...............
Cologne......................
Frankfort o n t h e
Main........................
Nuremberg................
Dusseldorf..................
Hanover.....................
Stuttgart....................
Charlottenburg..........
Essen..........................
Chemnitz...................
Konigsberg................
Bremen......................
Dortmund.................
Halle................ ..........
Altona........................
Strassburg.................
Kiel............................
Mannheim.................
Elberfeld....................
Barmen......................
Aix-la-Chapelle.........
Posen.........................
Brunswick.................
Cassel.........................
Karlsruhe...................
Plauen........................
Wiesbaden.................
Lubeck......................
Gorlitz........................
Freiburg....................




a

Computed.

860

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

The total population of the cities named increased 17.2 per cent
from 1900 to 1905, while the number of municipal employees of the
class under consideration increased 28.3 per cent from 1902 to 1907.
In some cities the increase is especially marked, as in Essen, 362.9
per cent; Kiel, 127.8 per cent; and Dortmund, 126.3 per cent. In
no case was there a decrease, though in a few the ratio of such em­
ployees to population was less in 1907 than in 1902. Most cities,
however, show a tendency to increase the roster of public employees
at a more rapid rate than is evinced by the growth of population, the
total for 1907 being greater by 0.11 per cent than for 1902. There is
a wide range in the percentages such employees form of the popula­
tion, however, Strassburg, Elberfeld, Leipzig, and Altona having
less than 0.4 per cent of their population employed as municipal
laborers in 1907, while Frankfort on the Main and Lubeck stand at
the other extreme, with 1.32 per cent and 1.29 per cent, respectively,
of their total population so employed.
Of the total number of employees in 1902, 547 are classed as fore­
men or overseers and 37,116 as workers. Of the latter class 1,837
are pieceworkers and 35,279 are time workers. Of the time workers,
25,165 are classed as unskilled and 10,114 as skilled. The supervisory
force is similarly classed, 173 being rated as unskilled and 374 as
skilled. In 1907 there were 783 employees classed as foremen and
overseers, and 51,746 as laborers, 1,786 being pieceworkers and
49,960 time workers. Of the latter 30,088 were classed as unskilled
and 19,872 as skilled workers. Of the supervisory force 254 were
classed as unskilled and 529 as skilled. Some shifting is apparent in
these classifications, unskilled workers forming 71.3 per cent of all
time workers in 1902 as against 60.2 per cent in 1907, while the pro­
portion of skilled workers increased from 28.7 per cent in 1902 to
39.8 per cent in 1907. The supervisory force is not considered in
these percentages. The proportions vary greatly in different cities,
according to the nature of the municipal undertakings entered upon,
as obviously those cities that operate municipal gas and electric
plants and street railways will employ a larger proportion of skilled
workers and overseers than will be the case where street cleaning, the
care of parks, and the operation of slaughterhouses are the activities
engaged in. Thus in Cologne in 1907 the number of unskilled time
workers constituted but 47.4 per cent of the number of such workers
employed, while in Brunswick the proportion was 87.8 per cent.
Great changes took place also between the dates reported for, the
proportion of unskilled workers in Cologne in 1902 being 80.5 per
cent as against 47.4 per cent in 1907. These differences may, of
course, be the result of temporary conditions prevailing at the date
of the enumeration, though the average shows a tendency to increase
the proportion of skilled workers.



FOREIGN

861

STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— GERMANY.

W a g e s .— Pieceworkers comprised but 4.9 per cent of the total
number of employees in 1902 and 3.4 per cent in 1907. Data relating
to time workers only may therefore be considered as representing the
prevalent conditions of public employment in these cities. Of
35,279 time workers reported in 1902, 30,809, or 87.3 per cent, were
employed by the day; 1,761, or 5 per cent, by the week; and 2,709,
or 7.7 per cent, by the month. In 1907, of 49,960 workmen reported,
the number of employees at daily wages was 39,436, or 78.9 per cent;
at weekly rates, 2,620, or 5.3 per cent; while the number employed
by the month had increased to 7,904, or 15.8 per cent, this proportion
having somewhat more than doubled in this period. For purposes of
tabulation all time wages were reduced to daily rates, and the follow­
ing table shows the number and per cent of workmen receiving desig­
nated classified rates of wages in each year, skilled and unskilled
workmen being considered together; also the percentage of skilled and
of unskilled workers falling within each group:
NUMBER AND P E R CENT OF MUNICIPAL EMPLOYEES IN CERTAIN CITIES OF GER­
MANY, B Y CLASSIFIED D A IL Y RATES OF WAGES, 1902 AND 1907.
1902.

Daily wage rate.

].907.

Per cent of
workmen of
each class
receiving
each rate.

Unskilled
and skilled
workmen.

Unskilled
and skilled
workmen.

Per cent of
workmen of
each class
receiving
each rate.

Un­
Num­ Per
Num­ Per
Un­
ber. cent. skilled. Skilled. ber. cent. skilled. Skilled.
Under 2 marks (SO.476) ..................................
2 marks ($0,476) and under 2.50 marks
($0.595)........................................................
2.50 marks ($0,595) and under 2.75 marks
($0.655)........................................................
2.75 marks ($0,655) and under 3 marks
($0.714)........................................................
3 marks ($0,714) and under 3.25 marks
($0.774)........................................................
3.25 marks ($0,774) and under 3.50 marks
($0.833)........................................................
3.50 marks ($0,833) and under 3.75 marks
($0.893)........................................................
3.75 marks ($0,893) and under 4 marks
($0.952)........................................................
4 marks ($0,952) and under 4.50 marks
($1,071) ........................................................
4.50 marks ($1,071) and under 5 marks
($1.19)..........................................................
5 marks ($1.19) and under 5.50 marks
($1.309)........................................................
5.50 marks ($1,309) and under 6 marks
($1.428).......................................................
6 marks ($1,428) and over..............................

563
2,460

1.6
7.0

2.2
9.6

300
569

0.7
1.1

1.2
1.6

3,792

10.7

13.4

7.2 ' 2,008

4.0

5.6

3.8

2,592

7.3

9.2

.1,768

3.5

4.8

9,820

27.8

34.6

10.9

6,310

12.6

14.9

4,181

11.9

12.6

10.0

6,584

13.2

17.3

6.9

5,183

14.7

12.6

20.0

9,399

18.8

21.5

14.8

1,825

5.2

2.3

12.4

5,674

11.4

13.1

8.7

23.4

9,774

19.6

15.8

25.3

10.2

4,582

9.2

3.3

18.0

4.1

2,020

4.1 |
1.3
I
.5 1

2,959

8.4

2.4

1,226

3.5

.8

472

1.3

133

.4

73

.2

|
)

f

'3 1l

L1
*7

646
266

9.2

9.2
*9

3.0
1.1

Wages increased noticeably between 1902 and 1907. Thus in 1902,
26.6 per cent, or more than one-fourth, of all employees received less
than 3 marks ($0,714) per day, while in 1907 but 9.3 per cent, or less
than one-tenth, came within this group. More than one-half the
employees at both periods received from 3 to 4 marks ($0,714 to



862

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOE.

$0,952), but those receiving 4 marks ($0,952) and upward in 1907
amounted to 34.7 per cent of the total, as against 13.8 per cent in
1902. Particularly noticeable is the change in the percentage of
unskilled laborers receiving 3 marks ($0,714) and under 3.25 marks
($0,774), this wage group embracing more than one-third of the total
in 1902 and but one-seventh in 1907; the number of such employees
receiving 3.75 marks ($0,893) and under 4.50 marks ($1,071) in 1902
was but 4.7 per cent of the total, while in 1907 they formed 28.9 per
cent.
Taking into consideration particular forms of industry, and select­
ing the wage groups that embrace comparatively equal percentages
of the employees in such industries at the two periods under consider­
ation, it is found that in municipal waterworks in 1902, 74 per cent
of the employees received 3 marks ($0,714) and under 4.50 marks
($1,071), while in 1907, 73.2 per cent of the employees received 3.50
marks ($0,833) and under 5 marks ($1.19). In gas works 64.3 per
cent of the employees in 1902 received 3 marks ($0,714) and under
4.50 marks ($1,071), while in 1907, 63.8 per cent received 3.50 marks
($0,833) and under 5 marks ($1.19). Of the employees connected
with electric plants in 1902, 74.6 per cent received 3 marks ($0,714)
and under 4.50 marks ($1,071) per day, while in 1907, 72.5 per cent
received 3.50 marks ($0,833) and under 5 marks ($1.19) daily. In
the operation of street railways 62.6 per cent of the employees in 1902
received 3 marks ($0,714) and under 3.75 marks, ($0,893), as against
67.7 per cent in 1907 who received 3.50 marks ($0,833) and under 5
marks ($1.19) per day.
Of employees classed as skilled workers, 52.8 per cent of the engineers
and firemen reported in 1907 received 4 marks ($0,952) and under 5
marks ($1.19) per day, while in 1902, 58.4 per cent received 3 marks
($0,714) and under 4 marks ($0,952); of locksmiths in 1907, 55.6 per
cent received 4 marks ($0,952) and under 5 marks ($1.19), while in
1902, 56.3 per cent received 3 marks ($0,714) and under 4 marks
($0,952). On street railways 49.3 per cent of the employees in 1907
received 4 marks ($0,952) and under 5 marks ($1.19), while in 1902,
73.4 per cent received 3 marks ($0,714) and under 4 marks ($0,952).
W ork in excess of the regular hours of employment or on Sundays
or holidays is frequently paid for at an increased rate, though the
answers to the inquiries on this point were not satisfactory. A state­
ment is given as to the practice of a number of cities with reference to
employees in gas works, though on account of the necessary interac­
tion of the wide variety of local conditions, as the regular rates of
payment, the normal workday, and the rates governing allowances
of increased pay, the statement is to be taken as only suggestive
rather than explicit as to actual increases of pay. Of 29 cities report­
ing as to overtime, 9 make no allowance, 19 allow an increase of from



FOREIGN

863

STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS---- GERMANY.

10 to 50 per cent in the ordinary wages, and 1 increases the pay by
adding from 4 to 45 pfennigs (1 to 10.7 cents) to the hourly wages.
Night work is provided for in a similar manner by 20 of 29 cities
reporting, though instead of a maximum of 50 as the per cent of
increase, one city goes so far as to double the pay in some cases. Of
the same number of cities, all but 6 pay extra for work on Sunday, the
rates running as for night work.
H o u r s o f L a b o r .— A summary presentation of the summer sched­
ule of the hours of labor of municipal employees, unskilled and skilled
being considered together, is made in the following table. The table
shows the number and per cent of time workers working the specified
number of hours daily in 1902 and 1907. The figures given are for
actual working time, intervals of rest having been first deducted.
The table follows:
NUMBER AND PE R CENT OF MUNICIPAL EM PLOYEES IN CERTAIN CITIES OF GER­
MANY W ORKIN G SPECIFIED HOURS D A IL Y , SUMMER SCHEDULE.
1902.

1907.

Hours of labor (actual).
Number. Per cent. Number. Per cent.
Less than eight......................................
Eight......................................................
More than eight and less than nine___
Nine.......................................................
More than nine and less than ten.........
Ten.........................................................
More than ten and less than eleven___
Eleven....................................................
More than eleven and less than twelve.
Twelve...................................................
More than twelve..................................
Indeterminate and not reported..........

25
169
1,036
629
2,256
20,531
4,647
2,689
306
406
235
• 2,350

0.1
.5
2.9
1.8
6.4
58.2
13.2
7.6
.9
1.1
.7
6.6

361
855
320
756
8,558
23,894
4,761
1,505
107
568
34
8,241

0.7
1:7
.7
1.5
17.1
47.9
9.5
3.0
.2
1.1
.1
16.5

This table discloses a tendency toward a reduction of the working
time, but 11.7 per cent of the employees having worked less than 10
hours in 1902, while in 1907 the percentage had increased to 21.7,
while the number of persons working more than 10 hours, excluding
those whose hours are not reported, was 23.5 per cent of the total in
1902 as against but 13.9 in 1907. A few cities have a shorter work­
day in the winter, and a small number have three schedules, one for
summer, one for winter, and one for spring and autumn. The hours
between beginning and ending labor embrace in the majority of cases
periods for meals or other pauses aggregating 2 hours during the day.
Where continuous service is maintained the work is usually divided
into 12-hour shifts, with rest periods aggregating two to two and onehalf hours, so arranged among the employees as not to cause the
interruption of operations. The movement for a shorter workday
has been effective in a few industries, notably in the production of
gas, where the firemen have striven with considerable success to
secure 8-hour shifts. A separate inquiry into this subject elicited the



864

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

information that out of 30 cities 20 had a 12-hour shift in the retort
houses, while 10 observed an 8-hour shift. A report of later date by
one year than the investigation on which the report is based is said to
disclose the fact that the movement for an 8-hour shift progressed
during this year, having been adopted in the gas works of 21 of the
cities under investigation in 1907. The customary hours of begin­
ning the shifts are 6 o’clock, 2 o’clock, and 10 o’clock. On Sundays
12-hour shifts are employed, so that on every third Sunday each
workman has 24 hours free from duty. One city uses a 16-hour shift
on Sunday, thus allowing 12 hours free every second Sunday and 24
hours every third Sunday.
C o n d i t i o n s o f E m p l o y m e n t . — The volume devoted to the con­
sideration of the conditions of employment discusses the growth of
municipal activities requiring increased numbers of employees, the
conjugal condition and ages of employees, degrees of incapacity, and
the length of period of service. These facts were developed by the
statistical office on the basis of various local reports of different dates
and varying classifications, so that no accurate summary can be made.
The percentage of employees who had been in service one year or
less ranged from 13.5 to 47.5, though in one city in which the sexes
were considered separately 62.5 per cent of the females had been em­
ployed for not more than one year, as against 28.5 per cent of the male
employees. In the majority of cases from 25 to 35 per cent of the
employees had been employed for not more than one year. The
number who had worked from two to five years made up a percentage
ranging from 15.8 to 50.4; more than 30 per cent of all employees
belong to this class. Those working from six to ten years form from 8.7
per cent to 33 per cent of the total, 20 per cent or less being a common
proportion. The number employed from eleven to twenty years forms
from 6.6 per cent to 19.5 per cent of all employees, about 14 per cent
being a common proportion. One city reported 9.8 per cent of its
employees as having been employed from twenty-one to thirty years;
another 8.8 per cent, and another 6.9 per cent, though from 3 to 5 per
cent is more common, some falling below 1 per cent and several below
2 per cent. As serving in excess of thirty years, 3.2 per cent, 2 per
cent, 1.7 per cent, and 1.6 percent of the employees are the highest
proportions reported.
While it is impracticable to discuss summarily the variety of laws,
ordinances, and regulations affecting the employees of the various
municipalities considered in this report, some of the more common
features of municipal employment can be indicated. In a number of
cities minimum and maximum age limits for entering on employment
are fixed, the former varying from sixteen to twenty-one years and the
latter from thirty to fifty years. Terms of probationary employment,
ranging from three months to two years are provided for in several cases,



FOREIGN

STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS---- GERMANY.

865

the most common term being one year. These provisions are, of course,
of principal application in classes of employment that is continuous
or that may be classed as permanent, and are a result of the require­
ments that prevail with reference to the protection of employees and
probably also the limitations fixed by general laws for the employ­
ment of young persons, so far as the minimum limit is concerned;
while the maximum provision is made in view of the obligation
generally assumed by the municipalities to provide for their super­
annuated employees. A number of cities provide for notice of
intended termination of employment, varying with the class of
employees and the term of service. This varies from a single day to
two weeks, though for employees of several years7 standing this
period may be lengthened. Thus, in Mannheim, employees who have
served ten years are entitled to four weeks7 notice, while in Breslau
they are entitled to ten weeks7notice after four years7 service.
Minimum and maximum wage rates may be fixed, provision being
made in a number of cities for an entering wage with regular increases
for length of service. Thus, in Aix-la-Ohapelle, the lowest grade of
employees advance from 2.80 marks (66.6 cents) to 3.60 marks
(85.7 cents) per day by 5 promotions in ten years. The highest class
enters at 4 marks (95.2 cents) and advances through 9 grades in
eighteen years to a wage of 6.50 marks ($1,547) per day.
Some cities pay bonuses to employees after continuous service for
varying periods, based on the number of children in their families;
a rental allowance may likewise be made, or provisions made for
widows and orphans of workmen. Others arrange for savings banks
accounts, either by bonuses after continued service or by withholding
a portion of the wages of young, unmarried workmen, and deposit­
ing the wages so withheld in the savings banks to the credit of such
workmen.
Increments of pay are also allowed in some cities in cases of danger­
ous or difficult work, or where weather conditions are severe; pre­
miums for careful use of material or the performance of work without
occasioning repairs may also be given.
In most cities wages are paid weekly, though in some cases bi­
weekly or semimonthly pay days are observed. Frequently a portion
of the wages due is withheld, in an amount equal to the wages for from
one to six days. This may be done either as a guard against the
abandonment of employment without notice or as security for tools
or working garments furnished by the city. Provision is very com­
monly made for penalties for violations of the regulations, tardiness,
etc. These penalties are graded according to the nature of the
offense, those most common being reproof, fine, notice of discharge,
and immediate discharge. Eeduction in grade and the withdrawal
of the right to notice prior to discharge are other penalties in use.



866

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The employee is usually given the opportunity to defend himself
against penalization, and the methods of the enforcement of penalties
are laid down with considerable particularity.
Employees classed as permanent, or those who have been in service
for considerable periods (varyingfrom one to twenty-five years), are
given in many cities certain concessions as to absences from duty
caused by illness, either personal or in the family of the employee, or
due to accident, military service, etG. These concessions consist in
the allowance of part or full wages during absence, and vary in several
instances according to the length of service. The continuance of such
allowance may run from one to twenty-six weeks; or full pay may be
given for a period and half pay for an additional term. Thus, Dusseldorf allows all workmen employed by the month or year full pay dur­
ing sickness for six weeks; or if they are 35 years of age and have been
ten years in the employment of the city, for three months. In both
cases, if illness continues, benefits are allowed to complete a full year,
if they are so long disabled. In most cities the payments on account
of illness are drawn from municipal relief funds, which are sometimes
general and sometimes for the benefit of certain classes or groups of
employees. Interruptions arising from other causes than illness are
less liberally provided for. Provisions for superannuated employees
and for surviving dependents have existed in a number of cities for
considerable periods, though in most cases such arrangements are of
recent origin, following the rapid growth of municipal employment
and the necessity* for a stable and efficient working force. Munich
in 1868 first adopted the plan of caring for the workmen employed
by the city by forming an association to provide for sick and disabled
employees. Funds were raised by the joint action of workmen and
employers or contractors. Membership in the association was vol­
untary, and in 1900 but 555 of 2,100 permanent employees were
members. In 1901 the fund was superseded by a relief fund for the
lower grades of workmen and their surviving dependents. The first
fund of the kind under consideration that does not require con­
tributions from the workmen was formed in Frankfort on the Main
in 1897; its example was followed by a number of cities in the follow­
ing year.
Two principal forms of relief are in use, i. e., that in which the city
assumes the entire burden of cost, and that in which it provides a
form of insurance, deducting certain sums as premiums from the
wages paid the workmen who are eligible to become beneficiaries.
There were said to be 98 cities or communities supporting funds of
this general sort in 1908. Workmen must have served at least ten
years (twelve or fifteen according to the rules in some cities); several
cities prescribe a minimum entrance age and some a maximum age as
well. The benefits may be a percentage of the wage rate, varying with



FOREIGN

STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS---- GERMANY.

867

length of service, one city giving 25 per cent, but not less than 260
marks ($61.88) per annum, increasing 1J per cent for each year's
service, but not to exceed 75 per cent of the wage rate; or they may
be made a fixed amount according to the grade of employment, as in a
city which allowed 150 marks ($35.70) per annum for the first class,
200 marks ($47.60) per annum for the second class, and 250 marks
($59.50) per annum for the third class. The proportionate method
of determination is much more frequent. The benefits paid widows
range from 20 per cent to 50 per cent of the pension of superannuated
employees. Payments to orphans are still smaller and cease at the
ages of 14 to 16 years. Death or funeral benefits are also frequently
provided for, as well as other forms of benefit or relief. •
Municipal employees enjoy the rights of other workmen, granted
by an imperial decree of February 4, 1890, to form workmen's com­
mittees to represent their interests in matters affecting the conditions
of employment. Such committees are comparatively numerous, and
quarterly or semiannual meetings are provided for in a number of
localities. Employees of this class may also form trade or labor or­
ganizations under the statutory regulations governing laborers of
similar classes generally. Classes of employees not covered by the
law governing laborers likewise enjoy this right. The fact that the
immediate director of public works is an official of limited powers,
and especially so far as the expenditure of public funds is concerned;
the essential nature of much of the service rendered by municipal
employees, their quasi public status in view of the various regulations
and benefits in effect in their behalf, and the existence and activi­
ties of workmen's committees noted just above, are among the reasons
suggested for a restriction on the right of such laborers to strike. A
law intended to deprive certain classes of municipal employees, as
those engaged in the supply of water, gas, and electricity, of the right
to strike was under consideration in 1906, but was not enacted, and
there is evidence that the cities themselves are of the view entertained
by the international conference of employees on public works held
August, 1907, in which the assembled workmen protested against any
diminution of the right of employees on public works to organize or
to enter on strikes as a means of obtaining desired concessions as to
conditions of employment. It may be added that strikes of em­
ployees of this class have not been numerous nor important, em­
ployees in gas works forming the only exception to this statement.
Sympathetic strikes are said to be very rare.
47150— Bull. 88— 10------12




DECISIONS OF COURTS A FFEC TIN G LABOR.
[E xcept in cases of special interest, the decisions here presented are restricted to
those rendered b y the federal courts and the higher courts of the States and Terri­
tories. Only material portions of such decisions are reproduced, introductory and
explanatory matter being given in the words of the editor.]
DECISIONS UNDER STATUTE L A W .
A
V

c c id e n t

io l a t io n

I nsurance— E
of

the

L

aw

mployers

as

to

A

7I n d e m n i t y —

ge—

E

E

mploym ent

mploym ent
of

in

Ch il d r e n

n d a n g e r i n g L i f e o r L i m b — C o n s t r u c t i o n o f S t a t u t e — FranTc
Unnewehr Company v. Standard L ife and Accident Insurance Company,
United States C ircu it Court o f A ppeals , Sixth C ircu it , 176 Federal
Reporter, page 16.— The manufacturing company named had been

E

sued for damages by one Luther Watson, a child under 16 years of
age, employed by it as offbearer in a plant in which veneer and thin
lumber were manufactured. The law of the State of Ohio, within
which State the accident occurred, forbids the employment of a
child under the age of 16 years at any work “ whereby its life or limb
is endangered.77 It was Watson7s duty to steady the boards after
they had passed a given point in the operation of a large saw and sub­
sequently to carry them away to a pile. The injury from which he
suffered was incurred while attempting to stop the saw in the manner
usually practiced by the sawyer, though he himself had been repeat­
edly forbidden to attempt this work. The manufacturing company
had a policy of insurance with the Standard Life and Accident Insur­
ance Company whereby the employer was to be indemnified on
account of any judgments obtained against it on account of injuries
to employees received in the course of their employment, except
that the company was not to be held liable where the person injured
was employed in violation of any law as to age. When the action was
brought, the defense was conducted jointly by the attorneys of the
employer and the insurance company without prejudice to the rights of
either, and judgment for damages and costs was rendered, the amount
of which the employer paid. The insurance company refused to reim­
burse the employer on the ground that the employment was in viola­
tion of the law as to age, in that it came within the prohibition of the
law as to employment dangerous to life or limb. The circuit court
heard the case before a jury and gave judgment against the employer,
whereupon he appealed. The court of appeals sustained the decision
868



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

869

of the court below on grounds that appear in the following extracts
from its opinion as delivered by Judge Warrington:
The ultimate inquiry is whether the service assigned to Watson
was dangerous to life or limb.
The contention made is that plaintiff did not violate the statute in
question, because Watson was not employed to stop the saw, but
was employed as an offbearer of the thm boards as they came from
the saw, and that, if he had confined himself to the performance of
the duties assigned to him, he could not have been hurt. A better
understanding of this contention and of the situation will be gained
by further description.
The relative positions of Stevens, the operator, and Watson, the
offbearer, with respect to the saw during much of the time that they
were at work were about the same. In photographic views offered
to display the disk of the saw and side of tne carriage Stevens is repre­
sented as standing at the right and Watson at the left of the edge
of the saw, and each about 5 feet away from it. Stevens applied
and turned off the power by means of a rope, and by levers operated
the carriage bearing the log and adjusted the latter to the saw.
Watson would alternately sit and stand at the end of a spreader 51
inches long and 30J inches high. The spreader extended in front
of the saw, and was used for separating tne boards from the log as
the sawing progressed. This enabled Watson to receive and remove
the boards. The conclusion of the court below upon the facts was:
“ Two persons were necessary to operate the saw. One was the
man Stevens, who managed the carriage and brought the log into
contact with the saw, and the other was the boy, who steadied the
boards after they passed a given point, as they were sawed from the
log, and finally bore them away to a pile. His services were as neces­
sary as those of Stevens.”
The claim made in behalf of plaintiff is that the language of the
statute forbidding placing a child under the age of 16 years “ at em­
ployment whereby its life or limb is endangered” limited the inhibi­
tion to service that could not be performed without danger to life or
limb; and hence that no employment would be regarded as dangerous
to life or limb of the child unless it involved operating or assisting
in operating a dangerous machine. But does this take into account
either the import of the words of the statute, or the purpose of such
legislation ?
W e do not find it necessary to consider whether the duty imposed
upon Watson as offbearer literally involved operating or assisting to
operate the veneer saw. It is hard to conceive that an adult, much
less a child, could reasonably be expected at all times to keep all parts
of his body within the bounds set for this offbearer. He was for a
substantial portion of his time required to stand and work within 5
feet of this obviously dangerous saw. An unguarded step or move­
ment resulting in an accidental fall might bring him into contact
with the saw. He was within easy range of injury in the event of
breakage of the saw or other mishap, due to its great size and speed.
The inevitable wear and tear of the strain of such a position and the
indifference to danger that would naturally follow can not escape
notice; for these conditions and also childish curiosity and inexperi­
ence must have combined to induce Watson to rush away from his
position so frequently in spite of admonition and stop the saw.



870

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Prior to the enactment of the statute of April 8, 1890 [under which
the present action was brought], the supreme court of Ohio in Rolling
Mill Co. v . Corrigan, 46 Ohio St. 283, 20 N. E. 466, 15 Am. St. Rep.
596, declared as a rule of general law concerning employment of a
child under the age of 14 years and placing him at work in close
proximity to a moving belt passing over revolving wheels, that:
“ Persons who employ children to work with, or about dangerous
machinery, or in dangerous places, should anticipate that they will
exercise only such judgment, discretion, and care as is usual among
children of the same age, under similar circumstances, and are bound
to use due care, having regard to their age, and inexperience, to pro­
tect them from dangers incident to the situation in which they are
placed. * * *”
The effect of that decision was clearly to impose upon an employer
engaging children in his service the duty to take into account the
inexperience and the natural tendencies of children to indiscretion
and heedlessness when assigning them to work about a dangerous
machine. There is nothing in the decision which recognizes any
right in an employer simply to set bounds within which a child shall
work in close proximity to a dangerous machine, and escape liability
as claimed in the present case on the assumption that the child
either will or at his peril shall keep within those bounds. The
importance of the decision, as we view it, is that it is inconsistent
with any inference that the legislature by its enactment passed within
little more than one year after the date of that decision intended to
restrict the statutoryTaw to narrower limits than those of the general
law as announced by the highest tribunal of the State.
Upon the question whether plaintiff assigned and kept Watson at an
“ employment whereby his life or limb was endangered” within the
meaning of the statute, attention must be given not only to the
knowledge and conduct of the plaintiff, but also to the obvious intent
of the legislature to protect children within the prescribed age against
their own heedlessness and incautious tendencies.
Furthermore, when plaintiffs contention in the present case is
reduced to its last analysis, its strength or weakness is to be found
in the assumption that the place where Watson worked did not
endanger life or limb. This assumption is greatly impaired by
plaintiff’s failure when placing and keeping the boy in such close
proximity to the saw to reckon with the lack of caution of boys of
his age. The fact that the boy did not meet with his injury while
working within the place assigned to him, or the fact that he was not
in line of duty when he suffered his injury, does not show that the place
in which, he was directed to work was not dangerous to life or limb.
According to the understanding we gain of the place and its surround­
ings from the record, as before shown, we regard the first one of
these facts as accidental rather than as evidence of safety. We
consider the other as evidence of what might reasonably have been
anticipated of an immature and energetic boy. But the main
ground of our conclusion, as before pointed out, is that throughout a
large portion of the boy’s work he was required to stand at the
spreader and attend to the boards as they were being sawed from the
logs, and so was necessarily exposed to danger from the saw. We
do not mean to hold that a boy could not be put at work in any fac­




871

DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

tory or in this factory without danger to life or limb. What we do
mean to hold is that this place in this factory did involve such danger.
Nor do we regard our conclusion as affected by the contention
that the statute under consideration is in derogation of the common
law, and must be strictly construed for that reason. As a general
rule of construction, no one would dispute this. But it will not do
to carry that rule so far as to sacrifice plain legislative intent.
It follows that the judgment of the court below must be affirmed;
for we do not understand any claim to be made that, if Watson was
in fact placed and kept at employment dangerous to life or limb,
there can be any recovery under the condition of the policy.

E

m ployer an d

E

m ployee—

B

l a c k l is t in g —

St a t e m e n t

of

Cau se

S t a t u t e — St.

Lo u is South­
western R ailw ay Company o f Texas v. H ixon , Court o f C iv il Appeals
o f Texas, 126 Southwestern Reporter, page 338.— S. J. Hixon had
of

D

is c h a r g e —

Co n s t it u t io n a l it y

of

been an employee of the company named, and for alleged false state­
ment as to grounds of his discharge sued the company and secured
judgment against it. A statute of Texas (chap. 67, Acts of 1907)
requires all corporations or receivers doing business in the State not
to blacklist or otherwise prevent an employee from obtaining employ­
ment, whether such employee shall be discharged or voluntarily
leave service. The law gives to the employee the right to demand
a true statement of the cause of his discharge, failing which a right
of action is given against the company. Hixon was a brakeman on a
train of the company at a time when the air pump on the locomotive
brake failed, so that it became necessary either to leave the train and
have the engine repaired or to operate the train to its destination
with the use of hand brakes. It was in evidence that the hand brakes
were in a defective condition, that the track was likewise defective
and dangerous, and that the operation of the train by hand brakes
would be attended with hazard. The brakemen refused to attempt
to operate the train by hand brakes, and were discharged at the siding
where the train was at the time of the accident. Three days before
the law above cited came into effect Hixon telegraphed requesting
his service letter, and three days after the law came into effect a
letter was sent him stating that his discharge was caused by insubor­
dination. Subsequent to that date he has been unable to obtain
employment as a brakeman by reason of statements and representa­
tions made by the defendant company, and on suit recovered a judg­
ment for damages in the amount of $2,500. From this judgment
the company appealed, contending that the law was ex post facto as
to the case in hand; that it violated the provisions of the Constitution
of the United States relative to the protection of life, liberty, and
property, and the equal protection of the law; also the provisions




872

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

as to protection against unreasonable searches and seizures, and
restrictions on the freedom of speech. Similar provisions of the
constitution of the State of Texas were also said to be opposed to the
statute. The court of appeals rejected all these contentions and
affirmed the judgment, holding the law to be constitutional. The
principal points of the opinion as presented by Judge Bookhout are
given herewith:
Appellant, in support of its contention, cites the cases of Wallace v*
Railway, 94 Ga. 732, 22 S. E. 579 [Bulletin No. 2, p. 201], and
Atchison, T. & S. F. Ry. Co. v. Brown, 80 Kan. 312, 102 Pac. 459
[Bulletin No. 84, p. 416]. These cases seem to hold a statute in
many respects similar to the statute under consideration uncon­
stitutional, in that it violates that clause of the Constitution securing
to a citizen liberty of speech. It is said that liberty of silence is not
less important than liberty of speech, and that the company can not
be forced by legislative enactment against its will to disclose its
rivate information. The decision in the Wallace case was rendered
y the supreme court of Georgia in 1894, and the statute under con­
sideration was entitled, a An act to require certain corporations to
give to their discharged employees and agents the causes of their
removal or discharge, when discharged or removed.’ ’ (Acts, 1890-91,
p. 188.) It authorized a recovery for $5,000 as a penalty for their
failure to comply with the statute. No injury seems to have been
alleged by the plaintiff, but the suit was brought to recover the
penalty arbitrarily fixed by the statute. The decision in the case
of Atchison, T. & S. F. Ry. Co. v. Brown, is by the supreme court
of Kansas, and is based on the ruling in the Georgia case. It may be
that the conditions existing in Texas at the time of the passage of the
statute under consideration did not exist in Georgia at the time of the
passage o f the statute construed in the Wallace decision. The
statute here under discussion was passed to meet and remedy an evil
that had grown up in this State among railway and other corpora­
tions to control their employees. It seems that a custom had grown
up among railway companies not to employ an applicant for a position
until he gave the name of his last employer, ana then write to such
company for the cause of the applicants discharge, if he was dis­
charged, or his cause for leaving such former employer. If the
information was not satisfactory to the proposed employer, he would
refuse to employ the applicant. They could thus prevent the appli­
cant, by failing to give a true reason for his discharge or blacklisting
him, from procuring employment in either instance. Even if the
statutes construed in the cases cited were in all respects similar to the
statute before us, we would not be inclined to follow those decisions.
It was to compel the former employer to state the true cause of its
employee leaving its service, and to prevent blacklisting, that brought
about the passage of this statute. We have statutes in this State
more exacting and drastic than the statute under discussion, which
are being enforced daily, and no decision of the appellate courts is
cited holding them unconstitutional.
In our opinion the statute under discussion does not abridge the
liberty of speech within the meaning of the constitution of this State,
nor does it deprive appellant of its property without due process
of law.

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873

DECISIONS OF COTJKTS AFFECTING LABOR.

It is not ex post facto; does not impair the obligation of contracts;
does not authorize searches or seizures of persons or houses; provides
for trial in open court, and thereby guarantees due process of law.
It gives security of persons and property; does not take away the
right of free speech or right to make, print, or publish one’s own
opinion. It does require, under certain conditions, that an employer
shall speak the truth in regard to the ex-employee.
It follows from these remarks that the judgment must be affirmed.

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c t io n s —

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em oval

from

St a te

to

Jacobson
v. Chicago, Rock Island and P a cific R ailw ay Company, United States
C ircu it Court, D istrict o f Minnesota, 176 Federal Reporter, page
1004 -— This was an action brought by Henry P. Jacobson against the
F

ederal

C o u r t s — J o in d e r

of

E

m ployer and

E

mployee—

railway company named and one of its local agents in the town where
Jacobson was employed. The action was brought in a court of the
State of Minnesota, and the company sought to procure the transfer
of the case to the United States Circuit Court, claiming that the
joinder of the resident employee as a defendant was not an act of
good faith and was for the sole purpose of requiring the suit to be
tried in a state court. On this point Judge Willard, who spoke for
the court, held that the law was settled in favor of the plaintiff decid­
ing what defendants he would prosecute, and that the case could not
be removed to the federal court on the grounds of diversity of citizen­
ship on the mere charge that a resident defendant had been joined in
bad faith. He spoke in part as follows:
Prior to the case of Alabama Great Southern Kailway Company v.
Thompson, 200 U. S. 206, 26 Sup. Ct. 161, 50 L. Ed. 441, or at least
prior to the case of Chesapeake & Ohio R y. Co. v . Dixon, 179 U. S.
131, 21 Sup. Ct. 67,45 L. Ed. 121, the circuit courts, when considering
motions to remand to the state courts, had been in the habit of decid­
ing for themselves whether the negligent act of the servant in which
the master personally took no part created a joint liability or a sepa­
rate one. The decisions upon this point were not uniform. It was
said in the Dixon case that “ the question was a somewhat nice one;”
in the Thompson case it was said that “ there was much conflict in the
authorities. ” These cases, and particularly the Thompson case, put
an end to the practice above referred to, and decided that it was not
for the circuit court, but for the plaintiff, to say whether the liability
was a joint or a several one. If the plaintiff stated in his complaint
that it was joint, the case could not be removed to the federal court,
although he was wrong in his view of the law. The question whether
he was right or wrong was one which he was entitled to have tried in
the state court.
There was one condition, however, imposed upon him, and that
was that he should act in good faith. It is probably true that in these
cases the employees are always joined for the purpose of keeping the
actions out of the federal courts. That, however, is not conclusive




874

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

upon the question of good faith. (Illinois Central Railroad Company
v. Sheegog, 215 U. S. 308, 30 Sup. Ct. 101.) If such employees are
not fraudulently joined, the case can not be remanded. In view of
the conflict in the authorities, it can not be said that a plaintiff who
claims that the liability of the master and the servant is joint does not
present such a claim m good faith. The question of fraud can not
arise upon such a claim only. That question would arise where the
defendant denies the truth of the facts stated in the complaint, and
so conclusively establishes by the evidence that the relation of master
and servant did not exist, or that the claim of the plaintiff was for
other reasons false in fact, that the court is forced to the conclusion
that the complaint against the employees could not have been pre­
sented in good faith. Such were the cases (cited by the defendant)
of Wecker v. National Enameling Company, 204 U. S. 176, 27 Sup. Ct.
184, 51 L. Ed. 430, McGuire v. G. N. Ry. Co. (C. C.) 153 Fed. 434,
439, and Prince v. Illinois Central R . R. Co. (C. C.) 98 Fed. 1, 2.
This is an action brought by the plaintiff to recover damages for
personal injuries suffered b y him while in the employ of the defendant
railroad company as a coal shoveler at its station of Invergrove,
Minn. It appears from the evidence presented upon this motion that
Invergrove is a very small station on defendant's line, that the
defendant Hutton was the station agent and yardmaster at that place,
and there is nothing to indicate that there was any other person m the
employ of the defendant company at that station who was superior to
Hutton. He employed the plaintiff, directed him where to work, and
delivered to him checks for his pay from month to month.
The most that can be said in favor of the defendants is that upon
the evidence presented it is doubtful whether by the terms of his
[Hutton's] employment he was or was not charged with the duty of
inspecting the platform [by reason of a defect in which the plaintiff
was injured]. That question the plaintiff has a right to have decided
in the state court.
The motion to remand is granted.
E
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m ployers'

m ploym ent

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as

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ecovery—

Ch il d r e n — P r o h ib it e d

P r o x im a t e

Ca u se — P u r ­

M oran v. D ickinson , Supreme Ju d ic ia l Court oj
Massachusetts, 90 Northeastern Reporter, page 1150.— John Moran, a

poses

of

Statu te—

minor under 16 years of age, was injured by reason of the defective
condition of an elevator which he wTas operating. His employment
was in violation of the law (Acts of 1909, chap. 514, sec. 74), and the
trial court held that Moran was not entitled to recover because his
act in operating the elevator was illegal. To this he excepted and
secured a reversal of the judgment and an entry of judgment in his
favor.
The construction of the law leading to this conclusion is set forth
in the following portions of the opinion of the court, which was deliv­
ered by Judge Sheldon:
It is contended for the plaintiff that this statute does not make
his act illegal; that the employer is forbidden to put his elevator



875

DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOK.

into the charge of so young a person, but that the minor child is not
forbidden from undertaking that employment. But this contention
can not prevail. It is against the plain words of the statute. The
provision is that no person of the prohibited age shall either operate
an elevator or have one put in his charge; the first part of this pro­
hibition looks as manifestly toward the operator as the second part
does toward the employer; and the penalty is imposed not only upon
anyone who may cause an elevator to be so operated, but also upon
the operator himself. The act regards both the master and the serv­
ant and imposes a like prohibition under a like sanction upon each.
Nor was this statute designed solely for the protection of minor
employees. So far as it applies to passenger elevators, it was mani­
festly intended to provide as well for the safety of the persons to be
carried. Even as to freight elevators, the legislature may well have
had in mind the safety of others as well as of those who were in charge
of the elevators.
There are decisions in our reports in which the broad rule is laid
down that if the plaintiff in an action like this was himself violating
the law when the accident occurred he can not recover. We need
not cite these cases in detail. In most of them the plaintiff had been
violating the provisions of the act for the observance of the Lord’s
Day, or was seeking to hold a city or town for a defect in a public
way. See, as to these classes of cases, Rev. Laws, c. 98, sec. 17, and
Doherty v. Ayer, 197 Mass. 241, 247, 248, 83 N. E. 677, 14 L. R. A.
(N. S.) 816, 125 Am. St. Rep. 355. But the rule now settled in this
Commonwealth is that a plaintiff’s violation of law which has contrib­
uted to cause an injury coming to him from the negligence of a defend­
ant may bar his recovery therefor, but that such a violation which was
merely a condition or an attendant circumstance of his injury will
not prevent him from recovering. (Newcomb v. Boston Protective
Dept., 146 Mass. 596, 16 N. E. 555, 4 Am. St. Rep. 354, and cases
cited. Dudley v. Northampton St. R y., 202 Mass. 443, 446, 89 N. E.
25.) In our opinion that rule is applicable to this case.
It can not be said as matter of law, whatever finding a jury might
have made, that this plaintiff’s violation of law contributed to the
happening of the accident by which he was injured. It might have
been found that the accident was due solely to the defendant’s neg­
ligence. It might have happened in the same way whatever the
plaintiff’s age had been. His bodily presence was an essential condi­
tion of his injury; but it does not follow that it must have been a
cause thereof. In our opinion this question should have been sub­
mitted to the jury.
The plaintiff’s exceptions must be sustained, and in accordance with
the stipulation of the parties judgment is to be entered in his favor
for the sum agreed upon.

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m ployers’

t io n s —

A

L

ia b il it y —

s s u m p t io n

of

R

F actory

is k —

W

a iv e r

I n s p e c t io n
of

L

aw

P r o v is io n s

— V
of

io l a ­

Sta t ­

u t e s .— Valjago v. Carnegie Steel Company, Supreme Court o f Pennsyl­
vania , 75 A tlan tic Reporter, page 728.— George Valjago recovered a

judgment for damages against the company named for injuries
received by him while in its employment. The accident causing



876

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

the injury was occasioned by Valjago’s arm being drawn into a set
of uncovered cog wheels. An act of the Pennsylvania legislature of
May 2, 1905, directs the guarding of dangerous machinery of every
description. The company admitted that it had failed to comply
with the statute, but offered the defense of assumption of risk,
claiming that the plaintiff had waived his rights under the statute,
so that he could recover nothing. In ruling on this point the supreme
court condemned this plea, which had been admitted by the court
below. As this had not affected the finding of the court its judg­
ment was affirmed. On the particular point of assumed risks and the
waiver of requirements of protective statutes, Judge Potter, who
delivered the opinion of the court, said:
The question whether an employer may invoke the defense of
assumption of risk by the employee, in the face of a statute requiring
safeguards for dangerous machinery, has given rise to much discus­
sion and wide difference of opinion. One of the latest cases involving
a discussion of the question is Welsh v. Paving Co., 167 Fed. 465,
93 C. C. A.. 101. In the opinion by Judge Gilbert in that case the
conflicting decisions on the subject are reviewed. He points out that
the decisions of the various state courts, as well as those of the
federal courts upon the question, are contradictory and nearly evenly
divided. Since Baddeley v. Earl Granville, L. R. 19 Q. B. £)iv. 423,
there can be no doubt that the English rule is settled, so that in
Great Britain the statute now precludes the master from setting up
the defense of assumption of risk.
The cases holding to the contrary are based upon the view that
the doctrine of assumption of risk is not based upon contract, express
or implied, but that it arises from the application of the maxim,
“ Volenti non fit injuria.” It is apparently conceded in all those
cases, as well as by the argument of counsel lor appellant in the pres­
ent case, that, if the contract view is the correct one, the workman
has no power to waive or dispense with the protection of the statute.
“ To hold that he could do so,” says Judge Gilbert in the opinion
above referred to in the Welsh case, “ would be to nullify the statute
and thwart its purpose.” In the recent case of Bowen v. Penna.
R. R. Co., 219 Pa. 405, 68 Atl. 963, our Brother Elkin points out
that the weight of authority bases the doctrine of assumption of
risk “ upon the contractual relation existing between the parties.”
The last expression of this court upon tne subject and with refer­
ence to the same section of the act of May 2,1905, which is now under
consideration, is that of Justice Brown, in Jones v. Caramel Co.,
225 Pa. 644, 652, 74 Atl. 613, 616, where he said: “ The act of 1905
will become a dead letter if an employer who has failed to properly
guard his machinery can relieve himself from that duty by the plea
that the danger was so obvious that his injured employee ought to
have been aware of it and was not entitled to any warning against
it. Only the contributory negligence of an injured employee, law­
fully employed, will relieve the employer from the consequences of
his disregard of his statutory duty.
Counsel for appellant suggest that the language of our Pennsyl­
vania statute is almost identical with the corresponding provisions




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

877

of the earlier statute of New York, and that the construction of the
statute by the New York courts should be followed by the courts of
Pennsylvania. The construction placed upon a substantially similar
statute by the courts of a sister State is, of course, entitled to respectful
consideration, but it can only be allowed to prevail with us in so far
as it is in harmony with the spirit and policy of the law of our own
State. In Pennsylvania we are committed to the view that the
requirements of a statute adopted in the exercise of the police powers
of the State for the protection of its citizens can not be impliedly
waived by the parties to the contract of employment.

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C o m p a r a t iv e

Ne g l i -

Zeratsky v. Chicago, Milwaukee
and St. P a u l R ailw ay Company, Supreme Court o f Wisconsin, 123
Northwestern RepoHer, page 904•— John it. Zeratsky was the rear

gence—

C o n s t r u c t io n

of

Statute—

brakeman on an extra freight train of the railroad company named,
and was injured by a passenger train running into the caboose of the
train on which he was employed while it was standing on a track
between stations. It was the duty of the rear brakeman to undertake
to put out signals to warn approaching trains of the fact that the track
was not clear; also to remedy any conditions that he might discover
relative to hot boxes or defective draft and brake rigging. When the
train stopped, Zeratsky was left alone with the cars, without warning
or instructions, while the engine and the remainder of the crew went
forward to get water. Zeratsky started toward the front of the train
to learn the cause of the stopping, and finding the engine gone, went
back to the caboose, stopping on his way to inspect the boxes, etc.;
finding a hot box, he claimed that he was in the act of procuring the
needed supplies for use in remedying the condition when the caboose
was struck by the on-coming passenger train and he himself
seriously injured. It was the company’s contention that his negli­
gence in failing to put out signals to prevent the collision was a con­
tributory cause of the accident, and that he was thereby debarred
from recovering.
Chapter 254 of the Laws of 1907 charges every railroad company
with liability for injuries to its employees if they are caused in whole
or in the greater part by negligence of any officer or employee of the
company. The jury is to pass upon the question whether any negli­
gence attributable to the company directly contributed to the injury;
also whether any negligence of the employee directly contributed
thereto. The doctrine of comparative negligence was embodied in
the law by which, if it appeared that the employer was guilty of a
greater degree of negligence than the injured employee, proportionate
damages should be awarded.
In the circuit court of Brown County a verdict had been directed for
the company and judgment was entered thereon. Zeratsky there­



878

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

upon appealed and secured a reversal of this action with orders for
a new trial. The grounds on which this action was taken are set
forth in the opinion of the court, which was delivered by Judge
Siebecker, who spoke in part as follows:
In Kiley v. Chicago, M. & St. P. R. Co., 138 Wis. 215, 119 N . W .
309, 120 N. W. 756, we had occasion to declare that these provisions
of the law did not affect the judicial power of the court to determine
whether the evidence presented tended to show negligence attribu­
table to the company and contributory negligence of the person
injured, and, if the evidence tended to show such negligence, it was
for the jury to determine therefrom whether or nQt m fact such
negligence or contributory negligence existed. It was also decided
that the provisions declaring that the contributory negligence of the
person should be no bar to his recovery in cases wherein the jury
should find that the negligence attributable to the company “ was
greater than the negligence of the employee so injured, and contribu­
ting in a greater degree to such injury” were within the legislative
power of police regulation. Upon this and other appeals, in actions
under this statute, additional considerations have arisen respecting
the interpretation of the context of the act and its effect in the modi­
fication of the law as it theretofore existed. Subsection 3 of the
act requires that there shall be submitted to the jury the question
whether the company’s negligence and the injured person’s contribu­
tory negligence directly contributed to the injury. The inquiry is
suggested: Does the use of the word “ directly” operate to modify
the law of proximate cause in the law of negligence? We discover
nothing in the phraseology of the act indicative of a legislative intent
to modify the law on this subject. Nor does the language employed
necessarily operate to effect a change as to what shall constitute
proximate cause. The provisions are that the jury shall determine
whether the company and the injured person are guilty of negligence
“ directly contributing to the injury.” The word “ directly” was
evidently employed here in the sense of proximately, and was intended
to include and comprehend the negligence which naturally and prob­
ably caused the injury; that is, the negligence which proximately
contributed to produce the injury.
The statute also provides that if the jury shall find that the negli­
gence attributable to the company “ was greater than the negligence
of the employee so injured, and contributing in a greater degree to
such injury,” then plaintiff’s contributory negligence shall be no bar
to his recovery. This abrogates the preexisting law that the con­
tributory negligence of the injured person may defeat recovery.
This provision is a complement to the preceding subsection 2, which
makes railroad companies liable for injuries to employees which have
resulted “ in whole or in greater part” from the negligence attribu­
table to them. It is to be noted that the questions prescribed by
subsection 3 are made to harmonize with subsection 2, in that the
negligence of the company and the contributory negligence of the
person injured are treated, in effect, as contributing causes to the
injury. While the same phraseology is not employed in subsection 4
in dealing with this subject, it is evident,that the legislature intended
this provision to carry into effect the liability created by subsection
2, and to so modify the contributory rule as to accord therewith,



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

879

and to enforce recovery in those cases wherein the negligence of the
injured person should be found to be slighter as a contributing cause
to the injury than that of the company. Interpreting these pro­
visions together, we are persuaded that the legislative intent was to
apply this legislation to the law as established by the decisions of
this court.
In an exhaustive review of the decisions of this court on the sub­
ject of negligence and contributory negligence in Bolin v. Chicago,
St. P., M. & O. R. Co., 108 Wis. 333, 84 N. W. 446, 81 Am. St. Rep.
911, the subject was adverted to. The result is embodied in the headnote, and is stated thus: “ In an action to recover damages claimed
to have been caused by actionable negligence of the defendant, con­
tributory negligence of the plaintiff, however slight, precludes his
recovering damages, notwithstanding negligence of the defendant,
however great, contributed thereto.
This idea that the concur­
rence of the negligences of both parties to a legal controversy might
constitute the proximate cause is also recognized and exemplified
in numerous crossing cases that have come before this court.
The context of the statute indicates that the legislature assumed
this to be within the legal conception of proximate cause in the law
of negligence, and proceeding thereon framed this statute to modify
the right of recovery in negligence cases against railroad companies
by providing that, if the company’s negligence contributed to cause
the injury in greater degree than that or the injured person, then
the company should be liable for the resultant damages as if its
negligence had been the sole cause of the injury; or, in the lan­
guage of subsection 4, if “ the negligence of the company * * *
was greater than the negligence or the employee so injured and con­
tributing in greater degree to such injury, then the plaintiff shall
be entided to recover.” In administering the statute in cases as
they actually arise, it devolves on the court to determine whether
there is any evidence tending to show negligence attributable to the
company and contributory negligence of the injured person which
proximately contributed to the injury complained of. If the evi­
dence produced tends to show that the negligences of both parties
to the action concurred to produce the injury, unless the evidence is
so clear and undisputed as to permit of only one inference on the
question, it then Becomes a question for the jury to determine
whether the negligence of the injured person was slighter or greater
as a contributing cause to the injury than that attributable to the
company. In case the evidence permits of only the one inference it
devolves on the court to decide the issue as a matter of law. Whether
a case is one for a court or jury to determine can not be settled by
any general rule or classification of cases, but must be determined
in the light of the facts and circumstances of each particular case.
The question is not ascertainable by any rule of absolute measure­
ment, and it therefore must be submitted to human judgment.
It has been claimed and the suggestion is made in argument on
this feature of the law that it is practically impossible for a jury to
determine such controversies upon a scale of infinite degrees, and that
the legislature therefore must have intended that the law should be
applied in view of the generally accepted classification of the degrees
or negligence into slight, ordinary, and gross, and that such degrees
of negligence should be observed in comparing as contributing causes



880

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

the negligence of the company and that of the injured person. W e
discover no such intent or provision in the law, nor do we deem it
impractical to have the jury judge whether the negligence of the
injured person contributing to cause the injury is shelter or greater
than that attributable to the company. Applying the statute to the
case before us, we can not accede to the defendant’s claim that it
would be mere speculation and guesswork for the jury to attempt
to determine whether plaintiff’s contributory negligence was slighter
or greater as a contributing cause than that of the defendant.
The court then reviewed the various points in the case requiring
submission to a jury, and in conclusion said:
It is averred by the defendant that since the plaintiff has the burden
of proving that the negligence attributable to the defendant was a
greater contributing cause to the injury than that of the plaintiff
that this involves a modification of the rule which has heretofore
obtained in this State which casts the burden of proving plaintiff’s
contributory negligence on the defendant. This rule operated to
relieve the plaintiff from the necessity of showing himselr free from
contributory negligence. We discover nothing in the law evincing
an intention of the legislature to change the rule, nor do we find that
such a change is necessary for the orderly administration of the various
provisions of the law.
From the views indicated, it results that the court erred in directing
a verdict. The case should have been submitted to the jury for
determination of the issues under the law as amended by chapter 254,
page 495, Laws 1907.
Judgment reversed, and the cause remanded for a new trial.

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ellow

-S e r v a n t —

Coalgate Company v. Bross , Supreme Court of
Oklahoma, 107 P a cific Reporter, page 1^25.— This case involved the

J o in t

L

ia b il it y —

effect of the section of the constitution of Oklahoma which abro­
gates the defense of common employment in the industries of rail­
roading and mining. Jesse Bross was injured by the negligence of
a coservant and sued both his employer and said coservant, and from
a judgment in his favor an appeal was taken, resulting in the judg­
ment of the court below being affirmed. The only point of special
interest is the discussion by Judge Kane, speaking for the court, of
the section of the constitution named, which is reproduced herewith.
There is considerable conflict on the question of the right to join
master and servant as defendants in an action for the servant’s negli­
gence. The question does not seem to have been passed upon
squarely by the Supreme Court of the United States, but the courts
of last resort of a good many of the States and the federal courts,
district and circuit, and circuit court of appeals, have passed upon it
many times. From an examination of the authorities it seems that
the weight of authority in the state courts is in favor of such joinder,




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

881

while in the federal courts the preponderance is perhaps the other
way. Both state and federal authorities in favor of and against such
joinder are collected and considered in Charman v. Lake Erie & W. R.
Co. et al. (C. C.) 105 Fed. 449, and Helms v. Northern Pac. Ry. Co.
et al. (C. C.) 120 Fed. 389, the first case taking the affirmative, and
the second the negative side of the question. As these cases have
fully collected the authorities and discussed the proposition pro and
con, we will not cite further cases, or attempt to reconcile them, but
merely adopt the reasoning of Judge Baker m Charman v. Lake Erie
& W . R. Co. et al., supra, as it seems to us to be sound, and the statute
construed is practically the same in effect as section 36, article
9, of our constitution, which provides: “ The common-law doctrine
of the fellow-servant, so far as it affects the liability of the master
for injuries to his servant, resulting from the acts or omission of any
other servant or servants of the common master, is abrogated as to
every employee of every railroad company and every street railway
company or interurban railway company, and of every person, firm,
or corporation engaged in mining in this State; and every such
employee shall have the same right to recover for every injury suf­
fered by him for the acts or omissions of any other employee or
employees of the common master that a servant would have if such
acts or omissions were those of the master himself in the performance
of a nonassignable duty. * * *”
It is argued by counsel for plaintiffs in error that the cause of
action of one servant against another grows out of the legal duty
that each owes to the other to use due care for the other’s safety in
the conduct of the common undertaking, and that the cause of action
against the master for the negligence of the servant, being based
upon the foregoing provision or the constitution, precludes the idea
or joint liability; that each is separately liable for the same thing
upon a different cause of action; neither is jointly liable with the other
for the same thing upon the same cause of action. Judge Baker, who
wrote the opinion in the Charman case, supra, on this question, says:
“ It is not necessary to the maintenance of a joint action for tort
that the injury should grow out of the breach of a joint duty, nor out
of the same or similar duties deducible from the same or similar
principles of law. wThe rule would seem to be that, where the same
acts or omissions constitute and give rise to a breach of duty owing
by such defendant to the plaintiff, and concur and cooperate in pro­
ducing the injury, a joint action may be maintained.” This lan­
guage seems to be peculiarly pertinent to the case at bar. The con­
stitutional provision above referred to seems to make the tort of the
servant the tort of the master, and gives the injured employee the
same right to recover against the master for injuries incurred by him
for the acts or omissions of his fellow-servant as if the master himself
was present and committed the tort in the performance of a non­
assignable duty. W e are of the opinion that under the foregoing
section of the constitution a servant has the right to join his master
and fellow-servant as defendants in an action for the servant’s negli­
gence, although the master may not be present and participating in
the injury complained of except in virtue of the foregoing constitu­
tional provision.




882
E

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
m ployers'

L

ia b il it y —

R

a il r o a d s —

F

ederal

and

St a te Stat­

Dewberry v. Southern R ailw ay Company, United States C ircu it
Court, Northern D istrict o f Georgia, 175 Federal Reporter, page 807.—

utes—

This was a suit by Mrs. Effie Dewberry to recover damages for the
death of her husband, a locomotive engineer, the action having been
brought under the state law. The company demurred to the dec­
laration, claiming that as Dewberry was employed in moving inter­
state commerce the federal law alone controlled, and no action could
be brought under the local statute. This view was adopted by the
court, the opinion being written by Judge Newman.
Citing supporting opinions from the cases of Fulgham v. Railroad
Company (167 Fed. 660) and N. C. & St. L. Railway v. Alabama (128
U. S. 96, 9 Sup. Ct. 28), Judge Newman concluded:
It has been impossible in the brief time I have had to give this
matter the thorough examination which the importance of the ques­
tion deserves, but my best judgment is that this law was intended by
Congress to cover the entire subject-matter of the liability of carriers
by railroad while engaged in interstate commerce to employees if the
employee injured or killed is at the time engaged in such interstate
commerce, and that it is plenary and supersedes all other law relat­
ing to such liability. Consequently this action, founded on a state
statute, can not now be maintained.

E

m ployers'

L

ia b il it y —

R

a il r o a d s —

Statu te R

e q u ir in g

H

ead­

— St. L o u is , Iron M ountain and Southern R a il­
way Company v. White, Supreme Court o f Arkansas, 125 Southwestern
Reporter, page 120.— Laura C. White secured judgment against the
company named on account of the death of her son, who was employed
by it as brakeman. The accident resulting in his death was caused
by the engine striking a cow which was on the track, whose presence
was not discovered, it was alleged, by reason of the failure of the rail­
road company to comply with a statute requiring its engines to be
equipped with headlights of a fixed capacity. The company appealed,
the appeal resulting in the judgment of the court below being affirmed.
The opinion of the court was delivered by Judge Hart and, except for
a statement of the facts, is as follows:
l ig h t s —

V

io l a t io n

Section 1 of the act provides that railroads over 50 miles in length,
operated in whole or in part in this State, shall be required to equip,
maintain, and use, upon each and every locomotive being operated
in road service in the State, a headlight of power and brilliancy of
1,500 candlepower. Section 2 provides a penalty for the failure to
comply with the terms of the act. (Acts 1907, p. 1019.) In the case
of Johnson v. Mammoth Vein Coal Company, 88 Ark. 243, 114 S. W.
722, 123 S. W. 1180, 19 L. R. A. (N. S.) 646, the court held that the
servant does not assume the risk of injury caused by the master's
failure to comply with a statutory requirement for his protection.



883’

DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOK.

The statutory requirement that railroads shall keep a constant look­
out for persons and property upon their tracks is also for the benefit
of employees as well as others. (St. Louis Southwestern Ry. Co. v..
Graham, 83 Ark. 61, 102 S. W . 700,119 Am. St. Rep. 112, and cases
cited). “ In an action against a railroad company by an employeeto recover for damages received in an accident, negligence of the
railroad company will not be presumed merely from the occurrence
of the accident, but must be proved, and the burden is on the plain­
tiff to establish it.” (St. Louis and San Francisco R. Co. v. Wells, 82
Ark. 372, 101 S. W . 738; L. R. and Ft. Smith Ry. Co. v. Eubanks, 43
Ark. 460, 3 S. W. 808, 3 Am. St. Rep. 245.) Tested by these rules
of law, was the defendant liable under the facts disclosed by the
record? The engineer testified that he did not see the cow before
she was struck. His engine was equipped with a coal-oil headlight.
With it he could see “ three or four or five hundred feet” ahead o f
him, and as much as 8 or 10 feet on either side. His train was from
500 to 700 feet long. The right of way where the injury occurred
was clear and unobstructed, and the track was practically level.
The appellee adduced evidence tending to show that an electric
headlight of 1,500 candlepower would enable the engineer to see ahead
for a distance of 1,700 to 2,000 feet, and would throw light from one
side of the right of way to the other; that the train running on a prac­
tically level track at the rate of from 20 to 25 miles per hour could
have been brought to a stop at 1,100 [feet], and could be reduced 5 or 10
miles an hour in 600 feet; that cattle lay down on the track at night,
as well as in the daytime. Although the evidence is not very satis­
factory, we think the jury were warranted in finding that, had the
engine been equipped with a headlight of the candlepower required by
the statute, the engineer, if he had been keeping a lookout, could have
seen the cow in time to have stopped the train, or at least could have
checked the speed to such an extent before striking the cow that
the derailment of the engine and the resulting injury could have
been avoided, and that the company was guilty of negligence in using
the oil headlight.
The judgment is therefore affirmed.

E
of

m ployers’

B

e n e f it s

L

as

ia b il it y —

B

ar

to

A

R

a il w a y

c t io n

for

R

e l ie f

D

am ages—

S o c ie t ie s — R

e c e ip t

Contracts M

ade

H am ilton v. Chicago, B urlington and Quincy
R ailw ay Company, Supreme Court o f Iowa, 124 Northwestern Reporter,
page 363.— The plaintiff, Hamilton, recovered a judgment for injuries

in

A

noth er

State—

received while in the employment of the company above named in
the city of Dubuque, Iowa. Among other defenses offered by the
company was one that Hamilton was a member of the railroad’s
relief department, and that under his agreement on becoming a
member he was debarred from prosecuting an action for damages
after having received the benefits for which his contract called. On
the whole evidence the. judgment of the lower court was affirmed on
the appeal taken. No matter of particular interest appears, except
47150— Bull. 88— 10------13



884

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

in connection with the subject of the contract with the relief depart­
ment. On this point Judge Deemer, for the court, spoke in part as
follows:
Plaintiff was a member of defendant’s relief department, and after
his accident he received from said department benefits promised and
provided thereby. These facts are relied upon as a complete defense
to the action. Section 2071 of the Code, as amended by Acts 27th
Gen. Assem., p. 33, c. 49, provides that no such contract or benefit,
and no acceptance of the benefits provided, shall constitute a defense
to an action brought under the section. This act was held constitu­
tional in McGuire v. Railroad, 131 Iowa 340, 108 N. W. 902.
Defendant says, however, that plaintiff made his contract for benefits
in the State of Illinois, and received his benefits in either Wisconsin or
Illinois, and that as the contract and settlement were good in each
of these States, they should be so treated here, and that plaintiff
should not be permitted to recover. It is true that plaintiff became
a member of the relief department and made his contract in the State
of Illinois, and that he received his benefits in a State where such
settlement or contract would be good. But it does not follow that
this will bar him of relief. In such matters the law of the forum must
be looked to. Contracts and releases made in a foreign jurisdiction
are recognized and enforced out of comity, and not as a matter of
right. The general rule in all actions for tort is that the lex loci
delicti governs the right of the injured party to sue, the liability of
the perpetrator, and the defenses which he may plead. See Minor on
Conflict of Laws, section 196, and cases cited. Of course even here
the action will not lie if contrary to the law or pronounced policy of
the forum.
The injury occurred in this State, and under the rule just stated
the law of this State controls. Moreover, the general rule is that
contracts, although legal where made, will not be enforced in a sister
State if contrary to public policy or against positive statutory
enactment.
We are asked finally to overrule the McGuire case because the
statute there considered is unconstitutional and void. This we are
not prepared to do. That case is now pending in the Supreme Court
of the United States, and until it has spoken and declared the statute
unconstitutional we are content to follow our former holding.

E

m ploym ent

of

C h il d r e n — C o m p e n s a t io n — P l a c e

of

M

a k in g

Commonwealth v. G riffith , Supreme Ju d ic ia l Court o f
Massachusetts, 90 Northeastern Reporter, page 394•— Frank C. Griffith

Contract—

was convicted of employing children under 14 years of age between
the hours of 7 p. m. and 6 a. m., in violation of the law of Massachu­
setts, and appealed. The employment required the appearance of
a boy and a girl, aged 9 and 13 years, respectively, in a theatrical
performance. The children received no wages. The boy’s father was
a member of the troupe and was training his son for the stage. The
girl’s mother also appeared in the play, and the contract with her



DECISIONS OE COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

885

covered the appearance of the girl. Both children appeared regu­
larly. Griffith contended that their employment was not of the
nature prohibited by the statute; and further, that as their employ­
ment was in pursuance of arrangements made in New York, the law
of Massachusetts did not apply. Both these contentions were rejected
by the court, as appears from the following extracts from the opinion,
which was delivered by Judge Knowlton:
The payments of compensation, as such, is not a necessary ele­
ment or employment. If one is procured to work regularly under
an engagement, rendering valuable service for a specified time, it
may be round that he is employed, although he receives nothing as
an agreed compensation. He is used and relied upon to accomplish
the purpose of his employer. This statute itself recognizes that there
may be employment without wages or compensation, when it pro­
vides that employment during the hours when the public schools are
in session shall be punishable only when it is for wages or other com­
pensation, while employment in the nighttime is punishable without
reference to its being for wages or compensation.
There is no good ground for the defendant's contention that the
statute is not applicable to work in this Commonwealth, done under an
employment contracted for in another State by persons residing there.
It looks to employment at work here, wherever the contract is made
and whether the children are inhabitants of this State or nonresidents.

H

ours

of

L

abor—

E

ig h t - H o u r

D

ay

— V

io l a t io n s —

Inform a­

— United States v. Breakwater Company, United States D istrict
Court, D istrict o f New Jersey, 174 Federal Reporter, page 78.— The
company named was charged with having violated the eight-hour law
of August 1, 1892, the allegation being that it was a contractor on
public works of the United States, and that on the 1st of July, 1909,
it willfully, intentionally, and unlawfully required and permitted the
laborers and mechanics in its employment and engaged on such
public works to labor more than eight hours, but made no designation
as to numbers or names of persons so unlawfully employed. The
company therefore moved to quash the information, which motion
was on hearing sustained. The reasons therefor are set forth in the
following extracts from the opinion of the court, which was delivered
by Judge Relistab:
t io n

The act makes it unlawful to require or permit any laborer or
mechanic to work more than eight hours in one calendar day, except
in cases of extraordinary emergency, and denounces the intentional
employing of any laborer or mechanic beyond the restricted hours as
a misdemeanor, and provides a penalty for each and every such
offense.
The criminal information does not say whether one or more laborers
or mechanics were thus employed.




886

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

It is to be noted that the act does not prohibit the employment
beyond the restricted hours of all employees, but only such as are
embraced within the terms “ laborers and mechanics. ” Undoubtedly
the mere designation of identified persons as laborers or mechanics is
sufficient to put the defendant to its defense; but the failure to desig­
nate the number and to identify the persons alleged to have been
unlawfully employed is unjust to both the Government and defendant.
The Government has a right to ask for separate convictions for each
and every person so unlawfully employed in a given day, and the
defendant has the right to have the persons identified, that it may
intelligently defend the present charge, and, if subsequently called
upon to defend for the same cause, to plead former jeopardy.

H

ours

of

L

abor—

E

m ploym ent

in

M

in e s —

Co n s t it u t io n a l it y

Ex parte M a rtin , Supreme Court o f C alifo rn ia , 106
P a cific Reporter, page 235.— Fred J. Martin was convicted of employ­
of

Statu te—

ing workmen more than eight hours per day in violation of the law
(Acts of 1909, chap. 181) which restricts to eight per day the hours
of labor of employees in underground mines and smelting and reduc­
tion works. Application was made for a writ of habeas corpus, on the
ground that the law was unconstitutional and that the applicant was
therefore unlawfully restrained. The writ was dismissed and Martin
was remanded to the custody of the officer, the law having been
upheld on grounds that appear from the following portion of the
opinion of the court, which was delivered by Judge Sloss:
The ground of attack usually advanced in cases of this character,
namely, that the* statute is in conflict with the guaranties of the
fourteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States, is
not here urged. Indeed, such contention is hardly open to the
petitioner in view of the decision in Holden v. Hardy, 169 U. S. 366,
18 Sup. Ct. 383, 42 L. Ed. 780 [Bulletin No. 10, p. 387], where the
Supreme Court of the United States decided that a statute of Utah,
substantially identical in its main features with the one before us,
did not deprive persons affected by it of any right conferred by the
federal Constitution. Conceding the binding force of that decision
as an adjudication of all federal questions involved, the petitioner
here bases his claim to immunity from prosecution upon certain pro­
visions of the constitution of this State.
Adopting the views set forth in the case named, that such laws are
valid as health laws, and within the police power of legislatures, the
court continued:
It is argued by the appellant that the act is special because it does
not include in its scope many occupations other than mining which are
equally dangerous to the health of the persons engaged in them.
Reference is made, for example, to marble cutters and marble drillers,
diamond cutters, workers in furnaces and laundries, men employed




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

887

in wine cellars, breweries, and ice houses, men in boiler works, match­
makers, cleaners of clothes, makers of white lead, of china and
earthenware, and many others. The argument is, apparently, that
any law is special which does not include all of these occupations.
This view is obviously unsound. Whether these other occupations
present the same dangers to health as those involved in mining, etc.,
and whether, if they do, these dangers can best be met by restricting
the hours of labor, are primarily questions for the legislature. The
legislature has determined one or both of them in the negative by
enacting this law. The selection of the businesses requiring regula­
tion is confided to the legislative discretion, and this discretion is not
subject to judicial review unless it clearly appears to have been
exercised arbitrarily and without any show of good reason.
Petitioner attacks the provision of the act that the hours of employ­
ment shall be consecutive (excluding, however, any intermission of
time for lunch or meals). W e are not prepared to say that this
limitation bears no reasonable relation to the protection of the health
of the workmen. The legislature may have considered that persons
working in underground mines, in smelters, or in reduction works
required for their protection, not only that the total number of hours
of employment in a day should be limited, but that the hours of labor
should be so adjusted as to allow the employee a long consecutive
period for rest and recreation. This is a question of legislative
policy with which the courts have no concern.
Upon the whole case, we are satisfied that the act is a valid exercise
of the legislative power, and that the petitioner is properly held.

I n s p e c t io n

of

B

a k e r ie s —

H

ours of

L

abor—

Co n s t it u t io n a l it y

State v. Miksicelc, Supreme Court o f M issouri, 125
Southwestern Reporter, page 507.— Section 10088 of the Revised
of

Sta tu te —

Statutes of 1899 of the State of Missouri restricts the employment
of workmen in bakeries to six days per week, and fixes the period
within which the week’s employment shall begin and end. Section
10089 prescribes the provisions for plumbing and ventilation in
biscuit, bread, and cake bakeries, and does not mention pie and
pastry bakeries or confectioneries and cracker bakeries. Robert
Miksicek was convicted of a violation of the provisions of these
two sections and appealed, basing his appeal on the claim that
the enactment was unconstitutional. This contention the supreme
court upheld, condemning the limitation of the hours of labor on the
ground that it was an unwarranted interference with the freedom of
contract, holding that this provision was subject to the same rules of
law as those by which the New York statute was condemned. (Lochner v. New York, 198 U. S. 45; 25 Sup. Ct. 539. See Bulletin No.
59, p. 340.) The second section under consideration was condemned
because pie and pastry bakeries, belonging to the same general class
of establishments, were not brought within this provision. Judge




888

BULLETIN" OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Fox, who delivered the opinion of the court, said in part in this
connection:
In other words, as heretofore stated, the provisions of section
10089 apply only to biscuit, bread, or cake bakeries, and have no
application to bakeries engaged in the making of pie and pastry or
crackers and confectioneries; that is to say, the corporation, asso­
ciation, or individual engaged in the bakery business which confine
their business to the baking of pies, pastry, crackers, or other confec­
tioneries are exempt from the requirements of section 10089. This
discrimination is manifestly in conflict with section 53, article 4, of
the constitution of Missouri (Ann. St. 1906, p. 197), which forbids
the legislature to grant to any corporation, association, or individual
any special or exclusive right, privilege, or immunity, and is also
violative of the fourteenth amendment to the federal Constitution
in denying the equal protection of the law.
And concluded:
We see no necessity for further discussing this proposition. In
our opinion the sections of the statute upon which this prosecution
is based can not be upheld. They are clearly violative o f the consti­
tutional provisions to which we have made reference, hence can
not form the basis of a statute upon which a prosecution can rest.
The judgment of the trial court should be reversed, and the
defendant discharged. All concur.

L

aundry

R

e g u l a t io n s —

L

o c a t io n —

R

e s t r ic t io n

of

E

m ploy­

Ex parte San Chung , Court o f Appeal o f C a li­
fo rn ia , 105 P a cific Reporter, page 609.— San Chung was convicted of
m ent—

P o l ic e P o w e r —

the violation of an ordinance of the city of Sacramento which prohib­
ited the operation of a public laundry within the corporate limits of
that city in any building or portion thereof occupied or used directly
or indirectly as a public hall, store, restaurant, lodging house, or sa­
loon, the offense in his case being the operation of a laundry in a build­
ing used in part as a public store. The case was before the court of
appeal by petition for a writ of habeas corpus, the contention of the
petitioner being that the ordinance wTas violative of the constitution
of the State, interfering with personal and property rights. This
view was not entertained by the court and the writ was denied and
the petitioner remanded in accordance with the original conviction.
The grounds for the position of the court appear in the following ex­
tracts from its opinion, which was delivered by Judge Burnett:
In Ex parte Sing Lee, 96 Cal. 356, 31 Pac. 246 (24 L. R. A. 195, 31
Am. St. Rep. 218), it is declared: “ It is provided by section 11 of arti­
cle 11 of the constitution of this State that ‘ any county, city, town, or
township may make and enforce within its limits all such local police,
sanitary and other regulations as are not in conflict with general laws/
The power conferred upon cities and towns by the section just quoted




DECISIONS OF COUKTS AFFECTING LABOB.

889

is undoubtedly a very broad and comprehensive one, and would sus­
tain the enactment of any ordinance having a reasonable tendency
to promote the health, the comfort, safety, and welfare of the inhabi­
tants of the municipality and which would not be in conflict with some
general law of the State.”
In Barbier v. Connolly, 113 U. S. 31, 5 Sup. Ct. 359, 28 L. Ed. 923,
it is said by the Supreme Court of the United States, through Mr.
Justice Field, that 11the fourteenth amendment in declaring that no
State ‘ shall deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due
process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal
protection of the laws/ undoubtedly intended not only that there
should be no arbitrary deprivation of life or liberty, or arbitrary spolia­
tion of property, but that equal protection and security should be
given to all under like circumstances in the enjoyment of their per­
sonal and civil rights; that all persons should be equally entitled to
pursue their happiness and acquire and enjoy property; that they
should have like access to the courts of the country ror the protection
of their persons and property, the prevention and redress of wrongs,
and the enforcement of contracts; that no impediment should be in­
terposed to the pursuits of any one, except as applied to the same
pursuits by others under like circumstances; that no greater burdens
should be laid upon one than are laid upon others in the same calling
and condition; and that in the administration of criminal justice no
different or higher punishment should be imposed upon one than such
as is prescribed to all for like offenses. But neither the amendment—
broad and comprehensive as it is— nor any other amendment, was de­
signed to interfere with the power of the State, sometimes termed its
police power, to prescribe regulations, to promote the health, peace,
morals, education, and good order of the people, and to legislate so
as to increase the industries of the State, develop its resources, and
add to its wealth and prosperity. Regulations for these purposes
may press with more or less weight upon one than upon another, but
they are designed not to impose unequal or unnecessary restrictions
upon any one, but to promote, with as little individual inconvenience
as possible, the general good. Though in many respects necessarily
special in their character, they do not furnish just ground of com­
plaint if they operate alike upon all persons and property under the
same circumstances and conditions.
In the light of these general
principles can it be said that the particular portion of the ordinance
violated by petitioner is beyond the legitimate scope of the police
power, or that it unwarrantably disturbs the petitioner in the enjoy­
ment of his constitutional privileges ?
Within the proper exercise of the police power the operation of pub­
lic laundries within the city limits could be entirely prohibited if such
a measure could reasonably be said to promote the public health.
But here no prohibition is sought, but only a regulation which we
must assume the evidence before the council demonstrated to be in
furtherance of a beneficent design to contribute to the welfare of the
community. Under such circumstances, if they exist, the abstract
right of the individual to pursue any lawful occupation where it can
be the most conveniently and advantageously carried on must yield
to the superior right of the public to be protected from the menace
of disease.




890

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOK.

P aym ent
W

a iv in g

of

W

ages—

P r o v is io n s

of

S e m im o n t h l y
Statu tes— R

Pay

D

e g u l a t io n

ay

— Contracts

of

Corpora­

Arkansas Stave Company
v. State, Supreme Court o f Arkansas , 125 Southwestern Reporter, page
1001.— A statute of the State of Arkansas (Acts of 1909, p. 21)
t io n s —

C o n s t it u t io n a l it y

of

Sta tu te —

directs that all corporations doing business in the State shall pay their
employees twice each month. For a violation of this statute the
company named was convicted in the circuit court of Craighead
County and appealed. The constitutionality of the statute was
challenged, the contention being that it deprived the defendant of lib­
erty and property without due process of law and denied the equal pro­
tection of the law. The court sustained the statute and affirmed the
judgment on an indictment charging that the company had refused
to pay wages semimonthly when requested so to do. Under another
indictment the company had been adjudged guilty of violating the
law by reason of the fact that it had entered into a contract with an
employee by which the provisions of the statute were waived and
monthly payments were substituted for payments twice each month.
Judge Frauenthal discussed first the power of the legislature to
regulate the acts of corporations under the reserved power of the State
to amend charters granted by the State. Various cases were cited,
among others one in which the payment of wages to discharged em­
ployees was held constitutional. Continuing he said:
This act requiring railroad corporations to pay their employees on
the day of their discharge, and imposing a penalty for failure to do so,
was again upheld by this court as a valid and constitutional exercise
by the State of the power reserved by the constitution to alter and
amend any charter of incorporations, in the case of St. Louis, I. M.
& S. R. Co. v. Paul, 64 Ark. 83, 40 S. W. 705, 37 L. R. A. 504, 62
Am. St. Rep. 154. This case was taken upon a writ of error to the
Supreme Court of the United States ancf by that court affirmed.
(St. L., I. M. & S. R. Co. v. Paul 173 U. S. 404, 19 Sup. Ct. 419, 43
L. Ed. 746 [Bulletin No. 23, p. 585].) In that case Mr. Chief Justice
Fuller says: “ Corporations are the creations of the State, endowed
with such faculties as the State bestows, and subject to such con­
ditions as the State imposes, and, if the power to modify their charters
is reserved, that reservation is a part of the contract, and no change
within the legitimate exercise of the power can be said to impair its
obligation; and, as this amendment rested on reasons deduced from
the peculiar character of the business of the corporations and the pub­
lic nature of their functions and applied to all alike, the equal pro­
tection of the law was not denied.
The plain purpose of this act now in question was to secure a
frequent payment of wages earned by the employees. These corpo­
rations represent aggregations of capital, and the employees are the
laborers who are dependent on their wages for their livelihood. The
inconvenience to the corporation to pay the wages semimonthly
could not be as great as it would be to those, whose actual necessities
require the frequent payments, not to receive such payment. The



DECISIONS OF COUETS AFFECTING LABOE.

891

corporation has already received the full value for which it is required
to pay, and this requirement to pay semimonthly the wages of its
employees already earned could not substantially impair or destroy
the object or purpose of its incorporation. If the legislature in its
wisdom thought that by the more frequent payment of the wages to
the laborer better service would be secured for the corporations, and
the objects of their creation thus advanced, it would be reasonable
and just to require such frequent payments. This could not be con­
sidered oppressive or wrong. We can not say that this act is an
unreasonable exercise of the power of the legislature. We only pass
upon the power of the legislative body of the government to act; of
the wisdom, propriety, and policy of such act, under our system of
government, the legislature must solely judge. (Cooley on Const.
Lim. (6th Ed.) 479.)
Nor does this act deny to the defendant the equal protection of
the law. It applies to all corporations. Within the sphere of its
operation, all artificial persons are treated alike under like circum­
stances and conditions. Because the act only applies to corporations,
and not to natural persons, it does not contravene the equal protec­
tion clause of the federal Constitution. Nearly all legislation is
special either in the objects sought to be attained or in its applica­
tion to classes. And the general rule is that legislation does not
infringe the constitutional right of equal protection where all per­
sons, whether natural or artificial, of such class, shall be treated alike
under like circumstances and conditions.
It is also urged that the act is invalid because it restricts the rights
of the defendant’s employees to contract with it. But it is the
established doctrine of the law that the liberty of contract is not
universal and is subject to restrictions passed by the legislative
branch of the government in the exercise of its power to promote the
safety, health, and welfare of the people.
But under this act the restriction of the employee’s right to con­
tract is not direct. That restriction only applies to the corporations,
and those dealing with them can not complain of the incompetency
of the corporations to make contracts which are inhibited by the
law, any more than they could in making contracts with persons
laboring under legal disabilities, or in contracting relative to sub­
ject-matters prohibited by law.
A contract made in violation of this act is a contract against
)ublic policy. The legislature has declared by the enactment of this
aw that it is for the public good. When the legislature speaks in
the exercise of its power to legislate, it thereby declares what is the
public policy; and any contract made which is opposed to public
policy is void.
. The law under consideration, we think, is not contrary to any
provision of the federal or state constitution; and it was within the
valid exercise of legislative power for the general assembly to enact it.
But, the law being penal m its nature, it must be construed strictly;
and no act that does not clearly violate its provisions can be declared
an offense. The act provides that all corporations doing business
in the State shall pay their employees their wages semimonthly, and
it declares a violation of that provision an offense. The corporation
can only violate this provision by failing or refusing to pay the
wages of such employees, that have been earned, semimonthly. But

1




892

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

it can not fail or refuse to do this unless a request or demand has
been made for the payment of such wages, or unless by its acts and
conduct it shows that it will fail or refuse to pay the wages even if a
request or demand for same should be made. If upon request for
payment it should fail to pay, or if by acts of intimidation or coercion
or oppression it should prevent the employee from making such
request or demand for payment, or if it evinces from the acts or the
circumstances of the case, an intention not to pay, although a request
or demand for the payment of the wages should be made, then it
would be guilty of a violation of this act. Any contract that might
be voluntarily entered into between the corporation and its employee
for the payment of the wages at a longer period than semimonthly
would be void, and could not deprive the employee of his right to
request or demand the payment of his wages semimonthly. But
the mere agreement entered into not to pay the wages semimonthly
would not subject the corporation to a fine under this act. And if
the laborer or servant willingly and without coercion or act of
threatened oppression by the corporation did not desire or request
that his wages be paid semimonthly, then there would be no refusal
or failure to pay the wages semimonthly within the prohibition of
this act. The act provides that the corporation should pay its em­
ployees semimonthly their wages, and a reasonable construction
of such provision would require that the corporation should have the
opportunity to make such payment. If the employee did not desire
and did refuse to accept the payment, then it would be requiring an
unreasonable thing to be done, to make the corporation pay in such
event; and so, too, if it should be required to pay in every event.
DECISIONS UNDER COMMON L A W .
A

c c id e n t

I nsurance— E

m ployers’

I n d e m n it y — S c o p e

of

P ol­

— Home M ixture Guano Company v.
Ocean Accident and Guarantee Corporation , Lim ite d , o f London , Eng­
land, United States C ircu it Court fo r the Northern D istrict o f Georgia,
176 Federal Reporter, page 600.— This was an action by the guano
ic y —

“ O r d in a r y

R

e p a ir s ”

company against the insurance company named on its policy of
indemnity issued to cover all injuries, fatal or nonfatal, received by
the employees of the company during the continuance of the policy
while such employees were on duty at the place and in the occupa­
tions within the factories, shop, or yard of the guano company. It
was agreed by the terms of the policy that all cases should be defended
by it or otherwise met, and that every summons or other process
served on the company would at once be forwarded to the insurer.
During the continuance of the policy, one Womack was injured while
engaged in assisting to line with lead a new acid tank which the com­
pany had had built by a contractor to replace tanks that had been
destroyed by fire. Womack was seriously and permanently injured,
and following his injury the employing company had paid hospital
and doctors’ bills, and had then forwarded them to the insurance
company, asking for reimbursement. The company refused to pay



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

893

these bills or to defend the action which Womack subsequently
brought, holding that the case was not one that was covered by the
terms of the policy. A judgment against the employing company
was paid by it and suit thereupon brought to recover from the insur­
ance company the amount so paid with other expenses connected
with the suit. To the declaration in this suit the insurance company
demurred, holding that no grounds for action were shown in view of
the contract entered into by the guano company and itself. This
view was upheld and the demurrer sustained on grounds that are set
forth in the following quotations from the opinion of the court, which
was delivered by Judge Newman.
There is in the policy of insurance, as shown by the declaration, the
following provision:
“ This policy does not cover loss from liability for injuries to, or
caused wholly, or in part by: * * * (e) Any person connected
with the making of additions to, or alterations in, any structure,
building or plant, or in connection with the construction, demolition,
or extraordinary repairs thereof; but ordinary repairs when made on
the premises mentioned in said schedule by employees whose com­
pensation is regularly included in the estimated pay roll, are per­
m itted /?
Paragraph 13 of what is called “ the schedule” contains this pro­
vision :
“ The employees whose compensation is included in the foregoing
list, are not employed in the making of alterations in, or additions to,
structures, buildings or plants, nor in connection with the construc­
tion, demolition, or extraordinary repairs thereof.”
There is a demurrer to the declaration on the ground that there is
no cause of action set out in this declaration. The declaration also
is specially demurred to upon several grounds.
The precise question for determination here is whether J. L.
Womack, the person injured at the time he was so injured, was
engaged in work which is covered by the policy of indemnity which
was issued to the plaintiff by the defendant company. The decla­
ration says, as will ibe seen above:
“ That in the early part of the year 1906 a fire burned and destroyed
a portion of its manufacturing plant, being the acid chamber thereof,
and, in order to manufacture fertilizers, it was necessary to rebuild
said acid chamber.”
It was then alleged that after the wooden building was erected it
became necessary to line the same with the lead to prepare it as an
acid chamber, and Womack, who was on the pay roll, as a regular
employee of the guano company, was engaged in unrolling the lead
to be used in lining the chamber.
Was this work such that, injury occurring, the indemnity company
would be liable to the plaintiff, in view of the exceptions contained in
the policy, which have been quoted above, and the provision of para­
graph 13 of the schedule ?
The argument here is that although the building containing the
acid chamber was destroyed by fire, and the same had been rebuilt
and was being relined, inasmuch as relining would be an ordinary



894

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

repair, and it was being done by regular employees of the guano
company, it does not come within the exception stated in the policy.
Persons engaged in connection with “ construction, demolition, or
extraordinary repairs” are not covered. Persons engaged in “ ordi­
nary repairs,” when made on the premises mentioned in the schedule
by employees whose compensation is regularly included in the com­
pany’s pay roll, are covered. It is contended here— and the conten­
tion is unquestionably sound— that this policy should be construed
most strongly against the indemnity company and the exceptions
in the policy construed as against the company; but, construing the
policy in this way, can it be said to cover the person injured in the
work in which Womack was engaged at the time he was injured,
although he was on the regular pay roll of the company ? For some
reason best known to the indemnity company it saw fit to make an
exception in its policy as to employees engaged in “ construction^
demolition, or extraordinary repairs,” ana the guano company
assented to this in the schedule.
While it is true that the indemnity company would probably have
been liable had Womack been simply engaged as an employee of the
company, and on its pay roll, in assisting m relining the acid chamber/
that being all, yet, in view of the fact tnat the building in which the
acid chamber was contained was completely destroyed, and was being
rebuilt, is there any such liability ?
It is perfectly clear from the petition, and from the letters of the
plaintiff company attached to the petition, that a large part of its
manufacturing plant was destroyed, and that it was engaged in
rebuilding the same. That portion of the plant, undoubtedly, in
which the acid chamber was placed was being rebuilt. Therefore
the contention is that what Womack was doing at the time of his
injuries was not repair work at all, but was extraordinary construction
work. If the building and the acid chamber were destroyed and the
whole were being rebuilt, it could hardly be called repairing the acid
chamber.
It is urged for the plaintiff that a case is made which should go to a
jury to determine whether or not this was ordinary repair work. If
there was any doubt about the proper construction or this contract
or if any questions of fact were involved, this would be true; but
there is no difficulty from the terms of this policy and from the facts
stated in the declaration and exhibits as to what was being done and
in applying the same to the facts stated. If it was construction work,
or extraordinary repairs in which J. L. Womack was assisting, his
injuries are not covered by the policy. If ordinary repairs, it is cov­
ered by the policy. To say that where a large part of a manufacturing
plant is burned and is being rebuilt, and an entirely new acid chamber
put in, is ordinary repair work is not possible, giving the most
extreme construction to this policy against the indemnity company
and in favor of the guano company.
The meaning of this policy seems to be quite plain, and even the
most strained construction could not make it cover the accident to
J. L. Womack under the circumstances surrounding its occurrence
and in view of what was being done at the guano company’s plant at
the time of his injury.
The demurrer to the declaration must be sustained.




De c i s i o n s
Contracts

for

of

courts

a f f e c t in g

S e r v ic e — S u b s t a n t ia l

labor.

895

P e r f o r m a n c e — S a t is ­

H andy v. B lis s , Supreme Ju d ic ia l Court o f
Massachusetts, 90 Northeastern Reporter, page 864 .— H. P. Handy-

f a c t io n

of

E

m ployer—

sued to recover for labor and materials employed in the construction
of a building. There was a verdict in his favor, whereupon the
defendant, Mrs. Bliss, excepted. The exceptions were sustained in
part, so that the verdict could not stand. The points of interest from
a labor standpoint, however, were the rulings as to the substantial and
satisfactory performance of a contract and the right of the con­
tractor to recover therefor. On these points Judge Knowlton, who
spoke for the court, said:
To entitle the plaintiff to recover in a case of this kind there must
be an honest intention to perform the contract and an attempt to
perform it. There must be such an approximation to complete
erformanee that the owner obtains substantially what was called for
y the contract, although it may not be the same in every particular,
and although there may be omissions and imperfections on account
of which there should be a deduction from the contract price.
There is no reason why the doctrine of substantial performance
should not apply where the contract is to be performed to the satis­
faction of the owner, according to the usual meaning of this expression
as applied to contracts of this kind, namely, to his satisfaction, so far
as he is acting reasonably in considering the work in connection with
the contract.
Another request relates to the requirements that the work should
be done “ to the entire satisfaction and approval of the owner.”
The question is whether this language means that the owner must
act reasonably in determining wnether the work is satisfactory, or
whether, if he acts in good faith, he may decline to be satisfied and
refuse his approval upon a whimsical and unreasonable exercise of
personal taste or prejudice.
Where the subject-matter of the contract seems to involve questions
of personal taste or prejudice, and especially when in such a case no
benefit will pass under the contract unless the work is accepted, there
is more reason for giving such language the latter construction.
But as was said in Hawkins v. Graham (149 Mass., 284; 21 N. E.,312),
“ when the consideration furnished is of such a nature that its value
will be lost to the plaintiff, either wholly or in great part unless paid
for, a just hesitation must be felt and clear language required before
deciding that payment is left to the will, or even to the idiosyncracies
of the interested party. In different cases, courts have been inclined
to construe agreements of this class as agreements to do the thing in
such a way as reasonably ought to satisfy the defendant.”
The erection of a building upon real estate ordinarily confers a
benefit upon the owner, and he should not be permitted to escape
payment for it on account of a personal idiosyncracy. Indeed, under
the law of Massachusetts, this question is usually of little practical
application to contracts for buildings upon real estate; for if the
contract is not performed by reason of the failure of the owner to be
satisfied with that which ought to satisfy him, there can be a recovery
upon a quantum meruit; and in most cases the deduction that would

E




896

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

be made from the contract price, for the difference between the literal
performance of the contract and that which would have been a com­
plete performance if the owner had acted reasonably and accepted
the work, would be little if anything.

E

m ployer

and

E

m ployee—

T

e r m in a t io n

of

R

e l a t io n —

W iUm arth v. Cardoza, United States C ircu it Court
o f Appeals fo r the F irs t C ircu it, 176 Federal Reporter, page 1.— Albert

A

ssu m ed

R

is k s —

Cardoza was employed by John Willmarth and others as a hod carrier
and was injured by the negligent firing of a blast after his day’s work
had concluded. Cardoza had remained on the premises of his em­
ployer to cover up the work on which he had been engaged and then
went to get his coat from a shed, the door of which was locked.
While waiting for this door to be opened he was injured as above
stated, a piece of rock striking and breaking his leg. In the court
below judgment had been rendered in his favor on the ground that he
was no longer an employee of Willmarth’s and that the act of the
employee who fired the blast was not that of a fellow-servant. It was
conceded that if Cardoza was at the time of the injury an employee
he was a fellow-servant of the person by whose negligence he was
injured. The question of the termination of employment had been
submitted to the jury in the court below and was decided in favor of
the plaintiff. On appeal the court of appeals ruled that it was error
to submit this question to the jury and reversed the judgment of the
circuit court, as appears from the following quotations from the
opinion of the court as delivered by Judge Lowell:
The cases hold generally that a workman’s employment does not
cease at the instant his work time is over, that employment includes
the incidents of employment, and that the workman is still his
master’s servant while he is gathering up his tools and adjusting his
clothes after the day’s work, and is leaving the place of his employ­
ment. (Olsen v . Andrews, 168 Mass. 261, 47 N. E., 90; O’ Neil v.
Pittsburg R. R. (C. C.), 130 Fed. 204; Manville v . Cleveland &
T. R. R., 11 Ohio St. 417; Ewald v. C. & N. W . R. R., 70 Wis. 420,
36 N. W . 12, 591; 5 Am. St. Rep. 178 [etc.].)
Quoting Tunney v. Midland R . R., L. R., 1 C. P. 291, 296, Pollock
states the rule of common employment as follows:
“ A servant, when he engages to serve a master, undertakes, as
between himself and his master, to run all the ordinary risks of the
service, including the risk of negligence upon the part of a fellowservant when he is acting in the discharge of his duty as servant of
him who is the common master of both.” (Pollock on Torts (Webb’s
Ed.), p. 117.)
Is it to be supposed that implied contract and undertaking end
suddenly at a fixed minute, while the servant is still surrounded by
the conditions and risks of his employment, or that they continue
until the servant has ceased to be affected by these conditions and
risks? We think the latter conclusion is obviously correct. To



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

897

adopt the former, whether in favor of the master or of the servant,
would deprive the rule of its reason.
In the case at bar the plaintiff, indeed, did not dispute that his
employment would have continued until he reached the highway,
provided that he had walked there directly from the building. This
concession is decisive of the case at bar. If the employment covers,
not only the time during which the workman is engaged in his ordi­
nary labor, but also a later time, during which he is passing from the
surroundings of his employment into surroundings unrelated thereto,
then this additional period will evidently be longer or shorter accord­
ing to the circumstances. The distinction between employment and
nonemployment is the same, whether it works in favor of the master
or of the servant. In the case at bar the plaintiff is contending that
his employment ceased before the accident; but in the next case the
employee may be driven to maintain that his employment is pro­
longed to his final departure from the premises. This happened in
Boyle v . Columbian Fire Proofing Company, 182 Mass. 93, 102, 64
N /E . 726, 730, a suit brought under the employer’ s liability act
(act April 22,1908, e. 149, 35 Stat. 65 [U. S. Comp. St. Supp., 1909, p.
1171]). The plaintiff was injured while going down in an elevator at
the noon hour to get his dinner, and the court said:
“ Going from the particular part of the building where he has been
set to work, to eat dinner, is an incident of a workman’s employment
who is engaged by the day in erecting the#building in question, at
least so long as he has not finished passing over or through the
building to get his dinner.”
In the case at bar there was no evidence which warranted the jury
in finding that, at the time of the accident, the plaintiff had quitted
the defendants’ employ. The learned judge was therefore in error
in leaving the question of employment to the jury.
The judgment of the circuit court is reversed, the verdict set aside,
and the case remanded to that court for further proceedings.

E

m ployers’

L

ia b il it y —

I ncom petence

of

F

ellow

-S e r v a n t —

Northern P a c ific E a ilv ja y
Company v. Lundberg , United States C ircu it Court o f A ppeals , N inth
C ircu it, 176 Federal Reporter, page 8 Jfl.— John P. Lundberg was

E

v id e n c e

of

E

m p l o y e r ’s

K

nowledge—

employed as a brakeman by the company named above and while
coupling an engine to a car was injured by the alleged negligence of
the engineer. It was claimed on the trial that the engineer was
known to be incompetent and reckless, and evidence to this effect
was submitted in the trial court, to which the defendant company
objected; the company also contended that the injured employee
was guilty of contributory negligence and that he assumed the risks
of his employment, and asked for a ruling of the court to this effect.
The court allowed these questions to go to the jury, and from the
verdict and judgment in Lundberg’s favor an appeal was taken to
the court of appeals, resulting in the judgment of the court below
being affirmed.



898

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The opinion was delivered by Judge Hunt, and is in part as follows:
Upon the trial of the case the plaintiff [Lundberg] sought to prove
that the engineer in charge of the locomotive on which he was injured
was negligent, unskillful, reckless, and incompetent, and that the
defendant company had been negligent in retaining the engineer
after it had notice and knowledge of his want of skill and competency.
For this purpose the plaintiff offered, and, over the objection of the
defendant, was permitted to read, in evidence a record kept by the
defendant company of complaints and charges which had been pre­
ferred against the engineer in question for various delinquencies in
the discharge of his duty. The record, so offered and admitted, dis­
closed that Heasley, the engineer, entered the employ of the defendant
company on November 3,1899; that in December, 1899, he was given
a thirty-days’ record suspension for carelessness in starting a train,
and again during the same month a ten-days’ record suspension for
attempting to take water at a tank without cutting his engine from
the train. In October, 1900, he was given a sixty-days’ record sus­
pension for making an agreement with the crew of an opposing train
that he met on the main line not to make any official report of it, a
thirty-days’ record suspension in January, 1901, for poor judgment in
making a stop at a water tank, and in August, 1902, a reprimand for
derailing a car. In December, 1902, he was given a five-days’ record
suspension for running his engine off an open switch, and in August,
1902, he was reprimanded for allowing unauthorized persons to ride
in his engine. In April, 1904, he was given a sixty-days’ record susension for damage to a car on the Kalama Transfer Boat, and in
[arch, 1908, a thirty-days’ suspension for the derailment of an engine
at Richfield.

K

Two letters, one of warning and one of suspension, were also read,
one dated September 1, 1902, and one in April, 1904. After reading
them Judge Hunt said:
The action of the court below in admitting this record and these
letters, and the refusal of the court afterwards on motion of defend­
ant to strike out this evidence, are assigned as errors, and the case of
Southern Pacific Co. v. Hetzer, 135 Fed. 272, 68 C. C. A. 26, 1 L. R.
A. (N. S.) 288, is cited to sustain the defendant’s contention. For
the purpose of proving the alleged incompetency of the engineer,
Delano, the plaintiff, Hetzer, was asked by his counsel on the trial of
the case if there was any other occurrence of sudden stopping or jerk­
ing of the train while Delano was in charge of it as the engineer during
the day of the accident, and, over the objection of the defendant, the
plaintm was permitted to testify that about three hours before the
accident Delano stopped his train in a very rough manner, causing
the plaintiff to stagger. Evidence of another act of a similar charac­
ter on the part of the engineer was admitted in evidence over the
objection of the defendant company. No attempt was made to
brmg home to the defendant any knowledge of the engineer’s care­
lessness, and no showing was made either that Delano was habitually
reckless and careless, so as to charge the defendant company with
knowledge thereof, nor was it shown that the defendant company was
aware, or had notice, of any acts indicating that the engineer nad been




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

899

reckless or careless on previous occasions, or that he was incompetent
to discharge the duties of his employment. It was therefore held that
the trial court committed error in admitting this testimony, in the
absence of any showing of knowledge on the part of the company.
But, in the discussion o f the question presented m that case, the court
distinctly states the rule to be well settled that prior acts of an engi­
neer, showing want of care and indicating incompetence, are admissi­
ble in evidence where knowledge of such acts is brought home to such
defendant company.
A number o f cases are cited by the court in its opinion, and to the
same effect is the case of Conover v. Neher-Ross Co., 38 Wash. 172,
80 Pac. 281,107 Am. St. Rep. 841. The defendant’s objection, there­
fore, was not well taken, and no error was committea by the trial
court in that respect.
E

m ployers’

L

ia b il it y —

L a s t C l e a r C h a n c e — H err v. St. L ou is

and San Francisco Railroad Com pany,

United States Circuit Court

o f A ppea ls, Fifth Circuit, 174 Federal Reporter, page 9 8 8 .—W . A. Herr

sued the company named above to recover damages for the death
of E. J. Herr, who was killed while acting as conductor on a train of
the company. It was in evidence that Herr was negligent in having
his train in the position in which it was at the time of the injury
causing his death. It appeared, however, that one Smith, the engi­
neer of the train which collided with Herr’s train, could have avoided
the accident by the use of means which were in his power. In the
circuit court judgment was given for the railroad company and Herr
appealed, with the result that the judgment of the lower court was
reversed and the cause remanded for a new trial. The opinion was
written by Judge Shelby, who discussed the evidence and announced
the law applicable to the case in the concluding paragraph of his
opinion as follows:
If Smith, the engineer in charge of the engine attached to train No.
256, did see, or could, by the exercise of ordinary or reasonable care,
have seen, standing on the track, the caboose in which Herr sat and
on which he was killed, far enough before striking it to have avoided
the collision by stopping his trian, the plaintiff would be entitled to
recover, notwithstanding the previous negligence of Herr. The rule
seems to be unquestioned that notwithstanding the person injured was
guiltv of negligence in exposing himself to an injury at the hands of
the defendant, yet, if the defendant discovered the exposed situation
of the person in time by the exercise of ordinary or reasonable care
after so discovering it to have avoided the injury, and nevertheless
failed to do so, the contributory negligence of tne person injured does
not bar a recovery of damages from the defendant. (Grand Trunk
Railway Co. v. Ives, 144 U. S. 408, 429, 12 Sup. Ct. 679, 36 L. Ed.
485; Inland & Seaboard Coasting Co. v. Tolson, 139 U. S. 551, 11
Sup. Ct. 653, 35 L. Ed. 270; 1 Thompson on Negligence, secs. 237,
238, 239.)
The judgment of the circuit court is reversed and the cause re­
manded for a new trial.
47150— B u ll. 88— 10------ 14




900

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

E m p l o y e r s ’ L i a b i l i t y — M i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f A g e — Lupher v.
A tchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe R a ilw a y Company, Supreme Court o f
Kansas, 106 P a c ific Reporter, page 284 .— Jay Lupher sued the company

named for damages for injuries received by reason of its alleged negli­
gence while he was employed by it as brakeman. Lupher was 18
years of age, but represented himself to be 21 in order to gain employ­
ment. On account of this misrepresentation the lower court sus­
tained a demurrer to his evidence and rendered judgment for the
company. Lupher thereupon appealed, and secured a reversal of the
lower court. The reasons therefor appear in the following portion
of the opinion, which was delivered by Judge Mason:
The decision of the trial court is supported by Norfolk&W . Ry. Co. v.
Bondurant, Adm ’r, 107 Va. 515, 59 S. E. 1091 [Bulletin No. 75, p.
648], upon which it is said to have been based. That case, in turn, is
founded expressly upon Fitzmauriee v. New York, N. H. & H. R. Co.,
192 Mass. 159, 78 N. E. 418, 116 Am. St. Rep. 236, and the citations
in a note thereto in 6 L. R. A. (N. S.) 1146. The substance of the
Massachusetts case is that one who uses a railroad ticket obtained at
a reduced rate by fraudulent representations is not a passenger in the
sense of being entitled to protection as such, and stands in no better
position than a mere trespasser. This is the general doctrine, to which
there seems to be no dissent. (6 Cyc. 538.) The Virginia court took
the view that by parity of reasoning one who obtains employment
from a railway company by a false statement as to his age is prevented
by his fraudulent act from becoming an employee. We think the
two situations are obviously dissimilar. The analogy is not close
enough to warrant the application of the same rule. Among other
differences may be noted this: In the one instance a person desiring
to be transported from one point to another fraudulently procures
the railway company to render him that service, a service which is
wholly for his benefit, and in which the company has no interest
whatever. He obtains by false pretenses something of value to him­
self for which he renders no equivalent. In the other the seeker of
employment does, it is true, procure his contract by false representa­
tions, but, having obtained it, he begins the performance of service for
the benefit of the company, and renders it an equivalent for all that
he receives from it. True, the company could at its option upon dis­
covery of the deceit discharge him at any moment (26 Cyc. 989), but
even then he would be entitled to compensation for the time he had
served, not necessarily at the agreed rate, but according to the reason­
able value of his services. (Anstee v. Ober, 26 Mo. App. 665.) The
relation of master and servant exists in virtue of the one party per­
forming valuable services which are accepted and paid for by the other.
If Lupher had arrived at full age when the accident occurred, it would
hardly be contended that he was still a trespasser. Y et he would
still have been working for the company under a contract he had
obtained by misrepresentation. The difference would be that his
arrival at majority would have rendered it absolutely impossible that
any injury should result to the company from the deception.
In Matlock v. Williamsville, etc., R y. Co., 198 Mo. 495, 95 S. W.
849,115 Am. St. Rep. 481, it was held that a right of recovery existed



901

DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

under facts substantially similar to those here presented. And in
Kirkham v . Wheeler-Osgood Co., 39 Wash., 415, 81 Pacific 869, a
judgment was sustained based upon the injury through neglect of an
employer of a minor who had gained his opportunity to work by over­
stating his age. The theory that the use of deception in obtaining
employment prevents the establishment of the relation of master and
servant appears not to have been suggested in either of these cases,
nor does it seem ever to have been approved by a reviewing court
except in the one instance. Notes to the Virginia case in 15 £ . R. A.
(N. S.) 443, and 122 Am. St. Rep. 874, contain no mention of any
similar decision.
We conclude that, both upon reason and authority, the plaintiff
was entitled to recover damages for any injury resulting from a viola­
tion of the duties ordinarily owing from an employer to an employee.
Of course, if it had been established that the accident was occasioned
by his minority or immaturity, a very different question would be
presented.
E

m ploym ent

of

Ch il d r e n — I n j u r y — R

ig h t

of

F ather

to

B rasw ell v. G arfield Cotton O il M ill Company,
Court o f A ppeals o f Georgia, 66 Southeastern Reporter, page 589.— R.

R

ecover

D

am ages—

Braswell sued the company named for an injury to his son, who was
employed by the company to sack cotton-seed hulls, but was injured
while oiling moving machinery. In the trial court damages were
refused the father, who thereupon appealed, and secured a reversal of
the judgment of the lower court, as appears from the following extract
of the opinion of the court.
Judge Powell, after stating the facts, said:
When a father hires his minor child to another, the contract of
employment, as in general is true in cases of masters and servants,
tends to define the reciprocal rights and duties of the relationship (see
Brown v. Rome Machinery & Foundry Co., 5 Ga. App. 142, 62 S. E.
720); and the father, suing for the loss of services o f his minor son,
occasioned by injuries received pending the employment, is held to
have assumed, through the contract by which he hired the child to
the master, the risks of the particular employment included in the con­
tract, to the same extent that the child would have assumed them if
he had been an adult and had made the contract of employment him­
self. But, when the employer puts the minor to doing work not con­
tracted for, the reason fails, and the rule is different.
Touching the services of an infant, it may be said, upon surest foot­
ings of reason and of law, that the father has a property right. In the
case of Chields v. Yonge, 15 Ga. 356, 60 Am. Dec. 698, the question is
asked and answered: ‘ ‘ May a father treat his minor son as his servant,
and sue for an injury to the son, as for an injury to a servant ? If the
son be old enough to render service, the father may. ” This statement
is cited and approved in Amos v. Atlanta R y. Co., 104 Ga. 809, 812,
31 S. E. 42.
The case of one who engages from a parent a minor child for the pur­
pose of a particular service is so similar in basal consideration to the
case of one who hires a slave, a horse, a chattel, or any other thing of



902

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR*

value from another for one purpose, and then employs it for another,
as to make the general principle, applicable in the familiar class of
cases last mentioned, likewise applicable to the case of the father,
when injury has resulted to him from the fact that the son’s services
were diverted from what the original intention of the contracting
parties was that they should be.

L

O r g a n iz a t io n s —

abor

U

n in c o r p o r a t e d

A

s s o c ia t io n s —

v. United States, Court
o f A ppeals o f the D istrict o f Colum bia, 88 W ashington Law Reporter,
page 26 .— William Rhode had been convicted of embezzlement
N

ature—

E

m bezzlem ent b y

O f f i c e r — Rhode

of funds belonging to local union No. 77 of the International Union
of Steam Engineers, and appealed. This' union was an unin­
corporated association, the objects of which were declared to be the
mutual benefit of its members in matters of employment, the encour­
agement of feelings of friendship, mutual assistance, and the exten­
sion of license laws for the better protection of life and property.
The membership consisted of persons employed as steam engineers,
who paid monthly dues of $1 each into the hands of the financial sec­
retary, who turned them over to treasurer. Rhode was treasurer
of the association in April, 1908, and at the meeting of April 9 was
directed to draw certain funds from a savings bank and deposit the
amount that was in his hands with a trust company and report to
the next meeting. A t the meeting of April 16 Rhode appeared and
reported that he had drawn the money from the bank and put it in a
wallet with some money of his own, but that while on his way to the
meeting he had been robbed of the wallet and its contents, the loss
to the union being about $220. On- the evidence the court below
found him guilty of embezzlement as charged, the court having
refused to instruct the jury that the crime, if any, was larceny and not
embezzlement, and, second, that the funds in Rhode’s hands were
partnership funds in which he had an interest, so that he could not
be guilty of embezzlement thereof. On refusal to grant these instruc­
tions Rhode excepted. The exceptions were overruled by the court
of appeals and the judgment of the court below affirmed. The opin­
ion, which was delivered by Judge Shepard, is reproduced in part
below:
1.
The first assignment of error is that the offense shown by the
evidence, if an offense at all, is larceny and not embezzlement as
charged in the indictment. To constitute larceny the property must
be unlawfully taken from the possession of another with the fraudu­
lent intent to convert the same to his own use. The taker without
the consent of the owner commits a trespass. The offense of embez-?
zlement consists in the wrongful conversion of the property, which
has been intrusted to the possession of another. He commits no
trespass or wrong in acquiring the possession, but a breach of trust



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

903

in converting the property to his own use. As the appellant was
intrusted with the money in this case, as the agent of the owner, if
he committed any offense at all, it amounted to embezzlement, and he
was properly indicted and convicted of that offense under section 834
of the Code, which reads as follows:
“ If an agent, attorney, clerk or servant of a private person or
copartnership, or any officer, attorney, agent, clerk or servant of any
association or incorporated company shall, wrongfully convert to his
own use, or fraudulently take, make away with, or secrete, with
intent to convert to his own use, anything of value which shall come
into his possession or under his care by virtue of his employment or
office, whether the thing so converted be the property of his master
or employer or that of any other person, copartnership, association
or corporation, he shall be deemed guilty of embezzlement, and pun­
ished by a fine not exceeding $1,000, or by imprisonment for not
more than ten years, or both.”
2. The appellant chiefly relies on the second assignment of error,
which is that the court refused “ to hold that upon the proof it appeared
that the defendant was a member of a partnership whose property
the money, alleged to have been embezzled, was; and that property
of a partnership could not be the subject of embezzlement by one of
the partners.”
Unincorporated associations of persons for social, educational, and
charitable purposes, or for the mutual benefit and advancement of the
interests of the associations in various way, as may be provided in
their several constitutions and by-laws, have always been recognized
as lawful, though there may be no statutory regulation of their organi­
zation and control. As such they are included in section 834, supra,
among those whose officers, agents, etc., may by wrongfully convert­
ing the funds intrusted to them become liable to punishment for
embezzlement. The association in this instance was not organized
for any purpose of trade or profit. There could, therefore, be no
mutual participation of members in profit or loss. The retirmg of a
member by reason of death, resignation, or expulsion worked no dis­
solution or the association. It continued its existence regardless of
changes in its membership. An association for such purposes and
under such conditions is not a partnership. Assuming that under
certain conditions it might possibly be held liable as a partnership at
the suit of others than members, by virtue of the principle of estoppel,
yet as between its own members, it can not be held to be a partnership.
(Lafond v. Deems, 81 N. Y . 507; Burke v. Roper, 79 Ala. 138-142;
Ash v. Guie, 97 Pa. St. 493-499.)
It follows that in so far as the relation of partnership is involved
the court did not err in refusing to take the view urged.
3. It is further contended that by reason of his membership of the
unincorporated association, the appellant had an interest in the
fund analogous to that of a member of a partnership, or such a prop­
erty interest, at least, that he can not be held guilty of the offense of
embezzlement for its wrongful conversion.
This fund was accumulated, through payments of dues and other
ways, for the promotion of the general purposes of the association,
each member being entitled to as much of the expected benefits as
another. There appears to exist no power to compel a member to
pay dues; but his membership would cease upon his failure to do so.



904

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

An active member has no interest in the fund, which he could with*
draw or assign, and when he retires is entitled to no distribution. The
by-laws provide that there shall be a treasurer into whose possession
all moneys of the association shall be delivered when collected by the
financial secretary or agent. And when so received by the treasurer
they can not be paid out for any purpose except by draft signed by
the president and recording secretary in pursuance of a resolution
adopted at a meeting of the union.
The appellant, being an active member and remaining one during
his term of office, was elected treasurer, and the fund which he con­
verted came into his possession by virtue of his office. Considering
the objects and laws of the association, and the fact that the majority
of the members in meeting assembled were vested with the absolute
control and disposition of the funds in the treasury, it is difficult to
perceive that the appellant had any definite interest therein in the
nature of property.
The appellant was an officer of his association, and came into pos­
session of the money by virtue of that office only. He was not enti­
tled to the possession of any part of the fund except by virtue of his
office, and he could not pay it out, in whole or in part, unless under
an order passed at a meeting of the association. Any other disposi­
tion of a aollar of the fund would be a plain breach of his trust. The
statute especially applies to officers of the unincorporated association,
the various kinds of which were well known; and there is nothing to
indicate an intention to limit the offense to those officers only who are
not at the same time actual members of such associations. No reason
can be suggested why officers equally guilty of willful wrongdoing,
should be exempted from punishment for tne sole reason that they
might happen to be members as well as officers of the association.
The charge of the trial court was a correct statement of the law in
application to the evidence, and the judgment will therefore be
affirmed.
N

e g l ig e n c e

of

F

ellow

-S e b v a n t — L

ia b il it y o f

One W

obkm an

Brow er v. Northern P a c ific R ailw ay
Com pany, Supreme Court o f M innesota , 124 Northwestern Reporter,
page 1 0 — John D. Brower sued the company named and one K lovfob

I n j u b ie s

to

A

notheb—

stad, a locomotive engineer in its employment, for damages resulting
from injuries caused by the negligence of Klovstad. The latter
demurred to the complaint charging him with liability, which
demurrer the district court of St. Louis County overruled. Klovstad
thereupon appealed, the appeal resulting in the ruling of the lower
court being affirmed. Upon this point Judge Lewis, speaking for the
supreme court, said:
Whether a negligent servant is liable in an action for damages by
another servant in the employ of the same master depends upon the
common-law obligation to so conduct himself as not to cause injury
to another, and does not rest upon any duty imposed by privity of
contract. (Griffiths v. Wolfram, 22 Minn. 185; Osborne v. Morgan,
130 Mass. 102, 39 Am. Rep. 437; Warax v. Cincinnati, N. O. & T. R .
Ry. Cd. (C. C.) 72 Fed. 637; Charman v . Lake Erie & W . R . Co. (C. C.)



905

DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

105 Fed. 449; Atkins v. Field, 89 Me. 281,36 Atl. 375, 56 Am. St. Rep.
424; Dudley v. 111. Central R y. Co., 96 S. W . 835, 29 K y. Law Rep.
1029, 13 L. R . A. (N. S.) 1186; Ward v. Pullman Car Corporation
(K y.) 114 S. W . 754; Baird v. Shipman, 132 111. 16, 23 N. E. 384, 7 L.
R . A. 128, 22 Am. St. Rep. 504.) As stated in Griffiths v. Wolfram,
supra: “ Where several persons are engaged in the same work, in
which the negligent or unskillful performance of his part by one may
cause danger to the others, and in which each must necessarily
depend for his safety upon the good faith, skill, and prudence of each
of the others in doing his part of the work, there it is the duty of
each to the others engaged on the work to exercise the care and skill
ordinarily employed by prudent men in similar circumstances, and
he is liable for any injury occurring to any one of the others by reason
of a neglect to use such care and skill.”

R

a il r o a d

Co m p a n ie s — P o s t a l C l e r k s — St a t u s — L

ia b il it y

for

B arker v. Chicago , P e o ria , and S t L o u is R ailw ay Com­
pany, Supreme Court o f Illin o is , 90 Northeastern Reporter, page 1057.—
I n j u r ie s —

This was an appeal from a judgment in favor of William Barker, a
postal clerk, who was injured by the alleged negligent act of the rail­
road company, on whose train he was riding. Among the grounds
offered for reversing the lower courts, the company contended that
it did not owe postal clerks the duty owed to passengers and that
the instruction as to necessary care in his behalf should indicate
only ordinary care. This the supreme court denied and affirmed
the judgment of the court below. Judge Dunn, who delivered the
opinion of the court, spoke as follows on the status of employees not
in the service of the railroad company, but carried by it on its trains:
The appellee [Barker] was lawfully on the train, to be carried by
the appellant for a consideration received by it under its contract
with the Government as its compensation for carrying the mail and
the person in charge of it. Under such circumstances the law imposes
upon the railroad company the duty of carrying safely, and the degree
or care required is commensurate with the dangerous consequences
likely to result from negligence. Whether or not, in a strict sense,
the relation of carrier and passenger exists between the railroad com­
pany and the postal clerk, courts hold with substantial unanimity
that a postal clerk upon a railway train is entitled to the same measure
of care as an ordinary passenger for hire. He has as good a right
to.be upon the train as the ordinary passenger, and his life is just
as valuable. The moral duty to exercise care to avoid injuring him
is the same, and no valid reason exists for a distinction in the
legal duty. The rule that requires the exercise of the utmost care
and vigilance to guard against accident extends to every case in
which a carrier receives and agrees to transport another not in its
employment, whether by contract with the person to be carried or
with some other person by whom the person to be carried is employed
for the purpose of transacting the employer's business upon the cars
or other conveyances of the carrier. In case the person so to be car­



906

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

ried is injured through the negligence of the carrier or its servants,
without his fault, his right to recover damages rests upon the same
basis as that of an ordinary passenger for hire. Recoveries have been
had on this basis in many other cases besides those already cited.
The principle has been applied to postal clerks, express messengers,
persons riding on a drovers pass, and persons permitted to conduct
a business on a public conveyance by arrangement with the carrier.
(Gleeson v. Virginia Midland Railway Co., 140 U. S. 435, 11 Sup.
Ct. 859, 35 L. Ed. 458; Nolton v . Western Railroad Corp., 15 N. i .
44, 69 Am. Dec. 623; Blair v. Erie Railway Co., 66 N. Y . 313, 23
Am. Rep. 55; Brewer v. New York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad
Co., 124 N. Y . 59, 26 N. E. 324, 11 L. R. A. 483, 21 Am. St. Rep.
647 [etc.].)
In Pennsylvania it has been held that the right of action of a pos­
tal clerk for injuries received while being carried in the mail car is
only such as would exist if he was an employee of the railroad com­
pany, and does not stand on the same footing as that of a passenger.
(Pennsylvania Railroad Co. v. Price, 96 Pa. 256; Foreman v. Penn­
sylvania Railroad Co., 195 Pa. 499, 46 Atl. 109.) But those deci­
sions are based upon the construction of a statute of Pennsylvania.
W e have held that a railroad company, in contracting with an
express company for the transportation of express matter and the
company’s messengers in charge thereof, may require an exemption
from liability for the negligence of its employees, and that a contract
made by the messenger with the express company in consideration
of his employment, assuming all risk of injury in the course of his
employment, occasioned by the negligence of the railroad company,
and releasing the railroad company from liability to him therefor, was
not against public policy, but would be enforced. (Blank v. Illinois
Central Railroad Co., 182 111. 332, 55 N. E. 332.) The same rule has
been applied to a like contract made by a sleeping-car porter. (Chi­
cago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway Co. v. Hander, 215 111. 525, 74
N. E. 705, T L. R. A. (N. S.) 674, 106 Am. St. Rep. 187.) The prin­
ciple on which these cases were decided is that the radroad company
is not bound to receive and haul over its road express cars or sleeping
cars, or to furnish to the owners of such cars racdities for carrying
on their business on its railroad. It may undertake to do so; but,
if it does, the undertaking is not the performance of a duty imposed
by law, but is a special contract, giving rights which, as a common
carrier, it could not be compelled to grant. The principle is announced
in numerous decisions of other courts, but is not applicable here.
There was no release of the appellant’s liabdity, either by the appellee
or by the Government. Even if it be conceded that the appellant
was not a common carrier as to the appellee and that the appellee
was not a passenger, yet appellant was liable to the appellee for
negligence to the same extent as to a passenger, and the fact that his
contract to release the appellant from liabdity would have been valid
is not important, unless ne actually made a contract to release it.
The trial court, therefore, did not err in instructing the jury as to
the measure of care required of the appedant.




INDEX TO VOLUME 20.

Accidents, industrial, and employers’ liability in Wisconsin, 1907 .....................................................
Accidents, industrial:
Pennsylvania, statistics of, 1908 .......................................................................................................
• Washington, statistics of, 1908 .........................................................................................................
Alcoholic beverages, expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. (S e e Cost of
living of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
American factories, phosphorus poisoning and factory conditions in ..................................................
Australia, wages ana hours of labor of union carpenters in..................................................................
Austria, hours of labor and rates of wage3, 1906 and 1907:
Building trades..................................................................................................................................
Clothing industry..............................................................................................................................
Food products industry....................................................................................................................
Leather industry...............................................................................................................................
Metal-working and machine-building industries............................................................................
Paper industry..................................................................................................................................
Stone, earth, and clay industries......................................................................................................
Textile industry............................................................................................ . . ................................
Transportation industries.................................................................................................................
Woodworking industries...................................................................................................................
Austria:
Hours of labor in selected occupations, 1907 ....................................................................................
Phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of............................................................................................
Austria-Hungary, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of....................................................................

848-850
843
223
86-140
598
840,841
835,836
838-840
831,832
828-830
836-838
826-828
833,834
841,842
830,831
824-826
77,78
77

B.
Belgium:
Cost of living of working classes in principal industrial towns of.................................................. 608-625
Hours of labor in the building, engineering, and printing trades compared with England........... 624,625
Phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of............................................................................................
76,77
Kates of wages in the building, engineering, and printing trades................................................. 620-622
Rents of working-class dwellings..................................................................................................... 609-612
Retail prices of commodities paid by working classes.................................................................... 612-620
Unemployment fund of Ghent, operations of the......................................................................... 853-858
Boot and shoe industry in Great Britain, earnings and hours of labor of employees in— 193-195,202,203
British clothing industries, earnings and hours of labor in. (S e e Earnings and hours of labor in
British clothing industries.)
British Trade Boards Act, 1909........... : ................................................................................................. 185-191
Building trades:
Earnings and hours of labor of employees in, in Great Britain..................................................... 628-631
Hours of labor and rates of wages in, in Austria, 1906 and 1907........................, ........................... 840,841
Hours of labor in, in Belgium compared with England.................................................................
G24
Rates of wages i n Belgium....................................................................................................................................... 620-622
Belgium and Great Britain compared...................................................................................... 623,624
Wages of employees in, in Germany............................................................ 1................................. 803-808
C .

Cabinetmaking industry in Great Britain, earnings of employees in ..................................................
633
Canada, wages and hours of labor of union carpenters in.............................................................................594
Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act, 1907:
Amendments suggested.....................................................................................................................
17-21
'* :ations for boards of conciliation and investigation, January, 1908, to August, 1909.........
24-29
resented in New York and in Wisconsin..............................................................................
21
3appointed, number of, by industries...................................................................................
4
Boards of conciliation and investigation, procedure of, January, 1908, to August, 1909..............
24-29
Coal mine strikes, operation of the act in connection with.........................................................4-8,24,25
Conclusions as to operation of the act...............................................................................................
21,22
Cotton mills, operation of the act in connection with....................................................................
4
Disputes considered............................
3-9
Electric railways, operation of the act in connection with.............................................................
4
Employees affected in strikes investigated......................................................................................
4
Employers, attitude of, toward the act............................................................................................
10
Industries and occupations to which the act applies......................................................................
1,2
Industries other than mines, agencies of transportation and communication, and other public
utilities, operation of the act in relation to...................................................................................
28,29
Intervention under the act............................................................................................................ 4-9,24-29
Labor unions, attitude of, toward the act.......................................................................................
11-16
Metal mines, operation of the act in connection with.................................................................... 4,26,27
Method of procedure..........................................................................................................................
2,3

S




907

908

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act, 1907—Concluded.
Miners, attitude of, toward the act...................................................................................................
13-16
Municipal employees, operation of the act in connection with......................................................
4
Occupations and industries to which the act applies......................................................................
1,2
Organized labor, attitude of, toward the act...................................................................................
11-10
Proceedings under the act, summary of, January, 1908, to August, 1909...................................... 24-29
Public opinion toward the act...........................................................................................................
9-16
Purpose of the act...............................................................................................................................
2
Kailway unions, attitude of, toward the act...................................................................................
12,13
Railways, operation of the act in connection with.................................................................. 4,8,9,26-29
Scope of the act..................................................................................................................................
1,2
Settlements without strikes, number of..........................................................................................
4
Shipping industry, operation of the act in connection with......................................................... 4,28,29
Shoe factories, operation of the act in connection with..................................................................
4
Street railways, operation of the act in connection with................................................................
28,29
Strikes, illegal, number of, begun before or pending investigation................................................
4
Strikes, legal, number of, begun after report of a board.................................................................
4
Capital invested in manufacture of matches at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905 .......................
43
Carpenters, union, wages and hours of labor of. ( S e e Wages and hours of labor of union carpenters.)
Carpenters, wages of, in Germany...........................................................................................................
805
Cases of phosphorus poisoning, number of, in the United States........................................................
32,33
Child labor in Minnesota, 1907.................................................................................................................
212
Clothing industries, British, earnings and hours of labor in. (S e e Earnings and hours of labor in
British clothing industries.)
Clothing industry in Austria, hours of labor and rates of wages in, 1906 and 1907 ............................. 835,836
Clothing, laundry, etc., expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. ( S e e Cost
of living of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Coal mines in Germany, earnings of employees in ................................................................................. 797-801
Coal mining in Pennsylvania, statistics of, 1908.....................................................................................
845
Construction of harbors, docks, etc., in Great Britain, earnings and hours of labor of employees
engaged i n .............................................................................................................................................
631
Copper mines in Germany, earnings of employees i n ......................................................................... 800,801
Cost of living:
New York, 1907..................................................................................................................................
215
Washington, 1908...............................................................................................................................
223
Cost of living of the working classes in the principal industrial towns of Belgium........................... 608-625
Hours of labor.................................................................................................................................... 624,625
Rates of wages—
Belgium....................................................................................................................................... 620,623
Belgium and Great Britain compared...................................................................................... 623,624
Rents of working-class dwellings—
Belgium................................................... .*.................................................................................. 609,610
Belgium and Great Britain compared................................................................................ 611,612,625
Retail prices—
Belgium....................................................................................................................................... 612-617
Belgium and Great Britain compared................................................................................ 617-620,625
Scope of the investigation................................................................................................................. 608,609
625
Summary of conclusions.............................
Cost of living of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.................................................... 697-794
Alcohol, consumption of..........................................
784-789
Expenditures—
according to size of family.......................................................................................................... 709-715
classified by amount of expenditure............................................................................................715-722
in families of wage-earners and families of salaried persons..................................................... 750-763
total, and expenditure per family and per adult m ale............................................................ 772-775
units of, in normal families......................................................................................................... 764-775
Food, consumption of........................................................................................................................ 776-784
Income according to size of family.................................................................................................... 705-709
Income and expenditureaccording to occupation of head of family................................................................................. 730-749
according to size of locality......................................................................................................... 722-729
Scope of the investigation................................................................................................................. 697-699
Studies of cost of liv in g in Germany.................................................................................................................................. 789-793
in other countries........................................................................................................................ 793,794
Summary of results............................................................................................................................ 699-705
Cotton, woolen, and knitting mills of North Carolina, statistics of, 1908............................................. 219,220
D.
Debts and interest, expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. ( S e e Cost of
living of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Decisions of courts affecting labor:
Accident insurancecontracts—construction—forfeitures—classes of occupations................................................... 659-662
em ployed indemnity—employment of children in violation of law as to age—employment
endangering life or limb—construction of statute................................................................. 868-871
employers’ indemnity—scope of policy—ordinary repairs....................................................... 892-894
Assignment of wages—future earnings—new contract o f employment—revocation of power of
attorney—interest—equity...................................................................................................... 349-353
Blacklistingstatement of cause of discharge—constitutionalty of statute................................................... 871-873
unlawful discrimination—injury to property—relief................................................................ 662-664
Contracts of em ploym entaction for wages—quantum meruit—evidence—other employment....................................... 664,665
breach—recovery for subsequent services................................................................................. 665,666
discharge—competence of employee.......................................................................................... 666,667
discharge—payment of wages—tender—penalty—new employment...................................... 638-640
substantial performance—satisfaction of employer.................................................................. 895,896
termination—reduction of wages—notice—evidence................................................................. 667-669




INDEX TO VOLUME 20.

909

Decisions of courts affecting labor—Continued.
I aSe>
Employer and em ployeenegligence of employees—injuries to third persons—liability of employers........................... 609-671
termination of relation—assumed risks.................................................................................... 896,897
Employers’ lia b ility actions—removal from state to federal courts—joinder of employer and employee.............. 873,874
age of employee—misrepresentation......................................................................................... 900,901
carriers—employees of express companies—contracts waiving right of action for injuries—
law governing.......................................................................................................................... 640-642
civil law—fellow-servants—damages......................................................................................... 671,672
comparative negligence................................................................................................ 647-649,877-880
employment of children—age as evidence of capacity—presumptions as to defenses of as­
sumed risks and contributory negligence—status at common law..................................... 672-674
employment of children—violation of statute—effect on right of recovery—proximate
cause—purposes of statute...................................................................................................... 874,875
employment of children—violation of statute—injury—proximate cause—waiver of law by
inspeetor................................................................................................................................... 642-645
factory inspection law—notice of injury—evidence.................................................................. 645,646
factory inspection law—violation—assumption of risk—waiver of provisions of statutes.. . 875-877
incompetence of fellow-servants—evidence of employers’ knowledge.................................... 897-899
injuries by fellow-servants—“ initiation ” of new employees.................................................. 674,675
joinder of employer and employee in actions for injuries.......................................... 873,874,880,881
mine regulations—negligence of certified foreman—fellow-service.......................................... 646,647
misrepresentation of age.............................................................................................................90{L 901
negligence—comparative negligence—construction of statute................................................. 877-880
negligence—evidence—excessive hours of labor.........................................................................353-355
negligence of fellow-servant—joint liability............................................................................. 880,881
railroad companies—federal statute—acceptance of relief benefits.......................................... 310-313
railroad companies—federal statute—injuries causing death—damages................................ 313-315
railroad companies—federal statute—inj uries causing death—survival of right of action___315,316
railroad companies—federal statute—powers of Federal Government—constitutionality of
statute....................................: ................................................................................................ 322-331
railroad companies—federal statute of 1906—validity in the Territories and the District of
Columbia.............; ......... . . . . . . . . . .......................................................................................... 316-319
railroad companies—federal and state statutes........................................................................
882
railroad companies—fellow-servant law—state statutes as affecting interstate traffic—doc­
trine of comparative negligence—constitutionality.............................................................. 647-649
railroad companies—fellow-servants—construction of statute............................................... 649,650
railroad companies—fellow-servants—instantaneous death—survival of right of action—con­
struction of statute....................................................................................................................319-322
railroad companies—rules—enforcement—measure of damages—prospective earnings......... 675-678
railroads—headlights—violation of statute.............................................................................. 882,883
railway relief societies—receipt of benefits as bar to action for damages—contracts made in
another State........................................................................................................................... 883,884
release—fraud—evidence—mental canacity of injured employee—return of benefits............ 679,680
Employment of children—
injury—right of parent to recover damages............................................................................. 901,902
violation of statute—appeal—repeated offenses—3tay of proceedings—prohibition.............. 650,651
violation of statute—compensation—place of making contracts............................................ 884,885
Examination and licensing of electricians—constitutionality of statute—equal protection of
law s................................................................................................................................................ 651-653
Examination and licensing of plumbers—constitutionality of statute—construction................. 653,654
Hours of labor—
eight-hour day—vioiawons—information................................................................................. 885,886
employment in bakeries—constitutionality of statute............................................................. 887,888
employment in mines—constitutionality of statute................................................................ 886,887
employment on public works—municipal corporations—constitutionality of statute......... 332-334
Inspection of bakeries—hours of labor—constitutionality of statute............................................ 887,888
Interference with employment—motive—reasonable conduct........................................................6S0-6S6
Labor organizations—
- - - embezzlement of funds—nature of unincorporated associations............................................. 902-904
injunction—contempt—nature of proceedings—appeals.......................................................... 355-370
injunction—dissolution—interference with contracts of employment..................................... 686-691
intimidation—interference with employment—injunction—right of bondholders to su e.. . 370-372
letting of public contracts—discrimination—municipal corporations..................................... 372-375
strikes—boycotts—secondary boycotts—picketing—injunction............................................. 334-340
strikes—unlawful acts of strikers—injunction—rights of employers and employees—inter­
ference with employment....................................................................................................... 691-694
union label—unlawful use—injunction..................................................................................... 654,655
Laundry regulations—location—restriction of employment—police power.................................. 888,889
Negligence of fellow-servant—liability of one workman for injuries to another.......................... 904,905
Payment of wages—
- ............
railroad companies—semimonthly pay day—constitutionality of statute............................ 340-347
semimonthly pay day—contracts waiving provisions of statutes—regulation of corpora­
tions—constitutionality of statute......................................................................................... 890-892
time checks—redemption.............................................................................................. 655,656,694,695
Protection of employees on street railways—vestibules for motormen—corporations—p en alty constitutionality of statute............................................................................................................ 656,657
Railroad companies—postal clerks—status—liability for injuries.................................................. 905,906
Railroads—safety appliances—equipment and repair.................................................................... 347-349
Strikes—damage to property—liability of municipalities—construction of statute..................... 658,659
Denmark, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of................................................................................
67,68
Digest of recent foreign statistical publications:
Austria—
Die Arbeitseinstellungen und Aussperrungen in Osterreich wahrend des Jahres 1907......... 227-232
Belgium—
Fonds intercommunal de Chdmage de Y Agglomeration gantoise. Rapport sur le fonctionnement du Fonds pendant les annSes 1906,1907, et 1908, pr^sentd au Conseil communal
de Gand................................................................................................................................... 853-858




910

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Digest of recent foreign statistical publications—Continued.
Page.
France—
Statistique des Graves et des Recours a la Conciliation et a PArbitrage Survenus Pendant
PAnnee, 1907............................................................................................................................ 233-239
Germany—
Streiks und Aussperrungen im Jahre 1907................................................................................ 239-244
Die Regelung des Arbeitsverhaltnisses der Gemeindearbeiter in deutschen Stadten. I.
Erhebungen uber Arbeitslohn und Arbeitszeit, 1902 und 1907. II. Die Arbeitsverordnungen und sonstigen Bestimmungen zur Regelung des Arbeitsverhaltnisses................. 85S-SG7
Great Britain—
Report on Strikes and Lockouts and on Conciliation and Arbitration Boards in the United
Kingdom in 1907...................................................................................................................... 245-252
Italy—
Statistica degli scioperi avvenuti in Italia nelP anno 1905 ...................................................... 252-204
Netherlands—
Werkstakingen en Uitsluitingen in Nederland gedurende 1906.............................................. 264-269
Norway—
Arbeidskonflikter i Norge, 1903-1906......................................................................................... 269,270
Russia—
Statistika Stachek Rabochikh na Fabrikakh i Zavodakh za 1905 god................................... 270-284
Spain—
Estadistica de las Huelgas, 1906................................................................................................. 284-288
Sweden—
Arbetsinstallelser under &ren 1903-1907, j&mte ofversikt af arbetsinstallelser under &ren
1859-1902 samt den s. k. politiska storstrejken &r 1902......................................................... 288-294
Digest of recent reports of state bureaus of labor statistics:
Louisiana, 1906-7................................................................................................................................
207
Massachusetts, 1908 ............................................................................................................................ 207-211
Minnesota, 1907-8 ............................................................................................................................... 211-213
New York, 1907.................................................................................................................................. 213-218
North Carolina, 1908 .......................................................................................................................... 218-220
Ohio, 1908 ........................................................................................................................................... 634-636
Oklahoma, 1908 and 1909 ................................................................................................................... 636,637
Pennsylvania, 1908 ............................................................................................................................. 843-845
Virginia, 1907 and 1909 ........................................................................................................ 221,222,846,847
Washington, 1907-8............................................................................................................................ 223,224
West Virginia, 1907-8 ......................................................................................................................... 224-226
Wisconsin, 1907-8 ............................................................................................................................... 847-852
Dressmaking, millinery, and mantle-making industries in Great Britain, earnings and hours of
labor....................................................................................................................................................... 193-198
Dyeing and cleaning industry in Great Britain, earnings and hours of labor in................. 193-195,204,205
E.
Earnings and hours of labor in British building and woodworking industries.................................. 626-633
Building trades.................................................................................................................................. 628-631
Cabinetmaking industry...................................................................................................................
633
Construction of harbors, docks, etc..................................................................................................
631
General summary.............................................................................................................................. 626,627
Saw milling, machine joinery, etc....................................................................................................
632
Earnings and hours of labor in British clothing industries.................................................................. 192-206
Boots and shoes.................... ....... T........... *1....................................................................... 193-195,202,203
Dressmaking, millinery, and mantle-making....................................................................................193-198
Dyeing and cleaning............................................................................................................. 193-195,204,205
Laundries.............................................................................................................................. 193-195,205,206
Miscellaneous clothing................................................................................................................ 193-195,204
Shirts, blouses, underclothing, etc...................................................................................... 193-195,198,199
Silk and felt hats.................................................................................................................. 193-195,203,204
Tailoring................................................................................................................................ 193-195,199-202
Earnings of employees in Germany:
Coalmines.......................................................................................................................................... 797-799
Copper m ines......................................................................................................................................8C0,801
Iron mines.......................................................................................................................................... 801,802
Railroads.............................................. *.............................................................................................810,811
Saltmines and works............................................................................................................................. 800
Education, school fees, etc., expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. (See
cost of living of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
43
Employees in match factories at each census, 1850 to 1900, and in 1905, by sex and age groups.......
Employees, municipal, in Germany:
Conditions of employment................................................................................................................ 864-867
Hours of labor and wages, 1902 and 1907.......................................................................................... 861-864
Number and per cent of, 1902 and 1907 ............................................................................................ 858-8C0
Employees of match factories in the United States in 1909................................................................ 33,45-50
B y age and race.................................................................................................................................
46,47
Conjugal condition of, by sex and race............................................................................................
47,48
Earning less than specified amounts, per cent of, by sex..............................................................
48,49
Earning specified amounts, number and per cent of, by age and sex...........................................
49
Exposed to phosphorus fumes and not so exposed, by age and sex.............................................
50
Of each specified age, number and per cent of, by sex...................................................................
46
Wages of.............................................................................................................................................
48,49
Employers' liability and industrial accidents in Wisconsin, 1907........................................................ 848-850
Employment offices, free:
Minnesota, 1908 ..................................................................................................................................
212
Ohio, 1907-8....................................................................................................................................... 635,636
Oklahoma, 1908 and 1909................................................................................................................. 636, C37
W ashington, 1907-8 ............................................................................................................................
224
West Virginia, 1902-1908 ....................................................................................................................
226
W isconsin, 1907 and 1908 ...................................................................................................................
851
Employment, state of, in New York, 1907 ............................................................................................. 213,214
Engineering trades, hours of labor in, in Belgium compared with England......................................
624




INDEX TO VOLUME 20,

911

Engineering trades, rates of wages in:
Page.
Belgium.............................................................................................................................................. 620-622
Belgium and Great Britain compared............................................................................................. 623,642
England and Wales, wages and hours of labor of union carpenters in ................................................ 594-597
43
Establishments engaged in manufacture of matches at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905 .........
Expenditures of families in Germany, according to—
Amount of expenditure.......................................................................................................................715-722
Occupation of head of family........................................................................................................... 733-749
Size of family...................................................................................................................................... 709-715
Size of locality.................................................................................................................................... 726-729
Units of expenditure in normal families.................................................................
764-775
Expenditures in families of wage-earners and families of salaried persons in Germany................... 750-763
Amount of expenditure..................................................................................................................... 754-757
Number of persons............................................................................................................................. 756-763
Exports and imports of matches, value of, 1891 to 1899........................................................................
44
Exports of domestic-made matches to principal foreign countries, value of, 1880,1890,1900,1905___
45
F.
Factories, match, number of, in the United States..............................................................................
33
Factory conditions and phosphorus poisoning in American factories................................................. 86-140
Farmers of North Carolina, statistics of, 1908 ........................................................................................
218
Finland, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of...................................................................................
67
Food:
Cost of, for average British and Belgian workmen’s budgets compared...................................... 618-619
Proportion of weekly income spent by Belgian urban workmen’s families on............................
616
Quantity of, consumed b y Belgian urban workmen’s families.....................................................
616
Food, expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. ( S e e Cost of living of families
of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Food products industry in Austria, hours of labor and rates of wages in, 1906 and 1907 ................... 838-840
Foreign countries, summary of action taken by, as to manufacture of matches................................
36-39
France, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of..................................................................................... 68,69
Free employment offices. ( S e e Employment offices, free.)
Furniture factories of North Carolina, statistics of, 1908.......................................................................
220
G.
Germany, cost of living of families of moderate income in, in 1907-8. ( S e e Cost of living of families
of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Germany:
Earnings of employees—
coalmines.................................................................................................................................... 797-799
copper m ines............................................................................................................................. 800,801
iron mines.................................................................................................................................... 801,802
railroads........................................................................................................................................ 810,811salt mines and works.................................................................................................................
800
Phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of...........................................................................................
71,72
Wages and hours of labor in the woodworking industries in 1906................................................. 813-823
Wages and hours of labor of municipal employees, 1902 and 1907................................................. 861-864
Wages in, trend of, 1898 to 1907 ....................................................................................................... 795-812
Wages of employees—
building trades............................................................................................................................ 803-808
building trades laborers............................................................................................................
806
carpenters....................................................................................................................................
805
masons......................................................................................................................................... 803-805
metal-working industries...........................................................................................................
809
painters........................................................................................................................................ 806,807
plumbers, gas fitters, etc............................................................................................................ 807,808
printers........................................................................................................................................ 809,810
seamen.........................................................................................................................................
812
stonecutters.................................................................................................................................
808
Ghent, operations of the unemployment fund of.................................................................................. 853-858
Great Britain:
Building and woodworking industries, earnings and hours of labor in........................................ 626-633
Phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of...........................................................................................
72-76
Rents of working-class dwellings, compared with Belgium.................................................... 611,612,625
Retail prices, compared with Belgium..................................................................................... 617-620,625
Wages, rates of, compared with Belgium........................................................................................ 623,624
White Phosphorus Matches Prohibition Act of 1908......................................................................
145

H«
Hat industry, silk and felt, in Great Britain, earnings and hours of employees in ............ 193-195,203,204
Health and physical care, expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. (S e e
Cost of living of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Health of employees in match factories, phosphorus used in manufacture of matches and its effect
upon.......................................................................................................................................................
57-66
Heating and lighting, expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. ( S e e Cost
of living of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Hours of labor and earnings in British building and woodworking industries. (S e e Earnings and
hours of labor in British building and woodworking industries.)
Hours of labor and earnings in British clothing industries. (S e e Earnings and hours of labor in
British clothing industries.)
Hours of labor and wages in Austria, 1906 and 1907.............................................................................. 824-842
Building trades................................................................................................................................. 840,841
Clothing industry.............................................................................................................................. 835,836
Food products industry.................................................................................................................... 838-840
Leather industry............................................................................................................................... 831,832
Metal working and machine building industries............................................................................ 828-830




912

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
Page.

Hours of labor and wages in paper industry...........................................................................................
Stone, earth, and clay industries...............................................
Textile industry................................................................................................................................
Transportation industries.................................................................................................................
Woodworking industries..................................................................................................................
German woodworking industries in 1906........................................................................................
Hours of labor and wages of municipal employees in Germany, 1902 and 1907..................................
Hours of labor:
Massachusetts, 1908 ............................................................................................................................
New York, 1907..................................................................................................................................
Hours of labor in selected occupations in Austria, 1907........................................................................
Hours of labor in the building, engineering, and printing trades in Belgium compared with
England.................................................................................................................................................
Hungary, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion o f..................................................................................

836-838
826-828
833,834
841,842
830,831
813-823
861-864
210
215
824-826
624,625
78-81

I.
Imports and exports of matches, value of, 1891 to 1899.........................................................................
44
Income, average weekly, of workmen’s families in Belgium................................................................
614
Income of families in Germany:
Occupation of head of family.............................................................................................. 730-733,742-749
Size of family...................................................................................................................................... 705-709
Size of locality.................................................................................................................................... 723-725
Industrial Disputes Investigation Act, 1907, Canadian. ( S e e Canadian Industrial Disputes Inves* tigation Act, 1907.)
Industrial poisons:
Extent of danger................................................................................................................................ 152,153
Introduction and discussion.............................................................................................................. 147-150
List of................................................................................................................................................. 155-168
Methods of combating....................................................................................................................... 153,154
Methods of entry into the system of................................................................................................
151
Nature of............................................................................................................................................
150
Industrial statistics of Virginia, 1907 and 1909 ......................................................................... 221,222,846,847
225
Industries, new, established in West Virginia, 1906-7 ..........................................................................
Insurance, etc., expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. {S e e Cost of living
of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
International Association for Labor Legislation and its publications................................................. 169-184
International convention respecting the prohibition of the use of white (yellow) phosphorus in the
manufacture of matches........................................................................................................................
146
Ireland, wages and hours of labor of union carpenters in.....................................................................
597
Iron mine statistics of Minnesota, 1907 and 1908.................................................................................... 212,213
Iron mines in Germany, earnings of employees in ................................................................................ 801,802
Iron, steel, and tin-plate production in Pennsylvania, statistics of, 1908............................................ 843-845
Italy, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of........................................................................................
71

J.
Japan, phosporus poisoning in, discussion o f .......................................................................................

85

K.

Knitting, cotton, and woolen mills of North Carolina, statistics of, 1908 ......................................... 219,220

L.
Labor, hours of, and earnings in British clothing industries. ( S e e Earnings and hours of labor in
British clothing industries.)
Labor Legislation, International Association for, and its publications............................................... 169-184
Labor organizations:
Massachusetts, 1908 ............................................................................................................................ 209,210
Minnesota, 1907-8...............................................................................................................................
212
New York, 1898 to 1907...................................................................................................................... 215-217
Oklahoma........................................................................................................................................... 636,637
Labor statistics, digest of recent reports of state bureaus of. ( S e e Digest of recent reports of state
bureaus of labor statistics.)
Laborers (building trades), wages of, in Germany................................................................................
806
Laundries in Great Britain, earnings and hours of labor of employees in ............................. 193-195,205,206
Leather industry in Austria, hours of labor and rates of wages in, 1906 and 1907............................... 831,832
Louisiana, report of the bureau of labor of, 1906-7 ................................................................................
207
Luxemburg, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of.............................................................................
70

M.
Manufactures and mining in Pennsylvania, statistics of, 1908 ............................................................. 843,845
Manufactures, statistics of:
Massachusetts, 1908 ............................................................................................................................ 210,211
North Carolina, 1908.......................................................................................................................... 219,220
Virginia, 1907........... 1........................................................................................................................ 221,222
Washington, 1907...............................................................................................................................
224
West Virginia, 1907............................................................................................................................. 224,225
Manufacturing returns in Wisconsin, statistics of, 1906 and 1907.........................................................
850
Masons, wages of, in Germany................................................................................................................ 803-805
Massachusetts, statistics relating to, 1908............................................................................................... 207-211
Labor organizations........................................................................................................................... 209,210
Manufactures, statistics of.................................................................................................................210,211
Strikes and lockouts.......................................................................................................................... 207-209
Wages, rates of, and hours of labor, changes In..............................................................................
210




INDEX TO VOLUME 20.

913

Page.
Match industry, phosphorus poisoning in. ( S e e Phosphorus poisoning in the match industry in
the United States.)
Matches, manufacture of:
Capital invested in, at each census, I860 to 1900, and in 1905........................................................
43
Cost of materials used in, at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905...............................................
43
Description of processes o f-..............................................................................................................
50-57
Description of various kinds of matches.........................................................................................
41
Development of the industry in the United States.......................................................................
42-45
Employees engaged in, at each census, 1850 to 1900, and in 1905................................................. 43,45-50
Employees engaged in, number of, 1909.........................................................................................
33
Establishments engaged in, at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905..........................................
43
Establishments engaged in, 1909 .....................................................................................................
33
Foreign countries, summary of action o f, as to..............................................................................
36-39
Kinds of phosphorus used in, description o f..................................................................................
40,41
Nonpoisonous, attitude of manufacturers to use of formula for................................................... 35,36,57
Nonpoisonous, formula for...............................................................................................................
57
Phosphorus in, white, prohibition of use of, international convention respecting.....................
146
Phosphorus used in, and its effect upon health of the workers..................................................... 57-66
Poisonous phosphorus, substitute for, in........................................................................................
56
Processes of, and phosphorus poisoning..........................................................................................
39-42
Processes of, description o f...............................................................................................................
50-57
Products of factories engaged in, value of, at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905...................
43
Prohibition of the use of white phosphorus in, international convention respecting.................
146
Substitute for poisonous phosphorus in..........................................................................................
56
Swiss federal law concerning, November 2,1898........................................................ ................... 141,142
Wages paid in factories engaged in, at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905..............................
43
Materials used, cost of, in manufacture of matches, at each census, 1860 to 1900, and m 1905..........
43
Metal working and machine building industries in Austria, hours of labor and rates of wages In,
1906 and 1907......................................................................................................................................... 828-830
8G9
Metal-working industries, wages of employees in, in Germany.........................................................
Milan, Italy, prices in, of wheat, bread, wine, beef, pork, butter, and rice........................................ 599-607
Milwaukee tanneries, women workers in the......................................................................................... 851,852
Mining and manufactures in Pennsylvania, statistics of, 1908 ............................................................. 843,845
Mining, iron-ore, in Minnesota, statistics of, 1907 and 1908.................................................................. 212,213
Minnesota statistics relating to, 1907-8.................................................................................................. 211-213
Child labor.........................................................................................................................................
212
Free employment offices...................................................................................................................
212
Labor organizations...............................
212
Mining.................................................................................................................................................. 212,213
Railroad switch yards.......................................................................................................................
212
N.
Netherlands, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of............... .
New York, statistics relating to, 1907..........................................
Cost of living...........................................................................
Course of wages and earnings................................................
Employment, state of............................................................
Hours of labor.........................................................................
Trade unions...........................................................................
Union fees and dues...............................................................
Wages and earnings...............................................................
New Zealand, wages and hours of labor of union carpenters in.
Nonpoisonous matches, formula for............................................
North Carolina, statistics relating to, 1908..................................
Cotton, woolen, and knitting mills.......................................
Factories, furniture................................................................
Factories, miscellaneous.........................................................
Farmers, condition o f.............................................................
Railroad employees................................................................
Trades, condition o f...............................................................
JfsTorway, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of........................

70
213-218
215
215
213,214
215
215-217
217.218
214
598
57
218-220
219,220

220

219
218
220
218.219
81,82

O.
Occupational expenses, expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. (S e e Cost
of living of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Occupations, income and expenditures of German families of moderate income, b y ........................
Qhi<b statistics relating to, 1908...............................................................................................................
Coal mining, 1906 and 1907 ..............................................................................................................
Free public employment offices, 1907-1908......................................................................................
Manufactures, 1907............................................................................................................................
Oklahoma, statistics relating to, 1908 and 1909......................................................................................
Free public employment office, 1908 and 1909.................................................................................
Labor organizations, 1908 and 1909...................................................................................................
Manufacturing, 1908 and 1909...........................................................................................................
Opinions of the Attorney-General on questions affecting labor:
Compensation for injuries to employees—accidents—construction of statute...............................
Eight-hour law—laborers cutting timber on Indian reservation...................................................
Immigration—inducements by States and Territories—alien laborers—construction of statutes.
Leaves of absence for employees of the United States—who entitled—arsenals—per diem em­
ployees—pieceworkers...................................................................................................................

730-749
634-636
635
635,636
634
636,637
636,637
636,637
636,637
295-300
300
300-305
306-309

P.
Painters, wages of, in Germany.............................................................................................................. 806,807
Paper industry in Austria, hours of labor and rates of wages in, 1906 and 1907 ................................. 836-838




914

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Page.
Pennsylvania, statistics relating to, 1908................................................................................................ 843-845
Accidents, industrial.........................................................................................................................
843
Coal mining.........................................................................................................................................
845
Iron, steel, and tin-plate production................................................................................................ 843,844
Manufactures and mining, statistics of.............................................................................................
843
Personal service, expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. (S e e Cost of living
of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Phosphorus:
Effect upon health of the workers of, used in match manufacture................................................ 57-66
Kinds of, used in manufacture of matches, description o f.............................................................
40,41
Matches, White, Prohibition Act, 1908, Great Britain..................................................................
145
White (yellow), international convention respecting the prohibition of the use of, white
(yellow) in manufacture of matches.............................................................................................
146
Phosphorus necrosis, description of, effects of. and treatment of......................................................
40
Phosphorus poisoning in the match industry m the United States:
American factories, phosphorus poisoning and factory conditions in........................................... 86-140
Capital invested in manufacture of matches at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905................
43
Cases of phosphorus poisoning, number of, in the United States.................................................. 32,33
Development of match industry in the United States...................................................................
42-45
Editorial note regarding investigation...........................................................................................
31
Effect of phosphorus used in manufacture of matches upon health of the workers...................
57-66
Effects o f phosphorus poisoning.......................................................................................................
40
Employees in match factories at each census, 1850 to 1900, and in 1905, by sex and age groups.
43
Employees of match factories in the United States in 1909 .......................................................... 33,45-50
b y age and race...........................................................................................................................
46,47
conjugal condition of, by sex and race......................................................................................
47,48
earning less than specified amounts, per cent of, by sex.........................................................
48,49
earning specified amounts, number and per cent of, by age and sex..........................; ..........
49
exposed to phosphorus fumes and not so exposed, by age and sex........................................
50
of each specified age, number and per cent of, by sex.............................................................
46
wages of........................................................................................................................................ 48,49
Establishments engaged in manufacture of matches at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905..
43
Establishments engaged in manufacture of matches, 1909 .............................................................
33
European experience with phosphorus poisoning..........................................................................
67-85
Austria.........................................................................................................................................
77,78
Austria-Hungary.........................................................................................................................
' 77
Belgium.......................................................................................................................................
76,77
Denmark......................................................................................................................................
67,68
Finland.........................................................................................................................................
67
France..........................................................................................................................................
68,69
Germany......................................................................................................................................
71,72
Great Britain...............................................................................................................................
72-76
Hungary.......................................................................................................................................
78-81
Italy..............................................................................................................................................
71
Japan............................................................................................................................................
85
Luxemburg..................................................................................................................................
70
Netherlands..................................................................................................................................
70
Norway.........................................................................................................................................
81,82
Russia........................................................................................................................................... 84,85
Spain............................................................................................................................................
84
Sweden.........................................................................................................................................
82-84
Switzerland.......................................................................... ......................................................
69,70
Exports and imports of matches, value of, 1891 to 1899.......... ......................................................
44
E xports of domestic made matches to principal foreign countries, value of, 1880,1890,1900,1905.
45
Factories, match, number of, in the United States........................................................................
33
Factory conditions and phosphorus poisoning in American factories.......................................... 86-140
Foreign countries, summary of action taken by, as to manufacture of matches.......................... 36-39
Great Britain, White Phosphorus Matches Prohibition Act, 1908...............................................
145
Health of the workers, phosphorus used in manufacture of matches and its effect upon...........
57-66
Imports and exports o f matches, value of, 1891 to 1899 ..................................................................
44
International convention respecting the prohibition of the use of white (yellow) phosphorus
in the manufacture of matches......................................................................................................
146
Manufacture of matches, description of processes of.......................................................................
50-57
Match factories, number of, in the United States.............................................. ; ...........................
33
Match industry in Switzerland, regulation of................................................................................... 141-144
Match industry in the United States, development of................................................................... 42-45
Match manufacture, description of processes o f..............................................................................
50-57
Match manufacture, phosphorus used in, and its effect upon the health of the workers............
57-66
Matches, international convention respecting the prohibition of the use of white (yellow) phos­
phorus in the manufacture of........................................................................................................
146
Matches, kinds of, description of various.........................................................................................
41
Matches, manufacture and distribution of, Swiss federal law concerning, November 2,1898___141,142
Matches, manufacture of, summary of action of foreign countries as t o .......................................
36-39
Matches, nonpoisonous, formula for.................................................................................................
57
Matches, value of, entered for consumption in the United States by principal countries of export
1894,1900,1905, and 1907.................................................................................................................
44
Matches, White Phosphorus, Prohibition Act, 1908, Great Britain..............................................
145
Materials used, cost of, in manufacture of matches, at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905...
43
Nonpoisonous matches, attitude of manufacturers to use of formula for.................................... 35,36,57
N onpoisonous matches, formula for.................................................................................................
57
Phosphorus, kinds of, Used in manufacture of matches, description of........................................
40,41
Phosphorus necrosis, description of, effects of, and treatment of................................................
40
Phosphorus used in match manufacture and its effect upon health of the workers....................
57-66
Phosphorus, White, Matches Prohibition Act, 1908, Great Britain..............................................
145
Phosphorus, white (yellow), international convention respecting the prohibition of the use of,
in manufacture of matches.............................................................................................................
146
Poisoning, phosphorus, and factory conditions in American factories.......................................... 86-140
Processes in march manufacture, description of.............................................................................. 50-57
Processes of manufacture and phosphorus poisoning......................................................................
39-42




INDEX TO VOLUME 20,
Phosphorus poisoning in the match industry in the United States—Concluded.
Products, value of, of match factories at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905...........................
Results of the investigation, summary o f........................................................................................
Summary of action taken by foreign countries as to manufacture of matches.............................
Summary of results of the investigation..........................................................................................
Switzerland, match industry in, regulation o f................................................................................
Wjages paid in match factories, at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905.....................................
White Phosphorus Matches Prohibition Act, 1908, Great Britain................................................
White (yellow) phosphorus, international convention respecting the prohibition of the use of, in
manufacture of matches.......................................... ....................................................................
Plumbers, gas fitters, etc., wages of, in Germany.................................................................................
Poisoning, phosphorus, European experience with..............................................................................
Austria...............................................................................................................................................
Austria-Hungary...............................................................................................................................
Belgium.............................................................................................................................................
Denmark............................................................................................................................................
Finland...............................................................................................................................................
France................................................................................................................................................
Germany............................................................................................................................................
Great Britain.....................................................................................................................................
Hungary.............................................................................................................................................
Italy....................................................................................................................................................
Japan..................................................................................................................................................
Luxemburg........................................................................................................................................
Netherlands.......................................................................................................................................
Norway..............................................................................................................................................
Russia................................................................................................................................................
Spain..................................................................................................................................................
Sweden...............................................................................................................................................
Switzerland........................................................................................................................................
( S e e a lso Phosphorus poisoning in the match industry in the United States.)
Poisons, industrial. (See Industrial poisons.)
Presents, etc., expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. (S e e Cost of living of
families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Prices of wheat, bread, wine, beef, pork, butter, and rice in Milan, Italy..........................................
Average and maximum yearly prices of each article, 1871 to 1875................................................
Average yearly price of each article, 1801 to 1908............................................................................
Average yearly price of each article for each quinquennial period, 1801 to 1905, and for 1906 to

915
Page.
43
32-36
36-39
32-36
141-144
43
145
146
807,808
67-85
77,78
77
76,77
67,68
67
68,69
71,72
72-76
78—81
71
70
70
81,82
84,85
84
82-84
69,70

599-607
602
C03,604

actual price.................................................................................................................................
605
relative price, based on average for 1801 to 1805 .......................................................................
605
Average yearly price of wheat, 1700 to 1800 ....................................................................................
603
Average, maximum, and minimum yearly prices of each article for each quinquennial period,
1861 to 1905, and for 1906 to 1908actual prices................................................................................................................................ 006,607
relative prices, based on average for 1861 to 1865 ..................................................................... 606,607
Prices, retail, of commodities paid by working classes:
Belgium.............................................................................................................................................. 612-617
Belgium and Great Britain compared...................................................................................... 617-620,625
Prices, wholesale, 1890 to March, 1910.................................................................................................... 377-582
Average yearly actual and relative prices of commodities, 1890 to 1909 (average for 1890-1899)..
414416,495-547
Changes in prices of articles, by per cent of increase or decrease.................................... 420,421,424,425
Commodities classified by markets for whichsecured and as to frequency of quotation....----- 404,405
Explanation of tables........................................................................................................................ 401-430
Influences affecting prices.................................................................................................................
400
Monthly actual and relative prices of commodities, January, 1909, to March, 1910 (average for
1890-1899)........................................................................................................................... 414-416,495-547
Monthly relative prices, January, 1909, toMarch, 1910................................................................. 548-582
Prices of commodities—
January, 1909, to March, 1910....................................................................................... 401-413,431-494
1909 compared with 1908 ............................................................................................................ 377-384
1909, and March, 1910, compared withprevious years back to 1890........................................ 384-394
relative, by months, January, 1900, toMarch, 1910................................................................. 394-399
relative, of certain groups of relatedarticles,1890 to March, 1910.............................................. 425-430
Yearly relative prices of commodities, 1890 to1909............................................................ 416-430,548-582
Prices, wholesale, o f specified commodities, 1890 to March, 1910:
Acid, muriatic and sulphuric.............................................................................................. 488,540,541,578
Alcohol......................................................................................................................................... 487,539,578
Alum............................................................................................................................................ 487,539,578
Apples, evaporated..................................................................................................................... 446,503,552
Augers.......................................................................................................................................... 473,526,572
Axes............................................................................................................................................. 474,526,572
Bacon........................................................................................................................................... 448,505,554
Bags............................................................................................................................................. 457,510,557
Barb wire..................................................................................................................................... 474,527,569
Bar iron....................................................................................................................................... 474,526,569
Barley.......................................................................................................................................... 431,495,548
Beans........................................................................................................................................... 439,499,550
Beef................................................................................................................................ 449,450,505,506,554
Bicarbonate of soda.................................................................................................................... 454,508,555
Blankets........................................................................................................... 458,462,510,511,515,557,560
Boots and shoes................................................................................................................... 458,459,511,557
Bread, crackers..................................................................................................................... 439,440,499,550
Bread, loaf............................................................................................................................ 440,499,500,550
Brick............................................................................................................................................ 481,533,574
Brimstone.................................................................................................................................... 487,540,578

47150—Bull. 88—10----- 15




916

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOK,

Prices, wholesale, of specified commodities, 1890 to March, 1910—Continued.
Broadcloths......................................................................................................
Buckwheat flour..............................................................................................
Butter...............................................................................................................
Butts.................................................................................................................
Cabbage............................................................................................................
Calico.................................................................................................................
Candles.............................................................................................................
Canned goods...................................................................................................
Carbonate of lead.............................................................................................
Carpets..............................................................................................................
Cashmere.........................................................................................................
Cattle, steers.....................................................................................................
Cement..............................................................................................................
Cheese...............................................................................................................
Chisels...............................................................................................................
Cloths and clothing..........................................................................................
Coal, anthracite................................................................................................
Coal, bituminous..............................................................................................
Codfish..............................................................................................................
Coffee.................................................................................................................
Coke..................................................................................................................
Copper...............................................................................................................
Copper w ire.....................................................................................................
Com ...................................................................................................................
Corn, canned....................................................................................................
Corn meal.........................................................................................................
Cornstarch........................................................................................................
Cotton...............................................................................................................
Cotton flannels.................................................................................................
Cotton-seed meal..............................................................................................
Cotton-seed oil..................................................................................................
Cotton thread...................................................................................................
Cotton yarns.....................................................................................................
Crackers............................................................................................................
Currants............................................................................................................
Cutlery..............................................................................................................
Denims.............................................................................................................
Doorknobs........................................................................................................
Doors.................................................................................................................
Drillings............................................................................................................
Drags and chemicals........................................................................................
Earthenware....................................................................................................
Farm products,
Files.................
Fish..................
Flannels............

Flaxseed..........
Flour................
Food, etc.........
Fruit................
Fuel and lighting.
Furniture.............
Glass, w indow .. . .
Glass, plate...........
Glassware.............
Ginghams.............
Glucose.................
Glycerin................
Grain.....................
Hammers..............
Hams, smoked___
H ay.......................
Hemlock lumber..
Herring.................
Hides.....................
Hogs..............................
Hops..............................
Horse blankets.............
Horses...........................
Hosiery.........................
House furnishing goods
Iron, bar........................
Iron, pig........................
Jute...............................
Lard..............................
Lead, carbonate o f.......
Lead, pig......................
Lead pipe......................
Leather..........................
Lime..............................
Linen shoe thread........
Linseed oil.....................
Livestock.....................
Locks.............................
Lumber and building materials,
Mackerel.....................................




Page.

................... 459,512.558
................... 444,502.552
............ 441,442,500,551
................... 474,527,569
......................... 456,509
.................. 459,512,558
................... 471,523,567
................... 442,500,501
................... 481,534,574
............ 459,460,512,558
............ 469,521,522,565
............ 431,432,495,549
............ 481,482,534,574
................... 443,501,551
................... 475,527,572
457-470,510-523,557-566
............ 471,523,524,567
............ 472,524,525,567
.................. 444,502,551
................... 443,501,551
................... 472,525,568
................... 475,527,570
................... 475,528,570
................... 432,495,548
.......................... 442,500
................. 447,505,553
................... 454,508,555
................... 433,495,548
................... 460,513,558
................... 491,544,581
................... 491,545,581
................... 460,513,559
............ 460,461,513,559
............ 439,440,499,550
.................. 446,504,553
. . . . 490,491,543,544,580
.................. 461,514,559
................... 475,528,569
.................. 482,534,574
................... 461,514,559
.. . . 487,488,539-541,578
............ 488,489,541,579
................... 443,501,551
431-439,495-498,548,549
................... 476,528,572
................... 444,502,551
................... 461,514,559
.............
433,496,548
. . . . 444,445,502,503,552
439-457,499-510,550-556
.. . . 446,503,504,552,553
471-473,523-526,567,568
............ 489,490,542,579
.................. 486,539,577
................... 484,537,576
.................. 490,543,580
............ 462,514,515,560
................... 446,504,553
................... 487,540,578
.........................
548
................... 476,528,572
................... 451,506,554
................... 433,496,548
................... 482,534,575
................... 444,502,551
................... 434,496,548
................... 434,496,549
................... 435,497,548
................... 462,515,560
j o e ±cn

462,463,515* 560
488-491,541-544,579,580
................... 474,526,569
. . . . 477,478,529,530,571
................... 492,545,581
................... 447,504,553
................... 481,534,574
................. 476,528,570
................... 476,529,570
................... 463,516,561
................... 482,535,574
................... 464,516,561
................... 482,535,574
549
’ *.'. *.' *.*.*.*.*.'. *.*476,529,569
481-486,533-539,574-577
................... 444,502,551
.. . . . . . .

INDEX TO VOLUME 20,
prices, wholesale, of specified commodities, 1880 to March, 1910—Continued.
Malt...................................................................................................................
Maple lumber...................................................................................................
Matches..............................................................................................................
Meal, eorn.........................................................................................................
Meat...................................................................................................................
Metals and implements...................................................................................
M ilk .................................................................................................................
Miscellaneous articles.......................................................................................
Mules.................
Muriatic add___
M u t to n ...........
Nails...................
Oak lumber.......
Oats...................
Onions................
Opium................
Overcoatings___
Oxide of zinc___
Panama cloth ...
Paper.................
Peas, canned___
Pepper...............
Petroleum.........
Pig iron..............
Pine lu m b e r....
Planes................
Plate glass.........
Poplar c lo t h ....
Poplar lum ber..
Pork, salt, mess.
Potatoes.............
Poultry, dressed.
Poultry, live___
Print cloths.......
Proof spirits.......
Prunes................
Putty....................
Quicksilver...........
Quinine.................
Raisins..................
R ice.......................
Rope......................
Rosin.....................
Rubber..................
R ye........................
Rye flour..............
Salmon, canned...
Salt........................
Saws......................
Screws, wood........
Sheep.....................
Sheetings..............
Shingles.................
Shirtings................
Shoes, men’ s .........
Shoes, women’s ...
Shoe thread, linen.
Shovels..................
Sicilian cloth........
Silk, raw...................
Silver........................
Soap..........................
Soda, bicarbonate of
Spelter......................
Spruce lumber.........
Starch, corn..............
Starch, laundry.......
Steel billets..............
Steel.rails.................
Steel sheets..............
Steers........................
Sugar........................
Suitings....................
Sulphuric acid.........
Table cutlery...........
Tallow......................
Tar...........................
Tea...........................
Thread, cotton.........
Thread, linen shoe..
Tickings...................
Tin, pig....................
Tin plates.................
Tobacco, leaf............
Tobacco, plug..........
Tobacco, smoking...




■«

917
Page.
................... 492,545,581
................... 483,535.575
................... 473,525,568
................... 447,505,553
. . . . 448-452,505-507,554
473-481,526-533,569-573
................... 452,507,555
491-494,544-547,581,582
................... 452,507,555
.......................... 435,497
................... 488,540,578
................... 451,506,554
................... 477,529,570
................... 483,535,575
................... 436,497,548
................... 457,510,556
................... 488,540,578
................... 464,517,561
................... 483,536,576
................... 469,522,565
............ 492,545,546,581
......................... 442,501
................... 454,508,555
............ 473,525,526,568
. . . . 477,478,529,530,571
............ 483,484,536,575
................... 478,530,572
................... 484,537,576
................... 469,522,565
................... 485,537,576
................... 452,507,554
................... 457,510,556
.......................... 453,507
......................... 436,497
................... 464,517,561
................... 493,546,581
................... 446,504,553
................... 485,537,576
................... 478,530,571
................... 488,540,578
................... 446,504,553
................... 453,507,555
................... 493,546,582
................... 485,537,576
................... 493,546,582
................... 437,498,548
................... 445,503,552
................... 444,502,551
................... 453,508,555
................... 478,531,573
................... 481,533,573
............ 437,438,498,549
. . . . 465,466,517,518,562
................... 485,538,577
............ 466,518,519,563
................... 458,511,557
................... 459,511,557
................... 464,516,561
................... 479,531,573
................... 470,521,565
................... 467,519,563
................... 479,531,571
................... 493,547,582
................... 454,508,555
................... 479,531,571
................... 486,538,576
................... 454,508,555
................... 494,547,582
................... 479,532,571
................... 479,532,572
................... 480,532,572
............ 431,432,495,549
. . . . 454,455,508,509,556
............ 467,468,520,564
................... 488,541,578
. . . . 490,491,543,544,580
................... 456,509,556
................... 486,538,577
................... 456,509,556
................... 460,513,559
................... 464,516,561
................... 468,520,564
................... 480,532,572
................... 480,532,572
.......................... 438,498
................... 494,547,582
................... 494,547,582

918

BULLETIN OP THE BUBEAU OP LABOB,

Prices, wholesale, of specified commodities, 1890 to March, 1910—Concluded.
Tomatoes, canned..............................................................................................
Trouserings.........................................................................................................
Trowels...............................................................................................................
Turpentine.........................................................................................................
Underwear..........................................................................................................
Vegetables, fresh................................................................................................
Vinegar...............................................................................................................
Vises....................................................................................................................
W heat.................................................................................................................
Wheat flour........................................................................................................
Window glass.....................................................................................................
Wire, barb..........................................................................................................
Wire, copper.......................................................................................................
Women’s dress goods........................................................................................
Woodenware.......................................................................................................
Wood screws.......................................................................................................
W ool...................................................................................................................
Worsted yarns...................................................................................................
Yams, cotton.....................................................................................................
Yarns, worsted..................................................................................................
Zinc, oxide of.....................................................................................................
Zinc, sheet..........................................................................................................
( S e e a lso Prices, wholesale, 1890 to March, 1910.)
Printers, wages of, in Germany..............................................................................
Printing trades:
Hours of labor in, in Belgium compared with England................................
Rates of wages i n Belgium.......................................................................................................
Belgium and Great Britain compared......................................................
Processes in match manufacture, description of...................................................
Products, value of, of match factories at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905.

Page.

................... 442,501
............ 468,521,564
............ 480,533; 573
............ 486,538,577
............ 468,521,565
456,457,509,510,556
............ 457,510,556
............ 480,533,573
............ 439,498,548
............ 445,503,552
............ 486,539,577
............ 474,527,569
............ 475,528,570
469,470,521,522,565
............ 491,544,580
............ 481,533,573
. . . . 470,522,523,566
............ 470,523,566
. . . . 460,461,513,559
............ 470,523,566
............ 483,536,576
............ 481,533,573
................... 809,810
...................

624

................... 620-622
................... 623,624
...................
50-57
...................
43

R.
Railroad employees, earnings of, in Germany................................................ ................................... 810,811
Railroad employees of North Carolina, statistics of, 1908............................... ..................................
220
Railroad switch yards in Minnesota, 1907 and 1908, condition of.................. ......................................
212
Rates of wages in the building, engineering, and printing trades:
Belgium....................................................................................................... .................................. 620-622
Belgium and Great Britain compared...................................................... .................................. 623,624
Rates of wages, relation of, to rents and prices, in Belgium.......................... .................................. 622,623
Rent, etc., expenditures for, by families of moderate Income in Germany. (S e e Cost of living of
families of moderate income m Germany in 1907-8.)
Rents of working-class dwellings:
Belgium.......................................................................................................
.. . . 609,610
Belgium and Great Britain compared......................................................
611,612,625
Retail prices of commodities paid by working classes:
Belgium........................................................................................................
. . . . 612-617
617-620,625
Belgium and Great Britain compared.......................................................
....
84,85
Russia, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion o f...............................................
S .

Salt mines and works in Germany, earnings of employees i n ............................................................
800
Savings among families of moderate income in Germany. ( S e e Cost of living of families of moder­
ate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Saw milling, machine joinery, etc., in Great Britain, earnings of employees in .................................
632
Scotland, wages and hours of labor of union carpenters in ...................................................................
597
Seamen, wages of, in Germany................................................................................................................
812
Shirt, blouse, underclothing, etc., industry in Great Britain, earnings and hours of labor of em­
ployees in .................................................................................................................................. 193-195,198,199
Social and intellectual purposes, expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany.
( S e e Cost of living of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
South Africa, wages and hours of labor of union carpenters in ............................................................
598
Spain, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of.......................................................................................
84
Steel, iron, and tin-plate production in Pennsylvania, statistics of, 1908 ............................................ 843-845
Stonecutters, wages of, in Germany........................................................................................................
808
Stone, earth, ana clay industries in Austria, hours of labor and rates of wages in, 1906 and 1907... 826-828
Strikes and lockouts:
Austria, 1907..........................................................................................................................................227-232
France, 1907......................................................................................................................................... 233-239
Germany, 1907 .................................................................................................................................... 239-244
Great Britain, 1907............................................................................................................................. 245-252
Italy, 1905 ............................................................................................................................................ 252-264
Massachusetts, 1908.......................................
207-209
Netherlands, 1906 ............................................................................................................................... 264-269
Norway, 1903-1906...................................................................................................... 1...................... 269,270
Russia, 1905......................
270-284
Spain, 1906........................................................................................................................................... 284-288
Sweden, 1903-1907............................................................................................................................... 288-294
Washington, 1907-8 ............................................................................................................................
223
Sweden, phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of....................................................................................
82-84
Switzerland:
Match industry in, regulation of......................................................................................................... 141-144
Phosphorus poisoning in, discussion of............................................................................................
69,70




INDEX TO VOLUME 20.

919

Tailoring industries in Great Britain, earnings and hours of labor of employees in............. 193-195,199-202
Tanneries, Milwaukee, women workers in the...................................................................................... 851,852
Taxes, etc., expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. ( S e e Cost of living of
families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Textile industry in Austria, hours of labor and rates of wages in, 1906 and 1907 ............................... 833,834
Tin-plate, iron, and steel production in Pennsylvania, statistics of, 1908 ........................................... 843-845
Trade Boards Act, British, 1909............................................................................................................. 185-191
Trade expenses, expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. ( S e e Cost of living
of families of moderate income m Germany in 1907-8.)
Trade unions. (S e e Labor organizations.)
Trades, condition of, in North Carolina, 1908 ........................................................................................ 218,219
Transportation, expenditures for, by families of moderate income in Germany. (S e e Cost of living
of families of moderate income in Germany in 1907-8.)
Transportation industries:
Austria, hours of labor and rates of wages of employees, 1907....................................................... 841,842
Germany, earnings and rates of wages of employees...................................................................... 810-812
Trend of wages in Germany, 1898 to 1907 .............................................................................................. 795-812
U.
Unemployment fund of Ghent, operations of the................................................................................. 853-858
United States, wages and hours of labor of union carpenters in the.................................................... 584-593
V.
Virginia:
Industrial statistics of, 1907.............................................................................................................. 221,222
Industrial statistics of, 1909.............................................................................................................. 846,847
W.
Wages and hours of labor in Austria, 1906 and 1907..........................................
Building trades..............................................................................................
Clothing industry...........................................................................................
Food products industry.................................................................................
Leather industry............................................................................................
Metal working and machine building industries.........................................
Paper industry...............................................................................................
Stone, earth, and clay industries..................................................................
Textile industry...................................................... .....................................
Transportation industries.............................................................................
Woodworking industries...............................................................................
Wages and hours of labor in German woodworking industries in 1906............
Wages and hours of labor of municipal employees in Germany, 1902 and 1907
Wages and hours of labor of union carpenters:
Australia.........................................................................................................
Canada.............................................................................................................
England and Wales.......................................................................................
Ireland.............................................................................................................
New Zealand...................................................................................................
Scotland..........................................................................................................
South Africa...................................................................................................
United S tates.,..............................................................................................
Wages in Germany, trend of, 1898 to 1907...........................................................
Wages in selected occupations in five large cities in Austria, 1907................... .
Wages of employees in Germany:
Building trades..............................................................................................
Building trades' laborers...............................................................................
Carpenters......................................................................................................
Masons.............................................................................................................
Metal-working industries...............................................................................
Painters............................................................................................................
Plumbers, gas fitters, etc............................................................................... .
Printers...........................................................................................................
Seamen.............................................................................................................
Stonecutters....................................................................................................
Wages paid in match factories, at each census, 1860 to 1900, and in 1905___
Wages, rates of, in the building, engineering, and printing trades:
Belgium.......................................................................................................... .
Belgium and Great Britain compared.........................................................
Wages, relation of rates of, to rents and prices, in Belgium.............................. .
Wages, statistics of:
Massachusetts, 1908.........................................................................................
New York, 1907..............................................................................................
Washington, statistics relating to, 1907-8........................................................... .
Accidents to labor......................... ..................................................................
Cost of living....................................................................................................
Free employment offices.................................................................................
Organized labor.............................................................................................. .
Statistics of manufactures............................................................................. .
Strikes and lockouts........................................................................................
Violation of labor laws....................................................................................
Wage-earners.................................................................................................. .
West Virginia, statistics relating to, 1907-8.........................................................
Free employment bureau...............................................................................
New industries established.............................................................................
Statistics of manufactures...............................................................................




824-842
840,841
835,836
838,840
831,832
828-830
836-838
826-828
833,834
841,842
830,831
813-823
861-864
598
594
594-597
597
598
597
598
584-593
795-812
826
803-808
806
805
803-805
806.807
807.808
809,810
812
808
..
43
620-622
623,624
622,623
210
214
223,224
223
223
224
223
224
223
223
224
224-226
226
225
224,225

920

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Page.
White Phosphorus Matches Prohibition Act, 1908, Great Britain......................................................
145
White (yellow) phosphorus, international convention respecting the prohibition of the use of, in
manufacture of matches........................................................................................................................
146
Wisconsin, statistics relating to, 1907-8 .................................................................................................. 847-852
Accidents, industrial, and employers’ liability, 1907 ..................................................................... 848-850
Free employment offices, 1907 and 1908...........................................................................................
851
Industrial hygiene and the police power..........................................................................................
850
Labor conditions in the public utilities...........................................................................................
851
Manufacturing returns for 1906 and 1907..............................................; ..........................................
850
Women workers in the Milwaukee tanneries.................................................................................. 851,852
Woodworking industries:
Hours of labor and wages i n Austria, 1906 and 1907................................................................................................................. 830, £31
Germany........................................................................................................................................ 813-823
Women workers in the Milwaukee tanneries......................................................................................... 851,852
Woolen, cotton, and knitting mills of North Carolina, statistics of, 1908............................................ 219,220
Working-class dwellings, rents of:
Belgium.............................................................................................................................................. 609,610
Belgium and Great Britain compared........................................................................................ 611,612,625




DIRECTORY OF BUREAUS OF LABOR IN THE U N ITED STATES
AND IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
State.

Name of bureau.

Title of chief officer.

Location of bureau.

United States Bureau of Labor............
Bureau of Labor Statistics....................
Bureau of Labor Statistics...................
Bureau of Labor Statistics...................
Bureau of Immigration, Labor, and
Statistics.
Bureau of Labor Statistics...................
Bureau of Statistics...............................
Bureau of Labor Statistics...................
Bureau of Labor and Industry............
Department of Agriculture, Labor,
and Statistics.
Bureau of Statistics of Labor...............
Bureau of Industrial and Labor Sta­
tistics.
Bureau of Industrial Statistics.............
Bureau of Statistics...............................
Bureau of Labor and Industrial Sta­
tistics.
Bureau of Labor....................................
Bureau of Labor Statistics and In­
spection.
Bureau of Agriculture, Labor, and In­
dustry.
Bureau of Labor and Industrial Sta­
tistics.
Bureau of Labor....................................
Bureau of Statistics of Labor and In­
dustries.
Department of Labor............................
Bureau of Labor and Printing.............
Department of Agriculture and Labor.
Bureau of Labor Statistics...................
Department of Labor............................
Bureau of Labor Statistics and Inspec­
tion of Factories and Workshops.
Bureau of Industrial Statistics.............
Bureau of Labor....................................
Bureau of Industrial Statistics.............
Department of Agriculture, Com­
merce, and Industries.
Bureau of Labor Statistics...................
Bureau of Labor and Industrial Sta­
tistics.
Bureau of Labor....................................
Bureau of Labor....................................
Bureau of Labor and Industrial Sta­
tistics.

Commissioner..............
Commissioner..............
Deputy Commissioner.
Commissioner..............
Commissioner..............

Washington, D. C.
San Francisco.
Denver.
Hartford.
Boise.

Secretary.....................
Chief............................
Commissioner..............
Commissioner..............
Commissioner..............

Springfield.
Indianapolis.
Des Moines.
Topeka.
Frankfort.

UNITED STATES.

United States......
California..............
Colorado...............
Connecticut.........
Idaho....................
Illinois..................
Indiana.................
Iowa.....................
Kansas.................
Kentucky............
Louisiana.............
Maine...................
Maryland..............
Massachusetts___
Michigan..............
Minnesota............
Missouri...............
Montana...............
Nebraska..............
New Hampshire..
New Jersey..........
New Y ork.. . : ___
North Carolina.. .
North Dakota___
Ohio.....................
Oklahoma............
Oregon.................
Pennsylvania.......
Philippine Islands
Rhode Island.......
South Carolina.. .
Texas...................
Virginia................
Washington.........
West Virginia___
Wisconsin............

Commissioner.............. Baton Rouge.
Commissioner.............. Augusta.
Chief............................ Baltimore.
Director........................ Boston.
Commissioner.............. Lansing.
Commissioner.............. St. Paul.
Commissioner.............. Jefferson City.
Commissioner.............. Helena.
Deputy Commissioner. Lincoln.
Commissioner.............. Concord.
Chief............................ Trenton.
Commissioner..............
Commissioner..............
Commissioner..............
Commissioner..............
Commissioner..............
Commissioner..............

Albany.
Raleigh.
Bismarck.
Columbus.
Guthrie.

Chief............................
Director........................
Commissioner..............
Commissioner..............

Harrisburg.
Manila.
Providence.
Columbia.

S a le m .

Commissioner.............. Austin.
Commissioner.............. Richmond.
Commissioner.............. Olympia.
Commissioner.............. Wheeling.
Commissioner.............. Madison.

FOREIGN
COUN*
TRIES.

Argentina............. Departamento Nacional del Trabajo...
Austria................. K. K. Arbeitsstatistisches Amt im
Handelsministerium.
Belgium............... Office du Travail (Minist&re de PIn­
dustrie et du Travail).
Canada................. Department of Labor............................
Canada: Ontario.. Bureau of Labor (Department of Pub­
lic Works).
Chile.................... Oficina de Estadistica del Trabajo___
Finland................ Industristyrelsen ( o ) .............................
France.................. Office du Travail ( Minist&re du Tra­
vail et de la Prevoyance Sociale).
Germany.............. Abteilung fur Arbeiterstatistik, Kaiserliches Statistisches Amt.
Great Britain and Labor Department (Board of Trade)..
Ireland.




Presidente............
Vorstand...............

Buenos Aires.
Wien.

Directeur General.

Bruxelles.

Minister of Labor.
Secretary............. .

Ottawa.
Toronto.

Jefe........................

Santiago.
Helsingfors.
Paris.

Directeur.....................

President................... . Berlin.
Commissioner of La­
bor.

London.

a Issues a bulletin of labor.

921

922

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Directory o f bureaus o f labor in the United States and in foreign countries—Concluded
State.

Name of bureau.

Title of chief officer.

Location of bureau.

FOREIGN COUN­
TRIES—COnc’d.
Ufficio del Lavoro (Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio).
Npt.hprlands .
Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (a).
New South Wales State Labor Bureau...............................
New Zealand T _
Department of Labor............................
Spain.................... Instituto de Reformas Sociales............
Swedpn . _
Afdelning for Arbetsstatistik (Kgl.
Kommerskollegii).
Switzerland........ Secretariat Ouvrier Suisse (semioffi­
cial).
Uruguay___
Oficina del Trabajo (Ministerio de
Industrias, Trabajo 6 Instruccidn
Ptiblica).
International_
International Labor Office...................

Italy.....................




a

Direttore Generate___

Roma.

Directeur.....................
Director of Labor........
Minister of Labor.......
Secretario General.......
Direktdr.......................

’s Gravenhage.
Sydney.
Wellington.
Madrid.
Stockholm.

Secretaire..................... Ziirich.
Montevideo.
Director........................ Baste, Switzerland.

Issues a bulletin of labor.

LEADING ARTICLES IN PAST NUMBERS OP THE BULLETIN,
No.
No.

No.
No..
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

No.
No.
No.

1. Private and public debt in the United States, b y George K. H o lm e s . (a)
Employer and employee under the common law, b y V. H. Olmsted and
S. D . Fessenden.(a)
2. The poor colonies oi Holland, b y J. Howard Gore, Ph. D .(«)
The industrial revolution in Japan, b y William Eleroy Curtis. («)
Notes concerning the money of the U. S. and other countries, b y W. C.
H unt.(«)
The wealth and receipts and expenses of the U. S., b y W. M. Steuart.(a)
3. Industrial communities: Coal Mining Co. of Anzin, b y W. F. Willoughby.
4. Industrial communities: Coal Mining Co. of Blanzy, b y W. F. W illoughby.(«)
The sweating system, b y Henry White, (a)
5. Convict labor.(a)
Industrial communities: Krupp Iron and Steel Works, b y W. F. W il­
lou gh by.^ )
6. Industrial communities: Familistere Society of Guise, b y W. F. W il­
lou gh by.^ )
Cooperative distribution, b y Edward W. Bemis, Ph. D .(«)
7. Industrial communities: Various communities, b y W. F. W illoughby.(a)
Rates of wages paid under public and private contract, b y Ethelbert Stew­
art. (<*)
8. Conciliation and arbitration in the boot and shoe industry, b y T. A. Carroll.(«)
Railway relief departments, b y Emory R . Johnson, Ph. D .(a)
9. The padrone system and padrone banks, b y John Koren.(a)
The Dutch Society for General Welfare, b y J. Howard Gore, Ph. D .(°)
10. Condition of the Negro in various c it ie s . (a)
Building and loan associations. (a)
11. Workers at gainful occupations at censuses of 1870, 1880, and 1890, b y W. C.
Hunt.
Public baths in Europe, b y Edward Mussey Hartwell, Ph. D ., M. D.
12. The inspection of factories and workshops in the U. S., b y W. F. W il­
loughby, (a)
Mutual rights and duties of parents and children, guardianship, etc., under
the law, b y F. J. Stimson.(a)
The municipal or cooperative restaurant of Grenoble, France, b y C. O.
Ward. (<*)
13. The anthracite mine laborers, b y G. 0 . Virtue, Ph. D .(«)
14. The Negroes of Farmville, V a .: A social study, b y W. E. B. Du Bois, Ph. D .(«)
Incomes, wages, and rents in Montreal, b y Herbert Brown Ames, B. A .(«)
15. Boarding homes and clubs for working women, b y Mary S. Fergusson.(«)
The trade union label, b y John Graham Brooks.(«)
16. Alaskan gold fields and opportunities for capital and labor, b y S. C. Dun­
ham. (o)
17. Brotherhood relief and insurance of railway employees, b y E. R . Johnson,
Ph. D .(a)
The nations of Antwerp, b y J. Howard Gore, Ph. D .(«)
18. Wages in the United States and Europe, 1870 to 1898.(<*)
19. Alaskan gold fields and opportunities for capital and labor, b y S. C. Dun­
ham. (<*)
Mutual relief and benefit associations in the printing trade, b y W. S. Waudby.(<*)
20. Conditions of railway labor in Europe, b y Walter E. Weyl, Ph. D.
21. Pawnbroking in Europe and the United States, b y W. R . Patterson, Ph. D .M
22. Benefit features of American trade unions, b y Edward W. Bemis, Ph. D .(«)
The Negro in the black belt: Some social sketches, b y W. E. B. Du Bois,
Ph. D .(«)
Wages in Lyon, France, 1870 to 1896.(a)




a B ulletin out of print.

923

924

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

No. 23. Attitude of women’s clubs, etc., toward social economics, b y Ellen M.
Henrotin.(a)
The production of paper and pulp in the U. S., from January 1 to June 30,
1898.(o)
No. 24. Statistics of cities.(«)
No. 25. Foreign labor laws: Great Britain and France, b y W. F. W illoughby.(«)
No. 26. Protection of workmen in their employment, b y S. D. Fessenden.(«)
Foreign labor laws: Belgium and Switzerland, b y W. F. Willoughby. («)
No. 27. Wholesale prices: 1890 to 1899, b y Roland P. Falkner, Ph. D .(a)
Foreign labor laws: Germany, b y W. F. W illoughby.(«)
No. 28. Voluntary conciliation and arbitration in Great Britain, b y J. B. McPher­
son .^ )
System of adjusting wages, etc., in certain rolling mills, b y J. H . Nutt.(a)
Foreign labor laws: Austria, b y ’ W . F. W illoughby.(«)
No. 29. Trusts and industrial combinations, b y J. W. Jenks, Ph. D.
The Yukon and Nome gold regions, b y S. C. Dunham.
Labor Day, b y Miss M. C. de Graffenried.
No. 30. Trend of wages from 1891 to 1900.
Statistics of cities.
Foreign labor laws: Various European countries, b y W. F. Willoughby.
No. 31. Betterment of industrial conditions, b y V. H. Olmsted.(»)
Present status of employers’ liability in the U. S., b y S. D. Fessenden.(a)
Condition of railway labor in Italy, b y Dr. Luigi Einaudi.(«)
No. 32. Accidents to labor as regulated b y law in the U. S., b y W . F. W illoughby.
Prices of commodities and rates of wages in Manila.
The Negroes of Sandy Spring, M d.: A social study, b y W. T . Thom, Ph. D.
The British workmen’s compensation act and its operation, b y A . M. Low.
No. 33. Foreign labor laws: Australasia and Canada, b y W . F. W illoughby.
The British conspiracy and protection of property act and its operation, b y
A . M. Low.
No. 34. Labor conditions in Porto R ico, b y Azel Ames, M. D.
Social economics at the Paris Exposition, b y Prof. N. P. Gilman.
The workmen’ s compensation act of Holland.
No. 35. Cooperative communities in the United States, b y Rev. Alexander Kent.
The Negro landholder of Georgia, b y W . E. B. Du Bois, Ph. D.
No. 36. Statistics of cities.
Statistics o f Honolulu, Hawaii.
No. 37. Railway employees in the United States, b y Samuel McCune Lindsay,
Ph. D .(a)
The Negroes of Litwalton, Va.: A social study of the “ Oyster Negro,” b y
William Taylor Thom, Ph. D.(®)
No. 38. Labor conditions in Mexico, b y Walter E. Weyl, Ph. D.
The Negroes of Cinclare Central Factory and Calumet Plantation, La., b y
J. Bradford Laws.
No. 39. Course of wholesale prices, 1890 to 1901.
No. 40. Present condition oi the hand-working and domestic industries of Germany,
b y Henry J. Harris, Ph. D.
Workmen’s compensation acts of foreign countries, b y Adna F. Weber.
No. 41. Labor conditions in Cuba, b y Victor S. Clark, Ph. D.
Beef prices, b y Fred C. Croxton.
No. 42. Statistics of cities.(«)
Labor conditions of Cuba.(°)
No. 43. Report to the President on anthracite coal strike, b y Carroll D. Wright.(«)
No. 44. Factory sanitation and labor protection, b y C. F. W. Doehring, Ph. D.
No. 45. Course of wholesale prices, 1890 to 1902.
No. 46. Report of Anthracite Coal Strike Commission.
No. 47. Report of the Commissioner of Labor on Hawaii.
No. 48. Farm colonies of the Salvation Army, b y Commander Booth Tucker,
The Negroes of Xenia, Ohio, b y Richard R . Wright, jr., B. D.
No. 49. Cost of living.(«)
Labor conditions in New Zealand, b y Victor S. Clark, Ph. D .(«)
No. 50. Labor unions and British industry, b y A. Maurice Low .(«)
Land values and ownership in Philadelphia, b y A. F. Davies.(a)
No. 51. Course of wholesale prices, 1890 to 1903.{«)
The union movement among coal mine workers, b y Frank J. Wame, Ph. D .(«)




o Bulletin out of print.

L E AD IN G AR TICLES I N PAST N U M B E R S OF T H E B U L L E T IN .

925

No. 52. Child labor in the United States, b y Hannah R . Sewall, Ph. D .(«)
No. 53. Wages and cost of living.
No. 54. The working of the United States Bureau of Labor, b y Carroll D. Wright.
Bureaus of statistics of labor in the United States, b y G. W. W . Hanger.
Bureaus of statistics of labor in foreign countries, b y G. W. W. Hanger.
The value and influence of labor statistics, b y Carroll D. Wright.
Strikes and lockouts in the United States, 1881 to 1900, b y G. W. W . Hanger.
Wages in the United States and Europe, 1890 to 1903, b y G. W. W. Hanger.
Cost of living and retail prices in the United States, 1890 to 1903, b y G. W . W .
Hanger.
Wholesale prices in the United States, 1890 to 1903, b y G. W . W. Hanger.
Housing of the working people in the United States b y employers, b y G. W. W .
Hanger.
Public baths in the United States, b y G. W . W. Hanger.
Trade and technical education in the United States.
Hand and machine labor in the United States.
Labor legislation in the United States, b y G. A. Weber.
Labor conditions in Hawaii.
No. 55. Building and loan associations in the United States, b y G. W . W. Hanger.(a)
Revival of handicrafts in America, b y Max West, Ph. D .(«)
No. 56. Influence of trade unions on immigrants, b y Carroll D. Wright.
Labor conditions in Australia, b y Victor S. Clark, Ph. D.
No. 57. Course of wholesale prices, 1890 to 1904.
Street railway employment in the United States, b y Walter E. W eyl, Ph. D .
State cooperative accident insurance fund of Maryland.
No. 58. Labor conditions in the Philippines, b y Victor S. Clark, Ph. D.
Labor conditions in Java, b y Victor S. Clark, Ph. D.
The new Russian workingmen’s compensation act, b y I. M. Rubinow.
No. 59. Wages and hours of labor in manufacturing industries, 1890 to 1904.
Retail prices of food, 1890 to 1904.
Laws relating to child labor in European countries.
No. 60. Government industrial arbitration, b y Leonard W . Hatch, A. M.
No. 61. Labor conditions in Porto R ico, b y Walter E. W eyl, Ph. D .(o)
Early organizations of printers, b y Ethelbert Stewart.(a)
No. 62. Municipal ownership in Great Britain, b y Frederic C. Howe, Ph. D.(<*)
Conciliation in the stove industry, b y John P. Frey and John R . Commons.(«)
Laws relating to the employment of children in the United States.(a)
No. 63. Course of wholesale prices, 1890 to 1905.
No. 64. Conditions of living among the poor, b y S. E. Forman.
Benefit features of British trade unions, b y Walter E. W eyl, Ph. D.
No. 65. Wages and hours of labor in manufacturing industries, 1890 to 1905.(a)
Retail prices of food, 1890 to 1905.(a)
No. 66. Third report of the Commissioner of Labor on Hawaii.
No. 67. Conditions of entrance to the principal trades, b y Walter E. W eyl, Ph. D .,
and A . M. Sakolski, Ph. D .(«)
Cost of industrial insurance in tne District of Columbia, b y S. E. Forman.(a)
No. 68. Free public employm ent offices in the United States, b y J. E. Conner,
Ph. D .(o)
Laws of foreign countries relating to employees on railroads, b y Lindley D.
Clark, A . M., LL. M .(«)
No. 69. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1906.
No. 70. The Italian on the land: A study in immigration, b y Em ily Fogg Meade.(a)
A short history of labor legislation in Great Britain, b y A . Maurice Low .(«)
The British workmen’s compensation acts, b y Launcelot Packer, B. L .(«)
No. 71. Wages and hours of labor in manufacturing industries, 1890 to 1906.(a)
Retail prices of food, 1890 to 1906.(«)
No. 72. Italian, Slavic, and Hungarian unskilled immigrant laborers in the United
States, b y Frank J. Sheridan.(«)
Economic condition of the Jews in Russia, b y I. M. R ubinow .(a)
No. 73. Laws relating to the employment of women and children.(«)
Laws relating to factory inspection and the health and safety of employees.(«)
No. 74. The legal liability of employers for injuries to their employees in the United
States, b y Lindley D. Clark, A. M., LL. M .(«)
Workmen’ s compensation acts of foreign countries.(a)




a Bulletin out of print.

926

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

No. 75. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1907.
Industrial hygiene, b y George M. Kober, M. D.
No. 76. The Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation A ct of 1907, b y Victor S.
Clark, Ph. D.
What is done for the unemployed in European countries, b y W. D. P. Bliss.
No. 77. Wages and hours of labor in manufacturing industries, 1890 to 1907.
Retail prices of food, 1890 to 1907.
Cost of liv in g of the working classes in the principal industrial towns of Great
Britain.
No. 78. Industrial accidents, b y Frederick L. Hoffman.
Mexican labor in the United States, b y Victor S. Clark, Ph. D.
Cost of living of the working classes in the principal industrial towns of
Germany.
No. 79. Mortality from consumption in dusty trades, b y Frederick L. Hoffman.(«)
Charity relief and wage earnings, b y S. E. Forman.(«)
No. 80. Women and child wage-earners in Great Britain, b y Victor S. Clark, Ph. D.
No. 81. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1908.
No. 82. Mortality from consumption in occupations exposing to municipal and
general organic dust, b y Frederick L. Hoffman.
No. 83. The w om ens trade union movement in Great Britain, b y Katherine Graves
Busbey, A. B.
Cost of living of the working classes in the principal industrial towns of
France.
No. 84. Accidents to railroad employees in New Jersey, 1888 to 1907, b y F. S. Crum.
The Minnesota iron ranges, b y G. O. Virtue, Ph. D.
No. 85. Review of labor legislation of 1908 and 1909, b y Lindley D. Clark, A . M.,
LL. M.
Laws of various States relating to labor, enacted since January 1, 1908.
No. 86. Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation A ct of 1907, b y Victor S. Clark,
Ph. D.
Phosphorus poisoning in the match industry in the United States, b y John
B. Andrews, Ph. D.
List of industrial poisons.
Publications of International Association for Labor Legislation.
No. 87. Wholesale prices, 1890 to March, 1910.




a Bulletin out of print.