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DEPARTMENT OP COMMERCE AND LABOR

BULLETIN
OF THE

BUREAU OF LABOR

No. 75—M
ARCH, 1908
ISSUED EVERY OTHER MONTH

W A SH IN G TO N
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE




1908




CONTENTS.
Page.

Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1907...........................................................................................
Industrial hygiene, by George M. Kober, M. D ........................................................
Digest of recent reports of State bureaus of labor statistics:
Illinois................................................................................................................................
Missouri..............................................................................................................................
New Y o r k ...............................................
Pennsylvania...................................................................................................................
Virginia..............................................................................................................................
Digest of recent foreign statistical publications..........................................................
Decisions of courts affecting labor....................................................................................
Laws of various States relating to labor, enacted since January 1, 1904............
Cumulative index of labor laws and decisions relating thereto............................




hi

283-471
472-591
592-594
595-597
597-602
602-606
606-608
609-621
622-650
651-656
657-663




B U L L E T IN
OF THE

BUREAU
No. 75.

OF

LABOR.

WASHINGTON.

M

arch

,

1908.

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

In 1901 the Bureau of Labor collected data relating to the whole­
sale prices of the principal staple commodities sold in the United
States for the period from 1890 to 1901, inclusive. The actual prices
for the 12 years and the relative prices computed therefrom were
published in Bulletin 39, issued in March, 1902. The purpose of the
investigation was to furnish a continuous record of wholesale prices
and to show the changes in the general price level from year to year.
The investigation thus begun has been continued each year and the
results published in the March issue of the Bulletin to show actual
prices for the year immediately preceding and relative prices for the
period since 1890. The present Bulletin contains actual prices for
1907 and relative prices for the 18 years from 1890 to 1907. In
these reports wholesale prices have been presented for a large number
of carefully selected representative staple articles secured in repre­
sentative markets of the United States. That it would be impossible
to secure prices for all articles in all markets is so apparent that the
fact hardly need be stated. In the present report prices are given
for 258 representative articles. With a very few exceptions these
articles are the same as have been covered in the preceding reports on
this subject. Retail prices of food, which indicate better than whole­
sale prices of food the changes in cost of living, are published in the
July Bulletin of each* year.
The present investigation shows that wholesale prices, considering
the 258 commodities as a whole, reached a higher level in 1907 than
at any other time during the 18-year period covered. The average for
the year 1907 was 5.7 per cent higher than for 1906; 44.4 per cent
higher than for 1897, the year of lowest prices during the 18-year
period; and 29.5 per cent higher than the average for the 10 years
from 1890 to 1899. Prices reached their highest point during the
18-year period in October, 1907, the average for that month being




283

284

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOR.

1.2 per cent higher than the average for the year 1907 and 2.8 per
cent higher than the average for December, 1906, the month of
highest prices in 1906.
An examination of the prices of the various articles covered by the
investigation shows that while there was a large average increase for
the year taken as a whole the increase in price did not extend to all
commodities. Of the 258 articles for which wholesale prices were
obtained 172 showed an increase in the average price for 1907 as
compared with 1906, 35 showed no change in the average price for
the year, and 51 showed a decrease in price. The following table
divides the articles for which prices were secured into nine groups
and shows for each group the number of articles covered, the per cent
of increase in the average price for 1907 as compared with that for
1906 for each group as a whole, and the number of articles that in­
creased or decreased in price:
PER CENT OF INCREASE IN A V E R A G E PRICES FOR 1907 AS COMPARED W IT H A V E R ­
AGE PRICES FOR 1906, A N D NUM BER OF AR TICLES T H A T IN CREASED OR D ECREASED
IN PRICE, B Y GROUPS OF COMMODITIES.

Group.

Numb<;r of comnlodities
showing—
Number Per cent
of
of com­
No
modities. increase
in price. Increase. change Decrease.
in price.

Farm products..................................................................
Food, etc.............................................................................
Cloths and clothing.........................................................
Fuel and lighting..............................................................
Metals and implements..................................................
Lumber and building materials..................................
Drugs and chemicals.......................................................
House furnishing goods.................................................
Miscellaneous.....................................................................

16
53
75
13
38
27
9
14
13

10.9
4.6
5.6
2.4
6.1
4.9
8.3
6.8
5.0

11
34
54
7
25
21
4
8
8

6
11
1
6
1
3
6
1

All commodities.....................................................

258

5.7

172

35

5
13
10
5
7
5
2

4
51

From the above table it is seen that when the commodities are con­
sidered by groups all of the nine groups showed an increase in price
in 1907 as compared with 1906. In farm products, taken as a whole,
there was an increase in price of 10.9 per cent in 1907 over the average
price for 1906, this increase being greater than in any other one of
the nine groups. There was an increase in price in 11 of the 16
articles for which prices were obtained. All of the staple grains,
cotton, hay, and hops showed a decided increase in price. The
articles that showed a decrease in the average price for the year were
sheep, hogs, and hides, which decrease in the average price for the
year resulted from the fall in price during the last two months of the
year.
Food as a whole increased 4.6 per cent in the average price for 1907
as compared with 1906. In this group, 34 articles increased in price,
6 showed no change, and 13 decreased in price. Among the articles




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.

285

showing an increase were beef, flour, butter, milk, cheese, rice, meal,
eggs, lard, and sugar. No change took place in the price of bread.
The principal articles showing a decrease were coffee, potatoes, mut­
ton, beans, prunes, and evaporated apples. Some of the varieties of
pork and fish showed a slight increase in the average price for the
year, while other varieties showed a slight decrease.
Of the 75 articles included under cloths and clothing, 54 showed an
increase in price, 11 showed no change, and 10 showed a decrease.
In the group as a whole there was an average increase of 5.6 per cent
in price, the principal increase being in cotton goods and silk.
In fuel and lighting as a group there was an increase in price of 2.4
per cent. Petroleum and coke increased in price, as did also some
kinds of coal. Other kinds of coal decreased slightly in price.
In the metals and implements group the increase in the average
price for 1907 over 1906 was 6.1 per cent. Of a total of 38 articles
in the group there was an increase in the price of 25 articles, including
barb wire, copper, iron, steel billets, nails, tin plate, etc. Six articles,
including steel rails, did not change in price and in 7 articles there
was a decrease.
Twenty-one of the 27 articles included under lumber and building
materials increased in 1907 as compared with 1906. Nearly all kinds
of timber products showed a marked increase. There was a decrease
in the prices of brick, window glass, turpentine, and spruce. In the
group as a whole there was an increase in price of 4.9 per cent.
The increase in the average price of drugs and chemicals in 1907
over 1906 was 8.3 per cent, the articles showing the greatest increase
being glycerin and opium. W ood alcohol showed a marked decrease
in price.
House furnishing goods as a whole increased 6.8 per cent in price.
The increase was in furniture, wooden ware, and cutlery. Earthen­
ware and glassware did not change in price. No article included in
this group showed a decrease as compared with 1906.
In the miscellaneous group there was a marked increase in the
prices of news paper, cotton-seed oil, malt, and starch. There was
no change in the price of smoking tobacco, and there was a decrease
in the prices of rubber and 3 other articles. Taken together, the
group of miscellaneous articles increased in price 5 per cent. The
per cent of increase or decrease in the average wholesale price for
1907 for each of the 258 articles as compared with the price for 1906
is shown on pages 312 to 315.
In addition to the classification into the nine groups named above,
the 258 articles included in the investigation have been divided into
two general groups, designated as raw commodities and manufactured
commodities. Of course fixed definitions of these classes can not be
made, but the commodities here designated as raw may be said to be




286

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

such as are marketed in their natural state and such as have been
subjected to only a preliminary manufacturing process, thus con­
verting them into a marketable condition, but not to a suitable form
for final consumption, while the commodities here designated as
manufactured are such as have been subjected to more than a pre­
liminary factory manipulation and in which the manufacturing
labor cost constitutes an important element in the price. In the
group designated as raw are included all farm products, beans,
coffee, eggs, milk, rice, nutmegs, pepper, tea, vegetables, raw silk,
wool, coal, crude petroleum, copper ingots, pig lead, pig iron, bar
silver, spelter, pig tin, brimstone, jute, and rubber— a total of 50
articles. All the other articles are classed as manufactured com­
modities.
As thus grouped it appears that the average wholesale price of raw
commodities for 1907 was 5.5 per cent higher than for 1906, and that
the average wholesale price of manufactured commodities for 1907
was 5.8 per cent higher than for 1906.
While the general average of wholesale prices for the year 1907 was
higher than the average for 1906, the tendency upward did not con­
tinue throughout the year, as there was a heavy decline in prices in
November and a still further decline in December. The following
table shows the per cent that the average price for each month of
the year 1907 was above or below the average price for the year, and
in the last column the per cent of decrease of the average December
price below the average price for each preceding month:
COMPARISON OF A V E R A G E PRICE FOR EACH M ONTH OF 1907 W IT H TH E AVE R A G E
PRICE FOR TH E Y E A R , AN D OF A V E R A G E PRICE FOR DECEM BER, 1907, W IT H THE
A V E R A G E PRICE FOR EACH PRECEDING M ONTH OF TH E Y E A R .
Per cent of price for
month—

♦Month.

January.............................................................................................................
February..........................................................................................................
March................................................................................................................
April..................................................................................................................
May....................................................................................................................
June...................................................................................................................
July....................................................................................................................
August..............................................................................................................
September............ .*.........................................................................................
October.............................................................................................................
November........................................................................................................
December.........................................................................................................




Per cent of
decrease in
December
Above av­ Below av­ below each
erage price erage price preceding
for year.
for year.
month.
1.2
.4
.1
.3
0.1
.5
.6
.5
1.0
1.2
.5
2.4

1.2
2.0
2.3
2.1
2.5
2.8
3.0
2.9
3.4
3.5
1.9

287

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

The average for wholesale prices for January, 1907, was 1.2 per
cent below the average for the year. In February and March there
was an advance, followed by a decline in April. There was a further
advance in May, June, and July, followed by a slight decline in August.
There was another advance in September, and in October the whole­
sale prices reached the highest point attained during the year, when
they were 1.2 per cent above the average price for the year. In
November there was a decline in prices to a point 0.5 per cent below
the average for the year. In December prices reached their lowest
point in the year, being 2.4 per cent below the average for the year.
From the figures given in the last column of the table it is seen that
the average of wholesale prices in December, 1907, was 1.2 per cent
below the average in January and 3.5 per cent below the average in
October, the month of highest prices during the year.
The change that took place in wholesale prices month by month
during 1907 in each of the nine groups already referred to will be
seen in the following table:
COMPARISON OF A V E R A G E PRICE FOR EACH M ONTH OF 1907 W IT H A V E R A G E
PRICE FOR TH E Y E A R , A N D OF A V E R A G E PRICE FOR D ECEM BER, 1907, W IT H
A V E R A G E PRICE FOR EACH PR ECEDING M ONTH OF TH E Y E A R , B Y GROUPS OF
COMMODITIES.
Farm products.

Food, etc.

Per cent of price Per cent
for month—
of in­
crease
( + ) or
decrease

Month.

January...
February..
March........
April.........
M ay...........
June...........
July...........
August___
September.
October...
November.
December.

Cloths and clothing.

Per cent of price
for month—

Per cent of price
for month—

Per cent
Per cent
of in­
of in­
crease
crease
( + ) or
( + ) or
decrease
decrease
( - ) in
(-) in
(-) in
Above
Below
Decem­ Above
Below
Decem­ Above
Decem­
Below
average average ber as average average ber as average average ber as
com­
com­
price
com­
price
price
price
price
price
for
for
for
for
pared
for
for
pared
pared
year.
year.
year.
year.
with
year.
year.
with
with
eachpreeach pre­
each pre­
ceding
ceding
cedmg
month.
month.
month.
5.9

1.8
1.2

2.0

.4

5.2
2.5

2.8
0.1
5.3




-0.5
-

47

5.2

6.4

-

11.8

11.1

-

.5

2.2
2.5
2.1

9.0

.3

4.8
42
2.5

2.8
2.2
1.7
1.1

+ 3 .2
+ 2.2

*'.'9
3.3
3.4

-6.0
-8.3
- 11.0
-8.7
-

6.0

0.7
0.3

+ 3 .5
+ 6.1
+ 6.2
+49
+ 5 .1
+48
+ 2 .9
-

2.2
1.6

0.2
1.0
1.3
2.0
1.7
1.2
.3

.6

+ 3 .2
+ 2.6

+2.0
+ 1 .4
+ 1.0

.2
-

.7
.9

1.6

-1 .3
- .9

288

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

COM PARISON OF A V E R A G E PRICE FOR EACH M O N TH OF 1907 W IT H AVE R A G E
PRICE FOR T H E Y E A R , A N D OF A V E R A G E PRICE FO R D EC E M B E R , 1907, W IT H
A V E R A G E PRICE FOR EACH PR ECED ING M O N TH OF TH E Y E A R , B Y GR O U PS OF
COMMODITIES—Concluded.

Per cent of price Per cent Per cent of price Per cent Per cent of price Per cent
for month—
for month—
for month—
of in­
of in­
of in­
crease
crease
crease
( + ) or
( + ) or
(+ ) or
decrease
decrease
decrease
< - ) in
( - ) in
( - ) in
Decem­ Above
Below Decem­
Decem­
Above
Below
Above
Below
average average ber as
average average ber as
average average ber as
com­
com­
price
price
price
price
com­
price
price
pared
pared
for
for
pared
lor
lor
for
for
year. with each
year. with each year.
year.
year. with each year.
preced­
preced­
preced­
ing
ing
ing
month.
month.
month.

Month.

January...............
February............
March..... ............
A p r il........ .............
M av......................
June.....................
July......................
August.................
September..........
October________
November..........
December............

0.6
1.2
.4
2.1
1.8
2.8
1.6
.7

.1
3.6
A6

Per cent of
price for
month—

Month.
Above
aver­
age
puce
for
year.

5.6
5.7
4.2
4.4
4.7
1.4

May.......

June........

July.......

3.1
4.0
3.8
3.6
3.8
3.3
2.4
0.5
1.8
5.6
7.0
9.5

Per
cent
of in­
crease
( + ) or
de­
crease

House furnishing
goods.
Per cent of
price for
month—

(-) in
Below Decem­ Above
aver­
aver­
ber as
age
age
com­
price
price
pared
for
for
with
year.
year.
each
pre­
ceding
month.
6.8

January,.
February
March___
April____

- 1 .6
- 2 .2
-1 .4
+ 1 .1
+ .8
+ 1 .8
+ .5
- .4
- 1 .2
- 4 .5
-4 5

1.0

Drugs and chemicals.

August----September.
October. . .
November.
December..

Lumber and building ma­
terials.

Metals and implements.

Fuel and lighting.

8.7
8.7
6.5
5.7

2.6

8.7
7.0
7.3
7.7
4.0

-5.6
- 5.6
-3.7
-

2.9

(<0
0.9
1.7
17
L.7
1.4
1.4

a Same as average price for year.

3.0
3.0
1.1
.8
.8
(a)

Per cent of
price for
month—

+ 4 .5
+ 4 .5

+2.6
+ 2 .3
+ 2 .3
+ 1 .4
+ .5

.2
.2
.2

(> )

0.7
0.3
1.5
2.5
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.4
.2
1.4
3.2
6.6

Miscellaneous.

(-) in
Below Decem­ Above
aver­ ber as aver­
age
age
com­
price
price
pared
for
for
with
year.
each year.
pre­
ceding
month,

+ 1
0.1
+ 8.6

+
+
+
+
+

Per
cent
of in­
crease
( + ) or
de­
crease

-1 2 .2
-1 2 .9
-1 2 .8
-1 2 7
-1 2 .8
-1 2 .4
—11.6
- 9.0
- 7.8
- 41
- 2.6

Below
aver­
age
price
for
year.

0.9
2.6
1.1
1.4
1.9
1.3
2.5
.3
.6
1.9

All commodities.

Per
cent
of in­
crease
( + ) or
de­
crease
( - ) in
Decem­
ber as
com­
pared
with
each
pre­
ceding

Per cent of
price for
month—

Above
aver­
age
price
for
year.

-4 .3
-

6.1

-6.9
- 6 .4
-7 .4

—
5.4

-5 .6
-6 .9
-3 .0

Below
aver­
age
price
for
year.

1.2
.4
.1
,3

2.6

- 6 .4

2.2
5.1

-0 .0
-6 .9
-8 .0
-8 .8
- 8 .8
- 8 .4
-8 .0
- 7 .9
- 6 .8
-5 .3
-3 .5

0.1
.5
.6
.5
1.0
1.2

Per
cent
of in­
crease
( + ) or
de­
crease
( —) in
Decem­
ber as
com­
pared
with
each
pre­
ceding
month.
-

1.2

2.0

-2 .3
-

2.1

-2 .5
-

_
\h
2.4

2.8

- 3 .0
- 2 .9
-3 .4
- 3 .5
-1 .9

&Same as average price for December.

In January, 1907, the wholesale price of farm products as a group
was 5.9 per cent below the average price for the year. In each
month until June there was an advance in price. In July and
August the price was a little lower than in June. The highest point
reached during the year was in September, when the price was 6.1
per cent above the average for the year. There was a slight decline




WHOLESALE PBICES, 1890 TO 1907.

289

In October and a very heavy decline in November, in which month
the price was 6 per cent below the average price for the year. In
December the price had fallen slightly lower, the price being 6.4 per
cent below the average price for the year. The price in December
was 0.5 per cent lower than in January and 11.8 per cent lower than
in September, the month of highest prices in this group. The move­
ment in prices during the year for each of the articles that enter into
this and the other groups will be found in Table II, pages 396 to 414,
or, if desired, the full details of the prices throughout the year may
be found in Table I, pages 347 to 395.
Food commodities as a group were at their lowest price in May
and at their highest in October, when they were 4.8 per cent above
the average price for the year* The increase in October as compared
with May was 8.5 per cent. Food commodities declined in price in
November and made a still further decline in December. Prices in
December were 3.2 per cent higher than in January and 6.2 per cent
higher than in May.
The price of cloths and clothing was below the average price for
the year during the first five months o f the year. From January to
September there was an advance in price each month. In the last
three months of the year there was a decline in price each month.
The price in December was 3.2 per cent higher than in January,, but
1.6 per cent lower than in September.
The lowest price reached in the group of fuel and lighting was in
June, when the price was 2.8 per cent below the average price for
the year. The highest price reached was in October and November,
in each of which months the price was 3.6 per cent above the average
price for the year. In December there was a sharp decline, the price
in that month being 1 per cent below the average price for the year.
The price in December was 1.6 per cent lower than in Januaiy, 1.8
per cent higher than in June, and 4.5 per cent lower than in October
and November.
The price of metals and implements was above the average price
for the year during the first seven months of the year. Beginning
with June, there was a decline each month until December, when the
price was 9.5 per cent below the average price for the year. The
price in December was 12.9 per cent lower than in February, the
month of highest prices in this group during the year.
Lumber and building materials were 0.7 per cent below the average
price for the year in the month of January. The price increased each
month up to April, in which month the price was 2.5 per cent above
the average price for the year. In each succeeding month there
was a decline in price from the month immediately preceding, until
in December the price was 6.6 per cent below the average price for




290

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

the year. In December the price was 8.8 per cent lower than in
April, the month of highest price in this group.
Drugs and chemicals were below the average price for the year
during the first seven months in the year and above the average price
for the year during the remaining five months. The lowest point in
the year was in January, when the price was 6.8 per cent below the
average price for the year, and the highest in August and September,
when the price was 8.7 per cent above the average price for the year.
In December the price was 10.1 per cent higher than in January and
5.6 per cent lower than in August and September.
House furnishing goods were at their lowest price in January and
February and at their highest price in August, September, and Octo­
ber. In these months the price was 1.7 per cent above the average
price for the year. The price in November and December was
slightly lower than in the three preceding months. The price in
December was 4.5 per cent higher than the price in January and
February.
Miscellaneous.articles in January were 0.9 per cent below the aver­
age price for the year and 2.6 per cent below the average price for the
year in February. The month of highest price in this group was in
July, when the average price was 2.5 per cent above the average price
for the year. A marked decline in price occurred, both in Novem­
ber and in December, until in the latter month the average price
was 5.1 per cent below the average price for the year.
While the year 1907 was as a whole one of high prices, the heavy
decline in the latter part of the year was quite general. Of the 258
articles included in this report, 132 had in December declined from
the highest point reached during the year and 46 showed a lower
average price for December than for any other month of the year. A
few of the articles for which the December prices were much lower
than in preceding months are here noted. Heavy hogs declined from
ah average of $7.0313 per hundred in February to $4.65 in December,
being a decline of 33.9 per cent. Sheep declined 39.1 per cent from
April to December; coffee declined 18.9 per cent from March to
December; smoked hams declined 22.2 per cent from May to Decem­
ber; dressed mutton declined 24.4 per cent from May to December;
print cloths declined 16.1 per cent from October to December; raw
Japan silk declined 24.2 per cent from May to December; coke
declined 44.1 per cent from February to December; ingot copper
declined 45.1 per cent from May to December; pig lead declined 33.4
per cent from March to December; No. 1 foundry iron declined 31.1
per cent from January to December; spelter declined 35.1 per cent
from February to December; red cedar shingles declined 35.5 per
cent from August to December; brick declined 26.7 per cent from




291

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

June to December; tar declined 42.9 per cent from April to Decem­
ber; quinine declined 27.3 per cent from February to December; raw
jute declined 45.9 per cent from January to December; rubber
declined 34.2 per cent from March to December. The price of 72
articles remained the same throughout the year 1907, and for only
8 articles was the average price for December higher than for any
other month in the year. The average monthly prices for the several
articles are given in Table II, pages 396 to 414.
The following table has been prepared, showing for both raw and
manufactured commodities, according to the classification already
explained, the per cent that prices in each month in 1907 were above
or below the average prices of the year and the per cent of decrease
in December below each preceding month of the year:
COMPARISON OF A V E R A G E PRICES OF R A W AN D M ANU FACTU R ED COMMODITIES
FOR EACH M ONTH OF 1907, W IT H TH E A V E R A G E PRICES FOR TH E Y E A R , AN D OF
A V E R A G E PRICES FOR DECEM BER, 1907, W IT H TH E A V E R A G E PRICES FOR EACH
PRECEDING M ONTH OF TH E Y E A R .
Raw commodities.

Manufactured commodities.
Per cent of price
for month—

Per cent of price
for month—

Month.

January...............
February.............
March......... .........
April....................
May......................
June......................
July....................
August.................
September . .
October...............
November.. . .
December
. .

All commodities.
Per cent of price
for month—

Per cent
Per cent'
Per cent
of de­
of deof de­
crease in
creasein
crease in
Decem­
Decem­
Above
Above
Above
Below
Below
Decem­
Below
average average ber below average average ber below average average ber below
price
price each pre­
price
price each pre­
price
price
each pre­
for
for
for
for
ceding
for
for
ceding
ceding
year.
month.
year.
year.
year.
year.
year.
month.
month.
1.0
2.0
2.1
.4
1.9
2.6
.6
0.8
.4
.7
4.0
6.9

7.8
8.7
8.8
7.2
8.7
9.3
7.5
6.1
6.5
7.5
3.0

1.8
1.0
.6
.5
.5
.1
0.6
.9
1.3
1.2
.4
1.2

« 0 .6
.2
.6
.8
.8
1.2
1.9
2.1
2.5
2.5
1.6

1.2
.4
.1
.3
0.1
5
.6
.5
1.0
1.2
.5
2.4

1.2
2.0
2.3
2.1
2.5
2.8
3.0
2.9
3.4
3.5
1.9

a Increase.

From this table it is seen that there was a greater fluctuation in the
prices of raw commodities during the year than in the prices of manu­
factured commodities. In June, the price of raw commodities was
2.6 per cent above the average price for the year, while in December
the price was 6.9 per cent below the average price for the year. In
manufactured commodities, the lowest prices were in January, when
the average was 1.8 per cent below the average price for the year,
while in September the average was 1.3 per cent higher than the aver­
age price for the year. Thus, December marked the lowest prices in
raw commodities and January marked the lowest>
prices in manu­
factured commodities, while June marked the highest prices in raw
commodities and September the highest prices in manufactured
commodities. Prices of raw commodities in December averaged 7.8




292

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

per cent lower than in January and 9.3 per cent lower than in June.
The December prices of manufactured commodities averaged 0.6 per
cent higher than those for January and 2.5 per cent lower than those
of September.
Thus far attention has been directed to the changes that took place
in wholesale prices in the year 1907 as compared with 1906 and the
movement of wholesale prices month by month during the year 1907.
Attention is now directed to the course of wholesale prices from year
to year since 1890. The following table shows, by relative prices,
the changes in the average wholesale prices of the articles for which
prices were secured from 1890 to 1907, inclusive. The relative price
used in this table is simply a percentage. The base on which the rela­
tive price is computed is not the price in any one year, but the aver­
age price for the ten years from 1890 to 1899, inclusive. The reason
for adopting this base is fully explained on page 326. Relative
prices, such as are here shown, are also sometimes spoken of as rela­
tive numbers or as index numbers. In computing the relative
price for all commodities for each year the relative prices for the
several commodities were added and the sum divided by the number
of commodities.
To assist in comparing wholesale prices in 1907 with the prices each
year back to 1890, another column is given in the table showing the
per cent of the increase in prices for 1907 over the prices for each of
the preceding years.
R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, AN D PER CENT OF INCREASE IN
PRICES FOR 1907 O V 1 R PRICES FOR EACH PR ECEDING Y E A R .

Year.

1890.........................................
1891.........................................
1892.........................................
1898.........................................
1894.........................................
1895.........................................
1896.........................................
1897.........................................
1898........
...................

Per cent of
Relative increase in
price of all 1907 over
commodi­ each pre­
ceding
ties. («)
year.
112.9
111.7
106.1
105.6
96.1
93.6
90.4
89.7
93.4

14.7
15.9
22.1
22.6
34.8
38.4
43.3
44.4
38.7

Year.

1899.......................................
1900.......................................
1901.......................................
1902.......................................
1903.......................................
1904.......................................
1905.......................................
1906.......................................
1907.......................................

Per cent of
Relative increase in
price of all 1907 over
commodi­ each pre­
ties, (a)
ceding
year.
101.7
110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6
113.0
115.9
&122.5
129.5

a Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.
6 These figures are correct; those given for 1906 in Bulletin No. 69 were slightly in error.




27.3
17.2
19.4
14.7
14.0
14.6
11.7
5.7

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

293

The relative wholesale prices during the years from 1890 to 1907,
set forth in tabular form in the preceding table, are shown also in the
graphic table which follows:
R E L A T IV E PRICES OF A L L COM M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1907.
[Average price for 1890 to 1899=100.]

The table shows that the average of wholesale prices of all com­
modities for 1890 was 112.9 per cent of the average of wholesale
prices for the years from 1890 to 1899; in other words, that the




294

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

average of wholesale prices in 1890 was 12.9 per cent higher than the
average for the 10-year period named.
In 1891 relative wholesale prices declined to 111.7; that is, to a
point where the average wholesale price for the year was 11.7 per cent
above the average price for the 10 years from 1890 to 1899.
In 1892 relative wholesale prices dropped to 106.1 and in 1893 to
105.6. In the next year, 1894, wholesale prices fell to 96.1, a point
3.9 below the average price for the 10-year base period. In each of
the three succeeding years wholesale prices declined until in 1897 they
reached 89.7; that is, 10.3 per cent below the average price for the
10-year period. In each of the 3 years next succeeding, wholesale
prices advanced, in 1900 reaching 110.5. In 1901 wholesale prices
dropped back to 108.5. The next year, however, marked an increase,
prices in 1902 being on an average a restoration of the prices in 1890,
namely, 112.9. In 1903 prices advanced to 113.6. The next year,
1904, showed a slight decline, nearly back to the prices of 1890 and
1902. In 1905 prices advanced to 115.9; in 1906 prices advanced
again, reaching 122.5; and finally in 1907 the general average of
wholesale prices reached 129.5; that is, 29.5 per cent above the
average price for the 10 years from 1890 to 1899 and a higher level
than in any other year of the 18 years covered by the investigation.
The last column of the table (page 292) shows that the price in 1907
was 5.7 per cent above the price in 1906,14.7 per cent above the price
in 1890, and 44.4 per cent above the price in 1897, the year of lowest
average prices within the last 18 years.
The relative prices appearing in this table are based on 251 articles
in 1890 and 1891, on 253 articles in 1892, on 255 articles in 1893, on
256 articles in 1894, on 258 articles in 1906 and 1907, on 259 articles
in 1895, 1904, and 1905, on 260 articles in 1896 and from 1899 to 1903,
and on 261 articles in 1897 and 1898.
Having shown the movement in wholesale prices for the period
from 1890 to 1907 in all commodities taken as a whole, a table is now
given showing the movement in each of the 9 groups previously
referred to. This table gives for each group the relative prices and
the per cent of increase or, in a few instances, decrease of prices for
1907, as compared with the prices for each preceding year.




295

WHOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO 190*7.

R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, AND PER CENT OF INCREASE
IN PRICES FOR 1907 OVER PRICES FOR EACH PRECEDING Y E A R , B Y GROUPS OF
COMMODITIES.
Farm products.

Rela­
tive
price.

Year.

(a)

110.0

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.
1907.

121.5
111.7
107.9
95.9
93.3
78.3
85.2
96.1

100.0

109.5
116.9
130.5
118.8
126.2
124.2
123.6
137.1

Per cent
of
increase
in 1907
over
each
preced­
ing year.
24.6
12.8
22.7
27.1
43.0
46.9
75.1
60.9
42.7
37.1
25.2
17.3
5.1
15.4
8.6
10.4
10.9

Lumber and
building
materials.
Year.

Rela­
tive
price.

(a)

1890...........
1891...........
1892...........
1893...........
1894...........
1895...........
1896...........
1897...........
1898...........
1899...........
1900...........
1901...........
1902...........
1903...........
1904...........
1905...........
1906...........
1907..........

111.8
108.4
102.8
101.9
96.3
94.1
93.4
90.4
95.8
105.8
115.7
116.7
118.8
121.4
122.7
127.7
140.1
146.9

Food, etc.

Rela­
tive
price.

(a)

112.4
115.7
103.6
110.2
99.8
94.6
83.8
87.7
94.4
98.3
104.2
105.9
111.3
107.1
107.2
108.7
112.6
117.8

Per cent
of
increase
in 1907
over
each
preced­
ing year.
4.8
1.8
13.7
6.9
18.0
24.5
40.6
34.3
24.8
19.8
13.1
11.2
5.8
10.0
9.9
8.4
4.6

Drugs and
chemicals.

Cloths and
clothing.

Rela­
tive
price.

(a)

113.5
111.3
109.0
107.2
96.1
92.7
91.3
91.1
93.4
96.7
106.8
101.0
102.0
106.6
109.8
112.0
120.0
126.7

110.2
103.6
102.9
100.5
89.8
87.9
92.6
94.4
106.6
111.3
115.7
115.2
114.2
112.6
110.0
109.1
101.2
109.6

6 0.5
5.8
6.5
9.1
22.0
24.7
18.4
16.1
2.8
6 1.5
6 5.3
64.9
64.0
6 2.7
6 .4
.5
8.3

11.6
13.8
16.2
18.2
31.8
36.7
38.8
39.1
35.7
31.0
18.6
25.4
24.2
18.9
15.4
13.1
5.6

House furnish­
ing goods.

Per cent
Per cent
of
of
increase Rela­ •increase Rela­
tive
tive
in 1907
in 1907
overeach price. overeach price.
(a)
(a)
preced­
preced­
ing year.
ing year.
31.4
35.5
42.9
44.2
52.5
56.1
57.3
62.5
53.3
38.8
27.0
25.9
23.7
21.0
19.7
15.0
4.9

Per cent
of
increase
in 1907
over
each
preced­
ing year.

111.1
110.2
106.5
104.9
100.1
96.5
94 0
89.8
92.0
95.1
106.1
110.9
112.2
113.0
111.7
109.1
111.0
118.5

Fuel and
lighting.

Rela­
tive
price.

(a)

104.7
102.7
101.1
100.0
92.4
98.1
104.3
96.4
95.4
105.0
120.9
119.5
134.3
149.3
132.6
128.8
c 131.9
135.0

28.9
31.5
33.5
35.0
46.1
37.6
29.4
40.0
41.5
28.6
11.7
13.0
.5
6 9.6
1.8
4.8
2.4

Miscellaneous.

Per cent
of
increase Rela­
tive
in 1907
over each price.
(C)
preced­
ing year.
6.7
7.5
11.3
13.0
18.4
22.8
26.1
32.0
28.8
246
11.7
6.9
5.6
49
6.1
8.6
6.8

Per cent
of
increase
in 1907
over
each
preced­
ing year.

110.3
109.4
106.2
105.9
99.8
94.5
91.4
92.1
92.4
97.7
109.8
107.4
1141
113.6
111.7
112.8
121.1
127.1

« Metals and
implements.

Rela­
tive
price.

(a)

119.2
111.7
106.0
100.7
90.7
92.0
93.7
86.6
86.4
114.7
120.5
111.9
117.2
117.6
109.6
122.5
135.2
143.4

20.3
28.4
35.3
42.4
58.1
55.9
53.0
65.6
66.0
25.0
19.0
28.2
22.4
21.9
30.8
17.1
6.1

All commodities.

Per cent
of
increase Rela­
tive
in 1907
price.
overeach
(a)
preced­
ing year.
15.2
16.2
19.7
20.0
27.4
34 5
39.1
38.0
37.6
30.1
15.8
18.3
11.4
11.9
13.8
12.7
5.0

Per cent
of
increase
in 1907
over
each
preced­
ing year.

Per cent
of
increase
in 1907
overeach
preced­
ing year.

112.9
111.7
106.1
105.6
96.1
93.6
90.4
89.7
93.4
101.7
110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6
113.0
115.9
c 122.5
129.5

a Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.
* Decrease.
>
c Those figures are correct; those given for 1906 in Bulletin No. 69 were slightly in error.

37691— No. 75—08------2




14 7
15.9
22.1
22.6
34 8
38.4
43.3
44 4
38.7
27.3
17.2
19.4
14.7
140
14 6
11.7
5.7

296

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

In this table the average relative prices of farm products are based
on 16 articles; of food, etc., on 53 articles from 1890 to 1892 and
from 1904 to 1907, and 54 from 1893 to 1903; of cloths and clothing,
on 70 articles in 1890 and 1891, 72 in 1892, 73 in 1893 and 1894, 75
in 1895, 1896, 1906, and 1907, and 76 from 1897 to 1905; of fuel and
lighting, on 13 articles; of metals and implements, on 37 articles from
1890 to 1893, 38 in 1894 and 1895 and from 1899 to 1907, and 39 from
1896 to 1898; of lumber and building materials, on 26 articles from
1890 to 1894 and 27 from 1895 to 1907; of drugs and chemicals, on
9 articles; of house furnishing goods, on 14 articles, and of miscel­
laneous, on 13 articles.
A study of the table shows that the group of farm products reached
the lowest average in 1896 and the highest in 1907; that of food,
etc., the lowest in 1896 and the highest in 1907; that o f cloths and
clothing, the lowest in 1897 and the highest in 1907; that of fuel and
lighting, the lowest in 1894 and the highest in 1903; that of metals and
implements, the lowest in 1898 and the highest in 1907; that of lum­
ber and building materials, the lowest in 1897 and the highest in 1907;
that of drugs and chemicals, the lowest in 1895 and the highest in
1900; that of house furnishing goods, the lowest in 1897 and the
highest in 1907, while in the miscellaneous group the lowest average
was reached in 1896 and the highest in 1907. The average for all
commodities combined, as before stated, was lowest in 1897 and
highest in 1907. Of the nine groups, it is seen that one reached its
lowest point in 1894, one in 1895, three in 1896, three in 1897, and
one in 1898. The highest point was reached by one group in 1900,
by one in 1903, and by seven in 1907.
In order to follow the movement in the two great classes—raw and
manufactured commodities— the following table has been prepared.
The articles included under each of the two groups are indicated on
page 286.




297

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.

R E L A T IV E PRICES OF R A W AND OF M ANUFACTUR ED COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, AN D
PER CENT OF INCREASE IN PRICES FOR 1907 OVER PRICES FOR EACH PR ECEDING
YEAR.
Raw commodities.

Year.

1890...........................................................
1891...........................................................
1892...........................................................
1893...........................................................
1894...........................................................
1895...........................................................
1896...........................................................
1897...........................................................
1898...........................................................
1899...........................................................
1900...........................................................
1901...........................................................
1902...........................................................
1903...........................................................
1904...........................................................
1905...........................................................
1906................. ^ ..................................
1907...........................................................

Manufactured com­
modities.

All commodities.

Per cent
Per cent
Per cent i
increase Relative of increase
of increase
Relative ofin 1907
Relative
in 1907
in 1907
price.
price.
price.
over each
over each
over each
(a)
(«)
(«)
preceding
preceding
preceding
year.
year.
year.
115.0
116.3
107.9
104.4
93.2
91.7
84.0
87.6
94.0
105.9
111.9
111.4
122.4
122.7
119.7
121.2
b 126.5
133.4

16.0
14.7
23.6
27.8
43.1
45.5
58.8
52.3
41.9
26.0
19.2
19.7
9.0
8.7
11.4
10.1
5.5

112.3
110.6
105.6
105.9
96.8
94.0
91.9
90.1
93.3
100.7
110.2
107.8
110.6
111.5
111.3
114.6
121.6
128.6

14.5
16.3
21.8
21.4
32.9
36.8
39.9
42.7
37.8
27.7
16.7
19.3
16.3
15.3
15.5
12.2
5.8

112.9
111.7
106.1
105.6
96.1
93.6
90.4
89.7
93.4
101.7
110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6
113.0
115.9
&122.5
129.5

14.7
15.9
22.1
22.6
34.8
38.4
43.3
44.4
38.7
27.3
17.2
19.4
14.7
14.0
14.6
11.7
5.7

a Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.
b These figures are correct; those given for 1906 in Bulletin No. 69 were slightly in error.

In 1890, when prices in general were high, the relative prices of raw
commodities were higher than those of manufactured commodities
and remained so until 1893, when prices of raw commodities declined
and those of manufactured commodities were slightly above the prices
o f 1892. From 1894 to 1896 there was a marked decline in both
groups, the raw commodities being lower than the manufactured in
each of these years. In 1897 raw commodities advanced and manu­
factured declined. From 1898 to 1900 there was a decided advance
in both groups each year, raw commodities advancing to a higher
point than manufactured. In 1901 there was a very slight decline
in raw and a more marked decline in manufactured commodities.
In 1902 both raw and manufactured commodities made a decided
advance, raw commodities much the greater, and in 1903 both slightly
advanced. In 1904 both raw and manufactured commodities de­
clined slightly, but in 1905 both raw and manufactured commodities
advanced. In 1906 both raw jand manufactured commodities made
a sharp advance, and another sharp advance, equally great, was made
in both groups in 1907. In 1907 both raw and manufactured com­
modities reached the highest point during the 18 years considered.
For the 18 years included in this table, with the single exception
of 1893, it will be seen that during the years of high prices raw com­
modities were higher than manufactured, and during the years of low
prices, with the exception of 1898, raw commodities were lower than




298
manufactured.
follows:

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

This is clearly shown in the graphic table which

R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF R A W A N D M A N U F A C T U R E D COM M ODITIES,
1890 TO 1907.




[Average price for 1800 to 1890=100.]

Raw .

Manufactured.

299

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907,

To give an opportunity to study the movement in prices in each
of the 9 groups before named, month by month for a few years back,
a table is now given showing the relative prices in each group and for
all commodities for each month from January, 1902, to December,
1907, inclusive:
R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES FOR EACH M ONTH , 1902 TO 1907, B Y GROUPS.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.(fc]

Date.

Farm
prod­
ucts.

Food
etc.

Cloths
and
cloth­
ing.

Fuel
and
light­
ing.

Lum­
Metals ber and Drugs House
Mis­
and
fur­
and
build­ chem­ nishing cella­
imple­
ments. ing ma­ icals. goods. neous.
terials.

All
com­
modi­
ties.

1902.
January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
M ay.............................
June............................
July.............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

12G.7
126.8
129.0
134.4
137.7
137.6
141.1
131.0
129.7
126.3
123.5
122.3

111.4
111.8
111.1
111.4
112.6
109.3
109.3
108.5
107.9
112.2
112.6
114.1

101.5
101.5
101.9
101.5
101.5
101.6
101.8
101.5
102.0
102.7
102.8
103.0

119.4
118.6
118.9
118.1
123.3
125.9
121.0
120.8
127.2
175.9
158.0
171.2

111.4
112.2
114.1
115.1
118.1
119.9
119.9
120.6
120.4
119.4
118.7
117.3

111.4
112.8
113.2
116.3
120.5
121.5
120.1
121.6
121.0
121.8
122.6
122.7

119.1
117.2
117.4
117.3
114.3
114.3
112.6
111.4
110.2
112.3
113.5
111.5

111.5
111.5
111.5
111.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5

115.7
112*3
114.0
115.2
115.9
116.6
116.7
114.2
113.6
111.7
110.9
112.9

110.3
110.4
110.9
111.7
113.3
113.1
113.0
112.2
112.3
115.5
114.6
115.3

Average, 1902.

130.5

111.3

102.0

134.3

117.2

118.8

114.2

112.2

114.1

112.9

January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
M ay.............................
June............................
July.............................
August.......................
September.................
October.....................
November.................
December.............. —

123.3
124.8
127.0
125.0
122.1
121.1
115.8
114.8
117.2
112.5
109.9
112.2

112.3
111.4
112.3
110.0
104.8
105.6
103.8
103.1
107.1
104.4
105.6
105.5

104.2
104.5
104.9
105.0
105.4
106.3
107.5
107.8
108.2
108.0
108.1
108.6

178.6
178.6
154.8
149.0
145.0
143.1
141.1
140.3
140.4
141.2
140.1
139.8

119.4
119.6
121.6
123.1
121.9
119.7
118.1
117.0
115.8
114.3
111.8
109.0

120.7
122.8
123.3
120.9
118.7
120.6
120.1
119.5
121.5
121.3
124.3
123.1

111.8
111.4
113.7
111.4
112.8
113.7
113.1
113.9
112.8
112.6
112.5
111.4

112.2
112.2
113.1
113.1
113.1
113.1
113.1
113.1
112.7
113.5
113.5
113.5

113.3
113.5
114.9
114.2
115.1
114.3
114.3
114.4
114.4
114.5
110.4
110.1

115.9
116.1
115.9
114.9
113.2
113.4
112.6
112.2
113.3
112.3
112.1
111.7

Average, 1903.

118.8

107.1

106.6

149.3

117.6

121.4

112.6

113.0

113.6

113.6

January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
M ay............................
June............................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

120.8
127.2
130.3
129.2
127.6
126.8
125.2
125.3
126.0
125.4
126.4
122.2

106.3
108.3
108.7
107.4
105.2
105.1
105.2
106.3
108.5
107.8
110.2
111.4

110.4
112.1
111.9
111.7
110.9
110.5
108.8
108.6
108.4
108.4
108.3
108.6

143.6
141.9
138.7
130.6
129.1
129.4
127.8
128.2
128.8
129.1
130.8
133.9

108.9
109.0
109.6
111.0
110.6
109.3
108.6
108.3
107.6
107.7
110.7
113.4

123.6
124.4
123.5
123.6
123.9
125.5
124.4
123.6
120.4
119.5
119.4
120.1

111.7
110.4
110.6
111.8
112.3
110.6
109.9
109.6
108.5
108.2
107.7
109.1

111.9
111.5
111.5
111.5
111.8
111.8
111.8
111.8
111.8
111.8
111.8
111.8

110.2
111.2
112.9
112.6
112.7
111.6
112.9
111.6
111.2
111.6
109.7
111.5

.113.2
114.4
114.6
114.0
113.2
112.9
112.0
112.0
112.0
111.8
112.7
113.5

Average, 1904.

126.2

107.2

109.8

132.6

109.6

122.7

110.0

111.7

111.7

113.0

January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
M ay.............................
June............................
July.............................
August.......................
September.................
October......................
November.................
December..................

124.1
125.9
127.1
127.0
125.2
126.2
128.9
125.3
120.4
120.1
119.7
121.8

112.2
113.6
110.3
109.0
104.6
102.7
103.2
105.9
108.3
108.8
110.2
112.1

109.6
108.5
108.7
108.8
109.0
110.1
111.5
113.8
114.5
115.2
116.1
117.1

130.8
132.8
130.5
125.8
124.0
124.4
124.3
125.3
126.5
132.2
134.5
134.7

115.2
119.7
122.6
122.5
122.3
121.2
120.8
122.3
123.2
124.2
126.3
129.3

120.1
121.9
120.7
122.8
124.5
130.7
128.0
131.6
131.9
133.4
134.2
132.1

108.9
109.4
110.0
110.5
109.0
108.8
106.4
108.1
110.0
110.2
109.5
108.8

109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1

111.2
113.8
114.6
113.9
112.1
112.9
110.6
111.6
111.8
112.5
113.3
115.1

114.0
115.2
114.9
114.6
113.6
114.1
114.3
116.0
116.7
117.6
118.7
119.8

Average, 1905.

124.2

108.7

112.0

128.8

122.5

127.7

109.1

109.1

112.8

115.9

1903.

1904.

1905.




[Average price for 1890 to 1899=100.]

300
BULLETINS' OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.




R E L A T IV E PRICES OF A L L COMMODITIES, B Y M ONTHS, 1902 TO 1907.

301

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.

R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES FOR EACH M ONTH , 1902 TO 1907, B Y GROUPS—
Concluded.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Lum­
Metals ber and Drugs House
Mis­
and
fur­
and
buildcella­
imple­ iing ma- chem­ nishing neous.
icals. goods.
ments.
|terials.

Farm
prod­
ucts.

Food,
etc.

Cloths
and
cloth­
ing.

Fuel
and
light­
ing.

January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
M ay............................
June............................
July............................
August.......................
September.................
October.....................
November.................
December...................

119.5
118.7
119.4
122.5
124 2
126.2
124 0
122.8
123.8
125.2
126.9
130.0

112.3
112.2
111.7
111.0
109.8
111.1
112.3
113.2
112.4
112.7
115.8
118.2

119.4
119.5
119.6
119.3
119.5
119.4
119.3
119.3
119.7
120.3
121.6
122.2

* 134 0
a 131.3
a 130.9
*131.7
*129.9
* 128.6
a 129. 7
a 131.3
al81.9
* 132.2
*134 5
*136.5

131.0
131.6
131.5
131.3
132.3
133.2
133.1
133.2
135.4
139.3
143.6
146.9

135.0
138.4
139.6
139.2
140.4
139.8
141.5
139.9
141.0
141.1
141.6
143.3

102.9
101.5
101.2
101.0
100.2
100.3
100.3
101.6
100.9
100.7
100.7
162.9

168.8
108.8
108.8
108.8
108.8
108.8
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.7
115.0
115.0

118.6
118.9
118.1
117.6
12L3
122.2
122.6
123.0
121.4
120.3
123.4
125.8

*120.8
* 121.1
* 121.1
* 121.0
* 121.2
* 121.6
*122.1
*122.3
*122.6
*123.5
* 125.7
*127.6

Average, 1906.

123.6

112.6

120.0

* 131.9

135.2

140.1

101.2

111.0

121.1

* 122.5

129.0
134 6
135.4
136.5
139.9
144 2
140.5
141.0
145.5
144 4
128.9
128.3

117.0
118.2
116.7
113.9
113.8
115.2
114 9
115.3
117. 4
123.5
122.8
120.8

123.2
123.9
124 6
125.8
125.9
126.9
128.0
128.3
129.2
128.8
128.2
127.1

135.8
136.6
135.5
132.1
132.6
131.2
132.9
1341
135.2
139.9
139.9
133.6

147.9
149.1
148.8
148.6
148.8
148.1
146.9
142.7
140-8
135.4
133.3
129.8

145.9
147.3
149.1
150.5
150.4
149.8

149.0
147.2
144 9
1 4 2 .2
137.2

m 2

102.1
103.5
103.4
105.0
104 8
104 4
108.1
119.1
119.1
116.7
115.8
112.4

115.0
115.0
117.2
117.5
117.5
118.5
119.6
120.5
120.5
120.5
120.2
120.2

126.0
123.8
128.5
128.9
129.5
128.8
130.3
127.5
127.8
129.5
124 3
120.6

127.9
129.0
129.4
129.1
129.6
130.1
130.3
130.2
130.8
131.0
128.9
126.4

Average, 1907. j 137.1

117.8

126.7

135.0

143.4

146.9

109.6

118.5

127.1

129.5

Date.

All
com­
modi­
ties.

raoa.

1907.
January.....................
February...................
March.........................
April...........................
M ay.............................
June............................
July............................
August.......................
September...............
October......................
November.................
December..................

* These figures are correct; those given for 19C6 in Bulletin No. 69 were slightly in error.

In this table the average relative prices of farm products are based
on 16 articles; of food, etc., on 54 articles in 1902 and 1903 and on 53
articles from 1904 to 1907; of cloths and clothing, on 76 articles from
1902 to 1905 and on 75 articles in 1906 and 1907; of fuel and lighting,
on 13 articles; of metals and implements, on 38 articles; of lumber
and building materials, on 27 articles; of drugs and chemicals, on 9
articles; of house furnishing goods, on 14 articles, and of miscellane­
ous,^ on 13 articles. The average relative prices of all commodities
are based on 260 articles in 1902 and 1903; on 259 articles in 1904 and
1905, and on 258 articles in 1906 and 1907.
The table shows that the group of farm products reached the lowest
average in November, 1903, and the highest in September, 1907;
that of food, etc., the lowest in June, 1905, and the highest in October,
1907; that of cloths and clothing, the lowest in January, February,
April, May, and August, 1902, and the highest in September, 1907;
that of fuel and lighting, the lowest in April, 1902, and the highest in
January and February, 1903; that of metals and implements, the
lowest in September, 1904, and the highest in February, 1907; that
of lumber and building materials, the lowest in January, 1902, and the
highest in April, 1907; that of drugs and chemicals, the lowest in




302

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

May, 1906, and the highest in January, 1902, and in August and Sep­
tember, 1907; that of house furnishing goods, the lowest, January to
June, 1906, and the highest in August, September, and October, 1907;
while in the miscellaneous group the lowest average was reached in
November, 1904, and the highest in July, 1907. It is interesting to
see that during the six years the relative price of not a single group
was as low as the base— that is, the average price for the 10-year
period from 1890 to 1899. Farm products were from 9.9 per cent to
45.5 per cent above base (average price for the 10-year period, 1890 to
1899); food, etc., from 2.7 per cent to 23.5 per cent above base; cloths
and clothing, from 1.5 per cent to 29.2 per cent above base; fuel and
lighting,from 18.1 per cent to 78.6 per cent above base; metals and im­
plements, from 7.6 per cent to 49.1 per cent above base; lumber and
building materials, from 11.4 per cent to 50.5 per cent above base;
drugs and chemicals, from 0.2 per cent to 19.1 per cent above base;
house furnishing goods, from 8.8 per cent to 20.5 per cent above base;
the miscellaneous group,from 9.7 percent to 30.3 percent above base;
and all commodities combined, from 10.3 per cent to 31.0 per cent
above base. All commodities combined reached the lowest average
for these years in January, 1902, and the highest in October, 1907.
The course of prices during the months of 1902 to 1907 as repre­
sented by all commodities is clearly shown in the graphic table on
page 300.
The following table shows the movement in the wholesale prices
of raw commodities and of manufactured commodities month by
month from January, 1902, to December, 1907. A description of the
two classes may be found on pages 285 and 286.
R E L A T IV E PRICES OF R A W COMMODITIES, M ANUFAC TU R ED COMMODITIES, AN D
A L L COMMODITIES, FOR EACH M ONTH , 1902 TO 1907.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.1

Date.

1902.
Jaimarv..............................
February.....................................................................................................................
March...........................................................................................................................
April.............................................................................................................................
M ay..............................................................................................................................
June..............................................................................................................................
July..............................................................................................................................
August.........................................................................................................................
September..................................................................................................................
October.......................................................................................................................
November...................................................................................................................
December_________ ______________________________________________________
Avp.ra.e'p.. 1902______




Manufac­
All
Raw
tured
commod­
commod­ commod­
ities.
ities.
ities.

117.0
116.2
117.0
117.5
122.8
121.1
121.8
119.8
119.6
131.3
128.7
131.4

108.7
109.0
109.5
110.3
111.0
111.2
110.9
110.4
110.6
111.7
111.2
111.5

110.3
110.4
110.9
111.7
113.3
113.1
113.0
112.2
112.3
115.5
114.6
115.3

122.4

110.6

112.9

303

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907,

R E L A T IV E PRICES OF R A W COMMODITIES, M ANUFAC TU R ED COMMODITIES, AN D
A L L COM M ODITIES, FOR EACH M ONTH, 1902 TO 1907-Concluded.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Manufac­
Raw
Ah
commod­ tured
' commod­ commode
ities.
ities.
ities.

Date.

1903.

January..........................................................
February........................................................
March..............................................................
April................................................................
M ay..................................................................
June.................................................................
July..................................................................
August............................................................
September......................................................
October...........................................................
November......................................................
December.......................................................
Average, 1903......................................

133.0
133.0
127.8
125.8
121.5
121.6
119.9
118.6
120.7
118.1
117.2
117.5

111.8
112.0
113.1
112.3
111.3
111.4
110.9
110.7
111.6
110.9
110.9
110.4

115.9
116.1
115.9
114.9
113.2
113.4
112. <
>
112.2
113.3
112.3
112.1
111.7

J

122.7

111.5

113.6

J

121.8
123. 6
123.2
121.1
119. 7
118.5
117.5
118.7
119.1
117.3
120.7
122.1

111.1
112.2
112.5
112.3
111.6
111.5
110.7
110.4
110.3
110.5
110.8
111.5

113.2
114.4
114 6
114.0
113.2
112.9
112.0
112.0
112.0
111.8
112.7
113.5

119.7

111.3

113.0

123.0
1241
122.6
119.6
118.2
117.4
118.4
118.4
119.6
122.1
123.8
126.3

111.9
113.1
113.1
113.4
112.5
113.3
113.3
115.4
116.0
116.6
117.5
118.2

114 0
115.2
114.9
114 6
113.6
1141
114 3
116.0
116.7
117.6
118.7
119.8

1904.

January..........................................................
February........................................................
March..............................................................
April.................................................................
M ay..................................................................
June......................... .......................................
July..................................................................
August............................................................
September......................................................
October...........................................................
November......................................................
December........................................................
Average, 1904......................................

1905.

January..........................................................
February........................................................
March..............................................................
April................................................................
M ay..................................................................
June.................................................................
July..................................................................
August............................................................
September......................................................
October...........................................................
November......................................................
December.......................................................
Average, 1905.......................................

121.2

114 6

115.9

January.......................................................... .
February........................................................ .
March ............................................................ .
April................................................................ .
M ay...................................................................
June..................................................................
July.................... ..............................................
August............................................................ .
September.......................................................
October............................................................
November........................................................
December.........................................................

ol25.5
o l24 4
o 123.0
0 124 7
o 123.6
0 124 9
0 124 9
ol25.4
ol26.3
ol28.4
o 132.4
ol35.6

119.7
120.3
120.6
120.1
120.6
120.9
121.5
121.5
121.8
122.4
1241
125.6

a 120.8
c 121.1
a 121.1
a 121.0
a 121.2
a 121.6
«122.1
a 122.3
a 122.6
o 123.5
«125.7
a 127. 6

Average. 1906.......................................

ol26.5

121.6

g 122.5

January............................................................
February..........................................................
March................................................................
April..................................................................
May....................................................................
June...................................................................
July....................................................................
August..............................................................
September........................................................
October.............................................................
November........................................................
December.........................................................

134.7
136.1
136.2
133.9
136.0
136.9
134.2
132.3
132.8
134.3
128.1
124.2

126.3
127.3
127.8
128.0
128.0
128.5
129.4
129.7
130.3
130.2
129.1
127.0

127.9
129.0
129.4
129.1
129.6
130.1
130.3
130.2
130.8
131.0
128.9
126.4

Average, 1907.......................................

133.4

128.6

129.5

1906.

1907.

« These figures are correct; those given for 1906 in Bulletin No. 69 were slightly in error.




30-1

RELATIVE PRICES OF RAW AND MANUFACTURED COMMODITIES, B Y MONTHS, 1902 TO 1907.
[Average price for 1890 to 1899=100.]
RUATm

1902

PRICES JAN

APR.

JU LY

1903
O CT

JAN.

APR.

1904

JU LY

OCT

JAN.

A P R , JULY

1905
OCT

JAN.

APR.

JULY

1906

.

OCT

JAN

APR.

JULY

1907
OCT

JAN

APR

JULY

OCT. DEC.

/3 8

136
r

134

//

132

\/

130

V

128

I

\
\
\

126

118

/

:
.

/
l

> f

r X

K

/V

'

/s

\

\

\

A

\A

\

/

v \ /
v

~~

/

\v

/
j

\

1 1

1
!

i

/

J
\

1

\
\
------1
<
v
\

J-

/

1 /6

)

A
r ~
y
t*

/

j

/

/
114
1 /2

.A
i

**m

,A
*««/

I/ O

r

w
’

y

1 J*if
S
»
’* /

l* « .»
* 8.3 l

108




R aw.

€
>
#
#"
j

V

i

/
f

/

/

/
/

AV
1

...........................Manufactured .

\ /

A

/

\

124

120

1

A

r i

* ..,
0
< — v_

f
j

_ L

A

A

u

/

\
\

122

A
A

A
4

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

K

WHOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO 190*7.

305

The raw commodities reached the lowest average for these years in
February; 1902; and the highest in June, 1907; manufactured com­
modities reached the lowest in January; 1902, and the highest in
September, 1907. The average for raw commodities ranged from 16.2
per cent to 36.9 per cent above the base price, while the average for
manufactured commodities ranged from 8.7 per cent to 30.3 per cent
above the base price.
The course of prices of raw and manufactured commodities from
1902 to 1907 is shown in the graphic table on page 304.
No attempt has been made in any way to investigate the causes
of the rise and fall of prices. The aim has been to give the prices
as they actually prevailed in the market. The causes are too com­
plex, the relative influence of each too uncertain, in some cases in­
volving too many economic questions, to permit their discussion in
connection with the present article. It will be sufficient to enumer­
ate some of the influences that cause changes in prices. Such in­
fluences include variations in harvest, which not only restrict or
increase the supply and consequently tend to increase or decrease the
price of a commodity, but also restrict or increase, to a greater or less
degree, the purchasing, power of such communities as are dependent
in whole or in part upon such commodity; changes in demand due to
changes in fashions, seasons, etc.; legislation altering internal-revenue
taxes, import duties, or bounties; inspection as to purity or adultera­
tion; use of other articles as substitutes— as, for instance, an ad­
vance in the price of beef will cause an increased consumption of pork
and mutton and, it may be added, a probable increase in the price of
both pork and mutton; improvements in methods of production
which will tend either to give a better article for the same price or an
equal article for a lower price; cheapening of transportation or hand­
ling; speculative manipulation of the supply or of the raw product;
commercial panic or depression; overproduction; unusual demand
owing to steady employment of consumers; short supply owing to
disputes between labor and capital in industries of limited producing
capacity, as in the anthracite coal industry in 1902; organization or
combination of mills or producers, thus enabling, on the one hand, a
greater or less control of prices or, on the other hand, economies in
production or in transportation charges through the ability to supply
the article from the point of production or manufacture nearest the
purchaser. So far as individual commodities are concerned, no con­
clusion can safely be formed as to causes without an examination of
the possible influence of several— in some cases, perhaps, all— of these
causes. For example, the various internal-revenue and tariff acts
have, in a marked degree, no doubt affected the prices of proof spirits,
of tobacco, and of sugar. But, on the other hand, they have not been




306

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

alone in their influences, and it probably would not in all cases be
accurate to give the change of tax or duty as representing the measure
of a certain and definite influence on the prices of those commodities.
EXPLANATION OF TABLES.
The general statistical tables of this report are five in number,
entitled as follows:
I. — Wholesale prices of commodities in 1907.
II.
— Monthly actual and relative prices of commodities in 1907 and
base prices (average for 1890-1899).
III. — Monthly relative prices of commodities in 1907.
IV.
— Average yearly actual and relative prices of commodities,
1890 to 1907, and base prices (average for 1890-1899).
Y .— Yearly relative prices of commodities, 1890-1907.
Table 7.— Wholesale 'prices o f commodities in 1907 , pages 3J+7 to 3 9 5 .—
This table shows in detail the actual prices in 1907, as obtained for the
several commodities embraced by this report. There is not space
within a bulletin article to republish in full the actual prices for all
commodities from 1890 down to 1906. Such prices may be found,
however, in the preceding March Bulletins of this Bureau, as follows:
Prices from 1890 to 1901 in Bulletin No. 39.
Prices for 1902 in Bulletin No. 45.
Prices for 1903 in Bulletin No. 51.
Prices for 1904 in Bulletin No. 57.
Prices for 1905 in Bulletin No. 63.
Prices for 1906 in Bulletin No. 69.
It is important that the greatest care be exercised in the choice of
commodities in order that a simple average of their relative prices
shall show a general price level. In the present compilation 258 com­
modities are shown, and it has been the aim of the Bureau to select
only important and representative articles in each group. The num­
ber of articles included is larger than has heretofore been used in simi­
lar compilations, with one exception. The use of a large number of
articles, carefully selected, minimizes the effect on the general price
level of an unusual change in the price of any one article or of a few
articles. It will be seen that more than one series of prices have been
given in the case of articles of great importance. This has been done
for the purpose of giving due weight to these important commodities,
no other method of accomplishing this having been found satisfactory
by the Bureau. The same means have been employed by Mr. Sauer­
beck in his English prices, as explained in Bulletin No. 39, and the
approximate accuracy of the same, as an indication of the variation
of prices, has been proved by various tests based on the amount of
production, etc.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.

307

Various methods of weighting have been attempted in connection
with compilations of relative prices. One method employed by Euro­
pean statisticians is to measure the importance of each commodity by
its annual consumption by the entire nation, the annual consumption
being found by adding to the home production the amount imported
and subtracting the amount exported. The method employed by the
Bureau of Labor in its publication of Retail Prices of Food in the
Eighteenth Annual Report and in Bulletin Nos. 59, 65, and 71, con­
sisted in giving to the various articles of food an importance based
upon their average consumption in normal families. While it was
possible to determine the relative importance as far as the consump­
tion of food is concerned, there are, of course, many commodities
whose importance can not be measured by this method. The impos­
sibility of securing even approximately accurate figures for annual con­
sumption in the United States of the commodities included in this
compilation renders this method unavailable for the Bureau.
It has been thought best in the present series of index numbers,
after a careful consideration of all methods of weighting, simply to
use a large number of representative staple articles, selecting them in
such a manner as to make them, to a large extent, weight themselves.
Upon a casual examination it may seem that by this method a. com­
paratively unimportant commodity— such, for instance, as tea— has
been given the same weight or importance as one of the more impor­
tant commodities, such as wheat. A closer examination, however,
discloses the fact that tea enters into no other commodity under con­
sideration, while wheat is not only quoted as the raw material, but
enters into the two descriptions of wheat flour, the two descriptions
of crackers, and the three descriptions of loaf bread,
ji In securing these prices an effort has been made to include staple
commodities only. In a number of instances it was found possible
to continue prices for the same commodities that were included in the
Report on Wholesale Prices, Wages, and Transportation, submitted
by Mr. Aldrich from the Senate Committee on Finance, March 3, 1893.
Many articles which were included in that report are no longer manu­
factured, or, if still manufactured, have ceased to be important
factors in the market. On the other hand, a number of articles not
shown in that report have become of such importance as to render
necessary their inclusion in any study of the course of prices.
Although in the case of commodities of great importance more than
one series of quotations have been used, in no case has an article of a
particular description been represented by more than one series of
quotations. For this reason the terms “ series of quotations” and
“ commodities” have been used interchangeably in this report.
In the record of prices for the eighteen years from 1890 to 1907,
248 series of quotations have been secured for the entire period and




308

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

an additional 13 for some portion of the period. No quotations are
shown for imported tin plate since 1898, no quotations for Ashton's
salt since 1903, and no quotations are shown for Beaver overcoatings
since 1905, which leaves 258 series of quotations for the year 1907.
Material changes in the description of 3 articles were made in 1902,
of 2 articles in 1903, of 1 article in 1904, of 5 articles in 1905, of 7
articles in 1906, and of 3 articles in 1907. For 6 of these articles the
trade journals no longer supply satisfactory quotations, the manu­
facture of the particular grades of 8 previously quoted has been dis­
continued by the establishments heretofore furnishing quotations,
and for 7 articles the substituted descriptions more nearly represent
the present demands of the trade.
In making these substitutions, with two exceptions in women's
dress goods, articles were supplied corresponding as elosely as possible
to those which were'previously used.
The prices quoted in every instance are wholesale prices. Whole­
sale prices have invariably been used in compilations which have been
made for the purpose of showing changes in the general price level of
all commodities. They are more sensitive than retail prices and more
quickly refleet changes in conditions. Retail prices usually follow
the wholesale, but not generally in the. same proportion. The margin
between them in the case of some commodities is so great that slight
changes in the wholesale price do not affect the retail price. Changes
in the wholesale price, which last for a short time only, do not usually
result in corresponding changes in the retail price.
The net cash prices are shown for textiles and all articles whose list
prices are subject to large and varying discounts. In the case of a
number of articles, such as white pine, nails, etc., however, whose
prices are subject to a small discount for cash, no deduction has been
made.
The prices have been collected from the best available sources, such
as standard trade journals, officials of boards of trade, chambers of
commerce, and produce exchanges, and leading manufacturers or
their selling agents.
The prices quoted are usually the prices in the New York market,
except for such articles as have their primary market in some other
locality. For grains, live stock, etc., for example, Chicago prices are
quoted; for fish, except salmon, Boston prices; for tar, Wilmington,
N. C., prices; for Elgin creamery butter, Elgin, 111., prices, etc. The
prices for textiles are the prices in the general distributing markets,
such as New York, Boston, and Philadelphia; and where no market
is mentioned in the prefatory note to Table I it should be understood
that the prices are for the general market.
The following table shows the different markets and the number of
articles quoted for each market:




309

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 190?.

N U M BER OF COMMODITIES OR SER IES OF QUO TATIO N S IN 1907, CLASSIFIED B Y
M A R K E T S FOR W H IC H SECURED .

Market.

Chicago.................................
Factory, mine, wells, e tc.
Pittsburg......... ....................
Philadelphia........................
Boston............ .....................
Trenton, N. J ......................
Cincinnati.............................
Eastern markets (Balt.,
Boston, N . Y ., Phila.)..
Buffalo..................................
Elgin, 111...............................
La Salle, 111..........................
Peoria, 111.............................
Washington, D. C ..............
Wilmington,, N. C ..............
General market..................
T otal...........................

f
i Lum­
Cloths Fuel Metals ber and Drugs House
Mis­
Farm Food, and
and
fur­
and
prod­ etc. cloth­ light­ and im- 1 build­ chem­ nishing cella­ TotaL
ple- ing ma­
neous.
ucts.
icals. goods.
ing. ments. |
ing.
terials.
!
i
2
2
21 i
43
127
23
6
12
9
I 1
5
14
20
1 |
j
2
3
9
i
3
i
i
1
7
7 1
L.
!
. !
4
4 !
I
3
I
3
l
l
j
3
3
........... I
l
2
i
t.
1 !
i
i
1
1
2
*1
_____I..............
!
1
1
1
I........... !
1
1
!.............1
1
1
!. . 1
1
1 !
i
1
1
1
!
_____ 1
............
1
1
I I
1
j
|
1
1
1
:
1
i
|
1 1
1
!
........... I............
71 1
_____ 1
75
1
2
2
1
1

i

16 •

53

75

13

38

27

9

9

14

13

258

As regards the description of the commodity; it should be stated
that the greatest care has been taken to secure prices throughout the
period from 1890 to 1907 for a commodity of precisely the same
description. Changes in quality are, of course, reflected in prices,
and for this reason note has been made of any important changes
which have occurred. In the ease of certain commodities, such as
butter, eggs, etc., prices for the best quality have been taken in
order to avoid frequent changes in grade. It should also be stated
in this connection that in the case of commodities for which prices
were secured from the Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter the lowest
quotations were taken where a range of prices was found, because
of the fact that, in that publication, these represent the prices of
large lots, while the high quotations represent the prices of smaller
lots.
Weekly quotations have been secured in the case of all articles
which are subject to frequent fluctuations hi price, such as butter,
cheese, eggs, grain, live stock, meats, etc. In the case of articles
whose prices are more stable, monthly or annual quotations have
been taken. The following table shows the number of series of
weekly, monthly, and annual price quotations:
N U M BER O F COMMODITIES OR SER IES OF QUOTATIONS, CLASSIFIED AS TO T H E IR
F R E QU EN C Y O F Q U O T ATION IN 1907.

Frequency of quotation.

Lum­
Cloths Fuel Metals ber and
Farm
and
prod­ Food, cloth­ and and im- build­
ple- •
etc.
light­
ucts.
ing. ments. ing m a­
ing.
terials.

Drugs House
Mis­
and
fur­
chem­ nishing cella­ Total.
neous.
icals. goods.

Weekly........_.........................
Monthly.................................
Annually................................

13
3

22
31

1
64
10

1
12

38

27

9

14

1
12

38
210
10

Total............................

16

53

75

13

38

27

9-

14

13

258




310

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The character of each series of quotations as regards frequency is
shown in all cases in Table I in a prefatory note which states fully the
date of the quotations and, if weekly, whether the quotations are for
some particular day of the week, the average for the week, or the range
for the week. The majority of the weekly quotations show the price
on Tuesday, and if for any reason Tuesday’s price was not obtainable
the first price in the week has been taken. The quotations from trade
and other journals, when credited to the first of each month, are not
in all instances the price for the exact day stated, as it is a common
practice of the daily papers which make a specialty of market reports
to devote certain days to the review of the market of certain articles.
For example, the Boston Herald quotes fish on Saturday only. The
prices are, however, the earliest prices quoted in the journal to which
the article is credited. It should also be stated that the monthly
prices credited to weekly publications are the earliest quotations
shown in such publications for each month.
The weight of a loaf of bread is, in some localities, regulated by
statute, while in many others the price per loaf is not affected by
changes in the price of flour, yet the weight of the loaf is changed
from time to time. During 1904, with the advance in the price of
flour, the weight of the loaf was decreased in some localities. For this
reason the relative prices of bread are computed on the price per
pound and not per loaf. Table I shows the price per loaf, the price
per pound, and the weight each month during 1907.
The average price for the year was obtained by dividing the sum of
the quotations for a given commodity b y the number of quotations
shown. For example, the sum of the Tuesday’s prices of cotton for
1907 (shown in Table I) was $6.2960, and the number of quotations 53.
The former figure divided b y the latter gives $0.11879 as the average
price for the year. Where a range was shown the mean price for each
date was found, and this was used in computing the yearly average
as above described. The reader will understand that, in order to
secure for any commodity a strictly scientific average price for the
year, one must know the quantity marketed and the price for which
each unit of quantity was sold. It is manifestly impossible to secure
such detail, and even were it possible the labor involved in the com­
pilation would make this method prohibitive. It is believed that the
method adopted here, which is also that used in the construction of
other index numbers, secures results which are quite as valuable for
all practical purposes.
Owing to the unusual method of fixing the scale of prices of cut
and wire nails and the difficulties encountered in securing satisfactory
quotations of prices, it was thought best to enter into a somewhat
lengthy explanation in Bulletin No. 39, and the reader is referred to
pages 226 to 231 of that number.




311

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

The base prices of nails are the prices quoted by the trade, and
while they could not be used, for reasons explained in Bulletin No.
39, in computing relative prices, they form the basis from which are
calculated the actual prices for 8-penny nails, as given in Table I, and
therefore the base prices of both cut and wire nails during 1907 are
given in the following tables:
N A IL S: CUT, BASE SIZES.
[Price per 100-pound keg, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iiun Age.]
Month.
January........
February—
March............

Month.

Price.
$2.05
2.05
2.05

Price.

April............
M ay..............
June.............

$2.05
2.05
2.05

Month.

Price.

July..............
August........
September..

$2.05
2.10
2.15

Month.

Price.

October____
$2.10
November.. $2.00-2.05
December... 2.00-2.05
Average..

2.0625

N A IL S: W IR E , BASE SIZES.
[Price per 100-pound keg, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Month.
January........
February—
March............

Month.

Price.
$2.00
2.00
2.00

April............
M ay..............
June.............

Price.
$2.00
2.00
2.00

Month.
July..............
August........
September..

Price.
$2.00
2.00
2.05

Month.
October___
November..
December...
Average..

Price.
$2.05
2.05
2.05
2.0167

In previous Bulletins quotations have been published for two
descriptions of scoured wool, but in view of the fact that sqch a large
proportion of the wool is now being marketed unwashed, monthly
price quotations for a standard grade of unwashed wool have also
been secured. For comparative purposes the quotations on the
scoured basis are continued in Table I. No relative prices were com­
puted from the quotations of unwashed wool. It may be necessary
at some future time to use these quotations in the index number, and
it was considered advisable to secure them from year to year.
The quotations of actual prices of unwashed wool on the first of
each month for 1890 to 1903 were shown in Bulletin No. 51 (page
237), for 1904 in Bulletin No. 57 (page 405), for 1905 in Bulletin No.
63 (page 352), and for 1906 in Bulletin No. 69 (page 264).
The prices for 1907 follow:
W H O L E SA L E PRICE OF U N W ASH ED OHIO M EDIUM FLEECE W O O L (O N E-FO U R TH
AND TH R E E -E IG H TH S G R AD E), 1907.
[Price per pound in the eastern markets (Baltimore, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia) on the first
of each month.]
Month.
January........
February___
March............

Month.

Price.
$0.33
.33
.33

April............
May..............
June.............

Price.
$0.33
.32
.33

Month.
July..............
August........
September..

Price.
$0.33
.32
.32

Month.
October___
November..
December...
Average..

37691— No. 75— 08------3




Price.
$0.32
.32
.32
.3250

312

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

On preceding pages of this report an opportunity has been afforded
to note the extent of the change in wholesale prices between 1906 and
1907, by groups of commodities. The following table shows the per
cent of increase or decrease in the average wholesale price in 1907 for
each individual article as compared with the price in 1906:
PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE A V E R A G E W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1907- COMPARED W IT H 1906.
[For a more detailed description of the articles see Table I, page 347 et seq.]

,

F a rm 'products 1 6 articles.
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

Article.

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

PRICE DECREASED.

PRICE INCREASED.

6.7
Sheep: native..............................................
6.8 I Hogs: light................................................. .
7.1
Hogs: heavy................................................
7.7
Hides: green, salted, packers, heavy
8.5
native steers.........................................
14.0
Sheep: western............................................
14.5

Hops: New York State, choice.
Cattle: steers, choice to extra.
Flaxseed: No. 1 ...........................
Cotton: upland, middling........
Cattle: steers good to choice..
Corn: No. 2, cash........................
W heat: cash................................
Rye: No. 2, cash.........................
H ay: timothy, No. 1.................
Oats: cash....................................
Barley: by sample.....................

1.0

1.8
2.5
5.7
7.5

30.7
37.1
49.8

,

F o o d etc., 53 articles.

PRICE SAME AS IN 1906.

PRICE INCREASED—concluded.

Bread: crackers, Boston...........................
Bread: crackers, soda................................
Bread: loaf, Washington market...........
Dread: loaf, homemade............................
Bread: loaf, Vienna....................................
Soda: bicarbonate of..................................
PRICE INCREASED.
Meat: pork, salt, mess...............................
Meat: bacon, clear sides............................
Vinegar: cider, Monarch...........................
Fruit: raisins, California, London layer.
Fish: cod, dry, bank, large.......................
Sugar: 96° centrifugal...............................
Sugar: 89° fair refining..............................
Sugar: granulated.......................................
Lard: prime contract.................................
Starch: pure com ........................................
Meat: hams, smoked..................................
Eggs: new-laid, fancy................................
Vegetables, fresh: onions..........................
Meal: com, fine white................................
Meal: com, fine yellow...............................
Cheese: New York, full cream.................
Flour: wheat, winter straights...............
Meat: beef, salt, extra mess.....................
Salt: American............................................
Milk: fresh....................................................
Glucose...........................................................




0.3
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.8
1.8
2.1
3.0
3.7
4.0
5.5
6.0
6.3
7.2
7.5
7.7
10.3
11.0
11.0
11.3
11.6

Butter: creamery, Elgin...........................
Rice: domestic, cnoice................................
Meat: beef, fresh, native sides.................
Butter: creamery, extra............................
Flour: wheat, spring patents..................
Fruit: currants............................................
Butter: dairy, New York State..............
Flour: buckwheat.......................................
TalloW............................................................
Flour: rye......................................................
Fruit: apples, sun-dried.....................
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle___
Meat: beef, salt hams, western...............

12.3
12.7
13.3
13. 7
14.0
14.4
14.9
15.1
17.4
19.7
19.9
20.2
20.8

PRICE DECREASED.
Meat: bacon, short rib sides.....................
Fish: salmon, canned.................................
Tea: Formosa, fine.....................................
Fish: herring, shore....................................
Meat: mutton, dressed..............................
Fish: mackerel, salt....................................
Beans: medium, choice..............................
Fruit: prunes, California, in boxes........
Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, w h ite........
Spices: pepper, Singapore.........................
Fruit: apples, evaporated........................
Coffee: Rio No. 7.........................................
Spices: nutmegs..........................................

0.1
.9
2.1
3.1
3.8
5.9
6.5
8.2
10.3
12.7
13.8
18.9
19. 2

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901,

313

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1907, COMPARED WITH 1906-Continued.
Cloths and clothing, 75 articles.
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

1906.

PRICE SAME AS IN

PRICE

Blankets: 11-4,5 pounds to pair, cotton
warp, all wool filling..............................
Blankets: 11-4,5pounds to pair, cotton
wan>, cotton and wool filling..............
Broadcloths..................................................
Linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour..........
Overcoatings: covert cloth, l i g h t
weight.........................................................
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 14ounce, Middlesex standard..................
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 16ounce ..........................................................
Underwear: white,. all wool, full fash­
ioned, 18-gauge.........................................
Underwear: white, merino, 60 per cent
wool............................................................
Women’ s dress goods: cashmere, all
wool, Atlantic J .......................................
Wool: Ohio, fine fleece (X and X X
grade), scoured........................................
PRICE INCREASED.

Worsted yarns: 2-40s, Australian fine..
Women’s dress goods: Poplar cloth—
Flannels: 4-4, Ballard Vale......................
Suitings: serge, Washington Mills........
Wool: Ohio, medium fleece......................
Leather: harness, oak...............................
Leather: sole, oak.......................................
Boots and shoes: men’s vicicalf, Blucher bal. . . . . . . .
Sheetings: brown, Mass, mills, Flying
Horse brand.............................................
Overcoatings: chinchilla, all wool.........
Trouserings: fancy worsted, 21 to 22
ounce..................................................... ...
Boots and shoes: men’s brogans...........
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, 36ineh, Hamilton.........................................
Women’ s dress goods: Danish cloth_
_
Linen thread: 3-cord, Barbour...............
Women’ s dress goods: cashmere, cot­
ton warp, Atlantic F .............................
Sheetings: brown, Atlantic A ................
Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow........
Sheetings: brown, Indian Head.............
Leather: sole, hemlock..............................
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell...............
Boots and shoes: men’ s vici kid shoes,
Goodyear welt..........................................
Drillings: 30-inch, Stark A .......................
Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, B igelo w ...
Drillings: brown, Pepperell.....................
Shirtings: bleached,

Article.

W am sutta..

0.3
.4
.5
.5

.6

.7
.7
.9
1.3
1.4

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

in c r e a s e d — c o n c lu d e d .

Hosiery: Women’s combed Egyptian
cotton hose................................................
Leather: wax calf.......................................
Cotton flannels: 2f yards to the pound.
Hosiery: men’s cotton half hose, 84
needles........................................................
Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag.......................
Tickings: Amoskeag A . C. A ...................
Sheetings: brown, Pepperell R ...............
Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, seam­
less, fast black..........................................
Cotton yam s: northern, cones, 10/1___
Sheetings: bleached, Atlantic.................
Boots and shoes: men’s split boots,
russet, bound top ....................................
Cotton flannels: 34 yards, to the pound.
Hosiery: men’s cotton half hose, seam­
less, fast black..........................................
Cotton yam s: northern, cones, 22/1___
Sheetings: bleached, Wamsutta S. T ...
Denims: Amoskeag....................................
Cotton thread: J. & P. Coats..................
Ginghams: Amoskeag...............................
Sheetings: bleached, Pepperell................
Ginghams: Lancaster................................
Silk: raw, Japan.........................................
Calico: American standard prints.........
Shirtings: New York mills, Williamsville, A 1 ......................................................
Shirtings: Hope..........................................
Shirtings: Lonsdale...................................
Silk: raw, Italian........................................
Print cloths: 28-inch..................................
Shirtings: Fruit of the Loom..................

6.6
7.0
7.0
7.1
7.3
8.7
8.9
9.7
10.0
10.5

10.6
10.7

11.1

11.6
11.6
12.0
12.3
16.5
16.5
16.6
21.5

21.6
22.9
24 3
27.2
29.0
31.1

PRICE DECREASED.

1.4
L5

2.0

2.7
3.5

3.6
3.9
4.0
4.1
42
43
5.1
5.7
5.8
6.5
6.5

Overcoatings: chinchilla, cotton w arp.
Worsted yam s: 2-40s, X X X X or its
equivalent, white.....................................
Blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to pair, all
wool.............................................................
Boots and shoes: women’s solid grain
shoes............................................................
Horse blankets: 6 pounds each...............
Overcoatings: Kersey, standard, 27 to
28 ounces....................................................
Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 12ounce...........................................................
Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 16ounce...........................................................
Women’s dress goods: Franklin sack­
ings..............................................................
Shawls: standard, all wool (lowgrade),
40 to 42 ounces..........................................

1.1

1.2
2.4
2.4
3.2
3.5
3.7
48
49
16.7

,

F u el and lighting 13 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN

1906.

PRICE DECREASED.

Matches: parlor, domestic.........................
PRICE INCREASED.

Coal: anthracite, broken............................
Petroleum: refined, 150°..............................
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (New
York Harbor)............................................
Coal: bituminous, Pittsburg, Youghiogheny..........................................................
Coke: Connellsville, furnace.......................
Petroleum: refined, for export.................
Petroleum: crude..........................................




0.1
3.5
3.6
4.4
5.6
8.1
8.6

Coal: anthracite, chestnut.......................
Coal: anthracite, stove.............................
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (at
mine)...........................................................
Coal: anthracite, egg.................................
Candles: adamantine.................................

0.8
.8

.8
.9
3.3

314

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1907. COMPARED WITH 1906-Continued.
Metals and implements, 88 articles.
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

PRICE SAME AS IN 1906.

Article.

Per eent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

PRICE INCREASED— c o n c lu d e d .

Butts: loose joint, cast...........
Hammers: Maydole...................
Saws: crosscut, Disston No. 2.
Saws: hand, Disston No. 7___
Steel rails.......................................
Trowels: M. C. O........................
PRICE INCREASED.

Augers: extra, f-inch.................................
Axes: M. C. O., Yankee.............................
Doorknobs: steel, bronze-plated............
Shovels: Ames No. 2 ..................................
Bar iron: common to best refined
(Pittsburg)................................................
Zinc: sheet....................................................
Lead: pipe.....................................................
Steel sheets: black, No. 27........................
Tinplates: domestic..................................
Chisels: extra, socket firmer....................
Bar iron: best refined (Philadelphia)..
Steel billets....................................................
Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and com­
mon.............................................................

0.9
1.3

2.1

Copper: ingot, lake.....................................
Barb wire: galvanized...............................
Locks: common, mortise..........................
Nails: cut, 8-penny, fence and common.
Pig iron: foundry No. 1............................
Copper wire: bare.......................................
Wood screws: 1-inch..................................
Pig iron: Bessemer.....................................
Copper: sheet, hot rolled..........................
Pig iron: foundry No. 2 ............................
Pig iron: gray forge, southern................
Vises: solid box, 50-pound........................

8.4
8.5

10.6
12.0
13.9
13.9
15.5
16.9
17.6
23.9
27.0
27.2

2.9

PRICE DECREASED.

4.4
4.4
5.5
5.9

6.0
6.6
6.6

Spelter: western.................
Tin: pig................................
Quicksilver..........................
Silver: bar, fine..................
Files: 8-inch mill bastard.
Lead:
r No. 5.

0.5

1.2
1.6

2.1
2.4

6.1
10.5

8.1

L u m ber and building materials, 2 1 articles.

PRICE SAME AS IN 1906.

PRICE INCREASED—concluded.

Cement: R osen dale....................................

R esin: good , strained ................................
D oors: pine, w estern..................................
Oak: white, p la in ........................................
Pine: w h it e b o a r d s ....................................
Pine: white, N o. 2, b a rn ...........................
P op la r.............................................................
T a r ...................................................................
Shingles: red ce d a r.....................................
Shingles: cyp ress.........................................

PRICE INCREASED.
L im e: co m m o n .............................................
P u t t y ............ .................................................
Carbonate of lead: A m erican..................
Oak: white, q u artered ..............................
Plate glass: polished, glazing, area 3 to
5 square fe e t..............................................
H em lock .........................................................
Plate glass: polished, glazing, area 5 t o
10 square feet............................................
Pine: y e llo w .................................................
Maple: h a rd ..................................................
Cem ent: P ortla n d .......................................
Oxide of z in c.................................................
Linseed oil: ra w ...........................................

0.2
.8
1.0
1.1
1.5
1.6
3.0
4.0
4.0
4.5
5.9
7.2

PRICE DECREASED.
W ind ow glass: American, single, thirds.
W in d ow glass: American, single, firsts.
Turpentine: spirits o f ................................
Spruce.............................................................
B rick: com m on d om estic.........................

D ru g s and chemicals, 9 articles.

PRICE SAME AS IN 1906.

PRICE DECREASED.

Alum: lump..................................................
Muriatic acid................................................
Sulphuric acid..............................................

Brimstone: crude........................................
Alcohol: wood, refined..............................

PRICE INCREASED.
Alcohol: grain..............................................
Quinine: American.....................................
Glycerin: refined.........................................
Opium: natural, in cases..........................




2.4
7.1
22.5
67.7

9.0
9.1
9.5
10.0
12.5
14.0
18.9
21.8
30.3

0.6
3.6
4.6
6.0
28.0

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

315

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1907, COMPARED WITH 1906—Concluded.
House furnishing goods , 14 articles.
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

PRICE SAME

Article.

AS IN 1906.

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

PRICE INCREASED.

Table cutlery: carvers...............................
Table cutlery: knives and forks.............
Furniture: tables, kitchen........... '............
Wooden ware: tubs, oak-grained..........
Furniture: bedroom sets, ash.................
Furniture: chairs, bedroom, maple.......
Furniture: chairs, kitchen........................
Wooden ware: pails, oak-grained..........

Earthenware: plates, cream-colored—
Earthenware: plates, white granite—
Earthenware: teacups and saucers,
white granite............................................
Glassware: nappies.....................................
Glassware: pitchers...................................
Glassware: tumblers..................................

6.7
7.2
9.1
10.3
11.9
12.1
13.0
15.9

,

M iscellaneous 13 articles.

PRICE SAME AS IN

1906.

T o b a c c o : s m o k in g , g r a n ., S ea l o f N .

PRICE INCREASED— c o n c l u d e d .

C ..

C o t t o n -s e e d o il: s u m m e r y e llo w ,p r im e .
M a l t : w e s t e r n m a d e ...........................................

34.8
59.9

PRICE INCREASED.
PRICE DECREASED.
P a p e r : w r a p p i n g , m a n i l a ..............................

P roof s p irits.................................................
Roper manila ...............................................
S o a p * c a s t i le , m o t t l e d , p u r e .........................
S t a r c h : l a u n d r y ....................................................
P a p e r : n e w s , w o o d .................................... ..

1.2
2.0
3.0
3.2
10.1
13.7

T o b a c c o : p l u g , C l i m a x .....................................
C o t t o n - s e e d m e a l ..................................................
J u t e : r a w ...................................................................
R u b b e r : P a r a I s l a n d , n e w ............................

2.8
5.0
9.8
12.3

The most striking increases in the average prices for 1907 as com­
pared with 1906 in the group of farm products were for barley, oats,
hay, rye, wheat, and corn. The article showing the greatest decrease
in price was western sheep.
The articles showing the greatest increase in price in food were
beef, molasses, sun-dried apples, flour, butter, currants, rice, glu­
cose, and milk, while the articles showing the greatest decrease were
nutmegs, coffee, evaporated apples, pepper, and potatoes.
In the group of cloths and clothing there was an increase of from
10 to 36.7 per cent in 20 articles, including most of the cotton prod­
ucts. The principal increase in fuel and lighting was in petroleum,
crude and refined, for export. Under metals and implements there
was a marked increase in the prices of locks, nails, pig iron, copper
wire, sheet copper, screws, and vises. In lumber and building
materials there was a marked advance in timber products, but a
decline in brick. Under drugs and chemicals there was a large in­
crease in the price of opium and of glycerin, but a heavy decrease in
the price of alcohol.
In the group of house furnishing goods no articles for which prices
are quoted decreased in price. The principal advance in the group
was in furniture and wooden ware. In the group of miscellaneous
articles there was an advance in news paper, cotton-seed oil, and




316

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

malt. The article in this group that showed the greatest decrease
in price was rubber.
An examination of Table I in the present Bulletin in connection
with Table I in Bulletin Nos. 39, 45, 51, 57, 63, and 69, shows that
the prices of some of the commodities included in these index num­
bers were subject to frequent and decided fluctuations, while the
prices of others were almost, and in two cases altogether, uniform
throughout the period. The following table shows the lowest and
highest quotations and the dates of the same for each of the com­
modities during the eighteen-year period. Only the commodities for
which the quotations throughout the period have been for practically
the same description of article are included in this table.
LO W EST A N D H IG H E ST Q U O TATIO N S, 1890 TO 1907.
[For a more detailed description of the articles see Table I, page 347 et seq.]

F A R M PRO D U CTS.
Highest.

Lowest.
Article.
Date.
Barley: by sample...............
Cattle: steers, choice to ex­
tra.
Cattle: steers, good to
choice.
Corn: No. 2, cash.................
Cotton: upland, middling..
Flaxseed: No. 1.....................
Hay, timothy, No. 1.............
Hides: green, salted, pack­
ers, heavy native steers.
Hogs: heavy..........................

|

Price.

Date.

Unit.
Price.

3d week Aug 1896 10.18* -$0.35

Bushel

4th week Apr
1896.

100 lbs

3d week Oct $1.05 -|1.10
1907.
3d,4thTuesAug,
7.60 - 9.00
1st Tues Sept
1902.
2dTues Jan 1890 3.00 - 3.90
2d, 3d, 4th Tues
6.70 - 7.60
Aug, 1st, 2d
Tues Sept 1902
2d Tues Septl896 .1 9 * - .20
. 48J- 1.00
5th Tues May
1892.
1st Tues Feb,1st,
.16|
•06ft 1st Tues Feb
2d Tues Nov
1904.
1898.
Sept 1896............. . 63* - . 64
July 1901.............
1.88
3d,4th Tues July 6.50 - 8.00
2d Tues June 1907 20.50 -21.50
1898.
.0500- .0513 Dec 1906..............
.1650
June 1894............
3.85

- 4.25

Bushel
Pound
Bushel
Ton
Pound

2d Tues Feb4893

8.10 - 8.65

100 lbs

2d Tues Feb 1893
Nov 1890..............
4th Tues Julyl902
3d Tues Aug 1891

7.90 - 8.25
. 45 - .47
.63*- .64
.97 - 1.00

100 lbs
Pound
Bushel
Bushel

3d Tues Apr
1907.
Sheep: western..................... 5th Tues AUg 1.00 - 3.00
3d Tues Apr
1893.
1907.
Wheat: contract grades, 5th Tues Jan 1895 •4 8 | - .49| 2d Tues May 1898
cash.

5.00 - 7.25

100 lbs

5.00 - 7.35

100 lbs

1.73 - 1.85

Bushel

Hogs: light............................
Hops: N. Y . State, choice...
Oats: cash..............................
Rye: No. 2, cash...................
Sheep: native........................

4th Tues July 2.50 - 3.15
1896.
3d Tues Sept 1896 2.80 - 3.35
Sept 1895.............
.06 - .07
2d Tues Sept 1896
.14|
5th Tues June
.28*
1896.
5th Tues Oct 1894 •/ 5 —3.2o

100 lbs

FOOD* E T C .
Beans: medium, choice___ Apr 1897.............
Bread: crackers, Boston... May, June 1897..

$2.75
Sept 1901.............
.09
Feb 1905 to Dec
1907.
Bread: crackers, soda......... May to Dec 1897.
.08*
.05*
June 1898............
Bread: loaf (Washington May to July 1895.
.0444
.0267 Aug 1896, Nov
market).
1904.
Bread: loaf, homemade Jan to May 1896.
.0240 Oct 1904 to Dec
.0376
(N .Y . market).
1907.
Bread: loaf, Vienna (N. Y . Jan to May 1896.
.0400
.0267 Oct 1904 to Dec
market).
1907.
Butter: creamery, Elgin 1st Mon June $0.13*- .14
1st Mon Mar $0.34 - . 35*
(Elgin market).
1890.
1891.
.35 - .36*
Butter: creamery, extra 2d Tues June
1 2d Tues Mar
.13*- .14
1890.
, 1891.
(N .Y . market).
a Before baking.




$0. So
.05

Bushel
Pound
Pound
Pound a
Pound a
Pound a
Pound
Pound

317

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.
LO W EST AN D H IG H E ST Q UO TATIO N S, 1890 TO 1907— Continued.
F O O D , E T C .—Continued.
Lowest.

Highest:.
Unit.

Article.
Date.
Butter: dairy, N. Y . State.. 3d Tues
1896.

Price.
Apr $0.13 -$0.13J

Cheese: N. Y ., full cream. . 3d Tues May
1895.
Coffee: Rio No. 7 .................. May, June, Aug,
Septff903.
Eggs: new-laid, near-by.. . 1st Tues Apr
1897.
Fish: cod, dry, bank, large. Mar to Sept
1896, Aug 1897.
Fish: herring, shore.round. May to Aug 1892
Fish: mackerel, salt, large June 1897............
No. 3s.
Fish: salmon, canned
Apr 1898.............
Flour: buckwheat................ Apr 1897.............
Flour: rye.............................. July 1897.............
Flour: wheat, spring pat­ 1st Tues Nov
1894.
ents.
Flour: wheat, w i n t e r 2d Tues Oct to
1st Tues Nov
straights.
1894,
Apr 1897.............
Fruit: apples, evaporated,
choice.
Fruit: apples, sun-dried. . . May 1897.............
Fruit: currants, in barrels. Apr, May 1894..
Fruit: prunes, California, May 1905.............
in boxes.
Fruit: raisins, California, Apr 1896.............
London layer.
Glucose.................................... June 1897............
Lard: prime contract.......... 4th Tues July
1896.
Meal: corn, fine white......... Sept 1896............
Meal: corn, fine yellow____ Sept 1896............
Meat: bacon, short clear 4th Tues July,
1st Tues Aug
sides.
1896.
Meat: bacon, short rib 4th Tues July,
1st Tues Aug,
sides.
all Sept 1896.
Meat: beef, fresh, native 4th Tues Mar
1894.
sides.
Meat: beef, salt, extra mess. 2d, 3d, 4th weeks
Aug 1802.

.06 -

.06!

.0 5 !-

.05|

.1 0 !-

.10!

salt,

hams,




Price.

2d Tues Mar
$0.33
1891,4th Tues
Apr 1907.
4th, 5th Tues
.16!
Oct 1907.
Oct 1890.............. $0. ISf- .19

4.00 - 4.25

3d Tues Dec
1907.
Jan to July 1907

2.00 - 2.25
8.00 - 9.00

Feb 1905.............. 6.50 - 7.00
Sept, Oct 1890...
20.00

1.10
1.00
2.00
3.15

Mar 1890.............
Sept 1891.............
Nov 1891.............
2d Tues May
1898.
2d Tues May
1898.

-

1.30
1.15
2.40
3.40

2.40 - 2.65

.4 3 -

.50
8.00

1.75
3.50
5.15
7.00

-

2.00
3.65
5.90
7.75

6.25 - 6.75

Pound
Pound
Pound
Dozen
Quintal
Barrel
Barrel
12 cans
100 lbs
Barrel
Barrel
Barrel

.0 3 !-

-03f

Feb 1891..............

.1 4 !-

.15!

Pound

.0 1 !.011.03|-

-02!
.01|
-03|

May 1891.............
Oct 1900..............
Oct 1890..............

.11 .12.1 2 !-

.13
.12!
.13

Pound
Pound
Pound

.90

Jan 1890..............

.92!
.0340

Nov, Dec 1907...
3d Tues Feb
1893.
May 1891.............
May 1891............. 1.67 .12|~
3d, 4th Tues Oct
1902.

.80 -

. 63 .62 .04 -

.65
.63
.04!

.03§-

.04

.05 -

.07

6.00 - 6.50

4th Tues Oct 12.00 -12.50
1890, 2d Tues
Nov 1891, 3d
Tues Oct 1892.
3d, 4th Tues
,071- .07|
Meat: hams, smoked...........
Sept, 1st Tues
Oct 1898.
.03 - .06
Meat: mutton, dressed___ 5th Tues Oct
1895.
Meat: pork, salt, mess, old 4th Tues July, 7.50 - 8.00
3d Tues Sept
to new.
1896.
June 1897, June
.0175
Milk: fresh.............................
1898
Molasses: New Orleans, June, July 1897.. .23 - .24
open kettle.
Bice: domestic, choice........ Sept 1904 to May . 03|- .04
1905.
.55
Salt: American..................... 3d week Aug
1896 to 3d
week
Feb
1897, 1st, 2d,
3d weeks Oct
1898, 1st week
May to 5th
week
Sept
1899,1st week
June to 2d
week J u l y
1903.
.0095
Soda:
bicarbonate
of, Oct, Nov 1901,
June to Aug
American.
1902.
Meat: beef,
western.

Date.

2.25 - 2.75

4th Tues May
1893, 3d, 4th
Tues Oct 1902.
2d, 3d, 4th, 5th
Tues July 1902.
3d week May to
2d week June
1902.
1st, 2d, 3d Tues
Oct, all Nov
1907.

.12-

4th, 5th Tues
Jan 1893.

.15 -

.09-

Box

2.48
.1315

100 lbs
Pound

1.69
1.68
.12!

100 lbs
100 lbs
Pound

.12!

Pound

.12!

Pound

14.00

Barrel

29.00

Barrel

.16

Pound

.10 - .13
1st Tues June
1907.
5th Tues May ,21.50 -22.50
1893.
|

Barrel

Pound

Oct to Dec 1907..!
1
Jan to July 1900. .44 -

.04

Quart

.55

Gallon

Aug to Nov 1891. ; . 06§-

.07

Pound

1.15

Barrel

1st week Nov j
1900 to 1st i
week Apr 1901.

Apr 1890, Mar to
June 1891.

.0350

Pound

318

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
LO W EST A N D H IG H E ST Q UO TATIO N S, 1890 TO 1907— Continued.
F O O D , E T C .—Concluded.*
2
Lowest.

Highest.

Article.
Date.

Price.

Spices: nutmegs...................
Spices: pepper, Singapc re..

Dec 1907.............. 10.12 -$0.12i
Feb 1895, Jan,
. 04£- .04*
Feb 1896.
Starch: pure corn................. July 1901.............
.04
Sugar: 89° fair refining........ 4th Thurs Apr,
. 02310
1st Thurs May
1894.

Sugar: 96° centrifugal......... 1st Thurs Jan,
3d Thurs Apr,
4th T h u r s
May 1894.
Sugar: granulated............... 1st, 2d Thurs
Feb 1895.
Tallow..................................... 4th Tues May
1897.
Tea: Formosa, fine.............. Oct 1903..............
Vegetables, fresh: onions. . May 1896.*...........
Vegetables,fresh: potatoes, 3d week May,
3d, 4th weeks
white.
June 1896.
Vinegar: cider, Monarch... Oct 1895 to Sept
1898, July 1900
to Sept 1901,
Nov 1902 to
Sept 1904.

Date.

Price.

Mar 1890............. $0.64 -$0.65
Nov 1900............. .131- .13|

Nov, Dec 1890...
1st, 2d Thurs
Sept, 2d, 3d,
4th Thurs Oct
1890.
.02750 1st, 2d Thurs
Sept 1890.

. 05921 Pound

.03680 1st Thurs June
. 06615-. 06676
1890.
3d Tues Feb
.082
1893.
. 20 - .21
Sept 1890............. . 33 - .35
Feb 1890.............. 5.00 -10.00
. 50 - 1.00
2d week June 1.10 - 1. 35
. 1 0 - .15
1891.
Nov 1907.............

Pound
Pound

.06f
Pound
. 05311 Pound

.02J- .03

.13

Unit.

.19

Pound
Pound
Pound
Barrel
Bushel
Gallon

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G .
Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag.
Blankets: 11-4,5 lbs. to the
pair, all wool.
Blankets: 11-4,5lbs. to the
pair, cotton w arp, all
wool filling.
Blankets: 11-4,5 lbs. to the
pair, cotton warp, cotton
and wool filling.
Boots and shoes: men’s
brogans, split.
Boots and shoes: men’s
split boots, kip top, 16-in.,
2 double sole, (a )
Boots and shoes: men’s vici
kid shoes, Goodyear welt.

Jan to Mar 1895.
1895 to 1897........

10.102
.75

Sept 1907.............
1906......................

$0.21
1.022

Bag
Pound

1895......................

.54

1906, 1907............

.80

Pound

1895,1896.............

.40

1905,1906,1907...

.60

Pound

Jan to June 1898.

.90

Jan to Dec 1895.

15.00

Nov 1906 to June
1907.
Dec 1906 to July
1907.

Jan 1897 to Oct
1904.

2.00

Boots and shoes: women’s Jan 1893 to Dec
solid grain shoes,leather,
1894.
polish or polka.
Broadcloths: first quality, Jan 1895 to Dec
black, 64-in., made from
1896.
X X X wool.
Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, Jan 1894 to June
Bigelow.
1897.
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, July 1895 to
Lowell.
June 1897.
Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Jan 1895 to June
Bigelow.
1897.
Cotton flannels: 2| yds. to Jan 1897 to Dec
the pound.
1898.
Cotton flannels: 32 yds. to Jan to Dec 1898.
the pound.
Cotton thread: 6-cord, 200- July 1896 to Dec
1 fiOQ
yd. spools, J. & P. Coats.
Dec 1898 to June
Cotton ya m s: c a r d e d ,
white, mule-spun, north­
1899.
ern, cones, 10/1.
Dec 1898 to Mar
Cotton yam s: c a r d e d ,
white, mule-spun, north­
1899.
ern, cones, 22/1.
Denims: Amoskeag............. Jan to Mar 1899.
Drillings: brown, Pepperell.

Nov 1898 to Jan
1899.

Pair
12 pairs

Jan 1890 to Dec
1894, Dec 1906
to Dec 1907.
May, June, July
1906.

2.50

Pair

1.05

Pair

July 1905 to Dec
1907.

2.02

Yard

.936

1907......................

1.248

Yard

.408

1907.......................

.75
1.38

1.68
.05|

1907......................
July to Oct 1907.

.5760
2.28
.102

Yard
Yard
Yard

.042

July to Oct 1907.

.082

Yard

.030503

June to Dec 1907.

.04508

Spool

.13i

Feb 1904..............

.242

Pound

.162

July, Aug 1907..

.272

Pound

.082

Aug, Sept, Oct,
1907.
1907......................

.142

.042

a From 1903 to 1907, russet-bound top, 17-inch, 2 double sole.




1.30
2a 50

.082

Yard
Yard

319

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
LO W EST A N D H IG H E ST Q UO TATIO N S, 1890 TO 1907— Continued.
CLO T H S AND C L O T IIIS G

Continued.

Lowest.

Highest.

Article.

Unit.
Date.

Drillings: 30-in., Stark A . . Feb 1898.............
$0.0410
Flannels: white, 4-4, Bal­ Aug, Sept 1896..
.29
lard Vale No. 3.
Ginghams: Amoskeag........ Apr to June
.0425
1895, July to
Sept 1896,Apr
to Sept 1897,
Jan to Mar,
July to Dec
- 1898.
Feb to May1895,
Ginghams: Lancaster.
.04|
June to Aug
1896.
Horse blankets: 6 lbs. each,
.52
all wool.
Hosiery: men’s cotton half
.62*
hose, seamless, standard
quality, 84 needles.
Hosiery: women’s combed 1899,1905.
1.75
Egyptian cotton hose,
high spliced heel, double
sole, full-fashioned.
.6615
Hosiery: women’s cotton 1901.
hose, seamless, fast black,
26 to 28 oz., 160 to 176
needles.
.16
Leather: sole, hemlock, May 1892..
nonacid, Buenos Aires,
middle weights, 1st qual­
ity.
Sept to Nov $0.28- .2
Leather: sole, oak..........
1896,June 1897.
.55- .6
Leather: wax calf, 30 to 40 Jan to June 1890,
Feb, June 1891,
lbs. to the doz., B grade.
Aug 1894 to
Jan 1895, Sept,
Oct 1896, Apr,
June 1897.
Linen shoe thread: 10s, Jan 1903 to Nov
.8460
Barbour.
1904, Jan to
Nov 1905.
Linen thread: 3-cord, 200- Apr to Dec 1891.
.7623
yard spools, Barbour.
Overcoatings: chinchilla, 1895 to 1897........
1.8774
B-rough, all wool.
Overcoatings: chinchilla, Nov 1896.............
.41
cotton warp, C. C. grade.
Overcoatings: covert cloth, 1897......................
1.9458
l i g h t weight, staple
goods.
Print cloths: 28-in., 64x64.. 2d week May
.01875
Sheetings: bleached, 10-4,
Pepperep.
Sheetings: bleached, 10-4,
Wamsutta S. T.
Sheetings: brown, 4-4, A t­
lantic A.
Sheetings: brown, 4-4, In­
dian Head.
Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Pepperell R .
Shirtings: bleached, 4-4,
Fruit of the Loom.
Shirtings: bleached, 4-4,
Hope.
Shirtings: bleached, 4-4,
Lonsdale.
Shirtings: bleached, 4-4,

Price.

May 1907.............
Sept to Dec 1907.

$0.0824
.4687

Yard
Yard

Aug, Sept 1907..

.0750

Yard

Sept to Dec 1907.

.07*

Yard

........

.77*

Pound

1890,1891.............

.97*

12 pairs

2. 02*

12 pairs

1.2250

12 pairs

1906

1907

........

1890......................

Apr, May 1900,
Apr to Dec
1907.
Dec 1906, Jan
1907.
July to Nov 1895

Nov 1893 to Sept
1894.

$0.26- . 27

Pound

.40- .41

Pound

.80- .85

Sq foot

.9405

Pound

12

May to Dec 1907.

.93

1907......................

2.5575

Oct 1892, June,
Sept 1893.
1890 to 1893........

.55

Yard

2.4616

Yard

1st week Aug to
3d week Nov

.05250

spools
Yard

Yard

Apr, May 1895..

.15f

June to Dec 1907

30

Yard

Apr 1894 to Nov
1895, May 1904
to Oct 1906.
Dec 1898..............

.270

Oct 1890 to Jan
1891.

329

Yard

.0421

June 1906............

,0811

Yard

.05

08*

Yard

.0450

Mar to June
1904, Aug to
Dec 1907.
Aug to Dec 1907.

0775

Yard

.0538

Sept to Dec 1907

12

Yard

Dec 1898..............

.0475

July to Nov 1907

0974

Yard

Dec 1898..............

.0523

July to Nov 1907

11

Yard

July to Dec 1907.

1125

Yard

June 1898, Jan
1899.
Apr, Nov, Dec
1898.
Dec 1898..............

Dec 1897 to Jan
.0807
1899.
Wamsutta
Silk: raw, Italian, classical. June 1894............ 3.4328-3.4825
Silk: raw, Japan, filatures. Aug 1896............. 2.9100-3.3950
Suitings: clay worsted di­ Feb to Apr 1897.
.6370
agonal, 12-oz., Washing­
ton Mills.




Date.

Price.

May 1907............. 5.8905-5.9400
May 1907............. 5.5775-5.6260
Aug to Dec 1905.
1.2375

Pound
Pound
Yard

320

b u l l e t in s '

of

the

bureau

of

labor,

LO W EST AN D H IG H E ST Q U O TATIO N S, 1890 TO 1907— Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G - Concluded.
Lowest.

Highest.
Unit.

Bate.
Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 16-oz., Washington Mills.
Suitings: indigo blue, all
wool, 54-inch, 14-oz., Middlesex standard.
Suitings: indigo blue, all
wool, 16-oz.
Suitings: serge, Washing­
ton Mills 6700.
Tickings: Amoskeag A. C.
A.
Underwear:
shirts and
drawers, white, all wool,
full-fashioned,18-gauge.
Women’ s dress goods:
cashmere, all wool, 10-11
twill, 38-in., Atlantic
Mills J.
Women’ s dress goods:
cashmere, cotton warp,
9-twill, 4-4, A t l a n t i c
Mihs F.
Women’ s dress goods:
Franklin sackings, 6-4.
W ool: Ohio, fine fleece (X
and X X grade), scoured.
W ool: Ohio, medium fleece
(J and | grade), scoured.
Worsted yam s: 2-40s, Australian fine.

Worsted yams:
2-40s,
X X X or its equivalent
in quality, white; in
skeins. (<*)

Price.

Feb to Apr 1897.

$0.7963

Jan to Bee 1897.

1.0465

1895.......................

1.5903

Jan 1896 to Aug
1897.

.6143

Oct to Bee 1898.
Jan 1894 to Bee
1898.

,08f
21.60

Bate.
Aug to Bee 1905,
July to Bee
1906.
1906, 1907.............

Price.
$1.4850 .Yard
1.7100

Yard

1906,1907.............

2.4180

Yard

July 1906 to
May 1907, Aug
to Bee 1907.
Aug to Bee 1907.

1.0575

Yard

.14*

Yard

1906,1907.............

27.00

12 gar­
ments

Jan to Bee 1896.

.1960

Nov 1905 to Bee
1907.

.3920

Yard

Oct 1895 to May
1896.

.1127

June to Bee 1907

.2254

Yard

July 1896 to
July 1897.
June 1895............

.40|

•68|

Yard

.7826

Pound

June 1895, June
to Sept 1896.
Nov 1895 to Mar
1896, Oct to
Dec 1896.

.2903

.6210

Pound

.72

Oct 1896 to Feb
1897.

.70

June 1905 to
Nov 1906.
June to Sept
1905.
June, July, Aug,
Nov 1890.
Nov 1899 to Apr
1900, Bee 1905
to Feb 1906,
July 1906 to
Oct 1907.
Jan, Feb 1900...

.3478

1.30

Pound

1.35

Pound

F U E L A N D L IG H T IN G .
Candles: adamantine, 6s,
14-oz.
Coal: anthracite, broken.. .

June 1897 to Jan
$0.06£
1900.
June
to Aug
3. Ill
1899.
Coal: anthracite, chestnut. Sept 1895............
2.701
Coal: anthracite, egg.......... Sept 1895.............
2.827
Coal: anthracite, stove------ Aug 1895.............
2.891
Coal: bituminous, Georges Apr to July
.75
1894, Jan to
Creek (at mine).
June 1895, Jan
to Mar 1896.
Coal: bituminous. Georges Apr 1898 to Mar
2.10
Creek (f. o. b. N. Y . Har­
1899.
bor).
Coal: bituminous, Pitts­ 2d Tues Mar to $0.04§- .04|
burg (Youghiogheny).
1st Tues Apr
1899.
Coke: Connellsvillo, fur­ Apr, May 1894..
.92
nace.
Matches: parlor, domestic. Sept 1894 to Mar
1.50
1895, May 1902
to Bee 1907.
Petroleum: crude................. Oct 1892..............
•51|
Petroleum: refined, for ex­ May 1893.............
.051
port.
.07|
Petroleum: refined, 150° Feb, Mar 1893...
fire test, water white.




Feb 1900 to
June 1903.
Aug 1903.............

$0.11

Pound

4.4744

Ton

Jan 1904..............
Jfl.n 1904..........
Jan 1904..............
Oct 1902..............

4.958
4.9725
4.9614
5.00

Ton
Ton
Ton
Ton

Oct 1902..............

8.25

Ton

3d, 4th Tues
Nov 1891.

.11

Bushel

Mar, Apr 1900 . .

$3.25- 4.25

Jan to Oct 1890.

2.00

144 box­
es

Bee '*903..............
Jan to Mar 1900.

1.88|
.099

Barrel
Gallon

Nov 1903 to Feb
1904.

.15

Gallon

a From 1902 to 1907 designated as X X X X .

Ton

821

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
LO W EST AN D H IG H E ST Q UO TATIO N S, 1890 TO 1907— Continued.
M E T A L S A N D H H P 1 E 11 E N T S .
Highest.

Lowest.

Unit.

Article.
Date.
Augers: extra, f-inch...........
Axes: M. C. 0 ., Yankee___
Bar iron: best refined, from
store (Philadelphia mar­
ket).
Barb wire: galvanized........
Butts: loose joint, cast,
3 x 3 inch.
Chisels: e x t r a ,
firmer, 1-inch.

socket

Oct 1894 to Apr
1896, Feb 1899.
Oct 1897 to Dec
1898.
Nov 1894, Jan,
Feb 1895.

$0.1333

Aug 1897.............

1.65

.375
.012

Feb to July 1895,
.0292
June 1897 to
Jan 1900.
Apr 1894 to Dec
.171
1895, Dec 1896
to Nov 1898.
June 1894............ $0.0890- .0900
Jan, Apr 1896...
.13*

Copper: ingot, lake___
Copper: sheet, hot-rolled
(base sizes).
Copper wire: bare................ July 1894.............
Doorknobs: steel, bronze Jan 1890 to Apr
1895, Mar 1896
plated.
to June 1900.
Files: 8-inch mill bastard.. J u ly 1896 t o
June 1897.
Hammers: Maydole No. 1£. Jan 1890 to Nov
1895.
Lead: pig................................ Sept 1896...........
Lead pipe................................ Nov 1896 to Jan
1897.
Locks: common mortise. . . Jan 1898 to Apr
1902.
Nails: cut, 8d., fence and July to Sept 1898
common.
Nails: wire, 8d., fehce and Dec 1896, Aug
1897, Aug, Dec
common.
1898.
Pig iron: Bessemer.............. July 1897.............
Pig iron: foundry No. 1___
Pig iron: foundry No. 2___
Pig iron: gray forge, south­
ern, coke.
Planes: Bailey No. 5...........

Price.

July 1898.............
June 1897...........
May 1897.............

Brick: common domestic. .
Carbonate of lead: Ameri­
can, in oil.
Cement: Portland, domes­
tic.
Cement: Rosendale.............




Price.

Feb 1906 to Dec
1907.
Apr 1906 to Dec
1907.
Sept 1899 to Jan
1900.

$0.36

Each

.68

Each

.025

Pound

Dec 1899 to Mar
1900.
Feb to May 1900

4.13
.0430

Pair

Dec 1906 to Nov
1907.

.45

Each

.26
.32

Pound
Pound

.275
.48

Pound
Pair

May 1907.............
Mar to July 1907

$0.25-

100 lbs

.11
.166

Feb to July 1907.
Oct, Nov, Dec
1906.

.77

Nov 1899 to Aug
1900.
Jan 1903 to Dec
1907.
Feb 1906..............
Jan to May 1907.

.0675
7.20

1.15

Oct 1906 to Dec
1907.
May to Nov 1896

2.90

100 lbs]

1.35

Jan, Feb 1890... 3.35-

3.40

100 lbs

9.39

Dec 1899, Feb
25.00
1900.
Jan 1907..............
27.50
June 1907 .
__ 26.40-26.90
Jan, Feb, Apr 23.00-23.50
1907.
May to Dec 1906.
1.80

.350
.0273- .0275
3.60
.075

11.25
9 .4 0 -9 .5 0
8.00

Mar 1895 to Dec
1.23
1899.
.45
Quicksilver............................. Jan to Mar 1894
Saws: crosscut, D isston... Uniform during
1.6038
period.
12.60
Saws: hand, Disston No. 7. Jan 1891 to Dec
1905.
Shovels: Ames No. 2............ Jan 1894 to Mar
7.45
1Q A
Q
Silver: bar, finn..................... Jan 1903.............
.48213
Spelter: western........ „___ Feb 1895.............. .0315- .0325
Steel billets............................. May 1897.............
13.96
17.00
Steel rails................................ July, Nov 1898..
Steel sheets: black, No. 27. May 1897............. .0180- .0185
Tin: pig...............................
Oct 1896..............
.1270
Tinplates: domestic, Bes­ Apr 1898............. 2.72£ - 2.77*
semer, coke, 14x20 inch.
.34
Trowels: M. C. O., brick, Uniform during
lOHnch.
Vises: solid box,50-lb......... jm yri897to Feb
3.28
1899.
Wood screws: 1-in., No. 10, Apr to Dec1897..
.08
flat head.
3.56
Zinc: sheet.............................. May 1894............

LUM BER

Date.

1.10
.466

.20

Dozen
Each
Pound
100 lbs
Each

Ton
Ton
Ton
Ton
Each

Oct, Nov 1890...
Uniform during
period.
Jan to Dec 1890..

14.40

Dozen

Apr to Nov 1902.

9.61

Dozen

.79
1.6038

Aug 1890.............
1.16995
Feb 1907.
. . . .0700- .0725
Sept, Oct 1899...
41.50
Jan 1890..............
35.25
Sept 1901...........
.0375
July 1907..
.4275- .4300
Dec 1899 to Sept
4.84
1900.
Uniform during
.34
period.
Dec 1906.............
5.95
Jan 1892 to Mar
1894.
Apr to July 1907.

.21
7.91

Pound
Each

Ounce
Pound
Ton
Ton
Pound
Pound
100 lbs
Each
Each
Gross
100 lbs

A N D B U IL D IN G M A T E R IA L S

Sept 1894, Sept
1900.
Feb 1 8 9 4 ........

$4.25

Feb 1906.............. $10.75-$12.00

Oct, Nov 1904...

$1.25- 1.35

Apr 1900.............

2.20- 2.35

Barrel

Nov 1898............

.60

Apr 1892.............

1.20- 1.25

Barrel

.0488 Jan 1907..............

M

.0735 Pound

322

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
LO W EST A N D H IG H E ST Q U O TATIO N S, 1890 TO 1907— Continued.
L U M B E R A N D B U I L D IN G M A T E R I A L S —Concluded.
Highest.

Lowest.

Unit.

Article.
Date.

Oak: white, quartered.

Nov 1894 to Jan
1895.
Sept to Dec 1896,
July to Sept
1900.
Feb, July 1897...
June to Sept
1901.
June to Aug
1901.
Jan, Feb 1890...

Oxide of zinc................

Price.

Jan to June 1895.

Hemlock............
Lime: common
Linseed oil: raw.......... .
Maple: hard...................
Oak: white, plain.........

Date.

Price.

July 1906 to Dec $22.00-122.50
1907.
Dec 1907.............. 1.02- 1.07

M feet

.60
.29
24.00- 27.00

.82
July, Aug 1901..
June to Dec 1903. 32.00- 34.00

Gallon
M feet

32.00- 34.00

May 1907............. 58.00- 65.00

M feet

47.00- 48.00

Dec 1903 to July
1904.
Aug 1906 to Dec
1907.
May 1906 to Dec
1907.

M feet

$10.75-111.25

.03*

80.00- 85.00
•05f

Jan to Apr 1896, 15.50- 16.00
30.00- 31.00
Pine: yellow.................
June to Nov
1897.
Sept 1897 to Jan 29.00- 31.00
Poplar..........................
May 1907............. 58.00- 65.00
1899.
.0225
Oct, Nov 1904...
.0100 May 1902 to Mar
P utty............................
1903.
May, June 1907..
4.80
Resin: good, strained
1.00
Sept 1893............
4.35
Jan to Dec 1897.
2.35
Mar to Oct 1907.
Shingles: cypress___
July to Oct 1894. 11.50- 12.50
Feb to Sept 1906. 24.00- 28.00
Spruce...........................
Tar................................
Sept 1893, Dec
2.80
.90
Apr 1907.............
1893 to May
1894, Jan to
A p r, June
1896, Apr 1898.
.24
June 1905............
.77*- .78
Turpentine: spirits o f......... Aug, Sept 1896..
4.80
1.3894 Apr 1901.............
Window glass: American, May to July 1895
single, firsts, 6x8 to 10x15
inch.
1.2113 Apr 1901..............
Window glass: American, July, Aug 1892..
3.8250
single, thirds, 6x8 to 10x15

Barrel

Pound
M feet
M feet
Pound
Barrel
M
M feet
Barrel

Gallon
50 sq.ft
50 sq.ft

.D R U G S A N D C H E M IC A L S .
Alcohol: grain....................... Jan to May 1890.
Alcohol: wood, refined, 95% Dec 1907..............
Alum: lump........................... Dec 1891 to Feb
1892.
Brimstone: crude, seconds. Sept, Dec 1895,
Feb, Mar 1896.
Glycerin: refined.................. Oct, Nov 1906...
Muriatic acid: 20°

July 1895 to Dec

Opium: natural,incases... Aug 1892.............
Quinine: American.............. Oct, Nov 1906...
Sulphuric acid: 66°.............. Nov 1890 to Mar
1891, Apr to
Aug, Oct,Nov
1894, Jan 1895
to Nov 1896.

$1.98
Dec 1907..............
.39 | Feb to Sept 1893.
.0145 Jan to June 1890.
Apr 1891, May
1Q o *
A
loV Q
Jan to Apr, June
to Aug 1890.
.0075 Nov 1901 to Apr
1902.
Aug, Sept 1907..
1.50
Apr 1899.............
Nov 1901 to Jan
1902.

$2.63
Gallon
1.40
Gallon
.0188 Pound

15.00

35.00

.11

.18

Ton
Pound

.0185 Pound
7.00
.40
.014

Pound
Ounce
Pound

H O U S E F U R N I S H I N G GOODS*
Earthenware:
plates,
cream-colored.
Earthenware:
plates,
white granite.
Earthenware: teacups and
saucers, white granite.
Furniture: bedroom sets,
ash.
Furniture: chairs, bed­
room, maple.
Furniture: chairs, kitchen.
Furniture: tables, kitchen.




July 1895 to Dec
1897.
July 1895 to Dec
1897.
July 1895 to Dec
1897.
Jan 1896 to Dec
1897.
Jan 1897 to Sept
1898.
Jan to Sept 1898.
Jan 1896 to June
1899.

$0.3807 Jan to Dec 1903.
.3991 Jan 1901 to Dec
1902.
3.0907 Jan 1901 to Dec
1902.
Nov 1906 to Dec
8.75
1907.
Nov 1906 to Dec
5.00
1907.
June to Dec 1907
3.25
13.80
Oct 1906 to Dec
1907.

$0.4775 Dozen
.5096 Dozen
3.7632 Gross
14:50

Set

10.00

Dozen

6.00
18.00

Dozen
Dozen

323

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
LO W EST A N D H IG H E S T Q U O TATIO N S, 1890 TO 1907— Concluded.
H O U SE: F U R N I S H I N G G O O D S - Concluded.
Highest.

Lowest.
Article.

Unit.
Date.

Glassware: nappies, 4-in ... Jan 1896 to Dec
1900.
Jan 1897 to Dec
1900.
Jan to Dec 1899.

$0.10

1897 to 1901, Jan
1902 to June
1907.
1897......................

Glassware: pitchers, J-gallon, common.
Glassware: tumblers, $pint, common.
Table outlery: carvers, stag
handles.
Table cutlery: knives and
forks, cocobolo handles.
Wooden ware: pails, oak­
grained.
Wooden ware: tubs, oak­
grained.

Date.

Price.

Price.
$0.14

Dozen

1.30

Dozen

.13

Jan 1901 to Dec
1907.
Jan 1901 to Dec
1903.
Jan to Dec 1891.

.20

Dozen

.75

1893......................

.95

Pair

1.00

5.00

1890, 1891............

7.75

Gross

1.10

Aug to Dec 1907.

2.10

Dozen

1.25

Apr 1895 to Jan
1896, Feb to
May 1898.
Oct 1894 to Nov
1899.

Jan 1890 to Aug
1891, July to
Dec 1907.

1.65

Nest of
3

M IS C E L U AN EO U S.
Cotton-seed meal..................
Cotton-seed oil: summer
yellow, prime.
Malt: western made............
Paper: news...........................
Paper: wrapping, manila. .
Proof spirits..........................

Feb 1895.............. $16.00-$17.00
Nov, Dec 1897...
.21*

July 1897.............
Oct 1899..............
Apr 1898.............
1st wk Jan to 3d
wk May 1890.
Rope: manila, §-in (a)........ Aug, Sept 1896,
Sept, Oct 1897.
Rubber: Para Island.......... Sept 1891............
Soap: castile,mottled,pure. May 1895 to Nov
1896, Mar 1897.
Starch: laundry.................... Aug, Sept, Oct
1896.
Tobacco: plug....................... July, Aug 1892,
Oct 1896 to
May 1897.
Tobacco: smoking, granu­ Jan 1890 to June
lated, Seal of N. C.
1898.

Jan 1902..............
Feb 1893..............

$33.60
.61

Oct 1907.............. $1.22 .0375Jan 1890..............
.0600Sept 1893............
3d wk Oct to 4th
wk Dec 1907.
.0591 Dec 1899..............

.50 - .53
.0175- .0200
.0375- .0400
1.03

.60

- .63
.05

June 1905............
Oct 1904..............

.0275 Aug, Sept, Dec
1902, Jan 1903.
July 1904 to Aug
.36
1906.
.50

Aug 1904 to Dec
1907.

1.32

1.27
.0450
.0675
1.35

2000 lbs
Gallon
Bushel
Pound
Pound
Gallon

.1576 Pound

- 1.33
.07J

Pound
Pound

.0500 Pound
.49

Pound

.60

Pound

a From 1903 to 1907, / s-inch.

In a number of instances the lowest or highest price, as shown in
the foregoing table, lasted for only a short time, in some cases but a
few days or even a part of a day. The groups of farm products, food,
etc., and lumber and building materials show very wide variations.
Good to choice steers varied from $3-$3.90 on the second Tuesday of
January, 1890, to $6;70-$7.60 on the last three Tuesdays of August
and the first two Tuesdays of September, 1902. Corn ranged from
19^-20 cents the second Tuesday of September, 1896, to $0.48^-11
the fifth Tuesday of May, 1892, the high price being due to an attempt
to corner corn in the Chicago market. The failure of those interested
in the corner to take all corn offered at the high price, however, and
the rumor that they had failed, resulted in a drop from $1 to 48£ cents
within a few hours. Cotton varied from 5^- cents on the first Tues­
day of February and the first and second Tuesdays of November,
1898, to 16f cents on the first Tuesday of February, 1904. Hides
were 5 to 5.13 cents in June, 1894, and 16.50 cents in December, 1906.




324

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

Heavy hogs on the fourth Tuesday of July, 1896, were $2.50-$3.15,
and on the second Tuesday of February, 1893, S8.10-S8.65. Hops
ranged from 6-7 cents in September, 1895, to 45-47 cents in Novem­
ber, 1890. Oats ranged from 14f cents on the second Tuesday of Sep­
tember, 1896, to 63J-64 cents on the fourth Tuesday of July, 1902.
Native sheep ranged from S0.75-S3.25 on the fifth Tuesday of October,
1894, to S5-S7.25 on the third Tuesday of April, 1907. Western
sheep show a similar range. Wheat ranged from 48 J-49f cents the
fifth Tuesday of January, 1895, to S1.73-S1.85 the second Tuesday of
May, 1898. The high price is said to have been due to an attempt to
control the price of that commodity and also, to some extent, to the
war with Spain and the fear of other foreign complications. The
most marked variations in the food group are in fresh vegetables,
onions having varied from S0.50-S1 in May, 1896, to S5-S10 in Feb­
ruary, 1890, and potatoes from 10-15 cents the third week of May and
the third and fourth weeks of June, 1896, to S1.10-S1.35 the second
week of June, 1891. Eggs varied from 10|-10^ cents the first Tues­
day of April, 1897, to 43-50 cents the third Tuesday of December,
1907. Almost all the articles in the food group show wide variations,
which may be seen by referring to the foregoing table. In the cloths
and clothing group the variations are not so marked, as the prices of
many of the articles in this group depend more largely upon the cost of
labor in producing them, while but few of them are subject to fluctu­
ations caused by manipulation for the purpose of speculation. Print
cloths varied from 1.875 cents the second week of May, 1898, to 5.25
cents from August to the third week of November, 1907. Of the raw
materials in this group wool, fine fleece, scoured, varied from 34.78
cents in June, 1895, to 78.26 cents in June to September, 1905. Of
the 61 articles shown under cloths and clothing in this table, 28 were
quoted higher in 1907 than at any other time during the 18-year
period. In the fuel and lighting group Youghiogheny coal varied
from 4^-4| cents per bushel in March and April, 1899, to 11 cents in
November, 1891; coke from 92 cents in April and May, 1894, to
$3.25-$4.25 in March and April, 1900; and petroleum, crude, from
51f cents in October, 1892, to $1.88f in December, 1903. In the
group of metals and implements, best refined bar iron from store
varied from 1.2 cents per pound in November, 1894, and January and
February, 1895, to 2.5 cents in September, 1899, to January, 1900;
barb wire from $1.65 in August, 1897, to $4.13 in December, 1899, to
March, 1900; pig iron, foundry No. 2, from $9.40-$9.50 per ton in
June, 1897, to $26.40-$26.90 in June, 1907; while bar silver varied
from 48.213 cents per ounce in January, 1903, to $1.16995 in August,
1890. In lumber and building materials all the articles varied widely.
In drugs and chemicals, wood alcohol varied from 39 cents per gallon
in December, 1907, to $1.40 in February to September, 1893; and




WHOLESALE PRICES^ 1890 TO 1907.

325

opium from $1.50 in August, 1892, to $7 per pound in August and
September, 1907. In house furnishing goods, kitchen chairs were
$3.25 per dozen from January to September, 1898, and $6 from
June to December, 1907. In the miscellaneous group, cotton-seed
meal, cotton-seed oil, paper (news), rope, and rubber show wide
variations.
Table I I .— M onthly actual and relative prices o f commodities in 1907
and hose prices {average fo r 1 8 9 0 -1 8 9 9 ), pages 3 96 to 4-14-— This table
shows for each article the monthly price, which is either the average
price for the month or the price on some day of the month. On the
line below the December price is given the average price for the year^
and on the line above the January price is given the average price
during the 10 years from 1890 to 1899, which average price is desig­
nated the base price.
The monthly prices for such articles as are quoted weekly in Table
I were found by dividing the sum of the quotations in each month as
shown in Table I by the number of quotations in each month, except
for articles in which a range is quoted, for which articles the average
is computed from the mean of the weekly prices. In Table I single
quotations for 1907 are shown for 10 articles. The price of one of
these is maintained throughout the year, the prices of three represent
the bulk of the sales and are maintained generally, and the prices of
four are averages for the year. For each of these eight articles the
annual price has been shown in Table II as the price during each
month. The other two articles for which single quotations for 1907
are shown in Table I have a September price, which represents the
bulk of these sales for the year, and the relative price for 1907 was
therefore computed from that price, but the price at which sales were
made from January to March was the price of September, 1906;
from April to August the price of April, 1907, and from September to
December the price of September, 1907. Consequently these prices
were used in this table presenting monthly prices.
It was impossible to secure quotations during all of the months of
the year for 5 of the 258 articles, viz: Buckwheat flour, sun-dried
apples, herring, salmon, and potatoes of the kind quoted.
The average price for 1907 was obtained, as has already been
explained, by dividing the sum of the quotations for the year as shown
in Table I by the number of quotations for the year. The average
price for the 10-year period, 1890 to 1899, was obtained by dividing
the sum of the average prices of the 10 years by 10. This average
price for 10 years has been adopted as the base for all relative prices.
For the 10 articles which do not show prices for the entire period of 10
years, 1890 to 1899, the base in each case is the average of the years
prior to and including 1899.




326

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

In explanation of the term base or standard, as used in connection
with relative prices or index numbers, it may be stated that in reducing
a series of actual prices to relative prices a base must first be chosen,
and this may be either a single quotation, the average price for 1
year, or the average for 2 or more years. If the price for a single year
is chosen it is essential that that year be a normal one, for if prices are
high in the year chosen for the base any subsequent fall will be unduly
emphasized, while, on the other hand, if prices are low any subsequent
rise will be emphasized. For the reason that all the commodities
probably never present a normal condition as regards prices in any
one year, it was decided that an average price for a number of years
would better reflect average or approximately normal conditions and
form a more satisfactory base than would the price for any single
year. The period chosen as this base was that from 1890 to 1899— a
period of 10 years. The average price of each article for the base
period was found, as previously stated, by adding together the aver­
age yearly prices of that article for all of the 10 years and dividing
by 10.
The relative prices as shown in this and other tables have been cal­
culated in the usual manner and represent simply the percentage
which each monthly or yearly price is of the base price. The average
price for the first 10 years of the period, that is, the base, always repre­
sents 100, and the percentages for each month or year enable the
reader to measure readily the rise and fall from month to month or
from year to year of the prices of each single commodity, of any group
of commodities, or of all the 258 commodities involved. These com­
modities are arranged in alphabetical order under each of the nine
general groups, as in Table I.
In order that the method pursued may be more readily understood,
the reader is referred to the table itself, as given on pages 396 to 414.
Taking up the first commodity shown, barley, we find that the aver­
age price per bushel for the base period, 1890 to 1899, inclusive, was
45.34 cents; the average price for January, 1907, was 54.25 cents;
that for February was 59.13 cents; that for March 69.45 cents, etc.
The relative price for the base period, as heretofore explained, is
always placed at 100, and is so given in the table. The relative price
for January, 1907, is shown to be 119.7, or 19.7 per cent higher than
the base or average for the 10 years. In February the relative price
was 130.4, or 30.4 per cent above the base; in March the relative price
was 153.2, or 53.2 per cent above the base; in April it was 155.9, or
55.9 per cent above the base; in May it rose to 171.8, or 71.8 per cent
above the base; in June it was 164.3, or 64.3 per cent above the base;
in July it was 145.9, or 45.9 per cent above the base, and in August it
rose again to 154.6, or 54.6 per cent above the base; in September
it advanced to 201.3, or 101.3 per cent above the base; it advanced




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

327

again in October, declined in November, and in December rose to
213.9. The relative price for the year 1907 was 169.0, or 69 per cent
above the base. The figures in each case were secured according to
the method already explained, that for January, 1907, being expressed
as follows:
Average price for base period............................................................................................ $0.4534
Average price for January, 1907....................................................................................... $0.5425
Relative* price for base period...........................................................................................
100.0
Relative price for January, 1907.......................................................................................
119.7

The remainder of the table may be analyzed in a similar manner.
The value of prices given in this relative form, it will readily be seen,
consists in the means afforded for tracing and measuring the changes
from month to month, from year to year, or from period to period, and
in the combinatipn of prices of a sufficient number of commodities to
show the general price level. It must not be assumed that a system of
relative prices of representative commodities will enable one to trace
the causes of changes in the general price level or to determine the
effect of such changes on any class of consumers or on all consumers.
The use of such a system is to show the general course of prices, from
time to time of one commodity, of a group of commodities, or of all
commodities.
It is stated on page 308 that certain articles are no longer quoted
and other articles of the same class are substituted.
An explanation of the method of computing the relative price of
these articles is necessary, and harness leather will be used as an illus­
tration. It must be understood that during the years when “ country
middles” were quoted, they were assumed to represent the several
grades of oak harness leather— that is, that the course of prices of a
standard grade of oak harness leather in an index number of prices
fairly represents the course of prices of the various grades of oak har­
ness leather. Therefore, when it became necessary to substitute, in
1902, packers’ hides for the country middles, prices were secured for
packers’ hides for both 1901 and 1902, and it was found that the aver­
age price for the year 1902 was the same, or 100 per cent of the average
price for the year 1901. The relative price of country middles in 1901,
as shown in Table IV, was 114.7 (average price for the ten years, 1890
to 1899, equals 100), and if country middles represented oak harness
leather at that time, and packers’ hides now represent the class, har­
ness leather (shown by the price of packers’ hides) remained the same
price in 1902 as in 1901, and the relative price in 1902 was therefore
100 per cent of 114.7, the relative price in 1901, which gives 114.7 as
the relative price in 1902. The same method was followed in comput­
ing relative prices for each of the months of 1902. The average price
of harness leather in 1907 was 0.67 per cent above the average price in
37691— No. 75— 08------4




328

BULLETINS

OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

1906; therefore the relative price in 1907 was 100.67 per cent of 128.1,
the relative price of 1906, which gives 129.0 as the relative price in
1907. The same method of computing the relative prices was followed
for boots and shoes, calico, hosiery, leather, shawls, sheetings, women’s
dress goods, bar iron, doors, plate glass, white pine, shingles, and jute.
For trouserings and underwear the exact grade quoted for 1903 was
not manufactured in 1902. The manufacturer of trouserings, how­
ever, estimated that one-half of the advance in price over the price for
the grade quoted for previous years was due to the fact that it was a
better article and the other half to the advance in price of material and
cost of manufacture. The advance was $0.1125 per yard over the
price in 1902; one-half of this, $0.05625, was added to the 1902 price
of the 22 to 23 ounce trouserings to secure a theoretical 1902 price for
the 21 to 22 ounce trouserings, and the 1903 relative price was then
computed as above. Underwear was arbitrarily given the same rela­
tive price in 1903 as in 1902, as the all-wool underwear manufactured
by the same firm showed no change in price. The 1907 relative prices
of trouserings and underwear were found in the same way as explained
above for harness leather.
Table I I I .— M onthly relative prices o f commodities in 190 7 , pages 1+15
to 1+26.— This table repeats the relative monthly price for each article
as given in Table II. ^ In addition, similar commodities have been
grouped and the average of the relative prices shown for the commodi­
ties in each subgroup and in each of the nine general groups. The
averages in all cases were found by dividing the sum of the relative
prices by the number of commodities in the group under consideration.
It should be borne constantly in mind that the term commodity is
used here and elsewhere in a specific sense, “ native” and “ western”
sheep, for example, being considered different commodities. The
method of securing average relative prices in this and other tables
was as follows: The average relative price of cattle was found by
adding the relative prices of the two grades of cattle and dividing the
sum by 2. The average for hogs was found in the same manner, and
also the average for sheep. The average for live stock was found by
dividing the sum of the relative prices of both grades of cattle, both
grades of hogs, and both grades of sheep by 6, the total number of dif­
ferent descriptions of commodities or series of quotations in the live­
stock group. The average relative price of each of the nine general
groups was found by dividing the sum of the relative prices of the dif­
ferent descriptions of commodities for each month b y the number of
these commodities or series of quotations considered. The sum of the
relative prices in January, 1907, of the commodities shown under the
general group, food, etc., for example, is 6,200.3, which amount divided
by 53, the number of different descriptions of commodities or series
of quotations considered in that group, gives 117.0 the average for the




329

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907,

group, food, etc., for January, 1907. As explained in the discussion of
Table II, it was impossible to secure quotations during all of the
months of the year for 5 of the 258 articles. In order of arrangement
these are: Buckwheat flour, herring, salmon, sun-dried apples, and
potatoes. In presenting monthly relative prices for these articles a
nominal relative price (which is the same as the relative price for the
month in which the article was last quoted) has been entered in this
table for the months for which no price quotation is shown in Table I.
This nominal price enters into the average for the subgroup, the gen­
eral group, and “ all commodities” for that month.
In the following table the December, 1907, relative price is com­
pared with the average for 1890 to 1899. The average price for 1890
to 1899 is in every case the base, or 100 per cent. Only the commodi­
ties for which the quotations throughout the 18-year period have been
for practically the same description of article are included below.
In using this table it must be borne in mind that the comparison is
between the prices for December, 1907, and the average prices for the
base period.
R E L A T IV E PRICES, DECEM BER, 1907, COMPARED W IT H A V E R A G E PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
[For a more detailed description of the articles see Table 1, page 347 et seq.
1899=100.0.]

,

F a rm products 16 articles
Relative
price, De­
cember,
1907.

Article.

.

Article.

PRICE

PRICE INCREASED.

Hogs: light...................................................
Hogs: heavy.................................................
Cattle: steers, good to choice..................
Cattle: steers, choice to extra.................
Hides: green, salted, packers, heavy
native steers.............................................
Wheat: contract grades, cash.................
Rye: No. 2, cash.........................................
Hay: timothy, No. 1..................................
Cotton: upland, middling........................

Average price for 1890-

R elative
price, De­
cember,
1907.

in c r e a se d —concluded.

105.3
105. 4
108.6
109.7

Com: No. 2, ca s h ........................................
O ats: ca sh .....................................................
B arley: b y sam ple......................................

126.5
128.3
148.4
149.6
151.9

Flaxseed: N o. 1...........................................
H op s: N ew Y o rk State, ch o ice...............
Sheep: n a tiv e...............................................
Sheep: western............................................

155.8
184.7
213.9

PRICE DECREASED.
94.1
93.2
91.0
86.5

,

F o o d etc., 51 articles.

PRICE INCREASED.

Bread: loaf (Washington market)........
Fish: mackerel, salt, large No. 3 ..............
Vegetables, fresh: onions.........................
Meat: mutton, dressed.............................
Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, white.........
Rice: domestic, choice...............................
Meat: hams, smoked.................................
Starch: pure c o m .......................................
Meat: beef, fresh, native sides.............
Bread: loaf,Vienna (New York market)
Salt: American............................................
Fruit: raisins, California, London layer.
Flour: wheat, winter, straights.............
Fruit: apples, evaporated, choice...........
Bread: loaf, homemade (New York
market)......................................................
Spices: pepper, Singapore........................
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle.___




PRICE INCREASED— c o n tin u e d .

100.6

102.6
103.0
104.1
104.2
107.0
108.5
109.5

112.8
113.6
116.4
116.6
117.3
118.1
118.6
118.6

120.6

Vinegar: cider, Monarch..........................
Meat: bacon, short rib sides...................
Meat: bacon, short clear sides................
Tallow............................................................
Meal: com, fine white...............................
Flour: wheat, spring patents.................
Lard: prime contract...............................
Butter: creamery, extra (New York
market).................................................... .
Meat: pork, salt,mess, old to new............
Meal: com, fine yellow..............................
Butter: creamery, Elgin (Elgin mar­
ket) .............................................................
Fish: cod, dry, bank, large.................... .
Meat: beef, salt, extra mess.................. .
Bread: crackers, Boston..........................
Butter: dairy, New York State............ .
Fruit: apples, sun-dried.......................... .

121.8
123.6
125.9
126.0
126.4
127.1
127.7
128.7
130 0
130.3
130.4
132.1
132.5
133.7
135.4
135.9

330

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

R E L A T IV E

PRICES,

DECEM BER, 1907, COMPARED
1890-1899—Continued.

W IT H

AVERAGE

PRICE

FOR

F o o d , etc., 52 articles— Concluded.
Relative
price, De­
cember,
1907.

Article.

PRICE

Relative
price, De­
cember,
1907.

price decreased .

increased —concluded.

Beans: medium, choice.............................
Meat: beef, salt, hams, western...............
Milk: fresh....................................................
Cheese: New York, full cream..................
Flour: buckwheat;.....................................
Flour: rye ..................................................
Fish: herring, shore, round......................
Fruit: currants, in barrels.......................
Eggs: new-laid, fancy, near-by................

Article.

137.0
145.9
156.9
158.6
160.9
162.0
172.1
181.6
204.8

Sugar: 96° centrifugal................................
Sugar: 89° fair refining..............................
Sugar: granulated.......................................
Bread: crackers, soda................................
Tea: Formosa, fine.....................................
Fruit: prunes, California, in boxes........
Soda: bicarbonate of, American.............
Coffee: Rio No. 7.........................................
Spices: nutmegs.........................................

98.1
96.9
96.3
90.5
81.0
80.0
62.2
44.8
28.1

Cloths and clothing, 5 8 articles.

PRICE INCREASED.

Linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour..........
Sheetings: bleached, 10-4, Wamsutta
S. T ..............................................................
Silk: raw, Japan, filatures, No. 1...........
Boots and shoes: men’s vici kid shoes,
Goodyear w e lt.........................................
Linen thread: 3-cord, 200-yard spools,
Barbour.....................................................
W ool: Ohio,medium fleece (4- to § grade),
scoured.......................................................
Leather: sole, oak......................................
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
all wool, full-fashioned, 18 gauge........
Broadcloths: first quality, black, 54inch, made from X X X wool.................
Silk: raw, Italian, classical.....................
Leather: wax calf, 30 to 40 pounds to
the dozen, B grade..................................
Shirtings: bleached,4-4Wamsutta <x x >
Blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to pair, all
wool.............................................................
Boots and shoes: women’s solid grain
shoes, leather, polish or polka..............
Overcoatings: chinchilla, B-rough, all
wool.............................................................
Women’ s dress goods: Franklin sack­
ings, 6 -4 ......................................................
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell...............
Boots and shoes: men’s brogans, split..
Cotton yam s: carded, white, mulespun, northern, cones, 22/1___ *..........
Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow........
Cotton yam s: carded,white, mule-spun,
northern, cones, 10/1..............................
Flannels: white, 4-4, Ballard Vale No. 3.
Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow. . .
Worsted yam s: 2t40s, Australian fine..
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 16-ounce.
Ginghams:' Lancaster................................
Worsted yam s: 2-40s, X X X X or its
equivalent in quality, white, in skiens.
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 54-inch,
14-ounce, Middlesex standard.............
Blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to the pair,
cotton warp, all wool filling.................
Horse blankets; 6 pounds each, all wool.




p r i c e i n c r e a s e d — c o n c lu d e d .

102.1
105.1
105.6
108.7
109.1
112.5
114.5
115.8
116.6
118.1
118.4
118.7
119.0
119.3
119.4
119.9

121.2
121.3
121.9
123.7
124.4
124.4
124.7
125.7
126.2
126.5
129.1
129.3
130.5
130.9

W ool: Ohio, fine fleece (X and X X
grade), scoured.........................................
Ginghams: Amoskeag...............................
Women’ s dress goods: cashmere, all
wool, 10-11 twill, 38-inch, Atlantic
Mills J .........................................................
Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Indian Head___
Denims: Amoskeag....................................
Leather: sole, hemlock, Buenos Aires,
and Montana, middle weights, first
quality........................................................
Tickings: Amoskeag A. C. A .................... \
Shirtings: bleached, 4-4, Williamsville, !
A 1 ................................................................1
Shirtings: bleached, 4-4, Lonsdale..........i
Cotton flannels: 3£ yards to the pound.1
Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag........................!
Shirtings: bleached, 4-4, H ope................ }
Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Pepperell R .........!
Blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to the pair, !
cotton warp, cotton and wool filling..!
Cotton flannels: 2f yards to the pound J
Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Atlantic A .......... 1
Drillings: brown, Pepperell..................... •
Cotton thread: 6-cora, 200-yard spools,
J. & P. Coats............................................
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cot­
ton warn, 9-twill, 4-4, Atlantic Mills F.
Boots ana shoes: men’s split boots,
russet-bound top, 17-inch, one-half
double sole................................................
Print cloths: 28-inch, 64 by 64.................
Drillings: 30-inch, Stark A .......................
Sheetings: bleached, 10-4, Pepperell___ !
Shirtings: bleached, 4-4, Fruit of the j
L oom ........................................................... i

130.9
131.3
134.9
135.8
136.5
136.7
136.7
137.0
137.6
139.1
139.4
139.5
140.7
141.5
141.6
141.8
144.2
145.4
148.3
152.9
155.3
157.8
159.2
164.8

PRICE DECREASED.

Overcoatings: covert cloth,light weight.
Hosiery: men’s cotton half hose, seam­
less, standard quality, 84 needles........
Overcoatings: chinchilla, cotton warp,
C. C. grade.................................................
Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, seam­
less, fast black, 26 to 28 ounce, 160 to
176 needles..................................................

96.9
95.6
94.2
89.5

331

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
R E L A T IV E

PRICES,

DECEM BER, 1907. COMPARED
1890-1899—Continued.

W IT H

AVERAGE

PRICE

FOR

F u e l and lighting , 13 articles.
Relative
price, De­
cember,
1907.

Article.

Article.

PRICE INCREASED.

PRICE i n c r e a s e d — concluded.

Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (f.o.b.
New York Harbor).................................
Coke: Connellsville, furnace.....................
Coal: anthracite, broken..........................
Coal: anthracite, stove..............................
Petroleum: refined, for export................
Coal: anthracite, chestnut.......................
Coal: anthracite, egg.................................
Coal: bituminous, Pittsburg (Youghiogheny) lump...........................................

Petroleum: refined, 150° fire test, w. w ..
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (at
mine)...........................................................
Petroleum: crude, Pennsylvania............

Relative
price, De­
cember,
1907.

116.7
. 117.8
124.9
130.4
134.8
137.5
137.7

151.7
168.8
195.6

PRICE DECREASED.

Candles: adamantine, 6s, 14-ounce........
Matches: parlor, domestic.......................

95.9
85.4

140.0

M etals and im p lem en ts , 3 5 articles.
PRICE in c r e a s e d — concluded.

PRICE SAME AS BASE.

Saws: crosscut, Disston...........................
Trowels: M. C. O., brick, lOi-inch..........

100.0
100.0

PRICE INCREASED.

Saws: hand, Disston No. 7......................
Spelter: western..........................................
Barb wire: galvanized...............................
Steel rails.......................................................
Quicksilver....................................................
Lead: pig.......................................................
Copper wire: bare, No. 8, B. & S ............
Copper: ingot, lake....................................
Files: 8-incn mill bastard.........................
Planes: Bailey No. 5..................................
Lead pipe.......................................................
Nails: cut, 8-penny, fence and common.
Bar iron: best refined, from store
(Philadelphia market)...........................
Copper: sheet, hot rolled (base sizes)..
Zinc: sheet....................................................

101.3
102.4
106.1
107.4
109.1
111.5
112.7
113.5
114.9
115.7
115.8
116.3 |
119.5
120.6
121.3

Butts: loose joint, cast, 3 by 3 inch___
Pig iron: foundry No. 1............................
Hammers: May dole No. 1£......................
Steel billets....................................................
Pig iron: Bessemer.....................................
Axes: M. C. O ., Yankee............................
Pig iron: foundry No. 2, northern.........
Vises: solid box, 50-pound.......................
Pig iron: gray forge, southern, coke. . .
Tin: pig..........................................................
Chisels: extra, socket firmer, 1-inch___
Augers: extra, f-inch.................................
Locks: common mortise...........................
Doorknobs: steel, bronze-plated............

126.6
127.9
129.0
130.1
142.3
144.9
146.7
147.4
148.8
163.9
198.0
223.9
244.8
265.2

PRICE DECREASED.

Shovels: Ames No. 2..................................
Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and common
Wood screws: 1-inch, No. 10, flathead..
Silver: bar, fine............................................

99.7
99.5
80.7
73.7

L u m b er and building m aterials , 2 0 articles .
PRICE INCREASED— concluded.

PRICE INCREASED.

Cement: Rosendale__
.
...........
Carbonate of lead: American, in oil........
Window glass: American, single, thirds,
25-inch bracket (6 by 8 to 10 by 15
inch')............................................................
Maple: hard...................................................
Lime: common.........
_
...............
Window glass: American, single, firsts,
25-inch bracket (6 by 8 to 10 by 15
inch)............................................................
Tar..................................................................
Oxide of zinc.................................................
Oak: white, plain, 1-inch, 6 inches and
up wide.......................................................

107.1
114.7
119.2
122.6
125.4
126.4
132.8
134.5
144.3

Shingles: cypress.........................................
Spruce.............................................................
Turpentine: spirits of.................................
Oak: white, quartered...............................
Pine: yellow, long leaf................................
Hemlock: 2 by 4 inch..................................
Poplar: yellow..............................................
Resin: good, strained.................................

145.3
146.4
146.6
149.0
165.2
186.0
189.7
246.5

PRICE DECREASED.

Linseed oil: raw...........................................
Brick: common domestic..........................
Putty: bulk...................................................

99.2
98.9
75.9

D ru g s and chemicals , 9 articles.
PRICE DECREASED.

PRICE INCREASED.

Alum: lump...................................................
Sulphuric acid: 66°......................................
Glycerin: refined..........................................
Alcohol: grain...............................................
Muriatic acid: 20°........................................
Opium: natural, in cases...........................




104.8
112. 4
114.4
117.4
129.8
233.0

Brimstone: crude, seconds........................
Quinine: American......................................
Alcohol: wood, refined, 95 per cent.........

94.2
65.0
40.9

332

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

R E L A T IV E

PRICES,

D EC EM B E R , 1907, COMPARED
1890-1899—Concluded.

W IT H

AVERAGE

PRICE

FOR

H o u se fu rn ish in g goods , 14 articles .
Relative
price, De­
cember,
1907.

Article.

Article.

Relative
price, De­
cember,
1907.

price increased —concluded.

PRICE INCREASED.

Earthenware: plates, white granite—
Table cutlery: Knives and forks, cocobolo handles..............................................
Table cutlery: carvers, stag handles...
Earthenware: plates, cream-colored. . .
Wooden ware: tubs, oak-grained..........
Fnm itnrfi! tables, ld te h e n ........ .............
Glassware: nappies, 4-inch.......................
Furniture: bedroom sets, ash.................
Furniture: chairs, kitchen.......................

102.4
104.8
106.3
106.6
122.5
124.7
125.0
137.4
156.8

Furniture: chairs, bedroom, maple___
Wooden ware: pails, oak-grainea..........

161.4
161.7

PRICE DECREASED.

Earthenware: teacups and saucers,
white granite............................................
Glassware: pitchers, ^-gallon, common.
Glassware: tumblers, £-pint, common. .

98.8
89.4
84.5

M iscellaneous , 12 articles.

PRICE INCREASED— concluded.

PRICE INCREASED.

Proof spirits................................................
Tobacco: smoking, granulated, Seal of
North Carolina........................................
Tobacco: plug..............................................
Starch: laundry..........................................
Soap: castile, mottled, pure.....................
Rope: m a n ilk................................................
Cotton-seed oil: summer yellow, prime.

117.4
117.9
118.6
122.1
123.0
125.8
126.5

Cotton-seed meal.........................................
Malt: western made...................................

134.8
172.1

PRICE DECREASED.

Rubber: Para Island.................................
Paper: wrapping, m anila.........................
Paper: news..................................................

97.4
94.9
88.6

Of the farm products group, the prices of 12 of the 16 articles were
higher in December, 1907, than the average price for 1890 to 1899,
and the prices of 4 articles were lower in December, 1907, than the
average for 1890 to 1899.
The December, 1907, price, compared with the average price for
1890 to 1899, shows barley 113.9 per cent above; oats 84.7 per cent
above; corn 55.8 per cent above; cotton 51.9 per cent above, etc.
Of the food group, in December, 1907, eggs were 104.8 per cent
above the average price for 1890 to 1899; herring 72.1 per cent above;
cheese 58.6 per cent above; milk 56.9 per cent above, etc.
With these illustrations the reader is referred to the table.




333

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

The facts presented in the foregoing table are summarized in the
following table, which shows the changes in prices of articles in each
group, classified by per cent of change:
CHANGES IN PRICES OF AR TICLES IN EACH GROUP, CLASSIFIED B Y PER CENT OF
CHANGE, D ECEM BER, 1907, COMPARED W IT H AVE R A G E PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
Number of articles for which price—

Group.

Increased—

Num­
ber of
arti­
cles.

Farm products.............................
Food, etc........................................
Cloths and clothing.....................
Fuel and lighting.........................
Metals and implements..............
Lumber and building materials.
Drugs and chemicals..................
House furnishing goods.............
Miscellaneous................................

228

3
6
5
3
2
3

3
1
1
I

J

7

Decreased—

50 or 125 or 10 or
under under under
100
25
50
per
per
per
cent. cent. cent.

1
1

16
51
58
13
35
20
9
14
12

T otal....................................

100
per
cent
or
more.

3
1

4
16
26
5
9
9
1
2
3

11
18
3
10
3
3
2
5

26

75

55

Less
than
10
per
cent.

W as Less
50
10 or
same than under 25 or per
under
as
10
cent
25
50
base. per
per
or
per
cent. cent. cent. more.

4
8
5
5
1
1
4

3
4
3
1
2
2
1
1

2

1
2
1
1
1
1

1

2

2

i :. . . . . . . . . . .
i |

1

28

j

2

2
1

|

19

io !

1

3;

3

j

1

i

It is seen in the above comparison of the prices of December, 1907,
with the average for 1890 to 1899, that of the 16 articles in the farm
products group, 12 show an increase and 4 a decrease; of the 51 in the
foods, etc., group, 42 show an increase and 9 a decrease; of the 58 in
the cloths and clothing group, 54 show an increase and 4 a decrease;
of the 13 in the fuel and lighting group, 11 show an increase and 2 a
decrease; of the 35 in the metals and implements group, 29 show an
increase, 2 show the same price as the average for the base period,
and 4 show a decrease; of the 20 in the lumber and building materials
group, 17 show an increase and 3 a decrease; of the 9 in the drugs and
chemicals group, 6 show an increase and 3 a decrease; of the 14 in the
house furnishing goods group, 11 show an increase and 3 a decrease;
of the 12 in the miscellaneous group, 9 show an increase and 3 a
decrease. Of the 228 commodities included in the above table, 191
show an increase, 2 show the same price as the average for the base
period, and 35 show a decrease. Of the 191 commodities that
showed an increase in December, 1907, over the average for 1890 to
1899, 28 advanced less than 10 per cent, 55 advanced 10 or under 25
per cent, 75 advanced 25 or under 50 per cent, 26 advanced 50 or
under 100 per cent, and 7 advanced 100 per cent or more. Of the 35
commodities which showed a decrease, 19 decreased less than 10 per
cent, 10 decreased 10 or under 25 per cent, 3 decreased 25 or under
50 per cent, and 3 decreased 50 per cent or more.




334

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

The number and per cent of articles which showed each specified
increase or decrease are given in the following table:
N U M BER AND PER CENT OF AR TICLES, B Y CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR D ECREASE, DECEM BER, 1907, COMPARED W IT H A V E R A G E PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
Number
of
articles.

Per cent
of
articles.

7
26
75
55
28

3.1
11.4
32.9
24.1
12.3

191

83.8

Price increased:
100 per cent or more...........
50 or under 100 per cent. . .
25 or under 50 per cent___
10 or under 25 per cent___
Less than 10 per cent........
Tnt.fi.1

2

Price same as base.............

Number
of
articles.
Price decreased:
Less than 10 per cent........
10 or under 25 per cent. . .
25 or under 50 per cent. . .
50 per cent or m o re ..........
Tnt.fl.l
Cf to i l u +n+a1
v l a n rl v U lo /1

Per cent
of
articles.

19
10
3
3

8.3
4.4
1.3
1.3

35
..................

15.3

228

100.0

0.9

Of the 228 articles included in this table, it is seen that 191, or 83.8
per cent, show an increase in price; 2 articles, or 0.9 per cent, show
the same price as the average for the base period, and 35 articles, or
15.3 per cent, show a decrease in price in December, 1907, as com­
pared with the average price for the base period.
Of the 258 commodities considered in the Bureau’s compilation of
prices, the average price of 108 commodities was higher in December,
1907, than in December, 1906, the average price of 62 was the same
in December, 1907, as in December, 1906, and the average price of 87
was lower in December, 1907, than in December, 1906. For one
article there was no quotation in December, 1907.
The following table shows the relative prices of certain related arti­
cles, so grouped as to render easy a comparison of the course of their
prices during the year 1907:
R E L A T IV E PRICES OF C E R T A IN GROUPS OF R E L A T E D AR T ICL ES IN 1907.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cattle and cattle products.
Month.
Cattle.

Beef,
fresh.

Beef,
hams.

Beef,
mess.

Dairy products.

Tallow.

Hides.

Milk.

Butter.

Cheese.

Jan-----F e b . ...
M ar----A p ril...
M a y .. . .
J u n e .. .
J u ly ....
A u g----Sept___
O ct-----N ov___
Dec------

122.6
124.7
121.2
121.8
117.7
129.0
132.8
131.0
125.7
124.8
115.9
109.2

105.7
104.5
103.8
108.0
111.2
119.2
123.2
124.9
120.4
121.9
121.3
112.8

134.0
136.1
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
145.1
157.5
159.2
160.3
145.9

110.7
115.4
121.6
121.6
121.6
121.6
121.6
121.6
124.7
127.9
127.9
132.5

147.4
153.3
155.2
144.6
144.4
146.7
143.7
145.7
143.7
137.9
131.5
126.0

173.6
172.9
163.4
153.8
153.4
158.8
157.1
150.6
150.6
156.9
145.6
126.5

147.1
137.3
127.5
127.5
112.5
98.0
103.1
121.2
132.5
156.9
156.9
156.9

138.8
148.9
142.8
139.8
114.3
110.0.
115.3
114.6
127.7
132.8
124.0
131.5

146»9
148.8
149.4
152.0
137.8
120.4
125.1
123.5
138.4
159.6
152.0
158.6

1907..

122.9

114.7

144.0

122.5

142.8

155.3

131.4

128.5

143.3




335

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901 ,

R E L A T IV E PRICES OF C E R T A IN GROUPS OF R E L A T E D AR T ICL ES IN 1907—Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Hogs and hog products.
Month.
Hogs.

Hams,
smoked.

Bacon.

Sheep and sheep products.

Mess pork.

Lard.

Sheep.

Mutton.

Wool.

1

Jan. . .
Feb........
M ar.___
Apr........
M ay-----June___
July----A u g ----Sept___
Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

149.1
158.8
151.2
150.5
144.7
139.0
136.9
139.9
140.4
143.6
114.0
105.4

144.8
151.7
146.3
141.7
144.4
141.4
139.2
140.0
140.4
140.8
136.7
124.8

133.4
138.5
136.6
136.0
139.4
137.5
137.0
137.2
133.4
131.6
124.2
108.5

154.7
161.2
156.3
152.8
154.7
155.3
156.9
155.8
152.6
147.4
137.8
130.0

149.2
153.7
144.2
138.2
143.1
138.2
139.3
140.5
141.1
142.4
132.1
127.7

129.3
131.0
137.6
145r7
141.3
141.9
132.8
131.8
133.8
123.5
89.2
88.8

114.1
112.7
120.2
132.0
137.7
128.5
107.4
111.1
109.4
110.1
109.4
104.1

121.3
121.3
119.8
119.8
119.8
121.7
121.7
123.7
123.7
121.7
121.7
121.7

1907...

139.2

140.7

132.4

151.0

140.7

126.9

116.0

121.5

Corn, etc.

Flaxseed, etc.

Rye and rye
flour.

GluCorn. cose.a Meal.

Flax­ Linseed
seed.
oil.

Rye.

Rye
flour.

108.4
114.2
116.0
123.0
139.4
140.2
142.2
148.6
162.0
162.5
153.9
155.8

148.8
148.8
148.8
148.8
148.8
161.1
161.1
161.1
168.2
167.8
174.9
174.9

125.9
125.9
125.9
125.9
122.3
128.4
130.8
125.9
135.6
153.8
149.2
128.4

103.3
107.3 j
108.2
104.7
105.6
118.4
112.5
103.1
106.4
107.8
101.5
94.1

90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
97.0
99.2
94.8
94.8
103.6
108.0
99.2

116.9
126.8
127.4
130.7
150.3
164.1
161.5
146.8
166.7
159.7
148.0
148.4

119.8
118.3
117.6
116.1
119.1
152.2
153.0
148.5
145.5
156.0
156.8
162.0

97.1
105.8
105.0
107.9
127.7
128.8
128.5
123.7
134.5
138.8
124.4
128.3

90.6
93.0
91.6
91.9
107.8
114.5
115.6
111.7
116.9
124.7
122.5
122.2

90.6
93.0
91.6
91.9
107.8
114.5
115.6
111.7
116.9
124.7
122.5
122.2

112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1

110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9

1907... 138.8

159.4

131.5

106.1

95.7

145.4

138.7

120.8

108.6

108.6

112.1

110.9

Wheat and
wheat flour.

Flour, etc.

monin.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........
Apr........
M ay----June___
July----Aug . . .
Sept___
Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

1W h eat! Wheat Crack­ Loaf
Wheat. , flour, j flour.
ers.
bread.

Cotton and cotton goods.
Month.

Cotton:
upland,
mid­
dling.

Bags:
Calico:
2-bushel, American Cotton Cotton Cotton Denims.
Amos- standard flannels. thread. yarns.
prints.
keag.

Drill­
ings.

Ging­
hams.

Hosiery.

Jan___
Feb........
Mar........
A p r____
M ay----June___
July----A u g ----Sept___
Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

139.9
142.0
143.8
143.4
154.9
168.1
169.5
171.8
163.5
148.5
142.0
151.9

132.2
132.2
132.2
139.4
139.4
139.4
139.4
139.4
150.1
139.4
139.4
139.4

105.1
105.1
114.6
114.6
114.6
114.6
124.2
124.2
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7

133.9
133.9
133.9
133.9
140.4
140.4
144.4
144.4
144 4
144.4
140.4
140.4

120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4

131.9
133.2
131.6
131.9
131.9
138.8
142.9
142.9
140.1
134 4
123.2
123.2

122.1
122.1
124 5
124 5
124 5
1341
138.9
141.3
141.3
141.3
136.5
136.5

142.1
145.8
145.4
145.1
151.2
147.7
149.3
143.3
150.1
147.2
148.0
151.0

113.0
115.2
115.2
115.2
115.2
115.2
124 6
129.3
133.6
128.9
128.9
128.9

93.0
93.0
93.0
94 5
94 5
94.5
94.5
94.5
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4

1907...

153.0

138.5

121.0

139.5

1348

133.9

132.3

147.2

122.0

ft 97.4

a Average for 1893-1899=100.0.




ft See statement on page 325,

336

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

R E L A T IV E PRICES OF C E R T A IN GROUPS OF R E L A T E D A R T IC L ES IN ]907-Coneluded.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cotton and cotton goods.
Month.

Print
cloths.

Sheet­
ings.

Shirt­
ings.

Wool and woolen goods.
Blan­
Broad­
Wool. kets (all cloths.
wool).
1

Tick­
ings.

Carpets.

Flan­
nels.

Horse
blan­
kets.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........
Apr........
M ay___
June___
July___
A u g____
Sept----Oct........
N o v ....
Dec........

140.9
147.6
158.6
15a 6
161.3
170.9
177.3
185.0
185.0
185.0
177.9
155.3

125.0
127.3
128.7
129.6
129.4
133.8
132.4
133.5
133.6
136.2
139.3
138.1

124.6
128.7
130.4
133.1
133.1
135.1
143.9
143.9
145.3
145.3
145.3
139.5

117.8
120.2
122.5
122.5
127.2
127.2
132.0
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7

121.3
121.3
119.8
119.8
119.8
121.7
121.7
123.7
123.7
121.7
121.7
121.7

119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0

116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6

123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2

122. 4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
124.4
124 4
124 4
124 4

130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9

1907...

167. 4

132.2

137.4

129.4

121.5

119.0

116.6

123.2

123.1

130.9

Hides, leather, and
boots and shoes.

Wool and woolen goods.

Month.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
A p r___
M ay. . . i
J u n e... !
J u ly. . . i
Aug— !
1
Sept
i
O ct___ 1
N ov___ i
Dec____ !
I
1907.. !
1

Over­
coat­
ings
Shawls.
(all
■wool).

Suit­
ings.

Under­
wear
(all
wool).

Wom­
en's
dress
goods
(all
wool).

Worsted Hides. ■Leath­
er.
yams.

Petroleum.

Boots
and
shoes.

Crude.

Re­
fined.

123.5
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9

107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0

132.8
132.8
132.8
133.8
133.4
132.4
132.4
133.4
133.4
133.4
133.4
133.4

115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0
127.4
127.4
127.4

128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
128.4
127.4
127.4

173.6
172.9
163.4
15a 8
153.4
15a 8
157.1
150.6
150.6
156.9
145.6
126.5

124.4
123.0
124.1
124.4
124.4
123.6
122.8
124.0
124.0
125.1
124.7
123.9

127.3
127.3
127.3
127.3
127.3
126.7
126.2
125.6
125.1
125.1
123.4
122.2

17a 6
17a 6
179.1
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6

130.9
135.6
135.6
139.0
139.0
139.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
143.3
143.3

124.8

107.0

133.1

115.8

130.9

127.9

155.3

124.0

125.9

190.5

139.1

An examination of this table shows that during 1907, with few
exceptions, related articles followed the same price movement for
the year- Prices of cattle products, except mess beef, followed in a
general way the prices of cattle. Prices of all of the hog products
shared in the decline made in the price of hogs during the last two
months of the year. Mutton reflects the decline in price of sheep,
corn meal reflects the advance and decline of corn, but glucose con­
tinued to advance until the end of the year. Prices of wheat flour
followed the price of wheat, but crackers and loaf bread remained
the same. Cotton receded from the price shown during the summer,
but the movement was not fully reflected in cotton goods, as several
articles either advanced or remained the same during the year.
W ool and woolen goods sustained a very steady price during the
year, the principal variation being in women’s dress goods (all wool).
Leather and boots and shoes reflect but very slightly the heavy
decline shown in the price of hides.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

337

The lowest monthly relative price during 1907 for cattle was 109.2
in December, the highest 132.8 in July; the lowest for fresh beef
was 103.8 in March, the highest 124.9 in August; the lowest for
beef hams was 134.0 in January, the highest 160.3 in November;
the lowest for mess beef was 110.7 in January, the highest 132.5
in December; the lowest for tallow was 126.0 in December, the
highest 155.2 in March; the lowest for hides was 126.5 in December,
the highest 173.6 in January. The facts for the other groups may
be seen by reference to the table.
Table I V .— Average yearly actual and relative 'prices o f commodi­
ties , 1890 to 190 7 , and base prices {average fo r 1 8 9 0 -1 8 9 9 ), pages 427
to 4 5 3 .— This table shows for each commodity the average price for
each of the 18 years from 1890 to 1907. In the parallel column
following is given the relative price for each year— that is, the per
cent that the price in each year is of the average price for the 10
years from 1890 to 1899. In the line above the prices for 1890 are
given the average prices for the 10-year period taken as the basis
of comparison.
The average price for each year was obtained, as has been explained
on page 310, by dividing the sum of the quotations for each year as
shown in Table I by the number of quotations for each year. The
average price for the 10-year period (1890 to 1899) was obtained by
dividing the sum of the average prices of the 10 years by 10. The
relative prices for each year were computed in the same way as for
each month, as explained in the discussion of Table II.
Table V .— Yearly relative prices o f commodities, 1890 to 1907 , pages
454 to 4 7 1 • This table is taken from Table IV and shows the relative
—
prices of each of the commodities included therein. In this table
similar commodities have been grouped and the average of the rela­
tive prices shown for the commodities in each subgroup and in each
of the 9 general groups. The averages in all cases were found by
dividing the sum of the relative prices by the number of commodi­
ties in the group under consideration, as explained on page 328
in the discussion of Table III. The average relative price of each
of the 9 general groups was found by dividing the sum of the relative
prices of the different descriptions of commodities for each year by
the number of these commodities or series of quotations considered
in that year. The sum of the relative prices in 1890 oi the commodi­
ties shown under the general group food, etc., for example, is 5,958.2,
which amount, divided by 53, the number of different descriptions
of commodities or series of quotations considered for that year, gives
112.4, the average for the group food, etc., for 1890. For 1893 to
1903, 54 commodities are quoted in this group, and that number is
accordingly the divisor for each of those years. For 1904 to 1907,
53 commodities are included in this group.




338

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The average relative price of each of the 9 general groups for
each year of the period and the average relative price of all commodi­
ties for each year are shown on page 295.
The average relative prices of the 248 commodities for which quota­
tions were secured for the entire period involved do not differ mate­
rially from the average relative price of all commodities shown in a
preceding table based on the varying number of commodities in the
different years. Eliminating the commodities for which quota­
tions could be secured for only a portion of the period, we find that
the average relative price of the 248 commodities remaining was
129.5 in 1907, exactly the same as the relative price for the 258
articles for which wholesale prices were secured in this investigation.
The following table shows for each of the 9 general groups the
relative prices of 1907 compared with the average for 1890 to 1899.
There are included in this table only those commodities which
have retained practically the same description throughout the 18-year
period. The average price for 1890 to 1899 is in every case the base,
or 100 per cent. It should be kept in mind in using the table that
the comparison is between the average prices for 1907 and the aver­
age prices for the base period.
R E L A T IV E PRICES, 1907, COMPARED W IT H A V E R A G E PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
[For a more detailed description of the articles see Table I, page 347 et seq.
1899=100.0.]

Average price for 1890-

F arm products, 16 articles.
Relative
price,
1907.

Article.

Article.

Relative
price,
1907.

PRICE INCREASED— concluded.

PRICE INCREASED.

Flaxseed: No. 1...........................................
W heat: contract grades, cash................
Cattle: steers, good to choice..................
Cattle: steers, choice to extra.................
Sheep: western............................................
Sheep: native...............................................
Hogs: heavy.................................................
Corn: No. 2, cash........................................
Hogs: light...................................................
Rye: No. 2, cash..........................................

106.1

10
2 .8
12
2 .8

123.0
123.5
130.3
137.8
138.8
140.6
145.4

Cotton: upland, middling........................
Hides: green, salted, packers, neavy
native steers..............................................
Hay: timothy, No. 1..................................
Oats: cash.....................................................
Barley: by sample......................................

153.0
155.3
162.4
167.4
169.0

PRICE DECREASED.

Hops: New York State, choice................

98.1

F o o d , etc., 52 articles .

PRICE INCREASED.

Bread: loaf (Washington market)
Vegetables, fresh: onions.................
'
Flour: wheat, winter straights.. .
Beans: medium, choice.....................
Fruit: raisins, California, London layer
Starch: pure com ............................
Salt: American.................................
Fish: salmon, canned.....................
Flour: wheat, spring patents_________
Bread: loaf, Vienna (N. Y . market). . .
Meat: beef, fresh, native sides___
Meat: mutton, dressed...................
Vinegar: cider, Monarch................
Bread: loaf,homemade (N. Y .m arket).




PRICE INCREASED— c o n t i n u e d .

10
0 .6
103.0
103.7
106.4
108.4
109.5

12
1 .6

113.2
113.5
113.6
114.7
116.0
116.7
118.6

Meat: beef, salt, extra mess.....................
Fruit: apples, sun-dried...........................
Butter: creamery, extra (N. Y . market)
Butter: creamery, Elgin (Elgin mar­
ket) ..............................................................
Meal: com, fine white................................
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle___
Milk: fresh....................................................
Butter: dairy, New York State.............
Flour: buckwheat.......................................
Meat: hams, smoked.................................
Spices: pepper, Singapore.........................
Meal: com, fine yellow..............................
Bread: crackers, Boston...........................

122.5
123.9
• 126.2
127.2
129.5
129.7
131.4
132.0
132.4
132.4
132.7
133.5
133.7

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

339

R E L A T IV E PRICES, 1907, COMPARED W IT H A V E R A G E PRICE FOR 1890-1899—Continued.
F o o d , etc., 5 2 articles— Concluded.
R elative
price,
1907.

A rticle.
pric e inc rea sed —concluded.
Fish: cod , dry, bank, la rge......................
F lour: R y e ....................................................
M eat: bacon, short rib sides...................
L a rd : prim e c o n tr a c t ................................
E ggs: new -laid, fancy, n ea r-b y ...............
M eat: bacon, short clear sides................
T a llo w ............................................................
Cheese: N ew Y ork , full cream .................
M eat: beef, salt, ham s, w estern .............
M eat: pork, salt, mess, old to n e w ........
Fish: herring, shore, rou n d .....................
F ru it: currants, in barrels.......................

138.6
138.7
140.1
140.7
141.2
141.3
142.8
143.3
144.0
151.0
162.9
187.5

A rticle.
PRICE DECREASED.
F ru it: apples, evaporated, ch o ice ..........
Fish: m ackerel, salt, large N o. 3 s ..........
Sugar: gran u la ted ......................................
Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, w h ite ........
Sugar: 96° cen trifu ga l................................
Sugar: 89° fa ir refining..............................
R ice: d om estic, ch o ice ...............................
B read: crackers, s o d a ................................
Tea: Form osa, fin e.....................................
F ru it: prunes, California, in b o x e s .<. . .
£
Soda: bicarbonate of, A m erican.............
Coffee: R io N o. 7 .......................................
Spices: nu tm egs...........................................

R elative
price,
1907.

99.5
98.5
98.4
98.4
97.0
95.7
95.2
90.5
81.0
76.6
62.2
50.1
32.3

Cloths and clothing , 5 8 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

PRICE INCREASED— c o n c l u d e d .

Overcoatings: chinchilla, cotton warp,
C. C. grade.................................................
Linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour.............
Sheetings: bleached,10-4 W amsutta S. T .
Linen thread: 3-cord, 200-yard spools,
Barbour......................................................
Boots and shoes: men's vici kid shoes,
Goodyear welt..........................................
W ool: Ohio, medium fleece (I and §
grade), scoured.........................................
Leather: sole, oak.......................................
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
all wool, full-fashioned, 18-gauge........
Shirtings: bleached,4-4, W am sutta^0 .
^
Broadcloths: first quality, black, 54inch, made from X X X wool.................
Leather: wax calf, 30 to 40 pounds to the
dozen, B grade.........................................
Blankets: 11-4,5 pounds to the pair, all
wool.............................................................
Overcoatings: chinchilla, B-rough, all
wool.............................................................
Ginghams: Lancaster................................
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell.................
Boots and shoes: women’s solid grain
shoes, leather, polish or polka.............
Flannels: white, 4-4, Ballard Vale No. 3.
Ginghams: Amoskeag.............................
Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow.........
Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow___
Silk: raw, Japan, filatures........................
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 16-ounce.
Women’ s dress goods: Franklin sack­
ings, 6-4.......................................................
Worsted yarns: 2-40s, Australian fine..
Worsted yarns: 2-40s, X X X X or its
equivalent in quality, white, in skeins.
Boots and shoes: men’s brogans, split..
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 54-inch,
14rOunce, Middlesex standard.............
Tickings: Amoskeag, A. C. A ...................
W ool: Ohio, fine fleece ( X and X X
grade), scoured.........................................
Blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to the pair,
cotton warp, all wool filling.................

100.5

102.1

103.4
107.3
108.7
113.0
113.6
115.8
116.0
116.6
117.1
119.0
119.4
120.4

121.2

123.1
123.1
123.5
123.7
124.7
125.9
126.2
126.8
127.3

Cotton yarns: carded, white, mulespun, northern, cones, 22/1...................
Horse blankets: 6 pounds each, all wool.
Silk: raw, Italian, classical.......................
Denims: Amoskeag....................................
Shirtings: bleached, Williamsville; A l . .
Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Indian Head........
Cotton thread: 6 cord, 200-yard spools,
J. & P. Coats.............................................
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, all
wool, 10-11 twill, 38-inch, Atlantic
Mills J .........................................................
Sheetings: brown, 4-4 Pepperell R ..........
Leather: sole, hemlock, Buenos Aires
and Montana, middle weights, first
quality........................................................
Cotton yarns: carded, white, mulespun, northern, cones, 10/1...................
Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag........................
Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Atlantic A ...........
Cotton flannels: 3J yards to the pound..
Cotton flannels: 2| yards to the pound..
Shirtings: bleached, 4-4, Lonsdale..........
Blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to the pair,
cotton warp, cotton and wool filling..
Shirtings: bleached, 4-4, Hope.................
Drillings: brown, Pepperell......................
Women’ s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, 9-twill, 4-4, Atlantic mills F ___
Drillings: 30-inch, Stark A ........................
Sheetings: bleached, 10-4, Pepperell........
Shirtings: bleached, 4-4, Fruit of the
Loom ..........................................................
Boots and shoes: men’s split boots........
Print cloths: 28-inch, 64 by 64...................

130.6
130.9
131.1
132.3
132.8
133.4
134.8
134.9
135.4
136.4
137.1
138.5
138.9
141.0
141.5
143.7
144.2
147.0
150.1
153.0
153.4
160.0
167.4

PRICE DECREASED.

128.4
128.7
129.3
129.4
129.9

Overcoatings: covert cloth, light
weight, staple goods...............................
Hosiery: men’s cotton half hose,.seam­
less, standard quality, 84 needles........
Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, seam­
less, fast black, 26 to 28 ounce, 160 to
176 needles..................................................

96.9
95.6
89.

130.5

,

F u e l and lighting IS ai tides.
PRICE INCREASED.

Coal: bituminous, Geoiges Creek (f. o.
b. N. Y . Harbor).....................................
Coal: anthracite, broken..........................
Petroleum: refined, for export................
Coal: anthracite, stove..............................
Coal: bituminous, Pittsburg (Youghiogheny).........................................................
Coal: anthracite, chestnut.......................
Coal: anthracite, egg.................................
Petroleum: refined, 150° fire test, w. w . .




118.0
124.9
127.0
127.1

PRICE INCREASED— concluded.
Coke: Connellsville, furnace.....................
Coal: bituminous, Geoiges Creek (at
mine)...........................................................
Petroleum: crude........................................

166.3
173.0
190.5

PRICE DECREASED.

128.1
134.1
134.2
151.2

Candles: adamantine, 6s, 14-ounce.........
Matches: parlor, domestic.......................

94.8
85.4

340

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

R E L A T IV E PRICES, 1907, COMPARED W IT H A V E R A G E PRICE FOR 1890-1899-Continued.
Metals and im p lem ents, 3 5 articles.
Relative
price,
1907.

Article.

Article.

Relative
price,
1907.

price increased —concluded.

PRICE SAME AS BASE.
100.0
100.0
PRICE INCREASED.
8 ^ s : hand, D isston, N o. 7 . . .................
Barb wire: galvanized...............................
Stool rails.......................................................
Planes: Bailey, No. 5.................................
Files: 8-inch mill bastard.........................
Nails: cut, 8-penny, fence and common
Butts: loose joint, cast, 3 by 3 inch----Bar iron: best refined, from store (Phil­
adelphia market).....................................
Hammers: Maydole, No. 1J.....................
Steel billets....................................................
Spelter: western..........................................
Lead pipe.......................................................
Zinc: sheet....................................................
Axes: M. C. O., Yankee............................
Lead: pig.......................................................
Vises: solid box, 50-pound.......................

101.3
104.3
107.4
115.7
117.0
118.3
126.6
128.7
129.0
135.9
136.5
139.2
140.9
144.9
144.9
147.4

Pig iron: foundry No. 1............................
Copper wire: bare.......................... •
............
Pig iron: Bessemer.....................................
Copper: sheet, hot-rolled (base sizes)...
Copper: ingot, lake............................*.___
Pig iron: foundry No. 2 ............................
Pig iron: gray forge, southern, c o k e .. .
Tin: pig..........................................................
Augers: extra, f-inch.................................
Chisels: extra, socket firmer, 1-ineh___
Locks: common mortise...........................
Doorknobs: steel, bronze-plated............

161.4
164.1
165.8
168.3
172.2
182.9
189.3
211.1
223.9
234.3
244.8
265.2

PRICE DECREASED.
Shovels: Ames No. 2 ..................................
Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and com­
mon ..............................................................
Quicksilver....................................................
Silver: bar, fine............................................
Wood screws: 1-inch, No. 10, flathead..

99.7
97.9
97.1
88.1
80.7

L u m b er and building materials, 20 articles.
PRICE INCREASED— concluded.

PRICE INCREASED.

Cement: Rosendale....................................
Brick: common, domestic........................
Lime: common............................................
Carbonate of lead: American, in oil___
M a p l e : h a r d .............................................................

Window glass: American, single, thirds,
6 by 8 to 10 by 15 inch............................
Window glass: American, single, firsts,
6 by 8 to 10 by 15 inch.............................
Oxide of zinc.................................................
Oak: white, plain........................................
Oak: white, quartered...............................
Shingles: cypress.........................................

107.1
110.7
113.9
120.8
121.7
123.2
130.8
134.5
147.5
149.0
149.8

Pine: yellow..................................................
Spruce.............................................................
Poplar............................................................
Hemlock.........................................................
T u r p e n t i n e : s p i r i t s o f................................
Tar..................................................................
Resin: common to good, strained.........

165.2
167.3
185.2
186.0
189.8
193.3
304.0

PRICE DECREASED.

Linseed oil: raw...........................................
P utty..............................................................

75.9

D ru gs and chemicals , 9 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

PRICE DECREASED.

Brimstone: crude, seconds.......................
Alum: lump..................................................
Sulphuric acid: 66 ° ...................................
Alcohol: grain..............................................
Muriatic acid: 20°.......................................
Opium: natural, in cases..........................

103.9
Glycerin: refined.........................................
104.8 1 Quinine: American.....................................
112. 4 1 Alcohol: wood, refined, 95 per cent.......
112.6 ;
129.8
209.6

98.9
72.2
41.8

H o u se fu rn ish in g goods , 14 articles .
PRICE SAME AS BASE.
T able cu tlery: carvers, stag h andles. . .

PRICE INCREASED—Concluded.
100.0

PRICE INCREASED.
Earthenware: plates, w hite gran ite___
Earthenware: plates, cream -colored___
Table cu tlery: knives and forks, co c o b o lo handles..............................................
W ood en ware: tubs, oak-grained..........
Furniture: tables, kitch en .......................
Glassware: nappies, 4-inch.......................




Furniture: bedroom sets, a sh .................
Furniture: chairs, kitchen.......................
W ooden ware: pails, oak-grained..........
Furniture: chairs, bedroom , m aple........

102.4
106.6

PRICE DECREASED.

107.0
118.8
124.7
125.0

Earthenware: teacups and saucers,
white gran ite............................................
Glassware: pitchers, J-gallon, com m on .
Glassware: tum blers, J-pint, co m m o n ..

137.4
151.4
151.7
161.4

98.8
89.4
84.5

341

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

R E L A T IV E PRICES, 1907, COMPARED W IT H AVE R A G E PRICE FOR 1890-1899—Concluded.
M iscellaneous , 12 articles.

Article.

Relative
price,
1907.

PRICE INCREASED.

Proof spirits..................................................
Starch: laundry..........................................
Soap: castile, mottled, pure....................
Tobacco: smoking, granulated, Seal of
North Carolina........................................
Tobacco: plug..............................................
Cotton-seed meal........................................
Rubber: Para Island.................................

Relative
price,
1907.

Article.

p r ic e

in c r e a s e d —

concluded.

114.2
116.1
117.9

Rope: manila...............................................
Malt: western made...................................
Cotton-seed oil: summer yellow, prime.

117.9
118.6
130.7
132.8

Paper: wrapping, manila.........................
Paper: news..................................................

138.1
147.2
1G0.0

PRICE DECREASED.

91.5
83.3

The 1907 prices of all of the 16 articles included in the farm prod­
ucts group, except hops, were higher than the average price for
1890 to 1899.* The 1907 price, compared with the average price
for 1890 to 1899, shows barley 69 per cent above; oats 67.4 per cent
above; hay, 62.4 per cent above; hides, 55.3 per cent above; cot­
ton, 53 per cent above, etc. The price of hops was only 1.9 per cent
below the average price for 1890 to 1899.
Thirty-nine of the 52 articles of food shown in this table were
higher and 13 lower in price than the average for 1890 to 1899.
In 1907 the price of currants was 87.5 per cent above the average
price for 1890 to 1899; herring, 62.9 per cent above; mess pork,
51 per cent above; beef hams, 44 per cent above; cheese, 43.3
per cent above; clear bacon, 41.3 per cent above; eggs, 41.2 per
cent above, etc. The price of nutmegs was 67.7 per cent below the
average price for 1890 to 1899; coffee, 49.9 per cent below; prunes,
23.4 per cent below; tea, 19 per cent below; granulated sugar, 1.6
per cent below, etc.
Of the 58 articles considered in the cloths and clothing group
in 1907, the prices of 55 were above and 3 below the average price
for 1890 to 1899. In 1907 the price of print cloths was 67.4 per
cent above the average price for 1890 to 1899; men’s split boots,
60 per cent above; Fruit of the Loom shirtings, 53.4 per cent above;
Pepperell bleached sheetings, 53 per cent above; Stark A drillings,
50.1 per cent above, etc.
Of the 13 articles included in the fuel and lighting group in 1907,
the prices of only the less important articles of matches and candles
were below the average price for 1890 to 1899. The price of crude
petroleum was 90.5 per cent above the average price for 1890 to 1899;
Georges Creek coal at the mine, 73 per cent above; coke, 66.3 per
cent above; refined petroleum, 51.2 per cent above, etc.
Thirty-five articles are considered in the metals and implements
group. The prices of two articles in 1907 were the same as the aver­
age price for 1890 to 1899, while the prices of 28 articles were above




342

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

and of 5 below the average price for 1890 to 1899. Doorknobs were
165.2 per cent above; locks, 144.8 per cent above; chisels, 134.3
per cent above; augers, 123.9 per cent above; pig tin, 111.1 per
cent above; pig iron, gray forge, 89.3 per cent above, etc. The
price of wood screws was 19.3 per cent below the average for 1890 to
1899; bar silver, 11.9 per cent below; wire nails, 2.1 per cent below,
etc.
Of the 20 articles included in the lumber and building materials
group, all but 2 showed prices above the average for 1890 to 1899.
The price of resin was 204 per cent above the average price for 1890
to 1899; tar, 93.3 per cent above; spirits of turpentine, 89.8 per
cent above; hemlock, 86 per cent above, etc. The price of putty
was 24.1 per cent below the average for 1890 to 1899 and of linseed
oil 4.3 per cent below.
Of the 9 articles included in the group of drugs and chemicals, 6
were above and 3 below the average price for 1890 to 1899.
Of the 1 articles considered in the group of house furnishing
*4
goods, the price of 1 in 1907 was the same as the average price for
1890 to 1899, while the prices of 10 were above and of 3 below the
average price for 1890 to 1899.
Of the 12 articles included in the miscellaneous group, the 1907
prices of 10 were above and of 2 below the average price for 1890 to
1899.
The facts presented in the foregoing table are summarized in the
following, which shows the changes in prices of articles in each group,
classified by per cent of change:
CHANGES IN PRICES OF A R T IC L ES IN EACH GROUP, CLASSIFIED B Y PER CENT OF
CH ANGE, 1907 COM PARED W IT H A V E R A G E PRICE FOR 189.0-1899.

Group.

Price increasedPrice decreasedNum­
Price
ber
100 50 or
25 or 10 or
5
per under underjunder Less same Less 10 or 125 or ® 0 per
of
than
as
than under under cent
arti­ cent 100
50 per 25 per 10 per base. 10 per 25 per 50 per or
cles.
or
per
cent. cent. cent. more.
more.| cent. cent. cent. cent.

Farm products.............................
Food, etc........................................
Cloths and clothing.....................
Fuel and lighting......................... .
Metals and implements..............
Lumber and building materials
Drugs and chemicals..................
House furnishing goods.............
Miscellaneous................................
Total....................................

229

34

82

48

21

19

10

It is seen in the above comparison of the prices of 1907 with the
average for 1890 to 1899 that of the 16 articles in the farm products
group, 15 show an increase and 1 a decrease; of the 52 in the food, etc.,
group, 39 show an increase and 13 a decrease; of the 58 in the cloths
and clothing group, 55 show an increase and 3 show a decrease; of




343

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

the 13 in the fuel and lighting group, 11 show an increase and 2 show
a decrease; of the 35 in the metal and implements group, 28 show an
increase, 2 show the same price as the average for the base period,
and 5 show a decrease; of the 20 in the lumber and building mate­
rials group, 18 show an increase and 2 a decrease; of the 9 in the
drugs and chemicals group, 6 show an increase and 3 a decrease; of
the 14 in the house furnishing goods group, 10 show an increase, 1
shows the same price as the average for the base period, and 3 a
decrease; of the 12 in the miscellaneous group, 10 show an increase
and 2 a decrease. Of the 229 commodities included in this table, 192
show an increase, 3 show the same price as the average for the base
period, and 34 show a decrease.
The number of articles according to classified per cents of increase
and decrease is also shown in the following table. Of the 192 com­
modities that showed an increase in 1907 over the average for 1890
to 1899,21 advanced less than 10 per cent, 48 advanced 10 or under
25 per cent, 82 advanced 25 or under 50 per cent, 34 advanced 50 or
under 100 per cent, and 7 advanced 100 per cent or more. Of the 34
commodities which showed a decrease, 19 decreased less than 10 per
cent, 10 decreased 10 or under 25 per cent, 3 decreased 25 or under
50 per cent, and 2 decreased 50 per cent or more.
The number and per cent of articles which showed each specified
increase or decrease are given in the following table:
N UM BER AND PER CENT OF AR TICLES, B Y CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF INCREASE OR
DECREASE, 1907 COMPARED W IT H A V E R A G E PRICE FOR 1800-1899.
Number
of
articles.

Per cent
of
articles.

Price increased:
100 per cent or more...........
50 or under 100 per cent___
25 or under 50 per cent.......
10 or under 25 per cent.......
Less than 10 per cent.........

7
34
82
48
21

3.0
14.8
35.8
21.0
9.2

Total...................................

192

* 83.8

Total................................

34

14.9

Price same as base......................

3

1.3

Grand total....................

229

100.0

Number
of
articles.
Price decreased:
Less than 10 per cent___
10 or under 25 per c en t...
25 or under 50 per c en t...
50 per cent or more..........

Per cent
of
articles.

19
10
3
2

8.3
4.4
1.3
.9

Of the 229 articles included in this table, it is seen that 192, or
83.8 per cent, show an increase in price; 3 articles, or 1.3 per cent,
show the same price as the average for the base period, and 34 arti­
cles, or 14.9 per cent, show a decrease in price in 1907 as compared
with the average price for the base period.
Of the 258 commodities considered in the compilation of prices for
1907, the average price for 172 commodities was higher in 1907 than
in 1906, the average price of 35 was the same in 1907 as in 1906,
and the average price of 51 was lower in 1907 than in 1906.
37691— No. 75— 08------5




34 4

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

The following table shows the relative prices of certain related
articles, so grouped as to render easy a comparison of the course of
these prices during the years from 1890 to 1907:
R E L A T IV E PRICES OF C E R T A IN GROUPS OF R E L A T E D A R T IC L E S, 1890 TO 1907.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cattle and cattle products.
Year.

Beef,
fresh.

Cattle.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

89.2
106.2
98.8
105.4
97.0
102.7
90.5
99.7
101.3
108.3
104.3
102.1
125.9
101.7
106.1
104.0
101.2
114.7

89.5
109.2
95.4
103.0
96.3
103.7
88.3
99.5
102.2
113.2
111 .3
116.6
139.5
105.8
110.9
111 .2
114.2
122.9

Beef,
hams.

Beef,
mess.

80.4
85.8
80.5
98.6
101.5
95.9
88.1
125.1
118.8
125.6
114.2
112.6
118.0
117.2
123.5
121.6
119.2
144.0

Dairy products.

Tallow.

86.8
104.4
84.8
102.2
101.0
101.4
93.7
95.7
114.2
115.9
121.7
116.3
147.1
113.1
109.4
125.0
110.3
122.5

Hides.
99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
124.8
124.4
152.6
164.7
155.3

105.7
111.0
106.4
125.1
110.3
99.8
78.9
76.3
81.8
104.1
111.5
119.1
144.6
117.2
105.5
103.2
119.3
142.8

Hogs and hog products.
Year.
Bacon.

Hogs.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

89.2
99.2
115.7
148.6
112.2
96.6
78.3
82.8
85.6
91.8
115.5
134.5
155.2
137.2
116.7
120.2
142.2
139.2

89.3
103.7
116.6
154.7
111.8
96.3
73.1
79.9
89.4
85.8
111.5
132.3
159.3
142.6
115.1
119.0
139.9
140.7

Corn, etc.

Hams,
smoked.

Mess pork.

101.1
99.8
109.3
126.9
103.6
96.2
95.8
90.9
82.0
93.8
104.2
109.2
123.1
129.2
108.9
106.3
125.5
132.4

Flaxseed, etc.

Milk.
103.1
104.7
105.1
109.4
103.1
99.2
91.8
92.2
93.7
99.2
107.5
102.7
112.9
112.9
107.8
113.3
118.0
131.4

Butter.

Cheese.

100.4
116.1
116.4
121.3
102.2
94.5
82.3
84.1
86.8
95.8
101.7
97.7
112.1
105.7
98.4
112.8
113.1
128.5

97.1
102.4
107.2
109.0
107.4
94.1
92.0
98.1
83.3
108.9
114.3
102.4
114.1
123.3
103.2
122.8
133.0
143.3

Sheep and sheep products.
Lard.

104.4
97.2
99.1
157.6
121.4
101.7
76.8
76.6
84.8
80.3
107.5
134.2
154.2
143.1
120.6
123.9
150.5
151.0

Sheep.

96.8
100.9
117.9
157.5
118.2
99.8
71.7
67.4
84.4
85.0
105.5
135.3
161.9
134.1
111.8
113.9
135.6
140.7

Rye and rye
flour.

119.3
117.8
125.2
103.8
73.6
78.4
78.7
94.2
104.9
104.3
112.0
92.0
103.2
98.4
109.1
131.5
132.6
126.9

Mutton.

Wool.

123.7
114.9
121.2
106.5
80.2
82.2
82.9
96.6
98.0
94.3
96.4
89.5
97.9
98.7
103.2
113.9
120.7
116.0

132.1
125.8
113.2
101.6
79.1
70.1
70.6
88.7
108.3
110.8
117.7
96.6
100.8
110.3
115.5
127.3
121.1
121.5

Wheat and
wheat flour.

Fleur, etc.

Wheat Wheat
flour.

Wheat Crack­ Loaf
ers.
flour.
bread.

Year.
Com.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1805....
1906....
1907....

103.8
151.0
118.3
104.2
113.7
104.0
67.8
66.9
82.6
87.6
100.2
130.6
156.9
121.1
132.6
131.7
121.8
138.8

Glu­ Meal.
cose.**

124.3
111.4
109.2
81.7
86.0
91.8
95.6
104.9
116.0
153.6
129.7
126.3
125.1
142.9
159.4

Flax­ Linseed
Rye.
seed.
oil.

100.8
125.5
142.0
97.1
114.0
91.4
105.8
97.7
105.6
121.6
103.3
111.8
77.4
72.9
76.5
78.1
83.7
99.8
104.0
91.2
97.0
145.7
115.5
145.8
148.2
135.0
94.1
124.7
129.5
99.6
128.4 . 107.6
122.5
99.1
106.1
131.5




135.8
106.8
90.0
102.2
115.6
115.6
81.2
72.2
86.5
94.1
138.7
140.0
130.8
91.9
91.7
103.1
89.3
95.7

103.0
157.6
127.7
92.6
88.1
91.2
66.5
74.9
93.8
104.4
97.9
100.8
102.5
97.5
133.4
134.5
115.5
145.4

Rye
flour.
101.4
148.3
121.1
93.0
83.8
94.5
80.9
84.6
92.9
99.4
103.3
100.1
103.8
94.9
131.1
134.7
115.9
138.7

118.9
128.1
104.9
90.1
74.4
79.9
85.4
105.8
117.8
94.7
93.7
95.7
98.7
105.1
138.3
134.5
105.6
120.8

a Average for 1893-1899=100.

120.9
125.6
104.2
89.3
77.6
84.4
91.2
110.1
109.0
87.9
88.3
87.4
89.7
97.1
125.4
122.3
96.8
108.6

120.9
125.6
104.2
89.3
77.6
84.4
91.2
110.1
109.0
87.9
88.3
87.4
89.7
97.1
125.4
122.3
96.8
108.6

107.7
107.7
104.3
100.6
98.8
95.6
94.1
85.3
107.3
99.1
102.7
108.2
108.2
101.3
103.4
113.8
112.1
112.1

100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
98.7
94.5
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
106.0
110.9
110.9
110.9

845

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.

R E L A T IV E PRICES OF C ER TAIN GROUPS OF R E L A TE D AR TICLES, 1890TO1907—Concluded.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.00
Cotton and cotton good®.
Year.

1890....
1 8 9 1 ....
1892-....
1 8 9 a ....

1894___
1895,___
1896....
1897____

1898___
1899___
1900....
1901....
1902___
1903----1904----1905....
1906....
1907....

Cotton:
upland,
mid­
dling.
142.9
110.8
99.0
107.2
90.2
94. Q
102.0
92.2
76.9
84.7
123.8
111.1
115.1
144.7
155.9
123.1
142.0
153.. a

Bags:
2-bushel,
Amosfceag.

Calico.

Cotton Cotton
flannels. thread.

121.8
121.8
115.9
101.4
95.7
91.7
93.9
88.6
81.0
88. Q
101.6
95.4
96.1
106.8
125.6
119.7
128.2
139.5

117.5
104.0
117.5

113.9
111.7
110.8
106.8
91.1
82.2
91.6
92.9
95.6
103.4
112.6
101.0
102.4
104.2
128.4
109.6
129.1
138.5

m .o

99.5
94 9
949
90.4
81.4
87.3
94.9
90.4
90.4
91.1
95.7
93.5
99.5
121.0

Cotton Denims.
yams.

101.6
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
99.6
98.4
98.4
98.4
120.1
m i
120.1
120.1
120.1
m i
120.1
1348

111.7
112.8
117.0
110.5
93.0
92.1
93.0
90.6
90.8
88.5
115.5
98.3
94.0
112.9 ;
119.5 ;
105.7
120.8
133.9

1890....
1891....
1892___
1893___
1894___
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
4899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

Print
cloths..

Sheet­
ings.

Tick­
ings.

Shirt­
ings.

117.6
117.7
103.5
112.3
103,8
119.3
1146
107.7
96.8
95.9100.9
946
97.4
90.0
87.6
91.8
72.6
86.7
96.3
92.2 ’
108.6
105.9
99.3
101.8
101.4
108.9
113.3
110.6
121.1
117.3
110.0
113.5
127.7 . 122.4
167.4
132.2

112.9
110.2
107.4
110.2
99.9
97.6
97.9
92.0
83.8
87.8
100.4
98.9
98.8
103.2
1047
101.2
111.1
137.4

Wool.

113,1
110.7
108.4
111.3
102.2
948
960
91.9
843
87.0
102.2
95.5
99.0
104.1
114.3
102.1
119.0
129.4

132.1
125.8
113.2
101.6
79.1
70.1
70.6
88.7
108.3
110.8
117.7
96.6
100.8
110.3
115.5
127.3
121.1
121.5

Blan­
kets (all
wool).

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1 9 0 2 ....
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1905___
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

Over­
coat­
ings (all Shawls.
wool).
111.9
111.9
111.9
108.6
97.5
90.8
86.7
87.8
97.1
100.6
116.1
105.3
105.3
110.2
110.3
118.2
126.1
1248

Suit­
ings.

107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
89.1
89.5
90.2
89.1
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
117.5
128.5
107.0




113.1
113.1
113.4
112.7
98.3
89.2
87.8
88»7
103.4
106.1
115.8
1049
105.8
109.0
109.0
122.7
134.8
133.1

121.1
1146
m 2
105.6
97.1
93.2
100.2
90.4
86.8
88.5
105.0
102.2
102.0
109.9
126.7
123.8
138.8
147.2

112.5
109.6
109.6
112.5
105.4
946
946
89.2
85.9
85.8
102.8
100.2
100.6
108.0
116.6
103.7
118.1
132.3

Broad­
cloths.

108.3
106.0
107.1
107.1
101.2
89.3
89.3
89.3
107.1
95.2
107.1
101.2
101.2
110.1
110.1
119.0
122.0
119.0

Carpets.

113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
91.2
79.7
79.7
98.2
98.2
98.2
108.0
110.3
110,3
110.3
110.5
115.2
116.6
116.6

105.3
112.8
104.5
104.5
98.7
91.0
90.2
93.5
100.2
99.4
102.7
101.9
102.5
108.6
110.0
115.7
117.7
123.2

Hides, leather, and boots
and shoes.

W ool and woolen goods.
Year.

Ging­
hams.

119.1
122.1
122.1
1149
89.5
87.0
88.0
842
83.1
89.7
96.3
92.3
99.2
101.8
99.9
93.4
104.7
122.0

Ho­
siery.

129.7
122.8
117.4
109.4
100.8
944
90.5
86.7
83.4
82.5
87.3
85.9
85.2
90.1
89.2
87.5
89.7
97.4

W ool and woolen goods.

Cotton and cotton goods.
Year.

Drill­
ings.

Under­ Women’s Worst­
Boots
wear
dress
Leather. and
ed
(all goods (all yams. Hides.
shoes.
wool).
wool).
106.2
110.0
110.0
110.0
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
115.8
115.8

117.6
123.0
124.1
114 7
90.6
82.7
741
82.2
88.5
102.7
118.7
107.9
109.8
1144
115.6
129.7
134.1
130.9

122.3
123.4
117.2
109.5
91.3
740
72.9
82.5
100.5
106.7
118.4
102.2
111.7
118.0
116.5
124.7
128.5
127.9

99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
1248
124.4
152.6
164.7
155.3

100.6
100.9
97.0
96.9
91.5
108.0
95.2
96.1
104.4
109.3
113.2
110.8
112.7
112.0
108.5
112.1
120.4
1240

1048
103.5
102.7
100.9
99.4
98.7
99.6
97.2
96.3
96.8
99.4
99.2
98.9
100.2
101.1
107.4
121.8
125.9

Flan­
nels.
1168
116.8
115.9
109.5
941
81.7
85.4
82.6
97.8
99.5
108.7
100.8
105.8
114.3
117.6
118.4
122.4
123.1

Horse
blan­
kets.
109.1
104.7
109.1
1047
960
92.5
90.8
99.5
99.5
94.2
118.7
109.9
109.9
117.8
122.2
130.9
135.3
130.9

Petroleum.

Crude.

95.4
73.6
61.1
70.3
92.2
149.2
129.5
86.5
100.2
142.1
148.5
132.9
135.9
1745
178.8
152.1
175.5
190.5

Re­
fined.

112.4
102.2
91.5
81.0
80.5
106.6
112.5
96.6
99.5
118.0
132.6
119.3
118.8
142.8
140.5
126.6
131.8
139.1

346

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

This table shows for all of the 6 articles grouped under cattle and
cattle products (cattle, fresh beef, beef hams, mess beef, tallow, and
hides) an advance in price in 1891, but not in the same degree; in
1892, a decline in all of the articles in this group; in 1893, an increase
except for hides, for which there was a further decline; in 1894, a
decline, except for beef hams, which increased; in 1895, an increase,
except for beef hams and tallow; in 1896, a decline in all of the
articles; in 1897, an increase, except for tallow; in 1898, an increase
for all of the articles, except beef hams; in 1899, an increase for all;
in 1900, a decline, except for mess beef and tallow; in 1901, an
increase for cattle, tallow, and hides, and a decline for fresh beef,
beef hams, and mess beef; in 1902, an increase for all; in 1903, a
decrease for all; in 1904, an increase for cattle, fresh beef, and hams,
and a decrease for mess beef, tallow, and hides; in 1905, an increase
for cattle, mess beef, and hides, and a decrease for fresh beef, beef
hams, and tallow; in 1906, an increase for cattle, hides, and tallow,
and a decrease for fresh beef, beef hams, and mess beef; in 1907,
an increase for all except hides, which decreased.
For the 18 years from 1890 to 1907 the lowest relative price for
cattle was 88.3 in 1896, the highest 139.5 in 1902; the lowest for fresh
beef 89.2 in 1890, the highest 125.9 in 1902; the lowest for beef
hams 80.4 in 1890, the highest 144 in 1907; the lowest for mess beef
84.8 in 1892, the highest 147.1 in 1902; the lowest for tallow 76.3 in
1897, the highest 144.6 in 1902; the lowest for hides 68.4 in 1894, the
highest 164.7 in 1906. The facts for the other groups may be seen
by reference to the table.
General Tables I, II, III, IV, and V follow.




347

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.
T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 306 to 325.]

FA R M PRODUCTS.
B A R L E Y : C h o ice to f a n c y m a ltin g -, b y s a m p le .
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, weekly range; quotations furnished by the secretary of the Chicago
Board of Trade.]

Month.
Jan........

Feb........

Month.

Price.
$0.51 -$0.55
.51 - .55
. 5 3 - .57
.55 - .57
. 5 5 - .58
. 5 7 - .60
. 5 9 - .61
i
8
.62^.6 5 .7 3 .6 8 . 68 -

.65
.73
.75
.73
.72

M a y ...

3

Mar........

Apr___

June...

Price.
$0.67 -$0.70
. 6 9 - .71
. 7 0 - .73
.71J- .74
. 7 3 - .75
. 7 4 - .80
.81 - .85
. 7 7 - .84
. 7 2 - .78
. 7 2 - .76
. 7 5 - .76
. 7 4 - .75
. 7 3 - .75

Month.
J u ly. . .

A u g ....

S e p t...

Price.
$0.73-$0.75
.63- .66
.63
.61- .65
.61- .65
.65- .69
.6 7 - .70
.68- .75
.74- .87
.83- .90
.89- .94
.89- .94
.91- 1.00

Month.

Price.

Oct........

$1.00-$l. 05
1.01- 1.08
1.05- 1.10
.88- 1.08
.75- .92
.78- .95
.86- .90
.85- .90
.86- .90
.95- .98
.97- 1.02
.97- .98
.94- .95

N ov.___

Dec........

Average.

CATTLE:

S te e r s,

c h o ic e

to

$0.7663

fa n c y .

[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Wednesday of each week; quotations from the Chicago
Daily Drovers’ Journal.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

$6.25-$7.20
6.25- 7.15
6.10- 7.00
6.15- 7.00
6.30- 7.00
6.30- 7.25
6.10- 7.00
6.10- 6.90
6.006.156.106.006.10-

6.90
6.90
6.75
6.85
6.80

Apr___

M a y ...

J une...

$6.10-$6.75
6.05- 6.75
6.10- 6.75
6.05- 6.65
5.85- 6.40
5.90- 6.50
5.75- 6.50
5.75- 6.50
6.00- 6.50
6.55- 6.70
6.50- 6.90
6.60-7.00
6.60- 7.10

J u ly ...

A u g ....

S e p t...

$6.75-$7.25
6.80- 7.30
6.75- 7.25
6.70- 7.35
6.70- 7.50
6.50- 7.50
6.50- 7.45
6.50- 7.40
6.60- 7.30
6.35- 7.25
6.40- 7.35
6. OO- 7.05
6.35- 7.25

Oct........

Nov.......

Dec........

Average.

$6.40-87.30
6.15- 7.20
6.30- 7.40
6.15- 6.90
6.20- 7.00
6.10- 7.00
5.75- 6.25
5.75- 6.65
5.40- 6.50
5.70- 6.35
5.35- 6.00
5.45- 6.30.
5.40- 6.15
$6.5442

C A T T L E : S te e r s, g o o d to c h o ic e .
[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Wednesday of each week; quotations from the Chicago
Daily Drovers’ Journal.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

$5.10-$6.15
5.40- 6.10
5.35- 6.00
5.40- 6.10
5.65- 6.25
5.65- 6.75
5.50- 6.00
5.50- 6.00
5.405.605.505.355.55-

5.90
6.10
6.00
5.90
6.00

Apr___

M ay. . .

June...




$5.65-$6.00
5.65- 6.00
5.75- 6.05
5.60- 6.00
5.50- 5.80
5.60- 5.85
5.45- 5.70
5.40- 5.70
5.60- 5.95
6.00- 6.50
5.95- 6.45
6.00- 6.50
5.85- 6.40

July. . .

A u g ....

Sept. . .

$6.00-86.70
6.00- 6.75
5.90- 6.65
6.00- 6.60
5.90- 6.60
5.75- 6.45
5.85- 6.45
5.85- 6.45
6. OO- C 50
.
5.65- 6.30
5.60- 6.25
5.40- 6.00
5.65- 6.30

Oct........

Nov.......

Dec........

Average.

$5.65-86.35
5.45- 6.10
5.60- 6.25
5.15- 6.10
5.20- 6.15
5.15- 6.00
5.00- 5.65
5.00- 5.70
4.90- 5.25
5.15- 5.65
4.70- 5.25
4.85- 5.40
4.85- 5.30
$5.8120

348

BULLETIN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I . — W H O L E S A L E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S — Continued.
CO R N : K o , 2 ,
[Pries per bushel, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the
Chicago Board of Trade.]
Month.
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

Month.

Price.

Apr___ i
$3.39}-$9.40
.39f
.40|
:
.42|
.43 1
.43} M a y ....
. 43}'
.43 !
.43}
. 43} June...
. 44}
.44}
.44

Price.
$0.44f-$0> 44}
.45*- .45}
. 46}- . 46}
.47}
.49}
.49}
.52}
.56
.54 - .54}
.54}
.53
. 52}- . 53
. 52f- .53

Price.

J uly....

Month.

16.54}
.54}
.53}
.58}
.54 - .54}
.5 5 }- .55}
.54}
.5 6 }- .56}
.5 9 }- .60
. 6 1 - .61}
.62}- .63
.60}- .60}
.62

Month.

Oct........

$0.54}.53}Aug-----

S e p t...

Nov.......

Dec........

Average.

Price.
$0.62 -$0,62}
.63}- .64
.6 6 }- .66}
.6 0 }- .61
.5 5 }- .56
:60}
. 58}- . 59
.58 - .58}
. 56}- . 57
.59 - .59}
. 58 - .58}
.CO}- .61
.5 8 }- .59
.59 - .59}
$0.5280

COTTON : U p la n d , m id d lin g ;.
[Price uer pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commerical Bulletin.}
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

$0.1075= A p r ....
.1085
.1080
.1090
.1109
May___
.1100
.1105
.1100 |
.1106
.1135 June...
.1135
.1100
.1095 |

KX.1099
.1100
.1115
.1115
.1145
.1175
. 1205
.1205
.1226
.1290
.1325
.1295
.1310

$0i 1350
.1345
.1285
.1310
.1290
.1325
.1330
.1325
.1356
. 1355
.1305
.1225
.1190

July....

Aug-----

_
Sept_

i
i

Oct........

N ov.......

D e c ........

Average*

i

$0.1180
.1185
.1175
.1145
.1086
.1110
.1080
.1080
.1140
.1170
. 1185
. 1190
.1170
.1180
$0.11879

F L A X S E E D s No. 1.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on the first of each month; quotations furnished by the secretary of the
Chicago Board of Trade.}
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.11}-$1.18}
1.16 -1 .2 3
1.17 - 1.24

Apr----M ay....
June...

$1.13 -$1.20
1.14 - 1.21
1.31}- 1.32

July....
A u g ....
S e p t...

$1.25 -$1.25} Oct........
1.14}- 1.15 1 Nov.......
1.13}- 1.23} Dec........

$1.15 -$1.25
1.08 - 1.18
.9 9 }- 1.10

Average.

$1.1808

H A Y : T im o t h y , N o. 1.
[Piiee per ton, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Inter-Oeean.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

$15.5G-$16.50
15.06- 16.00
15.06- 16.00
14.50- 15.50
15.06- 16.00
15.06- 16.00
16.00- 17.00
16.06- 17.00
16.00- 17.06
16.06- 17.00
16.06- 17.06
15.00- 16.00
15.00- 16.00

Apr-----

M a y ...

J u n e ...




$15.00-$16.00
15.06- 16.00
16.00- 17.00
16.50- 17.50
17.00- 18.00
15.56- 16.50
17.00- 18.00
18.00- 19.00
18.00- 19.00
19.00- 20.50
20.50- 21.50
19.50- 20.50
18.50- 20.00

J u ly ...

Aug...

S e p t.. .

$18.56-$19.00
17.50- 18.50
18.00- 19.50
17. 50- 19.00
17.50-19.00
18.50- 19.50
18.50- 19.50
18.56- 19.50
18.50- 19.50
18.50- 19.50
17.50- 18. 50
15. .50- 16.50
15.06- 15.50

Get........

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

$15.00-S16.00
15.00- 16.50
16.50-17.56
18.00- 19.00
16.00- 17.00
15.50- 17.00
14.50- 15.50
14.56- 15.50
14.50- 15.50
16.50- 17.50
16.56- 17.50
15.00- 16.50
14.00- 15.50
13.00- 14.00
$10.9387

849

WHOLESALE PBICES, 1890 TO 1901.

T a b l e I . — W H O LESA LE PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S — Continued.
H I D E S : G ree n , s a lt e d , p a c k e r s , h e a v y n a t iv e s te e r s .
[Average monthly price per pound, in Chicago; quotations from the Shoe and Leather Reporter.]

Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.

Price.

A p r ....
M a y ...
J u n e ...

$0.1627
.1620
.1531

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$0.1472
.1411
.1411

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N o v ... .
Dec........

$0.1470
• .1364
.1185

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.1441
.1437
.1488

Month.

$0.1455

H OG S: H e a v y .
[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily InterOcean.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

$6.30-$6.45 A p r.. . .
6.40- 6.55
6.50- 6.65
6.60- 6.72*
6.80- 6.95
M a y ...
6.85- 7.05
7.05- 7.20
6.90- 7.07$
7.00- 7.12|
J u n e ...
6.85- 7.00
6.80- 6.97£
6.50- 6.75
6.05- 6.25

$6.70-$6.80 J u ly ...
6.50- 6.67*
6.55- 6 .77$
6.55- 6.70
6.40- 6 .57$
6.30- 6.47* A u g . . .
6.30- 6.50
6.30- 6.50
6.05- 6.20
S e p t...
6.15- 6.30
6.05- 6.20
6.00- 6 .22$
5.75- 5 97$

$5.70-$6.15
5.40- 5.95
5.55- 5.90
5.80- 6.10
5.95- 6.37$
5.75- 6.20
5.80- 6.30
5.55- 6.00
5.90- 6.35
5.60- 6.05
5.80- 6.30
5.75- 6.20
5.85- 6.40

Oct........

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

$5.95-86.65
6.05- 6.75
6.25- 6.70
5.85- 6.45
5.50- 6.20
5.35- 6.00
5.00- 5.50
4.75- 5.15
4.00- 4.30
4.80- 5.15
4.20- 4.55
4.45- 4.90
4.50- 4.85
4.45- 4.C5
$0.0705

HO G S: lal&lxt.
[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily InterOcean.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

Apr-----

$6.30-$6.45
6.35- 6.55
6.45- 6.65
6.55- 6 .72$
6.80- 6.95
6.85- 7 .02$
7.00- 7.20
6.80- 7.05
6.90- 7.10
6.85- 7.00
6.85- 7.00
6.70- 6.80
6.15- 6.30

M ay.. .

June...

$6.65 -$6.S2$
6.55 - 6.70
6.65 - 6.80
6.60 - 6.75
6.50 - 6.65
6.40 - 6.55
6.45 - 6.60
6.50 - 6 .02$
6.20 - 6.30
6.25 - 6.35
6.17*- 6.30
6.15 - 6.30
5.92*- 6 .12$

J u ly. . .

A u g ...

S e p t...

$6.10-S6.30
6.00- 6.15
5.90- 6.10
6.10- 6.30
6.4 0 -6 .6 5
6.15- 6.40
6.40- 6.65
6.05- 6.30
6.35- 6.65
6.05- 6.55
6.25- 6.60
6.25- 6.60
6.35- 6.60

1

Oct........

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

$6.30-86.70
6.65- 6.90
6.45- 6.70
6.15- 6.50
5.85- 6 .27$
5.55- 6.15
5.00- 5. 45
4.85- 5 20
3.95- 4 32$
4.85- 5.15
4.25- 4.65
4.55- 4. 85
4.50- 4.80
4.30- 4.C5
$6.21C3

H O P S: N e w Y o r k S ta te , c k o ic e .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal o'f
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
$0.21-80.23
.21- .23
.21- .23

Apr----M a y ...
June...




$0.19-80.20 , J u ly ...
.15- .16 i A u g ...
S e p t...
.15- .16

80.15-80.16
Oct........
.15- .16 ! N o v ___
.14- .15 j Dec........

80.12-80.14
.16- .18
.16- .17

|Average.

$0.17S8

350

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S — Continued.
O A T S : C o n tr a c t g r a d e s , c a s k .
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the
Chicago Board of Trade.]

Month.
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

Price.

Month.

$0.34 Apr----.33*
.34*
.35*!
.36*1
•37* M a y . . .
.38*'
$0.38*- . 40
•41*
.40*! June...
.40|
.41 |
.41*1

Price.

Month.

$0.41| J u ly ...
. 42*
.43*
.43*
.45*
.44* A u g . . .
.45*
$0.47*- .48
.47*
.49
S e p t...
.42*
•44|
.42*

Price.

Month.

$0.41*

$0.45*(a)
.46 -

Oct........

.48*
.46
.48*

Price.

N o v ___

•47|
.51
.54* Dec........
.52*- .53*
.53*
. 51|— .52*

|

Average.

(a )

$0.51#
•52§
.54§
.54|
.45
.49
. 45*
.46*
. 46*
.50
.50*
. 48*
.49*

$0.4501

RYES: No. 2 , c a s h .
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the
Chicago Board of Trade.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar.......

$0.62
.60
.62
.62
.63
$0.65- .70
.66- .69
.64- .68
.66- .68*
.64- .66
.68- .70
.66- .69
.67- .69

Apr-----

M ay. . .

June...

$0.67-SO. 69* J u ly ...
.67- .69*
.68- .70
. 69- .71
.69- .71
A ug. . .
.71- .74
.78- .81
.80- .83
•84- .85
.85- .87
S e p t...
.86- .88
.86- .88
.86- .88

$0.84*-$0.85
.83 - .85*
.85 - .87
.85 - .87
.85 - .87
.76 - .85
.72 - .75
.75 - .76
.81
.85 - .86
.86 - .87
.90 - .90*
.90 - .90*

Oct........

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

$0.86 -$0.88
.87*- .88
.89 - .90
.84 - .86
.72 - .74
.78
.78 - .80
.79 - .80
.75 - .78
.78 - .80
.76*- .77
75 - .79
.79*
.R
ft
$0.7688

S H E E P : N a tiv e .
[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily InterOcean.]
Jan........

Feb........

M a r . ...

$4.00-$6.00
4.00- 5.75
4.00-6.00
4.66- 5.85
4.00- 5.85
4.00- 6.00
4.25-6.00
4.25- 6.00
4.25-6.00
4.25-6.25
4.25- 6.25
4.40- 6.40
4. 40- 6.50




Apr___

M ay...

J une...

$4.40-S6.50
4. 75- 6.85
5.00- 7.25
4.50-6.25
4.50- 6.15
4.50- 6.25
4.50- 6.10
4. 75- 6.25
4.75- 6.50
3.75- 7.00
4.50- 6.75
4. 75- 6.25
4.50- 6.25

J u ly ...

A ug. . .

S e p t...

$4.25-$5.85
4.50-6.00
4.50- 6.10
4.25-6.00
4.00- 5.70
4.50- 6.00
4.25-6.00
4.25- 5.75
4.25- 5.50
4.25- 6.75
4.25- 5.85
4.25- 6.00
4.25- 5.65

Oct........

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

a No quotation for week.

$4.25-S5.50
4.25- 5.90
4.00- 5.75
4.00- 5.75
2.75- 5.25
2.00- 5.35
1.50- 5.00
1.75- 5.15
1.75- 5.00
2.00- 4.90
2.00- 4.75
2.00- 4.40
1.75- 4. G
O
2.50- 5.20
$4.8962

351

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S — Concluded.
SH EEP: W estern .
[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily InterOcean.]
Month.
Jan........

Feb........

M a r . ...

Month.

Price.
$4.00-16.00
4.00- 5.65
4.00- 5.80
4.60- 5.75
4.00- 5.75
4.00- 5.75
4.25- 5.75
4.25- 5.75
4.25- 6.00
4.00- 6.00
4.25- 6.15
4.40- 6.40
4.40-6.50

Apr___

M a y ...

June...

Price.
*4.4046.50
4.75- 6.85
5.00- 7.35
4.50- 6.15
4.50- 6.15
4.50- 6.15
4.50- 6.10
4.75- 6.25
4.75- 6.50
3.75- 7.00
4.50- 6.75
4. 75- 6.25
4.50- 6.25

Month.
J u ly ...

Aug. . .

S e p t...

Price.
*4.25-S5.85
4.50- 6.00
4.50- 6.10
4.25- 6.00
4.00- 5.70
4.50- 6.00
4.25- 6.00
4.25- 5.75
4.25- 5. 75
4.25- 6. 75
4.25-5.85
. 4.25- 6.00
4.25- 5.65

Month.

Price.

Oct........

$4.25-*5.85
4.25-5 .9 0
4.00- 5.75
4.00- 5.75
2.75- 5.25
2.00- 5.35
1.50- 5.00
1.75- 5.15
1.75- 5.00
2.00- 4.90
2.00- 4.75
2.00- 4.40
1.75- 4.60
2.50- 5.30

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

*4.8835

W H E A T : R egru lar g r a d e s , c a s h .
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the
Chicago Board of Trade.]
Jan........

Feb........

00 00

Mar........

*0.72 -*0.724 Apr___
.71*- .71!
.72 - .72*
.731- .74|
.74*- •74|
M a y ...
.73§- .85
. 7 5 - .86
.72f- .84
.74|June...
.72*.74|- .85
.72|- .85
.7 3 f- .84

J u ly ...
*0.75 -«0.85
. 75f- .85
.761- .85
.77*- .86
.78*- .86*
.82|- .90
Aug. . .
.91|- 1.01
.96*- 1.04
.96.1- 1.05
.92! - 1.02
S e p t...
.91!- 1.02*
.89!- 1.02
.901- 1.03

$0.94 -*1.04
.91*- 1.02
.89*- 1.02
.89*- 1.01
.89*- 1.02
.881- 1.01
.82 - .96
. 8 4 - .97
.90*- 1.05
.91*- 1.07
.93|- 1.09
.94*- 1.08
.95|- 1*09

Oct........

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

*0.94*-*l.10
1.00 - 1.15
1.03*- 1.20
.9 7 f- 1.15
.91*- .95!
.93*- .95
.91*- .93!
.921- ,94|
.92*- .94|
.94*- .95*
.92|- .93*
. 95f- .98*
. 97§— .98!
.97*- .99*
*0.9073

FOOD, ETC.
B E A N S : M e d iu m , c h o ic e .
[Price per bushel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Month.

Month.

Price.

Month.

*1.55
1.50
1.50

*1.45-*l. 47* J u ly ...
A u g ...
1.45
S e p t...
1.85

Price.
*1.70
1.65
*1.80- 1.82*

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

*2.30
*2.25 - 2.27*
2.27*- 2.30

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Price.

*1.7771

B R E A D : C r a c k e r s , B o s to n , b n t te r , in b o x e s .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

*0.09
.09
.09




Apr___
M a y ...
June...

*0.09
.09
.09

J u ly ...
Aug.. .
S e p t...

*0.09
.09
.09

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

*0.09
.09
.09

Average.

*0.09

3 52

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB.

T able I . — W H O L E S A L E PRIC ES OF CO M M ODITIES IN 1907— Continued.
F O O D , E T C .— Continued.
B R E A D : C r a c k e r s , s o d a , N. B . C., in b o x e s .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]

Month.
J a n .....
Feb........
M a r .....

Price.

Month.

$0.06* Apr___
.06* M a y .. .
.06* June.. .

Price.

|Month.

Price.

$0.06* J u ly ...
.06* A u g . . .
.06* S e p t...

Month.

$0.06!
.06*
.06*

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.06*
.06*
.06*

Average.

$0.0650

B R E A D : L o a f, 1 p o u n d a f t e r b a k in g ;.
[Price per loaf, in Washington, D. C., on the first of each month. Weight before baking, 18 ounces.
Price per pound (before baking), January to December, $0.0350.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.04
.04
.04

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.04
.04
.04

July....
A u g ....
S e p t...

$0.04
.04
.04

i
l

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$0.04
.04
.04

Average.

$0.04

B R E A D : L o a f, h o m e m a d e .
[Price per loaf, in New York, on the first of each month. Weight before baking, 17 ounces. Price per
pound (before bakingp, January to December, $0.0370. Standard weight and standard prices charged
by the Bakers’ Association, which includes leading bread manufacturers in New York and Brooklyn,
and one or two in New Jersey who deliver bread m Manhattan.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.04
.04
.04

Apr___
M a y ....
J u n e...

$0.04
July....
.04
Aug----.04 « S e p t...

$0.04
.04
.04

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$0.04
.04
.04

Average.

$0.04

B R E A D : L o a f, V ie n n a .
[Price per loaf, in New York, on the first of each month. Weight before baking, 16 ounces. Price per
pound (before baking), January to December, $0.04. Standard weight and standard prices charged by
the Bakers’ Association, which includes leading bread manufacturers in New York and Brooklyn, and
one or two in New Jersey who deliver bread in Manhattan.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.04
.04
.04

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.04
.04
.04

J u ly ...
A u g ....
S e p t...
i

$0.04
.04
.04

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$0.04
.04
.04

Average.

$0.04

B U T T E R : C r e a m e r y , E l& in .
[Price perpound, in Elgin, 111., on Monday of each week; quotations furnished by W . C. Willson, manager
of the Elgin Dairy Report.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

$0.32
.29
29*
.32

Apr___

.32
.33
.33
.33

M a y ....

.32
.31
.39
.30

J une...




$0.30
.30
.30
.33
.27
.25
.24
.23
.23

I July—
;
|
ll
1 A u g ....
i
■
j i
1 !

S e p t...
.23
.23 ;!
.23
.23*
j

i

$0.24
Oct........
.24*
.25
.25
.24
.24 I N ov.......
.24* |
.24*
.25*
.26
.27
Dec........
.27*
.28*
.29*

$0.30
•29*
.29
.27

Average.

$0.2761

.24
.27
.27
.27
.27
.28
.28*
.29
.29

353

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E S A L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F O O D , .ETC *— Continued.
B U T T E R r C r e a m e r y , e x tr a .
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]

B U T T E R : D a ir y , N e w Y o r k S ta te , t a b s a n d h a l f tu b s , fa n c y .
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........

Feb........

M ar.___

S0.27-S0.29
.27- .29
.25- .26
.26- .28
.27- .29
.27- .29
.28- .29
.a i- .32
.31- .32
.31- .32
.30
.28- .29
.28- .29

A p r.. . .

M a y ...

June...

$0.28 -40.29 J u ly .. .
. 2 8 - .29
.29 - .30
.33
.26
.26 - . 261 A u g . . .
.231- .24
.23£- .24
.24
.24
S e p t...
.23
.23
.23 - .231

SO 23 -SO. 231
.
.24 - .24%
.24%- .25
.241- .25
.24
.24
.24
.24
.24
.25 - .25%
. 2 6 - .26%
.26% - .27
.271- .28

Oct........

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

SO 28 -SO. 28*
.
.28% - .29
.28
.27 % - .28
.26*- .27
.2 4 '- .24%
.27
.27
.27
.27
.27 - .28
. 27 - .28
.27 - .28
.27 - .28
$0.2671

C H E E S E : N ew Y o r k S ta te , f a l l c r e a m , l a r g e , c o lo r e d , b e s t g r a d e s .
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar.___

S . 14J Apr___
O
. 1^
.141
.141
.141
.141. M a y ...
.14*
.14f
.14|
.14| June...
.14f|
.14*
.14|

S . 15
O
.15
.15
.15
.15
.15
.15.
.121
SO 12- .121
.
.121
.12
.111
.H |

J u ly ...

A u g ...

S e p t...

SO 121
.
.121
.121
.121
.12*
.11|
.12
.121
.12|
.131
.13|
.13|
.13?

Oct........

N ov___

Dec........

Average.

SO 1<|
.
.151
.16
.161
.161
.15
.15
.15
.15
.151
.151
.151
.15*
.151
SO 1414
.

C O F F E E : R io No. 7 , B r a z il g r a d e s .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

SO 07?| Apr___
.
SO 06?- .07 ! M a y .. .
.
.071 June...




SO 07 J u ly ...
.
.06f! A u g ...
.061 S e p t...

S . 061-S0.061 Oct........
O
.061 N ov-----.061- -06| Dec........

S .O
O Gf-SO. 0C1
.06

Average.

SO 0658
.

.055

354

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
E G G S : N e w -la id } f a n c y , n e a r -b y .
[Price per dozen, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]

Month.
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

Price.

Month.

50.33-SO. 36
.27- .30
.31- .35
.30- .34
.28- .32
.29- .31
.27- .30
.28- .32
.28- .30
.20- .23
.19- .22
.19- .22
.20- .22

Apr___

M a y ...

June...

Price.
$0.18 -SO. 19
.18*- .19
.19 - .20
.19 - .20
. 19*- .21
.20 - .21
. 18*- .20
.18 - .19
.18 - .19
.18 - .19
.17*- .19
.18 - .20
.18 - .20

Month.
J u ly ...

A u g ...

S e p t...

Price.
SO 18*-$0.21
.
.19 - .21
.20 - .23
.21 - .25
.22 - .26
.23 - .28
.23 - .28
.23 - .28
.24 - .30
.24 - .30
.24 - .30
.25 - .30
.26 - .32

Month.

Price.

Oct........

S0.26-S0.32
.29- .36
.29- .36
.32- .40
.32- .42
.3 4 - .45
.3 8 - .50
.38- .50
.3 8 - .50
.3 8 - .50
.38- .50
.43- .50
.32- .40
. 27- . 34

N ov____

Dec........

Average.

SO 2771
.

F IS H : C od, d r y , b a n k , l a r g e .
[Price per quintal, in Boston, on the first of each month; quotations from the Boston Herald.]
S8.00
8.00
8.00

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

S8.00
8.00
8.00

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

S8.00
S7.25- 7.50
7.25- 7.50

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

S7.25-S7.50
7.25- 7.50
7.25- 7.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

S7.7396

F IS H : H e r r in g 1 s h o r e , r o u n d , l a r g e .
,
[Price per barrel, in Boston, on the first of each month; quotations from the Boston Globe.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

S6.00
6.00
6.00

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

S6.00
6.00
6.00

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

S6.00

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$6.50
6.50
6.50

Average.

(a)
(a)

$6.1500

F I 3 H : M a c k e r e l, s a lt , l a r g e No. 3 s.
[Price per barrel, in Boston, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$17.00
16.50
16.00

A pr___
M a y ...
June...

$12.00
12.00
12.50

J u ly ...
Aug . . .
S e p t...

$12.50
12.50
13.00

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$14.00
14.50
14.50

Average.

$13.9167

F IS H : S a lm o n , c a n n e d , C o lo m b ia R iv e r , 1 -p o u n d t a i l s .
[Price per dozen cans, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York
Commercial.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

S1.60-S1.75
1.60- 1.75
1.60- 1.75




Apr—
M ay...
June...

SI.60-SI.75
1.60- 1.75
1.65

J u ly . . .
Aug . . .
S e p t...

(O)
(a)

$1.65

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........
Average.

« No quotation for month.

.

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901

355

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F O O D , E T C .— Continued.
FLO U R : B u ck w h ea t.
[Price per hundred pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York
Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]

Month.

Price.

Month.

$2.20-$2.30
2.10- 2.25
2.00- 2.20

A pr___
M ay...
June...

$2.10-12.20
(«)
(a)

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

J uly. . .
Aug . . .
S e p t...

. (®)

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$3.00
$3.15- 3.25
3.10- 3.15

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.

$2.5714

(a)
(a)

FLOUR: R ye.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$3.75-$4.20
3.65- 4.20
3.65- 4.15

Apr___
M ay...
June...

$3.60-$4.10
3.65- 4.25
4.85- 5.25

J u ly ...
Aug . . .
S e p t...

S4.75-S5.40
4.60- 5.25
4.50- 5.15

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$5.00-$5.35
4.90- 5.50
5.25- 5.50

Average.

$4.6021

F L O U R : W h e a t , sp rin g : p a te n t s .
[Price per barrel, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of
the New York Produce Exchange.]
Jan........

%
Feb........

Mar____

$3.80-$4.35
3.80- 4.35
3.80- 4.35
3.80- 4.35
3.85- 4.40
3.90- 4.50
4.05- 4.60
4.00- 4.50
4.00- 4.45
3.90- 4.40
3.90- 4.40
3.90- 4. 40
3.90- 4.40

A p r.. . .

M a y ...

June...

$3.9 0-$440
3.90- 4.40
3.90- 4.40
3.90- 4.40
4.00- 4.50
4.15- 4.60
4.45- 5.00
4.75- 5.40
4.80- 5.40
4.80- 5.40
4.80- 5.40
4.75- 5.30
4.75- 5.30

J u ly ...

A u g ...

S e p t...

$4.80-$5.35
5.00- 5.40
5.00- 5.40
4.85- 5.35
4.85- 5.35
4.85- 5.40
4.75- 5.25
4.75- 5.25
4.75- 5.25
4 .85-5.40
5.00- 5.60
5.00- 5.60
5.20- 5.80

Oct........

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

$5.25-$5.75
5.25- 5.75
5.50- 6.00
5 40- 5.75
5.40- 5.75
5.10- 5.65
5.20- 5.80
5.20- 5.80
5.10- 5.70
5.10- 5.70
5.10- 5.65
5.10- 5.65
5.30- 5.85
5.30- 5.85
$4.8755

F L O U R : W h e a t , w in t e r s t r a ig h t s .
[Price per barrel, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of
the New York Produce Exchange.]
Jan........

Feb........

M ar____

$3.15-$3.45
3.15- 3.45
3.15- 3.45
3.15- 3.45
3.15- 3.50
3.20- 3.50
3.20- 3.50
3.20- 3.50
3.20- 3.45
3.20- 3.45
3.20- 3.45
3.20- 3.45
3.20- 3.45

A p r.. . .

M a y ...

June...




$3.20-$3.45
3.20- 3.45
3.20- 3.45
3.20- 3.45
3.25- 3.50
3.30- 3.55
3.75- 4.00
4.10- 4.40
4.20- 4.50
4.20- 4.50
4.20- 4.50
4.00- 4.40
4.00- 4.40

July. . .

A u g ...

S e p t...

$4.15-$4 55
4.15- 4 55
4 1 5 - 4. 55
4.00- 4.40
4.00- 4.40
3.90- 4.25
3.90- 4.25
3.90- 4 25
3.90- 4.35
4.00- 4 30
4.00- 4 40
4.00- 4 40
4.20- 4 60

O ctl___

N o v -----

Dec........

Average.

« No quotation for month..

$4 30-$4 60
4 35- 4 75
4.55- 5.00
4 4 0 - 48 0
4.40- 4 80
4 30- 4.75
4.35- 4 8 0
4.35- 4 8 0
4.30- 475
4 30- 4.75
4 25- 4 65
4 25- 4 70
4.35- 4 75
4 35- 4 75
$3.9877

S56

BULLETIN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F O O D ^ E T C . — Continued.
F R U I T : A p p le * , e v a p o r a t e d , c h o ic e .
[Price pel pound, in New York, on the first, of each, month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]

Month.

Month.

Priee.

$0.08£-$0.084 A p r ....
.08|- .08| M a y ...
.08 - .08* June...

Price.

Month.

Price.

50.07 J u ly ...
$0.07- .07* A u g ...
.07- .07* S e p t...

Month.

50.0&
.08*
.00

Price.

Oct........
N o v .,...
Bee____

$0.09f
$0.09*- .091
.10

Average.

Jan____
Feb........
M ar____

$0.0843

F R U I T : A p p l e t smas-dried.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0,061 A pr.. . .
$0.06- .07
M a y ...
.06- .061 June...

$0.06
.06
.06

(a)
(a)
(a)

J u ly ...
Aug-.. .
Sept.. .

Oct........
N o v ___
Bee........

&

Average.

$0.07

$0.0638

F R U I T : C u r r a n t* , A m a l ia ’ s , in B a r r e ls .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New Y ork Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0,071 Apr___
$0.07*- .07f M a y . . .
.07|- .07* June. . .

$0.07*-$0.07f J u ly. . .
Aug . . .
.06|- .07
.061- .07
Sept. . .

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$0.06f-$0.07
.061- -07
.061- ‘ 06*

Average.

$0.07
$0.061- :07
.06*- .061

$0.0703

F R U I T : P ru n e s,, C a lif o r n ia , 6 0 s t o 7 0 s , in 2 5 -p o u n d h o s e s .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.05*-$0.06
.05*- .051
.05|- .05|

Apr___
May. . .
June...

$0.05*-$0.05* July. ..
.041- .05* Aug . . .
.05*- .06
Sept___

$0.06 -$0.06*

Oct........
Nov.......
Bee........

$0.06f-$0.06f
.0 6 f- .06f
.06*- .06*

Average.

i06*I !06f

$0.0593

F R U I T : R a is i n s , C a lif o r n ia , L o a d o n l a y e r .
[Price per box, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.45-51. 55
1.35- 1.45
1.35- 1.45




A pr___ • $1.50-51.60
M ay... .
1.50- 1.65
June...
1.50- 1.65

July. ..
Aug . . .
Sept....

$1.50-$l. 65
1.75- 1.85
1.75- 1.85

$1.75-51.85
1.75- 1.84
1.70- 1.80

Average..
a No quotation for month.

Oct........
N ov.......
Bee........

$1.6271

857

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e I . — W H O LESA LE PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
GLUCOSE.
[Price per bundled pounds,, in New York, on the first of each month; from January to April the prices
are for 41° and 43° mixing, and May to December for 42° mixing; quotations from the New Y ork Joumal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Price.

$2.11
2.11
2.11

Apr___
M ay....
June...

$2.11
2.11
$2.26- 2.31

July. . .
A ug...
Sept—

Get........
Nov.......
Dec........

$2.38
2.48
2.48

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar____

$2.26t-$2.31
2.26- 2.31
2.36- 2. 41

Month.

$2.2608

L A R D : P rim e, con tract.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished b y the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.]
Jan........ $0.0930-$0.0960
.0950- .0990
.0950- .0985
.0965- .1000
.1000- .1025
Feb........ . 1000— .1030
.1010- .1030
.0980- .1010
.0980- .1000
Mar........ .0970- .0985
.0930- .0970
.0905- .0960
.0885- .0935

Apr___ $0.0920-80.0945
.0900- .0925
.0870- .0910
.0875- .0910
.0880- .0900
.0895- .0930
M ay. . .
.0935- .0965
.0940- .0965
. 0910- .0945
J une... .0915- .0950
.0870- .0920
.0870- .0920
.0865- .0920

J uly.... $0.0880-80.0930
.0870- .0915
.0875- .0930
.0890- .0950
.0920- .0950
A u g .... .0905- .0940
.0900- .0940
.0885- .0930
.0905- .0950
Sept.... .0900- .0945
.0900- .0945
.0895- .0945
.0905- .0950

Oct........

$0.0910-80.0940
.0910- .0955
.0940- .0980
.0910- .0965
.0880- .0915
.0840- .0900
N ov.......
.0875- .0915
.0865- .0900
.0775- .0840
.0845- .0875
Dee........
.0830- .0860
.0830- .0850
.0810- .0825
.0800- .0825
Average.

$0.0920

M E A L : C o rn , fin e w h it e .
[Price per bag of 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York
Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
$1.30
1.30
1.30

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$1.30
$1.25- 1.27*
1.30- 1.35

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$1.35
$1.25- 1.35
1.40

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$1.55-$1.62|
1.53- 1.55
1.30- 1.35

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.3575

M E A L : C o rn , fin e y e l l o w .
[Price per 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.30
1.30
1.30

Apr___
M a y ...
June...




$1.30
$1.25- 1.27*
1.30- 1.35.

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$1.35
$1.25- 1.35
1.40

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$1.55-81.62$
1.53- 1.55
1.30- 1.35

Average.

$1.3575

358

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
M E A T s B a c o n , s h o r t c l e a r s id e s , s m o k e d , loo se*
[Price per pound, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Trade Bulletin.]

M E A T : B a c o n , s h o r t r i b s id e s , s m o k e d , lo o s e .
[Price per pound, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Trade Bulletin.]

M E A T : B e e f , f r e s h , .n a t iv e s id e s .
[Price per pound in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Daily Tribune.]
Jan —

Feb........

M a r ....

$0.06$-$0.09$ A p r___
.07 - .09*
.07 - .09$
.07 - . 09$
.07 - .09
M a y ...
.07 - .09
.07 - . 09$
.07 - .09
.07 - .09
June...
.07 - .09
.07 - .09
.07 - .09
.07 - .09




$0.07 -$0.09
.07 - .09$
.07$- .09$
.07$- .09$
.07$- .09$
.07$- .09
.08 - .09$
.08 - .09$
.08 - .09$
.08 - .09$
.09 - .10
.08$- .10
.08$- .10

J u ly ...

A u g .. .

S e p t...

$0.08$-$0.10
Oct........
.09 - .10
.09 - .10$
.09 - .10$
.08A- .10
N o v ___
.09$- .11
.08$- . 10$
.08$- . 10$
.08 - . 10$
.08 - .10$ Dec........
.08 - .10$
.08 - .10$
.08 - .10$

$0.08$-$0.10$
. 0 8 - .10$
. 0 8 - .10$
. 0 8 - .10$
. 0 8 - .10$
. 0 8 - .10$
. 0 8 - .10$
. 0 8 - .11
. 0 8 - .10$
. 0 8 - .10
.07$- .10
.07$- .10
.07$- .09$
.07$- .09$

Average.

$0.0884

359

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F O O D , E T C .— Continued.
M E A T : B e e f, s a lt , e x t r a m e ss.
[Average weekly price per barrel, in New York; quotations furnished by the statistician of the New
York Produce Exchange.]

Month.

Month.

Price.

Jan........

$8.50
8.60
9.25
9.25
9.25
9.25
9.25
9.25

Feb........

M a r . .. .

9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75

Month.

Price.

A p r. . .

$9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75

M a y ...

J u ly ...

S e p t...

June...

A u g .. .

Price.
$9.75
9.75
9.75
9.759.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
9.75
10.25
10.25

Month.

Price.

Oct........

$10.25
10.25
10.25
10.25
10.25
10.25
10.25
10.25
10.25
10.25
10.75
10.75
10.75

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

$9.8173

M E A T : B e e f, s a lt , h a m s , w e s t e r n .
[Price per barrel, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of
the New York Produce Exchange.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

$23.50-$25.00
23.50- 25.00
23.50- 25.00
23.50- 25.00
23.50- 25.00
23.50- 25.00
23.50- 25.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
2400- 26.00

Apr___

M a y ...

June...

$24.00-$26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24 00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24 00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00

July....

Aug . . .

Sept. . .

$24.00-$26.00
24.00- 26.00
24 00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
25.00- 27.00
25.00- 27.00
25.50- 27.00
26.00- 27.50
28.50
28.50
28.50
28.50

Oct........

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

$29.00
29.00
29.00
28.50
28.50
29.00
29.00
29.00
29.00
27.50
27.50
$25.00- 27.00
24.50- 26.50
24 50- 26. 50
$26.0519

M E A T : H a m s , s m o k e d , lo o s e .
[Price per pound on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Trade Bulletin.]

Feb........

Mar.......

$0.12*-$0.13* Apr___
.13 - .13*
.12*- .13*
.12*- .13*
.13 - .13*
. 13*- •13| M a y . . .
. 13*- .13|
. 13*- .13*
. 13*- .13*
.13* June...

:i£
. 13*.13*-

!l3|
.13*

37691— No. 75— 08------6




$0.13*-$0.13* J u ly. . .
.13*- .13*
. 13*
. 13*- .13*
. 13*- .13*
.13*- .13* Aug . . .
.13*- .14
.13*- .14
.13*- .14
.14
S e p t...

‘lif:

:i3 *.13 -

•13
f
.13f

$0.13 -$ 0 .13* Oct........
.13 - . 13*
.13*- .14 I
.13*- .13*
.13*- .13*
N o v ___
.13*- .14
.13 - .14
.13 - .14
.12*- .14
.12*Dec........
.12*.12*- .13*'
.12*- .13*

$0.12*-$0.13*
.12*- .13*
.12*- .13*
.12*- .13*
.12*- .13*
.12*- .13*
.12 - .13
.112- .12*
.10*- .12
.10*- .11*
.10*- .11*
.10 - .10*
.09*- .10*
.094- .104

Average.

Jan........

$C.1303

360

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — 'W H OLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
M E A T : M u tto n , d r e s s e d .
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Daily
Tribune.]

[Price per barrel, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of
the New York Produce Exchange.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

$17.50-118.50
17.50- 18.50
17.50- 18.50
17.50- 18.50
17.50- 18.50
18.00- 18.75
18.50-19.25
18.50- 19.25
18.50- 19.25
18.00- 18.75
18.00- 18.75
17.75- 18.50
17.50- 18.25

Apr-----

M a y ...

June...

$17.50-$18.25
17.50- 18.25
17.50- 18.25
17.25- 18.00
17.25- 18.00
17.25- 18.00
17.75- 18.50
17.75- 18.50
17.75- 18.50
17.75- 18.50
17.75- 18.50
17.50- 18.25
17.75- 18.50

J u ly ...

A u g ...

S e p t...

$18.00-$18.50
18. GO- 18.50
18.00- 18.50
18.00- 18.50
18.00- 18.50
18. GO- 18.50
18.00- 18.50
17.75- 18.25
17.75- 18.25
17.50- 18.00
17. S ­ 18.00
O
IL 50- 18.00
17.50- 18.00

Oct........

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

$16.75-$17.50
16.75- 17.50
17.00- 17.75
17.00- 17.75
16.25- 17.25
16.00- 17.00
16.00- 16.75
15.50- 16.00
15.25- 15.75
15.00- 15.75
15.00-^ 15.75
14.75- 15.50
14.50- 15.25
14.50- 15.25
$17.5684

M IL K : F resh .
[Average monthly exchange price per quart; net price at shipping stations subject to a freight rate to
New York of 26 cents per can of 40 quarts; quotations from the Milk Reporter.]
A pr.. . .
M a y ...
June...

$0.0325
.0287
.0250

July. . .
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.0375
.0350
.0325

$0.0263
.0309
.0338

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.0400
.0400
.0400

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.0335

M O L A S S E S : N e w O r le a n s , o p e n k e t t l e .
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.37-$0.48
.37- .48
.37- .38

Apr___
M a y ...
June...




$0.37-$0.38
.37- .38
.37- .48

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
Sept. . .

$0.37-$0.48
.37- .48
.37- .48

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.37-$0.48
.37- .48
.34- .42

Average.

$0.4088

361

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e . 1 ..— W H O LESA LE PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
R IC E : D o m e stic^ c h o ic e , l i e » d .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.04$-$0.05
.04$- .05
.04$- .05

Apr----M ay. . .
June...

$0.04$-$0.05.
.04$- .05
. 05 - . 05$

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.05-S0.05$ Oct........
. 06- . 06$’ N o v ___
.06- .061 Dec........

$0.06-$0.061
.05|- .061
.05|- .06$

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.0534

S A L T : A m e r ic a n , m e d iu m .
[Price per barrel, in Chicago1 each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the* Chicago
,
Board of Trade.]
Jan........

$0.80
.80
.80
.80
.80
.80
.80
.80

Feb........

Mar____

.80*
.80
.80
.80
.80

A p r ....

M a y ...

June...

$0.85
.85
.85
.85
.-86
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85'
.85
.85
.85

July....

$0.85
.73
.73
.73
.73
.67
.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
.73
.73

A u g ....

S e p t...

Oct........

Now.—

Dee........

Average.

$0.73
.73
.76
.76
.76
.76
.82
.82
.82
-82
.82
.82
.82
$0.7931

SO D A : B ic a r b o n a t e o f, A m e r ic a n .
[Price per pound, in- New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil,. Paint, and
Drug Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0.0130
.0130
.0130

A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$0.0130
.0130
.0130

J u ly ...
A u g ....
S e p t...

$0.0130
.0130
.0130

Oct........
N o v .....
Dec........

$0.0130
.0130
.0130

Average.

$0.0130

S P IC E S : N u t m e g s , 1 6 5 s to H O s .
[Price per pound, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Commerce and
Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

’14p
.

il5

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.15 -$0.151 J u ly ...
-.14$- .15
A u g ....
.14$- .15
Sept. . .

$0.13 -$ 0 .13$ Oct........
.13$- .14
Nov.......
.131- -13$ Dec........

$0.12f-$0.13
.12$- .12f
.12 - . 12$

Average.

$0.15HQ.l|f

$0.1397

S P IC E S : P e p p e r , S in g a p o r e .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.10$-$0.101 Apr___
.10$- .101 M a y ...
.10$- .101 June...




$0.10$-$0.10f J u ly ...
. 10 - . 101 A u g ....
S e p t...
.0 9 f- -10

$0.09|-$0.09$
.091- .09$
.091- .09$

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$0.09$-$0.091
.09$- .09$
.081- -09

Average.

$0.0994

3 62

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F O O D , E T C ___Continued.
S T A R C H : P u r e c o r n , f o r c u l in a r y p u r p o s e s .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchant s’ Keview.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.

Month.

10.06
.06
.06

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Price.
$0.06
.06
.06

Month.

Price.

J u ly ...
A u g ....
Sept. . .

$0.06
.06
.06

Month.

Price.

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.06
.06
.06

Average.

$0.0600

SU G A R : 8 9 ° fa ir , r e fin in g .
[Price per pound, in New York, on Thursday of each week, including import duty of 1.44 cents per
pound; quotations from Willett & Gray’ s Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

$0.0306
.0306
.0300
.0298
.0298
.0292
.0292
.0288
.0292

Apr___

.0301
.0300
.0301
.0308

June...

M a y ...

$0.0311
J u ly ...
. 0323*
.0326*
.0323
.0326*
.0333
.0336
.0342
.0340
.0334
.0323
.0321
.0337*

A u g ....

Sept. . .

$0.0333*
.0333*
.0333*
.0344

Oct........

.0344
.0344
.0325
.0339
.0342
•0342
.0345
.0345
.0345

N o v ___

$0.0345
.0345
.0340
.0340
.0340
.0340
.0330
.0320
.0312*

Dec........

.0312*
.0335
.0335
.0335

Average.

$0.03251

SU G A R : 9 6 ° c e n t r if u g a l .
[Price per pound, in New York, on Thursday of each week, including import duty of 1.68* cents per
pound; quotations from Willett & Gray’s Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal.]
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

$0.0356
.0356
.0350
.0348
.0348
.0342
.0342
.0338
.0342
.0351
.0350
.0351
.0358




Apr___

$0.0361
J u ly ...
.0373*
.0376*
.0373

M ay. . .

.0376* A u g . . .
.0383
.0386
.0392
.0390
.0384
Sept. . .
.0373
.0371
.0387*

June...

$0.0383*
.0383*
.0383*
.0394

Oct........

.0394
.0394
.0389
.0389
.0392
.0392
.0395
.0395
.0395

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

$0.0395
.0395
.0390
.0390
.0390
.0390
.0380
.0370
.0362*
.0362*
.0385
.0385
.0385
$0.03754

363

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 190*7.

T a b l e I . — W H O LE SA LE PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
SU G A R : G r a n u la t e d , in b a r r e ls .
[Price per pound, in New York, on Thursday of each week, including import duty of 1.95 cents per
pound; quotations from Willett & Gray's Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal.]

Month.
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

Price.
$0.0462
.0450
.0462
.0460
.0465
.0450
.0455
.0455
.0455
.0455
.0455
.0455
.0455

Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.

Month.

Apr___

$0.0455
.0465
.0465
.0460

July. . .

$0.0485
.0475
.0475
.0470

Oct........

M a y .. .

.0460
.0470
.0485
.0485
.0485
.0485
.0485
.0485
.0485

Aug. . .

.0465
.0465
.0465
.0465
.0465
.0465
.0465
.0465
.0465

N o v ___

June...

Sept. . .

Price.
$0.0654
.0465
.0465
.0465
.0465
.0465
.0460
.0460
.0460

Dec........

.0455
.0455
.0455
.0455

Average.

$0.04651

TALLOW .
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician
of the New York Produce Exchange.]
Jan........

$0,061
.06|
•06|
.061
•06ft

A p r. . .

$0.06f J u ly ...
$0,061- . 06f,
•06f!
.06
.05$!
.06
Aug. . .
.06$

M ar___

•06f
A3
A
.06|
.06|
. 06f
.06§

June...

!o6f: Sept.. .
.06$
•06|
•06|

$0.06
.06
.06
.06
.06
.06
.05$
•05ft

Average.

M a y ...

Feb........

$0,061 Oct........
.06$
.06$
•06§
•06|
.06| N o v ___
•06|
•06$
.061
.061 Dec........
.061
.061
.061

$0.0621

.051
.051
.05$
.051

T E A : F o r m o s a , fin e.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Apr___
M ay.. .
June...

$0.22-$0.24
.22- .24
.22- .24

July. . .
Aug.. .
Sept. . .

$0.22-$0.24
.22- .24
.22- .24

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.22-$0.24
.22- .24
.22- .24

Average.

$0.22-$0.24
.22- .24
.22- .24

$0.2300

V E G E T A B L E S , F R E S H : O n io n s.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$2.00-$5.00
3.00- 6.00
4.00- 7.00




Apr___
M ay. . .
June...

$1.50-S3.00
1.00- 5.00
4.00

J u ly ...
A u g ....
Sept. . .

$4.00
$3.00- 3.25
2.00- 2.50

Oct........
N o v ....
Dec........

$2.50-$4.00
2.50- 3.75
2.50- 4.50

Average.

$3.5000

364

BULLETIN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

3 T 0 0 3 > , E T C . — Concluded.
V E G E T A B L E S , F R E S H : P o ta to e s , w h it e , g o o d to f a n c y .
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, weekly range; quotations furnished by the secretary of the Chicago
Board of Trade.]
Month.
Jan........

Feb........

M ar____

Month.

Price.

Apr___

$0.36-$0.43
.38- .43
.3 6 - .40
.36- .42
.3 7 - .46
.40- .48
.40- .45
.40- .46
.41.4 1 .40.4 0 .33-

.47
.45
.45
.44
.42

M a y ...

June...

Price.

Month.

$0.33-$0.39
.36- .43
.4 0 - .50
.45- .61
.55- .62
.55- .75
.60i- .75
.5 7 - .69
.6 0 - .70
.55- .65
.55- .60
.38- .53
.36- .52

July —

A u g ...

S e p t...

Month.

Price.
$0.30-$0.50
.30- .35
(a)
(®)
(*)
(®)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(*)
•(a)
(«)
(<
*)

Price.

Oct........

$0.50-$0.58
.45- .56
.60- .63
.58- .62
.55- .58
.56- .60
.56*- .58
.4 7 - .57
.4 5 - .50
.46- .55
.48- .55
.4 8 - .55
.51- .58

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

$0.4912

V IN E G A R : C id e r , M o n a r c h , in b a r r e ls .
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
Apr___
M a y ..,
June...

$0.1700
.1700
.1700

$0.1760
.1700
.1700

J u ly .. .
A ug—
Sept. . .

C X jO T H S A N 3 >

$0.1700
.1700
.1700

c e o t h in g

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.1700
.1900
.1800

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M a r . ...

$0.1725

*

B A G S :. 3 -b u s h e l , A in o s k e a g .
[Price per bag on the first of each month.]
Month.
J a n .....
Feb........
M ar____

Price.

Month.

$0* 18$ Apr___
.18$ M a y ...
.18$ June...

Price.
$0.19$
.19$
a *

Month.
J u ly ...
Aug. . .
Sept.. .

Price.
$0.19$
.19$
.21

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.19$
.19$
.19$

Average.

$0.1938

B L A N K E T S : 1 1 -4 , 5 p o u n d s to th e p a ir , a l l w o o l.
[Average price per pound.]
Year.

Price.
$1.00

1907

B L A N K E T S : 1 1 - 4 , 5 p o u n d s to th e p a ir , c o tto n w a r p , a l l w o o l f illin g .
[Average price per pound.]
1907

$0.80

B L A N K E T S r 1 1 -4 , 5 p o u n d s t o t h e p a ir , c o tto n w arp y c o tto n
f illin g .

and w ool

[Average price per pound.]
1907.




$0.60
a No quotation for week.

365

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T able I .—W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.
CLOTHS A N D

C L O T H I N G — Continued.

BOOTS A N D SH O E S: M e n ’ s b r o g a n s , s p lit.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]

Month.

Price.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.30
1.30
1.30

Month.
Apr___
M ay. . .
June...

Price.
$1.30
1.30
1.30

Month.
J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Month.

Price.
$1.27*
1.27*
1.25

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$1.25
1,22*
1.20

Average.

$1.2729

BOOTS AN D S H O E S: M en ’ s s p lit b o o ts , r u s s e t -b o u n d to p , 1 7 -in c h , o n e -h a l f
d o a b le s o le .
[Price per dozen pairs on the first of each month ]
$26.50
26.50
26.50

Jan........
Feb........
M a r .....

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$26.50
26.50
26.50

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$26.50
26.00
26.00

S H O E S: M en ’ s v i c i c a l f s h o e s , B ln c h e r
s i n g le s o le .

$26.00
25.50
25.00

Average.

BOOTS AN D

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$26.1667

b a l., v i c i

c a lf

to p ,

[Price per pair'on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$2.80
2.80
2.80

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$2.80
2.80
2.80

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$2.80
2.80
2.80

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$2.80
2.80
2.80

Average.

$2.80

BOOTS AN D S H O E S: M e n ’ s v i c i k id s h o e s , G o o d y e a r w e lt .
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$2.50
2.50
2.50

A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$2.50
2.50
2.50

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$2.50
2.50
2.50

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$2.50
2.50
2.50

Average.

$2.50

BOOTS AN D S H O E S: W o m e n ’ s s o lid g r a i n s h o e s , le a t h e r , p o lis h o r p o lk a .
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.02* Apr___
1.02* M a y ...
1.02* June...

$1.02* July. . .
1.02* A u g ...
1.00
S e p t...

$1.00
1.00
1.00

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$1.00
.97*
.97*

Average.

$1.0063

B R O A D C L O T H S : F ir s t q u a li t y , b l a c k , 5 4 -in c h , m a d e f r o m X X X w o o l.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$2.02
2.02
2.02




Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$2.02
2.02
2.02

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$2.02
2.02
2.02

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$2.02
2.02
2.02

Average.

$2.02

366

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB.

T able I .—W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.
CLOTHS A N D

C L O T H I N G — Continued.

CALICO : A m e r ic a n , s ta n d a r d p r in t s , 6 4 x 6 4 , 7 y a r d s to th e p o u n d .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Month.

Price.
$0.0523
.0523
.0570

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Price.
$0.0570
.0570
.0570

Month.
J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Price.

Month.

$0.0618
.0618
.0665

Price.

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$0.0665
.0665
.0665

Average.

$0.0602

C A R P E T S : B r u s s e ls , 5 - fr a m e , B ig e lo w .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$1.2480
1.2480
1.2480

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$1.2480
1.2480
1.2480

J u ly ...
A u g ...
Sept. . .

$1.2480
1.2480
1.2480

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$1.2480
1.2480
1.2480

Average.

$1.2480

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$0.5760
.5760
.5760

Average.

$0.5760

O ct........
N ov____
Dec........

$2.2800
2.2800
2.2800

Average.

$2.2800

C A R P E T S : I n g r a in , 2 - p l y , L o w e ll.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.5760
.5760
.5760

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.5760
.5760
.5760

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.5760
.5760
.5760

C A R P E T S : W i l t o n , 5 -f r a m e , B ig e l o w .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$2.2800
2.2800
2.2800

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$2.2800
2.2800
2.2800

J u ly ...
A u g ....
S e p t...

$2.2800
2.2800
2.2800

COTTON F L A N N E L S : 2 f y a r d s to th e p o u n d .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.09| Apr___
•09| M ay. . .
•09| June...

$0.09§ July. . .
.10
A u g ...
.10
S e p t...

$0,101
.101
.101

Oct........
N o v .. . .
Dec........

$0.101
.10
.10

Average.

$0.0988

COTTON F L A N N E L S : 3 * y a r d s to th e p o u n d .
[Price per yard on the first of each month. ]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.07f Apr___
.07f, M a y ...
.07f June...




$0.07| J u ly .. .
A u g ...
.08
.08
S e p t...

$0,081
.081
.081

Oct........
N o v .. . .
Dec........

$0,081
.08
.08

Average.

$0.0800

367

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
T

able

I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

CLOTHS A N D

C L O T H I N G — Continued.

COTTON T H R E A D : 6 -c o r d , 2 0 0 -y a r d s p o o ls , J. & P . Coats*
[Price per spool, freight paid, on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

Price.
10.03724
.03724
.03724

Month.
A p r.. . .
M a y ...
June...

Price.
$0.03724
.03724
.04508

Month.
J u ly ...
Aug . . .
S e p t...

Price.
$0.04508
.04508
.04508

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N ov. . . .
Dec........

$0.04508
.05408
.04508

Average.

$0.041813

COTTON Y A R N S : C a rd e d , w h it e , m a le -s p u n , n o r t h e r n , c o n e s , 1 0 /1 .
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0.22
.22
.21*

A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$0.22
.22
.23

J u ly ...
Aug...
S e p t...

$0.23*! Oct........
.23* N ov. . . .
.23
Dec........

$0.22
.20
.20

Average.

$0.2204

COTTON Y A R N S : C a rd e d , w h it e , m a le -s p a n , n o r th e r n , c o n e s , 2 2 /1 .
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
A pr.. . .
M ay. . .
June...

$0.14*1 Oct........
.14$ N o v . . . .
.14$' Dec........

J u ly ...
Aug...
Sept. . .

$0.2571

$0.14$
.14$
.14$
$0.1381

Oct........
N ov. . . .
Dec........

$0.08$
.08$
.08$

Average.

$0.25
.25
.26*

$0.26
.24
.24

Average.

$0.25
.25*
.25*

$0.27*! Oct........
.27* N ov. . . .
.27
Dec........
Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0.0825

Oct........
N ov. . . .
Dec........

$0.0782
.0791
.0822

Average.

$0.0782

D E N IM S : A m o s k e a g .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0.12$
.12$
.13

A p r.. . .
M ay. . .
June...

$0.13
.13
.14

July. . .
A u g ....
S e p t...

D R IL L IN G S : B r o w n , P e p p e r e ll.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.08$ Apr___
.08$ M a y . . .
.08$ June...

$0.08$
.08$
.08$

$0.08$ J u ly ...
.08$ A u g . . .
.08$ S e p t...

D R IL L IN G S : 3 0 -in c h , S ta r k A .
[Average monthly price per yard.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0.0729
.0768
.0764




A p r.. . .
M a y ...
June...

$0.0760
.0824
.0787

J u ly ...
Aug.. .
S e p t...

$0.0804
.0742
.0812

368

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

CLOTHS A N D

C l i O T H X N G — Continued.

F L A N N E L S : W h i t e , 4 -4 , B a lla r d V a l e No. 3 .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar____

Price.

Month.
A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$0.4613
. 4613
.4613

Price.
$0.4613
.4613
.4613

Month.

Price.

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.4613
.4613
.4687

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N ov___
D e e .....

$0.4687
.4687
.4687

Average.

$0.4638

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.07
.07
.07

Average.

$0.0658

$0.06| Oct........
.06| N o v ___
.07* Dec........

$0.07*
.07*
.07*

Average.

$0.0690

G IN G H A M S : A m o s k e a g .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
M a r .....

$0.06
.06
.06

A p r.. . .
M a y ...
J an e...

$0.06
.06
.06

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$0.07
.07|
.07*

G IN G H A M S : L a n c a s te r .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

$0.06* A p r.. . .
.06| M ay. . .
.06| June...

«0.06f
.06$

J u ly ...
Aug...
S e p t...

H O R S E B L A N K E T S : 6 p o u n d s e a c h , a l l w o o l.
[Average price per pound.}
Year.

Price.

1007...........................................................................................................................................................

H O S IE R Y :

$0.75

M en ’ s c o tto n h a l f h o s e , s e a m le s s , f a s t b l a c k , 2 0 to 2 2 o u n c e ,
1 6 0 n e e d le s , s in g le th r e a d .
[Price per dozen pairs in September.

Represents bulk of sales.]

1907

$0.7350

H O S IE R Y : M e n ’ s c o tto n h a l f h o s e , s e a m le s s , s ta n d a r d c iu a lity , S4 n e e d le s .
[Price per dozen pairs on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
M a r . ...

Price.
$0.75
.75
»75

Month.
A j> r .. .
M a y ...
June...




Price.
$0.75
.75
.75

Month.
J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Price.
$0.75
.75
.75

Month.

Price.

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.75
.75
.75

Average.

$0.75

369

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T able I . —W H O L E S A L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.
C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G — Continued.
H O S IE R Y :

W o m e n ’ s c o m b e d E g y p t ia n c o tto n b o o e r h ig h
d o u b le s o le , f u ll -f a s h i o n e d .

s p lic e d

h e e l,

[Price-per dozen pairs maintained throughout the year.]

Year.

Priee.
$2.02$

1907............................................................................................. .............................................................

H O S IE R Y :

W om ens

c o tto n h o s e , s e a m le s s , f a s t b l a c k , 2 6 to 2 8 o u n c e ,
1 6 0 to 1 7 6 n e e d le s .

[Price per dozen pairs in September.

Represents bulk ot sales.]

1907.

$0.8330

L E A 1 R E R : H a r n e s s , o a k , p a c k e r s ’ h id e s , h e a v y , No. 1.
[Price per pound on the first of each month in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and Leather
Reporter.]
Price.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

10.37-10.39
.3 7 - .39
.37- .39

Month.
A p r. . .
M ay....
June...

Priee.
$0.37-10.39
.37- .39
.30- .38

Month.
J u ly ...
A u g .. .
S e p t...

Price.
$0.36-$Q. 38
.36- .38
.36- .38

Month.

Price.

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

S i 36-10.38
O
.36- .38
.36- .37

Average.

Month.

$0.3738

L E A T H E R : S o le , h e m le e k , B u e n os A ir e s and* M o n ta n a , m id d le w e i g h t s ,
fir s t q u a li t y .
[Price per pound on the first of each month in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and
Leather Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$0.26-$0.26* A p r. . .
.26- .26* M ay....
.26- .26| June...

$0.26-$0.27
.26- .27
.26- .27

J u ly ...
A u g ..,.
S e p t...

$0.26-S0.27
.26- .27
.26- .27

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.26-10; 27
.26- .27
.26- .27

Average.

$0.2641

L E A T H E R : S o le , o a k , s c o u r e d b a c k s , h e a v y , No. 1.
[Price per pound on the first ot each month in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and
Leather Reporter.]
$0.40-$0.41
.38- .39
.37- .38

A p r. . .
M ay. . .
June...

$0.37-$Q. 38
.37- .38
.37- .38

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t.,.

$0.36-$0.37
.38
.38

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.38-$0.41
.38- .40
.37- .40

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$0.3821

L E A T H E R : W a x c a lf , 3 0 to 4 0 p o u n d s to th e d o z e n , B g r a d e .
[Price per square foot on the first of each month in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and
Leather Reporter.]
Jan____
Feb........
Mar.___

$0.70-10;. 75
.7 0 - .75
.75- .80

Apr----M a y ...
June...




$0.75-$a 89‘
.75- .80
.7 5 - .80

July_
_
Aug. . .
Sep t.. .

$0.75-10.80
.75- .80
.75- .80

O c t .,. ..
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.75-10.80
.7 5 - .80
.7 5 - .80

Average.

$0.7667

370

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

CLOTHS A N D

C L O T H E S 'G — Continued.

L INEN SHOE T H R E A D : 1 0 s , B a r b o u r .
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]

Month.

Price.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

10.8930
.8930
.8930

Month.
Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Price.
$0.8930
.8930
.8930

Month.

Price.
$0.8930
.8930
.8930

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.8930
.8930
.8930

Average.

$0.8930

LINEN T H R E A D : 3 -c o r d , 2 0 0 -y a r d s p o o ls , B a r b o u r .
[Price per dozen spools on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.8835
.8835
.8835

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.8835
.9300
.9300

$0.9300
.9300
.9300

J u ly ...
Aug.. .
S e p t...

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.9300
.9300
.9300

Average.

$0.9145

O V E R C O A T IN G S: C h in c h illa , B -r o u g h , a l l w o o l.
[Price per yard maintained generally throughout the year.

Represents bulk of sales.]

Year.

Price.

1907...........................................................................................................................................................

$2.5575

O V E R C O A T IN G S: C h in c h illa , c o t t o n w a r p , C. C. g r a d e .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

Price.

Month.

Apr___
$0.49
•49| M a y ...
. 49* June...

Price.
$0.49*
.50
.49

Month.
J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

Price.
$0.50*
.49
.49

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.50
.48
.46

Average.

$0.4908

O V E R C O A T IN G S: C o v e r t c lo t h , l i g h t w e i g h t , s t a p le g o o d s .
[Price per yard maintained throughout the year.]
Year.

Price.

1907...........................................................................................................................................................

$2.2568

O V E R C O A T IN G S : K e r s e y , s ta n d a r d , 2 7 to 2 8 o n n c e .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.
$1.92*
1.97*
1.97*

Month.
A pr___
M a y ...
June...




Price.

Month.

$1.97* J u ly ...
1.97* A u g . . .
1.97* S e p t...

Price.
$1.97*
1.97*
1.97*

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$1.97*
1.97*
1.97*

Average.

$1.9708

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

371

T a b l e I . — W H O LE SA LE PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

C L O T H S A1STI) C L O T H E S 'G — Continued.
P R IN T CLO T H S: 2 8 -in c h , 6 4 b y 6 4.
[Average weekly price per yard.]
Month.
Jan........

Feb........

Mar........

Month.

Price.
$0.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
. .0400
.0412*
.0425
.0437*
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0450

Price.

A pr___

M a y ...

June...

Month.

$0.0450
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0456*
.0462*
.0462*
.0475
.0475
.0487*
.0487*
.0500“

Price.

J u ly ...

j Month.

$0.0500
.0500
.0500
.0512*
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0525

Aug...

Sept. . .

Oct........

N o v ___

Dec........

j Average.

Price.
$0.0525
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0525
a. 0525
a.0475
a. 0475
a.0450
O.0450
0.0437*
0.0425
$0.047512

S H A W L S : S ta n d a r d , a l l w o o l ( lo w g r a d e ), 72 b y 1 4 4 in c h , 4 0 to 4 2 o u n c e .
[Price per shawl on the first of each month.]
$2.04
2.04
2.04

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$2.04
2.04
2.04
$2.04

Oct........
N ov____
Dec........

$0.2495
.2789
.2779

Average.

$2.04
2.04
2.04

$2.04 ! Oct........
2.04 ! N ov ___
2.04
Dec........
Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.2315

S H E E T IN G S : B le a c h e d , 9 -4 , A t la n t ic .
[Average monthly price per yard.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.2096
.2310
.2187

$0.2190
.2174
.2331

J u ly ...
Aug . . .
Sept. . .

$0.2174
.2127
.2126

S H E E T IN G S : B le a c h e d , 1 0 -4 , P e p p e r e ll.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
$0.26
.26
.28

A pr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.28
.28
.30

J u ly ...
Aug . . .
Sept. . .

$0.30
.30
.30

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.30
.30
.30

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.2883

S H E E T IN G S : B le a c h e d , 1 0 -4 , W a m s n t t a S. T .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.29
.29
.29




Apr___
M ay ....
June...

$0.31
.31
.31

July....
A u g ....
S e p t...

$0.31
.31
.31

Oct........
N ov.......
Dec........
Average.

a Nominal.

372

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I ___ W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

CLOTHS A N D

C L O T H I N G — Continued.

S H E E T IN G S : B r o w n , 4 - 4 , A t l a n t ic A .
[Average monthly price per yard,]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

Month.

Price.

A p r ...,
May—
June...

10.0751
.0749
.0756

Price.
$0.0753
.0750
.0787

Month.
J u ly ....
A u g ....
S e p t...

Price.

Month.

$0.0760.0772
.0774

Price.

Oct........
N ov.......
Dee........

$0.0780
0805
.0784

Average.

$0.0768

$0,081 Oct........
,08| N ov.......
.081 Dec........

$0,081
.081

Average.

$0.0835

S H E E T IN G S : B r o w n , 4 - 4 , I n d ia n H e a d .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
F e b .....
M ar.-----

$0,081 A p r ....
.081 M ay....
*081 June...

$0,081 J uly....
.081 A u g ....
.081 S e p t...

S H E E T IN G S : B r o w n , 4 - 4 , M a a sa cb m se tts M ills , F l y i n g H o r s e b r a n d , 2 J A
y a r d s to t b e p o u n d .
100
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
$0,071 Apr___
.07f M a y ....
.07f June...

$0,071 July....
.071 A u g ....
.071 S e p t...

$0.08
.08
.08

Oct........
N ov.......
Dec........

$0,071
.071
.071

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.0777

S H E E T IN G S : B r o w n , 4 - 4 , P e p p e r e ll R .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Apr___
$0.07
M ay....
.07
.071 June...

$0,071 July....
.071 A u g ....
.071 S e p t...

$0,071
.071
.071

Oct........
N ov.......
Dec........

$0,071
.071
.071

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.0746

S H IR T IN G S: B le a c h e d , 4 -4 , F r n i t o f t b e L o o m .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Apr___
M a y ....
June...

$0,091
.10
.10

$0.11
.11
.111

July....
A u g ....
S e p t...

$0,111
.111
.12

O ct........
N ov !___
Dec........

$0.12
.12
.12

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.1117

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.0974
.0974
.0879

Average.

$0.0905

S H IR T IN G S : B le a c h e d , 4 -4 , H o p e .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0.0831
.0855
.0855




Apr___
M ay...
June...

$0.0855 J u ly ...
.0855
A u g ....
.0855 I S e p t...

$0.0974
.0974
.0974

3 73

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

C I /O T H S A N 3 > C X iO T H I lN G — Continued.
S H IR T IN G S: B le a c h e d , 4 -4 , L o n s d a le .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

Month.

Price.

$0.09* Apr___
.09* M a y ...
. 0 * June...

Price.
$0.09f
.09#
.09f

Month.
J u ly ...
A u g .. . .
S e p t...

Price.
$0.11
.11
.11

Month.

Price.

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.11
.11
a. 10

Average.

$0.1025

S H I R T I N G S : B le a c h e d , 4 - 4 , W a m s n t fa < ° > .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
M a r . ...

A p r.. . .
M a y ...
June...

$0,101
.101
.101

$0,101 July. . .
.10f A u g ....
.10f S e p t...

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.11*
.11*
.11*

Average.

$0.11*
.11*
.11*

$0.1100

S H IR T IN G S : B le a c h e d , 4 - 4 , W i l l i a m s v i l l e , A l .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Apr—
M a y ...
June...

$0.10!
.10*
.11*

$0.11*
.11*
.I l f

J u ly ...
A u g ....
S e p t...

$0.12
.12
.12

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.12
.12
.12

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0.1163

S I L K : R a w , I t a lia n , c la s s i c a l .
[Net cash price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the American
Silk Journal.]
Jan........ $5.2965-$5.3955
Feb........ 5.1975- 5.2470
M a r ..... 5.3460- 5.3955

A p r.. . . $5.6430-$5.6925
M a y ... 5.8905- 5.9400
June... 5.7915- 5.8410

J u ly ... $5.6925-$& 8410
A ug—
5.5935
Sept.. . 5.7915- 5.8410

Oct........ $5.7915-$5.8410
N o v ___
5.5935- 5.6430
Dec........ 4.9995- 5.0490
Average.

$5.5812

S I L K : R a w , J a p a n , fila tn r e s , N o. 1.
[Net cash price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the American
Silk Journal.]
Jan........ $5.0925-$5.1410
Feb........ 4.9955- 5.0440
M ar.___ 5.1895- 5.2380

A p r.. . . $5.4320-$5.5290
M a y . . . 5.5775- 5.6260
June... 5.2380- 5.3350

J u ly ... $4.9955-$5.0925
4.7530
Aug.. .
S e p t... 5.2865- 5.3350

Oct........ $4 8500-14.8985
4.7530- 4.8015
N o v ___
Dec........ 4.2195- 4.2680
Average.

SUITIN GS:

$5.0602

C la y w o r s t e d d ia g o n a l, 1 2 -o n n c e , W a s h i n g t o n M ills .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.1700
1.1700
1.1700

A p r ....
M a y ...
June...




^Nominal.

$1.1700
1.1700
1.1700

Oct........
N o v ....
Dec........

$1.1700
1.1700
1.1700

Average.

$1.1700' J u ly ...
A u g ...
L1700
Sept. . .
1.1700

$1.1700

374

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

CLOTHS A N D

C L O T H I N G — Continued.

SUITIN GS: C la y w o r s t e d d ia g o n a l, 1 6 -o u n c e , W a s h i n g t o n M ills .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]

Month.

Month.

Price.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Apr----M a y ...
June...

$1.4175
1.4175
1.4175

Price.
$1.4175
1.3950
1.3950

Month.

Price.

J u ly ...
Aug...
S e p t...

$1. 3950
1.3950
1.3950

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$1.3950
1.3950
1.3950

Average.

$1.4025

SU ITIN G S: I n d ig o b in e , a l l w o o l , 5 4 -in e li, 1 4 -o u n c e , M id d le s e x s ta n d a r d .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$1.7100
1.7100
1.7100

$1.7100
1.7100
1.7100

J u ly ...
Aug.. .
S e p t...

$1.7100
1.7100
1.7100

O ct........
N o v ;.. .
Dec........

$1.7100
1.7100
1.7100

Average.

$1.7100

SUITINGS: I n d ig o b lu e , a l l w o o l , 1 6 -o u n c e .
[Price per yard maintained generally throughout the year.

Represents hulk of sales.]

Year.

Price.

1907...........................................................................................................................................................

$2.4180

SUITIN GS: S e r g e , W a s h i n g t o n M ills 6 7 0 0 .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Month.

Price.

Month.
Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Price.
$1.0575
1.0575
1.0125

Month.

Price.

T IC K IN G S : A m o s k e a g

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$1.0575
1.0575
1.0575
$1.0500

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.14*
.14*
.14*

Average.

$1.0575
1.0575
1.0575

$1.0125
1.0575
1.0575

Month.

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

J u ly ...
Aug...
S e p t...

Price.

$0.1373

A . C. A .

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.12* Apr___
.12| M ay. . .
J une...
.13

$0.13
.13*
.13*

J u ly ...
Aug.. .
S e p t...

$0.14
.14*
.14*

T R O U S E R IN G S : F a n c y w o r s t e d , 2 1 to 2 2 o u n c e , a l l w o r s t e d
f illin g , w o o l a n d w o r s t e d b a c k .

w arp

and

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$2.3625
2.3625
2.3625

Apr___
M a y ...
June...




$2.4750
2.4750
2.4750

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$2.4750
2.4750
2.4750

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$2.4750
2.4750
2.4750

Average.

$2.4469

375

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

CLOTHS A N D

C L O T H I N G — Continued.

U N D E R W E A R : S h irts a n d d r a w e r s , w h it e , a l l w o o l , f u ll -f a s h i o n e d ,
1 8 -g a u g e .
[Price per dozen garments on the first of each month.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Month.

Price.

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

127.00
27.00
27.00

Price.
$27.00
27.00
27.00

Month.

Price.

July. . .
A u g. . .
S e p t...

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$27.00
27.00
27.00

Average.

$27.00
27.00
27.00

$27.00

U N D E R W E A R : S h irts a n d d r a w e r s , w h it e , m e r in o , f u ll -f a s h i o n e d , 6 0 p e r
c e n t w o o l , 4 0 p e r c e n t c o tto n , 2 4 - g a u g e .
[Price per dozen garments on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$18.00
18.00
18.00

$18.00
18.00
18.00

J u ly ...
A u g ...
Sept. . .

GOODS* C a s h m e r e , a l l w o o l,
A t l a n t ic M ills J.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

1 0 -1 1

$18.00
18.00
18.00

Average.

W O M E N ’S DRESS

$18.00
18.00
18.00

$18.00

tw ill,

3 8 -in c h ,

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

W O M E N ’S D RESS

$0.3920
.3920
.3920

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.3920
.3920
.3920

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.3920
.3920
.3920

Average.

$0.3920
.3920
.3920

$0.3920

GOODS* C a s h m e r e , c o tto n w a r p , 9 - t w i l l , 4 -4 , A t la n t ic
M ills F .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.2205
.2205
.2254

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.2254
.2254
.2254

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.2254
.2254
.2254

Average.

Apr___
M ay. . .
June...

$0.2205
.2205
.2205

$0.2234

W O M E N ’ S D R E S S GOODS* C a s h m e r e , c o tto n w a r p , 3 6 -in c h , H a m ilto n .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.1960
.1960
.1960

$0.1960
.1960
.1960

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.1960
.1960
.1960

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$0.1960
.1960
.1960

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.1960

W O M E N ’ S D R E S S GOODS: D a n is h c lo t h , c o tto n w a r p a n d w o r s t e d filling?,
2 2 -in c h .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]

*11
.12*

A p r . ..
M a y ...
June...

37691—No. 75-08---- 7



$0.12* J u ly .. .
.12* A u g ...
.12* S e p t...

$0.12*
.12*
.12*

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$0.12*

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar___

$0.1250

111*

376

BULLETIN" OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB.

T able I . —W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.
CLOTHS A N D

C L O T H I N G — Concluded.

W O M E N ’ S D R E S S GOODS) F r a n k li n s a c k i n g * , 6 -4 .
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]

Month.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.
$0.66!
.66}
.66}

$0.66}
.66}
.66}

Month.

Price.

$0.66}
.66}
.66}

A p r. . .
M a y ...
June...

W O M E N ’ S D R E S S GOODS:

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.61J
. 6lf
.61|

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M a r . ...

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Price.

$0.6531

P o p la r c lo t h , c o tto n w a r p a n d w o r s t e d f illin g ,
3 6 -in e h .

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
A p r . ..
M a y ...
June...

$0.19
.19
.19

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.19
.19
.19

$0.19
.19
.19

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.19
.19
.29

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$0.1908

W O O L : O h io , fin e fle e c e (X a n d X X g r a d e ), s c o u r e d .
[Price per pound, in the eastern markets (Baltimore, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia), on the
first of each month.]
$0.7021
' .7021
.7021

A p r. . .
M a y ...
June...

$0.7021
.7021
.7234

$0.7234
.7447
.7447

W OOL:

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.7234
.7234
.7234

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M a r . ...

$0.7181

O h io , m e d iu m fle e c e ( o n e -f o u r t h a n d t h r e e -e i g h t h s g r a d e ),
sco u red .

[Price per pound, in the eastern markets (Baltimore, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia), on the
first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$0.5270
.5270
.5135

A p r. . .
M a y .. .
June...

$0.5135
.5135
.5135

J u ly ...
A u g—
Sept—

$0. 5135
. 5135
.5135

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.5135
.5135
.5135

Average.

$0. 5158

W O R S T E D Y A R N S : 2 -4 0 s , A u s t r a l ia n fin e.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
J a n .....
Feb........
M a r . ...

$1.30
1.30
1.30

A p r. . .
M a y ...
J une...

$1.30
1.30
1.30

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$1.30
1.30
1.30

Y A R N S : 2 -4 0 s , X X X X

o r it s e q u iv a le n t in
slcein s.

$1.30
1.28
1.28

Average.

W O RSTED

Oct........
N o v ....
Dec........

$1.2967

q u a li t y , w h it e , in

[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.30
1.30
1.30




Apr—
M ay...
June...

$1.30
1.30
1.28

J u ly ...
Aug...
Sept. . .

$1.28
1.2S
1.28

Get........
N o v ___
Dec........

$1.30
1.30
1.30

Average.

$1.2933

377

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
T

able

I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

FUEL AN D

L IG H T IN G .

C A N D L E S : A d a m a n t in e , 6 s , 1 4 -o n n c e .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.

Month.

$0.07§ Apr___
.07f M a y ...
.07| June...

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.07| J u ly ...
.07§ A u g . . .
.07f S e p t...

Month.

$0.07f
.07#
.07|

Price.

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.07*
.07*
.07*

Average.

$0.0741

C O A L : A n t h r a c it e , b r o k e n .
[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tide water, New York Harbor.]
Jan........
Feb........
M a r .....

$42042
42020
42011

A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$42007
42015
42049

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$42066
42034
42069

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$42075
4 2048
42047

Average.

$42040

C O A L : A n t h r a c it e , c h e s tn u t .
[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tide water, New York Harbor.]
$4 4504
45334
46478

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$47442
48417
49403

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........
Average.

I

Apr----M a y ...
June...

H

$49507
49500
49509

$48204

C O A L : A n t h r a c it e , e g g .
[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tide water, New York Harbor.]
Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$4 4500
4 5265
46434

July. . .
Aug...
S e p t...

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$4 7399
4 8444
49500

Average.

OOO I
nioii

$49512
49500
49500

•»

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$4 8211

C O A L : A n t h r a c it e , s to v e .
[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tide water, New York Harbor.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$49502
49501
49521

Apr----M a y ...
June...

$4 4503
45283
46455

C O A L : B it u m in o u s , G e o r g e s

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$4 9503
4 9500
4 9503

Average.

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$4 8215

$47434
48433
49438

C reek.

[Price per ton, at the mine, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$1.50
1.50
1.50

A p r. . .
M ay. . .
June...




$1.50
1.50
1.50

J u ly ...
A u g .. .
S e p t...

$1.50
1.50
1.45

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$1.75
1.75
1.50

Average.

$1.5375

378

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F U E E AN TI) L I G H T I N G — Continued.
C O A L : B it u m in o u s , G e o r g e s

C reek.

[Price per ton, I. o. b. New York Harbor, on the first of each month.]

Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.

Price.

Month.

Price.

13.20
3.20
3.20

COAL:

$3.20
3.20
3.20

B it u m in o u s ,

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

P it t s b u r g

$3.20
3.20
3.15

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$3.45
3.45
3.20

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar------

A p r. . .
M a y ...
June...

Month.

$3.2375

( Y o u g h i o g h e n y ),

lu m p .

[Price per bushel on Tuesday of each week, Cincinnati, afloat; quotations furnished by the superin­
tendent of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce.]
Jan........

Feb........

M ar------

A p r___

$0.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08

M a y :..

June...

$0.08 J u ly ...
.08 1
.08
.08
.08
.08
A u g .. .
.08
.08
.08
Sept. . .
.08
.08
.08
.08

$0.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
08
.08$
.08$

Oct........

N o v ___

Dec........

Average.

$0.08$
.08$
.08$
.08$
.08$
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
.09
$0.0824

COKES: C o n n e lls v ille , fu r n a c e .
[Contract price per ton, f. o. b. at the ovens, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
A pr. . .
M a y ...
June...

$2. 75-$2.85
2. 75- 2.85
2.00- 2.65

J u ly ...
A u g .. .
S e p t...

$2.40-$2.60
2.60- 2.65
2.75- 2.80

$3.50-$3.60
3.50- 3.65
3.25

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$2.90-$3.00
2.75

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar------

$2.8250

2.00

M A T C H E S : P a r lo r , d o m e s tic .
[Pr'ce per gross of boxes (200s), in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants*
Review.]
A p r ___
M a y .. .
June...

$1.50
1.50
1.50

$1.50
1.50
1.50

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$1.50
1.50
1.50

Oct........
N o v ____
Dec........

$1.50
1.50
1.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$1.5000

PETROLE5UM: C ru d e , P e n n s y lv a n i a .
[Price per barrel, at the wells, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil City Derrick.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.58
1.58
1.63




Apr----M ay. . .
June...

$1.78
1.78
1.78

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$1.78
1.78
1.78

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$1.78
1.78
1.78

Average.

$1.7342

3 79

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

F U E L A N D L I G H T I N G — Concluded.
P E T R O L E U M : R e fin e d , in b a r r e ls , c a r g o lo t s , f o r e x p o r t.
[Price per gallon, New York loading, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and
Drug Reporter.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.

Month.
Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Price.
$0.0820
.0820
.0820

Month.

Price.

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
Sept. . .

$0.0845
.0845
.0845

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.0845
.0875
.0875

Average.

$0.0750
.0775
.0775

$0.0824

P E T R O L E U M : R e fin e d , 1 5 0 ° fire te s t, w a t e r w b l t e , in b a r r e ls , p a c k a g e s
in c lu d e d (jo b b in g lo t s ) .
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.13 ^ Apr___
. 13*j M ay. . .
.13* June...

$0.13*' J u ly ...
Aug. . .
.13* Sept. . .

$0.13*
.13*
.13*

Average.

M E T A IiS A N D

$0.13*| Oct........
.13*' N o v ___
.13* Dec........

$0.1346

IM P L E M E N T S .

A U G E R S : E x t r a , 1 -in c b .
[Price per auger, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Month.

Price.

Apr___
M ay. . .
June...

$0.36
.36
.36

* Price.
$0.36
.36
.36

j Month.

Price.

July. . .
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$0.36
.36
.36

Month.

Price.

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.36
.36
.36

Average.

$0.3600

A X E S : M. C. O., Y a n k e e .
[Price per ax, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.68
.68
.68

Apr___
M ay. . .
June...

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
Sept. . .

IR O N : B e s t re fin e d , f r o m

$0.68
.68
.68

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.68
.68
.68

Average.

BAR

$0.68
.68
.68

$0.6800

s to r e .

[Average monthly price per pound, in Philadelphia; quotations from the Bulletin of the American
Iron and Steel Association.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.0208
.0216
.0216

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.0216
.0216
.0216

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
Sept. . . .

$0.0216
.0216
.0216

$0.0206
.0196
.0196

Average.

B A R IR O N : C o m m o n to b e s t re fin e d , f r o m

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.0211

m il l .

[Price per pound, on the first of each month, f . o. b. Pittsburg; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........ $0.0180-10.0185
Feb........
.0180
Mar.___
.0180




A p r.. . .
$0.0180 1 J u ly ... $0.0170-$0.0175 i Oct........
M ay. . .
A u g ...
.0180
.0170- .0175 l N o v ___
Dec........
June... $0.0175- .0180 ! S e p t...
.0170

$0.0170
.0170
.0160

Average.

$0.0175

3 80

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S — Continued.
B A R B W IR ES: G a lv a n ize d ..
[Average monthly price per hundred pounds, in Chicago; quotations from the Iron Age.]

Month.

Price.

Month.

1 Month.

Month.

Price.

$2.60
2.60
2.60

$2.60
2.60
2.63

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$2.63
2.63
2.68

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$2.68
2.68
2.68

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Price.

$2.6342

B U T T S : L o o s e j o i n t , c a s t, 3 b y 3 in c h .
[Price per pair, In New York, on the first of each month.]
Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.04
.04
*04

$0.04
.04
.04

$0.04
.04
.04

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.04
.04
.04

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0.04

C H IS E L S : E x t r a , s o c k e t fir m e r , 1 -in c h .
[Price per chisel, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0,450
.450
.450

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$0,450
.450
.450

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0,450
.450
.375

Average.

$0,450
.450
.450

$0.4438

C O P P E R : Ingrot, l a k e .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........ $0.2350-10.2425
Feb........ .2500- .2525
M ar.___
.2525- .2575

Apr___ $0.2450-$0.2500
M a y ... .2500- .2600
June... .2425- .2500

J u ly ... $0.2350-$0.2425
Aug.. .
.1950- .2050
S e p t...
.1812*

O ct........ $0.1500-10.1525
N o v ___
.1450
Dec........
.1400
Average.

C O P P E R : S h e e t, h o t -r o l l e d

(b a se

$0.2125

s iz e s ).

[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

$0.20
.30
.32

A pr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.32
.32
.32

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$0.32
.28
.28

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.20
.20
.20

Average.

$0.2792

C O P P E R W I R E : B a r e , No. S, B . a n d S. g a n g e , a n d h e a v i e r (b a s e s iz e s ).
[Price per pound, f. o. b. New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.25*
.27*
.27*

A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$0.27* J u ly ...
.27* A u g . . .
.27* S e p t...

$0.27* Oct........
•24* N o v . . . .
.24* Dec........

$0.16*
.16
.16*

Average.

$0.2402

D O O R K N O B S : S te e l, b r o n z e p la t e d .
[Price per pair, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar____

$0.45
.45
.45

A p r ....
M a y ...
June...




$0.45 ! J u ly ...
.45
A u g ...
. 45 S e p t...

$0.45
.45
.45

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.45
.45
.45

Average.

$0.4500

381

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S — Continued.
F I L E S : 8 -in ch , m i l l b a s t a r d , N ic h o ls o n .
[Price per dozen on the first of each month.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

Price.

Month.
Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Price.
$1.00
1.00
1.00

Month.

Price.

J u ly ...
A ug. . .
S e p t...

Month.

Price.

$1.00
1.00
.99

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.99
.98
.98

Average.

$1.01
1.01
1.01

$0.9975

H A M M E R S : M a y d o le No. 1J.
[Price per hammer, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
M a r .....

$0,466
.466
.466

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0,466
.466
.466

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0,466
.466
.466

Average.

$0,466
.466
.466

$0,466

L E A D : P ig , d e s ilv e r iz e d .
[Price per pound, in New York, from store, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
$0.0630
Jan........
Feb........ $0.0630- .0635
Mar........ .0635- .0640

A p r .... $0.0620-$0.0625
M a y ...
.0610
June... .0575- .0580

July. . .
Aug. . .
S e p t...

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.0468
.0460
.0425

Average.

LEAD

$0.0525
.0515
.0520

$0.0552

P IP E .

[Price per hundred pounds, f. o. b. New York, on the first of each month.]
A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$7.20
7.20
7.20

$7.20
7.20
6.84

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$6.84
6.48
6.48

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$6.12
6.12
5.58

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

$6.7050

L O C K S : C o m m o n m o r t is e .
[Price per lock, in New York, on the first of each month.]
$0.20
.20
.20

Apr___
May___
June...

$0.20
.20
.20

July....
A u g ....
S e p t...

$0.20
.20
.20

Oct........
Nov-----Dec........

$0.20
.20
.20

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$0.2000

N A IL S : C u t, 8 -p e n n y , fe n c e a n d c o m m o n .
[Price per 100-pound keg, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations computed from
base prices published in the Iron Age.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$2.15
2.15
2.15




Apr___
M ay....
June...

$2.15
2.15
2.15

July....
A u g ....
S e p t...

$2.15
2.20
2.25

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$2.20
$2.10- 2.15
2.10- 2.15

Average.

$2.1625

382

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S — Continued.
NALLS: W i r e , 8 -p e im y , f e n c e a n d c o m m o n .
[Price per 100-pound keg, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations computed from
base prices published in the Iron Age.]

Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.
$2.10
2.10
2.10

Apr___
M a y ....
June...

$2.10
2.10
2.10

Month.

Price.

July....
A u g ....
S e p t...

Price.

P IG

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$2.15
2.15
2.15

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$2.10
2.10
2.15

Month.

$2.1167

IR O N : B e s s e m e r .

[Average monthly price per ton in Pittsburg; quotations from the Bulletin of the American Iron and
Steel Association.]
$23.35
23.25
22.95

Apr___
M ay....
June...

$23.55
24.05
24.50

July....
A u g ....
S e p t...

$23.80
22.95
22.85

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$22.90
20.35
19.60

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$22.8417

P IG IR O N : F o u n d r y No. 1.
[Average monthly price per ton in Philadelphia; quotations from the Bulletin of the American Iron
and Steel Association.]
Apr----M a y ....
June...

$27.50
27.37
26.87

$26.56
26.60
25.75

$23.62
22.50
21.19

July....
A u g ....
S e p t...

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$20.40
19.44
18.94

Average.

J a n l___
Feb........
Mar........

$23.8950

P IG IR O N : F o n n d r y No. 2, n o r th e r n .
[Price per ton, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
$25.35-$25.85
25.35- 25.85
24.85

Apr___
M ay....
June...

$25.10
$24.85- 25.85
26.40- 26.90

July....
A u g ....
Sept. . .

$25.90
23.90
$22.40- 23.40

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$20. 40-$22.15
19.90- 20.40
18.90- 19.40

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$23.8688

P IG IR O N : G r a y f o r g e , s o u t h e r n , c o k e .
[Price per ton, f. o. b. Cincinnati, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$23.00-$23.50
23.00- 23.50
22.35- 22.85

Apr___
M ay...
June...

$23.00-$23.50
21.75- 22.25
21.75- 22.25

J u ly. . .
Aug . . .
S e p t...

$21.75-122.25
20.75- 21.25
19.00- 19.50

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$18.75-$19.25
17.50- 18.00
16.25- 16.75

Average.

$20.9875

P L A N E S : B a ile y No. 5.
[Price per plane, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.53
1.53
1.53




Apr___
M ay...
June...

$1.53
1.53
1.53

J u ly. . .
Aug . . .
S e p t...

$1.53
1.53
1.53

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$1.53
1.53
1.53

Average.

$1.53

383

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
T

able

I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

M ETALS AN D

I M P L E M E N T S — Continued.

Q U IC K S IL V E R .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Month.

Price.

Apr___
M ay. . .
June...

$0.54
.54
.54

Price.
$0.53
.53
.53

Month.
J u ly. . .
Aug . . .
S e p t...

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.51J Oct........
.51£ Nov.......
.51| Dec........

$0.54
.61
.61

Average.

$0.5429

S A W S : C r o s s c u t, D is s t o n No. 2 , 6 -f o o t .
[Price per saw to small jobbers, f. o. b. Philadelphia, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Apr___
M ay...
June...

$1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

$1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

J u ly ...
Aug . . .
S e p t...

$1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

O ct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

Average.

$1.6038

S A W S : H a n d , D is s t o n No. 7 , 2 6 -in c h .
[Price per dozen to small jobbers, f. o. b. Philadelphia, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Apr___
M a y ....
June...

$12.9500
12.9500
12.9500

$12.9500
12.9500
12.9500

J u ly. . .
Aug . . .
Sept...

$12.9500
12.9500
12.9500

Oct........
Novi___
Dec........

$12.9500
12.9500
12.9500

Average.

$12.9500

S H O V E L S : A m e s No. 2 , c a s t s t e e l, D h a n d le , s q u a r e p o in t , b a c k s tr a p , b la c k .
[Price per dozen on the first of each month.]
Apr___
M ay...
June...

$7.84
7.84
7.84

$7.84
7.84
7.84

J u ly. . .
A u g ....
S e p t...

$7.84
7.84
7.84

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$7.84
7.84
7.84

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$7.84

S IL V E R : B a r , fin e.
[Average monthly price, in New York; quotations furnished by the Director of the Mint.]
$0.69333
.69437
.68110

Apr . . .
M a y ...
June...

$0.66062
.66648
.67820

July. . .
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$0.68759
.69415
.68430

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.63111
.59403
.55215

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M a r . ...

$0.65979

SPELTER : W estern .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........ $0.0665-$0.0670
Feb........ .0700- .0725
M ar___
.0695

Apr . . . $0.0685-$0.0690
M ay. . .
.0660- .0665
June...
.0650




J u ly ... $0.0635-S0.0640
A u g ...
.0580- .0590
S e p t... .0550- .0555

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.0540
.0550
$0.0460- . 0465

Average.

$0.0617

384

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S — Continued.
S T E E L B IL L E T S .
[Average monthly price per ton, at mills at Pittsburg; quotations from the Bulletin of the American
Iron and Steel Association.]

Month.

Month.

Price.

A p r. . .
M ay. . .
June...

Month.

$30.25 J u ly ...
30.30 A u g . . .
29.62 j S e p t...

Price.

Month.

Price.

$30.00
29.40
29.37

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$28.20
28.00
28.00

Average.

Ia n ........
Feb........
M a r ___

$29.40
29.50
29.00

Price.

$29.2533

S T E E L R A IL S .
[Average monthly price per ton, at mills in Pennsylvania; quotations from the Bulletin of the American
Iron and Steel Association.]
A p r. . .
M a y ...
June...

$28.00
28.00
28.00

$28.00
28.00
28.00

J u ly. . .
A u g ...
S e p t...

$28.00
28.00
28.00

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$28.00
28.00
28.00

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar___

$28.00

S T E E L S H E E T S : B la c k , No. 2 7 , B ox a n n e a le d , o n e p a s s th r o u g h c o ld r o l ls .
[Price per pound, in Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
A pr. . .
M a y ...
June...

$0.0250
.0250
.0250

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.0250
.0250
.0250

$0.0250
.0250
.0250

Oct____
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.0250
.0250
.0250

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M a r ___

$0.0250

T IN : P ig .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
A pr. . .
M a y ...
June...

$0.4185
.4250
.4190

$0.4000
.4305
.4150

J u ly ... $0.4275-$0. 4300
A u g ...
.3860- .3900
.3712J
S e p t...

$0.3470
.3060
.3010

Average.

T IN P L A T E S :

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.3875

D o m e s t ic , B e s s e m e r , c o k e , 1 4 b y 2 0 in c h .

[Price per 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
$4.09
4.09
4.09

Apr___
M a y ...
J une...

$409
4.09
4.09

J u ly ...
A ug. . .
S e p t...

$4.09
4.09
4.09

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$4.09
409
4 09

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

$4 0900

T R O W E L S : M . C. O., b r i c k , 1 0 1 -in c h .
[Price per trowel, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.34
.34
.34




Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.34
.34
.34

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$0.34
.34
.34

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$0.34
.34
.34

Average.

$0.34

385

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.

T able I .— W H O LESA LE PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Concluded.
M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S — Concluded.
V IS E S : S o lid b o x , 5 0 -p o u n d .
[Price per vise, in New York, on tlie first of each month.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Price.

Month.

$5.75
5.75
5.75

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Price.
$5.75
5.75
5.75

Month.
J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Price.
$5.75
5.75
5.75

Month.

Price.
$5.75
5.75
5.75

Average.

WOOD

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$5.7500

S C R E W S : 1 -in c h , No. 1 0 , fla t h e a d .

[Price per gross, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

$0.1219
.1219
.1219

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.1219
.1219
.1219

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$0.1219
.1219
1219

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.1219
.1219
.1219

Average.

$0.1219

Z IN C : S h e e t, o r d in a r y n u m b e r s a n d s iz e s , p a c k e d in GOO-pound c a s k s .
[Price per hundred pounds, f. o. b. La Salle, 111., on the first of each month.]
$7.59
7.73
7.82

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$7.91
7.91
7.91

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$7.91
7.68
7.13

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$6.90
6.90
6.44

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$7.4858

D U M B E R A N D B U IL D IN G M A T E R IA L S .
B R I C K : C o m m o n d o m e s tic b u ild in g ;.
[Price per thousand, on dock in New York, from the first to the last of each month.]

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Month.

Price.
$6.0G-S6.50
6.00- 6.75
6.00- 6.75

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Price.
$5.00-$5.50
5.50- 6.25
7.25- 7.75

Month.
J u ly ...
A ug. . .
S e p t...

Price.
$6.25-$6.75
6.00- 7.00
5.75- 6.50

M onth.

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$5.50-16.25
5.50- 6.00
5.25- 5. 75

Average.

Month.

$6.1563

CARBONATES OF L E A D : A m e r ic a n , in o il.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.0735
.0686
.0686

Apr----M a y ...
June...

$0.0711
.0711
.0711

J u ly ...
Aug...
S e p t...

$0.0711
.0711
.0711

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$0.0662
.0662
.0662

Average.

$0.0697

C E M E N T : P o r t la n d , d o m e s tic .
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$1.60-$l. 70
1.60- 1.70
1.60- 1.70

A pr___
M a y ...
June...




$1.60-$l. 70
1.60- 1.70
1.60- 1.70

J u ly ...
Aug...
S e p t...

$1.60-$l. 70
1.70
1.70

Oct........
N ov.___
Dec........

$1.70
1.55
1.55

Average.

$1.6458

3 86

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued,

LUM BER AN D

B U I L D I N G M A T E R I A L S — Continued.
C E M E N T : R o s e n d a le .

[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Month.

Price.
$0.95
.95
.95

Price.

Apr___
M ay...
June...

$0.95
.95
.95

Month.

Price.

J u ly. . .
Aug...
S e p t...

$0.95
.95
.95

Month.

Price.

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$0.95
.95
.95

Average.

$0.9500

D O O R S : W e s t e r n w h it e p in e , 2 fe e t 8 in c h e s b y 6 f e e t 8 in c h e s , lg in c h e s
t h i c k , 5 -p a n e l , No. 1 , O. G.
[Price per door, in Buffalo, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.89
1.89
1.89

Apr___
M ay...
June...

$1.89
1.89
1.89

J u ly. . .
Aug...
S e p t...

$1.89
1.89
1.89

Oct........
N ov.___
Dec........

$1.95
1.95
1.70

. Average.

$1.8842

H E M L O C K : 2 b y 4 in c h , 12 to 1 4 f e e t l o n g , P e n n s y lv a n i a s t o c k .
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber
Trade Journal.]
$22.00-$22.50
22.00- 22.50
22.00- 22.50

Apr—
M ay...
June...

$22.00-$22.50
22.00- 22.50
22.00- 22.50

$22.00-$22.50
22.00- 22.50
22.00- 22.50

J u ly. . .
Aug . . .
S e p t...

Oct........
N ov.___
Dec........

$22.00-$22.50
22.00- 22.50
22.00- 22.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$22.2500

L IM E : E a ste r n , co m m on .
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
$1.02
1.02
1.02

Apr___
M ay...
June...

$1.02
.92
.92

$0.87.87-

J u ly. . .
Aug . . .
S e p t...

$0.87-$0.92
.87- .92
.87- .92

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec........

$0.87-$0.92
.87- .92
1.02- 1.07

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.9492

L IN S E E D O IL : R a w , c it y , in b a r r e l s .
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
$0.41
.41
.41

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.41
.41
.44

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$0.45
.43
.43

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.47
.49
.45

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

$0.4342

M A P L E : H a r d , 1 -in c h , firs ts a n d s e c o n d s , 6 in c h e s a n d up w id e .
[Price per M feet,in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber
Trade Journal.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$30.00-$32.00
30.00- 32.00
32.00- 33.00

Apr___
M a y ...
J u n e ...




$32.00-$33.00
32.00- 33.00
32.00- 33.00

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$32.00-$33.00
32.00- 33.00
32.00- 33.00

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$32.00-$33.00
32.00- 33.00
32.00- 33.00

Average.

$32.2500

387

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907,

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

L U M B E R A N D B U I L D I N G M A T E R I A L S — Continued.
O A K : W h i t e , p la in , 1 -in c h , 6 in c h e s

a n d n p w id e .

[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber
Trade Journal.]

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$50.00-152.00
52.00- 54.00
54.00- 56.00

Apr___
M ay. . .
June...

$54.00-$56.00
58.00- 65.00
55.00- 60.00

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$55.00-$60.00
55.00- 57.00
53.00- 55.00

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$53.00-$55.00
53.00- 55.00
53.00- 55.00

Average.

$55.2083

Price.

O A K : W h i t e , q u a r t e r e d , c le a r a n d g o o d s e c o n d s , 1 -in c h , 6 in c h e s a n d np
w id e , 1 0 to 16 f e e t l o n g .
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber
Trade Journal.]
Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$78.00-$82.00
78.00- 82.00
78.00- 82.00

$78.00-$82.00
78.00- 82.00
78.00- 82.00

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$78.00-$82.00
78.00- 82.00
78.00- 82.00

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$78.00-$82.00
78.00- 82.00
78.00- 82.00

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$80.0000

O X ID E OF Z IN C : A m e r ic a n , e x t r a d r y .
[Price per pound on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter.]
Apr___
M a y ...
J u n e ...

$0.05f J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

$ ° ,S

$0.05§ Oct........
.05|; N o v ___
.05f Dec........

$0.05|

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0.0538

P IN E : W h i t e , b o a r d s , No. 2 b a r n , 1 in c h b y 10 in c h e s w id e , r o u g h .
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber
Trade Journal.]
$36.50-$37.00
36.50- 37.00
36.50- 37.00

Apr___
M a y ...
J u n e ...

$36.50-$37.00
37.50- 38.00
37.50- 38.00-

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$37.50-$38.00
37.50- 38.00
37.50- 38.00

$37.50-$38.00
37.50- 38.00
37.50- 38.00

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$37.4167

P IN E : W h i t e , b o a r d s , u p p e r s , 1 -in c h , 8 in c h e s a n d n p w id e , r o u g h .
[Price [per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber
Trade Journal.]
Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$93.50-$95.50
93.50- 95.50
95.50- 97.50

$95.50-$97.50
96.50- 98.50
96.50- 98.50

J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

Oct........
$96.50-$98.50
96.50- 98.50 ! N o v ___
96.50- 98.50 i Dec........

$97.50-$99.50
97.50- 99.50
97.50- 99.50

1Average.

Jan........
Feb____
M a r . ...

$97.0833

P IN E : Y e ll o w , l o n g l e a f , b o a r d s , h e a r t -f a c e s id in g s , 1 -in c h a n d 1 4 -in c h .
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber
Trade Journal.]
Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$30.00-$31.00
30.00- 31.00
30.00- 31.00




Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$30.00-$31.00
30.00- 31.00
30.00- 31.00

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$30.00-$31.00
Oct___ _
30.00- 31.00 i N o v ___
30.00- 31.00 | Dec........

$30.00-S31.00
30.00- 31.00
30.00- 31.00

Average.

$30.5000

J

388
T

BULLETIN OE TH E BUREAU OE LABOR.

able

I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.
L U M B E R A lN 3> B U I L L E S T G M A T E R I A L S — Continued.

P L A T E G L A SS: P o lis h e d , g l a z i n g a r e a 3 to 5 s q u a r e fe e t .
[Price per square loot, 1. o. b. New York, on the first of each month.}

Month.
Jan........
Feb........
M a r ....

Price.

Price.

Month.
Apr___
M a y .. .
June...

$0.23
.23
.23

Month.

$0.23
.23
.23

Month.

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Pec........

$0.23
.23
.23

Average.

$0.23
.23
.23

J u ly ...
Aug —
S e p t...

Price.

$0.2300

P L A T E G L A SS: P o lis h e d , g la z in g ;, a r e a 5 t o 1 0 s q u a r e f e e t .
[Price per square foot, L o„ b. New York, on the first of each month.]
$0.34
.34
.34

$0.34
.34
.34

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.34
.34
.34

Oct........
N o v ___
Pec........

$0.34
.34
.34

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$0.3400

P O P L A R : Y e ll o w , 1 -in c h , 8 in c h e s a n d u p w id e , fir sts a n d s e c o n d s , r o u g h .
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber
Trade Journal.]
$52.00-$55.00
52.00- 55.00
56.00- 60.00

1

$56.00-$60.00
58.00- 65.00
55.00- 60.00

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$55.00-$60.00
57.00- 62.00
57.00- 62.00

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Oct........
N o v ... .
Pec........

$57.00-$62.00
57.00- 62.00
57.00- 62.00

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$58.0833

P U T T Y : B a lk .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and
Brug Reporter.]
$0.0120
.0120
.0120

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.0120
.0120
.0120

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.0120
.0120
.0120

Oct........
N ov___
P e c .....

$0.0120
.0120
.0120

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M a r . ...

$0.0120

R E S IN : C o m m o n to g o o d , s tr a in e d .
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$4.25
4.45
$4.40- 4.45

$4.50-$4.60
4.80
4.80

July. . .
A u g .. .
S e p t...

$4.40-$4.45
4.50
4.35

O ct........
N o v ----Pec........

$4.20-$4.25
4.20
3.55

Average.

$4.3771

S H IN G L E S: C y p r e s s , a l l h e a r t , 5 a n d 6 in c h e s w id e , 1 6 in c h e s lo n g .
[Price per M, f. o. b. mills, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$3.85
3.85
4.35




Apr___
M ay. . .
June...

$4.35
4.35
4.35

J u ly ...
A u g .. .
S e p t...

$4.35
4.35
4.35

O ct........
N o v ___
Pec........

$4.35
4.10
4.10

Average.

$4.2250

389

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e I * — W H O LESA LE PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

L U M B E R A X 3 > B U I I i B I X G M A T E R I A L S — Concluded.
S H IN G L E S: R e d c e d a r , c le a r s , r a n d o m w id t h , 1 6 in c h e s l o n g .
[Average monthly price at the mills in Washington.]

Month.

Price.
$2.50
2.75
2.75

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Month.
Apr___
M a y ...
June...

Price.

Month.

$2.90
3.00
2.60

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Month.

Price.
$3.00
3.10
3.00

Price.

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$2.75
2.00
2.00

Average.

$2.6958

S P R U C E : 6 to 9 in c h , c a r g o e s .
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber
Trade Journal.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$22.00-428.00
22.00- 28.00
22.00- 28.00

$22.00428.00
22.00- 28.00
22.00- 28.00

July. . .
A u g ...
S e p t...

$22.00428.00
22.00- 28.00
22.00- 28.00

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$20.00422.00
20.00- 22.00
20.00- 22.00

Average.

Apr----M ay. . .
June...

$24.0000

TAR.
[Price per barrel, in Wilmington, N . C., on the first of each month; quotations from the New York
Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$2.35
2.30
2.30

Apr—
M a y ...
June...

J u ly ...
A u g .. .
S e p t...

$2.50
2.50
2.30

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$2.30
2.30
1.60

Average.

$2.80
2.30
2.40

$2.3292

T U R P E N T IN E : S p ir its o f , in m a c h in e b a r r e ls .
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb........
M a r ,....

W IN D O W

Apr----M ay. . .
June...

$0.73 J u ly ...
.67| A u g ...
.64
S e p t...

$0.61
.59
$0.58- .581

G L A S S: A m e r ic a n , s in g le , f ir s t s , 2 5 - i n c h
1 0 b y 1 5 in c h ).

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.55
.54
.4 9

Average.

$0.71
.74
.7 %

$0.6344

bracket

<6 b y

8

to

[Price per 50 square feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and
Drug Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

W IN D O W

A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$2.88
2.88
2.88

J u ly ...
Aug . . .
S e p t.. .

$2.88
O c t ... ,.
2.72 : NOV. . . .
2.72
Dec........

$2.72
2.72
2.72

Average.

$2.88
2.88
2.88

$2.8133

G L A SS: A m e r ic a n , s in g le , th ir d s , 2 5 - i n c h
1 0 b y 1 5 in c h ).

bracket

(6 b y

8 to

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$2.2950
2.2950
2.2950

Apr___
M ay.. .
June...




$2.2950
2.2950
2.2950

f l l

[Price per 50 square feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and
Drug Reporter.]
$2.2950
2.1675
2.1675

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$2.1675
2.1675
2.1675

Average.

$2.2419

390

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

D R U G S A N D C H E M IC A L S .
ALCOHOLS G r a in .
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]

Month.

Month.

Price.

$2.46* Apr___
2.46* M a y ...
2.46* June...

Price.
$2.46*
2.46*
2.63

Month.

Month.

Price.

J u ly ...
A u g...
Sep t.. .

Oct........
N o v .. . .
Dec........

$2.59
2.61
2.63

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$2.53
2.53
2.53

Price.

$2.5229

A L C O H O L : W o o d , r e fin e d , 9 5 p e r c e n t.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil; Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.40
.40
.40

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.40
.40
.40

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.40
.40
.40

O ct........
N ov. . . .
Dec........

$0.40
.40
.39

Average.

$0.3992

ALUM: Lum p.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
$0.0175
.0175
.0175

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.0175
.0175
.0175

J u ly ...
Aug
S e p t...

$0.0175
.0175
.0175

O ct........
N o v .. . .
Dec........

$0.0175
.0175
.0175

Average.

Jan........
F e b ....
Mar.......

$0.0175

BRIMSTONES: C ru d e , s e c o n d s .
[Price per ton, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......

$22.50
22.12*
22.12*

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$22.12*
22.12*
22.12*

J u ly ...
Aug . . .
S e p t...

$22.12*
22.12*
22.12*

Oct........
N o v .. . .
Dec........

$19.50
19.50
19.50

Average.

$21.4983

G L Y C E R IN : R e fin e d , c h e m ic a l l y p a r e , in b a l k .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

$0.11|
.12
.13

A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$0.13 J u ly ...
.13* A u g ...
.13* S e p t...

$0.13f O ct........
. 14* N o v ___
.14* Dec........
Average.

M U R IA T IC A C ID : 2 0 ° .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

$0.0135
.0135
.0135




A p r.. . .
M a y ...
June...

$0.0135
.0135
.0135

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.0135
.0135
.0135

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.0135
.0135
.0135

Average.

$0.0135

391

WHOLESALE PBICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T able I .—W H O L E SA L E PBICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.
D R U G S AN TD C H E M IC A J L S — Concluded.
OPIUM : N a tu r a l, in. c a s e s .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.
$4.00
4.00
3.80

A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

Month.

Price.

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$4.75
7.00
7.00

Month.

Price.

$3.55
3.55
3.45

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$6.50
6.25
5.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.—

$4.9458

Q U IN IN E: A m e r ic a n , in 1 0 0 -o u n c e tin s .
[Price per ounce, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$0.19
.22
.21

$0.19
.18
.18

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.16
.16
.16

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.16
.16
.16

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M a r .....

$0.1775

SULPHURIC ACID: 60°.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$0.0100
.0100
.0100

$0.0100
.0100
.0100

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.0100
.0100
.0100

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.0100
.0100
.0100

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.___

$0.0100

H O U S E F U R N IS H IN G G O O D S.
E A R T H E N W A R E : P la t e s , c r e a m -c o lo r e d , 7 -in c h .
[Price per dozen, f . o. b. Trenton, N. J., on the first of each month.]
Month.

Month.

Price.

A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$0.4410
.4410
.4410

Month.
J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Price.
$0.4410
.4410
.4410

Month.

Price.

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.4410
.4410
.4410

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M a r .....

$0.4410
.4410
.4410

Price.

$0.4410

EARTHENWARE: P la t e s , w h it e gran ite, 7 -in c h .
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. Trenton, N. J., on the first of each month.]
A p r.. . .
M a y ....
J une...

$0.4586
.4586
.4586

$0.4586
.4586
.4586

J u ly ...
A u g ....
Sept. . .

$0.4586
.4586
. 4586

Oct........
Nov.___
Dec........

$0.4586
.4586
.4586

Average.

Jan*.___
Feb........
M ar.___

$0.4586

E A R T H E N W A R E : T e a c u p s a n d s a u c e r s , w h it e g r a n it e , w it h h a n d le s .
[Price per gross (6 dozen cups and 6 dozen saucers), f. o. b. Trenton, N. J., on the first of each month.]

j

$3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

A p r ....
M a y ....
J une...

37691— No. 75— 08------8




$3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

J uly....
A u g ....
S e p t...

$3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

Oct........
Nov.___
Dec........

$3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar. —

$3.3869

392

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

H O U S E F U R N I S H I N G G O O D S —Continued.
F U R N IT U R E : B e d r o o m

s e ts , a s h , 3 p ie c e s , b e d s te a d , b u r e a u , a n d w a s h s ta n d .

[Price per set, in New York, on the first of each month.]

Month.

Month.

Price.

A p r ....
M a y ....
June...

Price.
$14.50
14.50
14.50

Month.
J u ly ....
A u g ....
S e p t...

Price.

Price.

$14.50
14.50
14.50

Oct........
Nov.___
Dec........

$14.50
14.50
14.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

$14.50
14.50
14.50

Month.

$14.5000

F U R N IT U R E : C h a ir s , b e d r o o m , m a p le , c a n e s e a t.
[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

A p r ....
M a y ....
June...

$10.00
10.00
10.00

J u ly ....
A u g ....
S e p t...

$10.00
10.00
10.00

Oct........
Nov.___
Dec........

$10.00
10.00
10.00

Average.

$10.00
10.00
10.00

$10.0000

F U R N IT U R E : C h a ir s , k it c h e n , c o m m o n s p in d le .
[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month.]
A p r.. . .
M a y ....
June...

$5.50
5.50
5.50

$5.50
5.50
6.00

J uly....
A u g ....
S e p t...

$6.00
6.00
6.00

O ct........
N ov.___
D e c .....

$6.00
6.00
6.00

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar.___

$5.7917

F U R N IT U R E : T a b le s , k it c h e n , 3 | -fo o t .
[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month.]
$18.00
18.00
18.00

A p r.. . .
M a y ....
J une...

$18.00
18.00
18.00

J u ly ....
A u g ....
Sept. . .

$18.00
18.00
18.00

O ct........
N ov.___
Dec........

$18.00
18.00
18.00

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M a r .....

$18.0000

G L A S S W A R E : N a p p ie s , 4 -i n c h .
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. factory, on the first of each month.]
$0.14
.14
.14

A p r. . .
M a y ...
June...

$0.14
.14
.14

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.14
.14
.14

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.14
.14
.14

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$0.1400

G L A S S W A R E : P itc h e r s , o n e -h a l f g a l lo n , c o m m o n .
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. factory, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
M a r . ...

$1.05
1.05
1.05




A pr. . .
M a y ...
June...

$1.05
1.05
1.05

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$1.05
1.05
1.05

Oct........
N o v .. . .
Dec........

$1.05
1.05
1.05

Average.

$1.0500

393

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e I . — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

H O U S E F U R N I S H I N G G O O D S — Concluded.
GLASSW ARES: T u m b le r s , t a b le , o n e -t h ir d

p in t, c o m m o n .

[Price per dozen, f. o. b. factory, on the first of each month.]

Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.

Price.

July. . .
A u g ...
S e p t...

Month.

Price.

$0.15
.15
.15

$0.15
.15
.15

$0.15
.15
.15

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.15
.15
.15

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M a r . ...

A p r. . .
M a y ...
June...

Month.

$0.1500

TABLES CUTLESRY: C a r v e r s , s t a g h a n d le s .
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb........
M a r . ...

A p r .. .
M a y ...
June...

$0.75
.75
.75

$0.75
.75
.75

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.85
.85
.85

Average.

TABLES CUTLESRY: K n i v e s

$0.85
.85
.85

$0.80

a n d f o r k s , c o c o b o lo h a n d le s , m e t a l b o ls t e r s .

[Price per gross on the first of each month.]
A p r .. .
M a y ...
June...

$6.30
6.30
6.30

$6.60
6.60
6.60

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$6.60
6.60
6.60

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$6.60
6.35
6.35

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar____

$6.4833

WOODESN W AR ES: P a ils , o a k -b r a i n e d , 3 -h o o p , w ir e

ear.

[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
A p r. . .
M a y ...
June...

$1.70
1.70
1.95

$1.95
1.95
1.95

July. . .
A u g ...
S e p t...

$1.95
2.10
2.10

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$2.10
2.10
2.10

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M a r .. . .

$1.9708

WOODESN W AR ES: T a b s , o a k -g r a i n e d , 3 in n e s t.
[Price per nest of 3, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
A p r ....
M a y ...
June...

$1.45
1.45
1.60

$1.60
1.60
1.60

J u ly .. .
A u g ...
Sept.. .

$1.65
1.65
1.65

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$1.65
1.65
1.65

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar___

$1.60

M IS C E E I1 A J N E O U S .
COTTON-SESESD MESAL.
[Price per ton of 2,000 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
M a r .....

Price.
$29.60
28.60
28.35

Month.
A p r ....
M a y .. .
June...




Price.
$27.60
26.60
27.60

Month.
J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Price.
$28.85
28.35
29.10

Month.

Price.

O ct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$30.10
30.10
29.60

Average.

$28.7042

394

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I , — W H O L E SA L E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Continued.

M I S C E I i X i A N E O U S — Continued.
C O T T O N -S E E D

O IL : S u m m e r y e l l o w , p r im e .

[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Month.
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

Month.

Price.

Price.

Month.

$0.46$
.481

$0.40j! A p r.. . .
. 43J! M ay. . .
.48* June...

Price.
$0.58
.57
.56*

J u ly ...
A u g ...
Sept.. .

Month.

Price.

t r ia n g l e ,

s h ip m e n t,

10.52
.38
.38*

Average.

J U T E : R a w , M -d o u b le

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.4869

m e d iu m

grad es.

[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.] '
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0,061 Apr___
.051 M a y ...
.051 June...

$0,051
.051
.05

$0.05
.041
.04

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

10 i §

Average.

$0.0486

M ALT: W estern m ade.
[Price per bushel, in New York, on the last of each month; quotations from the Brewers7 Journal.]
$0.71-$0.81
.74- .84
.90- 1.00

A p r.. . .
M a y ...
June...

$0.90-$l. 00
1.00- 1.12
1.00- 1.10

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$1.00-$l. 05
1.00- 1.05
1.13- 1.15

Oct........
N ov___
Dec........

$1.22-$l. 27
1.17- 1.25
1.17- 1.25

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
M ar------

$1.0346

P A P E R : N e w s, w o o d .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........ $0.0225-$0.0250
Feb........ .0200- .0225
M ar.—
.0200- .0225

A p r.. . . $0.0245-$0.0265
M a y ...
.0245- .0265
June... .0245- .0265

J u ly ... $0.0245-$0.0265
A u g ... .0245- .0265
S e p t... .0245- .0265

Oct........ $0.0255-$0.0275
N o v ___
.0255- .0275
Dec........
.0255- .0275
Average.

$0.0249

P A P E R : W r a p p i n g , m a n ila , No. 1, j n t e .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
$0.05
.05
.05

Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.05
.05
.05

J u ly ...
Aug.. .
S e p t...

$0.05
.05
.05

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0,051

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.0506

P R O O F S P IR IT S.
[Price per gallon, including tax, in -Peoria, 111., weekly range; quotations furnished by the secretary
of the Peoria Board of Trade.]
Jan........

Feb........

M a r .....

$1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29




Apr___

M a y ...

June...

$1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
1.29
$1.29-1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31

J u ly ...

Aug.. .

S e p t...

$1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.31
1.32
1.32
1.34
1.34

Oct........

N o v ------

Dec........

Average.

$1.34
1.34
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
$1.3133

395

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
T able

I .—W H O LE SA LE PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907— Concluded.
M I S C E L L A N E O U S — Concluded.
R O P E ; M a n ila , ^ - i n c h

and la r g e r .

[Price per pound, f. o. b. New York or factory, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]

Month.

Price.

Month.

$0.13-10.13*
.13- .13*
.13- .13*

Month.
J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.13 -$ 0 .13* Oct........
.13 - . 13* N o v ___
.12*- .12| Dec........

$0.12*-$0.12f
.11*- .12*
.11*- .12

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.12*-$0. 13 Apr___
. 13 - . 13§ M a y ...
. 1 3 - .13* June...

Price

$0.1290

R U B B E R : P a r a I s la n d , n e w .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Apr----M a y ...
June...

$1.18
$1.18- 1.19
1.18- 1.19

$1.15
1.14
1.09

J u ly ...
A ug. . .
Sept. . .

$1. 04r-$l. 05
1.06*
1.03

Oct___ _
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.99*
$0.91- .92
.78

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$1.0633

SO A P: C a s tile , m o ttle d , p u r e .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Apr—
M a y ...
June...

$0.0650
.0650
.0650

$0.0650
.0650
.0600

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.0700
.0700
.0700

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.0700
.0700
.0700

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.0671

S T A R C H : L a u n d r y , A n s tin , N ic h o ls & C o., 4 0 -p o u n d b o x e s , in b u lk .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
$0.03f
.04
.04

Apr----M a y ...
June...

$0.04
.04
.04

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.04
.04
.04

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.04*

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.0404

TO B A C C O : P lu g , C lim a x .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
$0.47
.47
.47

Apr___
M ay. . .
June...

$0.47
.47
.47

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.47
.47
.47

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.47
.47
.47

Average.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.47

TO B A C C O : S m ok in g :, g r a n u la t e d , S e a l o f N o rth C a r o lin a .
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
Jan........
Feb........
Mar........

$0.60
.60
.60




Apr___
M a y ...
June...

$0.60
.60
.60

J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...

$0.60
.60
.60

Oct........
N o v ___
Dec........

$0.60
.60
.60

Average.

$0.60

396

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able

I I , — M ONTHLY

AC TU A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES
IN 1907 AN D B A SE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899).

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 325 to 328. For a more detailed description
of the articles, see Table I. Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Farm products.

Month.

Barley: by
sample.

Cattle: steers, Cattle: steers,
choice to extra. good to choice.

Com: No. 2,
cash.

Price
per
bushel.

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
Price
per 100 tive
lbs.
price.

Rela­
Price
per 100 tive
lbs.
price.

Price
Rela­
per
tive
bushel. price.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.4534
Jan..............................
.5425
Feb..............................
.5913
Mar.............................
.6945
A pr.............................
.7069
M ay.............................
.7790
June............................
.7450
July.............................
.6613
A ug.............................
.7010
Sept............................
.9125
O ct..............................
1.0313
N ov.............................
.8670
Bee..............................
.9700
.7663
Average, 1907............

100.0
119.7
130.4
153.2
155.9
171.8
164.3
145.9
154.6
201.3
227.5
191.2
213.9
169.0

$5.3203
6.6375
6.6188
6.4550
6.4000
6.1650
6.7438
7.0188
6.9950
6.7500
6.7250
6.2600
5.8375
6.5442

$4 7347
5.7000
5.9125
5.7300
5.8375
5.6550
6.2063
6.3250
6.1800
5.8938
5.8313
5.4000
5.1438
5.8120

$0.3804
.4123
.4344
.4413
.4678
.5303
.5332
.5408
.5654
.6163
.6183
.5856
.5925
.5280

Flaxseed:
No. 1.

100.0
124.8
124.4
121.3
120.3
115.9
126.8
131.9
131.5
126.9
126.4
117.7
109.7
123.0

H a y: timothy,
No. 1.

Month.
Rela­
Price
Rela­
Price
per
tive per ton. tive
bushel. price.
price.
Average,1890-1899.. $1.1132
1.1500
Jan..............................
1.1950
Feb..............................
Mar.............................. 1.2050
1.1650
A p r.............................
1.1750
M ay............................
June............................
1.3175
July............................. 1.2525
A ug.............................
1.1475
Sept............................. 1.1850
O ct..............................
1.2000
N o v ............................. 1.1300
Bee.............................. 1.0475
Average, 1907............ 1.1808

100.0 $10.4304
103.3 15.5000
107.3 16.2500
108.2 16.0000
104.7 16.4000
105.6 17.6250
118.4 20.0000
112.5 18.4000
103.1 19.0000
106.4 17.0625
107.8 16.6500
101.5 15.3125
94.1 15.6000
106.1 16.9387

Hops: N .Y .,
choice.
Month.

100.0
148.6
155.8
153.4
157.2
169.0
191.7
176.4
182.2
163.6
159.6
146.8
149.6
162.4

Oats: cash.

100.0
120.4
124.9
121.0
123.3
119.4
131.1
133.6
130.5
124.5
123.2
1141
108.6
122.8

Hides: green,
salted, pack­
ers, heavy na­
tive steers.

Cotton: upland,
middling.
Price
per
pound.

100.0 $0.07762
108.4
.10860
114.2
.11025
116.0
.11163
123.0
.11130
139.4
.12025
140.2
.13050
142.2
.13160
148.6
.13338
162.0
.12688
162.5
.11530
15a 9
.11025
155.8
.11790
138.8
.11879

Hogs: light.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
Rela­
per 100 tive
lbs.
price.

Price
per 100
lbs.

$0.0987
.1627
.1620
.1531
.1441
.1437
.1488
.1472
.1411
.1411
.1470
.1364
.1185
.1455

100.0
173.6
172.9
163.4
153.8
153.4
158.8
157.1
150.6
150.6
156.9
145.6
126.5
155.3

$4.4123
6.5925
7.0313
6.6469
6.6225
6.3281
6.0813
5.8875
5.9813
5.9938
6.2350
5.0063
4.6500
6.0795

$4.4206
6.5775
6.9906
6.7063
6.6675
6.4531
6.1969
6.2000
6.3688
6.4063
6.4475
5.0594
4.6550
6.2163

100.0
149.4
159.4
150.6
150.1
143.4
137.8
133.4
135.6
135.8
141.3
113.5
105.4
137.8

Sheep: native.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
bushel.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
bushel.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
100 lbs.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
100 lbs.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.1771
.2200
Jan..............................
.2200
Feb..............................
.2200
Mar.............................
.1950
A p r..............................
.1550
M ay.............................
.1550
June............................
.1550
July.............................
.1550
Aug.............................
.1450
Sept............................
.1300
Oct..............................
.1700
N ov.............................
.1650
Bee..............................
.1738
Average, 1907...........

100.0
124.2
124.2
124.2
110.1
87.5
87.5
87.5
87.5
81.9
7a 4
96.0
9a 2
9& 1

$0.2688
.3483
.3919
.4085
.4328
.4619
.4463
.4358
.4881
.5321
.5170
.4679
.4966
.4501

ioao

$0.5288
.6180
.6706
.6738
.6910
.7950
.8675
.8540
.7763
.8813
.8445
.7825
.7845
.7688

100.0
li a 9
12a 8
127.4
130.7
150.3
1641
161.5
14a 8
16a 7
159.7
148.0
14a 4
14a 4

$3.7580
5.0050
a 0938
5.3375
a 6150
5.4500
a 4688
a 1150
5.0625
a 1563
4 7400
a 4375
a 4200
4 8962

100.0
13a 2
13a 5
142.0
149.4
14a 0
14a 5
13a i
134 7
137.2
12a 1
91.5
91.0
130.3

$a9541
4 9550
5.0000
a 2625
a 6150
a 4375
a 4688
a 1150
a 0938
a 1563
4 7750
a 4375
a 4200
48835




Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
148.8
158.1
151.7
150.8
146.0
140.2
140.3
144.1
1449
14a 9
114.5
105.3
140.6

Sheep:
western.

Price
per
pound.

129.6
145.8
152.0
161.0
171.8
16d 0
162.1
181.6
198.0
192.3
1741
184 7
167.4

100.0
139.9
142.0
143.8
143.4
1549
168.1
169.5
171.8
16a 5
148.5
142.0
151.9
153.0

Hogs: heavy.

Price
per
pound.

R ye: No. 2,
cash.

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
12a 3
12a 5
13a 1
142.0
137.5
138.3
129.4
12& 8
13a 4
120.8
sa 9
sa 5
12a 5

397

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 190*7.

T a b l e I I . — M O N T H L Y ACTU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES O F COM M ODITIES

IN 1907 A N D B A S E PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.J
Farm products.

Month.

Wheat: regu­
lar grades,
cash.

Food, etc.
Beans: me­
dium, choice.

1

Bread: crack­ Bread: crackers, Boston, j ers, soda.
!
!

Bread: loaf
(Wash,
market).

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
bushel.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Price
Rela­ per lb. Rela­
tive
tive
before
price. baking. price.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.7510 100.0
.7290
97.1
Jan..............................
.7946 105.8
Feb........................ .
.7884 105.0
Mar.............................
.8106 107.9
Apr.............................
. 9588 127.7
May.............................
.9676 128.8
June............................
.9650 128.5
July.............................
. 9292 . 123.7
Aug.............................
Sept............................. 1.0.04 , 134.5
1.0425 138.8
Oct..............................
N ov.............................
.9346 124.4
.9638 128.3
Dec..............................
.9073 120.8
Average, 1907............

$1.6699
1.5500
1.5000
1.5000
1.4625
1 .4 5 0 0
1.8500
1.7000
1.6500
1.8125
2.3000
2.2625
2.2875
1.7771

100.0
92.8
89.8
89.8
87.6
86.8
110.8
101.8
98.8
108.5
137.7
135.5
137.0
107.4

$0.0673
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0 9 0 0
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900

100.0
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7

$0.0718
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0 6 5 0
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650

100.0
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
9 0 .5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5

Priee
per
bushel.

$0.0354
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6

Food, etc.
Bread: loaf,
Bread: loaf, Butter: cream­ Butter: cream­ Butter: dairy,
homemade
ery, Elgin
Vienna
ery, extra
New York
(N. Y . market). (N. Y . market). (Elgin market). (N .Y . market).
State.
Month.
Price
Price
per
Rela­
Rela­
per
pound
pound
tive
tive
before price. before price.
baking.
baking.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0317
.0376
Jan..............................
.0376
Feb..............................
.0376
Mar.............................
Apr..............................
.0376
.0376
M ay.............................
.0376
June............................
July.............................
.0376
A ug.............................
.0376
Sept............................
.0376
Oct..............................
.0376
.0376.
N ov.............................
Dec..............................
.0376
.0376
Average, 1907...........

100.0
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6

Cheese: N. Y .,
full cream.
Month.

$0.0352
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
. 0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400

100.0
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6

Coffee: Rio,
No. 7.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

$0.2170
.3063
.3275
.3075
.3000
.2375
.2313
.2450
.2490
.2813
.2888
.2625
.2830
.2761

100.0
141.2
150.9
141.7
138.2
109.4
106.6
112.9
114.7
129.6
133.1
121.0
130.4
127.2

$0.2242
.3145
.3325
.3144
.3080
.2525
.2425
.2543
.2475
.2750
.2860
.2713
.2885
.2830

100.0
140.3
148.3
140.2
137.4
112.6
108.2
113.4
110.4
122.7
127.6
121.0
128.7
126.2

$0.2024
.2730
.2988
.2963
.2910
.2444
.2331
.2420
.2400
.2650
.2790
.2631
.2740
.2671

Eggs: new-laid, Fish: cod, dry,
fancy, near-by.
bank, large.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
dozen.

Rela­
Rela­
Price
per
tive
tive
price. quintal. price.

Price
per
barrel.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0987
.1450
Jan..............................
.1469
Feb..............................
.1475
M a r ...;......................
.1500
Apr..............................
.1360
M ay.............................
.1188
June............................
July.............................
.1235
Aug..............................
.1219
.1366
Sept............................
O ct..............................
.1575
N ov.............................
.1500
Dec..............................
.1565
.1414
Average, 1907............

100.0
146.9
148.8
149.4
152.0
137.8
120.4
125.1
123.5
138.4
159.6
152.0
158.6
143.3

$0.1313
.0713
.0694
.0725
.0700
.0675
.0650
.0631
.0650
.0631
.0644
.0600
.0588
.0658

100.0
54.3
52.9
55.2
53.3
51.4
49.5
48.1
49.5
48.1
49.0
45.7
44.8
50.1

$0.1963
.3160
.2938
.2088
.1930
.1919
.1869
.2165
.2588
.2763
.3340
.4288
.4020
.2771

100.0
161.0
149.7
106.4
98.3
97.8
95.2
110.3
131.8
140.8
170.1
218.4
204.8
141.2

$5.5849
8.0000
8.0000
8.0000
8.0000
8.0000
8.0000
8.0000
7.3750
7.3750
7.3750
7.3750
7.3750
7.7396

$3.7763
6.0000
6.0000
6.0000
6.0000
6.0000
6.0000
6.0000
(a)
(«)
6.5000
6.5000
6.5000
6.1500




a No quotation for month.

100.0
134.9
147.6
346.4
143.8
120.8
115.2
119.6
118.6
130.9
137.8
130.0
135^4
132.0

Fish: herring,
shore, round.

Price
per
pound.

100.0
143.2
143.2
143.2
143.2
143.2
143.2
143.2
132.1
132.1
132.1
132.1
132.1
138.6

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
158.9
158.9
158.9
158.9
158.9
158.9
158.9
172.1
172.1
172.1
162.9

398
T

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,
I I — M O N T H L Y AC T U A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES
IN 1907 A N D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R 1890-1899)— Continued.

able

[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Food, etc.

Month.

Fish: mack­
erel, salt,
large 3s.
Price
per
barrel.

Average, 1890-1899..
Jan..............................
Feb..............................
Mar.............................
Apr..............................
M ay.............................
June............................
July.............................
A ug.............................
Sept.............................
O ct..............................
N o v .............................
Dec..............................
Average, 1907............

$14.1306
17.0000
16.5000
16.0000
12.0000
12.0000
12.5000
12.5000
12.5000
13.0000
14.0000
14.5000
14.5000
13.9167

Fish: salmon,
canned.

Flour: buck­
wheat.

Flour: rye.

Flour: wheat,
spring patents.

Rela­
Rela­
Price
per
tive
tive
price. 12 cans. price.

Price
per
100 lbs.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
barrel.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
barrel.

100.0
120.3
116.8
113.2
84.9
84.9
88.5
88.5
88.5
92.0
99.1
102.6
102.6
98.5

$1.9428
2.2500
2.1750
2.1000
2.1500

100.0
115.8
112.0
108.1
110.7

$3.3171
3.9750
3.9250
3.9000
3.8500
3.9500
5.0500
5.0750
4.9250
4.8250
5.1750
5.2000
5.3750
4.6021

100.0
119.8
118.3
117.6
116.1
119.1
152.2
153.0
148.5
145.5
156.0
156.8
162.0
138.7

$4.2972
4.0850
4.2500
4.1500
4.1700
4.8188
5.0625
5.1350
5.0313
5.3063
5.5800
5.4438
5.4600
4.8755

$1.4731
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750

1.6500
(a)
1.6500

n

(«)
1.6679

100.0
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
112.0

(a)
(a)

112.0

n

113.2

3.0000
3.2000
3.1250
2.5714

(a)

154.4
164.7
160.9
132.4

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
95.1
98.9
96.6
97.0
112.1
117.8
119.5
117.1
123.5
129.9
126.7
127.1
113.5

Flour: wheat,
winter
straights.

Fruit: apples,
evaporated,
choice.

Fruit: apples,
sun-dried.

Price
per
barrel.

Rela­
Price
per
tive
pound. price.

Price
R es­
per
tive
pound. price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

$0.0515
.0675
.0650
.0638
.0600
.0600
.0600

100.0
131.1
126.2
123.9
116.5
116.5
116.5

•
.0700
.0638

135.9
123.9

$0.0375
.0725
.0756
.0744
.0731
.0681
.0688
.0700
.0688
.0663
.0688
.0688
.0681
.0703

100.0
193.3
201.6
198.4
194.9
181.6
183.5
186.7
183.5
176.8
183.5
183.5
181.6
187.5

$0.0774
.0575
.0563
.0556
.0531
.0500
.0575
.0613
.0625
.0663
.0650
.0650
.0819
.0593

100.0
74.3
72.7
71.8
68.6
64.6
74.3
79.2
80.7
85.7
84.0
84.0
80.0
76.6

Month.

Average, 1890-1899.. $3.8450
Jan..............................
3.3050
Feb.............................. 3.3438
M a r ............................
3.3250
A p r ............................
3.3350
M ay............................. 3.9750
June............................
4.2750
July............................. 4.2900
A u g ............................
4.0875
Sept............................
4.2375
O ct..............................
4.5950
4.5500
Nov ..........................
Dec.............................. 4.5100
Average, 1907...........
3.9877

Rela­
tive
price.

100.0 $0.0847
86.0.0838
87.0
.0844
86.5
.0825
86.7
.0700
103.4
.0725
111.2
.0725
111.6
.0800
106.3
.0825
110.2
.0900
119.5
.0975
118.3
.0963
117.3
.1000
103.7
.0843

Fruit: raisins,
California,
London layer.

100.0
98.9
99.6
97.4
82.6
85.6
85.6
94.5
97.4
106.3
115.1
113.7
118.1
99.5

Glucose.

Lard: prime
contract.

Fruit: cur­
rants, in
barrels.

Meal: com,
fine white.

Fruit: prunes,
California.

Meal: com,
fine yellow.

Month.
Price
per
box.
Average, 1890-1899.. $1.5006
Jan.............................. 1.5000
Feb.............................. 1.4000
Mar.............................
1.4000
A p r.............................
1.5500
M ay............................. 1.5750
June............................
1.5750
July............................. 1.5750
A u g.............................
1.8000
Sept............................
1.8000
Oct..............................
1.8000
N o v ............................. 1.8000
D ec.............................. 1.7500
Average, 1907...........
1.6271

Rela­
Price
tive
per
price. 100 lbs.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
100 lbs.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
100 lbs.

100.0 5$1.4182
100.0
2.1100
93.3
2.1100
93.3
2.1100
103.3
2.1100
105.0
2.1100
105.0
2.2850
105.0
2.2850
120.0
2.2850
120.0
2.3850
120.0
2.3800
120.0
2.4800
116.6
2.4800
108.4
2.2608

100.0
148.8
148.8
148.8
148.8
148.8
161.1
161.1
161.1
168.2
167.8
174.9
174.9
159.4

$0.0654
.0976
.1005
.0943
.0904
.0936
.0904
.0911
.0919
.0923
.0931
.0864
.0835
.0920

100.0
149.2
153.7
144.2
138.2
143.1
138.2
139.3
140.5
141.1
142.4
132.1
127.7
140.7

$1.0486
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.2625
1.3250
1.3500
1.3000
1.4000
1.5875
1.5400
1.3250
1.3575

100.0
124.0
124.0
124.0
124.0
120.4
126.4
128.7
124.0
133.5
151.4
146.9
126.4
129.5

$1.0169
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.2625
1.3250
1.3500
1.3000
1.4000
1.5875
1.5400
1.3250
1.3575

a No quotation for month.




&
Average lor 1893-1899.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
124.2
130.3
132.8
127.8
137.7
156.1
151.4
130.3
m 5

399

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e I I . — M O N T H L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES

IN 1907 A N D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Food, etc.

Month.

Meat: bacon,
short clear
sides.

Meat: bacon,
short rib sides.

Meat: beef,
fresh, native
sides.

Meat: beef,
salt, extra
mess.

Meat: beef,
salt, hams,
western.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
barrel.

Rela­
tive
price.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0675
.0981
Jan..............................
.1028
Feb..............................
Mar..............................
.0997
.0961
A p r.............................
.0978
M ay............................
.0953
June............................
.0939
July.............................
.0944
Aug.............................
Sept............................
.0953
.0956
Oct..............................
N ov.............................
.0931
.0850
Dec..............................
.0954
Average, 1907...........

100.0
145.3
152.3
147.7
142.4
144.9
141.2
139.1
139.9
141.2
141.6
137.9
125.9
141.3

$0.0656
.0946
.0991
.0950
.0924
.0944
.0928
.0914
.0919
.0916
.0918
.0888
.0811
.0919

100.0
1442
151.1
1448
140.9
143.9
141.5
139.3
140.1
139.6
139.9
135.4
123.6
140.1

$0.0771
.0815
.0806
.0800
.0833
.0857
.0919
.0950
.0963
.0928
.0940
.0935
.0870
.0884

100.0
105.7
104 5
103.8
108.0
111.2
119.2
123.2
1249
120.4
121.9
121.3
112.8
114 7

$8.0166
a 8750
9.2500
9.7500
9.7500
9.7500
9.7500
9.7500
9.7500
10.0000
10.2500
10.2500
10.6250
9.8173

100.0 $18.0912
110.7 24 2500
115.4 24 6250
121.6 25.0000
121.6 25.0000
121.6 25.0000
121.6 25.0000
121*. 6 25.0000
121.6 26.2500
124 7 28.5000
127.9 28.8000
127.9 29.0000
132.5 26.4000
122.5 26.0519

Meat: hams,
smoked.
Month.

Meat: mutton,
dressed.

Meat: pork,
salt, mess, old
to new.

Milk: fresh.

Price
per
barrel.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
barrel.

Rela­
tive
pi;ice.

Price
per
quart.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
gallon.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0984
.1313
Jan..............................
Feb..............................
.1363
.1344
Mar.............................
A p r.............................
.1338
.1372
M a y ............................
.1353
June............................
.1348
J u lv............................
.1350
A u g ............................
Sept............................
.1313
.1295
Oct..............................
.1222
Nov.............................
Dec............. ...............
.1068
Average, 1907............
.1303

100.0
133.4
138.5
136.6
136.0
139.4
137.5
137.0
137.2
133.4
131.6
124.2
108.5
132.4

$0.0754
.0860
.0850
.0906
.0995
.1038
.0969
.0810
.0838
.0825
.0830
.0825
.0785
.0875

100.0 $11.6332
114.1 18.0000
112.7 18.7500
120.2 18.1875
132.0 17.7750
137.7 18.0000
128.5 18.0625
107.4 18.2500
111.1 18.1250
109.4 17.7500
110.1 17.1500
109.4 16.0313
1041 15.1250
116.0 17.5684

100.0
154.7
161.2
156.3
152.8
154.7
155.3
156.9
155.8
152.6
147.4
137.8
130.0
151.0

$0.0255
.0375
.0350
.0325
.0325
.0287
.0250
.0263
.0309
.0338
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0335

100.0
147.1
137.3
127.5
127.5
112.5
98.0
103.1
121.2
132.5
156.9
156.9
156.9
131.4

$0.3151
.4250
.4250
.3750
.3750
.3750
.4250
.4250
.4250
.4250
.4250
.4250
.3800
.4088

Month.

Salt: Amer­
ican.

Soda: bicar­
bonate of,
American.

Spices: nut­
megs.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
barrel.

Price
Rela­
per
tive
price. pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0561
.0463
Jan..............................
.0463
Feb..............................
.0463
Mar.............................
Apr..............................
.0463
M ay.............................
.0463
.0525
June............................
.0525
July.............................
A u g.............................
.0613
Sept.............................
.0613
Oct..............................
.0613
.0600
N ov.............................
.0600
Dec..............................
.0534
Average, 1907............

100.0
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
9a 6
9a 6
109.3
109.3
109.3
107.0
107.0
95.2

$0.7044
.8000
.8000
.8000
.8500
.8500
.8500
.7600
.7180
.7300
.7450
.7960
.8200
.7931

100.0
113.6
na6
113.6
120.7
120.7
120.7
107.9
101.9
103.6
105.8
uao
116.4
112.6

100.0
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2

$0.4322
.1550
.1475
.1475
.1513
.1475
.1475
.1325
.1375
.1338
.1288
.1263
.1213
.1397

100.0
35.9
34.1
341
35.0
341
341
30.7
31.8
31.0
29.8
29.2
28.1
32.3

$0.0749
.1063
.1063
.1063
.1063
.1013
.0988
.0944
.0981
.0981
.0963
.0919
.0888
.0994




Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
134.9
1349
119.0
119.0
ll9 .0
134.9
134.9
134.9
134 9
134 9
134 9
120.6
129.7

Spices: pepper,
Singapore.

Price
per
pound.

$0.0209
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130

100.0
1340
136.1
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
145.1
157.5
159.2
160.3
145.9
144.0

Molasses: New
Orleans, open
kettle.

Price
per
pound.

Rice: domes­
tic, choice.

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
141.9
141.9
141.9
141.9
135.2
131.9
126.0
131.0
131.0
128.6
122.7
118.6
132.7

400

BULLETIN OF T H E BUBEAU OF LABOB,

Table I I .—M O N T H L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OP COMMODITIES
IN 1907 A N D B A S E PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Food, etc.

Month.

Starch: pure
com.
Price
per
pound.

Sugar: 89° fair
refining.

Rela­
tive
price.

Average, 1890-1899.. 10.0548
Jan..............................
.0600
Feb..............................
.0600
M ar.............................
.0600
A p r.............................
.0600
M ay............................
.0600
June............................
.0600
July............................
.0600
A u g.............................
.0600
Sept............................
.0600
Oct..............................
.0600
.0600
N o v .............................
Dec..............................
.0600
Average, 1907............
.0600

Price
per
pound.

100.0 $0.03398
109.5
.03010
109.5
.02910
109.5
.03025
109.5
.03210
109.5
.03355
109.5
.03289
.03361
109.5
.03388
109.5
.03443
109.5
109.5
.03420
.03256
109.5
.03294
109.5
109.5
.03251

Tea: Formosa,
fine.

Rela­
tive
price.

Sugar: 96°
centrifugal.
Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Tallow.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

100.0 $0.04727
90.9
.04598
88.1
.04538
91.1
.04550
.04613
95.9
99.6
.04750
97.9
.04850
.04763
99.8
101.2
.04650
.04650
101.9
101.3
.04650
97.1
.04613
98.1
.04550
97.0
.04651

100.0 $0.03869
.03516
88.8
85.6
.03410
.03525
89.0
.03710
94.5
.03855
98.7
.03789
96.8
.03861
98.9
.03916
99.7
.03943
101.3
.03920
100.6
.03756
95.8
.03794
96.9
.03754
95.7

Vegetables,
fresh: onions.

Sugar: granu­
lated.

100.0
97.3
96.0
96.3
97.6
100.5
102.6
100.8
98.4
98.4
98.4
97.6
96.3
98.4

$0.0435
.0641
.0667
.0675
.0629
.0628
.0638
.0625
.0634
.0625
.0600
.0572
.0548
.0621

Vegetables, fresh:
potatoes, white,
choice to fancy.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
147.4
153.3
155.2
144.6
144.4
146.7
143.7
145.7
143.7
137.9
131.5
126.0
142.8

Vinegar: cider,
Monarch.

Month.
Price per
pound.
Average, 1890-1899..
Jan..............................
Feb..............................
M ar.............................
Apr..............................
M ay.............................
June............................
July.............................
A u g.............................
Sept............................
Oct..............................
N o v .............................
Dec..............................
Average, 1907...........

$0.2839
.2300
.2300
.2300
.2300
.2300
.2300
.2300
.2300
.2300
.2300
.2300
.2300
.2300

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price per
barrel.

100.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0

$3.3995
3.5000
4.5000
5.5000
2.2500
3.0000
4.0000
4.0000
3.1250
2.2500
3.2500
3.1250
a 5000
3.5000

Price per
bushel.

100.0
103.0
132.4
161.8
66.2
88.2
117.7
117.7
91.9
66.2
95.6
. 91.9
103.0
103.0

Rela­
tive
price.

Price per
gallon.

$0.4991
.3925
.4275
.4180
.4338
.6380
.5175
.3625

100.0
78.6
85.7
83.8
86.9
127.8
103.7
72.6

.5650
.5420
.5200
.4912

113.2
108.6
104.2
98.4

(a)
(a)

$0.1478
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1900
.1800
.1725

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
128.6
121.8
116.7

Cloths and clothing.

Month.

Blankets: 11-4, Blankets: 11-4,
Blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to the 5 pounds to the
Boots and
Bags: 2-bushel,
5 pounds to the
pair, cotton
pair, cotton
shoes: men's
Amoskeag.
pair, all wool. warp, all wool warp, cotton brogans, split.
filling.
and wool filling.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.1399
Jan..............................
.1850
Feb..............................
.1850
Mar.............................
.1850
A p r.............................
.1950
M ay.............................
.1950
June............................
.1950
July............................
.1950
Ang.............................
.1950
Sept............................
,2100
Oct..............................
.1950
N ov.............................
.1950
D e c ............................
.1950
Average, 1907..........
.1938




100.0
132.2
132.2
132.2
139.4
139.4
139.4
139.4
139.4
150.1
139.4
139.4
139.4
138.5

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pair.

$0,840
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000

Rela­
Price
per bag. tive
price.

100.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0

$0,613
.800
.800
.800
.800
.800
.800
.800
.800
.800
.800
.800
.800
.800

100.0
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5

$0,424
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600
.600

100.0
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5

$0.9894
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.2750
1.2750
1.2500
1.2500
1.2250
1.2000
1.2729

a No quotation for month.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
131.4
131.4
131.4
131.4
131.4
131.4
128.9
128.9
126.3
126.3
123.8
121.3
128.7

401

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T able I I .—M O N T H L Y AC TU A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES
IN 1907 AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Month.

Boots and
shoes: men’s
split boots.

Price
per 12
pairs.
Average, 1890-1899.. $16,350
Jan.............................. 26.500
Feb.............................. 26.500
Mar.............................. 26.500
Apr.............................. 26.500
M ay............................. 26. 500
26.500
June............................
July............................. 26.500
26.000
A ug.............................
Sept............................. 26.000
26.000
Oct..............................
25.500
Nov.............................
Dec.............................. 25.000
Average, 1907............ 26.167

Rela­
tive
price.

Boots and
shoes: men’ s
Boots and
Boots and
Broadcloths:
vici calf shoes,
shoes: men’ s shoes: women’ s first quality,
Blucher bal.,
vici kid shoes,
solid grain
black, 54-inch,
shoes.
vici calf top, Goodyear welt.
X X X wool.
single sole.
Price
per
pair.

Rela­
tive
price.

100.0 <*$2,376 100.0
162.1
2.800 *>109.0
162.1
2.800 *>109.0
162.1
2.800 *>109.0
162.1
2.800 *>109.0
162.1
2.800 *>109.0
162.1
2.800 *>109.0
162.1
2.800 *>109.0
159.0
2.800 *>109.0
159.0
2.800 *>109.0
159.0
2.800 *>109.0
15& 0
2.800 *>109.0
152.9
2.800 *•109.0
16a 0
2.800 *>109.0

Calico: Ameri­ Carpets: Brus­
can standard
sels, 5-frame,
prints, 64 x 64.
Bigelow.

Price
per
pair.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pair.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

$2.3000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000

100.0
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7

$0.8175
1.0250
1.0250
1.0250
1.0250
1.0250
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.9750
.9750
1.0063

100.0
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
122.3
122.3
122.3
122.3
122.3
119.3
119.3
12a 1

$1.7320
2.0200
2.0200
2.0200
2.0200
2.0200
2.0200
2.0200
2.0200
2.0200
2.0200
2.0200
2.0200
2.0200

100.0
lia 6
. 110 6
116.6
110 6
110 6
110 6
110 6
110 6
110 6
110 6
110 6
116.6
110 6

Carpets: in­
grain, 2-ply,
Lowell.

Carpets: Wil­
ton, 5-frame,
Bigelow.

Cotton flan­
nels: 2f yards
to the pound.

Month.
Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Average, 1890-1899.. c$0.0553 100.0
.0523 <*105.1
Jan..............................
.0523 <*105.1
Feb..............................
.0570 <*114.6
Mar.............................
A pr.............................
.0570 <*114.6
.0570 <*114.6
M ay............................
.0570 <*114.6
June............................
.0618 <*124.2
July.............................
A u g.............................
.0618 <*124.2
Sept............................
.0665 <*133.7
O ct..............................
.0665 <*133.7
N ov.............................
.0665 <*133.7
Dec..............................
.0665 <*133.7
Average, 1907...........
.0602 <*121.0

Month.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

$1.0008
1.2480
1.2480
1.2480
1.2480
1.2480
1.2480
1.2480
1.2480
1.2480
1.2480
1.2480
1.2480
1.2480

100.0
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7

$0.4752
.5760
.5760
.5760
.5760
.5760
.5760
.5760
.5760
.5760
.5760
.5760
.5760
.5700

100.0
121.2
121.2
121.2
121.2
121.2
121.2
121.2
121.2
121.2
121.2
121.2
121.2
121.2

$1.8432
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800

100.0
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7

$0.0706
.0938
.0938
.0938
.0938
.1000
.1000
.1025
.1025
.1025
.1025
.1000
.1000
.0988

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0575
Jan..............................
.0775
Feb..............................
.0775
Mar..............................
.0775
Apr..............................
.0775
M ay.............................
.0800
June............................
.0800
.0825
July.............................
.0825
A ug.............................
Sept............................
.0825
Oct..............................
.0825
N ov.............................
.0800
.0800
Dec..............................
Average, 1907...........
.0800

100.0
132.9
132.9
132.9
132.9
141.6
141.6
145.2
145.2
145.2
145.2
141.6
141.6
139.9

Cotton yam s:
carded, white,
mule-spun,
northern,
cones, 10/1.

Cotton yam s:
carded, white,
mule-spun,
northern,
cones, 22/1.

Denims:
Amoskeag.

Rela­
Price
Rela­
tive
per
tive
price. spool. («) price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

100.0 $0.031008
134.8
.037240
134.8
. 037240
134.8
.037240
134.8
.037240
139.1
.037240
139.1
.045080
143.5
. 045080
143.5
.045080
143.5
. 045080
143.5
. 045080
139.1
.045080
139.1
. 045080
139.1
. 041813

$0.1608
.2200
.2200
.2150
.2200
.2200
.2300
.2350
.2350
.2300
.2200
.2000
.2000
.2204

100.0
136.8
136.8
133.7
136.8
136.8
143.0
146.1
146.1
143.0
136.8
124.4
124.4
137.1

$0.1969
.2500
.2550
.2550
.2500
.2500
.2650
.2750
.2750
.2700
.2600
.2400
.2400
.2571

100.0
127.0
129.5
129.5
127.0
127.0
134.6
139.7
139.7
137.1
132.0
121.9
121.9
130.6

$0.1044
.1275
.1275
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1400
.1450
.1475
.1475
.1475
.1425
.1425
.1381

100.0
122.1
122.1
124.5
124.5
124.5
134.1
138.9
141.3
141.3
141.3
136.5
136.5
132.3

Cotton flannels: Cotton thread:
6-cord, 2003| yards
yard spools,
to the pound.
J. & P. Coats.
Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

100.0
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4
134.8

a Men’s calf bal. shoes, Goodyear welt, dongola top.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $2,776.
>
c Calico, Cocheco prints.
d For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $0.0495.
* Freight paid.




402

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . — M O N T H L Y AC TU A L AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES
IN 1907 AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Month.

Drillings:
brown, Pepperell.
Price
per
yard.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0572
Jan..............................
.0825
Feb..............................
.0825
Mar.............................
.0825
A pr.............................
.0825
M ay.............................
.0825
June............................
.0825
July.............................
.0825
Aug.............................
.0825
Sept............................
.0825
Oct..............................
.0825
N o v .............................
.0825
Dec..............................
.0825
Average, 1907...........
.0825

Month.

Drillings:
30-inch, Stark
A.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

100.0
144.2
144.2
144 2
1442
1442
144.2
144 2
144 2
144.2
144 2
144 2
144 2
1442

$0.0521
.0729
.0768
.0764
.0760
.0824
.0787
.0804
.0742
.0812
.0782
.0791
.0822
.0782

i[

Rela­
tive
price.

Flannels:
white, 4-4, Bal­
lard Vale No. 3.
Price
per
yard.

100.0 $0.3768
139.9 * .4613
147.4
.4613
146.6
.4613
145.9
.4613
158.2
.4613
151.1
.4613
154 3
.4613
142.4
.4613
155.9
.4687
150.1
.4687
151.8
.4687
157.8
.4687
.4638
150.1

Ginghams:
Amoskeag.

Ginghams:
Lancaster.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

100.0
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
123.1

$0.0533
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0700
.0750
.0750
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0358

100.0
112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
131.3
140.7
140.7
131.3
131.3
131.3
123.5

$0.0573
.0650
.0675
.0675
.0675
.0675
.0675
.0675
.0675
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0690

100.0
113.4
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
120.4

Hosiery: men’ s
Hosiery: men’s Hosiery: wom­ Hosiery: wom­
Horse blankets:
cotton half
en’ s combed
en’s cotton
cotton, half
6 pounds each, hose, seamless,
hose, seamless, Egyptian cot­ hose, seamless,
all wool.
fast black, 20
ton hose, high fast black, 26
84 needles.
to 22 ounce.
spliced heel.
to 28 ounce.
Price
per
pound.

Average, 1890-1899..
Jan..............................
Feb..............................
Mar.............................
A pr.............................
M ay.............................
June............................
July.............................
A ug.............................
Sept............................
Oct..............................
N ov.............................
Dec..............................
Average, 1907...........

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
Rela­
Price
per 12
tive
per 12
pairs, a. price.® pairs.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per 12
pairs.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per 12
pairs.

$0,573
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750
.750

100.0
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9

$0.9555
*.6615
*.6615
*.6615
.6860
<*.6860
d .6860
d . 6860
d . 6860
.7350
*.7350
«.7350
*.7350
/.7350

100.0
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6

b $1,850
2.025
2.025
2.025
2.025
2.025
2.025
2.025
2.025
2.025
2.025
2.025
2.025
2.025

100.0
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5

$0.9310
*.7595
*.7595
*.7595
.7840
d .7840
<*.7840
<*.7840
<*.7840
.8330
*.8330
*.8330
*.8330
/ . 8330

100.0
c85.3
*85.3
c 85.3
88.5
<*88.5
d 8 8 .5
d 88.5
d 88.5
94 8
*94 8
*94 8
*94 8
/9 4 8

$0.7845
.7500
.7500
.7500
.7500
.7500
.7500
.7500
.7500
.7500
.7500
.7500
.7500
.7500

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
*81.6
*81.6
*81.6
842
<*842
<*842
<*842
<*842
89.5
*89.5
<89.5
*89.5
/8 9 .5

a The price for 1890-1903 is for two-thread goods. Prices for 1904 to 1907 are for single-thread goods.
For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; price of single-thread goods, $0.6370 in
April, 1906, and $0.6615 in September, 1906.
0 Average for 1893-1899.
* September, 1906, price.
< April, 1907, price.
*
* September, 1907, price.
1 September, 1907, price, which represents the bulk of sales during the year.




WHOLESALE PRICES,

1890 TO 1907.

403

T able I f . — M O N T H L Y AC TU A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES
IN 1907 AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.
Leather: wax
Leather: sole, calf, 30 to 40 lbs.
oak.
to the dozen,
B grade.

Leather: har­
ness, oak,
packer’ s hides,
heavy, No. 1.

Leather: sole,
hemlock.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per sq.
foot.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.*

Average, 1890-1899.. <z$0.2590 100.0
Jan..............................
.3800 6131.1
Feb..............................
.3800 6131.1
.3800 6131.1
M a r............................
.3800 6131.1
A p r .............................
.3800 6131.1
M a y ............................
June............................
.3700 6127.7
July.............................
.3700 6127.7
.3700 6127.7
A u g ............................
Sept............................
.3700 6127.7
Oct..............................
.3700 6127.7
N ov.............................
.3700 6127.7
Dec..............................
.3650 6125.9
Average, 1907............
.3738 6129.0

$0.1939
.2625
.2625
.2625
.2650
.2650
.2650
.2650
.2650
.2650
.2650
.2650
.2650
.2644

100.0
135.4
135.4
135.4
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.4

$0.3363
.4050
.3850
.3750
.3750
.3750
.3750
.3650
.3800
.3800
.3950
.3900
.3850
.3821

100.0
120.4
114.5
111.5
111.5
111.5
111.5
108.5
113.0
113.0
117.5
116.0
114.5
113.6

$0.6545
.7250
.7250
.7750
.7750
.7750
.7750
.7750
.7750
.7750
.7750
.7750
.7750
.7667

100.0
110.8
110.8
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
117.1

$0.8748
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930

100.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1

Month.

Month.

Linen thread:
3-cord, 200-yard
spools,Barbour.

Overcoatings:
chinchilla,
B-rough, all
wool.

Overcoatings:
chinchilla,
cotton warp,
C. C. grade.

Overcoatings:
covert cloth,
light weight,
staple.

Price
per
dozen
spools.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.8522
.8835
.Tan..............................
.8835
Feb..............................
.8835
M a r ............................
.8835
A p r ............................
.9300
M ay............................
.9300
June............................
.9300
July.............................
.9300
A ug.............................
.9300
Sept............................
.9300
Oct..............................
.9300
N ov............................
.9300
Dec..............................
.9145
Average, 1907...........

100.0
103.7
103.7
103.7
103.7
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
107.3

$2.1419
2.5575
2.5575
2.5575
2.5575
2.5575
2.5575
2.5575
2.5575
2.5575
2.5575
2.5575
2.5575
2.5575

100.0
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4

$0.4883
.4900
.4950
.4950
.4950
.5000
.4900
.5050
.4900
.4900
.5000
.4800
.4600
.4908

100.0
100.3
101.4
101.4
101.4
102.4
100.3
103.4
100.3
100.3
102.4
98.3
94.2
100.5

$2.3286
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568

Rela­
tive
price.

Linen shoe
thread: 10s,
Barbour.

Overcoatings:
Kersey, stand­
ard, 27 to 28
ounce.
Price
per
yard.

100.0 c$1.2472
1.9250
96.9
1.9750
96.9
1.9750
96.9
1.9750
96.9
1.9750
96.9
1.9750
96.9
1.9750
96.9
1.9750
96.9
1.9750
96.9
1.9750
96.9
1.9750
96.9
1.9750
96.9
1.9708
96.9

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
154.3
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.0

a Leather: harness, oak, country middles, 14 pounds and up (except overweights, 20 pounds and up).
b For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $0.3713.
o Average for 1897-1899.




404

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR,

II.— O N T H L Y AC T U A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES
M
IN 1907 A N D B ASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R 1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Month.

Shawls: stand­
Print cloths: 28* ard, all wool
(low grade),
inch, 64x64.
72x144 inch,
40 to 42 ounce.
Price
per
yard.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.028380
.040000
Jan........ - ...................
F e b ............................ .041875
Mar ...........................
.045000
.045000
Anr.............................
.045781
M ay...........................
J u n e.........................- .048500
.Tilly .........................
.050313
A u g ............... ............. .052500
.052500
S e p t...........................
.052500
Oct..............................
.050500
N ov.............. .............
.044063
Dec..............................
AT7-P.ra.gp., 1907______
.047512

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
shawl.

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.

$0.1884
.2600
.2600
.2800
.2800
.2800
.3000
.3000
.3000
.3000
.3000
.3000
.3000
.2883

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
138.0
138.0
148.6
148.6
148.6
159.2
159.2
159.2
159.2
159.2
159.2
159.2
153.0

Price
per
yard.
$0.2949
.2900
.2900
.2900
.3100
.3100
.3100
.3100
.3100
.3100
.3100
.3100
.3100
.3050

100.0
98.3
98.3
98.3
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
103.4

Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4,
Fruit of the
Loom.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Price
per
yard.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

100.0
135.8
135.4
136.7
136.2
135.6
142.3
137.4
139.6
140.0
141.0
145.6
141.8
138.9

$0.0626
.0825
.0825
.0825
.0825
.0825
.0825
.0825
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0835

$0.0551
.0700
.0700
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0750
.0750
.0775
.0775
.0775
.0775
.0775
.0746

100.0
127.0
127.0
131.6
131.6
131.6
136.1
136.1
140.7
140.7
140.7
140.7
140.7
135.4

$0.0728
.0950
.1000
.1000
.1100
.1100
.1150
.1150
. 1150
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1117

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.

100.0 «$0.0525 100.0
131.8
.0750 /122.7
.0775 /126.8
131.8
.0775 /126.8
131.8
131.8
.0775 /126.8
131.8
.0775 /126.8
131.8
.0775 /126.8
131.8
.0800 /130.9
135.8
.0800 /130.9
.0800 /130.9
135.8
.0775 /126.8
135.8
.0775 /126.8
135.8
135.8
.0750 /122.7
133.4
.0777 /127.1

Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4
Lonsdale.

Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4,

Wamsutta ^ 5^

Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4,
WiUiamsville,
A l.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
130.5
137.4
137.4
151.1
151.1
158.0
158.0
158.0
164.8
164.8
164.8
164.8
153.4

Silk: raw,
Italian,
classical.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
Rela­
per
tive
pound. price.

100.0
131.9
135.7
135.7
135.7
135.7
135.7
154 6
154 6
154 6
1546
154.6
139.5
143.7

$0.0727
.0925
.0975
.0975
.0975
.0975
.0975
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
g . 1000
.1025

100.0
127.2
1341
134.1
134.1
1341
1341
151.3
151.3
151.3
151.3
151.3
137.6
141.0

$0.0948
.1075
.1075
.1075
.1075
.1075
.1075
.1125
.1125
.1125
.1125
.1125
.1125
.1100

100.0
113.4
113.4
113.4
113.4
113.4
113.4
118.7
118.7
118.7
118.7
118.7
118.7
116.0

$0.0876
.1050
.1075
.1150
.1150
.1150
.1175
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1163

100.0
119.9
122.7
131.3
131.3
131.3
134.1
137.0
137.0
137.0
137.0
137.0
137.0
132.8

$4.2558
5.3460
5.2223
5.3708
5.6678
5.9153
5.8163
5.7668
5.5935
5.8163
5.8163
5.6183
5.0243
5.5812

a Shawls: Standard, all wool, 72 x 144 inch, 42 ounce, made of high-grade wool.
&Sheetings: Bleached, 10-4, Atlantic.
c For method of computing relative price see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $2.45.
< For method of computing relative price see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $0.2095.
*
e Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Stark A. A .
/ For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $0.0767.
a Nominal.




Rela­
tive
price.

Sheetings:
brown, 4-4,
Pepperell R.

Month.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0630
Jan..............................
.0831
Feb..............................
.0855
Mar..............................
.0855
Apr..........................
.0855
M ay.............................
.0855
June............................
.0855
.0974
A ug.............................
.0974
Sept............................
.0974
Oct..............................
.0974
N ov.............................
.0974
Dec..............................
.0879
Average, 1907...........
.0905

Price
per
yard.

Sheetings:
bleached, 10-4,
Wamsutta
S. T.

Sheetings:
brown, 4 -4
Mass. Mills,
Flying Horse
brand.

Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4,
Hope.
Price
per
yard.

Sheetings:
bleached, 10-4,
Pepperell.

Sheetings:
brown, 4-4,
Indian Head.

Month.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0553
.0751
Jan..............................
.0749
Feb..............................
.0756
M ar.............................
.0753
A p r.............................
.0750
M ay.............................
.0787
June............................
.0760
July.............................
.0772
A u g.............................
.0774
Sept.............................
.0780
Oct..............................
.0805
N o v .............................
.0784
Dec..............................
.0768
Average, 1907............

Price
per
yard.

100.0 a $4.5787 100.0 &$0.1836 100.0
140.9
2.0400 c 107.0
.2096 <*121.6
.2310 <*134.0
147.6
2.0400 c 107.0
.2187 d 126.8
158.6
2.0400 c 107.0
.2190 <*127.0
158.6
2.0400 c 107.0
.2174 <*126.1
161.3
2.0400 c 107.0
170.9
.2331 <*135.2
2.0400 c 107.0
.2174 < 126.1
177.3
2.0400 c 107.0
*
.2127 <*123.4
185.0
2.0400 c 107.0
.2126 <*123.3
185.0
2.0400 c 107.0
.2495 <*144.7
185.0
2.0400 c 107.0
.2789 <*161.8
177.9
2.0400 c 107.0
.2779 <*161.2
155.3
2.0400 c 107.0
167.4
.2315 <*134.3
2.0400 c 107.0

Sheetmgs:
brown, 4-4,
Atlantic A.
Price
per
yard.

Sheetings:
bleached, 9-4,
Atlantic.

100.0
125.6
122.7
126.2
133.2
139.0
136.7
135.5
131.4
136.7
136.7
132.0
118.1
131.1

405

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

Table I I .—M O N T H L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES
IN 1907 A N D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Month.

Silk: raw,
Japan,
filatures.
Price
per
pound.

Average, 1890-1899.. $4.0187
5.1168
Jan..............................
Feb.............................. 5.0198
5.2138
Mar.............................
5.4805
A p r.............................
M ay............................. 5.6018
June............................
5.2865
5.0440
July............................
4.7530
A ug.............................
5.3108
Sept............................
4.8743
O ct..............................
N o v ............................. 4.7773
4.2438
Dec..............................
5.0602
Average, 1907...........

Rela­
tive
price.

Suitings: clay
worsted diag­
onal, 12-ounce,
Wash. Mills.
Price
per
yard.

100.0 o$0.8236
127.3
1.1700
124.9
1.1700
129.7
1.1700
136.4
1.1700
139.4
1.1700
131.5
1.1700
125.5
1.1700
118.3
1.1700
132.2
1.1700
121.3
1.1700
118.9
1.1700
105.6
1.1700
125.9
1.1700

Suitings:
serge,
Washington
Mills 6700.

Rela­
tive
price.

Tickings:
Amoskeag
A. C. A .

Average, 1890-1899.. b$0. 7526
Jan.............................. 1.0575
Feb.............................. 1.0575
M a r.............................
1.0575
A p r............................. 1.0575
M ay............................. 1.0575
1.0125
June............................
1.0125
1.0575
A u g ............................
Sept............................. 1.0575
Oct..............................
1.0575
N ov.............................
1.0575
Dec.............................. 1.0575
Average, 1907............ 1.0500

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

100.0
.140.5
140.5
140.5
140.5
140.5
134.5
134.5
140.5
140.5
140.5
140.5
140.5
139.5

$0.1061
.1250
.1275
.1300
.1300
.1350
.1350
.1400
.1450
.1450
.1450
.1450
. 1450
.1373

Price
per
yard.

100.0 o$1.0068
1.4175
142.1
142.1
1.4175
144.1
1.4175
142.1
1.4175
142.1
1.3950
142.1
1.3950
142.1
1.3950
142.1
1.3950
142.1
1.3950
142.1
1.3950
142.1
1.3950
142.1
1.3950
1.4025
142.1

Month.
Price
per
yard.

Suitings:
Suitings: clay
indigo
worsted diag­ all wool, blue,
54-in.,
onal, 16-ounce,
14-oz., Middle­
Wash. Mills.
sex.

Suitings:
indigo blue,
all wool,
16-ounce.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

100.0
140.8
140.8
140.8
140.8
138.6
138.6
138.6
138.6
138.6
138.6
138.6
138.6
139.3

$1.3230
1.7100
1.7100
1.7100
1.7100
1.7100
1.7100
1.7100
1.7100
1.7100
1.7100
1.7100
1.7100
1.7100

100.0
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3

$1.9154
2.4180
2.4180
2.4180
2.4180
2.4180
2.4180
2.4180
2.4180
2.4180
2.4180
2.4180
2.4180
2.4180

100.0
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2

Underwear:
Underwear:
Trouserings:
shirts and
shirts and
fancy worsted,
drawers, white,
21 to 22 ounce. drawers,white, merino, 60 per
all wool, etc.
cent wool, etc.
Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per 12
gar­
ments.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per 12
gar­
ments.

Rela­
tive
price.

100.0 c$1.9456 100.0
2.3625 «118.1
117.8
120.2
2.3625 «118.1
2.3625 c ll8 .1
122.5
2.4750 «123.7
122.5
127.2
2.4750 «123.7
127.2
2.4750 «123.7
2.4750 <123.7
132.0
2.4750 <123.7
136.7
136.7
2.4750 <123.7
136.7
2.4750 <123.7
136.7
2.4750 <123.7
136.7
2.4750 <123.7
129.4
2.4469 <122.3

$23.31
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00

100.0
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

<*$15.57
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00

100.0
/106.0
/106.0
/106.0
/106.0
/106.0
/106.0
/106.0
/106.0
/106.0
/106.0
/106.0
/106.0
/106.0

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

a Average for 1895-1899.
6 Average for 1892-1899.
c Average for 1892-1899; 22 to 23 ounce.
<*52 per cent wool and 48 per cent cotton.
cFor method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906,12.4131.
/F o r method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $18.00.




Rela­
tive
price.

406

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I .—M O N T H L Y AC TU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES
IN 1907 A N D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Month.

Women’s dress
Women’s dress
goods: cash- Women’s dress Women’s dress goods: Dan­
Women’s dress
goods: cashgoods: cashmere, all wool,
ish cloth, cot­ goods: Frank-,
mere, cotton
mere, cotton
10-11 twill, 38lin sackings,
warp, 36-inch, ton warp and
warp, 9-twill,
inch, Atlantic
worsted filling,
6-4.
4-4, Atlantic F.
Hamilton.
J.
22-inch.
Price
per
yard.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.2905
Jan..............................
.3920
.3920.
Feb.............................
Mar.............................
.3920
Ajpr..............................
.3920
.3920
M ay............................
June............................
.3920
July............................
.3920
.3920
Aug.............................
.3920
Sept............................
.3920
Oct..............................
N ov.............................
.3920
.3920
Dec..............................
Average, 1907........:
.3920

Month.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

100.0
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9

$0.1520
.2205
.2205
.2205
.2205
.2205
.2254
.2254
.2254
.2254
.2254
.2254
.2254
.2234

Women’s dress
goods: poplar
cloth, cotton
warp and
worsted filling,
36-inch.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

100.0 <*$0.0883 100.0 &$0.0680 100.0
.1960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9
145.1
.1960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9
145.1
.1250 <*124.9
.1960 <127.8
145.1
.1960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9
145.1
-I960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9
145.1
148.3
.1960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9
148.3
.1960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9
148.3
.1960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9
148.3
.1960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9
148.3
.1960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9
148.3
.1960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9
148.3
.1960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9
147.0
.1960 <127.8
.1250 <*124.9

Wool: Ohio,
fine fleece (X
and X X
grade),
scoured.

Price
per
yard.
$0.5151
.6650
.6650
.6650
.6650
.6650
.6650
.6650
.6650
.6650
.6175
.6175
.6175
.6531

100.0
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
119.9
119.9
119.9
126.8

Wool: Ohio,
medium fleece Worsted yam s: Worsted yarns:
(J and | grade), 2-40s, Austra­ 2-40s, X X X X ,
lian fine.
white, in skeins.
scoured.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Average, 1890-1899.. c$0.0758 100.0
Jan..............................
.1900 /109.6
Feb..............................
.1900 /109.6
Mar..............................
.1900 /109.6
A p r.............................
.1900 /109.6
M ay.............................
.1900 /109.6
.1900 /109.6
June............................
July.............................
.1900 /109.6
A ug.............................
.1900 /109.6
Sept............................
.1900 /109.6
Oct..............................
.1900 /109.6
N ov.............................
.1900 /109.6
Dec..............................
.2000 /115.4
Average, 1907............
.1908 /110.1

$0.5526
.7021
.7021
.7021
.7021
.7021
.7234
.7234
.7447
.7447
.7234
.7234
.7234
.7181

100.0
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
130.9
130.9
134.8
134.8
130.9
130.9
130.9
129.9

$0.4564
.5270
.5270
.5135
.5135
.5135
.5135
.5135
.5135
.5135
.5135
.5135
.5135
.5158

100.0
115.5
115.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
113.0

$1.0183
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.2800
1.2800
1.2967

100.0
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
125.7
125.7
127.3

$1.0071
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.2800
1.2800
1.2800
1.2800
1.3000
1.3000
1.3000
1.2933

Price
per
yard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
128.4

1
a Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton warp, 27-inch, Hamilton.
b Women’s dress goods: alpaca, cotton warp, 22-inch, Hamilton.
c For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $0.1911.
< For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $0.1217.
*
e Women’ s dress goods: cashmere, cotton warp, 22-inch, Hamilton.
/ For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $0.1900.




407

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.

T able I I .—M O N T H L Y AC T U A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES
IN 1907 A N D B A SE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Fuel and lighting.

Month.

Candles: ada­
mantine, 6s,
14-ounce.

Coal: anthra­
cite, broken.

Coal: anthra­
cite, chestnut.

Coal: anthra­
cite, egg.

Coal: anthra­
cite, stove.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
ton.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
ton.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
ton.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
ton.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0782
.0738
Jan..............................
.0738
Feb..............................
.0738
Mar.............................
.0738
A pr.............................
.0738
M ay............................
.0738
June............................
.0738
July............................
.0738
Aug------•
.....................
Sept............................
.0738
.0750
Oet..............................
.0750
N ov.............................
.0750
Dec..............................
.0741
Average, 1907...........

100.0
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
95.9
95.9
95.9
94.8

$3.3669
4.2042
4.2020
4.2011
4.2007
4.2015
4.2049
4.2066
4.2034
4.2069
4.2075
4.2048
4.2047
4.2040

100.0
124.9
124.8
124.8
1248
1248
124.9
124.9
124.8
1249
125.0
1249
124.9
1249

$3.5953
4.9507
4.9500
49509
4.4504
4.5334
46478
4 7442
48417
4.9403
49483
49416
4.9450
48204

100.0
137.7
137.7
137.7
123.8
126.1
129.3
132.0
134.7
137.4
137.6
137.4
137.5
134.1

$3.5936
4.9512
4.9500
4.9500
4 4500
4.5265
4.6434
47399
48444
4 9500
49510
49470
49500
48211

100.0
137.8
137.7
137.7
123.8
126.0
129.2
131.9
1348
137.7
137.8
137.7
137.7
1342

$3.7949
49502
4.9501
4.9521
4.4503
4.5283
4 6455
47434
48433
49438
49503
49500
49503
48215

Coal: bitumi­
nous, Georges
Creek (at
mine).

Rela­
tive
price.
100 0
130.4
130.4
130.5
117.3
119.3
122.4
125.0
127.6
130.3
130.4
130.4
130.4
127.1

Coal: bitumi­
nous, Georges
Creek (f. o. b.
N. Y . Harbor).

Coal: bitumi­
nous, Pitts­ Coke: Connells- Matches: par­
burg (Yough- ville, furnace.
lor, domestic.
iogheny).

Rela­
Rela­
Price
Price
per ton. tive per ton. tive
price.
price.

Price
Rela­
Rela­
per
Rela­
Price
Price
tive per ton. tive gross of tive
per
price. boxes price.
bushel. price.
(200s).

Month.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.8887
1.5000
Jan..............................
Feb.............................. 1.5000
1.5000
Mar.............................
1.5000
A p r.............................
1.5000
M ay............................
1.5000
June............................
1.5000
July............................
A u g ............................. 1.5000
1.4500
Sept............................
1.7500
Oct..............................
N o v ............................. 1.7500
Dec.............................. 1.5000
Average, 1907............ 1.5375

100.0 $2.7429
168.8
3.2000
168.8
3.2000
3.2000
168.8
3.2000
168.8
168.8 * 3.2000
168.8
3.2000
168.8
3.2000
168.8
3.2000
163.2
3.1500
3.4500
196.9
3.4500
196.9
168.8
3.2000
173.0
3.2375

100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
114 8
125.8
125.8
116.7
118.0

$0.0643
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0825
.0850
.0900
.0900
.0824

Fuel and lighting.

Month.

Petroleum:
crude.
Price
per
barrel.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.9102
1.5800
Jan..............................
Feb.............................. 1.5800
1.6300
Mar.............................
A pr.............................
1.7800
M ay............................. 1.7800
1.7800
June............................
July............................. 1.7800
Aug.............................
1.7800
1.7800
Sept............................
Oct..............................
1.7800
N ov............................. 1.7800
1.7800
Dec.............................
Average, 1907............ 1.7342

|

100.0
209.0
210.5
191.4
1649
164.9
136.9
147.2
154 6
163.4
17a 7
161.9
117.8
166.3

$1.7563
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.500C
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000

Metals and implements.

Price
per
gallon.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
gallon.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
auger.

Rela­
Price
tive per ax.
price.

100.0

$0.0649
.0750
.0775
.0775
.0820
.0820
.0820
.0845
.0845
.0845
.0845
.0875
.0875
.0824

100.0
115.6
119.4
119.4
126.3
126.3
126.3
130.2
130.2
130.2
130.2
134.8
134.8
127.0

$0.0890 100.0
.1300 i 146.1
.1350 151.7
.1350 151.7
.1350 151.7
.1350 151.7
.1350 151.7
.1350 151.7
.1350 151.7
.1350 151.7
.1350 151.7
.1350 151.7
.1350 151.7
.1346 151.2

$0.1608
.3600
.3600
.3600
.3600
.3600
.3600
.3600
.3600
.3600
.3600
.3600
.3600
.3600

100.0
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9

17a 6
173.6
179.1
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
190.5

10 0 .0
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4'
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4

Petroleum: re­ Petroleum: re­ Augers: extra, Axes: M. C. O.,
fined, for ex­
fined, 150° fire
f-inch.
Yankee.
port.
test, w. w.

Rela­
tive
price.

37691— No. 75— 08------9




$1.6983
3.5500
3.5750
3.2500
2.8000
2.8000
2.3250
2.5000
2.6250
2.7750
2.9500
2.7500
2.0000
2.8250

100.0
124 4
124 4
124 4
124 4
124.4
124 4
124 4
124.4
128.3
132.2
140.0
140.0
128.1

$0.4693
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800

Rela­
tive
price.
10 0 .0
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9

408

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

II.— O N T H L Y AC TU A L AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES
M
IN 1907 AN D B A SE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Metals and implements.
Bar iron: com­
mon to best
refined (Pitts­
burg market).

Price
per
pound.

Month.

Bar iron: best
refined, from
store (Phila­
delphia mar­
ket).

Price
per
pound.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0164
Jan..............................
.0208
Feb..............................
.0216
M ar.............................
.0216
A p r.............................
.0216
M ay............................
.0216
June............................
.0216
July............................
.0216
A ug.............................
.0216
Sept............................
.0216
Oct..............................
.0206
.0196
N o v .............................
Dec..............................
.0196
Average, 1907...........
.0 2 11

Rela­
tive
price.

100.0 0$O. 0145
126.8
.0183
131.7
.0180
131.7
.0180
131.7
.0180
131.7
.0180
131.7
.0178
131.7
.0173
131.7
.0173
131.7
.0170
125.6
.0170
119.5
.0170
119.5
.0160
128.7
.0175

Butts: loose
joint, cast,
3 x 3 inch.

Chisels: extra,
socket firmer,
1-inch.

Price
Rela­
Rela­
tive per 100
tive
price. pounds. price.

Price
per
pair.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
chisel.

$2.5261
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6300
2.6300
2.6300
2.6800
2.6800
2.6800
2.6800
2.6342

$0.0316
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400

10 0 .0
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6

$0.1894
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.3750
.4438

10 0 .0
6137.3
6135.1
6135.1
6135.1
6135.1
6133.6
6129.8
6129.8
6127.6
6127.6
6127.6
6120.0
6131.3

Copper: ingot, Copper: sheet,
hot-rolled
lake.
(base sizes).

Barb wire:
galvanized.

10 0 .0
102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
104.1
104.1
104.1
106.1
106.1
106.1
106.1
104.3

Copper: wire,
bare.

Doorknobs:
steel, bronze
plated.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
198.0
234.3

Files: 8-inch
mill bastard.

Month.
Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pair.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
dozen.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.1234
Jan..............................
.2388
Feb..............................
.2513
Mar..............................
.2550
Apr..............................
.2475
M ay.............................
.2550
June............................
.2463
July............................
.2388
Aug.............................
.2000
Sept............................
.1813
Oct..............................
.1513
N ov.............................
.1450
.1400
Dec..............................
Average, 1907...........
.2125

100.0
193.5
203.6
206.6
200.6
206.6
199.6
193.5
162.1
146.9
122.6
117.5
113.5
172.2

$0.1659
.2900
.3000
.3200
.3200
.3200
.3200
.3200
.2800
.2800
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2792

10 0 .0
174.8
180.8
192.9
192.9
192.9
192.9
192.9
168.8
168.8
120.6
120.6
120.6
168.3

$0.1464
.2550
.2750
.2750
.2750
.2750
.2750
.2750
.2450
.2450
.1625
.1600
.1650
.2402

10 0 .0
174.2
187.8
187.8
187.8
187.8
187.8
187.8
167.3
167.3
1 1 1 .0
109.3
112.7
164.1

$0.1697
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
* .4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500
.4500

10 0 .0
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2

$0.8527
1.0 10 0
1.0 10 0
1.0 10 0

Hammers:
Maydole
No. 1J.
Month.

Price
per
ham­
mer.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.3613
.4660
Jan..............................
.4660
Feb..............................
.4660
Mar..............................
. 4660
Apr..............................
.4660
May.............................
June............................
.4660
.4660
July.............................
.4660
Aug.............................
Sept............................
.4660
.4660
Oct..............................
Nov.............................
.4660
Dec..............................
.4660
Average, 1907...........
.4660

Lead: pig.

Lead pipe.

Locks: com­
mon mortise.

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000

.9900
.9900
.9800
.9800
.9975

100.0
118.4
118.4
118.4
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
116.1
116.1
114.9
114.9
117.0

Nails: cut,
8-penny, fence
and common.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per 100
lbs.

Rela­
Rela­
Price
tive
tive
price. per lock. price.

Price
per 100
lbs.

10 0 .0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0

$0.0381
.0630
.0633
.0638
.0623
.0610
.0578
.0525
.0515
.0520
.0468
.0460
.0425
.0552

10 0 .0
165.4
166.1
167.5
163.5
160.1
151.7
137.8
135.2
136.5
122.8
120.7
111.5
144.9

$4.8183
7.2000
7.2000
7.2000
7.2000
7.2000
6.8400
6.8400
6.4800
6.4800
6.1200
6.1200
5.5800
6.7050

10 0 .0
149.4
149.4
149.4
149.4
149.4
142.0
142.0
134.5
134.5
127.0
127.0
115.8
139.2

$0.0817
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000

$1.8275
2.1500
2.1500
2.1500
2.1500
2.1500
2.1500
2.1500
2.2000
2.2500
2.2000
2.1250
2.1250
2.1625

10 0 .0
244 8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244 8
244.8
244.8
244 8
244.8
244 8
244 8

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.
10 0 .0
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
120.4
123.1
120.4
116.3
116.3
118.3

«Bar iron, best refined, from mill (Pittsburg market).
&For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $0.0169.




409

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 190L
T

II.— O N T H L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES O F COMMODITIES
M
IN 1907 A N D B A SE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.

able

[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Metals and implements.

Month.

Nails: wire,
8-penny, fence
and common.
Price
per 100
lbs.

Average, 1890-1899.. $2.1618
.Tan ... ............. 2.1000
Feb.............................. 2.1000
Mn,r ................. 2.1000
2.1000
A p r.............................
M a y ,........................... 2.1000
June............................ 2.1000
.Tilly.................. 2.1000
Ang__ ____________ 2.1000
2.1500
Sept............................
2.1500
Oct..............................
N ov............................. 2.1500
2.1500
2.1167

Pig iron:
Pig iron:
foundry No. 1. foundry N o. 2.

100.0 $13.7783
97.1 23.3500
97.1 23.2500
97.1 22.9500
97.1 23.5500
97.1 24.0500
97.1 24.5000
97.1 23.8000
97.1 22.9500
99.5 22.8500
99.5 22.9000
99.5 20.3500
99.5 19.6000
97.9 22.8417

10 0 .0 $14.8042
169.5 27.5000
168.7 27.3700
166.6 26.8700
170.9 26.5600
174.5 26.6000
177.8 25.7500
172.7 23.6200
166.6 22.5000
165.8 21.1900
166.2 20.4000
147.7 19.4400
142.3 18.9400
165.8 23.8950

Quicksilver.

Price
per
dozen.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
dozen.

10 0 .0 $12.7800
100.0 12.9500
10 0 .0 12.9500
100.0 12.9500
100.0 12.9500
100.0 12.9500
100.0 12.9500
100.0 12.9500
100.0 12.9500
100.0 12.9500
100.0 12.9500
100.0 12.9500
10 0 .0 12.9500
100.0 12.9500

10 0 .0
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3

$7.8658
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8400
7.8 4 0 0
7.8400

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
saw.

Average, 1890-1899.. $1.3220
1.5300
Jan..............................
Feb.............................. 1.5300
1.5300
Mar.............................
Apr.............................. 1.5300
M ay............................. 1.5300
1.5300
June............................
1.5300
July............................
1.5300
Aug.............................
1.5300
Sept............................
1.5300
Oct..............................
1.5300
N o v ...........................
1.5300
Dee..............................
Average, 1907........... 1.5300

100.0
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7

$0.5593
.5400
.5400
.5400
.5300
.5300
.5300
.5150
.5150
.5150
.5400
.6100
.6100
.5429

10 0 .0
96.5
96.5
96.5
94.8
94.8
94.8
92.1
92.1
92.1
96.5
109.1
109.1
97.1

$1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

Rela­
tive
price.

Spelter: west­
ern.

Steel billets.
Price
per
ton.

Price
per
ounce.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.74899
Jan.............................. .69333
Feb.............................. .69437
Mar.............................
.68110
.66062
A pr.............................
.66648
M ay............................
June............................ .67820
.68759
A u g............................. .69415
.68430
Sept............................
.63111
Oct..............................
N ov............................. .59403
Dec.............................. .55215
Average, 1907...........
.65979

10 0 .0
92.6
92.7
90.9
88.2
89.0
90.5
91.8
92.7
91.4
84.3
79.3
73.7
8 8 .1

$0.0452 10 0 .0 $21.5262
.0668 147.8 29.4000
.0713 157.7 29.5000
.0695 153.8 29.0000
.0688 •152.2 30.2500
.0663 146.7 30.3000
.0650 143.8 29.6200
.0638 141.2 30.0000
.0585 129.4 29.4000
.0553 122.3 29.3700
.0540 119.5 28.2000
.0550 121.7 28.0000
.0463 102.4 28.0000
.0617 136.5 29.2533

Rela­
tive
price.

Steel rails.
Price
per
ton.

10 0 .0 $26.0654
136.6 28.0000
137.0 28.0000
134.7 28.0000
140.5 28.0000
140.8 28.0000
137.6 2a 0000
139.4 2a oooo
136.6 28.0000
136.4 28.0000
131.0 28.0000
130.1 28.0000
130.1 28.0000
135.9 28.0000

« Average for the period July, 1894, to December, 1899.




10 0 .0
209.7
209.7
203.8
209.7
198.4
198.4
198.4
189.4
173.6
171.3
160.1
148.8
189.3

Shovels:: Ames
No. 2.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

100.0 $11.0892
196.1 23.2500
196.1 23.2500
190.4 22.6000
192.3 23.2500
1942 22.0000
2042 22. 0000*
198.4 22.0000
183.1 21.0000
175.4 19.2500
163.0 19.0000
154 4 17.7500
146.7 16.5000
182.9 20.9875

Saws: hand,
Disston No. 7.

Rela­
tive
price.

Silver: bar,
fine.

100.0 $13.0533
185.8 25.6000
1849 25.6000
181.5 248500
179.4 25.1000
179.7 25.3500
173.9 26.6500
159.5 25.9000
152.0 23.9000
143.1 22.9000
137.8 21.2750
131.3 20.1500
127.9 19.1500
161.4 23.8688

Saws: cross­
cut, Disston.

Price
per
plane.

Month.

Pig iron: gray
forge, south­
ern, coke.

Rela­
Rela­
Rela­
Rela­
Rela­
Price
Price
Price
Price
tive
tive
tive
tive
tive
per ton. price. per ton. price. per ton. price. per ton. price.
price.

Planes: Bailey
No. 5.
Month.

Pig iron: Bes­
semer.

Rela­
tive
price.
10 0 .0
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7

Steel sheets:
black, No. 27.
Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

10 0 .0 ®$0.0224
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0250

10 0 .0
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6
1 1 1 .6

Rela­
tive
price.

410

BULLETIN OE TH E BUKEAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I I . — M O N TH L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES

IN 1907 AN D B ASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Metals and implements.

Tin: pig.
Month.
Price
per
pound.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.1836
Jan..............................
.4185
.4250
Feb..............................
Mar.............................
.4190
Apr.............................
.4000
May............................
.4305
June............................
.4150
July............................
.4288
.3880
A ug.............................
.3713
Sept............................
.3470
Oct..............................
.3060
N ov.............................
.3010
Dec..............................
Average, 1907...........
.3875

Tinplates:
domestic, Bes­
semer, coke,
14 x 20 inch.

W ood screws:
1 -inch, No. 10,
flat head.

Price
per
trowel.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
vise.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
gross.

100.0 ®$3.4148
4.0900
227.9
231.5
4.0900
228.2
4.0900
4.0900
217.9
234.5
4.0900
226.0
4.0900
233.6
4.0900
211.3
4.0900
202.2
4.0900
4.0900
189.0
4.0900
166.7
4.0900
163.9
2 1 1 .1
4.0900

$0.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400

10 0 .0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
10 0 .0
100.0
10 0 .0

$3.9009
5.7500
5.7500
5.7500
5.7500
5.7500
5.7500
5.7500
5.7500
5.7500
5.7500
5.7500
5.7500
5.7500

10 0 .0
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4

$0.1510
.1219
.1219
.1219
.1219
.1219
.1219
.1219
.1219
.1219
.1219
.1219
.1219
.1219

Zinc: sheet.
Rela­
Price
per 100
tive
pounds. price.

Average, 1890-1899.. $5.3112
J an..............................
7.5900
7.7300
Feb..............................
7.8200
M a r ............................
7.9100
A p r ............................
M ay............................. 7.9100
7.9100
June...........................
July............................. 7.9100
7.6800
Aug.............................
7.1300
Sept............................
O ct.............................. 6.9000
N ov............................. 6.9000
Dec.............................. 6.4400
7.4858
Average, 1907...........

Vises: solid
box, 50-pound.

Rela­
Rela­
Price
tive per 100
tive
price. pounds. price.
10 0 .0
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8

Metals and im­
plements.

Month.

Trowels: M.
C. O., brick,
lOHnch.

100.0
142.9
145.5
147.2
148.9
148.9
148.9
148.9
144.6
134.2
129.9
129.9
121.3
140.9

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7

Lumber and building materials.
Brick: com­
mon domestic.

Carbonate of
lead: Ameri­
can, in oil.

Cement: Port­
land, domestic.

Cement: R osendale.

Price
per M.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
barrel.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
barrel.

$5.5625
6.2500
6.3750
6.3750
5.2500
5.8750
7.5000
6.5000
6.5000
6.1250
5.8750
5.7500
5.5000
6.1563

100.0
112.4
114.6
114.6
94.4
105.6
134.8
116.9
116.9
1 1 0 .1
105.6
103.4
98.9
110.7

$0.0577
.0735
.0686
.0686
.0711
.0711
.0711
.0711
.0711
.0711
.0662
.0662
.0662
.0697

100.0 &$1.9963
1.6500
127.4
1.6500
118.9
1.6500
118.9
1.6500
123 2
1.6500
123.2
1.6500
123.2
123.2
1.6500
123.2
1.7000
123.2
1.7000
1.7C00
114.7
1.5500
114.7
1.5500
114.7
120.8
1.6458

10 0 .0
82.7
82.7
82.7
82.7
82.7
82.7
82.7
85.2
85.2
85.2
77.6
77.6
82.4

$0.8871
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1

Lumber and building materials.

Month.

Doors: west­
ern white pine.
Price
per
door.

Rela­
tive
price.

Hemlock.
Price
per M
feet.

Average, 1890-1899.. <*1.0929 10 0 .0 $11.9625
1.8900 <*168.0 22.2500
Jan..............................
1.8900 <*168.0 22.2500
Feb..............................
Mar.............................. 1.8900 <*168.0 22.2500
1.8900 <*168.0 22.2500
A pr.............................
1.8900 <*168.0 22.2500
Mav.............................
1.8900 <*168.0 22.2500
June............................
1.8900 <*168.0 22.2500
1.8900 <*168.0 22. ,2500
A u g ............................
1.8900 <*168.0 22.2500
Sept ..........................
1.9500 <*173.3 22.2500
Oct..............................
1.9500 <*173.3 22.2500
Nov.............................
Dec.............................. 1.7000 <*151.1 22.2500
1.8842 <*167.5 22.2500
Average, 1907...........

Lime: com­
mon.

Linseed oil:
raw.

Maple: hard.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
barrel.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
gallon.

Rela­
tive
price.

100.0
186.0
186.0
186.0
186.0
186.0
186.0
186.0
186.0
186.0
186.0
186.0
186.0
186.0

$0.8332
1.0200
1.0200
1.0200
1.0200
.8950
.8950
.8950
.8950
.8950
.8950
.8950
1.0450
.9492

10 0 .0
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
125.4
113.9

$0.4535
.4100
.4100
.4100
.4100
.4100
.4400
.4500
.4300
.4300
.4700
.4900
.4500
.4342

10 0 .0 $26.5042
90.4 31.0000
90.4 31.0000
90.4 32.5000
90.4 32.5000
90.4 32.5000
97.0 32.5000
99.2 32.5000
94.8 32.5000
94.8 32.5000
103.6 32.5000
108.0 32.5000
99.2 32.5000
95.7 32.2500

Price
per M
feet.

Rela­
tive
price.

a Average for 1896-1899.
6 Average for 1895-1899.
c Doors: pine, unmolded, 2 feet 8 inches by 6 feet 8 inches, l i inches thick.
d For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $1.7271.




100.0
117.0
117.0
122.6
122.6
122.6
122.6
12 2 .6
122.6
12 2 .6
12 2 .6
12 2 .6
12 2 .6
121.7

4 11

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907,

II.— O N T H L Y AC TU A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES
M
IN 1907 A N D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.^

Month.

Oak: white,
plain.
Price
per M
feet.

$37.4292
51.0000
53.0000
55.0000
55.0000
61.5000
57.5000
57.5000
56.0000
54.0000
54.0000
54.0000
Dec.............................. 54.0000
Average, 1907........... 55.2083
Average, 1890-1899..
Jan..............................
Feb..............................
Mar.............................
A p r.............................
M ay............................
June............................
July.............................
A ug.............................
Sept............................
O ct..............................

Rela­
tive
price.

Oak: white,
quartered.

Oxide of zinc.

Price
per M
feet.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

100.0 $53.6771
136.3 80,0000
141.6 80.0000
146.9 80.0000
146.9 80.0000
164.3 80.0000
153.6 80.0000
153.6 80.0000
149.6 80.0000
144.3 80.0000
144.3 80.0000
144.3 80.0000
144.3 80.0000
147.5 80.0000

100.0
149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0

$0.0400
.0538
.0538
.0538
.0538
.0538
.0538
.0538
.0538
.0538
.0538
.0538
.0538
.0538

100.0 a1 7 .1104
134.5 36.7500
134.5 36.7500
134.5 36.7500
134.5 36.7500
134.5 37.7500
134.5 37.7500
134.5 37.7500
134.5 37.7500
134.5 37.7500
134.5 37.7500
134.5 37,7500
134.5 37.7500
134.5 37.4167

Pine: yellow.

Plate glass:
polished, glaz­
ing, area
3 to 5 sq. ft.

Plate glass:
polished, glaz­
ing, area
5 to 10 sq. ft.

Price
per M
feet.

Price
per sq.
foot.

Price
per sq.
foot.

Month.

Average, 1890-1899.. $18.4646
.Tan.................. 30.5000
Feb.............................. 30.5000
Mar............................. 30.5000
A p r ............................. 30.5000
May .......................... 30.5000
June............... ........... 30.5000
July............................ 30.5000
A u g ............................. 30.5000
Sept............................ 30.5000
Oct ............................ 30.5000
N o v .......................... 30.5000
Dec.............................. 30.5000
Average, 1907........... 30.5000

Pine: white,
Pine: white,
boards, No. 2
boards, uppers
bam (N. Y .
( N .Y . market).
market).

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per M
feet.

Price
per M
feet.

Price
per M
feet.

Putty.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

100.0
170.6
170.6
184.9
184.9
196.1
183.3
183.3
189.7
189.7
189.7
189.7
189.7
185.2

$0.0158
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120

Resin: good,
strained.

Shingles: cy­
press.

Price
per
barrel.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per M.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per M
feet.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
barrel.

Average, 1890-1899.. $1.4399
Jan.............................. 4.2500
Feb.............................. 4.4500
4.4250
Mar.............................
4.5500
Apr.............................
4.8000
May............................
June............................ 4.8000
4.4250
July............................
4.5000
Aug.............................
4.3500
Sept............................
Oct.............................. 4.2250
N ov............................. 4.2000
Dec.............................. 3.5500
Average, 1907...........
4.3771

100.0
295.2
309.0
307.3
316.0
333.4
333.4
307.3
312.5
302.1
293.4
291.7
246.5
304.0

$2.8213
3.8500
3.8500
4.3500
4.3500
4.3500
4.3500
4.3500
4.3500
4.3500
4.3500
4.1000
4.1000
4.2250

100.0 <$3.7434 100.0 $14.3489
136.5
2.5000 il77. 6 25.0000
136.5
2.7500 il95.4 25.0000
154.2
2.7500 il95.4 25.0000
154.2
2.9000 j'206.0 25.0000
154.2
3.0000 ;213.2 25.0000
154.2
2.6000 il84.7 25.0000
154.2
3.0000 f213.2 25.0000
154.2
3.1000 j220. 3 25.0000
154.2
3.0000 J213.2 25.0000
154.2
2.7500 il95.4 21.0000
145.3
2.0000 ;142.1 21.0000
145.3
2.0000 il42.1 21.0000
149.8
2.6958 il91.5 24.0000

100.0
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
146.4
146.4
146.4
167.3

$1.2048
2.3500
2.3000
2.3000
2.8000
2.3000
2.4000
2.5000
2.5000
2.3000
2.3000
2.3000
1.6000
2.3292

Month.

Price
per M.

Rela­
tive
price.

Spruce.

Rela­
tive
price.
10 0 .0
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9

Tar.

oPine: white, boards, No. 2 bam , 1 inch by 10 inches wide, rough (Buffalo market).
6Pine: white, boards, uppers, 1 inch, 8 inches and up wide, rough (Buffalo market).
cFor method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $33.25.
< For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $88.25.
2
e Plate glass: polished, unsilvered, area 3 to 5 square feet.
/ Plate glass: polished, unsilvered, area 5 to 10 square feet.
0 For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $0.2267.
* For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $0.3300.
1 Shingles: white pine, 18-inch, X X X X .
i For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $2.2125.




Rela­
tive
price.

$
100.0 646.5542
100.0
cl92.2 94.5000 <2194.9
cl92.2 94.5000 <2194.9
cl92.2 96.5000 <2199.0
cl92.2 96.5000 <2199.0
cl97.4 97.5000 <2201.1
cl97.4 97.5000 <2201.1
C
I97.4 97.5000 < 2 0 1 .1
2
cl97.4 97.5000 < 2 0 1.1
2
cl97.4 97.5000 < 2 0 1 .1
2
cl97.4 98.5000 < 203.1
2
cl97.4 98.5000 < 203.1
2
C
I97.4 98.5000 d 203.1
cl95.7 97.0833 < 200.2
2

Poplar.

100.0 <$0.3630 100.0 /$ 0 .5190 100.0 $31.3667
■
165.2
.2300 ( 77.2
7
.3400 &80.1 53.5000
165.2
7
.2300 ( 77.2
.3400 A 80.1 53.5000
165.2
.2300 g 77.2
.3400 A80.1 58.0000
165.2
.2300 ( 77.2
7
.3400 *80.1 58.0000
165.2
.2300 g 77.2
.3400 A80.1 61.5000
165.2
.2300 g 77.2
.3400 *80.1 57.5000
165.2
.2300 g 77.2
.3400 *80.1 57.5000
165.2
.2300 g 77.2
.3400 *80.1 59.5000
165.2
.2300 0 77.2
.3400 *80.1 59.5000
165.2
.2300 g 77.2
.3400 *80.1 59.5000
165.2
.2300 0 77.2
.3400 *80.1 59.5000
165.2
.2300 g 77.2
.3400 *80.1 59.5000
165.2
.3400 *80.1 58.0833
.2300 g 77.2
Shingles: red
cedar, ran­
dom width,
16-inch.

Rela­
tive
price.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
195.1
190.9
190.9
232.4=
190.9
199.2
207.5
207.5
190.9
190.9
190.9
132.8
193.3

412

BU LLETIN

of

the

bureau

of

labor,

T able I I , — M O N T H L Y A C TU A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES
IN 1907 A N D B A SE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.

Month.

Turpentine:
spirits of.

Drugs and chemicals.

Window glass: Window glass:
American,
American,
Alcohol: wood,
single, thirds, Alcohol: grain. refined, 95 per
single, firsts,
6 x 8 to 10 x 15 6 x 8 to 10 x 15
cent.
inch.
inch.

Price
per
gallon.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per 50
sq. ft.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per 50
sq. ft.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
gallon.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
gallon.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.3343
.7100
Jan..............................
.7400
Feb..............................
.7550
M ar.............................
.7300
A pr.............................
.6750
M ay.............................
.6400
June............................
.6100
July.............................
.5900
A ug.............................
.5825
Sept............................
.5500
Oct..............................
.5400
N ov.............................
.4900
Dec..............................
.6344
Average, 1907............

100.0
212.4
221.4
225.8
218.4
201.9
191.4
182.5
176.5
174.2
164.5
161.5
146.6
189.8

$2.1514
2.8800
2.8800
2.8800
2.8800
2.8800
2.8800
2.8800
2.7200
2.7200
2.7200
2.7200
2.7200
2.8133

100.0
133.9
133.9
133.9
133.9
133.9
133.9
133.9
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
130.8

$1.8190
2.2950
2.2950
2.2950
2.2950
2.2950
2.2950
2.2950
2.1675
2.1675
2.1675
2.1675
2.1675
2.2419

100.0
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
119.2
119.2
119.2
119.2
119.2
123.2

$2.2405
2.4650
2.4650
2.4650
2.4650
2.4650
2.5300
2.5300
2.5300
2.5300
2.5900
2.6100
2.6300
2.5229

100.0
110.0
110.0
110.0
110.0
110.0
112.9
112.9
112.9
112.9
115.6
116.5
117.4
112.6

$0.9539
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.3900
-.3992

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
40.9
41.8

Drugs and chemicals.
Alum: lump.
Month.
Price
per
pound.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0167
.0175
Jan..............................
.0175
Feb..............................
.0175
Mar.............................
.0175
A p r.............................
.0175
M ay............................
.0175
June............................
.0175
July............................
.0175
A ug.............................
.0175
Sept............................
.0175
O ct..............................
.0175
N o v .............................
.0175
Dec..............................
.0175
Average, 1907...........

Rela­
tive
price.

Brimstone:
crude, seconds.
Price
per
ton.

100.0 $20.6958
104.8 22.5000
104.8 22.1250
104.8 22.1250
104.8 22.1250
104.8 22.1250
104.8 22.1250
104.8 22.1250
104.8 22.1250
104.8 22.1250
104.8 19.5000
104.8 19.5000
104.8 19.5000
104.8 21.4983

Glycerin: re­
fined.

Opium: natu­
ral, in cases.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
piice.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

100.0
108.7
106.9
106.9
106.9
106.9
106.9
106.9
106.9
106.9
94.2
94.2
94.2
103.9

$0.1399
.1175
.1200
.1300
.1300
.1325
.1350
.1375
.1425
.1425
.1550
.1575
.1600
.1383

100.0
84.0
85.8
92.9
92.9
94.7
96.5
98.3
101.9
101.9
110.8
112.6
114.4
98.9

$0.0104
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135

100.0
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8

$2.3602
3.5500
3.5500
3.4500
4.0000
4.0000
3.8000
4.7500
7.0000
7.0000
6.5000
6.2500
5.5000
4.9458

Drugs and chemicals.
Quinine:
American.

Muriatic acid:
20°.

Sulphuric
acid: 66°.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
150.4
150.4
146.2
169.5
169.5
161.0
201.3
296.6
296.6
275.4
264.8
233.0
209.6

House furnishing goods.
Earthenware:
plates, creamcolored.

Earthenware:
plates, white
granite.

Month.

Earthenware:
teacups and
saucers, white
granite.

Price
per
ounce.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
dozen.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
dozen.

Price
per
Rela­ gross (6 Rela­
dozen
tive
tive
price. cups and price.
6 dozen
saucers).

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.2460
.1900
Jan..............................
.2200
Feb..............................
.2100
Mar.............................
.1900
Apr.............................
.1800
M ay............................
.1800
June............................
.1600
July.............................
.1600
Aug.............................
.1600
Sept............................
O ct..............................
.1600
.1600
N o v ............................
Dec.............................
.1600
.1775
Average, 1907...........

100.0
77.2
89.4
85.4
77.2
73.2
73.2
65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0
72.2

$0.0089
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100

100.0
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4

$0.4136
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4410

100.0
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6

$0.4479
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586

100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4




$3.4292
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

100.0
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
. 98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8

413

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T able I I .—M O N T H L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES
IN 1907 A N D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Continued.
[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
House furnishing goods.

Month.

Furniture:
bedroom sets,
ash.
Price
per
set.

Average, 1890- 1899. . $10.555
14.500
Jan..............................
Feb.............................. 14 500
Mar.............................
14 500
A p r.............................
14 500
M ay............................. 14 500
June............................
14 500
July............................. 14 500
A ug.............................
14 500
Sept............................
14 500
Oct..............................
14 500
N ov.............................
14 500
Dec..............................
14 500
Average, 1907............ 14 500

Furniture:
chairs, bed­
room, maple.

Furniture:
chairs,
kitchen.

Price
per
dozen.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
dozen.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
dozen.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
dozen.

100.0
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4

$6,195
10.000
10.000
10.000
10.000
10.000
10.000
10.000
10.000
10.000
10.000
10.000
10.000
10.000

100.0
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4

$& 8255
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
6.0000
6.0000
6.0000
6.0000
6.0000
6.0000
6.0000
5.7917

100.0
14a 8
14a 8
14a 8
14a 8
14a 8
isa 8
isa 8
15a 8
isa 8
is a 8
15a 8
15a 8
151.4

$14,435
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000

100.0
124.7
124 7
124 7
124 7
124 7
124 7
124.7
124 7
124 7
124 7
124 7
124 7
124 7

$0.1120
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400

Table cutlery:
carvers, stag
handles.

Month.
Price
per
dozen.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
dozen.

Rela­
tive
price.

$1.175
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050

100.0
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4

$0.1775
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500

100.0
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5

Price
per
pair.
$0.80
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.80

House furnish­
ing goods.

Month.

Wooden ware:
tubs, oak­
grained.

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0

12a 0
12a 0
12a o
12a o
12a o
12a o
12a o
12a 0

125.0

12a 0
125.0
125.0
125.0

Table cutlery:
Wooden ware:
knives and
pails, oak­
forks, cocobolo
grained.
handles.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
gross.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
doz.

100.0
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
100.0

$6.0600
6.3000
6.3000
6.3000
6.6000
6.6000
6.6000
6.6000
6.6000
6.6000
6.6000
6.3500
6.3500
6.4833

100.0
104 0
104 0
104 0
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
104.8
104.8
107.0

$1.2988
1.7000
1.7000
1.9500
1.9500
1.9500
1.9500
1.9500
2.1000
2.1000
2.1000
2.1000
2.1000
1.9708

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
130.9
130.9
150.1
150.1
150.1
150.1
150.1
161.7
161.7
161.7
161.7
161.7
151.7

Miscellaneous.
Cotton-seed
meal.

Price
Rela­ Price per Rela­
per nest tive
ton of tive
of 3.
price. 2,000 lbs. price.
Average, 1890- 1899.. $1.3471
Jan.............................. 1.4500
1.4500
Feb..............................
1.6000
M ar.............................
1.6000
A p r.............................
M ay............................. 1.6000
June............................
1. 6000'
July............................. 1.6500
A u g.............................
1.6500
Sept............................
1.6500
1.6500
Oct..............................
N ov............................. 1.6500
Dec.............................. 1.6500
Average, 1907...........
1.6000

Glassware:
nappies, 4-inch.

Rela­
tive
price.

Glassware:
Glassware:
tumblers, £pitchers, ^-gal­
lon, common. pint, common.

Average, 1890-1899..
Jan..............................
Feb..............................
M ar.............................
A p r.............................
M ay............................
June............................
July............................
A ug.............................
Sept............................
O ct..............................
N ov.............................
Dec..............................
Average, 1907...........

Furniture:
tables,
kitchen.

100.0 $21.9625
107.6 29.6000
107.6 28.6000
118.8 28.3500
118.8 27.6000
118.8 26.6000
118.8 27.6000
122.5 28.8500
122.5 28.3500
122.5 29.1000
122.5 30.1000
122.5 30.1000
122.5 29.6000
118.8 28.7042

100.0
134.8
130.2
129.1
125.7
121.1
125.7
131.4
129.1
132.5
137.1
137.1
134.8
130.7

Cotton-seed
oil: summer
yellow, prime.

Jute: raw, Mdouble trian­
gle, shipment.

Malt: western
made.

Price
per
gallon.

Relative
price,

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
per
bushel.

$0.3044
.4050
.4350
.4850
.4650
.4875
.5650
.5800
.5700
.5650
.5200
.3800
.3850
.4869

100.0 «$0.0359 100.0
133.0
.0625 6237.1
142.9
.0513 6194 6
159.3
.0575 6218.2
152.8
.0588 6223.1
160.2
.0563 6213.6
.0500 6189.7
185.6
190.5
.0500 6189.7
187.3
.0413 6156.7
185.6
.0400 6151.8
170.8
.0413 6156.7
124.8
.0413 6156.7
126.5
.0338 6128.2
160.0
.0486 6184.4

$0.7029
.7600
.7900
.9500
.9500
1.0600
1.0500
1.0250
1.0250
1.1400
1.2450
1.2100
1.2100
1.0346

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
103.1
112.4
135.2
135.2
150.8
149.4
145.8
145.8
162.2
177.1
172.1
172.1
147.2

« Jute: raw, spot quotations.
6 For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328; average price for 1906, $0.0539.




414
T

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.
I I . — M O N T H L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES O F COM M ODITIES
IN 1907 A N D B A S E PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R 1890-1899)— Concluded.

able

[Average for 1907 computed from quotations in Table I.]
Miscellaneous.
Paper: news.

Paper: wrap­
ping, manila.

Proof spirits.

Rope: manila,
/g-inch.

Rubber: Para
Island.

Price
per
pound.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
Rela­
per
tive
pound. price.

Price
per
gallon.

Rela­
tive
price.

Price
Rela­
per
tive
pound. price.

Price
per
pound.

$0.0299
.0238
.0213
.0213
.0255
.0255
.0255
.0255
.0255
.0255
.0265
.0265
.0265
.0249

100.0
79.6
71.2
71.2
85.3
85.3
85.3
85.3
85.3
85.3
88.6
88.6
88.6
83.3

$0.0553
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0506

$1.1499
1.2900
1.2900
1.2900
1.2900
1.2925
1.3100
1.3100
1.3100
1.3300
1.3450
1.3500
1.3500
1.3133

100.0 <*$0.0934
112.2
.1275
112.2
.1325
112.2
.1325
112.2
.1325
112.4
.1325
113.9
.1325
113.9
.1325
113.9
.1325
115.7
.1263
117.0
.1263
117.4
.1200
117.4
.1175
114.2
.1290

Month.

Average, 1890-1899
Jan.......................... .
Feb...........................
Mar...........................
Apr...........................
M ay..........................
June........................ .
July..........................
A ug.........................
Sept........................ .
Oct..........................
N ov.........................
Dec..........................
Average, 1907........

Soap: castile,
mottled, pure.

100.0
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
94.9
94.9
94.9
91.5

Starch: laundry.

Tobacco: plug.

Price
per
pound.

Price
per
pound.

100.0
136.5
141.9
141.9
141.9
141.9
141.9
141.9
141.9
135.2
135.2
128.5
125.8
138.1

Month.
Price
per
pound.
Average, 1890-1899..
Jan..............................
Feb..............................
Mar..............................
Apr..............................
M ay............................
June......................
July............................
Aug.............................
Sept............................
O ct..............................
N ov.............................
Dec..............................
Average, 1907...........

$0.0569
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0600
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0671




Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
114.2
114.2
114.2
114.2
114.2
105.4
123.0
123. C
123.0
123.0
123.0
123.0
117.9

Rela­
tive
price.

$0.0348
.0375
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0425
.0425
.0425
.0404
a f-inch.

100.0
107.8
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
122.1
122.1
122.1
116.1

$0.3962
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6

$0.8007
1.1800
1.1850
1.1850
1.1500
1.1400
1.0900
1.0450
1.0650
1.0300
.9950
.9150
.7800
1.0633

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
147.4
148.0
148.0
143.6
142.4
136.1
130.5
133.0
128.6
124.3
114.3
97.4
132.8

Tobacco: smoking,
granulated, Seal
of N . C.
Price
per
pound.
$0.5090
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117 9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9

41 5

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
T

able

I I I . — M ONTHLY

R E L A T IV E PRICES OF CO M M ODITIES IN 1907.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 328 to 337. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.
For a more detailed description of the articles, see Table I. Relative price for 1907 computed from
average price for the year shown in Table I.]
Farm products.
Grain.
Month.

Jan.......
F e b . ...
Mar----A pr___
M a y ....
June—
July—
A u g ....
Sept . . .
O c t ___
N ov—
Dec.......
1907 . . . .

Cotton:
up­
land,
mid­
dling.

139.9
142.0
143.8
143.4
154.9
168.1
169.5
171.8
163.5
148.5
142.0
151.9
153.0

Flax­
seed:
No. 1.

Bar­
ley: by
sam­
ple.

Com:
No. 2,
cash.

Oats:
cash.

Rye:
No. 2,
cash.

Wheat:
regular
grades,
cash.

Aver­
age.

103.3
107.3
108.2
104.7
105.6
118.4
112.5
103.1
106.4
107.8
101.5
94.1
106.1

119.7
130.4
153.2
155.9
171.8
164.3
145.9
154.6
201.3
227.5
191.2
213.9
169.0

108.4
114.2
116.0
123,0
139.4
140.2
142.2
148.6
162.0
162.5
153.9
155.8
138.8

129.6
145.8
152.0
161.0
171.8
166.0
162.1
181.6
198.0
192.3
174.1
184.7
167.4

116.9
126.8
127.4
130.7
150.3
164.1
161.5
146.8
166.7
159.7
148.0
148.4
145.4

97.1
105.8
105.0
107.9
127.7
128.8
128.5
123.7
134.5
138.8
124.4
128.3
120.8

114.3
124.6
130.7
135.7
152.2
152.7
148.0
151.1
172.5
176.2
158.3
166.2
148.3

Hides:
green,
Hops:
Hay:
salted,
New
timo­
packers, York
thy,
heavy
State,
No. 1.
native choice.
steers.
148.6
155.8
153.4
157.2
169.0
191.7
176.4
182.2
163.6
159.6
146.8
149.6
162.4

173.6
172.9
163.4
153.8
153.4
158.8
157.1
150.6
150.6
156.9
145.6
126.5
155.3

124.2
124.2
124.2
110.1
87.5
87.5
87.5
87.5
81.9
73.4
96.0
93.2
98.1

Live stock.
Hogs.

Cattle.
Steers, Steers,
choice good to
to extra. choice.
Jan........
F e b . ...
Mar—
A p r----M ay.. . .
June___
July—
A u g ....
Sept___
Oct........
N ov----Dec.___
1907.....

124.8
124.4
121.3
120.3
115.9
126.8
131.9
131.5
126.9
126.4
117.7
109.7
123.0

120.4
124.9
121.0
123.3
119.4
131.1
133.6
130.5
124.5
123.2
114.1
108.6
122.8

Aver­
age.

Aver­
age.

Native.

West­
ern.

Aver­
age.

148.8
149.1
158.1
158.8
151.7
151.2
150.8
150.5
146.0
144.7
140.2 ' 139.0
140.3
136.9
144.1
139.9
144.9
140.4
145.9
143.6
114.5
114.0
105.3
105.4
140.6
139.2

133.2
135.5
142.0
149.4
145.0
145.5
136.1
134.7
137.2
126.1
91.5
91.0
130.3

125.3
126.5
133.1
142.0
137.5
138.3
129.4
128.8
130.4

129.3
131.0
137.6
145.7
141.3
141.9
132.8
131.8
133.8
123.5
89.2

Heavy. Light.

122.6
124.7
121.2
121.8
117.7
129.0
132.8
131.0
125.7
124.8
115.9
109.2
122.9

149.4
159.4
150.6
150.1
143.4
137.8
133.4
135.6
135.8
141.3
113.5
105.4
137.8

Sheep.

1

Month.

120.8

86.9
86.5
123.5

88.8

126.9

Aver­
age.

133.7
138.1
136.6
139.3
134.5
136.6
134.1
134.2
133.3
130.6
106.4
101.1
129.7

Aver­
age,
farm
prod­
ucts.

129.0
134.6
135.4
136.5
139.9
144.2
140.5
141.0
145.5
144.4
128.9
128.3
137.1

Food, etc.
Bread.
Month.

Crackers.

Beans:
medium,
choice.
Boston.

Jan___
F e b . ...
M a r ....
A p r . ...
May—
J u n e ...
July—
A u g ....
Sept___
O c t___
N ov___
Dec___
1 9 0 7 ....

92.8
89.8
89.8
87.6
86.8
110.8
101.8
98.8
108.5
137.7
135.5
137.0
106.4

133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7




Soda.

90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5

Loaf.
Home­
Washing­
Average. ton mar­ made (N.
Y . mar­
ket.
ket).
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1

100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6

118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6

Vienna
Average.
(N. Y .
Average.
market).
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6

110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9

111.4
111.4
111.4
111.4
111.4
111.4
111.4
111.4
111.4
111.4
111.4
111.4
111.4

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

416

T a b le III.— O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907—
M
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.

R ealtive price for 1907 com puted from average price for the year
shown in Table I .]

Food, etc.
Fish.
Eggs:
newCheese:
Cream­ Cream­
Month.
Mack­
Cod, Her­
Dairy,
N. Y ., Coffee: laid,
ery,El­ ery,
Rio
ring, erel, Salmon, Aver­
fancy, dry,
New Aver­
full
extra
gin
No. 7. near­ bank, shore, salt,
cream.
canned. age.
age.
(Elgin (N. Y . York
large. round. large
by.
mar­
State.
mar­
No. 3s.
ket).
ket).
Butter.

Jan____
F e b i. . .
M ar___
A pr___
M ay. . .
J u n e.. .
J u ly. . .
A u g ....
Sept. . .
O ct____
N ov___
Dec___
1 9 0 7 ....

141.2
150.9
141.7
138.2
109.4
106.6
112.9
114.7
129.6
133.1
121.0
130.4
127.2

134.9
147.6
146.4
143.8
120.8
115.2
119.6
118.6
130.9
137.8
130.0
135.4
132.0

140.3
148.3
140.2
137.4
112.6
108.2
113.4
110.4
122.7
127.6
121.0
128.7
126.2

146.9
148.8
149.4
152.0
137.8
120.4
125.1
123.5
138.4
159.6
152.0
158.6
143.3

138.8
148.9
142.8
139.8
114.3
110.0
115.3
114.6
127.7
132.8
124.0
131.5
128.5

54.3
52.9
55.2
53.3
' 51.4
49.5
48.1
49.5
48.1
49.0
45.7
44.8
50.1

161.0
149.7
106.4
98.3
97.8
95.2
110.3
131.8
140.8
170.1
218.4
204.8
141.2

143.2 158.9
143.2 158.9
143.2 158.9
143.2 158.9
143.2 158.9
143.2 158.9
143.2 158.9
132.1 al58.9
132.1 «158.9
132.1 172.1
132.1 172.1
132.1 172.1
138.6 162.9

120.3
116.8
113.2
84.9
84.9
88.5
88.5
88.5
92.0
99.1
102.6
102.6
98.5

Flour.

Buck­
wheat.

Jan.......
Feb___
Mar___
A pr___
May----June___
July----A u g ....
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......
1 9 0 7 ....

115.8
112.0
108.1
110.7
o 110.7
oHO.7
o 110. 7
oHO.7
o 110.7
154.4
164.7
160.9
132.4

Rye.

Spring
patents.

119.8
118.3
117.6
116.1
119.1
152.2
153.0
148.5
145.5
156.0
156.8
162.0
138.7

95.1
98.9
96.6
97.0
112.1
117.8
119.5
117.1
123.5
129.9
126.7
127.1
113.5

Apples.

Average.
Winter
straights. Average.
86.0
87.0
86.5
86.7
103.4
111.2
111.6
106.3
110.2
119.5
118.3
117.3
103.7

90.6
93.0
91.6
91.9
107.8
114.5
115.6
111.7
116.9
124.7
122.5
122.2
108.6

104.2
104.1
102.2
102.6
111.3
123.0
123.7
120.7
122.5
140.0
141.6
141.8
122.1

Evapo­
rated,
choice.
98.9
99.6
97.4
82.6
85.6
85.6
94.5
97.4
106.3
115.1
113.7
118.1
99.5

Fruit.

193.3
201.6
198.4
194.9
181.6
183.5
186.7
183.5
176.5
183.5
183.5
181.6
187.5

74.3
72.7
71.8
68.6
64.6
74.3
79.2
80.7
85.7
84.0
84.0
80.0
76.6

100.0
93.3
93.3
103.3
105.0
105.0
105.0
120.0
120.0
120.0
120.0
116.6
108.4

119.5
118.7
117.0
113.2
110.7
113.0
116.4
119.6
121.0
123.8
123.5
126.4
119.2

a Nominal price; see explanation on page 329.




Sundried.
131.1
126.2
123.9
116.5
116.5
116.5
a 116. 5
a 116. 5
a 116. 5
a 116. 5
a 116. 5
135.9
123.9

Average.

115.0
112.9
110.7
99.6
101.1
101.1
105.5
107.0
111.4
115.8
115.1
127.0
111.7

Meal: corn.

Lard:
Raisins,
Glucose.
Month. Currants, Prunes, California,
prime
(*>
contract.
in barrels. California, London Average.
in boxes,
layer.
s'
Jan.......
F e b . ...
Mar___
A p r___
M a y ....
June___
J u ly ....
A u g ....
Sept—
O c t ___
N ov___
Dec.......
1 9 0 7 ....

134.0.
133.2
132.3
125.2
125.2
125.7
125.7
122.9
123.8
128.8
129.7
129.7
128.3

Fruit.

Wheat.
Month.

113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
112.0
o ll2 .0
112.0
o l l2 .0
o l l2 .0
o 112.0
O112.0
113.2

148.8
148.8
148.8
148.8
148.8
161.1
161.1
161.1
168.2
167.8
174.9
174.9
159.4

149.2
153.7
144.2
138.2
143.1
138.2
139.3
140.5
141.1
142.4
132.1
127.7
140.7

Fine
white.

124.0
124.0
124.0
124.0
120.4
126.4
128.7
124.0
133.5
151.4
146.9
126.4
129.5

Fine
yellow.

127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
124.2
130.3
132.8
127.8
137.7
156.1
151.4
130.3
133.5

b Average for 1893-1899=100.0

Average.

125.9
125.9
125.9
125.9
122.3
128.4
130.8
125.9
135.0
15a 8
149.2
128.4
131.5

417

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T able H I .—M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907—
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0. Relative price for 1907 computed from average price for the year
shown in Table I.]
Food, etc.
Meat.
Beef.

Month.

Pork.
Aver­
age.

Bacon,
short
clear
sides.

116.8
118.7
121.2
122.6
123.7
126.3
127.7
130.5
134.2
136.3
136.5
130.4
127.1

145.3
152.3
147.7
142.4
144.9
141.2
139.1
139.9
141.2
141.6
137.9
125.9
141.3

Molasses:
Rice:
New Or­
leans,
domestic,
open
choice.
kettle.

Salt:
Ameri­
can.

Fresh,
native
sides.

Salt,
extra
mess.

Salt,
hams,
west­
ern.

Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___
Apr___
May.. ..
June___
July....
Aug—
Sept___
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec......
1907....

105.7
104.5
103.8
108.0
111.2
119.2
123.2
124.9
120.4
121.9
121.3
112.8
114.7

110.7
115.4
121.6
121.6
121.6
121.6
121.6
121.6
124.7
127.9
127.9
132.5
122.5

134.0
136.1
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
145.1
157.5
159.2
160.3
145.9
144.0

Month.

Milk:
fresh.

Jan..
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May.

June
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1907.

147.1
137.3
127.5
127.5
112.5
98.0
103.1
121.2
132.5
156.9
156.9
156.9
131.4

134.9
134.9
119.0
119.0
119.0
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
120.6
129.7

82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
93.6
93.6
109.3
109.3
109.3
107.0
107.0
95.2

113.6
113.6
113.6
120.7
120.7
120.7
107.9
101.9
103.6
105.8
113.0
116.4
112.6

Bacon,
Salt,
short Hams, mess,
rib
smoked old to
sides.
new.

62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2

90.9
88.1
91.1
95.9
99.6
97.9
99.8
101.2
101.9
101.3
97.1
98.1
97.0




97.3
96.0
96.3
97.6
100.5
102.6
100.8
98.4
98.4
98.4
97.6
96.3
98.4

144.4
150.8
146.4
143.0
145.7
143.9
143.1
143.3
141.7
140.1
133.8
122.0
141.2

Mutton, Aver­
dressed. age.

114.1
112.7
120.2
132.0
137.7
128.5
107.4
111.1
109.4
110.1
109.4
104.1
116.0

130.3
134.0
133.7
134.0
136.5
135.4
132.8
134.5
134.9
135.0
131.8
122.9
132.8

Spices.
Pepper,
Singa­ Average.
pore.

35.9.
34.1
34.1
35.0
34.1
34.1
30.7
31.8
31.0
29.8
29.2
28.1
32.3

141.9
141.9
141.9
141.9
135.2
131.9
126.0
131.0
131.0
128.6
122.7
118.6
132.7

88.9
88.0
88.0
88.5
84.7
83.0
78.4
81.4
81.0
79.2
76.0
73.4
82.5

Starch:
pure
corn.

109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5

Vegetables, fresh.

Month. 89° fair 96° cen­ Granu­
refin­ trifu­ lated. Aver­
age.
ing.
gal.
88.8
85.6
89.0
94«5
98*7
96.8
98.9
99.7
101.3
100.6
95.8
96.9
95.7

154.7
161.2
156.3
152.8
154.7
155.3
156.9
155.8
152.6
147.4
137.8
130.0
151.0

Soda: _______
bicarbo­
nate of,
NutAmerican. megs.

Sugar.

Jan----F e b ....
Mar___
Apr___
M a y .. .
June.. .
July. . .
A u g ....
Sept. . .
O c t ....
Nov___
Dec___
1907....

133.4
138.5
136.6
136.0
139.4
137.5
137.0
137.2
133.4
131.6
124.2
108.5
132.4

144.2
151.1
144.8
140.9
143.9
141.5
139.3
140.1
139.0
139.9
135.4
123.6
140.1

Aver­
age.

92.3
89.9
92.1
96.0
99.6
99.1
99.8
99.8
100.5
100.1
96.8
97.1
97.0

Tea:
For­
Tallow. mosa,
fine.

147.4
153.3
155.2
144.6
144.4
146.7
143.7
145.7
143.7
137.9
131.5
126.0
142.8

81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0
81.0

Pota­
toes,
Onions. white, Aver­
age.
choice
to fancy.
103.0
132.4
161.8
66.2
88.2
117.7
117.7
91.9
66.2
95.6
91.9
103.0
103.0

78.6
85.7
83.8
86.9
127.8
103.7
72.6
a 72.6
a 7 2 .6

113.2
108.6
104.2
98.4

a Nominal price; see explanation on page 329.

90.8
109.1
122.8
76.6
108.0
110.7
95.2
82.3
69.4
104.4
100.3
103.6
100.7

Vine­
gar:
cider,
Mon­
arch.

115.0
115.0
115:0
115.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
115.0
128.6
121.8
116.7

Aver­
age,
food,
etc.

117.0
118.2
116.7
113.9
113.8
115.2
114.9
115.3
117.4
123.5
122.8
120.8
117.8

418

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I I I .—M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907—
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899*= 100.0. Relative price for 1907 computed from average price for the year
shown in Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.
Blankets.

Month.

Jan___
Feb___
Mar___
Apr___
May—
June. . .
July----Aug----Sept___
O c t ....
N ov___
D ec___
1 9 0 7 ....

Bags:
2bu.,
Amoskeag.

11-4,
all
wool.

11-4,
cotton
warp,
all
wool
filling.

11-4,
cotton
warp,
cotton
and
wool
filling.

Aver­
age.

Men's
brogans,
split.

119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0

130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5
130.5

141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5
141.5

130.3
130.3
130.3
130.3
130.3
130.3
130.3
130.3
130.3
130.3
130.3
130.3
130.3

Month.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar___
A pr___
May----June___
J u ly ....
A u g ....
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......
1 9 0 7 ....

Men’ s
vici calf Men’ s
shoes, vici kid
Men’ s
split Blucher shoes,
boots. bal., vici Good­
calf top, year
single
welt.
sole.

131.4
131.4
131.4
131.4
131.4
131.4
128.9
128.9
126.3
126.3
123.8
121.3
128.7

132.2
132.2
132.2
139.4
139.4
139.4
139.4
139.4
150.1
139.4
139.4
139.4
138.5

Broadcloth:
Calico:
first qual­ standard
Month. ity, black, Ameri­
Brussels,
54-inch, can prints, 5-frame,
XXX
64 x 64. •Bigelow.
wool.
Jan____
F e b ....
Mar___
A p r___
May—
June___
J u ly ....
A u g ....
Sept___
Oct____
N ov___
Dec____
1 9 0 7 ....

Boots and shoes.

116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6
116.6

Cotton
thread:
6
-cord,
20
0 -yard
spools,
J .& P .
Coats.

10
2 .1
10
2 .1
10
2 .1
10
2 .1
10
2 .1

145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4
145.4
134.8

105.1
105.1
114.6
114.6
114.6
114.6
124.2
124.2
133.7
133.7
133.7
133.7

11
2 .0

124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7

162.1
162.1
162.1
162.1
162.1
162.1
162.1
159.0
159.0
159.0
156.0
152.9
160.0

109.0
109.0
109.0
109.0
109.0
109.0
109.0
109.0
109.0
109.0
109.0
109.0
109.0

Carpets.
Ingrain,
2
-ply,
Lowell.

11
2 .2
11
2 .2
11
2 .2
11
2 .2
11
2 .2
11
2 .2
11
2 .2
11
2 .2
11
2 .2
11
2 .2
11
2 .2
11
2 .2
11
2 .2




2 yards
f

Wilton,
5-frame, Average.
Bigelow.

123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7

127.3
127.3
127.3
127.3
127.3
126.7
126.2
125.6
125.1
125.1
123.4

12
2 .2

125.9

to the
pound.

123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2

132.9
132.9
132.9
132.9
141.6
141.6
145.2
145.2
145.2
145.2
141.6
141.6
139.9

3£ yards
to the Average.
pound.

134.8
134.8
134.8
134 8
139.1
139.1
143.5
143.5
143.5
143.5
139.1
139.1
139.1

133.9
133.9
133.9
133.9
140.4
140.4
144.4
144.4
144.4
144.4
140.4
140.4
139.5

Drillings.

Carded,
Carded,
Denims:
white,
white,
AmosmulemuleAverage. keag.
spun,
spun,
northern, northern,
cones, 10/1. cones, 22/1.
127.0
129.5
129.5
127.0
127.0
134.6
139.7
139.7
137.1
132.0
121.9
121.9
130.6

125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
122.3
122.3
122.3
122.3
122.3
119.3
119.3
123.1

Aver­
age.

Cotton flannels.

Cotton yams.

136.8
136.8
133.7
136.8
136.8
143.0
146.1
146.1
143.0
136.8
124.4
124.4
137.1

108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7

W om ­
en’ s
solid
grain
shoes.

131.9
133.2
131.6
131.9
131.9
138.8
142.9
142.9
140.1
134.4
123.2
123.2
133.9

12
2 .1
12
2 .1

124.5
124.5
124.5
134.1
138.9
141.3
141.3
141.3
136.5
136.5
132.3

Flannels:
white,
4-4, Bal­
30-inch,
Average. lard Vale
Stark A.
No. 3.

Brown,
Pepperell.
!
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2
144.2

139.9
147.4
146.6
145.9
158.2
151.1
154.3
142.4
155.9
150.1
151.8
157.8
150.1

142.1
145.8
145.4
145.1
151.2
147.7
149.3
143.3
150.1
147.2
148.0
151.0
147.2

122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
123.1

419

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907,

T able I I I .—M O N TH L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907—
Continued.
[Average price lor 1890-1899=100.0. Relative price for 1907 computed from average price for the year
shown in Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.
Ginghams.

Hosiery.
Horseblan­
Women’s
kets: 6 Men’s cotton Men’s cotton
Month.
combed
Amos- Lancas­ Aver­ pounds half hose,
Egyptian
half hose,
each,
seamless,
cotton hose,
seamless,
ter.
keag.
age.
fast black,
all
84 needles.
high spliced
20 to 22 oz.
wool.
heel. («)
Jan____
F e b . ...
Mar___
A p r----May----June. . .
July----A u g ....
Sept___
O c t ....
N ov___
Dec___
1 9 0 7 ....

112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
131.3
140.7
140.7
131.3
131.3
131.3
123.5

113.4
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
120.4

113.0
115.2
115.2
115.2
115.2
115.2
124.6
129.3
133.6
128.9
128.9
128.9
122.0

130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9

685.3
685.3
685.3
88.5
« 88.5
<88.5
c 8 8.5
c88.5
94.8
<*94.8
<*94.8
<*94.8
<94.8

109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5

95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6
95.6

Leather.
Month.

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r ....
A p r.. . .
M a y ....
J u n e ...
July....
A u g ....
Sept. . .
O ct___
N o v ....
Dec___
1907....

Harness,
oak.

Sole,
hemlock.

131.1
131.1
131.1
131.1
131.1
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
125.9
129.0

6 81.6
6 81.6
6 81.6
84.2
<84.2
c84.2
<84.2
c84.2
89.5
<*89.5
<*89.5
<*89.5
<89.5

120.4
114.5
111.5
111.5
111.5
111.5
108.5
113.0
113.0
117.5
116.0
114.5
113.6

110.8
110.8
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
118.4
117.1

124.4
123.0
124.1
124.4
124.4
123.6
122.8
124.0
124.0
125.1
124.7
123.9
124.0

3-cord,
200-yard
spools,
Barbour.

Average.

103.7
103 7
103.7
103.7
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
107.3

102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.6
105.6
104.7

102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1

Overcoatings.
Month.

J an . . . .
F eb. . . .
Mar___
A p r .. . .
M ay.. . .
June. . .
J u ly ....
A ug___
S ep t_
_
O c t ....
N ov___
D ec___
1 9 0 7 ....

Kersey,
Chinchilla, Covert cloth,
Chinchilla,
standard
B-rough, all cotton warp, light weight,
27 to 28 oz.(/)
staple.
C.C. grade.
wool.

Average.

154 3
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
life. 4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.4
158.0

117.7
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.3
118.8
119.5
118.8
118.8
119.3
118.3
117.2
118.7

119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4
119.4

100.3
101.4
101.4
101.4
102.4
100.3
103.4
100.3
100.3
102.4
98.3
942
100.5

96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9

Print
cloths:
28-inch,
64 x 64.

140.9
147.6
158.6
158.6
161.3
170.9
177.3
185.0
185.0
185.0
177.9
155.3
167.4

a Average for 1893-1899=100.0.
&September, 1906, price,
c April, 1907, price.
< September, 1907, price.
*
t September, 1907, price, which represents the bulk of sales during the year.
/ Average for 1897-1899=100.0.




93.0
93.0
93.0
94.5
94.5
94.5
94.5
94.5
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4

Linen thread.

W ax calf,
Shoe,
30 to 40 lbs.
Sole, oak. to the dozen, Average. 10s, Bar­
bour.
B grade.

135.4
135.4
135.4
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.4

Women’ s
cotton hose, Aver­
seamless,
age.
fast black,
26 to 28 oz.

Shawls:
standard, all
wool (low
grade), 72 x
144 inch, 40 to
42 ounce.
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0

420

BULLETIN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOB.

Table I I I .—M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907—
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0. Relative price for 1907 computed from average price for the year
shown in Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.
Sheetings.
Bleached.

Brown.

9-4, A t­
lantic.

Jan........
Feb........
Mar.......
Apr........
M ay----June___
July----Aug.......
Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dee........
1907........

10-4,
Pep­
pered.

10-4,
W am sutta
S. T.

121.6
134.0
126.8
127.0
126.1
135.2
126.1
123.4
123.3
144.7
161.8
161.2
134.3

138.0
138.0
148.6
148.6
148.6
159.2
159.2
159.2
159.2
159.2
159.2
159.2
153.0

98.3
98.3
98.3
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
105.1
103.4

Aver­
age.

4-4,
Indian
Head.

4-4, At­
lantic A.

131.8
131.8
131.8
131.8
131.8
131.8
131.8
135.8
135.8
135.8
135.8
135.8
133.4

135.8
135.4
136.7
136.2
135.6
142.3
137.4
139.6
140.0
141.0
145.6
141.8
138.9

119.3
123.4
124.6
126.9
126.6
133.2
130.1
129.2
129.2
136.3
142.0
141.8
130.2

4-4, Mass.
Mills,
Flying
Horse
brand.
122.7
126.8
126.8
126.8
126.8
126.8
130.9
130.9
130.9
126.8
126.8
122.7
127.1

4-4,

127.0
127.0
131.6
131.6
131.6
136.1
136.1
140.7
140.7
140.7
140.7
140.7
135.4

Shirtings: bleached.
Month.

Jan____
F e b ....
Mar___
Apr___
M a y ....
J une.. .
J u ly ....
A u g ....
Sept—
O c t ....
N ov___
Dec___
1 9 0 7 ....

4-4, Fruit
of the
Loom.
130.5
137.4
137.4
151.1
151.1
158.0
158.0
158.0
164.8
164.8
164.8
164.8
153.4

4-4,
Hope.

Aver­
age. .

Aver­
age.

125.0
127.3
128.7
129.6
129.4
133.8
132.4
133.5
133.6
136.2
139.3
138.1
132.2

129.3
130.3
131.7
131.6
131.5
134.3
134.1
136.8
136.9
136.1
137.2
135.3
133.7

Silk: raw.

4-4, W am 4-4, Wil­
4-4, Lons­
sutta
Japan,
liam sAverage. Italian,
dale.
classical. filatures. Average.
<o>
vilie, A 1.
XX-

131.9
135.7
135.7
135.7
135.7
135.7
154.6
154.6
154.6
154.6
154 6
139.5
143.7

127.2
1341
134.1
134.1
1341
1341
151.3
151.3
151.3
151.3
151.3
137.6
141.0

113.4
113.4
113.4
113.4
113.4
113.4
118.7
118.7
118.7
118.7
118.7
118.7
116.0

119.9
122.7
131.3
131.3
131.3
134.1
137.0
137.0
137.0
137.0
137.0
137.0
132.8

124 6
128.7
130.4
133.1
133.1
135.1
143.9
143.9
145.3
145.3
145.3
139.5
137.4

125.6
122.7
126.2
133.2
139.0
136.7
135.5
131.4
136.7
136.7
132.0
118.1
131.1

127.3
1249
129.7
136.4
139.4
131.5
125.5
118.3
132.2
121.3
118.9
105.6
125.9

126.5
123.8
128.0
134.8
139.2
134.1
130.5
124 9
134 5
129.0
125.5
111.9
128.5

Suitings.
Clay
worsted
Month. diagonal,
12-ounce,
Washing­
ton Mills.®
Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....
Apr___
M a y ...
J u n e ...
J u ly ...
Aug. . .
S e p t...
O c t ....
N o v ...
Dec___
1907....

142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1

Clay
Indigo blue,
worsted
all wool,
diagonal,
54-inch, 1416-ounce,
ounce, Mid­
Washing­
dlesex.
ton Mills.®
140.8
140.8
140.8
140.8
138.6
138.6
138.6
138.6
138.6
138.6
138.6
138.6
139.3

129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3

Indigo
blue, all
wool, 16ounce.

Seige,
Washing­
ton Mills
6700.(&)

126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2 1

Trouser­
ings, fancy
worsted. (&
)

140.5
140.5
140.5
140.5
140.5
134.5
134.5
140.5
140.5
140.5
140.5
140.5
139.5

118.1
118.1
118.1
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
122.3

Aver­
age.

132.8
132.8
132.8
133.8
133.4
132.4
132.4
133.4
133.4
133.4
133.4
133.4
133 1

i

® Average for 1895-1899=100.0.




6 Average for 1892-1899=100.0.

Tick­
ings:
Amoskeag
A. C. A .

117.8
120.2
122.5
122.5
127.2
127.2
132.0
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
136.7
129.4

421

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1807.

Table I I I . —M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907—
Continued.
[Average price lor 1890-1899=100.0. Relative price lor 1907 computed Irom average price lor the year
shown in Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.
Underwear.

Women’ s dress goods.

Shirts
CashCashMonth. Shirts
and
mere,
mere,
and
drawers,
all wool, cotton
drawers,
Aver­
white,
warp,
10-11
white,
age.
twill, 38- 9-twill,
all wool, merino,
wool and
inch, A t­ 4-4, A t­
etc.
cotton.
lantic J. lantic F.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar—
Apr—
M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....
S e p t...
Oct___
Nov___
Dec___
1907....

106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0

115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9

134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9

Cashmere,
cotton
warp,
36-inch,
Hamil­
ton.

Danish
cloth,
cotton
warp
and
filling,
22-inch.

Frank­
lin
sack­
ings,
6-4.

127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8
127.8

124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9
124.9

129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
119.9
119.9
119.9
126.8

145.1
145.1
145.1
145.1
145.1
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
147.0

Wool.
Month.

127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
130.9
130.9
134.8
134.8
130.9
130.9
130.9
129.9

109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
115.4
110.1

128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
127.6
127.6
128.5
128.6

Worsted yarns.

Ohio, me­
Ohio, fine
fleece ( X and dium fleece
( i and §
X X grade),
grade),
scoured.
scoured.

Jan____
F e b . ...
M ar___
A p r___
M a y ....
June....
J u ly ....
A u g ....
Sept___
Oct........
N ov___
Dec.___
1 9 0 7 ....

Poplar
cloth ,
cotton
warp Aver­
age.
and
filling,
36-inch.

2-40s,

Average.

115.5
115.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
113.0

121.3
121.3
119.8
119.8
119.8
121.7
121.7
123. 7
123. 7
121.7
121.7
121.7
121.5

xxxx,

2-40s, Aus­
tralian fine.

white, in
skeins.

127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127. 7
127.7
125.7
125.7
127.3

129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
127.1
129.1
129.1
129.1
128.4

Average.

Average,
cloths and
clothing.

128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127. 4
128.4
127.4
127.4
127.9

123.2
123.9
124.6
125.3
125.9
126.9
128.0
128.3
129.2
128.8
128.2
127.1
126.7

Fuel and lighting.
Coal.
Candles:
ada­
Month. man­
tine,
6s,
14ounce.

Jan........
F e b ....
Mar___
A p r . ...
May......
June—
July----A u g ....
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......
1907___

94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
94.4
95.9
95.9
95.9
94.8

Anthracite.

Bro­
ken.

Chest­
nut.

Egg.

124.9
124.8
124.8
124.8
124.8
124.9
124.9
124.8
124.9
125.0
124.9
124.9
124.9

137.7
137.7
137.7
123.8
126.1
129.3
132.0
134.7
137.4
137.6
137.4
137.5
134.1

137.8
137.7
137.7
123.8
126.0
129.2
131.9
134.8
137.7
137.8
137.7
137.7
134.2




Bituminous.

Stove.

Aver­
age.

130.4
130.4
130.5
117.3
119.3
122.4
125.0
127.6
130.3
130.4
130.4
130.4
127.1

132.7
132.7
132.7
122.4
124.1
126.5
128.5
130.5
132.6
132.7
132.6
132.6
130.1

Georges
Pitts­
Georges Creek
burg
Creek (1. o. b.
(Yough- Aver­
New
(at
age.
York
ioghemine).
Har­
ny).
bor).
168.8
168.8
168.8
168.8
168.8
168.8
168.8
168.8
163.2
196.9
196.9
168.8
173.0

116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
114.8
125.8
125.8
116.7
118.0

124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
128.3
132.2
140.0
140.0
128.1

136.6
136.6
136.6
136.6
136.6
136.6
136.6
136.6
135.4
151.6
154.2
141.8
139.7

Aver­
age.

134.4
134.4
134.4
128.5
129.4
130.8
132.0
133.1
133.8
140.8
141.9
136.6
134.2

422

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able III.— O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907—
M
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.

Relative price for 1907 computed from average price for the year
shown in Table I.]
Fuel and lighting.
Petroleum.

Month.

Jan___
Feb___
Mar___
Apr—
M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...
Oct___
N ov...
Dec___
1907....

Coke:
Connellsviile,
furnace.

Matches:
parlor,
domestic.

209.0
210.5
191.4
164.9
164.9
136.9
147.2
154.6
163.4
173.7
161.9
117.8
166.3

85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4

Average.

Average,
fuel and
lighting.

145.1
148.2
150.1
157.9
157.9
157.9
159.2
159.2
159.2
159.2
160.7
160.7
156.2

135.8
136.6
135.5
132.1
132.6
131.2
132.9
134.1
135.2
139.9
139.9
133.6
135.0

Refined.
Crude.

For
export.

150° fire
test, w. w.

Average.

146.1
151.7
151.7
151.7
151.7
151.7
151.7
151.7
151.7
151.7
151.7
151.7
151.2

130.9
135.6
135.6
139.0
139.0
139.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
141.0
143.3
143.3
139.1

115.6
119.4
119.4
126.3
126.3
126.3
130.2
130.2
130.2
130.2
134.8
134.8
127.0

173.6
173.6
179.1
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
190.5

Metals and implements.
Bar iron.
Best
Com­
Month. refined, mon to
from
best re­
store
fined
(Phila­ (Pitts­
delphia
burg
mar­
mar­
ket).
ket).
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
A p r ....
M a y ...
June...
J uly....
A u g ....
S e p t...
Oct___
N ov—
Dec___
1907....

126.8
131.7
131.7
131.7
131.7
131.7
131.7
131.7
131.7
125.6
119.5
119.5
128.7

137.3
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
133.6
129.8
129.8
127.6
127.6
127.6
120.0
131.3

Builders’ hardware.

Aver­
age.

132.1
133.4
133.4
133.4
133.4
132.7
130.8
130.8
129.7
126.6
123.6
119.8
130.0

Barb
wire:
gal­
van­
ized.

Butts:
loose
joint,
cast,
3x3 in.

102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
104.1
104.1
104.1
106.1
106.1
106.1
106.1
104.3

126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6

Door­ Locks:
knobs: com­
steel,
mon Aver­ In­
age. got,
bronze mor­
lake.
plated. tise.

265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2
265.2

244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8
244.8

Nails.
Month.

Jan----F e b ....
M a r .. .
A p r. . .
M ay. . .
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ...
S e p t...
O c t ....
N o v .. .
Dec___
1907....

Lead:
Pig-

165.4
166.1
167.5
163.5
160.1
151.7
137.8
135.2
136.5
122.8
120.7
111.5
144.9

Lead
pipe.

149.4
149.4
149.4
149.4
149.4
142.0
142.0
134.5
134.5
127.0
127.0
115.8
139.2




97.1
97.1
97.1
97.1
97.1
97.1
97.1
97.1
99.5
99.5
99.5
99.5
97.9

212.2
212.2
212.2
212.2
212.2
212.2
212.2
212.2
212.2
212.2
212.2
212.2
212.2

193.5
203.6
206.6
200.6
206.6
199.6
193.5
162.1
146.9
122.6
117.5
113.5
172.2

Sheet,
hotrolled Wire, Aver­
(base bare. age.
sizes).

174.8
180.8
192.9
192.9
192.9
192.9
192.9
168.8
168.8
120.6
120.6
120.6
168.3

174.2
187.8
187.8
187.8
187.8
187.8
187.8
167.3
167.3
111.0
109.3
112.7
164.1

180.8
190.7
195.8
193.8
195.8
193.4
191.4
166.1
161.0
118.1
115.8
115.6
168.2

Pig iron.

Cut,
Wire,
8-penny, 8-penny,
Aver­
fence
fence
age.
and
and
common. common.
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
120.4
123.1
120.4
116.3
116.3
118.3

Copper.

107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
108.8
111.3
110.0
107.9
107.9
108.1

Besse­
mer.

169.5
168.7
166.6
170.9
174.5
177.8
172.7
166.6
165.8
166.2
147.7
142.3
165.8

Foundry Foundry
No. 1.
No. 2.

185.8
184.9
181.5
179.4
179.7
173.9
159.5
152.0
143.1
137.8
131.3
127.9
161.4

196.1
196.1
190.4
192.3
194.2
204.2
198.4
183.1
175.4
163.0
154.4
146.7
182.9

Gray
forge,
south­
ern,
coke.
209.7
209.7
203.8
209.7
198.4
198.4
198.4
189.4
173.6
171.3
160.1
148.8
189.3

Aver­
age.

190.3
189.9
185.6
188.1
186.7
188.6
182.3
172.8
164.5
159.6
148.4
141.4
174.9

423

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

Table I I I .—M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907—
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0. Relative price for 1907 computed from average price for the year
shown in Table I.]
Metals and implements.

Silver:
bar, fine.

it ^

Ia
f
S

Month.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar. . .
Apr___
M ay...
June...
J u ly ...
A ug. . .
Sept. . .
Oct___
N ov...
Dec___
1907....

Spelter:
western.

92.6
92.7
90.9
88.2
89.0
90.5
91.8
92.7
91.4
84.3
79.3
73.7
88.1

147.8
157.7
153.8
152.2
146.7
143.8
141.2
129.4
122.3
119.5
121.7
102.4
136.5

96.5
96.5
96.5
94.8
94.8
94.8
92.1
92.1
92.1
96.5
109.1
109.1
97.1

Steel
billets.

Steel
sheets:
black, No.
27. («)

Steel
rails.

Tin: pig.

111.6
111.6
111.6
111.6
111.6
111.6
111.6
111.6
111.6
111.6
111.6
111.6
111.6

227.9
231.5
228.2
217.9
234.5
226.0
233.6
211.3
202.2
189.0
166.7
163.9
211.1

107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4

136.6
137.0
134.7
140.5
140.8
137.6
139.4
136.6
136.4
131.0
130.1
130.1
135.9

Tin plates:
domestic,
Bessemer,
coke, 14x20
in. (6)
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
119.8

Tools.

Month.

Augers:
extra,
f-inch.

J a n ___
F e b ....
Mar —
A p r___
May—
June....
July----A ug—
Sept___
Oct........
N ov___
Dec.___
1907___

Axes:
M. C. O.,
Yankee.

223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9
223.9

144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9

Chisels:
extra,
socket
firmer,
1-inch.
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
237.6
198.0
234.3

Files:
8-inch,
mill
bastard.

Ham­
mers:
Maydole
No. 1J.

118.4
118.4
118.4
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
116.1
116.1
114.9
114.9
117.0

129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0

Tools.
Month

Jan..
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.,
Nov.
Dec.
1907.

Shovels:
Ames No. 2.

Trowels: M.
C. O., brick,
10J-inch.

Vises: solid
box, 50pound.

Average.

99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4
147.4

115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7

Saws.
Planes:
Bailey
No. 5.

Hand,
Crosscut,
Disston. DisstOn
No. 7.

Average.

101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3

100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7

101.3

100.7

115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

115.7
115.7

Wood
screws:
1-inch, No .10,
flat head.
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7
80.7

a Average for the period, July, 1894, to December, 1899=100.0.
b Average for 1896-1899=100.0.

37691— No. 7 5 -0 8 ------ 10




101.3

Zinc:
sheet.

142.9
145.5
147.2
148.9
148.9
148.9
148.9
144.6
134.2
129.9
129.9
121.3
140.9

100.7

Average,
metals and
implements.

147.9
149.1
148.8
148.6
148.8
148.1
146.9
142.7
140.8
135.4
133.3
129.8
143.4

4 24
T able

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

III.— O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907—
M
Continued.

[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0. Relative price for 1907 computed from average price for the year
shown in Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.
Month.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
Apr___
M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....
S e p t...
O c t ....
N ov. . .
Bee___
1907....

Cement.
Carbonate
of lead:
American, Portland,
in oil.
domestic.® Rosendale. Average.

Brick:
common
domestic.
112.4
114.6
114.6
94.4
105.6 .
134.8
116.9
116.9
110.1
105.6
103.4
98.9
110.7

127.4
118.9
118.9
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
123.2
114.7
114.7
114.7
120.8

82.7
82.7
82.7
82.7
82.7
82.7
82.7
85.2
85.2
85.2
77.6
77.6
82.4

107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1

Doors:
pine.

94.9
94.9
94*9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
96.2
96.2
96.2
92.4
92.4
94.8

Lime:
common.

168.0
168.0
168.0
168.0
168.0
168.0
168.0
168.0
168.0
173.3
173.3
151.1
167.5

122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
125.4
113.9

Linseed
oil: raw.

90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
97.0
99.2
94.8
94.8
103.6
108.0
99.2
95.7

Lumber.
Oak: white.
Month.

Jan..........
Feb.........
Mar.........
Apr..........
M ay........
June........
July........
Aug.........
Sept........
Oct..........
N ov.........
Dee..........
1907.........

Hem­
lock.

Maple:
hard.

186.0
117.0
186.0
117.0
186.0
122.6
186.0
122.6
122. 6
186.0
186.0
122 6
186.0 • 122 6
186.0
122.6
186.0
122 6
186.0
122.6
186.0
122.6
186.0
122 6
186.0
121.7

Pine.
White, boards.

Quar­
tered.

136.3
141.6
146.9
146.9
164.3
153.6
153.6
149.6
144 3
144 3
144 3
144 3
147.5

Aver­
age.

149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0
149. 0
149.0
149.0
149.0

Plain.

142.7
145.3
148.0
148.0
156.7
151.3
151.3
149.3
146.7
146.7
146.7
146.7
148.3

mo

149.0
149.0
149.0
149.0

Lumber.
Poplar.

Spruce.

Average.

170.6
170.6
184 9
184.9
196.1
183.3
183.3
189.7
189.7
189.7
189.7
189.7
185.2

174.2
174 2
1742
174.2
1742
1742
174.2
1742
174.2
146.4
146.4
146.4
167.3

165.0
165.6
168.9
168.9
172.9
170.3
170.3
170.5
169.9
167.1
167.1
167.1
168.6

134.5
134.5
134 5
134.5
134 5
134 5
134 5
1345
1345
1345
1345
134 5
134.5




192.2
192 2
192.2
192.2
197.4
197.4
197.4
197.4
197.4
197.4
197.4
197.4
195.7

Yellow.

Average.

Uppers. Average.
194.9
194.9
199.0'
199.0
201.1
201.1
201.1
20L1
201.1
203.1
203.1
203.1
200.2

193.6
193.6
195.6
195.6
199.3
199.3
199.3
199.3
199.3
200.3
200.3
200.3
198.0

165.2
165.2
165.2
165.2
165.2
166.2
165.2
165.2
165.2
165.2
166.2
165.2
165.2

1841
1841
185.5
185.5
187.9
187.9
187.9
187.9
187.9
188.6
188.6
188.6
187.0

Plate glass: polished, glazing.
Oxide
of zinc.

Month.

Jan____
Feb-----Mar___
A p r___
May—
June_
_
July—
A ug—
Sept—
O ct___
N ov___
Dec___
1 9 0 7 ....

No. 2
bam .

Area, 3 to Area, 5 to
5 square 10 square
feet.
feet.
77.2
77.2
77.2
77.2
77.2
7 7 .2
77.2
77.2
77.2
77.2
77.2
77.2
77.2

sa 1

80.1
80.1
80.1
80.1
80.1
80.1
80.1
80.1
80.1
80.1 f
80.1
80.1

a Average for 1895-1899=100.0.

Putty.
Average.

78.7
78.7
78.7
78.7
78.7
78.7
78.7
78.7
78.7
78.7
78.7
78.7
78.7

75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9

Resin:
good,
strained.

295.2
309.0
307.3
316.0
333.4
333.4
307.3
312.5
302.1
293.4
291.7
246.5
3040

425

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
T a b l e I I I . — M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E

PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 1907—
Continued.

Average price for 1890-1899=100.0. Relative price for 1907 computed from average price for the year
shown in Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.
Window glass: American,
single.

Shingles.
Turpen­
tine:
spirits
of.

Month.
Tar.
Cypress.

Jan.......
F e b . ...
Mar___
A pr___
May—
June___
July—
A u g ....
Sept—
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec.......
1 9 0 7 ....

136.5
136.5
1542
154 2
1542
154 2
154 2
154 2
154 2
1542
145.3
145.3
149.8

Red
cedar.

Average.

177.6
195.4
195.4
206.0
213.2
184 7
213.2
220.3
213.2
195.4
142.1
142.1
191.5

157.1
166.0
174 8
180.1
183.7
169.5
183.7
187.3
183.7
174 8
143.7
143.7
170.7

195.1
190.9
190.9
232.4
190.9
199.2
207.5
207.5
190.9
190.9
190.9
132.8
193.3

Firsts,
6 x 8 to
10x15
inch.

212.4
221.4
225.8
218.4
201.9
191.4
182.5
176.5
174.2
164 5
161.5
146.6
189.8

133.9
133.9
133.9
133.9
133.9
133.9
133.9
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
130.8

Thirds,
6 x 8 to
10x15
inch.

Average,
lumber
and build­
ing mate­
Average.
rials.

126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
119.2
119.2
119.2
119.2
119.2
123.2

130.1
130.1
130.1
130.1
130.1
130.1
130.1
122.8
122.8
122.8
122.8
122.8
127.0

145.9
147.3
149.1
150.5
150.4
149.8
149.2
149.0
147.2
144 9
142.2
137.2
146.9

Drugs and chemicals.
Alcohol:
Brim­
Average,
Month. Alcohol: wood, Alum: stone: Glycer­ Muriatic Opium: Quinine:
Sul­
drugs
nat­
in: re­
phuric
grain. refined, lump. crude,
acid: 20°. ural, in Ameri­
and
95 per
can.
aeid: 66°. chemicals.
seconds. fined.
cases.
cent.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
Apr___
M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
Aug...
S e p t...
Oct___
Nov
Dec___
1907....

110.0
110.0
110.0
110.0
110.0
112.9
112.9
112.9
112.9
115.6
116.5
117.4
112.6

41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
41.9
40.9
41.8

104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
1048
104.8
104.8
104.8

108.7
106.9
106.9
106.9
106.9
106.9
106.9
106.9
106.9
94.2
94.2
94.2
103.9

840
85.8
92.9
92.9
94.7
96.5
98.3
101.9
101.9
110.8
112.6
114 4
98.9

129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8

150.4
150.4
146.2
169.5
169.5
161.0
201.3
296.6
296.6
275.4
264.8
233.0
209.6

112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4

77.2
89.4
85.4
77.2
73.2
73.2
65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0
65.0
72.2

102.1
103.5
103.4
105.0
104.8
104 4
108.1
119.1
119.1
116.7
115.8
112.4
109.6

House furnishing goods.
Earthenware.
Month.
Plates,
creamcolored.
Jan . ..
F e b . ...
M a r ....
A p r___
May . . .
June ..
July . . .
A u g -..
Sept . . .
Oct . . .
N ov___
Dec . . .
1 9 0 7 ....

106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6

Plates,
white
granite.
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4




Furniture.

Teacups
Bedroom Chairs,
and sau­
Chairs,
cers, white Average. sets, ash. bedroom, kitchen.
maple.
granite.
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8

102.6
102.6
102.6
102.6
102.6
102.6
102.6
102.6
102.6
102.6
102.6
102.6
102.6

137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4
137.4

161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4
161.4

143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
156.8
156.8
156.8
156.8
156.8
156.8
156.8
156.8
151.4

Tables,
kitchen. Average.

124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
1247
124 7
1247
124.7
1247
1247
1247
124.7
1247

141.8
141.8
141.8
141.8
145.1
145.1
145.1
145.1
145.1
145.1
x45.1
145.1
143.7

426

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OP LABOR.

T able I I I .—M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES IN 1907—
Concluded.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0. Relative price for 1907 computed from average price for the year
shown in Table I.]
House furnishing goods.
Glassware.
Month.

Jan____
F e b . ...
Mar___
A p r___
M a y ....
June. . .
J u ly ....
A u g ....
Sept___
O ct____
N ov___
Dec___
1 9 0 7 ....

Table cutlery.

Pitch­
Tum­
Nap­
ers,
blers,
pies, ^-gallon, H>int,
4-inch.
com­
com­
mon.
mon.
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0

89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4

Aver­
age.

84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5

99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6

Wooden ware.

Carv­ Knives
ers,
and
Aver­
stag
forks,
han­ cocobolo age.
dles. handles.
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
100.0

104.0
104.0
104.0
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
108.9
104.8
104.8
107.0

98.9
98.9
98.9
101.4
101.4
101.4
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
105.6
105.6
103.5

Pails,
oakgrain­
ed.

Tubs,
oakgrain­
ed.

Aver­
age.

130.9
130.9
150.1
150.1
150.1
150.1
150.1
161.7
161.7
161.7
161.7
161.7
151.7

107.6
107.6
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
118.8

119.3
119.3
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5
136.3
142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1
142.1
135.3

Aver­
age,
house
furnish­
ing
goods.
115.0
115.0
117.2
117.5
117.5
118.5
119.6
120.5
120.5
120.5
120.2
120.2
118.5

Miscellaneous.
Month.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar—
Apr___
M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....
Sept. . .
O c t ....
N o v ...
Dec___
1907....

Month.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar—
Apr___
M a y ...
J une...
J u ly ...
A u g ....
Sept. . .
Oct----N o v ...
Dec___
1907....

Cotton­
seed meal.

134.8
130.2
129.1
125.7
121.1
125.7
131.4
129.1
132.5
137.1
137.1
134.8
130.7

Rope:
manila.

136.5
141.9
141.9
141.9
141.9
141.9
441.9
141.9
135.2
135.2
128.5
125.8
138.1

Cotton­
seed oil:
summer
yellow,
prime.
133.0
142.9
159.3
152.8
160.2
185.6
190.5
187.3
185.6
170.8
124.8
126.5
160.0

Rubber:
Para
Island.

147.4
148.0
148.0
143.6
142.4
136.1
130.5
133.0
128.6
124.3
114.3
97.4
132.8




Paper.
Jute: raw.

237.1
194.6
218.2
223.1
213.6
189.7
189.7
156.7
151.8
156.7
156.7
128.2
184.4

Soap:
castile,
mottled,
pure.
114.2
114.2
114.2
114.2
114.2
105.4
123.0
123.0
123.0
123.0
123.0
123.0
117.9

Malt:
western
made.

108.1
112.4
135.2
135.2
150.8
149.4
145.8
145.8
162.2
177.1
172.1
172.1
147.2

News.

79.6
71.2
71.2
85.3
85.3
85.3
85.3
85.3
85.3
88.6
88.6
88.6
83.3

Wrapping,
manila.

Average.

90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
90.4
94.9
94.9
94.9
91.5

85.0
80.8
80.8
87.9
87.9
87.9
87.9
87.9
87.9
91.8
91.8
91.8
87.4

Proof
spirits.

112.2
112.2
112.2
112.2
112.4
113.9
113.9
113.9
115.7
117.0
117.4
117.4
114.2

Tobacco.
Starch:
laundry.

107.8
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9
122.1
122.1
122.1
116.1

Plug.

118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6

Smoking,
gran., Seal
of N . C.
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9

Average.

118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3

Average,
miscel­
laneous.

126.0
123.8
128.5
128.9
129.5
128.8
130.3
127.5
127.8
129.5
124.3
120.6
127.1

427

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

I V .—A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D B A SE PRICES (A V E R A G E FOR
1890-1899).

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 337. For a more detailed description of the
articles, see Table I.]
Farm products.

Year.

Barley: by
sample.

Cattle: steers, Cattle: steers,
choice to extra. good to choice.

Com: No. 2,
cash.

Cotton: upland,
middling.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
bushel. price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price. bushel. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.4534
.5062
1890..............................
.6098
1891..............................
.5085
1892..............................
.4685
1893..............................
.5134
1894..............................
.4300
1895..............................
.2977
1896..............................
.3226
1897..............................
.4348
1898..............................
.4425
1899..............................
.4815
1900..............................
.5884
1901..............................
.6321
1902..............................
.5494
1903..............................
.5300
1904..............................
.4850
1905..............................
.5116
1906..............................
.7663
1907..............................

100.0
111.6
134.5
112.2
103.3
113.2
94.8
65.7
71.2
95.9
97.6
106.2
129.8
139.4
121.2
116.9
107.0
112.8
169.0

Flaxseed: No. 1.
Year.

$5.3203
4.8697
5.8851
5.0909
5.5211
5.1591
5.4849
4.5957
5.2255
5.3779
5.9928
5.7827
6.1217
7. 4721
5.5678
5.9562
5.9678
6.1298
6.5442

100.0
91.5
110.6
95.7
103.8
97.0
103.1
86.4
98.2
101.1
112.6
108.7
115.1
140.4
104.7
112.0
112.2
115.2
123.0

$4.7347
4.1375
5.0976
4.4995
4.8394
4.5245
4.9344
4.2712
4.7736
4.8846
5.3851
5.3938
5.5901
6.5572
5.0615
5.1923
5.2192
5.3572
5.8120

100.0
87.4
107.7
95.0
102.2
95.6
104.2
90.2
100.8
103.2
113.7
113.9
118.1
138.5
106.9
109.7
110.2
113.1
122.8

Hides: green,
H ay: timothy, salted, packers,
heavy native
No. 1.
steers.

$0.3804
.3950
.5744
.4500
.3964
.4326
.3955
.2580
.2546
.3144
.3333
.3811
.4969
.5968
.4606
.5046
.5010
.4632
.5280

100.0 $0.07762
.11089
103.8
151.0
.08603
118.3
.07686
104.2
.08319
.07002
113.7
104.0
.07298
67.8
.07918
.07153
66.9
.05972
82.6
87.6
.06578
100.2
.09609
130.6
.08627
.08932
156.9
121.1
.11235
132.6
.12100
.09553
131.7
121.8
.11025
138.8
.11879

Hogs: heavy.

100.0
142.9
110.8
99.0
107.2
90.2
94.0
102.0
92.2
76.9
84.7
123.8
111.1
115.1
144.7
155.9
123.1
142.0
153.0

Hogs: light.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
ton.
price. pound. price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price.
bushel. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $1.1132
1890.............................. 1.3967
1891.............................. 1.0805
1892.............................. 1.0179
1893.............................. 1.0875
1894.............................. 1.3533
1895.............................. 1.2449
.8119
1896..............................
.8696
1897..............................
1898.............................. 1.1115
1899.............................. 1.1578
1900.............................. 1.6223
1901.............................. 1.6227
1902.............................. 1.5027
1903.............................. 1.0471
1904.............................
1.1088
1.1979
1905.............................
1.1027
1906........................ .
1907.............................. 1.1808




100.0 $10.4304
9.9952
125.5
97.1 12.2861
91.4 11.8375
97.7 11.2067
121.6 10.4183
111.8 11.3844
72.9 10.3269
8.4423
78.1
8.3317
99.8
104.0 10.0745
145.7 11.5673
145.8 12.8255
135.0 12.6154
94.1 12.4279
99.6 11.7308
107.6 11.2596
99.1 12.9615
106.1 16.9387

100.0
95.8
117.8
113.5
107.4
99.9
109.1
99.0
80.9
79.9
96.6
110.9
123.0
120.9
119.2
112.5
107.9
124.3
162.4

$0.0937
.0933
.0951
.0870
.0749
.0641
.1028
.0811
.0996
.1151
.1235
.1194
.1237
.1338
.1169
.1166
.1430
.1543
.1455

100.0
99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
124.8
124.4
152.6
164.7
155.3

$4.4123
3.9534
4.4229
5.1550
6.5486
4.9719
4.2781
3.3579
3.5906
3.8053
4.0394
5.0815
5.9580
6.9704
6.0572
5.1550
5.2913
6.2351
6.0800

100.0
89.6
100.2
116.8
148.4
112.7
97.0
76.1
81.4
86.2
91.5
115.2
135.0
158.0
137.3
116.8
119.9
141.3
137.8

$4.4206
3.9260
4.3404
5.0675
6.5752
4.9327
4.2533
3.5591
3.7223
3.7587
4.0709
5.1135
5.9177
6.7353
6.0541
5.1481
5.3213
6.3274
6.2163

100.0
88.8
98.2
114.6
148.7
111.6
96.2
80.5
84.2
85.0
92.1
115.7
133.9
152.4
137.0
116.5
120.4
143.1
140.6

428
T

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

IV .— A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y A C TU A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D B ASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

able

Farm products.

Year.

Hops: N .Y .
State, choice.

Oats: cash.

Rye, No. 2,
cash.

Sheep: native.

Sheep:
western.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. bushel. price. bushel. price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. 10.1771
.2621
1890..............................
.2640
1891.............................
1892..............................
.2505
1893.............................
.2271
1894..............................
.1515
1895.............................
.0940
1896..............................
.0877
1897..............................
.1160
.1621
1898..............................
.1563
1899..............................
1900..............................
.1483
1901..............................
.1719
1902..............................
.2375
1903..............................
.2825
1904..............................
.3475
1905..............................
.2673
1906..............................
.1629
1907..............................
.1738

100.0
148.0
149.1
141.4
128.2
85.5
53.1
49.5
65.5
91.5
88.3
83.7
97.1
134.1
159.5
196.2
150.9
92.0
98.1

$0.2688
.3106
.3873
.3042
.2827
.3110
.2373
.1801
.1825
.2470
.2452
.2271
.3179
.3960
.3541
.3649
.2990
.3282
.4501

100.0
115.6
144.1
113.2
105.2
115.7
88.3
67.0
67.9
91.9
91.2
84.5
118.3
147.3
131.7
135.8
111.2
122.1
167.4

$0.5288
.5447
.8334
.6754
.4899
.4660
.4825
.3517
.3962
.4958
.5521
.5177
.5328
.5418
.5156
.7056
.7113
.6107
.7688

Farm products.
v neat' tuoii*
v
Year.

100.0
103.0
157.6
127.7
92.6
88.1
91.2
66.5
74.9
93.8
104.4
97.9
100.8
102.5
97.5
133.4
134.5
115.5
145.4

$3.7580
4.5284
4.5106
4.7798
3.8781
2.6957
2.9495
2.9322
3.4971
3.9250
3.8837
4.1236
3.3519
3.7817
3.7101
4.1457
5.0529
49481
48962

100.0
120.5
120.0
127.2
103.2
71.7
78.5
78.0
93.1
104 4
103.3
109.7
89.2
100.6
98.7
110.3
134 5
131.7
130.3

$3.9541
4 6644
45719
4.8695
41255
2.9808
3.0943
3.1411
3.7692
41625
41615
4.5207
3.7442
4.1784
3.8769
4.2608
5.0798
5.2793
4 8835

100.0
118.0
115.6
123.2
104.3
75.4
78.3
79.4
95.3
105.3
105.2
1143
947
105.7
98.0
107.8
128.5
133.5
123.5

Food, etc.
Beans: medium, Bread: crack­
choice.
ers, butter.

Bread: crack­
Bread: loaf
ers, soda.
(Wash.market).

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
bushel. price. bushel. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound, a price.
Average, 1890-1899.. 80.7510
.8933
1890..............................
.9618
1891..............................
.7876
1892..............................
1893..............................
.6770
.5587
1894..............................
1895..............................
.6000
1896..............................
.6413
1897..............................
.7949
.8849
1898..............................
.7109
1899.............................
.7040
1900..............................
1901.............................
.7187
.7414
1902.............................
1903..............................
.7895
1.0390
1904.............................
1905.............................. 1.0104
.7931
1906.............................
.9073
1907.............................




100.0
118.9
128.1
104.9
90.1
74.4
79.9
85.4
105.8
117.8
94.7
93.7
95.7
98.7
105.1
138.3
134.5
105.6
120.8

$1.6699
2.0292
2.2531
1.8698
1.9906
1.8469
1.7896
1.1740
1.0448
1.2479
1. 4531
2.0969
2.1927
1.9198
2.2625
2.0104
2.1500
1.9000
1.7771

100.0
121.5
134.9
112.0
119.2
110.6
107.2
70.3
62.6
74.7
87.0
125.6
131.3
115.0
135.5
120.4
128.8
113.8
106.4

$0.0673
.0700
.0700
.0688
.0650
.0650
.0654
.0650
.0592
.0733
.0713
.0750
.0800
.0800
.0758
.0775
.0892
.0900
.0900

100.0
104.0
104.0
102.2
96.6
96.6
97.2
96.6
88.0
108.9
105.9
111.4
118.9
118.9
112.6
115.2
132.5
133.7
133.7

a Weight before baking.

$0.0718
.0800
.0800
.0763
.0750
.0725
.0675
.0658
.0592
.0758
.0663
.0675
.0700
.0700
.0646
.0658
.0683
.0650
.0650

100.0
111.4
111.4
106.3
104 5
101.0
94.0
91.6
82.5
105.6
92.3
940
97.5
97.5
90.0
91.6
9K1
90.5
90.5

$0.0354
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0333
.0363
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0363
.0356
.0356
.0356

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
941
102.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
102.5
100.6
100.6
100.6

429

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
T

IV .—A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

able

Food, etc.

Year.

Bread: loaf,
Butter: cream­ Butter: cream­ Butter: dairy,
Bread: loaf,
ery, Elgin (El­
Vienna
ery, extra
homemade
New York
(N. Y . market). (N .Y . market). gin market). (N .Y . market).
State.
Average Rela- Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound.® price. pound.® price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.

Average, 1890-1899.. *0.0317
1890..............................
.0320
1891..............................
.0320
1892..............................
.0320
1893..............................
.0320
1894..............................
.0320
1895..............................
.0320
1896..............................
.0287
1897..............................
.0320
1898..............................
.0320
1899..............................
.0320
1900..............................
.0320
1901.............................
.0320
1902..............................
.0320
1903..............................
.0320
1904..............................
.0350
1905..............................
.0376
1906..............................
.0376
1907..............................
.0376

100.0
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
90.5
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
110.4
118.6
118.6
118.6

Cheese: N .Y .,
full cream.
Year.

*0.0352
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0319
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0370
.0400
.0400
.0400

100.0
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
90.6
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
105.1
113.6
113.6
113.6

Coffee:: Rio
No. 7.

*0.2170
.2238
.2501
.2528
.2581
.2194
.2064
.1793
.1837
.1886
.2075
.2178
.2114
.2413
.2302
.2178
.2429
.2459
.2761

100.0
103.1
115.3
116.5
118.9
101.1
95.1
82.6
84.7
86.9
95.6
100.4
97.4
111.2
106.1
100.4
111.9
113.3
127.2

*0.2242
.2276
.2586
.2612
.2701
.2288
.2137
.1841
.1895
.1954
.2126
.2245
.2163
.2480
.2348
.2189
.2489
.2489
.2830

100.0 *0.2024
.1954
101.5
115.3
.2380
.2350
116.5
120.5 * .2521'
102.1
.2091
95.3
.1882
82.1
.1665
84.5
.1684
87.2
.1749
94.8
.1965
100.1
.2115
96.5
.2007
110.6
.2318
.2150
104.7
.1970
97.6
111.0
.2339
111.0
.2325
126.2
.2671

Eggs: new-laid, Fish: cod, dry,
fancy, near-by.
bank, large.

100.0
96.5
117.6
116.1
124.6
103.3
93.0
82.3
83.2
86.4
97,1
104.5
99.2
114.5
106.2
97.3
115.6
114.9
132.0

Fish: herring,
shore, round.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. dozen. price. quintal. price. barrel. price.

Average, 1890-1899.. *0.0987
1890..............................
.0958
1891..............................
.1011
1892..............................
.1058
1893..............................
.1076
1894............................
.1060
1895..............................
.0929
1896..............................
.0908
1897..............................
.0968
1898..............................
.0822
1899..............................
.1075
1900..............................
.1128
1901..............................
.1011
1902..............................
.1126
1903..............................
.1217
1904..............................
.1019
1905..............................
.1212
1906..............................
.1313
1907..............................
.1414




100.0
97.1
102.4
107.2
109.0
107.4
94.1
92.'0
98.1
83.3
108.9
114.3
102.4
114.1
123.3
103.2
122.8
133.0
143.3

*0.1313
.1793
.1671
.1430
.1723
.1654
.1592
.1233
.0793
.0633
.0604
.0822
.0646
.0586
.0559
.0782
.0832
.0811
.0658

100.0
136.6
127.3
108.9
131.2
126.0
121.2
93.9
60.4
48.2
46.0
62.6
49.2
44.6
42.6
59.6
63.4
61.8
50.1

*0.1963
.1945
.2160
.2167
.2247
.1835
.2002
.1741
.1718
.1817
.1994
.1977
.2095
.2409
.2418
.2650
.2712
.2615
.2771

100.0
99.1
110.0
110.4
114.5
93.5
102.0
88.7
87.5
92.6
101.6
100.7
106.7
122.7
123.2
135.0
138.2
133.2
141.2

< Weight before baking.
•

*5.5849
5,6771
6.7292
7.0521
6.3802
5.9583
5.5208
4.2083
4.5208
4.6667
5.1354
5.3021
5.9896
5.0938
5.8646
7.2813
7.3958
7.6042
7.7396

100.0
101.7
120.5
126.3
114.2
106.7
98.9
75.4
80.9
83.6
92.0
94.9
107.2
91.2
105.0
130.4
132.4
136.2
138.6

*3.7763
3.5250
4.7068
2.9375
3.8125
3.3958
3.1563
3.3542
3.6354
4.2083
5.0313
5.0833
4.9792
4.9063
5.7292
5.4531
6.0000
6.3438
6.1500

100.0
93.3
124.6
77.8
101.0
89.9
83.6
88.8
96.3
111.4
133.2
134.6
131.9
129.9
151.7
144.4
158.9
168.0
162.9

430

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I V .—A V E R A G E

Y E A R L Y AC TU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D B A SE PRICES (A V E R A G E FOR
1890-1899)— Continued.
Food, etc.

Year.

Fish: mackerel,
salt, large
No. 3s.

Fish: salmon,
canned.

Flour: buck­
wheat.

Flour: rye.

Flour: wheat,
spring patents.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
barrel. price. 12 cans. price. 100 lbs. price. barrel. price. barrel. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891.............................
1892..............................
1893....'......................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$14.1306
18.2500
15.3125
13.0000
13.0000
11.0556
15.6250
13.9167
12.2292
13.6667
15.2500
13.8958
10.8182
13.7500
17.4479
14.5000
13.9167
14.7917
13.9167

100.0
129.2
108.4
92.0
92.0
78.2
110.6
98.5
86.5
96.7
107.9
98.3
76.6
97.3
123.5
102.6
98.5
104.7
98.5

Flour: wheat,
winter
straights.

$1.4731
1.6417
1.5000
1.4833
1.4938
1.4250
1.5042
1.5500
1.3375
1.2667
1.5292
1.7708
1.7125
1.6146
1.6208
1.7250
1.7042
1.6833
1.6679

100.0
111.4
101.8
100.7
101.4
96.7
102.1
105.2
90.8
86.0
103.8
120.2
116.3
109.6
110.0
117.1
115.7
114.3
113.2

Fruit: apples,
evaporated,
choice.

$1.9428
2.0214
2.4429
1.7891
2.3679
2.4357
1.6750
1.3806
1.4656
1.5500
2.3000
2.1036
2.1063
2.2357
2.3214
2.3333
2.1893
2.2333
2.5714

100.0
104.0
125.7
92.1
121.9
125.4
86.2
71.1
75.4
79.8
118.4
108.3
108.4
115.1
119.5
120.1
112.7
115.0
132.4

Fruit: apples,
sun-dried.

$3.3171
3.3646
4.9208
4.0167
3.0854
2.7813
3.1333
2.6833
2.8063
3.0813
3.2979
3.4250
3.3208
3.4417
3.1479
4.3479
4.4667
3.8438
4.6021

100.0
101.4
148.3
121.1
93.0
83.8
94.5
80.9
84.6
92.9
99.4
103.3
100.1
103.8
94.9
131.1
134.7
115.9
138.7

Fruit: cur­
rants, in
barrels.

$4.2972
5.1856
5.3053
4.3466
4.0063
3.5947
3.6434
3.7957
4.5913
4.7293
3.7740
3.8423
3.8104
3.8082
4.3303
5.3784
5.4221
4.2760
4.8755

100.0
120.7
123.5
101.1
93.2
83.7
84.8
88.3
106.8
110.1
87.8
89.4
88.7
88.6
100.8
125.2
126.2
99.5
113.5

Fruit: prunes,
California, in
boxes.

Year.
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
barrel. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $3.8450
4.6524
1890..............................
1891.............................. 4.9048
4.1216
1892..............................
1893.............................. 3.2832
1894.............................. 2.7495
1895.............................. 3.2311
1896.............................. 3.6197
1897.............................. 4.3606
1898.............................. 4.1452
1899.............................. 3.3822
1900.............................. 3.3490
1901.............................. 3.3085
1902.............................. 3.4885
1903.............................. 3.5923
1904.............................. 4.8264
1905.............................. 4.5428
1906.............................. 3.6149
1907.............................. 3.9877




100.0
121.0
127.6
107.2
85.4
71.5
84.0
94.1
113.4
107.8
88.0
87.1
86.0
90.7
93.4
125.5
118.1
94.0
103.7

$0.0847
.1136
.1100
.0688
.0927
.1092
.0678
.0533
.0555
.0890
.0869
.0615
.0709
.0921
.0611
.0603
.0699
.0978
.0843

100.0
134.1
129.9
81.2
109.4
128.9
80.0
62.9
65.5
105.1
102.6
72.6
83.7
108.7
72.1
71.2
82.5
115.5
99.5

$0.0515
.0690
.0825
.0423
.0508
.0631
.0481
.0312
.0267
.0398
.0610
.0443
.0410
.0507
.0432
.0333
.0348
.0532
.0638

100.0
134.0
160.2
82.1
98.6
122.5
93.4
60.6
51.8
77.3
118.4
86.0
79.6
98.4
83.9
64.7
67.6
103.3
123.9

$0.0375
.0478
.0426
.0297
.0270
.0173
.0254
.0327
.0479
.0580
.0470
.0720
.0831
.0494
.0476
.0488
.0490
.0614
.0703

100.0
127.5
113.6
79.2
72.0
46.1
67.7
87.2
127.7
154.7
125.3
192.0
221.6
131.7
126.9
130.1
130.7
163.7
187.5

$0.0774
.1068
.1000
.0995
.1039
.0735
.0666
.0581
.0546
.0544
.0565
.0522
. 0525'
.0551
.0481
.0461
.0459
.0646
.0593

100.0
138.0
129.2
128.6
134.2
95.0
86.0
75.1
70.5
70.3
73.0
67.4
67.8
71.2
62.1
59.6
59.3
83.5
76.6

431

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901,

T able IV .— A V E R A G E

Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OE
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D B A SE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.
Food, etc.

Year.

Fruit: raisins,
California, Lon­
don layer.

Glucose.

Lard: prime
contract.

Meal: corn,
fine white.

Meal: corn,
fine yellow.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela- Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
price. 100 lbs. price. pound, price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price.
box,
Average, 1890-1899
1890
............
1891
............
1892
............
1893
............
1894
............
1895
............
1890..........................
1897
............
1898
............
1899
............
1900
............
1901
............
1902
............
1903
............
1904
............
1905
............
1906
............
1907
............

$1.5006
2.3604
1.8021
1.4688
1.7000
1.1542
1.4292
1.0188
1.3979
1.3917
1.2833
1.5208
1.4417
1.6854
1. 4458
1.4729
1.1875
1.6000
1.6271

100.0 o$1.4182
120.1
97.9
113-3
76.9
95.2
67.9
93.2
92.7
85.5
101.3
96.1
112.3
96.3
98.2
79.1
106.6
108.4

Meat: bacon,
short clear
sides.
Year.

100.0

157.3

1.7625
1.5802
1.5492
1.1585
1.2190
1.3021
1.3558
1.4875
1.6458
2.1788
1.8396
1.7917
1.7742
2.0267
2.2608

124.3
111.4
109.2
81.7

86.0

91.8
95.6
104.9
116.0
153.6
129.7
126.3
125.1
142.9
159.4

Meat: bacon,
short rib sides.

$0.0654
.0633
.0660
.0771
.1030
.0773
.0653
.0 4 6 9
.0441
.0552
.0556
.0690
.0885
.1059
.0877
.0731
.0745
.0887
.0920

100.0

96.8
100.9
117.9
157.5
118.2
99.8
71.7
67.4
84.4
85.0
105.5
135.3
161.9
134.1

111.8
113.9
135.6
140.7

Meat: beef,
fresh, native
sides.

$1.0486
1.0613
1.4746

1.1921
1.1013
1.1188
1.0721
.8129
.8158
.8821
.9554
1.0115
1.1979
1.5354
1.2967
1.3396
1.3250
1.2667
1.3575

100.0
101.2

140.6
113.7
105.0
106.7

102.2
77.5
77.8
84.1
91.1
96.5
114.2
146.4
123.7
127.8
126.4

120.8
129.5

$1.0169

1.0200

1. 4579
1.1608
1.0833
1.0629
1.0613
.7 8 5 4
.7633
.8463
.9273
.9908
1.1875
1.5250
1.2783
1.3333
1.3250
1.2625
1.3575

100.0

100.3
143.4
114.2
106.5
104.5
104.4
77.2
75.1
83.2
91.2
97.4
116.8
150.0
125.7
131.1
130.3
124.2
133.5

Meat: beef,salt, Meat: beef, salt
hams, western.
extra mess.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. barrel. price. barrel. price.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0675
.0603
1890..............................
.0699
1891.............................
.0787
1892 ............................
.1048
1893..............................
.0751
1894..............................
.0650
1895..............................
.0494
1896..............................
.0541
1897..............................
.0596
1898 ............................
.0583
1899..............................
.0752
1900..............................
1901..............................
.0891
.1073
1902..............................
.0959
1903..............................
.0775
1904..............................
.0800
1905.............................
.0942
1906..............................
.0954
1907.............................




100.0
89.3
103.6
116.6
155.3
111.3
96.3
73.2
80.1
88.3
86.4
111.4
132.0
159.0
142.1
114.8
118.5
139.6
141.3

$0.0656
.0586
.0681
.0764
.1010
.0736
.0632
.0479
.0522
.0594
.0558
.0732
.0869
.1046
.0938
.0757
.0783
.0920
.0919

io a o
89.3
103.8
116.5
154.0
112.2
96.3
73.0
79.6
90.5
85.1
111.6
132.5
159-5
143.0
115 4
119.4
140.2
140.1

$0.0771
.0688
.0819
.0762
.0813
.0748
.0792
.0698
.0769
.0781
.0835
.0804
.0787
.0971
.0784
.0818
.0802
.0780
.0884

a Average for 1893-1899.

100.0
89.2
106.2
98.8
105.4
97.0
102.7
90.5
99.7
101.3
108.3
104.3
102.1
125.9
101.7
106.1
104.0
101.2
114.7

$8.0166
6.9596
8.3654
6.7966
8.1938
8.0933
8.1274
7.5096
7.6755
9.1563
9.2885
9.7538
9.3204
11.7885
9.0673
8.7689
10.0240
8.8462
9.8173

100.0 $18.0912
86.8 14.5409
104.4 15. 5144
84.8 14. 5577
102.2 17.8317
101.0 18.3558
101.4 17.3443
93.7 15.9327
95.7 22.6250
114.2 21. 4880
115.9 22.7212
121.7 20.6587
116.3 20.3774
147.1 21.3413
113.1 21.2115
109.4 22. 3341
125.0 21.9952
110.3 21. 5625
122.5 26.0519

100.0
80.4
85.8
80.5
98.6
101.5
95.9
88.1
125.1
118.8
125.6
114.2
112.6
118.0
117.2
123.5
121.6
119.2
144.0

432

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOH.

IV .— A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

Food, etc.

Year.

Meat: hams,
smoked.

Meat: mutton,
dressed.

Meat: pork,
salt, mess.

Milk: fresh.

Molasses: N .O .,
open kettle.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. barrel. price. quart. price. gallon. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0984
.0995
1890
................
.0982
1891
................
.1076
...............
1892
.1249
1893
...............
.1019
1894
...............
.0947
1895..............................
1896
................
.0943
.0894
1897
................
.0807
1898
................
.0923
1899
................
.1025
1900
................
.1075
1901
................
.1211
................
1902
.1271
1903
................
.1072
1904
................
.1046
1905
................
.1235
1906
................
.1303
1907
................

RiCec “
h
Year.

100.0
101.1
99.8
109.3
126.9
103.6
96.2
95.8
90.9
82.0
93.8
104.2
109.2
123.1
129.2
108.9
106.3
125.5
132.4

$0.0754
.0933
.0866
.0914
.0803
.0605
.0620
.0625
.0728
.0739
.0711
.0727
.0675
.0738
.0744
.0778
.0859
.0910
.0875

C S ^
’

m o $11.6332
123.7 12.1502
114.9 11.3029
121.2 11.5252
106.5 18.3389
80.2 14.1262
82.2 11.8255
8.9399
82.9
8.9087
96.6
9.8678
98.0
9.3462
94.3
96.4 12.5072
89.5 15.6108
97.9 17.9399
98.7 16.6514
103.2 14.0288
113.9 14.4183
120.7 17.5120
116.0 17.5684

100.0
104.4
97.2
99.1
157.6
121.4
101.7
76.8
76.6
84.8
80.3
107.5
134.2
154.2
143.1
120.6
123.9
150.5
151.0

American. Salt: Ashton’s.

$0.0255
.0263
.0267
.0268
.0279
.0263
.0253
.0234
.0235
.0239
.0253
.0274
.0262
.0288
.0288
.0275
.0289
.0301
.0335

100.0
103.1
104.7
105.1
109.4
103.1
99.2
91.8
92.2
93.7
99.2
107.5
102.7
112.9
112.9
107.8
113.3
118.0
131.4

Soda: bicar­
bonate of,
American.

$0.3151
.3542
.2788
.3188
.3346
.3092
.3083
.3246
.2617
.3083
.3525
.4775
.3783
.3638
.3546
.3396
.3229
.3400
.4088

100.0
112.4
88.5
101.2
106.2
98.1
97.8
103.0
83.1
97.8
111.9
151.5
120.1
115.5
112.5
107.8
102.5
107.9
129.7

Spices: nut­
megs.

Average
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ price per Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive
tive price per tive price per tive
224-lb.
pound. price. barrel. price.
price. pound. price. pound. price.
bag.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0561 100.0
.0605 107.8
1890
................
1891
................
.0637 113.5
1892
................
.0569 101.4
.0459
1893
................
81.8
.0526
1894
................
93.8
.0533
................
1895
95.0
.0519
1896
................
92.5
.0542
1897
................
96.6
.0608 108.4
1898
................
.0607 108.2
1899
................
.0548
1900
................
97.7
.0548
1901
................
97.7
1902
..................... ; .0559
....................
99.8
.0566 100.9
1903
................
.0441
1904
................
78.6
.0417
1905
................
74.3
.0474
1906
................
84.5
.0534
1907
................
95.2




$0.7044
.7921
.7865
.7575
.7019
.7192
.7019
.6226
.6613
.6648
.6365
1.0010
.8567
.6360
.6140
.7704
.7552
.7144
.7931

100.0
112.5
111.7
107.5
99.6
102.1
99.6
88.4
93.9
94.4
90.4
142.1
121.6
90.3
87.2
109.4
107.2
101.4
112.6

$2.2033
2.4646
2.3813
2.3750
2.3250
2.2375
2.0500
2.0500
2.0500
2.0500
2.0500
2.0500
2.1813
2.2250
2.2479
(*)
(a)
(a)
{ “)

100.0
111.9
108.1
107.8
105.5
101.6
93.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
99.0
101.0
102.0

• Q uotations discontinued.

$0.0209
.0275
.0317
.0218
.0285
.0268
.0177
.0152
.0150
.0129
.0117
.0123
.0107
.0108
.0129
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130

100.0
131.6
151.7
104.3
136.4
128.2
84.7
72.7
71.8
61.7
56.0
58.9
51.2
51.7
61.7
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2

$0.4322
.6317
.6081
.5319
.4584
.3996
.3969
.3590
.3354
.3140
.2871
.2601
.2346
.2028
.2877
.2175
.1722
.1730
.1397

100.0
146.2
140.7
123.1
106.1
92.5
91.8
83.1
77.6
72.7
66.4
60.2
54.3
46.9
66.6
50.3
39.8
40.0
32.3

433

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901,

I V .— A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES O F
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D B A SE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

Food, etc.

Year.

Spices: pepper,
Singapore.

Starch: pure
com.

Sugar: 89° fair Sugar: 96° cen­
refining.
trifugal.

Sugar: granu­
lated.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0749
.1151
................
1890
.0873
1891
................
.0689
1892
................
.0595
1893
................
.0516
1894
................
.0497
1895
................
1896..............................
.0500
.0664
1897
................
1898
................
.0891
.1117
1899
................
1900
................
.1291
.1292
1901
................
1902
................
.1255
1903
................
.1289
1904
................
.1229
1905
................
.1217
1906
................
.1138
1907
................
.0994

100.0
153.7
116.6
92.0
79.4
68.9
66.4
66.8
88.7
119.0
149.1
172.4
172.5
167.6
172.1
164.1
162.5
151.9
132.7

Tallow.

$0.0548
.0546
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0567
.0554
.0513
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0470
.0440
.0507
.0525
.0552
.0577
.0600

100.0 $0.03398
99.6
.04890
109.5
.03459
109.5
.02873
109.5
.03203
103.5
.02759
101.1
.02894
93.6
.03192
91.2
.03077
91.2
.03712
91.2
.03922
91.2
.04051
85.8
.03521
80.3
.03035
92.5
.03228
95.8
.03470
100.7
.03696
105.3
.03183
109.5
.03251

Tea: Formosa,
fine.

100.0 $0.03869
143.9
.05460
101.8
.03910
84.5
.03315
94.3
.03680
81.2
.03229
85.2
.03253
.03624
93.9
90.6
.03564
109.2
.04235
.04422
115.4
119.2
.04572
103.6
.04040
.03542
89.3
95.0
.03720
102.1
.03974
108.8
.04278'
93.7
.03686
.03754
95.7

100.0 $0.04727
141.1
.06168
101.1
.04714
85.7
.04354
95.1
.04836
83.5
.04111
84.1
.04155
.04532
93.7
92.1
.04497
.04974
109.5
.04924
114.3
118.2
.05332
104.4
.05048
.04455
91.5
96.1
.04641
.04772
102.7
110.6
.05256
95.3
.04515
97.0
.04651

100.0
130.5
99.7
92.1
102.3
87.0
87.9
95.9
95.1
105.2
104.2
112.8
106.8
94.2
98.2
101.0
111.2
95 5
98.4

Vegetables,
Vegetables,
Vinegar: cider,
fresh: onions. fresh: potatoes,
Monarch.
Burbank.

Year.
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. barrel. price. bushel. price. gallon. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0435
................
1890
.0460
1891
................
.0483
1892
................
.0463
1893
................
.0544
1894
................
.0480
1895
................
.0434
1896
................
.0343
1897
................
.0332
1898
................
.0356
1899
................
.0453
1900
................
.0485
1901
................
.0518
1902
................
.0629
1903..............................
.0510
1904
................
.0459
1905
................
.0449
1906
................
.0529
1907.. . . r .....................
.0621




100.0
105.7
111.0
106.4
125.1
110.3
99.8
78.9
76.3
81.8
104.1
111.5
119.1
144.6
117.2
105.5
103.2
119.3
142.8

$0.2839
.2733
.2817
.3008
.2888
.2783
.2700
.2583
.2800
.2958
.3117
.2977
.2850
.3015
.2296
.2758
.2675
.2350
.2300

100.0
96.3
99.2
106.0
101.7
98.0
95.1
91.0
98.6
104.2
109.8
104.9
100.4
106.2
80.9
97.1
94.2
82.8
81.0

$3.3995
4.3438
4.1250
3.6042
3.1875
3.2500
3.1146
1.9479
3.9*71
3.2708
3.2238
2.4271
3.5000
3.6458
3.5675
3.5568
3.2392
3.2917
3.5000

100.0
127.8
121.3
106.0
93.8
95.6
91.6
57.3
115.5
96.2
94.8
71.4
103.0
107.2
104.9
104.6
95.3
96.8
103.0

$0.4991
.5956
.7730
.4546
.6714
.6128
.4326
.1965
.3279
.5094
.4172
.3736
.5642
.5958
.5249
.7301
.4026
.5476
.4912

100.0
119.3
154.9
91.1
134.5
122.8
86.7
39.4
65.7
102.1
83.6
74.9
113.0
119.4
105.2
146.3
80.7
109.7
98.4

$0.1478
.1558
.1800
.1642
.1500
.1500
.1450
.1300
.1300
.1325
.1400
.1350
.1325
.1408
.1300
.1325
.1458
.1700
.1725

100.0
105.4
121.8
111.1
101.5
101.5
98.1
88.0
88.0
89.6
94.7
91.3
89.6
953
88.0
89.6
98.6
1150
116.7

434

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

I T . — A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, AN D B ASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

Cloths and clothing.
Blankets: 11-4, Blankets: 11-4,
Blankets: 11-4,
5 pounds to
5 pounds to
Boots and
5 pounds to the the pair, cotton the pair, cotton shoes: men’s
pair, all wool. warp, all wool warp, cotton brogans, split.
M ing.
and wool M ing.

Year.

Average Rela- Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
hag.
price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.
pair.
price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.1399
1890..............................
.1594
1891..............................
.1563
1892..............................
.1550
1893..............................
.1494
1894..............................
.1275
1895..............................
.1150
1896..............................
.1281
1897..............................
.1300
1898..............................
.1338
1899..............................
.1446
1900..............................
.1575
1901..............................
.1413
1902..............................
.1433
1903..............................
.1458
1904..............................
.1796
1905..............................
.1533
1906..............................
.1806
1907..............................
.1938

Year.

100.0
113.9
111.7
110.8
106.8
91.1
82.2
91.6
92.9
95.6
103.4
112.6
101.0
102.4
104.2
128.4
109.6
129.1
138.5

Boots and
shoes: men’s
calf bal. shoes,
Goodyear welt.

$0,840
.910
.890
.900
.900
.850
.750
.750
.750
.900
.800
.900
.850
.850
.925
.925
1.000

1.025
1.000

100.0
108.3
106.0
107.1
107.1
101.2
89.3
89.3
89.3
107.1
95.2
107.1
101.2
101.2
110.1
110.1
119.0
122.0
119.0

Roots find
AlV/vviS (UlU
flV CO * m on’o
feA Q
DliU O • JU ll O
lC
jonlif MVUto*
opilt hnnta

$0,613
.650
.650
.640
.640
.550
.540
.560
.650
.625
.625
.750
.650
.650
.700
.725
.775
.800
.800

100.0
106.0
106.0
104.4
104.4
89.7
88.1
91.4
106.0
102.0
102.0
122.3
106.0
106.0
114.2
118.3
126.4
130.5
130.5

$0,424
.460
.460
.430
.420
.410
.400
.400
.420
.420
.420
.525
.475
.475
.500
.525
.600
.600
.600

100.0
108.5
108.5
101.4
99.1
96.7
94.3
94.3
99.1
99.1
99.1
123.8
112.0
112.0
117.9
123.8
141.5
141.5
141.5

$0.9894
1.0500
1.0500
1.0375
1.0125
.9688
.9813
.9938
.9500
.9125
.9375
• .9375
.9438
.9313
.9250
.9250
1.0042
1.2542
1.2729

100.0
106.1
106.1
104.9
102.3
97.9
99.2
100.4
96.0
92.2
94.8
94.8
95.4
94.1
93.5
93.5
101.5
126.8
128.7

Boots and
Boots and
Broadcloths:
shoes: men’s shoes: women’s first quality,
vici kid shoes,
solid grain
black, 54-inch,
Goodyear welt.
shoes.
X X X wool.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pair.
price. 12 pairs. price.
pair.
price.
pair.
price.
yard.
price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$2,376 100.0
2.400 101.0
2.400 101.0
2.400 101.0
2.400 101.0
2.400 101.0
2.400 101.0
2.400 101.0
2.400 101.0
2.320
97.6
2.240
94.3
2.240
94.3
2.300
96.8
2.300
96.8
2.350
98.9
2.350
98.9
2.375 100.0
a 2.775 <*108.0
<*2.800 <*109.0

$16.350
17.000
17.000
17.000
16.500
16.000
15.000
15.500
16.000
16.500
17.000
18.000
18.375
18.167
18.500
18.583
19.708
23.667
26.167

100.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
100.9
97.9
91.7
94.8
97.9
100.9
104.0
110.1
112.4
111.1
113.1
113.7
120.5
144.8
160.0

$2.3000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.5000
2.2500
2.2500
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.0000
2.0083
2.1958
2.3792
2.5000

100.0
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
97.8
97.8
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.3
95.5
103.4
108.9

< Men’s vici calf shoes, Blucher bal., vici calf top, single sole.
*
price, see pages 327 and 328. Average price, 1905, $2.57.




$0.8175
.8500
.8000
.7750
.7500
.7500
.8500
.8500
.8500
.8500
.8500
.9042
.8542
.8625
.8875
.9183
.9771
1.0313
1.0063

100.0
104.0
97.9
94.8
91.7
91.7
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
110.6
104.5
105.5
108.6
112.3
119.5
126.2
123.1

$1,732
1.970
1.970
1.970
1.970
1.580
1.380
1.380
1.700
1.700
1.700
1.870
1.910
1.910
1.910
1.914
1.995
2.020
2.020

100.0
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
91.2
79.7
79.7
98.2
98.2
98.2
108.0
110.3
110.3
110.3
110.5
115.2
116.6
116.6

For method of computing relative

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
T

435

IV .— A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y A C TU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

able

Cloths and clothing.

Year.

Carpets: Brus­
Calico: Cocheco sels, 5-frame,
prints.
Bigelow.

Carpets: in­
grain, 2-ply,
Lowell.

Carpets: Wil­ Cotton flannels:
ton, 5-frame, 2f yards to the
Bigelow.
pound.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price.
yard.
price.
yard.
price.
yard.
price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0553 100.0
.0650 117.5
1890
................
.0575 104.0
1891
................
.0650 117.5
1892
................
.0625 113.0
1893
..............
99.5
1894
................
.0550
94.9
.0525
1895
................
.0525
94.9
1896
................
90.4
1897
................
.0500
81.4
.0450
1898
................
87.3
.0483
1899
................
94.9
.0525
1900
................
90.4
.0500
1901
................
90.4
.0500
1902
................
.0504
91.1
................
1903
95.7
.0529
1904
................
93.5
.0517
................
1905
99.5
.0550
1906
................
................ «.0602 «121.0
1907

Year.

$1.0008
1.0320
1.1280
1.0320
.9840
.9360
.9360
.9360
.9600
1.0320
1.0320
1.0320
1.0320
1.0360
1.0880
1.1040
1.1520
1.1800
1.2480

100.0
103.1
112.7
103.1
98.3
93.5
93.5
93.5
95.9
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.5
108.7
110.3
115.1
117.9
124.7

$0.4752
.5160
.5520
.5040
.5280
.4680
.4200
.4080
.4320
.4680
.4560
.4920
.4800
.4840
.5136
.5184
.5520
.5520
.5760

100.0
108.6
116.2
106.1
111.1
98.5
88.4
85.9
90.9
98.5
96.0
103.5
101.0
101.9
108.1
109.1
116.2
116.2
121.2

Cotton thread: Cotton yams:
Cotton flannels:
carded, white,
3J yards to the 6-cord, 200-yard
mule-spun,
spools, J. & P.
pound.
northern,
Coats.
cones, 10/1.

$1.8432
1.9200
2.0160
1.9200
1.9200
1.9200
1.6800
1.6800
1.7280
1.8240
1.8240
1.8720
1.8720
1.8840
2.0080
2.0400
2.1360
2.1920
2.2800

100.0
104.2
109.4
104.2
104.2
104.2
91.1
91.1
93.8
99.0
99.0
101.6
101.6
102.2
108.9
110.7
115.9
118.9
123.7

Cotton yarns:
carded, white,
mule-spun,
northern,
cones, 22/1.

$0.0706
.0875
.0875
.0838
.0725
.0675
.0650
.0650
.0575
.0575
.0619
.0738
.0640
.0650
.0735
.0885
.0854
.0923
.0988

100.0
123.9
123.9
118.7
102.7
95.6
92.1
92.1
81.4
81.4
87.7
104.5
90.7
92.1
104.1
125.4
121.0
130.7
139.9

Denims: Amoskeag.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. spool. (& price. pound. price. pound. price.
)
yard.
price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0575
.0688
1890
................
.0688
1891
................
1892
................
.0650
1893
................
.0575
1894
................
.0550
1895
................
.0525
1896
................
.0550
1897
................
.0550
.0463
1898
................
1899
................
.0508
1900
................
.0567
.0575
1901
................
...............
1902
.0575
1903
................
.0629
1904
...............
.0723
1905
...............
.0681
.0723
1906
...............
1907
...............
.0800

100.0 $.031008
119.7 .031514
119.7 .031238
113.0 .031238
100.0 .031238
95.7 .031238
91.3 .031238
95.7 .030871
95.7 .030503
80.5 .030503
88.3 .030503
98.6 .037240
100.0 .037240
100.0 .037240
109.4 .037240
125.7 .037240
118.4 .037240
125.7 .037240
139.1 .041813

100.0
101.6
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
99.6
98.4
98.4
98.4
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
134.8

$0.1608
c.1790
c.1794
c.1885
.1808
.1523
.1477
.1483
.1452
.1456
.1408
.1850
.1585
.1538
.1869
.1981
.1733
.2004
.2204

100.0
111.3
111.6
117.2
112.4
94.7
91.9
92.2
90.3
90.5
87.6
115.0
98.6
95.6
116.2
123.2
107.8
124.6
137.1

$0.1969
c.2208
c.2244
c.2300
.2138
.1796
.1815
.1844
.1788
.1792
.1760
.2283
.1927
.1819
.2156
.2279
.2038
.2304
.2571

100.0
112.1
114.0
116.8
108.6
91.2
92.2
93.7
90.8
91.0
89.4
115.9
97.9
92.4
109.5
115.7
103.5
117.0
130.6

$0.1044
.1175
.1144
.1144
.1175
.1100
.0988
.0988
.0931
.0897
.0896
.1073
.1046
.1050
.1127
.1217
.1083
.1233
.1381

100.0
112.5
109.6
109.6
112.5
105.4
94.6
94.6
89.2
85.9
85.8
102.8
100.2
100.6
108.0
116.6
103.7
118.1
132.3

a Calico: American standard prints, 64 x 64. For method of computing relative price, see pages 327
and 328. Average price for 1906, $0.0495.
b Freight paid.
c Records destroyed. Price estimated by person who furnished data for later years.




436

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le I V . — A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D B A SE PRICES (A V E R A G E FOR
1890-1899)— Continued.
Cloths and clothing.

Year.

Drillings:
brown, Pepperell.

Drillings: 30inch, Stark A.

Flannels:
white, 4 -4 Bal­
lard Vale No. 3.

Ginghams:
Amoskeag.

Ginghams:
Lancaster.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive priee per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price. yard. price. yard. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0572
.0683
1890
................
.0652.
1891
................
1892..............................
.0582
1898..............................
.0590
1804..............................
.0559
.0529
1895.............................
.0573
1896
................
.0525
1897
................
.0513
1898
................
.0510
1899
................
.0606
1900
................
.0585
1901
................
.0575
1902..............................
. 0619
1903
...............
1904
................
.0727
.0721
1905
................
.0775
1906
................
.0825
1907
................

Year.

100:0 $0.0521
119.4
.0640
.0600
114 0
101.7
.0535
103.1
.0563
.0502
97.7
92.5
.0489
100.2
.0522
.0463
91.8
.0437
89.7
89s 2
.0457
.0542
105.9
.0532
102.3
100.5
.0539
108.2
.0581
127.1
.0658
126. G
.0633
135.5
.0740
1442
.0782

m o
122.8
115.2
102.7
108.1
96.4
93.9
100.2
88.9
83.9
87.7
104 0
102.1
103.5
111.5
126.3
121.5
142.0
150.1

$0.3768
.4400
.4400
.4367
.4125
.3546
.3080
.3217
.3113
.3685
.3750
.4096
.3800
.3986
.4306
.4433
.4461
.4613
.4638

100.0
116.8
116.8
115.9
109.5
941
81.7
85.4
82.6
97.8
99.5
108.7
100.8
105.8
114 3
117.6
118.4
122.4
123.1

$0.0533
.0625
.0650
.0650
.0631
.0485
.0466
.0472,
.0438 ‘
.0431
.0477
.0515
.0490
.0523
.0550
.0548
.0515
.0565
.0658

100.0
117.3
122:0
122.0
118*4
91.0
87.4
88.6
82.2
80.9
89; 5
96.6
91.9
98.1
103.2
102.8
96.6
106.0
123.5

$0.0573
.0692
.0700
.0700
.0638
.0504
.0496
.0500
.0494
.0488
.0515
.0550
.0531
.0575
.0575
.0556
.0517
.0592
.0690

100.0
120.8
122.2
122.2
111.3
88.0
86.6
87.3
86.2
85.2
89.9
96.0
92.7
100.3
100.3
97.0
90.2
103.3
120.4

Horse blankets: Hosiery: men’ s Hosiery: men’ s Hosiery: wom­ Hosiery: wom­
en’ s combed
6 pounds each, cotton half hose,
cotton half
en’ s cotton
Egyptian
all wool.
20 to 22 oz.(a) hose, 84 needles.
hose, 26 to 28 oz.
cotton.
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. 12prs.(&) price. 12 pairs. price. 12 pairs. price. I2prs. (& price.
)

Average, 1890-1899..
1890
................
1891
................
1892
................
1893
................
................
1894
1895
................
1896..............................
1897
................
1898
................
1899
................
1900.............................
1901
................
1902
................
1903
................
1904
................
1905
................
1906
................
1907
................

$0,573
.625
.600
.625
.600
.550
.530
.520
.570
.570
.540
.680
.630
.630
.675
.700
.750
.775
.750

100.0
109.1
104 7
109.1
104 7
96.0
92.5
90.8
99.5
99.5
94 2
118.7
109.9
109.9
117.8
122.2
130.9
135.3
130.9

$0.9555
1.2740
1.1760
1.0780
1.0535
.9800
.9065
.8330
.7840
.7350
.7350
. 7840=
.6860
.7350
.7840
.6370
.6370
.6615
.7350

100.0
133.3
123.1
112.8
110.3
102.6
94 9
87.2
82.1
76.9
76.9
82.1
71.8
76.0
82.1
82.1
82.1
85.3:
948

$0.7845
d. 9750
d. 9750
d. 9700
d. 8750
d. 7250
d. 7000
d. 7000
d. 6500
d. 6500
d. 6250
d. 6500
d. 7250
.6667
.7063
.7525
.7009
.7000
.7500

100.0
124 3
124 3
123.6
111.5
92.4
89.2
89.2
82.9
•82.9
79.7
82.9
82.4
85.0
90.0
95.9
89.2
89.2
95.6

c$1.850

100.0

1.900
1.900
1.875
1.875
1.850
1.800
1.750
1.900
2.000
1.850
1.875
1.800
1.750
1.900
2.025

102.7
102.7
101.4
101.4
100.0
97.3
94.6
102.7
108.1
100.0
101.4
97.3
94 6
102.7
109.5

$0.9310
1.2250
1.1270
1.0780
1.0535
.9800
.8575
.7840
.7595
.7105
.7350
.7595
.6615
.7350
.8085
.7595
.7840
.7595
.8330

100.0
131.6
121.1
115.8
113.2
105.3
92.1
84 2
81.6
76.3
78.9
8L6
7L1
78.9
86.8
81.6
84 2
81.6
89.5

a The price lor 1890-1903 is for two-thread goods. Prices, 1904 to 1907, are- for single-thread goods.
For method of computing relative price, aee pages 327 and 328. Priee of single-thread goods, $0.6370
in September, 1903.
&September price.
c Average for 1893-1800.
d January price.




437

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907,

T a b le IV.— V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
A
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.
Cloths and clothing.

Year.

Leather: har­
ness, oak, coun­
try middles.

Leather: sole,
hemlock.

Leather: sole,
oak.

Leather: wax
calf, 30 to 40 lbs.
to the dozen.

Linen shoe
thread: 10s,
Barbour.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. sq.foot. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.2590 100.0
1890..............................
.2571
99.3
1891..............................
.2579
99.6
1892..............................
.2367
91.4
1893..............................
.2400
92.7
1894..............................
.2275
87.8
1895..............................
.2888 111.5
1896..............................
.2554
98.6
1897..............................
.2433
93.9
1898..............................
.2825 109.1
1899..............................
.3004 116.0
1900..............................
.3025 116.8
1901..............................
.2971 114.7
1902..............................
o.3325 o ll4 .7
1903..............................
o. 3313 «114.3
1904..............................
o.3188 ollO. 0
1905..............................
0.3333 oll5.0
1906.............................. o. 3713 ol28.1
1907..............................
o. 3738 ol29.0

$0.1939
.1921
.1858
.1727
.1796
.1715
.2073
.1881
.2033
.2129
.2254
.2490
.2475
.2367
.2267
.2258
.2290
.2538
.2644

100.0
99.1
95.8
89.1
92.6
88.4
106.9
97.0
104.8
109.8
116.2
128.4
127.6
122.1
116.9
116.5
118.1
130.9
136.4

Linen thread: Overcoatings:
3-cord, 200-yard beaver, Mosspools,Barbour. cow, all wool.
Year.

$0.3363
.3771
.3679
.3421
.3483
.3279
.3421
.2925
.3079
.3213
.3358
.3608
.3525
.3800
.3742
.3450
.3663
.3796
.3821

100.0
112.1
109.4
101.7
103.6
97.5
101.7
87.0
91.6
' 95.5
99.9
107.3
104.8
113.0
111.3
102.6
108.9
112.9
113.6

Overcoatings:
chinchilla, all
wool.

$0.6545
.6000
.6469
.6929
.6450
.6042
.7333
.6433
.6156
.6760
.6875
.6563
.6281
.6604
.6900
.6875
.6969
.7167
.7667

100.0
91.7
98.8
105.9
98.5
92.3
112.0
98.3
94.1
103.3
105.0
100.3
96.0
100.9
105.4
105.0
106.5
109.5
117.1

Overcoatings:
chinchilla,
cotton warp.

$0.8748
.8910
.8910
.8910
.8993
.9182
.8514
.8514
.8514
.8514
.8514
.8877
.8910
.8910
.8460
.8499
.8499
.8930
.8930

100.0
101.9
101.9
101.9
102.8
105.0
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
101.5
101.9
101.9
96.7
97.2
97.2
102.1
102.1

Overcoatings:
covert cloth,
light weight.

Average
Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price
tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
per 12
price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
price.
price.
yard.
yard.
spools.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.8522
.8910
1890..............................
.7945
1891..............................
.8019
1892..............................
.8308
1893..............................
.8514
1894..............................
.8514
1895..............................
.8514
1896..............................
.8679
1897..............................
.8910
1898..............................
.8910
1899..............................
.8910
1900..............................
.8910
1901..............................
.8910
1902..............................
.8370
1903..............................
.8835
1904..............................
.8835
1905..............................
1906..............................
.8835
.9145
1907..............................

100.0
104.6
93.2
94.1
97.5
99.9
99.9
99.9
101.8
104.6
104.6
104.6
104.6
104.6
98.2
103.7
103.7
103.7
107.3

$2.0817
b 2. 4296
b2.4296
b 2.4296
2.3250
1.9879
1.7670
1.7670
1.7670
1.8600
2.0538
2.4994
2.2088
2.2088
2.4413
2.3250
2.4413
( c)

100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
111.7
95.5
84.9
84.9
84.9
89.4
98.7
120.1
106.1
106.1
117.3
111.7
117.3

$2.1419
b 2.4296
b 2 .4296
b2.4296
2.3250
1.9879
1.8774
1.8774
1.8774
2.0925
2.0925
2.4994
2.0925
2.0925
2.2088
2.2088
2.3948
2.5226
2.5575

100.0
113.4
113.4
113.4
108.5
92.8
87.7
87.7
87.7
97.7
97.7
116.7
97.7
97.7
103.1
103.1
111.8
117.8
119.4

$0.4883
.5325
.5258
.5329
.5367
.4733
.4508
.4354
.4575
.4800
.4583
.4892
.4433
.4508
.4533
.4558
.4588
.4963
.4908

100.0
109.1
107.7
109.1
109.9
96.9
92.3
89.2
93.7
98.3
93.9
100.2
90.8
92.3
92.8
93.3
94.0
101.6
100.5

$2.3286
2.4616
2.4616
2.4616
2.4616
2.4254
2.3259
2.0363
1.9458
2.2625
2.4435
2.3621
2.2625
2.2625
2.1899
2.1899
2.2568
2.2568
2.2568

100.0
105.7
105.7
105.7
105.7
104.2
99.9
87.4
83.6
97.2
104 9
101.4
97.2
97.2
94.0
940
96.9
96.9
96.9

a Leather: harness, oak, packers’ hides, heavy, No. 1. For method of computing relative price, see
pages 327 and 328. Average price, 1901, $0.3325.
b Records destroyed. Price estimated by person who furnished data for later years.
c Quotations discontinued.




438

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able IV.— V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES
A
COMMODITIES, 1890
1890-1899)— Continued.

TO

1907,

AN D

B A SE

PRICES

(A V E R A G E

OF
FOR

Cloths and clothing.

Year.

Overcoatings:
kersey, stand­
ard, 27 to28oz.

Print cloths:
28-inch, 64x64.

Shawls: stand­
Sheetings:
ard, all wool,
bleached, 10-4,
72x144 in.,42-oz.
Atlantic.

Sheetings:
bleached, 10-4,
Pepperell.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive
price
tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price.
each.
price.
yard.
price. yard. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. «$1.2472
1890
................
1891
................
1892
................
1893
................
1894
................
1895
................
1896
................
1897
................
i.i833
1898
................ 1.3000
1899
................ 1.2583
1900
................
1.5750
1901
................
1.5000
1902
................
1.5000
1903
................
1.5750
1904
................
1.6500
1905
................ 1.8313
1906
................ 2.0417
1907
................
1.9708

1
C0.0

94.9
104.2
ICO.9
126.3
120.3
120.3
126.3
132.3
146.8
163.7
158.0

Sheetings:
bleached, 10-4,
W am suttaS.T.

$0.02838
.03340
.02938
.03386
.03251
.02748
.02864
.02581
.02485
.02059
.02732
.03083
.02819
.03090
.032156
.033290
.031214
.036238
.047512

10
0 .0

117.7
103.5
119.3
114.6
96.8
100.9
90.9
87.6
72.6
96.3
108.6
99.3
108.9
113.3
117.3

10
1 .0
127.7
167.4

Sheetings:
brown, 4-4,
Atlantic A .

$4.5787 1C0.0
4.9000 107.0
4.9000 107.0
4.9000 107.0
4.9000 107.0
4.9000 107.0
4.9000 107.0
4.0800
89.1
4.0970
89.5
4.1300
90.2
4.0800
89.1
4.9000 107.0
4.9000 107.0
4.9000 107.0
4.9000 107.0
4.90C0 107.0
62.2400 6117.5
62.4500 6128.5
62.0400 6107.0
Sheetings:
brown, 4-4,
Indian Head.

0 .0 $0.1884
$0.1836 1 0
.2241 1 2
2 .1 .2190
.2138 116.4
.2008
.1996 108.7
.1900
.2052 1 1
1 .8 .1946
.1741
.1742
94.8
.1722
93.8
.1785
.1700
92.6
.1792
.1604
87.4
.1738
.1527
83.2
.1721
.1641
89.4
.2 2
01
.2043 111.3
.2292
.1853 100.9
.2117
.1917 104.4
.2 0
10
.2124 115.7
.2275
.2355 128.3
.2425
1 .2 .2267
.2024 1 0
c.2095 *121.5
.2475
c.2315 *134.3
.2883
Sheetings:
brown, 4-4,
Pepperell R.

10
0 .0
116.2
106.6

10
0 .8

103.3
92.5
94.7
95.1
92.3
91.3
107.3
121.7
112.4
111.5

12 .8
0
128.7
120.3
131.4
153.0

Sheetings:
brown, 4-4,
Stark A . A .

Year.
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.2949
................
.3126
1890
.3162
1891
................
1892
................
.2944
1893
................
.3056
1894
................
.2756
1895
................
.2719
1896
................
.2925
.2925
1897
................
1898
................
.2925
1899
................
.2951
1900
................
.3075
1901
................
.2925
1902
................
.2925
1903
................
.3038
1904
................
.2775
.2700
1905
................
.2733
1906
................
.3050
1907
................

10
0 .0

106.0
107.2
99.8
103.6
93.5
92.2
99.2
99.2
99.2

10
0 .1
104.3
99.2
99.2
103.0
94.1
91.6
92.7
103.4

$0.0553
.0669
.0653
.0590
.0619
.0549
.0520
.0535
.0490
.0443
.0466
.0555
.0542
.0549
.0636
.0718
.0639
.0739
.0768

1
C0.0
11
2 .0

118.1
106.7
111.9
99.3
94.0
96.7

88.6

80.1
84.3
100.4
98.0
99.3
115.0
129.8
115.6
133.6
138.9

$0.0626
.0725
.0727
.0648
.0679
.0598
.0585
.0622
.0588
.0540
.0544
.0623
.0631
.0625
.0681
.0802
.0758
.0802
.0835

10
0 .0

115.8
116.1
103.5
108.5
95.5
93.5
99.4
93.9
86.3
86.9
99.5

10 .8
0

99.8
108.8
128.1

11
2 .1
128.1
133.4

$0.0551
.0640
.0597
.0569
.0583
.0531
.0529
.0558
.0525
.0475
.0504
.0592
.0592
.0569
.0599
.0669
.0644
.0685
.0746

10
0 .0

116.2
108.3
103.3
105.8
96.4
96.0
101.3
95.3

86.2

91.5
107.4
107.4
103.3
108.7
121.4
116.9
124.3
135.4

$0.0525
.0660
.0594
.0545
.0574
.0521
.0513
.0511
.0452
.0424
.0451
.0508
.0494
<*.0566
<*.0623
<*.0715
<*.0725
<*.0767
<*.0777

10
0 .0

125.7
113.1
103.8
109.3
99.2
97.7
97.3

86
.1

80.8
85.9
96.8
94.1
< 92.6
*
<*101.9
<*117.0
<*118.6
<*125.5
<*127.1

< Average for 1897-1899.
*
&Shawls: standard, all wool (low grade), 72x144 inch, 40 to 42 ounce. For method of computing rela­
tive price, see pages 327 and 328. Average price, 1904, $2.04.
c Sheetings: bleached, 9-4, Atlantic. For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328.
Average price, 1905, $0.1901.
< Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Massachusetts Mills, Flying Horse brand. For method of computing rela­
*
tive price, see pages 327 and 328. Average price, 1901, $0.0575.




439

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907,

Table I F .— A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO
1890-1899)— Continued.

1907,

AN D

BASE

PRICES

(A V E R A G E

OF
FO R

Cloths and clothing.

Year,

Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4,
Fruit of the
Loom.

Shirtings:
bleached, 4 - 4 ,
Hope.

Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4,
Lonsdale.

Shirtings:
Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4, bleached, 4-4,
New York
W am su tta^0
^
Mills.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard.
price. yard.
price.
yard.
price.
yard. price.
yard.
price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0728
.0845
................
1890
.0799
1891
................
.0808
1892
................
.0832
1893
................
1894
................
.0727
1895
................
.0700
1896
................
.0696
.0641
1897
................
.0584
1898
................
.0644
1899
................
.0753
1900
................
1901
................
.0750
1902
................
.0756
1903
................
.0767
1904
................
.0802
1905
................
.0748
1906
................
.0817
1907
................
.1117

100.0
116.1
109.8
111.0
114.3
99.9
96.2
95.6
88.0
80.2
88.5
103.4
103.0
103.8
105.4
110.2
102.7
112.2
153.4

Silk: raw,
Italian, clas­
sical.
Year.

$0.0630
.0726
.0703
.0663
.0713
.0620
.0608
.0620
.0574
.0518
.0551
.0671
.0699
.0676
.0675
.0705
.0663
.0728
.0905

100.0
115.2
111.6
105.2
113.2
98.4
96.5
98.4
91.1
82.2
87.5
106.5
111.0
107.3
107.1
111.9
105.2
115.6
143.7

$0.0727
.0845
.0822
.0812
.0832
.0727
.0697
.0685
.0633
.0595
.0626
.0731
.0738
.0741
.0755
.0796
.0739
.0806
.1025

100.0
116.2
113.1
111.7
114.4
100.0
95.9
94.2
87.1
81.8
86.1
100.6
101.5
101.9
103.9
109.5
101.7
110.9
141.0

$0.0876 100.0
.0968 110.5
.0965 110.2
.0931 106.3
.0925 105.6
.0885 101.0
.0851
97.1
.0885 101.0
.0836
95.4
.0784
89.5
.0725
82.8
.0786
89.7
.0760
86.8
87.4
.0766
.0850
97.0
.0830
94.7
.0848
96.8
o. 0946 ol08.0
«. 1163 ol32.8

$0.0948
.1011
.1009
.0973
.0981
.0950
.0969
.0951
.0935
.0807
.0892
.0965
.0875
.0885
.0974
.0921
.0942
.1033
.1100

100.0
106.6
106.4
102.6
103.5
100.2
102.2
100.3
98.6
85.1
94.1
101.8
92.3
93.4
102.7
97.2
99.4
109.0
116.0

Suitings: indigo
Suitings: clay
Silk: raw, Ja­ worsted, diago­ Suitings: clay
worsted diago­ blue, all wool,
pan, filatures.
14-oz.,
nal, 12-oz.
nal, 16-oz.
Middlesex.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $4.2558
1890.............................. 5.2238
4.1865
1891..............................
1892.............................. 4.4826
1893.............................. 5.0289
1894.............................. 3.6816
1895
................ 4.0373
1896
................ 3.6293
1897
...............
3.6404
1898
................
3.8768
1899
................ 4.7706
1900
................
4.5128
1901
................ 3.8466
1902
................ 4.1085
1903
................ 4.5241
1904
................ 3.8651
1905
................ 4.1085
1906
................ 4.3249
1907
................ 5.5812

100.0
122.7
98.4
105.3
118.2
86.5
94.9
85.3
85.5
91.1
112.1
106.0
90.4
96.5
106.3
90.8
96.5
101.6
131.1

$4.0187
5.2429
4.0110
4.3266
4.5409
3.3627
3.7855
3.4072
3.4637
3.6376
4.4085
4.1690
3.5132
3.8224
4.1346
3.6416
3.9912
4.1632
5.0602

a Williamsville, A l.

37691— No. 75— 08------ 11




100.0 6$0.8236
130.5
99.8
107.7
113.0
83.7
94.2
.7621
84.8
.7337
86.2
.7595
90.5
.9165
.9461
109.7
1.0819
103.7
87.4
.9113
95.1
.9131
102.9
.9488
90.6
.9244
99.3
1.0931
103.6
1.2150
125.9
1.1700

100.0 6$1.0068

100.0

92.5
89.1
92.2
111.3
114.9
131.4
110.6
110.9
115.2
112.2
132.7
147.5
142.1

93.8
87.6
93.3
111.4
113.9
133..7
111.0
108.6
112.1
109.6
129.3
146.4
139.3

.9445
.8819
.9392
1.1216
1.1468
1.3463
1.1175
1.0931
1.1288
1.1036
1.3013
1.4738
1.4025

6 Average for 1895-1899.

$1.3230
1.5470
1.5470
1.5470
1.5084
1.4697
1.1523
1.1375
1.0465
1.1375
1.1375
1.1375
1.1849
1.3119
1.4400
1.4438
1.5300
1.7100
1.7100

100.0
116.9
116.9
116.9
114.0
111.1
87.1
86.0
79.1
86.0
86.0
86.0
89.6
99.2
108.8
109.1
115.6
129.3
129.3

4 40

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able IV .— A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES
COMMODITIES, 1890
1890-1899)— Continued.

TO

1907,

AN D

B ASE

PRICES

(A V E R A G E

OF
FO R

Cloths and clothing.

Year.

Suitings:
Suitings:
indigo blue, serge, Washing­
all wool, 16-oz. ton Mills 6700.

Tickings:
Amoskeag
A. C. A.

Trouserings:
Underwear:
fancy worsted, white, all wool,
22 to 23 oz.
etc.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price, 12 tive
gar­
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
ments. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$1.9154
&2.0925
b 2.0925
62.0925
2.0925
1.7670
1.5903
1.7228
1.6740
1.9763
2.0538
2.2669
2.0925
2.0925
2.1576
2.1855
2.2785
2.4180
2.4180

100.0 <*$0.7526
109.2
109.2
109.2
.9100
109.2
.9100
92.3
.6825
83.0
.6825
89.9
.6143
87.4
.6598
103.2
.7508
107.2
.8106
118.4
.8100
109.2
.8025
109.2
.7913
112.6
.7556
114.1
.7744
119.0
.9638
126.2
1.0444
126.2
1.0500

Underwear:
white, merino,
52% wool, etc.
Year.

100.0
120.9
120.9
90.7
90.7
81.6
87.7
99.8
107.7
107.6
106.6
105.1
100.4
102.9
128.1
138.8
139.5

$0.1061
.1200
.1175
.1150
.1181
.1084
.1006
.1019
.0975
.0894
.0923
..1084
.1013
.1050
.1104
.1213
.1083
.1263
.1373

100.0 <*$1.9456 100.0
113.1
110.7
108.4
2.0734 106.6
111.3
2.0734 106.6
102.2
98.9
1.9238
94.8
1.7100
87.9
96.0
1.7955
92.3
91.9
92.3
1.7955
84.3
2.1197 108.9
87.0
2.0734 106.6
102.2
2.2871 117.6
95.5
1.9879 102.2
99.0
1.9800 101.8
1041 c 2.0925 cl046
114.3 c2.1244 C106.2
102.1 c 2.2331 c lll.6
119.0 c 2.4131 C120.6
129.4 c 2.4469 C122.3

$23.31
24 75
25.65
25.65
25.65
21.60
21.60
21.60
21.60
21.60
23.40
23.40
23.40
23.40
23.40
23.40
23.40
27.00
27.00

100.0
106.2
110.0
n o !o
110.0
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
115.8
115.8

Women’s dress
Women’ s dress Women’ s dress
goods: alpaca, Women’ s dress goods: cashgoods: cashgoods: cashcotton warp,
mere, cotton
mere, all wool, mere, cotton
22-inch,
warp, Atlan­
warp, 22-inch,
Atlantic J.
Hamilton.
tic F.
Hamilton.

Average
price, 12 Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
gar­
yard. price. yard.
price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
ments. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898.......................... .
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$15.57
16.65
17.55
17.55
17.55
14.85
1440
14 40
14 40
1485
13.50
14.85
1485
1485
<*16.20
<*16.20
<*16.20
<*18.00
<*18.00

100.0
106.9
112.7
112.7
112.7
95.4
92.5
92.5
92.5
95.4
86.7
95.4
95.4
95.4
<*95.4
<*95.4
<*95.4
<*106.0
<*106.0

$0.0680 100.0 $0.2905
.3479
.0735 108.1
.3663
.0735 108.1
.3724
.0723 106.3
.0711 104 6
.3247
.0686 100.9
.2450
93.7
.2352
.0637
.0637
93.7
.1960
.0637
93.7
.2389
93.7
.0637
.2573
9a 6
.0657
.3208
.0711 104 6
.3459
.0711 104 6 * .3234
.3234
.0705 103.7
.3320
.0690 101.5
.0764 112.4
.3418
<.1150 <1149
.3730
c. 1217 <121.6
.3920
<124.9
<. 1250
.3920

100.0
119.8
126.1
128.2
111.8
84.3
81.0
67.5
82.2
88.6
110.4
119.1
111.3
111.3
114.3
117.7
128.4
1349
134.9

$0.1520
.1813
.1813
.1789
.1495
.1348
.1274
.1270
.1372
.1434
.1593
.1642
.1585
.1642
.1679
.1740
.2017
.2156
.2234

100.0
119.3
119.3
117.7
98.4
88.7
83.8
83.6
90.3
943
1048
108.0
1043
108.0
110.5
114.5
132.7
141.8
147.0

$0.0758
100.0
.0833
109.9
.0833
109.9
.0821
108.3
.0809
106.7
.0760
100.3
.0735
97.0
.0711
93.8
90.5
.0686
.0686
90.5
*0706
93.1
.0760
100.3
100.3
.0760
.0754
99.5
.0741
97.8
.0809
106.7
/.1867 /107.7
/. 1900 /109.6
/ . 1908 /110.1

a Average for 1892-1899.
&Records destroyed. Price estimated by person who furnished data for later years.
c 21 to 22 ounce. For average price in 1902 and method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and
328.
< 60 per cent wool, etc. For average price in 1902 and method of computing relative price, see pages
*
327 ana 328.
< Danish cloth, cotton warp and worsted filling, 22-inch. For method of computing relative price, see
pages 327 and 328. Average price, 1904, $0.1125.
/ Poplar cloth, cotton warp and filling, 36-inch. For method of computing relative price, see pages
327 and 328. Average price, 1904, $0.1850.




441

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901,

T ables IV.— V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC T U A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
A
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.
Cloths and clothing.

Year.

Women’ s dress
W ool: Ohio,
W ool: Ohio,
goods: cash- Women’ s dress fine fleece (X
medium fleece Worsted yarns:
mere, cotton goods: Franklin and X X grade), (la n d f grade), 2-40s, Austra­
sackings, 6-4.
warp, 27-inch,
lian fine.
scoured.
scoured.
Hamilton.
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.

Average, 1890-1899.. 80.0883 100.0 $0.5151
.0980 111.0
.5938
1890..............................
.0980 111.0
.6175
1891..............................
.6175
1892..............................
.0968 109.6
.6056
.0937 106.1
1893..............................
.4988
.0907 102.7
1894
......................
.4342
.0846
95.8
1895.............................
.0821
.4156
1896..............................
93.0
.0784
1897..............................
.4235
88.8
.4552
.0784
1898..............................
88.8
.0821
.4889
93.0
1899..............................
.0882
.6096
1900..............................
99.9
.0907 102.7
.5383
1901..............................
1902..............................
.0901 102.0
.5581
.0894 101.2 : .5898
1903..............................
.0976 110.5
1904..............................
.5839
.1072 121.4
.6749
1905..............................
.6868
1906.............................. a. 1911 <*1246
.6531
1907.............................. a .1960 <*127.8

100.0
115.3
119.9
119.9
117.6
96.8
84.3
80.7
82.2
88.4
94.9
118.3
104.5
108.3
114.5
113.4
131.0
133.3
126.8

Cloths, etc.

Year.

$0.5526
.7156
.6857
.6119
.5639
.4448
.3768
.3940
.4955
.6150
.6232'
.6594
.5453
.5770
.6546
.6862
.7591
.7181
.7181

100.0
129.5
124.1
110.7
102.0
80.5
68.2
71.3
89.7
111.3
112.8
119.3
98.7
104.4
118.5
124.2
137.4
129.9
129.9

$0.4564
.6143
.5820
.5276
.4620
.3542
.3280
.3186
.3999
.4805
.# 6 6
.5296
.4315
.4436
.4658
.4869
.5348
.5125
.5158

100.0
134.6
127.5
115.6
101.2
77.6
71.9
69.8
87.6
105.3
108.8
116.0
94.5
97.2
102.1
106.7
117.2
112.3
113.0

$1.0183
1.2263
1.2354
1.2175
1.1342
.9292
.7425
.7250
.8517
1.0308
1.0908
1.2050
1.0404
1.1229
1.1771
1.1875
1.2525
1.2933
1.2967

100.0
120.4
121.3
119.6
111.4
91.3
72.9
71.2
83.6
101.2
107.1
118.3
102.2
110.3
115.6
116.6
123.0
127.0
127.3

Fuel and lighting.

W orstedyams: Candles: ada­
2-40s, X X X ,
mantine, 6s,
white, m skeins.
14-ounce.

Coal: anthra­
cite, broken.

Coal: anthra­
cite, chestnut.

Coal: anthra­
cite, egg.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price.
ton.
price.
ton.
price.
ton.
price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899.............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$1.0071
1.2500
1.2625
1.1563
1.0833
.9188
.7563
.7500
.8188
1.0 0 #
1.0708
1.1938
1.0283
&1.1392
&1.2125
61.1717
61.2733
61.3092
61.2933

100.0
124.1
125.4
114.8
107.6
91.2
75.1
74.5
81.3
99.7
106.3
118.5
102.1
6113.1
6120.4
6116.3
6126.4
6130.0
6128.4

$0.0782
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0883
.0867
.0850
.0850
.0745
.0613
.0613
.1059
.1100
.1100
.0996
.0900
.0858
.0766
.0741

100.0
102.3
102.3
102.3
112.9
110.9
108.7
108.7
95.3
78.4
78.4
135.4
140.7
140.7
127.4
115.1
109.7
98.0
94.8

®Cashmere, cotton warp, 36-inch, Hamilton.
327 and 328. Average price, 1905,10.1862.
&
Designated as X X X X .




$3.3669
3.4858
3.4433
3.6152
3.5628
3.4172
3.2833
3.2691
3.2465
3.2108
3.1350
3.2706
3.5508
3.7186
4.2496
4.2473
4.2134
4.2021
4.2040

100.0
103.5
102.3
107.4
105.8
101.5
97.5
97.1
96.4
95.4
93.1
97.1
105.5
110.4
126.2
126.1
125.1
124.8
124.9

$3.5953
3.3533
3.4758
3.9443
4.1673
3.5416
2.9793
3.5561
3.7366
3.5525
3.6458
3.9166
4.3270
4.4597
4.8251
4.8250
4.8226
4.8601
4.8204

100.0
93.3
96.7
109.7
115.9
98.5
82.9
98.9
103.9
98.8
101.4
108.9
120.4
124.0
1342
1342
134.1
135.2
1341

$3.5936
3 .6 1 #
3.7508
3.9803
3.8520
3.3903
3.0296
3.5490
3.7986
3.5993
3.3714
3.5843
4.0565
4 3673
4 8251
4.8227
4.8246
4.8629
4.8211

100.0
100.6
104 4
110.8
107.2
943
84.3
98.8
1057
100.2
93.8
99.7
112.9
121.5
134 3
134.2
134.3
135.3
134.2

For method of computing relative price, see pages

442

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I V . — A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.
Fuel and lighting.

Year.

Coal: bitumi­
Coal: anthra­ nous, Georges
cite, stove.
Creek (at mine).

Coal: bitumi­
Coke: Connous, Georges Coal: bit. Pitts­
Creek (f. o. b. burg (Yough- nellsville, fur­
iogheny).
nace.
N. Y . Harbor).

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
ton.
ton.
ton.
price. bushel. price.
price.
price.
ton.
price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $3.7949
3.7108
1890.............................
1891.............................. 3.8542
1892.............................. 4.1532
1893.............................. 4.1931
1894.............................. 3.6003
1895.............................. 3.1264
1896.............................. 3.7942
1897.............................. 4.0146
1898.............................. 3.7978
1899.............................. 3.7047
1900.............................. 3.9451
1901.............................. 4.3224
1902.............................. 4.4627
1903.............................. 4.8245
1904.............................. 4.8246
1905.............................. 4.8226
1906.............................. 4.8615
1907.............................. 4.8215

100.0
97.8
101.6
109.4
110.5
94.9
82.4
100.0
105.8
100.1
97.6
104.0
113.9
117.6
127.1
127.1
127.1
128.1
127.1

$0.8887
.8625
.9500
.9000
.9208
.8208
.7750
.9000
.8333
.9125
1.0125
1.2000
1.3375
2.1250
2.3958
1.7500
1.6000
1.5500
1.5375

100.0
97.1
106.9
101.3
103.6
92.4
87.2
101.3
93.8
102.7
113.9
135.0
150.5
239.1
269.6
196.9
180.0
174.4
173.0

$2.7429 100.0
2.9875 108.9
3.0313 110.5
2.9313 106.9
2.9500 107.6
2.7375
99.8
2.8125 102.5
2.6625
97.1
2.4417
89.0
2.1750
79.3
2.7000
98.4
; 2.9083 106.0
i 2.9250 106.6
| 4.0583 148.0
1 4.4375 161.8
3.1958 116.5
3.1500 114.8
3.1250 <*113.9
3.2375 118.0

$0.0643
.0664
.0789
.0749
.0758
.0634
.0600
.0573
.0570
.0565
.0531
.0752
.0752
.0787
.0925
.0852
.0800
.0789
.0824

100.0
103.3
122.7
116.5
117.9
98.6
93.3
89.1
88.6
87.9
82.6
117.0
117.0
122.4
143.9
132.5
124.4
122.7
128.1

Matches: par­
lor, domestic.

Petroleum:
crude.

100.0
122.7
110.4
106.5
87.1
62.3
78.0
110.4
95.2
98.8
128.7
155.8
115.6
158.2
171.5
96.4
134.7
157.5
166.3

Metals and im­
plements.

Fuel and lighting.

Year.

SI. 6983
2.0833
1.8750
1.8083
1.4792
1.0583
1.3250
1.8750
1.6167
1.6771
2.1854
2.6458
1.9625
2.6875
2.9125
1.6375
2.2875
2.6750
2.8250

Petroleum: re­
fined, for
export.

Petroleum: re­
fined,150°,w.w.

Augers: extra,
f-inch.

Average
Rela­
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average
price 144 Rela­ price per tive price per tive price per Rela­ Average
tive
tive
tive
price
boxes
each.
price. barrel. price. gallon. price. gallon. price.
price.
(200s).
Average, 1890-1899.. $1.7563
1.9583
1890..............................
1891.............................. 1.7500
1892.............................. 1.7500
1893.............................. 1.7500
1894.............................. 1.6667
1895.............................. 1.6875
1896.............................. 1.7500
1897.............................. 1.7500
1898.............................. 1.7500
1899.............................. 1.7500
1900.............................. 1.7500
1901.............................. 1.7500
1902.............................. 1.5833
1903.............................. 1.5000
1904.............................. 1.5000
1905.............................. 1.5000
1906.............................. 1.5000
1907.............................. 1.5000

100.0
111.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
94.9
96.1
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
90.1
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4

$0.9102
.8680
.6697
.5564
.6399
.8389
1.3581
1.1789
.7869
.9118
1.2934
1.3521
1.2095
1.2369
1.5886
1.6270
1.3842
1.5975
1.7342

100.0
95.4
73.6
61.1
70.3
92.2
149.2
129.5
86.5
100.2
142.1
148.5
132.9
135.9
174.5
178.8
152.1
175.5
190.5

$0.0649
.0733
.0685
.0609
.0522
.0515
.0711
.0702
.0597
.0628
.0791
.0854
.0749
.0734
.0860
.0826
.0722
.0762
.0824

100.0
112.9
105.5
93.8
80.4
79.4
109.6
108.2
92.0
96.8
121.9
131.6
115.4
113.1
132.5
127.3
111.2
117.4
127.0

$0.0890
.0995
.0879
.0794
.0725
.0725
.0922
.1039
.0900
.0909
.1015
.1188
.1096
.1108
.1363
.1367
.1263
.1300
.1346

100.0 * $0.1608
.1900
111.8
98.8
.1900
89.2
.1900
.1800
81.5
.1542
81.5
103.6
.1333
.1394
116.7
.1425
101.1
102.1
.1425 .1465
114.0
133.5
.2000
.1700
123.1
.1800
124.5
153.1
.2310
153.6
.2400
.3067
141.9
146.1
.3567
151.2
.3600

a These figures are correct; those given for 1906 in Bulletin No. 69 were slightly in error.




100.0
118.2
118.2
118.2
111.9
95.9
82.9
86. 7
88.6
88.6
91.1
124.4
105.7
111.9
143.7
149.3
190.7
221.8
223.9

443

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

I V .—A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y A C TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FOR
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

Metals and implements.

Year.

Bar iron: best Bar iron: best
refined, from
Axes: M .C .O .,
refined, from
mill (Pittsburg store (Philadel­
Yankee.
phia market).
market).

Barb wire:
galvanized.

Butts: loose
joint, cast,
3 x 3 inch.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price
price
price
tive
tive
tive price per tive
price
tive
each.
price. per lb. price. per lb. price. 100 lbs. price. per pair. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.4693
.5650
1890..............................
1891..............................
.5550
1892..............................
.5000
1893..............................
.5000
1894..............................
.4733
1895..............................
.4600
1896..............................
.4150
.3938
1897..............................
1898..............................
.3750
.4555
1899..............................
.4831
1900..............................
.4166
1901..............................
.4833
1902..............................
1903..............................
.5050
.5788
1904..............................
1905..............................
.6323
.6715
1906..............................
.6800
1907..............................

100.0
120.4
118.3
106.5
106.5
100.9
98.0
88.4
83.9
79.9
97.1
102.9
88.8
103.0
107.6
123.3
134.7
143.1
144.9

$0.0145 100.0
.0184 126.9
.0171 117.9
.0164 113.1
.0150 103.4
.0120
82.8
.0125
86.2
.0122
84.1
.0110
75.9
.0107
73.8
.0195 134.5
.0215 148.3
.0180 124.1
.0194 133.8
.0177 122.1
.0148 102.1
.0187 129.0
a. 0169 ol26.8
a. 0175 al31.3

$0.0164
.0205
.0190
.0187
.0170
.0134
.0144
.0140
.0131
.0128
.0207
.0196
.0184
.0213
.0200
.0172
.0192
.0198
.0211

100.0
125.0
115.9
114.0
103.7
81.7
87.8
85.4
79.9
78.0
126.2
119.5
112.2
129.9
122.0
104.9
117.1
120.7
128.7

$2.5261
3.5665
3.2189
2.7662
2.5188
2.1750
2.2458
1.9625
1.8000
1.8375
3.1696
3.3942
3.0375
2.9542
2.7375
2.5075
2.3829
2.4283
2.6342

100.0 $0.0316
141.2
.0353
127.4
.0353
109.5 . .0306
99.7
.0311
86.1
.0303
88.9
.0317
77.7
.0329
71.3
.0306
.0292
72.7
125.5
.0292
134.4
.0400
120.2
.0369
116.9
.0400
108.4
.0400
99.3
.0400
94.3
.0400
96.1
.0400
104.3
.0400

Chisels: extra, Copper: ingot, Copper: sheet,
socket firmer,
hot-rolled (base Copper wire:
lake.
bare.
1-inch.
sizes).
Year.

100.0
111.7
111.7
96.8
98.4
95.9
100.3
104.1
96.8
92.4
92.4
126.6
116.8
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6

Doorknobs:
steel, bronze
plated.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price
tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
each.
price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.
pair.
price.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.1894
.2100
1890..............................
.2100
1891..............................
.2100
1892..............................
.1933
1893..............................
.1733
1894..............................
.1710
1895..............................
.1793
1896..............................
.1710
1897..............................
.1720
1898..............................
.2038
1899..............................
.2417
1900..............................
.2300
1901..............................
1902..............................
.2700
.2800
1903..............................
.3000
1904..............................
.3967
1905..............................
.4188
1906..............................
.4438
1907..............................

100.0
110.9
110.9
110.9
102.1
91.5
90.3
94.7
90.3
90.8
107.6
127.6
121.4
142.6
147.8
158.4
209.5
221.1
234.3

$0.1234
.1575
.1305
.1154
.1093
.0948
.1075
.1097
.1132
.1194
.1767
.1661
.1687
.1201
.1368
.1311
.1576
.1961
.2125

100.0
127.6
105.8
93.5
88.6
76.8
87.1
88.9
91.7
96.8
143.2
134.6
136.7
97.3
110.9
106.2
127.7
158.9
172.2

$0.1659
.2275
.1900
.1600
.1500
.1425
.1425
.1425
.1463
.1400
.2175
.2067
.2088
.1783
.1917
.1800
.1992
.2375
.2792

a Bar iron: common to best refined (Pittsburg market).
pages 327 and 328. Average price, 1905,10.0172.




100.0
137.1
114.5
96.4
90.4
85.9
85.9
85.9
88.2
84.4
131.1
124.6
125.9
107.5
115.6
108.5
120.1
143.2
168.3

$0.1464
.1875
.1650
.1438
.1350
.1156
.1238
.1356
.1375
.1375
.1825
.1800
.1815
.1326
.1497
.1438
.1702
.2108
.2402

100.0
128.1
112.7
98.2
92.2
79.0
84.6
92.6
93.9
93.9
124.7
123.0
124.0
90.6
102.3
98.2
116.3
144.0
164.1

$0.1697
.1660
.1660
.1680
.1660
.1660
.1953
.1733
.1660
.1660
.1660
.1813
.1900
.2153
.2250
.2458
.3625
.4408
.4500

100.0
97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
115.1
102.1
97.8
97.8
97.8
106.8
112.0
126.9
132.6
144.8
213.6
259.8
265.2

For method of computing relative price, see

444

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le IV.— V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
A
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, AN D B ASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.
Metals and implements.

Year.

Files: 8-inch
mill bastard.

Hammers:
Maydole No. 1^.

Lead: pig.

Lead pipe.

Locks: com­
mon mortise.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive
price
tive price per tive price per tive
price
tive
dozen. price. each. price. pound. price. 100 lbs. price.
each.
price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.8527
.9100
1890
................
.8917
1891
...............
.8717
1892
...............
.8667
1893
...............
.8300
1894
...............
.8133
1895
...............
.7775
1896
...............
.8050
1897..............................
.8250
1898
................
.9358
1899
................
1.0900
1900..............................
1.0500
1901
..............,
1902
................ 1.0500
1903
................ 1.0500
1904
................ 1.0400
1905
................ 1.0367
3906.............................. 1.0217
1907..............................
.9975

100.0
106.7
104 6
102.2
101.6
97.3
95.4
91.2
94 4
96.8
109.7
127.8
123.1
123.1
123.1
122.0
121.6
119.8
117.0

Nails: cut, 8penny, fence
and common.
Year.

$0.3613
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3525
.3800
.3800
.3633
.3867
.4189
.4233
.4233
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660

100.0
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
97.6
105.2
105.2
100.6
107.0
115.9
117.2
117.2
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0

Nails: wire, 8penny, fence
and common.

$0.0381
.0440
.0437
.0413
.0374
.0331
.0326
.0300
.0358
.0380
.0448
.0445
.0438
.0411
.0428
.0443
.0479
.0588
.0552

100.0
115.5
114 7
108.4
98.2
86.9
85.6
78.7
940
99.7
117.6
116.8
115.0
107.9
112.3
116.3
125.7
1543
1449

Pig iron: Bes­
semer.

$4.8183
5.4000
5.6000
5.1833
5.0000
44333
42000
4.1000
43167
46000
5.3500
5.1208
5.0479
5.2167
5.1958
47950
5.2250
6.4208
6.7050

100.0
112.1
116.2
107.6
103.8
92.0
87.2
85.1
89.6
95.5
111.0
106.3
104 8
108.3
107.8
99.5
108.4
133.3
139.2

$0.0817
.0830
.0830
.0830
.0830
.0818
.0833
.0867
.0833
.0750
.0750
.0788
.0750
.0850
.0900
.1025
.1496
.1808
.2000

100.0
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
100.1
102.0
106.1
102.0
91.8
91.8
96.5
91.8
1040
110.2
125.5
183.1
221.3
244 8

Pig iron:
Pig iron:
foundry No. 1. foundry No. 2.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price.
ton.
price.
ton.
ton.
price.
price.

Average, 1890-1899.. $1.8275
1890
................ 2.2875
1891
................ 1.8333
1892
................ 1.7583
1893
................ 1.6813
1894
................ 1.5271
1895
................ 1.9250
1896
................ 2.7125
1897
................ 1.3329
1898
................ 1.1927
1899
................ 2.0240
1900
................ 2.2500
1901
................ 2.1125
1902
................ 2.1333
1903
................ 2.1958
1904
................ 1.8188
1905
................ 1. $250
1906
................ 1.9313
1907
................ 2.1625




100.0
125.2
100.3
96.2
92.0
83.6
105.3
148.4
72.9
65.3
110.8
123.1
115.6
116.7
120.2
99.5
99.9
105.7
118.3

$2.1618
2.9646
2.4667
2.1896
1.9917
1.6521
2.1177
2.9250
1.4854
1.4375
2.3875
2.6333
2.3646
2.1042
2.0750
1.9063
1.8958
1.9583
2.1167

100.0 $13.7783
137.1 18.8725
1141 15.9500
101.3 143667
92.1 12.8692
70.4 11.3775
98.0 12.7167
135.3 12.1400
68.7 10.1258
66.5 10.3317
110.4 19.0333
121.8 19.4925
109.4 15.9350
97.3 20.6742
96.0 18.9758
88.2 13.7558
87.7 16.3592
90.6 19.5442
97.9 22.8417

100.0 $14 8042
137.0 18. 4083
115.8 17.5208
104.3 15.7492
93.4 14 5167
82.6 12.6642
92.3 13.1033
88.1 12.9550
73.5 12.1008
75.0 11.6608
138.1 19.3633
141.5 19.9800
115.7 15.8683
150.0 22.1933
137.7 19.9158
99.8 15.5725
118.7 17.8850
141.8 20.9825
165.8 23.8950

100.0 $13.0533
124 3 17.1563
118.4 15.3958
106.4 13.7729
98.1 12.4396
85.5 10.8458
88.5 11.6750
87.5 11.7708
81.7 10.1000
78.8 10.0271
130.8 17.3500
135.0 18.5063
107.2 14 7188
149.9 21.2396
134 5 19.1417
105.2 13.6250
120.8 16. 4104
141.7 19.2667
161.4 23.8688

m o
131.4
117.9
105.5
95.3
83.1
89.4
90.2
77.4
76.8
132.9
141.8
112.8
162.7
146.6
104 4
125.7
147.6
182.9

445

WHOLESALE PKICES, 1890 TO 1901,

T able I V .— A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO
1890-1899)— Continued.

1907,

AND

B A SE

PRICES

(A V E R A G E

OP
PO R

Metals and implements.

Year.

Pig iron: grayforge, south­
ern, coke.

Planes: BaileyNo. 5.

Quicksilver.

Saws: cross­
cut, Disston.

Saws: hand,
Disston No. 7.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price
tive price per tive
tive price per tive
price
price per tive
price. dozen. price.
price. pound. price. each.
ton.
price. each.
Average, 189(1-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

111. 0892
14.5000
12.5167
11.7917
10.6354
8.9375
10.3229
9.6042
8.8021
8.7188
15.0625
15.6042
12.5521
17.6042
16.2292
11.6771
14.4896
16.5313
20.9875

100.0
130.8
112.9
106.3
95.9
80.6
93.1
86.6
79.4
7& 6
135.8
140.7
113.2
158.8
146.4
105.3
130.7
149.1
189.3

Shovels: Ames
No. 2.
Year.

81.3220 100.0
1.4200 107.4
1.4200 107.4
1.4200 107.4
1.4200 107.4
1.3783 104.3
1.2417
93.9
93.0
1.2300
1.2300
93.0
1.2300 , 9a o
93.0
1.2300
1.4142 107.0
1.4600 110.4
1.5100 114.2
1.5300 115.7
1.5300 115.7
1.5300 115.7
1.7100 129.3
1.5300 115.7
Silver: bar,
fine.

80.5593
.7300
.6283
.5642
.5213
.4792
.5133
.4979
.5157
.5425
.6004
.6769
.6629
.6458
.6342
.5900
. 5446
.5517
.5429

100.0 81.6038
130.5
1.6038
112.3
1.6038
100.9
1.6038
93.2
1.6038
85.7
1.6038
91.8
1.6038
89.0
1.6038
92.2
1.6038
97.01.6038
107.3
1.6038
121.0
1.6038
lia 5
1.6038
115.5
1.6038
113.4
1.6038
105.5
1.6038
97.4
1.6038
98.6
1.6038
97.1
1.6038

Spelter: west­
ern.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Steel billets.

812.780
12.400
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.950
12.950

100.0
112.7
98.6
98.6
98.6
98. cr
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
101.3
101.3

Steel rails.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
price.
ton.
ton.
dozen. price. ounce. price. pound. price.
price.

Average, 1890-1899.. $7.8658
1890........: .................... 7.8700
1891.............................. 7.8700
1892.............................. 7.8700
1893.............................. 7.8700
7.4500
1894................. ............
1895.............................. 7.4500
1896.............................. 7.8100
1897.............................. 7.9300
1898.............................. 7.9300
1899.............................. 8.6075
1900.............................. 9.1200
1901.............................. 9.1200
1902.............................. 9.3550
1903.............................. 8.0200
1904.............................. 7.6533
1905.............................. 7.6200
1906
7.6200
1907.............................. 7.8400"




100.0 $0.74899
100.1 1.05329
.99034
100.1
.87552
100.1
.78219
100.1
.64043
94.7
94 7
.66268
.68195
99.3
.60775
100.8
.59065
100.8
.60507
109.4
.62065
115.9
.59703
115.9
.52816
118.9
102.0
.54208
.57844
97.3
.61008
96.9
96.9
.67379
99.7
.65979

100.0
140.6
132.2
116.9
104 4
85.5
88.5
91.0
81.1
7a 9
80.8
82.9
79.7
70.5
72.4
77.2
81.5
9a 0
88.1

$0.0452
.0554
.0508
.0465
.0410
.0355
.0362
.0401
.0421
.0453
.0588
.0442
.0405
.0487
.0558
.0515
.0592
.0620
.0617

100.0 $21.5262
122.6 30.4675
112.4 25.3292
102.9 23.6308
90.7 20.4358
78.5 16. 5783
80.1 18.4842
88.7 18.8333
93.1 15.0800
100.2 15.3058
130.1 31.1167
97.8 25.0625
89.6 241308
107.7 30.5992
123.5 27.9117
113.9 22.1792
131.0 24 0283
137.2 27.4475
136.5 29.2533

100.0 $26.0654
141.5 31.7792
117.7 29.9167
109.8 30.0000
94 9 28.1250
77.0 24 0000
85.9 24 3333
87.5 28.0000
70.1 18.7500
71.1 17.6250
144 6 28.1250
116.4 32.2875
112.1 27.3333
142.1 28.0000
129.7 28.0000
103.0 28.0000
111.6 28.0000
127.5 28.0000
135.9 28.0000

100.0
121.9
1148
115.1
107.9
92.1
93.4
107.4
71.9
67.6
107.9
123.9
1049
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4

446

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR,

T able I V __ A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO
1890-1899)— Continued.

1907,

AN D

B A SE

PRICES

(A V E R A G E

OF
FO R

Metals and implements.

Year.

Steel sheets:
black, No. 27.

Tin: pig.

Tinplates: do­ Tin plates: im­
mestic, Besse­ ported, Besse­
mer, coke.
mer, coke.

Trowels:
M. C. O., brick,
lO^-inch.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price-per tive Iprice per tive
price
tive
pound. price. pound. price. 100 lbs. price. 108 lbs.® price.
each.
price.
Average, 1890-1899.. b $ 0. 0224
1890..............................
1891.............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
.0235
1895 ............................
.0244
.0215
1896..............................
.0195
1897..............................
.0190
1898..............................
.0267
1899..............................
.0293
1900..............................
.0315
1901..............................
.0291
1902..............................
.0260
1903..............................
.0210
1904..............................
.0222
1905..............................
.0237
1906..............................
.0250
1907..............................

100.0

104.9
108.9
96.0
87.1
84.8
119.2
130.8
140.6
129.9
116.1
93.8
99.1
105.8
111.6

$0.1836
.2121
.2025
.2037
.2002
.1812
.1405
.1330
.1358
.1551
.2721
.3006
.2618
.2648
.2816
.2799
.3127
.3922
.3875

100.0 c$3.4148
115.5
110.3
110.9
109.0
98.7
76.5
72.4
3.4354
74.0
3.1823
2.8500
84.5
148.2
4.1913
163.7
4.6775
142.6
4.1900
144.2
4.1233
153.4
3.9400
152.5
3.6025
170.3
3.7067
213.6
3.8608
211.1
4.0900

100.0 d$4.5862
4.7958
5.3367
5.3050
5.3717
4.8917
3.8725
3.8000
ioo.6
93.2
3.9025
83.5
4.0000
(e)
122.7
(e)
137.0
fe )
122.7
120.7
\e)
(«)
115.4
105.5
(«)
(«)
108.5
h)
113.1
119.8

Metals and implements,

Year.

Wood screws:
Vises: solid box, 1-inch, No. 10,
50-pound.
flat head.

100.0
104.6
116.4
115? 7
117.1
106.7
84.4
82.9
85.1
87.2

$0.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Lumber and building materials.

Zinc: sheet.

Brick: common Carbonate of
lead: American,
domestic.
in oil.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
price
each.
M.
price. gross. price. 100 lbs. price.
price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $3.9009
1890..............................
4.1400
1891..............................
4.1400
1892..............................
4.2550
1893..............................
4.1975
1894..............................
4.0567
1895..............................
3.7933
1896.............................. 3.7200
1897.............................. 3.5000
1898.............................. 3.2800
1899.............................. 3.9267
1900.............................. 4.2683
1901..............................
5.0200
1902.............................. 5.1300
1903..............................
5.1767
1904..............................
4.2550
4.1400
1905..............................
4.5208
1906..............................
1907..............................
5.7500

100.0
106.1
106.1
109.1
107.6
104.0
97.2
95.4
89.7
84.1
100.7
109.4
128.7
131.5
132.7
109.1
106.1
115.9
147.4

$0.1510
.1970
.2000
.2100
.2100
.1558
.1117
.1033
.0850
.0918
.1452
.1820
.1045
.0952
.1093
.0945
.1055
.1055
.1219

100.0
130.5
132.5
139.1
139.1
103.2
74.0
68.4
56.3
60.8
96.2
120.5
69.2
63.0
72.4
62.6
69.9
69.9
80.7

$5.3112
6.0542
5.7192
5.4900
4.9942
3.9500
4.5217
4.9400
4.9400
5.4983
7.0042
6.0950
5.5583
5.7308
6.0183
5.6092
6.8250
7.1725
7.4858

o Duty paid.
6 Average for the period July, 1894, to December, 1899.
cAverage for 1896-1899.




100.0
114.0
107.7
103.4
94.0
74.4
85.1
93.0
93.0
103.5
131.9
114.8
104.7
107.9
113.3
105.6
128.5
135.0
140.9

$5.5625
6.5625
5.7083
5.7708
5.8333
5.0000
5.3125
5.0625
4.9375
5.7500
5.6875
5.2500
5.7656
5.3854
5.9063
7.4948
8.1042
8.5469
6.1563

100.0
118.0
102.6
103.7
104.9
89.9
95.5
91.0
88.8
103.4
102.2
94.4
103.7
96.8
106.2
134.7
145.7
153.7
110.7

$0.0577
.0638
.0650
.0658
.0609
.0524
.0525
.0517
.0535
.0543
.0568
.0625
.0576
.0539
.0615
.0598
.0633
.0690
.0697

100.0
110.6
112.7
114.0
105.5
90.8
91.0
89.6
92.7
941
98.4
108.3
99.8
93.4
106.6
103.6
109.7
119.6
120.8

d Average for 1890-1898.
« Quotations discontinued,

447

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

Table IV .—A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y A C T U A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES
COMMODITIES, 1890
1890-1899)— Continued.

TO

1907,

AND

BASE

PRICES

(A V E R A G E

OP
FOR

Lumber and building materials.

Year.

Cement: Port­
land, domestic.

Cement:
Rosendale.

Doors: Pine.

Hemlock.

Lime: common.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
door.
price. M feet. price. barrel. price.
barrel. price. barrel. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. a$l. 9963
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..
...............
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895.............................. 1.9688
1896.............................. 2.0000
1.9667
1897..............................
1.9979
1898..............................
1899.............................. 2.0479
1900.............................. 2.1583
1.8896
1901..............................
1902.............................. 1.9500
1903.............................. 2.0292
1904.............................. 1.4604
1.4271
1905..............................
1.5750
1906..............................
1.6458
1907..............................

100.0

98.6
100.2
98.5
100.1
102.6
108.1
94.7
97.7
101.6
73.2
71.5
78.9
82.4

Linseed oil:
raw.
Year.

$0.8871 100.0
1.0542 k118.8
.9417 106.2
.9688 109.2
.8875 100.0
.9271 104.5
96.1
.8521
93.9
.8333
.7521
84.8
.7604
85.7
.8938 100.8
1.0167 114.6
1.0188 114.8
.8646
97.5
.8896 100.3
90.4
.8021
.8333
93.9
.9500 107.1
.9500 107.1

Maple: hard.

$1.0929 100.0 $11.9625
1.3750 125.8 12.5833
1.2500 114.4 12.4583
1.2500 114.4 12.2917
1.2250 112.1 12.0000
96.1 11.7083
1.0500
83.5 11.1458
.9125
76.6 11.1667
.8375
74.3 11.0000
.8125
84.6 11.7500
.9250
1.2917 118.2 13.5208
1.5900 145.5 16.5000
1.8913 173.1 15.0000
2.1208 194.1 15.8333
1.7292 158.2 16.7917
1.6900 154.6 17.0000
61.8367 ,6163.2 17.8750
61.7271 6153.5 21.8958
61.8842 6167.5 22.2500
1
Oak: white,
plain.

100.0
105.2
104.1
102.8
100.3
97.9
93.2
93.3
92.0
98.2
113.0
137.9
125.4
132.4
140.4
142.1
149.4
183.0
186.0

Oak: white,
quartered.

$0.8332
.9792
.9125
.9292
.9292
.8479
.7813
.6938
.7188
.7417
.7979
.6833
.7742
.8058
.7875
.8246
.8908
.9471
.9492

100.0
117.5
109.5
111.5
111.5
101.8
93.8
83.3
86.3
89.0
95.8
82.0
92.9
96.7
94.5
99.0
106.9
113.7
113.9

Oxide of zinc.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
gallon. price. M feet. price. M feet. price. Mfeet. price. pound. price.

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.4535
.6158
1890..............................
.4842
1891..............................
.4083
1892..............................
.4633
1893..............................
.5242
1894..............................
.5242
1895..............................
.3683
1896..............................
.3275
1897..............................
.3925
1898..............................
.4267
1899..............................
.6292
1900..............................
.6350
1901..............................
.5933
1902..............................
.4167
1903..............................
.4158
1904..............................
.4675
1905..............................
.4050
1906..............................
.4342
1907..............................

100.0 $26.5042
135.8 26.5000
106.8 26.5000
90.0 26.5000
102.2 26.5000
115.6 26.5000
115.6 26.5000
81.2 26.5000
72.2 26.5000
86.5 26.5000
94.1 26.5417
138.7 27.5000
140.0 26.7083
130.8 28.5833
91.9 31.6667
91.7 31.0000
103.1 30.5000
89.3 31.0000
95.7 32.2500

100.0 $37.4292
100.0 37.8750
100.0 38.0000
100.0 38.4583
100.0 38.7500
100.0 37.2500
100.0 36.2500
100.0 36.2500
100.0 36.2500
100.0 36.2500
100.1 38.9583
103.8 40.8333
100.8 36.7708
107.8 40.8750
119.5 44.8333
117.0 46.5000
115.1 47.3333
117.0 50.4167
121.7 55.2083

100.0 $53.6771
101.2 51.4583
101.5 53.5833
102.7 53.0000
103.5 53.0000
99.5 51.1250
96.8 53.2500
96.8 54.5000
96.8 53.8333
96.8 52.5000
104.1 60.5208
109.1 64.4583
98.2 59.1667
109.2 63.0833
119.8 74.7917
124.2 80.7500
126.5 80.2500
134.7 79.1667
147.5 80.0000

100.0
95.9
99.8
98.7
98.7
95.2
99.2
101.5
100.3
97.8
112.7
120.1
110.2
117.5
139.3
150.4
149.5
147.5
149.0

$0.0400
.0425
.0419
.0426
.0413
.0373
.0350
.0383
.0377
.0396
.0438
.0451
.0438
.0440
.0463
.0463
.0465
.0508
.0538

a Average for 1895-1899.
,
. ,
_ . , „
, __ „ - ^
&Doors: western white pine, 2 feet 8 inches by 6 feet 8 inches, If inches thick, 5 panel No. 1, O. G.
method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328. Average price for 1904, $1.74.




100.0
106.3
104.8
106.5
103.3
93.3
87.5
95.8
94 3
99.0
109.5
112.8
109.5
110.0
115.8
115.8
116.3
127.0
1345
„
For

448

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e IV.— V E R A G E Y E A R L Y A C TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
A
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, AN D B ASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FOR
1890-1899)— Continued.
Lumber and building materials.

Year.

Pine: white,
boards, No. 2
barn (Buffalo
market).

Pine: white,
boards, uppers
(Buffalo
market).

Pine: yellow.

Plate glass:
Plate glass: .
polished, 3 to 5 polished, 5 to 10
sq. ft.
sq. ft.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
M feet. price. M feet. price. M feet. price. sq. ft. price. sq. ft. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$17.1104 100.0 $46.5542 100.0 $18.4646
16.7917
98.1 44.0833
94.7 20.7500
17.0000
99.4 45.0000
96.7 19.9583
17.1458 100.2 46.1417
98.9 18.5000
18.6250 108.9 48.5000 104.2 18.5000
18.1667 106.2 46.4167
99.7 18.5000
17.2500 100.8 46.0000
98.8 16.9167
16.5000
96.4 46.6250 100.2 16.4167
15.8333
92.5 46.3333
99.5 16.4375
15.5000
90.6 46.0833
99.0 18.6250
18.2917 106.9 50.4583 108.4 20.0417
21.5000 125.7 57.5000 123.5 20.7083
20.8750 122.0 60.4167 129.8 19.6667
23.5000 137.3 74.8333 160.7 21.0000
24.0000 140.3 80.0000 171.8 21.0000
23.0000 134.4 81.0000 174.0 21.4167
24.1667 141.2 82.0000 176.1 24.9167
29.7500 173.9 84.7500 182.0 29.3333
«37.4167 <U95.7 597.0833 6200.2 30.5000

Poplar.
Year.

Putty.

100.0
112.4
108.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
91.6
88.9
89.0
100.9
108.5
112.2
106.5
113.7
113.7
116.0
1349
158.9
165.2

Resin: good,
strained.

$0.3630
.5300
.5200
.4200
.4200
.3300
.3000
.3400
.2000
.2700
.3000
.3400
.3200
.2575
.2625
.2275
.2408
e .2267
c .2300

100.0
146.0
143.3
115.7
115.7
90.9
82.6
93.7
55.1
74 4
82.6
93.7
88.2
70.9
72.3
62.7
66.3
c76.1
c77.2

Shingles:
cypress.

$0.5190
.7000
.6900
.5500
.5500
.4500
.4800
.5400
.3200
.4300
.4800
.5400
.4900
.4113
.4313
.3650
.3729
<*.3300
d.3400

100.0
1349
132.9
106.0
106.0
86.7
92.5
104.0
61.7
82.9
92.5
1040
94 4
79.2
83.1
70.3
71.8
d 77.7
<*80.1

Shingles: white
pine, 18-inch.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
M.
price.
M.
price.
M feet. price. pound. price. barrel. price.

$31.3667
30.5000
30.5000
30.6042
33.6250
31.7500
31.0000
31.0000
30.6667
30.0000
34.0208
37.6875
36.7083
42.1042
49.6458
50.3292
48.2083
1906.
50.9583
1907.............................. 58.0833

Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
3895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
ions________________

100.0
97.2
97.2
97.6
107.2
101.2
98.8
98.8
97.8
95.6
108.5
120.2
117.0
134.2
158.3
160.5
153.7
162.5
185.2

$0.0158
.0175
.0175
.0161
.0160
.0157
.0145
.0145
.0145
.0145
.0168
.0190
.0150
.0192
.0141
.0110
.0109
.0119
.0120

100.0
lia s
110.8
101.9
101.3
99.4
91.8
91.8
91.8
91.8
106.3
120.3
94.9
121.5
89.2
69.6
69.0
75.3
75.9

$1.4399
1.3844
1.4740
1.3417
1.2615
1.2510
1.5615
1.7458
1.6125
1.4208
1.3458
1.6021
1.5302
1.6125
2.2156
2.8333
3.4229
4 0146
4.3771

100.0
96.1
102.4
93.2
87.6
86.9
108.4
121.2
112.0
98.7
93.5
111.3
106.3
112.0
153.9
196.8
237.7
278.8
3040

$2.8213
3.3500
3.2500
3.1500
3.0000
2.8000
2.6500
2.5000
2.3500
2.5000
2.6625
2.8500
2.8500
2.6708
2.5667
2.6000
2.7250
3.2417
4 2250

100.0
118.7
115.2
111.7
106.3
99.2
93.9
88.6
83.3
88.6
94 4
101.0
101.0
94.7
91.0
92.2
96.6
1149
149.8

$3.7434
3.8417
40000
3.9063
3.8500
3.7500
3.7000
3.6125
3.5417
3.5521
3.6792
40000
41875
«3.5875
«3.6500
e 3.5750
« 3 .5000
/ 2.2125
f 2.6958

100.0
102.6
106.9
104 4
102.8
100.2
98.8
96.5
946
94 9
98.3
106.9
111.9
e 123.0
«125.1
«122.5
e 119.9
/157.2
/191.5

a Pine: white, boards, No. 2, bam , 1 inch by 10 inches wide, rough (New York market). For method
of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328. Average price for 1906, $33.25.
b Pine: white, boards, uppers, 1-inch, 8 inches and up wide, rough (New York market). For method
of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328. Average price for 1906, $88.25.
c Plate glass: polished, glazing, area 3 to 5 square feet. For method of computing relative price,
see pages 327 and 328. Average price for 1905, $0.1975.
d Plate glass: polished, glazing, area 5 to 10 square feet. For method of computing relative price, see
pages 327 and 328. Average price for 1905, $0.3050.
« Shingles: Michigan white pine, 16 inches long, X X X X . For method of computing relative price, see
pages 327 and 328. Average price for 1901, $3.2625.
/ Shingles: red cedar, clears, random width, 16 inches long. For method of computing relative price,
see pages 327 and 328. Average price for 1905, $1.6875.




449

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e IV.— V E R A G E Y E A R L Y A C T U A L AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OP
A
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D B A SE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.
Lumber and building materials.
Turpentine:
spirits of.

Tar.

Spruce.
Year.

Window glass: Window glass:
American, sin­ American, sin­
gle, firsts, 6 x 8 gle, thirds, 6 x 8
to 10 x 15 inch. to 10 x 15 inch.

Average Rela­ Average Relar Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per live price per tive price per tive price per tive
M feet. price. barrel. price. gallon. price. 50 sq. ft. price. 50 sq. ft. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907...................... ..

$14.3489
16.2917
14.2183
14.8542
13.7708
12.7083
14.2500
14.2500
14.0000
13.7500
15.3958
17.3750
18.0000
19.2500
19.1875
20.5000
21. 4167
25.5417
24.0000

100.0
113.5
99.1
103.5
96.0
88.6
99.3
99.3
97.6
95.8
107.3
121.1
125.4
134.2
m 7
142*9
149.3
178.0
167.3

$1.2048
1.4750
1.5833
1.3000
1.0458
1.0917
1.1417
1.0125
1.0542
1.0979
1.2458
1.3625
1.2817
1.3250
1.6792
1.6792
1.7583
1.9583
2.3292

100.0
122.4
131.4
107.9
86.8
90.6
94.8
84.0
•87.5
91.1
103.4
nai
106.4
110.0
139.4
139.4
145.9
162.5
193.3

$0.3343
.4080
.3795
.3227
.3002
.2932
.2923
.2743
.2924
.3221
.4581
.4771
.3729
.4740
.5715
.5757
.6276
.6649
.6344

100.0
122.0
113.5
96.5
89.8
87.7
87.4
82.1
87.5
96.4
137.0
142.7
111.5
141.8
171.0
172.2
187.7
198.9
189.8

$2.1514
2.2283
2.2125
1.9935
2.1375
1.9918
1.5988
1.8021
2.1986
2.6432
2.7081
2.6990
4.1282
3.2187
2.6400
2.8867
2.7637
2.9196
2.8133

100.0
103.6
102.8
92.7
99.4
92.6
74 3
83.8
102.2
122.9
125.9
125.5
191.9
149.6
122.7
134.2
128.5
135.7
130.8

$1.8190
1.7858
1.7700
1.5948
1.7100
1.6326
1.3919
1.6000
1.9630
2.3428
2.3986
2.3194
3.2823
2.5649
2.1600
2.3283
2.1365
2.2563
2.2419

100.0
• 98.2
97.3
87.7
94.0
89.8
76.5
88.0
107.9
128.8
131.9
127.5
180.4
141.0
118.7
128.0
117.5
124.0
123.2

Drugs and chemicals.
Alcohol: grain.
Year.
Average
price per
gallon.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897................. *
............
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$2.2405
2.0717
2.2150
2.1417
2.1808
2.1521
2.3292
2.3008
2.2767
2.3250
2.4117
2.3867
2.4583
2.4057
2.3958
2.4325
2.4275
2.4642
2.5229




Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
92.5
98.9
95.6
97.3
96.1
1040
102.7
101.6
103.8
107.6
106.5
109.7
107.4
106.9
108.6
108.3
110.0
112.6

Alcohol: wood, re­
fined, 95 per cent.
Average
price per
gallon.
$0.9539
1.1375
1.1598
1.2973
1.2917
.7198
.8667
.8500
.6958
.7500
.7708
.8000
.6125
.6417
.5917
.5875
.6750
.7000
.3992

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
119.2
121.6
136.0
135.4
75.5
90.9
89.1
72.9
78.6
80.8
83.9
64.2
67.3
62.0
61.6
70.8
73.4
41.8

Alum: lump.
Average
price per
pound.
$0.0167
.0182
.0158
.0160
.0174
.0169
.0160
.0164
.0166
.0165
.0168
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0173
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
109.0
94 6
95.8
104.2
101.2
95.8
98.2
99.4
98.8
100.6
104 8
104 8
1048
103.6
104.8
104.8
104 8
104 8

Brimstone: crude,
seconds.
Average
price per
ton.
$20.6958
21.1458
28.6042
24.1458
18.7292
16.5833
15.6250
17.9583
20.1250
22.9167
21.1250
21.1458
22.0000
23.4375
22.3333
21.7750
21.2667
22.1563
21.4983

Rela­
tive
price.
100.0
102.2
138.2
116.7
90.5
80.1
75.5
86.8
97.2
110.7
m i
102.2
106.3
113.2
107.9
105.2
102.8
107.1
103.9

450

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

I V . — A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC T U A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COM M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D B A S E P R IC E S (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

Drugs and chemicals.
Glycerin: refined.

Muriatic acid: 20°.

Year.

Opium: natural,
in cases.

Quinine: American.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per
price.
price.
price.
pound.
pound.
pound.
ounce.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890
................
1891
................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894
................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898
................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
................
1905
1906..............................
1907
................

$0.1399
.1767
.1538
.1396
.1346
.1194
.1204
.1671
.1308
.1238
.1329
.1515
.1504
.1444
.1446
.1396
.1238
.1129
.1383

100.0
126.3
109.9
99.8
96.2
85.3
86.1
119.4
93.5
88.5
95.0
108.3
107.5
103.2
103.4
99.8
88.5
80.7
98.9

$0.0104
.0104
.0098
.0121
.0101
.0088
.0083
.0075
.0109
.0128
.0135
.0135
.0150
.0168
.0160
.0160
.0160
.0135
.0135

100.0
100.0
94.2
116.3
97.1
84.6
79.8
72.1
104.8
123.1
129.8
129.8
144.2
161.5
153.8
153.8
153.8
129.8
129.8

Drugs, etc.
Sulphuric acid: 66°.
Year.

Average, 1890-1899..
1890
................
1891
................
1892
................
1893
................
1894
................
1895
................
1896
................
1897
................
1898
................
1899
................
1900
................
1901
................
1902
................
1903
................
1904
................
1905
................
1906
................
1907..............................

$2.3602
2.6208
1.9438
1.6708
2.3917
2.2854
1.8413
2.0917
2.3417
3.3417
3.0729
3.2000
3.2292
2.8313
3.0813
2.7500
3.0333
2.9500
4.9458

100.0
111.0
82.4
70.8
101.3
96.8
78.0
88.6
99.2
141.6
130.2
135.6
136.8
120.0
130.6
116.5
128.5
125.0
209.6

$0.2460
.3275
.2508
.2183
.2150
.2621
.2508
.2406
.1829
.2146
.2975
.3325
.3025
.2575
.2525
.2333
.2100
.1658
.1775

Relative
price.
100.0
133.1
102.0
88.7
87.4
106.5
102.0
97.8
74.3
87.2
120.9
135.2
123.0
.104.7
102.6
94.8
85.4
67.4
72.2

House furnishing goods.
Earthenware:
plates, creamcolored.

Earthenware:
plates, white
granite.

Earthenware:
teacups and saucers,
white granite.

Average
price per
Average Relative Average
Average
Relative price per Relative gross (6 Relative
price per
price per
dozen
price.
price.
price. cups and 6 price.
dozen.
pound.
dozen.
dozen
saucers).
$0.0089
.0088
.0081
.0095
.0085
.0073
.0070
.0070
.0095
.0113
.0120
.0120
.0125
.0130
.0127
.0129
.0124
.0100
.0100




100.0
98.9
91.0
106.7
95.5
82.0
78.7
78.7
106.7
127.0
134.8
134.8
140.4
146.1
142.7
144.9
139.3
112.4
112.4

$0.4136
.4465
.4367
.4230
.4230
.4177
.3913
.3807
.3807
.4153
.4208
.4410
.4655
.4655
.4775
.4705
.4410
.4410
.4410

100.0
108.0
105.6
102.3
102.3
101.0
94.6
92.0
92.0
100.4
101.7
106.6
112.5
112.5
115.4
113.8
106.6
106.6
106.6

$0.4479
.4888
.4786
.4644
.4644
.4566
.4162
.3991
.3991
.4515
.4607
.4841
.5096
.5096
.4988
.4943
.4586
.4586
.4586

100.0
109.1
106.9
103.7
103.7
101.9
92.9
89.1
89.1
100.8
102.9
108.1
113.8
113.8
111.4
110.4
102.4
102.4
102.4

$3.4292
3.7600
3.6817
3.5720
3.5720
3.5250
3.2374
3.0907
3.0907
3.3595
3.4026
3.5750
3.7632
3.7632
3.6832
3.6503
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

100.0
109.6
107.4
104.2
104.2
102.8
94.4
90.1
90.1
98.0
99.2
104.3
109.7
109.7
107.4
106.4
98.8
98.8
98.8

451

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

I V ___ A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, AN D B A S E PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

House furnishing goods.

Year.

Furniture: bed­
room sets, ash.

Furniture: chairs,
bedroom, maple.

Furniture: chairs,
kitchen.

Furniture: tables,
kitchen.

Average
Average
Average
Average
Relative price per
price per Relative price per Relative price per
price.
price.
price.
dozen.
dozen.
dozen.
set:
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891.............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900.............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904.............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$10,555
12.000
12.000
12.000
11.000
11.000
9.950
8.750
8.750
10.000
10.100
11.250
11.250
11.750
12.167
12.250
12.354
12.958
14.500

100.0
113.7
113.7
113.7104.2
104.2
94.3
82.9
82.9
94.7
95.7
106.6
106.6
111.3
115.3
116.1
117.0
122.8
137.4

Glassware:
nappies, 4-inch.
Year.

Average, 1890-1899..
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................

$6,195
7.000
7.000
6.850
6.850
6.000
6.000
6.000
5.000
5.125
6.125
8.000
7.000
7.333
7.917
8.000
8.000
8.917
10.000

100.0
113.0
113.0
110.6
110.6
96.9
96.9
96.9
80.7
82.7
98.9
129.1
113.0
118.4
127.8
129.1
129.1
143.9
161.4

Glassware:
pitchers, ^-gallon,
common.

$3.8255
4.2000
4.2000
4.2500
4.2500
3.5000
3.5000
3.5000
3.5000
3.3130
4.0420
5.2080
4.7500
4.9167
5.0000
4.7708
4.7500
5.1250
5.7917

100.0
109.8
109.8
111.1
111.1
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
86.6
105.7
136.1
124.2
128.5
130.7
124.7
124.2
134.0
151.4

Glassware:
tumblers, J-pint,
common.

$14,435
15.000
15.000
15.000
15.000
14.250
14.250
13.800
13.800
13.800
14.450
15.600
15.600
15.600
15.600
15.600
15.600
16.500
18.000




100.0
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0

$1,175
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.300
1.300
1.300
1.150
1.050
1.050
1.050

100.0
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
110.6
110.6
110.6
97.9
89.4
89.4
89.4

$0.1775
.1800
.2000
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1850
.1800
.1700
.1600
.1300
.1800
.1800
.1850
.1767
.1600
.1500
.1500
.1500

100.0
101.4
112.7
107.0
107.0
107.0
104.2
101.4
95.8
90.1
73.2
101.4
101.2
104.2
99.5
90.1
84.5
84.5
84.5

100.0
103.9
103.9
103.9
103.9
98.7
98.7
95.6
95.6
95.6
100.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
114.3
124.7

Table cutlery: carv­
ers, stag handles.

Average Relative Average Relative Average Relative Average
price per
price per
price per
price per price.
price.
price.
dozen.
pair.
dozen.
dozen.
$0,112
.120
.120
.120
.120
.120
.120
.100
.100
.100
.100
.100
.140
.140
.140
.140
.140
.140
.140

Relative
price.

$0.80
.80
.80
.80
.95
.80
.80
.80
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.80

Relative
price.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
118.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
100.0

452

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

I V . — A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y AC TU AL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907, A N D B ASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

House furnishing goods.

Year.

Table cutlery:
knives and forks,
cocobolo handles.

Miscellaneous.

Wooden ware:
Wooden ware:
pails, oak-grained. tubs, oak-grained.

Cotton-seed meal.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative
price.
price. ton of 2000 price.
price.
gross.
dozen.
nest of 3.
pounds.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1890..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903.............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$6.0600
7.7500
7.7500
6.8500
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.0000
5.5000
5.7500
5.7500
6.5000
6.5000
6.5000
6.6667
6.6875
6.0500
6.4833

100.0
127.9
127.9
113.0
90.8
90.8
90.8
90.8
82.5
90.8
94.9
94.9
107.3
107.3
107.3
110.0
110.4
99.8
107.0

$1.2988
1.5917
1.4500
1.3500
1.3125
1.2583
1.1208
1.2625
1.2417
1.1333
1.2667
1.4917
1.5500
1.5500
1.5875
1.7000
1.7000
1.70Q0
1.9708

100.0
122.6
111. 6
103.9
101.1
96.9
86.3
97.2
95.6
87.3
97.5
114.9
119.3
119.3
122.2
130.9
130.9
130.9
151.7

$1.3471
1.6500
1.5667
1.4000
1.3083
1.2875
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2583
1.4417
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.6000

100.0
122.5
116.3
103.9
97.1
95.6
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
93.4
107.0
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
118.8

$21.9625
23.3750
25.2083
23.6958
25.7042
22.5583
18.9125
19.9375
20.4375
19.0000
20.7958
25.5458
25.0208
27.1333
26.7083
26.2000
26.3583
30.3917
28.7042

100.0
100.4
114.8
107.9
117.0
102.7
86.1
90.8
93.1
86.5
94.7
116.3
113.9
123.5
121.6
119.3
120.0
138.4
130.7

Miscellaneous.

Year.

Cotton-seed oil:
summer yellow,
prime.

Jute: raw.

Malt: western
made.

Paper: news.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per
price.
price.
price.
gallon.
bushel.
pound.
pound.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$0.3044
.3446
.3567
.3088
.4550
. 3238
.2721
.2513
.2365
.2288
.2663
.3556
.3571
.4067
.3977
.3135
.2696
.3613
.4869

100.0
113.2
117.2
101.4
149.5
106.4
89.4
82.6
77.7
75.2
87.5
116.8
117.3
133.6
130.7
103.0
88.6
118.7
160.0

$0.0359
.0388
.0371
.0475
.0346
.0345
.0279
.0319
.0373
.0332
.0365
.0435
.0400
.0438
.0464
.0444
«.0398
a.0539
0.0486

a Jute: raw, M-double triangle, shipments.
and 328. Average price, 1904, $0.0326.




100.0
108.1
103.3
132.3
96 4
96.1
77.7
88.9
103.9
92.5
101.7
I2L2
111.4
122.0
129.2
123.7
o 151.0
0204.5
ol84.4

$0.7029
.7500
.9271
.8015
.7750
.7446
.6854
.5629
.5438
.6163
.6221
.6538
.7450
.7925
.7246
.6758
.6150
.6471
1.0346

100.0
106.7
131.9
114.0
110.3
105.9
97.5
80.1
77.4
87.7
88.5
93.0
106.0
112.7
103.1
96.1
87.5
92.1
147.2

$0.0299
.0382
.0340
.0340
.0318
.0323
.0308
.0275
.0271
.0219
.0209
.0281
.0226
.0242
.0253
.0267
.0242
.0219
.0249

Relative
price.
100.0
127.8
113.7
113.7
106.4

mo

103v0
92.0
90.6
73.2
69.9
940
75.6
80.9
84.6
89.3
80.9
73.2
83.3

For method of computing relative price, see pages 327

453

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

Table I V .— A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y A C T U A L A N D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
CO M M O D ITIES, 1890 TO
1890-1899)— Concluded.

1907,

AND

BASE

PRICES

(A V E R A G E

FOR

Miscellaneous.

Year.

Paper: wrapping,
xnanila.

Proof spirits.

Rope: manila,
§-inch.

Rubber: Para
Island.

Average
Average
Average
Average
Relative price per
price per Relative price per Relative price per
price.
price.
price.
pound.
gallon.
pound.
pound.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$0.0553
.0575
.0575
.0558
.0579
.0584
.0586
.0588
.0588
.0459
.0438
.0480
.0502
.0497
.0526
.0530
.0525
.0500
.0506

100.0
104.0
104.0
100.9
104.7
105.6
106.0
106.3
106.3
83.0
79.2
86.8
90.8
89.9
95.1
95.8
94.9
90.4
91.5

Soap: castile, mot­
tled, pure.
Year.

Average, 1890-1899..
1890..............................
1891..............................
1892..............................
1893..............................
1894..............................
1895..............................
1896..............................
1897..............................
1898..............................
1899..............................
1900..............................
1901..............................
1902..............................
1903..............................
1904..............................
1905..............................
1906..............................
1907..............................

$1.1499
1.0533
1.1052
1.0757
1.0713
1.1326
1.2109
1.2031
1.1830
1.2220
1.2421
1.2460
1.2861
1.3138
1.2809
1.2692
1.2616
1.2879
1.3133

100.0
91.6
96.1
93.5
93.2
98.5
105.3
104.6
102.9
106.3
108.0
108.4
111.8
114.3
111.4
110.4
109.7
112.0
114.2

Starch: laundry.

$0.0934
.1494
.1038
.1148
.0919
.0770
.0735
.0664
.0631
.0842
.1094
.1320
.1092
.1348
a . 1146
a . 1171
a . 1195
a . 1252
a . 1290

100.0
160.0
111.1
122.9
98.4
82.4
78.7
71.1
67.6
90.1
117.1
141.3
116.9
144.3
a 122.7
a 125. 4
ol27.9
a 1340
ol38.1

Tobacco : plug.

$0.8007
.8379
.7908
.6763
.7167
.6744
.7425
.8000
.8454
.9271
.9954
.9817
.8496
.7273
.9054
1.0875
1.2425
1.2131
1.0633




100.0
104 4
109.1
109.7
108.1
103.3
89.1
88.2
93.3
96.7
98.1
107.7
115.1
116.5
115.6
113.7
1142
114.2
117.9

$0.0348
. 0371
.0426
.0373
.0366
.0366
.0363
.0310
.0300
.0300
.0300
.0340
.0363
.0454
.0431
.0369
.0329
.0367
.0404

100.0
106.6
122.4
107.2
105.2
105.2
104.3
89.1
86.2
86.2
86.2
97.7
104 3
130.5
123.9
106.0
94.5
105.5
116.1

a /,-inch,

$0.3962
.4050
.4008
.3725
.3967
.4000
.4000
.3808
.3758
.4133
.4175
.4433
.4658
.4542
.4500
.4700
.4900
. 4833
.4700

100.0
102.2
101.2
94 0
100.1
101.0
101.0
96.1
94 9
104 3
105.4
111.9
117.6
1146
113.6
118.6
123.7
122.0
118.6

100.0
104.6
98.8
84.5
89.5
84 2
92.7
99.9
105.6
115.8
124.3
122.6
106.1
90.8
113 1
135.8
155.2
151.5
132.8

Tobacco: smoking,
gran., Seal of N. C.

Average Relative Average Relative Average
Average
price per
price per
price per Relative price per
price.
price.
price.
pound.
pound.
pound.
pound.
$0.0569
.0594
.0621
.0624
.0615
.0588
.0507
.0502
.0531
.0550
.0558
.0613
.0655
.0663
.0658
.0647
.0650
.0650
.0671

Relative
price.

$0.5090
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5300
.5600
.5600
.5600
.5592
.5700
.5825
.6000
.6000
.6000

Relative
price.
100.0
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
1041
110.0
110.0
110.0
109.9
112.0
114 4
117.9
117.9
117.9

454

BULLETIN OE TH E BUREAU OP LABOR,

T a b l e V — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES O F CO M M O DITIES, 1890 TO 1907.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 337 to 346.

Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Farm products.
Grain.
Year. Cotton:
upland,
mid­
dling.

1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..
1899..
1900..
1901..
1902..
1903.. . .
1904
1905..
1906..
1907..

..
142.9
..
110.8
..
99.0
..
107.2
..
90.2
..
94.0
..
102.0
..
92.2
..
76.9
..
84.7
..
123.8
..
111.1
..
115.1
144.7
155.9
..
123.1
..
142.0
..
153.0

Flax­
seed:
No. 1.

Barley: Com:
by
No. 2,
sample. cash.

125.5
97.1
91.4
97.7
121.6
111.8
72.9
78.1
99.8
104.0
145.7
145.8
135.0
94.1
99.6
107.6
99.1
106.1

111.6
134.5
112.2
103.3
113.2
94.8
65.7
71.2
95.9
97.6
106.2
129.8
139.4
121.2
116.9
107.0
112.8
169.0

103.8
151.0
118.3
104.2
113.7
104.0
67.8
66.9
82.6
87.6
100.2
130.6
156.9
121.1
132.6
131.7
121.8
138.8

Oats:
cash.

Rye:
No. 2,
cash.

Wheat:
cash.

Aver­
age.

115.6
144.1
113.2
105.2
115.7
88.3
67.0
67.9
91.9
91.2
84.5
118.3
147.3
131.7
135.8
111.2
122.1
167.4

103.0
157.6
127.7
92.6
88.1
91.2
66.5
74.9
93.8
104.4
97.9
100.8
102.5
97.5
133.4
134 5
115.5
145.4

118.9
128.1
104.9
90.1
74.4
79.9
85.4
105.8
117.8
94.7
93.7
95.7
98.7
105.1
138.3
134.5
105.6
120.8

110.6
143.0
115.3
99.1
101.0
91.6
70.5
77.3
96.4
95.1
96.5
115.0
129.0
115.3
131.4
123.8
115.6
148.3

Hides:
green,
Hops:
Hay:
salted,
New
timo­
packers, York
thy,
heavy
State,
No. 1.
native choice.
steers.
95.8
117.8
113.5
107.4
99.9
109.1
99.0
80.9
79.9
96.6
110.9
123.0
120.9
119.2
112.5
107.9
124.3
162.4

99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
124.8
124.4
152.6
164.7
155.3

148.0
149.1
141.4
128.2
85.5
53.1
49.5
65.5
91.5
88.3
83.7
97.1
134.1
159.5
196.2
150.9
92.0
98.1

Live stock.
Cattle.

Hogs.

Sheep.

Year.
Steers, Steers,
choice good to
to extra . choice.
1890___
1891..
1892
1893..
1894 ..
1895.. . .
1896
1897..
1898..
1899..
1900
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..
1905..
1906..
1907..

Aver­
age.

87.4
107.7
95.0
102.2
95.6
104.2
90.2
100.8
103.2
113.7
113.9
118.1
138.5
106.9
109.7
110.2
113.1
122.8

89.5
109.2
95.4
103.0
96.3
103.7
88.3
99.5
102.2
113.2
111.3
116.6
139.5
105.8
110.9
111.2
114.2
122.9

91.5
..
110.6
95.7
..
103.8
. .97.0
103.1
86.4
. .98.2
..
101.1
..
112.6
108.7
..
115.1
..
140.4
..
104.7
..
112.0
..
112.2
..
115.2
..
123.0




Heavy . Light.

89.6
100.2
116.8
148.4
112.7
97.0
76.1
81.4
86.2
91.5
115.2
135.0
158.0
137.3
116.8
119.9
141.3
137.8

88.8
98.2
114.6
148.7
111.6
96.2
80.5
84.2
85.0
92.1
115.7
133.9
152.4
137.0
116.5
120.4
143.1
140.6

Aver­
age.

Native.

West­
ern.

Aver­
age.

89.2
99.2
115.7
148.6
112.2
96.6
78.3
82.8
85.6
91.8
115.5
134.5
155.2
137.2
116.7
120.2
142.2
139.2

120.5
120.0
127.2
103.2
71.7
78.5
78.0
93.1
104.4
103.3
109.7
89.2
100.6
98.7
110.3
134.5
131.7
130.3

118.0
115.6
123.2
104.3
75.4
78.3
79.4
95.3
105.3
105.2
114.3
94.7
105.7
98.0
107.8
128.5
133.5
123.5

119.3
117.8
125.2
103.8
73.6
78.4
78.7
94.2
104.9
104.3
112.0
92.0
103.2
98.4
109.1
131.5
132.6
126.9

Aver­
age.

99.3
108.7
112.1
118.4
94.0
92.9
81.8
92.2
97.5
103.1
112.9
114.3
132.6
113.8
112.2
121.0
129.7
129.7

Aver­
age*
farm
prod­
ucts.

110.0
121.5
111.7
107.9
95.9
93.3
78.3
85.2
96.1
100.0
109.5
116.9
130.5
118.8
126.2
124.2
123.6
137.1

455

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

Table V .—Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Food, etc.
Bread.
Y ear.

B o sto n .

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1 9 0 2 ....
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

121.5
134.9
112.0
1 19.2
110.6
107.2
7 0 .3
6 2 .6
7 4 .7
8 7 .0
1 2 5 .6
131.3
1 1 5.0
135.5
1 20.4
128.8
113.8
1 0 6.4

L o a f.

C rack e rs.

B ean s:
m e d iu m
ch oice.

Soda.

104.0
104.0
102.2
9 6 .6
9 6 .6
9 7 .2
9 6 .6
8 8 .0
108.9
105.9
1 1 1.4
118.9
11& 9
112.6
115.2
132.5
133.7
133.7

111.4
111.4
106.3
104.5
101.0
9 4 .0
9 1 .6
8 2 .5
105.6
9 2 .3
9 4 .0
9 7 .5
9 7 .5
9 0 .0
9 1 .6
95.1
9 0 .5
9 0 .5

A verage.

107.7
107.7
104.3
100.6
9 8 .8
9 5 .6
9 4.1
8 5 .3
107.3
9 9.1
102.7
108.2
108.2
101.3
1 0 3.4
113.8
112.1
112.1

V ie n n a
(N . Y .
m a r k e t .)

100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
9 0 .5
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
110.4
118.6
118.6
118.6

W a s h in g ­
to n m a r­
k e t.

H om e­
m ade
(N . Y .
m a r k e t .)

101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
9 0 .6
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
105.1
113.6
1 1 3.6
1 13.6

100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
94.1
102.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
102.5
100.6
100.6
100.6

B u tte r.

Year.

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1892____
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1900____
1901____
1 9 0 2 ....
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

C ream ­
C ream ­
ery,
er y ,
e x tra
E lg in
(N e w
(E lg in
Y ork
m ar­
m ar­
k e t).
k e t).
103.1
115.3
1 16.5
118.9
101.1
9 5 .1
8 2 .6
8 4 .7
8 6 .9
9 5 .6
1 00.4
9 7 .4
111.2
106.1
100.4
111.9
113.3
127.2

9 6 .5
1 1 7.6
116.1
124.6
103.3
9 3 .0
8 2 .3
8 3 .2
8 6 .4
9 7 .1
104.5
9 9 .2
114.5
106.2
9 7 .3
115.6
114.9
132.0

100.4
116.1
116.4
121.3
102.2
9 4 .5
8 2 .3
84 .1
8 6 .8
9 5 .8
101.7
9 7 .7
112.1
105.7
9 8 .4
112.8
113.1
128.5

37691—No. 75—08---- 12




100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
9 8 .7
9 4 .5
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
106.0
110.9
110.9
110.9

103.6
103.6
102.2
100.7
1 00.0
9 7 .5
9 4 .4
9 4 .6
1 0 3.4
100.2
1 0 1.6
103.8
1 0 3.8
101.0
105.0
112.1
1 1 1.4
111.4

F ish .

D a ir y ,
A verN ew
Y o r k ' age.
S ta te .

1 01.5
115.3
1 16.5
1 2 0 .5
102.1
9 5 .3
8 2 .1
8 4 .5
8 7 .2
9 4 .8
100.1
9 6 .5
110.6
104.7
9 7 .6
111.0
111.0
126.2

A verage.
A v erage.

C heese:
N ew
Y ork,
full
c rea m .

C oflee:
R io
N o . 7.

9 7 .1
102.4
107.2
109.0
1 0 7.4
9 4.1
9 2 .0
9 8 .1
8 3 .3
108.9
114.3
102.4
114.1
123.3
103.2
122.8
133.0
143.3

1 36.6
127.3
108.9
131.2
126.0
121.2
9 3 .9
6 0 .4
4 8 .2
4 6 .0
6 2 .6
4 9 .2
4 4 .6
4 2 .6
5 9 .6
6 3 .4
6 1 .8
5 0 .1

E ggs:
new M ack­
laid ,
C od ,
H er­
erel,
fa n c y , d ry ,
ring,
S a lm o n , A v e r ­
sa lt,
near­ b a n k , shore,
can n ed . age.
large
large. r o u n d .
by.
N o .3 s .

9 9 .1
110.0
110.4
114.5
9 3 .5
102.0
8 8 .7
8 7 .5
9 2 .6
101.6
100.7
106.7
122.7
123.2
135.0
138.2
133.2
141.2

101.7
120.5
126.3
114.2
106.7
9 8 .9
7 5 .4
8 0 .9
8 3 .6
9 2 .0
9 4 .9
107.2
9 1 .2
105.0
130.4
1 3 2.4
136.2
138.6

9 3 .3
124.6
7 7 .8
101.0
8 9 .9
8 3 .6
8 8 .8
9 6 .3
1 11.4
133.2
134.6
131.9
129.9
151.7
1 44.4
158.9
168.0
162.9

129.2
1 0 8.4
9 2 .0
9 2 .0
7 8 .2
110.6
9 8 .5
8 6 .5
9 6 .7
107.9
9 8 .3
7 6 .6
9 7 .3
123.5
102.6
9 8 .5
104.7
9 8 .5

11 1 .4
101.8
100.7
1 0 1.4
9 6 .7
102.1
105.2
9 0 .8
8 6 .0
103.8
120.2
116.3
109.6
110.0
117.1
1 15.7
114.3
113.2

108.9
113.8
9 9 .2
1 0 2.2
9 2 .9
9 8 .8
9 2 .0
8 8 .6
9 4 .4
109.2
112.0
108.0
107.0
122.6
123.6
1 26.4
130.8
128.3

4 56

BULLETIN" OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e V . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—

Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Food, etc.
Flour.
Year.
Buck­
wheat.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894___
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904___
1905....
1906....
1907....

Fruit.

Wheat.

104.0
125.7
92.1
121.9
125.4
86.2
71.1
75.4
79.8
118.4
108.3
108.4
115.1
119.5
120.1
112.7
115.0
132.4

Rye.

Apples.

Average.
Winter
Spring
patents. straights. Average.

101.4
148.3
121.1
93.0
83.8
94.5
80.9
84.6
92.9
99.4
103.3
100.1
103.9
94.9
131.1
134.7
115.9
138.7

120.7
123.5
101.1
93.2
83.7
84.8
88.3
106.8
110.1
87.8
89.4
88.7
88.6
100.8
125.2
126.2
99.5
113.5

121.0
127.6
107.2
85.4
71.5
84.0
94.1
113.4
107.8
88.0
87.1
86.0
90.7
93.4
125.5
118.1
94.0
103.7

Evap­
orated, Sun-dried. Average.
choice.

120.9
125.6
104.2
89.3
77.6
84.4
91.2
110.1
109.0
87.9
88.3
87.4
89.7
97.1
125.4
122.2
96.8
10&6

111.8
131.3
105.4
98.4
91.1
87.4
83.6
95.1
97.7
98.4
97.0
95.8
99.6
102.2
125.5
122.9
106.1
122.1

Glu­
cose, (a)

Lard:
prime
contract.

134.1
129.9
81.2
109.4
128.9
80.0
62.9
65.5
105.1
102.6
72.6
83.7
108.7
72.1
71.2
82.5
115.5
99.5

Fruit.
Year.

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1892___
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1896___
1 8 9 7 ....
1898___
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1902___
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

22
1.6
131.7
126.9
130.1
130.7
163.7
187.5

138.0
129.2
128.6
134.2
95.0

86.0

75.1
70.5
70.3
73,0
67.4
67.8
71.2
62.1
59.6
59.3
83.5
76,6




134.1
145.1
81.7
104.0
125.7
86.7
61.8
58.7
91.2
110.5
79.3
81.7
103.6
78.0
68.0
75.1
109.4
111.7

Meal: com.

Raisins,
Currants, Prunes, California, Average.
in barrels. California, London
in boxes.
layer.
127.5
113.6
79.2
72.0
46.1
67.7
87.2
127.7
154.7
125.3
192.0

134.0
160.2
82.1
98.6
122.5
93.4
60.6
51.8
77.3
118.4
86.0
79.6
98.4
83.9
64.7
67.6
103.3
123.9

157.3

10
2 .1

97.9
113.3
76.9
95.2
67.9
93.2
92.7
85.5
101.3
96.1
112.3
96.3
98.2
79.1
106.6
108.4

138.2
130.6
93.8
105.5
93.J9
84.5
70.7
81.7

10
0 .0
11
0 .0

103.9
109.8
104.5
88.3
96.0
83.8
117.9
119.2

124.3
111.4
109.2
81.7

86.0

91.8
95 6
104.9
116.0
153.6
129.7
126.3
1251
142.9
159.4

^Average for 1893-1899=100.0.

96.8
100.9
117.9
157.5
118.2
99.8
71.7
67.4
84.4
85.0
105.5
135.3
161.9
134.1

11
1 .8
113.9
135.6
140.7

Fine
white.

11
0 .2
140.6
113.7
105.0
106.7

12
0 .2
77.5
77.8
84.1
91.1
96.5
114.2
146.4
123.7
127.8
126.4

10
2 .8
129.5

Fine
yellow.

100.3
143.4
114.2
106.5
104.5
104.4
77.2
75.1
83.2
91.2
97.4
116.8
150.0
125 7
131.1
130.3
124.2
133.5

Average.

10
0.8

142.0
114.0
105.8
105 6
103.3
77.4
76.5
83.7
91.2
97.0
115.5
148.2
124.7
129.5
128.4
122.5
131.5

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 190L

457

T a b l e V . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OP COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—

Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Food, etc.
Meat.
Beef.

Year.
Fresh,
native
sidtes.
1890___
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1893___
1894-----1895----1890.......
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1 9 0 2 ....
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1905____
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

Year.

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1893___
1 8 9 4 ....
1896___
1896----1897.....
1 8 9 8 ....
1899___
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1 9 0 2 ....
1903___
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1906___
1 9 0 7 ....

89.2
106.2
98.8
106.4
97.0
102.7
90.5
99.7
101.3
108.3
104.3

12
0 .1

125.9
101.7
106.1
104.0

11
0 .2
114.7

Salt,
extra
mess.

Pork.

Salt,
hams,
west­
ern.

Aver­
age.

Bacon,
Salt,
Bacon, Hams,
short
mess,
short rib
clear
smoked. old to
1sidessides.
new.

86.8

80.4
85.5
85.8
98.8
80.5 : 88.0
0 .1
102.2 98.6 1 2
1 1 101.5 99.8
0 .0
101.4 : 95.9
10
0 .0
93.7 ! 88*1
90.8
95.7
125.1
106.8
114.2
111.4
118.8
125,6
116.6
115.9
114.2
113.4
121.7
116,3
1 2 110.3
1 .6
118.0
130.3
147.1
117.2
110.7
113.1
109.4
123.5
113.0
125.0
1 1 116.9
2 .6
119.2
10
1 .2
110.3
144.0
122.5
127.1
104.4
84.4 :

Molas­
Rice:
Milk: ses: New domes­
Orleans,
tic,
fresh.
Ameri­
open
can.
kettle. choice.
103.1
1047
1Q5.1
109.4
103.1
90.2
91.8
92.2
93.7
99.2
107.5
102.7
112.9
112.9
107.8
113.3
118.0
131.4

112.4
88.5

11
0 .2

106.2
98.1
97.8
103.0
83.1
97.8
111.9
151.5

10
2 .1
115,5
112.5
107.8
102.5
107.9
129.7




107.8
113.5
101.4
81.8
93.8
95.0
92.5
96.6
108.4
108.2
97.7
97.7
99.6
100.9
78.6
743
84,5
95.2

89.3
103.6
116.6
155.3
111.3
96.3
73.2
80.1
88.3
86.4
111.4 :
132.0
159.0
142.1
114.8
118.5
139.6 :
141.3

89.3
103.8
116,5
154.0

112.2

96,3
73,0
79.6
90.5
85.1
111.6
132.5
159.5
143.0
115.4
119.4
140.2
140.1

Salt.
Ash­
ton's.

Aver­
age.

112.5
111.7
107.5
99.6

111.9
108.1
107.8
105.5.

109.9
107.7

99.6
88.4
93.9
94.4
90.4
m i

93.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
99.0

12 11
0 .1 0 .6

11
2 .6

90.3
87.2
109.4
1Q7.2
101.4

12
1 .6

11
0 .0
12
0 .0
(a)
(a)
0*)
C
«)

12
1 .2

12
0 .6

101.9
96.3
90.7
93.5
93,7
91.7
117.6
110.3
95*7
946
109.4
107.2
101.4

112.6

11
0 .1

99.8
109.3
126.9
103.6
98.2
95.8
90.9
82.0
98.8
1042
109.2
123.1
129.2
108.9
106.3
125.5
132.4

Soda:.
bicar­
bonate
of,
Ameri­
can.
131.6
151.7
1043
136.4
128.2
847
72.7
71.8
61.7
56.0
58.9
51.2
51.7
61.7
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2

a Quotations discontinued.

Aver­
age.

Mutton,
dressed.

1044 * 96.0
97.2
10 .1
1
110.4
99.1
148.5
157.6
12
1 .1
121.4
97.6
101.7
79.7
76.8
76.6
81.8
86.4
848
86,4
80.3
108.7
107.5
127.0
134.2
1542
149.0
139.4
143.1
1 0 114.9
2 .6
123.9 ' 117.0
139.0
150.5
141.2
151.0

123.7
1149

121.2

106.5
80.2
82.2
82.9
96.6
98.0
94.3
96.4
89.5
97.9
98.7
103.2
113.9
120.7
116.0

Aver­
age.

95.5

102.0

103.4
125.8
103.5
96.6
84.3
93.0
97.2
98.7
108.9
116.1
135.6
123.5
112.7
116.6
125.9
132.8

Spices.
Nut­
megs.

Pepper,
Singa­
pore.

Aver­
age.

146.2
140.7
123.1
106.1
92.5
91.8
83.1
77.6
72.7
66.4
60.2
54.3
46.9

153.7
116.6
92.0
79.4
68.9
66.4

150.0
128.7
107.6
92.8
80.7
79.1
75*0
83.2
95.9
107.8
116.3
113.4
107.3
119.4
107.2

66.6

50.3
39.8
40.0
32.3

66.8

88.7
119.0
149.1
172.4
172.5
167.6.
172.1
1641
162.5.
151.9
132.7

101.2
96.0
82.5

Starch:
pure
corn.

99.6
109.5
109.5
109.5
103.5

11
0 .1

93.6
91.2
91.2
91.2
91.2
85.8
80.3
92.5
95.8
100.7
105.3
109.5

458

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e V . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—

Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Food, etc.
Sugar.
Year.
89° fair 96° cen­ Granu­
refin­
trifu­
lated.
ing.
gal.
1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1 9 0 2 ....
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

143.9

141.1

84.5
94.3
81.2
85.2
93.9
90.6
109.2
115.4
119.2
103.6
89.3
95.0

12
0 .1

85.7
95.1
83.5
84.1
93.7
92.1
109.5
114.3
118.2
104.4
91.5
96.1
102.7

108.8
93.7
95.7

95.3
97.0

130.5
99.7
92.1
102.3
87.0
87.9
95.9
95.1
105.2
104.2

11 11
0 .8 0 .1

12
1 .8
106.8
94.2
98.2

Tea:
For­
Aver­ Tallow. mosa,
age.
fine.
138.5
100.9
87.4
97.2
83.9
85.7
94.5
92.6
108.0
111.3
116.7
104.9
91.7
96.4
101.9

11
0 .0
10 11 10
1 .6 1 .2 1 .2
95.5
98.4

94.8
97.0

105.7

11
1 .0

106.4
125.1
110.3
99.8
78.9
76.3
81.8
104.1
111.5
119.1
144.6
117.2
105.5
103.2
119.3
142.8

96.3
99.2
106.0
101.7
98.0
95.1
91.0
98.6
104.2
109.8
104.9
100.4
106.2
80.9
97.1
94.2
82.8
81.0

Vegetables, fresh.
Pota­
toes,
white.

127.8
121.3
106.0
93.8
95.6
91.6
57.3
115.5
96.2
94.8
71.4
103.0
107.2
104.9
104.6
95.3
96.8
103.0

Aver­
age.

119.3
154.9
91.1
134.5

Onions.

123.6
138.1
98.6
114.2
109.2
89.2
48.4
90.6
99.2
89.2
73.2
108.0
113.3
105.1
125.5

12
2 .8
86.7
39.4
65.7

12
0 .1
83.6
74.9
113.0
119.4
105.2
146.3
80.7
109.7
98.4

88.0

103.3
100.7

Vine­
gar:
cider,
Mon­
arch.
105.4

11
2 .8
11
1 .1

101.5
101.5
98.1

88.0
88.0

89.6
94.7
91.3
89.6
95.3

88.0

89.6
98.6
115.0
116.7

Aver­
age,
food,
etc.
112.4
115.7
103.6

10
1 .2
99.8
94.6
83.8
87.7
94.4
98.3
104.2
105.9
111.3
107.1
107.2
108.7

12
1 .6
117.8

Cloths and clothing.
Blankets.
Year.

1890___
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1902___
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

Bags:
2
-bu.,
Amoskeag.

113.9
111.7

11 .8
0
106.8
91.1
82.2
91.6
92.9
95.6
103.4

11-4,
all
w ool.

11-4,
cotton
warp,
all wool
filling.

108.3
106.0
107.1
107.1

11
0 .2
89.3
89.3
89.3
107.1
95.2
107.1

12
1 .6
11 11
0 .0 0 .2
11
0 .2
102.4
104.2
10
1 .1
128.4
10
1 .1
119.0
109.6
12
2 .0
129.1
138.5

119.0

106.0
106.0
104.4
104.4
89.7

88
.1

91.4
106.0

12
0 .0
12 '
0 .0

122.3
106.0
106.0
114.2
118.3
126.4
130.5
130.5

11-4,
cotton
warp,
cotton
and
wool
filling.
108.5
108.5
101.4
99.1
96.7
94.3
94.3
99.1
99.1
99.1
123.8

12
1 .0
12
1 .0
117.9
123.8
141.5
141.5
141.5

Boots and shoes.

Aver­
age.

107.6
106.8
104.3
103.5
95.9
90.6
91.7
98.1
102.7
98.8
117.7
106.4
106.4
114.1
117.4
129.0
131.3
130.3

Men’s
Men’s
Men’s calf bal. Men’s vici kid W om ­
en’s
shoes,
broshoes,
split
solid
gans,
Good­ boots. Good­
grain
year
split.
year, shoes.
welt.
welt.
106.1
106.1
104.9
102.3
97.9
99.2
100.4
96.0
92.2
94.8
94.8
95.4
94.1
93.5
93.5
101.5
126.8
128.7

11
0 .0
11
0 .0
11
0 .0
11
0 .0
11
0 .0
101.0
11
0 .0
11
0 .0
97.6
94.3
94.3
96.8
96.8
98.9
98.9

10
0 .0

a 108.0
o 109.0

a Men’s vici calf shoes, Blucher bal., vici calf top, single sole.
price, see pages 327 and 328.




104.0
104.0
104.0
100.9
97.9
91.7
94.8
97.9
100.9
104.0

10
1 .1
112.4
11
1 .1

113.1
113.7
120.5
144.8
160.0

108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
97.8
97.8
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.3
95.5
103.4
108.7

104.0
97.9
94.8
91.7
91.7
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0

10
1 .6

104.5
105.5
108.6
112.3
119.5
126.2
123.1

Aver­
age.

104.8
103.5
102.7
100.9
99.4
98.7
99.6
97.2
96.3
96.8
99.4
99.2
98.9

10 .2
0
11
0 .1
107.4
11
2 .8
125.9

For method of computing relative

459

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.
T able

T.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—
Y
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year.

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1902___
1903___
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

Year.

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1893___
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1902___
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1905___
1906___
1 9 0 7 ....

Broad­
cloths:
first
quality,
black,
54-inch,
XXX
wool.
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
91.2
79.7
79.7
98.2
98.2
98.2
108.0
110.3
110.3
110.3
110.5
115.2
116.6
116.6

Carpets.
Calico:
Cocheco
prints.

117.5
104.0
117.5
113.0
99.5
94.9
94.9
90.4
81.4
87.3
94.9
90.4
90.4
91.1
95.7
93.5
99.5
121.0

Brussels,
5-frame,
Bigelow.

Ingrain,
2-ply,
Lowell.

Wilton,
5-frame,
Bigelow.

Average.

2f yards
to the
pound.

103.1
112.7
103.1
98.3
93.5
93.5
93.5
95.9
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.5
108.7
110.3
115.1
117.9
124.7

108.6
116.2
106.1
111.1
98.5
88.4
85.9
90.9
98.5
96.0
103.5
101.0
101.9
108.1
109.1
116.2
116.2
121.2

104.2
109.4
104.2
104.2
104.2
91.1
91.1
93.8
99.0
99.0
101.6
101.6
102.2
108.9
110.7
115.9
118.9
123.7

105.3
112.8
104.5
104.5
98.7
91.0
90.2
93.5
100.2
99.4
102.7
101.9
102.5
108.6
110.0
115.7
117.7
123.2

123.9
123.9
118.7
102.7
95.6
92.1
92.1
81.4
81.4
87.7
104.5
90.7
92.1
104.1
125.4
121.0
130.7
139.9

Cotton yams.
Cotton
thread:
Carded,
Carded,
6-cord,
white,
white,
200-yard
mulemuleAverage.
spools,
spun,
spun,
J. & P . northern, northern,
Coats.
cones,10/1 cones, 22/1.
101.6
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
99.6
98.4
98.4
98.4
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
134.8

111.3
111.6
117.2
112.4
94.7
91.9
92.2
90.3
90.5
87.6
115.0
98.6
95.6
116.2
123.2
107.8
124.6
137.1

112.1
114.0
116.8
108.6
91.2
92.2
93.7
90.8
91.0
89.4
115.9
97.9
92.4
109.5
115.7
103.5
117.0
130.6

111.7
112.8
117.0
110.5
93.0
92.1
93.0
90.6
90.8
88.5
115.5
98.3
94.0
112.9
119.5
105.7
120.8
133.9

a Calico: American standard prints, 64 x 64.
and 328.




Cotton flannels.

3£ yards
to the Average.
pound.

119.7
119.7
113.0
100.0
95.7
91.3
95.7
95.7
80.5
88.3
98.6
100.0
100.0
109.4
125.7
118.4
125.7
139.1

121.8
121.8
115.9
101.4
95.7
91.7
93.9
88.6
81.0
88.0
101.6
95.4
96.1
106.8
125.6
119.7
128.2
139.5

Drillings.
Denims:
Amoskeag.

112.5
109.6
109.6
112.5
105.4
94.6
94.6
89.2
85.9
85.8
102.8
100.2
100.6
108.0
116.6
103.7
118.1
132.3

Brown,
Pepperell.

119.4
114.0
101.7
103.1
97.7
92.5
100.2
91.8
89.7
89.2
105.9
102.3
100.5
108.2
127.1
126.0
135.5
144.2

Flannels:
white,
4-4. Bal­
30-inch,
lard
Stark A . Average.
Vale
No. 3.

122.8
115.2
102.7
108.1
96.4
93.9
100.2
88.9
83.9
87.7
104.0
102.1
103.5
111.5
126.3
121.5
142.0
150.1

121.1
114.6
102.2
105.6
97.1
93.2
100.2
90.4
86.8
88.5
105.0
102.2
102-0
109.9
126.7
123.8
138.8
147.2

116.8
116.8
115.9
109.5
94.1
81.7
85.4
82.6
97.8
99.5
108.7
100.8
105.8
114.3
117.6
118.4
122.4
123.1

F oj method of computing relative price, see pages 327

460
T able

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

V.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—
Y
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Ginghams.

Hosiery.

blan­
Women’ s
Year.
kets: 6 Men’ s cotton
Women’ s
Men’s cotton
combed
pounds
half hose,
cotton hose,
Am os- Lan­ Averhalf hose,
Egyptian
Aver­
eaeh,
seamless,
seamless,
keag. caster. age.
seamless,
cotton hose, fast black,
age.
all
fast black,
84 needles.
high spliced
wool.
20 to 22 oz.
26 to 28 oz.
heel, (a)
1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1 9 0 2 ....
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1905___
1 9 0 6 ....
1907___

117.3
122.0
122.0
118.4
91.0
87.4
88.6
82.2
80.9
89.5
96.6
91.9
98.1
103.2
102.8
96.6
106.0
123.5

120.8
122.2
122.2
111.3
88.0
86.6
87.3
86.2
85.2
89.9
96.0
92.7
100.3
100.3
97.0
90.2
103.3
120.4

119.1
122.1
122.1
1149
89.5
87.0
88.0
84 2
83.1
89.7
96.3
92.3
99.2
101.8

99.9

93.4
104.7
122.0

109.1
1047
109.1
1047
96.0
92.5
90.8
99.5
99.5
94 2
118.7
109.9
109.9
117.8
122.2
130.9
135,3
130.9

133.3
123.1
112.8
110.3
102.6
94.9
87.2
82.1
76.9
76.9
82.1
71.8
76.9
82.1
82.1
82.1
85.3
948

1243
1243
123.6
111.5
92.4
89.2
89.2
82.9
82.9
79.7
82.9
92.4
85.0
90.0
95.9
89.2
89.2
95.6

Leather.
Year.
Harness, oak.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

993
99.6
91.4
92.7
87.8
111.5
98.6
93.9
109.1
116.0
116.8
114.7
114.7
1143
110.0
115.0
128.1
129.0

Sole, hem­
lock.

99.1
95.8
891
92.6
88.4
106.9
97.0
1048
109.8
116.2
128.4
127.6
122.1
1159
116.5
118.1
130.9
136.4




Sole, oak.

112.1
109.4
101.7
103.6
97.5
101.7
87.0
91.6
95.5
99.9
107.3
104.8
113.0
111.3
102.6
108.9
112.9
113.6

102.7
102.7
101.4
101.4
100.0
97.3
946
102.7
108.1

m o

101.4
97.3
946
102.7
109.5

131.6
121.1
115.8
113.2
105.3
92.1 i
84.2
81.6
76.3
78.9
81.6
71.1
78.9
86.8
81.6
84.2
81.6
89.5

1297
122.8
117.4
109 4
K X8
M
94 4
90.5
86. T
83.4
82.5
87.3

859
852

90.1

892
87.5
89.7
97.4

Linen thread.
W ax calf,
30 to 40 lbs.
to the dozen,
B grade.

Aver­
age.

Shoe,
10s, Bar­
bour.

3-cord,
200-yard
spools,
Barbour.

91.7
98.8
105.9
98.5
92.3
112.0
98.3
941
103.3
105.0
100.3
96.0
100.9
105.4
105.0
106.5
109.5
117.1

100.6
100.9
97.0
96.9
91.5
108.0
95.2
96.1
104.4
109.3
113.2
110.8
112.7
112.0
108.5
112.1
120.4
1240

101.9
101.9
101.9
102.8
105.0
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97,3
101.5
101.9
101.9
96.7
97.2
97.2
m i
m i

104.6
93.2
94.1
97.5
99.9
99.9
99.9
101.8
104.6
104.6
104.6
104.6
104.6
96.2
103.7
103.7
103.7
107.3

a Average for 1893-1899=100.0.

Aver­
age.

103.3
97.6
98.0
100.2
102.5
98w6
98v6
99.6
101.0
101.0
103.1
103.3
103.3
97.5
100.5
100.5
102.9
104.7

461

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1901.

T a b l e V . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—

Continued.
[xYverage price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Overcoatings.
Year.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

Beaver,
Chinchilla,
Covert
Moscow, all Chinchilla,
cotton
B-rough, warp, C. C* cloth, light
wool,
weight,
all wool.
black.
grade.
staple.
116.7
116.7
116.7
111.7
95.5
84.9
'84.9
84.9
89.4
98.7
120.1
106.1
106.1
117.3
111.7
117.3
(*>)
(&
)

113.4
113.4
113.4
108.5
92.8
87.7
87.7
87.7
97.7
97.7
116.7
97.7
97.7
103.1
103.1
111.8
117.8
119.4

109.1
107.7
109.1
109.9
96.9
92.3
89.2
93.7
98.3
93.9
100.2
90.8
92.3
92.8
93.3
94.0
101.6
100.5

Kersey,
standard,
27 to 28
OZ. (a;

105.7
105.7
105.7
105.7
104.2
99.9
87.4
83.6
97.2
104.9
101.4
97.2
97.2
94.0
94.0
96.9
96.9
96.9

94.9
104.2
100.9
126.3
120.3
120.3
126.3
132.3
146.8
163.7
158.0

Aver­
age.

111.2
110.9
111.2
109.0
97.4
91.2
87.3
89.0
97.4
99.2
112.9
102.4
102.7
106.7
106.9
113.4
120.0
118.7

Print
cloths;
28-inch,
64 x 64.

Shawls:
standard, all
wool, 72 x
144 in., 42-oz.

117.7
103.5
119.3
114.6
96.8
100.9
90.9
87.6
72.6
96.3
108.6
99.3
108.9
113.3
117.3
110.0
127.7
167.4

107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
89.1
89.5
90.2
89.1
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
107.0
117.5
128.5
107.0

Sheetings.
Bleached.
Year.
10-4, A t­
lantic.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894...,
1895___
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

122.1
116.4
108.7
111.8
94.8
93.8
92.6
87.4
83.2
89.4
111.3
100.9
104.4
115.7
128.3
110.2
d 121.5
d 134.3

10-4,

per

r-

116.2
106.6
100.8
103.3
92.5
94.7
95.1
92.3
91.3
107.3
121.7
112.4
111.5
120.8
128.7
120.3
131.4
153.0

10-4,
W am sutta
S. T.
106.0
107.2
99.8
103.6
93.5
92.2
99.2
99.2
99.2
100.1
104.3
99.2
99.2
103.0
94.1
91.6
92.7
103.4

Brown.
Aver­
age.

114.8
110.1
103.1
106.2
93.6
93.6
95.6
93.0
91.2
98.9
112.4
104.2
105.0
113.2
117.0
107.4
115.2
130.2

4-4, A t­
lantic A.

4-4, In­
dian
Head.

121.0
118.1
106.7
111.9
99.3
94.0
96.7
88.6
80.1
84.3
100.4
98.0
99.3
115.0
129.8
115.6
133.6
138.9

115.8
116.1
103.5
108.5
95.5
93.5
99.4
93.9
86.3
86.9
99.5
100.8
99.8
108.8
128.1
121.1
128.1
133.4

4-4, Pep- 4-4, Stark Aver­
perell R.
A . A.
age.

116.2
108.3
103.3
105.8
96.4
96.0
101.3
95.3
86.2
91.5
107.4
107.4
103.3
108.7
121.4
116.9
124.3
135.4

125.7
113.1
103.8
109.3
99.2
97.7
97.3
86.1
80.8
85.9
96.8
94.1
C92.6
clOl.9
c 117.0
c 118.6
c125.5
c 127.1

119.7
113.9
104.3
108.9
97.6
95.3
98.7
91.0
83.4
87.2
101.0
100.1
98.8
108.6
124.1
118.1
127.9
133.7

Aver­
age.

117.6
112.3
103.8
107.7
95.9
94.6
97.4
91.8
86.7
92.2
105.9
101.8
101.4
110.6
121.1
113.5
122.4
132.2

a Average for 1897-1899=100.0.
6 Quotations discontinued.
c Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Massachusetts Mills, Flying Horse brand. For method of computing
relative price, see pages 327 and 328.
a Sheetings: bleached, 9-4, Atlantic. For method of computing relative price, see pages 327 and 328.




4 62
T

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

able

V .— Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF CO M M O DITIES, 1890 TO 1907—
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Shirtings: bleached.

Year.

Silk: raw.

4-4, W am 4-4, Fruit
4-4, Lons­ 4-4, New
Italian,
sutta
of the 4-4,Hope.
York
Average.
dale.
<o>
classical.
Loom.
Mills.
XX

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1 9 0 2 ....
1903___
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

116.1
109.8
111.0
114.3
99.9
96.2
95.6
88.0
80.2
88.5
103.4
103.0
103.8
105.4
110.2
102.7
112.2
153.4

115.2
111.6
105.2
113.2
98.4
96.5
98.4
91.1
82.2
87.5
106.5
111.0
107.3
107.1
111.9
105.2
115.6
143.7

116.2
113.1
111.7
114.4
100.0
95.9
94.2
87.1
81.8
86.1
100.6
101.5
101.9
103.9
109.5
101.7
110.9
141.0

110.5
110.2
106.3
105.6
101.0
97.1
101.0
95.4
89.5
82.8
89.7
86.8
87.4
97.0
94.7
96.8
a 108.0
ol32.8

106.6
106.4
102.6
103.5
100.2
102.2
100.3
98.6
85.1
94.1
101.8
92.3
93.4
102.7
97.2
99.4
109.0
116.0

112.9
110.2
107.4
110.2
99.9
97.6
97.9
92.0
83.8
87.8
100.4
98.9
98.8
103.2
104.7
101.2
111.1
137.4

Japan,
filatures.

Average.

130.5
99.8
107.7
113.0
83.7
9.4.2
84.8
86.2
90.5
109.7
103.7
87.4
95.1
102.9
90.6
99.3
103.6
125.9

126.6
99.1
106.5
115.6
85.1
94.6
85.1
85.9
90.8
110.9
104.9
88.9
95.8
104.6
90.7
97.9
102.6
128.5

122.7
98.4
105.3
118.2
86.5
94.9
85.3
85.5
91.1
112.1
106.0
90.4
96.5
106.3
90.8
96.5
101.6
131.1

Suitings.
Clay
worsted
diagonal,
12-oz.,
Wash.
Mills. (&)

Year.

1890....
1891___
1892___
1893___
1894___
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

Clay
worsted
diagonal,
16-oz.,
Wash.
Mills, (b)

Indigo blue,
all wool,
54-inch, 14ounce,
Middlesex.

Indigo
blue, all
wool, 16ounce.

93.8
87.6
93.3
111.4
113.9
133.7
111.0
108.6
112.1
109.6
129.3
146.4
139.3

116.9
116.9
116.9
114.0
111.1
87.1
86.0
79.1
86.0
86.0
86.0
89.6
99.2
108.8
109.1
115.6
129.3
129.3

109.2
109.2
109.2
109.2
92.3
83.0
89.9
87.4
103.2
107.2
118.4
109.2
109.2
112.6
114.1
119.0
126.2
126.2

92.5
89.1
92.2
111.3
114.9
131.4
110.6
110.9
115.2
112.2
132.7
147.5
142.1

o Williamsville, A l.




Serge,
Washing­ Trouserings,
fancy
ton Mills
worsted, (c)
6700. (c)

i

b Average for 1895-1899= 100.0.

120.9
120.9
90.7
90.7
81.6
87.7
99.8
107.7
107.6
106.6
105.1
100.4
102.9
128.1
138.8
139.5

106.6
106.6
98 9
87.9
92.3
92.3
108.9
106.6
117.6
102.2
101.8
104.6
106.2
111.6
120.6
122.3

Aver­
age.

Tickings:
Amoskeag
A. C. A.

113.1
113.1
113.4
112! 7
98 3
89! 2
87.8
88.7
103.4
106.1
115.8
104.9
105.8
109.0
109.0
122.7
134.8
133.1

« Average for 1892-1899= 100.0.

113.1
110. 7
108. 4
111. 3
102.2
94.8
96.0
91.9
84.3
87.0
102.2
95.5
99.0
1041
114 3
102.1
119.0
129.4

463

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907,
T able

V.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—
Y
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Underwear.

Year.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

Women’ s dress goods.

Shirts
Shirts
and
and
drawers, drawers, Aver­
white,
white,
age.
all wool, merino,
52% wool,
etc.
etc.
106.2
110.0
110.0
110.0
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
115.8
115.8

106.9
112.7
112.7
112.7
95.4
92.5
92.5
92.5
95.4
86.7
95.4
95.4
95.4
95.4
95.4
95.4
106.0
106.0

106.6
111.4
111.4
111.4
94.1
92.6
92.6
92.6
94.1
93.6
97.9
97.9
97.9
97.9
97.9
97.9
110.9
110.9

CashCashAlpaca, mere, all
mere,
cotton
wool,
cotton
warp,
10-11
warp,
22-inch,
twill,
9-twfll,
Hamil­
38-in., A t­ 4-4, A t­
ton.
lantic J. lantic F.
108.1
108.1
106.3
104.6
100.9
93.7
93.7
93.7
93.7
96.6
104.6
104.6
103.7
101.5
112.4
o ll4 .9
ol21.6
ol24.9

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1894___
1895___
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1902___
1903___
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

Ohio, fine
Ohio, medi­
fleece ( X and um fleece (i
X X grade), and | grade),
scoured.
scoured.
129.5
124.1
110.7
102.0
80.5
68.2
71.3
89.7
111.3
112.8
119.3
98.7
104.4
118.5
124.2
137.4
129.9
129.9

134.6
127.5
115.6
101.2
77.6
71.9
69.8
87.6
105.3
108.8
116.0
94.5
97.2
102.1
106.7
117.2
112.3
113.0

119.3
119.3
117.7
98.4
88.7
83.8
83.6
90.3
94.3
104.8
108.0
104.3
108.0
110.5
114.5
132.7
141.8
147.0

Cashmere,
cotton
warp,
27-inch,
Hamil­
ton.

109.9
109.9
108.3
106.7
100.3
97.0
93.8
90.5
90.5
93.1
100.3
100.3
99.5
97.8
106.7
6107.7
6109.6
6 110.1

109.6
106.1
102.7
95.8
93.0
88.8
88.8
93.0
99.9
102.7
102.0
101.2
110.5
121.4
c 124.6
c 127.8

Frank­
lin
Aver­
sack­
age.
ings,
6-4.

11
1 .0
11 .0
1

115.3
119.9
119.9
117.6
96.8
84.3
80.7
82.2
88.4
94.9
118.3
104.5
108.3
114.5
113.4
131.0
133.3
126.8

113.9
115.7
115.0
107.5
95.6
89.3
85.4
88.0
90.7
98.8
108.4
104.6
105.5
106.6
112.5
122.7
127.6
128.6

Worsted yams.

Wool.
Year.

119.8
126.1
128.2
111.8
84.3
31.0
67.5
82.2
88.6
110.4
119.1
111.3
111.3
114.3
117.7
128.4
134.9
134.9

Cashmere,
cotton
warp,
22-inch,
Hamil­
ton.

Average.

2-40s, Aus­
tralian fine.

2-40s, X X X ,
white, in
skeins.

Average.

132.1
125.8
113.2
101.6
79.1
70.1
70.6
88.7
108.3
110.8
117.7
96.6
100.8
110.3
115.5
127.3
121.1
121.5

120.4
121.3
119.6
111.4
91.3
72.9
71.2
83.6
101.2
107.1
118.3
102.2
110.3
115.6
116.6
123.0
127.0
127.3

124.1
125.4
114.8
107.6
91.2
75.1
74.5
81.3
99.7
106.3
118.5
102.1
d 113.1
d 120.4
d 116.3
d 126.4
d 130.0
d 128.4

122.3
123.4
117.2
109.5
91.3
74.0
72.9
82.5
100.5
106.7
118.4
102.2
111.7
118.0
116.5
124.7
128.5
127.9

Average,
cloths and
clothing.

113.5
111.3
109.0
107.2
96.1
92.7
91.3
91.1
93.4
96.7
106.8
101.0
102.0
106.6
109.8
112.0
120.0
126.7

a Danish cloth, cotton warp and filling, 22-inch. For method of computing relative price, see pages
327 and 328.
&Poplar cloth, cotton warp and filling, 36-inch. For method of computing relative price, see pages
327 and 328.
c Cashmere, cotton warp, 36-inch, Hamilton. For method of computing relative price, see pages 327
and 328.
d Designated as X X X X .




464

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e V . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF CO M M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—

Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Fuel and lighting.
Coal.
Year.

Candles:
mantine,
6s,14-oz.

Bituminous.

Anthracite.

Bro­
ken.

Chest­
nut.

103.5
102.3
107.4
105.8
101.5
97.5
97.1
96.4
95.4
93.1
97.1
105.5
110.4
126.2
126.1
125.1
124.8
1249

93.3
96.7
109.7
115.9
98.5
82.9
9& 9
103.9
98.8
101.4
108.9
120.4
124.0
134.2
1342
1341
135.2
1341

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1 9 0 2 ....
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

102.3
102.3
102.3
112.9
110.9
108.7
108.7
95.3
78.4
78.4
135.4
140.7
140.7
127.4
115.1
109.7
98.0
94.8

Year.

Coke:
Connellsville,
furnace.

Matches:
parlor,
domestic.

122.7
110.4
106.5
87.1
62.3
78.0
110.4
95.2
9a 8
128.7
155.8
115.6
158.2
171.5
96.4
134.7
157.5
166.3

111.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
94.9
96.1
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
90.1
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4

Egg.

Georges Pitts­
Georges Creek
burg
Creek
(f. o. b. (Yough- Aver­
(at
age.
ioN. Y .
mine).
Harbor). gheny).

Stove.

Aver­
age.

97.8
101.6
109.4
110.5
949
82.4
100.0
105.8
100.1
97.6
1040
113.9
117.6
127.1
127.1
127.1
128.1
127.1

98.8
101.3
109.3
109.9
97.3
86.8
98.7
103.0
98.6
96.5
102.4
113.2
118.4
130.5
130.4
130.2
130.9
130.1

100.6
104.4
110.8
107.2
943
84 3
9a 8

105.7
100.2
93.8
99.7
112.9
121.5
134.3
1342
134 3
135.3
1342

97.1
106.9
101.3
103.6
92.4
87.2
101.3
93.8
102.7
113.9
135.0
150.5
'239.1
269.6
196.9
180.0
174.4
173.0

io a 9

110.5
106.9
107.6
99.8
102.5
97.1
89.0
79.3
98.4
106.0
106.6
14a 0
161.8
116.5
114 8
a 113.9
118.0

103.3
122.7
116.5
117.9
98.6
93.3
89.1
88.6
87.9
82.6
117.0
117.0
122.4
143.9
132.5
124 4
122.7
128.1

103.1
113.4
108.2
109.7
96.9
943
95.8
90.5
90.0
9a 3
119.3
124.7
169.8
191.8
14a 6
139.7
«137.0
139.7

Aver­
age.

100.6
106.4
108.9
109.8
97.1
90.0
97.5
97.6
94.9
97.3
109.7
n ai

140.4
156.7
138.2
1343
ol33.5
1342

Petroleum.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

Refined.
Crude.

95.4
73.6
61.1
70.3
92.2
149.2
129.5
86.5
100.2
142.1
148.5
132.9
135.9
174.5
17a 8
152.1
175.5
190.5

For
export.
112.9
105.5
93.8
80.4
79.4
109.6
108.2
92.0
96.8
121.9
131.6
115.4
113.1
132.5
127.3
111.2
117.4
127.0

Average.

150° fire
test, w. w.

Average.

111.8
98.8
89.2
81.5
81.5
103.6
116.7
101.1
102.1
114 0
133.5
123.1
124.5
153.1
153.6
141.9
146.1
151.2

112.4
102.2
81.4
81.0
80.5
106.6
112.5
96.6
99.5
118.0
132.6
119.3
118.8
142.8
140.5
126.6
131.8
139.1

106.7
92.6
91.5
77.4
844
120.8
118.1
93.2
99.7
126.0
137.9
123.8
124.5
153.4
153.2
135.1
146.3
156.2

a These figures are correct; those for 1906 in Bulletin No. 69 were slightly in error.




Average,
fuel and
lighting.

104 7
102.7
101.1
100.0
92.4
9a 1
104 3
96.4
95.4
105.0
120.9
119.5
134 3
149.3
132.6
12a 8
a 131.9
135.0

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907,

465

T able V . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES, 1890 T O 1907—
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0..]
Metals and implements.
Bar iron.
Year.

1890,...
m ....
» . . . .

m s....

m

...

m s....

1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903.....
1904?....
1905....
1908....
1907....

Builders’ hardware.

From
From
mitt
(Pitts­ Store Aver(Phil®.
burg
mar­ . age.
mar­
ket)*.
ket).
120.9117.9
113:1
m i
8218
80; 2
84.1
709
7318
13A 5
148.3
12A 1
133.8
122.1
102.1
129.0
126.8
131.3

125.0
115.9
1140
103.7
81.7
87.0
85.4
79i9
78,0
126; 2
119.5112.2
129.9
1220
104 9
117.1
120.7
128.7

126.0
116.9
113; 6
103; 6
82.3
87.0
84.8
77.9
75.9
130.4
133.9
118.2
131.9
122.1
103.5
123.1
123.3
130,0

Barb
wire: Butts:
gal­ • loose
van­
joint,
cast,
ized.
3 x 3 in.
141.2
127.4
109.5
99.7
86.1
88.9
77.7
71.3
72.7
125.5
134 4
120.2
116.9
108.4
99.3
94 3
96.1
104.3

.
l
!

.

111.7
111.7
96.8
98.4
95.9
100.3
104.1
96.8
92.4
92.4
126.6
116.8
120.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6

Copper.

Door­ Locks:
knobs: com­
mon Aver­
steel,
age.
bronze mor­
plated. tise.
97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
115.1
102'. 1
97.8
97.8
97.8
106.8
1120
126.9
132.6
144.8
213 6
259.8
265.2

Sheet;
hotWire,
rolled bare.
(base
sizes).

103,7 127.6103.7 105.8
93.5
98.7
88.6
99.3
97.9
76.8
87.1
105.8
88.9
1041
91.7
98.9
940
96.8
94.0 143.2
110.0 134.6
106.9 136.7
119.2 . 97.3
m i
110.9
132.3 106.2
174 4 127.7
202.6 158.9
212.2 172.2

101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
100,1
102.0
106.1
102.0
91.8
91.8
96.5
91.8
10A0
110.2
125; 5
183,1
221.3
2448

In­
got,
lake.

137.1 m . i
114.5 112:7
96.4
98.2
90.4 , 92.2
85.9
79.0
846
85.9
85.0
92.6
88.2
93.9
84.4
939
131.1 124 7
124 6 123.0
125.9 1240
107.5
90; 6
115.6 102.3
98.2
108.5
120.1 116.3
143.2 ' 144.0
168.3 164.1

--- _

Aver­
age.

130.9
111.0
96.0
90.4
80.6
85.9
80.1
91.3
947
133.0
127.4
128.9
98.5
109.6
104 3
121.4
148.7
168.2

m

Metals and implements.
Nails.
Year.

18001...
1891----1892___
1803___
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1890....
1900....
1 9 0 4 ...
BOB....
1908....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907___

Lead:
P
ig5.

1155
114 7
108.4
98.2
86.9
856
78.7
94 0
90.7
117.6
116; 8
115.0
107.9
112:3
116.3
125.7
154 3
1449

Lead
pipe.

112.1
116.2
107.6
103.8
92.0
87.2
85.1
80,6
96.5
111.0*
106.3
104.8
108.3
107.8
99.5
108.4
133; 3
139.2




<

cut,
Wire,
8-penny, 8-penny,
Aver­
fence
fence
age.
and
and
common. commoiL
125.2
100.3
96.2
92.0
83.6
105.3
148.4
72.9
65; 3
110.8
123.1
115.6
116.7
120.2
• 99.5
99.9
105.7
118.3

137.1
1141
101.3.
92.1
76.4
98.0
135.3
68.7
66.5
110.4
121.8
109:4
97.3
96.0
88.2
87.7
90.6
97.9

131.2
107.2
98.8
92.1
80.0:
101.7
141.9
70.8
65,9
110.6
122.5
112.5
107.0
108.1
93,9
93.8
98.2
108,1

Pig iron.

Besse­
mer.

Foundry Foundry
No. 1.
No. 2.

137.0
115.8
104 3
93.4
82.6
92.3
88.1
73.5
75.0
138.1
141.5
115.7
150.0
137.7 *
99.8
118.7
141.8
165.8

124.3
118.4
106.4
98.1
85.5
88.5
87.5
81.7
78.8
130.8
135.0
107.2
149.9
134.5
105.2
120.8
141.7
161.4

131.4
117.9
105.5
95.3
83.1
89.4
90.2
77.4
76.8
132.9
141.8
112.8
162.7
146.6
104 4
125.7
147.6
182.9

Gray
forge,
south­
ern,
coke.
136.8
112.9
106.3
95.9
80.6
93.1
86.6
79.4
78.6
135.8
140.7
113.2
158.8
146.4
105.3
130.7
149.1
1S9.3

Aver­
age.

130.9
116. %
105.6
95.7
83.0
90.8
88.1
78.0
77.3
134 4
139.8
112.2
155.4
141.3
103. X
124.0
145.1
1749

466
T

able

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.
T ___ Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF C O M M O D ITIES, 1890 TO 1907—
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Metals and implements.
Tin plates.

Year.

1890..
1891..
1892..
1893..
1894..
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

Quick­
silver.

Silver:
bar,
fine.

Spelter:
western.

Steel
billets.

Steel
rails.

..
130.5
112.3
..
..
100.9
..
93.2
.85.7
.
91.8
89.0
92.2
97.0
107.3
121.0
118.5
115.5
113.4
105.5
97.4
98.6
97.1

140.6
132.2
116.9
104.4
85.5
88.5
91.0
81.1
78.9
80.8
82.9
79.7
70.5
72.4
77.2
81.5
90.0
88.1

122.6
112.4
102.9
90.7
78.5
80.1
88.7
93.1
100.2
130.1
97.8
89.6
107.7
123.5
113.9
131.0
137.2
136.5

141.5
117.7
109.8
94.9
77.0
85.9
87.5
70.1
71.1
144.6
116.4
112.1
142.1
129.7
103.0
111.6
127.5
135.9

Steel
sheets:
black,
No. 27. (a)

121.9
114.8
115.1
107.9
92.1
93.4
107.4
71.9
67.6
107.9
123.9
104.9
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4

104.9
108.9
96.0
87.1
84.8
119.2
130.8
140.6
129.9
116.1
93.8
99.1
105.8
111.6

Tin:
Pig-

115.5
110.3
110.9
109.0
98.7
76.5
72.4
74.0
84.5
148.2
163.7
142.6
144.2
153.4
152.5
170.3
213.6
211.1-

Domes­ Import­
tic, Bes­ ed, Bes­
semer,
semer,
coke,
coke, I.C.,
14x20. (&) 14x20. (c)

100.6
93.2
83.5
122.7
137.0
122.7
120.7
115.4
105.5
108.5
113.1
119.8

104.6
116.4
115.7
117.1
106.7
84.4
82.9
85.1
87.2
(d )
\d )
(d )
\d )
(d )
\d )
(d )
(d)
(d)

Aver­
age.

104.6
116.4
115.7
117.1
106.7
84.4
91.8
89.2
85.4
122.7
137.0
122.7
120.7
115.4
105.5
108.5
113.1
119.8

Tools.
Year.

1890.......
1891.......
1892.......
1893.......
1894.......
1895.......
1896.......
1897.......
1898.......
1899.......
1900.......
1901.......
1902.......
1903.......
1904.....
1905.......
1906.......
1907.......

Augers:
extra,
|-inch.

Axes:
M. C.O.,
Yankee.

118.2
118.2
118.2
111.9
95.9
82.9
86.7
88.6
88.6
91.1
124.4
105.7
111.9
143.7
149.3
190.7
221.8
223.9

120.4
118.3
106.5
106.5
100.9
98.0
88.4
83.9
79.9
97.1
102.9
88.8
103.0
107.6
123.3
134.7
143.1
144.9

Chisels:
extra,
socket
firmer,
1-inch.
110.9
110.9
110.9
102.1
91.5
90.3
94.7
90.3
90.8
107.6
127.6
121.4
142.6
147.8
158.4
209.5
221.1
234.3

Saws.
Files: 8- Hammers:
inch mill Maydole
bastard.
No. 1J.

106.7
104.6
102.2
101.6
97.3
95.4
91.2
94.4
96.8
109.7
127.8
123.1
123.1
123.1
122.0
121.6
119.8
117.0

96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
97.6
105.2
105.2
100.6
107.0
115.9
117.2
117.2
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0

a Average for the period July, 1894, to December, 1899=100.0.
&Average for 1890-1899=100.0.




Planes:
Bailey Crosscut,
No. 5.
Disston.
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
104.3
93.9
93.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
107.0
110.4
114.2
115.7
115.7
115.7
129.3
115.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Hand,
Disston
No. 7.

Average.

112.7
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
101.3
101.3

106.4
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
100.7
100.7

c Average for 1890-1898=100.0.
d Quotations discontinued.

467

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e V . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Metals and implements.
Tools.
Shovels:
Ames No. 2.

Trowels: M.
C .O ., brick,
10§-mch.

Vises: solid
box, 50pound.

Average.

Wood
screws: 1inch, No. 10,
flat head.

100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
94.7
94.7
99.3
100.8
100.8
109.4
115.9
115.9
118.9
102.0
97.3
96.9
96.9
99.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

106.1
106.1
109.1
107.6
104.0
97.2
95.4
89.7
84.1
100.7
109.4
128.7
131.5
132.7
109.1
106.1
115.9
147.4

107.2
105.6
104.5
103.0
98.6
95.3
95.7
95.0
93.9
101.3
111.8
110.0
114.6
118.2
118.4
127.5
134.4
115.7

130.5
132.5
139.1
139.1
103.2
74.0
68.4
56.3
60.8
96.2
120.5
69.2
63.0
72.4
62.6
69.9
69.9
80.7

Year.

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1 9 0 2 ....
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

Zinc:
sheet.

114.0
107.7
103.4
94.0
74.4
85.1
93.0
93.0
103.5
131.9
114.8
104.7
107.9
113.3
105.6
128.5
135.0
140.9

Average,
metals and
implements.

119.2
111.7
106.0
100.7
90.7
92.0
93.7
86.6
86.4
114.7
120.5
111.9
117.2
117.6
109.6
122.5
135.2
143.4

Lumber and building materials.
Year.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1 8 93....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

Brick:
common
domestic.

Cement.
Carbonate
of lead:
American, Portland,
domestic.® Rosendale.
in oil.

118.0
102.6
103.7
104.9
89.9
95.5
91.0
88.8
103.4
102.2
94.4
103.7
96.8
106.2
134.7
145.7
153.7
110.7




110.6
112.7
114.0
105.5
90.8
91.0
89.6
92.7
94.1
98.4
108.3
99.8
93.4
106.6
103.6
109.7
119.6
120.8

98.6
100.2
98.5
100.1
102.6
108.1
94.7
97.7
101.6
73.2
71.5
78.9
82.4

118.8
106.2
109.2
100.0
104.5
96.1
93.9
84.8
85.7
100.8
114.6
114.8
97.5
100.3
90.4
93.9
107.1
107.1

Average.
118.8
106.2
109.2
100.0
104.5
97.4
97.1
91.7
92.9
101.7
111.4
104.8
97.6
101.0
81.8
82.7
93.0
94.8

a Average for 1895-1899=100.0.

Doors:
pine.

125.8
114.4
114.4
112.1
96.1
83.5
76.6
74.3
84.6
118.2
145.5
173.1
194.1
158.2
154.6
163.2
153.5
167.5

Lime:
common.

117.5
109.5
111.5
111.5
101.8
93.8
83.3
86.3
89.0
95.8
82.0
92.9
96.7
94.5
99.0
106.9
113.7
113.9

Linseed
oil: raw.

135.8
106.8
90.0
102.2
115.6
115.6
81.2
72.2
86.5
94.1
138.7
140.0
130.8
91.9
91.7
103.1
89.3
95.7

468
T able

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OE LABOR.

V.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—
Y
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Lumber and building materials.
Pine.

Oak: white.
Year.

1890___
1801___
1892----1893..
1894..
1895
1896
1897
1898..
1899
1900
1901
1902..
1908..
1904..
1905..
1906..
1907..

Hem­
lock.

Maple:
hard.

105.2
100.0
104.1
100.0
100.0
102.8
..
100.3
100.0
..
97.9
100.0
____________
93.2
100.0
93.3
____________
100.0
____________
100.0
92.0
.98.2
.
100.0
____________
100.1
113.0
137.9
____________
103.8
125.4
100.8
-----------------132.4
107.8
..
..
140.4
119.5
..
142.1
117.0
149.4
..
115.1
183.0
..
117.0
..
121.7
186.0
Lumber.

Year.
Poplar.
1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1893___
1894___
1895___
1896___
1897___
1898___
1 8 9 9 ....
1900___
1 9 0 1 ....
1902___
1908___
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1906___
190?___

Spruce.

97.2
97.2
97.6
107.2
101.2
98.8
98.8
97.8
95,6
108.5
120.2
117.0
134.2
158.3
160.5
153.7
162.5
185.2

113.5
99.1
103.5
96.0;
88.6
99.3
99.3
97.6
95.8
107.3
121.1
125.4
134.2
133.7
142.9
149.3
178.0
167.3




White, boards*
Plain.

Quar­
tered.

101.2
10*. 5
102.7
103.5
99.5
95.8
96.8
95.8
95.8
104.1
109.1
98.2
109.2
119.8
124.2
126.5
134.7
147.5

Aver­
age.

95.9
99.8
98.7
98.7
95.2
99.2
101.5100.3
97.8
112. 7
120.1
110.2

117.5
139.3
150.4
149.5
147.5
149.0

98.6
100.7
100.7
101.1
97.4
98.0
99.2
98.6
97.3
108.4
114.6
104.2
113.4
129.6
137.3
138.0
141.1
148.3

No.. 2
bam .

Uppers.

98.1
99.4
100.2
108.9
106.2
100.8
96.4
92.5
90.6
106.9
125.7
122.0
137.3
140.3
134.4
141.2
173.9
195.7

94,7
96.7
98.9
104.2
99.7
98.8
100.2
99.5
99.0
108.4
123.5
129.8
160.7
171.8
174.0
176.1
182.0
200.2

Aver­
age.
96.4
98.1
99.6
106.6
103.0
99.8
98.3
96.0
94.8
107.7
124.6
125.9
149.0
156.1
154.2
158.7
178.0
198.0

Plate glass: polished.
Oxide of
Area 3 to Area 5 to
zinc.
Average.
Average.
5 sq. ft.
10 sq. ft.
102.0
100.7
100.5
102.1
98.7
97.6
97.2
96.2
97.2
107.7
119.3
115.0
127.4
137.4
140.2
144.0
159.7
168.6

106.3
104.8
106.5
103.3
93.3
87.5
95.8
94.3
99.0
109.5
112.8
109.5
110.0
115.8
115.8
116.3
127.0
134.5

146.0
143.3
115.7
115.7
90.9
82.6
93.7
55.1
74.4
82.6
93.7
88.2 s
70.9
72.3
62.7
66.3
76.1
77.2 ;

134.9
132.9
106.0
106.0
86.7
92.5
104.0
61.7
82.9
92.5
1-04.0
94.4
79.2
83.1
70.3
71.8
77.7
8o.i

140.5
138.1
110.9
110.9
88.8
87.6
98.9
58.4
78.7
87.6
98.9
91.3
75.1
77.7
66.5
69.1
76.9
78.7

Yellow.

112.4
108.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
91.6
88.9
80.0
100.9
108.5
112.2
106.5
113.7
113.7
116.0
134.9
158.9
165.2

Putty.

110.8
110.8
101.9
101.3
99.4
91.8
91.8
91.8
91.8
106.3
m 3
94.9
121.5.
89.2
69.6
69.0
75.3
75.9

Average.

101.7
101.4
99.8
104.4
102.0
97.1
95.2
93.7
96.8
107.9
120.5
119.4
137.2
141.9
141.5
150.7
171.6
187.0

Resin:
good,
strained.
96.1
102.4
93.2
87.6
86.9
108.4
121.2
112.0
98.7
93.5
111.3
106.3
112.0
153.9
196.8
237.7
278.8
3046

469

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO 1907.
T able

V .—Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1907—
Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Lumber and building materials.
Window glass: American,
single.

Shingles.
Year.

Turpen­
tine:
spirits of.

Tar.
Cypress.

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1 9 0 2 ....
1 9 0 3 ....
1904___
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

118.7
115.2
111.7
106.3
99.2
93.9
88.6
83.3
88.6
94.4
101.0
101.0
94.7
91.0
92.2
96.6
114.9
149.8

White
pine.

102.6
106.9
104.4
102.8
100.2
98.8
96.5
94.6
94.9
98.3
106.9
111.9
123.0
125.1
122.5
119.9
ol57.2
ol91.5

Average.

122.4
131.4
107.9
86.8
90.6
94.8
84.0
87.5
91.1
103.4
113.1
106.4
110.0
139.4
139.4
145.9
162.5
193.3

110.7
111.1
108.1
104.6
99.7
96.4
92.6
89.0
91.8
96.4
104.0
106.5
108.9
108.1
107.4
108.3
136.1
170.7

Firsts,
6 x 8 to
10x15
inch.

122.0
113.5
96.5
89.8
87.7
87.4
82.1
87.5
96.4
137.0
142.7
111.5
141.8
171.0
172.2
187.7
198.9
189.8

Thirds,
6 x 8 to
10x15
inch.

103.6
102.8
92.7
99.4
92.6
74.3
83.8
102.2
122.9
125.9
125.5
191.9
149.6
122.7
134.2
128.5
135.7
130.8

98.2
97.3
87.7
94.0
89.8
76.5
88.0
107.9
128.8
131.9
127.5
180.4
141.0
118.7
128.0
117.5
124.0
123.2

Average,
lumber
and
building
Average.
mate­
rials.
100.9
100.1
90.2
96.7
91.2
75.4
85.9
105.1
125.9
128.9
126.5
186.2
145.3
120.7
131.1
123.0
129.9
127.0

111.8
108.4
102.8
101.9
96.3
94.1
93.4
90.4
95.8
105.8
115.7
116.7
118.8
121.4
122.7
127.7
140.1
146.9

Sul­
phuric
acid:
66°.

Average,
drugs
and
chemic­
als.

Drugs and chemicals.
Alcohol:
Opium:
Brim­
Year. Alcohol: wood, Alum: stone: Glycer­ Muriatic natural, Quinine:
acid:
in:
Ameri­
in
grain. refined, lump. crude, refined.
20°.
95 per
can.
cases.
seconds.
cent.
1890....
1891....
1892----1893----1894----1895....
1896....
1897-...
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

92.5
98.9
95.6
97.3
96.1
104.0
102.7
101.6
103.8
107.6
106.5
109.7
107.4
106.9
108.6
108.3
110.0
112.6

119.2
121.6
136.0
135.4
75.5
90.9
89.1
72.9
78.6
80.8
83.9
64.2
67.3
62.0
61.6
70.8
73.4
41.8

109.0
94.6
95.8
104.2
101.2
95.8
98.2
99.4
98.8
100.6
104.8
104.8
104.8
103.6
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8

102.2
138.2
116.7
90.5
80.1
75.5
86.8
97.2
110.7
102.1
102r2
106.3
113.2
107.9
105.2
102.8
107.1
103.9

126.3
109.9
99.8
96.2
85.3
86.1
119.4
93.5
88.5
95.0
108.3
107.5
103.2
103.4
99.8
88.5
80.7
98.9

a Shingles: red cedar, random width, 16 inches long.
pages 327 and 328.




100.0
94.2
116.3
97.1
84.6
79.8
72.1
104.8
123.1
129.8
129.8
144.2
161.5
153.8
153.8
153.8
129.8
129.8

111.0
82.4
70.8
101.3
96.8
78.0
88.6
99.2
141.6
130.2
135.6
136.8
120.0
130.6
116.5
128.5
125.0
209.6

.

133.1
102.0
88:7
87.4
106.5
102.0
97.8
74.3
87.2
120.9
135.2
123.0
104.7
102.6
94.8
85.4
67.4
72.2

98.9
91.0
106.7
95.5
82.0
78.7
78.7
106.7
127.0
134.8
134.8
140.4
146.1
142.7
144.9
139.3
112.4
112.4

110.2
103.6
102.9
100.5
89.8
87.9
92.6
94.4
106.6
111.3
115.7
115.2
114.2
112.6
110.0
109.1
101.2
109.6

For method of computing relative price, see

470

BULLETIN OP TH E BUBEAU OP LABOR.

T a b l e V . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PR IC E S O F CO M M O D ITIES, 1890 TO 1907—

Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
House furnishing goods.
Earthenware.
Year.
Plates,
creamcolored.
1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1901___
1 9 0 2 ....
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

108.0
105.6
102.3
102.3
101.0
94.6
92.0
92.0
100.4
101.7
106.6
112.5
112.5
115.4
113.8
106.6
106.6
106.6

Furniture.

Teacups
Plates,
and sau­
white cers, white Average. Bedroom
sets, ash.
granite. granite.
109.6
107.4
104.2
104.2
102.8
94.4
90.1
90.1
98.0
99.2
104.3
109.7
109.7
107.4
106.4
98.8
98.8
98.8

109.1
106.9
103.7
103.7
101.9
92.9
89.1
89.1
100.8
102.9
108.1
113.8
113.8
111.4
110.4
102.4
102.4
102.4

Year.

1 8 9 0 ....
1 8 9 1 ....
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 ....
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 ....
1896___
1897___
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1900___
1901___
1 9 0 2 ....
1 9 0 3 ....
1 9 0 4 ....
1 9 0 5 ....
1 9 0 6 ....
1 9 0 7 ....

107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0

106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
110.6
110.6
110.6
97.9
89.4
89.4
89.4




101.4
112.7
107.0
107.0
107.0
104.2
101.4
95.8
90.1
73.2
101.4
101.4
104.2
99.5
90.1
84.5
84.5
84.5

Chairs,
kitchen.

113.0
113.0
110.6
110.6
96.9
96.9
96.9
80.7
82.7
98.9
129.1
113.0
118.4
127.8
129.1
129.1
143.9
161.4

109.8
109.8
111.1
111.1
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
86.6
105.7
136.1
124.2
128.5
130.7
124.7
124.2
134.0
151.4

113.7
113.7
113.7
104.2
104.2
94.3
82.9
82.9
94.7
95.7
106.6
106.6
111.3
115.3
116.1
117.0
122.8
137.4

Table cutlery.

Glassware.
Pitch­
Tum­
ers,
blers,
Nap­
pies, J-gallon, 4-pint,
4-inch.
com­
com­
mon.
mon.

108.9
106.6
103.4
103.4
101.9
94.0
90.4
90.4
99.7
101.3
106.3
112.0
112.0
111.4
110.2
102.6
102.6
102.6

Chairs,
bedroom,
maple.

Tables,
kitchen. Average.

103.9
103.9
103.9
103.9
98.7
98.7
95.6
95.6
95.6
100.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
114.3
124.7

Wooden ware.

Knives
Carvers,
Pails, Tubs,
and
Aver­
Aver­
Aver­
stag
forks,
oak­
oak­
age. handles.
cocobolo age. grained grained age.
handles.
105.0
108.7
106.8
106.8
106.8
105.9
99.0
90.1
88.2
82.5
91.9
112.3
113.3
111.7
104.3
99.6
99.6
99.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
118.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
100.0

127.9
127.9
113.0
90.8
90.8
90.8
90.8
82.5
90.8
94.9
94.9
107.3
107.3
107.3
110.0
110.4
99.8
107.0

114.0
114.0
106.5
104.8
95.4
95.4
95.4
88.2
92.3
94.4
94.4
100.6
100.6
100.6
101.9
102.1
96.8
103.5

1221.6
111.6
103.9
101.1
96.9
86.3
97.2
95.6
87.3
97.5
114.9
119.3
119.3
122.2
130.9
130.9
130.9
151.7

122.5
116.3
103.9
97.1
95.6
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
93.4
107.0
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
118.8

122.6
114.0
103.9
99.1
96.3
89.6
95.0
94.2
90.1
95.5
111.0
113.5
113.5
114.9
119.3
119.3
119.3
135.3

110.1
110.1
109.8
107.5
97.8
95.4
91.7
87.7
89.9
100.1
120.0
113.0
116.6
120.5
119.5
119.6
128.8
143.7

Aver­
age,
house
fur­
nishing
goods.
l ll .l
110.2
106.5
104.9
100.1
96.5
94.0
89.8
92.0
95.1
106.1
110.9
112.2
113.0
111.7
109.1
111.0
118.5

471

WHOLESALE PBICES, 1890 TO 1907.

T a b l e V . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E P R IC E S OP CO M M O DITIES, 1890 TO 1907—

Concluded.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0 ]
Miscellaneous.
Year.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

Cotton­
seed meal.

106.4
114.8
107.9
117.0
102.7
86.1
90.8
93.1
86.5
94.7
116.3
113.9
123.5
121.6
119.3
120.0
138.4
130.7

Cotton­
seed oil:
summer
yellow,
prime.

Paper.
Jute: raw.

113.2
117.2
101.4
149.5
106.4
89.4
82.6
77.7
75.2
87.5
116.8
117.3
133.6
130.7
103.0
88.6
118.7
160.0

108.1
103.3
132.3
96.4
96.1
77.7
88.9
103.9
92.5
101.7
121.2
111.4
122.0
129.2
123.7
151.0
204.5
184.4

Malt:
western
made.

106.7
131.9
114.0
110.3
105.9
97.5
80.1
77.4
87.7
88.5
93.0
106.0
112.7
103.1
96.1
87.5
92.1
147.2

News.

127.8
113.7
113.7
106.4
108.0
103.0
92.0
90.6
73.2
69.9
94.0
75.6
80.9
84.6
89.3
80.9
73.2
83.3

Wrapping,
manila.

Average.

104.0
104.0
100.9
104.7
105.6
106.0
106.3
106.3
83.0
79.2
86.8
90.8
89.9
95.1
95.8
94.9
90.4
91.5

115.9
108.9
107.3
105.6
106.8
104.5
99.2
98.5
78.1
74.6
90.4
83.2
85.4
89.9
92.6
87.9
81.8
87.4

Proof
spirits.

91.6
96.1
93.5
93.2
98.5
105.3
104.6
102.9
106.3
108.0
108.4
111.8
114.3
111.4
110.4
109.7
112.0
114.2

Tobacco.
Year.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....

Rope: manila.

160.0
111.1
122.9
98.4
82.4
78.7
71.1
67.6
90.1
117.1
141.3
116.9
144.3
122.7
125.4
127.9
134.0
138.1

Rubber:
Para
Island.

Soap: castile, mot­
tled, pure.

104.6
98.8
84.5
89.5
84.2
92.7
99.9
105.6
115.8
124.3
122.6
106.1
90.8
113.1
135.8
155.2
151.5
132.8

37691— N o. 75— 08----- 13




104.4
109.1
109.7
108.1
103.3
89.1
88.2
93.3
96.7
98.1
107.7
115.1
116.5
115.6
113.7
114.2
114.2
117.9

Starch:
laundry.

106.6
122.4
107.2
105.2
105.2
104.3
89.1
86.2
86.2
86.2
97.7
104.3
130.5
123.9
106.0
94.5
105.5
116.1

Plug.

102.2
101.2
94.0
100.1
101.0
101.0
96.1
94.9
104.3
105.4
111.9
117.6
114.6
113.6
118.6
123.7
122.0
118.6

Smoking,
granu­
Average.
lated, Seal
of N . C.
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
104.1
110.0
110.0
110.0
109.9
112.0
114.4
117.9
117.9
117.9

100.2
99.7
96.1
99.2
99.6
99.6
97.2
96.6
104.2
107.7
111.0
113.8
112.3
112.8
116.5
120.8
120.0
118.3

Average,
miscella­
neous.

110.3
109.4
106.2
105.9
99.8
94.5
91.4
92.1
92.4
97.7
109.8
107.4
114.1
113.6
111.7
112.8
121.1
127.1

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE.
BY GEORGE M. KOBER, M. B .

INTRODUCTION.
It was shown by observation long ago that certain occupations and
trades were dangerous to health. In the interest of wage-earners and
the public at large it is clearly desirable to study the relation of a
person’s trade or occupation to his health and longevity, the source
and significance o f the dangers, and the possible means for their
prevention or the mitigation of their injurious effects.
A pioneer study was made by Professor Ramazzini, o f Padua, as
early as 1670, and his monograph was translated into English in 1705,
and also into French in 1777.
In 1810 the French Government issued a decree relating to ‘ ‘ etablissements dangereux, insalubres et incommodes,” and in 1815 the
English Parliament instituted a commission to inquire into the con­
dition of factories, etc. In 1822 Mr. C. Turner Thackrah, of Leeds,
wrote a monograph ‘ ‘ On the effects of the arts, trades, and professions,
and of civic states and habits of living on health and longevity.” In
1833 and 1865 the English Parliament again appointed commissioners,
and in 1839 the “ Academie des sciences morales et politiques” of
France, and subsequently Bavaria, Prussia, and the German Empire
directed similar investigations. As a result of these efforts and numer­
ous independent investigations, it is known that the character of the
occupation influences to a great extent not only the average expect­
ation of life, but also the prevalence of certain diseases.
It is known, for example, that bronchitis, pneumonia, and tubercu­
losis are extremely frequent in dusty occupations, and that the
sharp angular particles of iron and stone dust are more liable to
produce injury of the respiratory passages than coal, flour, grain, and
other kinds of dust. It is also known that workers in lead, mercury,
arsenic, phosphorus, poisonous dyes, etc., suffer from their injurious
effects, and that other occupations, such as mining, railroading, and
those which necessitate working with or around moving machinery
involve special danger to life and limb.
In 1833, 1864, 1867, and 1870, England enacted the so-called “ fac­
tory laws.” France provided a child labor law in 1841 and in 1874
a more satisfactory labor code. Germany and other continental
governments enacted suitable legislation between 1859 and 1886.
According to MissS. S. Whittelsey’s “ Essay on Massachusetts Labor
Legislation,” child labor received attention in Massachusetts as early
as 1836. The first law as regards safety and sanitation was enacted in
that State in 1877, since which time all the States and Territories have
enacted some form of labor or factory laws.
472




473

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE,

M O RBID ITY AND M O RTALITY OF W AGE-EARNERS.
The statistics of the morbidity and mortality of various occupa­
tions, while far from satisfactory, and subject to more or less erro­
neous conclusions, nevertheless indicate that persons habitually
engaged in hard work are more frequently subject to disease and
present a higher mortality than persons more favorably situated,
and this is especially true of factory employees, because their work
is generally more monotonous, fatiguing, and performed under less
favorable surroundings, and they are too often also badly nourished
and badly housed.
Among the occupations usually classed as inimical to health are
bleachers, bookbinders, brass founders, compositors, coppersmiths,
electrotypers, stonecutters, gas-works employees, white-lead work­
ers, match workers, persons employed in the manufacture of explo­
sives, firemen, potters, file makers, and operatives in rubber factories.
The following table from the reports of the Twelfth Census shows
the death rates per 1,000 employees for leading causes and for all
causes in certain occupations in 1900:
D E A T H R A T E PER 1,000 EM PLO YEES IN C ER T AIN OCCUPATIONS IN R E G IS T R A TIO N
STATES IN 1900, B Y PRIN CIPAL CAUSES OF D E A T H .
Death rate per 1,000.
Occupation.

Dis­
Tuber­
Dis­
Acci­
culosis eases of Heart Pneu­ eases of dents
All
ner­ disease.
of
monia. urinary and in­ causes.
vous
lungs.
organs. juries.
system.

MANUFACTURING AND MECHANICAL
I N D U S T R IE S .

Bakers and confectioners....................................
Blacksmiths............................................................
Boot and shoe makers.........................................
Brewers, distillers, and rectifiers......................
Butchers..................................................................
Cabinetmakers and upholsterers......................
Carpenters and joiners........................................
Cigar makers and tobacco workers.................
Compositors, printers, and pressmen.............
Coopers....................................................................
Engineers and firemen (not locomotive)........
Iron and steel workers........................................
Leather makers.....................................................
Leather workers....................................................
Machinists...............................................................
Marble and stone cutters....................................
Masons (brick and stone)...................................
Mill and factory operatives (textiles).............
Millers (Sour and grist)......................................
Painters, glaziers, and varnishers...................
Plumbers and gas and steam fitters................
Tailors......................................................................
Tinners and tinware makers..............................

2.60
2.13
1.36
2.57
2.88
3.59
2.31
4.77
4.36
3.00
2.30
2.36
3.11
2.27
1.96
5.41
2.94
2.08
1.99
3.19
2.94
2.18
3.65

1.61
2.99
1.50
2.74
2.30
2.22
2.45
1.80
1.31
2.90
2.09
.92
1.02
2.68
1.24
1.10
2.27
.84
4.47
2.14
.91
1.43
1.78

1.02
1.90
1.46
2.23
1.78
1.61
2.24
1.76
.94
2.72
1.81
1.02
1.26
2.11
1.04
1.60
2.32
.91
3.81
1.70
.60
1.29
1.27

1.17
1.69
.95
2.40
1.73
1.74
1.46
2.15
1.16
2.09
1.78
1.82
1.32
.97
1.10
1.37
2.30
.81
2.98
1.54
1.13
1.13
1.37

1.46
1.90
.79
2.57
1.36
1.57
1.74
1.68
.94
3.09
1.67
.77
.84
2.27
.98
.84
1.83
.57
2.48
1.83
.88
1.38
1.32

0.61
1.00
.33
1.37
.81
.65
1.18
.70
.50
1.36
1.84
.79
.60
.97
.71
.99
1.58
.76
1.98
1.28
.76
.51
.91

12.3
18.3
9.4
19.7
16.1
18.0
17.2
18.7
12.1
23.8
15.7
10.7
12.3
17.5
10.5
14.9
19.9
8.8
26.6
16.2
9.1
11.8
14.5

2.61
1.12
1.21
1.30

.90
2.71
.39
.96

.95
2.63
.57
.89

1.48
1 .#
.77
.60

.90
1.71
.49
.65

1.34
.84
3.78
4.10

11.0
17.6
9.6
10.8

AGRICULTURE, TRANSPORTATION, AND OTHER
OUTDOOR CLASSES.

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc.................
Farmers, planters, and farm laborers............
Miners and quarrymen........................................
Steam railroad employees..................................




474

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

The following table from the report of the registrar-general of
England and Wales shows the comparative mortality of occupations
in England and Wales, 1890-1892. The average mortality of all
males of the population between 25 and 65 years of age was placed at
1,000. The mortality of occupied males was 953 and of the unoccu­
pied 2,215.
CO M PAR ATIVE M O R T A L IT Y OF OCCUPATIONS IN EN G L AN D A N D W A L E S , 1890 TO 1892.

Occupation.

Clergymen, priests, ministers..............
Gardeners, nurserymen........................
Farmers, graziers....................................
Schoolmasters, teachers........................
Grocers, etc................................................
Carpenters, joiners.................................
Barristers, solicitors..............................
Fishermen.................................................
Shopkeepers..............................................
Medical practitioners..............................
Tailors................................ ........................

Compara­
tive mor­
tality.
533
553
563
604
664
783
821
845
859
966
989

Occupation.

Bricklayers, masons, builders.............
Butchers....................................................
Printers......................................................
Plumbers, painters, glaziers.................
Cotton manufacturers (Lancashire)..
Carmen, carriers......................................
Slaters, tilers............................................
Brewers......................................................
.Innkeepers, hotel servants...................
Potters, earthenware manufacturers.
File makers................................................

Compara­
tive mor­
tality.
1,001
1.096
1.096
1,120
1,176
1,284
1,322
1,427
1,659
1,706
1,*810

A reasonable explanation for the excessive mortality in some of the
occupations will be found in subsequent pages; the high rates in
brewers, innkeepers, and hotel servants are believed to be due to the
effects of alcohol.
According to Rauchberg(a) the average number .per 1,000 members
of the “ Vienna Sick Benefit Society ” taken sick during a period of
17 years was 423 per annum distributed as follows:

Occupation.

Machinists’ helpers..................................
Factory employees and day laborers.
Foundrym en............................................
Blacksmiths..............................................
Masons and stonecutters......................
Painters.....................................................
Weavers and spinners............................
Locksmiths...............................................

Average
number
taken sick
per 1,000
members.
488
477
473
451
437
378
367
354

Occupation.

Iron workers.............................................
Shoemakers...............................................
Tinners and bronzers.............................
Cabinetmakers and wood workers...
Saddlers.....................................................
Tailors and furriers................................
Other mechanics......................................

Average
number
taken sick
per 1,000
members.
351
343
339
326
282
215
463

The subject of industrial diseases and industrial accidents is every­
where assuming more and more importance and our knowledge should
be based upon accurate data. In England, where reports of certain
occupations are compulsory, it is possible to secure, for example, re­
liable data as to the number of cases of lead poisoning. The same
facilities are afforded by the statistics of the “ German Industrial In­
surance Institutes,” which furnish not only the number of deaths
from various causes, but also the number of cases treated, together
with the age period and the duration of the disease. Similar facts
» Die allg. Arbeiter-Kranken und Invalidencasse in W ien, 1886.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

475

should be collected in this country. This is all the more important
when it is*remembered that even with the most complete statistics,
it is extremely difficult to determine all the factors which influence
the health and longevity of operatives. Great differences are found
in the conditions under which the work is performed, some of which
are entirely avoidable, while others are not, and it is hardly fair to
characterize certain trades as dangerous, when experience has shown
that no harm results when proper safeguards have been taken. In
the consideration of this question the personal element of the work­
men, their habits, mode of life, food, home environments, etc., can
not be ignored. There are a number of occupations in which the
alcohol habit prevails to an unusual extent, perhaps because of the
character of the work, perhaps as a result of association, and it would
not be fair to attribute the ill health of the operatives altogether to
the character of the employment. Again, many persons are engaged
in occupations for which they are not physically fitted, while others
ruin their health by vice, dissipation, improper food, and insanitary
environment at home. In addition to all this there are factors, such
as water and soil pollution, for which neither the industry nor the
individuals are primarily to blame. Thus, for example, the general
anaemia of the agricultural classes in Porto Rico was attributed a
few years ago to their occupation and starvation, when as a matter of
fact it was caused by the “ hook-worm disease.” Recent investiga­
tions conducted by Doctor Stiles appear to indicate that the same
disease prevails to some extent among the textile operatives in the
South. All this indicates the need of a thorough study of the condi­
tions affecting health in various occupations, not only to determine
the relative health risks and the causes of the undue prevalence of
certain diseases in certain occupations, but also to formulate rules
which may remove the causes or render the system better fitted to
resist them. In this, as in all preventive efforts, a hearty cooperation
of the parties interested is absolutely essential for the attainment of
the highest measure of success. In this instance the responsibility
rests with the state, the employer, and employees; each have certain
duties to perform, and the help of all is essential for the mitigation of
existing evils.
INDOOR OCCUPATIONS.
Indoor employment, broadly speaking, is inimical to health, while
outdoor work in a pure air favors health and longevity. Without
underrating the influence of insanitary dwellings, improper and insuffi­
cient food, lack of recreation, and other factors, there is no doubt that
one of the chief dangers of indoor life is exposure to vitiated air. The
air in dwellings and workshops is never so pure as the outer air,
because it is polluted by the products of respiration, combustion, and




4 76

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

decomposition, and the presence of individuals also tends to vitiate
the air with dust, germs, and organic matter from the skin, mouth,
lungs, and soiled clothing. Unless proper provision is made for the
dispersion of foul air and the introduction of pure air there is much
reason for assuming that these impurities play a more or less impor­
tant r61e in what has been designated as “ crowd poisoning/7character­
ized in the acute form b y symptoms of oppression, headache, dizziness,
and faintness, while the chronic effects of deficient oxygenation and
purification of the blood are plainly evinced by the pallor, loss of
appetite, anaemia, and gradual loss of physical and mental vigor. All
of these effects are intensified when human beings are obliged to
occupy rooms with an air supply insufficient for the proper oxygen­
ation of the blood, and as a result of this habitual exposure to viti­
ated air, we note an undue prevalence of consumption in crowded
workshops, dwellings, prisons, public institutions, and formerly also in
military barracks and battle ships. Even live stock shows the baneful
effects of insufficient air space, for tuberculosis among the range cattle
of the far west, which are practically without shelter, is comparatively
rare, while it affects from 15 to 25 per cent of dairy herds, which are
housed, but without sufficient regard to light and air. Improved ven­
tilation and increased air space has everywhere lessened the death
rate, and it is chiefly by just such measures that the rate from con­
sumption has been reduced from 11.9 to 1.2 per 1,000 in the British
armies. As a matter of fact, an abundance of pure air has been found
the most important factor in the treatment of tuberculosis, because it
promotes oxygenation of the blood, stimulates the appetite and nutri­
tion, and thereby increases the general resisting power of the system.
OCCUPATIONS INVOLVING EXPOSU RE
DUST.

TO IR RITATIN G

It has long been known that the inhalation of dust predisposes to
diseases of the respiratory passages, which may result in consump­
tion. The particles of mineral dust produce an irritation of the
mucous membranes of the nose, throat, respiratory organs, and eyes,
and the hard, sharp, and angular particles of iron and stone dust may
cause actual abrasions. According to Arnold (a) the dust which is
inhaled lodges on the mucous membranes of the air passages and vesi­
cles of the lungs, there to be coughed up, although some of the finest
particles are taken up by the epithelial cells and white corpuscles and
carried to the nearest lymphatic glands. The coarser particles, such as
iroii, stone, or coal dust, usually lodge upon the surface to be coughed
up with the secretions. If not expectorated they will cause harm by
clogging up the air vesicles and interfere with respiration. In the
«Untersuchungen uber Staubinhalation, etc., Leipzig, 1885.




477

INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

meantime not infrequently an irritation is set up, causing catarrhal
conditions of the mucous membranes, or a more serious chronic inflam­
mation of the respiratory organs, so common among persons engaged
in dusty occupations. The chronic inflammatory conditions thus
produced favor infection with the tubercle bacillus. At all events
Hirt’s statistics show that men employed in occupations that pro­
duce much dust suffer more frequently from pneumonia and con­
sumption than those not exposed to dust and that there is practically
no difference in frequency of diseases of the digestive system. The
relative frequency of these diseases per 1,000 workmen is as follows :(a)
CASES OF CONSUMPTION, PN EUM ONIA, AN D D IG E ST IV E D ISORDERS PER 1,000 W O R K ­
ERS IN C ER T AIN OCCUPATIONS.

Class of occupations.

Workers
Workers
Workers
Workers
Workers
Workers

in metallic dust.......................................................................................
in mineral dust........................................................................................
in mixed dust...........................................................................................
in animal dust.........................................................................................
in vegetable dust.....................................................................................
in nondusty trades.................................................................................

Con­
sump­
tion.
28.0
25.2
22.6
20.8
13.3
11.1

Pneu­
monia.
17.4
5.9
6.0
7.7
9.4
4.6

Diges­
tive dis­
orders.
17.8
16.6
15.2
20.2
15.7
16.0

Perlen in his “ Inaugural Dissertation,” Munich, 1887, (b) discussed
the records of the Munich Polyclinic, where 65,766 persons were
treated between 1865 and 1885, including 4,177 tubercular patients.
Of these, 1,425 patients had been engaged in occupations where
they were exposed to dust, viz:
30 per cent were by reason of occupation exposed to m etallic dust.
26 per cent were by reason of occupation exposed to vegetable dust.
18 per cent were by reason of occupation exposed to mineral dust.
17 per cent were by reason of occupation exposed to mixed dust.
8 per cent were by reason of occupation exposed to animal dust.

According to the reports of the census of 1900 the consumption
death rate of marble and stone cutters in the United States is nearly
six times that of bankers, brokers, and officials of companies, and
the rate in fifty-one other employments ranges between these
extremes.
The amount of dust is perhaps less important than the character of
the particles which compose it. The susceptibility to consumption
among metal workers and stonecutters can be explained only b y the
fact that the hard, sharp, and irregular particles of this kind of dust
are more apt to produce injury of the mucous membranes of the respi­
ratory tract. But it is not fair to assume that the less irritating dust
is free from danger,for as pointed out byE . R oth(c) even the inhalation*
&
« Cited by Harrington, Practical Hygiene, 1901, p. 664.
&Cited by Uffelm ann, Handbuch d. H ygiene, 1890, p. 587.
c Kompendium der Gewerbekrankheiten, Berlin, 1904, p. 106.




478

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

of plaster of Paris or flour dust can not be regarded with indifference,
especially when such inhalation is preventable.
Ahrens (a) found the amount of dust for each cubic meter of air in
certain industrial establishments as follows:
Milligrams.

Horsehair works....................................
Sawm ill...................................................
Woolen factory......................................
W oolen factory with exhauster........
Paper factory.........................................
Laboratory..............................................

10
17
20
7
24
1 .4

Milligrams.

Flour m ill...............................................
Foundry..................................................
Polishing room of foundry.................
Felt shoe factory....................................
Cement works.........................................

28
28
71.7
175
224

According to Schuler andBurkhardt, cited by Roth,(6 the morbidity
)
among 1,000 workmen engaged in dusty occupations is as follows:
Bookbinders............................................... 98
Silk weavers................................................. 205
Cotton spinners............................................235
Printers.......................................................... 250
Cotton weavers.........................................
285
Type founders and typesetters.........
304

Paper factory employees...................
Mechanical industrial shops............
Wood turners.........................................
Laborers in the rag storeroom of a
paper factory.....................................

343
419
427
479

According to Sommerfeld, cited by Roth, (6 the mortality in Berlin
)
of persons engaged in nondusty occupations is 2.39 per 1,000; of per­
sons engaged in dusty occupations is 5.42 per 1,000; the mortality of
the total population of Berlin at the same ages is 4.93 per 1,000.
Of 1,000 deaths in Berlin the number of deaths from consumption
in occupations without development of dust was 381; in occupations
with development of dust it was 480; in the total population of the
city at the same ages 332.3 deaths of every 1,000 were due to
consumption.
M E T A L L IC A N D M IN E R A L D U S T .

It will be readily understood that in the cutlery and tool industry,
especially in the grinding and polishing departments, more or less
dust is evolved not only from the metallic surfaces, but also from the
numerous grindstones and emery and corundum wheels. This dust
production is not wholly avoidable, even when the wet process is
employed. It is known that the inhalation of this dust tends to pro­
duce diseases of the lungs, such as bronchitis, peribronchitis, and
fibroid pneumonia, but tuberculosis, also spoken of by the workmen
as “ grinders’ asthma” and “ grinders’ rot,” leads the list.
Moritz and Ropke(c) have shown that 72.5 per cent of the deaths
among the metal grinders of Solingen are due to consumption, as
compared with 35.5 per cent among the general population.
a Kompendium der Gewerbekrankheiten, Berlin, 1904, p. 106.
&Ibid., p. 107.
c lb id ., p . 26.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

479

The death returns for 12 years of the city of Northampton, Mass.,
one of the centers of the cutlery and tool industry, show that among
“ grinders,” “ polishers,” and “ cutlers” diseases of the lungs were
responsible for 72.73 per cent of the mortality, inclusive of 54.5 per
cent of deaths from tuberculosis. (a)
Hirt gives the percentage of consumption in the total number of
sick among different classes of workers in metal as follows: Needle
polishers, 69.6 per cent; file cutters, who are also exposed to inhala­
tion of lead, 62.2 per cent; grinders, 40 percent; nailcutters, 12 per
cent.
Greenhow(*) over 50 years ago called attention to the excessive
6
mortality among the needle polishers of Sheffield. Beyer (6 found
)
that of 196 needle polishers at Remscheid only 24 were over 40 years
of age. The reason why this occupation is especially dangerous is
because the “ wet process” can not be employed for small objects,
which moreover have to be brought more closely to the eyes, and thus
the chances for the inhalation of this metallic dust are increased.
The danger in all such establishments can be reduced to a minimum
by the employment of respirators and forced ventilation to carry the
dust away from the operator. The Massachusetts report, cited above,
states that even when employers have provided hoods, connected
with a system of exhaust fans or blowers, “ a very large proportion of
grinders recklessly remove the hoods, and thus expose themselves
unnecessarily to this especially dangerous form of dust. They assert
that they prefer freedom of movement, with dust, to the protection
offered by hoods.”
Stonecutting is regarded as a dangerous occupation, and con­
sumption is quite common among men engaged in the industry.
Those who have observed the various operations realize that in spite
of wet processes and employment in the open air the workmen,
especially those who operate the pneumatic tools, are exposed to a
great amount of this irritating form of dust.
A collective investigation published in 1901, and cited by* Roth (c)
shows that of every 100 deaths among stonecutters, polishers, and
quarrymen 86 were due to diseases of the lungs, inclusive of 55 deaths
from consumption. Of 2,013 stonecutters examined by Sommerfeld,
19.7 per cent were afflicted with consumption, 17.98 per cent with
other diseases of the lungs, and nearly all had a chronic catarrh of the
throat or larynx.
® Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, p. 87.
& Cited b y Sanders, Handbuch der offentl. Gesundheitspflege, 1885, p. 106.
c Compendium der Gewerbekrankheiten, Berlin, 1904, p. 118.




480

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

According to the report of the Board of Health of Massachusetts,
previously cited, (a) of 343 deaths which occurred in the city of Quincy,
Mass., among stonecutters during a period of about 16 years, 41.4 per
cent were due to pulmonary consumption, 12 per cent to other dis­
eases of the lungs, 12.8 per cent to diseases of the heart, 7 per cent
to violence, and 26.8 per cent to all other causes.
Millstone and slate cutting are also regarded as dangerous occupa­
tions. Persons engaged in glass cutting and polishing are not only
exposed to the inhalation of a sharp and irritating dust, but also to
lead poisoning from the use of putty powder, which contains 70 per
cent of lead oxide. In glass establishments in Massachusetts, where
all the cutting and polishing is done by the wet method, no dust is
perceptible and the employees as a class appear to enjoy good
health. (b Gem finishers also have a high consumption and sick rate.
)
Workers in mica dust and bronzing powders used in the manufacture
of wall papers, fancy souvenir cards, moldings, frames, etc., are pre­
disposed to diseases of the respiratory passages, and the bronze pow­
der in addition is liable to produce headache, loss of appetite, nausea,
vomiting, and diarrhea.
It is said of the bronzing department of some of the lithographing
establishments in Massachusetts that in spite of the exhaust ventila­
tion the air is heavy with bronze dust most of the time. “ The boys
who run the five bronzing machines wear handkerchiefs over the nose
and mouth. They look pale and unhealthy, and all show the charac­
teristic green perspiration due to contact with bronze. The great
majority of the employees appear to be healthy.” (c)
In the manufacture of machinery and metal supplies some of the
operations involve exposure to dust, fumes, vapors, or extreme heat.
In some of the processes emery wheels and revolving wire brushes are
used, and unless the wheels are equipped with exhaust ventilating appli­
ances, enormous quantities of fine steel and emery dust are given off.
In a Massachusetts investigation covering 24 establishments the air of
some of the rooms was found exceedingly dusty, and about one-tenth
of the occupants looked pale and sickly and complained of the irrita­
tion of the air passages by the dust. The number of employees in
these establishments ranges between 12,500 and 15,000. Some of the
establishments were models in character as regards light, ventilation,
and general sanitation. “ The tumblers and emery wheels are pro­
vided with hoods and blowers which are effective, and there is practi­
cally no dust. The rooms in which castings are dipped are properly*
&
a Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, p. 79.
&Ibid., p. 80.
c lb id ., p. 102.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

481

ventilated and all fumes are effectively removed. All of the machin­
ery is well protected.” (a)
One brass foundry was reported where the air was heavy with
fumes, especially in winter, no mechanical ventilation being installed,
and all the workmen asserted that they had occasional attacks of “ brass
founders’ ague.” The following m aybe taken as a fair statement of
the hygienic aspects of the machinery and metal industry. “ While
the nature of some of the processes is such as to warrant classification
of this industry with the dangerous trades, the conditions under which
the work is done are very largely responsible for the injurious effects
on the health of the employees, and these conditions are to a consider­
able extent avoidable or at least susceptible of improvement.” (a)
The same Massachusetts investigation covered 14 iron and steel found­
ries and 9 stove foundries. In one establishment, the department in
which the castings are sand blasted was found very objectionable, as
the air was heavily impregnated with flying sand, which “ gets into
the mouth, nose, and eyes and the employees suffer considerably from
soreness of the last-mentioned organs.” In another establishment
this condition is very much ameliorated by a large flaring hood in the
center of the room with upward-suction draft, the operatives wearing
helmets with fine wire inserts to protect the eyes and cloths under­
neath the helmets to protect the nose and mouth. In one of the stove
foundries, the dust from the polishing and buffing process, in the
absence of hoods and exhaust ventilation, “ is so thick that objects a few
feet distant can not clearly be made out. Many men refuse to work in
this establishment in the hot months on account of the excessive heat
and general discomfort.” In some instances, where the necessary
protection is afforded by the employer, the men habitually remove
the hoods and become covered with emery and iron particles. (b)
In the crushing, grinding, and sifting process incident to the manu­
facture of emery, corundum, and sandpaper more or less fine dust i s .
given off in spite of the fact that the machines are more or less com­
pletely inclosed. The emery and corundum industry must be classed
among the trades intrinsically dangerous to health, on account of the
peculiarly irritating character of dust; “ but, as is the case with other
dusty occupations, few of those employed can be induced to wear
respirators.” (c)
Coal miners, charcoal men, firemen, chimney sweeps, etc., are
exposed to constant inhalation of coal dust and soot, and though
subject to chronic bronchial catarrh, consumption is not especially
common among them.*
&
a Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, pp. 81-85.
&Ibid., p. 85.
c lb id ., pp. 76-78.




.482

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.
VEG E TA B LE DUST.

Millers and bakers inhale flour dust, and, according to Hirt, 20.3 per
cent of all the diseases affecting millers are pneumonia, 9.3 per cent bron­
chial catarrh, 10.9 per cent consumption, and 1.9 per cent emphysema
(abnormal collection of air in the lungs). The tuberculosis death
rate, according to Schuler, among millers in Switzerland is 3.75, as com­
pared with 2.95 per 1,000 in the general population. Carpenters,
joiners, cabinetmakers, etc., are exposed to wood dust, and the dust
from hard wood is probably more injurious than that from softer
kinds. Dr. E. J. Neisser (a) refers to a wooden-tool factory at Strassburg which in 1904 furnished 15 cases of sickness out of the 20 em­
ployees, with 288 days loss of work, 10 cases being as follows— diseases
of the eyes, 1; of nose, 1; throat, 2, and diseases of the lungs, 6. The
Massachusetts Board of Health found that in the agricultural tool
and implement industry a hard wood called “ cocobolo,” which is
used for tool handles, evolves a very pungent and irritating dust, pro­
ductive of inflammation of the eyes and skin. Some persons, in the
course of a week or two, become accustomed to its effects, while
others are obliged to discontinue work in the department. (6
)
&
The medical inspector of Great Britain, according to Neisser,
reported a number of toxic symptoms which occurred among persons
engaged in the manufacture of weaver shuttles made from African
boxwood. Investigation revealed the presence of an alkaloid in the
wood, which acted as a heart depressant, producing a slow and inter­
mittent pulse, headache, drowsiness, watering of the eyes and nose,
difficulty in breathing, nausea, and weakness.
Laborers in grain elevators and on grain threshers inhale a very irri­
tating dust, which may cause acute and chronic catarrh of the mucous
membranes. Workers in tobacco suffer more or less from nasal, con­
junctival, and bronchial catarrh and digestive and nervous derange­
ments, and although the *mucous membranes gradually become
accustomed to the irritation of the dust and fumes the occupation
appears to be dangerous, as the consumption rate in the United States
ranks next to that of marble and stone cutters.
It is said that female workers in tobacco are more liable to mis­
carry; at all events Doctor Rosenfeld, cited by Roth (p. 166), found
this to be true in Austria. This experience is not confirmed b y recent
observations made in German tobacco towns like Giessen, for exam­
ple (Neisser, p. 125), and more extended investigations are called for.
a Internationale Ubersicht liber Gewerbehygiene, Berlin, 1907, p. 115.
&Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, p. 89.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

4 83

Some authors maintain that tobacco dust exerts a protective influ­
ence against infective agents and instance the fact that during the
cholera epidemic of Hamburg in 1892 there were only 8 cases among
the 5,000 resident cigar makers. The Massachusetts report previously
cited, in discussing the cigar and cigarette factories in Massachusetts,
refers (p. 49) to the spitting habit and the objectionable practice
of finishing cigars with the aid of saliva. This practice was observed
in more than one-third of the places visited, and in 18 factories the
practice of biting off the end of the filler and inner wrappers with
the teeth was also observed. The report reiterates the statement
made to the legislature in January, 1905, as to the possibility of dis­
seminating loathsome diseases through this practice. Such con­
ditions certainly emphasize the necessity for the use of cigar holders.
Operatives in cotton and flax textiles are perhaps more subject to
dust inhalation and various diseases of the respiratory and digestive
organs than are those in woolen mills. The phthisis death rate in 1892
in Belfast (a) with its 30,000 persons engaged in the linen industry
was 4.1 per 1,000 against 1.5 for the whole of England and Wales and
2.2 for Ireland. According to Schuler and Burkhardt 1,000 linen
spinners furnish annually 221.6 cases of sickness, and 1,000 weavers
202.7. Female operatives suffer even more, the sick rate being
249.5 and 334.4 for the respective occupations.
CASES OF SICKNESS PER 1,000 EM PLOYEES AMONG SPIN N ERS AN D W E A V E R S .
Cases per

Diseases
Diseases
Diseases
Diseases

of the digestive organs............................................................. ......................
of the respiratory organs.................................................................................
of the motor organs.............................................................................. ...........
of a constitutional character...........................................................................

Cases per

spinners.

Disease.

weavers.

10
,0 0

10
,0 0

58.7
47.7
29.6
22.9

103.4
52.5

21.2
31.6

Arlidge(* gives a table showing the comparative frequency of the
6)
most important diseases in the case of 739 weavers and of 676 per­
sons following the several other branches of the cotton industry, such
as winders, spinners, reelers, curlers, mill hands, grinders, etc., and
who for convenience sake are designated by him as machine-room
workers. The figures are based on 1,415 operatives who received
treatment as “ in ” and “ ou t” patients in connection with the Preston
Hospital during a period of six years.
a G. H . Perris, Journal of State Medicine, London, March, 1895, p. 109.
&The Hygiene, Diseases, and Mortality of Occupations, London, 1892, p. 361.




484

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

PE R CENT OF T E X T IL E W O R K E R S T R E A T E D IN T H E PR ESTO N H O S P IT A L D U R IN G
A PER IO D OF S IX Y E A R S , B Y DISEASES.

Disease.

Phthisis...................................................................................................................................
Dyspepsia...............................................................................................................................
Bronchitis............................................................................. - ...............................................
Varicose veins and ulcers...................................................................................................
Rheumatic affections....................................................... ...................................................
Uterine disorders and displacements.............................................................................
Neuralgia....................... .......................................................................................................
Throat affections..................................................................................................................
Renal diseases........................................................................... ..........................................
Epilepsy..................................................................................................................................
Heart diseases..................................................................... - ...............................................
Debility...................................................................................................................................
Anaemia...................................................................................................................................

Per cent of Per cent of
machineweavers
treated for room work­
ers treated
specified
for speci­
disease.
fied disease.
9.87
16.50
32.34
11.23
7.70
8.24
2.84
1.89
2.57
1.49
2.71
7.57
2.43

11.90

21.00
31.30
6.80

1 .6
18
8.43
4.43
2.51

2.66

3.40
5.32
9.17
2.50

It will be observed that both the Swiss and English statistics reveal
an undue prevalence of the diseases of the respiratory and digestive
organs. It has been suggested that the constrained position of
weavers is to a large extent responsible for the undue prevalence
of dyspepsia among the Swiss weavers, but other factors like im­
proper food, indoor life, and home conditions should be considered.
This is apparent from the fact that the percentage of cases of dys­
pepsia among the English weavers is smaller than among the
machine-room workers. The constitutional disorders like anaemia,
chlorosis, neuralgia, and debility are likewise due to a variety of
causes, chief of which are vitiated air, resulting from defective ven­
tilation of the workshops, overwork, insufficient or improper food,
and insanitary homes.
Uterine derangements and displacements may very properly be
attributed to general debility, overwork, and long standing in hot
and moist workrooms, and, like varicose veins and ulcers and “ flat
feet,” may be expected to develop in other occupations involving
long standing. (See occupations involving constrained attitudes
p. 522.)
The undue prevalence of pulmonary diseases among the textile
operators can be accounted for by a number of factors, such as the
presence of very fine cotton or flax dust or “ fly” ; air vitiated by the
products of respiration and combustion, the presence of infectious
germs from the promiscuous expectoration habit; faulty life and
home surroundings. Of these the presence of “ fly ” is doubtless a
very important predisposing factor, since it is generally admitted
that this dust acts as an irritant to the respiratory passages, and
sooner or later prepares the way for the invasion of the germs of
tuberculosis, pneumonia, etc. Coetsem describes the so-called
byssinosis or “ pneumonie cotonneuse,” but it is by no means settled




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

485

whether in these cases we have to deal with a typical occupation
disease, or with a specific infection, in which the inhalation of the
cotton dust simply operates as a predisposing cause. It is very
probable, however, that the habitual inhalation of this dust may
produce disease of the lungs not necessarily tubercular.
Arlidge says: “ If inhaled longer, it reaches the bronchi, and sets
up cough with white mucous expectoration. The cough will be for
years chiefly a morning phenomenon on first rising, but it is also
induced upon leaving the warm workroom. Fine fibers of cotton
are found, on microscopical examination, in the sputum, and as
these make their way into the pulmonary tissue, they set up morbid
action, resulting in increasing density of it on the one hand, and of
emphysematous expansion on the other. These morbid changes
are accompanied by dyspnoea, wasting, and debility, but rarely with
hemoptysis [spitting of blood]; and together constitute a group of
symptoms not inappropriately termed ‘ industrial phthisis/ More­
over, intercurrent diseases of the lungs, such as acute bronchitis
and pneumonia, often arise and terminate life; and true tubercular
phthisis is no uncommon cause of death.” (®)
The chief requirements for the amelioration of existing conditions
in the textile industry are efficient machines for the prevention and
removal of dust. The utmost care should be taken to provide the
most perfect methods so far devised for the removal of dust and for
proper ventilation. The lighting should be good, both for day and
night work, giving preference to electricity. The temperature and
humidity of the rooms should be regulated, and children under the
age of 14, or those with weak chests, should not be employed in the
cotton mills.
In the textile industry in Massachusetts analysis of the death
returns “ during the year 1905 from the three principal ‘mill towns’
shows that although tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death
among mill operatives the general death rate of this class was by no
means abnormally high, being, respectively, 7, 8, and 10 per 1,000.
Tuberculosis caused, respectively, 32, 23.57, and 21 per cent of the
deaths. It appears also that the general death rates of the cities
whose populations include the highest percentages of textile oper­
atives compare not unfavorably with those of certain other cities
which are engaged in other kinds of manufacture or are more resi­
dential in character, in spite of the high rate of infant mortality
which appears to be inseparably connected with mill populations
everywhere.” (*)
6
a The Hygiene, Diseases, and Mortality of Occupations, London, 1892, p. 360.
&Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, p. 16.




486

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

A source of danger is the presence of infectious dust from dried
sputum in the air of different mill rooms on account of the indiscrim­
inate habit of spitting. The number of accidents in textile mills, con­
sidering the large number of fast-running machines, is not large. Dur­
ing a period of almost five years at the Pacific Mills, with about 5,200
employees, there were 1,000 accidents, classified as follows :(a)
A cciden ts to em ployees o f the Pacific M ills , Law rence, M a ss., A u g u s t 1 0 ,1 9 0 0 , to J u ly 13,
1 90 5 .

Killed outright.............................................................................................................................
Fatally injured.............................................................................................................................
Seriously injured (broken limbs, or amputation necessary).........................................
Slightly injured...........................................................................................................................
Unclassified (suffered nervous shocks, but physically uninjured)............................

1
1
86
910
2

1,000

The underlying cause of injury is given as.follows:
Careless manipulation...............................................................................................................
Deliberate carelessness (taking chances of being injured, such as cleaning ma­
chinery while running, etc .)..............................................................................................
Inattention to surroundings....................................................................................................
Carelessness of fellow-workman.............................................................................................
Unforeseen liability....................................................................................................................
Unclassified...................................................................................................................................

539
164
177
51
60
9

1,000

In three mills in Massachusetts devoted to the manufacture of twine,
cordage, and gunny cloth from jute and hemp some of the workrooms
are reported to be exceedingly dusty in spite of mechanical ventila­
tion and open windows, and “ many of the operatives wear thick bunches
of fiber over mouth and nose as a protection. A fairly large propor­
tion of the operatives show the effects of their employment, looking
pale and sickly.” In the room where the sisal hemp is fed into
breakers the air is filled with dust. In one of the establishments
the employees in all departments look well and strong, although in
some parts the air contained considerable dust.
In five Massachusetts carpet and rug factories, employing about
6,000 persons, about 10 per cent of whom are between the ages of 14
and 16, the largest of these factories shows some departments in
which poor light, excessive heat, moisture, and dust constitute objec­
tionable conditions. In one room there was “ so much fine cotton
dust and fiber in the air that it is with difficulty one can see across it.
This dust is very irritating to the nose and throat.” In one of the
establishments the children are described as very small and too poorly
developed for their age “ to be allowed to work 10 hours and 20 min­
utes for 5 days in the week.” In another factory “ about one-tenth
« Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, p. 39.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

487

of the employees look sickly.” The smallest factory employs 500
persons, and is reported as having good light, adequate ventilation^
and commendable weave rooms, and the employees appear to be in
good health.
One of the shoddy mills examined was “ poorly lighted, inadequately
ventilated, dusty, and ill-kept; the other was light, clean, and well
ventilated. Some of the women employed appeared to be in poor
physical condition.” In the six felt-cloth factories examined “ the
work was found to be conducted in fairly lighted and, apart from dust,
adequately ventilated buildings. In each there was more or less
dust, especially in the picking and carding rooms; but the amount
was much diminished in most of them by means of blower fans.” (a)
ANIMAL DUST.

Of the several classes of dust, that from wool is considered to
be less irritating than flax or cotton, and horn is believed to be
more irritating than bone. The conditions found in some of the
woolen mills in Massachusetts as regards light, ventilation, and
general cleanliness are reported as far from satisfactory; but in the
absence of morbidity statistics it is difficult to determine the degree
of danger to which the operatives are exposed. In the boot and shoe
industry- in Massachusetts, where there is more or less animal dust
evolved, some effort is being made to remove the dust by exhaust
flues attached to the machinery. Of the 373 factories summarized by
the Massachusetts Board of Health Report previously cited, “ 126
are partially, and a fair proportion of these are wholly, equipped with
this means of protection; in 88 of these 126 one or more machines are
not so equipped; and in 49 of the 88 there are rooms in which the air,
apart from the escaping dust, is noticeably bad. The number of
machines with means for efficient or fairly efficient removal of dust
was found to be 1,630; the number either inefficiently equipped or
devoid of equipment was reported as 2,769. * * * While in
general the health of the employees appears to be fair to good, in
85 factories a considerable proportion of them are noticeably pale and
unhealthy in appearance.” (b) The pale and poorly nourished condi­
tion of youthful employees is also emphasized.
The dust and moisture involved in the polishing departments of the
horn and celluloid industry, and the irritating fumes given off by a
“ d ip ” containing glacial acetic acid, are sources of possible injurious
effects to the employees.
« Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, pp. 46-49.
&Ibid., p. 59.
37691— No. 75— 08----- 14




488

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

In the manufacture of derby and felt hats, apart from the exposure
to dust from the fur which comes to the factory clipped from the skin,
there is also a certain degree of danger from the cyanide of mercury
with which the fur is treated. In two felt-hat factories inspected
by the Massachusetts Board of Health, “ the employees appear to
be healthy.” “ Insom e of the establishments visited the fumes of
wood alcohol in the drying department were markedly strong. The
workmen stated that they are frequently troubled with headaches,
vertigo, smarting and burning of the eyes and impairment of vision,
and that few can remain at this work longer than three or four months
at a time.” This could readily be prevented by the use of “ dena­
tured” alcohol. The “ pouncing” process “ consists in smoothing off
the rough hairs from the hat rim and other parts, and gives off a
great deal of very fine dust.” (°)
In the brush-making industry hogs’ bristles and vegetable fibers are
used. In seven brush factories in Massachusetts “ the general con­
ditions were found to be beyond criticism and the health of the
employees appeared to be fair or good.” (6
)
Hirt regarded brush making as a dangerous occupation, as nearly
one-half of the deaths among the brush makers were from consump­
tion, due probably to the inhalation of the sharp fragments of bristles.
There is no adequate reliable data as to the effects of animal dust
given off in the manufacture of woolen goods, silk, feather, fur, hair,
horn, bone,.shell, ivory, etc. It is reasonable to assume, however, that
the dust from all these sources is capable of setting up an irritation
and inflammation o f the respiratory passages, though not so intensive
as that caused by mineral constituents of dust. In the hair, brush,
and wool industry there is also some danger from disease germs.
OCCUPATIONS INVOLVING EXPO SU RE TO INFECTIVE
MATTER IN DUST.
BAG AND PAPER, WOOL AND HAIR INDUSTRIES.

It has been held for a long time that germs of infectious diseases
like smallpox, anthrax, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, typhus and typhoid
fevers, diphtheria, measles, and cholera may cling to body and bed
clothes and prove a source of danger to those coming in contact with
rags in the rag business and paper industry. (c) The danger, while
perhaps overrated, is nevertheless real and can be guarded against
only by a thorough disinfection of the rags by steam under pressure
before they are handled at the paper mills.
a Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, p. 66.
& Ib id .,p . 72.
c The State of Maine requires evidence of successful vaccination in persons employed
in the manufacture of paper from foreign or domestic rags.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

489

The occupation is evidently inimical to health. Of 4,857 German
operatives reported by Uffelmann, 50 per cent are annually taken
sick; about 34 per cent of those engaged in the handling of dry rags
suffered from affections of the respiratory passages, and only 21.9
per cent of those otherwise engaged in the same establishments, all
of which speaks strongly for the necessity of proper ventilation and
exhaust flues for the removal of dust.
In this connection it is proper to refer to the dangers of the socalled “ ragsorters’ ” and “ wool sorters’ ” diseases, which are nothing
more or less than anthrax infection— a disease transmissible from
animals to man by means of wool, hides, hair, and horsehair. Two
hundred and sixty-one cases, with 67 deaths, were reported, accord­
ing to Neisser, in England from 1899-1904. Of these, 88 occurred
among those engaged in the wool industry, 70 cases among persons
engaged in curled hair and brush factories, 86 in persons engaged
in tanneries and hide trades, and 17 in other industrial pursuits.
About 59 cases of anthrax infection were reported in different
parts of Europe during the year 1905. Ravenal reported in three
localities in Pennsylvania, during the summer of 1897, 1*2 cases
among men and 60 in cattle, which were traced to a tannery hand­
ling hides imported from China. Nichols reported 26 cases occur­
ring in persons employed in a curled-hair factory within three years.
The Federal Government recognizes the dangers by insisting upon
the exclusion of rags, wool, and hides coming from districts in which
there is a prevalence of cholera, anthrax, and typhus fever and the
proper disinfection of such imports at all times. While anthrax is not
a very common disease among American domestic animals, local pus­
tular infections and carbuncle are by no means infrequent, and might
well be guarded against, as in some of the European countries, where
recourse is had to disinfection of the raw material, special blower
apparatus for the removal of dust, repeated disinfection of the
premises, and prompt treatment of all slight wounds and abrasions.
The material from which paper is made includes rags, burlap, old
paper, and wood pulp. The rags are chiefly imported from foreign
countries, arriving in a baled condition, and afterward are sub­
jected to a number of processes which clean and disintegrate them.
The “ beating, or threshing,” and “ chopping” processes are carried
on by machines and are attended by the escape of more or less
dust. The quantity naturally varies with the cleanliness of the
stock. In the observations of about 80 establishments, the Massa­
chusetts Board of Health found that with the usual grade of stock,
no matter what kind of “ duster” or “ thresher” is used, a consider­
able amount o f dust is also evolved in the “ chopping” process,
and in spite of exhaust fans and dust pipes some dust will escape.
The men engaged in the collection and baling of this dust are usually




4 90

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

provided with respirators. “ In a majority of the mills visited a por­
tion of the employees are exposed to an excessive quantity of dirt,
dust, and lint; and in most of this majority the persons so exposed
show not a few who are pale and sickly in appearance.” A compari­
son of the death rates from tuberculosis, pneumonia, and bronchitis
at Holyoke, the center of this industry in Massachusetts, with those
of the State at large, showed “ that the Holyoke rates were under
rather than over the average.” (a)
OCCUPATIONS

INVOLVING EXPO SU RE
DUST.

TO

POISONOUS

LEAD DUST.

All occupations in which lead is employed and in which particles
of lead may be inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed by the skin must
be regarded as dangerous to health. Lead poisoning in its various
forms, such as the lead habit, characterized by loss of weight, anaemia,
sallow skin, a blue line along the gums, offensive breath, a sweetish
taste and diminished salivary secretion, lead colic, lead paralysis,
wrist drop, painful affections of the lower extremities, and other
grave nervous diseases, is frequently seen in artisans. It attacks
persons employed in the roasting of lead ores, in the manufacture of
white and red led, acetate and chromate of lead, china and pottery,
artificial flowers; also painters, plumbers, varnishers, type founders,
typesetters, file cutters, glass and gem cutters, electricians (espe­
cially those employed in charging storage batteries), persons engaged
in enameling, dyeing, printing, working in rubber goods, weighted
silk, and glazing of paper, and many other occupations involving the
employment of lead.
Doctor Teleki, of Vienna, in 1906 reported several cases of lead
poisoning in females and young girls, contracted in fringe making, the
silk having been weighted by a solution of sugar of lead.
Of 999 employees in Prussian lead smelters during the year 1905,
177 suffered from lead colic or lead palsy, involving 3,056 days’ loss
of work; and of 4,789 engaged in zinc smelters, 50 of the employees,
with 2,217 days’ loss of work, were thus affected.
In Europe a most marked reduction in the morbidity and mortality
has taken place during the past ten years, coincident with the enforce­
ment of preventive measures. The number of cases of lead poisoning
in England, where report is compulsory, has been reduced from 1,278
cases in 1898 to 592 cases in 1905. While most of the cases occurred
in sugar-of-lead works and potteries, a considerable number were also
reported in the other occupations already referred to. The percent­
age of severe cases in men was 23.9, as compared with 13.9 in females—
a Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, p. 76.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

491

perhaps because the latter have cleaner habits and possibly also stop
work more promptly upon the appearance of the first symptoms.
In Paris it is estimated that over 30,000 persons are engaged in
occupations involving exposure to lead, and of the 14,000 painters and
varnishers employed there an average of 250 are treated annually in
the hospitals for lead poisoning.
File cutters are subjected not only to an irritant dust, but also to
lead poisoning, because the file in cutting is being held upon a leaden
bed “ and particles of lead are inhaled with the dust and may also be
absorbed by the fingers in handling the stiddy.” In England the
mortality figure for plumbism, in 1890-1892, was no less than 75. (a)
The greatest danger in lead works is from inhalation of the lead dust
and fumes; hence a special spray apparatus and exhausters have been
designed, and employees have been taught to protect their hands with
gloves and the mouth and nose with respirators.
In the pottery industry, where the danger arises from the glazes,
the flux being made of litharge, clay, and flint, it has been found that
the danger can be very much reduced by using only 8 per cent of car­
bonate of lead in the form of a “ double-fritted silicate,” instead of the
older method, in which from 13 to 24 per cent of lead carbonate was
employed.
Smoking should be forbidden during the working hours, and the
work should be done in a special suit, frequently washed. The hands,
face, and nostrils should be thoroughly washed with soap and water
upon cessation of work, and the mouth and throat rinsed with a watery
solution of tartrate of ammonia before eating and drinking. The
same rules are applicable to painters, who would likewise find it of
benefit to soften old paints with an alkali (weak lye) before scraping
and to keep the handles of tools clean from deposits.
THE LEAD INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS.

The report of the Massachusetts Board of Health gives a very
complete account of the conditions which obtain in the manufacture of
lead compounds in the several factories visited. “ The men who attend
the grinding machines are of a very different class from those who
empty the stacks, and, since they are not exposed to lead dust, they do
not suffer from lead poisoning and are comparatively healthy. Those
who empty the stacks do not remain long at work. It is said that this
is due in part to the disagreeable nature of the work, in part to the
fact that they are largely roving characters who do not care to work
more than a few days occasionally, and in part to the fact that they
acquire lead poisoning and are obliged to quit. Even those of good
intention rarely work more than a month.’ ’




a Dangerous Trades, Oliver, 1902, p. 138.

4 92

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

One establishment is referred to where white lead is made by the
“ wet process,” with no evolution of dust, and there is no history of
lead poisoning. In a “ red-lead” factory, also, the general process is
commended, especially the absence of appreciable amounts of dust,
and the intelligence of the workmen, who are mindful of the dangers
and who, with an experience of 6 to 25 years, appear well and strong.
In one of the lead-oxide works more or less dust escapes into the air
during the transfer to the mill and packing it into barrels. The men
wear respirators, and each man washes carefully and changes all his
clothes before leaving the establishment. In another establishment
“ all of the 40 employees appeared to be in good health, and the con­
ditions everywhere were found to be commendable.”
In the lead pipe and plumbers’ supplies factories the lead fumes
are carried away by hoods and exhaust pipes, and in no instance was
it possible to trace a case of lead poisoning to faulty methods. All
of the employees observed the necessary precautions and appeared
to be in good health. In the manufacture of solder the same precau­
tions are employed, and although in the establishment described
rats, cats, and dogs appear to succumb to lead poisoning only one case
of lead poisoning occurred among the employees in 35 years.
In the pottery industry it is said that lead poisoning is almost
unknown in the six establishments visited; only two cases occurred
a few years ago in girls who applied the glaze. A possible explanation
for this gratifying contrast to conditions observed in French and
English potteries may be found in the fact “ that the persons engaged
in this industry appear to be of good intelligence, and understand
thoroughly the importance of care and strict personal cleanliness, and
that the employers provide ample means for its maintenance.” ^)
Wire and wire-cloth making as carried on in some of the plants
visited in Massachusetts appears to be attended, in the opinion of
Doctor Hanson ,(b) b y “ avoidable dangerous conditions.” “ After
the wire is hardened by being rim into crude oil, it is passed through
kettles of molten lead inside the tempering furnaces, and is then fin­
ished and wound for shipment. From the tempering furnaces dense
blue fumes arise, and envelop the men whose work it is to feed and
tend them. Occasional cases of lead poisoning occur in this depart­
ment. In one establishment, one of the employees of 5 years’ experi­
ence shows the characteristic blue line of lead poisoning on the gums;
and another, of 14 years’ experience, in the same room, has a history
of 'wrist-drop’ and other evidence of chronic poisoning. Efficient
a Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, pp. 97-101.
&“ The effect of industry on h e a lth /’ Boston Medical Journal, No. 14, April 4,
1907, W m . C. Hanson.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

493

mechanical ventilation is most necessary in this work, but it is not
always provided.” (a)
Doctor Hanson, evidently referring to the same factory, writes:
“ All of the employees in this room worked 11 hours a day and had
irregular hours for eating. There were no rules concerning the duties
of the employers or those of the persons employed in order to avoid
this serious danger. On the contrary, the hoods and blowers and
top ventilators for the lead and other fumes were found to be dis­
tinctly inefficient, and over one large furnace there was no protection
of any sort, the appliances having been broken years before and none
renewed, so that all the fumes mingled at once with the air of the
room.”
In making shingle stains pigments like chromate of lead, zinc oxide,
iron oxide, and Prussian blue are used, and in the two establishments
visited the men appeared to be careless in the matter of handling the
pigments. In the manufacture of paints, colors, and varnishes
much of the work is done outdoors by men who have worked from 6
to 20 years; “ the man who makes the lead colors has worked 17 years
without sickness. The last cases of poisoning at this establishment
occurred 16 years ago, when a number of inexperienced men were
poisoned with Paris green.” In a color and mordant factory where
aniline colors, logwood, starch, sodium dichromate, etc., are used,
“ about one in five of the employees is noticeably pale and sallow,” and
inflamed eyes were not uncommon. The latter condition is ascribed
to the sodium dichromate. In the manufacture of “ whiting” about
half of the 58 men employed in three establishments visited “ looked
to be in poor condition.” (*)
6
*
PRINTERS, TYPE POUNDERS, AND TYPESETTERS.

The mortality of printers in England is high, being 1,096 per 10,000,
as against 953 for all occupied males, and 602 for agriculturists. (c)
According to Schuler, of 1,000 Swiss typesetters and founders, 304.7
are annually taken sick, and of printers 250. Diseases of the digest­
ive organs predominate (78 per 1,000). Diseases of the respiratory
passages come next (75 per 1,000). Sommerfeld states that among
38 occupations tabulated by him the printers occupy the fifth rank
in the number of deaths from tuberculosis. Albrecht reports that
the statistics of the Berlin Sick Benefit Insurance Company covering
a period of 33 years show that 48.13 per cent of the deaths among
printers are caused by consumption. (d)
« Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, p. 91.
&Ib id ., pp. 106, 107.
c Dangerous Trades, Oliver, p. 151.
d Roth, Kompendium der Gewerbekrankheiten, Berlin, p. 56.




494

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

This may be due in part to the fact that many weaklings engage in
this occupation, but the work itself is often performed in most unfa­
vorable environments and in an impure and dusty atmosphere, which
lias been found to contain traces of lead, arsenic, and antimony.
Special attention should be paid to proper ventilation, and particu­
larly to the collection and removal of dust from the type cases. One
gram of this dust has been found to contain 57.7 mg. of lead, 186.8
mg. of antimony, and traces of arsenic. (a) Strasser has suggested
a type case with perforated tin bottom which is placed within another
case, so as to facilitate the collection and proper disposition of this
injurious form of dust.
A recent study of the “ Health of printers,” by George A. Stevens,
in the Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics of New York, based on the records of the International Typo­
graphical Union and the London (England) Society of Compositors,
shows clearly the very high death rate from tuberculosis among
printers.
The following table gives for the years 1901 to 1905 the annual
death rates per 1,000 from the leading causes and from all causes
among compositors in certain localities:
A N N U A L D E A T H R AT E PER 1,000 FROM PR INCIPAL CAUSES AN D A L L CAUSES AMONG
COMPOSITORS IN C E R T A IN LOCALITIES, FOR TH E F IV E Y E A R S , 1901 TO 1905.
[From Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of New York, 1906.]
Death rate per 1,000.

Locality.

Tuber­
culosis
of lungs
Pneu­
and other monia.
respira­
tory or­
gans.

New York City.........
Other New York
State.........................
Total New York
State.........................
Chicago, 111.................
Philadelphia, P a ___
All other United
States.......................
Total United States.
London, England . . .

Diseases Diseases Diseases Diseases
Acci­
of nerv­ of genito­
dents
of the of digest­
ous sys­ urinary
ive sys­ and in­
heart.
tem.
system.
tem.
juries.

All
causes.

3.82

2.42

1.91

1.63

1.37

0.99

0.89

16.32

2.54

.97

1.49

.70

1.67

.97

.61

11.14

3.48
2.42
3.65

2.03
1.57
.70

1.80
1.04
2.26

1.38
.98
.70

1.45
1.44
1.39

.98
.45
.52

.82
.72

14.94

3.38
3.34
3.69

1.07
1.30
.67

1.33
1.44
1.16

1.02

1.37
1.39
1.97

.74
.76
.51

.60
.64
.19

1.08
.51

1 .1
02
12.35

1 .2
20
12.63
12.19

A second table gives for the same period the per cent of deaths
due to tuberculosis in the selected localities for compositors and for
all persons 20 years of age or over. It will be seen that in all the
localities the percentage of deaths due to tuberculosis is very much
higher for compositors than for all persons 20 years of age or
over in the same community. For New York State outside of New
Y ork City and for London, England, the percentage for compositors
is more than double that for the population 20 years of age or over
as a whole.
flRozsahegyi, Archiv. fur Hygiene, Munich and Leipzig, vol. 3, p . 522.




495

INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

PER CENT OF D EATH S FROM TUBERCULOSIS OF TH E LUNGS AND OTH ER R ESPIR A­
T O R Y ORGANS OF PERSONS 20 Y E A R S OF AGE OR OVER AND OF COMPOSITORS,
IN CER TAIN LOCALITIES, 1901 TO 1905.
[From the Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of New York, p. cxxv.]
Per cent of deaths i n Locality.
1901.
ALL PERSONS

1902.

1903.

1904.

1905.

Five
years.

20 YEARS OF AGE OR OYER.

New York City......................................................................
Other New York State.......................................................
Total New York State........................................................
Chicago, 111..........*.................................................................
Philadelphia, P a...................................................................
London, England.................................................................

17.7
11.4
14.5
14.9
16.3
14.9

17.7
10.9
14.2
14.6
15.5
13.9

17.6

16.5

17.4

17.4

14.0
14.5
15.8
15.3

13.6
16.0
16.8
15.0

13.9
17.0
15.9
13.6

14.0
15.4
16.1
14.5

17.0
32.3

18.2
10.5
17.1
28.6
7.1
24.0

26.6
21.4
25.5
7.7
13.3
26.0
24.4
28.2

2 .1
1
16.0
20
.1

10
.6

10.6

10.6

10.8

COMPOSITORS.

New York City......................................................................
Other New York State.......................................................
Total New York State........................................................
Chicago, 111.............................................................................
Philadelphia, P a...................................................................
Ail other United States......................................................
Total United States.............................................................
London, England.................................................................

36.5
29.2
34.9
26.9
43.8
31.1
32.3
32.0

20.8

28.0
50.0
29.9
27.8
26.2

22.2
36.4

33.3
35.7
29.2
27.2
29.1

23.4

22.8

23.3
23.9
29.6
27.7
26.4
30.2

Mr. Stevens, in commenting on the high death rate from tubercu­
losis among compositors, says: “ Scarcely any other occupation fur­
nishes so large a quota of victims from consumption. The domestic
life of printers is parallel to that of other artisans in equal financial
circumstances. As wages go in these days, they are fairly compen­
sated for their labor, thus enabling them to have homes as healthful
as may be procured by the best paid workmen in any community.
Neither can it be said that compositors are ill-nourished and therefore
rendered more susceptible to the insidious action of tubercle bacilli.
The determining cause of their susceptibility to the harmful process
of the ‘great white plague’ lies in a different direction— to the neglect
of sanitary precautions in far too many composing rooms.”
With proper attention to sanitary conditions in the composing
rooms the death rate from consumption could undoubtedly be very
materially reduced. The excellent results that have come from
improved sanitation in workrooms appear from the mortality statis­
tics for 1905 of the National Organization of Printers in Germany.
“ The average membership of the union in that year was 44,236, of
whom 283, or 6.40 per 1,000, died from all causes, while 134 of the
total were affected with diseases of the respiratory system, from
which the death rate was 3.03, ( a) tuberculosis not being separated in
the tabular presentation.” ^)
a The corresponding death rates among compositors in New York City was 7.17;
other New York State, 4.04; total New York State, 6.34; Chicago, 4.11; Philadelphia,
5.04; total United States, 5.02, and London, England, 5.50.
& Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of New York,
1906, p. cxxxvii.




496

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

The regulations of the Federal Council of the German Empire,
which control sanitary conditions in German printing houses (put
into effect July 31, 1897), will indicate the means by which such low
death rates have been brought about. The regulations are given
in full.
I. In rooms in which persons are employed in setting up type or manufacture of
type or stereotype plates the following provisions apply:
“ 1. The floor of workrooms must not be sunk deeper than half a meter (1.64 feet)
below the ground. Exceptions may only be granted by the higher administrative
authority where hygienic conditions are secured by a dry area and ample means of
lighting and ventilating the rooms.
‘ ‘Attics shall only be used as workrooms if the roof is underdone with lath and plaster.
“ 2. In workrooms in which the manufacture of type or stereotype plates is carried
on the number of persons must not exceed such as would allow at least 15 cubic meters
of air space (529.74 cubic feet) to each. In the rooms in which persons are employed
only in other processes there must be at least 12 cubic meters of air space (423.79 cubic
feet) to each person.
“ In cases of exceptional temporary pressure the higher administrative authority
may, on the application of the employer, permit a larger number in the workrooms
for at the most 30 days in the year, but not more than will allow 10 cubic meters of air
space (353.16 cubic feet) for each person.
“ 3. The rooms must be at least 2.60 meters (8.528 feet) in height where a minimum
15 cubic meters are allowed for each person, in other cases at least 3 meters (9.84 feet)
in height.
“ The rooms must be provided with windows which are sufficient in number and size
to let in ample light for every part of the work. The windows must be so constructed
that they will open and admit of complete renewal of air in workrooms.
“ Workrooms with sloping roofs must have an average height equal to the measure­
ments given in the first paragraph of this section.
“ 4. The rooms must be laid with a close-fitting impervious floor, which can be
cleared of dust by moist methods. Wooden floors must be smoothly planed, and
boards fitted to prevent penetration of moisture.
“ All walls and ceilings must, if they are not of a smooth, washable surface or painted
in oil, be lime-washed once at least a year. If the walls and ceilings are of a smooth
washable surface or painted in oil, they must be washed at least once a year, and the
oil paint must, if varnished, be removed once in ten years, and if not varnished,
once in five years.
“ The compositors’ shelves and stands for type boxes must be either closely ranged
round the room on the floor so that no dust can collect underneath, or be fitted with
long legs so that the floor can be easily cleared of dust underneath.
“ 5. The workrooms must be cleaned and thoroughly aired once at least a day, and
during the working hours means must be taken to secure constant ventilation.
“ 6. The melting vessel for type or stereotype metal must be covered with a hood
provided with exhaust ventilation or chimney with sufficient draft to draw the fumes
to the outer air.
“ Type founding and melting may only be carried on in rooms separate from other
processes.
“ 7. The rooms and fittings, particularly the walls, cornices, and stands for type,
must be thoroughly cleaned twice a year at least. The floors must be washed or
rubbed over with a damp cloth so as to remove dust once a day at least.
“ 8. The type boxes must be cleansed before they are put in use, and again as often
as necessary, but not less than twice at least in the year.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

497

“ The boxes shall only be dusted out with a bellows in the open air, and this work
shall not be done by young persons.
“ 9. In every workroom spittoons filled with water, and one at least for every five
persons, must be provided. Workers are forbidden to spit upon the floor.
“ 10. Sufficient washing appliances with soap, and at least one towel a week for each
worker, must be provided in or as near as possible to the workrooms for compositors,
cutters, and polishers.
“ One wash hand basin must be provided for every five workers, with an ample
supply of water. The wash basin after its use by each person must be emptied.
“ The employer must make strict provision for the use of the washing appliances
by workers before every meal, and before leaving their work.
“ 11. Clothes put off during working hours must either be kept outside the work­
room or hung up in wardrobes with closely fitting doors or curtains, which are so shut
or drawn as to prevent penetration of dust.
“ 12. Artificial means of lighting which tend to raise the temperature of the rooms
must be so arranged or provided with counteracting measures, that the heat of the
workrooms shall not be unduly raised.
“ 13. The employer must draw up rules binding on the workers, which will insure
the full observance of the provisions in sections 8, 9 ,1 0 , and 11. In an establishment
where as a rule twenty people are employed these rules shall be inserted in the gen­
eral factory regulations, in accordance with section 134a of the Industrial Code.
“ II. In every workroom a notice must be posted, signed by the local police author­
ity, attesting to the correctness of the statements concerning (a) the length, height,
and breadth of rooms, (b) the air space in cubic measure, (c) and the number of
workers permitted in each room.
“ A copy of rules 1 to 13 must be affixed where it can be easily read b y all persons
affected.”
I I I . Provides for the method of permitting the exceptions named above in sections
2 and 3, and makes it a condition of reduction in cubic air space for each person
employed as type founder or compositor, that there shall be adequate mechanical ven­
tilation for regulating temperature and carrying off products of combustion from
workrooms.

HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES IN THE GOVERNMENT PRIN TIN G
OFFICE, WASHINGTON. (a)
Owing to improved hygienic conditions in modern printing offices,
type foundries, and stereotype and^electrotype foundries, lead poison­
ing now exists to a very limited extent among workers in such
establishments.
In the Government Printing Office at Washington, where upwards
of 4,500 employees are gathered in one building, excellent hygienic
conditions prevail. Every ten minutes the air in each room is changed
by a very simple device, consisting of air shafts leading from the
basement to the roof, which are pierced near the ceiling in each room
with suitable openings. A revolving fan placed just below the roof
a This section relating to the “ Health of employees in the Government Printing
Office” was prepared by W m . J. Manning, M. D ., Chief of the Sanitary Division in
the Government Printing Office, and is a reproduction of an article submitted in
competition by him for a prize offered by the International Labor Office, Basel,
Switzerland. The article was purchased for publication by that office on account of
merit.




4 98

BULLETIN OF TH E BTTEEATJ OF LABOR.

creates a suction, so that a constant supply of fresh air is available
at all times.
The electrotype and stereotype foundries are placed on the topmost
floor, the modern, rapidly moving elevators making this practicable,
so far as the employees are concerned. A t that height from the ground
currents of air are constantly in motion, with a consequently greater
diffusion of the gases than would prevail on floors nearer the ground.
In the large newspaper buildings of the various cities in the United
States the same idea is being carried out, these rooms being placed as
high in the air as possible.
In the type founding and stereotyping trades employees whose
duties call them to work over the fumes of the melting-pots are most
exposed to the injurious influences of lead, although the large amount
of alloy present tends to lessen the danger.
“ Finishers” of the plates, who handle only the smooth, hard, bright
slabs of the alloyed metal, run the least risk of lead poisoning, because
the slabs are free from all oxides and there is little or no dust, the
small particles which rub off the plates on the hands of the workmen
being in the metallic state and perfectly dry. In contradistinction
to this is the case of the painter. Here the lead, being in the form of
a carbonate (white lead) and being mixed with such an excellent
absorbing material as oil, the danger of lead poisoning is greatly
increased.
In type foundries practically the same conditions exist as in electro­
type foundries, those who work in the vicinity of the melting-pots
being liable to be affected by the toxic vapors which arise therefrom.
This is particularly the case where the lead is impure and contains
volatile substances which, combining with the lead fumes, might
possibly add to the toxic influences of the lead. Hence, in “ fluxing”
the metal, when wax is employed as the agent, as little as possible
should be used.
Females are, as a rule, employed in this country to sort, finish, and
pack the type. Here, as with the “ finishers” in the electrotype
foundries, the metal is bright and free from oxides, besides being
largely alloyed; hence the chance of absorption with toxic results is
greatly lessened. Doctor Osier has pointed out that the ratio of
women susceptible to lead poisoning is small as compared with men.
W hy they are thus immune is hard to say; but, so far as type founding
is concerned, probably the above statement indicates the cause.
W ith the compositor the chances of absorption of lead from the type
metal by the skin is probably nil. Only a small portion of the epidermis
of the fingers (the apex of the thumb and forefinger) is brought in con­
tact with the metal both in “ distributing” and in “ setting,” and the epi­
dermis at these parts is in a more or less thickened, dense condition.
Thus, the compositor is protected from absorbing the metal, even




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

499

when the type is covered with the hydrate which is formed by the
long-continued action of air and water. It is well known that sub­
stances are absorbed but slightly, if at all, through the skin that is in a
thickened condition, and since the small atoms which become sepa­
rated from the metal type in one way and another are in a metallic
form the chances of absorption are even more remote.
The danger to the compositor, as with the melting-pot tender, would
seem to lie in inhalation. With the former the introduction into the
system would be by dust, and with the latter in the form of gas.
When foreign bodies are taken into the system in a state of fine sub­
division, the favorite seat will be found, as a rule, in the bronchi and
the lungs. The process, so far as compositors are concerned, might be
termed “ plumbiosis.” The dust which is not carried directly into the
alveoli of the lungs by the air breathed finds lodgment on the mem­
brane of the bronchi and their ramifications. That considerable dust
is carried down the esophagus into the stomach and from there swept
out into the intestines is not to be doubted. Might not these fine par­
ticles cause the “ colic” or active peristalsis by the stimulation of the
circular and longitudinal muscular fibers in a mechanical way on the
muscles themselves or in a chemic way by a stimulation of the nerves
controlling these fibers? This “ colic” is one of the first symptoms
complained of by the patient.
That the white blood corpuscles play an important part in carrying
this finely divided substance throughout the body is also probable, the
mode of action being to inclose the fine particles and try to dissolve
them, and, failing in that, to transport them to distant points in the
body and to the various organs. In that condition known as anthracosis, or coal-miner’s consumption, the lung is found to be covered
with black dust. The same conditions are found in those suffering
from stonecutter’s consumption, the absence of carbon rendering the pig­
ment somewhat lighter in color. The condition is known as lithosis.
In the knife and saw sharpener’s trade the dust is in the form of steel
and the consequent disease is known as siderosis. In each case the
fine dust finds lodgment in the lungs.
The lungs become so pigmented after long exposure to these condi­
tions, and the alveoli so congested and choked, accompanied by a low
form of inflammation that the substances set up, that this, with the
unhygienic surroundings and bad ventilation, might explain why so
many compositors die each year from tuberculosis. Certainly the
tubercle bacilli find a congenial environment in which to begin their
fatal work. To the above conditions must be added, of course, the
toxic influence of the lead itself, together with the persistent astringent
effect of the lead on the air cells. Lead is a very feeble antiseptic and
does not seem to inhibit the growth of the bacilli.




500

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The lymph nodes very likely play an important part in carrying the
lead through the body to produce plumbism. When lymph nodes
become loaded with foreign material of any nature they are apt to
break down and the circulation carries the substances to various parts
of the body. This would seem to explain the peculiar color of those
suffering from plumbism, and it might explain why the kidneys become
so irritated and why albumin is found in the urine. Certain tissues seem
to have an affinity for the lead thus carried and it is deposited in them.
The blue line on the gums, which is pathognomonic of lead poisoning,
may be the result of this. It may be that sulphur, which has such a
strong affinity for lead and which might be taken into the mouth in arti­
cles of food and drink, causes this pigmentation. It is strange that the
blue line does not make its appearance on any other part of the body.
Certain it is that potassium sulphide when added to a bath will bring out
this pigment over the entire body, which remains until the lead in the
skin is either eliminated or the affinity is satisfied.
Lead poisoning in the chronic form, as already stated, is very rare
among type founders, electrotypers, Stereotypers, and in the print­
ing trades in this country. It may present itself in the regular
type or the symptoms may be hidden. The characteristic symptoms
are the blue line on the gums, and the wrist drop, due to the paralysis
of the extensors of the forearms. In some cases it first makes its
appearance in anaemia and in a loss of strength. Anaesthesia may appear
in spots on different parts of the body, the spots varying in size from
that of a half dollar to that of the hand. They may appear on the
arms, legs, or on the back. In some cases these symptoms are entirely
absent. Albumin may appear in the urine. Doctor Osier describes
cases that have come under his care where the symptoms resembled gout
and rheumatism. The joints would swell and become very red and ten­
der, the patient suffering all the while intense pain. Doctor W ood
mentions cases where the symptoms resembled acute poliomyelitis.
In other cases there was simply a failure of health, anaemia, nervous
phenomena, etc., the patient having ill-defined, sharp, shooting pains.
The pain from the colic seems to radiate from the umbilicus in all
instances. Arteriosclerosis has been noticed, with atrophy of the
kidneys and hypertrophy of the heart, the enlargement of the latter
organ probably being due to its redoubled effort to force the blood
through the various contracted distal organs. This contraction may
be due, in a measure, to the astringent action of the lead which is
noticed upon all tissues when lead is applied in its various forms.
The treatment in these cases may be divided into the preventive
and curative, the former relating, of course, only to the trades men­
tioned in this article. Among the measures which might be taken in
the prevention of plumbism in the printing, type founding, and electro­
typing and stereotyping trades would be, first of all, the location.




INDUSTBIAL H YG IEN E.

501

The rooms devoted to the melting of type metal should be situated as
high as possible, on the topmost floor of the building, and the ceil­
ings should be at least 10 feet from the floor. Windows should be
placed on both sides of the room, so that a current of air may be in
constant motion and a fresh supply always on hand. In winter or
bad weather a very simple way to obtain fresh air consists in placing a
board 3 or 4 inches high lengthwise under the lower window sash.
This will enable the fresh air to enter between the lower and upper
sashes without causing a direct draft on the workmen. The pots
should be covered with iron hoods that will cover the entire top of
the melting-pot proper. The hoods should set as near the metal as
possible, in such a way that they will not interfere with the manipula­
tion o f the ladles or dippers. Hoods with small pipes when used as
fume chambers do not answer. It has been found that to be of any
service or benefit, the pipe leading from the hood or fume chamber
should be nearly as large as the chamber itself and should lead to a
smoke chimney or into the outside air. The heat generated should
supply draft enough to carry the fumes off in this way. It might be
aided by placing a revolving, circular ventilator in the pipe from the
outside to be operated by the wind. The whole thing might be made
very cheaply of galvanized iron. Various face masks have been sug­
gested, but none seems to be practical, and after a mask is worn for
some time it really becomes a greater danger than if it had not been
used, owing to the lack of cleanliness. Cotton and such substances in
the nose are useless, because the workman will then breathe through
his mouth.
The personal treatment on the part of the workman should be a
change of underclothing after work, a bath at least three times a
week in hot water with plenty of soap, and at the same time the vig­
orous application of a flesh brush to the skin. The object here is
twofold— to keep the pores free and to remove any particles that may
have lodged there, and hence lessen the danger of absorption, while
at the same time helping the pores to eliminate that which has been
absorbed. The bowels should be kept open by the use of such simple
laxatives as sweet oil, castor oil, calomel and soda, etc. An electro­
typer who has been in the business for some forty years, and who is
now the chief of the largest foundry in the world, informed the writer
that it was his custom to take a teaspoonful of sweet oil every other
day and that he had never suffered from any ill effects of plumbism.
So far as compositors are concerned the preventive treatment just
described would apply to them. The principal danger here is the
bad ventilation, insanitary surroundings, and the dust (principally
graphite and minute particles of type metal) which becomes detached
by the abrasion of the pieces against each other while being handled.
To offset this, “ cases” should be blown out by a bellows at least once
each week; if possible, in the open air. The bottoms in the different



502

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

boxes, instead of being flat and square cornered and covered with
paper, should be slightly concave at the bottom, with the corners
rounded, somewhat like a cash till, the idea being to keep the dust
from lodging in the corners, where it is difficult to remove even with
a bellows. In cases constructed in this manner the dust is, by its
own weight, constantly working its way toward the center of each
box, where it can easily be removed.
A practical method of removing the caked dust is in vogue in the
Government Printing Office at Washington. The type forms after
leaving the electrotype foundry are placed on a raised rack which
drains into a shallow tank some 6 inches in depth, a pipe connecting
this with a sewer. The forms are placed in a horizontal position—
that is to say, the side of the chase rests on the rack. Steam under
pressure is conducted by a rubber hose and the face of the type is
thoroughly “ blown,” as is the reverse of the form. Later, when the
forms are unlocked, the pages are tied up and placed in the “ boiling
chamber.” This chamber consists of a zinc-lined box about 6 feet in
length, 4 feet wide, and 4 feet high, a trapdoor at the top being the
only opening. In the bottom is placed a coil of steam pipe which
covers the entire floor of the box, one end of the pipe being left open.
The pages of type are placed on shallow perforated trays somewhat
like a “ galley,” each tray fitting in a copper rack, consisting simply of
two loops of copper, somewhat like an inverted U, with pins attached
on which the trays set. Each rack holds eight pages, or a “ signature/’
on eight trays. After the box is filled, steam is turned on and the
type is thoroughly boiled for an hour or more. The pages are lifted
in and out by means of hooks. This method not only removes the
graphite, but disintegrates the type and “ loosens” it, permitting easy
distribution. It also leaves the type very clean and aseptic, lessen­
ing the chances of infection by the absence of germs. The method of
letting cold water run on the forms and thus cleansing them is not so
thorough, because the graphite “ cakes” and clings to the type and the
dust is thrown into the compositor’ s case with the type, making the
cases very dusty and dirty. Each compositor should supply himself
with a small brush, suitable for the hands, to be used each time he
washes.
In acute cases of lead poisoning the treatment consists in the admin­
istration of alkaline carbonates, soap, soluble sulphates, sodium
chloride, etc., washing out the stomach with large drafts of water,
etc. Alum has been given, and at one time was considered almost
a specific. Sweet oil and castor oil will be found useful. Milk should
be taken in large quantities. The idea is first to combat the symp­
toms and then eliminate the lead. Opium can be given for pain.
Warm sulphureted baths are very beneficial. They can be made by
dissolving 4 ounces of potassium sulphide in 30 gallons of water in a




INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.

503

wooden tub. These baths discolor the skin, from the formation of
lead sulphide, and should be repeated every few days until this effect
ceases. During each bath the patient should be well washed with
soap and water to remove discoloration.
A melting pot is attached to each of the various kinds of typesetting
machines, and where many machines are in use, unless there is plenty
of pure air constantly entering the room and perfect ventilation pro­
vided, the fumes from each pot should be conducted by pipes to a
chamber in which there is a vacuum, so that the fumes may be
instantly removed and carried out into the atmosphere. The virtue
of the machine, so far as health is concerned, lies in the fact of the
absence of dust, with the additional advantage that the operator does
not lay himself open to exposure in handling the metal to so great a
degree as in the case of the hand compositor.
There are other alloys that would take the place of lead in type
metal, but owing to the excessive cost and high fusing point their use
is not practical.
From a sanitary point of view the collection, cleaning, and disinfec­
tion of the spittoons in the Government Printing Office is a matter of
considerable importance. This will be readily understood when it is
remembered that there are over 4,500 persons engaged during the 24
hours, all working in eight-hour shifts, and that no fewer than 1,200
cuspidors must be cleaned at the end of each shift.
The method now being installed under Doctor Manning's direction
effects this without direct digital contact. It consists in a central
sterilizing chamber situated in the basement of the Printing Office,
with a cement floor, graded toward the center and made up of two
inclines and one shallow gutter, i. e., concavity or semilunar groove,
in the cement floor under each of six movable iron longitudinal racks
extending lengthwise of the room. These racks consist simply of 1-inch
angle-iron strips f-inch in thickness, arranged in tiers, 13 inches apart,
from which hang suspended at intervals of 9 inches steel-wire spring
clutches, secured by a nut and bolt through the eye of the clutch and
bolted firmly to the underside of the angle iron. All edges, angles,
comers, and returns of the floor are well rounded and each of the four
walls has a 12-inch “ sanitary base ” in order that all parts of the room
may be self cleansing and draining. The walls of the sterilizing
chamber are composed of white, glazed, vitrified brick.
The wire clutch is shaped somewhat like an inverted letter U, and
grasps the cuspidor around the constricted portion or neck when the
latter is pressed against the orifice or bell-shaped opening at the bot­
tom of the spring. This spring permits both expansion and contrac­
tion around the neck of the cuspidor, and has a sufficient grasp to
hold the cuspidor firmly in place while it is subjected to internal and
37691— N o. 75— 08------15




504

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

external washing with a stream of hot water from a hose. After
thorough cleansing, the cuspidors are subjected to the action of super­
heated steam, by which all forms of vegetable and organic life are
killed, even the most resistant spore-bearing disease germs.
The cuspidors are collected in the workrooms by a mechanical
device or holder so designed as to clutch and “ nest” at one time five
of the soiled cuspidors, one above the other, and are carried directly,
by means of the holder, to specially designed wooden, zinc-lined box
trucks with detachable sides. Each truck is capable of holding 175
cuspidors for transmission to the sterilizing chamber. As five soiled
cuspidors are taken to the truck they are replaced by five sterilized
cuspidors picked up and distributed by the same mechanism, all of
which is accomplished by the operator b y the use of one hand only.
After the trucks are filled they are transmitted from the respective
floors to the basement on a freight elevator and wheeled directly into
the sterilizing chamber. Here one of the sides of the box truck is
removed, and the operator, by the use of another specially designed
forceps, reaches out and grasps the lip of a cuspidor, lifts it free, and
with a pronation or twist of the wrist empties the vessel. At the same
time, with an upward movement, still grasping the forceps, he brings
the constricted part of the cuspidor against the bottom of the wire
clutch, which receives and holds it in the manner already described.
When the racks have been thus filled the operator faces the front of
the racks or mouths of the cuspidors and directs a stream of boiling
hot water into and against the cuspidors. The same method is pur­
sued from the rear of each respective rack, and thus a large number of
cuspidors are quickly cleaned in a thorough and absolutely sanitary
manner.
As soon as this operation has been completed the floor is thoroughly
flushed with hot water and all foreign matter is carried into the sewer
by means of two centrally located waste outlets protected by a back­
pressure valve.
The door of the sterilizing chamber is built on the order of a bulk­
head door of a steamer; it is closed with a swivel “ keeper” and is
steam tight.
For economic reasons an exhaust steam pipe is tapped and a branch
carried into the top of the sterilizing chamber. This pipe has a
number of apertures on the underside and quickly fills the room with
steam, coming from above downward.
The sterilization is continued for one hour at a temperature of
about 100° centigrade. A t the expiration of this period the steam is
turned off and the air shaft leading to the roof opened for the escape of
steam and to aid condensation, thus quickly ridding the room of all
vapor. The door of the chamber is then opened, and the operator,




INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.

505

after the cuspidors have cooled, plucks them from the rack with his
hands and proceeds to place layer after layer in trucks until the latter
are full.
When a layer is laid in a truck, he pours in a solution made up of
bichloride of mercury, 7.3 grains; citric acid, 7.7 grains, to each liter
(1.06 quart) of water, colored with fuchsine to differentiate the solu­
tion. This gives a strength, approximately, of 1 part of the chemicals
to 2,000 parts of water, sufficient to destroy whatever infectious germs
may find their way into the cuspidors through expectoration or
otherwise.
The bichloride is used for its germicidal power, while the citric acid
is added to retard the coagulation of the albumin in the saliva and
expectoration and thus render the action of the bichloride of mercury
more potent.
The entire cost of the chemical disinfectants named amounts to less
than $12 per annum.
The cuspidors are specially designed to permit of easy cleaning and
self-draining. Angles which would interfere with the cleaning process
have been avoided, and the stream of water will readily reach all the
internal surfaces. The constriction or neck is sufficiently wide to
permit the stream of the hose to enter with full force. A certain
amount of constriction at the neck seemed desirable to hide the con­
tents of cuspidor when in use. They were designed, however, with the
special object of easy cleaning and without direct digital contact,
because it would seem almost inhuman to ask a cleaner to place his
hand, containing even a sponge, in the ordinary stock cuspidor and
wash the interior in a thorough and sanitary manner. All of this
repulsive work has been avoided, so that by the new method the
operator does not touch the cuspidor with his hands until he plucks the
washed and sterilized vessel from the rack and places it in the truck.
Hard vitrified china ware has been used to construct the cuspidors,
as this is the only material that will withstand the corrosive action of
bichloride of mercury and at the same time present a smooth surface
for sanitary cleansing.
Approximately about 3,800 barrels of sawdust have been used each
year for spitboxes in the Government Printing Office, at a cost of
about $100 per month. While, of course, this item will be saved,
together with the cost of handling and carting away the foul and
polluted sawdust, the main object has been to reduce to a minimum the
danger of infection through tuberculous sputa among the employees. (a)
a A ll the mechanical devices mentioned above were designed by Doctor Manning.




506

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

The table following shows the number of cases, both surgical and
medical, receiving treatment at the emergency room of the Govern­
ment Printing Office during the period of 26 months from January 1,
1906, to February 29, 1908:
N U M B ER OF CASES R ECEIVIN G T R E A TM E N T A T T H E GO VER N M EN T PR IN T IN G
OFFICE EM ER G EN CY ROOM FROM J A N U A R Y 1, 1906, TO F E B R U A R Y 29, 1908.

Year 1906.
Character of case.

January and Feb­
ruary, 1908.

Year 1907.

Num­ Re­
Num­ Re­
Num­ Re­
ber of sumed Sent ber of sumed Sent ber of sumed Sent
cases. work. home. cases. work. home. cases. work. home.

SURGICAL.
Poisoned wounds:
Right hand.......................................
Left hand..........................................
Left leg...............................................
Right leg............................................
Right forearm..................................
Left forearm.....................................
Left foot............................................
Sprain:
Back...................................................
Left wrist..........................................
Right wrist.......................................
Ankle..................................................
Thumb...............................................
Incised wounds:
Left arm............................................
Left hand..........................................
Right hand.......................................
Right forearm..................................
Forehead...........................................
Burn, first degree:
Left hand..........................................
Right hand.......................................
Chest...................................................
Forehead............................................
Right arm.........................................
Left forearm.....................................
Both hands.......................................
Forehead, scalp, and eq/r...............
Left, foot............................................
Bum , second degree:
Loft hand................................ .........
Right hand____ * ............................
Right arm . . ................................
Left foot........................................., .
Bum , third degree:
Left hand...........................................
Punctured wounds:
Right forearm ............................ .
Right, foot . . .................................
Left f o o t ...........................................
Tifift bftnd
. ........... .....................
Right hand.......................................
Forehead...........................................
p«aip.
............. ........................
Lower lip
.................... .........
Contused wounds:
Ribs
..........................
Tjftft f orparm.....................................
Right forearm
..
__ _
Left, hand..........................................
Right hn.rid.......................................
Right foot.........................................
TiPft foot .........................................
T^eft leg
............... ..... ..................
Both legs
T*e.ft shoulder
__ __ ____
Left elbow, right hand, left knee.

4
5
2
1
2

4
5
2
1
2

16
7
1

14
7
1

1
4
1
2
3

1
4
1
2
3

1
3
1

1
3
1

1
2

2

1

2

1
16
8

1
14
8

3
2

3
2

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
3

1
3
1

1
2
4
1
2
3

1
2
4
1
2
3

2

..............................

5

Lacerated wounds:
Forehead
- - ______
Scalp
............. - ...........
Left hand...........................................

2

2

2
2
13

2
2
11

1
1
1
1

1
1
10

1

1

2
3
3
1
1

1
1
12
13
8
2
4
1

1
1
10
13
8
2
4
1

1

2
4

2
4

2

4
4
20

4
4
17

4
1
1
1
2
4

2

1

3
3
1

1
8
9

1
1
1
2




4
1

3
4
3
1

1

1

8
9

4

..

3

1
2
3
1

1
2

3
4
3
1

2

2
2
3
1

5
2

1

1
3
2
14
13
8

Forehead

1
18
14
1
1

1
2

2

1
22
15
1
1
5
2

1

2
4
2
4
1

2

1

1
3
2
16
13
8

...............

1

4
4
2
7
1

2
7

1

1
3
3
1
1

6
6
3

1

2
7

2
2
3
3
2
1

6
6
3

2

2

3

i

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE,

507

N U M BER OF CASES R E C E IV IN G T R E ATM EN T A T TH E G O VER N M EN T PR IN TIN G
OFFICE EM ER GENCY ROOM FROM J A N U A R Y 1, 1906, TO F E B R U A R Y 29, 1908—Cont’d.

Year 1906.
Character of case.

January and Feb­
ruary, 1908.

Year 1907.

Num­ Re­
Num­ Re­
Num­ Re­
ber of sumed Sent ber of sumed Sent ber of sumed Sent
cases. work. home. cases. work. home. cases. work. home.

surgical —concluded.

Lacerated wounds—Concluded.
Left leg...............................................
Right leg______ _____ - ............
Right forearm..................................
External canthus eye.....................
Removal foreign body:”
Spiculse lead from hand.................
Splinters, wood, from h a n d ........
Splinters^ wood, from sole of foot.
Fractures:
Third toe, right foot......................
Lower thirH radius (Colles’s)
Dislocations:
Left shoulder....................................
Right, thumb....................................
Left hip..............................................
stm.ngiiiatp.ri hernia. . . . . ....... ............
Bum,"cornea, right eye........................
Burn, fiomfi#., left e y e ..........................
Foreign b o d y in l a r y n x . .........
Acid bum, eye........ ” ..............................
Orchitis (injury).....................................
Foreign body in eye...............................
Total...............................................

1

16
1
2
4
2

18
2
2
4
2

2
1

1
1

2

2

1

1
1

4

1

1

10
4
1
7

1

1

14
4
1
7

1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1
2

1
1
2

26

26

222

206

27
5
8
28
2
3
9
17
24
16
2
4

27
5
5
28

1
1
1

1
2

1
1 i
|

l

1
2

i.

!

1

1
1
15

1
1
15

232

212

16
5
«5
23
p
1
7
10
16
16

16
5
3
23
7
10
15
16

1

2

4

2

9 ,
8
3
5

9
8

.

.

.

............!
1

2

3

.

16

10
20

10

104

99

4
3
3
10
1
1
3
4
10
6
1

4
2
1
9

5

MEDICAL.

"Diarrhea....................................................
Vertigo......................................................
Heart failure............................................
Intestinal colic.........................................
Ptomaine poisoning...............................
Apoplexy..................................................
Acute indigestion...................................
Trifacial neuralgia..................................
Syncope.....................................................
Cephalgia..................................................
Renal colic................................................
Hepatic colic............................................
Epistaxis..................................................
Hysteria................................................
Odontalgia................................................
Acute gastritis.........................................
Conjunctivitis..........................................
Asthenia....................................................
Dysmenorrhea.........................................
Menorrhagia............................................
Acute myalgia or muscle spasm.........
Otalgia....................................................... 1
Acute phlebitis........................................
Bronchial asthma (acute paroxysm).
Extreme nervousness............................
Heat exhaustion.....................................
Retention of urine..................................
Nervous prostration..............................
Convulsions..............................................
Malingering..............................................
Pseudo angina pectoris........................
Enteritis....................................................
Intercostal neuralgia............................
Tonsilitis (no treatment)....................
Tachycardia.............................................
Influenza (no treatment).....................
Migraine....................................................
Nervous chill............................................
Nervous collapse.....................................
Congestion of lungs................................
Lead colic..................................................

6

9
17
22
15
2

3
2
3
2

5
6
4

6
4
4
4
2
21
9
5
2

21
7
5
2

1
5
5

4
3

1
2

1
1

3
1
1
8

2
2
3
3
4
8
1
3
3
4
3
4
4

1

4

2
1
1

6
3

5
18
4
8
2
1
2
10
3
1

1
1

3

1

2
3

1
2
3

2

3
1
5
2
3
2
1
1
7

1

1
1
1
2

1

1

2
2

3

1

1

2
2
2

3
2
2
2
1
5

2
2
2
3

1
2

2
3

a N ot including 3 persons who dropped dead from heart failure in 1907.




2

3
2'
5
2
3
2
1
1
7

1

is

2

1

3
1
4
3
2

1

6

2

1

2
5
8
2
2
3
12
3
1

3
4
10
6

i
2
1
1
1

3
2
3
............i............

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

508

BULLETIN OP TH E BUBEAU OP LABOR.

NU M BER OF CASES R E C E IV IN G T R E A TM E N T A T TH E G O VER N M EN T P R IN T IN G
OFFICE EM ER GENCY ROOM FROM JA N U A R Y 1,1906, TO F E B R U A R Y 2 9 ,190S—Concl’d.

Year 1906.
Character of case.

January and Feb­
ruary, 1908.

Year 1907.

Num­ Re­
Num­ Re­
Num­ Re­
Sent
ber of sumed home. ber of sumed Sent ber of sumed Sent
cases. work.
cases. work. home. cases. work. home.

medical —concluded.

Acute pharyngitis..................................
Acute pleurisy.........................................
Synovitis...................................................
Gastralgia.................................................
Bursitis.....................................................
Epileptic fit..............................................
Poisoning..................................................
Uncertain diagnosis...............................
Total...............................................

5

1
2
7

2
278

5

2

1

7

4

4

1

1
38

1
1
6
1
1

5

1

2
240

5

1

a 216

193

23

99

6
1
83

1
1
1
16

a Not including 3 persons who dropped dead from heart failure in 1907.

The above table shows 558 surgical and 593 medical cases, a total
of 1,151 cases receiving treatment. There were 4,556 employees in
the building.
ARSENICAL DUST.

Arsenic is used in the manufacture of green pigments such as arsenite of copper (Scheele’s green) and aceto-arsenite of copper (Schweinfurt or Paris green). These pigments are used in connection with
wall paper, box, and card factories, the cretonne industry, and arti­
ficial flowers, possibly also in other occupations. White arsenic is
also used in the manufacture of shot, preservation of furs, and in taxi­
dermy, and for many other purposes.
In the manufacture of arsenate of lead in Massachusetts no objec­
tionable features were observed. (a) Reference has already been made
on page 493 to cases of poisoning with Paris green.
One of the factory inspectors of East London reported last year a
number of cases of arsenical poisoning in persons engaged in the manu­
facture of a powder used in a “ dip” for scabby sheep. The powder
contained arsenic in large amounts and was packed in a dry state in
paper boxes. Arsenical dust may be inhaled, but more frequently •
absorption takes place through the skin, and causes a train of symp­
toms, characterized by derangements of the stomach, sore mouth, dry
tongue, thirst, and a burning sensation in the throat. In the majority
of instances the symptoms become chronic, lasting for months and
years, and terminating in a general breakdown of the system, pre­
ceded b y skin eruptions, obstinate ulcers, and inflammation of the
peripheral nerves.
In the prevention of injurious effects, special attention must be paid
to wet processes; so, for example, the dusting of green pigments in the
a Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition

of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, p . 104.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

509

manufacture of artificial leaves and flowers from a dredging box is
wholly unjustifiable. As a matter of fact the use of arsenical pig­
ments should be dispensed with by the substitution of coal-tar colors.
The hands should always be protected with rubber gloves and the air
passages with respirators, and strict cleanliness of the skin and cloth­
ing should be observed.
OCCUPATIONS INVOLVING EXPOSURE TO IR R ITA TIN G OR
POISONOUS GASES OR VAPORS.
A large number of occupations involve the inhalation of irritating
and even poisonous gases and fumes. The danger may be very much
reduced by proper factory sanitation, such as (1) condensation; (2)
absorption by water or chemicals; (3) destructive distillation by heat
in a closed vessel; (4) combustion of gases that can be burned; (5)
forced ventilation and the discharge of gases into the air at a great
height. In addition to these precautions much attention must be paid
on the part of the operatives themselves to personal hygiene and the
use of respirators. Many of the employees in so-called dangerous
trades do not always avail themselves of the safeguards offered and
are opposed to the use of respirators. Mention is first made of the
less injurious but nevertheless irritating gases and fumes, like sulphur
dioxide, hydrochloric acid and nitrous fumes, ammonia, and chlorine,
which in small amounts cause more or less irritation of the air passages
and a tickling cough, while in a more concentrated form they are
productive of acute and chronic catarrhs and constitutional symptoms.
SULPHUR DIOXIDE.

This gas is believed to be a blood poison, on account of its affinity
for oxygen. It is evolved in smelting works, match factories, and in
the manufacture of sulphuric acid. It is also used as a bleaching
agent for cotton goods and straw hats and in the preparation of hops
and dried fruit. The employees, if not primarily in good health, are
said to suffer from respiratory and digestive disorders, heartburn, and
pain in the stomach, and are frequently sallow and anaemic. A
gradual tolerance may be established, and the danger is very slight if
free ventilation is provided. When evolved in the open air, and hence
largely diluted, it does not produce any injurious effects, except in
very susceptible persons; indeed the people around Vesuvius told
Doctor De Chaumont that the sulphur fumes are good for their health.
The Massachusetts Board of Health found that in the straw-hat fac­
tories visited in Massachusetts “ the employees are exposed to the sul­
phur fumes only when the doors are opened for the removal of the
stock, but they do not enter until the fumes have escaped or have been
driven out.” The men do not wear respirators in this or the other
process of bleaching, which is done by immersion of the stock in a



510

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF- LABOR.

chemical water bath. “ The men who were interviewed state that
neither process causes anything more than a temporary irritation of
the throat, and that many of them have worked in this department
for many years.” (®
)
HYDROCHLORIC ACID.

Hydrochloric-acid vapors are evolved from alkali works and in the
pickling process of galvanizing works or otherwise, and, apart from
being destructive to vegetation around the immediate vicinity, are
also very irritating, and even in small volumes may produce inflam­
mation of the eyes and of the respiratory passages. In a more con­
centrated form they have produced caustic effects on the tips and
edges of the tongue, ulcerations of the nasal wall and throat, bronchial
catarrh, pneumonia, difficult breathing, and stupor. Lehmann (6)
considers the extreme limit to which these vapors may be contained
in the air as 1/10 of volume per 1,000. Pettenkoffer,(c) on the
other hand, states that as much as 1 part per 1,000 can be borne
by those accustomed to it. The workmen in galvanizing works
are also subjected to fumes arising from the sal ammoniac thrown
upon the molten zinc. These fumes are to some more insupportable
than the acid fumes. Persons with bronchial troubles are often
obliged to discontinue the work. In an investigation of three galva­
nizing establishments in Boston, the Massachusetts Board of Health
found that in two the ventilation was efficient and the fumes are
rapidly carried off. “ The workmen in all three, about 60 in all,
appeared to enjoy good health, and asserted that, beyond sneezing
and coughing at times, they suffered no inconvenience or discomfort.”
SULPHURIC AND NITRIC ACIDS.

The fumes of sulphuric and nitric acids probably produce similar
effects. Eulenberg (d believes, however, that the fumes of sul­
)
phuric acid produce no special bad effects, because they sink very
readily and have a great affinity for the water in the air, so that they
reach the system in a highly diluted form. He also points out that
the nitrous fumes generated by contact of nitric acid with metals
are more injurious, in that they produce a special predisposition to
bronchitis, while pneumonia and diseases of the eye have also been
attributed to these gases.
a Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops, etc., Boston, 1907, p . 114.
& Lehmann: Archiv. fiir H ygiene, vol. 5.
c Cited by Harrington, Practical H ygiene, 1901, p. 656.
Handbuch der Gewerbehygiene, Berlin ,1876, p . 143.




INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.

511

The workmen should be instructed to avoid the fumes as much as
possible and to anoint the lips and nose within and without several
times a day. Protection should be afforded by ample ventilation,
and all processes involving the evolution of irritating or poisonous
fumes should be carried on in the open air or in open sheds.
According to the Massachusetts Board of Health the corrosive acids
are made in such a way that practically no fumes whatever escape,
the work being inclosed from beginning to end. In one of the largest
chemical factories in Massachusetts, where 300 men are employed, it
is said that the workmen “ are exposed very little to poisonous or irri­
tating fumes and dust or contact with poisonous or irritating sub­
stances. A t certain points in the building acid fumes in considerable
strength are constantly present, but at these points there is good
overhead ventilation, and the workmen are rarely obliged to approach
very near.” (a)
Among the products of the above-mentioned factory may be
mentioned hydrochloric, sulphuric, nitric, and acetic acids, am­
monia, sodium sulphite, sodium sulphate, alum, potassium cyan­
ide, ferrous sulphate, and other iron and sodium salts; also various
salts of tin, arsenic, antimony, zinc, copper, etc.
AMMONIA.

Ammonia rarely causes any serious disturbance, except a tempo­
rary irritation of the respiratory tract, unless present in very large
volumes. The amount which may be present, according to Lehmann,
should not exceed 0.5 per 1,000. A large volume has been known to
cause inflammation of the eyes and bronchial catarrh, while still
greater concentrations, which fortunately are rare, may produce dif­
ficult breathing and emphysema.
CHLORINE GAS.

Chlorine gas is generally present in the manufacture’ of chlorinated
lime, glazed bricks, and in bleaching operations, and is very apt to
produce, when present in the proportion of 1 to 5 pa*rts in 100,000 of
air, a cachectic condition, asthma, bronchitis, caries of the teeth, and
acne or pimples upon the face, while in a more concentrated form—
40 to 60 parts in 100,000— it produces a violent cough and extreme
difficulty in breathing.
Hirt describes these attacks as follows: “ In spite of the aid of the
auxiliary respiratory muscles the entrance of the air to the lungs is
insufficient, and the staring eyes, the livid lips, and the cold, clammy
perspiration plainly show the mortal agony of the patient. The
a Report of the State Board of H ealth of Massachusetts upon Sanitary Conditions
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, p. 103.




512

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

pulse is small and temperature decreased. These phenomena disap­
pear upon removal to the fresh air, and a few hours later the work­
man is found enveloped in chlorine and hydrochloric acid vapors in
his accustomed place in the factory. The attacks seem to be but
rarely fatal, unless the volume exceeds 60 parts per 100,000.”
BLEACHING ESTABLISHMENTS.

The Massachusetts Board of Health, in its summary of five bleacheries, with about 1,200 employees, speaks approvingly of the general
arrangements for ventilation and says: “ The odors of bleaching
powders, although observable in each of the rooms where that sub­
stance is employed, were in no case so strong as to be disagreeable
or to cause discomfort.” In one of the establishments the persons
exposed to the lint dust which escapes during unbaling and stitching
together of the cotton cloth all looked pale and sickly. (a)
IODINE AND BROMINE VAPORS.

Iodine and bromine vapors may produce toxic symptoms. The
fumes of iodine are liable to cause catarrhal conditions of the nose,
eyes, and air passages, and frequent headaches, while chronic iodine
poisoning produces a cachectic condition, wasting of the testicles,
and loss of sexual power. Persons engaged in the manufacture of
bromine are said to suffer quite frequently with a form of bronchial
asthma, dizziness, and general weakness, while concentrated vapors
have been known to produce spasm of the glottis and suffocation.
Bromine preparations are used to a considerable extent in photog­
raphy. Schuler (* describes three cases, one of which proved fatal,
6)
*
in men who prepared “ brommetyl” from wood alcohol and sul­
phuric acid. In all of these three cases there were pronounced symp­
toms of nausea, spasms, and trembling of the extremities and di­
minished bodily temperature.
TURPENTINE.

Turpentine vapors in excess may produce gastric and pulmonary
catarrh, slow and painful micturition and bloody urine, headache,
roaring in the ears, and other nervous symptoms. Schuler observed
among the workers in calico printing marked emaciation, loss of appe­
tite, rapid pulse, and more or less headache, which he attributed to
the turpentine vapors. Small quantities of the vapor produce no un­
pleasant symptoms. The odor of violets in the urine is one of the
remarkable effects. The use of impure turpentine for cleaning pur­
poses has been known to produce obstinate eczema of the hands.
a Report of the State Board of H ealth of Massachusetts upon Sanitary Conditions
of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, pp. 108, 109.
&Deutsche Viertelj. f. off. Gesundheitpflege, B d. 31, p. 696.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

513

PETROLEUM.

Concentrated vapors of coal oil are said to produce loss of sensation,
and the workmen in refineries occasionally show symptoms like those
observed in drunken persons, fall into a profound sleep, or suffer from
loss of memory, dizziness, headache, and chronic bronchial catarrhs.
Pustular, furuncular, and eczematous affections of the hands are also
quite common in persons handling this and paraffin oil. The latter is
also true of persons handling creosote and tar, unless protected by im­
permeable gloves. The dangers from explosions in the petroleum
industry must also be guarded against.
BENZINE VAPORS.

Dr. Neisser, in 1907, reports an instance where three laborers in a
carpet-cleaning establishment in which large quantities of benzine had
been used were found unconscious upon the floor and had to be
restored by oxygen inhalation. The toxic symptoms are similar to
those produced b y concentrated petroleum vapors, and the danger
from explosions and fire are of course even greater.
CARBON MONOXIDE.

Carbon monoxide, or coal gas, when present in sufficient amount
paralyzes, so to speak, the red corpuscles by depriving them of their
oxygen and, by combining with the haemoglobin, results in defi­
ciency of oxygen in the blood and serious toxic symptoms, which
may end in death by producing a rapid parenchymatous degenera­
tion of the liver, spleen, and heart. This gas is often present in gas
and smelting works and around coke or charcoal furnaces; 0.4 per
cent b y volume in the air will produce toxic symptoms, and more
than 1 per cent is rapidly fatal to animal life. The workmen some­
times, though not so often as is supposed, suffer from the chronic
form of poisoning, such as headache, dizziness, slow pulse, anaemia,
general debility, and diseases of the respiratory and digestive organs.
The acute symptoms of coal-gas poisoning are increased respiration
and pulse, violent headache, dizziness, and roaring in the ears.
These are soon followed by symptoms of depression, nausea and
vomiting, numbness, drowsiness, muscular relaxation, paralysis,
sighing respiration, slowness of the pulse and feeble heart action,
dilation of the pupils, diminished bodily temperature, and, if con­
tinued, convulsions, stertorous breathing, and death b y suffocation.
If death does not occur, the patient is apt to suffer for some time
from headache, physical and mental depression, paralysis of speech
and of the sphincters, convulsive twitching, and general muscular
weakness, while pleurisy and pneumonia are also frequent.




514

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

CARBONIC-ACID GAS.

The chronic effect of carbonic-acid gas has already been alluded
to. Well sinkers and miners are occasionally suffocated owing to
the. presence of a large volume of this gas evolved from the soil and
which has collected in deep shafts. It is one of the constituents of the
u choke damp” in the mines and also present in cellars. It is also a
product of fermentative processes, and the anaemic and debilitated
conditions of miners, vintners, distillers, brewers, and yeast makers is
believed to be partly due to an excess of carbonic acid, which
diminishes the amount of oxygen in the air. The acute symptoms
are loss of consciousness and locomotion, generally preceded by
difficulty in breathing, headache, depression, drowsiness or mental
excitement, and sometimes convulsions. Prompt removal of the
patient into fresh air will lead to rapid recovery.
CARBON DISULPHIDE.

Carbon disulphide is used in certain processes in the manufacture
of vulcanized india rubber and also in the extraction of fats, and
may produce in those constantly exposed to it headache, dizziness,
impaired vision, pains in the limbs, formication, sleeplessness, nervous
depression, loss of appetite, etc. Sometimes, according to Delpech
and Hirt, there is cough, febrile attacks, deafness, difficult breathing,
loss of memory, paralysis of the legs and lower part of the body, and
loss of sexual power, which has been preceded by increased sexual
appetite and mental exaltation.
NAPHTHA.

Naphtha is used in the same industries, and it is not improbable
that the symptoms are produced b y the combined influence of the
two fumes. At all events, there are a number of authenticated cases
of acute naphtha poisoning characterized b y dyspnoea, dizziness, and
mental confusion, with vomiting, palpitation of the heart, and hemor­
rhages in the fatal cases. Necropsies reveal evidence of fatty degen­
eration of the heart, liver, kidneys, and other parts. The cleaners
of woolen goods, etc., with naphtha not infrequently suffer from dizzi­
ness, nausea, vomiting, headache, sleeplessness, hysteria, and symptoms
resembling alcoholic intoxication. (See also page 515.)
NITROBENZOL.

Nitrobenzol, which is used in making aniline and in the manu­
facture of roburite and other explosives, produces headache, dysp­
noea, drowsiness, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, great depression,
and stupor, and often causes death.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

515

The majority of workers in dinitro compounds in Great Britain (a)
are anaemic and suffer from difficulty in breathing and general weak­
ness. They are subject to a biweekly medical inspection and are
enjoined (1) not to touch these compounds with bare hands; (2) to
keep the feet in good condition, (a) by bathing, (6) by shoes in good
repair; (3) to avoid alcoholic beverages, and (4) to thoroughly wash
their hands before eating and to change their clothing upon quitting
work.
DYEING AND CLEANSING.

Among the chemical substances employed are naphtha, gasoline,
wood alcohol, ammonia, various acids, bleaching agents, iron, copper,
and other salts, aniline dyes and other dyestuffs.
The Massachusetts Board of Health reported of one large estab­
lishment investigated;
“ In the naphtha-cleansing department, * * * [in spite of me­
chanical ventilation], there is a strong odor of naphtha, and all of the
men here employed are pale and some of them very markedly sick look­
ing. In the room in which the naphtha-cleansed goods are dried, at a
temperature of about 120° F., the naphtha fumes are very strong.
Although the men who bring in the goods remain but a few minutes,
some have occasionally been temporarily overcome b y the fumes and
have shown the characteristic excitement and hysterical symptoms of
naphtha intoxication. At the time of visit, the man who does most of
this work had been engaged thereat for three months and had expe­
rienced no ill effects.” (6
)
RUBBER INDUSTRY.

Fourteen rubber factories with about 9,000 employees, also, were
investigated by the board. It appears that naphtha has to a
great extent replaced the more dangerous carbon disulphide as a
vulcanizing agent, and in 11 of the factories visited the odor of
naphtha was noted as only slight. “ In two factories it was stated that
a few girls, new to the work, show the effects of naphtha and suffer
from headache and sometimes nausea and vomiting, but that such
girls do not long continue at the work. Naphtha fumes sometimes
bring about a condition which much resembles alcoholic intoxication,
and which occurs most often in the room where rubber is spread upon
cloth. New men are especially susceptible, but even old hands have
sometimes to leave their work at times for a breath of fresh air.”
In six factories litharge is handled, but there could be obtained
no history of any case of lead poisoning. It was stated that cases
a Cited by Neisser, 1907, p. 79.
b Report of the State Board oi Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condi­

tion of Factories, Workshops, e tc ., 1907, p. 110.




516

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

occur in two of the factories, but not often. All of the establishments,
with one exception, were found to be well lighted and adequately
ventilated. (a)
PATENT-LEATHER INDUSTRY.

The fumes of naphtha, amyl acetate, and wood alcohol which are
given off in the manufacture of patent leather are dangerous. While
no exact data are available, it is admitted b y those in authority that
many employees can not do the work on account of inability to with­
stand their influences.
ANILINE VAPOR.

Aniline vapor is dangerous to health when present in the air to the
extent of 0.1 per cent. Hirt thus describes an acute form of poisoning
from aniline vapor, which usually results fatally: “ The workman
falls suddenly to the ground, the skin is cold and pale, the face is
cyanotic (bluish discoloration of the skin), the breath has the odor of
aniline, the respiration is slowed, and the pulse increased. The sensa­
tion diminished from the beginning of the attack, gradually entirely
disappears, and death follows in a state of profound stupor.”
The milder forms are characterized b y laryngeal irritation, loss of
appetite, headache, giddiness, and weakness, with a rapid, small, and
irregular pulse, and diminished sensibility of the skin. In some
instances short convulsions have occured. Prompt fresh-air treat­
ment is absolutely essential.
The chronic form of aniline poisoning may affect the central nervous
system and cause lassitude, headache, roaring in the ears, motor or
sensory disturbance, or it may produce digestive derangements such
as eructations, nausea, and vomiting, or it may affect the skin by
causing eczematous or pustular eruptions and even well-defined
ulcers. Doctor Neisser (1907) reports a number of such cases in
aniline factories and in dyeing works.
The medical inspector of Clayton, England, has presented a very
interesting report^) on the effects of aniline oil in black aniline dyeing
works, and also the effects upon the skin of chromic acid and the
bichromates of potassium and sodium in these establishments. He
visited 20 establishments and examined 200 employees, many of whom
suffered from anaemia, headache, digestive derangements, heartburn,
dizziness, palpitation of the heart, loss of will power, and excessive
mucous secretions, all of which were attributed to the toxic effects of
aniline. He recommends as safeguards: (1) Mechanical, suctional
ventilation (a) at the machines where the cloth is being dyed, (6) at
a Report of the State Board of H ealth of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condi­
tion of Factories, Workshops, etc., 1907, p. 113.
* &Internationale Ubersicht uber Gewerbehygiene, B erlin, 1907, p. 75.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

517

the machines where the cloth passes through the bichromate solution,
and (c) at such points where there is danger from the chromate dust;
(2) protective clothing, and the frequent cleansing of the same, the
provision of lockers, and dressing rooms for street clothing; (3)
special lunchroom s; (4) suitable wash rooms.(a)
WOOD ALCOHOL.

Vapors from varnishes have been known to produce blindness, due
to.inflammation of the nerves behind the eyeball, and partial atrophy
of the optic nerve. Similar effects follow the internal use of wood
alcohol, and even fatal cases have been reported in consequence of
its substitution for the pure alcohols. Doctor Neisser (1907)
reports a large number of eczematous affections of the hands, arms,
and face in furniture polishers (“ polisher’s itch” ), which may possibly
be caused b y some of the impure alcohols.
CHROME PIGMENTS.

In the manufacturing and handling of chrome pigments, as in
tanneries and various leather industries, a dust or vapor is evolved
which causes inflammation of the eyes and even ulceration of the
nasal septum and elsewhere.
QUININE.

Quite a large percentage of the persons employed in the manufac­
ture of quinine suffer from a dry form of eczema of the hands and face,
which is claimed to be directly due to emanations from the boiling
solution, since the disease disappears if the work is given up.
In the so-called “ polisher’s itch” and in the effects produced by
chrome and quinine the use of rubber gloves and the anointment of
the skin with some clean oil or grease have been found most useful.
MANGANESE.

According to Doctor Neisser (1907) a small percentage of the
workers in manganese mills and in the manufacture of dry pigments
are affected with headache, dizziness, loss of appetite, constipation,
loosening of the teeth, muscular pains, and general debility.
BRASS FOUNDERS.

The workers in brass foundries inhale a metallic dust or vapor of
zinc or copper, or perhaps of both, which has given rise to a train of
symptoms described as “ brass founders’ ague.” The illness attacks
about 75 per cent of those who are new to the work, or who resume
work after an absence of a month or even a fortnight. There are
* Internationale Ubersicht iiber Gewerbehygiene, Berlin, 1907, p. 74



518

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

more or less severe pains in the back, and general lassitude, which
compels the patient to seek his bed. Usually after he has taken to
his bed chilliness comes on, increasing to a decided rigor and lasting
15 minutes or longer. In the course of an hour or less the pulse
beats from 100 to 120 per minute, accompanied b y a tormenting
cough, corresponding headache, and soreness in the chest. After
the lapse of a few hours free perspiration indicates the disappearance
of the fever and the patient falls into a deep sleep, from which he
awakens with perhaps only a slight headache and lassitude. In
England the men who suffer this way drink freely of milk and pro­
mote vomiting— perhaps the best treatment for copper or zinc
poisoning. A chronic form of zinc or copper poisoning, characterized
by oversensibility, formication, and burning of the skin of the lower
extremities, tactile and motor disturbance, anaemia, cough, headache,
neuralgia, digestive disturbance, and progressive emaciation, is said
to occur among men who have worked for a number of years in brass
foundries. At present it is not possible to say whether the symptoms
of brass founders’ ague are due to the copper, zinc, or arsenic, or to
a combination of all three. Some authors believe it to be a specific
infection.
ARSENICAL FUMES.

Arsenical fumes are frequently given off in smelting processes,
especially copper works, and, like those of arseniureted hydrogen,
may give rise to jaundice, headache, nausea, stiffness of the joints,
general anaemia, discomfort, and malnutrition. When inhaled in con­
centrated form the fumes produce symptoms of nausea, vomiting,
languor, drowsiness, rapid pulse, frequent micturition, and bloody
urine. In serious cases the pulse becomes small and thready, the skin
cold and clammy, and death ensues with evident signs of cardiac
paralysis.
MERCURY.

The most important of the poisonous vapors in connection with
dangerous trades are mercury and phosphorus. Workers in mercury
suffer greatly from the effects of mercurial poisoning, such as saliva­
tion, tremor, and nervous symptoms, and many fall victims to pul­
monary tuberculosis. Miscarriages among the female employees are
very common. These effects, according to Renk,(a) are due to the
inhalation of mercurial vapors in badly ventilated workshops, while
Wollner attributes them to the inhalation and swallowing of fine
mercurial dust. Of 7,221 mirror makers at Furth during the year
1883 no fewer than 2,457, or 34 per cent, were taken sick, and of these
60 per cent suffered from mercurial poisoning. This danger has
been practically eliminated in the mirror industry, but it is still
a Arbeiten aus dem kaiserlichen.




Gesundheitsamte, Y , p . 118.

INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

519

pronounced in the manufacture of felt, thermometers, barometers,
dry electric batteries, and bronzing. In Europe persistent efforts
are being made to reduce the danger in these industries to a mimimum, and some of the felt establishments no longer use the prelimi­
nary treatment of the hair with mercuric nitrate. The 64 cases
reported in Great Britain in 1906 from May, 1899, to December 31,
1905, and cited b y Neisser, occurred as follow s: Manufacturers of
electric meters, 17; thermometers, etc., 16; felt and fur industry, 13;
gilding, 7; chemical works, 7; powder works, 3; lithography, 1.
As preventive measures may be mentioned the follow ing: (1)
Change of clothing before and after work; (2) weekly washing of the
working clothes; (3) systematic and frequent washing of the hands,
weekly sulphur baths or frequent general baths, and at the close of
work gargling with a solution of permanganate of potassium; (4)
limit of work to eight hours per day and thorough ventilation of the
rooms— open doors and windows; (5) frequent cleaning of floors
with damp sawdust and sprinkling with a solution of ammonia.
PHOSPHORUS.

In the manufacture of phosphorus matches white and red phos­
phorus have been used. The danger consists in the inhalation of
the fumes when the white substance is used, while the red or
amorphous phosphorus is neither poisonous nor easily inflammable.
The gas smells like garlic. The toxic symptoms in the acute form
are difficult breathing and a feeling of intense anxiety. The fumes
are given off only when the air contains moisture. The milder effects
of phosphorus consist of gastric and bronchial catarrhs, anaem and
ia,
malnutrition, followed occasionally by a painful inflammation of the
bones of the lower or upper jaws, due to the local action of the phos­
phorus, and often beginning in carious teeth or in the alveolar process
of missing teeth. The disease may develop during the first months,
but generally not until four or five years after the beginning of the
employment, and carious teeth, with toothache, are among the first
symptoms, followed by swelling of the glands of the neck, alveolar
abscesses, and necrosis of the jaws. Formerly from 11 to 12 per cent
of the employees suffered. Since the use of red or amorphous phos­
phorus the danger has been greatly reduced. Only about 2 per cent
of the operatives are now attacked.
D octor Neisser reports that during the year 1906 several cases of
phosphorus necrosis occurred in German match factories, in which
the use of white phosphorus was prom ptly stopped.
The medical inspectors of Great Britain, from October 1, 1900, to
October 1, 1905, reported only 11 cases of phosphorus necrosis, the
reduction being attributed to improved factory sanitation.
37691— N o . 75—08-----16




520

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

The medical inspector of Belgium (quoted by D octor Neisser, page
71) reports that during the last six years only one case of necrosis
occurred, and the m orbidity of the employees in match factories has
also decreased coincident with factory sanitation, as shown by the
following figures:
E M P L O Y E E S E X A M IN E D AN D CASES OF SICKNESS A N D D E A T H IN M ATCH FAC­
TO R IE S OF B E L G IU M , 1903 TO 1905.

1903.
Number
Number
Number
Number
Number

of
of
of
of
of

employees examined..........................................................................
monthly examinations.....................................................................
apparently healthy employees........................................................
sic k employees.....................................................................................
deaths....................................................................................................

1,144
7,051
757
387
401

1904.
1,182
8,511
1,055
127
132

1905.
1,226
9,005
1,061
165
<«)

o Not reported.

The use of respirators, thorough ventilation, the disengagement of
turpentine vapors to promote rapid drying, and strict cleanliness,
such as ablution of the hands, change of clothing, and gargling with
weak alkaline solutions before eating and drinking, are still in order
as preventive measures.
BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY.

In the beet-sugar industry, especially when the diffusion method is
employed, an explosive mixture containing probably carbureted
hydrogen has proved a source of danger to the operatives, and the
waste waters are believed to be also a menace to public health.
OCCUPATIONS INVOLVING EXPO SU RE TO EXTREM ES
OF H EAT, SUDDEN CHANGES, AND ABNORM AL ATMOS­
PH ERIC PRESSURE.
Exposure to extremes of heat and sudden changes is injurious and
predisposes to a number of diseases. Stokers, cooks, bakers, black­
smiths, firemen, etc., are very apt to suffer from heat exhaustion and
thermic fever (sunstroke). The duration of life is low, and rheuma­
tism, eczema, catarrhal affections, pneumonia, and diseases of the
heart are quite common. Sailors, farmers, motormen, conductors,
teamsters, coachmen, and many others are often exposed to sudden
changes in the weather, and suffer frequently from rheumatism,
catarrhal affections, pneumonia, and Bright’s disease.
The effects of both heat and cold are intensified by extreme
hum idity in the atmosphere, and special precautions are necessary
upon hot and sultry days and in cold, raw weather. Occupations
involving exposure to dampness, especially when performed indoors,
are injurious, because a cold, damp air abstracts an undue amount of




INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.

521

animal heat from the body, lowers the power of resistance, and pre­
disposes to catarrhal and rheumatic diseases. It is a well-known
fact that damp houses favor the development of consumption.
(See pages 543, 550.)
CAISSON DISEASE.

The effects of compressed air on workmen in tunnels, caissons, deep
mines, and diving bells were formerly attributed solely to increased
atmospheric pressure, in consequence of which it was believed that
the blood received not only an excess of oxygen, but by reason of the
abnormal pressure was driven from the surface to the internal organs,
causing congestion, especially of the central nervous system. It is
now held that, while increased atmospheric pressure is capable of pro­
ducing characteristic effects upon the circulation, such as pallor of the
skin, ringing in the ears, bulging and possibly rupture of the ear
drums, the most serious symptoms are produced when the pressure is
too rapidly increased or removed by a faulty method of “ locking in ”
and “ locking out.”
A commission of Belgian medical experts examined 166 caisson
workers before and after their work, the shift lasting from 8 to 12
hours, and found (1) that the blood-m aking function, as shown by the
haemoglobin contents, was actually increased during their work; (2)
that so long as the pressure does not increase beyond 3 atmospheres
(45 pounds) the men feel perfectly well and perform their labor with
more ease and even less fatigue than under normal atmospheric pres­
sure; (3) that men of temperate habits, with a sound heart, lungs,
and nervous system, suffer no injurious effects, and none others should
be em ployed; (4) the real injury is done by a sudden removal of atmos­
pheric pressure in a hasty “ locking-out” process, for which the work­
men are often to blame.
The general rule in “ locking ou t” should be to allow at least one
minute for each 6 pounds of pressure within the chamber.
The symptoms of so-called caisson disease are rarely observed
until the pressure equals 20 pounds, and usually do not appear for
some minutes or hours after emerging. In addition to the symptoms
already mentioned, there may be hemorrhage from the nose, mouth,
and ears; headache, dizziness, rapid pulse, sweating, severe pain in
the back, extremities, or region of the stomach, and vom iting. Par­
tial deafness and symptoms of m otor paralysis, more or less general,
but most frequently confined to the lower extremities, are frequently
observed. Cases with pronounced head and spinal symptoms
usually prove fatal. The milder cases, as a rule, recover sooner or
later, although the muscular pains and paralytic symptoms may per­
sist weeks or even longer.




522

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

OCCUPATIONS INVOLVING CONSTRAINED ATTITUDES.
The effects of a constrained position, combined with a sedentary
life, are very injurious. This is especially seen in weavers, shoe­
makers, engravers, watchmakers, tailors, lithographers, etc., all of
whom are obliged to assume a more or less constrained attitude,
which interferes with a proper distribution of the blood supply and is
liable to be followed by internal congestions. But perhaps the great­
est harm results from deficient movement of the chest and consequent
interference with normal respiration. As a matter of fact, many of
these artisans suffer from phthisis, constipation, dyspepsia, and hem­
orrhoids, and all have a l6w average duration of life.
Among the apprentices of bakers, deformities such as “ flat fo o t”
and “ knock-knee” and varicose veins of the lower extrem ity are fre­
quently seen, as the result of being on their feet too long. Varicose
veins and ulcers are quite common among motormen and conductors,
while bakers, cabinetmakers, and others are also very liable to
develop abnormal curvature of the spine.
OCCUPATIONS INVOLVING O VEREXERCISE OF PARTS OF
THE BODY.
Among the diseases due to the excessive use of certain muscles may
be mentioned the affection called “ writer’s cramp,” which is a con­
vulsive affection of the fingers. Similar fatigue neuroses, character­
ized by localized paralysis and twitching, are observed in copyists,
typewriters, telegraph operators, pianists, violinists, engravers,
seamstresses, cigar makers, etc.
Pulmonary emphysema is quite common among performers on
wind instruments. Boiler makers’ deafness and mill operatives’ deaf­
ness may also be mentioned. The former is believed to be due to
constant exposure to an atmosphere in a state of violent vibra­
tion, while the latter affection is characterized b y an inability to hear
distinctly except during a noise. Public speakers and singers are
apt to suffer from chronic affections of the throat and paralysis of
the vocal cords, and watchmakers, engravers, and seamstresses, as
well as all others who use their eyes upon minute objects, are liable
to suffer from nearsightedness and other visual defects.
Tobacco testers frequently suffer from nervous symptoms and serious
visual defects, and tea tasters soon becom e the victim s of muscular
tremblings and other nervous symptoms, the result of a chronic
“ thein intoxication.”
OCCUPATIONS INVOLVING EXPO SU RE TO M ACHINERY,
ETC.
Life insurance and accident statistics plainly indicate the danger
of occupations which involve contact with machinery. This may




523

INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

be the result of individual carelessness or the negligence of others.
N ot infrequently accidents are the result of boiler explosions, circular
saws, belting, and flying fragments, and are due to a lack of proper
safety devices. As might be expected, many of the accidents befall
children and inexperienced persons and take place at night or in
badly lighted establishments. According to Rubner, (a) of 100 acci­
dents, 41 befell children under 15 years of age, 36.4 befell persons be­
tween 15 and 25 years of age, 13.1 befell persons between 25 and 40
years of age, and 9.5 befell persons between 40 and 60 years of age.
The upper extremities were involved in 87 per cent of the cases, the
lower extremities in 7.5 per cent, and the head and trunk in 5.5 per
cent. During the year 1899 there were in English factories “ 301 fatal
and 19,321 nonfatal accidents, all attributable to machinery moved
b y mechanical power. ” (6
)
According to Swiss statistics the number of accidents per 1,000
workingmen in various occupations were as follows :(c) Cotton spin­
ners, 22.2; millers, 28.0; paper manufacturers, 31.1; carpenters, 35.2;
locksmiths, 46.9; brewers, 66.7; masons, 80.5; blacksmiths, 93.1;
m etalworkers, 102.1; molders, 132.2.
Many of the accidents to metal workers, masons, miners, weavers,
etc., befall the eye, and Magnus attributes 8.5 per cent of all cases of
blindness to accidents.
Of 48,262 accidents among British miners from 1884 to 1898, not
less than 2,506, or 5.19 per cent, affected the eye. (d)
COAL MINING.
The mining of coal is, even under the best conditions, one of the
most dangerous industries. A report of the United States Geological
Survey (*) shows the number of men killed for each 1,000 employed
in the United States and in the four leading European countries, the
figures being averages for five years:
A V E R A G E N U M BER OF M EN K IL L E D FOR EACH 1,000 M EN E M P LO Y E D , B Y COUN­
T R IE S, FOR F IV E -Y E A R PER IOD S.
Country.
United States................................................... ...................................................................
Prussia...................................................................................................................................
Great Britain........................................................................................................................
Belgium..................................................................................................................................
France.....................................................................................................................................

Period.
1902 to
1900 to
1902 to
1902 to
1901 to

1906
1904
1906
1906
1905

Number.
3.39
2.06
1.28

1.00
.91

oLehrbuch der H ygiene, 6th E d it. Leipzig and W ien, 1899-1900, p. 701.
&Dangerous Trades, Oliver, p. 203.
cBergey’s Principles of H ygiene, 1904, p. 276.
Dangerous Trades, O liver, p. 776.
e Coal-Mine Accidents: Their Causes and Prevention. A Preliminary Statistical
Report. U nited States Geological Survey, 1907.




524

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

The following table from tiie same report shows the number of
deaths from accident for every million tons of coal m ined:
N U M BER OF MEN K IL L E D IN COAL M INES PER M ILLION TONS OF COAL PRODUCED,
B Y COUNTRIES, 1902 TO 1906.

Year.
1902 ..........................................................................................................
1903............................................................................................................
1904............................................................................................................
1905............................................................................................................
1906............................................................................................................
a Average, 1894 to 1903.

United
States.

Great
Britain.

6.79
5.62
6.24
5.97
5.57

04.70
4.41
4.64
4.31

Belgium. France.
6.29

6.68

5.66
5.64
4.96

4.80
4.20
4.55
4.17
(&
)

&Not reported.

The fatal and nonfatal accidents in the coal mines of the United
States in 1906 for which causes were reported were as follow s:
N U M BER OF PERSONS K IL L E D OR IN JU R E D B Y COAL-M INE ACCIDENTS IN THE
U N IT E D STATES, B Y CAUSES, 1906.

Accidents due to—
Gas and dust explosions............................................................................................................
Powder explosions......................................................................................................................
Falls of roof and coal.................................................................................................................
Other causes.................................................................................................................................

Persons
killed.
228
80
1,008
732

Persons
injured.
307
215
1,863
2,192

An exhaustive analysis of mining accidents in the German Empire
will be found in the Statistik der Knappschafts-Berufsgenossenschaft fur das Deutsche Reich, Berlin, 1897. The total number of
persons insured for one year during the period covered (October 1,
1885, to December 31, 1894) by the work was 3,623,175; the total
number of accidents of all kinds notified was 278,371, distributed as
follow s:
T O T A L NU M BER OF ACCIDENTS OF A L L K IN D S R E P O R T E D IN T H E G ERM AN EM­
P IR E , OCTOBER 1, 1886, TO DECEM BER 31, 1894.

Class of accidents.

Per 1,000
Number. persons
em­
ployed.

Fatal accidents.............................................................................................................................
Accidents causing total permanent disability....................................................................
Accidents causing partial permanent disability.................................................................
Aocidents causing temporary disability................................... ...........................................

7,721
1,427
14,367
8,164

2.13
.39
3.97
2.25

Minor accidents............................................................................................................................

246,692

8.74
68.09

T otal.....................................................................................................................................

278,371

76.83

The causes of the fatal and serious accidents as calculated per 1,000
employees are given as follow s:
Falls of rock, coal, falling bodies, etc................................................................................... 3 .4 4
Transport, haulage, winding, loading, etc...........................................................................2.2 6
Falls from ladders, steps, or other heights................................................................................ 89




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

525

Explosions..............................................................................................................................................78
Machinery in motion, motors, etc................................................................................................. 51
Molten m etal, hotand corrosive fluids, poisonous gases......................................................... 12
Miscellaneous........................................................................................................................................ 74
Total..................................................................................................................................... 8. 74

Mr. Henry Louis, in commenting upon these statistics in Oliver’s
Dangerous Trades, page 516, says, “ 41.6 per cent, or two-fifths, of all
the accidents could have been avoided b y proper care and intelligent
thought on the part of all concerned, and, in the second place, fully
one-third of the accidents can be ascribed to the faults o f the victim s
themselves.”
According to the Revue Scientifique for 1875 (®) there had been
during 50 years 503 mine explosions in Europe, with a loss of over
5,000 lives.
The number of men killed in the coal mines of the United States is
appalling, amounting to 22,840 during the 17 years ending with 1906.
In 1906 the total number killed was 2,061 and the number injured
was 4,800.
In the introduction to the preliminary statistical report of the
United States Geological Survey, already cited, Mr. Joseph A. Holmes
says: “ The figures given in this report indicate that during the year
1906 nearly 7,000 men were killed or injured in the coal mines of this
country, and that the number of these accidents caused directly or
indirectly b y mine explosions has been steadily increasing. * * *
The increase both in the number and in the seriousness of mine explo­
sions in the United States during past years may be expected to con­
tinue unless, through investigations made in the United States such
as have proved effective in other coal-producing countries, information
can be obtained and published concerning the explosives used, the
conditions under which they may be used safely in the presence of
coal dust or gas, and the general conditions which make for health
and safety in coal-mining operations.” ( 6)
According to English data, cited b y Frederick L. Hoffman (Quarterly
Publications of the American Statistical Association, December, 1902,
page 178, note), “ for the period 1890-1892, at ages 45-54, the general
death rate of all miners was 19.6 per 1,000, and of quarrymen 25.3 per
1,000. For coal miners alone the death rate at this age period was
19.4; for copper miners, 24.3; for tin miners, 33.2, and for lead
miners, 23.9 per 1,000— indications of quite considerable differences
in the m ortality and specific disease liability of men engaged in the
mining of coal and the different metals.”

While tuberculosis is comparatively rare among coal miners, anthracosis (a lung disease produced by coal dust—“ black lung”), miner’s
asthma, which is really a chronic bronchitis with emphysema, and
simple chronic bronchitis are common affections. These diseases are

aI I , page 765.



526

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

largely influenced b y defective ventilation, for Greenhow has shown
that among the operatives of well-ventilated mines there is no excess
of pulmonary diseases. (a)
Apart from large quantities of dust, the air of mines contains putre­
factive gases from decomposing excrementitious matter and products
of combustion, especially carbonic-acid gas, which is also one of the
constituents of the “ choke damp.” In addition to all this, the “ fire
dam p” (an explosive mixture of carbureted hydrogen with atmos­
pheric air in the proportion of 6 to 10 volumes per 100) and the excess­
ive temperature, real hard work, constrained attitude, and careless
use of explosives add very greatly to the danger of miners.
Much can be done to prevent accidents b y the introduction of safe
hoisting cages, proper engineering, the use of suitable explosives, and
adequate inspection laws, while D avy’s safety lamps, incandescent
electric lights, and copious ventilation will serve to prevent explosions
of fire damp and aid in the purification of the air.
R A IL W A Y SERVICE.
Employees of the railway service, owing to a life full of hardships,
exposures, and responsibilities, together with irregular habits, not
only suffer from accidents, but also experience more or less sickness,
especially from rheumatic affections, diseases of the digestive and
respiratory organs, and injuries and disturbances of the nervous
system. Forty-eight per cent of the German railway employees in
1885 were taken sick, as follow s: Rheumatism, 8.18 per cent; diges­
tive diseases, 11.12 per cent; respiratory diseases, 8.53 per cenjb;
nervous diseases, 2.73 per cent. The train hands suffered most, and
the office employees, of course, the least. The percentage of the dif­
ferent classes of sick employees was as follow s:
PER CENT OF GERM AN R A IL W A Y EM PLOYEES T A K E N SICK,
OCCUPATIONS.

1885 AN D

Occupation.
Train arrangers............................................................................................................................
Train hands, engineers, conductors, brakemen, etc..........................................................
Gate keepers, etc..........................................................................................................................
Switch tenders..............................................................................................................................
Track watchmen..........................................................................................................................
Station employees.................................................................. ....................................................
Office employees..................................................................................................... •
.....................

1885.
83
65
54
50
40
33
23

1886, B Y

1886.
89

6
6

56
53
42
36
26

Hedinger (*) has called attention to the fact that only 8 per cent of
*
6
the German locom otive engineers have normal hearing, while 67 per
cent of the engineers and 30 per cent of the firemen have very defec­
ts Greenhow, third and fourth report of the m edical officer of the Privy Council,
London, 1860-1861.
&Zeitschft. des Vereins d. Eisenbahnverwaltungen, 27, p. 25.




527

INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.

tive hearing; 14.5 per cent of the track walkers also had defective
hearing. The percentage in all increased with the length of the
service. The most common affection was catarrh of the internal
and middle ear, probably due to abrupt changes in temperature.
R AILW AY ACCIDENTS.

The reports of the Interstate Commerce Commission indicate a
constant increase in the number of injuries from railway accidents.
The number of employees killed by accidents arising from the move­
ment of trains, locom otives, or cars, as distinct from those of other
causes, for the year ending June 30, 1906, was 3,709, of whom 2,310
were trainmen, and the number injured was 42,962, of whom 34,989
were trainmen. “ The number of fatalities to trainmen in this class
of accidents is nearly equally distributed among collisions, falling
from trains, locom otives, or cars, and being struck by ttains, locom o­
tives, or cars. When all classes of employees are taken into account
the last-named cause is responsible for the greatest number of
fatalities.”
“ Of the fatalities to passengers, collisions account for more than
any other single cause, although the number due to jumping on or
off trains, locom otives, or cars is nearly as great. In the matter of
injuries, however, collisions are far ahead, being responsible for more
than 35 per cent of the total injuries to passengers. Taking both
passengers and employees into account, it is seen that collisions are
responsible for a much higher number of deaths and injuries than
any other one class of accidents.” (®)
R A IL W A Y ACCIDENTS FOR TH E Y E A R S 1888 TO 1906.
[From the Nineteenth Annual Report of the Interstate Commerce Commission on the Statistics of
Railways in the United States, page 109.]

Year ending June

Employees.
Killed.

1888...............................
1889...............................
1890...............................
1891...............................
1892...............................
1893...............................
1894...............................
1895...............................
1896...............................
1897...............................
1898................................
1899...............................
1900................................
1901...............................
1902...............................
1903................................
1904................................
1905................................
1906................................

2,070
1,972
2,451
2,660
2,554
2,727
1,823
1,811
1,861
1,693
1,958

21
,2 0

2,550
2,675
2,969
3,606
3,632
3,361
3,929

Injured.
20,148
20,028
22,396
26,140
28,267
31,729
23,422
25,696
29,969
27,667
31,761
34,923
39,643
41,142
50,524
60,481
67,067
66,833
76,701

Passengers.
Killed.

Injured.

315
310
286
293
376
299
324
170
181

22
2
21
2
239
249
282
345
355
441
537
359

2,138
2,146
2,425
2,972
3,227
3,229
3,034
2,375
2,873
2,795
2,945
3,442
4,128
4,988
6,683
8,231
9,111
10,457
10,764

Other persons.
Killed.
2,897
3,541
3,598
4,076
4,217
4,320
4,300
4,155
4,406
4,522
4,680
4,674
5,066
5,498
5,274
5,879
5,973
5,805
6,330

Injured.
3,602
4,135
4,206
4,769
5,158
5,435
5,433
5,677
5,845
6,269
6,176
6,255
6,549
7,209
7,455
7,841
7,977
8,718
10,241

Total.
Killed.
5,282
5,823
6,335
7,029
7,147
7,346
6,447
6,136
6,448
6,437
6,859
7,123
7,865
8,455
8,588
9,840
10,046
9,703
10,618

Injured.
25,888
26,309
29,027
33,881
36,652
40,393
31,889
33,748
38,687
36,731
40,882
44,620
50,320
53,339
64,662
76,553
84,155
86,008
97.706

w

a Nineteenth Annual Report of the Interstate Commerce Commission on the Statis­

tics of Railways in the U nited States, p . 112.




528

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

In 1899 the English Government appointed a commission com­
posed of members of the House of Lords and Commons, representa­
tives of the railway companies, railway employees, experts, and Gov­
ernment officials, with a view of determining whether the accidents
to railway employees were so numerous as to constitute it a dangerous
trade. The following table indicates that the employment of shunters
(switchmen) is far more dangerous than any other occupation save
seamen, and that the average work on railways is almost as dangerous
as mining. (°)
N U M BER OF EM PLO YEES K IL L E D A N D IN JU R ED FROM A L L CAUSES PER 1,000
E M PLO Y ED IN V A R IO U S OCCUPATIONS IN G R E A T B R IT A IN , 1898.
Industry.
Railway servants in general, excluding contractors’ men, clerks,"and mechanics.
Goods guards and brakemen................................................................................................
Permanent-way m4n or platelayers...................................................................................
Shunters,...................................................................................................................................
Men porters (railways)..........................................................................................................
Seamen (merchant service)...................................................................................................
Coal miners (underground)..................................................................................................
Coal miners (surface).............................................................................................................
Metalliferous mines (underground)....................................................................................
Metalliferous mines (surface)...............................................................................................
Factories, textile (males)......................................................................................................
Factories, textile (females)...................................................................................................
Factories, nontextile (males)...............................................................................................
Factories, nontextile (females)............................................................................................
Factories, extraction of metals (males)............................................................................
Factories, shipbuilding (males)...........................................................................................
Factories, dock laborers........................................................................................................

Number
killed.
1.24
2.92
1.90
5.08
1.15
5.20
1.37
.92
1.34
.43

.10
.20
1.10
.50
1.40

Number
injured.
31.0
61.0
16.0
78.0
63.0
Unknown.
Unknown.
Unknown.
Unknown.
Unknown.

6.2

2.7
13.8

2.0

16.4
39.3
57.0

ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES.

The total number of deaths reported during the census year of
1900 was 57,513, of which 43,414 were males and 14,099 were females,
and the proportion of deaths from these causes in 1,000 deaths from
all known causes was 57.6. In 1890 the corresponding proportion
was 53.7. In the registration area the rate was 96 per 100,000 of
population. In 1890 the death rate was 91.9. The rate in the cities
was somewhat higher than in rural districts, and the rate for males
was about three times as high (125.4) as it was among females (42.2).
This is due simply to the more sheltered position of females and
because males alone are generally engaged in the more dangerous
operations.
The following table shows for the registration area and its sub­
divisions the death rates from accidents and injuries per 100,000
population, in each of three age groups.




« Dangerous Trades, O liver, p. 199.

529

INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

D E A T H R ATES FROM ACCIDENTS A N D INJ DRIES DU R IN G T H E CENSUS Y E A R IN EACH
OF T H R E E AGE GROUPS PER 100,000 OF PO PU LATIO N .
[From Report on Vital Statistics, Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900.]
Registration area.

Under 15. 15 to 44.

45 or
over.

Cities in registration S tates....................................................................................
Males.................................................................................................................
Females............................................................................................................
Rural in registration S tates....................................................................................
Males.................................................................................................................
Females............................................................................................................
Total in registration S ta te s.............................................................................
Males.................................................................................................................
Females............................................................................................................
Cities haying registration, in other States.........................................................
Males.................................................................................................................
Females............................................................................................................
Total, registration area......................................................................................
Males.................................................................................................................
Females............................................................................................................

68.2
86.1
50.3
57.2
72.7
41.3
63.7
80.6
46.7
72.0
92.6
51.5
67.0
85.4
48.6

73.1
122.4
25.9
73.9
122.1
23.1
73.4
122.3
24.9
113.4
186.6
40.0
89.8
148.7
31.1

139.7
206.7
77.9
122.6
169.5
73.5
131.2
187.8
75.8
186.9
291.0
82.4
150.5
223.8
78.0

Cities, total in registration area.............................................................................
M ales................................................................................................................
Females............................................................................................................

70.2
89.5
50.9

94.3
156.6
33.3

163.8
250.7
80.1

From this table we learn that the highest death rates from acci­
dents were for persons 45 years or over, and the lowest for chil­
dren under the age of 15, which indicates that employment in factories,
mines, and workshops influences to a great extent the number of
accidents and injuries. The rates for females are the lowest in all
three age groups, for reasons already assigned. Females, even in
childhood, occupy a more favorable position than males, on account
of the more reckless disposition of boys, whose rates are probably
increased by deaths from drowning, falls, burns, gunshot wounds, etc.
An attempt to determine the number of persons injured per 1,000
employed in the factories was made in the State of New York during
1899. The data are based upon three months’ observations in a
selected list of factories, and are not regarded by the commissioner
of labor and chief factory inspector of the State as absolutely accurate.
N U M BER OF PERSONS IN JU R ED P ER 1,000 EM PLOYED IN NE W Y O R K FACTO RIES, 1899.
Industry.
Clothing, millinery, laundering, etc..........................................................................................................
Leather, rubber, pearl, etc...........................................................................................................................
Textiles..............................................................................................................................................................
Printing and allied trades............................................................................................................................
Food, tobacco, and liquors..........................................................................................................................
Stone and clay products...............................................................................................................................
W ood..................................................................................................................................................................
Building industry...........................................................................................................................................
Metals, machinery and apparatus...........................................................................................................
Public utilities................................................................................................................................................
Pulp, paper, and cardboard........................................................................................................................
Chemicals, oils, and explosives...................................................................................................................

Number.
1.35
3.21
8.91
9.19
13.51
15.18
18.42
26.20
26.57
37.28
41.46
44.06

OCCUPATIONS INVOLVING THE INHALATION OF ORGANIC
GASES AND VAPORS.
Whether the effluvia from sewers, stables, stock yards, slaughtering
and packing houses; glue, candle, and soap factories; hide depots,



530

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR.

tanneries, fertilizer-works, etc., are injurious to health remains an
open question. Many authors insist that the olfactory organs are
alone offended, and point to the m ortality statistics, which indicate
that the average age of such employees is quite high. Others hold
that weaklings rarely engage in such occupations, and that the
effluvia, consisting, as they do, of ammonia and sulphureted gases,
are fully as injurious as the inhalation of sewer air, which, judging
from experiments with animals, would appear to increase the suscepti­
bility to infectious diseases by diminishing the power of resistance.
Stift maintains that hydrogen and ammonium sulphides, chiefly
derived from decom position of animal matter and usually present in
privy vaults, cesspools, and sewers, are blood poisons when present
to the extent of about 1/4,000 volumes per hundred. The same
author believes that the inhalation of sulphureted hydrogen affects
directly the terminal filaments of the pneumogastic nerve, and through
these sets up an irritation of the respiratory and cardiac centers— in
fact, ~of the entire medulla oblongata— and if continued sufficiently
long induces paralysis of this function.
In sewer air the danger is intensified by the excess of carbonic-acid
gas and deficiency of oxygen, and special precaution should be taken
to exhaust the foul air before sewer employees or scavengers are
allowed to descend.
The general effects of the foul odors upon those unaccustomed to
work in the so-called ‘ ‘ offensive trades” are nausea, vom iting, head­
ache, loss of appetite, diarrhea, a general depression, and weakness.
It is true the workmen become gradually accustomed to these emana­
tions without any apparent injury, but even this does not justify the
assumption that the odors are not harmful.
Every community provides for the collection and disposal of dead
animals, which is usually done by contract, and the animals are taken
to some point beyond the town limits, flayed, and worked up, so as to
utilize the skin, hair, bones, fats, horns, etc. There is, however, a
certain element of danger from the transmission of infectious dis­
eases like anthrax, glanders, and tuberculosis, and hence all such
work should be done under strict sanitary control.
EM PLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDKEN.
In the face of the many adverse circumstances under which labor
is often performed, it is but natural that the immature employees and
females should suffer most. The former not infrequently inherit a
weak constitution, or acquire it by insanitary homes and deficient
food, and a number of them are obliged to enter upon active work long
before their bodies are sufficiently developed. Quite apart from the
fact that child labor is a menace to education, morals, and good citi­
zenship, the effects of premature and involuntary labor upon the
health and physical welfare of the child are extremely detrimental.



531

INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

Quetelet, in his Physique Sociale, as early as 1869 demonstrated that
the muscles of the average child attain only at the age of 13 or 14 a
certain amount of strength and capacity for work. Up to this time
the muscular fibers contain a larger percentage of water, and in con­
sequence are very tender and immature. Demetjeff, cited by Rubner, (a) determined the lifting power of the arms and trunk at different
ages of the working classes to be as follows:
L IF T IN G

POW ER

OF

TH E

ARM S AN D T R U N K OF TH E W O R K IN G CLASSES AT
D IF F E R E N T AGES.

Age.

Pounds

14 years................................................................
16 years................................................................
18 years................................................................
20 to 29 years......................................................

180.8
222.7
282.2
308.6

Age.
30 to
35 to
40 to
50 to

35 years....................................................
40 years....................................................
50 years....................................................
60 years....................................................

Pounds
330.7
352.7
326.3
295.4

These figures clearly indicate that the average boy at the age of
14 possesses about one-half the muscular strength of an average
adult between 35 and 40 years of age.
As a consequence of im perfect muscular development, it is not
surprising that a large percentage of young persons engaged in work­
shops, factories, or even at the writing desk or.m erchant’s counter,
develop lateral curvature of the spine and other muscular deform­
ities, not to mention general weakness and predisposition to rickets
or tuberculosis and other pulmonary diseases. All of the bad effects
are naturally intensified by insanitary environment, especially when
the occupations are attended by the inhalation of dust, injurious
gases, and impure air. The report of the commission on child labor,
1833-1834, appointed by the English Parliament, contains many
interesting facts; but in spite of legislative efforts Dr. Charles W .
Roberts C) has occasion to refer to the prevalence of “ flat feet,”
*
6
“ knock-knee,” and the premature aged condition of youthful
employees.
D octor Roberts says: “ In general conform ation of body the fac­
tory children do not compare favorably with the agricultural. In the
manufacturing towns the children are short of stature, have thick
limbs and large feet and hands, and are muscular and in tolerable
condition as to fat. They produce the impression on the mind of
having bodies too old for their heads (and ages). ‘ Flat fo o t/ with
a general disposition to ‘ knock-knee/ is very common among the
factory children, while both are rare among the agricultural, among
whom there is a disposition to the opposite state, of bowleg.”
D octor Roberts (c) examined 19,846 English boys and men. Of
these, 5,915 belonged to the nonlaboring classes, school boys, naval
a Lehrbuch d. H ygiene, Leipzig and W ien, 1906, p. 709.

&London Lancet, 1875, p . 274.
c Cited b y John Spargo, Bitter Cry of the Children, 1906, p. 96.




532

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

and military cadets, medical and university students; 13,931 belonged
to the artisan class. The difference in height, weight, and chest
measurement from 13 to 16 years of age was as follows:
D IF F E R E N C E IN H E IG H T , W E IG H T , A N D CHEST M EASU R EM EN T OF 19,846 E N G L ISH
B O Y S A N D M EN A T SPECIFIED AG ES.

Class.

A t 13
years.

A t 14
years.

A t 15
years.

A t 16
years.

Average height in inches:
Nonlaboring.....................................................................................
Artisan..............................................................................................

58.79
55.93

61.11
57.76

63.47
60.58

66.40
62.93

Difference......................................................................................

2.66

3.35

2.89

3.47

Average weight in pounds:
Nonlaboring.....................................................................................
Artisan..............................................................................................

88.60
78,27

99.21
84.61

110.42
96.79

12a 34

Difference.....................................................................................

10.33

14.60

13.63

19.64

Average chest girth in inches:
Nonlaboring....................................................................................
Artisan..............................................................................................

28.41
25.24

29.65
26.28

30.72
27.51

33.08
2a 97

Difference......................................................................................

3.17

3.37

3.21

4.11

10a70

Child labor differs in degree as well as in kind. The ordinary mes­
senger or newsboy may not sacrifice his health, but his morals and his
education must inevitably suffer. And so we see different gradations
until some of the most injurious forms of child labor are encountered.
W omen, on account of their im perfectly developed muscular sys­
tem and more delicate physique, are unfitted for hard w ork; nor
should they be obliged to work steadily in a sedentary position,
especially at the sewing machine or other occupations involving the
use of the lower extremities. Special protection should be extended
to them during the child-bearing period. It is a matter of constant
observation that women who have to deny themselves proper rest and
care during the last six weeks of pregnancy and the first six weeks
after confinement are very liable to suffer from hemorrhages and
chronic uterine diseases, while miscarriages and premature births are
not infrequent results of overwork. Recent statistics collected by
D octor Neisser (1907) indicate that such accidents are frequent
among farmers, wives and women employed in the jewelry industry,
where the m otor power is supplied by the feet.
INFANT MORTALITY IN RELATION TO THE OCCUPATION OF WOMEN.

The subject of infant m ortality has received careful attention, es­
pecially in England. The investigations made b y Sir John Simon
and his colleagues into the sanitary condition of England between
1859 and 1865 showed “ that in proportion as adult women were tak­
ing part in factory labor or in agriculture the m ortality of their infants
rapidly increased/’ Am ong other causes, Simon attributes the ex­
cessive m ortality of infants under 1 year, which in some registration




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

538

districts was from two and a quarter to nearly three times as high
as in standard districts, “ to occupational differences .among inhabit­
ants: therebeing certain large towns where women are greatly engaged
in branches of industry away from home, where, consequently, these
houses are ill-kept, where the children are little looked after, and
where infants who should be at the breast are improperly fed or
starved, or have their cries of hunger and distress quieted by those
various fatal opiates which are in such request at the centers of
our manufacturing industry.” (a
)
Fifty years have elapsed since Simon declared “ infants perish under
the neglect and mismanagement which their mothers1 occupation
implies.” The subject has since been studied by the medical officers
of the home office, the local government board, and 1,800 local health
boards in England. Doctor Newman has carefully surveyed the facts
concerning the number of females employed in gainful occupations,
and the percentage of married women so employed, as well as the
infant-mortality rate in towns having a low percentage of women
employed in gainful occupations, as compared with textile towns,
where the percentage of female employees is high. He has given
careful consideration to the character and condition of the work, the
length of working hours, employment before and after childbirth,
and the sanitation of workshops. He dwells very justly upon the
evil effects of the added strains of factory life, such as piecework,
hard physical labor, injurious trade processes, fatigue, etc.
Doctor Newman tells how in some trades, like brickmaking, tin­
plate works, iron hollow ware, certain hardware trades, jam and
sauce factories, and mat works, women are not infrequently em­
ployed in carrying or lifting weights which can not fail to be injurious
to some. He emphasizes the various dangers to which the female
employees are exposed, and summarizes the direct injuries as follows:
(a) Accidents from machinery, materials, and other external agents;
(& injury or poisoning from toxic substances, or injury from excessive
)
dust, fumes, vapor, or extremes of temperature (he refers also to
anthrax infections in horsehair factories, tetanus in jute works, lung
diseases in dusty trades, and abortion in lead works); (c ) injury
through fatigue and strain, long hours, insufficient periods of rest
for food; (d ) injury derived from defective sanitary conditions, such
as bad ventilation, dampness, insufficiency or unsuitability of sani­
tary conveniences; and (e ) too short a period of rest at the time of
childbirth. (6
)
He declares that the official reports of factory inspectors and of
medical officers of health reveal ample evidences of these injuries,
and adds: “ Where the conditions resulting in these evils, coupled
a Papers Belating to the Sanitary State of the People of England, 1858.
b Infant Mortality, George Newman, M . D , New York, 1907.




534

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

with the absence of the mother from home, are present, the infant
m ortality is high; where they are not present it is usually low .” He
describes the general effects of the factory system at Dundee, where
24,879 women and girls are employed in the jute and hemp factories,
and 3,000 women are employed in other textile works. One-quarter
of the women, or about 6,000, are married, and about 16 per cent of
all the girls in Dundee between the ages of 10 and 14 are employed
in these trades.
The infant m ortality rate for Dundee “ is exceptionally high, and
for the decennial period 1893-1902 was 176 per 1,000 births.” In
1904 there were 788 infant deaths, 129 of which occurred within the
first week, and all but four of these were medically certified as due to
“ prematurity and im m aturity.” Nearly one-half of the total num­
ber occurred in the first three months of life. Inquiry was made
into the social conditions of the home life o f 364 of these infant
deaths and it was learned that “ the occupations, or former occupa­
tions, of the mothers were as follow s: 84 weavers, warpers, or winders;
105 spinners, piecers, or shifters; 88 preparers; 12 sack machinists or
sack sewers; 27 miscellaneous; 20 unoccupied, and 25 concerning
which there was no return obtainable. Of the cases inquired into
13.2 per cent of these mothers worked at the factory to within a
week of childbirth. Fifteen women worked to within a few hours of
childbirth.”
D octor Newman's final conclusion on the subject of infant m ortality
in relation to the occupation of women is as follows: (a)
“ No doubt the factory plays a part, but the home plays a vastly
greater part, in the causation of infant m ortality in the towns where
women are employed at the mills. There are two influences at work—
first, the direct injury to the physique and character of the indi­
vidual caused by much of the factory employment of women; and,
secondly, the indirect and reflex injury to the home and social life of
the worker. W e can not afford to forget either of these points in
attempting to estimate the operations of the factory in infant mor­
tality. It is because they have not been sufficiently correlated
together that fallacy has arisen in the past. But even yet we have
not finished. ' Infantile m ortality in Lancashire/ writes an expe­
rienced medical officer of health for a town in that county with an
infant m ortality in 1904 of 222, 4s, I am sorry to say, as much a
financial as a hygienic question.' W hy do married women work in
the mills? is the question this medical officer has reached. His
answer is that ‘ a weaver's wages will not allow of the w ife's remaining
at home, considering the high rents and rates, and so both go— which
is the rule— and a hand-to-m outh existence results even for them­
selves, let alone the little ones, who are left in the intervals to the
a Infant Mortality, Newman, pp. 137,138.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

535

mercies of the nurse, who, as a rule, takes in the babies to eke out her
own husband's wages. Much good may be done by hygienic tuition,
but I am certain that the root of the whole matter with us is, as I have
said, com paratively low wages and high rents and rates.' "
In the discussion of infant m ortality it would be unfair not to
emphasize other facts, such as impure and dirty milk and one-room
tenements. Of 54,047 infantile deaths which were investigated both
in the Old and the New W orld as to the character of feeding, it was
found that 86 per cent had been artificially fed. Neumann, in inves­
tigating 2,711 infantile deaths in Berlin, found that 1,792 occurred in
one-room apartments, 754 in two-room apartments, 122 in three-room
apartments, and 43 in apartments of four rooms and over.(a)
SPECIAL MEASURES FOR TH E PREVEN TION OF TU BER­
CULOSIS AMONG W AGE-EARNERS.
There is abundant statistical evidence to show that industrial
workers pay a very heavy tribute to the so-called 6‘white plague;"
nor is this surprising when the many unfavorable factors to which
the workers are subjected are considered, such as crowded and in­
sanitary workshops, deficient light, overwork, long hours in a bad
air, dampness, exposure to extremes of heat and cold, sudden changes
in temperature, and the inhalation of irritating dust, vapors, etc.
A ll of these factors are calculated to lower the power of resistance and
favor the spread of the disease, especially when some of the workmen
are already afflicted and are careless in expectorating.
Still it would be manifestly unfair not to consider the influence
of home environment, such as unclean and crowded or otherwise
insanitary dwellings, insufficient or improper food, and last, but not
least, the bad effects of the abuse of alcohol. It has been shown that
alcohol not only affects the digestive and nervous functions, in con­
sequence of which the general nutrition of the body is markedly
reduced, but the habit of visiting and remaining in saloons for hours,
sometimes till midnight, deprives the individual of proper rest and also
exposes him to the poisonous fumes of tobacco, coal and carbonicacid gases, and other injurious agents. The preventive measures are
partly the duty of the state, which should regulate the air space and
ventilation of the workshops and dwellings and im prove the working
conditions by forced ventilation and "w e t processes," in order to
diminish dust production and exposure to irritating gases. On the
other hand, it is clearly the duty of the workmen and the community
at large to im prove social and housing conditions. In view of
the undue prevalence of consumption among file cutters, metal
Deutsche Med. Wochenschrift, Leipzig, 1904, p. 1723.
37691— N o. 75— 08----- 17




536

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

grinders, stonecutters, and cotton, flax, and tobacco operatives,
persons predisposed to this disease should be cautioned against
engaging in such occupations. Simple printed instructions should be
given as to the part expectoration plays in the spread of consump­
tion. Cuspidors in sufficient number and properly disinfected should
be provided, preferably one for each workman, and promiscuous
expectoration should be forbidden.
MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF W AGE-EARN ERS.
One of the important predisposing causes to disease is overwork or
fatigue, because the accumulation of waste products in the blood, from
muscular wear and tear, together with the expended nervous energy,
combine to render the system more susceptible to disease. Excessive
work is inimical to health, and long hours and hard work are calcu­
lated to diminish the general power of resistance, and thus bring
about physical deterioration. Hence the necessity of laws regulating
the hours o f labor and the enforcement of a day of rest as contem­
plated b y the Sunday laws.
From the standpoint of the physician no child under the age of 14
should be permitted to work in factories and wage-earning occupa­
tions. Children over 14 years of age should be permitted to engage
in such occupations only upon the presentation of a medical certifi­
cate showing that they are free from physical defects, and should
not be obliged to work longer than six hours with a two-hour interval
of rest after the first three hours, so that they may be able to enjoy
their noonday meal. Under no circumstances should they be
permitted to perform night work or engage in the so-called dan­
gerous occupations. The same may be said of individuals between
the ages of 16 and 18 years, who, however, m ay be permitted to
work eight hours a day, with proper intervals for meals and rest.
W omen, from a moral standpoint alone, should not be permitted
to work in factories or shops after sundown. The laws of some
countries prescribe for females one hour for nooning, if they have
their own households, and their exclusion from factories six weeks
before and after confinement, while in other countries hard labor for
women is strictly forbidden.
SAN ITATION OF W ORKSHOPS AND QU ARTERS FOR
EMPLOYEES.
Many writers contend that the protection of wage-earners should
extend to the work and workshops, and, in case the employees are
housed by the employer, also to the living and sleeping quarters.
A sanitary workshop demands sufficient air space for each inmate,
a suitable temperature, proper ventilation and illumination, general
cleanliness, and suitable opportunities for personal cleanliness. The




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

537

necessity for abundant ventilation is apparent when it is recalled
that men at work give out more carbonic-acid gas than individuals
at rest, and that in the m ajority of occupations the air is further
vitiated by the presence of dust and gases.
The question of illumination is not only important for the pre­
vention of defective vision and accidents, but when recourse is had
to artificial illumination the additional vitiation of the air must be
considered. Such matters, which, after all, are largely questions of
public health, should not be left to the individual employer, but the
principles of industrial hygiene which ought to be adopted should be
embodied in suitable laws and enforced b y competent inspectors.
Among the most dangerous forms of workshops is one class which
m ost State laws entirely ignore. For example, under the law of the
State of New York relating to manufacturing in tenement houses, 33
distinct industries may be carried on in the living rooms of the
workers, because they involve hand work or simple machinery.
There are over 23,000 licensed “ home factories” in the city of New
York alone. Dr. Annie S. Daniel, who made a special investigation
of manufacturing in tenements, says that “ every garment worn by
a woman is found being manufactured in tenement room s” ; ( a) and
that the same is true of clothing worn by infants and young chil­
dren. In addition to wearing apparel for men, women, and children,
including adornments of woman’ s dress, the flowers and feathers for
her hats, the hats themselves, and neckwear of every description, D octor
Daniel found that paper boxes, cigars, pocketbooks, jewelry, clocks,
watches, wigs, fur garments, paper bags, etc., were being made and
that the articles were frequently handled and stored in infected rooms.
According to D octor Daniel, among the 150 families tabulated b y her,
66 continued at work during the entire course of the contagious disease
for which she attended the fam ily, and the question naturally arises,
How many germs of tuberculosis, measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, and
other infectious diseases may be sewed in the garments made in the
tenement “ sweat shops?” And last, but not least, the greatest
danger falls upon the workers— it means, physically, the loss of health;
morally, the loss of home, because home fife is impossible in a tene­
ment workroom.
Apart from the occupations referred to, numerous bakeries; candy,
ice-cream, and milk shops; butcher shops and sausage factories;
bottling establishments; tailor, cobbler, and other repair shops are
carried on in basements under the most insanitary surroundings as
regards workrooms and sleeping quarters.




a Charities, April 1,1 905 .

538

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB.

CUBIC A IR SPACE AND AMOUNT OF FRESH A IR PER HOUR.
Reference has been made to the baneful effects of vitiated air,
which are of course intensified when the occupation is attended
with the production of dust and irritating fumes or gases. It is
known that carbonic acid is not itself a toxic agent, but an excess of
this gas in the air of rooms leads to a deficiency of oxygen, and also to
defective elimination of carbonic acid from the system, which can not
be excreted whenever the pressure of carbonic acid in the air exceeds
that of the carbonic acid in the blood. In order that the respiratory
impurities may not exceed certain limits (6 volumes of carbonic acid
per 10,000), it has been found that an average adult requires 3,000
cubic feet of fresh air per hour, and this amount should be supplied
without discom fort to the occupants. Experience has shown that
the air of a room can not be changed oftener than three times in one
hour in winter without causing a disagreeable draft; hence every
occupant should have a cubic air space of 1,000 feet. This is the
ideal standard, and section 100 of the factory laws of New York of
1901 (as amended b y chapter 129, Acts of 1906), relating to certain
manufactures in tenements, provides “ that the whole number of
persons therein shall not exceed one to each 1,000 cubic feet of air
space.” Such an ideal standard, however, is not always attainable
in workshops, and it is believed that for practical purposes an air
space from 400 to 500 feet per capita will suffice.
New York, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, Ohio, Penn­
sylvania, and Wisconsin appear to be the only States which make
definite provision as to air space in factories and workshops. In five
of the States the air space must not be less than 250 cubic feet for
each employee between the hours of 6 a. m. and 6 p. m., and, unless
b y written consent of the factory inspector, not less than 400 cubic
feet for each employee between the hours of 6 p. m. and 6 a. m., pro­
vided such room is lighted by electricity, etc. This is a step in the
right direction, but it would be extremely desirable to place the
minimum amount of cubic air space at 400 feet for day work and 500
feet for night work, unless electricity is used, in which case a uniform
standard o f 400 feet might be prescribed. A t all events the question
of sufficiency ought not to be left to the discretion of the factory
inspector. Either the cubic air space should be specified or the
carbonic acid limited to 12 volumes per 10,000.
VEN TILATION .
Ventilation, which means the removal and dispersion of bad air
and the introduction of fresh air, is accomplished either by natural
or artificial means. Natural ventilation is usually sufficient when
each occupant has 1,000 feet of cubic air space, when the walls of the




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

539

building are porous or contain numerous crevices near the doors and
windows, when the difference between the indoor and outdoor tem­
perature is considerable, and when the winds strika the walls directly
or pass with great velocity over chimney flues or other openings.
But as the direction and force of the winds can not be controlled
and if the other factors referred to are absent, other means should be
provided. For this purpose open windows, doors, and revolving fans
answer well in summer. The objection to this method are the cold
drafts in winter. In rooms heated with direct radiation the fresh air
should therefore be admitted above the heads of the occupants, either
by fresh-air register inlets in the walls or b y the insertion of louvered
or swinging windows, an upward direction being thus given to the air,
so that it may impinge on the ceiling, m ix with and be warmed b y the
heated air in this situation, fall gently into all parts of the room , and
be gradually removed b y means of foul-air outlets, aided by exhaust
fans. Another simple plan is to bore slanting holes in the bottom
rail of the window sash, or to insert a piece of board 4 inches wide
across the window sill.
Artificial ventilation may be secured b y providing (1) suitable
inlets and outlets, (2) b y extraction by heat, or the creation of a
decided difference between the inner and outer temperature, and
(3) by propulsion and aspiration. Space will not permit to enter
into details except to say that, besides the contrivances already men­
tioned, any of the ordinary registers in which the air passes through
the walls by means of a perforated iron plate and is then directed
upward b y a valved plate with side checks will prove of service. One
class of ventilators consists of two cylinders, one inside the other
and of different lengths; the longer tube, projecting above and below,
serves to conduct the impure air, while the outer cylinder, having a
larger sectional area, serves as an inlet. The outlet is protected on
the top with a cowl, and both tubes can be regulated by valves.
They are especially useful in the ventilation of one-story buildings
or the upper story of any building. If gas is used as an illuminant,
the burners m ay be placed immediately under the extracting tube.
As the warm air escapes through the inner tube a corresponding vol­
ume is admitted through the interspace between the two cylinders.

Another class consists of openings through the ceiling and roof
with louvered sides and ends, protected with a small roof, the
opening of the air shaft in the ceiling usually being provided with
suitable registers. The fresh air is admitted by the means already
referred to, or by registers placed behind radiators. If the building
is heated by stoves, the fresh air may be admitted by inlets running
underneath the floor between the joists and discharging through a
register near the stove.




540

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

Extraction of foul air by heat is usually accomplished by placing
a separate flue next to the chimney flue; the latter, if in use for
firing purposes, creates an upward current. If this is not sufficient
it may be promoted by gas jets or a steam coil placed in the flue.
The propulsion and aspiration system is especially adapted for all
large buildings and factories, and consists of mechanical devices by
which the fresh air is forced into and distributed throughout the build­
ing by the use of fans or air propellers, the foul or objectionable air
being removed by so-called exhaust fans. A number of States have
made statutory provisions for the ventilation of workshops, and
quite a number, including California, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana,
Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Michi­
gan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, South Dakota,
Washington, and W isconsin, require mechanical devices for the re­
m oval of injurious dust or gases. Of these States several lay down
specific rules concerning the construction of workbenches and hoods.
The latter em pty into air shafts connected with exhaust fans, and
thus extract all dust and fumes without material injury to the op­
eratives from drafts. The provisions apply especially to operations in
which emery wheels or belts or other buffing processes are employed.
The laws of the State of Michigan, Acts of 1899, furnish a good exam­
ple of regulations of this character:
ACTS OF 1899.
A

ct

N

o.

2 0 2 .— F actories and w orkshops— B low ers f o r em ery w heels , etc.

S e c t io n 1. A ll persons, companies or corporations, operating any factory or work­
shop, where wheels or emery belts of any description are in general use, either leather,
leather covered, felt, canvas paper, cotton or wheels or belts rolled or coated with
emery or corundum, or cotton, wheels used as buffs, shall provide the same with fans
or blowers, or similar apparatus, when ordered by the commissioner of labor, which
shall be placed in such a position or manner as to protest [protect] the person or per­
sons using the same from the particles of the dust produced and caused thereby, and
to carry away the dust arising from, or thrown off b y such wheels, or belts, while in
operation, directly to the outside of the building or to some other receptacle placed
so as to receive and confine such dust, and the same shall be placed in such factory or
workshop within three months after this act shall take effect, in the manner and accord­
ing to the directions and specifications as herein, in this act set forth: P rovid ed , That
grinding machines upon which water is used at the point of grinding contact shall be
exem pt from the conditions of this act: A n d provided fu rth er , That this act shall not
apply to solid emery wheels used in sawmills or planing m ills or other woodworking
establishments.
S e c . 2. It shall be the duty of any person, company or corporation operating any
such factory or workshop to provide or construct such appliances, apparatus, machin­
ery or other things necessary to carry out the purpose of this act, as set forth in the
preceding section, as follows: Each and every such wheel shall be fitted with a sheet
or cast-iron hood or hopper of such form and so applied to such wheel or wheels that
the dust or refuse therefrom w ill fall from such wheels or w ill be thrown into such hood
or hopper b y centrifugal force and be carried off by the current of air into a suction
pipe attached to same hood or hopper.
S e c . 3. Each and every such wheel six inches or less in diameter shall be provided
with a three-inch suction pipe; wheels six inches to twenty-four inches in diameter
with four-inch suction pipe; wheels from twenty-four inches to thirty-six inches in
diameter with a five-inch suction pipe; and all wheels larger in diameter than those
stated above shall be provided each with a suction pipe, not less than six inches in




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

541

diameter. The suction pipe from each wheel, so specified, must be full sized to the
main trunk suction pipe, and the said main suction pipe to which smaller pipes are
attached shall, in its diameter and capacity, be equal to the combined area of such
smaller pipes attached to the same; and the discharge pipe from the exhaust fan, con­
nected with such suction pipe or pipes, shall be as large or larger than the suction pipe.
S e c . 4. It shall be the duty of any person, company or corporation operating any
such factory or workshop, to provide the necessary fans or blowers to be connected
with such pipe or pipes, as above set forth, which shall be run at such a rate of speed
as will produce a velocity of air in such suction or discharge pipes of at least nine
thousand feet per minute or an equivalent suction or pressure of air equal to raising a
column of water not less than five inches high in a U-shaped tube. A ll branch pipes
must enter the main trunk pipe at an angle of forty-five degrees or less. The main
suction, or trunk pipe, shall be below the polishing or buffing wheels and as close to
the same as possible and to be either upon the floor or beneath the floor on which the
machines are placed to which such wheels are attached. A ll bends, turns or elbows
in such pipes must be made with easy smooth surfaces having a radius in the throat
of not less than two diameters of the pipe on which they are connected.
S e c . 5. It shall be the duty of any factory inspector, sheriff, constable or prosecut­
ing attorney of any county in this State, in which any such factory or workshop is
situated, upon receiving notice in writing, signed by any person or persons, having
knowledge of such facts, that such factory or workshop, is not provided with such
appliances as herein provided for, to visit any such factory or workshop and inspect
the same and for such purpose they are hereby authorized to enter any factory or work­
shop in this State during working hours, and upon ascertaining the facts that the pro­
prietors or managers of such factory or workshops have failed to com ply with the
provisions of this act, to make complaint of the same in writing before a justice of the
peace, or police magistrate having jurisdiction, who shall thereupon issue his warrant
directed to the owner, manager or director in such factory or workshop, who shall be
thereupon proceeded against for the violation of this act as hereinafter mentioned,
and it is made the duty of the prosecuting attorney to prosecute all cases under this act.

TEM PERATURE.
It is a well-known fact that the welfare and capacity for work of
individuals are to a great extent influenced b y the surrounding tem­
perature. Reference has been made (p. 520) to occupations involv­
ing exposure to extremes of heat and cold, dampness, and sudden
changes. The human organism possesses the faculty o f maintaining
a uniform temperature; i. e., it so regulates and harmonizes the pro­
duction and the loss of animal heat that the normal temperature of the
blood, 98.2 Fahrenheit, is not materially affected, and in this the skin
doubtless plays the most important r6le. Whenever cold acts upon
the skin the irritation is primarily exerted upon the nerves, which
transmit it to the central organs of the nervous system (the heat­
regulating center), and from there it is reflected to the nerves of the
cutaneous vessels and muscular fibers, which prom ptly contract, and
in consequence of a diminished blood supply there is less loss of heat.
If, on the other hand, heat instead of cold plays upon the skin, we
have dilatation instead of contraction of the vessels, with an increased
surface blood supply and corresponding loss of heat by radiation and
conduction. A t the same time the perspiratory glands are stimulated
to greater activity, more sweat is excreted and evaporated, and still
more heat is dissipated. One of the bad effects of profuse perspiration
is that the blood is deprived of some of its constituents. The blood is
taken away too long from the internal organs; the proper distribution




542

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

of the blood supply is interfered with, and in consequence the tone and
nutrition of the stomach, lungs, heart, and other internal organs is
lowered. There is loss of appetite and indigestion ensues; the red
corpuscles are decreased; languor and general enervation is experi­
enced, and the system in consequence is rendered more susceptible
to disease.
W hile the human organism endeavors to adapt itself to extremes of
heat and cold, the faculty of the body to maintain the equilibrium is
b y no means unlimited, and the heat-regulating center is liable to fail
or become paralyzed if imposed upon too long or too frequently.
This is especially the case during sudden changes o f temperature. It
is the abruptness which offends the peripheral nerves, and the greater
the abruptness the more intensive will be the irritation which is trans­
mitted b y reflex action to other parts of the body, usually the weakest
parts; it may result in driving the blood to internal organs, causing
congestions and other mischief. Then again a cold draft playing on
the cheek may cause neuralgia, paralysis, sore throat, bronchitis, or
pneumonia, showing that cold applied locally may excite disease in
the neighborhood of its application or in distant organs, and finally
it may produce disease b y checking the secretions of the skin.
The most agreeable temperature for average healthy adults properly
clothed and performing light work is between 65 and 70 degrees Fah­
renheit, and every effort should be made to avoid extremes of heat and
cold. Much may be done to reduce the temperature of workshops by
forced ventilation and a supply of cool, fresh air. The windows
should be kept open during the summer nights, so that the rooms may
be thoroughly flushed with fresh and cool air.
H U M ID ITY OF THE A IR .
The atmosphere always contains a certain amount of water in the
state of vapor, which varies from 30 per cent to complete saturation,
or, according to temperature, from 1 to 12 grains in a cubic foot of air.
The degree of atmospheric hum idity is of special hygienic importance,
as it influences to a great extent the cutaneous and pulmonary exha­
lation of vapor, and in consequence also affects the animal tempera­
ture. The average daily amount of water eliminated b y the skin is
2\ pounds, and about 10 ounces by the lungs. It is evident that when
the air is damp evaporation is lessened, because damp air possesses
little drying power, and the water from the skin and lungs is with diffi­
culty evaporated. The evaporation of perspiration, b y which much
heat is rendered latent, is one of the chief sources of cooling of the
body. Consequently when the air is hot and moist the hum idity
tends to increase the effects of the heat, the blood is with difficulty
kept at its proper temperature, and all the disagreeable effects o f




a

INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

543

high temperature are intensified. This condition may be so aggra­
vated that the temperature of the body exceeds the normal degree
and causes the so-called heat stroke or heat exhaustion, which occurs
especially on hot, sultry days.
A damp, cold, or chilly air also produces mischief, because it ab­
stracts an undue amount of animal heat, lowers the general vitality
of the system, and favors the development of diseases of the respira­
tory passages and of neuralgic and rheumatic affections, and aggra­
vates the severity of such attacks. W e may conclude, therefore,
that excessive humidity tends to intensify the effects of both heat
and cold. On the other hand, excessive dryness of the air is also
harmful; it increases evaporation, the skin becomes dry and chapped,
and the mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes, and respiratory pas­
sages are irritated, causing so-called catarrhal conditions. For all
these reasons an average relative humidity between 65 and 75 per cent
has been found m ost healthful, and efforts should be made to maintain
such a standard whenever practicable. Apart from methods calcu­
lated to accomplish these results, reliable thermometers and hygrom­
eters are required to secure efficient control. Instead of making a
general provision for sufficient heat, moisture, etc., State legislators
would do well to prescribe a standard, at least in industries where
such a standard is practicable and can be reasonably enforced.
LIGHTING.
The natural light in workshops should be sufficient so that the
eyes need not to be strained even on cloudy days. When the light
is defective the objects have to be brought too near. The eyes in
consequence converge, and the muscular strain thus induced causes a
gradual elongation of the anterior-posterior axis of the eyeball, and
nearsightedness results. In addition, it is believed by specialists that
80 to 90 per cent of the headaches are casused by eye strain. It has
been found by Putzeys(a) that the natural lighting in temperate
climates will usually come up to hygienic requirements when the
area of windows, exclusive of sash frames, equals one-sixth of the
floor space. In order that the light may penetrate the deeper por­
tions of the room, the windows should reach almost to the ceiling
and the glass should be either pure white, ribbed or prismatic, and
kept clean. W isconsin is apparently the only State which has under­
taken to legislate specifically upon this point, as section 3 of chapter
79, Acts of 1899, provides: “ Every window shall have not less than
12 square feet in superficial area, and the entire area of window sur­
face shall not be less than 12 per cent of the floor space of such room .”
« Cited by Munson, M ilitary H ygiene, 1901, p. 521.




54 4

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

The difficulty of securing a sufficient amount of daylight in build­
ings located on narrow streets surrounded by tall buildings has been
partly overcom e by glass building blocks, 8 by 6 by 2\ inches, with
an air chamber in the center, used instead of brick or stone, in con­
nection with steel-frame construction, but more particularly by the
introduction of prismatic glass, which refracts and diffuses the light.
ARTIFICIAL LIGHT.

No matter how obtained, artificial light differs from daylight in
this, that it does not furnish a pure white light, the prevailing rays
being red, yellow, or violet. W hatever difference of opinion there
may be as to the color best suited to our eyes, we know that our
vision is most perfect under the influence of a white light, and this
ought to be a good criterion. One of the disadvantages of all lowpower illuminants is that the light is never so bright as daylight,
involving, therefore, closer application of the eyes and consequent
strain of the muscles of the eyeball. These remarks are hardly ap­
plicable to the electric arc light and the W elsbach gas-burner, the
rays of which, like the direct solar rays, may indeed be so glaring as
to cause undue irritation of the retina.
Another harmful effect of artificial illumination is the unsteady or
flickering character, especially seen in the electric arc light, and which
on account of the abrupt changes is likely to irritate the retina.
Another disadvantage is that the ordinary illuminants, except the
electric light, tend to vitiate the air by the products of com bustion,
and also affect the temperature and humidity of the air by the heat
evolved.
The requirements of a hygienic light are that it should be as near
as possible the color of the sunlight, sufficiently ample but not too
glaring; it should be steady, and instead of deteriorating the air it
should as far as practicable be utilized to prom ote ventilation; nor
should the heat evolved be sufficiently intense to be a source of dis­
com fort to the inmates in warm weather. The most com m on meth­
ods of lighting now employed are the electric incandescent lamps,
arc lights, mercury-vapor lights and electric bulbs, gaslight, and
kerosene lamps. Of these, the electric lights, especially the mercuryvapor lights, are superior to gas or other illuminants because there is
little or no danger from fire, there are no products of combustion,
hence no pollution of the air, nor are the temperature and humidity
of the room affected to any perceptible extent. These advantages
over gas or kerosene are of special importance to the inmates of the
buildings where the question of fresh air and temperature plays an
important r61e; hence many industrial plants find it profitable to
install the very best type of electric lighting, and thereby save time
and money by the prevention of sickness and accidents among their




INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.

545

employees. Next to the electric light, gas, especially in connection
with a W elsbach or Siemen’s burner, or the acetylene gas, offers the
next best choice. In the absence of either electric or gas light, kero­
sene with a high flashing point should be preferred over other illuminants. In all such instances suitable outlets for the products of
combustion should be provided.
W hite, clean ceilings and walls will be of great service not only in
solving the question of light, but also in general sanitation, and a
number of States, notably Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, New Jersey,
and New Y ork, require the walls to be limewashed or painted.
The sufficiency of artificial lighting may be approxim ately deter­
mined by observation, and quite accurately by the employment of
Bunsen’ s method and his photometer. In this country and England,
according to Munson, “ the unit adopted for the measurement and
comparison of lights is a No. 6 sperm candle burning 8 grams per
hour and giving out a light known as ‘ 1 candlepower.’ ” Such a
candle contains on analysis carbon, 80 per cent; hydrogen, 13 per cent;
oxygen, 6 per cent, and in combustion yields equal volumes of car­
bonic acid and watery vapor to the air, namely, 0.41 cubic foot.
PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS.
Twenty-one States have taken steps to reduce accidents to a mini­
mum. For this purpose they have enacted laws concerning employ­
ers’ liability if they fail to provide safety devices for the movable
and dangerous parts of machinery. Apart from proper screening,
belting, etc.,, the use of respirators, wire masks, and goggles are
absolutely essential for the prevention of accidents or injuries in
many employments. A t least 29 States require some form of protec­
tion in case of fire, by means of fire escapes and doors swinging out­
wardly, while a respectable number also insist upon inspection and
registration of steam boilers.
A careful inspection of steam boilers and examination of engineers
have materially lessened the dangers from boiler explosions, so that
in England there is only about 1 explosion in 6,200 registered boilers.
It has been suggested that employees who come in contact with
moving machinery should provide themselves with suitable clothing,
so fitted and arranged as to reduce the dangers to a minimum. There
is an endless variety of suitable patterns in the market, of which the
snug-fitting duck union suits properly buttoned and adjusted are
the best. Asbestos clothing has been recommended for firemen and
furnace operators; but as it is rather heavy, light leather suits or
aprons are preferable, while even ordinary clothing may be rendered
practically noninflammable by chemical treatment.




546

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

MISCELLANEOUS SAN ITARY PROVISIONS.
A number of States have enacted laws concerning general cleanli­
ness of factories and workshops. Most of the factory laws make
provisions for the necessary sanitary conveniences, such as privies,
water-closets, and urinals, and where men and women are employed
separate dressing rooms and water-closets are called for. Some of
the States, like Wisconsin, for example, specify “ that when the num­
ber employed is more than 25 of either sex there shall be provided an
additional water-closet for such sex up to the number of 50 persons,
and above that number in the same ratio.”
A large number of States make wash rooms, dressing rooms, and
seats for female employees obligatory, and not a few insist upon
separate provisions for the sexes. The importance of personal
cleanliness has been pointed out. In certain occupations the washing
of the hands before eating is important, and in occupations involving
exposure to poisonous dust or agents the employment of a general
bath should be encouraged by insisting upon the introduction of
suitable shower baths.
A few States, notably Massachusetts and Rhode Island, make pro­
visions for “ fresh drinking water, of good quality.” The former State
also regulates the spitting habit by insisting upon suitable spittoons.
These and other questions, like clothes lockers and lunch rooms, and
the time allowed for the noonday meals, which is already regulated
in a number of States, should receive universal attention. Much
industrial legislation has been enacted by State legislatures during
the past ten years. Commendable progress has been made in the
provision of ventilation, heating, lighting, removal of dust, and gen­
eral sanitation of workshops. The need for additional improvement
is shown by the Massachusetts Board of Health’s survey of the work
in that State, which has generally been in the lead in factory laws.
The Report of the State Board of Health, on page 4, reads:

“ In many [industries] the conditions were found to be satisfactory.
In the emery and corundum, sandpaper and certain other industries
more attention should be given to keeping the dust away from the
mouth and nostrils of the workmen. In the rag dusting, sorting and
cutting rooms of some paper mills very objectionable amounts of
dust were found, with some pale and sickly appearing operatives;
but there are mills using the same kind of stock where the dust is kept
away from the employees in a satisfactory manner, and much
improvement is practicable in the former class.”
The same remarks are applicable to the textile industries, and the
hope is expressed that the unsatisfactory conditions found in the
minority of establishments will be raised to those which are now
found to be good.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

547

Reference has already been made in these pages to the conditions
found in machine shops, the cutlery and tool industry, cigar, rubber,
boot and shoe, and other industries examined. In the boot and
shoe industry comment is made upon “ four conditions which can be
and ought to be remedied. These are: poor ventilation, inadequate
removal of dust from machines; the conditions of water-closets; and
spit upon the floors. In the m ajority of factories visited the ven­
tilation was found to be poor, and in many of them distinctly bad.
Of the rooms not especially dusty, 102 were badly ventilated and 26
were overcrowded. * * * Of 84 of the many dusty rooms
reported, 40 were also overcrowded, 35 were dark, 21 were over­
heated, and 18 were overcrowded, dark, and overheated.

“ In more than one-third of the factories visited the conditions of
water-closets were not commendable; most of them were dark and
dirty to very dirty. In 50 establishments no spitting was noticed,
in 173 there was some, in 115 considerable, and in 35 much.
“ In some establishments lunch rooms are provided, where employ­
ees may eat the luncheon they have brought or may buy one; in
much the larger number the employees eat in the workrooms. * * *
In 85 factories, or 23 per cent of those visited, a considerable propor­
tion of the employees are noticeably pale and unhealthy.” (a)

In discussing the following provisions in the Massachusetts laws,
“ All factories shall be kept clean,” the State board of health very
properly points out that “ what is clean in an ax-grinding factory
would not be clean in a silk mill; but the law makes no distinction,
and the judgment of the officer can not be received as law.” The
board considers it impossible to specify in any law a standard of
cleanliness applicable to all industries, and advises “ that the officer
should be authorized to hold all factories in any industry up to the
standard of cleanliness which he finds maintained in the factories in
the same industry and using the same grade of stock which are the
cleanest.” The same method is recommended for the enforcement
of standards in other directions, subject to an appeal to the State
board of health. (b
)
LODGING HOUSES AND SLEEPING QUARTERS.
It not infrequently happens that large industrial plants and con­
tractors provide board and lodging for their unmarried employees.
Again, in a number of the smaller industries the employees not infre­
quently board with the family and are obliged to sleep in objectionable
rooms. All such provisions should come up to a reasonable standard
a Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts upon the Sanitary Condition
of Factories, Workshops etc., 1907, p. 6.
& Ibid., pp. 7, 8.




548

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

as regards salubrity, air space, light, heat, and ventilation, and sepa­
rate provisions should be required for males and females and youthful
employees. Lodging houses should come up to a certain standard,
and wash and bath rooms and suitable toilet facilities should be pro­
vided. Special attention should be paid to general cleanliness within
and without quarters for working parties, and to the character and
preparation of food.
PERM ANENT EXPOSITION S DEVOTED TO IN D U STRIAL
AND SOCIAL BETTERM EN T OF W AGE-EARN ERS.
It will require time and patience to bring employers and workers to
a full realization of the dangers incident to the various occupations and
to a thorough appreciation of the methods which have been proposed
in the way of factory sanitation, safety devices, etc. Good results
abroad have been accomplished by a permanent exposition devoted to
social and industrial betterment for wage-earners. Such an exposi­
tion was provided for by the German Government a few years ago,
and a similar effort is now being made in the city of New York. The
German exposition occupies a building specially erected for the purpose
at Charlottenburg, a suburb of Berlin, and here every safety appliance
which inventive genius has devised can be seen in practical operation.
The different labor unions appear to profit immensely by the special lec­
tures and demonstrations which are given on Sundays or, upon request,
at any convenient time, by men form erly employed in “ dangerous
occupations.7 Apart from safety devices for machinery and appli­
7
ances for removal of dust and injurious gases, all im proved methods
calculated to diminish danger, as, for example, in the manufacture of
white lead, etc., are illustrated by models and descriptive text, printed
leaflets being distributed free of charge. Here, too, may be seen the
best and most recent types of respirators, wire masks, goggles, illumi­
nating appliances, and safety working suits. Inventors and designers
esteem it a great honor to have their products admitted for exposition.
Only meritorious objects are displayed, and they are replaced by the
newer and more satisfactory types. One of the most interesting col­
lections consists of a series of bottles containing different varieties of
dust, a series of photographs showing the m icroscopical character of
this dust, and, last but not least, anatomical specimens and m icro­
scopical slides showing the effects of dust upon the air passages and
lungs of the human subject. Models, plans, and photographs of tene­
ments and model homes for wage-earners, exterior and interior decora­
tions, literature and charts concerning industrial betterment, all find a
prominent place in the exhibit. The display of food stuffs, their nutri­
tive and econom ic value, together with instructive leaflets, form part
of this interesting exposition. A popular pamphlet seen at the exposi­
tion in September, 1907, was compiled by Professor Kalle and D octor



549

INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

Schellenberg, entitled “ How to keep well and capacitated for w ork,”
which is sold by the Society for Popular Education, at 2£ cents a copy,
over 470,000 having so far been sold.
EVIL

EFFECTS

OF

IN SAN ITARY HOUSES
CROW DING.

AND

OVER­

The primary object of habitations is to secure protection from the
influence of heat, cold, rain, sunshine, and storms, and thus promote
the health and happiness and indirectly also the morals and culture
of the human race.
The influence of sanitary houses can not be overestimated. D octor
Villerme, in an investigation in France from 1821 to 1827, found that
among the inhabitants of arrondissements containing 7 per cent of
badly constructed dwellings 1 person out of every 72 died, of inhabit­
ants of arrondissements containing 22 per cent of badly constructed
dwellings 1 out of 65 died, while of the inhabitants of arrondissements
containing 38 per cent of badly constructed dwellings 1 out of every
15 died.
W ith the present rapid-transit facilities in nearly every city indi­
vidual homes should be possible to most workers, and when this is
impracticable broad streets and deep yards should be insisted upon.
No more than 68 per cent of the lot should be covered by the house,
and the height of the building should not exceed the width of the
street. The baneful effects of tenement houses should be avoided, as
infectious diseases are more liable to spread in consequence of aerial
infection and the more intimate contact of the occupants.
Apart from the structural defects, there is no doubt that the death
rate is largely determined by the number of occupants to a room.
Russell has shown that in Aberdeen, where the average number of
persons to each room was only 1.51 the m ortality was 21.7 per 1,000,
and in Glasgow, where the number of occupants amounted to 2.05 for
each room the m ortality reached 28.6 per 1,000.
According to K orosi the m ortality from infectious diseases at
Budapest is only 20 when the number of occupants to each room does
not exceed 2, but is 29 per 1,000 with 3 to 5 occupants, 32 per 1,000
with 6 to 10 occupants, and 79 per 1,000 when there are more than 10
occupants to each apartment.
The death rate at Berlin in 1885 among the 73,000 one-room
tenants was 163.5 per 1,000, against 5.4 per 1,000 among 398,000
residents occupying four or more room apartments. The analysis of
2,711 infantile deaths in Berlin during 1903 investigated by Neumann
has been presented.
Insanitary dwellings are to be found everywhere, and particularly
in older ^cities erected at a time when the principles of sanitation were
comparatively unknown. One of the most important municipal




550

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

problems is to correct existing evils by the enactment and enforce­
ment of suitable laws. It requires, however, a strong public senti­
ment to bring about a complete and satisfactory reformation, as evi­
denced by the housing movement elsewhere, for in spite of the excel­
lent tenement-house laws in New York, according to Homer Folks, of
370,000 dark rooms reported in existence by the tenement-house
department in 1903, some 20,000 only have been opened to the light
during the past three and one-half years. The prohibition against
the use of cellar and basement rooms partly underground can not be
enforced owing to the lack of a sufficient number of inspectors. (a)
HOUSE DISEASES.
It has long been known that rickets, scrofula, and chronic forms of
tuberculosis are far more prevalent in dark, damp, and insanitary
houses. The children are anaemic and as puny as plants reared without
the stimulating effects of sunlight. Add to this the fact that damp­
ness abstracts an undue amount of animal heat, lowers the power of
resistance, and favors the development of catarrhal conditions, which
render the system more vulnerable to tuberculosis, and we have a
reasonable explanation why these diseases prevail especially in base­
ments or houses below grade and otherwise unfit for human habita­
tion. The death rate is often double or treble that of other locali­
ties, and while there are doubtless other factors which determine the
frightful m ortality the most potent are insufficient sunlight and
defective ventilation. Diphtheria, cerebro-spinal meningitis, acute
and chronic rheumatism, and bronchial affections are also more
frequent in insanitary dwellings.
That the same is true of infantile diarrhea is doubtless due to the
fact that the construction of the buildings does not protect from
the heat of summer, and the enervating effects of heat and the
more speedy decom position of food (especially of milk) in such an
atmosphere combine to carry on the slaughter of the innocents.
The history of improved dwellings reveals everywhere a lessened
death rate, and the experience of the W ashington Sanitary Im prove­
ment Company is equally gratifying. During the year ending
December 31, 1906, the apartments were occupied by 778 adults
and 380 children, total 1,158; the births during the year numbered
39, and there were only 16 deaths, 10 adults and 6 infants; a death
rate of 13.8 per 1,000, which, with all due allowance for the average
age of the occupants, shows a remarkably low m ortality when com ­
pared with the general death rate among the white population of
the city of 16.9 per 1,000.
The regeneration of the housing conditions for the least resourceful
people is the great sanitary and social problem of the twentieth
century.



a Charities, Novem ber 30, 1907.

551

INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

Take away the hovels and filthy places, let sunshine and pure air
circulate through their homes, and teach them habits of cleanliness
and responsibility^ and the first step toward the elevation of the
degraded and the education of the ignorant will be taken, not only
in the warfare against tuberculosis and other diseases engendered
by insanitary surroundings, but also in the battle for higher moral
and social standards.
W H AT TH E EM PLOYEE MAY DO TO CONTRIBUTE TO HIS
OWN W ELFARE.
Sufficient has been said in the preceding pages to indicate the
dangers to which the workers are exposed in many industrial pursuits,
and the methods proposed to alleviate the effects have also been
pointed out. Wage-earners must show a willingness to avail them­
selves of the various “ safety devices” and not underrate their impor­
tance in the protection of life and limb. While it is criminal for
employers not to provide suitable protection, it is equally culpable on
the part of the operatives to disregard all such preventive measures.
So, for example, it is not a pleasing reflection to be told by D octor
Harrington, professor of hygiene at the Harvard Medical School, in
speaking of respirators, that, “ aside from the discom fort caused,
the operatives have another, a senseless, objection to their use,
women complaining that they are made to look ridiculous, and men
being moved to discard them by the gibes of their more reckless
fellows.” The writer recently visited Frankford Arsenal and found
men working in high explosives without rubber gloves and respirators,
although provided by the Government with these articles. D octor
Farrand, secretary of the National Association for the Study and Pre­
vention of Tuberculosis, also spoke of the great difficulties he and
others have encountered in New York and New Jersey to induce the
operatives to give safety devices a fair trial.
APPENDIX.—REGULATION OF DANGEROUS TRADES IN ENGLAND.
[In addition to the general provisions regarding ventilation, etc., which apply to all manufacturing
establishments, the English Factory and Workshop Act (1901) contains a chapter of Special Provi­
sions for dangerous and unhealthy industries, which is reprinted below, together with the Special
Rules and Regulations issued by the government officials in accordance* with the grant of authority
therein made.]

FA C TO R Y AN D W O R K SH O P ACT, 1901.
P a r t I Y .— D a n g e r o u s

and

U

nhealthy

I n d u s t r ie s .

(t) S pecia l p rovisio n s.
S e c t io n 73. (1) Every medical practitioner attending on or called in to visit a patient
whom he believes to be suffering from lead, phosphorus, arsenical or mercurial poison­
ing, or anthrax, contracted in any factory or workshop, shall (unless the notice required
by this subsection has been previously sent) send to the chief inspector of factories at
the home office, London, a notice stating the name and full postal address of the
patient and the disease from which, in the opinion of the medical practitioner, the

37691— No. 75— 08----- 18




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BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

patient is suffering, and shall be entitled in respect of every notice sent in pursuance
of this section to a fee of two shillings and sixpence, to be paid as part of the expenses
incurred by the secretary of state in the execution of this act.
(2) If any medical practitioner, when required by this section to send a notice,
fails forthwith to send the same, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding forty shillings.
(3) W ritten notice of every case of lead, phosphorus, arsenical or mercurial poison­
ing, or anthrax, occurring in a factory or workshop, shall forthwith be sent to the
inspector and to the certifying surgeon for the district; and the provisions of this act
witn respect to accidents shall apply to any such case in like manner as to any such
accident as is mentioned in those provisions.
(4) The secretary of state may, by special order, apply the provisions of this sec­
tion to any other disease occurring in a factory or workshop, and thereupon this section
and the provisions referred to therein shall apply accordingly.
S e c . 74. If in a factory or workshop where grinding, glazing, or polishing on a
wheel, or any process is carried on by which dust, or any gas, vapor, or other impur­
ity , is generated and inhaled by the workers to an injurious extent, it appears to an
inspector that such inhalation could be to a great extent prevented by the use of a
fan or other mechanical means, the inspector may direct that a fan or other mechanical
means of a proper construction for preventing such inhalation be provided within a
reasonable tim e, and if the same is not provided, maintained and used, the factory
or workshop shall be deemed not to be kept in conformity with this act.
S e c . 75. (1) In every factory or workshop where lead, arsenic or any other poisonous
substance is used, suitable washing conveniences must be provided for the use of the
persons employed in any department where such substances are used.
(2) In any factory or workshop where lead, arsenic, or other poisonous substance is
so used as to give rise to dust or fum es, a person shall not be allowed to take a meal
or to remain during the times allowed to him for meals, in any room in which any such
substance is used, and suitable provision shall be made for enabling the persons
employed in such rooms to take their meals elsewhere in the factory or workshop.
(3) A factory or workshop in which there is a contravention of this section shall
be deemed not to be kept in conformity with this act.
S e c . 76. (1) A woman, young person or child must not be employed in any part
of a factory in which wet-spinning is carried on, unless sufficient means are employed
and continued for protecting the workers from being wetted, and where hot water is
used for preventing the escape of steam into the room occupied by the workers.
(2)
A factory in which there is a contravention of this section shall be deemed not
to be kept in conformity with this act.
S e c . 77. (1) In the part of a factory or workshop in which there is carried on—
(a) the process of silvering of mirrors by the mercurial process; or
(b ) the process of making white lead,
a y o u n g p e rs o n o r c h ild m u st n o t b e e m p lo y e d .

(2) In the part of a factory in which the process of melting or annealing glass is car­
ried on a fem ale, young person, or a child must not be employed.
(3) In a factory or workshop in which there is carried on—
(a ) the making or finishing of bricks or tiles not being ornamental tiles* or
(b ) the making or finishing of salt,
a girl under the age of sixteen years must not be employed.
(4) In the part of a factory or workshop in which there is carried on—
(a) any dry grinding in the metal trade; or
(b) the dipping of lucifer matches,
a child must not be employed.
(5) Notice of a prohibition contained in this section must be affixed in the factory
or workshop to which it applies.
S e c . 78. (1 ) A w o m a n , y o u n g p e rs o n or c h ild m u st n o t b e a llo w e d t o ta k e a m ea l,
or to r e m a in d u r in g t h e t im e a llo w e d fo r m ea ls in t h e fo llo w in g fa cto r ie s or w ork sh op s,
or p arts o f fa cto r ie s o r w o r k sh o p s; th a t is to s a y ,—

(a)

in the case of glass works, in any part in which the materials are m ixed; and

(b ) in the case of glass works where flint glass is made, in any part in which the

work of grinding, cutting, or polishing is carried on; and,
(c) in the case of lucifer-m atch works, in any part in which any manufacturing
process or handicraft (except that of cutting the wood) is usually carried on; and
(d) in the case of earthenware works, in any part known or used as dippers house,
dippers drying room, or china scouring room.
(2)
If a woman, young person, or child is allowed to take a meal or to remain during
the tim e allowed for meals in a factory or workshop or part thereof in contravention of
this section, the woman, young person, or child shall be deemed to be employed con­
trary to the provisions of this act.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

553

(3) Notice of the prohibition of this section shall be affixed in every factory or
workshop to which it applies.
(4) Where it appears to the secretary of state that by reason of the nature of the
process in any class of factories or workshops or parts thereof not named in this section
the taking of meals therein is specially injurious to health, he m ay, if he thinks fit,
by special order, extend the prohibition in this section to the class of factories or
workshops or parts thereof.
(5) If the prohibition in this section is proved to the satisfaction of the secretary
of state to be no longer necessary for the protection of the health of women, young per­
sons, and children, in any class of factories or workshops or parts thereof to which it
has been so extended, he m ay, by special order, rescind the order of extension, with­
out prejudice to the subsequent making of another order.
(ii) R egu la tion s f o r dangerous trades.

S ec . 79. Where the secretary of state is satisfied that any manufacture, machinery,
plant, process, or description of manual labor, used in factories or workshops, is dan­
gerous or injurious to health or dangerous to life or lim b, either generally or in the
case of women, children, or any other class of persons, he may certify that manufac­
ture, machinery, plant, process, or description of manual labor, to be dangerous; and
thereupon the secretary of state m ay, subject to the provisions of this act, make such
regulations as appear to him to be reasonably practicable, and to meet the necessity
of the case.
S ec . 80. (1) Before the secretary of state makes any regulations under this act, he
shall publish, in such manner as he may think best adapted for informing persons
affected, notice of the proposal to make the regulations, ana of the place where copies
of the draft regulations m ay be obtained, and of the tim e (which shall be not less than
twenty-one days) within which any objection made with respect to the draft regula­
tions by or on behalf of persons affected must be sent to the secretary of state.
(2) Every objection must be in writing and state—
(a) the draft regulations or portions of draft regulations objected to;
(b) the specific grounds of objection; and
(c) the omissions, additions, or modifications asked for.
(3) The secretary of state shall consider any objection made by or on behalf of any
personsappearing to him to be affected which is sent to him within the required tim e,
and he m ay, if he thinks fit, amend the draft regulations, and shall then cause the
amended draft to be dealt with in like manner as an original draft.
(4) Where the secretary of state does not amend or withdraw any draft regulations
to which any objection has been made, then (unless the objection either is withdrawn

or appears to him to be frivolous), he shall, before making the regulations, direct an
inquiry to be held in the manner hereinafter provided.
S e c . 81. (1) The secretary of state may appoint a competent person to hold an
inquiry with regard to any draft regulations, and to report to him thereon.
(2) The inquiry shall be held in public, and the chief inspector and any objector and
any other person who, in the opinion of the person holding the inquiry, is affected by
the draft regulations, may appear at the inquiry either in person or by counsel, solic­
itor, or agent.
(3) The witnesses on the inquiry m ay, if the person holding it thinks fit, be exam­
ined on oath.
(4) Subject as aforesaid, the inquiry and all proceedings preliminary and incidental
thereto shall be conducted in accordance with rules made by the secretary of state.
(5) The fee to be paid to the person holding the inquiry shall be such as the secretary
of state may direct, and shall be deemed to be part of the expenses of the secretary
of state in the execution of this act.
S ec. 82. (1) The regulations made under the foregoing provisions of this act may
apply to all the factories and workshops in which the manufacture, machinery, plant,
process, or description of manual labor, certified to be dangerous is used (whether
existing at the tim e when the regulations are made or afterwards established) or to
any specified class of such factories or workshop. They may provide for the exem p­
tion of any specified class or factories or workshops either absolutely or subject to
conditions.
(2 ) T h e r e g u la tio n s m a y a p p ly t o te n e m e n t fa cto rie s a n d t e n e m e n t w o rk sh op s,
a n d in s u c h ca se m a y im p o s e d u tie s o n o c c u p ie r s w h o d o n o t e m p lo y a n y p e rs o n , a n d
o n ow n ers.




554

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

(3) No person shall be precluded by any agreement from doing, or be liable under
any agreement to any penalty or forfeiture for doing, such acts as may be necessary
in order to comply with the provisions of any regulation made under this act.
S e c . 83. R e g u la tio n s m a d e u n d e r t h e fo re g o in g p ro v isio n s o f th is a c t m a y , a m o n g
o th e r th in g s—

(a) prohibit the employment of, or modify or lim it the period of employment of, all
persons or any class of persons in any manufacture, machinery, plant, process, or
description of manual labor certified to be dangerous; and
(b) prohibit, lim it, or control the use of any material or process; and
(c) m odify or extend any special regulations for any class of factories or workshops
contained in this act.
S e c . 84. Regulations made under the foregoing provisions of this act shall be laid
as soon as possible before both Houses of Parliament, and if either House within the
next forty days after the regulations have been laid before that House, resolve that
all or any of tne regulations ought to be annulled, the regulations shall, after the date
of the resolution, be of no effect, without prejudice to the validity of anything done
in the meantime thereunder, or to the making of any new regulations. If one or
more of a set of regulations are annulled, the secretary of state m ay, if he thinks fit,
withdraw the whole set.
S e c . 85. (1) If any occupier, owner, or manager, who is bound to observe any regu­
lation under this act, acts m contravention of or fails to com ply with the regulation,
he shall be liable for each offense to a fine not exceeding ten pounds [$48.67] and, in
the case of a continuing offehse, to a fine not exceeding two pounds [$9.73] for every
day during which the offense continues after conviction therefor.
(2) If any person other than an occupier, owner, or manager, who is bound to observe
any regulation under this act, acts in contravention of, or fails to com ply with, the
regulation, he shall be liable for each offense to a fine not exceeding two pounds
[$9.73] ; and the occupier of the factory or workshop shall also be liable to a fine not
exceeding ten pounds [$48.67], unless he proves that he has taken all reasonable
means by publishing, and to the best of his power enforcing, the regulations to pre­
vent the contravention or noncompliance.
S e c . 86. (1) Notice of any regulations having been made under the foregoing pro­
visions of this act, and of the place where copies of them can be purchased, shall be
published in the London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Gazettes.
(2) Printed copies of all regulations for the tim e being in force under this act in any
factory or workshop shall be kept posted up in legible characters in conspicuous places
in the factory or workshop where they m ay be conveniently read b y the persons em­
ployed. In a factory or workshop in Wales or Monmouthshire the regulations shall
be posted up in the W elsh language also.
(3) A printed copy of all such regulations shall be given b y the occupier to any
person affected thereby on his or her application.
(4) If the occupier of any factory or workshop fails to com ply with any provision
of this section as to posting up or giving copies, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding
ten pounds [$48.67J.
(5) Every person who pulls down, injures, or defaces any regulations posted up in
pursuance of this act, or any notice posted up in pursuance o f the regulations, shall
be liable to a fine not exceeding five pounds [$24.33].
(6) Regulations for the tim e being m force under this act shall be judicially noticed.
SP EC IAL R U LES A N D R EG U LA TIO N S.
W hite lead factories.
Red and orange lead works.
Yellow lead works.
Lead smelting works.
Factories using yellow chromate of lead.
Earthenware and china works.
Electric accumulator factories (regulations).
Iron-plate enameling works (using lead, arsenic, or antim ony).
Tinning and enameling works (using lead or arsenic).
Paint and color works (extraction of arsenic).
Brass and compound metal m ixing or casting shops.
Chemical works.
Bichromate or chromate of potassium or sodium works.
Explosive works (using di-nitro-benzole).
Vulcanized india-rubber works (using bisulphide of carbon).
Lucifer match factories using white or yellow phosphorus.




INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.

555

Felt hat factories (regulations).
Handling of dry and drysaltea hides and skins imported from Asia.
Wool and hair sorting (regulations).
Flax and tow spinning and weaving (regulations).
File cutting by hand (regulations).
Bottling of aerated water.
Spinning b y self-acting m ules (regulations).
Loading goods on docks and wharves (regulations).
Use of factory engines and cars (regulations).
W h it e L e a d F a c t o r ie s .
(Form 247—February, 1903.)

In these rules “ person employed in a lead process” means a person who is employed
in any work or process involving exposure to white lead, or to lead or lead compounds
used in its manufacture, or who is admitted to any room or part of the factory where
such process is carried on.
A n y approval given b y the chief inspector of factories in pursuance of rules 2, 4, 6, 9,
or 12 shall be given in writing, and m ay at any tim e be revoked b y notice in writing
signed by him .
D u ties o f occupiers,

1. On and after July 1st, 1899, no part of a white lead factory shall be constructed,
structurally altered, or newly used, for any process in which white lead is manufac­
tured or prepared for sale, unless the plans nave previously been submitted to and
approved in writing b y the chief inspector of factories.
2. (a) Every stack shall be provided with a standpipe and m ovable hose, and an
adequate supply of water distributed b y a hose.
(b)
Every white bed shall, on the removal of the covering boards, be effectually
damped b y the means mentioned above.
Where it is shown to the satisfaction of the chief inspector of factories that there is
no available public water service in the district, it shall be a sufficient compliance
with this rule if each white bed i&, on the removal of the covering boards, effectually
damped b y means of a watering can.
3. Where white lead is made b y the chamber process, the chamber shall be kept
moist while the process is in operation, and the corrosions shall be effectually moistened
before the chamber is emptied.
4. (a) Corrosions shall not be carried except in trays of impervious material.
( b ) No person shall be allowed to carry on his head or shoulder a tray of corrosions
which has been allowed to rest directly upon the corrosions, or upon any surface where
there is white lead.
(c ) A ll corrosions before being put into the rollers or washbecks, shall be effectually
damped, either by dipping the tray containing them in a trough of water or b y some
other method approved b y the chief inspector of factories.
5. The flooring round the rollers shall either be of smooth cement or be covered
with sheet lead, and shall be kept constantly moist.
6. On and after January 1st, 1901, except as hereinafter provided—
(a)
Every stove shall have a window, or windows, with a total area of not less than
8 square feet, made to open, and so placed as to admit of effectual through ventilation.
(o) In no stove shall bowls be placed on a rack which is more than 10 feet from the
floor.
(c) Each bowl shall rest upon the rack and not upon another bowl.
(d) No stove shall be entered for the purpose of drawing until the temperature at a
height of 5 feet from the floor has fallen either to 70° F ., or to a point not more than 10°
F . above the temperature of the air outside.
(e) In drawing any stove or part of a stove there shall not be more than one stage or
standing place above the level of the floor.
Provided that if the chief inspector approves of any other means of ventilating a
stove, as allowing of effectual through ventilation, such means m ay be adopted,
notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this rule; and if he approves of any other method
of setting and drawing the stoves, as effectually preventing white lead from falling
upon any worker, such method m ay be followed, notwithstanding paragraphs (o)
and (e) of this rule.
7. No person shall be employed in drawing Dutch stoves on more than two days in
any week.
8. No dry white lead shall be deposited in any place that is not provided either
with a cover or with a fan effectually removing the dust from the worker.




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BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

9. On and after January 1st, 1900, the packing of dry white lead shall be done only
under conditions which secure the effectual removal of dust, either b y exhaust fans
or by other efficient means approved in each case b y the chief inspector of factories.
This rule shall not apply where the packing is effected b y mechanical means entirely
closed in.
10. The floor of any place where packing of dry white lead is carried on shall be of
cement, or of stone set in cement.
11. No woman shall be employed or allowed in the white beds, rollers, washbecks,
or stoves, or in any place where dry white lead is packed, or in other work exposing
her to white lead dust.
12. (a) A duly qualified m edical practitioner (in these rules referred to as the
“ appointed surgeon” ) shall be appointed b y the occupier for each factory, such
appointment to be subject to the approval of the chief inspector.
(6 )
N o p e rso n sh all b e e m p lo y e d m a le a d p ro ce ss fo r m o re th a n a w e e k w ith o u t a
c e rtific a te o f fitn ess g ra n te d a fte r e x a m in a tio n b y th e a p p o in t e d su rgeon .

(c) Every person employed in a lead process shall be examined once a week b y the
appointed surgeon, who shall have power to order suspension from employment in
any place or process.
(d) No person after such suspension shall be employed in a lead process without
the written sanction of the appointed surgeon.
(e) A register in a form approved b y the chief inspector of factories shall be kept,
and shall contain a list of all persons employed in lead processes. The appointed
surgeon w ill enter in the register the dates and results of his examinations of the persons
em ployed, and particulars of any directions given b y him . The register shall be pro­
duced at any time when required b y H . M . inspectors of factories or b y the certifying
surgeon or b y the appointed surgeon.
13. Upon any person employed in a lead process complaining of being unwell, the
occupier shall, with the least possible delay, give an order upon a duly qualified
m edical practitioner.
14. The occupier shall provide and maintain sufficient and suitable respirators,
overalls, and head-coverings, and shall cause them to be worn as directed in rule 29..
A t the end of every day’s work they sHall be collected and kept in proper custody
in a suitable place set apart for the purpose.
They shall be thoroughly washed or renewed every week; and those which have
been used in the stoves, and all respirators, shall be washed or renewed daily.
15. The occupier shall provide and maintain a dining-room and a cloakroom in
which workers can deposit clothing put off during working hours.
16. No person employed in a lead process shall be allowed to prepare or partake of
any food or drink except in the dining-room or kitchen.
17. A supply of a suitable sanitary drink, to be approved b y the appointed surgeon
shall be kept for the use of the workers.
18. The occupier shall provide and maintain a lavatory for the use of the workers,
with soap, nailbrushes, and at least one lavatory basin for every five persons employed.
Each such basin shall be fitted with a waste pipe. There shall be a constant supply of
hot and cold water laid on, except-where there is no available public water service, in
which case the provision of hot and cold water shall be such as shall satisfy the inspector
in charge of the district.
The lavatory shall be thoroughly cleaned and supplied with clean towels after every
meal.
There shall, in addition, be means of washing in close proxim ity to the workers of
each department, if required by notice in writing from the inspector in charge of the
district.
There shall be facilities, to the satisfaction of the inspector in charge of the district,
for the workers to wash out their mouths.
19. Before each meal, and before the end of the day’s work, at least ten minutes in
addition to the regular meal times, shall be allowed to each worker for washing.
A notice to this effect shall be affixed in each department.
20. The occupier shall provide and maintain sufficient baths and dressing rooms for
all persons employed in lead processes, with hot and cold water, soap and towels, and
shall cause each such person to take a bath once a week at the factory.
A bath register shall be kept, containing a list of all persons employed in lead pro­
cesses, and an entry of the date when each person takes a bath.
This register shall be produced at any tim e when required b y H . M . inspectors of
factories or by the certifying surgeon or by the appointed surgeon.
21. The dressing rooms, baths, and water-closets shall be cleaned daily.
22. The floor of each workroom shall be cleaned daily, after being thoroughly
damped.




557

INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.
D u ties o f p erson s em p loyed.

23. No person shall strip a white bed or em pty a chamber without previously
effectually damping as directed in Rules 2 and 3.
24. No person shall carry corrosions, or put them into the rollers or washbecks,
otherwise than as permitted b y Rule 4.
25. No person shall set or draw a stove otherwise than as permitted by Rules 6 and 7.
26. No person shall deposit or pack dry white lead otherwise than as permitted by
Rules 8 and 9.
27. Every person employed in a lead process shall present him self at the appointed
times for examination by tne appointed surgeon, as provided in Rule 12.
28. No person, after suspension b y the appointed surgeon, shall work in a lead
process without his written sanction.
29. Every person engaged in [stripping] white beds, emptying chambers, rollers,
washbecks or grinding, setting or drawing stoves, packing, paint m ixing, handling dry
white lead, or in any work involving exposure to white-lead dust, shall, while so
occupied, wear an overall suit and head covering.
Every person engaged in stripping white beds, or in emptying chambers, or in
drawing stoves, or in packing, shall in addition wear a respirator while so occupied.
30. Every person engaged in any place or process named in Rule 29 shall, before
partaking of meals or leaving the premises, deposit the overalls, head coverings, and
respirators in the place appointed by the occupier for the purpose, and shall thoroughly
wash face and hands in the lavatory.
31. Every person employed in a lead process shall take a bath at the factory at least
once a week, and wash in the lavatory before bathing; having done so, he shall at once
sign his name in the bath register, with the date.
32. No person employed in a lead process shall smoke or use tobacco in any form, or
partake oi food or dnnk, elsewhere than in the dining room or kitchen.
33. No person shall in any way interfere, without the knowledge and concurrence
of the occupier or manager, with the means and appliances provided for the removal
of dust.
34. The foreman shall report to the manager, and the manager shall report to the
occupier, any instance coming under his notice of a worker neglecting to observe these
rules.
35. No person shall obtain employment under an assumed name or under any false
pretense.
A r t h u r W h it e l e g g e ,
C h ief In sp ector o f F actories .

M . W . R id l e y ,

1s t

O ne o f H er M a jesty’s P rin cip a l Secretaries o f S ta te.

J u n e , 1899.

N o t e .— These rules must be kept posted up in conspicuous places in the factory to
which they apply, where they may be conveniently read by the persons employed.
A ny person who is bound to observe these rules ana fails to do so, or acts in contra­
vention of them, is liable to a penalty; and in such cases +he occupier also is liable to a
penalty unless he proves that he has taken all reasonable means by publishing, and to
the best of his power, enforcing the rules, to prevent the contravention or noncom­
pliance. (Factory and Workshop A ct, 1901, sections 85 and 86.)
R ed an d O ran ge L ead W o rk s.
(Form 261—February, 1904.)
D u ties o f occupiers .

In drawing charges of massicot, or of red lead, or of orange lead, om the furnace they
shall not allow the charges of massicot, or of red lead, or of orange lead, to be discharged
on to the floor of the factory or workshop, but shall arrange that it be shoveled, not raked,
into wagons.
They shall arrange that no red or orange lead shall be packed in the room or rooms
where the manufacture is actually carried on.
They shall arrange that no rea or orange lead shall be packed in casks or other
receptacles except in a place provided with a hood connected with a fan, or shall
provide other suitable means to create an effective draft.
They shall provide sufficient bath accommodation for all pe ons employed in the
manipulation of red and orange lead, and lavatories, with a good supply of hot water,
soap, nailbrushes, and towels for the use of such persons.




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BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

They shall arrange for a monthly visit by a medical man who shall examine every
worker individually, and who shall enter the result of each examination in a register
book to be provided by the said occupiers.
They shall provide a sufficient supply of approved sanitary drink for the workers.
D u ties o f person s em p loyed.

In cases where the cooperation of the workers is required for carrying out the fore­
going rules, and where such cooperation is not given, the workers shall be held liable
in accordance with the Factory and Workshop A ct, 1891, section 9, which runs as
follows:
“ If any person who is bound to observe any special rules established for any factory
or workshop under this act, acts in contravention of, or fails to com ply with, any such
special rule, he shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding two
pounds [$9.73].”
Y

ellow

L ead.

(Form 263—February, 1904.)
D u ties o f occupiers.

They shall provide washing conveniences, with a sufficient supply of hot and cold
water, soap, nailbrushes, and towels.
They shall provide respirators and overall suits for the persons employed in all dry
processes.
They shall provide fans or other suitable means of ventilation wherever dust is
generated in the process of manufacture.
They shall provide a sufficient supply of epsom salts and of an approved sanitary
drink.
D u ties o f person s em p loyed.

In cases where the cooperation of the workers is required for carrying out the foregoing
rules and where such cooperation is not given, the workers shall be held liable, in
accordance with the Factory and Workshop A ct, 1891, section 9, which runs as follows:
“ If any person who is bound to observe any special rules established for any factory
or workshop under this act, acts in contravention of, or fails to com ply w ith, any sucn
special rule, he shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding two
pounds [$9.73].”
Respirators: A good respirator is a cambric bag with or without a thin flexible wire
made to fit over the nose.
Sanitary drink suggested: Sulphate of magnesia, 2 ozs.; water, 1 gallon: essence of
lemon, sufficient to flavor.
L e a d S m e l t in g W

orks.

(Form 264—January, 1906.)
D u ties o f occupiers.

They shall provide respirators and overall suits for the use of all persons employed in
cleaning the flues, and take means to see that the same are used.
They shall arrange that no person be allowed to remain at work more than two hours
at a time in a flue. (A rest of half an hour before reentering w ill be deemed sufficient.)
They shall provide sufficient bath accommodation for all persons employed in clean­
ing the flues, and every one so employed shall take a bath before leaving the works.
They shall provide washing conveniences, with a sufficient supply of hot and cold
water, soap, nailbrushes and towels.
D u ties o f person s em p loyed .

In cases where the cooperation of the workers is required for carrying out the forego­
ing rules, and where such cooperation is not given, the workers shall be held liable, in
accordance with the Factory and Workshop A ct, 1891, section 9, which runs as follows:
“ If any person who is bound to observe any special rules established for any factory
or workshop under this act, acts in contravention of, or fails to com ply w ith, any such
special rule, he shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding two
pounds [$9.73].”




559

INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.

S p e c i a l R u l e s f o r F a c t o r i e s o r W o r k s h o p s i n W h ic h Y e l l o w C h r o m a t e o f L e a d
i s U s e d , o r i n W h ic h G o o d s D y e d w i t h it U n d e r g o t h e P r o c e s s e s o f B u n d l i n g
o r N o d d l in g , W in d in g , R e e l in g , W e a v in g o r A n y O t h e r T r e a t m e n t .
(Form 270—February, 1904.)
D u ties o f occupiers.

They shall provide washing conveniences, with a sufficient supply of hot and cold
water, soap, nailbrushes, and towels.
They shall provide respirators and overall suits for the persons employed in all dry
processes.
They shall provide fans or other suitable means of ventilation wherever dust is gener­
ated in the process of manufacture.
They shall provide a sufficient supply of epsom salts and of the sanitary drink
mentioned below or some other approved b y H . M . inspector of factories.
Respirators: A good respirator is a cambric bag with or without a thin flexible wire
made to fit over the nose.
Sanitary drink: Sulphate of magnesia, 2 ozs.; water, 1 gallon; essence of lemon, suffi­
cient to flavor.
D u ties o f p erson s em ployed.

Every person to whom is supplied a respirator or overall suit shall wear the same
when at the special work for which such are provided.
Every person shall carefully clean and wash hands and face before meals and before
leaving the works.
No food shall be eaten in any part of the works in which yellow chromate of lead is
used in the manufacture.
A r t h u r W h it e l e g g e ,
H . M . C h ief In sp ector o f F actories.

Under section 9, Factory A ct, 1891, any person who is bound to observe any special
rules is liable to penalties for noncompliance with such special rules.
A

m ended

S p e c ia l R u l e s

for th e

M anufacture
Ch in a .

and

D e c o r a t io n

of

E arthen­

w are and

As established, after arbitration, by the awards of the umpire, Lord James of Hereford, dated 30th
of December, 1901, and 28th of November, 1903.
(Form 923—October, 1905.)
D u ties o f occupiers.

1. Deleted.
2. After the 1st day of February, 1904, no glaze shall be used which yields to a dilute
solution of hydrochloric acid more than five per cent of its dry weight of a soluble lead
compound calculated as lead monoxide when determined m the manner described
below.
A weighed quantity of dried material is to be continuously shaken for one hour, at
the common temperature, with 1,000 times its weight of an aqueous solution of hydro­
chloric acid containing 0.25 per cent of HC1. This solution is thereafter to be allowed
to stand for one hour and to be passed through a filter. The lead salt contained in
an aliquot portion of the clear filtrate is then to be precipitated as lead sulphide and
weighed as lead sulphate.
I f any occupier shall give notice in writing to the inspector for the district that he
desires to use glaze which does not conform to the above-mentioned conditions, and to
adopt in his factory the scheme of compensation prescribed in Schedule B and shall
affix and keep the same affixed in his factory, the above provisions shall not apply to
his factory but instead thereof the following provisions shall apply.
A ll persons employed in any process included in Schedule A other than china scour­
ing shall be examined before the commencement of their employment or at the first
subsequent visit of the certifying surgeon, and once in each calendar month b y the
certifying surgeon of the district.
The certifying surgeon may at any time order b y signed certificate the suspension of
any such person from employment in any process included in Schedule A other than
china scouring, if such certifying surgeon is of opinion that such person by continuous
work in lead w ill incur special danger from the effects of plumbism, and no person after
such suspension shall be allowed to work in any process included in Schedule A other
than china scouring without a certificate of fitness from the certifying surgeon entered
in the register.




560

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB.

A ny workman who, by reason of his employment being intermittent or casual, or of
his being in regular employment for more than one employer, is unable to present
himself regularly for examination b y the certifying surgeon, m ay procure him self at his
own expense to be examined once a month by a certifying surgeon, and such examina­
tion shall be a sufficient compliance with this rule. The result of such examination
shall be entered b y the certifying surgeon in a book to be kept in the possession of the
workman. H e shall produce and show the said book to a factory inspector or to
any employer on demand, and he shall not make any entry or erasure therem.
If the occupier of any factory to which this rule applies fails duly to observe the
conditions of the said scheme, or if any such factory shall b y reason of the occurrence of
cases of lead poisoning appear to the secretary of state to be in an unsatisfactory con­
dition, he m ay, after an inquiry, at which the occupier shall have an opportunity of
being heard, prohibit the use of lead for such tim e and subject to such conditions as
he m ay prescribe.
A ll persons employed in the processes included in Schedule A other than china
scouring shall present themselves at the appointed tim e for examination by the certify­
ing surgeon, as provided in this rule.
In addition to the examinations at the appointed tim es, any person so employed
m ay at any tim e present him self to the certifying surgeon for examination, and shall be
examined on paying the prescribed fee.
A ll persons shall obey any directions given by the certifying surgeon.
No person after suspension by the certifying surgeon shall work in any process
included in Schedule A other than china scouring without a certificate of fitness from
the certifying surgeon entered in the register. A n y operative who fails without reason­
able cause to attend any m onthly examination shall procure him self, at his own
expense, to be examined within 14 days thereafter b y the certifying surgeon, and shall
hin^self pay the prescribed fee.
A register, in the form which has been prescribed by the secretary of state for use in
earthenware and china works, shall be kept, and in it the certifying surgeon shall enter
the dates and results of his visits, the number of persons examined, and particulars of
any directions given by him . This register shall contain a list of all persons employed
in the processes included in Schedule A , or in emptying china biscuit ware, and shall
be produced at any tim e when required by H is M ajesty’s inspector of factories or by
the certifying surgeon.
3. The occupier shall allow any of H is M ajesty’s inspectors of factories to take at any
tim e sufficient samples for analysis of any material in use or m ixed for use.
Provided that the occupier m ay at the tim e when the sample is taken, and on pro­
viding the necessary appliances, require the inspector to take, seal, and deliver to
him a duplicate sample.
But no analytical result shall be disclosed or published in any way except such as
shall be necessary to establish a breach of these rules.
4. No woman, young person, or child shall be employed in the m ixing of unfritted
lead compounds in the preparation or manufacture of frits, glazes, or colors.
5. No person under 15 years of age shall be employed in any process included in
Schedule A , or in emptying china biscuit ware.
Thim ble-picking, or threading-up, or looking-over biscuit ware shall not be carried
on except in a place sufficiently separated from any process included in Schedule A .
6. A ll women and young persons employed in any process included in Schedule A
shall be examined once in each calendar month by the certifying surgeon for the district.
The certifying surgeon m ay order by signed certificate in the register the suspension
of any such women or young persons from employment in any process included in
Schedule A , and no person after such suspension shall be allowed to work in any process
included in Schedule A without a certificate of fitness from the certifying surgeon
entered in the register.
7. A register, m the form which has been prescribed b y the secretary of state for
use in earthenware and china works, shall be kept, and in it the certifying surgeon
shall enter the dates and results of his visits, the number of persons examined in pur­
suance of Rule 6 as amended, and particulars of any directions given by him . This
register shall contain a list of all persons em ployed in the processes included in Sched­
ule A , or in em ptying china biscuit ware, ana shall be produced at any tim e when
required b y H . M . inspector of factories or b y the certifying surgeon.
8. The occupier shall provide and maintain suitable overalls and head coverings for
all women and young persons employed in the processes included in the Schedule A ,
or in emptying china biscuit ware.
No person shall be allowed to work in any process included in the schedule, or in
em ptying china biscuit ware, without wearing suitable overalls and head coverings,




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

561

provided that nothing in this rule shall render it obligatory on any person engaged in
drawing glost ovens to wear overalls and head coverings.
A ll overalls, head coverings, and respirators, when not in use or being washed or
repaired, shall be kept b y the occupier in proper custody. They shall be washed or
renewed at least once a week, and suitable arrangements snail be made by the occupier
for carrying out these requirements.
A suitable place, other than that provided for the keeping of overalls, head coverings,
and respirators, in which all the above workers can deposit clothing put off during
working hours, shall be provided by the occupier.
Each respirator shall hear the distinguishing mark of the worker to whom it is sup­
plied.
9. No person shall be allowed to keep, or prepare, or partake of any food, or drink,
or tobacco, or to remain during meal times in a place in which is carried on any process
included in Schedule A .
The occupier shall make suitable provision to the reasonable satisfaction of the
inspector in charge of the district for the accommodation during meal times of persons
employed in such places or processes, with a right of appeal to the chief inspector of
factories. Such accommodation shall not be provided m any room or rooms in which
any process included in Schedule A is carried on, and no washing conveniences men­
tioned hereafter in Rule 13 shall be maintained in any room or rooms provided for such
accommodation.
Suitable provision shall be made for the deposit of food brought by the workers.
10. The processes of the towing of earthenware, china scouring, ground laying, ware
cleaning after the dipper, color dusting, whether on-glaze or under-glaze, color blow­
ing, whether on-glaze or under-glaze, glaze blowing, or transfer making, shall not be
carried on without the use of exhaust fans, or other efficient means for the effectual
removal of dust, to be approved in each particular case by the secretary of state, and
under such conditions as he may from tim e to tim e prescribe.
In the process of ware cleaning after the dipper, sufficient arrangements shall be made
for any glaze scraped off which is not removed b y the fan, or the other efficient means,
to fall into water.
In the process of ware cleaning of earthenware after the dipper, damp sponges or
other damp material shall be provided in addition to the knife or other instrument, and
shall be used wherever practicable.
Flat-knocking and fired-flint-sifting shall be carried on only in inclosed receptacles,
which shall be connected with an efficient fan or other efficient draught unless so con­
trived as to prevent effectually the escape of injurious dust.
In all processes the occupier shall, as far as practicable, adopt efficient measures for
the removal of dust and for the prevention of any injurious effects arising therefrom.
11. No person shall be employed in the m ixing of unfritted lead compounds, in the
preparation or manufacture of frits, glazes or colors containing lead without wearing a
suitable and efficient respirator provided and maintained by the em ployer; unless the
m ixing is performed in a closed machine or the materials are in sucn a condition that
no dust is produced.
Each respirator shall bear the distinguishing mark of the worker to whom it is sup­
plied.
12. A ll drying stoves as well as all workshops and all parts of factories shall be effec­
tually ventilated to the reasonable satisfaction of the inspector in charge of the district.
13. The occupier shall provide and continually maintain sufficient and suitable
washing conveniences for all persons employed in the processes included in Schedule
A , as near as practicable to the places in which such persons are employed.
The washing conveniences shall comprise soap, nailbrushes ana towels, and at
least one wash-hand basin for every five persons employed as above, with a constant
supply of water laid on, with one tap at least for every two basins, and conveniences
for emptying the same and running off the waste water on the spot down a waste pipe.
There shall be in front of each washing basin, or convenience, a space for standing
room which shall not be less in any direction than 21 inches.
14. The occupier shall see that the floors of workshops and of such stoves as are
entered b y the work people are sprinkled and swept daily; that all dust, scraps, ashes,
and dirt are removed daily, ana that the mangles, workbenches, and stairs leading
to workshops are cleansed weekly.
W hen so required by the inspector in charge of the district, by notice in writing,
any such floors, mangles, workbenches, and stairs shall be cleansed in such manner
and at such times as m ay be directed in such notice.
As regards every potters’ shop and stove, and every place in which any process
included in Schedule A is carried on, the occupier shall cause the sufficient cleansing
of floors to be done at a tim e when no other work is being carried on in such room,




562

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

and in the case of potters’ shops, stoves, dipping houses, and majolica painting rooms,
by an adult male.
Provided that in the case of rooms in which ground laying or glost placing is carried
on, or in china dippers’ drying room, the cleansing prescribed by this rule m ay be
done before work commences for the day, but in no case shall any work be carried
on in the room within one hour after any such cleansing as aforesaid has ceased.
15. The occupier shall cause the boards used in the dipping house, dippers’ drying
room, or glost placing shop to be cleansed every week, and shall not allow them to
be used in any other department, except after being cleansed.
W hen so required b y the inspector in charge of the district, b y notice in writing,
any such boards shall be washed at such times as m ay be directed in such notice.
D u ties o f p erson s em p loyed .

16. A ll women and young persons employed in the processes included in Schedule
A shall present themselves at the appointed tim e for examination by the certifying
surgeon as provided in Rule 6 as amended.
No person after suspension b y the certifying surgeon shall work , in any process
included in the schedule without a certificate of fitness from the certifying surgeon
entered in the register.
17. Every person employed in any process included in Schedule A , or in emptying
china biscuit ware, shall, when at work, wear a suitable overall and head covering,
and also a respirator when so required by Rule 11 as amended, which shall not be worn
outside the factory or workshop, and which shall not be removed therefrom except
for the purpose of being washed or repaired. Such overall and head covering shall
be in proper repair and duly washed.
The hair must be so arranged as to be fu lly protected from dust by the head covering.
The overalls, head coverings, and respirators when not being worn, and clothing
put off during working hours, shall be deposited in the respective places provided
by the occupier for such purposes under R ule 8 as amended.
18. No person shall remain during meal times in any place in which is carried on
any process included in Schedule A , or introduce, keep, prepare, or partake of any
food or drink or tobacco therein at any tim e.
19. No person shall in any way interfere, without the knowledge and concurrence
of the occupier or manager, with the means and appliances provided b y the em­
ployers for the ventilation of the workshops and stoves, and for the removal of dust.
20. No person included in any process included in Schedule A shall leave the
works or partake of meals without previously and carefully cleaning and washing his
or her hands.
No person employed shall remove or damage the washing basins or conveniences
provided under Rule 13.
20a. The persons appointed b y the occupiers shall cleanse the several parts of the
factory regularly as prescribed in Rule 14.
Every worker shall so conduct his or her work as to avoid, as far as practicable,
making or scattering dust, dirt, or refuse, or causing accumulation of such.
21. The boards used in the dipping house, dippers’ drying room, or glost placing
shop shall not be used in any other department, except after being cleansed, as directed
in Rule 15.
E

x e m p t io n

fob

P bocesses

in

W

N o L ead
I s U s e d .2

h ic h

or

O t h e r P o is o n o u s M a t e r ia l

22. If the occupier of a factory to which these rules apply gives with reference to
any process included in Schedule A , other than china scouring, an undertaking that
no lead or lead compound or other poisonous material shall be used, the chief in­
spector m ay approve m writing of the suspension of the operation of Rules 4 ,5 , 6, 7, 8,
15, 16, 17, and 21, or any of them in such process; and thereupon such rules shall bq
suspended as regards the process named in the chief inspector’s approval, and in lieu
thereof the following rule shall take effect, v iz: No lead or lead compound or other
poisonous material shall be used in any process so named.
For the purpose of this rule materials that contain no more than 1 per cent of lead
shall be regarded as free from lead.
N o t e .— These rules must be kept posted up in conspicuous places in the factory
to which they apply, where they may be conveniently read b y persons em ployed.
Any person who is bound to observe these rules and fails to do so, or acts in contraven­
tion to them , is liable to a penalty, and in such cases the occupier also is liable to a
penalty unless he proves that he nas taken all reasonable means, by publishing and
to the best of his power enforcing the rules, to prevent the contravention or noncompliance.




563

INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.
SCH ED U LE A .
Dipping or other process carried on in the dipping house,
Glaze blowing,
Painting in majolica or other glaze,
Drying after dipping,
Ware cleaning after the application of glaze by dipping or other process,
China scouring,
Glost placing,
Ground laying,

Color blow kig}whether on'Slaze or under-glaze,
Lithographic transfer making,
Making or m ixing of frits, glazes, or colors containing lead.
A ny other process in which materials containing lead are used or handled in the
dry state, or m the form of spray, or in suspension in liquid other than oil or similar
medium.
SCH ED U LE B .
N

o t ic e t o

W

orkm en

E m ployed

in P r o cess N a m e d
Ch i n a S c o u r i n g .

in

Schedule A , Oth er T h a n

C on d ition s o f com p en sa tion .

1. Where a workman is suspended from working by a certifying surgeon of the
district on the ground that he is of opinion that such person by continued work in
lead w ill incur special danger from the effects of plumbism, and the certifying surgeon
shall certify that in his opinion he is suffering from plumbism arising out o f his
employment, he shall, subject as hereinafter mentioned, be entitled to compensa­
tion from his employer as hereinafter provided.
(а) If any workman who has been suspended as aforesaid dies within nine calendar
months from the date of such certificate of suspension, by reason of plumbism con­
tracted before said date, there shall be paid to such of his dependants as are wholly
dependent upon his earnings at the tim e of his death or upon the weekly compensa­
tion payable under this scheme, a sum equal to the amount he has earned during a
period of three years next preceding the date of the said certificate, such sum not to
be more than £300 [$1,459.95] nor less than £150 [$729.98] for an adult m ale, £100
[$486.65] for an adult female, and £75 [$364.99] for a young person.
(б) If the workman does not leave any dependants wholly dependent as aforesaid,
but leaves any dependants in part dependent as aforesaid, a reasonable part of that
sum.
(c)
If he leaves no dependants, the reasonable expenses of his m edical attendance
and burial, not exceeding ten pounds [$48.67].
2. W ith respect to such payments the following provisions shall apply—
(а) A ll sums paid to the workmen as compensation since the date of the said cer­
tificate shall be deducted from the sums payable to the dependants.
(б) The payment shall, in case of death, be made to the legal personal representative
of the workman, or, if he has no legal personal representative, to or for the benefit of
his dependants, or, if he leaves no dependants, to the person to whom the expenses are
due; and if made to the legal personal representative shall be paid by him to or for the
benefit of the dependants or other person entitled thereto.
(c) A ny question as to who is a dependant, or as to the amount payable to each
dependant, shall in default of agreement be settled by arbitration as hereinafter pro­
vided in clause 9.
(d) The sum allotted as compensation to a dependant m ay be invested or otherwise
applied for the benefit of the person entitled thereto, as agreed, or as ordered by the
arbitrator.
(e) A ny sum which is agreed or is ordered by the arbitrator to be invested m ay be
invested in whole or in part in the post-office savings bank.
3. Where a workman has been suspended and certified as provided in Condition 1,
and while he is totally or partially prevented from earning a living by reason of such
suspension, he shall be entitled to a weekly payment not exceeding fifty per cent of his
average weekly earnings at the tim e of such suspension, such payment not to exceed
£ 1 [$4.87]. The average m ay be taken over such period, not exceeding twelve
months, as appears fair or reasonable having regard to all the circumstances of the case.
4. In fixing these weekly payments, regard shall be had to the difference between
the amount of the average weekly earnings of the workman at the tim e of his suspension




564

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

and the average amount, if any, which it is estimated that he will be able to earn after­
wards in any occupation or em ploym ent, and to any payments (not being wages) which
he m ay have received from the employer in respect of the suspension, and to all the
circumstances of the case, including his age and expectation of life.
5. If it shall appear that any workman has persistently disobeyed the special rules
or the directions given for his protection b y his employers, and that such disobedience
has conduced to his suspension, or has not presented himself for examination b y the
certifying surgeon, or has failed to give full information and assistance as provided in
Condition 6, his conduct m ay be taken into consideration in assessing the amount of
the weekly payments.
6. It shall be the duty of every workman at all times to submit to m edical examina­
tion when required and to give full information to the certifying surgeon and to assist
to the best of his power in the obtaining of all facts necessary to enable his physical
condition to be ascertained.
7. A ny weekly payment m ay be reviewed at the request either of the employer or of
the workman, ana on such review m ay be ended, diminished, or increased, subject to
the maximum above provided, and the amount of payment shall, in default of agree­
ment, be settled b y arbitration.
8. A ny workman receiving weekly payments under this scheme shall submit him­
self if required for examination by a duly qualified medical practitioner provided and
paid by the employer.
If the workman refuses to submit him self to such examination or in any way obstructs
the same, his right to such weekly payments shall be suspended until such examina­
tion has taken place.
9. If any dispute shall arise as to any certificate of the certifying surgeon or as to the
amount of compensation payable as herein provided, or otherwise in relation to these
provisions, the same shall be decided b y an arbitrator to be appointed by the employer
and workman, or in default of agreement by the secretary of state. The said arbitrator
shall have all the powers of an arbitrator under the Arbitration A ct, and his decision
shall be final.
The fee of the arbitrator shall be fixed b y the secretary of state, and shall be paid as
the arbitrator shall direct.
10. No compensation shall be payable under these provisions unless notice of claim
in writing is made within six weeks of the date of the certificate of suspension, or of the
death, provided that the want of such notice shall not bar the claim if in the opinion of
the arbitrator there was reasonable excuse for the want of it.
A claim for compensation by any workman whose employment is interm ittent, or
casual, or who is regularly employed by more than one employer, shall only arise
against the employers for whom he has worked in a process included in Schedule A
within one month prior to his suspension. The said employers shall bear the compen­
sation among them in such proportion as in default of agreement shall be determined
by an arbitrator as herein provided.
11. “ Em ployer” includes an occupier, a corporation, and the legal representatives
of a deceased employer. 1 Workman ” includes every person, male or female, whether
1
his agreement be one of service or apprenticeship or otherwise, and is expressed or
im plied, orally, or in writing, and shall include the personal representatives of a
deceased workman. “ Dependants” has the same meaning as in the Workmen’s Com­
pensation A ct, 1897.
The terms contained in this notice shall be deemed to be part of the contract of em­
ploym ent of all workmen in the above-named processes.
E l e c t r ic A c c u m u l a t o r s .

Whereas the manufacture of electric accumulators has been certified in pursuance of
section 79 of the Factory and Workshop A ct, 1901, to be dangerous;
I hereby, in pursuance of the powers conferred on me by that act, make the following
regulations, and direct that they shall apply to all factories and workshops or parts
thereof in which electric accumulators are manufactured.
In these regulations “ lead process” means pasting, casting, lead burning, or any
work involving contact with dry compounds of lead.
Any approval given by the chief inspector of factories in pursuance of these regula­
tions shall be given in writing, and m ay at any time be revoked by notice in writing
signed by him .
D u ties o f occu p ier .
1. Every room in which casting, pasting or lead burning is carried on shall contain
at least 500 cubic feet of air space for each person employed therein, and in computing
this air space, no height above 14 feet shall be taken into account.




INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.

565

These rooms and that in which the plates are formed, shall be capable of thorough
ventilation. They shall be provided with windows made to open.
2. Each of the following processes shall be carried on in such manner and under
such conditions as to secure effectual separation from one another and from any other
process:—
( a ) Manipulation of dry compounds of lead;
(b) Pasting;
(c) Formation, and lead burning necessarily carried on therewith;
(<t) Melting down of old plates.
Provided that manipulation of dry compounds of lead carried on as in Regulation
5 (b) need not be separated from pasting.
3. The floors of the rooms in which manipulation of dry compounds of lead or pasting
is carried on shall be of cement or similar impervious material, and shall be kept con­
stantly moist while work is being done.
The floors of these rooms shall be washed with a hose pipe daily.
4. Every melting pot shall be covered with a hood and shaft so arranged as to remove
the fumes and hot air from the workrooms.
Lead ashes and old plates shall be kept in receptacles specially provided for the
purpose.
5. Manipulation of dry compounds of lead in the m ixing of the paste or other proc­
esses, shall not be done except ( a ) in any apparatus so closed, or so arranged with an
exhaust draft, as to prevent the escape of dust into the workroom; or, (b) at a bench pro­
vided with (1) efficient exhaust draft and air guide so arranged as to draw the dust
away from the worker, and (2) a grating on which each receptacle of the compound of
lead in use at the tim e shall stand.
6. The benches at which pasting is done shall be covered with sheet lead or other
impervious material, and shall have raised edges.
7. No woman, young person, or child shall be employed in the manipulation of dry
compounds of lead or m pasting.
8. ( a ) A duly qualified medical practitioner (in these regulations referred to as the
“ appointed surgeon” ) who m ay be the certifying surgeon, shall be appointed b y the
occupier, such appointment unless held b y the certifying surgeon to be subject to the
approval of the chief inspector of factories.
(b) Every person employed in a lead process shall be examined once a month by the
appointed surgeon, who shall have power to suspend from employment in any lead
process.
(c) No person after such suspension shall be employed in a lead process without
written sanction entered in the health register by the appointed surgeon. It shall be
sufficient compliance with this regulation for a written certificate to be given by the
a p p o in t e d su rg e o n a n d a tta ch e d t o t h e h e a lth reg ister, s u c h c e rtific a te to b e r e p la c e d

b y a proper entry in the health register at the appointed surgeon’s next visit.
(d) A health register in a form approved by the chief inspector of factories shall be
kept, and shall contain a list of all persons employed in lead processes. The appointed
surgeon w ill enter in the health register the dates and results of his examinations of the
persons em ployed and particulars of any directions given by him . H e shall on a pre­
scribed form furnish to the chief inspector of factories on the first day of January in each
year a list of the persons suspended b y him during the previous year, the cause and
duration of such suspension, and the number of examinations made.
The health register shall be produced at any tim e when required by H . M . inspectors
of factories or by the certifying surgeon or by the appointed surgeon.
9. Overalls shall be provided for all persons employed in manipulating dry com­
pounds of lead or in pasting.
The overalls shall be washed or renewed once every week.
10. The occupier shall provide and maintain—
(a) A cloakroom in which workers can deposit clothing put off during working hours.
Separate and suitable arrangements shall be made for the storage of the overalls required
in Regulation 9.
(b) A dining room unless the factory is closed during meal hours.
11. No person shall be allowed to introduce, keep, prepare, or partake of any food,
drink, or tobacco, in any room in which a lead process is carried on. Suitable provision
shall be made for the deposit of food brought by the workers.
This regulation shall not apply to any sanitary drink provided by the occupier and
approved by the appointed surgeon.
12. The occupier shall provide and maintain for the use of the persons employed
m lead processes a lavatory, with soap, nailbrushes, towels, and at least one lavatory
basin for every five such persons. Each such basin shall be provided with a waste pipe,
or the basins shall be placed on a trough fitted with a waste pipe. There shall be a
constant supply of hot and cold water laid on to each basin.




566

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOK.

Or, in the place of basins the occupier shall provide and maintain troughs of enamel
or similar smooth impervious material, in good repair, of a total length of two feet for
every five persons em ployed, fitted with waste pipes, and without plugs, with a suffi­
cient supply of warm water constantly available.
The lavatory shall be kept thoroughly cleansed and shall be supplied with a suf­
ficient quantity of clean towels once every day.
13. Before each meal and before the end of the day’s work, at least ten minutes, in
addition to the regular meal tim es, shall be allowed for washing to each person who
has been employed in the manipulation of dry compounds of lead or in pasting.
Provided that if the lavatory accommodation specially reserved for such persons
exceeds that required b y Regulation 12, the tim e allowance m ay be proportionately
reduced, and that if there be one basin or two feet of trough for each such person this
regulation shall not apply.
14. Sufficient bath accommodation shall be provided for all persons engaged in the
manipulation of dry compounds of lead or in pasting, with hot and cold water laid on,
and a sufficient supply of soap and towels.
This rule shall not apply if in consideration of the special circumstances of any par­
ticular case, the chief inspector of factories approves the use of local public baths when
conveniently near, under the conditions (if any) named in such approval.
15. The floors and benches of each workroom shall be thoroughly cleansed daily at a
tim e when no other work is being carried on in the room.
D u ties o f 'persons em p loyed .

16. A ll persons employed in lead processes shall present themselves at the appointed
tim es for examination by the appointed surgeon as provided in Regulation 8.
No person after suspension shall work in a lead process, in any factory or workshop in
which electric accumulators are manufactured, without written sanction entered in
the health register by the appointed surgeon.
17. Every person employed in the manipulation of dry compounds of lead or in
pasting shall wear the overalls provided under Regulation 9. The overalls, when not
being worn, and clothing put off during working hours, shall be deposited in the
places provided under Regulation 10.
18. No person shall introduce, keep, prepare, or partake of any food, drink (other
than any sanitary drink provided b y the occupier and approved by the appointed
surgeon), or tobacco in any room in which a lead process is carried on.
19. No person employed in a lead process shall leave the premises or partake of
meals without previously and carefully cleaning and washing the hands.
20. Every person employed in the manipulation of dry compounds of lead or in
pasting shall take a bath at least once a week.
21. No person shall in any way interfere, without the concurrence of the occupier
or manager, with the means and appliances provided for the removal of the dust or
fumes, and for the carrying out of these regulations.
These regulations shall come into force on the 1st day of January, 1904.
A . A k e r s - D o tjglas,
O ne o f H is M a jesty’s P rin cip a l Secretaries o f S ta te.
H
W

ome

O f f ic e , W h iteh a ll, 2 1st N ovem ber , 1 9 0 3 .

orks or

P arts

of

W

o r k s , in
th e

W h ic h L e a d , A r s e n i c , o r A n t i m o n y
E n a m e l in g of I r o n P l a t e s .

is

U

s e d in

(Form 251—January, 1906.)
D u ties o f occup iers.

1. They shall provide washing conveniences with a sufficient supply of hot and cold
water, soap, nailbrushes, and towels, and take measures to secure that every worker
wash face and hands before meals and before leaving the works.
2. They shall provide suitable respirators, overall suits, and head coverings for all
workers employed in the processes of grinding, dusting, and brushing.
3. They shall adopt measures on and after the first day of October, 1894, in the
dusting and brushing processes for the removal of all superfluous dust, b y the use of
perforated benches or tables supplied with fans to carry the dust down through the
apertures of such benches or tables, the under part of which must be boxed in.
4. They shall provide a sufficient supply of approved sanitary drink, and shall
cause the work people to take it.




INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.

567

5. They shall arrange for a medical inspection of all persons employed, at least once
a month.
They shall see that no female is employed without previous examination and a
certificate of fitness from the medical attendant of the works.
They shall see that no person who has been absent from work through illness shall
be reemployed without a medical certificate to the effect that he or she has recovered.
6. Upon any person employed in the works complaining of being unwell, the occuier shall, with the least possible delay, and at his own expense, give an order upon a
octor for professional attendance and medicine. It is to be understood that this rule
w ill not apply to persons suffering from complaints which have not been contracted
in the process of manufacture.
7.
They shall provide a place or places free from dust and damp in which the
operatives can hang up the clothes in which they do not work.
(It is recommended that they shall provide for each female before the day’s work
begins some light refreshment, such as a half pint of m ilk and a biscuit.)

S

D u ties o f person s em p loyed.

8.
Every person to whom is supplied a respirator or overall and head covering shall
wear the same when at the work for which such are provided.
9.
Every person shall carefully clean and wash hands and face before meals and
before leaving the works.
10.
No food shall be eaten by any person in any part of the works except in the
apartment specially provided for the purpose.
11.
No person may seek employment under an assumed name or under any false
pretense.
Respirators: A good respirator is a cambric bag with or without a thin flexible wire
made to fit over the nose.
Sanitary drink suggested: Sulphate of magnesia, 2 o z.; water, 1 gallon; essence of
lemon, sufficient to flavor.
A r t h u r W h it e l e g g e ,
H . M . C h ief In sp ector o f F actories .
N o t e . — These rules must be kept posted up in conspicuous places in the factory to
which they apply, where they may be conveniently read by the persons em ployed.
Any person who is bound to observe these rules and fails to do so or acts m con­
travention of them* is liable to a penalty; and in such case the occupier also is liable
to a penalty unless he proves that he nas taken all reasonable means by publishing,
and to the best of his power, enforcing the rules, to prevent the contravention or noncompliance.
W

o r k s in

W

L e a d o r A r s e n ic is U s e d in t h e T i n n in g a n d E n a m e l in g
M e t a l H o ll o w W a r e a n d C o o k in g U t e n s il s .

h ic h

op

(Form 385—March, 1906.)
D u ties o f occupiers.

They shall provide washing conveniences with a sufficient supply of hot and cold
water, soap, nailbrushes, and towels, and take measures to secure that every worker
wash face and hands before meals and before leaving the works.
They shall see that no food is eaten in any room where the process of tinning or
enameling is carried on.
D u ties o f person s em p loyed .

Every worker shall wash face and hands before meals and before leaving the works.
No worker shall eat food in any room where the process of tinning or enameling is
carried on.
A r t h u r W h it e l e g g e ,
E . M . C h ief In sp ector o f F actories.
N o t e . — These rules must be kept posted up in conspicuous places in the factory to
which they apply, where they may oe conveniently read by the persons employed.
A ny person who is bound to observe these rules and fails to do so or acts in contra­
vention of them , is liable to a penalty; and in such case the occupier also is liable to
a penalty unless he proves that he has taken all reasonable means Tby publishing, and
to the best of his power, enforcing the rules, to prevent the contravention or noncompliance.

37691— No. 75— 08------ 19




568
P rocesses

BULLETIN OF THE BTJBEATJ OF LABOB.
in t h e

M anufacture

of

P a in t s a n d C o l o r s ,
A r s e n ic .

a n d in t h e

E

x t r a c t io n

of

(Form 249—June, 1904.)
D u ties o f occup iers.

1. They shall provide washing conveniences, with a sufficient supply of hot and
cold water, soap, nailbrushes, and towels, and take measures to secure that every
worker wash face and hands before meals, and before leaving the works; and, in
addition to the above, sufficient bath accommodation for the use of all persons em­
ployed in the manufacture of milan red, vermilionette, or persian red.
2. They shall provide suitable respirators and overall suits, kept in a cleanly state,
for all workers engaged in any department where dry white lead or arsenic is used in
either the manufacture or paint m ixing, and overall suits for those engaged in grinding
in water or oil, and for all workers in milan red, vermilionette, or persian red, wherever
dust is generated.
3. They shall provide a sufficient supply of approved sanitary drink, which shall
be accessible to the workers at all times, and shall cause such approved sanitary drink
to be taken daily by workers in any department where white lead or arsenic is used in
the manufacture, and shall provide a supply of aperient medicine, which shall be given
to the workers, when required, free of charge.
4. No food shall be eaten in any part of the works where white lead or arsenic is
used in the manufacture.
D u ties o f person s em p loyed.

5. Every person to whom is supplied a respirator or overall suit shall wear the same
when at the special work for which such are provided.
6. Every person shall carefully clean and wash hands and face before meals and
before leaving the works.
7. No food shall be eaten in any part of the works in which white lead or arsenic is
used in the manufacture.
8. No person shall smoke or use tobacco in any part of the works in which white lead
or arsenic is used in the manufacture.
A r t h u r W h it e l e g g e ,
H . M . C h ief In sp ector o f F actories.
N o t e .— These rules must be kept posted up in conspicuous places in the works to
which they apply, where they may be conveniently read by the persons em ployed.
A ny person who is bound to observe these rules and fails to do so or acts in contra­
vention of them, is liable to a penalty; and in such case the occupier also is liable to
a penalty unless he proves that he has taken all reasonable means by publishing and,
to the best of his power, enforcing the rules, to prevent the contravention or noncompliance.
P r o c e s s e s in t h e M ix in g a n d Ca s t in g of B r a s s , G u n M e t a l , B e ll M e t a l , W
M e t a l , D e l t a M e t a l , P h o s p h o r B r o n z e , a n d M a n il l a M i x t u r e .

h it e

(Form 271—February, 1904.)
D u ties o f occupiers.

1. They shall provide adequate means for facilitating, as far as possible, the emission
or escape from the shop of any noxious fumes or dust arising from the above-named
processes. Such means shall include the provision of traps or of louver gratings in
the roof or ceiling of any shop in which such processes, or either of them , is or are car­
ried on; or in case of a m ixing or casting shop which is situated under any other shop,
there shall be provided an adequate flue or shaft (other than any flue or shaft in connec­
tion with a furnace or fireplace) to carry any fumes from the m ixing or casting shop, by
or through any such shop that may be situated above it.
2. They shall cause all such m ixing or casting shops, whether defined as factories
or as workshops under the Factory and Workshop A ct, 1878, to be cleaned down and
limewashed once at least within every twelve months, or once within every six months
if so required b y notice in writing from H . M . inspector of factories and workshops,
dating from the tim e when these were last thus cleaned down and limewashed; and they
shall record the dates of such cleaning down and limewashing in a prescribed form of
register.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

569

3. They shall provide a sufficient supply of metal basins, water, and soap, for the
use of all persons employed in such m ixing or casting shops.
4. They shall not employ, or allow within their factory or workshop the employment
of, any woman or female young person, in any process whatever, in any sucn m ixing
or casting shop, or in any portion thereof which is not entirely separated by a partition
extending from the floor to the ceiling.
D u ties o f person s em p loyed.

5. They shall not partake of, or cook any food in any such m ixing or casting shop,
within a period of at least ten minutes after the completion of the last pouring of metal
in that shop.
A r t h u r W h it e l e g g e ,
H . M . C hief In sp ector o f F actories.

July 10, 1896.
Women and young persons under 18 years of age must not be allowed to take a meal
in any casting shop or to remain there during the tim e stated on the notice affixed
in the works as being allowed for meals.
These rules must be kept posted up in conspicuous places in the works to which
they apply, where they may be conveniently read by the persons employed.
A ny person who is bound to observe these rules and fails to do so or acts in contra­
vention of them , is liable to a penalty; and in such case the occupier also is liable to
a penalty unless he proves that he has taken all reasonable means, by publishing and,
to the best of his power, enforcing the rules, to prevent the contravention or noncompliance.
C h e m ic a l W

orks.

(Form 258—Reprinted December, 1901.)

1. In future every uncovered pot, pan, or other structure containing liquid of a
dangerous character, shall be so constructed as to be at least 3 feet in height above the
ground or platform. Those already in existence which are less than 3 feet in height,
or in cases where it is proved to the satisfaction of an inspector that a height of 3 feet is
impracticable, shall be securely fenced.
2. There shall be a clear space around such pots, pans, or other structures, or where
any junction exists a barrier shall be so placed as to prevent passage.
3. Caustic pots shall be of such construction that there shall be no footing on the
top or sides of the brickwork, and dome-shaped lids shall be used where possible.
4. No unfenced planks or gangways shall be placed across open pots, pans, or other
structures containing liquid of a dangerous character. This rule shall not apply to
black ash vats where the vats themselves are otherwise securely fastened.
5. Suitable respirators shall be provided for the use of the workers in places where
poisonous gases or injurious dust may be inhaled.
6. The lighting of all dangerous places shall be made thoroughly efficient.
7. Every place where caustic soda or caustic potash is manufactured shall be sup­
plied with syringes or wash bottles, which shall be inclosed in covered boxes fixed
in convenient places, in the proportion of one to every four caustic pots. They shall
be of suitable form and size, and be kept full of clean water. Similar appliances shall
be provided wherever, in the opinion of an inspector, they may be desirable.
8. Overalls, kept in a cleanly state, shall be provided for all workers in any room
where chlorate of potash or other chlorate is ground. In every such room a bath shall
be kept ready for immediate use.
In every chlorate m ill, tallow or other suitable lubricant shall be used instead of oil.
9. Respirators charged with moist Qxide of iron or other suitable substance, shall
be kept m accessible places ready for use in cases of emergency arising from the sul­
phuretted hydrogen or other poisonous gases.
10. In salt cake departments suitable measures shall be adopted by maintaining a
proper draft and by other means to obviate the escape of low-level gases.
11. W eldon bleaching powder chambers, after the free gas has, as far as may be
practicable, been drawn off or absorbed by fresh lim e, shall, before being opened,
be tested by the standard recognized under the Alkali A ct. Such tests shall be duly
entered in a register kept for the purpose.
A ll chambers shall be ventilated as far as possible, when packing is being carried on,
by means of open doors on opposite sides and openings in the roof so as to allow of a free
current of air.




570

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

12.
In cases where the cooperation of the workers is required for carrying out the
foregoing rules, and where such cooperation is not given, the workers shall be held
liable in accordance with the Factory and Workshop A ct, 1891, section 9, which runs
as follows: * If any person who is bound to observe any special rules, established for
'‘
any factory or workshop under this A ct, acts in contravention of, or fails to com ply
with, any such special rule, he shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not
exceeding two pounds [$9.73].”
A r t h u r W h it e l e g g e ,
H . i f . C hief In sp ector o f F actories.
A m e n d e d S p e c ia l R u l e s f o r C h e m ic a l W o r k s
M a n u f a c t u r e o f B ic h r o m a t e o r Ch r o m a t e

in
of

W h ic h i s C a r r i e d o n t h e
P o t a s s iu m o r So d iu m .

(Form 260—January, 1906.)

In these rules “ persons employed in a chromo process” means a person who is
employed in any work involving contact with chromate or bichromate of potassium
or sodium, or involving exposure to dust or fumes arising from the manufacture
thereof.
A ny approval given by the chief inspector in pursuance of Rule 10 shall be given
in writing, and may at any tim e be revoked by notice in writing signed by him.
D u ties o f occupiers .

1. No uncovered pot, pan, or other structure containing liquid of a dangerous
character shall be so constructed as to be less than 3 feet in height above the adjoining
ground or platform.
This rule shall not apply to any pot, pan, or other structure constructed before
January 1, 1899, or in which a height of 3 feet is impracticable by reason of the
nature of the work to be carried on, provided in either case that the structure is
securely fenced.
2. There shall be a clear space round all pots, pans, or other structures containing
liquid of a dangerous character, except where any junction exists, in which case a
barrier shall be so placed as to prevent passage.
3. No unfenced plank or gangway shall be placed across any pot, pan, or other
structure containing liquid of a dangerous character.
4. The lighting of all dangerous places shall be made thoroughly efficient.
5. The grinding, separating, and m ixing of the raw materials (including chrome
ironstone, lim e, and sodium and potassium carbonate) shall not be done without
such appliances as w ill prevent, as far as possible, the entrance of dust into the work­
rooms.
6. “.B atches,” when withdrawn from the furnaces, shall either be placed in the
keaves or vats while still warm, or be allowed to cool in barrows, or other receptacles.
7. Evaporating vessels shall be covered in, and shall be provided with ventilating
shafts to carry the steam into the outside air.
8. Packing or crushing of bichromate of potassium or sodium shall not be done
except under conditions which secure either the entire absence of dust or its effectual
removal by means of a fan.
9. No child or young person shall be employed in a chrome process.
10. The occupier shall, subject to the approval of the chief inspector, appoint a
duly qualified medical practitioner (in these rules referred to as the appointed sur­
geon), who shall examine all persons employed in chrome processes at least once in
every month, and shall undertake any necessary medical treatment of disease con­
tracted in consequence of such employment, and shall, after the 30th day of April,
1900, have power to suspend any such person from work in any place or process.
(6) No person after such suspension shall be employed in any chrome process
without the written sanction of the appointed surgeon.
(c)
A register shall be kept in a form approved by the chief inspector, and shall
contain a list of all persons employed in any chrome process. The appointed surgeon
shall enter in the register the dates and results of his examinations of the persons
employed and particulars of any treatment prescribed by him . The register shall
be produced at any tim e when required by H . M . inspectors of factories or by the
appointed surgeon.
11. Requisites (approved by the appointed surgeon) for treating slight wounds
and ulcers shall be kept at hand and be placed in charge of a responsible person.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

571

12. The occupier shall provide sufficient and suitable overall suits for the use of all
persons engaged in the processes of grinding the raw materials; and sufficient and
suitable overall suits or other adequate means of protection approved in writing by
the appointed surgeon, for the use of all persons engaged in the crystal department
or in packing.
Respirators approved by the appointed surgeon shall be provided for the use of all
persons employed, in packing or crushing bichromate of sodium or potassium.
A t the end of every day’s work they shall be collected and kept in proper custody
in a suitable place set apart for the purpose.
The overalls and respirators shall be thoroughly washed or renewed every week.
13. The occupier shall provide and maintain a cloakroom in which workers can
deposit clothing put off during working hours.
14. The occupier shall provide and maintain a lavatory for the use of the persons
employed in chrome processes; with soap, nailbrushes, and towels, and a constant
supply of hot and cold water laid onto each basin. There shall be at least one lava­
tory basin for every five persons employed in the crystal department and in packing.
Each such basin shall be fitted with a waste pipe, or shall be placed in a trough fitted
with a waste pipe.
15. The occupier shall provide and maintain sufficient baths and dressing rooms
for all persons employed in chrome processes, with hot and cold water laid on, and
a sufficient supply of soap and towels; and shall cause each person employed in the
crystal department and in packing to take a bath once a week at the factory.
A bath register shall be kept containing a list of all persons employed in the crystal
department and in packing, and an entry of the date when each person takes a bath.
The bath register shall be produced at any tim e when required by H . M . inspectors
of factories.
16. The floors, stairs, and landings, shall be cleaned daily.
D u ties o f person s em p loyed.

. 17. No person shall deposit a “ batch” when withdrawn from the furnace upon the
floor nor transfer it to the keaves or vats otherwise than as prescribed in Rule 6.
18. No person shall pack or crush bichromate of potassium or sodium otherwise
than as prescribed in Rule 8.
19. (a) Every person employed in a chrome process shall present himself at the
appointed times for examination by the appointed surgeon as provided in Rule 10.
(6) After the 30th day of April, 1900, no person suspended by the appointed sur­
geon shall work in a chrome process without his written sanction.
20. Every person engaged in the processes of grinding the raw materials shall wear
an overall suit, and every person engaged in the crystal department or in packing
shall wear an overall suit or other adequate means of protection approved by the
appointed surgeon.
Every person employed in packing or crushing bichromate of sodium or potassium
shall in addition wear a respirator while so occupied.
21. Every person employed in the processes named in Rule 20 shall before leaving
the premises deposit the overalls and respirators in the place appointed by the occu­
pier for the purpose, and shall thoroughly wash face and hands in the lavatory.
22. Every person employed in the crystal department and in packing shall take a
bath at the factory at least once a week; and, having done so, he shall at once sign
his name in the bath register, with the date.
23. The foreman shall report to the manager any instance coming under his notice
of a workman neglecting to observe these rules.
A

W h it e l e g g e ,
C hief In sp ector o f F actories.

rthur

M. W . R i d l e y ,
O ne o f H er M a jesty's P rin cip a l Secretaries o f S tate.
F e b r u a r y , 1900.
N o t e . — These rules must be kept posted up in conspicuous places in the factory to
which they apply, where they m ay be conveniently read by the p erson s em ployed.
Any person who is bound to observe these rules and fails to do so or acts in contraven­
tion of them, is liable to penalty; and in such cases the occupier also is liable to a
penalty unless he proves that he has taken all reasonable means by publishing and,
to the best of his power, enforcing the rules, to prevent the contravention or noncom­
pliance.




572

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.
M anufacture

of

E x p l o s iv e s

in

w h ic h

D i -N it r o -B e n z o l e

is

U

sed.

(Form 257—December, 1904.)

1. No person to be employed without a medical certificate, staling that he or she is
physically fit for such employment.
2. An examination of the workers at their work to be made at least once a fortnight
by a certifying surgeon, who shall have power to order temporary suspension or total
change of work for any person showing symptoms of suffering from the poison, or if
after a fair trial he is of opinion that any person is by constitution unfit, he shall direct
that such person shall cease to be employed.
3. A supply of fresh m ilk, and of any drug that the medical officer may consider
desirable, shall be kept where the workers in his opinion may require it.
4. No meals to be taken in the work rooms.
5. There shall be provided separate lavatories for men and women, with a good sup­
ply of hot water, soap, nailbrushes, and towels, and whenever the skin has come in
contact with di-nitro-benzole, the part shall be im mediately washed.
6. Overall suits and head coverings shall be supplied to all workers in shops where
di-nitro-benzole is used, these suits to be taken off or well brushed before meals and
before leaving the works, and to be washed at least once a week.
7. Suitable respirators (capable of being washed), folds of linen, or woolen material
of open texture, or other suitable material, shall be supplied to those workers liable
to inhale dust, and the wearing of such respirators shall be urged where the workers
derive benefit from their use.
8. Where di-nitro-benzole has to be handled, the hands shall always be protected
from direct contact with it, either by the use of india-rubber gloves (kept perfectly
clean, especially in the inner side), or by means of rags which shall be destroyed
im m ediately after use.
9. Where di-nitro-benzole is broken by hand, the instrument used shall be a wooden
bar, spade, or tool with a handle long enough to prevent the worker’s face from coming
into contact with the material.
10. In all rooms or sheds in which the process, either of purifying, grinding, m ixing
materials of which di-nitro-benzole forms a part, is carried on, efficient “ cow ls,” ven­
tilating shafts, and mechanical ventilating fans shall be provided to carry off the dust
or fumes generated.
11. D r y in g sto v e s sh all b e e ffic ie n tly v e n t ila t e d , a n d , w h e n p o s s ib le , b e ch a rg ed
a n d d ra w n at fix e d tim e s, a n d a free c u r r e n t o f air sh all b e a d m it t e d fo r som e t im e
p r io r to t h e w ork ers e n te r in g to d ra w e ith e r a p a rt or th e w h o le o f th e c o n te n ts .

12. In the process of filling cartridges, the material shall not be touched by hand,
but suitable scoops shall be used, and where patent ventilated cartridge filling machines
are not used, there shall be efficient mechanical ventilation arranged in such a manner
that the suction shall draw the fumes or dust away from and not across or over the faces
of the workers.
13. A register, in a prescribed form, shall be kept, and it shall be the duty of a
responsible person named by the firm to enter, at least once a week, a statement that
he has personally satisfied him self that each and all of the special rules have been
observed, or if not, the reason for such nonobservance. The surgeon to enter in this
register the dates of his visits, the results of such visits, -and any requirement made by
him .
14. The “ dipping” rooms to be efficiently ventilated.
A r t h u r W h it e l e g g e ,
H . M . C hief In sp ector o f F actories .
N o t e .— These rules must b e kept posted up in conspicuous places in the factory to
which they apply, where they may be conveniently read by the persons em ployed.
A ny person who is bound to observe these rules and fails to do so or acts in contra­
vention of them, is liable to a penalty; and in such case the occupier also is liable to
a penalty unless he proves that he has taken all reasonable means by publishing and,
to the best of his power, enforcing the rules, to prevent the contravention or noncom­
pliance.




573

INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.
V

u l c a n iz in g

of

I n d ia R

ubber

by

M eans

of

B is u l p h id e

of

Ca r b o n .

(Form 274—October, 1906.)
I .— D u ties o f em p loyers.

1. No child or young person shall be employed in any room in which bisulphide of
carbon is used.
2. After May 1, 1898, no person shall be employed for more than five hours in any
day in a room in which bisulphide of carbon is used, nor for more than two and a half
hours at a time without an interval of at least an hour.
3. In vulcanizing waterproof cloth by means of bisulphide of carbon—
(а) The trough containing the bisulphide of carbon shall be self-feeding and cov­
ered over;
(б) The vdoth shall be conveyed to and from the drying chamber by means of an
automatic machine;
(c) No person shall be allowed to enter the drying chamber in the ordinary course
of work;
(d) The machine shall be covered over and the fumes drawn away from the workers
by means of a downward suction fan maintained in constant efficiency.
4. Dipping shall not be done except in boxes so arranged that a suction fan shall
draw the fumes away from the workers.
5. No food shall be allowed to be eaten in any room in which bisulphide of carbon
is used.
6. A suitable place for meals shall be provided.
7. All persons employed in rooms in which bisulphide of carbon is used shall be
examined once*a month by the certifying surgeon for the district, who shall, after
May 1, 1898, have power to order temporary or total suspension from work.
8. No person shall be employed in any room in which bisulphide of carbon is used
contrary to the direction of the certifying surgeon given as above.
9. A register in the form which has been prescribed by the secretary of state for use
in india-rubber works shall be kept, and in it the certifying surgeon will enter the dates
and result of his visits, with the number of persons examined, and particulars of any
directions given by him. This register shall contain a list of all persons employed in
rooms in which bisulphide of carbon is used, and shall be produced at any time when
required by H. M. inspector of factories or by the certifying surgeon.
I I .— D u ties o f person s em p loyed.

10. No person shall enter the drying room in the ordinary course of work, or perform
dipping except in boxes provided with a suction fan carrying the fumes away from
the workers.

11. No person shall take any food in any room in which bisulphide of carbon is used.
12. After May 1, 1898, no person shall, contrary to the direction of the certifying
surgeon, given in pursuance of Rule 7, work in any room in which bisulphide of carbon
is used.
13. All persons employed in rooms in which bisulphide of carbon is used shall pre­
sent themselves for periodic examination by the certifying surgeon, as provided in
Rule 7.
14. It shall be the duty of all persons employed to report immediately to the em­
ployer or foreman any defect which they may discover in the working of the fan or in
any appliance required by these rules.
A r t h u r W h it e l e g g e ,
I I . M . C hief In sp ector o f F actories .
N o t e . —These rules are required to be posted up in conspicuous places in the
factory or workshop to which they apply, where they may be conveniently read by
the persons employed. Any person who willfully injures or defaces them is liable
to a penalty not exceeding five pounds [$24.33]. Occupiers of factories and work­
shops, and persons employed therein, who are bound to observe these rules, are liable
to penalties in case of noncompliance. (Factory and Workshop Act, 1891, section 9,
and Factory and Workshop Act, 1901, sections 85 and 86.)




5 74
L

u c if e r

BULLETIN OP TH E BUBEAU OP LABOB.
M a t c h F a c t o r ie s

in

W

h ic h

W

h it e

or

Y

ellow

P h osph orus

is

U sed.

(Form 384—January, 1904.)

In these rules ‘‘phosphorous process” means mixing, dipping, drying, boxing, and
any other work or process in which white or yellow phosphorus is used; and “ person
employed in a phosphorous process ” means any person who is employed in any room
or part of the factory where such a process is carried on.
“ Double dipped matches ” means wood splints, both ends of which have been dipped
in the igniting composition.
“ Certifying surgeon” means a surgeon appointed under the Factory and Workshop
Acts.
Any approval or decision given by the chief inspector of factories in pursuance of
these rules shall be given in writing, and may at any time be revoked by notice in
writing signed by him.
Rules 5 (a), 5 (b), 6, 8, and 19, so far as they affect the employment of adult workers,
shall not come into force until the 1st day of October, 1900.
Duties of employers.

1. No part of a lucifer match factory shall be constructed, structurally altered, or
newly used, for the carrying on of any phosphorous process, unless the plans have pre­
viously been submitted in duplicate to the chief inspector of factories, and unless he
shall have approved the plans in writing, or shall not within six weeks from the sub­
mission of the plans have expressed his disapproval in writing of the same.
2. Every room in which mixing, dipping, drying, or boxing is carried on shall be
efficiently ventilated by means of sufficient openings to the outer air, and also by
means of fans, unless the use of fans is dispensed with by order in writing of the chief
inspector; shall contain at least 400 cubic feet of air space for each person employed
therein; and in computing this air space no height above 14 feet shall be taken into
account; shall be efficiently lighted; shall have a smooth and impervious floor. A
floor laid with flagstones or hard bricks in good repair shall be deemed to constitute a
smooth and impervious floor.
3. (a) The processes of mixing, dipping, and drying shall each be done in a separate
and distinct room. The process of boxing double-dipped matches or matches not
thoroughly dry shall also be done in a separate and distinct room. These rooms shall
not communicate with any other part of the factory unless there shall be a ventilated
space intervening; nor shall they communicate with one another, except by means of
doorways with closely fitting doors, which doors shall be kept shut except when some
person is passing through.
(b) Mixing shall not be done except in an apparatus so closed, or so arranged, and
ventilated by means of a fan, as to prevent the entrance of fumes into the an of the
mixing room.
(c) Dipping shall not be done except on a slab provided with an efficient exhaust fan,
and with an air inlet between the dipper and the slab, or with a hood, so arranged as to
draw the fumes away from the dipper, and to prevent them from entering the air of the
dipping room.
(a)
Matches that have been dipped and can not at once be removed to the drying
room shall im mediately be placed under a hood provided with an efficient exhaust fan,
so arranged as to prevent the fumes from entering the air of the room.
(e)
Matches shall not be taken to a boxing room not arranged in compliance with

subsection (/) of this rule until they are thoroughly dry, and matches shall not be taken
to a boxing room that is so arranged until they are dried so far as they can be before
cutting down and boxing.
(/) Cutting down of double-dipped matches and boxing of matches not thoroughly
dry shall not be done except at benches or tables provided with an efficient exhaust fan,
so arranged as to draw the fumes away from the worker and prevent them from entering
the air of the boxing room.
Provided that the foregoing rule shall not prevent the employment of any mechanical
arrangement for carrying on any of the above-mentioned processes if the same be
approved by the chief inspector as obviating the use of hand labor, and if it be used
subject to the conditions (if any) specified in such approval.
Provided further that if the chief inspector shall, on consideration of the special
circumstances of any particular case, so approve in writing, all or any of the provisions
of the foregoing rule may be suspended for the time named in such approval in writing.
4. Vessels containing phosphorous paste shall, when not actually in use, be kept con­
stantly covered, and closely fitting covers or damp flannels shall be provided for the
purpose.




INDUSTRIAL HYG IEN E.

57 5

5. (a) For the purposes of, these rules the occupier shall appoint, subject to the
approval of the chief inspector, a duly qualified and registered dentist, herein termed
tfie appointed dentist.
It shall be the duty of the appointed dentist to suspend from employment in any
phosphorous process any person whom he finds to incur danger of phosphorous necrosis
by reason of defective conditions of teeth or exposure of the jaw.
(6) No person shall be newly employed in a dipping room for more than twentyeight days, whether such days are consecutive or not, without being examined by the
appointed dentist.
(c) Every peffeon employed in a phosphorous process, except persons employed only
as boxers of wax vestas or other thoroughly dry matches, shall be examined by the
appointed dentist at least once in every three months.
(d) Any person employed in the factory complaining of toothache, or a pain or
swelling of the jaw, shall at once be examined by the appointed dentist.
(e) When the appointed dentist has reason to believe that any person employed in
the factory is suffering from inflammation or necrosis of the jaw, or is in such a state of
health as to incur danger of phosphorous necrosis, he shall at once direct the attention
of the certifying surgeon and occupier to the case. Thereupon such person shall at once
be examined by the certifying surgeon.
6. No person shall be employed in a phosphorous process after suspension by the
appointed dentist; or after the extraction of a tooth; or after any operation involving
exposure of the jaw bone; or after inflammation or necrosis of the jaw; or after exami­
nation by the appointed dentist in pursuance of Rule 5 (d); or after reference to the
certifying surgeon in pursuance of Rule 5 (e), unless a certificate of fitness has been
given, after examination, by signed entry in the health register, by the appointed
dentist or by the certifying surgeon in cases referred to him under Rule 5 (e).
7. A health register, in a form approved by the chief inspector of factories, shall
be kept by the occupier, and shall contain a complete list of all persons employed in
each phosphorous process, specifying with regard to each such person the full name,
address, age when first employed, and date of first employment.
The certifying surgeon will enter in the health register the dates and results of his
examinations of persons employed in phosphorous processes, and particulars of any
directions given by him.
The appointed dentist will enter in the health register the dates and results of his
examinations of the teeth of persons employed in phosphorous processes, and particulars
of any directions given by him, and a note of any case referred by him to the certifying
surgeon.
The health register shall be produced at any time when required by H. M. inspectors
of factories, or by the certifying surgeon, or by the appointed dentist.
8. Except persons whose names are on the health register mentioned in Rule 7, and
in respect of whom certificates of fitness shall have been granted, no person shall be
newly employed in any phosphorous process for more than 28 days, whether such days
are consecutive or not, without a certificate of fitness, granted after examination by the
certifying surgeon, by signed entry in the health register.
This rule shall not apply to persons employed only as boxers of wax vestas or other
thoroughly dry matches.
9. The occupier shall provide and maintain sufficient and suitable overalls for all
persons employed in phosphorous processes, except for persons employed only as boxers
of wax vestas or other thoroughly dry matches, and shall cause them to fee worn as
directed in Rule 20.
At the end of every day’s work they shall be collected and kept in proper custody
in a suitable place set apart for the purpose.
They shall be thoroughly washed every week, and suitable arrangements for this
purpose shall be made by the occupier.
10. The occupier shall provide and maintain—
(a ) A dining room, and
(b) A cloak room in which workers can deposit clothing put off during working hours.

11. No person shall be allowed to prepare or partake of any food or drmk in any room
in which a phosphorous process is carried on, nor to bring any food or drink into such
room.
12. The occupier shall provide and maintain for the use of the workers a lavatory,
with soap, nailbrushes, towels, and at least one lavatory basin for every five persons
employed in any phosphorous process.
Each such basin shall be fitted with a waste pipe, or the basins shall be placed on a
trough fitted with a waste pipe. There shall be a constant supply of hot ana cold water
laid on to each basin.




576

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

Or, in the place of basins, the occupier shall provide and maintain enamel or galvan­
ized iron troughs, in good repair, of a total length of 2 feet for every five persons
employed, fitted with waste pipes and without plugs, with a sufficient supply of warm
water constantly available.
The lavatory shall be kept thoroughly cleansed, and shall be supplied with a suffi­
cient quantity of clean towels twice in each day.
There shall, in addition, be means of washing in close proximity to the workers in
any department, if so required in writing by the inspector in charge of the district.
13. The occupier shall provide for the use of every person employed in a phosphorous
process an antiseptic mouth wash approved by the appointed dentist, find a sufficient
supply of glasses or cups.
14. The floor of each room in which a phosphorous process is carried on shall be cleared
of waste at least once a day, and washed at least once a week.
15. A printed copy of these rules shall be given to each person on entering upon
employment in a phosphorous process.
D u ties o f 'persons em p loyed.

16. No person shall work in a mixing, dipping, drying, or boxing room under other
conditions than those prescribed in Rule 3.
17. No person shall allow a vessel containing phosphorous paste to remain uncovered
except when actually in use.
18. All persons employed in a phosphorous process shall present themselves at the
appointed times for examination by the certifying surgeon and appointed dentist, as
provided in Rules 5, 6 and 8.
19. Every person employed in a phosphorous process and suffering from toothache or
swelling of the jaw; or having had a tooth extracted or having undergone any other
operation involving exposure of the jaw, shall at once inform tne occupier, and shall
not resume employment in a phosphorous process without a certificate of fitness from
the appointed dentist, as provided in Rule 6.
No person, after suspension by the appointed dentist, or after reference to the certi­
fying surgeon, shall resume employment in a phosphorous process without a certificate
of fitness, as provided in Rule 6.
20. Every person employed in a phosphorous process for whom the occupier is
required by Rule 9 to provide overalls shall wear while at work the overalls so provided.
21. Every person employed in a phosphorous process shall, before partaking of meals
or leaving the premises, deposit the overalls in the place appointed by the occupier
for the purpose, and shall thoroughly wash in the lavatory.
22. No person shall prepare or partake of food or drink in any room in which a phos­
phorous process is carried on, or bring any food or drink into such room.
23. No person shall in any way interfere, without the knowledge and concurrence
of the occupier or manager, with the means and appliances provided for the removal
of dust and fumes.
24. Foremen and forewomen shall report to the manager any instance coming under
their notice of a worker neglecting to observe these rules.
A
A

p r il ,

W h it e l e g g e ,
C hief In sp ector o f F actories .

rthur

1900.

—These rules must be kept posted up in conspicuous places in the factory to
which they apply, where they may be conveniently read by the persons employed.
Any person who is bound to observe these rules and fails to do so or acts in contraven­
tion of them is liable to a penalty; and in such cases the occupier also is liable to a
penalty unless he proves that he has taken all reasonable means by publishing and, to
the best of his power, enforcing the rules to prevent the contravention or noncom­
pliance.
N

ote.

F elt H

ats.

Whereas the manufacture of felt hats with the aid of inflammable solvent has been
certified in pursuance of section 79 of the Factory and Workshop Act, 1901, to be
dangerous, I hereby, in pursuance of the power conferred on me by that act, make the
following regulations, and direct that they shall apply to all factories and workshops in
which any inflammable solvent is used in the manufacture of felt hats:
1.
Every proofing room and every stove or drying room in which an inflammable
solvent is evaporated shall be thoroughly ventilated to the satisfaction of the inspector
for the district, so as to carry off as far as possible the inflammable vapor




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

577

2. The number of wet spirit-proofed hat bodies allowed to be in a proofing room at
any one time shall not exceed the proportion of one hat for each 15 cubic feet of air
space; and in no stove, whilst the first drying of any spirit-proofed hats is being carried
on, shall the number of hat bodies of any kind exceed a proportion of one hat for each
12 cubic feet of air space.
A notice stating the dimensions of each such room or stove in cubic feet and the
number of spirit-proofed hats allowed to be therein at any one time shall be kept con­
stantly affixed in a conspicuous position.
3. Spirit-proofed hats shall be opened out singly and exposed for one hour before
being placed in the stove. This requirement shall not apply in the case of a stove
which contains no fire or artificial light capable of igniting inflammable vapor, and
which is so constructed and arranged as, in the opinion of the inspector for the district,
to present no risk of such ignition from external fire or light.
4. The above rules, in so far as they affect drying stoves, shall not apply to the proc­
ess of drying hat bodies where the solvent is recovered in a closed oven or chamber
fitted with safe and suitable apparatus for the condensation of the solvent.
5. No person shall smoke in any room or place in which inflammable solvent is
exposed to the air.
These regulations shall come into force on the 1st day of October, 1902.
A . A k e r s-D o u g la s,
O ne o f H is M a jesty’s P rin cip a l Secretaries o f S ta te.
W

h it e h a l l ,

12th A u g u st, 1 90 2 .

S p e c ia l R u l e s f o r t h e H a n d l i n g
I m p o r ted fr o m Ch in a or

of

Dry

from

and

the

W

D r y s a l t e d H id e s a n d S k in s
e st Co a st of I n d ia .

(Form 486—February, 1906.)
D u ties o f occupier.

1. Proper provision to the reasonable satisfaction of the inspector in charge of the
district shall be made for the keeping of the workmen’s food and clothing outside any
room or shed in which any of the above-described hides or skins are unpacked, sorted,
packed, or stored.
2. Proper and sufficient appliances for washing, comprising soap, basins, with water
laid on, nailbrushes and towels, shall be provided and maintained for the use of the
workmen, to the reasonable satisfaction of the inspector in charge of the district.
3. Sticking plaster, and other requisites for treating scratches and slight wounds,
shall be kept at hand, available for the use of the persons employed.

4. A copy of the appended notes shall be kept affixed with the rules.
D u ties o f persons em p loyed.

5. No workman shall keep any food, or any articles of clothing other than those he
is wearing, in any room or shed in which any of the above-described hides or skins are
handled.
He shall not take any food in any such room or shed.
6. Every workman having any open cut or scratch or raw surface, however trifling,
upon his face, head, neck, arm, or hand shall immediately report the fact to the fore­
man, and shall not work on the premises until the wound is healed or is completely
covered by a proper dressing after being thoroughly washed.
A r t h u r W h it e l e g g e ,
C h ief In sp ector o f F actories.
C h a s . T. R i t c h i e ,
O ne o f H is M a jesty’s P rin cip a l Secretaries o f S ta te.
A

ugust,

1901.

N o t e 1.—These rules must be kept posted up inconspicuous places in the factory to
which they apply, where they may be conveniently read by the persons employed.
Any person who is bound to observe these rules and fails to do so, or acts in contra­
vention of them, is liable to a penalty; and in such cases the occupier also is liable
to a penalty unless he proves that he has taken all reasonable means by publishing
and, to the best of his power, enforcing the rules, to prevent the contravention or noncompliance.
N o t e 2.—The danger against which these rules are directed is that of anthrax—a
fatal disease affecting certain animals, which may be conveyed from them to man by
the handling of hides of animals which have died of the disease. The germs of the




578

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

disease (anthrax spores) are found in the dust and in the substance of the hide, and
may remain active for years. In this country anthrax is rare, and precautions are
taken to prevent infected hides from coming into the market, consequently there is
little danger in handling the hides of animals slaughtered in the United Kingdom;
but in Russia, China, and the East Indies, and in many other parts of the world, the
disease is common, and infected hides (which d# not diner from others in appearance)
are often shipped to British ports. Hence in handling foreign dry hides the above
rules should be carefully observed. Wet salted hides are free from dust, and less
risk is incurred in handling them.
The disease is communicated to man sometimes by breathing or swallowing the
dust from an infected hide, but much more usually by the poison lodging in some
point where the skin is broken—such as a fresh scratch or cut or a scratched pimple,
or even chapped hands. This happens most readily on the uncovered parts of the
body, the hand, arm, face, and most frequently of all on the neck—owing either to an
infected hide rubbing against the bare skm, or to dust from such a hide alighting on the
raw surface. But a raw surface covered by clothing is not free from risk, for dust
lodging upon the clothes may sooner or later work its way to the skin beneath. Infec­
tion may also be brought about by rubbing or scratching a pimple with hand or nail
carrying the anthrax poison.
The first symptom of anthrax is usually a small inflamed swelling like a pimple or
boil, often quite painless, which extends and in a few days becomes black at the center
and surrounded by other “ pimples.” The poison is now liable to be absorbed into
the system and will cause risk to life, which can be avoided only by prompt and
effective medical treatment in the early stage while the poison is still confined to the
pimple. Hence it is of the utmost importance that a doctor should at once be consulted
if there is any suspicion of infection.
N o t e 3.—Suitable overalls, protecting the neck and arms, as well as ordinary cloth­
ing, add materially to the safety of the workmen, and should be provided and worn,
where practicable, if dangerous hides are handled. They should be discarded on
cessation of work. Similarly for the protection of the hands, gloves should be pro­
vided and worn where the character of the work permits.
W

ool a n d

H

a ir

S o r t in g .

Whereas the processes of sorting, willying, washing, and combing and carding
wool, goat-hair, and camel-hair and processes incidental thereto have been certified,
in pursuance of section 79 of the Factory and Workshop Act, 1901, to be dangerous:
I hereby in pursuance of the powers conferred on me by that act make the follow­
ing regulations, and direct that they shall apply to all factories and workshops in
which the said processes, are carried on, and m which the materials named in the
schedules are used.
It shall be the duty of the occupier to comply with Regulations 1 to 16. It shall
be the duty of all persons employed to comply with Regulations 17 to 23.
These regulations shall come into force on the 1st of January, 1906, except that
Regulations 2 and 8 shall not come into force until the 1st of April, 1906.
Definition.

For the purpose of Regulations 2,3, and 18, opening of wool or hair means the open­
ing of the fleece, including the untying or cutting of the knots, or, if the material is
not in the fleece, the opening out for looking over or classing purposes.
Duties of occupiers.

1. No bale of wool or hair of the kinds named in the schedules shall be opened for
the purpose of being sorted or manufactured, except by men skilled in judging the
condition of the material.
No bale of wool or hair of the kinds named in Schedule A shall be opened except
after thorough steeping in water.
2. No wool or hair of the kinds named in Schedule B shall be opened except (a)
after steeping in water, or (b) over an efficient opening screen, witn mechanical ex­
haust draft, m a room set apart for the purpose, in which no other work than opening
is carried on.
For the purpose of this regulation, no opening screen shall be deemed to be efficient
unless it complies with the following conditions:
(a)
The area of the screen shall, in the case of existing screens, be not less than 11
square feet, and in the case of screens hereafter erected be not less than 12 square
feet, nor shall its length or breadth be less than 3J feet.




INDUSTRIAL H YG IEN E.

579

(b)
A t no point of the screen within 18 inches from the center shall the velocity of
the exhaust draft be less than 100 linear feet per m inute.
3. A ll damaged wool or hair or fallen fleeces or skin wool or hair, if of the kinds
named in the schedules, shall, when opened be damped with a disinfectant and washed
without being willowed.
4. No wool or hair of the kinds named in schedules B or C shall be sorted except
over an efficient sorting board, with mechanical exhaust draft, and in a room set apart
for the purpose, in which no work is carried on other than sorting and the packing of
the wool or hair sorted therein.
No wpol or hair of the kinds numbered (1) and (2) in Schedule A shall be sorted
except in the damp state and after being washed.
No damaged wool or hair of the kinds named in the schedules shall be sorted except
after being washed.
For the purpose of this regulation, no sorting board shall be deemed to be efficient
unless it complies with the following conditions:
The sorting board shall comprise a screen of open wirework, and beneath it at all
parts a clear space not less than 3 inches in depth. Below the center of the screen
there shall be a funnel, measuring not less than 10 inches across the top, leading to an
extraction shaft, and the arrangements shall be such that all dust falling through the
screen and not carried away by the exhaust can be swept directly into the funnel.
The draft shall be maintained in constant efficiency whilst the sorters are at work,
and shall be such that not less than 75 cubic feet of air per minute are drawn by the
fan from beneath each sorting board.
5. No wool or hair of the kinds named in the schedules shall be willowed except in
an efficient willowing machine, in a room set apart for the purpose, in which no work
other than willowing is carried on.
For the purpose of this regulation, no willowin