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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR.

BULLETIN
OF THE

BUREAU OF LABOR.

NO. T l-JU L Y , 1907.
ISSUED EVERY OTHER MONTH.

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.




1907.




CONTENTS.
Page.

Wages and hours of labor in manufacturing industries, 1890 to 1906................... 1-174
Retail prices of food, 1890 to 1906.................................................................... 175-328
Digest of recent reports of State bureaus of labor statistics:
Indiana..................................................................................................... 329-331
Io w a ......................................................................................................... 331-333
Michigan................................................................................................... 333-337
Minnesota.................................................................................................. 337,338
New Hampshire....................... ................................................................. 338,339
Digest of recent foreign statistical publications.............................................. 340-358
Decisions of courts affecting labor................................................................... 359-393
Laws of various States relating to labor, enacted since January 1, 1904.......... 394-402
Cumulative index of labor laws and decisionsrelating thereto....................... 403-408




hi




BULLETIN
OP THE

B U R E A U OF L A B O R .
No. 71.

WASHINGTON.

Ju l y ,

1907.

WAGES AND HOURS 0E LABOR IN MANUEACTURING INDUSTRIES,
1890 TO 1906.

This article presents the average wages per hour, the average
hours of labor per week, and the number of employees in both 1905
and 1906 in the leading wageworking occupations of 4,034 estab­
lishments in the principal manufacturing and mechanical industries
of the United States. This report does not cover salaried employees
in any industry. The figures of this article, taken in connection
with the summary figures from the Nineteenth Annual Report
and from articles in Bulletins 59 and 65 relating to wages and hours
of labor, herein reproduced, bring into comparison all years from
1890 to 1906, inclusive.
In the year 1906 the average wages per hour in the principal
manufacturing and mechanical industries of the country were 4.5 per
cent higher than in 1905, the regular hours of labor per week were
0.5 per cent lower than in 1905, and the number of employees in the
establishments investigated was 7 per cent greater than in 1905.
The average full-time weekly earnings per employee in 1906 were
3.9 per cent greater than in 1905.
The variation in the purchasing power of wages may be measured
by using the retail prices of food, the expenditures for which consti­
tute nearly half of the expenditures for all purposes in a working­
man’s family. Retail prices of food are shown in the succeeding
article in this Bulletin. According to that article the retail prices
of food, weighted according to consumption in representative work­
ingmen’s families, were 2.9 per cent higher in 1906 than in 1905. As
the advance in wages per hour from 1905 to 1906 was greater than
the advance in the retail prices of food, the purchasing power of an



l

2

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

hour’s wages, as measured by food, was greater in 1906 than in 1905.
In 1906 the purchasing power of an hour’s wages as expended for
food was 1.4 per cent greater than in 1905, and the purchasing power
of a full week’s wages was 1 per cent greater in 1906 than in 1905, or,
expressed in other words, an hour’s wages in 1906 in the manufac­
turing and mechanical industries in the United States would purchase
1.4 per cent more food than an hour’s wages in 1905, and a full
week’s wages in 1906 would purchase 1 per cent more food than a
full week’s wages in 1905.
As compared in each case with the average for the years from
1890 to 1899, the average wages per hour in 1906 were 24.2 per cent
higher, the number of employees in the establishments investigated
was 42.9 per cent greater, and the average hours of labor per week
were 4.6 per cent lower. The average earnings per employee per
full week in 1906 were 18.5 per cent higher than the average earnings
per full week during the ten years from 1890 to 1899.
The retail price of the principal articles of food, weighted accord­
ing to family consumption of the various articles, was 15.7 per cent
higher in 1906 than the average price for the ten years from 1890
to 1899. Compared with the average for the same ten-year period,
the purchasing power of an hour’s wages in 1906 was 7.3 per cent
greater, and of a full week’s wages 2.4 per cent greater, the increase
in the purchasing power of the full week’s wages being less than the
increase in the purchasing power of hourly wages, because of the
reduction in the hours of labor.
The figures above quoted and other figures comparing wages,
hours of labor, prices, purchasing power of wages, etc., in 1906 with
other years are presented in the tables on pages 4 and 7.
Comparison of retail prices of food for each month of 1905 and
1906 is made on page 180.
The following table shows the per cent of increase or decrease in
the wages per hour and in hours of labor per full week in 1906 as
compared with 1905 in the several industries covered by this report:
PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN WAGES PER HOUR AND IN HOURS OF
LABOR PER W EEK IN 1906 AS COMPARED WITH 1905, BY INDUSTRIES.
Wages p e r hour.
Industry.

Agricultural implements............................................................
Bakery, bread.............................................................................
Blacksmithing and horseshoeing...............................................
Boots and shoes..........................................................................
Brick............................................................................................
Building trades...........................................................................
Candy.........................................................................................
Carpets........................................................................................
Carriages and wagons................................................................
Cars, steam railroad...................................................................




Hours per week.

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
of de­
of de­
of in­
of in­
crease.
crease.
crease.
crease.
3.9
3.2
3.2
1.7
4.7
6.1
4.0
2.0
3.8
3.1

0.1

0.5
.8
.6
.5
.1
.3
.3
.4
.3

3

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN WAGES PER HOUR AND IN HOURS OF
LABOR PER WEEK IN 1906 AS COMPARED W ITH 1905, BY INDUSTRIES—Concluded.
Wages per hour.
Industry.

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
of in­
of in­
of de­
of de­
crease.
crease.
crease.
crease.

f!inthlTigr ffl.ftt.nry product..........................................................
Cotton goods. . T
......................................................................
DyAinp^finishirigfj fi.nd printing tft-jrt.Ues....................................
Electrical apparatus and supplies.............................................
Flour........ t ? .......................: : ...................................................
Foundry and machine shop.......................................................
Furniture......................... T
........................................................
Gas..............................................................................................
Glass..........................................................................................
Harness......................................................................................
Hats, fur........., ..........................................................................
Hosiery and knit goods.............................................................
Iron and steel, bar.....................................................................
Iron and steel, Bessemer converting........................................
Iron and steel, blast furnace.....................................................
Leather.......................................................................................
Liquors, mfl.it.............................................................................
Lumber.......................................................................................
Marble and stone work..............................................................
Paper and wood pulp................................................................
Planing m ill...............................................................................
P ottery.......................................................................................
Printing and publishing, book and job.....................................
Printing and publishing, newspaper.........................................
Shipbuilding...............................................................................
Silk goods...................................................................................
Slaughtering and meat packing................................................
Streets and sewers, contract work............................................
Streets and sewers, municipal work.........................................
Tobacco, cigars..........................................................................
Woolen and worsted goods.................................... , .................

3.8
11.2
1.9
10.1
1.4
3.4
2.9
1.8
4.9
2.5
5.0
4.6
6.9
8.5
1.3
.8
2.7
5.0
1.7

industries....................................................................

4.5

A ll

a No change.

Hours per week.

3.4
1.3
4.4
2.0
4.8
2.7
1.5
8.7
1.7
8.4
4.8

0.2
.8
.4

(O)

(a)

(«)

(a)

0.3

.8
.4
.1
.1
.2

.3
(a)

.2
.5

(°)

(a)

(a )

1.8
1.0
1.1

.3

.3

1.1
.2
1.4
.8

.5

(a)

(a)

(*>)

( b)

.1

1.5
.4
.2
.5

fcNot reported.

An examination of this table shows an increase in wages per hour
in 1906, as compared with 1905, in 40 of the 41 industries covered by
this report. The greatest increase was in the manufacture of cotton
goods, where the average wages per hour in 1906 were 11.2 per cent
higher than the average wages per hour in 1905. In the manufac­
ture of electrical apparatus and supplies there was an increase in
wages per hour of 10.1 per cent. In street and sewer work done by
contract the increase in wages per hour was 8.7 per cent; in iron and
steel, Bessemer converting, 8.5 per cent, and in the manufacture of
cigars, 8.4 per cent. In the manufacture of bar iron the increase in
wages per hour was 6.9 per cent, and in the building trades 6.1 per
cent. Briefly stated, two industries show’ an increase in hourly
wages of more than 10 per cent, 7 industries an increase of 5 per cent
but less than 10 per cent, and 31 industries an increase of less than
5 per cent. In one industry7, paper and wood pulp, there was a
decrease of wages of 1.1 per cent. In the industries as a wdiole,
weighted according to importance, the increase in wages was 4.5
per cent. The method of weighting the several industries is fully
explained on pages 23 and 24.




4

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

The per cent of change in hours of labor in 1906, as compared with
1905, was not so great as the per cent of change in wages per hour.
In 5 industries there was a decrease of hours of 1 per cent or more,
while in 25 industries there was a decrease of less than 1 per cent.
In 5 industries there was an increase in hours of labor per week; in
no instance, however, w the increase more than 0.3 per cent. Five
ras
industries show no change in hours of labor. The hours of labor
were not reported for slaughtering and meat packing, for the reason
set forth in footnote on page 58. The decrease in hours of labor in
the industries taken as a whole was 0.5 per cent.
The table immediately following shows for the industries, taken as
a whole, the per cent of increase or decrease in wages per hour, hours
of labor per week, the purchasing power of wages, etc., in 1906 in the
manufacturing and mechanical industries, as compared with each
year preceding, back to and including 1890, and as compared with
the average for the ten years, 1890 to 1899. The figures comparing
conditions in 1906 with 1905, shown on pages 1 and 2, are taken from
this table.
PER CENT OF INCREASE (+ ) OR DECREASE ( - ) IN 1906, AS COMPARED WITH PRE­
VIOUS YEARS, IN EMPLOYEES, HOURS PER'W EEK, WAGES PER HOUR, FULL-TIME
W EEKLY EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE, RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, AND PURCHAS­
ING POWER OF HOURLY WAGES AND OF FULL-TIME W EEKLY EARNINGS PER
EMPLOYEE, MEASURED BY RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.
{A chart showing in graphic form the changes in employees, hours, wages, and retail prices will be
found facing page 8.]
Per cent of increase (+ ) or decrease ( —) in 1905 as compared with
previous years.

Year.

Average 1890-1899.....................
1890............................................
1891............................................
1892............................................
1893............................................
1894............................................
1895............................................
1896............................................
1897............................................
1898............................................
1899............................................
1900............................................
1901............................................
1902............................................
1903............................................
1904............................. .............
1905............................................




Purchasiing power,
measu red by re­
Retail
tail iprices of
prices of
f—
food, c>
Full­
food,
time
weighted
Wages
weekly accord­
Employ­ Hours
per week. per hour. earnings ing to
ees.
Fullper em­ family
time
ployee.
con­
Hourly weekly
sump­ wages. earnings
tion.
per em­
ployee.
+ 42.9
+50.7
+ 46.9
+44.1
+ 43.8
+ 51.9
+48.2
+ 44.9
+ 41.6
+ 34.3
+ 27.5
+ 23.6
+ 20.0
+ 15.6
+ 13.0
+13.7
+ 7.0

- 4 .6
- 5 .3
* - 5 .1
- 5 .1
- 4 .9
- 4 .4
- 4 .7
- 4 .4
- 4 .2
- 4 .3
- 3 .8
- 3 .3
- 2 .8
- 2 .0
- 1 .2
- .5
- .5

+24.2
+ 23.8
+ 23.8
+23.2
+23.1
+ 26.9
+26.3
+ 24.6
+24.7
+ 24.0
+ 21.8
+17.7
+ 15.0
+10.7
+ 6.8
+ 6.2
+ 4.5

+ 18.5
+17.3
+ 17.6
+ 17.0
+17.1
+21.3
+ 20.4
+19.1
+19.5
+ 18.6
+17.1
+ 13.8
+ 11.9
+ 8.5
+ 5.5
+ 5.6
+ 3.9

+15.7
+ 13.0
+11.5
+ 13.5
+ 10.8
+ 16.0
+18.3
+ 21.2
+20.1
+17.2
+16.3
+ 14.4
+ 10.0
+ 4.3
+ 4.9
+ 3,6
+ 2.9

+ 7.3
+ 9.6
+11.1
+ 8.5
+11.1
+ 9.3
+ 6.8
+ 2.8
+ 3.8
+ 5.7
+ 4.7
+ 2.8
+ 4.5
+ 6.0
+ 1.8
+ 2.5
+ 1.4

+ 2.4
+ 3 .9
+ 5.5
+ 3 .0
+ 5.7
+ 4 .5
+ 1.8
- 1 .7
- .6
+ 1.2
+ .7
- .6
+ 1.7
+ 4 .0
+ .6
+ 2 .0
+ 1.0

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR,

1890 TO 1906.

5

Opposite each year in the table is given the per cent of increase
or decrease (indicated by + or — in 1906 as compared with the
)
year specified. Thus, in the fourth column, opposite 1890, appears
+ 23.8, indicating that the increase in the wages per hour in 1906, as
compared with 1890, was 23.8 per cent. In like manner, in the third
column, opposite 1890, appears —5.3, indicating that the decrease
in the hours of labor in 1906, as compared with 1890, was 5.3 per cent.
As before stated, the average wages per hour of wage-workers in
the manufacturing and mechanical industries of the country were
4.5 per cent higher in 1906 than in 1905. This per cent ( + 4.5)
appears in the column headed “ Wages per hour” opposite the year
1905. In inspecting the percentages up the column it is seen that
there was an increase in the average wages per hour in 1906 over
the average wages per hour in each preceding year of the period
covered; that is, back to 1890. The increase in 1906 over 1904
was 6.2 per cent, over 1903 the increase was 6.8 per cent, and over
1902 the increase was 10.7 per cent. The increase in 1906 was more
than 20 per cent over the average hourly wages in any one year
from 1890 to 1899, and 24.2 per cent over the average for the ten
years from 1890 to 1899. Wages in 1906 were 26.9 per cent higher
than in 1894, the year of lowest wages per hour in the period.
The average hours of labor per week of wage-earners in the manu­
facturing and mechanical industries were lower in 1906 than in any
preceding year. The hours of labor in 1906 decreased 0.5 per cent
as compared with the years 1904 and 1905, the average hours of
labor beings the same in those two years. There was a decrease of
T
1.2 per cent in 1906 as compared wdth 1903, a decrease of 2.0 per
cent as compared with 1902, and a decrease of 2.8 per cent as com­
pared with 1901. As compared wdth 1890 there was a decrease of
5.3 per cent, and as compared with the average from 1890 to 1899, a
decrease of 4.6 per cent.
The figures for employees relate only to the number of employees
in the selected occupations covered by the report in the establish­
ments investigated. There was an increase of 7 per cent in the
number of employees in 1906 as compared with 1905; an increase of
13.7 per cent as compared with 1904; an increase of 13 per cent as
compared with 1903; an increase of 15.6 per cent as compared with
1902, and an increase of 20 per cent as compared with 1901. As
compared with 1894, the year in which wages and the number of
persons employed were the lowest during the period, there was an
increase of 51.9 per cent in the number of employees. As compared
with the average for the ten years from 1890 to 1899 there was an
increase of 42.9 per cent in the number of employees. These figures




6

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR,

do not take into consideration the development of new industries
within the period or the increase in the number of establishments
in the several industries covered by the report, hence the actual
increase in the number of employees in 1906 engaged in the manu­
facturing and mechanical industries of the country must be consid­
erably greater than is shown by these figures.
As there has been a general decrease in the hours of labor accom­
panying the general increase in wages per hour, a column is given
in the table showing the full-time weekly earnings per employee in
order that a study may be made of earnings per week as well as of
wages per hour.
The figures here given for weekly earnings are based on full-time
work; as fully explained on page 17 the amount of time actually
made per week by employees is not covered by this report.
There was an increase in the full-time weekly earnings per employee
in 1906 as compared with 1905 of 3.9 per cent; as compared with
1904, of 5.6 per cent; as compared with 1903, of 5.5 per cent; as
compared with 1902, of 8.5 per cent, and as compared with 1901,
of 11.9 per cent. In 1906, as compared with the average for 1890
to 1899, there was an increase of full-time weekly earnings per
employee of 18.5 per cent, and as compared with 1894, the year of
lowest wages, there was an increase of 21.3 per cent.
Figures relating to retail prices of food, from the second article in
this Bulletin, are presented here that they may furnish a measure
of the purchasing power of wages. In 1906 there was an increase
in the retail price of food, weighted according to family consumption,
of 2.9 per cent as compared with 1905, an increase of 3.6 per cent
as compared with 1904, an increase of 4.9 per cent as compared with
1903, an increase of 4.3 per cent as compared with 1902, and an
increase cf 10 per cent as compared with 1901. The retail price of
food was 21.2 per cent higher in 1906 than in 1896, the year of lowest
prices, and 15.7 per cent higher than the average price for the ten
years, 1890 to 1899.
For ten years there has been a general increase in wages per hour
and in retail prices of food. The increase, however, has not been
uniform in the two items named, as will be seen from the table on
page 4. In 1906 an hour’s wages would purchase 1.4 per cent
more food than in 1905, 2.5 per cent more food than in 1904, 1.8
per cent more food than in 1903, 6 per cent more food than in
1902, 4.5 per cent more food than in 1901, 11.1 per cent more food
than in 1891 and in 1893, and 7.3 per cent more food than for the
average of the ten years, 1890 to 1899.
A full week’s earnings would purchase 1 per cent more food in
1906 than in 1905; 2 per cent more food than in 1904; 0.6 per cent
more food than in 1903; 4 per cent more food than in 1902, and 1.7






RELATIVE

WAGES PER. HOUR

RELATIVE HOURS PER WEEK
R ELA TIV E NUMBER OF EM PLO YEES

______ RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD WEIGHTED
ACCORDING
IN

2567

TO AVERAGE
W O R KIN G M EN S

CONSUMPTION
F A M IL IE S .

7

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

per cent more food than in 1901. The increase in the purchasing
power of a full week’s earnings was 2.4 per cent in 1906 as com­
pared with the average during the ten years from 1890 to 1899.
The purchasing power of a full week’s wages was less, however, in
1906 than in 3 of the years covered by the report; a full week’s
earnings would purchase 1.7 per cent less food in 1906 than a full
week’s earnings in 1896, and 0.6 per cent less food than a full week’s
earnings in 1897 and in 1900.
The table on page 4 shows the per cent of increase or decrease
in average wages per hour, in hours of labor per week, and in other
items in 1906, as compared with each of the several years back to
1890. The following table and the accompanying graphic chart,
which is drawn from the table, show for the seventeen years, 1890
to 1906, the relative wages per hour, the relative hours of labor per
week, the relative number of employees covered by the report in the
establishments investigated, and the relative retail prices of food.
Figures are also given in the table, but not used in the chart, which
show relative full-time weekly earnings per employee and relative
purchasing power of hourly wages and of full-time weekly earnings
per employee as measured by retail prices of food.
The relative numbers shown are percentages, the base (100.0)
being the average for the ten years 1890 to 1899. An extended
explanation of the reason for selecting this base and of the method
of computing and using the relative number is given on pages 19
and 20.
RELATIVE EMPLOYEES, HOURS PER WEEK, WAGES PER HOUR, FULL-TIME WEEKLY
EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE, RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, AND PURCHASING POWER
OF HOURLY WAGES AND OF FULL-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE,
MEASURED BY RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.
[Relative numbers computed on basis of average for 1890-1899=100.0.3

Year.

1890............................................
1891............................„..............
1892............................................
1893............................................
1894............................................
1895............................................
1896............................................
1897............................................
1898............................................
1899............................................
1900............................................
1901............................................
1902............................................
1903............................................
1904............................................
1905............................................
1906............................................




Full time
weekly
Employ­ Hours
Wages
ees.
per week. per hour. earnings
per em­
ployee.

94.8
97.3
99.2
99.4
94.1
96.4
98.6
100.9
106.4
112.1
115.6
119.1
123.6
126.5
125.7
133.6
142.9

100.7
100.5
100.5
100.3
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.2
98.7
98.1
97.3
96.6
95.9
95.9
95.4

100.3
100.3
100.8
100.9
97.9
98.3
99.7
99.6
100.2
102.0
105.5
108.0
112.2
116.3
117.0
118.9
124.2

101.0
100.8
101.3
101.2
97.7
98.4
99.5
99.2
99.9
101.2*
104.1
105.9
109.2
112.3
112.2
114.0
118.5

Purchasing power
Retail measured by retail
prices of prices of food, of—
food,
weighted
Full time
according
weekly
to family Hourly earnings
consump­ wages. per em­
tion.
ployee.
102.4
103.8
101.9
104.4
99.7
97.8
95.5
96.3
98.7
99.5
101.1
105.2
110.9
110.3
111.7
112.4
115.7

97.9
96.6
98.9
96.6
98.2
100.5
104.4
103.4
101.5
102.5
104.4
102.7
101.2
105.4
104; 7
105.8
107.3

98.6
97.1
99.4
96.9
98.0
100.6
104.2
103.0
101.2
101.7
103.0
100.7
98.5
101.8
100.4
101.4
102.4

8

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Referring to the foregoing table it is seen that the relative wages
per hour in 1890 were 100.3, indicating that the average wages per
hour in 1890 were 100.3 per cent of the average wages per hour for
the ten years from 1890 to 1899, inclusive, or 0.3 per cent higher
than during the period named. The lowest point reached was in
1894, when the relative wages per hour were 97.9. From 1894 the
movement was upward for two years; in 1897 there was a slight
decline. From 1897 there was an advance each year. In 1906 the
relative wages per hour reached 124.2, or 24.2 per cent more than the
average for 1890 to 1899. Thus it is seen that wages per hour in
1906 in the manufacturing and mechanical industries of the country
were higher than in any other year of the period covered.
In using these relative numbers it must be borne in mind that
the per cent of change between one year and another is not the
result of the subtraction of the two relative numbers. For example,
the relative wages per hour in all industries were 97.9 in 1894 and
124.2 in 1906. The difference between these two relative numbers
is 26.3. The increase in wages per hour, however, from 1894 to 1906
was not 26.3 per cent. This difference in the relative numbers (26.3)
is 26.9 per cent of 97.9, the number for 1894 with which comparison
is made, making the wages per hour in 1906 26.9 per cent higher
than the wages per hour in 1894. The per cent of difference in the
relative numbers for any two years may be computed in the manner
shown in the example.
While wages per hour were higher in the manufacturing and
mechanical industries in 1906 than in any other year covered by
this report, the regular hours of labor per week were lower in 1906
than in any other year of the period. The table shows that in 1890
the relative hours of labor per week were 100.7, which means that
they were 100.7 per cent of the average hours of labor per week for
the ten years from 1890 to 1899, or 0.7 per cent more than the aver­
age for that period. From 1890 the weekly hours decreased until
1894, when the relative* number was 99.8. In 1895 there was a
slight increase, after which there was a gradual decrease to the mini­
mum in 1906, the relative number for that year being 95.4, or 4.6
per cent less than the average hours worked during the base period
from 1890 to 1899. I t is seen from the table and from the chart
that during the period covered the changes have not been so marked
in hours of labor as in wages per hour, but the general course has been
toward a reduction. The table on page 4 shows that the hours of
labor in 1906 were 5.3 per cent lower than in 1890, while wages per
hour were 23.8 per cent higher in 1906 than in 1890.
The relative number of employees covered by the report in the
establishments investigated is shown in the second column of the




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

9

table for each year of the period. As stated on page 5, the number
of employees in each year covered by this investigation indicates in
a general way the change in the number of employees in all of the
industries of the country. These numbers, however, can not be
accepted as an exact measurement of such change. The relative
numbers given in this table, for the last few years at least, probably
fall short of showing the general increase in the number of em­
ployees in all industries of the country. The table shows that the
lowest number employed was in the year 1894, the relative number
for that year being 94.1, which indicates that the number of employees
equaled 94.1 per cent of the average number employed from 1890 to
1899. So far as these establishments are concerned it is seen that
the number of employees engaged therein gradually increased from
1894 until 1903, when their relative number was 126.5. In the year
1904 there was a decrease to 125.7; in 1905, however, the relative
number increased to 133.6 and in 1906 to 142.9, the highest for the
seventeen-year period.
The full-time weekly earnings per employee in 1890 are expressed
in the table by the relative number 101.0, meaning that they amounted
to 101.0 per cent of the average full-time weekly earnings for the base
period, 1890 to 1899. The lowest earnings for the seventeen years
covered were in 1894, when they were represented by the relative
number 97.7. There was a gradual increase to 112.3 in 1903, a slight
decrease in 1904, and in 1906 the maximum (118.5) was reached,
showing that in that year full-time weekly earnings exceeded the
average for 1890 to 1899 by 18.5 per cent.
The relative retail prices of food given in this table are brought
forward from the second article in this Bulletin that a comparison
may be made with relative wages. In 1890 the relative retail price
of food was 102.4, that is 102.4 per cent of the average retail price
from 1890 to 1899, the base period. In 1891, 1892, and 1893 the
relative numbers were 103.8, 101.9, and 104.4, respectively. In 1894
there was a sharp decline in the retail price of food, accompanying
the reduction in wages per hour, and the prices continued to decline
until 1896 when they reached the lowest figure for the period covered,
or 95.5. After this there was an almost continuous increase from
year to year until 1906, when the highest price was reached, the
relative price for that year being 115.7, or 15.7 per cent more than
the average for the base period.
The purchasing power of hourly wages as measured by retail prices
of food was lowest in 1891 and 1893 and is expressed by the relative
number 96.6, which shows that an hour’s wages in those years would
purchase only 96.6 per cent as much food as an hour’s wages would
purchase on an average from 1890 to 1899. The figures fluctuated




10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

from year to year but there was an upward trend, the maximum
being reached in 1906, when the relative purchasing power of an hour’s
wages was 107.3.
The purchasing power of a full week’s earnings was greater in 1896
than in any other year of the period covered and is indicated by the
relative number 104.2, which means that it was 104.2 per cent of the
average for the base period, 1890 to 1899. In 1897 and 1900 the
relative purchasing poweT of a full week’s earnings was 103.0 and
in 1906 it was 102.4.
The relative wages per hour, the relative hours of labor per week,
and the relative number of employees in each occupation covered
by this investigation are given in Table II, pages 61 to 125. Similar
relative numbers for each industry are given in Table III, pages 126
to 131. These tables give the relative numbers for each year from
1890 to 1906, inclusive, and indicate plainly the changes that have
occurred from year to year.
The following table shows the per cent of increase or decrease in
wages per hour and in hours of labor per week in 1906 as compared
with the average for the ten years from 1890 to 1899 in each of the
41 industries covered by this report.
PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN WAGES PER HOUR AND IN HOURS
OF LABOR PER W EEK IN 1906 AS COMPARED WITH THE AVERAGE FOR 1890-1899, BY
INDUSTRIES.
Wages per hour.
Industry.

Agricultural implements............................................................
Bakery, bread.............................................................................
Blacksmithing and horseshoeing..............................................
Boots and shoes..........................................................................
Brick...........................................................................................
Building trades...........................................................................
Candy..........................................................................................
Carpets........................................................................................
Carriages and wagons................................................................
Cars, steam railroad...................................................................
Clothing, factory product..........................................................
Cotton goods..............................................................................
Dyeing, finishing, and printing textiles....................................
Electrical apparatus and supplies.............................................
Flour...........................................................................................
Foundry and machine shop.......................................................
Furniture............................
_
_
. . . .
Gas..............................................................................................
Glass...........................................................................................
Harness.......................................................................................
Hats, fur.....................................................................................
Hosiery and knit goods.............................................................
Iron and steel, bar.....................................................................
Iron and steel, Bessemer converting
Iron and steel, blast furnace......
..................
Leather.......................................................................................
Liquors, m alt.......................................
__
.....................
Lumber.......................................................................................
Marble and stone work. . .
. .
.
.....................
Paper and wood pulp.................................................................
Planing m ill................................................................................
Pottery........................................................................................
Printing and publishing, book and job.....................................




Hours per week.

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
of
of
of
of
increase. decrease. increase. decrease.
29.3
27.4
19.9
20.4
19.1
40.2
18.9
13.9
15.8
18.5
15.4
39.5
8.0
22.0
12.5
17.9
25.6
3.8
22.3
21.6
25.2
26. 4
35.7
33.8
14.1
9.2
27.8
23.7
21.3
21.1
20.6
12.9
25.9

0.2

.6

3.4
8.2
5.4
3.7
1.3
9.1
1.9
3.5
4.1
3.3
1.7
.3
6.0
2.4
5.2
4.4
3.5
1.4
3.4
7.8
1.8
2.1
8.5
.1
12.1
2.9
6.3
6.9
3.6
.2
9.3

WAGES

11

AND HOUBS OF LABOB, 1890 TO 1906.

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN WAGES PER HOUR AND IN HOURS
OF LABOR PER WEEK IN 1906 AS COMPARED WITH THE AVERAGE FOR 1890-1899,
BY IN D U STR IES—Concluded.
Wages per hour.

Woolen and worsted goods................. „....................................

18.4
17.7
9.9
15.2
39.8
14.9
31.1
24.0

industries.............................. .....................................

24.2

Printing and publishing, newspaper.........................................
Shipbuilding................................................................................
Silk goods...................................................................................
Slaughtering and meat packing................................................
Streets and sewers, contract work............................................
Streets and sewers, municipal work.........................................
T n lm rw o, c ig a r s ...............................................................................................
All

Hours per week.

Per cent Per cent Cer cent Per cent
of
of
of
of
increase. decrease. increase. decrease.

Industry.

(a )

4.6
4.1
2.0
6.7
9.0
.3
1.4
4.6

a Not reported.

The industry showing the greatest increase in wages per hour in
1906 as compared with the average for the ten years from 1890 to
1899 was the building trades, in which the increase in wages per hour
was 40.2 per cent. In street and sewer work done by contractors the
increase in wages per hour was 39.8 per cent. Cotton goods show
nearly as great an increase in wages, the increase being 39.5 per cent.
Other industries showing an increase of more than 30 per cent are iron
and steel, bar; iron and steel, Bessemer converting; and tobacco,
cigars. Sixteen industries show an increase in wages per hour of
from 20 to 30 per cent, and 15 industries show an increase in wages of
from 10 to 20 per cent. In not one of the 41 industries has there
been a decrease in wages in 1906 as compared with the average for
the ten-year period 1890 to 1899. The average increase in wages
per hour in all industries, due weight being given to the importance
of the several industries, was 24.2 per cent. The method of weight­
ing the several industries is explained on pages 23 and 24.
Thirty-eight of the 41 industries showr a decrease in the regular
hours of labor per week in 1906 as compared with the average for the
ten years from 1890 to 1899. The greatest decrease was in the
industry liquors, malt, in which the decrease in hours of labor
was 12.1 per cent. The decrease in hours of labor in printing and
publishing, book and job, was 9.3 per cent; in the building trades
9.1 per cent; and in street and sewer work done by municipalities
direct, 9 per cent. Thirteen of the 41 industries show a decrease in
hours of labor in 1906 as compared with the average for the ten
years from 1890 to 1899 of more than 5 per cent. The only indus­
tries showing an increase in hours of labor in 1906 as compared with
the average for the period named are candy, with an increase of 0.2
per cent, and iron and steel, blast furnace, with an increase of 0.6
per cent. The average decrease in hours of labor in all industries,




12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

taken as a whole, was 4.6 per cent. The hours of labor in the slaugh­
tering and meat-packing industries are not reported for the reason
stated in footnote on page 58.
EXPLANATION OF SCOPE AND METHOD.
This investigation constitutes the fourth of a series relating to
wages and hours of labor. The results of an investigation of wages
and hours of labor in the United States, covering the years from 1890
to 1903, were presented in the Nineteenth Annual Report of this
Bureau. The results of the second investigation in this series, cov­
ering the year 1904, were presented in Bulletin 59; and the results
of the third investigation, covering the year 1905, were presented in
Bulletin 65.
In making the investigation of rates of wages and hours of labor
the design has been to cover the principal distinctive wage-working
occupations in the leading manufacturing and mechanical industries
in the United States with a view to securing data that would be rep­
resentative of conditions and show the trend of wages and hours of
labor. The investigation covers those industries in which the wages
paid in the United States in one year were $10,000,000 or over as
shown by the census of 1900. The office and field force available for
the prosecution of the work has not admitted of the extension of the
investigation to cover transportation, mining, agriculture, and the
other great industrial groups.
The data presented in this article were secured in all cases by per­
sonal visits of special agents of the Bureau to the several establish­
ments represented, and have been taken directly from the pay rolls
and other records in existence and available for reference.
An examination of Table I shows that all occupations usually per­
taining to the various industries are not covered. As has been
mentioned, this is in accordance with the plan adopted of securing
data for only the important and distinctive occupations which are
considered representative of each industry. This plan has resulted
in a saving of time in the collection of the data, without materially
affecting the representative character thereof. Data concerning all
occupations engaged in each industry would be desirable, but the
work necessarily has been restricted.
In outlining this investigation it was recognized that a comparison
of wages and hours of labor for one year with those for another year
could not be made for establishments as a whole, owing to the changes
that so often take place in the relative number of persons employed
in the several skilled and unskilled occupations engaged therein, and




13

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

that comparisons, therefore, must be made within the limits of the
occupation. All important occupations pertaining to a general indus­
try are not always to be found in a single establishment; for this rea­
son the number of establishments for which data are reported is not
the same for each occupation in an industry. The following table
shows the industries covered in this article, the number of different
occupations covered for each industry, the number of establishments
in each industry from which data were secured, and the number of
employees in each industry covered by the data secured:
INDUSTRIES, NUMBER OF OCCUPATIONS AND NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS FROM
WHICH REPORTS WERE SECURED, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES COVERED, 1905
AND 1906.

Industry.

Agricultural implements...........................................................
Bakery, bread. T
.........................................................................
Blacksmithing and horseshoeing...............................................
Boots and shoes.........................................................................
Brick............................................................. .............................
Building trades..............................„..........................................
Candy........................................................................ ................
Carpets......................................................... .............................
Carriages and wagons...............................................................
Cars, steam railroad..................................................................
Clothing, factory product.........................................................
Cotton goods_ k.......................................................................
_
Dyeing, finishing, and printing textiles....................................
Electrical apparatus and supplies............................................
Flour...........................................................................................
Foundry and machine shop......................................................
Furniture....................................................................................
Gas..............................................................................................
Glass...........................................................................................
Harness......................................................................................
Hats, fur..................................... ..............................................
Hosiery and knit goods.............................................................
Iron and steel, bar.....................................................................
Iron and steel, Bessemer converting.........................................
Iron and steel, blast furnace.....................................................
Leather.......................................................................................
Liquors, m alt.............................................................................
Lumber.......................................................................................
Marble and stonework......................... ...................................
Paper and wood pulp.................................................................
Planing m ill................................................................................
P ottery.......................................................................................
Printing and publishing, book and job.....................................
Printing s.nd publishing newspaper.........................................
Shipbuilding......................................... .....................................
Silk goods...................................................................................
Slaughtering and meat packing ........................................................
Streets and sewers, contract work............................................
Streets and sewers, municipal work.........................................
Tobacco, cigars..........................................................................
W oolen e n d w o rsted eronds. . _ ................................... ................
T o t s ! __________________ ________________

Number
Number of estab­
of occu­
lish­
pations. ments.

Number, of em­
ployees.
1905.

1906.

10
1
3
10
5
19
2
8
8
16
7
3
6
5
5
H
8
5
13
6
14
7
6
6
5
10
8
12
10
16
9
8
9
4
15
12
15
1
1
7
9

24
148
158
52
49
1,494
41
8
73
46
32
30
18
8
46
268
63
60
28
56
16
25
26
17
25
60
54
68
199
29
116
13
180
151
40
19
15
128
70
55
26

5,126
2,244
686
5,159
2,467
40,823
1,692
2,142
4,293
29,382
4,857
12,580
1,483
2,569
3,307
24,455
4,439
8,814
4,092
1,746
4,234
4,085
925
291
991
4,540
7,842
9,727
4,513
4,481
6,703
706
6,596
5,550
15,673
8,436
12,181
14,436
22,076
10,992
6,699

5,444
2,357
708
5,587
2,452
45,686
1,722
1,794
4,658
32,083
5,409
12,565
1,532
3,434
3,423
27,274
4,761
9,912
4,222
1,810
4,369
4,551
858
288
1,035
4,780
8,446
10,682
4,670
4,553
6,991
721
6,937
5,858
16,545
8,066
12,438
14,604
23,552
10,731
6,599

338

4,034

314,033

334,107

From the above table it is seen that from 4,034 establishments
in the 41 industries data were secured covering 338 occupations and
314,033 employees in 1905 and 334,107 employees in 1906. In 28
of the 338 occupations data were secured and are shown for both
males and females.
8891 No. 71—07 2
—




----------

14

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

The work of almost every establishment fluctuates during the year
according to the demands of trade. This fluctuation affects the
number of employees and, to a less extent, the wages and hours of
labor. It was not possible for the limited force of the Bureau to
secure data from the pay rolls of each establishment for an entire year
so that the true average for the year might be computed. The only
method practicable was to secure data from each establishment for
that period of the year which most nearly represented the normal
condition of the establishment during the year.
Employees are either time workers or piece workers. Time workers
are persons paid by the hour, day, week, month, or year. The
method of their payment is readily understood, and securing a state­
ment of their wages is comparatively easy. The rate per piece paid
to piece workers would convey but little information to the general
reader, as all conditions under which the work is performed must be
considered in connection with the piece rate. For these reasons piece
rates are not shown, but instead are shown earnings in a definite
period of time. Data for piece workers were secured from those
establishments only in which a record was kept of time worked or
where the time worked to earn the wages paid could be determined
approximately.
A peculiar condition is sometimes found in the work of piece
workers. The speed of a piece worker is regulated to a great extent
by the amount of work before him. If work is pressing, his speed
is high and his earnings are at their maximum. If work is slack, he
is inclined to reduce his speed, and thus his earnings per hour are
reduced, although no change has been made in his piece rate. In
taking data from the several establishments care was exercised, as
has been stated, to copy figures from the pay roll that most nearly
represented the average or normal conditions for the year.
All wages have been reduced to earnings per hour, in order that
the data may be thoroughly and fairly comparable. The working
day is an uncertain unit, as the time actually worked may be long
or short—eight hours, nine hours, ten hours, etc.—and the week,
month, or year is a still more indefinite unit of time. Hence all
wages, however shown on the pay rolls, have been reduced to the
one definite standard—the rate per hour. The average wages per
hour shown are true averages—that is, the individual rates of wages
per hour of the several employees are added and the total divided
by the number of employees.
In order to meet every possible demand that might be made upon
a statistical publication it would be necessary first to present all
data in minute detail and then to Summarize in as many ways as
practicable. An ideal report on wag^s would show the data for each




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

15

individual employee, followed by a summarization showing the true
average rate, the median rate, the quartile and decile rates, the maxi­
mum and the minimum rates, the predominant rates, classified rates,
etc. Space, however, does not permit the publication in detail of the
great mass of data on which this report is based nor all the summaries
that with propriety might be made. The true average rate of wages
of itself is not a full and complete summary of a series of rates, but it
is believed that no other single expression or limited group of expres­
sions is as comprehensive and as satisfactory for purposes of compari­
son as the true average rate when used within its proper sphere and
based on accurate data.
An average rate of wages is of little value unless limited to an
occupation. For example, a statement that the average wages of
employees in a shoe factory is a certain number of cents per hour
means but little, as it includes both sexes and many occupations
with their varying degrees of skill, but a statement that the average
wages of male upper cutters in shoe factories were 28.50 cents per
hour in 1906 conveys a definite idea. Since all data presented in
this report are for well-defined occupations, it is believed that the
average rate is properly used in this respect.
The average rate of wages does not always express the facts fully
as to the individual employees, for a change in the proportionate
number of employees at different rates will make a change in the
average rate, although no individual person in employment has had a
change made in his rate of wages. The average rate, however, does
represent the occupation as a whole.
Another objection to the use of the true average rate is that it is
always affected, and sometimes quite materially, by the improper
inclusion or exclusion of certain rates, especially if such rates fall at
either extreme of the series of rates. It is sometimes a matter of
judgment whether or not some particular employee shall be classed
within an occupation, and especially is this true in si nonunion shop,
where the line of demarcation between the helper and the journeyman
often is not clear. The inclusion or exclusion of an extremely high
or low rate must always affect, to some extent, the true average rate,
while in a majority of cases it would not affect the median or the
predominant rate. With all of the details given, the careful reader
might accept certain rates with allowance or might possibly detect
an error. Inasmuch, however, as all of the field work for this report
was done by experienced agents of the Bureau, it is believed that
few errors exist in such work and that a true average may properly
and safely be made of the data gathered.




16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

In preparing to secure data for 1906 copies were made of the data
for 1905, obtained in the preceding year. These copies were placed in
the hands of the special agents of the Bureau, who visited the estab­
lishments and secured 1906 data, and whenever any doubt arose
verified or, if necessary, revised the data for 1905. The agents were
also instructed to secure data from a few additional establishments,
in order to secure a better representation for the several industries
and localities covered. Where data were obtained from additional
establishments, figures were taken for both 1905 and 1906. All data
for the two years, 1905 and 1906, shown in this article, therefore, are
from identical establishments, and may properly be compared.
During the course of the field work it was also found that a few of
the establishments heretofore covered had gone out of business.
With some establishments added and others discontinued it will be
seen that the establishments from which data were secured for this
Bulletin differ to some extent from the establishments shown in pre­
ceding reports on this subject.
With a change in the establishments reporting, some difference
necessarily must be expected between the average hours of labor and
average wages per hour shown for the year 1905 in Bulletin 65 and in
this Bulletin. Two groups of establishments, even though many
establishments are common to both groups, can not be expected to
show exactly the same averages. Neither statement may be abso­
lutely exact for the occupation, yet if each group embraces a consid­
erable number of establishments the average rates found may be
accepted as representing approximately the average rate in the occu­
pation considered. The average based on the larger number of
establishments probably would be the more nearly representative.
To secure the exact average rate of wages and hours of labor for the
United States it would be necessary to take a complete wage census
of the United States, and, as previously stated, such a task is so great
as to be practically impossible.
To measure with exactness the movement in wages and hours of
labor it would not be proper to compare the average for one group
of establishments for 1905 with the average for a different group of
establishments for 1906, nor in practically the same establishments
if any change or substitution of establishments whatever has been
made. Comparison can be made accurately only when the data
compared are obtained from identical establishments. As one of
the principal objects of this series of reports is to measure the change
from year to year as accurately as possible, increases and decreases
from year to year are computed only on data taken from identical
establishments.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

17

A statement of rates of wages is incomplete without an accom­
panying statement as to hours of labor, as both factors must be
known to determine the earnings on full time per week, month, or
year. The average hours of labor are given in this report in connec­
tion with the average rates of wages. The average hours of labor
shown are true averages, computed in the same manner as the average
wages per hour.
The hours of labor given in this report represent the regular full
time hours of the occupation—that is, the time that the employees
as a class were engaged in work. No account has been taken of
time lost by individual employees because of a desire not to work, of
bad weather, or of slack work. It is no part of the purpose of this
article to measure the amount of unemployment, and it must not be
inferred that all employees engaged in the establishments reported
in this article worked full time. To ascertain the time lost in a year
by the employees remaining in the establishments a year would be
an almost insuperable task, while to ascertain with any accuracy the
time lost by employees who have moved from one establishment to
another would be practically impossible.
The sex of the employees for whom data are presented is shown
for each occupation. In many occupations few, if any, females are
employed, and in other occupations few, if any, males are employed.
In such occupations data are given for one sex only. In a number
of occupations, however, in which many persons of both sexes are
employed, data are presented for both sexes, that the occupation
may be properly represented.
EXPLANATION OF TABLES.
The tabular matter of this article relating to wages and hours of
labor is set forth in five general tables, and a number of short tables
shown in the text explaining and summarizing such general tables.
The five general tables are entitled:
T able I.—Average wages and hours of labor, 1905 and 1906, by
occupations and geographical divisions.
T able II.—Relative wages and hours of labor, 1890 to 1906, by
occupations.
T ab le III.—Relative wages and hours of labor, 1890 to 1906, by
industries.
T able IV.—Average wages and hours of labor, 1905 and 1906, in
selected occupations, by cities.
T able V.—Average wages and hours of labor, 1905 and 1906, in
selected occupations, by States.




18

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

Table L — Average wages and hours o f labor, 1905 and 1906, by
occupations and geographical division s (pp. 26 to 6 0 ) .—This table pre­

sents the data secured for each occupation in each industry, by
geographical divisions and for the United States. The classification
of the States into geographical divisions is as follows:
North Atlantic division:
Connecticut.
Maine.
Massachusetts.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.
New York.
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Atlantic division:
Delaware.
District of Columbia.
Florida.
Georgia.
Maryland.
North Carolina.
South Carolina.
Virginia.
West Virginia.
North Central division:
Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa.
Kansas.

North Central division—Concluded.
Michigan.
Minnesota.
Missouri.
Nebraska.
Ohio.
South Dakota.
Wisconsin.
South Central division:
Alabama.
Arkansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana.
Mississippi.
Tennessee.
Texas.
Western division:
California.
Colorado.
Montana.
Oregon.
Utah.
Washington.

Were the figures shown in Table I not used to measure the trend
from one year to another the decimals of the hour and of the cent
might well be dropped from the table. But while a slight difference
is not material in itself, so far as it affects a representative number, it
is very material when indicating a trend or movement upward or
downward in hours or wages. As stated before, the establishments
that reported the data for 1905 shown in this Bulletin are the same
as those that reported the data for 1906; hence there is opportunity
for an exact comparison between the number of employees, the hours
of labor, and the wages per hour in 1905 and in 1906, and the figures
may safely be used to indicate and measure the trend or movement
upward or downward of employees, hours, and wages in the several
occupations and localities covered.
In Table I (p. 26) the second column shows the number of estab­
lishments from which data were secured for both 1905 and 1906.
The next two columns show the number of persons employed in 1905
and 1906, respectively, in the establishments from which data were




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

19

secured. The two columns following show the average number of
hours worked per week in each of the two years in these establish­
ments, while the last two columns on the page show the average
wages per hour in each of the two years covered. The averages
shown are true arithmetical averages. They are obtained by finding
the aggregate hours worked per week by all workers and the aggre­
gate earnings per hour, and dividing these aggregates by the total
number of persons considered.
An illustration will assist in explaining the table. The figures for
bricklayers in the building trades are presented on page 29. Data
for this occupation were secured for both 1905 and 1906 from 73
establishments in the North Atlantic division. In these establish­
ments 1,951 persons were employed in 1905, and 2,035 persons in
1906, an increase of 84 persons. The average hours of work per week
of these employees were 45.76 in 1905 and 45.74 in 1906, a reduction
of 0.02 hour per week. In 1905 the average wages per hour were
$0.5833 and in 1906 $0.6091, showing in this occupation an increase
in wages of $0.0258 per hour in the North Atlantic division.
Table 11.— Relative wages and hours o f labor, 1890 to 1906, by occupa­
tions ( pp . 61 to 126).—In Table I actual or concrete numbers only
are shown, and such figures relate only to the two years 1905 and
1906. No attempt has been made to join the actual numbers express­
ing employees, hours, and wages for 1906 to the actual numbers for
the period from 1890 to 1905, shown in the Nineteenth Annual Report
and in Bulletins 59 and 65. On page 17 an explanation has been
given why such a combination can not be made.
The figures presented in Table II are relative numbers or, in other
words, a series of percentages. Relative numbers serve a double
purpose—first, they present to the mind of the reader more clearly
than the actual or concrete numbers the measure of difference between
the data for a series of years, and, second, by their use combinations
are made possible that are not possible with concrete numbers.
In Table II all figures for the years from 1890 to 1903 are from the
Nineteenth Annual Report, all figures for 1904 are from Bulletin 59,
and all figures for 1905 from Bulletin 65; the figures for 1906 were
obtained by computation. An illustration will best explain the
method of computing relative numbers and the method of attach­
ing one series of data to another by use of the relative number.
Data were secured for the Nineteenth Annual Report from 212 estab­
lishments in the United States employing bricklayers in the building
trades for each year from 1890 to 1903. The following table shows
the number of persons employed each year and the relative numbers
computed therefrom.




20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

ACTUAL AND RELATIVE NUMBER OF BRICKLAYERS EMPLOYED IN 212 BUILDING
ESTABLISHMENTS, 1890 TO 1903.
[From the Nineteenth Annual Report. Average number for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Year.
Average 1890-1899..................................................................................................
1890.........................................................................................................................
1891.........................................................................................................................
1892.........................................................................................................................
1893.........................................................................................................................
1894....................................................................................................................
1895........................................................................................................................
1896.........................................................................................................................
1897.........................................................................................................................
1898.........................................................................................................................
1899.........................................................................................................................
1900.........................................................................................................................
1901.........................................................................................................................
1902.........................................................................................................................
1903.........................................................................................................................

Relative
Number of number of
employees. employees.
4,355
4,422
4,892
4,967
4,535
4,055
3,841
3,998
4,010
4,150
4,675
4,576
5,142
4,781
5,062

100.0
101.5
112.3
114.1
104.1
93.1
88.2
91.8
92.1
95.3
107.3
105.1
118.1
109.8
116.2

The average number of persons employed for the ten years from
1890 to 1899 was first computed. This average number, 4,355, was
adopted as a base or standard for comparison. All comparisons
might be made with 1890 or any other year, but, owing to the fact that
the conditions in any one year might have been abnormal, it was
determined to take as a base for comparison, or 100.0, not any one
year, but the average for the ten years 1890 to 1899. The number of
employees in the 212 establishments in 1890 was 4,422, which was
found by computation to be 101.5 per cent of 4,355, the base num­
ber. Therefore the relative number of employees in 1890 was 101.5.
The relative number was computed in like manner for each succeed­
ing year. In looking down the two columns the reader will see that
the relative numbers convey a clearer idea of the extent of the change
in the number of employees from year to year in the establishments
reporting than do the actual numbers themselves.
Data for bricklayers were secured for Bulletin 59 from 229 estab­
lishments for 1903 and 1904. As these establishments differed to
some extent from those shown for the years 1890 to 1903 in the Nine­
teenth Annual Report, direct comparison can not properly be made
between the number of employees in 1904 shown in Bulletin 59 and
the number in 1903 reported from the 212 establishments in the
Nineteenth Annual Report. For the establishments covered in
Bulletin 59, however, comparison could be made between the num­
ber of persons employed in the two years as shown in Table I of that
report. In the 229 establishments 4,853 bricklayers were employed
in 1903 and 4,644 in 1904. The number employed in 1904 was 95.69
per cent of the number employed in 1903. As shown in the above
text table, the relative number of employees in 1903 was 116.2 as




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

21

compared with the average number from 1890 to 1899, and, as just
stated, the number of employees in 1904 was 95.69 per cent of the
number in 1903, therefore the relative number in 1904 in the series
from 1890 to 1904 would be 95.69 per cent of 116.2, or 111.2. It
must not be understood that the number of employees (4,644) in 1904
in the 229 establishments is 111.2 per cent of the average number
(4,355) for the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899, in the 212 establish­
ments, but that the relative figures in the series from 1890 to 1904,
calculated as above, show conditions in the occupation generally.
Data were secured for bricklayers for Bulletin 65 from 209 estab­
lishments for both 1904 and 1905, the greater number of which es­
tablishments furnished the data for 1904, which were published in
Bulletin 59. The number of employees reported by these 209 estab­
lishments was 4,341 for 1904 and 4,365 for 1905; the number in 1905
was 100.55 per cent of the number in 1904. By applying this per­
centage to the relative number for 1904 (111.2) the relative number
for 1905 is foimd to be 111.8.
The relative number for 1906 was computed in the same manner.
In using the relative numbers it should be borne in mind that the differ­
ence between the relative numbers in any two years does not repre­
sent the per cent of increase or decrease in the actual numbers. For
example, the relative number of bricklayers in the building trades in
1890 was 101.5. The relative number in 1906 was 124.0. The dif­
ference in the relative numbers is 22.5, and this difference is 22.2 per
cent of 101.5—that is, the number of bricklayers employed, so far as
can be determined from the establishments covered, was 22.2 per
cent greater in 1906 than in 1890.
In Table II the second column shows the relative number of
employees each year from 1890 to 1906; the third, the relative hours
of work per week in each year; and the fourth, the relative wages per
hour. By referring again to the occupation of bricklayers in the
building trades, as shown on page 66, it is seen that the relative
wages per hour in this occupation increased from 98.4 in 1890 to
138.6 in 1906. If the per cent of increase is desired, it may be
obtained by computation. Thus, 40.2, the difference between 98.4
and 138.6, is 40.9 per cent of 98.4, making an increase in the wages
per hour of bricklayers between 1890 and 1906 of 40.9 per cent, as
nearly as can be determined from the establishments that have been
canvassed. Any other two years may be compared in like manner.
The few new occupations incorporated in this report can not have
relative numbers shown for them, because no data were secured for
them in the years adopted as the base period.




22

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

Table I I I .— Relative wages and hours o f labor, 1890 to 1906, by
in dustries ( pp . 126 to 131).—The relative figures shown for the several

occupations in Table I I have been summarized so as to show condi­
tions in each industry as a whole, and are presented in this report
in Table III. This summary table shows the relative conditions in
each year compared with the ten-year period, 1890-1899. In com­
puting the relative numbers shown in Table III, each occupation was
given an equal weight, there being no satisfactory method of weighting
the several occupations. When both sexes were reported in an
occupation, each sex was considered a separate occupation in this
computation.
The method of computation originally employed was to add the
relative numbers under each heading for all of the occupations of an
industry and divide the sum by the number of occupations entering
into the total. Changes in the industries from year to year, however,
have required the dropping out of some occupations and the taking
on of others. Because of such changes the method now followed
in computing the relative numbers for the industry is to compute
for employees, hours, and wages in each occupation the per cent
which the figures of the current year are of the figures for the pre­
ceding year; the percentages for all the occupations in the industry
are then added and the sum divided by the number of occupations.
The index for the industry for the preceding year is then multiplied
by this average percentage to determine the index or relative number
for the year under consideration.
The table shows the trend of wages and hours of labor in the
occupations of an industry taken as a whole. The average wages
of all employees in an industry, irrespective of Occupation, may differ
to some extent, possibly, from the figures here shown, because of a
change during the period in the proportionate number of employees
in the several occupations. I t is presumed that the work done in
the occupations themselves has not changed materially. The table
is intended to show changes as regards the same or like employees,
rather than changes in which the establishment is considered as
the unit.
lik e Table II, Table II I embraces three divisions, relating to the
number of employees in the several years, the hours of work per
week, and the wages per hour. The base on which the relative num­
ber is computed is the average for the ten-year period, 1890-1899.
By reference to the table, it is seen that in 1890 the number of
employees engaged in the agricultural implement industry was 86.2
per cent of the average number employed during the ten-year period,
1890 to 1899. In each of the years thereafter a greater number was




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

23

employed than in 1890, the highest being in 1906, when 33.3 per cent
more persons were employed in the occupations and establishments
covered in this industry than the average during the base period. In
1904 the number employed was 8.5 per cent more than the average
number employed during the ten-year base period, and in 1905, 23.7
per cent more. With this explanation, the other columns of the
table relating to hours per week and wages per hour will be readily
understood.
In computing the figures for the summary for the United States
shown on page 7 each industry has been given a weight in proportion
to the amount of wages paid therein, as shown by the United States
census of 1900. This was deemed to be the most equitable method
of making allowance for the greater or less importance of the several
industries. The agricultural implement industry is an important
industry, but by no means so great as the building industry of the
country; therefore allowance for the importance of each industry was
deemed necessary, and the most satisfactory method of weighting is
believed to be the weighting in proportion to the wages paid in the
several industries. In computing this weighted average the relative
number or index for a year for each industry was multiplied by the
wages paid in each industry, respectively, as shown by the United
States census of 1900, expressed in the nearest $100,000. The prod­
ucts were then added and the sum divided by the total wages paid in
the industries represented. When the industry classification differed
from that given by the United States census, the wages paid were
estimated from the census figures. Street and sewer work, not
reported as such by the census, was estimated from the best available
data—that is, the wages paid in the District of Columbia. When two
or more industries shown separately in this report were classed as one
industry by the census, the relative numbers for the several industries
were added year by year, and the totals divided by the number of
subindustries to obtain a relative number for the general industry as
shown by the census. The figures of the census of manufactures of
1905 can not be used satisfactorily as a new basis of weighting the
several industries shown in this report because that census was lim­
ited to work done under the factory system and did not include the
mechanical trades. The following table shows the relative weight
accorded to each industry.




24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
WEIGHT OF EACH INDUSTRY ACCORDING TO WAGES PAID.

[The weight given to each industry was determined by the wages paid, expressed in the nearest $100,000,
as shown by the United States census of 1900.]
Industry.
Agricultural implements.........................
Bakery, bread.?......................................
Blacksmithing and horseshoeing............
Boots and shoes......................................
Brick........................................................
Building trades.......................................
Candy......................................................
Carpets....................................................
Carriages and wagons.............................
Cars, steam railroad...............................
Clothing...................................................
Cotton goods...........................................
Dyeing, finishing, and printing textiles..
Electrical apparatus and supplies..........
Flour........................................................
Foundry and machine shop....................
Furniture.................................................
Gas
.............................................
Glass........................................................
Harness...................................................

Weight.
225
279
180
592
219
o 2,127
109
111
298
1,194
794
867
127
202
177
1,822
426
124
271
107

Industry.

Weight.

Hats, fur................................................
Hosiery and knit goods.........................
Iron and steel........................................
Leather..................................................
Liquors, m alt.........................................
Lumber..................................................
Marble and stone work..........................
Paper and wood pulp............................
Planing m ill...........................................
P ottery...................................................
Printing and publishing........................
Shipbuilding...........................................
Silk goods...............................................
Slaughtering and meat packing............
Streets and sewers.................................
Tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes............
Woolen and worsted goods................... 1

b 151
244
1,208
226
258
1,046
287
207
327
177
842
248
210
339
c395
409
448

Total............................................. j

17.273

i

a Includes census figures for carpentering, masonry, plumbing, painting and paper hanging, and onehalf of roofing, architectural iron, electrical construction, and tinsmithing.
6 Includes census figures for wool hats.
c Estimated from wages paid in the District of Columbia.

In preparing the figures for the Nineteenth Annual Report, in
order to ascertain the difference, if any, between the results obtained
by the method adopted for the computation of the relative number
or index for all industries and the results secured by other methods,
the relative wages were computed by three other methods—first,
by giving all occupations an equal weight; second, by giving each
industry an equal weight; and, third, by giving each industry a
weight in proportion to the number of employees engaged in the
industry as shown by the census of 1900. The results obtained by
the four different methods were very nearly the same, and any one
of the three other methods might not improperly have been used.
Several industries of lesser importance shown in the Nineteenth
Annual Report have not been continued. In order to determine
what difference there would be in the relative numbers for all indus­
tries if computed only from the industries retained, relative numbers
for the 42 industries retained were computed for 1890 and 1903. It
was found that the relative numbers for 1903 based on the 42 indus­
tries were practically the same as those based on the 67 industries
included in the Nineteenth Annual Report—the variation being not
more than one-tenth of 1 per cent for employees, for hours, or for
wages.
v
Table IV .— Average wages and hours o f labor, 1905 and 1906, in
selected occupations, by cities (pp. 182 to 160).—In this table the average

wages and hours of labor of the most important general occupations
are shown by cities. Like Table I, it comprises three divisions,
relating to the number of employees covered, the average hours of



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

25

work per week, and the average wages per hour, respectively. Cities
in which data were secured from only one establishment have been
omitted from this table to avoid identification, except for the occupa­
tion of laborers on streets and sewers, employed directly by the cities.
The first occupation shown in Table IV (p. 132) is horseshoers, floor
men. The first line relates to wages in Albany, N. Y., and shows
that in the two establishments from which data for- horseshoers,
floor men, were secured, 5 men were employed in 1905 and 5 in 1906,
the average hours per week were 54 in 1905 and 54 in 1906, and the
average wages per hour, $0.2778 in 1905 and $0.2778 in 1906.
Table V;—Average wages and hours o f labor, 1905 and 1906, in
selected occupations, by States (pp. 161 to 174)•—In this table the average
wages and hours of labor of certain important occupations are shown
by States. The data are not presented by localities, as in many
instances the identity of the establishments furnishing the data might
be disclosed by such classification. The form of this table is like that
of Table IV, and needs no explanation.




26

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I , — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS.

Occupation and geographical division.

Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

Num­ Number of j Average
hours per
ber of employees.
week.
estab1 lo R
iisn~
ments. 1905. 1906. 1905. 1906.

Average wages
per hour.
1905.

1906.

4
16
2
2

35
346
28
17

39
380
30
14

59.83
59.15
60.00
54.00

59.74
59.09
60.00
54.00

$0.2048
.2849
.2950
.3200

$0.2164
.2995
.2942
.3607

24

426

463

59.06

59.05

• .2804

.2940

North Central..............................................

2
6

69
189

68
215

60.00
58.52

60.00
58.09

.2681
.2872

.2700
.2987

United States........ r ................................

8

258

283

58.91

58.55

.2821

.2918

South Central..............................................

4
13
2

259
563
27

282
715
25

59.94
58.75
60.00

59.29
58.39
60.00

.2172
.2562
.2554

.2177
.2495
.2921

Blacksmiths, machine, male:

Fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
United States...........................................

19

849

1,022

59.15

58.68

.2443

.2417

Grinders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
12
2
1

75
319
33
4

69
351
35
4

59.88
58.89
60.00
54.00

58.70
58.93
60.00
54.00

.2122
.3041
.2829
.2222

.2283
.3004
.2879
.2500

United S ta tes...........................................

19

431

459

59.10

58.93

.2858

.2882

Machine woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
15
2
2

89
369
33
8

89
362
32
10

59.89
58.45
60.00
54.00

58.76
58.41
60.00
54.00

.1976
.2406
.2505
.3161

.2028
.2460
.2314
.3277

United States...........................................

23

499

493

58.74

58.49

.2348

.2389

Machinists, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
14
1
2

112
713
7
34

109
688
5
57

59.88
57.69
60.00
54.00

59.85
57.38
60.00 .
54.00

.2307
.2636
.2607
.3034

.2335
.2797
.2900
.3347

United States...........................................

21

866

859

57.84

57.49

.2609

.2775

Molders, iron, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
13
2
2

334
631
46
13

334
717
45
16

59.92
58.01
60.00
54.00

59.91
57.71
60.00
54.00

.2395
.3058
.3083
.3718

.2570
.3134
.3173
.4026

United States...........................................

21

1,024

1,112

58.67

58.41

.2851

.2979

Painters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3
15
2
2

30
494
32
6

34
440
31
5

59.83
58.28
60.00
54.00

59.85
58.23
60.00
54.00

.2392
.2469
.3177
.3063

.2484
.2581
.3115
.3385

United States...........................................

22

562

510

58.41

58.41

.2511

.2615

Pattern makers, metal, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

4
10
1

32
88
6

23
105
5

59.94
58.55
60.00

59.87
57.68
60.00

.2313
.2688
.2375

.2437
.2730
.2650

United States...........................................

15

126

133

58.97

58.14

.2578

.2677

Pattern makers, wood, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

4
16
1
1

16
62
4
3

18
87
2
3

59.75
57.21
60.00
54.00

59.78
57.08
60.00
54.00

.2609
.2897
.2688
.3704

.2659
.3215
.3000
.4630

United States...........................................

22

85

110

57.71

57.49

.2861

.3159




27

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
BAK ERY, BREAD.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

Average wages
pernour.
1906.

Bakers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

48
20
44
19
17

1,029
195
713
132
175

1,078
204
742
131
202

61.82
5 # 77
58.00
65.39
59.55

61.24
59.89
57.47
65.43
59.38

10.2422
.2389
.2475
.2201
.3064

$0.2465
.2440
.2566
.2208
.3293

United States...........................................

148

2,244

2,357

60.46

60.01

.2473

.2552

BILACKSMITHING A N D H O RSESH OEING .
i
Blacksmiths, male:
N orth Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

11
3
8
3
6

33
8
19
8
21

33
8
19
8
26

56.12
57.75
59.26
58.88
53.95

56.21
57.25
57.68
58.88
53.46

$0.2796
.2479
.2831
.2739
.3346

$0.2776
.2500
.2962
.2739
.3598

United States...........................................

31

89

94

56.67

56.06

.2900

.3014

Horseshoers, floor men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

42
16
46
18
17

114
36
119
34
29

115
39
125
34
35

53.86
55.64
54.63
54.79
53.55

53.75
55.41
54.38
54.50
53.03

.3121
.2654
.3140
.2626
.3754

.3138
.2830
.3216
.2640
.4036

United States...........................................

139

332

348

54.40

54.16

.3082

.3173

Horseshoers, forgemen,N
male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

41
16
42
18
16

100
27
86
28
24

100
27
88
28
23

53.81
56.07
55.00
54.86
53.50

53.75
55.70
54.65
54.68
53.00

.3573
.2900
.3607
.3255
.4216

.3608
.3207
.3677
.3286
.4468

United States...........................................

133

265

266

54.51

54.28

.3540

.3631

BOOTS A N D SHOES.
Closers-on, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

9Q i

15

145
108

177
107

56.84
57.08

56.09
57.79

$0.1931
.1655

$0.1885
.1787

United States...........................................

44 I

253

284

56.94

56.73

.1813

.1848

Cutters, out sole, male:
N orth Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

23
13

102
59

103
61

56.99
58.53

56.86
57.97

.2573
.2470

.2627
.2507

United States...........................................

36

161

164

57.55

57.27

.2536

.2582

Cutters, upper, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central............... ■.............................

30
15

1,071
557

1,169
567

56.08
57.41

55.83
57.28

.2828
.2786

.2841
.2867

United States...........................................

45

1,628

1,736

56.54

56.31

.2814

.2850

Edge trimmers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

30

251
120

304
126

56.08
57.75

55.65
57.56

.3789
.3550

.3735
.3681

15

United States...........................................

45

371

430

56.62

56.21

.3712

.3719

Goodyear stitchers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

25
15

176
111

210
105

55.52
57.88

55.21
57.57

.4083
.3644

.3909
.3730

United States...........................................

40

287

315

56.43

56.00

.3913

.3850




28

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . — AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
BOOTS A N D SHOES—Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Heel trimmers, male:
N orth Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

29
15

85
51

103
49

56.44
57.53

55.87
56.96

10.4061
.3712

$0.4097
.3801

United States...........................................

44

136

152

56.85

56.22

.3930

.4001

Lasters, machine, male:
North A tlantic........................................
North Central..............................................

29
15

539
332

547
348

57.06
56.79

56.95
50.40

.3037
.2973

.3046
.3226

United States...........................................

44

871

895

56.96

56.74

.3013

.3116

McKay stitchers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

24
8

77
26

82
26

56.34
58.65

56.34
58.46

.2889
.3151

.3012
.3028

United States...........................................

32

103

108

56.92

56.85

.2955

.3016

Treers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

21
13

413
130

492
134

55.90
57.22

55.47
57.04

.2582
.2443

.2438
.2608

United States...........................................

34

543

626

56.22

55.80

.2549

.2474

Vampers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central............................................ :

14
5

126
20

148
22

55.09
57.00

54.89
56.55

.2974
.2800

.3155
.2920

United States...........................................

19

146

170

55.35

55.10

.2950

.3124

Vampers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central................. ............................

31
15

396
264

425
282

56.48
57.58

56.14
57.55

.2263
.2073

.2409
.2117

United States............. ..............................

46

660

707

56.92

56.70

.2187

.2292

B R ICK .
Brick machine tenders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

16
8
15
4
4

151
77
61
58
5

151
73
61
71
5

50.01
59.53
55.67
59.67
51.60

50.01
59.51
55.67
59.14
50.40

$0.2106
.1587
.2251
.1441
.3025

$0.2202
. 1651
.2374
.1604
.3249

United~States...........................................

47

352

361

54.69

54.69

.1921

.2017

Kiln burners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

14
9
15
5
4

55
75
76
42
12

55
77
75
48
12

82.47
80.95
84.00
76.95
84.00

82.47
81.03
84.00
77.08
84.00

.1601
.1309
.1893
.1431
.2431

.1643
.1346
.1949
.1458
.2569

United States...........................................

47

260

267

81.66

81.58

.1614

.1652

Kiln setters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

16
7
14
4
4

03
31
59
14
8

62
31
57
- 17
11

57.52
57.87
55.42
58.71
44.63

57.77
57.87
55.37
53.94
46.64

.2127
.2203
.3027
.2215
.3779

.2123
.2203
.3133
.2421
.4198

United States...........................................

45

175

178

56.38

56.44

.2526

.2617

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

16
9
15
5
4

391
395
284
203
59

406
342
277
215
64

58.73
58.31
56.18
59.53
56.85

58.78
58.25
56.19
59.48
53.25

.1522
.1429
.2003
.1370
.2478

.1564
.1478
.2093
.1612
.2996

United States...........................................

49

1,332

1,304

58.10

57.93

.1616

.1732




29

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,
T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
BRICK—Concluded.
Average ,
hours per 1 Average wages
perhour.
week.

Num­
ber Oi
estabiioVi
nsnments.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

Offbearers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............................ .*...............
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

10
6
15
3
3

89
52
175
18
14

90
55
161
21
15

53.80
52.38
54.82
58.44
49.29

53.73
52.80
54.93
56.95
47.80

10.1684
.1606
.2120
.1236
.2762

10.1756
.1672
.2252
.1403
.3059

United States...........................................

37

348

342

54.16

54.08

.1912

..2011

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

1906.

BUmDENTG TRAD ES.
Bricklayers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

73
31
64
27
20

1,951
587
1,399
403
261

2,035
'637
1,679
390
363

45.76
49 37
46.93
49.34
45.04

45.74
49.38
46.90
49.61
44 98

$0.5833
.5586
.5935
.5868
.7196

$0.6091
.5737
.6117
.6031
.8263

United States...........................................

215

4,601

5,104

46.85

46.82

. 5913

.6205

Carpenters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

70
32
64
30
20

2,597
955
1,850
559
424

2,695
1,055
2,106
661
651

47.16
50.06
48.49
53. 41
46.30

46.96
49.49
48.39
53.39
46.07

.3974
.3386
.3825
.3054
.4824

.4194
.3632
.3983
.3208
.5170

United States...........................................

216

6,385

7,168

48.47

48.26

.3819

.4047

Cornice makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

25
11
32
11
8

366
110
310
113
59

420
109
348
117
78

47.04
48.87
48.34
4a 43
40.02

47.07
49.21
48.71
49.64
45.56

.4314
.3/93
.4030
.3711
.5359

.4381
.3961
.4088
.3716
.5930

United States...........................................

87

958

1,072

47.89

47.99

.4155

.4283

Gas fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central.......................................
Western.......................................................

17
7
29
10
13

65
32
78
36
27

67
31
74
37
41

46.43
48.66
46.56
47.92
46.30

46.18
48.65
46.59
47.92
44 29

.4678
.3945
.4779
.4538
.6027

.4881
.3919
.4855
.4620
.7454

United States...........................................

76

238

250

46.98

46.56

.4745

.5137

Hod carriers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Wfestem.......................................................

84
33
87
25
40

2 253
'514
2.044
355
344

2,426
604
2,392
350
520

45.96
48.94
47.29
51.63
45.25

45.99
48.96
47.21
52.29
45.18

.3043
.2341
.2988
.2036
.4131

.3228
.2451
.3194
.2038
.4650

United S cates...........................................

269

5,510

6,292

47.05

47.02

.2960

.3192

Inside wiremen, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................. 1..............
Western.......................................................

27
16
33
12
9

476
197
500
96
114

614
229
572
108
119

46.47
51.31
47.61
52.69
48.00

46.69
50.84
47.60
52.61
47.06

.4117
.3399
.4265
.3070
.4328

.4188
.3575
.4253
.3131
.4548

United States...........................................

97

1,383

1,642

48.13

48.00

.4013

.4081

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

57
32
60
28
16

2,159
1,187
2,021'
516
145

2,522
1,300
2,417
559
389

54.52
55.67
55.57
55.62
49.32

54.86
54.66
55.70
55.59
49.01

.1813
.1462
.2054
.1550
.28'7

.1887
.1544
.2186
.1597
.2878

United States...........................................

193

6,028

7,187

55.07

5 485

.1827

.1956

8891—No. 71— ---- 3
07




SO

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

T able

I .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
B U I L D I N G T R A D E S —Continued.

Occupation and geographical division.

Lathers, wood, male:
North Atlantic................................. , .........
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

Num­
ber of Number of
estab­ employees.
lishments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag<3 wages
per h our.

1905.

1906.

1905.

' 1906.

10
10
21
8
8

77
73
183
39
120

76
73
183
38
165

45.30
48.77
47.93
49.13
46.43

45.32
48.33
47.97
49.16
45.09

$0.4530
.3667
.4300
.3969
.5344

$0.4585
.3874
.4440
.4299
.7911

United States...........................................
Painters, male:
North Alantic..............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

57

492

535

47.37

46.84

.4470

.5444

66
32
63
24
25

1,641
553
1,418
397
368

1,671 47.61
569 49.74
1,515 47.60
399 50.01
408 47.25

47.35
49.64
47.45
48.90
45.45

.3629
.3377
.3711
.3130
.4343

.3722
.3427
.3918
.3451
.5011

United States...........................................
Paper hangers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

210

4,377

4,562

48.06

47.64

.3638

.3842

36
14
35
12
17

299
139
293
84
124

306
154
286
97
129

48.33
49.91
48.86
49.69
47.58

48.36
50.32
48.47
49.46
45.64

.4097
.3882
.3838
.3591
.4721

.4116
.3926
.3939
.3753
.5067

United States...........................................
Plasterers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

114

939

972

48.76

48.45

.4021

.4124

47
26
52
23
18

844
334
637
158
153

837
361
692
169
227

45.20
49.65
46.44
49.35
45.49

45.24
49.53
46.20
49.41
45.64

.5719
.4996
.5617
.5130
.6834

.5890
.5400
.5999
.5547
.7467

United States...........................................
Plumbers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

166

2,126

2,286

46.60

46.56

.561

.5977

73
29
64
28
21

739
249
594
212
180

833
245
612
216
310

46.39
49.05
46.84
48.05
46.27

46.12
48.92
46.54
47.85
44.86

.4921
.4318
.5019
.4959
.6081

.5069
.4728
.5192
.5111
.7376

United States...........................................
Roofers, gravel and tar, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

215

1,974

2,216

47.03

46.54

.4984

.5392

23
8
25
9
10

266
44
' 278
131
83

289
55
281
139
96

50.60
55.36
52.03
55.92
48.14

50.59
54.64
52.38
56.33
47.75

.2752
.2219
.3463
.1722
.3753

.2831
.2267
.3498
.1718
.4120

United States...........................................
Roofers, slate and tile, male:
North Atlantic. .*.........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

75

802

860

51.97

52.05

.2904

.2977

26
10
21
9
3

130
57
92
46
9

130
64
92
48
16

49.35
50.40
48.58
48.52
48.00

49.08
50.63
48.72
48.75
46.00

.3812
.3976
.4138
.3794
.5278

.3900
. 4048
.4226
.3797
.C094

United States...........................................
Roofers, tin, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

69

334

350

49.17

49.08

.3967

.4099

39
23
37
15
5

328
168
315
117
32

317
165
332
123
58

47.07
50.04
49.79
49.14
46.88

47.14
50.30
49.79
49.28
45.31

.4055
.3394
.3496
.3521
.5039

.4152
.3402
. .3564
.3612
.6412

United States...........................................
Steam fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western......... , ............................................

119

960

995

48.73

48.70

.3723

.3896

41
10
47
8
14

357
66
372
64
50

419
79k
393
63
88

47.47 46.88
49.77 49.16
47; 70 47.32
47.88 47.84
45.88 44.59

.4425
.4049
.4831
.4667
.6220

.4766
.4560
.5000
.4621
.7187

United States...........................................

120

909

47.67

.4680

.5034




1,042

47.08

31

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

T able I . — AVERAGE WAGE3 AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS —Continued.
B U IE D IN G TR AD ES—Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of
estab­ employees.
lishments. 1905. 1906.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Averas;e wages
perlliour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Stone masons, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.........................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

41
9
32
6
12

355
89
227
36
130

321
96
224
33
145

47.55
51.78
48.02
51.06
44.77

47.75
51.73
48.02
49.18
44.72

10.4650
.4555
.5103
.4210
.5928

$0.4780
.4687
.5269
.4720
.6237

819

47.85

47.81

.4942

.5158

46.85
49.17
47.54
49.71
45.00

47.04
49.78
47.33
50.27
44.86

.5248
.5368
.5185
.5030
.5781

.5309
.5435
.5546
.5118
.6161

United States...........................................

100

837

Stone setters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central___ :......................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

15
13
17
8
4

71
36
81
28
12

71
40
78
26
14.

United States...........................................

57

228

229

47.71

47.85

.5246

.5442

Structural iron workers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.................................................... 1.

19
7
24
4
8

701
118
745
57
121

830
130
947
56
142

45.68
51.05
51.47
55.56
51.42

45.25
51.37
52.74
55.46
51.15

.5163
.4383
.4140
.2906
.3813

.5353
.4389
.4305
.3138
.4263

United States...........................................

62

1,742

2,105

49.24

49.67

.4505

.4730

CANDY.
Candy makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

13
3
14
7
4

207
50
311
42
21

187
47
313
56
19

57.65
59.68
59.86
57.62
55.48

57.85
59.74
59.82
57.79
55.89

$0.2520
.2342
.2515
.2921
.3431

$0.2580
.2278
.2566
.2696
.3480

United States...........................................

41

631

622

58.82

58.92

.2561

.2588

Dippers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............ ................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

11
3
13
7
4

338
33
575
51
64

377
34
543
76
70

54.60
59.76
59.19
58.53
56.56

55.01
59.82
59.23
58.32
56.56

.1147
.0902
.0902
.0801
.1225

.1202
.0922
.0995
.0776
. 1240

United States...........................................

38

1,061

1,100

57.56

57.57

.0995

.1064

CARPETS.
Burlers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Dyers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Loom fixers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Spoolers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Twisters, female:
N orth A tlantic............................................
Weavers, brussels and wilton, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Weavers, brussels and wilton, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Weavers, ingrain, male:
North A tlantic............................................
Weavers, ingrain, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Winders, female:
North Atlantic............................................




8

182

151

58.91

58.91

$0.1339

$0.1398

6

191

169

58.62

58.56

.1566

.1586

8

79

68

58.77

58.75

.2742

.2800

8

133

118

58.62

58.58

.1181

.1275
.1111

7

156

144

58.47

58.47

.1094

3

380

389

58.31

58.29

.2901

.3004

2

171

143

58.00

58.00

.1640

.1502

5

118

104

59.30

59.23

.1818

.1821

5

427

261

58.98

57.26

.1514

.1567

7

305

247

58.29

58.18

.1200

.1239

I

32

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

T able I .— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
CAR RIAGES A N D W A G O N S.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab* lishments. 1905. 1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

Averagi8 wages
p e r l lour.
1906.

Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

24
9
28
6

177
47
335
31

194
40
359
50

56.81
59.79
58.28
59.23

56.12
59.10
58.08
59.64

10.2842
.1906
.2616
.2492

$0.2897
.2158
.2618
.2211

United States...........................................

67

590

643

58.01

57.67

.2621

.2642

Body makers, carriage, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

15
3
18
2

241
8
203
22

275
10
220
27

54.59
60.00
58.45
60.00

54.76
60.00
58.41
60.00

.3014
.2521
.2439
.1955

.3105
.2467
.2503
.1937

United States...........................................

38

474

532

56.59

56.63

.2710

.2785

Body makers, not specified, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................

8
3
6

54
13
79

65
14
73

58.85
58.92
57.89

55.77
58.57
57.96

.2776
.1959
.2193

.2984
.2285
.2396

United States...........................................

17

146

152

58.34

57.08

.2388

.2637

Ironers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

10
4
15
3

172
26
193
26

168
28
210
36

55.03
58.77
58.48
59.08

54.88
57.32
58.31
59.00

.2489
.1748
.2047
.1985

.2540
.2061
.2133
.2092

United States...........................................

32

417

442

57.12

57.00

.2207

.2280

Machine woodworkers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

8
3
18
2

62
20
423
38

86
23
459
49

58.79
59.90
57.87
60.00

58.51
57.00
57.83
60.00

.2275
.1876
.1922
.1710

.2224
.2171
.1985
.1652

United States...........................................

31

543

617

58.20

58.06

.1946

. 1969

Painters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

26
9
29
6

415
63
952
59

479
70
989
73

55.99
59.68
58.41
59.69

55.81
58.24
58.28
59.67

.2519
.1905
.2438
.2247

.2537
.1929
.2579
.2385

United States...........................................

70

1,489

1,611

57.84

57.61

.2431

.2529

Trimmers, carriage, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

21
7
25
3

158
23
262
17

172
23
279
25

56.15
60.00
58.73
60.00

55.97
58.26
58.82
60.00

.2699
.2049
.2633
.2582

.2867
.2293
.2647
.2452

United States...........................................

56

460

499

57.95

57.87

.2624

.2697

Woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

12
5
9
5

51
16
73
34

40
14
81
27

56.24
59.63
58.81
59.47

56.60
59.57
58 83
59.33

.2613
.1614
.1992
.1921

.2721
.1799
.2076
.1962

United States...........................................

31

174

162

58.26

58.43

.2126

.2192




33

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,
T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
CARS, STEAM R A IL R O A D .

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
perl lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic......................... ...................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

6
6
22
7
4

294
165
519
158
161

278
145
580
180
215

56.01
56.67
55.48
59.83
54 00

5483
sa 00
sa 21
59.81
54 00

10.3148
.2728
.3045
.3017
.3446

$0.3213
.2757
.3178
.2994
.3461

United States...........................................

45

1,297

1,398

56.10

5a 62

.3074

.3161

Boiler makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

3
4
17
6
3

166
116
399
173
197

166
116
453
174
200

55.78
57.07
55.03
59.83
54 00

54 43
5a 94
5a 26
59.83
5400

.3238
.2565
.3245
.3019
.3677

.3140
.2658
.3299
.3078
.3629

United States...........................................

33

1,051

1,109

55.97

55.69

.3212

. 3233

Brass finishers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

2
7

14
154

14
190

52.14
54 43

52.14
54 42

.2328
.3003

. 2379
. 3101

United States...........................................

9

168

204

54 24

54 26

.2947

.3051

Cabinetmakers male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

3
4
11
2
1

215
68
437
31
22

183
88
541
43
29

54 2b
54 93
55.44
60.00
54 00

5406
54 31
sa 38
60.00
54 00

.3236
.2582
.3047
.2658
.3170

.3116
.2404
.3271
.2612
. 31C4

55.21 -55.18

.3046

.3117

United States.............................. ............

21

773

884

Carpenters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

6
7
22
7
4

898
471
2,642
677
108

923
596
2,777
791
122

55.03
56.42
56. 54
59. 44
54 00

54 81
55.95
sa 19
59.54
5400

.2580
.2230
.2822
.2222
.2817

.2680
.2269
.2953
.2211
.2936

United States...........................................

46

4,796

5,209

5a 60

5a 38

.2634

.2713

Car repairers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
.South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western....................................................

2
3
13
5
3

233
269
1,448
572
594

242
336
1,665
689
792

53.39
60.00
56.12
59.67
5400

53.40
56.29
5a 86
59.63
5400

.2248
.2206
.2132
.2161
.2397

.2318
.2288
.2233
.2076
.2500

United States...........................................

26

3,116

3,724

5a 50

sa 04 |

.2203

.2271

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

6
7
21
7
4

1,943
740
3,910
1,192
624

2,025
694
4,320
1,167
640

55.70
57.37
5A 31
59.83
54 00

5a 45
5a 82
55.24
59.83
5400

.1392
.1312
.1622
.1392
.1913

.1420
.1324
.1636
.1422
.1892

United States...........................................

45

8,409

8,846

56.12

5a 93

.1530

.1552

Machine woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atja ntic...........................'................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.................................... .......... *.___

6
6
20
7
2

148
124
593
83
7

140
155
742
93
16

54 84
55.85
56.25
59.11
54 00

sa 03
55.07
55.94
59.05
54 00

.2414
.2523
.2447
.2402
.3057

.2516
.2339
.2545
.2398
.3213

United States...........................................

41

955

1,146 |i 5a 21

5a 94

.2453

.2511




34

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I .— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
CARS, STEAM R A IL R O A D —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.
1905. . 1906.

Average wages
per hour.
1905.

1906.

Machinists, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

6
7
22
7
4

1,037
681
1,978
541
675

1,154
657
2,022
713
618

55.46
56.86
54.41
59.03
5400

54 63
56.21
54 53
59.06
5 400

$0.3094
.2739
.3158
.3111
.3526

$0.3175
.2835
.3207
.3061
. 3S45

United States...........................................

46

4,912

5,164

55.42

55.33

.3132

.3209

Molders, brass, male:
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

10
3

93
17

84
19

54 76
58.12

5499
58.63

.3151
.2982

.3203
.3013

United States...........................................

13

110

103

55.28

55.66

.3125

.3217

Molders, iron, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

3
2
4
4

133
60
180
79

167
52
184
89

60.00
57.00
58.13
58.61

60.00
57.31
57.70
58.62

.3438
.2845
.3046
.2851

.3495
.3012
.3218
.3062

United States...........................................

13

452

492

58.62

58.60

.3101

.3262

Painters, male:
North A tlantic.. .......................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

6
7
22
6
4

421
221
760
139
108

422
271
799
182
135

5 402
56.89
56.41
59.25
5400

53.89
55.66
56.35
59.39
54 00

.3085
.2304
.2635
.2361
.2844

.2962
.2435
.2805
.2253
.2851

United States...........................................

45

1,649

1,809

55.95

55.80

.2696

.2734

Pattern makers, wood, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

5
5
16
6
3

47
29
68
19
15

47
28
65
22
20

56.28
56.93
56.32
59.32
5400

55.96
56.64
56.08
58.82
54 00

.2941
.2855
.3020
.3213
.3640

.2927
.2888
.3166
.3239
.3742

United States...........................................

35

178

182

56.53

56.24

.3045

.3134

Pipe fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

6
5
20
5
3

133
83
236
55
116

153
89
276
59
127

54 91
56. 55
55.96
59. 44
54 00

55.24
55.20
56.12
59.37
5400

.2786
.2452
.2809
.2675
.2976

.2916
.2602
.3029
.*2613
.3009

United States...........................................

39

628

704

55.75

55.70

.2776

.2912

Tinsmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

5
6
21
6
3

71
101
273
72
59

77
111
370
85
97

53.90
56.84
55.84
59.43
5400

53.61
55.75
55.32
59.28
54 00

.2920
.2494
.2811
.2701
.3150

.3077
.2475
.3105
.2674
.3255

United States...........................................

41

576

740

56.03

55.49

.2790

.2978

Upholsterers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
7
14
5
3

87 j
42 i
140
14
29

76
46
196
17
34

51.29
56.00
56.11
58.14
54 00

53.38
55.59
55.38
58.12
5400

.3167
.2279
.2785
.2789
.2988

.2934
.2381
.3122
.2791
.3004

33 1

312

369

54 65

54 99

.2842

.2965

United States...........................................




35

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906

T able I — AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
C LO TH IN G , F A C T O R Y PRODUCT.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab-

Number of
employees.

ments.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

Buttonhole makers, machine, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................

5
3

12
23

13
24

56.25
55.78

56.54
55.54

$0.2451
.2757

$0.2434
.2641

Occupation and geographical division.

Average wages
perhour.

li o u
li Sh -

1906.

United States...........................................

8

35

37

55.94

55.89

.2652

.2568

Buttonhole makers, machine, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

* 3
2
6
2

26
14
30
17

22
13
33
13

55.19
52.93
55.40
53.88

54.91
52.85
55.39
54.08

.1149
.1233
.1692
.1179

.1304
.1666
.1685
.1223

United States...........................................

13

87

81

54.64

54.64

.1356

.1504

Cutters, hand, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

14
2
9

456
83
195

472
94
236

52.36
53.57
49.44

52.13
53.62
49.30

.3605
.3026
.4016

.3663
.2974
.4028

United States...........................................

25

734

802

51.72

51.47

.3649

.3690

Cutters, machine, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

9
3
7

15
51
167

18
36
168

50.20
53.92
48.07

50.33
53.89
48.07

.4379
.3496
.4329

.4456
.3700
.4384

United States...........................................

19

233

222

49.49

49.20

.4150

.4279

Examiners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

11
3
8

68
21
57

73
24
59

52.46
57.71
50.42

52.23
53.00
50.75

.2765
.2397
.3106

.2788
.2558
.3195

United States...........................................

22

146

156

52.42

51.79

.2845

.2907

Examiners, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

3
1
2
2

11
5
15
11

14
3
16
10

54.00
54.00
57.07
53.82

53.57
54.00
57.00
53.80

.1345
.1045
.1240
.0999

.1447
.1026
.1173
.1041

United States...........................................

8.

42

43

55.05

54.93

.1181

.1221

Finishers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................i
South Central.............................................. :

10
4
8
2

297
223
260
48

289
278
297
46

55.31
57.66
54.63
54.42

55.38
57.92
54.75
54.52

.1132
.0995
.1227
.0814

.1157
.1089
.1288
.0939

United States........................................... '

24

828

910

55.68

55.91

.1107

.1168

Pressers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

13
4
9
2

394
88
188
11

394
137
219
13

54.04
58.78
54.44
54.45

54.20
59.21
54.64
54.46

.2045
.2001
.2580
.1802

.2151
.2151
.2578
.2153

United States...................... »...................

28

681

763

54.77

55.23

.2183

.2273

Sewing-machine operators, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

13
4
4

560
142
48

609
128
46

55.02
58.63
54.10

54.95
58.64
54.22

.2083
.2329
.2891

.2191
.2585
.3131

United States...........................................

21

750

783

55.64

55.51

.2181

.2311

Sewing-machine operators, female:
North Atlantic............................................ 1
South Atlantic............................................ '
North Central..............................................1
South Central.............................................. I

12
3
9
2

516
214
396
195

714 54.03
229 55.84
474 55.78
195 53.92

53.76
56.07
55.84
53.90

.1324
.1162
.1610
.1134

.1309
.1447
.1665
.1176

United States........................................... !

26

1,321

54.72

.1356

.1417




1

1,612

54.83

36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
COTTON GOODS.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Carding machine tenders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central..............................................

17
10
3

354
98
32

377
105
31

59.18
66.00
61.03

59.18
65.12
60.97

$0.1158
.0797
.1190

$0.1234
.0869
.1256

United States...........................................

30

484

513

60.68

60.51

.1087

.1160

Dyers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................

4
4

339
43

377
46

59.90
66.00

59.89
63.91

.1331
.0979

.1412
.1005

United States...........................................

8

382

423

60.59

60.33

.1291

.1368

Loom fixers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central..............................................

16
10
3

602
133
38

680
131
38

59.17
66.00
63.32

59.23
65.33
63.32

.2060
.1366
.1552

.2178
.1453
.1658

United States...........................................

29

773

849

60.55

60.36

.1916

.2043

Spinners, frame, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central..............................................

8
5
1

44
55
7

134
44
7

59.45
65.67
66.00

58.82
65.91
66.00

.0885
.0788
.0429

.1199
.0914
.0530

United States ..........................................

14

106

,185

63.11

60.78

.0804

.1106

Spinners, frame, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central..............................................

16
10
3

2,301
572
228

2,317
553
208

58.95
65.87
64.79

59.04
65.49
63.71

.0992
.0740
.0528

.1120
.0778
.0666

United States...........................................

29

3,101

3,078

60.65

C . 51
O

.0911

.1028

Spinners, mule, male:
North A tlantic...........................................

11

315

300

59.43

59.37

.1908

.1978

Weavers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central..............................................

15
9
2

1,776
594
146

2,059
592
106

58.64
66.00
65.84

58.47
65.41
65.72

.1570
.1054
.0940

.1689
.1134
.1153

26

2,516

2,757

60.80

60.24

.1412

.1549

Weavers, female:
North Atlantic.........................................s.
South Atlantic.............................................
South Central..............................................

United States........................................ .

15
9
3

3,981 3,700
58G
518
336
242

58.79
66.00
64.38

58.83
65.68
62.47

.1406
.0918
.0807

.1481
.0902
.0934

United States...........................................

27

4,903

60.04

59.83

.1307

.1391

4,460

DYEING, FINISHING, AND PRINTING TEXTILES.
Bleachers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Calendrers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Color mixers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Dyers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Engravers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Printers, male:
North Atlantic............................................




14

394

422

59.12

58.47

$0.1214

$0.1282

14

314

308

59.26

59.01

.1413

,sl434

10

148

127

58.88

58.99

.1327

.1348

17

440

483

59.09

58.65

.1435

.1459

9

85

91

57.71

57.73

.4507

.4533

11

102

101

58.33

58.25 '

.4443

.4472

87

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I .— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
ELECTRICAL APPARATUS AND SUPPLIES.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Occupation and geographical division.

Armature winders, male:
N orth Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

5
2

326
24

426
33

54.69
54.38

54.76
54.30

$0.2891
.2333

$0.3145
.2537

United States...........................................
Armature winders, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

7

350

459

54.67

54.73

.2853

.3101

2
1

60

106
12

54.00

54.39
49.00

.1023

.1343
.1017

United States...........................................
Brass finishers, male:
North Atlantic.................................. -.......
North Central.............................................

3

60

118

54.00

53.84

.1023

.1310

4
1

50
34

92
51

54.68
54.00

54.76
54.00

.3101
.2376

.3428
.2402

United States...........................................
Incandescent lamp makers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Machinists, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

5 •

84

143

54.40

54.49

.2808

.3062

1

490

500

55.00

55.00

.1256

.1374

5
2

1,335
70

1,768
229

54.23
54.07

54.24
54.03

.2814
.2436

.2942
.2565

United States...........................................
Pattern makers, wood, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

7

1,405

1,997

54.'22

54.22

.2795

.2899

4
1

153
27

191
26

54.73
54.00

54.70
54.00

.3817
.3406

.3868
.3443

United States...........................................

5

180

217

54.62

54.62

.3755

.3817

4
2
17
4
5

17
10
92
18
11

16
10
98
18
11

69.18
72.00
55.76
72.00
68.18

69.00
72.00
55.57
72.00
68.18

$0.2342
.1147
.2674
.1459
.2459

$0.2384
.1228
.2678
.1543
.2542

United States...........................................
Laborers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

32

148

153

61.30

60.89

.2369

.2410

$
2
26
4
5

208
36
1,044
201
, 52

203 60.98
31 68.00
1,121 60.69
220 .69.67
52 64.62

60.44
67.35
60.65
69.24
64.62

.1803
.0923
.1790
.1074
.2327

.1828
.1055
.1803
.1088
.2327

United States...........................................
Millers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central........................:....................
Western.......................................................

45

1,541

1,627

62.20

62.04

.1696

.1712

9
2
26
4
5

33
6
196
13
11

32
6
205
14
12

66.85
70.00
60.43
72.00
67.09

66.38
70.00
60.60
72.00
67.50

.2643
.1620
.2730
.2426
.3474

.2657
.1976
.2711
.2481
.3883

United States...........................................
Millwrights, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

46

259

269

62.33

62l40

.2710

.2728

6
2
21
4
5

14
2
97
15
5

16
2
96
15
6

57.86
66.00
60.39
59.73
64.80

58.13
66.00
60.29
59.73
66.00

.3939
.3021
.2874
.2932
.3256

.3983
.3125
.2891
.2982
.3338

United States...........................................
Packers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western......................................................

38

133

135

60.30

60.31

.3009

.3054

9
139
2
43
26
875
4
130
5 - 39

141
43
875
139
41

62.85
72.00
57.93
65.72
68.46

63.06
72.00
57.73
65.53
68.20

.1853
.1036
.2241
.1412
.2487

.2022
.1106
.2267
.1460
.2481

1,239

60.14

60.05

.2074

.2115

FXiOUR.
Bolters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

United States........................................... 1




46

1,226

88

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I . —AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
FOUNDRY AND MACHINE SHOP.

Occupation and geographical division.

Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Poiitrh Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

Average wages
per hour.
1906.

66
20
64
21
17

325
56
268
44
55

368
58
314
44
77

57.53
55.25
56.62
55.84
54.75

57.85
55.29
56.57
55.98
54.39

30.2943
.2789
.3027
.3311
.3806

10.3001
.2890
.3102
.3444
.3867

United States...........................................
Boiler makers, male:.
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............^..............................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

188

748

861

56.73

56.80

.3047

.3130

34
11
26
11
11

579
62
292
97
108

649
64
300
95
119

56.29
54.11
55.38
57.89
53.94

56.63
54.23
55.42
58.28
54.03

.2894
.2935
.3109
.3153
.3814

.2960
.2989
.3188
.3154
.4020

United States...........................................
Boiler riveters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

93

1,138

1,227

55.85

55.09

.3061

.3135

10
1
5
3

90
39
24
8

104
50
27
8

55.17
54.00
57.00
59.13

55.18
54.00
57.11
59.13

.2901
.2578
.2297
.2986

.2894
.2639
.3087
.31b2

United States...........................................
Brass finishers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

19

161

189

55.35

55.31

.2737

.2865

14
9

274
191

351
209

54.45
56.18

54.19
55.97

.2672
.2653

.2722
.2717

United States...........................................
Core makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic....... .
North Central..............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

23

465

560

55.16

54.86

.2664

.2720

60
9
40
8
11

426
20
279
20
28

473
36
290
22
31

57.00
55.45
55.46
55.15
53.86

56.73
55.44
55.28
55.27
53.48

.2501
.2423
.2443
.2814
.3675

.2653
.2505
.2500
.2790
.4128

United States...........................................
Core makers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

128

773

852

56.24

56.03

.2529

.2652

2
4

3
167

4
119

55.67
54.51

54.75
54.94

.1321
.1189

.1314
.1257

United States...........................................
Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

6

170

123

54.54

54.93

.1191

.1259

72 3,197 3,549
21
867
819
65 4,060 4,712
551
23
608
17
323
419

57.55
55.59
56.31
56.86
54.72

57.33
55.45
56.48
56.85
54.60

.1561
.1390
.1684
.1490
.2233

.1613
.1437
.1756
.1547
.2390

8,950 10,155

56.66

56.64

.1621

.1092

United States...........................................
Machinists, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

198
71
24
70
23
17

3,715
299
2,316
287
398

4,084
353'
2,623
276
513

56.85
54.68
55.30
55.63
54.51

56.74
54.64
55.26
56.01
54.49

.2742
.2820
.2818
.3209
.3637

.2820
.2916
.2884
.3237
.3765

United States...........................................
Molders, brass, male:
North Atlantic.........................................
North Central..............................................

205

7,015

7,849

56.06

55.98

.2840

.2922

26
13

144
71

148
67

54.88
56.39

54.78
56.39

.3063
.2960

.3104
.2975

United States...........................................
Molders, iron, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............„.............................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

39

215

215

55.38

55.28

.3029

.3064

62
18
53
19
16

1,894
210
1,251
180
206

2,065
257
1,262
185
325

56.40
55.50
55.97
56.36
54.25

56.26
55.60
56.28
56.70
54.21

.3065
.2865
.3043
. 3156
.3933

.3154
.2998
.3105
.3209
.4227

United States...........................................

168

3,741

4,094

56.09

56.08

.3009

.3217




39

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I . — AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SHOP—Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
per 1lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Pattern makers, metal, male:
North Atlantic.... .......................................
North Central..............................................

5
5

11
65

10
81

56.55
54.28

56.30
54.36

$0.3240
.3074

$0.3282
.3112

United States...........................................

10

76

91

54.61

54.57

.3098

.3131

Pattern makers, wood, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

63
18
54
22
17

425
59
379
67
73

445
61
412
64
76

56.18
55.29
55.53
56.13
55.05

55.85
55.49
55.50
56.42
54.72

.3255
.3122
.3253
.3312
.3954

.3452
.3239
.3405
.3351
.4502

United States...........................................

174

1,003

1,058

55.80

55.65

.3301

.3491

F U R N IT U R E .
Cabinetmakers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central................. -..........................
South Central..............................................

17
6
34
1

380
174
666
31

483
160
775
23

54.76
56.69
56.60
60.00

52.74
55.63
56.17
60.00

$0.2863
.2106
.2362
.1758

$0.2942
.2180
.2482
.1815

United States...........................................

58

1,251

1,441

56.14

55.02

.2464

.2592

Carvers, hand, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

13
2
22

93
12
109

103 49.05
4 49.00
128 56.53

48.61
51.00
56.41

.3372
.4408
.2705

.3659
.4125
.2794

United States...........................................

37

214

235

52.86

52.90

.3091

.3196

Machine woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

16
6
34
1

206
201
674
19

221
196
673
32

56.88
59.60
58.08
60.00

56.26
58.62
58.09
60.00

.2527
.1712
.2015
.1706

.2563
.1832
.2092
.1799

United States...........................................

57

1,100

1,122

58.16

57.88

.2050

.2131

Sawyers, band, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

10
4
29
1

19
15
95
5

17
16
96
5

56.21
60.00
57.79
60.00

56.00
59.44
57.85
60.00

.2630
.1711
.2165
.1810

.2582
.1816
.2223
.2030

United States...........................................

' 44

134

134

57.90

57.89

.2167

.2213

Sawyers, circular, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

11
3
30

44
10
233

48
7
233

54.18
60.00
57.96

52.90
59.86
58.06

.2851
.1602
.2053

.2919
.1914
.2113

United States...........................................
Sawyers, jig, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

44

287

288

57.45

57.24

. 21C
O

.2243

5
6

6
7

6
7

53.50
58.57

53.00
57.86

.3023
.2199

.30C3
.2097

United States...........................................
Upholsterers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

11

13

13

56.23

55.62

.2580

.2543

8
1
15

138
13
252

141
3
267

49.17
52.00
55.80

48.89
48.00
55.72

.3856
.3492
.2549

.3969
.3750
.2661

United States...........................................
Vamishers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

24

403

411

53.41

53.32

.3027

.3118

15
6
36
1

279
113
635
10

296
120
692
9

56.77
59.43
57.04
60.00

55.95
58.63
57.10
60.00

.2269
.1503
.1993
.1492

.2374
.1568
.2020
.1630

58 j 1,037

1,117

57.26

56.98

.2009

.2062

United States...........................................




40

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
GAS.
Average
Num­ Number of
ber of employees. * hours per
week.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906. 1905. 1906.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average wages
pernour.
1905.

1906.

Coal men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

5
5
10
3
3

52
41
103
22
30

52
40
100
22
29

61.10
82.83
74.74
64.36
58.80

61.10
82.80
75.02
66.55
61.66

$0.1777
.1443
.1760
.1394
.3319

$0.1777
.1491
.1758
.1494
.3127

243

70.37

70.96

.1867

.1857

United States........ ..................................

26

248

Gas makers, water gas, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central.............. ..............................
Western.......................................................

10
6
13
4
4

93
19
46
67
9

93.
20
50
67
9

68.24
74.95
77.48
60.72
78.44

68.24
75,40
77.44
60.72
78.44

.2345
.2297
.2218
.1101
.2501

.2361
.2282
.2198
.1240
.2546

United States...........................................

37

234

239

68.84

69.04

.1966

.2013

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

17
10
19
6
8

1,550
452
2,594
255
907

1,590
649
2,851
276
1,280

60.39
59.78
60.45
60.14
54.93

61.20
60.92
60.35
60.04
55.89

.1701
.1490
.1720
.1477
.2410

.1707
.1502
.1790
.1491
.2419

United States...........................................

60

5,758

6,646

59.50

59.74

.1795

.1851

Pipe fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern......................................................

17
10
18
7
8

306
112
410
66
184

328
122
446
69
176

59.66
58.85
59.39
60.00
52.34

59.60
58.91
59.54
60.00
52.85

.2338
.2299
.2192
.2089
.3510

.2380
.2384
.2235
.2266
.3627

United States...........................................

60

1,078

1,141

58.24

58.49

.2463

.2509

Stokers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
W estem .......................................................

15
10
17
6
8

444
207
659
81
105

446
231
753
91
122

78.61
77.41
80.97
82.67
74.33

80.01
78.20
80.31
82.51
66.17

.2112
.1750
.1997
.1445
.2687

.2153
.1835
.2020
.1533
.2726

United States...........................................

56

1,496

1,643

79.40

79.00

.2016

.2056

GLASS.
Batch makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
United States........................................ .

19
6

57
42

63
42

59.02
59.14

59.08
58.64

$0.1831
.2040

$0.1850
.2068

25

99

105

59.07

58.90

.1920

.1938

Blowers, flint glass, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

11
3

434
496

428
487

49.78
48.98

49.46
49.01

.6041
.6561

.6313
.6728

United States...........................................

14

930

915

49.35

49.22

.6318

.6534

Blowers, green glass, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

5
1

332
126

350
126

50.93
49.00

48.43
49.00

.6721
.7879

.7548
.7934

United States...........................................

6

458

476

50.40

48.58

.7040

.7650

Blowers, window glass, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

5
2

148
66

148
66

41.21
43.64

41.53
43.64

.8175
.8614

.8918
.9431

United States...........................................

7

214

214

41.96

42.18

.8311

.9076




41

WAGES AND HOPES OF LABOE, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I . — AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
G LASS—Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.
1906.

Cutters, window glass, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

5
2

54
24

54
24

46.19
60.00

46.19
60.00

10.6391
.8080

10.6686
.8084

United States...........................................

7

78

78

50.44

50.44

.6911

.7116

Flatteners, window glass, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

5
2

34
15

33
18

58.59
72.00

59.03
58.67

.6184
.5122

.7315
.7299

United States...........................................

7

49

51

62.69

58.90

.5859

.7309

Gaffers, flint glass, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

6
1

117
8

107
8

50.60
49.50

50.30
49.50

.5308
.8014

.5316
.8014

United States...........................................

7

125

115

50.53

50.24

.5481

.5504

Gatherers, flint glass, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

7
1

177
140

160
139

50.47
49.50

50.28
49.50

.3020
.3257

.3035
• .3248

United States...........................................

8

317

299

50.04

49.92

.3125

.3134

Gatherers, window glass, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

5
2

148
66

148
67

41.21
43.64

41.53
43.58

.6033
.6155

.6449
.6777

United States...........................................

7

214

215

41.96

42.17

.6071

.6551

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

20
6

515
329

585
351

59.61
59.69

59.57
59.62

.1498
.1514

.1487
.1550

United States...........................................

26

844

936

59.64

59.59

.1504

.1510

Leersmen, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

21
6

156
72

162
73

58.91
61.58

58.88
61.53

.1681
.1683

.1663
.1699

United States...........................................

27

228

235

59.75

59.71

.1682

.1675

Packers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

20
3

' 228
150

225
195

56.52
59.77

56.35
59.76

.1930
.1741

.1923
.1871

United States!..........................................

23

378

420

57.81

57.94

.1855

.1899

Teasers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

18
6

91
67

98
65

77.84
83.79

76.95
83.57

.1908
.1774

.1990
.1766

United States...........................................

24

158

163

80.36

79.59

.1851

.1900

H ARN ESS.
Collar makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

8*
2
14
6
2

55
24
206
34
21

51
20
215
41
18

56.73
58.67
56.46
57.21
54.00

56.88
58.70
56.16
57.15
54.00

$0.2857
.1811
.2455
.2274
.3062

$0.2796
.1927
.2455
.2350
.3349

United States...........................................

32

340

345

56.58

56.42

.2494

.2509

Cutters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central...........................................,.
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

12
4
23
6
6

16
20
132
46
11

16
18
142
52
12

56.69
58.80
57.19
58.30
55.00

56.69
57.83
56.65
58.13
54.42

.2841
.2226
.2649
.2612
.3401

.2841
.2348
.2711
.2609
.3527

United States...........................................

51

225

240

57.42

56.95

.2654

.2711




42

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR,1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
H A R N E SS—Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish—
iisnments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
per 1
lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Fitters and finishers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic .*...........................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

8
1
14
2
2

61
7
285
10
13

58
6
312
10
14

54.67
59.00
57.07
59.00
54.00

54.81
59.00
56.86
59.00
54.00

$0.2886
.1477
.2446
.1508
.2831

$0.2870
.1582
.2454
.1483
.3705

United States...........................................

27

376

400

56.66

56.55

.2488

.2521

Harness makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

5
4
16
6
4

41
58
326
59
53

48
48
327
73
49

56.59
58.90
57.07
57.66
55.00

55.48
57.46
56.54
57.44
54.10

.2581
.1975
.2404
.2563
.3051 |

.2638
.2074
.2493
.2614
.3111

United States...........................................

35

537

545

57.09

56.43

.2453 1

.2541

Stitchers, hand, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

10
5
2

53
13
4

53k.

22
5

54.62
57.31
57.75

54.43
57.45
58.00

.2138
.2089
.2740

.2238
.2226
.2633

70

80

55.30

55.49

.2163

.2259

United States...........................................

17 i

_

Stitchers machine, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western......... ....... ......................................

4
3
23
6
6

4
13
134
33
14

4
11
136
36
13

53.50
58.77
57.14
57.79
54.79

53.50
58.27
56.79
57.58
54.38

.3062
.2043
.2560
.2556
.3182

.3109
.2211
.2619
.2582
.3449

United States...........................................

42

198

200

57.12

56.79

.2580 |

.2653

H A T S, FU R .
Blockers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Colorers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Conors, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Curlers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Feeders, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Finishers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Flangers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Fur blowers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Hardeners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Bouncers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Sizers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Stiffeners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Trimmers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Weighers, female:
North Atlantic............................................




13

187

189

53.78

53.85

$0.3550

14

79

69

55.37

55.43

.1947

.1960

14

90

87

53.86

53.79

.2928

.2857

11

76

84

53.80

53.71

.4791

.4947

9

47

52

54.23

54.21

.1082

.1170

13

849

837

53.75

53.59

.3102

.3337

12

151

147

55.72

55.69

.3001

.3239

13

88

78

55.32

55.31

.1354

.1639

13

73

73

53.62

53.77

.3007

.2909

$0.3515

11

201

194

54.26

54.36

.2441

.2607

14

1,156

1,222

53.86

53.94

.2803

.3004

14

45

43

54.16

53.81

.3526

.3762

13

1,165

1,270

54.31

54.16

.1409

.1418

8

27

24

53.67

53.29

.1210

.1293

43

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,
T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
HOSIERY AND KNIT GOODS.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

Averag e wages
per 1lour.
1906.

Boarders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

13
3
4

210
45
79

232
59
86

58.81
64.24
58.46

58.65
64.49
58.41

10.1923
.1194
.1277

30.2002
.1163
.1397

United States...........................................

20

334

377

59.46

59.51

.1672

.1733

Finishers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

15
2
5

756
48
260

891
56
277

58.60
64.42
58.63

57.11
64.27
58.67

.1299
.0958
.0875

.1377
.0947
.0959

United States...........................................

22

1,064

1,224

58.87

57.79

.1180

.1263

Knitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

10
3
2

236
52
124

293
52
138

61.51
65.44
58.15

63.34
65.71
58.04

.1844
.1112
.2934

.2038
.1242
.2914

United States...........................................

15

412

483

60.99

62.08

.2080

.2203

Knitters, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

14
1

4

509
28
221

571
32
232

58.80
57.50
58.76

58.36
56.25
58.94

.1282
.0964
.0968

.1350
.1163
.0991

United States...........................................

19

758

835

5a 74

58. *4

.1179

.1243

Loopers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic................................. ..........
North Central..............................................

11

355
132
118

403
123
119

58.83
65.08
58.69

58.62
64.86
58.61

.1428
.0802
.1079

.1455
.0908
.1170

605

645

60.16

59.81

.1223

.1298

!
!

3
17

Menders, female:
|
North Atlantic............................................ '
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
!
United States...........................................

17
3
2
22

325
82
110

337
77
118

59.21
63.79
5a 45

59.16
63.71
58.47

.1253
.0744,
.1062

.1258
.0717
.1199

517

532

59.77

59.67

.1132

.1167

Pressers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

11
2
2

68
24
10

67
28
19

59.40
65.08
57.80

59.30
65.25
57.63

.1630
.0710
.1652

.1688
.0819
.1555

United States.....................................*...

United States...........................................

15

102

114

60.58

60.48

.1415

.1453

Pressers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

6
1

110
8

153
8

58.52
59.00

58.59
59.00

.0983
.0906

.1021
.1038

United States...........................................

7

118

161

58.55

58.61

.0978

.1022

Ribbers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

5
2

129
46

138
42

59.77
59.67

59.78
59.60

.1472
.1121

.1495
.1212

United States...........................................

7

175

180

59.74

59.74

.1380

.1429




44

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
IRON AND STEEL, BAR.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber cf employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Catchers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

12
2
8
2

64
13
44
8

58
11
43
8

65.59
60.00
66.66
72.00

64.93
60.00
66.91
72.00

$0.2977
.2531
.4883
.2527

$0.3466
.2500
.5275
.2647

United States...........................................

24

129

120

65.79

65.66

.3554

.3971

Heaters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

10
2
10
2

35
11
61
8

33
9
60
11

63.89
60.00
68.61
72.00

63.76
60.00
68.82
72.00

.4841
.4609
.6378
.4719

.4996
.5022
.6958
.4856

United States...........................................

24

115

113

66.58

66.95

.5625

.C026

Heaters’ helpers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

10
2
10
2

45
14
69
13

49
11
66
8

68.00
60.00
68.07
72.00

68.57
60.00
68.14
72.00

.2569
.2404
.3054
.1715

.2709
.2260
.3281
.1811

United States...........................................

24

141

134

67.61

67.86

.2711

.2900

H ot straighteners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

12
2
6
2

85
33
83
15

84
27
54
14

62.53
60.00
68.53
72.00

62.56
60.00
66.67
72.00

.1965
.1604
.2115
.1203

.2015
.1571
.2545
.1366

United States...........................................

22

216

179

65.11

64.15

.1914

.2057

Rollers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

12
2
7
2

35
% 8
29
12

35
9
29
8

63.63
60.00
71.72
72.00

63.63
60.00
71.72
72.00

.7185
.6682
.9661
.8062

.7441
.6342
.9820
.9401

United States...........................................

23

84

81

67.27

66.95

.8117

.8364

Roughers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

12
2
10
2

91
21
109
19

84
18
111
18

65.69
60.00
61.47
72.00

65.17
60.00
61,87
72.00

.3591
.3547
.5044
.3472

.3868
.3512
.5227
.3324

United States...........................................

26

240

231

63.78

63.71

.4238

.4451

IRON AND STEEL, BESSEMER CONVERTING.
Blowers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

7
3
5
2

18
6
11
4

18
6
11
4

60.33
78.00
65.45
75.00

60.33
80.00
65.45
75.00

$0.5184
.3937
.5543
.3664

$0.5326
.4082
.6174
.3898

United States...........................................

17

39

39 .66.00

66.31

.4937

.5227

Bottom makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

7
3
5
2

20
8
12
7

20
7
12
7

68.70
78.00
66.00
65.14

68.70
77.14
66.00
65.14

.2832
.2202
.3181
.1790

.3141
.2239
.3430
.1790

United States...........................................

17

47

46

69.06

68.74

.2658

.2874

Ladle liners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

7
3
5
2

20
7
11
4

17
8
11
4

65.40
74.14
65.45
75.00

63.88
78.00
65.45
75.00

.3578
.2765
.3937
.2101

.3859
.3193
.4443
.2240

United States...........................................

17

42

40

67.79

68.25

.3396

.3724




45

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

T able I __ AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.

IR O N A N D

STEELi, BESSEM ER C O N V E R TIN G —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establa V
oh
lisnments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
perhour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Melters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

7
3
3
1

27
6
20
2

28
6
20
2

66.89
78.00
50.40
66.00

67.07
80.00
50.40
66.00

10.4052
.4080
.4929
.3381

$0.4026
. 4713
.5798
.4229

United States...........................................

14

55

56

62.07

62.46

.4350

.4740

Steel pourers, male:
North Atlantic..............................;............
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

7
3
5
1

27
6
17
2

26
6
17
2

57.93
78.00
50.82
66.00

57.38
80.00
50.82
66.00

.4542
.4005
.6831
.3577

.5077
.4597
.7088
.4229

United States...........................................

16

52

51

58.23

58.20

.5191

*5658

Vessel men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..... ................................. .

7
3
5
2

22
3
22
4

22
8
22
4

64.64
75.00
54.55
75.00

64.64
78.00
54.55
75.00

.5367
.4087
.7206
.2775

.5893
.4807
.7634
.3635

United States...........................................

17

56

56

62.89

63.32

.5722

.6260

IR O N A N D STEED, B L A ST F U R N A C E .
Cinder snappers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central............................................ .

11
2
7
5

117
28
58
18

125
34
52
20

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

$0.1470
.1383
.1700
.1144

$0.1483
.1387
.1737
.1323

United States...........................................

25

221

231

84.00

84.00

.1493

.1512

Hot-blast men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic....... ....................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

11
2
7
5

66
10
36
14

70
12
36
16

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

.1786
.1550
.1736
.1416

.1813
.1597
.1759
.1547

United States...........................................

25

126

134

84.00

84.00

.1712

.1748

Keepers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

11
2
7
5

70
10
44
14

74
12
44
16

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

.2006
.1840
.2104
.1578

.2023
.1864
.2133
.1721

United States...........................................

25

138

146

84.00

84.00

.1982

.2010

Keepers’ helpers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

11
2
7
5

134
28
125
42

144
34
125
50

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

.1618
.1423
.1721
.1206

.1640
.1431
.1749
.1367

United States...........................................

25

329

353

84.00

84.00

.1588

.1620

Top fillers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

7
1
6
5

82
18
61
16

82
24
47
18

81.95
84.00
81.25
84.00

81.95
84.00
80.43
84.00

.1640
.1350
.1902
.1463

.1640
.1350
.1956
.1611

United States...........................................

19

177

171

82.10

82.04

.1685

.1683

8891—No. 71—07----- i




46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . —AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
LEATHER.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establiesV
i
11snments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Averagei wages
pern our.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Colorers, male:
North Atlantic.............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

15
2
9
2
2

148
25
55
15
2

165
29
54
17
2

58.64
60.00
59.58
59.33
57.00

58.75
60.00
59.59
59.29
55.50

$0.1976
.1450
.1968
.1792
.2412

$0.1978
.1463
.2063
. 1802
.2851

United States...........................................

30

245

267

59.02

59.07

.1913

.1935

Fleshers, male:
North Atlantic. ..........................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

24
12
12
5
1

170
66
70
18
3

141
69
60
24
2

59.26
60.00
58.91
59.06
57.00

59.07
60.00
59.08
59.00
54.00

.1778
.1528
.1982
.1772
.2632

.1934
.1579
.1957
. 1783
.3056

United States...........................................

54

327

296

59.30

59.25

.1779

.1851

Glazers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................

14
2
3

520
72
30

574
92
33

59.25
60.00
59.40

59.26
60.00
59.33

.1780
.1823
.1549

.1700
.1840
.1521

United States...........................................

19

622

699

59.34

59.36

.1774

.1710

Glazers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................

4
2
3

42
141
49

63
119
49

59.67
60.00
59.71

59.73
60.00
59.78

.1379
.1102
.0928

.1195
.1070
.1165

United States...........................................

9

232

231

59.88

59.88

.1116

.1124

Limers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................J
South Atlantic................................... .........
North C entral............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

19
8
13
4
2

202
82
125
23
6

238
96
118
16
7

58.42
60.00
59.49
59.39
57.83

58.65
60.00
59.47
59.13
56.14

.1812
.1383
.1685
.1258
.2076

.1806
.1503
.1700
.1377
.2670

United States...........................................

46

438 |

475

59.06

59.11

.1670

.1717

Rollers, male:
■ North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
N orth Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

11
6
4
3

66
35
16
17

66
39
19
21

57.14
60.00
59.38
59.88

57.33
60.00
5a 47
59.90

.2013
.1485
.1804
.1414

.1968
.1542
.1865
.1464

j

United States...........................................

24

134

145

58.50

58.70

.1774

Setters out, male:
N orth Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western............................................... ____

18
3
10
1
2

206
15
128
6
6

221
25
139
6
6

59.17
60.00
59.06
60.00
57.00

59.16
60.00
59.12
60.00
56.00

,1761
.1344
.2151
.2410
.2456

.1781
.1387
.2140
.2467
.2866

.1767

United States...........................................

34

361

397

59.14

59.17

.1904 |

.1909

Shavers, male:
N orth Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

18
2
10
1
2

109
27
121
3
3

117
31
119
4
3

58.51
60.00
59.63
60.00
57.00

58.61
60.00
59.64
60.00
55.00

,3112
.1845
.2363
.2652
.2749

.3127
.1865
.2266
.2552
.3470

United States...........................................

33

263

274

59.18

59.19

.2628

.2606

Stakers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

12
2
6
1

303
43
70
7

358
44
66
9

59.40
60.00
59.39
57.00

59.38
60.00
59.41
57.00

.2141
.1776
.1724
.2381

.2128
.1847
.1706
.2495

United States...........................................

21

423

477

59.42

59.40

.2039,

.2050




47

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I . —AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
L E A T H E R —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Tanyard hands, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

25
12
12
4
2

424
265
278
78
12

460
305
270
85
9

59.09
60.00
59.10
59.85
57.83

59.09
60.00
59.11
59.86
55.67

$0.1571
.1238
.1700
.1101
.2003

$0.1607
.1273
.1715
.1214
.2416

United S ta tes...........................................

55

1,057

1,129

59.36

59.37

.1492

.1519

Unhairers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central ............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

22
12
11
2

168
146
94
16
14

185
114
69
11
11

58.83
60.00
58.98
60.00
57.00

58.94
60.00
58.64
60.00
56.18

.2061
.1489
.2017
.1289
.2337

.2069
.1496
.2039
.1371
.2638

United S ta tes...........................................

50

438

390

59.24

59.15

.1841

.1893

a

IilQ U O R S, M A L T .
Bottlers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

12
3
18
2
3

120
41
3,544
108
39

127
44
3,965
122
49

57.70
57.95
51.32
56.89
49.38

57.02
57.95
50.99
48.00
48.00

$0.1989
.1732
.1926
.1965
.3053

$0.2010
.1852
.1904
.2485
.3140

United States...........................................

38

3,852

4,307

51.73

51.12

.1939

.1938

Cellar men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

22
3
19
4
4

323
27
459
40
72

342
28
462
39
43

57.66
58.00
49.78
53.55
48.00

54 34
58.07
48.51
49.85
48.00

.2988
.2576
.3201
.2907
.4266

.3187
.2861
.3339
.3242
.4290

United States...........................................

52

921

914

52.81

51.02

.3179

.3308

Coopers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western___;...............................................

21
2
12
2
4

69
4
281
12
20

73
3
279
13
29

55.48
60.00
48.62
55.00
48.00

53.40
60.90
48.42
48.00
48.00

.3152
.2542
.3184
.3025
.4359

.3301
.2611
.3237
.3587
.4472

United States...........................................

41

386

397

50.13

49.38

.3227

.3346

Drivers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

22
3
19
4
5

560
41
328
91
62

617
50
345
99
60

58.46
58.98
56.54
61.43
58.26

57.12
60.12
56.61
55.30
56.90

.2922
.2720
.2872
.2422
.3516

.3009
.2740
.2927
.2865
.3507

United States...........................................

53

1,082

1,171

58.14

56.93

.2891

.2987

Fermenters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central.............................................
Western......................,................................

22
3
17
3

99
14
141
10

109
14
147
11

57.55
57.00
48.79
48.00

54 58
57.00
48.51
48.00

.3051
.2991
.3273
.4150

.3215
.3154
.3326
.4208

United States...........................................

45

264

281

52.48

51.27

.3208

.3309

Kettle men, male:
North Atlantic......................... •..................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central ...........................................
Western.......................................................

22
3
19
4
4

77
8
130
10
26

93
9
130
10
20

57.27
57.00
49.55
54.00
48.00

54 58
56.67
48.55
51.00
48.00

.3064
.2947
.3237
.3322
.4332

.3215
.3107
.3375
.3539
.4392

United States...........................................

52

251

262

52.17

51.02 |

.3291

.3393




48

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
LIQ U O R S, M A L T —Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Averagea wages
per rlour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Malt house men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
11
4

76
214
38

84
211
38

64.79
49.90
4& 00

65.18
49.68
4a 21

$0.2365
.3299
.4155

$0.2512
.3330
.4242

United States...........................................

19

328

333

5a 13

53.42

.3182

.3227

Washers, male:
North A ta n tic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central................... ..........................
Western.......................................................

22
3
19
3
4

263
16
390
24
65

289
17
393
24
58

56.92
57.75
49.42
52.25
4a 00

54.31
5a 24
4a 45
49.25
4a 00

.2662
.2448
.3003
.2956
.4192

.2801
.2553
.3118
.3129
.4210

United States...........................................

51

758

781

52.16

50.82

.2974

.3070

LUM BER.
Band setters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
2
26
11
6

12
3
72
18
19

14
4
73
17
17

60.00
64.00
60.64
63.33
60.00

60.00
63.00
60.63
60.00
60.00

$0.2871
.2485
.2569
.2164
.2450

$0.2818
.2364
.2625
.2368
.2576

United States...........................................

49

124

125

60.95

60.46

.2519

.2596

Cant setters, gang, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western......................................................

1
7
4
2

2
25
5
2

2
25
5
2

60.00
60.96
66.00
60.00

60.00
60.96
60.00
60.00

.1925
.2077
.1955
.1750

.1925
.2145
.2150
.2050

United States...........................................

14

34

34

61.59

60.71

.2031

.2127

Carriage men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
Southcentral...........................................
Western.......................................................

3
7
24
16
6

4
15
67
43
33

4
17
67
43
30

58.25
62.40
60.31
64.05
60.00

58.25
62.12
60.31
60.42
60.00

.1995
.1484
.1990
.1623
.2005.

.1995
.1532
.2064
.1736
.2208

United States...........................................

56

162

161

61.38

60.42

.1849

.1945

Choppers and sawyers, in woods, male:
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

6
15
6
6

107
1,763
110
266

137
1,961
105
286

58.54
60.27
63.27
64.17

58.73
60.34
61.37
64.09

.1497
.1821
.1583
.2663

.1567
.1902
.1757
.2800

United States...........................................

33

2,246

2,489

60.80

60.72

.1893

.1981

Circular setters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

2
6
7
8
3

2
8
10
14
7

2
7
9
13
6

56.50
62.25
59.90
62.14
60.00

56.50
62.14
59.89
60.92
60.00

.2415
.1432
.2167
. 1987
.252 7

.2415
.1593
.2185
.2140
' .2824

United States...........................................

26

41

37

60.98

60.51

.2036

.2173

Edger men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
9
26
17
9

4
11
81
37
20

5
12
82
35
. 20

58.25
62.09
60.17
62.76
60.00

58.60
61.92
60.17
60.34
60.00

.2774
.1738
.2551
.2123
.3035

.2619
.1862
.2583
2306
.3257

United States...........................................

65

153 !

154

60.86

60.27

.2458

.2553




49

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOE, 1890 TO 1906.

T abus I;—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
LUM BER—Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Average3 wages
p e r l lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Filers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

5
7
25
16
8

12
11
53
25
25

13
11
54
27
28

60.00
62.91
59.94
63.12
60.00

60.00
62.91
59.94
60.22
60.00

$0,358?
.3599
.4741
.5049
.4839

$0.3500
.3873
.4819
.5245
.4991

United States...........................................

61

126

133

60.85

60.26

.4611

.4735

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
Nprth Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

5
9
27
17
8

141
484
2,532
1,761
1,518

209
762
2,471
1,758
1,943

59.50
61.30
60.17
63.18
60.00

59.67
60.57
60.17
60.05
60.00

.1708
.1163
.1658
.1371
.1917

.1679
.1392
.1747
.1477
.2092

6,436

7,143

61.02

60.12

.1604

.1735

11
4
62
19
26

60.00
64.00
60.26
63.16
60.00

60.00
63.00
60.26
60.00
60.00

.5025
.5576
.4951
.5158
.4246

.5136
.5932
.5030
.5658
.4632

United States...........................................

66

Sawyers, band, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.....................:......................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western..................................................

4
2
26
12
8

10
3.
61
19
27

United States...........................................

52

120

122

60.73

60.23

.4847

.5082

Sawyers, circular, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic...................:.......................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western....................................1.................

2
6
10
8
3

2
7
14
14
7

2
6
13
13
6

56.50
62.14
59.93
62.14
60.00

56.50
62.00
59.92
60.92
60.00

.4156
.3382
.3429
.3873
.4775

.4156
.3673
.3519
.4390
.5365

United States...........................................

29

44

40

60.84

60.40

.3810

.4134

Sawyers, gang, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............ , ...............................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

3
1
10
4
2

6
2
16
5
2

7
2
16
5
2

60.00
59.00
60.38
66.00
60.00

60.00
59.00
60.38
60.00
60.00

.2292
.1500
.2962
.2547
.3025

.2321
.1500
. 3072
.2802
.3250

United States...........................................

20

31

32

61.10

60.13

.2675

.2779

Trimmers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.................................. ....................

3
7
26
16
9

7
11
126
37
29

7
12
131
36
26

59.00
63.27
60.25
62.92
60.00

59.00
63.00
60.24
60.33
60.00

.2459
.1217
.2228
.1606
.2321

.2459
.1404
.2256
.1757
.2483

United States........ ..................................

61

210

212

60.80

60.34

.2086

.2158

M A R B LE A N D STONE W O R K .
Bed rubbers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic...........................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

25
4
17
8
5

89
21
92
38
12

84
19
90
42
10

48.40
53.95
55.03
58.29
49.00

49.31
53.95
55.56
57.55
49.20

$0.3560
.1877
.2555
.2029
.3223

$0.3392
.1916
.2587
.2092
.3806

United States...........................................

59

252

245

52.81

53.37

.2806

.2776

Carvers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

26
4
10
8
7

101
8
27
14
13

131
8
23
14
14

45.45
53.00
53.33
52.64
48.92

45.85
53.00
53.22
51.36
49.29

.6169
.4294
.4097
.4296
.4741

.5979
.4358
.4243
.4456
.5064

United States...........................................

55

163

190

48.02

47.70 |

.5459

.5521




50

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I .— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
M A R B L E A N D STONE W O R K —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
pernour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western........................................................

32
15
28
19
7

281
136
252
210
29

287
142
251
211
28

50.05
54.18
58.92
58.15
50.48

50.35
54.23
56.33
58.07
48.86

SO.2620
.1662
.1891
.1423
.2762

$0.2537
.1720
.1971
.1481
.3007

United States...........................................

101

908

919

55.02

54.31

.2002

.2028

Letterers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western........................................................

26
4
10
6
7

65
8
24
24
15

64
8
22
25
17

49.49
54.75
53.54
55.08
47.60

49.20
54.75
53.50
52.88
48.00

.3881
.3111
.3616
.3157
.4875

.3907
.3546
.3850
.3347
.4828

United States...........................................

53

136

136

51.29

50.75

Marble-cutters, male:
North Atlantic................................:..........
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western........................................................

.3771
===== =

.3889
=

22
11
19
15
10

169
56
98
64
27

149
65
90
72
22

46.92
52.48
53.85
56.97
49.11

47.45
52.89
54.53
55.71
49.09

.4909
.3505
.3016
.3064
.4225

.4675
.3525
.3248
.3152
.4397

United States...........................................

77

414

398

51.01

51.53

.3941

.3873

Marble polishers, male:
North Atlantic.............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western........................................................

19
9
14
16
9

133
48
141
76
22

139
49
149
75
22

48.74
54.81
55.16
57.74
48.36

48.85
54.78
55.56
56.88
48.36

.2798
.1772
.2101
.1734
.3264

.2785
.1943
.2120
.1907
.3662

United States...........................................

67

420

434

53.20

53.18

.2279

.2355

Sawyers, male:
North Atlantic.............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western........................................................

19
3
26
6
3

74
6
56
26
6

81
6
58
26
4

49.00
53.83
58.88
58.38
48.00

49.20
53.83
58.86
57.46
48.00

.3071
.1858
.2484
.1761
.3490

.3045
.2135
.2575
.1987
.3906

United States...........................................

57

168

175

53.88

53.76

.2644

.2720

Stonecutters, granite, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western........................................................

40
16
11
8
14

649
127
74
54
107

717
112
76
56
163

47.46
48.41
52.73
52.44
47.27

47.20
48.46
52.75
50.91
44.66

.4105
.3967
.3435
.3475
.5490

.4219
.4068
.3542
.3721
.5569

United States...........................................

89

1,011

1,124

48.21

47.52

.4152

.4329

Stonecutters, soft stone, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western........................................................

18
11
32
13
9

384
81
329
111
82

444
81
308
103
58

45.46
48.25
46.82
46.20
44.49

45.72
48.19
46.46
46.25
44.34

.5228
.4743
.4978
.4889
.5908

.5184
.5149
.5155
.4985
.5952

United States...........................................

83

987

994

46.14

46.13

.5123

.5197

Stone polishers, male:
North Atlantic.............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

12
3
2
6

35
6
7
6

35
6
7
7

50.57
53.83
59.00
46.67

50.40
53.83
59.00
46.29

.2638
.1771
.1435
.3750

.2636
.1830
.1650
.3750

United States...........................................

23

54

55

51.59 j 51.35

.2509

.2564




51

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,
T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
PAPER A N D W OOD PU LP.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establ,*aU
iisnments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
perl lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Back tenders, male:
North Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................

16
8

210
55

208
61

64.12
69.65

64.14
68.90

$0.1762
.1538

$0.1766
.1553

United States...........................................

24

265

269

65.27

65.22

.1715

.1718

Beaters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

17
10

414
130

420
138

60.94
68.88

61.23
68.43

.1806
.1521

.1782
.1564

United States...........................................

27

544

558

62.83

63.01

.1738

.1728

Black ash burners, male:
North Atlantic............................................

3

29

37

64.55

68.76

.1945

.1761

Bleachers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

8
5

89
23

88
28

55.33
63.65

55.00
62.57

.1977
.1608

.1977
.1641

United States...........................................

13

112

116

57.04

56.83

.1901

.1896

Calendrers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central, i..........................................

8
7

185
53

202
71

54.25
63.62

54.80
64.06

.2008
.1717

.1957
.1746

United States...........................................

15

238

273

56.34

57.21

.1943

.1902

Calendrers, female:
North Atlantic............................................

2

38

33

55.00

55.00

.1412

.1382

Color mixers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

1
. 1

15
8

16
17

48.00
60.00

48.00
60.00

.2313
.1836

.2238
.1770

United States...........................................

2

23

33

52.17

54.18

.2147

.1997

Cutters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

11
8

107
30

98
42

51.79
58.40

52.32
59.14

.2101
.1782

.2118
.1758

United States...........................................

19

137

140

53.24

54.36

.2031

.2010

Cutters, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

10
9

163
49

160
56

55.16
59.94

55.04
59.95

.1078
.0938

.1086
.0956

United States...........................................

19

212

216

56.26

56.31

.1045

.1053

Enamelers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

2
1

68
10

65
24

48.53
60.00

48.55
60.00

.2264
.1790

.2160
.1796

United States...........................................

3

78

89

50.00

51.64

.2204

.2062

Finishers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

14
9

128
49

160
60

60.38
59.96

60.06
59.93

.1812
.1771

.1781
.1793

United States...........................................

23

177

220

60.27

60.02

.1800

.1784

Finishers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

6
6

50
37

50
60

57.03
59.92

57.70
59.97

.1342
.1058

.1313
.1014

United States...........................................

12

87

110

58.29

58.94

.1221

.1150

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

17
10

1,087
227

1,019
252

60.23
60.72

59.35
60.65

.1547
.1451

.1581
.1499

United States...........................................

27

1,314

1,271

60.32

59.61

.1530

.1565




52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e 1 . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1900, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
P A P E R A N D W O O D P U L P —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­
Average
ber of Number of - hoars per
estab­ employees.
week.
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906. 1905. 1906.

Averafje wages
per 1
ciour.
1905.

1906.

Machine tenders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

18
9

238
47

241
50

61.11
69.34

60.95
68.56

SO.2791
.2712

$0.2$08
.2708

United States...........................................

27

285

291

62.47

62.26

.2778

.2791

Press tenders, male:
North Atlantic............................ ;..............
North Central..............................................

4
3

62
12

74
16

66.98
61.92

66.73
61.44

.1562
: 1346

.1572
.1343

United States...........................................

7

74

90

66.16

65.79

.1527

. 1C31

Pulp grinders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.................... ........................

6
3

118
28

120
28

68.15
71.86

68.11
71.86

.1591
.1411

.1592
. 1429

United States...........................................

9

146

148

68.86

68.82

.’ 556
1

.1561

Rag sorters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central...................................... .....

2
1

40
3

39
3

57.90
60.00

57.85
60.00

.1665
.1583

.1675
.1583

3

43

42

58.05

58.00

.1660

.1668

6
6

214
66

217
67

54.17
59.45

52.33
59.64

.0985
.1012

.1049
.1031

United States...................................... .
Rag sorters, female:
North A t l a n t i c . .......................................
North Central..............................................
United States..........................................

12

280

284

55.41

54.06

.0991

. 1045

Wood cookers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central............................................

6
3

51
11

46
10

62.53
71.73

61.39
71.70

.1993
.1654

.2036
. 1C94

United States...........................................

9

62

56

64.16

63.23

.1933

.1975

8
3

251
86

186
91

61.53
59.95

62.32
59.95

.1629
.1509

.1637
.1607

337 i

277

61.13

61.54

.1598

. 1627

Wood preparers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

1

United States...........................................
i

■■

|

P L A N IN G M IL L .
Carpenters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..........................................
South Central.................................
Western......... ................................

26
12
40
11
8

• 434
308
546
124
76

456
315
535
125
65

54.46
54.99
56.94
56.37
50.93

54.38
54.74
56.97
55.63
49.11

10.2963
.2939
.2681
.2606
.3924

SO 3028
.
.2971
.2752
.2647
.4470

United States..................................

97

1,488

1,496

55.46

55.26

.2874

.2948

5
5
23
1

46
33
181
3

49
35
177
3

56.02
55.48
58.66
60.00

55.84
55.20
58.54
60.00

.2282
.2932
.2275
.2750

.2343
.3075
.2269
.3000

Framers, male:
North Atlantic.........................................
South Atlantic................................
North Central...........................................
Western..............................................
United States...........................................

34

263

264

57.81

57.61

.2364

.2398

Glaziers, male:
North Atlantic......................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

11
6
19
5
2

31
13
35
12
6

33
12
38
12
14

55.61
56.23
58.86
57.00
60.00

55.15
56.00
58.74
57.00
48.86

.2351
.2733
.2137
.2264
.2583

.2414
.2427
.2214
.2099
.3902

United States...........................................

43

97

109

57.31

55.89

.2329

.2502




53

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

T able I .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
PLANTING M IL L —Concluded.
Num­
ber of Number of
estab­ employees.
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1806.

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............................... .............
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

26
11
39
17
5

239
418
1,149
780
136

261
514
1,239
778
136

57.29
56.75
59.44
63.51
56.51

57.83
56.33
59.38
59.71
54.84

$0.1678
.1220
.1549
.1384
.2135

10.1691
.1300
.1588
.1484
.2436

United States...........................................

98

2,722

2,928

59.86

58.58

.1492

.1558

Machine woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic..........................................
- South Atlantic............................................
North Central................. ...........................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

30
13
46
18
9

296
194
738
208
88

293
181
760
215
110

55.51
56.66
58.53
60.63
53.25

55.23
56.19
58.49
57.93
50.61

.2756
.2492
.2144
.2043
.3531

.2846
.2467
.2212
.2153
.3594

United States...........................................

116

1,524

1,559

57.69

56.98

.2373

.2450

Sawyers, band, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

14
8
30
9
5

20
17
58
27
7

20
17
61
27
6

56.25
56.06
58.84
63.11
51.71

56.00
55.41
58.93
59.56
54.33

.2743
.2832
.2120
.1989
.4095

.2838
.2879
.2162
.2119
.3969

United States...........................................

66

129

131

58.58

57.95

. 2380

.2432

Sawyers, circular, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............... .............................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

24
10
34
5
6

103
35
236
20
31

110
34
243
22
33

55.29
55.97
58.82
56.40
55.55

55.16
54.71
58.82
56.45
48.55

.2648
.2307
.2169
.2417
.3072

.2720
.2451
' .2198
.2445
. 3839

United States...........................................

79

425

442

57.38

56.71

.2374

.2482

Sawyers, jig, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.........................................
North Central.............................................

6
6
11

6
5
13

7
5
13

55.83
55.20
59.08

53.71
55.20
59.15

.2880
.2292
.2238

.3110
.2358
.2242

United States...........................................

22

24

25

57.46

56.84

.2410

.2509

Sawyers, not specified, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

4
4
9

4
14
13

4
19
14

58.50
54.43
54.54

58.50
54.32
54.50

.2488
.2489
.2573

.2675
. 2457
.2675

United States...........................................

17

31

37

55.00

54.84

.2524

.2563

PO TTER Y.
Dippers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

7
5

9
16

9
19

45.89
44.56

45.89
44.16

10.5589
.5429

C . 5251
O
.5463

United States...........................................

12

25

28

45.04

44.71

.5487

.5395

5

45
66

50
67

52.22 7 51.38
53.00 53.00

.4502
.4670

.4348
.4541

12

111

117

52.68

52.31

.4602

. 4459

5

8

9
9

9
8

61.89
76.00

63.00
75.00

.3582
.2924

.3576
.2977

13

18

17

68.94 ! 68.65

.3253

.3294

Jigger men, male:
North Atlantic............................................ j
North Central............... ............................. |
United States...........................................
Kiln firemen, male:
North Central.............................................
United S ta te s ......................................... |




1
j
!
j

54

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

T able I __ AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
P O TT E R Y —Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
establishments.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

Kiln men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

8
5

110
105

110
101

47 22
45.00

47.59
45.00

$0.3523
.4108

$0.3666
.4219

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Averagei wages
per h our.
1906.

United States...........................................

13

215

211

46.13

46.35

.3809

.3931

Mold makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

7
5

20
15

18
15

53.95
50.60

54.06
50.60

.3397
.3966

.3511
.4017

United States...........................................

12

35

33

52.51

52.48

.3641

.3741

Pressers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

8
5

169
76

178
78

53.60
53.00

53.02
53.00

.4210
.3731

.4217
.3801

United States...........................................

13

245

256

53.42

53.02

.4061

.4090

Sagger makers, male:
North Atlantic....................... '....................
North Central..............................................

7
5

14
12

15
12

50.79
44.08

50.73
44.08

.4658
.6453

.4935
.6534

United States...........................................

12

26

27

47.69

47.78

.5487

.5646

Setters out, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

7
5

15
16

16
16

46.13
45.00

46.38
45.00

.4437
.5041

.4626
.5292

United States...........................................

12

31

32

45.55

45.69

.4749

.4959

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L ISH IN G , BO O K A N D JOB.
Bookbinders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central...............................................
Western.......................................................

23
17
41
17
14

207
62
469
75
60

220
71
463
80
69

53.64
54.44
53.89
53.72
51.55

53.39
54.17
53.76
53.53
49.86

$0.3400
.2916
.3091
.3120
.3684

$0.3471
.3016
.3169
.3167
.3889

United States...........................................

112

873

903

53.69

53.38

.3195

.3285

Compositors, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central...............................................
Western.......................................................

47
23
48
19
18

775
203
633
188
112

793
220
638
191
120

52.43
53.88
53.84
53.36
49.85

50.77
52.61
51.13
52.60
49.33

.3403
.3056
.3299
.3292
.4116

.3602
.3203
.3443
.3364
.4237

United States...........................................

155

1,911

1,962

52.99

51.19

.3363

.3521

Compositors, female:
North Atlantis............................................
North Central.................................... .......

12
9

86
23

84
23

53.67
54.00

53.33
53.22

.2018
.2698

.2306
.2950

United States...........................................

21

109

107

53.74

53.31

.2162

.2445

Electrotypers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

8
9
4

66
72
14

85
73
21

52.52
52.94
52.86

52.25
52.74
49.43

.3841
.3350
.4475

.3807
.3511
.4816

United States...........................................

21

152

179

52.75

52.12

.3667

.3805




55

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L ISH IN G , BOOK A N D JOB—Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag<b wages
per 1lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Linotype operators, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

19
10
20
4
8

161
25
90
14
24

190
29
86
14
31

50.97
52.64
49.06
48.00
48.50

49.32
51.59
48.84
48.00
48.19

10.4416
.3961
.4674
.4697
.5472

10.4580
.4122
.4664
.4712
.5552

United States...........................................

61

314

350

50.23

49.24

.4547

.4654

Press feeders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

37
20
46
18
18

341
103
516
126
95

372
107
519
137
105

53.19
54.49
53.89
53.59
49.77

52.48
54.01
53.77
53.05
49.27

.2060
.1510
.1866
.1539
.2088

.2116
.1585
.1906
.1615
.2392

United States...........................................

139

1,181

1,240

53.38

52.94

.1874

.1951

Press feeders, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

13
12
10
7

133
29
61
31

145
44
61
27

54.47
54.00
54.00
54.06

54.43
54.00
54.00
53.78

.1241
.1071
.1419
.1038

.1284
.1155
.1494
.1016

United States...........................................

42

254

277

54.26

54.20

.1240

.1284

Pressmen, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

48
23
50
19
18

381
73
309
62
53

402
74
320
67
54

53.58
54.38
53.96
53.74
49.60

53.05
53.81
53.82
53.49
49.19

.3425
.2866
.3340
.3089
.4103

.3497
.3040
.3411
.3121
.4400

United States...........................................

158

878

917

53.55

53.18

.3366

.3456

Proof readers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

22
8
15
6

85
13
26
11

93
14
21
8

52.52
54.69
54.00
48.55

49.92
53.64
52.57
48.00

.3809
.3244
.3681
.4757

.4174
.3226
.4003
.5168

United States...........................................

51

135

136

52.69

50.60

.3807

.4109

Proof readers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

15
12

23
17

30
18

51.61
53.59

51.13
52.61

.2984
.2906

.3086
.2907

United States........................................ ...

27

40

48

52.45

51.69

.2951

.3019

Sewers, book, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central......................... •...................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

20
11
34
17
11

113
61
177
125
72

120
68
187
130
87

53.88
54.21
53.81
53.66
51.06

53.58
54.15
53.56
52.12
50.85

.1319
.0989
.1246
.1041
.1468

.1364
.1005
.1272
.1076
.1415

United States...........................................

93

548

592

53.47

52.92

.1215

.1238

Stitchers, book, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South C entral.............................. .............
Western......................................................

17
4
20
5
6

60
19
88
16
18

66
21
98
18
23

53.73
54.00
53.80
53.63
50.22

53.56
53.43
53.85
53.67
48.26

.1096
.0873
.1189
.1131
. 1593

.1146
.0834
.1212
.1114
.1714

United States..........................w
...............

52

201

226

53.46

53.14

.1163

.1201




56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . — AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , N E W SP A P E R .

Occupation and geographical division.

Compositors, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estabtioh
11SI1ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
p erl iour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

47
22
44
19
17

787
237
595
225
198

820
279
629
235
242

47.12
48.22
47.78
48.79
46.46

47.09
47.20
47.24
48.52
46.66

10.4946
.4602
.5030
.4998
.5972

$0.4995
.4707
.5156
.4994
.6045

United States...........................................
Linotype operators, male:
N orth Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central................................. ............
South Central..............................................
Western.................................... ...................

. 149

2,042

2,205

47.56

47.25

.5036

.5120

46
22
43
19
17

813
247
586
218
210

799
254
615
217
229

47.24
44.66
47.68
47.42
45.26

46.74
44.94
47.36
47.71
45.62

.5448
.5606
.5121
.6264
.6452

.5524
.5531
.5296
.6499
.6535

United States...................................... :..
Pressmen, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central............ ................................
South Central.............................................:
Western.......................................................

147

2,074

2,114

46.88

46.68

.5562

.5668

47
22
43
18
17

388"
69
316
33
75

410
71
362
33
78

47.22
48.90
52.41
52.58
49.04

46.58
48.25
50.67
52.61
49.17

.4469
.3606
.4057
.4554
.4463

.4636
.3705
.4150
.4678
.4517

United States...........................................
Stereotypers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic...........................................;
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western......................................................;

147

881

954

49.57

48.68

.4256

.4374

44
19
40
17
17

24i
52
179
31
50

259
54
186
32
54

46.21
46.81
48.54
48.52
49.98

45.84
46.78
48.45
49.19
49.83

.5224
.3983
.4449
.4236
.4702

.5324
.4045
.4463
.4278
.4843

United States.. ......................................

137

553

585

47.49

47.31

.4754

.4831

S H IP B U IL D IN G .
Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

15*
6
4
3

121
79
35
54

120
66
32
45

55.64
57.54
58.83
54.00

55.61
57.89
58.72
53.87

$0.2893
.2738
.2864
.3549

$0.2982
.2797
.2956
.3833

United States...........................................
Boiler makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

28

289

263

56.24

56.26

.2970

.3078

10
6
4
3

308
247
73
49

356
285
76
64

54.73
57.71
59.44
55.22

55.57
58. ,13
59.46
54.00

.2876
.2577
.2917
.3552

.2848
.2582
.3048
.4217

United States...........................................
Calkers, iron, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

23

677

781

56.36

56.75

.2820

.2882

8
2
4
2

335
37
84
63

289
51
105
70

58.34
54.78
58.07
54.00

58.31
54.67
57.26
54.00

.2701
.2274
.2774
.3115

.2732
.2375
.2736
.3529

United States...........................................
Calkers, wood, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................
United States............................................
Carpenters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
Western......................................*...............
United States...........................................




16

519

515

57.52 .57.15

.2733

.2805

16
4
1
2

283
90
12
27

332
80
9
12

52.71
54.67
54.00
54.00

52.92
54.15
54.00
49.00

.3462
.2814
.3100
.5517

.3549
.3005
.3100
.5958

23

412

433

53.26

53.06

.3444

.3506

21
8
4
4

1,100
432
141
262

1,146
460
170
176

54.46
57.37
58.47
58.08

54.39
57.30
58.55
52.81

.3119
.2639
2994
.3695

.3155
.2746
.3000
.4329

37 i 1,935

1,952

55.89

55 29

.3981

.3151

57

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I . — AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
S H I P B U I X iD I N G — Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

364
485
96
80
130 ' 156
94
118

58.59
55.85
57.51
54.00

58.74
56.81
56.92
54.00

10.2256
.1731
.1923
.2444

10.2368
.1772
.2016
.2823

1906.

Drillers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

9
4
4
2

United States...........................................

19

829

694

57.45

57.47

.2170

.2281

Fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.........................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

10
5
4
2

359
438
140
94

302
427
133
95

56.49
58.85
57.30
54.00

56.32
58.46
56.98
54.00

.2511
.2385
.2636
.3520

.2608
.2435
.2736
.4036

United States...........................................
Joiners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

21

1,031

957

57.37

57.13

.2566

.2691

13
6
3
4

370
490
103
189

394
298
84
194

56.51
56.72
59.65
54.25

56.96
57.16
59.00
53.72

.2953
.2621
.2990
.3657

.2998
.2759
.2995
.4305

-United States...........................................
Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

26

1,152

970

56.51

56.55

.2930

.3186

19
8
4
4

1,251
1,125
1,250
233

1,254
1,097
1,446
429

55.67
57.40
58.03
57.09

55.53
57.48
58.02
53.90

. 1640
.1352
.1506
.2130

.1680
.1388
.1605
.2207

United States...........................................
Machinists, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

35

3,859

4,226

57.02

56.72

.1542

.1632

12
6
4
3

933
623
226
484

1,048
740
313
479

56.49
58.18
59.36
54.09

56.89
58.15
59.32
54.00

.2684
!2658
!2792
.3430

.2700
.2659
.2869
.3769

United States...........................................
Molders, iron, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic................. -.........................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

25

2,266

2,580

56.73

57.01

.2847

.2907

3
3
2
2

77
113
116
36

82
136
92
69

58.32
58.57
60.00
54.00

58.63
57.97
55.37
54.00

.2875
.2693
.2970
.3699

.2870
.2842
.3266
.4358

United States...........................................
Painters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

10

342

379

58.52

56.76

.2934

.3227

13
6
3
1

282
407
65
6

455
338
58
49

55.48
56.31
59.72
60.00

55.92
56.01
59.69
54.00

.2721
.2354
.1982
.3000

.2677
.2427
.2000
.3000

United States...........................................
Pattern makers, wood, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..........................._.................
Western.......................................................

23

760

900

56.32

56.09

.2463

.2557

11
4
3
2

99
61
24
21

98
66
25
32

57.37
57.93
59.08
54.00

57.95
57.91
59.16
54.00

.3158
.2924
.3152
.4162

.3226
.3181
.3384
.4747

United States. / . ......................................
Riggers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................. .............
North Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

20

205

221

57.40

57.50

.3191

.3451

9
5
3
4

286
62
26
39

307
46
29
48

57.91
56.40
57.00
54.46

57.99
56.57
56.69
49.50

.2007
.2216
.2163
.4961

.2061
.23G6
.2183
.5514

United States...........................................
Riveters, male:
North Atlantic...................;.......................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central....................................... .
Western................. .....................................

21

413

430

57.30

56.80

.2327

.2487

10
4
3
2

383
383
186
32

315
456
240
233

56.92
59.20
58.06
54.00

57.03
58.66
57.10
54.00

.3020
.2336
.2389
.2981

.3343
.2143
.2722
.3097

United States...........................................

19

984

1,244

57.93

57.07

.2633

.2737




58

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I .— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
S IL K GOOJGS.

Occupation and geographical division.

Beamers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Doublers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Dyers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Loom fixers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Pickers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Quillers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Spinners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Twisters-in, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Warpers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Warpers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Weavers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Weavers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Weavers, ribbon, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Weavers, ribbon, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Winders, female:
North Atlantic............................................

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. | 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

|
7

32

32

56.44

56.41

10.1891

$0.1913

11

217

209

57.67

57.68

.0922

.0968

6

1,327

1,235

55.57

55.64

.1961

.1954

58.56

58.58

.2643

. 2673

16

187 |

191

14

377 1

387

58.06

58.07

.1170

.1202

16

479

424

57.53

57.62

,0901

.0934

6

221

215

57.99

57.96

.0876

.0966

14

149

131

57.79

57.76

.2283

.2312

7

90

96

56.04

56.08

.2569

.2530
.1552

12

600

601

58.08

58.12

.1483

12

1,138

944

57.74

57.59

.1961

.2070

14

2,144

2,112

57.96

58.07

\ 1491

.1541
.2535

4

335

331

56.30

56.18

.2455

4

220

202

58.25

58.00

.1764

.1787

17

920

956

58.06

58.16

.1071

,1057

SL A U G H T E R IN G A N D M EAT P A C K IN G .
Back skinners, cattle, male:
North Central..............................................
Dry salters, male:
North Central..............................................
Gutters, cattle, male:
North Central..............................................
Gutters, hog, male:
North Central..............................................
Headers, cattle, male:
North Central..............................................
Headers, hog, male:
North Central..............................................
Laborers, male:
North Central..............................................
Picklers, male:
North Central..............................................
Rump skinners, cattle, male:
North Central...........*.................................
Scrapers, hog, male:
North Central..............................................
Side skinners, cattle, male:
North Central..............................................
Splitters, cattle, male:
North Central..............................................
Splitters, hog, male:
North Central..............................................
Stickers, cattle, male:
North Central..............................................
Stickers, hog, male:
North Central..............................................

12

26

26

(a)

(a )

30.4321

30.4404

14

459

470

60.00

59.94

.1806

.1833

12

26

26

(a)

(a )

.2597

.2615

14

35

35

(a )

(a )

.2810

.2896

11

29

28

(a)

(a )

.3336

.3278

15

16

16

(°)

(a)

.2691

.55809

15 10,817 10,980

(«)

(«)

.1683

.1703

14

513

589

60.00

60.00

.1792

.1806

10

20

20

(°)

(a )

.3733

.3779

13

63

64

(a )

(a )

.2236

.2304

12

66

68

(a )

(«)

.4821

.4846

13

44

46

(a)

(<*)

.4655

.4717

15

35

37

(a)

(a )

.3090

.3122

11

17

' 18

(a )

(a )

.3132

.3139

15

15

15

(«>

.2928

.3043

(a)

a Not reported; working hours are irregular, depending upon amount of work to be done each day.




59

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I .— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
STREETS A N D SE W E R S, CONTRACT W O R K .

Occupation and geographical division.

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................
United States...........................................

Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

5,166
1,352
4,147
1,748
2,191

58.74
55.12
57.55
58.45
51.67

57.64
54.74
58.10
58.51
50.69

10.1612
.1591
.2025
.1644
.2482

$0.1731
.1680
.2073
.1645
.2784

128 14,436 14,604

57.39

56.56

.1813

.1971

38
18
40
17
15

6,119
1,128
3,897
1,841
1,451

Average wages
per hour.
1906.

STREETS A N D SE W E R S, M U N IC IP A L W O R K .
Laborers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic................................ ............
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................
United States...........................................

9,023
2,439
9,748
1,126
1,216

48.72
50.15
48.07
52.05
48.00

48.65
50.55
48.22
51.72
48.00

$0.2298
.1846
.2201
.1700
.2590

$0.2313
.1848
.2260
.1713
.2715

70 22,076 |23,552

48.72

48.78

.2199

.2235

21
10
22
9
8

8,467
2,361
9,010
1,016
1,222

TOBACCO, CIG AR S.
Bunch makers, hand, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

3
2
4

69
61
35

56
43
41

54.87
56.92
50.74

55.29
56.09
49.73

$0.2316
.1725
.2322

$0.2502
.1959
.2340

United States...........................................

9

165

140

54.75

53.91

.2099

.2288

Bunch makers, hand, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic................................*...........
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

10
3
6
2

558
146
117
149

513
148
106
133

57.07
56.64
50.60
58.59

57.14
54.00
50.51
58.21

.1697
.1313
.2115
.0984

.1837
.1517
.2395
.1125

United States...........................................

21

970

900

56.46

56.00

.1580

.1745

Bunch makers, machine, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

8
3

437
159

359
146

53.94
52.64

53.69
52.67

.1360
.1429

.1611
.1717

United States...........................................

11

596

505

53.59

53.39

.1378

.1642

Cigar makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................

14
8
14

868
2,380
367

914
2,371
434

49.46
59.90
47.13

49.11
59.92
47.34

.3139
.2886
.3179

.3396
.3015
.3126

United States...........................................

36

3,615

3,719 ; 56.09
|

55.80

.2976

.3122

1

Cigar rollers, hand, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

6
2
4

260
57
94

169
47
62

52.43
57.54
49.94

51.93
55.15
49.84

.2325
.1885
.2168

.2566
.2100
.2557

United States...........................................

12

411

278

52.57

52.01

.2228

.2485

Cigar rollers, hand, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

10
3
8
1

540
259
266
24

667
253
252
26

54.65
57.92
50.87
46.00

54.77
56.87
50.72
46.00

.1643
.1363
.1828
.1217

.1796
.1523
.1943
.1283

United States...........................................

22

1,089

1,198

54.31

54.17

.1612

.1758




60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Concluded.
TO BACCO , C IG A R S—Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

Cigar rollers, machine, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

9
1
2
1

1,124
40
228
273

946
69
246
239

55.95
48.00
53.64
60.00

56.28
48.00
53.73
60.00

$0.1426
.1742
.1257
.0905

$0.1552
.1620
.1510
.1010

United States...........................................

13

1,665

1,500

56.11

56.08

.1325

.1462

Packers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.................... -.......................

20
8
10

117
118
41

134
132
41

48.62
59.39
48.59

48.09
59.36
48.41

.4029
.5732
.3653

.3978
.6233
.3905

United States...........................................

38

276

307

53.22* 52.98

.4701

.4938

Packers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central............................................

9
2
6
2

377
40
73
40

289
37
77
40

55.14 55.02
54.00 53.84
48.48 ! 48.68
59.30 1 59.30

.1317
.1441
.1431
.1177

.1304
.1520
.1565
.1566

United States...........................................

19

530

443

54.45

54.21

.1332

.1391

Stemmers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central..............................................

6
4
3

54
37
12

63
39
8

54.74
51.59
47.33

54.83
52.72
47.50

.1336
.1369
.1602

.1377
.1346
.2150

United States...........................................

13

103

110

52.75 | 53.55

.1379

.1422

North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................

22
9
16
2

931
266
321
54

936
273
357
65

54.11
59.59
51.20
55.59

53.79
58.68
50.91
56.12

.1043
.1106
.0992
.0799

.1084
.1240
.1044
.0815

United States........................................ :.

49

1,572

1,631

54.49

54.07

.1035

.1091

Stemmers, female:
North Atlantic............................................

S o u th A tla n tic ...................................................

WOOXiElST A N D W O R STED GOODS.
Burlers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Carders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Card strippers, male:
Nortn Atlantic............................................
Combers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Combers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Dyers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Loom fixers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Spinners, frame, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Spinners, mule, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Weavers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Weavers, female:
North Atlantic............................................




26

628

672

58.48

58.32

$0.1047

$0.1090

24

238

222

58.63

58.65

.1172

.1214

13

72

80

58.26

57.64

.1314

.1323

6

124

142

58.90

59.04

.1226

.1232

4

124

149

57.04

56.83

.0920

.0953

24

479

486

59.32

59.23

.1329

.1396

26

268

268

58.58

58.43

.2386

.2557

8

483

572

58.25

58.28

.1036

.1070

22

381

326

58.50

58.55

.1892

.2029

27

1,651

1,460

58.81

58.71

.1843

.2024

27

2,251

2,222

58.19

58.17

.1568

.1693

61

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY

OCCUPATIONS.

[For explanation of relative figures, see page 19.]

A G R IC U L T U R A L IM P LE M E N TS.
F IT T E R S , M ale.

BLACKSM ITHS, M ale.
[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1904; 24, 1905,
1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per jvages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99.
.......
1890
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1898...................
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......
1903...................

100.0

90.5
91.3
104.0
104.8
98.4
95.0

100.8

97.6
110.3
107.1
113.5
114.3
106.3
112.7
119.5
136.9
148.8

100.0

100.8

100.8

100.8
100.8

96.4

100.8
100.8
97.5

100.8

100.4
100.5
100.4
100.4
99.2

100.0

99.9
99.9

100.0

98.4
101.3
105.6
115.4

100.0

90.9
95.4
95.8
101.7
95.2
96.5
95.3

100.2

104.7
103.2
109.6
114.9

100.0
47.1
70.6
82.4
105.9
94.1
105.9
94.1
94.1
164.7
158.8
176.5
147.1
70.6
70.6
69.9
78.0
83.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.8
97.8
97.5

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1903.....................

Relative R elative! Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
111.1
88.9
88.9
100.0
100.0
88.9
77.8
100.0
122.2
111.1
111.1
122.2
111.1
100.0
80.0
85.7
103.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
96.3
96.2
95.4

100.0
92.7
90.3
98.6
100.0
100.7
102.7
121.5
93.4
96.4
103.8
102.1
129.6
135.3
134.8
144.7
152.7
151.1

MACHINE: W OO DW O RK ERS, M ale.

G R IN D E R S, M ale.
[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 8, 1904; 17,
1905; 19, 1903.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
189)......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 10,1904; 19,
1905, 1906.]

100.0
84.8
99.4
84.9
79.4
100.8
99.2
107.9
120.8
113.0
109.6
114.5
105.6
108.4
123.0
136.9
138.8
140.0

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 16, 1904;
23, 1905, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890..........- ........
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1903.....................

100.0
93.0
89.8
95.3
110.9
86.7
98.4
90.6
91.4
112.5
128.9
128.1
126.6
130.5
151.6
112.7
140.4
138.7

100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.2
98.3
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
99.7
98.4
98.3
97.9

100.0
101.5
102.8
101.8
104.9
•99.2
96.2
96.4
99.1
99.7
98.3
104.0
103.8
110.8
108.9
114.2
117.8
119.9

MOLDERS, IRON, M ale.

MACHINISTS, M ale.
[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 14, 1904;
21, 1905, 1906.]

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 12,1904; 21,
1905, 1905.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1903......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
97.9
98.8
98.5
107.1
93.8
94.1
100.0
91.7
105.6
113.0
123.9
128.6
124.5
146.6
122.3
140.3
139.2

8891—No. 71-07


100.0
100.5
100.4
100.4
100.4
97.8
100.5
100.4
99.1
100.4
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0
97.8
93.9
93.0
92.4

100.0
100.3
102.1
104.0
106.6
94.5
93.7
96.4
96.6
101.3
104.6
106.2
104.8
107.7
111.9
120.4
119.8
127.4

100.0
86.4
88.9
104.0
109.1
87.4
95.5
90.9
91.9
117.2
127.8
132.8
126.8
121.7
141.4
129.2
152.3
165.4

100.0
100.9*
100.9
101.0
100.9
99.1
100.7
98.3
97.0
100.4
100.7
100.9
100.8
100.8
100.1
98.2
98.1
97.7

100.0
102.3
103.6
10 .3
107.9
93.0
93.3
98.1
94.0
96.7
101.6
109.2
108.6
119.8
120.4
121.2
117.2
122.5

62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB.

T able II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

A G R IC U L T U R A L IM PLEM EN TS—Concluded.
P A T T E R N M A K E R S, M ale.

P A IN T E R S, M ale.
[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 12 estab­
lishments 1890-1894; 13,1895-1903. Data from 15
establishments 1904; 23, 1905; 22, 1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891..;..:.............
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
87.4
91.6
89.9
93.3
113.4
100.8
101.7
98.3
117.6
103.4
97.5
126.9
126.1
121.0
105.6
120.0
108.9

100.0
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.2
100.0
95.9
95.4
95.4

100.0
97.6
108.8
106.5
104.6
91.8
97.1
99.4
97.8
96.3
99.9
109.6
107.4
110.2
120.8
118.5
121.3
126.3

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 12, 1904;
22, 1905, 1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904............. .
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
76.2
85.7
97.6
109.5
92.9
104.8 •
100.0
97.6
116.7
114.3
161.9
154.8
135.7
154.8
128.7
135.9
175.9

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
98.6
98.2
98.0
97.6

100.0
99.4
98.4
104.7
101.4
95.5
98.1
101.1
97.4
103.2
101.0
104.0
105.6
109.7
112.8
118.0
118.1
130.4

B A K E R Y, BREAD.
R A K E R S, M ale.
[Data from 123 establishments 1890-1903; 140,1904; 150,1905; 148, 1906.]
100.0
93.3
94.6
96.1
96.0
97.2
100.2
102.1
102.6

Average 1890-99
1890 .............
1891 .............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894 ...... ? ...
1895 .............
1896 .............
1897 .............

100.0
100.8
100.8
100.9
100.5
100.4
99.9
99.6
100.2

100.0
99.3
99.9
100.3
100.2
98.4
98.7
99.6
99.8

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

107.9
109.8
114.0
121.0
130.4
133.7
142.6
148.1
155.6

99.1
97.8
96.9
96.3
95.8
93.9
93.6
92.5
91.8

100.6
103.1
106.6
108.8
113.9
118.9
121.1
123.5
127.4

B L A C K SM IT H IN G A N D H O RSESH O EIN G .
RLACKSMITHS, M ale

H O R SESH O ER S, FLOOR MEN, M ale.

[Data from 59 establishments 1890-1903; 48, 1904;
33, 1905; 31,1906.]

[Data from 109 establishments 1890-1903; 127,1904;
134, 1905; 139, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1895......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
100.0
102.8
102.8
103.5
94.4
95.1
101*4
97.2
102.8
102.1
105.6
109.2
107.7
107.7
101.1
102.2
107.9




100.0
100.2
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.1
99.4
99.3
98.3
97.9
97.4
97.2
96.2

100.0
100.1
100.3
101.0
100.7
98.6
98.2
98.5
99.9
101.1
101.5
102.5
104.1
107.6
109.9
108.9
108.6
112.9

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1 9 0 4 ..................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
105.7
101.9
103.4
101.1
100.4
96.6
97.7
95.5
98.9
99.6
101.5
102.3
100.4
100.0
98.3
101.4
106.3

100.0
102.0
101.9
101.9
100.8
99.3
99.2
99.2
98.9
98.6
98.2
97.7
96.7
96.0
95.6
95.1
94.5
94.1

100.0
98.1
97.6
97.8
98.4
101.1
99.9
100.5
101.1
102.3
103.1
104.9
106.6
107.8
113.4
116.8
119.9
123.4

63

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e II.—
RELATIVE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

B L A C K SM IT H IN G A N D H O RSESH OEING —Concluded.
H O B SE SH O E B S, FOROEMEN, M ale.
[Data from 69 establishments 1890-1903; 95,1904; 100,1905; 133,1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1 8 9 0 ....
1891... .
1892.......................
1893..
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
102.9
102.9
102.1
100.7
99.3
97.9
98.6
97.1

100.0
101.3
101.1
101.1
100.9
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.3

100.0
98.6
98.5
98.5
97.9
98.3
98.8
100.1
101.2

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901........... '........
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relatiye
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
99.6
97.1
99.3
97.9
96.4
96.4
94.4
94.8

98.9
97.9
96.9
9a 6
95.5
94.9
94.7
94.2
93.8

103.0
104.8
107.9
109.8
111.6
114.8
11&8
117.7
120.7

BOOTS A N D SHOES.
CUTTERS, OUTSOUE, M ale.

CUOSERS-ON, F em a le .

[Data for employees from 15 establishments 1890- [Data for employees from 26 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 26 estab­
1903. Data for hours and wages from 15 estab­
lishments 1890; 27, 1891; 28,1892; 29,1893, 1894;
lishments 1890; 17,1891, 1892; 18,1893; 20, 1894;
30,1895,1896; 31,1897; 32,1898,1899; 33,1900-1903.
24, 1895; 25, 1896; 26, 1897; 28, 1898; 32, 1899; 33,
Data from 37 establishments 1904; 35, 1905; 36,
1900, 1901; 34, 1902, 1903. Data from 40 estab­
1906.]
lishments 1904; 44, 1905, 1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
87.3
83.1
87.3
90.1
108.5
100.0
111.3
114.1
107.0
na9
111.3
lia 9
114.4
129.6
131.8
122.2
137.2

100.0
100.3
100.5
99.9
100.1
100.1
99.6
99.7
99.7
100.4
99.7
99.5
99.3
99.4
9a 8
9a 9
9a8
9a 4

100.0
90.7
96.8
9a 3
100.4
103.6
9a 4
103.3
105.2
100.1
102.9
102.4
105.5
103.4
io a 4
io a i
109.0
111.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
sa 7
948
97.4
9a 3
87.8
93.9
104 3
117.4
107.8
113.0
114 8
121.7
12a 2
140.0
133.9
139.6
142.2

100.0
100.2
101.7
100.2
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.6
99.6
9a 2
9a 6
9a 5
9a o

100.0
102.0
99.5
99.1
100.1
96.8
100.2
9a8
101.2
101.4
100.6
102.2
100.5
103.5
ioao
109.2
109.9
111.9

EDGE T R IM M E R S, M ale.

CUTTERS, U P P E R , M ale.

[D ata for employees from 22 establishments 1890- [Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 18 estab­
1903. Data for hours and wages from 22 estab­
lishments 1890; 20,1891; 21, 1892; 23, 1893; 24,
lishments 1890; 23, 1891; 25, 1892; 27, 1893; 28,
1894; ‘ 1895, 1896; 28, 1897; 30, 1898; 33, 1899;
27,
1894; 31,1895, 1896; 32, 1897; 33, 1898; 37, 1899;
34, 1900; 35, 1901-1903. Data from 41 establish­
39, 1900-1903. Data from 42 establishments
ments 1904; 45,1905, 1906.]
1904; 45,1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
7a 0
82.0
94.7
9a 2
96.3
99.8
io a 5
113.6
lia o
119.6
129.1
142.3
13a 5
144.3
154.5
162.1
172.8




100.0
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
99.8
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.7
99.7
99.8
9a4
96.6
9a 9
9a 2
9a 8

100.0
99.9
99.4
99.8
100.4
9ao
100.0
99.1
101.0
99.7
102.8
103.3
102.6
107.4
110.8
114.2
117.3
lia s

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906........... .-.......

100.0
742
76.4
86.5
96.6
102.2
100.0
112.4
114 6
111.2
120.2
123.6
133.2
134 8
140.4
151.2
162.4
18a 2

100.0
100.8
100.8
101.0
100.8
99.8
99.5
99.7
99.9
9a5
99.2
9a 2
99.2
97.3
9a 8
9 5 .7
9 5 .6

94 9

100.0
97.7
97.2
99.'2
io a i
99.2
103.1
99.2
100.4
99.9
99.0
io a 3
ioao
110.1
114 7
na4
na7
na9

64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

BOOTS A N D SHOES—Continued.
GOODYEAR ST IT C H ER S, M ale.
[Data for employees from 10 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890; 12,1891; 13,1892; 14, 1893; 15,
1894; 19,1895,1896; 21,1897; 22, 1898; 25,1899;
27, 1900, 1901; 29, 1902; 30, 1903. Data from 34
establishments 1904; 40,1905,1906.]
Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
91.7
86.1
86.1
97.2
91.7
94.4
105.6
108.3
105.6
130.6
150.0
155.6
158.3
161.1
181.1
205.8
225.9

100.0
88.6
93.9
96.5
96.4
99.6
100.9
98.6
108.4
106.6
110.4
315.6
117.3
121.7
131.0
133.2
130.2
128.1

100.0
101.3
100.6
100.5
100.7
99.5
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.5
98.9
98.8
98.7
95.1
94.4
94.6
94.9
94.2

H E E L T R IM M E R S, M ale.
[Data for employees from 15 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 15 estab­
lishments 1890; 17,1891; 18,1892; 20,1893; 21,
1894; 25, 1895-1897; 26, 1898; 28, 1899; 29, 1900;
30, 1901-1903. Data from 39 establishments
1904; 44,1905, 1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1903.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904................... .
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
77.1
85.7
94.3
100.0
100.0
108.6
108.6
111.4
105.7
97.1
102.9
100.0
88.6
85.7
93.8
97.3
108.7

100.0
101.6
100.7
100.7
100.4
99.7
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.6
9k 1
97.7
97.6
96.7
96.2
95.7
96.1
95.0

100.0
91.9
90.8
97.0
104.7102.3
103.6
101.0
102.3
105.0
101.5
104.8
105.5
106.9
135.7
122.0
125.1
127.4

LA ST E R S, MACHINE, M ale.

McKAlT ST IT C H ER S, M ale.

[Data for employees from 10 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 12, 1892; 14, 1893; 15, 1894;
16, 1895; 20, 1896; 23, 1897; 25, 1898; 30, 1899; 31,
1900; 32,1901; 33,1902,1903. Data from 37 estab­
lishments 1904; 44,1905,1906.]

[Data for employees from 14 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 14 establishments 1890; 16, 1891; 17, 1892; 19, 1893; 20,
1894-1896; 21, 1897; 23, 1898; 24, 1899; 25, 1900;
26, 1901-1903. Data from 28 establishments
1904; 31,1905; 32, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906.......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1893.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
3895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905...................
1906.....................

100.0
59.8
67.7
77.2
86.6
102.4
117.3
126.0
120.5
100.0
138.6
148.8
134.6
126.8
148.8
171. y
188.1
193.3

100.0
99.5
100.2
100.0
99.8
100.6
100.5
100.5
100.0
98.6
100.3
98.8
99.9
98.5 *
97.8
98.0
98.0
97.6

100.0
97.3
98.1
301.2
96.1
101.3
101.1
103.9
97.6
103.9
100.6
103.0
106.6
114.4
120.1
125.4
128.0
132.4

100.0
77.8
80.0
104.4
104.4
102.2
111.1
117.8
104.4
102.2
100.0
97.8
106.7
97.8
86.7
86.7
93.2
97.7

100.0
101.6
101.5
100.4
100.4
99.8
100.2
99.8
99.1
98.5
98.6
96.4
98.0
96.7
96.6
96.3
95.8
95.7

100.0
95.0
94.1
99.3
104.4
100.6
104.3
98.9
101.2
102.6
9d.6
99.9
99.1
100.7
103.6
103.5
102.2
104.3

TJAEJESRSt M a l a .
[Data for employees from 13 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 13 establish­
ments 1890, 1891; 14,1892; 15, 1893,1894; 16, 1895, 1896;' 17,1897-1899; 19, 1900-1903. Data from 28 estab­
lishments 1904; 33, 1905; 34,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890
..........
1891
..........
1892
..........
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.




100.0
64.2
83.2
78.8
108.0
102.9
107.3
121.9
114.6

100.0
100.1
100.7
99.4
99.0
99.7
100.9
100.3
99.9

100.0
101.4
97.4
98.8
100.4
101.4
100.9
101.6
97.9

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

113.1
102.9
105.1
108.8
91.2
94.2
93.6
106.0
122.2

100.3
99.7
99.6
99.8
98.2
96.0
95.9
95.9
95.2

97.7
102.6
107.9
105.5
110.0
123.4
123.3
126.0
122.3

65

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

• Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

BOOTS A N D SHOES—Concluded.
T A M PE R S, F em a le .

TAHIPERS, M ale.

[Bata for employees from 16 establishments 18901903. Bata for hours and wages from 16 estab­
lishments 1890; 18, 1891; 19, 1892; 20, 1893; 22,
1894; 26,1895,1896; 27,1897; 29,1898; 33,1899; 34,
1900,1901; 35,1902; 33,1903. Bata from 40 estab­
lishments 1904; 45,1905; 46, 1906.]

[Bata for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Bata for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890; 2, 1891,1892; 4, 1893,1896; 5, 1894,
1895,1897,1898; 7,1899,1900; 9,1901; 11,1902; 10,
1903. Bata from 16 establishments 1904; 19,
1905,1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.....................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.....................«
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
226.2
277.1
322.7

100.0
95.8
101.9
102.4
100.2
99.7
99.8
100.0
100.2
100.3
99.5
100.5
100.1
99.4
93.9
96.3
96.5
96.1

Year.

1 Relative Relative | Relative
number of hours per wages per
| employees. week.
hour

100.0 Average 1890-99.. i
112.3 1890.....................
97.3 1891.....................
92.4 1892.....................
95.6 1893.....................
89.4 1894.....................
90.7 i 1895.....................
101.5 j 1896.....................
111.4 1897.....................
103.0 1898.....................
106.7 ! 1899.....................
110.6 1900.....................
106.0 1901.....................
114.7 1902.....................
127.1 1903.....................
124.4 1904.....................
120.4 1905............. .......
127.5 1906.....................

m o
102.6
91.4
94.0
92.2
94.8
102.6
101.7
105.2
103.4
113.8
121.6
130.2
140.5
153.4
157.4
155.4
166.5

100.0
100.4
100.2
100.4
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.6
99.5
100.1
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.2
98.5
98.5
98.6
98.2

100.0
99.9
93.7
98.3
101.6
102.3
103.2
102.0
100.8
99.4
98.5
103.0
103.9
104.5
110.5
110.7
115.4
120.9

BR ICK .
BRICK-MACHINE TEN D ER S, Male.

K ILN B U R N E R S , M ale.

[Bata from 20 establishments 1890-1903; 36, 1904;
46, 1905; 47, 1906.]

[Bata from 22 establishments 1890-1903; 37, 1904;
48, 1905; 47, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.............. : ....
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
99.2
100.8
100.0
98.4
99.2
99.2
99.2
99.2
100.8
102.4
103.2
101.6
104.0
109.5
108.0
107.6
110.4

100.0
100.0
99.9
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.2
99.5
99.5
99.9
99.9

100.0
99.9
99.6
103.0
101.7
98.4
97.8
98.6
97.3
100.6
103.2
104.6
106.6
111.3
112.9
113.5
112.5
118.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
i 1896.....................
1 1897.....................
| 1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

!
!
!
;

100.0
100.0
100.0
99.0
101.0
96.0
100.0
98.0
102.0
102.0
98.0
103.0
106.0
108.0
109.0
113.4
115.7
118.8

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.4
100.0
100.3
99.5
99.9
. 99.2
99.8
100.6
99.6
99.0
99.3
98.6
98.2
98.2
98.1

1

100.0
100.6
101.2
100.5
100.1
95.2
99.1
96.2
102.0
104.2
101.1
104.8
109.9
113.8
115.9
117.7
118.8
121.6

KILN S E T T E R S , Male.
[B ata from 24 establishments 1890-1903; 36,1904; 44,1905; 45,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................

100.0
97.0
90.1
95.0
102.0
98.0
98.0
102.0
103.0




100.0
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.1
100.3
99.9
100.1

100.0
99.2
99.7
104.9
99.8
99.5
97.8
97.9
96.5

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

102.0
108.9
105.9
106.9
108.9
113.9
108.6
111.7
113.6

100.2
100.2
100.3
100.5
100.4
99.6
99.4
99.9
100.0

101.9
102.7
102.9
101.2
106.9
107.4
107.5
107.4
111.3

66

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

T able II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y ­
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

BR ICK —Concluded.
L A B O R E R S, M ale.

O F F B E A R E R S , M ale.

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 38, 1904;
47, 1905; 49,1906.]

[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903; 29, 1904;
40, 1905; 37, 1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
93.8
97.4
99.0
102.0
103.0
101.6
98.0
98.0
100.0
107.2
1043
105.6
120.3
119.0
122.8
120.0
117.5

100.0
99.3
99.8
99.8
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.8
99.8
100.4
100.1
99.6
99.6
99.2
98.5
98.4
98.4
98.1

100.0
1040
102.2
102.2
100.8
99.4
97.1
98.8
98.8
97.0
99.3
102.0
103.1
109.2
112.9
111.3
1149
123.1

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99.
.......
1890
18 9 1

.................

1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901

.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......

19 0 2

.................

1903
1904
1905
1906

.......
.......
.......
.......

100.0

101.3
97.4
105.3
98.0
96.0
99.3

100.0

98.0
98.7

102.6

94.7
96.7
99.3
97.4
97.0
96.4
94 7

100.0
100.0

99.7

100.0
99.8

100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2

99.8

100.1

99.8
99.5
99.1
99.4
99.3

100.0

101.5
104.3
1049
106.7

101.0

98.3
95.7
941
95.5
97.6

101.6

106.5

111.1

114.4
113.5
115.0

121.0

BUH j
DINTG t r a d e s .
B R IC K L A Y E R S, M ale.

C A R PE N TE R S, M ale.

[Data from 212 establishments 1890-1903; 229, 1904:
209, 1905; 215; 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890
.........
1891
.........
1892
.........
1893
.........
1894
.........
1895
.........
1896
.........
1897
.........
1898
.........
1899
.........
1900
.........
1901
.........
1902
.........
1903
.........
1904
.........
1905
.........
1906
.........

100.0

100.0

88.2

101.2
100.1
100.8
100.0

101.5
112.3
1141
1041
93.1

91.8
92.1
95.3
107.3
105.1
118.1
109.8
116.2

111.2
111.8

124.0

103.2
102.4

99.9
99.1
97.9
95.5
95.6
94.3
93.6
92.7
92.1
92.0
91.9

100.0
98.4
99.5

101.0
101.1

98.6
99.5
98.9
99.4
98.7
104 8
106.5

112.0

118.0
124.7
127.3
132.1
138.6

CORNICE M A K E R S, M ale.

100.0
106.2
105.4
133.5
99.8
80.5
85.3
93.6
90.1
96.9
108.7
103.5
1041
114 7
117.2
114 8
127.1
142.2




100.0
104 4
101.3
98.4
100.6
100.3
100.1
99.5
99.0
98.6
97.9
96.1
94.5
92.5
91.7
90.2
90.3
90.5

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893............. .
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
104.8
110.2
1143
97.8
89.3
88.8
95.7
95.4
95.5
1C8.2
112.1
117.8
122.1
116.4
108.6
108.3
121.6

100.0
102.0
101.3
100.5
100.7
100.7
100.3
99.7
99.0
98.5
97.4
94 5
92.5
90.6
90.2
89.9
90.1
89.7

100.0
98.6
99.2
102.7
99.7
97.9
97.8
99.6
100.0
101.4
103.2
110.8
115.9
123.7
130.6
129.9
133.6
141.6

GAS F IT T E R S , M ale*

[Data from 40 establishments 1890-1903; 55, 1904;
86, 1905; 87,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

[Data from 227 establishments 1890-1903; 242,1904;
213, 1905; 216, 1906.]

100.0
95.0
97.1
99.2
98.8
97.6
98.6
101.4
102.9
103.0
106.4
113.5
115.6
125.1
134.3
137.7
140.8
145.1

[Data from 64 establishments 1890-1903; 79, 1904;
77, 1905; 76, 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891...:...............
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
99.4
100.0
105.6
93.2
96.3
90.1
100.6
100.0
106.8
110.5
108.0
109.3
1148
114 8
114 4
118.4
124 4

100.0
103.5
102.6
100.6
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.4
98.4
99.1
97.3
96.4
95.4
92.6
90.9
89.4
89.3
88.5

100.0
95.5
96.3
98.9
99.7
99.1
99.3
100.0
101.6
103.7
105.8
110.0
1141
123.3
130.5
139.1
138.9
150.4

67

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

B I I I E D I N G T R A D E S — Continued.

HOD C A R R IE R S, Male,

INSIDE W IR E MEN, M ale.

[Data from 250 establishments 1890-1903; 262,1904;
255, 1905; 269, 1906.]

[Data from 40 establishments 1890-1903; 56, 1904;
94, 1905; 97, 1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
102.0
109.5
115.4
105.0
87.2
90.6
93.3
94.2
92.4
110.4
104.1
120.2
119.3
123.5
124.3
128.1
146.3

100.0
102.3
101.8
100.4
100.1
100.8
99.9
99.7
99.7
98.9
96.5
96.5
95.6
94.1
93.0
92.8
93.0
92.9

100.0
97.0
96.5
99.4
99.8
98.9
99.6
100.3
99.7
100.6
108.1
107.3
109.3
114.9
122.9
123.8
124.7
1345

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892................... \
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
74.2
78.1
94.5
91.1
93.7
93.3
102.7
130.4
122.4
119.8
146.7
149.4
176.6
184.1
185.8
212.1
251.8

100.0
102.8
102.6
98.8
101.2
101.5
101.2
99.3
97.5
97.2
98.0
94.7
94.5
92.8
89.6
88.2
87.2
87.0

100.0
89.6
89.1
91.6
97.9
96.1
100.0
104 5
107.6
112.1
111.7
120.7
119.6
129.7
140.6
143.5
150.0
152.5

LAB O R E R S, M ale.

L A T H E R S , M ale.

[Data from 146 establishments 1890-1903; 172,1904;
192,1905; 193,1906.]

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 39, 1904;
67, 1905 ; 57, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.....'...............
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
114 8
109.0
107.9
101.3
92.6
85.1
90.1
89.7
101.4
108.1
118.3
104 2
119.2
113.9
96.8
109.1
130.1

100.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.3
99.8
99.0
98.5
96.3
95.8
95.8
95.8
95.4

100.0
102.7
103.0
103.5
101.8
96.7
98.2
96.5
98.5
99.9
99.3
99.6
108.0
112.0
114 2
114.3
114 4
122.5

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
85.2
81.5
108.3
91.7
90.7
110.2
105.6
99.1
119.4
109.3
121.3
121.3
135.2
114 8
135.4
132.9
144.5

100.0
105.4
105.4
104.9
104.8
104.7
103.7
93.2
93.2
92.3
92.3
87.3
87.9
87.7
88.0
87.4
87.2
86.2

100.0
94.0
93.8
95.9
93.8
93.8
97.9
106.3
106.2
109.5
108.7
110.8
111.2
115.1
111.4
116.7
119.3
145.3

P A IN T E R S, M ale.

P A P E R HA N G ERS, M ale.

[Data from 203 establishments 1890-1903; 208,1904;
206, 1905 ; 210, 1906.]

[Data from 93 establishments 1890-1903; 103, 1904;
116,1905; 114, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906......................




100.0
96.3
100.9
105.5
99.7
93.9
94.1
99.2
101.7
101.3
107.5
111.2
116.5
115.7
109.4
109.9
111.5
116.2

100.0
102.6
101.9
101.1
100.1
100.4
100.1
99.6
99.0
98.1
97.1
94 6
92.6
91.5
90.8
90.4
90.5
89.7

100.0
97.0
98.2
99.4
101.2
99.1
98.4
99.2
100.5
102.3
104.7
110.5
114.7
119.5
1249
127.9
129.5
136.8

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
941
94 9
100.6
93.5
92.1
93.5
99.8
105.7
108.5
117.8
119.2
127.9
124.2
120.4
117.1
129.1
133.6

100.0
101.4
100.9
101.0
100.8
100.4
100.5
99.8
99.0
98.4
97.9
96.1
92.8
91.4
90.2
90.3
89.6
89.0

100.0
98.5
99.3
99.4
98.9
98.4
98.5
99.5
101.1
102.9
103.7
108.4
113.4
118.8
125.7
126.8
133.5
136.9

68

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR,

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

B U I L D I N G T R A D E S —Continued.
P L A ST E R E R S , M ale.

PL U M B E R S, M ale.

[Bata from 146establishments 1890-1903; 152,1904;
164,1905; 166, 1906.]

[Bata from 221 establishments 1890-1903; 232,1904;
207,1905; 215,1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99.
1890
.......
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......
1906
.......

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0

100.0

106.0
110.5
102.4
92.0
92.0
97.7
94.4
97.0
108.1
111.5
105.2

101.6

100.2

120.8

112.7
110.5
123.8
133.1

103.2

100.5
100.3
100.3
99.6
99.4
100.3
98.6
96.1
94.1
93.1
91.2
90.8
90.5
90.1
90.0

100.0

98.4
99.2

102.6

100.5
97.9
98.1
99.7
97.6
99.4
106.4
109.5
114.3
123.7
131.8
133.8
139.6
148.7

Year.
Average 1890-99.
1890
.......
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904...................
1905
.......
1906
.......

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0

99.1
100.3
103.4
99.8
94.4
94.3
98.9
99.1
104.6
106.2
110.4
118.3
117.9
115.7
117.2
124.5
139.8

100.0
102.1

101.6

101.2
100.2
100.1

99.7
99.3
98.9
98.7
98.2
96.6
95.4
93.0
91.9
91.3
91.1
90.2

100.0

97.4
98.1
98.7
99.9
98.8
99.7
100.4

101.2

102.3
103.6
107.1

110.6
117.6
124.5
128.3
131.2
141.9

R O O FERS, G RAVEL AND T A R , M ale.

ROOFERS, SLATE AND T IL E , M ale.

[Bata from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 35, 1904;
72, 1905; 75, 1906.]

[Bata from 40 establishments 1890-1903; 4 1 ,1»04;
71, 1905; 69,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899........... :.........
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
82.9
89.5
92.1
136.8
76.3
90.8
101.3
100.0
110.5
122.4
105.3
109.2
94.7
97.4
118.3
123.9
132.9

100.0
100.4
100.2
101.3
98.1
100.0
101.1
99.9
99.7
99.6
99. B
95.9
96.2
95.8
98.6
98.2
98.7
98.8

100.0
97.1
101.0
103.6
107.6
98.0
92.5
96.5
100.9
100.1
102.9
114.5
115.9
114.4
113.1
110.6
110.3
113.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896 ...................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
110.3
107.7
105.9
100.7
90.4
91.5
97.8
100.4
95.9
100.7
98.2
95.6
100.4
95.2
82.5
81.5
85.4

100.0
100.8
100.9
101.0
100.5
100.7
100.7
99.9
98.9
99.0
97.7
95.2
94.8
91.7
91.0
91.0
91.0
90.8

100.0
101.2
99.8
100.9
100.3
97.5
98.1
98.4
98.6
101.3
103.8
109.5
112.0
118.5
128.3
130.6
130.9
135.3

R O O FERS, T IN , M ale.

STEAM F IT T E R S , M ale.

[Bata from 94 establishments 1890-1903; 100,1904;
118,1905; 119,1906.]

[Bata from 73 establishments 1890-1903; 86, 1904;
112,1905; 120,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
'1895.......................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 ..................
1902.....................
1903 ..................
1904 ..................
1905 ..................
1906 ..................

100.0
96.6
102.5
100.1
105.2
94.9
93.7
101.0
96.7
102.3
107.6
105.5
109.1
115.0
110.3
109.8
111.3
115.4




100.0
102.0
101.2
101.1
100.4
100.7
100.3
99.6
99.0
98.3
97.4
95.6
93.8
91.4
91.4
90.7
90.6
90.5

100.0
97.0
99.1
99.1
100.0
97.8
98.8
100.1
100.4
102.5
105.2
108.7
111.9
119.7
122.2
122.9
126.5
132.4

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
93.0
90.9
99.5
107.9
96.6
95.3
99.8
105.8
101.8
108.4
106.8
115.2
129.3
129.0
128.6
139.4
159.8

100.0
102.6
101.9
101.3
101.6
99.4
99.8
99.2 r
98.7
98.6
96.9
96.0
94.0
92.4
89.0
88.9
89.1
88.0

100.0
95.9
96.2
99.4
97.4
99.2
98.2
100.5
101.5
104.3
107.4
108.1
115.1
120.2
127.3
131.6
133.3
143.4

69

WAGES AND [HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

B U IL D IN T G T R A D E S —Concluded.
STONE MASONS, M ale.

STONE S E T T E R S , M ale.

[Data from 115 establishments 1890-1903; 110,1904;
102, 1905; 100,1906.]

[Data from 27 establishments 1890-1903; 40, 1904;
57,1905, 1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893................ .
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.....................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906 ........... :.........

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
106.9
115.2
111.1
101.4
90.2
90.1
93.5
89.8
105.2
97.1
105.5
104.6
107.7
121.1
117.7
116.8
114.3

100.0
101.3
101.3
101.2
100.6
100.9
100.4
100.3
98.6
97.4
98.0
96.4
95.2
93.2
92.0
91.4
91.3
91.2

100.0
102.9
103.2
101.5
100.7
95.1
96.4
98.1
100.3
99.0
102.8
104.7
110.8
119.0
126.6
129.4
129.5
135.2

Relative Relative | Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892..1................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905...................
1906.....................

100.0
88.1
88.1
99.1
101.8
96.3
108.3
106.4
98.2
99.1
111.9
122.9
133.9
130.3
122.9
118.5
127.3
127.9

100.0
103.9
103.4
100.1
99.7
99.2
98.8
99.4
98.9
98.4
98.2
96.3
95.4
95.4
94.8
94.8
95.0
95.3

100.0
92.3
92.9
100.2
99.9
100.8
102.0
100.8
103.0
104.3
103.9
107.5
113.1
110.9
116.2
117.9
121.4
125.9

STRUCTURAL IRON W O R K E R S, M ale.
[Data for employees from 19 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 19 establish­
ments 1890-1892; 20,1893-1903. Data from 37 establishments 1904; 59,1905; 62,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................

100.0
77.7
98.2
107.3
98.8
74.2
79.5
115.5
111.9

100.0
102.9
101.8
99.3
100.1
101.9
100.1
98.5
97.0

100.0
93.6
98.0.
100.6
100.9
93.5
97.7
97.5
104.1

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

122.1
115.5
142.2
195.5
228.2
206.6
205.5
194.3
234.8

97.8
100.5
98.0
96.7
91.6
92.2
90.6
90.1
90.9

105.3
108.8
120.4
138.4
155.9
159.8
171.4
171.8
180.4

CANDY.
CANDY M A K E R S, Male,

D IP P E R S , F em a le .

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 22, 1904;
37,1905; 41,1906.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 22, 1904:
33, 1905; 38,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890
..........
1891
..........
1892
........ :
1895.
1896.
1897.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.

100.0
108.2
104.9
103.3
101.6
95.1
100.0
95.1
103.3
90.2
91.8
90.2
78.7
82.0
83.6
84.4
88.7
87.4




100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1

100.0
98.2
98.1
98.8
95.7
96.2
100.8
103.7
99.3
104.6
104.8
98.7
104.9
103.4
103.4
105.6
107.4
108.5

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
117.1
112.8
103.0
106.7
96.3
91.5
94.5
95.1
89.0
93.9
103.0
103.7
101.8
122.6
130.7
138.0
143.1

100.0
98.6
98.6
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.7
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.4
100.6
100.2
100.2

100.0
106.3
108.5
100.8
100.7
101.3
97.0
96.2
96.8
96.4
96.6
99.2
114.0
113.5
115.2
118.7
121.1
129.5

70

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

CARPETS.
B U R L E R S, F em a le .

D Y E R S , M a le .
[Data from 6 establishments.]

Year.
Average 1890-99
1890
.......
1891
.......
1892
......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
......
1896
.......
1897
.......
.......
1898
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
......
1904
......
1905
.......
1906
......

Relative I Relative Relative
number of hours per svages pei
hour.
employees, week.
100.0
97.9
95.9
90.7
111.3
75.3
103.1
112.4
95.9
105.2
107.2
112.4
117.5
119.6
123.7
134.9
129.7
107.6

100.0

100.7
100.7
100.7
99.3
100.3
99.5
99.5
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.5
99.1
99.0
99.0

100.0

97.4
99.8
104.2

101.6

94.0
97.0
102.7
97.4
108.5
97.3
105.4

111.1

112.9
123.4
105.5

112.6
117.6

Relative | Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
120.4
109.7
94.6
105.4
90.3
100.5
98.4
88.7
93.0
96.2
97.3
96.8
110.8
115.6
114.5
111.8
98.9

100.0
101.4
101.4
100.9
99.4
99.9
99.4
99.3
99.6
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.4
99.2
99.3
99.0
99.0
98.9

100.0
98.4
99.3
102.0
101.3
95.9
95.9
100.7
103.3
101.5
101.5
100.9
100.9
100.2
104 8
102.8
104 6
105.9

LOOM F IX E R S , M ale.

S P O O L E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 8, 19041906.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 8, 19041906.]

Average 1890-99
......
1890
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
.....
1903
.....
1904
......
1905
......
1906
.....

100.0

90.9
96.1

100.0

100.
101.

101.

100.0

106.5
101.3

102.6

101.6

98.0

100.2

100.7
99.6
98.4
98.4
102.7
99.4

101.3
97.4
101.3
98.7

105.2
106.5
111.7
118.3
111.7
96.2

100.0

99.

100.8
101.0
100.8

102.4
106.3
105.7
108.1
110.4

T W IST E R S, F em a le .

W EA V ER S,

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 6, 1904; 7,
1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99
1890
.....
1891
.....
1892
.....
1893
.....
1894
.....
1895
.....
1896
.....
1897
.....
1898
.....
1899
.....
1900
.....
1901
.....
1902
.....
1903
.....
1904
.....
1905
.....
1906
......

100.0

116.1
109.7
109.7

101.6

85.5
103.2
108.1
85.5
72.6
109.7
132.3

121.0

132.3
145.2
180.3
180.3
166.4




100.0
101.2
101.2

101.2
99.6
99.6
99.1
99.4
99.6
99.7
99.3
99.5
99.2
99.5
99.7
95.5
95.5
95.5

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896................... .
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0

103.3
104.4
104.6
103.4
89.9
91.7
99.9
99.5

102.2

100.9
103.5
103.3
103.5
107.2
108.5
108.4
110.1

100.0
104 3
104.3
107.2
113.8
102.9
110.9
100.0
85.5
81.9
91.3
100.7
102.2
99.3
98.6
92.1
9510
84 3

BR U SSELS
T O N , M a le .

100.0
101.4
101.4
99.8
99.3
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.7
99.9
99.7
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.7
98.2
98.2
98.1
AND

100.0
100.4
95.7
98.0
101.5
103.6
99.3
100.3
101.2
99.8
100.5
99.6
101.2
104 6
106.2
103.9
106.0
114 4
W IL -

[Data from 3 establishments.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
97.6
92.9
101.4
94 8
94 8
106.9
104 8
106.4
941
106.4
110.2
119.0
127.6
143.5
151.5
159.0
162.8

100.0
101.0
101.0
99.6
100.0
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9

100.0
99.8
97.1
98.9
97.1
93.5
102.2
102.2
102.7
102.0
104 7
106.9
108.3
116.9
122.9
121.4
131.0
135.7

71

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

CAR PETS—Concluded.
WEAVERS', BRUSSELS AND W1LTON, F em a le.
[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 2, 19041906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1898.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906......................

100.0
108.1
100.0
98.6
129.7
32.4
95.9
110.8
68.9
113.5
141.9
154.1
177.0
177.0
171.6
203.2
208.1
174.0

' 100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0

100.0
98.7
91.2
91.6
95.9
86.8
92.4
106.7
107.1
110.3
119.2
112.4
140.7
108.6
117.0
120.6
118.9
108.9

W EAV ERS, INGRAIN, F e m a le .
[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 6, 1904,
1905; 5,1906.]

Year.

Relative Relative | Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
96.9
102.9
104.3
92.6
106.0
89.5
95.2
100.0
103.8
108.1
105.3
100.2
103.6
99.3
95.5
88.0
53.8

100.0
101.8
101.7
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
98.3
98.5
95.6

100.0
98.3
93.0
94.7
98.5
100.4
100.8
101.6
107.2
100.3
106.8
103.4
106.1
93.4
107.4
99.9
108.8
112.6

99.6
99.6
99.7
99.5
99.6
98.9
96.8
97.1
96.9

102.2
105.1
107.0
103.7
104.2
106.5
106.1
109.8
113.4

W IN DER S, F em a le .
[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 7, 1904-1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................I
1891 .................. !
1892 ..................
1893 .................. i
1894 .................
1895 .................
1895......................
1897......................

100.0
89.8
89.4
92.8
104.2
88.6
108.9
105.9
103.4

100.0
101.4
101.4
99.9
99.4
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.7

100.0
100.5
96.9
100.4
99.6
97.9
97.9
101.2
98.4

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

104.7
111.0
113.6
117.8
124.6
128.4
133.8
132.1
107.0

CAR R IAG ES A1STB W A G O N S.
BOEV M A K ERS, CARRIAGE , M ale.

BLACKSM ITHS, M ale.
, 1904;

66, 1905; 67,1906.]
Average 18901890
..
1891
..
1892
..
1893
..
1891..............
1895
..
1896
..
1897
..
1898
..
1899
..
1900
..
1901
..
1902
..
1903
..
1904
..
1905
..
1906
..

100.0
101.2
101.2

104.6
115.4
99.3
104.3
85.2

88.2

100.3
100.7
102.9
111.1
107.5

112.0

109.7

112.2

122.3




100.0

100.7

100.8

100.7
100.6

98.7
*99.4
99.4
100.0
100.2

99.6
99.5
99.7
99.2
98.3
98.4
97.6
97.0

100.0
102.4
101.8
101.9
94.3
96.6
95.0
101.7
102.4
100.9
102.9
101.8
102.4
104.8
106.5
107.8
110.6
111.5

[Data from 26 establishments 1890-1903 ; 39, 1904;
37,1905; 38,1906.]
Average 1890-99..1
1890.....................i
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898........... ........
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
86.2
95.9
95.9
97.4
116.9
93.8
91.3
101.0
100.5
118.5
116.4
137.9
139.0
139.0
152.4
178.6
200.5

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.3.
100.1
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.8
98.6
99.5
99.7
99.7
98.7
98.7
95.7
95.8

100.0
100.1
99.7
101.2
100.1
98.6
97.8
98.5
98.5
101.5
103.8
100.5
98.4
102.6
104.4
104.6
112.3
115.4

72

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR.

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

C A R R IA G E S A N D W A G O N S—Concluded.
BODY M AKERS, NOT SPEC IFIE D ,
Idale.
[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903: 25, 1904;
18,1905; 17,1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
100.0
104.2
105.0
118.3
93.3
93.3
90.8
99.2
96.7
97.5
97.5
103.3
81.7
85.0
80.6
77.6
80.8

100.0
100.1
100.4
100.1
99.7
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.6
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.3
99.8
99.5
98.5
96.4

100.0
99.9
100.1
100.8
101.9
97.8
95.6
100.0
100.7
100.5
102.8
101.9
102.0
102.0
107.5
110.6
115.1
127.1

IR O N E R S, M ale.
[Data lor employees from 7 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments , 1890-1896, 1898-1903; 7, 1897. Data
from 28 establishments 1904; 30, 1905; 32, 1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
: Average 1890-99..
i 1890.....................
; 1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
, 1894.....................
! 1895.....................
| 1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
! 1903.....................
. 1904,...................
1 1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.0
104.1
114.4
106.2
89.7
95.9
79.4
92.8
104.1
111.3
124.7
120.6
117.5
128.9
121.6
125.7
133.2

100.0
100.9
101.2
101.2
99.6
99.4
100.0
99.9
99.3
100.0
97.7
97.4
99.3
100.9
96.4
98.7
95.7
95.5

100.0
98.2
96.4
95.9
99.9
101.7
99.3
103.9
102.2
98.8
103.6
103.4
100.2
99.7
111.9
112.0
116.0
119.8

MACHINE! W OO DW O RK ERS, M ale.

PA IN T E R S* M ale.

[Data from 18 establishments 1890-1903; 24, 1904;
29, 1905; 31,1906.]

[Data from 76 establishments 1890-1903; 95, 1904;
69,1905; 70,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
94.7
98.2
97.4
92.1
83.7
102.2
93.4
100.4
117.2
122.0
118,9
134.8
136.6
134.4
124.1
128.5
146.0

100.0
100.8
100.9
100.8
100.7
97.5
100.1
98.7
99.7
100.8
100.1
99.0
100.0
99.8
99.6
97.1
96.6
96.4

100.0
99.0
97.7
101.1
99.3
100.7
96.4
102.6
100.1
100.7
102.2
105.1
103.3
109.1
110.7
109.9
111.0
114.0

T R IM M E R S, C ARRIAG E, M ale,
[Data from 46 establishments 1890-1903; 76, 1904;
60,1905; 56,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892........... ...........
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0 !
92.4
92.9
100.0
93.4
96.2
96.7
99.5
101.9
110.0
117.1
116.1
128.9
116.6
118.0
110.8
108.3
117.5




100.0
100.4
100.5
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.1
99.9
98.6
98.7
98.7
99.4
98.1
98.2
97.5
97.4

100.0
101.3
100.9
100.7
101.8
98.7
99.1
98.5
98.9
98.9
101.3
101.0
101.6
102.8
108.6
110.2
114.0
117.2

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899......................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
95.9
98.8
101.9
100.7
91.6
96.3
98.8
96.3
104.8
114.7
117.5
122.5
120.5
116.2
108.3
105.6
114.2

100.0
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.0
100.3
100.1
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.4
99.1
99.5
99.7
98.5
98.5
98.0
97.6

100.0
98.6
98.4
100.9
100.8
99.7
100.3
99.7
99.4
100.8
101.4
102.5
103.5
103.5
108.2
110.9
112.1
116.6

W OODW ORKERS, M ale.
[Data from 29 establishments 1890-1903; 51, 1904;
31,1905, 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
93.6
93.6
103.7
103.7
94.5
95.4
103.7
102.8
102.8
106.4
107.3
111.9
101.8
96.3
95.7
107.0
99.6

100.0 :
100.1
100.2
100.0
100,2
99.8
100.1
99.4
100.3
100.4
99.4
99.4
98.8
98.8
97.4
97.0
95.8
96.1

100.0
100.5
100.4
100.3
99.2
99.4
101.2
100.5
99.4
-99.0
100.2
101.6
101.2
102.3
104.7
105.0
101.9
105.1

73

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T able

I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
CARS, STEAM R A IL R O A D ,

B L A C K S M IT H S , M a le .
[Data for employees from 44 establishments 18901903- Data for hours and wages from 44 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 45, 1899-1903. Data from
48 establishments 1904; 45,1905,1906.]
Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Average 1C90-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893 .....................
1894.....................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898 .....................
1899.......................
1900 .....................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903 .
. . ..
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906 .....................

100.0
111.5
104.7
107.9
106.8
82.1
81.4
100.6
91.3
104.6
109.6
121.3
123.4
129.6
137.5
127.6
137.3
148.0

100.0
101.9
100.8
101.5
101.1
96.6
98.1
98.8
98.1
101.1
101.8
101.9
100.9
100.7
99.9
98.4
97.8
97.0

100.0
102.3
101.0
101.6
101.8
101.1
102.2
96.1
99.4
97.0
97.5
97.9
99.2
100.4
104.4
111.5
107.8
110.9

100.0
87.5
84.7
94.4
106.9
83.3
87.5
125.0
98.6
138.9
91.7
102.8
101.4
109.7
201.4
194.1
219.4
266.4

100.0
100.2
99.2
100.3
100.4
99.8
99.6
99.8
99.6
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.3
100.4
94.0
93.3
92.8
92.8

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
91.5
92.2
100.9
101.6
94.0
94.7
100.2
103.0
108.7
113.9
118.3
134.9
139.7
168.0
159.3
168.8
178.1

100.0
103.7
100.9
103.3
102.6
94.8
97.2
97.2
97.4
101.5
101.4
101.8
100.2
99.8
98.5
98.5
97.4
96.9

100.0
100.4
1Q1.8
100.8
101.3
93.1
98.7
99.1
98.7
99.4
100.5
101.9
102.7
105.5
113.4
118.3
120.7
121.5

CABINETM AKERS, M ale.

BRA SS F IN IS H E R S , M ale.
fData from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 9,1904; 8,
1905; 9, 1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 .....................
1891
................
1892
................
1893 ..................
1894......................
1895......................
1896 .....................
1897.......................
1898
...........
1899 .....................
1900......................
1901
.............
1902 .....................
1903 .....................
1904......................
1905
...........
1906
...........

B O IL E R M A K E R S, M a le .
[Data from 34 establishments 1890-1903; 38, 1904;
33,1905,1906.]

100.0
105.8
105.1
104.2
107.0
87.9
93.8"
98.5
99.1
98.2
100.3
105.5
101.0
112.0
120.6
130.6
113.7
117.7

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 20, 1904;
21, 1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1 8 9 7 ..................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
98.1
96.7
74.0
88.3
84.5
107.6
96.1
116.6
100.0
137.7
124.6
126.1
134.1
103.0
128.9
91.6
104.8

100.0
100.1
99.8
99.9
100.3
99.9
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.2
99.4
99.6
93.4
91.9
92.0
92.0

100.0
107.6
107.3
102.3
105.4
86.5
91.8
97.9
97.2
99.3
104.7
106.9
112.7
122.5
130.4
132.3
120.1
122.9

C A R PE N TE R S, M ale.

L ABO R ERS, M ale.

[Data for employees from 40 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 40 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 41, 1899-1903. Data from
49 establishments 1904; 46,1905,1906.]

fData from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 41, 1904;
42, 1905; 45, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890 . .
1891
1892......................
1893
1894
1895.......................
1896 . . . .
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899 ...................
1900
... .
1901.......................
1902 .....................
1903 .....................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906.....................




100.0
100.9
101.5
105.5
104.7
90.3
89.6
95.3
95.9
105.2
111.3
121.3
122.2
131.8
133.7
124.6
160.7
174.5

100.0
101.2
100.4
101.3
100.5
97.9
99.0
98.9
98.6
101.2
101.0
101.3
100.6
100.7
99.0
97.5
97.3
96.9

100.0 1 Average 1890-99..
101.6 1890.....................
101.4 1891.....................
102.9 1892.....................
104.6 1893.....................
96.9 1894.....................
98.4 1895.....................
97.5 1896.....................
98.2 1897.....................
9 .8 1898.....................
100.8 1899.....................
100.6 1900.....................
102.3 1901.....................
105.9 1902.....................
109.7 1903.....................
113.4 1904.....................
115.5 1905.....................
119.0 1906.....................

100.0
105.6
111.1
107.2
105.2
70.2
81.2
103.7
82.6
109.6
123.8
149.0
145.8
120.5
140.9
128.6
176.2
185.4

100.0
101.2
101.3
101.0
100.3
97.5
99.8
99.6
99.1
100.2
100.0
100.2
100.6
100.3
102.4
100.9
100.0
99.7

100.0
99.7
99.2
100.7
112.3
99.9
97.2
< 98.1
98.5
97.2
97.5
100.5
100.3
103.1
104.4
106.3
107.8
109.4

74

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

C A R S , S T E A M R A I L R O A D — Continued.

MACHINE W OODW ORKERS, M ale.
[Data lor employees from 21 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 21 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 22, 1899-1903. Data from
35 establishments 1904; 40,1905; 41, 1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906............. *........

100.0
112.1
119.3
135.0
143.2
74.0
74.3
79.2
74.6
88.7
99.5
110.0
119.8
127.8
139.6
134.8
145.1
174.1

100.0
100.8
100.7
101.2
101.2
98.9
99.3
99.3
98.8
99.8
100.1
100.6
99.6
99.7
96.1
94.0
94.2
93.7

100.0
102.9
106.0
100.4
102.5
97.3
96.4
99.1
95.4
99.1
100.9
101.7
100.8
106.0
113.7
115.9
115.4
118.1

MOLDERS, B R A SS, M ale.

100.0
97.1
102.9
107.4
102.9
79.4
82.4
86.8
100.0
114.7
119.1
132.4
147.1
155.9
158.8
151.4
160.3
150.1

100.0
101.0
101.4
101.4
101.1
94.5
101.2
100.9
96.3
101.1
101.2
101.5
101.6
101.8
95.5
94.9
94.6
95.3

100.0
105.6
106.9
98.9
101.0
104.4
93.8
94.2
96.4
97.0
101.6
99.7
102.1
109.2
117.5
121.4
123.6
127.2

P A IN T E R S , M ale.

100.0
113.8
124.5
113.1
129.0
79.8
87.7
85.6
77.3
88.3
101.1
98.0
103.5
104.6
93.2
108.3
118.3
129.8 |




100.0
101.3
101.1
101.3
101.4
98.2
99.1
99.0
98.1
100.2
100.4
100.8
99.8
99.7
98.9
96.2
95.6
95.3

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892...................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1 8 9 6 ..................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative 1Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour
100.0
94.8
94.7
99.6
100.1
90.9
94.9
101.9
99.1
108.5
115.7
118.5
118.3
124.3
133.7
138.8
157.8
165.9

100.0
102.0
100.7
102.2
101.3
95.9
99.4
98.7
98.4
100.3
101.0
101.7
101.4
101.3
99.3
98.5
96.9
96.7

100.0
100.5
100.1
100.3
100.8
100.7
99.9
99.5
99.4
98.9
100.2
100.6
102.1
104.8
110.7
115.2
115.8
118.6

[Data for employees from 13 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 14, 1899-1903. Data from
14 establishments 1904; 13,1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
- 113.0
106.3
111.6
97.7
86.0
83.2
101.6
85.3
100.0
115.2
124.7
113.5
125.6
122.4
108.3
106.6
116.0

100.0
100.4
100.8
100.8
100.7
96.4
100.7
101.2
96.9
101.0
101.1
101.1
100.2
100.2
99.3
97.8
97.0
97.0

100.0
105.1
103.7
104.5
108.5
99.2
99.1
92.6
96.2
95.5
95.7
97.9
98.8
101.2
106.0
110.1
113.1
119.0

P A T T E R N M A K E R S, M ale.

[Data for employees from 35 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 35 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 36, 1899-1903. Data from
46 establishments 1904; 45,1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Year.

MOLDERS, IRON, M ale.

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 15, 1904;
14,1905; 13, 1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897........ 1............
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

MACHINISTS, M ale.
[Data for employees from 44 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 44 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 45, 1899-1903. Data from
48 establishments 1904; 45,1905; 46, 1906.]

100.0
102.5
102.4
101.6
103.1
97.8
96.5
98.7
100.8
98.3
98.6
97.3
99.4
101.5
105.4
111.4
113.7
115.3

[Data for employees from 24 establishments 1890^
1903. Data for hours and wages from 24 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 25, 1899-1903. Data from
34 establishments 1904; 35,1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895..................... ,
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
101.8
99.1
105.4
97.3
88.3
92.8
99.1
91.9
112.6
114.4
117.1
127.0
125.2
126.1
126.8
135.6
138.7

100.0
101.6
100.9
101.6
101.7
98.9
97.8
97.7
97.1
101.0
101.8
101.7
101.0
101.5
98.3
97.5
97.2
96.7

100.0
101.8
102.5
101.2
103.4
100.9
99.0
95.8
97.0
100.0
98.7
100.1
102.1
102.5
108.5
110.7
112.5
115.8

75

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

CARS, STEAM R A IL R O A D —Concluded.
PIPES F IT T E R S , M ale.

TINSM ITHS* M ale.

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 7, 1899-1903. Data from
36 establishments 1904,1905; 39,1906.]
Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
101.9
94.4
113.0
124.1
92.6
94.4
87.0
94.4
96.3
96.3
94.4
127.8
135.2
144.4
156.4
178.7
200.3

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1903......................

100.0
102.5
102.4
103.3
102.5
94.5
96.7
96.3
96.4
102.1
103.0
102.9
101.4
101.4
100.5
99.3
99.0
98.9

100.0
103.6
97.0
95.7
‘ 101.7
102.5
99.5
99.2
99.6
101.4
99.9
99.1
101.2
100.1
106.5
110.4
108.5
113.8

[Data for employees from 34 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 34 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 35,1890-1903. Data from 44
establishments 1904; 41, 1905, 1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
94.7
102.4
93.9
99.7
96.5
92.3
94.9
95.2
117.3
113.3
116.0
127.2
129.3
127.5
129.0
118.1
151.7

100.0
102.1
101.1
101.1
100.6
97.3
98.6
98.6
98.2
101.3
101.2
102.0
100.7
100.3
97.6
96.5
95.9
95.0

100.0
98.2
97.1
102.9
101.4
97.8
99.3
101.8
102.3
96.6
102.6
103.4
103.4
112.2
119.1
121.7
121.8
130.0

U PH O L ST E R E R S, M ale.
[Data from 25 establishments 1890-1903; 34, 1904; 33, 1905, 1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ........ .........
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................

100.0
100.6
116.1
106.3
120.7
87.4
88.5
85.1
91.4

100.0
100.7
100.9
100.9
101.1
98.5
98.7
99.5
99.0

100.0
108.0
105.3
105.1
107.0
92.9
97.0
94.9
96.2

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

98.9
102.9
117.2
106.3
105.2
108.0
152.3
124.5
147.2

100.2
100.6
101.0
100.5
100.0
94.9
91.9
92.0
92.6

97.2
98.1

100.0

103.9

111.8

123.1
113.9
118.8

C L O TH IN G , F A C T O R Y PR O D U C T.
b u t t o n h o l e : m a k e r s , m a c h i n e :,

b u t t o n h o l e : m a k e r s , m a c h i n e :,

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 7,1904; 10,
1905; 8, 1906.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 20,1904; 14,
1905; 13, 1906.]

M ale.

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1893.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906.......................




100.0
66.7
66.7
66.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
66.7
66.7
66.7
66.7
66.7
70.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.4

100.0
102.2
102.2
102.2
99.1
99,1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
111.6
111.6
111.6
112.0
109.2
105.7

F em a le .

Average 1890-99..
1890................... =
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
93.3
93.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
106.7
106.7
106.7
113.3
126.7
128.0
144.4
134.4

100.0
101.6
101.6
101.6
99.6
98.9
98.9
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.6
99.6
99.6
96.8
97.9
97.7
97.6
97.6

100.0
96.2
96.2
96.7
98.4
99.6
99.6
102.3
103.4
107.2
102.4
99.0
99.3
99.5
104.2
106.2
112.3
124.6

76

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

C L O TH IN G , F A C T O R Y PRODUCT—Continued.
C UTTER S, H AND, M ale.

CUTTER S, MACHINE, M ale.

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 26,1904; 25,
1905,1906.]

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 18,1904; 21
1905; 19,1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.:...................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906......................

>0 0
j
90 5
90.5
100.0
95.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
104.8
109.5
114.3
109.5
119.0
128.6
123.8
126.8
135.2
147.7

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.9
100.1
99.8
100.8
100.3

Year.

100.0 Average 1890-99..
98.3 1890.....................
98.3 1891.....................
98.3 1892.....................
99.8 1893.....................
97.2 1894.....................
99.7 1895....................
99.7 1896.....................
103.4 1 1897.....................
102.9 1898.....................
102.7 1899.....................
104.7 1900.....................
105.4 1901.....................
104.7 1902.....................
110.9 1903.....................
111.9 1904.....................
110.1 1905.....................
111.3 1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number pf hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
105.9
105.9
111.8
105.9
100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
105.9
111.8
111.8
111.8
135.5
148.0
141.0

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1
99.9
99.0
98.6
98.1
97.8
97.2

100.0
100.8
100.8
99.8
100.8
96.7
99.7
99.7
98.4
99.9
103.4
103.6
103.7
106.1
107.2
110.3
106.6
109.9

EXAM INERS, F em a le .

F IN IS H E R S , F em a le.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 17, 1904;
8,1905,1906.]

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 20, 1904;
26,1905; 24,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.....................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
100 0
100.0
105 9
100.0
88.2
88.2
111.8
88.2
88.2
111.8
123 5
141.2
182.4
211.8
201.3
276.8
283.4

100.0
99.9
99.9
100.1
99.9
100.4
100.4
100.0
99.6
99.6
99.8
100.0
99.6
98.8
97.0
97.3
97.6
97.4

100.0
98.0
98.0
94.7
98.0
999
100.4
100.7
102.8
102.0
105.1
103.6
107.2
87.5
86.6
89.2
84.7
87.6

[Data for employees from 7 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890-1899; 7,1900-1903. Data from 29
establishments 1904, 1905; 28,1906.]
100.0
107.7
107.7
111.5
100.0
111.5
115.4
88.5
88.5
92.3
88.5
103.8
115.4
107.7
103.8
111.7
120.9
135.5




100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.0
100.3
100 2
99 6
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9
98.3
97.9
97.9
98.7

100.0
90.5
90.5
98.4
96.8
88.9
90.5
93.7
103.2
115.9
123.8
138.1
133.3
147.6
142.9
151.5
164.7
181.0

100.0
100.8
100.8
100.4
100.3
100.7
100.1
99.4
99.3
99.2
99.0
99.0
98.5
98.4
98.4
97.6
97.3
97.7

100 0
100.1
100.1
98 2
97.9
97.9
101.3
101.3
101.3
102.3
99.2
100.2
103.3
101.3
101.1
101.5
106.4
112 3

SEWING-MACHINE O PERA TO R S,
M ale.

P R E S S E R S , M ale.

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.3
103.9
100 3
100A
96.8
95 0
97.5
105.2
104.9
109.4
111.0
113.5
115.2
113.9
118.6

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890-1901; 2, 1902, 1903. Data from 16
establishments 1904; 24, 1905; 21,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890 ................
1891 ................
1892 ................
1893 ................
1894 ................
1895 ................
1896 ................
1897 ................
1898 ................
1899 ................
1900 ................
1901 ................
1902 ................
1903 ................
1904 ................
1905 ................
1906 ................

100.0
83.3
83.3
91.791.7
108.3
108.3
83.3
108.3
108.3
100.0
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3
132.7
153.3
160 0

100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
91. 5
91. 5
92. 0
91. 6
90. 6
90. 6
90. 4

100.0
99 3
99 3
101 9
101 9
98.6
98 6
99 3
98 6
98 6
104 1
103 5
113 0
95 3
108 4
103 7
104.3
110.5

77

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e II.—
RELATIVE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

C LO TH IN G , F A C T O R Y PRODUCT—Concluded.
S£W IN G-MACHINE OPERATORS, F e m a le .
[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 27,1904; 26,1905,1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896................
1897.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
94.1
101.9
98.6
88.9
97.8
99.9
96.7
103.6

100.0
100.2
99.9
100.0
100.5
100.1
100.2
100.0
99.7

100.0
97.5
99.4
101.1
98.8
96.6
97.3
99.6
99.0

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

111.2
107.3
105.9
108.2
99.5
108.6
109.4
119.1
145.3

99.6
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.5
99.3
99.2
98.8
98.6

105.7
105.4
103.0
104.2
108.6
111. 5,
119.2
125.3
130.9

COTTON GOODS.
€ ARDING -M A€ H 1NE T E N D E R S,
M ale.
[Data for employees from 21 establishments 18901903. Data for hoars and wages from 21 estab­
lishments 1890; 22, 1891; 23, 1892-1903.. Data
from 22 establishments 1904; 29,1905; 30,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1 9 0 4 ....................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
86.5
94.9
101.9
100.5
101.4
99.1
102.8
100.0
103.3
107.9
111.2
110.2
110.2
114.4
115.1
118.5
125.6

100.0
100.7
101.1
101.2
99.6
97.8
99.7
100.0
98.9
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.8
100.2
100.2
99.9
100.1
99.8

100.0
98.0
99.8
99.5
101.4
102.1
101.4
101.9
100.8
97.8
97.0
104.5
103.2
108.3
108.9
109.3
112.3
119.8

LOOM F IX E R S , M ale.

100.0
89.6
92.5
97.5
95.3
98.7
102.2
99.7
108.5
111.0
105.7
112.6
117.0
124.8
129.6
133.4
131.7
144.6

8891—No. 71—07--- 6



100.0
100.4
101.0
100.8
99.9
97.4
99.6
99.9
99.3
100.7
100.9
100.6
100.5
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.6

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
116.7
118.5
113.0
100.0
90.7
88.9
96.3
87.0
90.7
92.6
101.9
103.7
120.4
118.5
110.6
110.0
121.8

100.0
99.1
98.9
99.7
99.6
100.3
100.7
100.2
100.6
100.3
100.7
100,5
100.0
98.6
98.8
98.7
98.6
98.2

100.0
106.3
107.2
105.1
104.1
95.6
92.3
95.2
96.9
99.4
97.8
100.9
102.3
107.1
107.7
104.8
105.7
112.0

SPIN N E R S, FR A M E , M ale.

[Data for employees from 22 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 22 estab­
lishments 1890; 23, 1891; 24, 1892-1903. Data
from 22 establishments 1904; 29,1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......:..............
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906......................

O X E R S, M ale.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 7, 1892-1903. Data from 5
establishments 1904; 8,1905,1906.]

100.0
102.6
100.4
101.2
103.9
99.2
98.0
100.5
99.9
97.6
96:4
105.7
105.8
110.3
111.4
108.8
108.4
115.6

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890, 1897; 9, 1891, 1893, 1898, 1901; 10,
1894, 1896, 1899, 1903; 11, 1892, 1895, 1900, 1902.
Data from 12 establishments 1904; 11, 1905; 14,
1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.*..................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
36.1
101.4
83.3
101.4
72.2
70.8
95.8
120.8
156.9
161.1
173.6
119.4
168.1
86.1
78.5
75.3
131.4

100.0
97.3
100.5
102.4
100.2
100.4
100.9
98.3
99.2
100.5
100.3
100.0
99.0
98.0
96.4
97.8
97.8
94.2

100.0
111.6
89.7
91.6
89.9
85.7
91.2
127.0
109.2
98.9
105.8
128.5
135.8
147.3
185.9
169.7
200.4
275.7

78

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

COTTON GOODS—Concluded.
SPIN N E R S, F R A M E , F e m a le .

SPIN N E R S, MULE, JRale.

[Data for employees from 20 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 20 estab­
lishments 1890; 21, 1891; 22, 1892-1903. Data
from 22 establishments 1904; 29,1905,1906.]

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1904; 13, 1905;
11,1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Yfcar.
Average 1890-99.
1890
.......
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......
1906
.......

100.0

88.8
88.7
92.3
93.9
95.4
94.4
97.0
110.9
119.9
118.4
107.8
115.2
110.5
120.0
125.6
128.6
127.6

100.0
100.2
101.0

101.5
100.3
98.1

100.0

99.6
98.8
100.1
100.2
100.1
99.5
99.2
98.9
98.9
98.8
98.6

100.0

99.8
99.4
95.4

102.1

97.9
99.5
108.3
104.1
97.6
96.3
108.7
111.8
117.1
123.7
125.0
132.4
149.4

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
104.8
106.2
92.4
94.8
112.4
102.9
98.6
95.2
99.5
91.0
95.7
98.6
89.0
84.3
84.3
83.0
79.0

100.0
101.0
101.0
101.0
99.7
99.4
99.7
99.2
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
98.9
99.0
99.0
99.0
98.9

100.0
91.4
93.2
110.7
114.2
96.2
97.8
99.5
102.3
98.2
96.4
110.0
110.0
116.5
115.2
111.0
113.4
117.6

W E A V E R S, H a le .

W E A V E R S, F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 16 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 17 estab­
lishments 1890; 19,1891,1893,1897,1903; 20,1892,
1894-1896, 1898-1902. Data from 20 establish­
ments 1904; 28,1905; 26,1906.]

[Data for employees from 19 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 establishments 1890; 20, 1891; 21, 1892-1903. Data
from 21 establishments 1904; 29,1905; 27, 1906.]

Average 1890-99.
.......
1890
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.. .
1903
.......
1904
......
1905
.......
1906
.......

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0

80.3
80.4
84.5
98.2
95.0
98.0

100.2

117.1
120.7
125.4
124.3
116.3
121.3
117.2
109.0
108.1
118.5

100.0

99.2
100.7
101.5
99.5
99.0
99.7
99.3

100.1

100.5
100.5
100.0
100.2
99.5
98.9
98.5
98.6
97.7

100.0

113.5
103.1
99.0
107.6
98.6
96.6
102.9
95.3
91.5
92.1
105.1
104.3
110.7
118.3
115.3
116.9
128.2

100.0
98.7
103.7
101.6
101.4
102.7
102.7
99.6
97.2
97.6
94.9
97.0
91.7
93.0
87.5
86.1
84.1
76.5

100.0
101.1
101.5
101.8
100.2
96.6
99.8
99.6
98.6
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.4

100.0
99.1
98.6
99.7
105.2
99.6
98.3
103.5
100.8
98.4
96.8
109.8
109.6
112.2
114.3
113.5
114.4
121.8

D Y E IN G , F IN IS H IN G , A N D P R IN T IN G T E X T IL E S .
BLE A C H ER S, M ale*

CALENDRERS, JRa le .

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 11,1904; 14,
1905, 1906.]

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 10,1904; 14,
1905,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
79.6
81.5
96.3
107.4
95.4
105.6
100.0
113.0
101.9
115.7
122.2
138.9
159.3
185.2
198.9
251.2
269.1




100.0
101.4
101.4
100.7
99.6
99.3
99.6
99.6
99.0
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.5
99.5
99.8
99.7.
99.9
98.8

100.0
99.8
94.6
97.7
99.7
99.2
100.2
102.5
101.6
102.7
101.7
102.9
102.2
103.3
104.2
103.7
104.1
109.9

100.0
93.9
98.8
102.4
100.0
92.7
95.1
92.7
102.4
106.1
117.1
123.2
126.8
132.9
147.6
146.8
178.3
174.9

100.0
101.0
100.9
100.5
99.8
98.8
99.8
99.9
99.2
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.6
100.2

100.0
98.8
99.3
100.1
101.4
99.5
98.8
100.3
100.9
101.1
100.0
103.0
104.1
105.5
106.0
107.9
107.0
108.6

79

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

D Y E IN G , F IN IS H IN G , A N D P R IN T IN G T E X T IL E S —Concluded.
COLOR M IX E R S, M ale.

D Y E R S , M ale.

[Data lor employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 4,1892-1903. Data from 6
establishments 1904; 9, 1905; 10, 1906.]

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1906; 13, 1904;
14,1905; 17, 1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
105.6
100.0
95.8
97.2
93.0
101.4
105.6
108.5
94.4
104.2
94.4
105.6
115.5
112.7
103.9
112.0
96.1

100.0
102.5
102.5
101.6
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.2
100.9
101.1 I

100.0
97.3
98.8
100.2
101.6
97.4
100.3
101.0
100.6
102.0
100.6
105.1
103.7
104.1
105.9
106.4
109.0
110.7

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
95.3
115.0
106.2
104.7
98.5
95.3
97.5
98.7
94.5
94.8
93.6
107.4
99.2
106.6
97.8
96.6
106.0

100.0
102.0
102.0
101.3
99.8
97.3
99.9
99.9
97.6
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.5
100.6
99.9

100.0
99.4
96.5
98.5
101.8
98.7
98.9
101.8
101.4
101.3
101.6
104.9
103.8
106.0
107.6
108.2
109.0
110.8

P R IN T E R S , M ale.

EN G R A V E R S, M ale.
[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 5, 1892-1903. Data from 5
establishments 1904; 8, 1905; 9, 1906.]

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 6 1892-1903. Data from 6
establishments 1904; 10, 1905; 11, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906.......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893 ..................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900........... .........
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
101.8
98.2
101.8
94.7
91.2
78.9
100.0
101.8
108.8
122.8
138.6
115.8
124.6
103.5
106.7
112.1
120.0

100.0
101.8
101.8
101.3
99.3
99.2
99.1
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.4
99.3
99.0
99.6
99.2
99.2

100.0
99.3
98.2
99.1
96.7
98.6
99.9
100.4
101.2
103.7
102.8
103.6
106.5
105.8
105.9
106.6
107.2
107.8

100.0
107.3
100.0
94.5
98.2
85.5
96.4
96.4
101.8
107.3
110.9
103.6
3,10.9
125.5
112.7
106.7
110.0
108.9

100.0
101.7
101.7
101.1
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.4
99.3
100.1
99.5
99.4

100.0
97.0
97.8
100.8
102.7
103.2
99.6
100.3
100.3
98.1
100.3
100.5
100.7
100.8
100.3
100.5
99.6
100.2

EDECTRICAD A P P A R A T U S A N D SU P P LIE S.
A R M A TU R E W IN D ER S, M ale.

B RA SS F IN IS H E R S , M ale.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 7, 19041906.]

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903;
1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901..‘..................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
68.3
56.1
63.4
63.4
97.6
114.6
136.6
129.3
129.3
136.6
175.6
175.6
187.8
222.0
204.0
305.1
400.1




100.0
100.9
100.7
100.8
100.8
101.3
101.4
98.3
98.8
98.1
98.7
99.4
94.7
94.7
94.6
94.4
94.6
94.7

100.0
98.3
100.8
99.3
98.1
94.0
95.7
108.3
102.0
101.9
101.6
99.7
111.7
109.7
112.8
109.9
113.7
123.6

100. jO
50.0
56.3
56.3
62.5
62.5
75.0
143.8
156.3
118.8
200.0
181.3
206.3
256.3
262.5
203.1
247.3
421.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.2
92.7
92.9

5, 1904100.0
101.1
100.0
100.0
99.1
98.7
97.4
98.5
101.0
103.9
100.6
104.9
103.8
104.9
105.2
105.4
104.0
113.4

80

BULLETIN OP THE BUBEAU OP LABOR.

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

E L E C T R IC A L A P P A R A T U S A N D SU P P LIE S—Concluded.
MACHINISTS,, M ale.
P A T T E R N M A K ERS, M ale.
[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903:; 7, 1904- [Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 4, 1904,
1906.]
1905; 5, 1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
50.4
57.8
58.5
61.5
82.2
112.6
114.8
137.8
157.0
165.9
206.7
220.7
258.5
264.4
205.6
309.9
440.5

100.0
99.0
99.4
99.4
99.5
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.6
100.7
100.7
101.0
95.3
95.2
95.2
95.2
95.1
95.1

100.0
101.1
100.0
99.4
99.4
96.2
102.0
97.9
99.4
101.4
103.3
106.4
110.8
107.4
108.7
110.4
107.8
111.8

Relative Relative, Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
75.0
75.0
100.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
175.0
250.0
250.0
225.0
250.0
263.0
330.1
398.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.0
93.0

100.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
109.7
116.0
116.4
99.3
105.0
107.2
116.3
115.6
117.1
119.0

FJDOUK.
BO L T ER S, m ale.

LAB O R E R S, M ale.

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 21,1904;
32,1905,1906.]

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 31, 1904:
45,1905,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.............-.......
1906.......................

100.0
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
104.3
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
105.1
108.7

100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.4
100.6
99.9

100.0
100.9
100.9
101.4
101.4
99.6
100.4
98.8
98.7
99.0
99.0
100.8
103.7
106.6
106.5
106.6
106.5
108.3

M ILLER S, M ale.

100.0
92.5
92.5
94.8
94.8
96.5
96.5
106.4
106.4
109.2
111.0
112.1
111.6
116.2
119.1
119.9
123.8
128.6




100.0
99.7
99.7
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.3
100.5
100.2
99.8
99.8
99.8
95.4
93.0
93.4
93.7
93.8

100.0
81.3
82.4
83.0
84.7
84.1
88.1
118.8
119.3
129.0
127.3
127.8
134; 1
134.1
131.3
130.6
136.7
144.3

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.2
99.5
99.5
99.3
99.4
99.4
98.4
96.9
96.9
97.0
97.4
97.1

100.0
97.0
97.3
97.4
97.8
97.8
99.1
103.1
103.0
103.8
103.5
103.9
115.1
117.6
118.0
117.8
117.1
118.2

M IL L W R IG H T S, M ale.

[Data from 33 establishments 1890-1903; 39,1904;
46, 1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892..........•..........
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.4
100.6
100.3
100.4
99.9
100.2
99.4
98.7
100.0
100.2
101.5
102.1
107.8
110.7
111.6
112.1
112.8

[Data from 18 establishments 1890-1903; 26, 1904;
38,1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
93.8
87.5
93.8
114.6
95.8
91.7
100.0
93.8
120.8
114.6
110.4
102.1
106.3
104.2
116.7
127.7
129.6

100.0
100.1
100.4
100.1
99.2
100.0
100.2
99.8
100.9
99.6
99.8
100.0
100.4
100.2
100 3
100.1
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.2
99.7
100.7
101.9
-99.8
98.5
98.3
98.6
101.4
100 9
102.9
103.6
105.4
106.2
107.0
103.7
105.3

81

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATION S—Continued.

F I jOTTR—Concluded.
PACKERS* M ale.
[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 35,1904; 45,1905; 46,1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 .................

lative Relative Relative
iber of hours per wages per
hour.
)loye$s. week.
100.0
88.0
88.9
90.7
90.7
91.7
89.8
102.8
107.4

100.0
98.5
102.9
101.6
96.8
96.4
94.1
99.5
101.6

100.0
101.1
99.8
100.4
101.0
101.2
101.0
100.0
99.3

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
118.5
126.9
134.3
146.3
151.9
156.5
143.9
157.6
159.3

98.4
97.8
97.2
97.5
97.6
98.0
96.5
97.3
97.2

103.5
105.3
107.5
113.7
114.5
114.6
114.0
115.7
118.0

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SHOP.
BLACKSM ITHS, M ale.

B O ILER M A K E R S, M ale.

[Data from 166 establishments 1890-1903; 192,1904;
179,1905; 188,1906.]

[Data from 97 establishments 1890-1903; 96, 1904;
91,1905; 93,1906.]

Average 1890-99.
1890 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1894 ..............
1895 .............
1896 ..............
1897 ..............
1898 ..............
1899.:................
1900 ..............
1901 ..............
1902 ............. .
1903 ..............
1904 ..............
1905 ..............
1906 ..............

100.0
99.5
100.5
101.2
101.7
88.4
93.9
95.1
93.9
110.2
115.5
120.7
130.7
139.2
142.5
130.6
137.6
158.4

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.5
99.9
99.3
100.2
99.7
99.8
100.2
99.8
99.6
97.8
96.8
95.7
95.5
98.0
98.1

100.0
101.4
101.6
101.2
101.4
99.1
98.6
100.1
98.6
98.0
99.9
, 101.7
104.4
107.7
111.8
110.2
111.7
114.7

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
105.8
102.2
105.1
101.3
87.5
89.9
97.9
94.8
107.2
108.4
116.9
125.5
128.6
134.6
121.3
120.9
130.4

100.0
101.2
101.2
100.6
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.1
99.3
99.6
99 2
98 0
97.1
96.3
96.1
95.0
94.8
95.2

100.0

99.4
98.8
99.1
99.0

100.2
100.8

100.7
99.9
100.3
101.7
106.3
107.1
107.3
109.2
113.2
115.4
118.2

B O IL E R R IV E T E R S , M ale.

BR A SS F IN IS H E R S , M ale.

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 16, 1904;
20,1905; 19,1906.]

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903; 26,1904,
1905; 23,1906.]

Average 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1894 ..............
1895 ..............
1896 ..............
1897 .............
1898 .............
1899 .............
1900 .............
1901 .............
1902 .............
1903 .............
1904 .............
1905 .............
1906 .............

100.0
84.8
131.6
62.0
117.7
98.7
94.9
100.0
77.2
89.9
141.8
132.9
168.4
102.5
149.4
130.2
137.4
161.3




100.0
101.8
101.7
99.9
100.8
100.9
100.8
99.6
99.2
99.4
95.8
98.1
97.2
93.6
92.8
92.2
91.3
91.2

100.0
107.0
92.9
108.5
93.3
94.3
99.0
96.8
102.6
96.1
109.6
94.8
101.5
115.3
113.1
119.2
122.9
128.7

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
108.7
104.8
102.5
103.1
86.5
94.4
89.6
96.3
102.2
111.5
108.4
120.8
127.5
142.4
136.9
147.0
177.0

100 0
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.2
99.7
99.7
99.9
100 0
100.2
100.2
98.5
98.6
95.1
92.9
92.1
92.1
91.6

100.0
100.7
102.2
101.4
99.9
101.1
100.9
100.0
98.0
97.5
98.2
102 0
104.1
109.6
111.9
113.3
113.0
115.4

82

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Tablb EL— RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATION S— Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SHOP—Continued.
CORE M A K E R S, M ale.

CORE M A K E R S, F em ale*

[Data lor employees from 40 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 40 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 41, 1902, 1903. Data from
104 establishments 1904; 119, 1905; 128, 1906.)

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 5, 1904,
1905; 6, 1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906......................

100.0
95.7
97.0
97.0
102.4
95.7
95.7
95.7
92.7
107.3
122.0
134.1
134.1
154.9
154.9
128.1
161.8
178.3

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
99.9
100.2
100.1
99.4
99.8
99.7
99.5
98.4
97.5
95.7
94.7
95.0
94.6

100.0
100.2
100.3
100.9
99.0
97.2
98.1
100.3
101.2
101.2
101.4
102.9
107.0
106.3
113.0
116.4
115.1
120.7

LAB O R E R S, M ale*

100.0
102.6
100.2
103.2
98.4
81.1
93.7
97.8
94.0
109.1
119.8
126.8
135.6
143.5
154.3
145.1
162.0
183.8

100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.1
99.4
100.1
100.0
99.5
99.9
100.3
99.7
97.7
97.1
96.0
95.7
95.7
95.7

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895..................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904............. .......
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
142.9
85.7
71.4
57.1
85.7
85.7
71.4
100.0
114.3
171.4
157.1
114.3
185.7
185.7
165.8
288.9
209.0

100.0
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.7
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.2
98.4
98.0
98.7

100.0
83.3
102.3
109.6
116.6
105.0
105.5
107.9
97.5
96.6
75.4
88.7
93.9
86.5
97.0
100.3
96.4
101.9

MACHINISTS,, M ale*

[Data from 128 establishments 1890-1903; 186,1904;
192,1905; 198, 1906.]
Average 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891 .............
1892 ............. .
1893 ............. .
1894 ............. .
1895 ............. .
1896 ..............
1897 .............
1898 ............. .
1899 ............. .
1900 .............
1901 .............
1902 .............
1903 .............
1904 .............
1905 .............
1906 .............

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

100.0
99.6
101.6
102.2
101.7
98.2
98.3
99.6
99.9
99.2
99.9
102.7
104.7
107.0
111.7
113.2
114.4
119.4

[Data from 218 establishments 1890-1903; 228,1904;
206, 1905; 205, 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
97.9
100.0
99.9
104.9
80.1
90.8
95.6
93.4
111.9
125.5
130.9
141.2
151.8
158.5
135.7
151.0
169.0

100.0
100.7
100.6
100.2
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.7
100.0
99.3
99.1
97.0
95.7
94.9
94.0
94.5
94.4

100.0
100.5
101.2
102.3
101.9
97.5
97.5
99.6
99.7
99.0
100.8
103.6
106.8
110.3
112.9
112.8
113.1
116.4

MOLDERS, R R A SS, M ale.

MOLDERS, IRON, M ale.

[Data from 38 establishments 1890-1903; 52, 1904;
48,1905; 39, 1906.]

[Data from 183 establishments 1890-1903; 179,1904;
169, 1905; 168,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

Average 1890-99..
1890 ................
1891 ................
1892 ................
1893 ................
1894 ................
1895 ................
1896 ................
1897 ................
1898...................
1899 ................
1900 ................
1901 ................
1902 ................
1903 ................
1904 ................
1905 ................
1906 ................

100.0
90.5
96.8
100.9
100.9
90.9
93.6
92.3
97.7
114.1
122.7
115.9
133.2
137.3
142.7
134.8
127.0
127.0




100.0
100.0
99.8
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
99.9
100.1
99.5
99.1
96.8
94.8
94.0
94.3
94.1

100.0
98.4
99.8
102.3
101.5
98.5
96.2
101.1
100.3
100.9
101.1
102.9
107.5
114.0
117.0
117.3
113.8
115.1

100.0
99.6
99.3
102.0
107.0
84.7
93.5
97.8
91.9
108.7
115.6
127.4
127.5
133.4
141.8
116.2
134.9
147.6

100.0
100.4
100.5
100.3
99.8
99.7
100.0
99.9
99.8
100.0
99.7
99.6
98.6
97.2
95.8
95.1
95.1
95.1

100.0
100.6
101.5
100.9
101.2
97.9
98.0
99.2
100.0
99.1
101.7
106.7
108.4
114.6
120.2
119.5
119.3
123.8

83

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

T able I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SHOP—Concluded.
P A T T E R N M A K ERS, M ale.
[Data from 161 establishments 1890-1903; 178,1904; 171, 1905; 174,1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
92.2
94.1
94.4
101.4
85.8
98.8
100.1
96.4

100.0
100.3
101.0
101.0
102.1
96.6
97.7
99.9
99.5

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.5
99.8
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.5

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
114.0
122.3
124.1
120.2
126.7
132.9
120.5
136.2
143.7

100.1
99.3
98.9
97.7
96.3
94.8
94.4
94.5
94.2

101.1
100.9
104.3
106.8
111.4
116.2
117.3
118.4
125.2

F U R N IT U R E .
CABINETM AKERS, M ale.

C A R TER S, H A N D, M ale.

[Data for employees from 50 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 50 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 51,1893-1903. Data from 55
establishments 1904; 58,1905,1906.]

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903; 25,1904;
36,1905; 37,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898.......................

.................

1899

1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906.......................

100.0
92.0
91.6
102.1
101.3
95.9
92.8
96.9
105.4
103.3
118.3
112.8
108.4
119.6
125.7
127.7
137.6
158.5

100.0
101.2
100.5
99.7
99.4
98.4
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.7
100.4
99.9
98.3
96.8
96.7
95.9
95.3
93.4

100.0
101.8
102.3
104.5
103.6
100.1
98.2
97.2
98.1
95.7
98.6
100.4
107.2
115.1
116.9
119.0
122.2
128.5

MACHINE W OODW ORKERS, M ale.
[Data for employees from 41 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 41 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 42,1893-1903. Data from 53
establishments 1904; 57, 1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896................ . . . .
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
99.4
99.5
98.2
96.3
93.8
97.1
102.9
104.4
102.1
105.5
112.0
118.8
115.4
115.7
124.1
128.4
131.0




100.0
101.4
101.0
100.0
100.0
98.0
99.4
99.9
99.3
100.2
100.8
100.8
101.1
100.6
100.3
99.7
99.6
99.1

100.0
100.7
101.1
101.4
99.8
98.6
98.6
99.2
100.4
99.5
101.1
102.1
103.0
108.7
112.2
111.1
114.5
119.0

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
83.3
94.9
121.8
94.9
91.0
98.7
91.0
100.0
102.6
126.9
94.9
101.3
124.4
120.5
117.6
110.9
121.8

100.0
103.1
99.8
96.0
102.6
99.2
102.2
101.6
99.5
99.8
96.4
101.2
99.4
97.2
99.8
97.3
97.2
97.3

100.0
97.0
103.2
113.7
97.7
95.6
84.6
95.2
101.0
99.7
112.3
102.2
112.3
119.0
112.7
115.9
116.7
120.7

SA W Y E R S, BAND, M ale.
[Data for employees from 25 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 25 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 26, 1893-1903. Data from 32
establishments 1904; 44,1905, 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905................... .
1906.....................

100.0
94.4
94.4
92.6
98.1
90.7
96.3
101.9
101.9
113.0
118.5
124.1
129.6
137.0
135.2
128.9
134.8
134.8

100.0
101.4
100.3
99.5
100.5
96.3
99.3
100.8
100.0
100.0
101.9
101.3
100.8
100.8
100.7
99.6
99.4
99.4

100.0
105.2
102.6
102.7
101.2
99.1
98.8
97.7
98.4
97.1
97.5
100.5
103.7
104.4
105.8
109.5
111.7
114.1

84

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I I . — RELATIVE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
F U R N I T U R E —Concluded.
SA W Y E R S, CIRCULAR, M ale.

[Data for employees from 25 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 25 establish­
ments 1890-1892; 26,1893-1903. Data from 33 establishments 1904; 43,1905; 44,1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
90.9
90.9
91.8
92.7
92.7
99.1
109.1
106.4

100.0
100.5 '
100.4
100.3
100.3
96.2
100.4
100.3
100.5

100.0
101.7
102.2
102.6
102.0
97.9
98.7
98.0
99.4

Year.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
110.0

113.6
114.5
108.2

110.0
120.0

121.4
125.5
125.9

100.3

100.8

99.9
99.3
98.9
99.1
98.5
98.4
98.0

98.4
99.2
102.9
107.1
111.4
113.4
113.9
117.6
122.1

SA W Y E R S, JIG , M ale.

U PH O L ST E R E R S, M ale.

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 8, 1904;
10,1905; 11,1906.]

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 18,1904;
24,1905, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.4
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
98.9
95.7
94.6
93.1
93.1
92.3
92.0
91.0

100.0
92.9
100.5
98.6
100.9
100.9
100.3
98.6
101.9
100.9
104.4
107.6
113.8
124.1
124.1
132.5
133.1
131.2

100.0
100.7
99.3
107.4
100.0
98.7
93.3
98.0
98.0
100.7
106.0
106.7
113.4
113.4
112.1
114.3
124.3
126.8

100.0
100.5
100.3
99.9
100.3
100.2
100.1
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.6
98.3
94.4
94.9
92.1
91.3
91.7
91.5

100.0
99.4
101.4
100.2
98.2
100.6
99.9
98.1
97.6
100.6
104.0
106.0
121.1
125.2
125.3
125.1
126.2
130.0

G A S.
L ABO R ERS, M ale.

P IP E F IT T E R S , M ale.

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 23, 1904;
61,1905; 60,1906.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 21,1904;
54,1905; 60,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1 8 9 1 ....................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899....-................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1 9 0 5 ....,..............
1906......................

100.0
104.3
68.6
65.7
57.1
120.0
82.9
67.1
164.3
174.3
101.4
138.6
111.4
135.7
182.9
216.2
234.1
270.2




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.5
100.2
100.6

100.0
98.7
98.1
94.1
99.8
103.9
98.1
103.3
103.5
98.7
101.7
96.6
105.5
99.7
99.1
101.9
102.3
105.5

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
68.9
60.7
72.1
86.9
95.1
111.5
104.9
91.8
200.0
114.8
109.8
109.8
188.5
132.8
165.9
172.9
183.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.5
97.9
07.7
98.1

100.0
102.3
102.4
101.7
102.5
101.6
101.7
101.3
99.6
91.5
95.4
iflb.i
94.8
98.3
103.0
101.9
160.9
102.8

85

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able II.—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

GX/ASS.
BATCH M A K ERS, H a le .

B LO W ER S, FLINT GLASS, M ale.

[Data from $ establishments 1890-1903; 14,1904; 24,
1905; 25,1906.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 7,1904; 13,
1905; 14,1906.]

Year.
Average
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

100.0
89.7
103.4
103.4
103.4
89.7
89.7
89.7
103.4
103.4
110.3
103.4
103.4
106.9
100.0
102.1
102.1
108.3

100.0
101.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.8
98.8
98.8
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.4
100.4
99.7
100.1
99.9
100.2
99.9

100.0

98.6
98.6
98.6
99.4
101.9
101.7
101.9
99.4
99.9

100.2

100.5

100.2
100.6

103.0
103.4
104.8
105.8

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901..........r.........
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
107.1
123.6
97.3
68.9
100.4
94.7
107.6
94.2
96.9
109.3
100.9
140.9
148.0
160.4
184.5
163.6
161.0

100.0
99.8
99.7
99.9
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.3
99.2
98.9

100.0
97.2
98.4
96.9
98.6
105.6
98.9
102.3
103.4
96.5
102.3
101.4
106.1
105.5
106.8
106.0
103.3
106.8

BLO W E R S, GREEN GLASS, M ale.

B LO W ERS, W INDOW GLASS, M ale.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 5,1905; 6,
1906.]

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 3, 1904; 8,
1905; 7, 1906.]

Average 1890-99.
1890 ............. .
1891 ............. .
1892 ............. .
1893 ............. .
1894 ............. .
1895 ............. .
1896

1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906

.......... .

..............
............. .
..............
..............
............. .
..............
............. .
............. .
..............
.............

100.0
61.3
109.5
73.0
59.9
65.3
76.6
115.3
134.7
135.6
168.9
195.9
175.2
173.0
191.4
231.0
213.0
221.4

100.0
101.3
99.5
100.2
101.8
99.7
99.3
99.4
99.7
101.5
97.7
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.0
94.5

100.0
101.1
98.7
106.4
99.4
100.2
97.9
99.3
96.0
94.7
106.4
117.3
125.2
118.1
120.2
132.2
124.9
135.7

CUTTERS, W INDOW GLASS, M ale.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1899; 1,1900; 2,1901-1903. Data
from 3 establishments 1904; 8,1905; 7,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......... ;...........
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
112.5
112.5
100.0
95.5
107.3
107.3




100.0
98.8
99.5
99.5
98.8
100.2
101.1
101.1
101.1
98.8
101.1
102.2
100.4
100.4
98.8
99.2
97.2
97.2

100.0
110.8
106.5
107.6
101.8
103.3
80.0
91.5
91.2
100.3
106.8
100.9
114.1
119.3
123.9
96.5
116.5
120.0

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.0
120.8
108.3
104.2
104.2
95.8
87.5
83.3
104.2
104.2
100.0
104.2
108.3
95.8
97.6
104.9
104.9

100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.1
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.3
100.1
99.6
100.1

100.0
110.8
104.5
109.8
104.0
94.6
75.1
88.3
93.8
110.1
109.0
131.4
111.6
144.9
158.5
111.2
134.0
146.3

FLA T TE N ER S, WINDOW GLASS,
M ale.
[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 3, 1904; 8,
1905; 7,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893............. « . . .
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906..................... !

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
83.3
83.3
83.3
100.0
100.0
83.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
104.2
108.5

100.0
99.3.
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
101.6
101.6
101.6
99.3
99.3
101.6
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
100.3
94.2

100.0
108.1
106.4
105.4
106.8
97.1
74.2
85.9
95.9
108.3
111.9
125.0
116.4
141.9
143.9
117.8
145.3
181.3

86

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

G L A S S —Continued.
G A F F E B S, FLINT GLASS, M ale.
[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 5, 1904; 6,
1905; 7,1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1 8 9 3 ....................
1894................... ;.
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902............. ........
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
112.8
110.3
115.4
118.0
94.9
92.3
89.7
89.7
92.3
89.7
92.3
100.0
110.3
112.8
114.1
99.2
91.3

100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2
99.6

100.0
97.4
99.7
98.0
98. &
99.9
101.0
101.6
101.7
101.0
101.0
101.9
103.4
105.3
105.6
106.6
106.5
106.9

G A T H E R E R S , WINDOW GLASS,
M ale*
[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 3, 1904; 8,
1905; 7,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
96.0
116.0
108.0
104.0
104.0
96.0
88.0
84.0
108.0
108.0
88.0
100.0
104.0
96.0
96.0
103.2
103 7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.5
100.0

100.0
104.9
98.3
103.3
100.6
92.7
76.8
92.0
100.7
115.3
115.4
134.0
122.5
165.1
179.0
123.3
148.9
160.7

G A T H E R E R S , FLINT GLASS, M ale.
[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 5, 1904; 8,
1905,1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99.
1890
.......
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895...................
1896...................
1897
.......
1898...................
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......
1906
.......

100.0

125.9
125.0
96.4
92.0
83.9
92.0
92.0
92.0
100.0
103.6
134.8
146.4
161.6
208.9
182.9
193.1
182.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2
99.9
99.7

100.0
96.3
97.1
97.7
98.4
101.0
99.8
100.4
102.8
102.5
103.9
104.1
105.3
109.7
114.4
112.2
109.5
109.8

L ABO R ERS, M ale.
[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 12, 1904;
24,1905; 26, 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903........ ...........
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
71.4
77.6
91.8
102.0
161.2
161.2
175.5
114.3
108.2
108.2
104.6
121.6
134.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9

100.0
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.2
92.1
89.8
90.1
93.4
92.8
92.8
93.6
97.7
98.0
109.1
107.8
110.0
110.4

L E IR S M E N , M ale*

P A C K E R S, M ale*

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; H , 1904;
27,1905,1906.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 14, 1904;
22,1905; 23,1906.]

Average 1890-99.
1890 ...............
1891 ...............
1892 ...............
1893 ...............
1894 ..............
1895 ...............
1896 ..............
1897 ...............
1898 ...............
1899 ..............
1900 ...............
1901 ...............
1902 ...............
1903 ...............
1904 ...............
1905 ...............
1906 ...............

100.0
108.8
108.8
114 0
108.8
87.7
93.0
93.0
94.7
96.5
89.5
100.0
110.5
107.0
103.5
99.8
104 3
107.5




100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.1
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.8
100.0
100.2
99.6
99.5
99 3
99.2
99.1

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
99.8
99.9
100.1
99.8
99.4
99.9
99.8
98.2
99.9
101.1
103.1
103.6
102.7
102.3

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
102.0
103.0
107.0
108 0
98.0
85 0
88.0
102.0
100.0
106 0
103.0
102 0
100.0
91.0
87.7
97.2
108.0

100.0
101.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.3
98 3
99.2
100.5
100.2
100.4
100.7
100.6
100.6
99.5
98.8
99.2
99.4

100.0
99.8
99.6
100.4
100.7
99.7
102.6
100.8
98.5
99.1
98.5
98.2
101.0
100.4
106.3
109.3
109.5
112.1

87

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e I I . — RELATIVE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
G LASS—Concluded.
T EA SE R S) M ale.

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 12,1904; 23,1905; 24,1906.]
Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
101.7
108.5
108.5
106.8
96.6
98.3
94.9
96.6

100.0
100.1
100.5
100.5
100.4
99.8
99.9
99.7
99.8

100.0
103.3
101.5
101.5
102.3
100.3
100.1
99.2
98.7

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

89,8
100.0
96.6
96.6
100.0
94.9
88.6
93.4
96.4

99.3
100.0
99.8
99.8
100.0
99.7
99.4
99.7
98.7

95.3
97.6
99.3
99.3
98.5
103.3
105.0
104.2
107.0

H A R N ESS.

CUTTER S, M ale.

COLLAR M A K E R S, M ale.
[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 23, 1904;
30,1905; 32,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
92.4
91.0
92.4
95.8
93.8
102.1
109.7
108.3
109.0
103.5
115.3
111.1
115.3
111.8
113.4
114.8
116.5

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.2
99.7
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.5
99.7
99.4
99.2
98.3
97.6
96.8
96.5

100.0
100.8
100.4
101.4
100.7
100.0
98.6
99.8
99.2
99.2
100.0
102.1
107.6
109.3
115.3
117.5
119.3
120.0

[Data from 21 establishments 1890-1903; 33,1904;
49, 1905; 51, 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
92.0
93.1
97.7
97.7
98.9
95.4
101.1
104.6
106.9
117.2
116.1
116.1
124.1
121.8
128.0
129.6
138.2

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.9
99.7
98.7
97.8
97.8
96.7
95.9

100.0
100.9
100.4
99.6
100.3
99.5
100.5
99.7
98.9
100.1
99.9
101.4
104.3
106.0
118.6
122.7
124.3
127.0

F IT T E R S AND F IN IS H E R S , M ale.

H A R NESS M A K E R S, M ale.

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 22,1904;
26, 1905; 27, 1906.]

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 29,1904;
35, 1905, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................




100.0
87.3
94.5
90.9
88.2
85.5
99.1
110.9
111.8
108.2
127.3
120.9
130.0
151.8
161.8
155.6
154.3
164.1

100.0
100.8
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.6
99.4
98.9
99.2
99.5
98.8
99.1
98.5
97.8
95.8
95.7
95.9
95.7

100.0
99.9
101.9
101.3
100.6
98.3
98.4
96.1
97.4
102.1
103.7
104.0
110.4
114.6
124.5
128.0
129.0
130.7

Average 1890-99..
1890 ...................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
89.8
91.6
87.4
90.2
88.8
97.2
105.1
110.7
115.3
124.7
129.3
128.4
128.4
133.0
133.0
141.1
143.2

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.4
99.5
99.0
98.2
97.1

100.0
99.1
99.6
99.8
100.7
99.2
98.7
99.5
99.9
102.1
101.4
10L9
102.2
102.7
105.9
107.4
108.6
112.5

&8

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

HAKSTESS—Concluded.
ST IT C H ER S, H A N D , M ale.

STITCH ER S, MACHINE, M ale.

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 14,1904; 16,
1906; 17,1906.]

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903; 29, 1904;
40,1905; 42,1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895.............:.......
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
90.6
90.6
96.9
103.1
103.1
100.0
93.8
96.9
112.5
125.0
134.4
153.1
162.5
159.4
146.7
136.4
155.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.2
97.6
97.1
97.4

100.0
100.5
100.5
101.4
101.7
98.1
97.4
98.8
101.8
100.1
99.4
100.1
101.3
108.9
116.1
116.2
114.9
120.0

Year. •
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
94.0
90.0
99.0
90.0
97.0
102.0
105.0
103.0
109.0
108.0
131.0
132.0
132.0
145.0
148.6
138.5
139.9

100.0
100.5
100.4
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.5
98.8
97.6
97.7
97.1
96.5

100.0
99.9
100.8
99.8
102.2
99.1
97.3
98.1
99.6
100.3
102.9
102.6
107.9
110.4
114.2
116.1
115.6
118.9

H A T S, FU R .
BLOCKERS, M ale.

C O L O R E R S , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 13,1905,
1906.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 12,1905:14,
1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
75.0
80.8
86.5
92.3
113.5
98.1
96.2
101.9
115.4
134.6
111.5
121.2
117.3
119.2
105.7
125.3
126.6

100.0
101.8
101.6
100.7
101.5
100.9
101.0
101.5
101.5
94.5
94.9
94.7
94.6
93.2
92.1
92.2
90.6
90.7

100.0
106.4
97.9
100.3
92.9
98.8
91.9
93.4
95.5
110.0
112.8
113.6
106.9
113.2
111.2
111.8
117.7
116.5

CONE2RS, M ale.

100.0
86.4
100.0
100.0
109.1
104 5
86.4
86.4
100.0
104.5
118.2
136.4
154.5
140.9
140.9
145.9
161.9
156.5




100.0
100.0
112.5
95.8
129.2
133.3
79.2
79.2
79.2
87.5
104.2
87.5
112.5
116.7
129.2
141.7
158.4
138.3

100.0
100.0
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.4
99.7
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.7
99.5
92.2
90.6
90.7
90.5
90.6

100.0
102.7
98.1
95.8
96.4
98.9
100.6
106.3
101.4
100.8
99.0
100.4
100.6
109.6
112.1
115.5
119.0
119.8

C U R L E R S , M a le .

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1904; 15,1905; 14,
1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.6
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.6
99.6
99.7
97.3
97.1
97.4
92.6
90.8
90.7
88.3
88.2

100.0
99.7
99.5
99.5
100.9
99.2
99.6
94 3
106.2
99.9
101.3
102.7
103.1
120.1
130.3
136.0
140.5
137.1

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 11,1905,
1906.1
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905........... ........
1906.....................

100.0
76.2
76.2
81.0
85.7
109.5
95.2
104.8
114.3
109.5
142.9
123.8
123.8
100.0
133.3
147.1
165.5
182.9

100.0
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.2
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.1
99.5
99.6
99.9
99.3
99.4
99.4
99.1
98.9

100.0
110.9
116.8
113.0
101.5
98.4
93.2
93.2
90.5
92.1
90.4
90.1
101.8
106.5
107.3
109.7
117.3
121.1

89

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,
T a b l e I I . — RELATIVE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
~ OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
H A T S , F U R —Continued.

F E E D B R S , FcmftlCi

F IN IS H E R S , M ale.

[Data lor employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data lor hours and wages Irom 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1892,1894,1897-1903; 4,1893,1895,
1896. Data Irom 3 establishments 1904; 9,1905,
1906.]

[Data Irom 6 establishments 1890-1903; 5, 1904;
13,1905,1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number ol hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895........ .............
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906.......................

100.0
89.5
105.3
105.3
105.3
110.5
84.2
89.5
89.5
105.3
94.7
89.5
105.3
121.1
115.8
136.9
160.9
178.0

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.4
100.0
100.0
100 4
100.3
97.5
97.8
98.2
91.2
89.2
88.8
88.9
88.9

100.0
100.8
99.1
99.1
99.1
98.7
100.8
99.6
100.2
100.2
102.6
101.7
99.9
113.1
115.6
121.8
120.6
130.4

Relative Relative Relative
number ol hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
105.8
95.7
94.2
91.7
85.2
85.9
92.8
104.3
109.4
134.7
141.5
149.5
170.0
183.4
148.1
146.3
144.2

100.0
100.4
99.3
99.8
99.8
100.4
100.0
100.1
99.6
100.2
100.5
100.2
100.5
98.5
95.7
97.9
97.7
97.4

100.0
103.2
97.6
99.1
98.4
100.7
101.3
99.g
98.0
98.7
103.4
102.9
106.4
114.6
116.8
110.8
115.5
124.3

F li ANGERS, m ale.

F U R B LO W E R S, Male.

[Data Irom 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4, 1904;
13i, 1905; 12,1906.]

[Data Irom 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4, 1904;
13,1905, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897..................... *.
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891
..............
1892.....................
1893
...............
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897 ...................
1898.....................
..............
1899
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902 ................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905................
1906 ................ .

100.0
92.9
78.6
78.6
71.4
92.9
78.6
85.7
78.6
142.9
178.6
250.0"
300.0
250.0
242.9
219.2
223.6
217.7

100.0
100.8
100.4
100.4
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.9
100.4
100.3
99.3
99.9
98.6
95.7
92.4
93.5
b3.5
93.5

100.0
124.0
101.8
109.5
91.8
113.7
88.2
97.5
92.5
89.4
91.6
90.6
91.9
108.9
95.3
96.4
101.5
109.5

100.0
90.0
100.0
120.0
100.0
80.0
90.0
90.0
80.0
90.0
130.0
190.0
200.0
190.0
200.0
219.0
230.5
204.3

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
•98.4
98.6
98.7
91.2
89.5
89.3
89.2
89.2

100.0
103.9
96.1
96.4
100.0
95.9
101.0
101.0
100. 7
96.7
108.4
107.2
106.4
119.6
131.1
141.1
155.5
188.2

H A R D E N E R S , Nlale.

POUNCERS, M ale.

[Data Irom 5 establishments 1890-1904; 14, 1905;
13,1906.]

[Data Irom 4 establishments 1890-1904; 11,1905,
1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1 8 9 1 ....................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................1
1906......................

100.0
90.5
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
85.7
100.0
104.8
109.5
109.5
109.5
123.8
119.0
119.0
142.8
153.2
153.2




100.0
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.4
100.2
99.5
99.6
97.4
97.3
97.9
92.3
92.3
92.3
90.4
90.7

100.0 Average 1890-99..
107.0 1890.....................
100.6 1891.....................
102.6 1892.....................
100.3 1893.....................
100.0 1894.....................
103.1 1895.....................
97.4 1896.....................
99.9 1897.....................
95.3 11898.....................
93.7 1899.....................
94.5 1900 ..................
..........
96.7 ! 1901
109.0 1902.....................
110.0 1903.....................
115.0
117.0 ! 1905 ..................
113.2 1906 ..................

100.0
104.2
100.0
91.7
112.5
112.5
91.7
83.3
70.8
108.3
137.5
212.5
275.0
383.3
379.2
379.2
459.1
443.1

100.0
100.2
100.1
100.4
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.8
99.7
99.5
99.6
100.2
100.3
91.4
89.8
90.5
90.3
90.5

100.0
104.6
106.2
86.6
95.6
92.1
93.8
106.9
105.6
111.0
97.4
100.0
90.6
88.7
96.4
91.5
87.8
93.8

90

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
H A T S , F U R —Concluded.
S I Z E R S , M a le .

S T I F F E N S I t S , M a le .

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1904; 13, 1905;
14,1906.]

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4,1904; 14,
1905, 1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
89.1
97.7
71.3
88.4
106.6
100.0
104.3
102.6
116.8
124.4
150.5
155.4
141.9
152.5
157.7
171.5
181.3

100.0
101.9
101.4
101.3
101.1
100.4
100.3
101.0
101.0
95.9
95.8
96.6
96.9
94.0
92.1
93.3
93.0
93.1

100.0
109.7
105.0
110.9
96.4
102.5
98.7
89.3
91.3
96.5
99.9
108.3
111.1
114.1
128.1
125.8
124.1
133.0

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
120.0
80.0
100.0
140.0
140.0
120.0
120.0
120.0
60.0
100.0
100.0
110.0
1 148
109.7

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
99.6
100.6
100.1
99.4
99.4
99.6
99.6
99.6
101.9
96.6
949
94.9
93.3
92.7

100.0
91.4
85.8
92.8
941
101.7
103.9
108.1
106.7
108.3
107.3
113.0
1247
1041
120.8
122.6
121.8
129.9

T R IM M E R S , F e m a le .

W E I G H E R S , F e m a le *

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903;; 5, 1904;
14,1905; 13,1906.]

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1904; 11. 1905;
8, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897,.....................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901................ r...
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
63.9

78.7

71.0
90.3
114.2
93.5
98.7
116.1
123.2
151.6
165.2
165.8
151.6
146.5
150.2
158.8
173.1

100.0
101.1
101.5
101.0
99.6
99.4
99.6
98.7
99.4
99.9
99.8
100.0
100.1
96.2
93.8
94.4
94.2
93.9

100.0
108.0
105.0
105.9
102.2
97.3
89.7
97.5
97.5
97.4
99.6
103.9
98,3
100.1
98.4
104.2
113.6
114.3

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895..:................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
83.3
116.7
100.0
116.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
150.0
166.7
166.7
166.7
1846
1641

100.0
100.3
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
96.8
96.8
96.7
91.2
88.7
89.4
89.5
88.9

100.0
102.5
102.0
98.3
99.8
95.8
98.3
100.9
98.3
99.8
1040
106.2
106.1
112.7
114 5
113.7
1 145
122.4

H O SIE R Y A N D K N IT GOODS.
ISO-ilRINESRS) M a le *
[Data lor employees from 5 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 5 establishments
1890-1901; 6, 1902,1903. Data from 8 establishments 1904; 20,1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................

100.0
98.7
103.9
105.3
119.7
76.3
107.9
93.4
84 2




100.0
101.3
101.3
101.3
99.7
98.2
99.4
99.7
99.7

100.0
107.9
100.3
90.3
106.8
91.5
110.8
99.9
99.0

1898....................
1 8 9 9 ................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904 ................
1905.....................
1906................

109.2
106.6
111.8
105.3
11&4
102.6
114 8
127.5
143.9

99.7
99.8
99.6
99.2
99.2
98.2
98.4
98.3
9a 4

99.3
942
91.9
116.2
107.8
125.4
123.5
127! 9
132.6

9i

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

Table I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

H O SIE R Y A N D K N IT GOODS—Continued.
K N IT T E R S , m a le.

F IN IS H E R S , F em a le .
[Data lor employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 6, 1902, 1903. Data from 8
establishments 1904; 19,1905; 22,1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................
1898 ..................
1899 ..................
1900 ..................
1901 ..................
1902 ..................
1903 ..................
1904 ..................
1905 ..................
1906 ..................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
76.0
91.8
137.2
100.5
79.1
98.5
105.1
99.5
109.2
101.0
121.9
115.8
114 8
122.4
97.0
114 9
132.2

100.0
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.0
91.3
101.1
100.8
100.8
100.6
100.6
98.1
97.8
98.1
96.0
96.7
96.2
94 4

100.0
106.6
113.2
105.2
97.4
92.4
93.4
100.9
98.8
100.7
92,3
99.3
103.4
118.7
121.3
119.7
128.0
137.0

1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.

100.0
82.1
109.7
107.6
124 8
90.0
97.9
96.6
86.6
98.3
105.5
106.2
100.3
109.7
121.4
99.0
121.4
133.7

100.0
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.5
95.7
100.4
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.3
99.6
99.3
98.6
98.2
98.1
97.6

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
47.7
59.1
84.1
75.0
56.8
81.8
115.9
138.6
177.3
165.9
181.8
220.5
202.3
193.2
1540
171.4
200.9

100.0
102.8
102.8
102.8
100.5
91.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.8
99.8
98.7
98.7
98.7
97.4
97.6
97.3
99.0

100.0
107.7
118.6
99.8
113.4
110.0
112.2
90.4
81.8
85.4
80.7
90.9
92.3
95.7
123.9
115.4
119.2
126.2

LOOPERS, F em a le .

K N IT T E R S, F em a le .
[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 7 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 6, 1896, 1897, 1902, 1903; 5,
1898-1901. Data from 9 establishments 1904; 17,
1905; 19,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................

{Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 4, 1902, 1903. Data from 4
establishments 1904; 14,1905; 15,1906.]

100.0
104 9
104 8
99.0
97.4
101.1
104 6
98.5
98.7
96.2
94 5
91.5
103.1
112.4
116.6
111.4
1241
130.8

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1893; 5, 1894-1902; 6, 1903. Data
from 5 establishments 1904; 16,1905; 17,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
94 8
139.7
143.1
132.8
70.7
75.9
69.0
82.8
87.9
96.6
115.5
87.9
82.8
96.6
93.8
106.1
113.1

100.0
101.9
102.0
102.0
101.6
91.5
101.3
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
98.3
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.1
98.4
97.8

100.0
99.8
103.3
100.0
104 2
95.9
106.7
117.4
91.0
93.3
88.5
80.7
94.3
92.9
106.1
93.3
99.4
105.5

R E N D E R S , F e m a le .
[Data for employees from 5 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 5 establishments
1890-1901; 6,1902,1903. Data from 6 establishments 1904; 18,1905; 22,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................

100.0
85.5
95.2
166.3
109.6
110.8
89.2
74 7
68.7




100.0
101.8
101.8
101.8
99.5
95.9
99.4
99.7
100.1

100.0
108.9
105.5
99.6
100.8
92.4
113.4
97.8
92.1

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905. .
1906.....................

120.5
84 3
106.0
116.9
120.5
110.8
127.9
152.6
157.0

100.2
99.8
99.2
98.8
99.0
98.6
98.6
98.2
98.0

95.8
93.8
104.1
92.3
112.2
110.5
106.1
113.7
117.2

92

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

H O SIE R Y A N D K N IT GOODS—Concluded.
P R E S S E B S , M ale.

P R E S S E R S f F e m a le .

[Data lor employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data lor hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890,1891,1902,1903; 4,1892-1901. Data
from 5 establishments 1904; 14,1905; 15,1906.]

[Data irom 2 establishments 1890-1904; 3, 1905; 7,
1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number oi hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
94.1
76.5
117.6
117.6
111.8
94.1
105.9
100.0
94.1
105.9
111.8
94.1
117.6
141.2
207.6
222.4
248.6

100.0
101.1
101.1
101.1
100.8
92.3
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
98.3
97.4
99.0
99.3
99.5
99.6
99.4

100.0
107.4
105.2
92.6
98.9
94.6
94.4
100.9
100.8
103.9
101.4
106.6
103.6
107.1
116.2
112.9
120.5
123.7

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896...:...............
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
45.0
25.0
130.0
160.0
55.0
155.0
85.0
80.0
115.0
125.0
135.0
250.0
135.0
135.0
125.0
365.4
498.6

100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99*0
97.2
98.5
98.6

100.0
110.8
102.3
101.5
99.8
109.6
91.4
105.4
97.9
88.8
92.9
107.1
104.0
110.3
100.9
122.3
131.7
137.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

96.4
114.4
110.1
112.8
120.9
119.0
117.3
122.6
127.0

B IB B E R S ) F e m a le .
[Data Irom 2 establishments 1890-1904; 6,1905; 7,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ................ \

100.0
107.5
102.5
112.5
107.5
102.5
97.5
92.5
97.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.5
112.3
103.1
103.4
91.8
98.8
87.2
92.0

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

90.0
80.0
97.5
95.0
96.0
107.5
110.9
121.6
125.1

IR O N A N D STEED , B A R .
CATCHERS) M ale,

H E A T E R S ) M ale.

[Data lor employees irom 12 establishments 18901903. Data lor hours and wages Irom 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 14,1891-1893,1896-1898;
15, 1899; 16, 1900-1903. Data Irom 17 establish­
ments 1904; 23,1905; 24,1906.]

[Data lor employees Irom 12 establishments 18901903. Data lor hours and wages Irom 13 estab­
lishments 1890, 1894,1895; 14,1891-1893,1896-1898;
15, 1899; 16, 1900-1903. Data Irom 19 establish­
ments 1904; 22,1905; 24,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......... ' ..........
1906.......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
93.8
93.8
96.9
112.5
103.1
109.4
87.5
96.9
100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
112.5
118.8
106.6
108.7
101.1




100.0
102.8
101.4.
101.4
100.8
101.3
100.0
100.8
97.8
97.6
96.2
97.0
96.9
98.4
98.3
97.0
97.3
97.1

100.0
116.1
104.8
99.8
91.8
87.4
87.8
101.7
98.4
94.0
118.4
121.2
120.7
137.4
144.7
131.4
134.7
150.5

100.0
95.9
100.0
98.0
100.0
91.8
104.1
93.9
106.1
100.0
102.0
110.2
93.9
95.9
108.2
105.6
104.7
102.9

100.0
103.3
101.8
102.2
101.7
101.8
101.0
101.3
95.7
96.0
95.1
96.3
99.7
99.9
99.2
98.7
99.0
99.6

100.0
116.9
106.5
98.0
92.1
94.2
88.0
95.4
97.6
98.5
112.6
119.7
109.8
116.9
121.1
111.3
106.0
113.6

93

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906

Table I I .—R E LA T IV E WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

I R O N A N D S T E E D , B A R —Concluded.
H E A T E R S ’ H E L P E R S , M ale.
[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 12 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 13,1891-1893,1896-1898;
14, 1899; 15, 1900-1903. Data from 18 establish­
ments 1904; 21, 1905; 24, 1906.J
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
100.0
105.7
103.8
107.5
103.8
96.2
92.5
96.2
96.2
98.1
101.9
86.8
90.6
92.5
83.5
84.1
79.9

100.0
103.9
102.4
102.6
102.5
100.3
100.9
100.1
96.1
96.0
95.3
98.3
101.1
101.0
100.7
100.9
101.2
101.6

100.0
118.2
101.7
99.1 i
96.6
90.9
93.5
96.2
94.9'
96.9
111.8
119.0
116.6
127.8
135.8
127.0
124.9
133.6

HO T STRAICrHTENEBS, M ale.
[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 11 estab­
lishments 1890; 12,1891-1899; 13,1900-1903. Data
from 16 establishments 1904; 21, 1905; 22, 1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
101.5
101.5
101.5
101.5
97.0
100.0
100.0
95.5
98.5
103.0
111.9
111.9
113.4
114.9
105.0
112.6
93.3

100.0
102.8
101.4
101.5
101.5
101.8
101.0
101.2
98.1
95.4
95.4
96.1
96.2
96.6
95.5
94.3
93.8
92.4

lQO.O
102.0
102.6
96.9
98.9
87.1
103.7
108.2
91.7
96.2
112.9
110.7
120.0
140.3
136.1
120.4
123.4
132.6

R O t)G E E R S , M ale.

RO LLER S, M ale.
[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 14,1891-1893,1890-1899;
15,1900-1903. Data from 16 establishments 1904;
20, 1905; 23, 1906.]

[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 14,1891-1893,1896-1898;
15, 1899; 16, 1900-1903. Data from 20 establish­
ments 1904; 25, 1905; 26, 1906.]

Average1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894 .....................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
103.4
93.1
96.6
117.2
103.4
103.4
93.1
96.6
96.6
100.0
113.8
103.4
110.3
113.8
101.8
108.4
104.5

100.0
101.5
101.3
101.6
100.0
101.1
100.5
100.9
97.7
97.7
97.6
98.6
99.0
99.0
98.9
98.9
99.4
98.9

100.0
102.8
105.1
99.6
92.6
89.0
89.7
98.8
106.0
102.0
114.5
119.5
124.0
134.0
136.8
129.5
135.2
139.3

100.0
101.8
96.5
93.0
96.5
101.8
108.8
96.5
94.7
107.0
103.5
112.3
105.3
101.8
107.0
98.6
103.3
99.4

100.0
101.9
101.3
101.5
101.6
101.3
100.9
101.5
97.3
96.8
95.9
97.3
97.6
97.8
97.5
97.3
97.9
97.8

100.0
105.6
108.9
106.5
102.2
92.0
87.5
95.6
99.5
90.0
112.1
119.3
126.1
140.6
144.4
134.2
136.9
143.8

IR O N A N D STEED, BESSEM ER C O N V E R T IN G .
B LO W ER S, M ale.
Data for emplovees from 6 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 6 establishments
1890; 7,1891,1894-1896; 8,1892,1893,1897-1900; 9,1901-1903. Data from 10establishments 1904; 16,1905;
17, 1906.J
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................

100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

8891—No. 71—07--- 7



100.0
104.3
97.3
101.6
99.2
99.3
99.9
99.9
99.6

100.0
85.3
101.3
92.4
98.1
97.7
102.0
108.3
101.1

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
125.0
141.3
141.3
141.3

99.6
99.6
88.5
90.4
90.4
89.5
82.2
82.4
82.8

104.0
110.8
121.4
129.6
134.7
144.4
133.1
137.9
146.0

94

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I , — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

IRON' A N O ST E E L , BESSEM ER C O N V E R T IN G —Concluded.
BOTTOM M A K ER S, M ale.

LADLE LIN ER S, M ale.

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890; 7, 1891-1893, 1897-1900; 6, 18941896; 8,1901-1903. Data from 10 establishments
1904; 16,1905; 17,1906.]

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 7, 1891, 1894-1896; 8, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900; 9, 1901-1903. Data from 10 establish­
ments 1904; 16, 1905; 17, 1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906......................

100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.7
88.9
88.9
87.0

100.0
103.7
99.8
101.6
100.7
99.3
99.3
99.3
98.7
98.9
98.7
94.0
94.9
94.9
99.7
98.8
98.8
98.3

100.0 Average 1890-99..
126.0 1890.....................
117.7 1891.....................
120.3 1892.....................
105.8 1893.....................
98.6 1894.....................
100.4 1895.....................
95.2 1896.....................
78.2 *1897.....................
79.8 1898.....................
78.0 1899.....................
90.2 1900.....................
105.5 1901.....................
115.4 1902.....................
122.2 1903.....................
101.7 1904.....................
107.3 1905.....................
116.0 1906.....................

M E L T E R S , M a le .

100.0
100.0
121.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.0
121.4
121.4
121.4
148.7
153.4
156.2

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
106.7
100.0
100.0
106.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
106.7
100.0
106.7
113.3
113.3
113.3
120.0
106.7
106.7
101.6

100.0
91.5
101.1
100.7
97.6
103.4
103.4
103.4
98.0
102.9
98.0
93.8
95.1
95.1
99.8
97.7
98.1
98.8

100.0
122.4
111.4
117.7
113.7
92.4
95.1
89.5
86.4
81.2
90.0
101.0
108.4
116.4
127.6
106.8
116.8
128.1

S T E E L P O U R E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890; 6, 1891, 1894-1896; 7, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900; 8,1901-1903. Data from 10 establishments 1904; 13, 1905; 14, 1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896....*................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Year.

100.0
93.9
95.1
104.9
101.5
100.1
100.1
100.1
101.4
101.4
101.4
92.7
105.4
105.4
105.4
93.4
92.3
92.9

100.0
117.4
121.6
112.8
102.5
93.2
94.1
85.4
87.0
92.4
93.8
106.8
97.4
109.7
122.3
98.2
104.8
114.2

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 establishments 1890; 7, 1891, 1894-1896; 8, 1892, i m ,
1897-1900; 9, 1901-1903. Data from 10 establish­
ments 1904; 14,1905; 16, 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
114.1
121.7
119.4

100.0
96.1
97.7
101.2
97.8
97.7
97.7
103.1
102.9
102.9
102.9
85.8
87.7
87.7
87.7
86.5
88.1
88.1

100.0
112.0
123.1
118.2
106.8
94.9
94.4
81.7
86.6
88.0
94.3
109.0
122.2
133.6
137.8
121.2
137.2
149.5

VESSEL MEN, M ale.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 0 establishments
1890; 7, 1891, 1894-1896; 8, 1892, 1893, 1897-1900; 9,1901-1903. Data from 10 establishments 1904; 16,
1905; 17, 1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................

100.0
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
100.0
100.0
.100.0
100.0




100.0
100.1
9V.7
100.7
98.2
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.4

100.0
116.9
120.1
112.6
106.3
100.0
98.0
94.8
78.3

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.0
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
99. t
97.9
97.9

100.4
100.4
92.7
93.9
93.9
93.9
87.8
87.5
88.1

83.3
89.6
108.7
115.7
126.0
136.3
127.1
135.9
148.7

95

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

IR O N A N D ST E E L , B LA ST F U R N A C E .
CINDER SN A P P E R S , M ale.

H O T BLA ST MEN, M ale.

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 18, 1894, 1895.
Data from 22 establishments 1904; 23, 1905; 25,
1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
103.8
100.0
102.5
97.5
96.9
100.6
99.4
98.1
99.4
100.6
101.9
107.5
97.5
98.1
98.6
100.5
105.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.6
98.6
98.6

100.0
102.6
102.7
105.7
102.9
90.8
98.3
102.5
9a 4
95.3
106.1
109.9
112.9
lia o
116.9
114 2
120.5
122.0 ;

[Data for employees from 17 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 18 estab­
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 17, 1894, 1895,
Data from 22 establishments 1904; 23, 1905; 25.
1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99.
1890
.......
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......
1906
.......

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

100.0

97.0
98.5
104 5
101.5
98.5
97.0
101.5
98.5
101.5
101.5
104 5
106.1
112.1

113.6
116.7
127.5
135.6

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

1040
1041
105.8
104 2
92.5
94 8
99.1
96.3
96.4
102.9
109.0
109.1
113.8
118.0
1140
118.5
121.0

K E E P E R S ’ H E L P E R S , M ale.

K E E P E R S , M ale.

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 1890- [Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
1903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 18, 1894, 1895.
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 18, 1894, 1895.
Data from 22 establishments 1904; 23, 1905; 25,
Data from 22 establishments 1904; 23, 1905; 25,
1906.]
1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
92.7
95.1
106.1
98.8
100.0
100.0
96.3
96.3
104 9
106.1
1049
109.8
114 6
113.4
114 4
119.0
125.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
106.3
108. 5
108.8
106.5
92.5
97.3
99.0
91.2
91.1
98.7
103.6
1041
108.9
111.8
105.4
110.3
111.9

Average 1890-99.
1890
.......
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......
1906
.......

100.0

89.7
89.7
108.1
99.1
99.6
98.2
98.7
99.6
105.8
109.4
107.6
113.9
114 8
107.2
103.0
111.4
119.5

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0

105.1
107.1
108.3
106.9

88.6

98.6
100.9
90.9
92.2
101.4
105.3
105.6
109.8
113.4
106.0
110.7
112.9

TOP F IL L E R S , M ale.
[Data for employees from 16 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 17 establish­
ments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 16, 1894,1895. Data from 19 establishments 1904r-1906.]
Average 1890-99.
1890 ...............
1891 ...............
1892 ...............
1893 ...............
1894 ...............
1895 ...............
1896 ...............
1897 ...............

100.0
87.5
92.3
109.5
101.8
1042
105.4
98.8
98.8




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
103.8
103.9
106.8
105.4
92.5
93.7
99.1
95.1

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

101.2
103.0
101.8
95.2
82.1
76.2
68.2
65.2
63.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.2
104 2
104.1

94.7
105.1
108.7
108.6
110.3
112.0
108.2
103.2
103.1

96

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

LEATH ER.
COLOfMBRS, M ale.

F l i E S R E R S ) M a le .

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 23, 1904;
27,1905; 30,1906.]

[Data for employees from 31 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 31 estab­
lishments 1890,1891; 32,1892-1903. D ata from 38
establishments 1904; 49, 1905; 54,1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
94.3
91.5
111.3
74.5
118.9
110.4
81.1
88.7
101.9
126.4
119.8
104.7
95.3
104.7
94.7
94.3
102.8

100.0
100.1
100.0
99.7
100.2
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
100.0
99.7
99.5
99.6
100.0
100.1
100.2

100.0
95.4
97.1
98.2
99.7
98.4
99.2
102.9
105.4
102.4
101.2
103.6
105.6
109.0
110.6
111.0
108.7
110.0

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99.
.......
1890
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......
1906
.......

100.0

103.8
98.9
106.0
98.9
98.4
103.3
94.5
93.4
94.5
109.9
106.6
104.9
111.5

122.0

109.1
113.0
102.3

100.0
100.0

99.9
99.9

100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1

99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.7
99.4

100.1
100.0

100.0

105.8
104.6
104.4
103.8
97.2
95.7
98.2
96.1
97.2
97.3

101.0

102.4
103.4
105.3
107.5
103.1
107.3

GLAZERS, F em ale*

GLAZERS, M ale.
[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891, 1894-1903; 9, 1892, 1893.
Data from 18 establishments 1904; 20, 1905; 19,
1906.]

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890, 1891; 2, 1892-1894; 3, 1895-1903.
Data from 6 establishments 1904; 7, 1905; 9,
1906.]

Average 1890-99..
1890
.........
1891
.........
1892
.........

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

1894..
1895..
1896..
1897..
1898..
1899..
1900..
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.

100.0

58.7
77.8

100.0

99.9
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.9

86.8

74.6
103.2
101.1
128.6
126.5
110.1
134.4
142.3
133.3
127.5
171.4
160.9
164.9
185.3

100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.2

100.0

97.8
96.4
98.4
91.3
96.0
106.2
100.9

101.1

105.6
106.5
105.1
114.5
117.5
130.1
125.5
124.8
120.3

100.0
17.1
46.3
48.8
12.2
24.4
85.4
68.3
109.8
363.4
231.7
261.0
212.2
168.3
241.5
405.8
389.1
387.4

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
101.1
98.5
94.6
92.5
98.1
97.8
106.4
108.9
97.5
104.4
107.2
116.5
126.6
125.1
133.6
132.6
133.6

L IM E R S, M ale*

ROLLERS, M ale.

[Data for employees from 29 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 29 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 30, 1892-1903. Data from
38 establishments 1904; 44,1905; 46,1906.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 14, 1904;
22,1905; 24, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
91.9
95.7
102.7
87.1
94.6
98.4
96.2
105.9
103.8
123.1
120.4
125.8
133.9
148.4
145.2
150.9
163.7




100.0
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.6
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.3
99.6
99.9
100.0

100.0
105.5
103.5
104.3
102.8
98.4
97.9
96.1
95.5
95.8
99.9
101.9
101.4
105.1
106.4
106.1
106.6
109.6

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
105.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
105.3
110.5
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
123.9
134.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
95.5
95.8
96.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.6
99.6
101.1
99.6
99.6
99.6
101.1
100.2
103.5
106.1
106.1
113.6
116.1
115.6

97

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906. B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

L E A T H E R —Concluded.
SE T T E R S OUT, M ale.

SH A V ER S, M ale.

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 28, 1904;
31, 1905; 34,1906.]

[Data from 16 establishments 1890-1903; 24, 1904;
32, 1905; 33, 1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
84.0
91.8
117.2
66.8
116.4
106.7
63.4
118.3
107.5
127.2
124.3
131.0
122.0
114.9
103.3
102.7
112.9

100.0
100.2
100.1
100.0
100.5
99.9
100.0
100.1
99.8
99.9
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.2
99.8
99.8

100.0
103.6
103.0
98.6
107.8
96.5
96.5
99.9
96.9
95.4
101.9
101.5
103.0
102.7
105.5
108.3
111.1
111.4

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895........ :...........
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
95.6
115.6
114.4
96.7
97.8
94.4
78.9
87.8
111.1
104.4
112.2
113.3
97.8
108.9
115.2
136.7
142.4

100.0
100.4
100.5
100.4
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.2
100.3
300.4
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.3
100.3
101.0
101.7
101.7

100.0
112.2
114.0
111.9
115.0
101.0
97.2
89.0
86.5
84.7
88.2
87.5
89.4
92.3
94.3
96.9
96.0
95.2

S T A K E R S, M ale.

TAN YA RR HANDS, M ale.

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 17, 1904;
20, 1905; 21,1906.]

[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903; 37, 1904;
52,1905; 55,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
69.5
89.2
112.6
106.6
104.2
111.4
89.8
96.4
107.2
114.4
86.2
123.4
77.8
83.8
83.5
91.2
102.8

100.0
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.0
100.7
100.7

100.0
92.1
100.8
105.3
105.0
102.1
102.4
100.0
96.0
94.9
101.6
71.6
76.5
74.1
73.4
75.1
75.4
75.8

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894................ .
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898

1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
91.7
92.6
101.8
102.5
97.7
98.6
92.8
98.0
111.3
112.4
108.8
114.0
109.0
113.7
125.5
135.0
144.2

100.0
99.5
99.2
99.4
99.6
99.7
100.0
100.2
100.6
101.1
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.3
99.8
100.0
100.0

100.0
103.5
105.1
105.3
103.8
98.2
96.6
97.0
97.8
95.5
97.0
100.2
101.0
104.5
107.1
108.2
109.2
111.2

100.8
100.8
100.7
100.8
100.7
99.8
99.9
100.4
100.2

97.2
96.0
99.1
101.2
105.6
105.8
104.1
108.2
111.3

U N H A IR E R S , M ale.
[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 30,1904; 45,1905; .50,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891................... ;
1892......................
1893......................
1894 ...................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.

100.0
91.6
89.4
95.5
103.4
95.0
94.4
102.2
106.7




100.0
99.5
99.6
99.4
99.4
99.6
100.2
99.9
100.8

100.0
105.6
104.4
104.4
102.0
95.6
96.6
98.4
99.7

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906............. .......

112.3
108.9
114.5
124.0
129.1
126.8
108.7
119.1
106.0

98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I I . - -RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y

OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

LIQUORS, MALT.
B O T T LE R S, M ale.

CELLAR MEM, M ale.

[Data from 23 establishments 1890-1903; 40,1904;
35,1905; 38,1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
95.0
90.4
96.0
99.8
100.7
87.2
100.5
103.2
105.4
121.6
321.1
187.8
208.6
243.6
244.6
249.5
279.0

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.1
100.1
92.8
93.2
91.2
91.6
90.6
89.9
88.8

100.0
98.3
102.7
99.5
98.2
100.6
101.6
99.4
99.8
99.9
99.9
117.9
115.8
124.4
127.3
131.3
133.0
132.9

[Data from 47 establishments 1890-1903; 57,1904;
51,1905; 5 2 ,1906.|
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
97.2
96.6
101.0
101.0
98.2
98.4
99.1
104.2
102.1
101.5
105.2
104.2
106.4
109.2
114.2
117.0
116.1

100.0
100.6
100.3
100.4
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.1
99.8
99.2
98.9
97.4
95.4
92.4
90.2
89.4
89.7
86.7

100.0
96.5
97.9
98.2
99.7
100.3
100.5
101.3
101.3
101.9
102.4
104.7
107.6
113.6
117.0
118.7
120.1
125.0

D R IV E R S , M ale.

C O O P E R S , M a le .
[Data from 32 establishments 1890-1903;: 41, 1904;
40, 1905; 41, 1906.]

[Data from 46 establishments 1890-1903; 58,1904;
52,1905; 53,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906....'...............

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
69.6
70.6
75.9
110.2
114.9
116.8
108.3
119.1
103.3
110.9
94.7
102.0
103.0
106.6
103.4
93.3
96.0

100.0
101.1
100.6
101.0
101.5
101.5
101.3
97.2
101.1
97.2
97.5
98.2
91.8
85.9
85.7
85.3
85.6
84.3

100.0
99.0
100.2
98.6
98.1
99.4
100.2
100.1
99.8
102.7
101.6
107.4
115.1
125.7
126.8
127.4
132.0
136.9

100.0
89.4
93.6
94.9
99.1
96.4
101.9
105.0
107.1
105.0
108.0
108.5
112.4
113.6
117.4
120.7
123.9
134.1

100.0
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.2
98.1
97.2
96.9
98.3
97.2
95.2

100.0
99.0
99.9
99.3
100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.5
102.3
104.3
107.0
107.5
107.2
109.3
112.9

F E R iJ I E N T E R S , M a le .

K E T T L E MEN , M ale.

[Data from 32 establishments 1890-1903;; 45,1904;
46, 1905; 45,1906.]

[Data from 43 establishments 1890-1903 ; 56,1904;
51,1905; 52,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
86.6
94.9
92.4
105.1
107.6
107.0
100.6
101.9
101.3
103.8
108.3
105.7
110.2
117.2
120.6
123.0
130.9




100.0
102.2
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.3
99.9
99.9
99.4
98.6
98.6
96.2
93.6
90.2
88.8
88.4
88.5
86.5

100.0
97.9
96.3
98.2
99.1
99.4
100.3
100.5
101.4
103.4
103.4
106.8
110.3
116.2
119.7
121.7
123.8
127.7

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
96.6
96.6
100.6
100.6
103.4
101.7
99.4
99.4
102.9
100.6
105.7
104.6
108.6
114.9
114.4
113.9
118.9

100.0
101.2
100.5
100.5
100.3
100.4
100.1
100.0
99.3
98.9
98.9
97.7
95.7
90.8
88.9
88.3
87.5
85.6

100.0
96.0
97.6
97.8
97.9
' 98.9
100.4
101.0
102.6
103.8
103.8
105.1
108.6
115.4
119.2
122.1
123.9
127.7

99

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

LIQ U O R S, M A L T —Concluded.
H A L T B O U SE MEN.

WASHERS, Male.

[Data from 21 establishments 1890-1903, 1905; 25,
1904; 19,1906.1

[Data from 46 establishments 1890-1903; 56, 1904;
50,1905; 51,1906.3

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1 9 0 1 ...................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
107.9
99.0
95.4
97.4
107.3
99.7
102.3
97.7
94.1
99.0
103.6
105.0
92.1
95.7
101.5
100.6
102.1

100.0
100.0
99.9
101.0
100.7
100.8
100.9
100.8
99.9
98.2
97.9
92.9
91.8
90.2
88.6
88.3
88.7
89.2

100.0
98.0
99.5
96.6
98.7
98.2
98.7
100.1
101.8
103.7
104.7
111.4
114.3
117.5
120.7
122.3
123.6
125.3

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
100.0
101.6
103.3
112.6
107.7
103.1
94.2
92.0
94.6
90.6
87.9
101.7
102.5
104.3
98.1
104.4
107.6

100.0
100.5
100.3
100.5
100.7
100.6
100.3
100.2
99.8
98.7
98.4
96.6
93.7
90.3
88.6
88.9
88.5
86.2

100.0
96.5
96.6
98.1
98.5
98.7
99.8
101.1
101.4
104.1
105.0
108.0
113.2
120.5
124.4
126.6
129.4
133.6

LU M BER .
CANT S E T T E R S , GANG, M ale.

BAND S E T T E R S , Male*
[Data from 22 establishments 1890-1903; 26, 1904;
42,1905; 49,1906.]

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 14,19041906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895 ...................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
101.8
98.2
96.5
101.8
96.5
98.2
103.5
105.3
103.5
100.0
114.0
103.5
100.7
108.0
108.9

100.0
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.0
100.0
99.7
99.6
100.0
100.1
100.0
98.4
99.1
99.5
98.0
97.9
97.1

100.0
102.5
102.8
103.7
101.4
96.2
94.7
96.6
98.5
99.7
103.9
104.5
104.5
113.9
115.5
115.0
117.9
121.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.2
103.2
90.3
90.3
90.3
90.3
90.3
87.1
90.2
90.2
90.2

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
97.8
95.8
96.1
96.1
94.7

100.0
101.3
101.4
101.6
101.5
101.4
99.6
95.4
95.4
99.2
103.4
104.3
104.7
106.7
113.1
113.7
116.6
122.1

CARRIAGE M EN, Male.

C H O PPER S AND SA W Y E R S, IN
WOODS, M ale.

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 30, 1904;
48,1905; 56,1906.]

[Data from 16 establishments 1890-1903; 24, 1904;
32,1905; 33,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
96.6
103.4
102.8




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.5
97.3
97.3
97.8
97.8
96.3

100.0
98.5
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.5
97.3
98.8
99.1
100.4
107.8
107.1
112.3
117.9
122.8
121.8
123.1
129.5

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
98.2
100.6
100.8
95.0
95.9
97.0
97.5
103.1
103.3
108.1
114.8
115.1
121.4
135.2
183.2
190.1
210.7

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
100.0
99.8
99.6
100.2
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.4
99.4
99.3

100.0
98.6
97.8
99.3
95.9
94.7
98.5
98.3
101.0
106.5
109.4
109.5
113.2
115.7
116.3
109.9
115.4
120.8

100

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

LU M BER —Continued.
CIRCULAR S E T T E R S , M ale.

E D 6 E R MEN, M ale.

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 19, 1904;
23,1905; 26, 1906.]

[Data from 23 establishments 1890-1903; 43, 1904:
65,1905, 1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906.......................

* 100.0
89.3
92.9
92.9
92.9
92.9
92.9
96.4
107.1
114.3
125.0
125.0
132.1
146.4
14a 4
136.2
121.7
109.8

100.0
101.0
100.4
100.4
98.6
98.6
100.4
100.6
100.2
100.0
99.7
98.8
98.7
98.0
98.0
98.1
97.8
97.0

100.0
105.7
102.8
103.3
102.5
98.7
97.8
07.7
95.8
98.2
97.5
100.9
101.5
101.4
106.7
115.1
126.2
134.7

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
94.2
96.2
96.2
100.0
92.3
94.2
98.1
105.8
107.7
111.5
119.2
125.0
128.8
132.7
132.7
140.3
141.2

100.0
100.8
100.3
100.3
99.3
99.3
100.4
100.3
100.0
99.8
99.5
99.2
98.9
98.4
98.7
98.2
98.1
97.1

100.0
104.8
104.9
106.1
104.4
97.7
94.6
97.6
95.5
96.2
98.3
102.9
105.8
105.9
110.2
110.5
112.9
117.3

F IL E R S, Male.

L A B O R E R S, M ale.

[Data from 36 establishments 1890-1903; 37, 1904;
59,1905; 61,1906.]

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 42, 1904;
64,1905; 66, 1906.]

Average 1890-99-..
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.'.....................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
95.9
97.3
98.6
97.3
98.6
95.9
94.5
102.7
106.8
105.5
105.5
113.7
124.7
124.7
120.3
120.3
127.0

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.1
99.5
99.4
100.2
100.3
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.5
98.8
98.4
98.7
98.6
97.6

100.0
100.6
101.2
100.1
102.0
97.6
96.4
98.9
98.8
100.4
104.1
107.0
108.2
108.2
112.8
114.8
117.8
121.0

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
93.3
98.5
94.9
95.5
101.3
101.0
97.3
100.7
108.4
109.1
120.1
129.6
136.7
140.7
146.1
160.8
178.5

100.0
100.3
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.4
99.5
99.1
98.8
97.5
96.8
97.0
96.9
95.5

100.0
104.8
104.4
103.3
102.8
98.1
95.6
96.7
94.8
97.9
101.2
102.3
105.8
110.6
113.1
113.2
116.6
126.1

SA W Y E R S, BAND, M ale.

SA W Y E R S, CIRCULAR, M ale.

[Data from 24 establishments 1890-1903; 30, 1904;
50,1905; 52,1906.]

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 18, 1904;
25,1905; 29,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
98.1
96.2
96.2
94.2
98.1
101.9
98.1
98.1
109.6
111.5
121.2
121.2
128.8
128.8
125.1
130.7
132.9




100.0
100.3
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.9
99.5
99.5
98.8
98.7
98.0
97.9
97.1

100.0
101.0
101.9
101.5
102.5
97.8
99.8
98.6
99.5
98.6
101.0
105.0
107.7
114.8
122.0
119.9
123.7
129.7

100.0
92.0
92.0
88.0
88.0
88.0
92.0
100.0
108.0
116.0
124.0
132.0
132.0
140.0
140.0
115.3
121.4
110.4

100.0
101.0
100.6
100.8
98.6
98.6
100.6
100.5
100.1
99.7
99.4
98.6
98.2
96.9
96.9
97.8
97.7
97.0

100.0
104.9
105.4
102.8
102.9
101.2
100.0
99.5
95.0
94.9
93.7
96.3
99.6
103.5
107.2
113.9
118.0
128.0

101

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

Table I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

LUM BER—Concluded.
SA W Y ER S, GANG, H a le .

T R IM M E R S, M ale.

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 18, 1904;
19,1905; 20,1906.]

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 36, 1904;
58, 1905; 61,1906.3

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
96.3
96.3
96.3
100.0
100.0
107.4
107.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.7
107.3
103.7
107.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.5
99.5
98.8
99.1
98.7
98.8
97.2

100.0
97.7
97.7
98.5
98.3
93.5
95.2
95.5
107.0
106.7
110.0
113.6
115.4
119.3
122.1
120.1
119.7
124.4

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. we^k.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
73.4
78.1
87.5
85.9
79.7
79.7
100.0
132.8
131.3
145.3
154.7
165.6
151.6
156.3
174.1
185.2
187.0

100.0
100.4
100.3
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
100.7
99.8
99.7
98.9

100.0
113.7
108.9
106.1
107.2
. 97.2
97.4
90.5
88.9
94.5
95.5
98.9
99.2
96.2
98.1
104.4
106.0
109.7

M A R B LE A N D STOKE W O R K .
R E D R U B B E R S , M ale.

CARVERS, M ale.

[Data from 29 establishments 1890-1903; 50, 1904;
57,1905; 59,1906.]

[Data from 28 establishments 1890-1903; 39, 1904;
52,1905; 55,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
104.8
101.4
104.8
107.6
92.4
100.0
90.3
98.6
99.3
97.2
97.9
111.0
117.9
113.8
110.5
112.9
109.8

100.0
101.6
100.6
100.6
100.7
100.2
100.6
99.4
99.8
99.9
96.7
96.9
95.1
94.0
90.6
89.9
90.0
91.0

100.0
96.8
99.1
97.8
98.9
99.5
97.7
102.0
100.2
99.4
108.5
108.8
117.6
124.6
125.6
126.1
127.0
125.6

100.0
105.9
103.0
109.4
104.5
94.1
94.1
97.0
99.5
98.5
94.1
85.6
106.9
107.9
95.0
101.8
107.4
108.7




100.0
103.0
102.1
101.6
101.2
99.7
99.9
99.9
98.9
99.1
94.6
100.4
99.6
98.9
99.1
99.5
99.8
98.5

100.0
95.8
89.2
93.3
95.0
114.2
100.8
99.2
85.8
95.0
127.5
139.2
138.3
121.7
104.2
100.1
93.0
108.4

100.0
100.1
101.2
98.5
99.2
102.8
102.7
101.2
99.5
100.0
94.7
94.1
93.8
92.7
93.0
92.9
93.0
92.4

100.0
99.2
95.4
99.8
99.2
96.3.
93.0
103.8
103.7
102.4
107.3
108.0
116.1
125.0
124.8
123.9
124.3
125.7

L E T T E R E R S , M ale.

L A B O R E R S, M ale.
[Data from 18 establishments 1890-1903; 62, 1904;
91,1905; 101,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
99.9
96.6
100.4
102.9
100.1
99.4
99.7
102.1
102.1
96.5
99.4
105.1
108.6
112.4
111.9
111.8
113.3

[Data from 42 establishments 1890-1903; 38, 1904;
48,1905; 53,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
97.4
98.7
96.1
100.0
94.7
101.3
94.7
101.3
103.9
105.3
106.6
111.8
113.2
110.5
112.7
117.5
117.5

100.0
101.3
100.4
99.3
99.4
100.4
100.3
100.0
100.2
99.5
99.3
96.5
96.0
95.4
91.6
91.1
90.9
89.9

100.0.
97.6
98.0
99.0
97.8
99.1
99.5
102.0
101.9
102.3
102.7
106.1
108.8
112.8
118.0
121.7
126.0
129.9

102
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

II* — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
M A R B LE A N D STO NE W O R K —Concluded.




103

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

Table I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATION S— Continued.

P A P E R A N D W OOD P U L P .
BACK T EN D ER S, M ale.

H E A T E R S, M ale.

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 15, 1904;
25, 1905; 24, 1906.]
Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894............. ;.......
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
85.4
94.8
91.7
100.0
93.8
101.0
102.1
106.3
117.7
108.3
119.8
117.7
120.8
121.9
123.4
127.1
129.0

100.0
100.4
100.2
100.3
100.3
100.0
100.4
100.4
100.8
101.2
96.0
95.0
94.5
92.6
93.0
90.6
91.9
91.8

100.0
97.1
97.4
98.1
97.5
98.9
99.9
98.5
101.8
101.9
109.1
110.0
110.2
111.7
120.2
125.1
125.5
125.7

BLACK ASM B U R N E R S, M ale.

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 18, 1904;
28,1905; 27, 1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.

100.0
* 97.9
102.6
101.6
99.5
97.9
95.2
100.5
100.5
98.4
104.8
107.9
108.5
112.2
120.1
134.5
137.1
140.6

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.5
100.3
100.4
100.9
100.6
100.6
99.5
100.6
100.5
96.2
95.8
92.2
90.7
89.2
86.7
88.0
88.3

100.0
95.4
98.9
98.6
98.5
100.1
99.9
100.7
100.4
99.8
107.5
108.7
114.1
116.8
123.2
126.1
127.9
127.2

BLEACHERS*i M ale*

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1904; 3,1905,1906.] [Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 8,1904; 12,
1905; 13, 1906.]
Average 1890-99.
1890
.......
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......
1906
.......

100.0
111.8

100.0

100.0

101.6

76.5

88.2

111.8
111.8

105.9
147.1

88.2

70.6
129.4
64.7
64.7
94.1
111.7
111.7
142.5

101.3
102.3
101.9
101.3
101.3
101.5

100.8

101.9
86.0

83.0
86.6
86.6

84.4
83.6
86.9
92.6

100.0

90.6
99.7
95.3
95.5
97.1
94.2
102.0
102.5
100.1
122.9
113.0
121.0
121.0
135.7
136.7
129.2
117.0

CALENDRERS, M ale.

100.0
119.1
122.1
129.4
111.8
104.4
86.8
92.6
75.0
72.1
79.4
86.8
86.8
91.2
89.7
101.7
94.7
98.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
99.1
99.3
99.3
100.0
99.4
100.5
101.1
103.6
103.9
93.7
101.6
101.6
94.5
94.8
94.3
97.5
97.1

100.0
96.0
96.9
98.8
98.6
98.1
101.1
100.1
100.5
99.9
109.9
106.6
106.4
108.6
110.4
111.0
109.6
109.3

CALENDRERS, F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 4, 1893. Data
from 7 establishments 1904; 15,1905,1906.]

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1904; 2,1905,1906.]

Average
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

100.0

80.0
92.7

100.0

110.9
100.0
100.0
92.7
89.1
120.0
114.5
140.0
169.1
172.7
190.9

201.0

236.8
271.6




100.0

102.4
101.7
101.3
99.9
101.3
101.3
101.7
102.2

100.8
87.5
87.1
85.5
84.5
85.1

86.0

84.0
85.3

100.0

94.2
93.2
92.7
98.9
97.2
102.6
103.3
101.9
98.7
117.0
117.7
122.5
122.9
127.6
127.9
132.7
129.9

-

100.0
105.3
105.3
126.3
126.3
84.2
105.3
100.0
94.7
94.7
68.4
78,9
78.9
84.2
100.0
131.6
118.0
102.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8

100.0
96.0
107.3
102.3
109.7
93.6
91.0
108.4
95.9
94.4
101.1
105.9
101.0
99.3
97.7
104.5
107.2
104.9

104

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

PAPER AN D

W O O D P U L P — Continued.

CO LO R M I X E R S , M a le .

C U T T E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 1890- 1 [Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
1903. Data for hours and wages from 6 establishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 1, 1893. Data ! lishments 1890-1892,1894-1903; 5, 1893. Data
from 1 establishment 1904; 2,1905,1906.]
I from 10 establishments 1904; 18,1905; 19,1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
Relative Relative Relative
s
Year.
number of hours per wages per j
number of hours per wages per
hour, j
employees. week.
employees. week.
hour.
| .
100.0 Average 1890-99..
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
90.2 1890.....................
102.7
83.3
99.8
74.6
101.6
90.4 1891.....................
83.3
102.7
78.0
101.6
100.8
92.5 1892.....................
102.7
83.3
101.6
84.7
100.4
97.2
96.8 1893.....................
66.7
96.2
101.5
96.6
99.4 1894.....................
102.7
83.3
101.5
98.1
113.6
99.7 1895.....................
102.0
100.0
113.6
101.7
96.8
105.0 1896.....................
101.5
110.2
116.7
101.7
96.6
101.5
105.0 1897.....................
108.5
101.7
97.4
116.7
101.5
105.0 1898.....................
116.7
111.9
101.7
97.6
85.5
115.8 1899....................
133.3
113.6
85.4
116.4
113.2 1900.....................
84.8
150.0
116.9
85.0
116.7
84.8
114.8 1901.....................
150.0
84.9
130.5
115.0
113.7 1902.....................
85.5
133.3
132.2
118.2
84.9
84.8
123.6 1903.....................
154.2
150.0
84.4
122.9
121.1 1904.....................
84.8
216.7
137.9
81.5
131.8
84.0
120.4 1905.....................
276.9
133.1
83.1
128.0
87.2
112.0 1906.....................
397.3
136.0
84.8
126.7

C U T T E R S , F e m a le .

E N A M E L E R S , M a le *

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13, 1904;
20,1905; 19,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
107.6
127.2
96.7
103.3
88.0
96.7
98.9
97.8
92.4
89.1
93.5
97.8
106.5
110.9
111.8
113.8
116.0

100.0
102.7
101.7
101.8
99.2
100.3
99.6
99.5
99.6
99.9
95.9
95.3
94.5
94.6
93.9
94.2
94.4
94.5

100.0
99.2
99.0
99.2
101.9
98.8
99.2
99.1
99.4
99.6
105.0
104.2
105.0
102.0
109.0
110.8
114.7
115.6

F I N I S H E R S , M a le .
[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903;
25, 1905; 23, 1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
84.4
87.5
90.6
101.6
100.0
93.8
95.3
112.5
114.1
115.6
128.1
128.1
125.0
150.0
152.8
153.6
190.9




100.0
100.5
100.4
100.2
99.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.6
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.3
99.1
98.1
98.6
98.9
98.5

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1904; 3,1905,
1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
55.6
77.8
80.6
116.7
122.2
105.6
122.2
113.9
105.6
88.9
86.1
94.4
138.9
152.8
175.0
189.6
216.3

100.0
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
82.8
82.8
82.7
82.3
82.3
82.5
82.2
84.9

100.0
95.2
96.3
95.6
98.2
96.4
97.2
97.2
97.2
100.1
126.8
128.9
134.8
135.3
142.1
141.5
140.9
131.8

F I N I S H E R S , F e m a le *
8, 1904;

100.0
100.2
101.9
100.5
103.7
101.6
100.9
99.8
97.3
96.7
97.4
98.2
98.8
101.4
105.8
105.3
107.0
106.0

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 4, 1893. Data
from 6 establishments 1904; 11, 1905; 12,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
87.5
112.5
130.0
122.5
77.5
92.5
95.0
92.5
97.5
90.0
107.5
105.0
90.0
107.5
93.6
95.5
120.8

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.1
99.6
100.2
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
100.1
99.9
100.0
97.4
96.9
97.6
97.1
98.2

100.0
93.9
105.2
103.0
105.0
94.8
99.6
103.9
98.5
94.5
101.2
103.4
100.6
105.0
107.4
129.3
133.3
125.6

105

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

P A P E R A N D W O O D P U L P — Continued.

L A B O R E R S, M ale.

MACHINE T E N D E R S, H a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 16, 1904;
28, 1905; 27, 1906.]

[Data for employees from 15 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 16 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 15, 1893. Data
from 17 establishments 1904; 27, 1905, 1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
113.6
109.0
98.9
100.0
96.6
103.4
90.4
93.8
84.7
108.5
102.3
134.5
118.1
127.1
134.5
142.3
137.6

100.0
98.4
98.9
100.5
100.8
100.3
101.4
102.1
101.5
102.3
93.8
96.1
91.7
96.6
96.2
96.1
96.4
95.3

100.0
97.9
98.7
98.8
97.5
97.8
99.5
99.2
99.9
98.7
112.2
111.0
115.5
109.1
118.5
118.1
119.5
122.2

P R E S S T E N D E R S, M ale.

100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.7
100.0
108.3
108.3
125.0
100.0
90.0
80.5
97.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2
99.6

100.0
97.9
97.9
97.9
96.5
101.5
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.5
101.6
104.0
106.2
106.2
132.1
132.9
132.0
132.3

1891

1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906......................

100.0
102.0
90.0
110.0
104.0
92.0
98.0
104.0
118.0
98.0
88.0
114.0
88.0
110.0
134.0
159.4
91.1
89.0




100.0
98.6
99.5
98.1
98.9
99.8
99.8
100.2
98.5
103.3
103.3
102.3
96.2
103.5
103.2
102.9
112.5
112.4

100.0
89.9
97.7
97.7
104.7
97.7
101.6
102.3
100.0
101.6
106.2
118.6
124.0
124.8
133.3
141.4
139.4
142.3

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.0
99,6
99.9
100.2
100.3
100.8
101.0
97.0
97.9
91.3
88.9
87.9
84.7
86.6
86.3

100.0
97.1
99.5
100.0
100.4
99.7
99.3
98.6
99.5
100.0
105.7
104.1
111.6
113.4
116.6
120.1
123.1
123.7

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 3, 1893. Data
from 5 establishments 1904; 10, 1905; 9,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
93.5
93.5
93.5
103.2
103.2
96.8
103.2
96.8
96.8
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
93.5
114.9
106.6
108.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
83.7
92.3
92.2

100.0
99.8
99.8
99.8
96.4
99.9
100.3
101.1
101.1
101.1
100.7
100.7
101.5
101.5
115.4
127.8
121.4
121.8

R A G S O R T E R S , F e m a le *

R A G S O R T E R S , M a le .
[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1905; 3,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................

Average 1890-99.
1890 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1894 ..............
1895 ..............
1896 ..............
1897 ..............
1898 ..............
1899 ..............
1900 ..............
1901 ..............
1902 ..............
1903 ..............
1904 ..............
1905 ..............
1906 ..............

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

P U L P G R IN D E R S, M ale.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab' .............. ' .............. Data from 3
establishments 1904; 8,1905; 7,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906......................

Year.

100.0
94.5
97.4
99.8
101.1
103.1
102.4
99.2
101.9
98.0
102.3
101.2
103.1
101.0
103.8
103.5
97.4
97.9

fData from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 7,1904; 11,
1905; 12,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
94.2
108.3
109.6
112.8
90.4
104.5
108.3
86.5
86.5
100.6
117.9
92.3
87.2
111.5
127.8
123.7
125.5

100.0
101.2
99.9
101.0
99.5
98.6
99.3
98.9
100.1
101.0
100.5
100.5
102.6
101.1
101.6
101.8
104.6
102.0

100.0
97.6
100.2
99.8
99.5
102.3
101.5
100.3
99.2
101.4
97.6
99.8
100.1
96.7
97.6
103.5
100.1
105.6

106

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.
P A P E R A N D W O O D P U L P — Concluded.

WOOD P R E P A R E R S , M ale.

WOOD COOKERS, M ale.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890-1893; 2, 1894-1903 Data from 4
establishments 1904; 9, 1905,1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
75.0
68.8
56.3
43.8
25.0
100.0
100.0
175.0
187.5
137.5
162.5
200.0
200.0
118.8
129.9
132.0
119.2

100.0
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
110.5
104.0
104.0
101.8
101.6
88.4
87.2
85.8
85.8
87.3
84.0
85.0
84.7

100.0
95.3
94.7
98.3
99.8
97.7
99.7
99.6
96.2
99.2
119.3
122.3
121.4
119.3
131.1
135.2
142.3
145.4

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1901-1903; 3, 1893; 5, 18941900. Data from 7 establishments 1904; 12,1905;
11,1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
63.2
63.2
73.7
100.0
94.7
105.3
131.6
121.1
136.8
131.6
126.3
126.3
126.3
110.5
124.8
130.8
107.5

100.0
99.3
99.3
100.3
100.8
100.6
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.4
98.5
98.2
96.7
96.7
95.3
93.6
94.4
95.0

100.0
101.4
100.6
100.4
103.1
97.7
98.4
98.7
98.8
98.7
102.0
103.8
114.2
118.1
133.6
134.3
135.6
138.1

PIAJNIlSrG M llili.
C A R PE N TE R S, M ale

F R A M E R S, M ale.

[Data from 65 establishments 1890-1903; 96, 1904;
93, 1905; 97, 1906.]

[Data from 26 establishments 1890-1903; 35, 1904;
33,1905; 34,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891..................... .
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
94.7
94.3
100.3
98.7
92.1
92.7
104.7
101.7
103.4
116.9
122.5
129.9
132.8
135.9
138.4
144.0
144.8

100.0
101.9
101.1
101.3
100.2
100.1
99.8
98.0
99.1
99.4
99.0
98.4
98.2
97.0
96.5
96.3
96.3
96.0

100.0
98.7
100.0
99.2
100.2
96.7
98.0
100.8
101.1
102.3
102.8
106.7
108,0
113.6
119.3
122.4
123.4
126.6

GLAZIERS, M ale.

ioap
81,8
81.8
81.8
81.8
90.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
136.4
145,5
181.8
200.0
254.5
240.9
287.2
322.7




100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
100.0
98.3
98.3
98.6
99.1
98.4
98.1
95.7

100.0
87.2
91.0
96.3
95.2
89.9
105.9
102.7
105.9
110.6
113.3
111.2
119.1
115.4
123.4
126.9
133.5
134.0

100.0
100.5
100.0
100.0
99.8
100.5
99.8
100.2
100.2
100.0
98.9
99.2
98.6
97.9
97.9
98.0
98.2
97.9

100-0
100.3
101.5
103.0
102.3
98.1
97.0
95.9
97.6
100.2
104.0
105.2
108.6
111.3
114.2
113.7
116.2
117.9

L A B O R E R S, M ale.

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 34, 1904;
40,1905; 43,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897........... :.........
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903...........•...........
1904.......................
1905......................
1906......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100,0
95.7
9910
100.5
104.7
102.8
97.7
96.8
100.7
99.8
102.4
106.7
105.7
103.1
107.0
111.0
113.2
121.6

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 80, 1904;
91,1905; 98, 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
85.9
89.8
88.7
87.1
93.8
102.0
105.1
103.5
107.0
135.9
110.2
134.4
127.7
115.6
121.4
129.4
139.2

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.9
ioao
100.2
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.4
100.0
97.9

100.0
102.4
105.3
101.5
98.3
94.1
95.9
96.5
96.0
101.5
108.5
102.8
110.8
110.8
113.3
110.4
112.7
117.7

107

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

T able I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOTXRS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.
P L A N T IN G M I L L — Concluded.

MACHINE: W OODW ORKERS, M ale.

SA W Y E R S, RAND, M ale.

rData from 92 establishments 1890-1903; 110,1904;
112,1905; 116,1906.]

[Data from 31 establishments 1890-1903; 53, 1904;
59,1905; 66,1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896..-•................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
97.3
97.4
98.4
97.9
96.0
97.8
99.8
101.9
105.8
107.3
111.4
113.7
120.8
122.2
128.6
133.2
136.3

100.0
101.2
100.6
100.6
100.1
100.4
99.6
99.4
99.7
99.2
99.0
98.9
98.7
97.3
96.7
96.7
96.7
95.6 '

100.0
98.4
99.2
99.7
99.6
97.4
98.8
99.7
101.0
102.0
104.0
106.6
108.7
113.0
116.3
115.7
117.4
121.2

SA W Y E R S, CIRC Cl* A R , M ale.
[Data from 45 establishments 1890-1903; 65, 1904;
73,1905; 79,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
92.1
93.8
93.3
93.8
98.3
98.3
101.7
102.8
111.8
116.3
120.8
128.7
131.5
137.1
134.1
144.9
150.7

100.0
100.8
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.5
99.5
99.1
99.9
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.1
99.0
98.3
98.0
98.4
97.2

100.0
100.2
100.5
100.4
101.2
98.8
98.8
98.1
98.5
99.7
103.6
105.0
108.5
110.8
114.1
114.1
114.8
120.0

Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
95.9
95.9
98.0
95.9
95.9
95.9
102.0
104.1
106.1
106.1
110.2
112.2
116.3
122.4
128.7
140.0
142.2

100.0
101.7
100.2
100.0
100.2
101.5
98.4
99.8
99.6
99.5
99.2
100.5
100.5
99.7
99.5
98.9
98.5
97.4

100.0
100.7
101.5
100.9
100.0
97.6
99.3
98.6
99.9
100.6
101.2
102.1
103.6
106.6
110.4
112.0
115.1
117.1

SA W Y E R S, JIG , M ale.
[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903; 27,1904;
23, 1905; 22,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.8
103.8
103.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.8
107.7
107.7
103.8
107.7
111.0
108.9
113.4

100.0
102.6
100.2
100.2
100.0
102.3
96.9
99.8
99.4
99.4
98.9
101.4
101.6
100.4
99.8
99.0
99.1
98.0

100.0
98.2
100.4
100.1
99.5
97.3
101.0
98.3
99.7
100.9
104.5
103.7
106.1
107.9
110.0
112.5
112.2
116.8

98.6
98.4
97.6
96.3
93.6
93.9
92.7
92.4
92.1

101.0
103.2
105.3
110.9
120.2
117.9
121.2
124.4
126.3

SA W Y E R S, NOT SPEC IFIE D , M ale.
[Data from 17 establishments 1890^1903; 22,1904; 21, 1905; 17,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891.......................
1892 .....................
1893 ...................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................

100.0
96.7
96.7
103.3
100.0
93.3
96.7
96.7
100.0




100.0
101.3
100.9
101.1
100.3
100.6
100.4
98.7
99.5

100.0 1898.....................
99.0 1899.....................
99.5 1900....................
101.5 1901.....................
100.8 1902.....................
96.2 1903.....................
97.4 1904.....................
100.7 I 1905.....................
100.8 1906.....................

96.7
103.3
100.0
100.0
103.3
100.0
105.1
100.2
119.6

108

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

PO TTER Y.
D IP P E R S ) m a le.

JIG G E R MEN, M ale.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 6, 1905; 12
1906.]

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4,1904; 6,
1905; 12, 1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
89.6

100.0
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
99.7
99.7
104.2
104.2
104.2
99.7
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.2

100.0
95.1
95.1
96.3
106.2
103.7
97.4
88.9
104.9
104.9
107.4
101.1
109.6
109.6
113.5
116.5
123.8
121.7

KILN FIR E M E N , M ale.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
113.0
106.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
102.7
102.3

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
107.1
107.1
92.9
121.4
114.3
78.6
100.0
85.7
92.9
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
107.1
85.7
89.8
94.7

100.0
99.7
99.7
100.1
99.4
99.6
100.7
99.9
100.4
100.1
100.4
101.4
100.4
100.4
96.1
97.2
97.2
96.5

100.0
100.7
101.2
97.8
104.7
99.0
93.6
97.1
92.2
102.1
111.6
101.9
108.8
110.9
113.2
118.8
122.3
118.5

K ILN MEN, M ale.

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903, 4, 1904;
1905; 13,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

100.0
91.5
91.5
101.0
101.0
101.0
95.3
95.3
114.2
114.2
95.3
95.3
95.3
104.7
110.4
112.3
108.4
109.8

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1904; 7,1905; 13,
1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
93.2
104.5
102.3
102.3
102.3
100.0
88.6
97.7
95.5
106.8
113.6
102.3
104.5
102.3
99.5
97.9
96.1

100.0
99.8
99.2
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.4
101.3
100.6
100.8
101.1
100.7
101.4
101.3
100.9
100.7
100.8
101.3

100.0
101.3
104.2
103.8
104.0
101.5
102.2
94.0
96.2
95.6
97.3
98.7
95.7
98.6
98.4
99.6
101.1
104.3

MOLD M A K E R S, Male.

PJHtlSSSH
EARS, M ale.

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1904; 7, 1905; 12,
1906.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1904; 7,1905: 13,
1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906................ .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
216.6
254.8
240.3




100.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.5
99.5
98.9
98.9
98.9
98.9
97.6
100.6
101.0
100.9

100.0
99.7
99.3
99.1
94.1
97.8
97.5
97.3
96.0
114.1
105.0
101.2
104.2
105.5
114.3
103.3
102.0
104.8

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
97.0
110.4
94.8
100.7
92.6
88.1
91.1
108.9
111.1
108.1
103.7
104.4
92.6
105.2
97.0
91.1
95.2

100.0
99.5
99.6
99.9
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.6
100.5
100.3
100.9
100.2
99.8
100.0
99.3

100.0
101.7
105.6
103.0
110.7
94.9
87.9
92.7
99.9
101.2
102.4
94.4
102.1
99.5
103.6
116.4
114.3
115.1

109

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 3906.

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

P O T T E R Y —Concluded.
SAGGER M A K ERS, M ale.

SE T T E R S OUT, M ale.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 6,1905; 12,
1906.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 6,1905; 12
1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
66.7
83.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.9

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.7
98.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
98.0
98.0
97.3
97.5

100.0
99.7
99.6
99.4
98.0
99.1
97.4
97.6
96.6
107.6
105.0
105.2
103.5
106.5
107.6
108.4
117.7
121.1

Year.
Average 1890-99.
.......
1890
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......
1906
.......

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees.
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
300.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
103.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.8
98.8
98.8
99.1

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.3
100.9
99.5
99.5
99.1
99.5
99.4

100.1

100.4

100.2
101.3
100.7
101.5

101.2

105.7

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , BOOK A N D JO B.
BO O K BIN DERS, M ale.

COMPOSITORS, M ale.

[Data for employees from 32 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 32 estab­
lishments 1890-1894; 33, 1895-1903. Data from
55 establishments 1904; 110,1905;-112,1906.]

[Data from 85 establishments 1890-1903; 96, 1904;
152,1905; 155,1906.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 ................
1891 ................
1892 ................
1893 ................
1894 ................
1895 ................
1897.
1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..
1905..
1906..

100.0
87.6
89.1
92.2
95.3
93.0
91.5
99.6
112.0
117.8
121.7
129.1
131.8
134.1
136.8
141.9
150.0
155.2

100.0
101.1
101.0
100.8
100.3
100.2
100.6
100.4
99.5
98.8
97.2
96.2
95.6
94.8
94.5
94.2
93.9
93.4

100.0 Average 1890-99..
96.1 1890.....................
96.2 1891.....................
98.1 1892.....................
100.0 1893.....................
99.3 1894.....................
99.5 1895.....................
100.2 1896.....................
102.5 1897.....................
103.6 1898.....................
104.8 1899.....................
104.9 1900.....................
108.9 1901.....................
111.1 1902.....................
111.9 1903.....................
115.0 1904.....................
115.9 *1905.....................
119.2 1906.....................

100.0
92.9
93.1
94.4
95.3
97.5
99.6
99.4
105.9
107.9
113.6
122.2
120.8
116.7
120.0
118.3
122.8
126.1

100.0
101.0
101.0
•100.9
100.4
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.5
96.9
94.6
93.7
92.4
92.4
91.5
91.1
88.0

100.0
97.7
98.8
98.9
99.6
100.3
99.9
99.4
100.3
101.0
104.3
107.3
109.6
113.7
115.7
119.6
122.3
128.0

COMPOSITORS, F em a le .
[Data for employees from 3 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 5 establishments
1890, 1891, 1893-1896, 1898, 1899; 6, 1892, 1897; 4, 1900; 3, 1901-1903. Data from 6 establishments 1904;
18,1905; 21,1906.]
Average 1890-99.
1890 ...............
1891 ...............
1892 ...............
1893 ...............
1894 ...............
1895 ...............
1896 ...............
1897 ...............

100.0
100.0
100.0
96.0
104.0
100.0
96.0
108.0
116.0

8891—No. 71—07----8



100.0
103.3
103.6
100.4
99.8
98.7
98.5
98.8
98.7

100.0
95.0
94.9
98.9
101.2
100.2
105.0
101.4
102.7

1898................ .
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901........... .*.......
1902.....................
1903..................
1904.....................
1905....................
1906.....................

100 0
96.0
100.0
112.0
112.0
124.0
127.0
139.5
136.9

99.4
98.8
99.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
92.0
91.8
91.1

99.2
101.5
107.8
109.2
109.2
116.0

122.1

134.6
152.2

110

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , BO OK A N D JOB—Continued.
E LE C TR O T Y PE R S, M ale.

P R E S S F E E D E R S , M ale.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 15, 1904;
22, 1905; 21, 1906.]

[Data from 23 establishments 1890-1903; 65, 1904;
132, 1905; 139, 1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
97.4
97.4
94.7
92.1
97.4
100.0
100.0
110.5
107.9
105.3
97.4
100.0
105.3
102.6
105.8
104.4
122.9

100.0
100.3
100.3
100.4
100.1
100.3
100.5
100.5
100.7
99.7
97.1
97.2
96.4
96.4
96.4
95.5
93.8
92.7

100.0
100. Y
100.7
100.6
101.4
100.2
98.8
99.1
99.0
99.8
99.7
100.1
106.4
105.1
105.2
108.2
109.4
113.5

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
84.1
85.0
89.0
9a 1
92.3
102.0
104.5
109.8
117.9
122.4
130.5
124.8
136.6
134.1
136.6
140.0
147.0

100.0
100.8
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
100.3
100.4
100.4
9& 9
9a 6
95.3
95.5
94.2
94.0
93.6
93.3
92.5

100.0
97.9
100.0
99.0
98.5
100.1
101.1
99.2
99.2
101.6
103.5
119.8
120.1
121.5
124.8
126.7
129.7
135.0

P R E S S F E E D E R S , F e m a le .

PRESSM EN, M ale.

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 establishments 1890-1897,1900,1901; 6,1898,1L899,1902,
1903. Data from 19 establishments 1904; 38,
1905; 42, 1906.]

[Data from 64 establishments 1890-1903:; 87,1904;
153, 1905; 158, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
94.1
94.1
88.2
97.1
91.2
91.2
91.2
102.9
102.9
147.1
129.4
132.4
126.5
117.6
140.1
137.5
150.0

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.5
100.6
100.6
oa 6
96.6
92.2
92.2
92.1
91.8
91.8
92.3
92.2

100.0
99.3
99.3
100.0
9a 5
oa 3
97.5
99.9
99.6
102.5
105.3
io a 9
111.5
114.4
116.9
127.7
128.8
133.4

100.0
103.6
103.6
103.6
103.6
96.4
92.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
107.1
114.3
121.4
125.0
132.1
152.8
162.0
163.2




100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.1
94.8
92.3
92.4
88.5
88.3
87.9
87.9
84.4

100.0
90.6
9a 0
94.0
95.8
95.3
96.9
101.6
105.0
112.5
115.7
117.8
120.1
118.8
120.6
126.5
12& 5
134.2

100.0
100.7
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.3
99.6
97.3
95.5
93.9
92.8
92.8
92.4
92.0
91.4

100.0
97.8
99.0
99.4
98.9
99.3
99.6
99.5
100.8
101.0
104.7
107.3
111.1
112.5
114.7
117.0
118.9
122.1

PROOF R E A D E R S , F e m a le .

PROOF R E A D E R S , M ale.
[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 12, 1892-1894, 1902,1903; 11,
1895-1901. Data from 33 establishments 1904;
56, 1905; 51,1906.]
Average 1890-09...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899..,..................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.6
101.1
9a 9
100.0
99.4
100.8
99.9
100.1
101.0
98.1
107.3
109.4
119.2
121.3
119.5
121.3
130.9

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 establishments 1890, 1891; 7, 1892-1894, 1902, 1903; 8,
1895-1901. Data from 15 establishments 1904; 36,
1905; 27, 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
110.0
140.0
100.0
110.0
100.0
110.0
80.0
120.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
100.0
110.0
110.0
118.2
120.1
144.1

100.0
101.4
102.2
99.7
100.5
99.7
100.3
99.2
100.9
99.1
97.1
94.4
9a 1
93.1
93.1
92.5
92.0
90.7

100.0
100.8
107.6
106.3
101.1
99.6
92.9
99.3
88.8
97.5
106.1
116.2
107.9
115.7
115.7
118.2
118.9
121.6

111

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L I S H I N G , B O O K A N D J O B —Concluded.
S E W E R S, BOOK, F e m a le .

ST IT C H ER S, BOOK, F e m a le .

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 38, 1904;
79, 1905; 93, 1906.]

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 21, 1904;
48, 1905; 52,1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
111.9
92.9
100.0
78.6
85.7
90.5
100.0
102.4
114.3
121.4
119.0
150.0
126.2
150.0
160.4
164.7
177.9

100.0
100.7
100.4
100.7
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.9
99.1
98.9
96.8
96.8
95.4
95.2
94.3
94.0
93.0

100.0
91.2
99.2
99.3
102.5
101.0
100.3
104.0
101.1
102.0
99.5
102.5
95.9
102.0
98.5
100.9
104.2
106.2

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
95.7
93.6
110.6
97.9
91.5
93.6
93.6
100.0
112.8
106.4
144.7
151.1
168.1
163.8
156.3
171.5
192.8

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.8
98.0
93.3
92.3
92.2
91.6
91.6
91.3
90.8

100.0
97.2
98.3
91.3
100.8
98.5
98.8
101.8
97.2
105.6
110.3
124.3
131.9
134.0
137.8
137.2
134.8
139.2

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , N E W SP A P E R .
COMPOSITORS, m a le.

.LINOTYPE O PER A TO R S, M ale.

[Data for employees from 91 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 91 estab­
lishments 1890; 92, 1891,1892; 93, 1893; 94, 1894;
95, 1895-1903. Data from 135 establishments
1904; 148,1905; 149,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892.....................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................
1898 ..................
1899 ..................
1900 ..................
1901 ..................
1902 ..................
1903 ..................
1904 ..................
1905 ..................
1906 ..................

100.0
131.4
133.3
130.1
115.6
91.9
79.7
76.9
80.8
78.2
82.2
84.4
83.5
83.1
87.9
92.4
100.7
108.7

100.0
101.2
100.2
100.1
101.1
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.9
99.1
97.6
97.3
95.9
95.1
94.8
93.9
93.4
92.8

100.0
101.0
101.5
101.9
99.8
96.4
97.2
98.9
99.6
99.9
103.7
103.4
107.9
110.5
113.4
115.6
118.3
120.3

[Data for hours and wages from 1 establishment
1890; 5,1891; 16,1892; 32,1893; 54,1894; 69,1895;
80, 1896; 88, 1897; 94, 1898; 99, 1899; 100, 1900;
102,1901; 103,1902; 104,1903; 135,1904; 147,1905,
1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

(a)

Vy
(a)
YY

?a)
raj
?a)
YY
YY
YY

?a)

(a)
(aj
YY
YY
YY

(a)

100.0
100.1
98.6
101.4
102.5
100.6
99.4
99.2
99.3
99.5
99.5
99.4
99.9
99.4
99.6
99.4
99.2
98.8

100.0
110.8
106.2
91.9
97.5
99.9
99.4
99.1
98.7
98.2
98.2
99.6
99.6
101.0
104.0
105.9
106.5
108.5

PR E SSM E N , M ale.
[Data for employees from 106 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 106 establish­
ments 1890; 107,1891-1894; 108,1895-1903. Data from 135 establishments 1904; 143,1905; 147,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................

100.0
86.6
88.5
92.5
94.7
95.5
95.3
105.9
107.3

100.0
101.1
101.0
100.9
101.0
100.5
100.1
99.6
98.8

100.0
97.9
97.7
97.6
98.3
98.9
99.5
101.5
101.8

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

1145
119.0
123.2
127.9
133.8
138.5
148.4
152.7
165.4

98.7
98.2
97.8
97.5
97.3
97.1
96.3
97.0
95.3

102.9
104.2
1049
106.1
109.1
112.6
114.5
116.4
119.6

a No relative numbers shown, as reports were secured from but one establishment employing linotype
operators as early as 1890.




112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able

I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , N E W SP A P E R —Concluded.
S T E R E O T Y P E R S , H a le .
[Data lor employees from 76 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 76 establish­
ments 1890; 77, 1891-1893; 78, 1894, 1895; 79, 1896-1903. Data from 109 establishments 1904; 133, 1905;
137,1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
84.4
84.7
90.7
97.0
97.3
99.7
109.6
109.6

100.0
100.3
100.6
100.7
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.0
99.4

-

100.0
95.3
95.3
98.1
99.3
98.6
99.0
101.8
102.3

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903................... .
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
111.6
115.0
115.0
119.3
122.6
122.9
129.0
133.4
141.1

99.0
98.6
98.7
98.4
98.5
98.5
97.2
96.5
96.1

104.6
105.5
104.9
106.5
107.3
108.4
111.5
114.3
116.2

SH IP B U IL D IN G .
BLACKSM ITHS, M ale.

B O IL E R M A K E R S, M ale.

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 11 estab­
lishments 1890; 12, 1891-1895; 13, 1896-1898; 14,
1899-1903. Data from 17 establishments 1904;
27, 1905; 28, 1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 .............
1891 .............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894 .............
1895 .............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898 .............
1899 .............
1900 .............
19 0 1

...............................

1902
1903
1904
1905

.............
.............
.............
.............

19 0 6

...............................

100.0
65.5
74.8
84.0
81.5
99.2
137.8
96.6
100.8
140.3
121.8
116.8
122.7
142.0
131.1
110.1
99.7
90.7

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.9
100.0
100.2
99.4
99.5
99.9
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.2
98.9
96.5
96.2
96.2

100.0
97.0
100.2
99.7
99.3
96.8
97.8
304.7
104.0
99.4
101.0
101.1
100.6
103.8
105.6
109.4
109.4
113.4

100.0
85.3
179.4
76.5
55.9
52.9
50.0
117.6
100.0
126.5
152.9
120.6
182.4
200.0
155.9
164.0
141.4
140.3




100.0
100.5
101.3
100.3
99.3
98.7
98.8
100.6
99.6
100.6
100.3
99.9
96.1
94.3
97.7
93.4
95.3
94.7

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
3896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
55.3
44.7
62.4
90.1
95.7
107.1
90.1
87.9
209.9
153.9
207.1
175.9
185.8
372.3
175.3 .
172.7
199.2

100.0
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.7
99.7
100.1
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.3
98.2
98.3
99.0

100.0
98.2
98.6
100.6
99.2
95.3
100.0
104.4
101.8
100.5
101.5
99.6
101.5
102.6
101.8
103.0
303.9
106.2

CALKERS, WOOD, M ale.

CALKERS, IRON, H a le .
[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890, 1895; 5, 1891-1894, 1896-1898; 6,
3899-1902; 7, 1903. Data from 7 establishments
ld04; 15, 1905; 16, 1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
3903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 7,1891-1893,1896-1898;
8,1899-1903. Data from 12 establishments 1904;
20, 1905; 23, 1906.]

100.0
92.3
84.7
93.7
103.0
100.3
103.5
107.0
103.1
309.6
102.9
108.1
109.4
124.2
347.8
148.1
145.2
149.0

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 15,1904; 23,
1905, 1906.]

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
3899.....................
1900..............
1901..................w
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
92.3
92.3
89.5
111.2
83.2
92.3
91.6
101.4
125.2
121.7
123.1
155.2
155.9
165.0
146.7
135.4
142.3

100.0
100.4
100.6
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.6
100.0
99.7
99.7
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.6
93.7
92.9
92.4
92.0

100.0
99.4
99.2
98.8
99.3
98.4
98.3
98.5
100.3
103.8
104.0
105.6
110.1
108.4
109.6
115.5
115.7
117.8

113

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

SH IP B U IL D IN G —Continued.
C A R PEN TER S, JHale.

D R IL L E R S ) M ale.

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890-1892,1894,1895; 20,1893,1890-1898;
21, 1899-1903. Data from 24 establishments
1904; 36, 1905; 37, 1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1801.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906......................

100.0
83.4
93.9
85.4
84.2
82.7
99.7
97.6
106.2
119.1
147.3
144.2
145.3
140.0
153.4
151.2
161.3
162.7

100.0
101.1
100.4
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.5
100.0
99.8
98.5
97.8
96.9
96.2
96.8
95.8

100.0
98.6
99.8
98.9
99.8
100.6
100.3
99.0
100.5
100.5
102.1
104.4
105.9
109.4
110.1
110.6
112.3
114.8

[Data for employees from 2 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890,1895; 3,1891,1892,1894,1896-1898;
4, 1893, 1899-1903. Data from 9 establishments
1904; 18, 1905; 19,1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
113.3
66.7
100.0
86.7
53.3
66.7
80.0
153.3
93.3
180.0
133.3
140.0
146.7
173.3
146.9
243.0
203.4

100.0
100.9
99.3
99.0
99.0
98.0
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
99.9
98.6
95.1
945
91.9
91.7
91.7
91.7

100.0
96.6
92.3
948
95.0
85.6
93.2
105.7
107.1
1147
1147
110.6
110.8
125.6
122.1
125.3
125.8
132.2

JO INER S, M ale.

F IT T E R S , M ale.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 7,1891-1895; 8,1896,1897; 9,1898;
10.1899-1903. Data from 11 establishments 1904;
20; 1905; 21, 1906.]

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 12 estab­
lishments 1890-1892,1894,1895; 13,1893,1896-1898;
14,1899-1903. Data from 16 establishments 1904;
25, 1905; 26, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896................ .
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
60.5
95.3
90.7
89.1
141.9
107.0
103.9
87.6
86.8
133.3
217.8
191.5
165.1
162.0
143.2
156.5
145.3

100.0
99.0
100.2
100.1
99.8
100.2
100.7
100.6
99.9
99.9
99.6
100.4
9a 6
99.6
99.5
98.7
99.0
98.6

100.0
96.7
92.8
98.3
99.3
92.4
99.4
102.1
105.5
109.4
104.2
100.4
103.5
105.7
107.0
105.7
103.7
108.8

100.0
87.9
68.6
96.5
91.6
97.1
210.7
95.1
46.7
93.4
111.0
147.8
144.4
149.9
135.4
139.5
155.2
130.7

100.0
101.1
99.4
99.9
99.7
100.3
101.9
99.9
97.4
100.4
100.1
101.1
100.3
100.0
98.8
97.6
98.1
9a2

100.0
96.3
99.5
99.2
100.9
99.1
95.9
100.8
106.8
103.3
98.3
101.2
101.4
102.7
106.2
108.2
109.6
119.2

L ABO R ERS, M ale.
D ata for employees from 3 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 3 establishments
1890-1894; 4,1895-1903. Data from 17 establishments 1904; 33, 1905; 35, 1906.]
A v e r a g e 1890- 99. . .
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................

100.0
205.6
72.2
84 7
69.4
73.6
70.8
63.9
79.2




■ 100.0
101.5
98.1
99.1
98.1
9 8 .4
99.9
101.3
101.4

100.0
84.7
103.8
97.3
102.0
103.8
106.1
101.5
100.4

1898...........................
1899...........................
1900..........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906.......... ...............

1042
169.4
287.5
248.6
234 7
194.4
236.3
265.6
290.9

100.7
101.4
101.2
101.6
98.9
98.9
9a 5
9a o
9 7.5

100.4
100.1
9 9.8
100.5
108.3
110.6
109.8
112.6
119.2

114

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

SHIPBUIIiBINTG—Continued.
MACHINISTS, M ale.

H O L D E R S, IRON, M ale.

[Data for employees from 8 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890; 9,1891-1898; 10,1899-1903. Data
from 15 establishments 1904; 24,1905; 25,1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899................ .
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
66.6
67.0
97.6
90.7
89.7
104.0
104.2
104.4
109.9
165.8
135.6
193.8
230.2
200.2
229.4
220.7
251.3

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.5
100.0
99.9
99.6
98.8
98.3
96.4
96.4
96.9

100.0
96.8
97.7
97.9
97.5
96.2
100.1
103.4
103.4
104.3
102.5
105.8
105.1
108.2
110.1
112.2
113.4
115.8

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890; 4,1891-1898; 5,1899-1901; 6,1902,
1903. Data from 9 establishments 1904; 10,1905,
1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
96.2
98.1
98.1
84.6
73.1
94.2
111.5
98.1
115.4
123.1
109.6
117.3
126.9
121.2
102.1
102.7
113.8

100.0
100.2
101.0
100.6
100.5
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.3
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.6
98.2
98.1
96.6
98.0
95.1

100.0
105.4
95.2
97.0
98.8
95.9
99.6
97.2
103.3
102.3
105.0
107.5
110.2
112.5
115.6
122.0
119.1
131.0

P A T T E R N M A K E R S, M ale.

P A IN T E R S, M ale.
[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 9 estab­
lishments 1890; 11, 1891-1894,1899-1903; 10, 18951898. Data from 14 establishments 1904; 20,
1905; 23,1906.]

[Data for employees from 8 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890; 9,1891-1898; 10,1899-1903. Data
from 13 establishments 1904; 21, 1905; 20, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
189^.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
78.4
78.4
85.1
112.5
102.4
154.8
97.1
83.7
101.0
108.7
132.2
130.8
134.1
131.7
142.5
153.6
181.9

100.0
103.1
102.4
102.4
102.8
102.7
99.9
97.6
94.8
96.7
97.6
98.9
98.4
97.0
97.8
95.8
96.1
95.7

100.0
95.1
93.8
95.0
99.3
98.3
105.6
105.7
105.6
102.7
99.0
101.5
101.5
103.3
102.6
108.9
105,7
109.7

100.0
60.5
81.6
82.9
84.2
101.3
114.5
127.6
100.0
110.5
135.5
130.3
125.0
142.1
143.4
163.7
156.9
169.1

100.0
99.9
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.1
99.5
99.8
99.7
99.9
99.1
98.4
97.3
96.4
96.8
97.0

100.0
102.9
97.8
97.7
97.9
95.3
100.6
99.8
102.7
100.8
104.4
107.0
109.6
112.1
114.3
117.9
117.0
126.5

R IG G E R S , M ale.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 6 establishments
1890; 8,1891-1898; 9,1899-1903. Data from 14 establishments 1904; 20,1905; 21,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................

100.0
79.0
70.0
100.0
119.0
115.0
110.0
71.0
54.0




100.0
99.7
98.1
98.9
100.3
100.7
100.8
100.4
99.6

100.0
112.1
106.0
101.4
95.0
86.9
92.9
102.1
108.3

1898...................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

94.0
184.0
244.0
98.0
242.0
228.0
185.5
226.2
235.5

100.1
101.4
102.0
99.9
102.0
101.9
99.9
100.7
99.8

104.2
91.0
89.2
99.5
94.9
99.3
102.6
102.2
109.2

115

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,
T able

I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
SH IP B U IL D IN G —Concluded.
R IV E T E R S , M ale.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 4 establishments
1890, 1894, 1895; 5, 1891-1893, 1890-1898; 6, 1890-1903. Data from 9 establishments 1904; 17, 1905; 19,
1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................

100.0
58.0
137.7
155.1
15.9
14.5
11.6
23.2
27.5

100.0
81.9
84.3
92.5
94.2
85.2
128.1
107.2
118.1

100.0
101.1
100.6
100.5
98.4
98.5
99.9
100.1
99.9

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
247.8
301.4
211.6
331.9
281.2
315.9
389.6
349.8
442.2

. 100.7
100.2
100.2
99.7
98.9
99.0
96.6
98.3
96.8

103.8
104.7
103.7
94.3
107.2
107.1
106.2
104.9
109.0

SIL K GOODS.
R EA M E R S, Male,

D OUBLERS, F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 2 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1896; 3, 1897-1903. Data from 3
establishments 1904; 6,1905; 7,1906.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1904; 10, 1905;
11,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

104.0
104.0
104.0
98.2
98.2
97.5
98.2
98.5
99.9
97.4
99.9
98.2
99.1
98.6
98.3
98.5
98.5

75.0
75.0
75.0

100.0
75.0
100.0

75.0
225.0
75.0
150.0

100.0

125.0
107.1
140.6
140.6

' 100.0
104.5
99.8

102.1
102.1
102.1
99.8
102.1
93.0
88.0

106.6
93.2

100.6
100.2

101.3
104.5
99.5
100.7

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
77.1
78.3
98.8
114.5
108.4
92.8
101.2
106.0
112.0
107.2
100.0
100.0
89.2
90.4
88.0
107.7
103.7

100.0
102.8
102.8
102.2
98.7
98.3
98.7
98.7
99.3
99.1
99.4
99.3
98.9
99.0
98.0
97.5
97.7
97.7

100.0
107.0
98.6
99.6
98.4
101.8
102.5
102.0
95.5
97.9
96.2
97.0
106.9
114.3
123.4
130.2
126.2
132.5

D Y E R S , Male,

LOOM F IX E R S , M ale.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 6, 1905,
1906.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 6,1904; 12,
1905; 16, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
73.1
92.3
101.9
87.5
85.6
97.1
98.1
131.7
119.2
117.3
109.6
137.5
384.6
351.9
464.6
487.0
453.3




100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
98.7
98.2
97.9
96.9
97.9
97.8
98.1
97.4
94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8
94.9

100.0
97.2
96.1
95.1
92.6
100.9
102.0
103.1
106.6
102.3
104.0
103.8
105.2
102.2
103.1
103.4
104.1
103.7

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
69.6
73.9
87.0
82.6
95.7
117.4
108.7
126.1
130.4
126.1
152.2
143.5
143.5
139.1
128.9
128.9
131.7

100.0
104.4
104.5
101.6
98.6
98.4
98.2
98.6
98.4
98.4
98.7
98.5
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.2
98.3
98.3

100.0
94.7
93.8
96.4
99.0
97.7
103.7
101.0
104.2
105.1
104.3
106.2
105.3
103.0
103.3
104.0
104.4
105.6

116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

S IX iK G O O D S — Continued.

Q E IL L E R S, F em a le .

P IC K E R S , F e m a le .
,
[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 5; 1904; 11,
1905; 14, 1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906.......................

100.0
48.4
61.3
71.0
67.7
83.9
103.2
106.5
135.5
145.2
167.7
154.8
177.4
190.3
161.3
137.3
142.4
146.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.5
101.7
101.7

100.0
84.9
108.6
119.8
108.2
97.9
100.9
80.2
93.2
101.5
104 8
107.2
107.1
103.9
123.2
121.9
120.6
123.9

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1896; 7, 1897-1903. Data from
8 establishments 1904; 14, 1905; 16, 1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average
1890
1891
1892
1893
.1894.......
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

100.0

81.3
71.4
83.5
86.8
87.9
141.8
85.7
111.0
118.7
127.5
115.4
133.0
127.5
126.4
103.7
125.1
110.7

100.0

104.0
103.4
101.9
98.4
98.1
97.9
98.5
99.3
99.0
99.4
99.8
99.4
99.3
98.7
98.9
98.8
99.0

100.0

103.1
99.594.8
104.7
96.3
97.4
109.8
99.2
99.2
95.6
95.9
96.4
97.6
107.9
107.7
107.1
111.0

S P I N N E R S , M a le .

T W I8T E R S -IN , M ale.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 6, 1905,
1906.]

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 4,1904; 8,
1905; 14,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
52.9
70.6
92.9
122.4
89.4
112.9
94.1
105.9
129.4
123.5
151.8
143.5
183.5
195.3
190.1
212.6
206.8

100.0
102.7
102.7
100.1
99.2
99.5
98.9
99.1
99.0
99.3
99.6
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.8
97.7
98.2
98.2

100.0
103.2
93.9
99.9
98.5
95.9
99.7
103.4
104 4
99.7
101.5
97.2
105.3
103.3
105.3
109.5
113.4
125.0

W A.RPERS, M ale.

100.0
86.1
91.7
97.2
75.0
116.7
133. .3
88.9
122.2
111.1
77.8
83.3
102.8
122.2
113.9
75.0
61.4
65.5




100.0
105.3
105.4
102.9
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
96.5
96.6

100.0
66.7
50.0
83.3
91.7
79.2
50.0
225.0
158.3
83.3
100.0
83.5
145.8
145.8
87.5
76.3
83.4
73.3

100.0
106.2
106.2
106.2
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.2
97.2

100.0
98.2
100.2
100.5
97.7
104.2
104.8
98.9
102.3
95.2
98.0
102.6
87.4
100.2
103.4
100.3
101.9
103.2

W A R P E R S , F em a le .

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1904; 5, 1905; 7,
1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
93.1
90.6
97.9
100.4
93.8
110.1
96.8
110.5
105.0
101.7
111.6
116.3
122.8
112.4
124.3
135.0
132.9

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1896; 6, 1897-1903. Data from 6
establishments 1904; 12, 1905, 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903..........v.........
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
90.2
100.9
101.8
83.0
86.6
100.0
101.8
113.4
118.8
102.7
105.4
105.4
1143
117.0
113.2
124.9
125.1

100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
98.4
97.8
98.6
98.4
98.6
99.3
99.3
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.0
99.4
99.4
99.5

100.0
96.1
88.6
97.6
103.8
104.3
105.6
111.0
105.7
90.8
96.5
90.0
88.3
94 4
90.9
97.4
96.0
100.5

117

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

Table II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

SIL K GOODS—Concluded.
W E A V E R S, M ale.

W EAV ERS, F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 1890
1903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890; 4, 1891-1896; 5, 1897-1903. Data
from 6 establishments 1904; 9,1905; 12,1906.]

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1896; 7, 1897-1903. Data from 7
establishments 1904; 12, 1905; 14, 1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
139.6
81.1
97.6
84.9
92.9
102.8
77.4
100.9
110.4
110.8
87.3
83.5
76.4
61.3
46.8
51.5
42.7

100.0
102.9
103.7
101.1
98.2
98.2
, 98.3
98.1
99.3
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.6
100.9
100.3
100.1
100.2
99.9

100.0
95.6
98.0
102.6
105.8
101.2
97.3
111.2
97.9
95.5
94.6
98.9
90.8
97.4
94.3
101.4
104.1
109.9

W EAV ERS, RIBBO N, M ale.

100.0
104.2
80.5
95.8
89.8
129.7
122.0
78.8
100.0
129.7
67.8
98.3
56.8
49.2
82.2
92.4
114.9
113.5

100.0
105.0
104.0
105.3
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
94.4
94.8
94.6

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
76.9
60.6
79.4
79.2
92.1
102.7
96.2
118.1
153.8
141.2
139.8
170.1
187.1
190.3
178.3
192.8
189.9

100.0
100.8
102.0
100.6
98.7
99.0
98.7
100.2
100.1
99.9
100.0
100.1
99.2
99.4
99.7
99.4
99.4
99.6

100.0
95.6
89.9
100.6
105.2
111.0
101.3
113.0
96.1
94.5
92.8
96.1
94.0
100.5
99.0
92.8
94.4
97.6

W E A V E R S, R IB BO N , F em a le .

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1904; 4, 1905,
1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

Year.

100.0
116.5
98.4
98.7
107.1
90.2
100.1
102.1
88.7
99.1
99.0
93.0
83.4
82.8
86.8
86.9
86.3
89.1

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890-1899; 2, 1900-1903. Data from 2
establishments 1904; 4, 1905, 1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
135.6
101.7
101.7
76.3
76.3
93.2
118.6
84.7
93.2
110.2
118.6
67.8
161.0
122.0
1*12.9
154.3
141.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
92.2
92.6
92.2

100.0
99.3
102.0
100.2
101.4
100.2
95.6
99.7
97.7
104.0
100.0
95.2
95.4
84.6
89.7
83.3
89.2
90.4

98.8
99.1
99.3
99.1
99.2
99.3
98.9
99.1
99.3

107.4
103.3
105.3
109.1
111.2
115.3
115.2
116.7
115.2

W IN DER S, F em a le .
[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1904; 14,1905; 17,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 .....................
1891......................
1892 .....................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895 .....................
1896 .....................
1897......................

100.0
95.3
82.8
96.9
102.7
93.0
105.9
95.7
103.1




100.0
103.0
103.1
102.2
98.4
98.7
98.7
99.0
99.0

100.0
95.9
84.3
92.8
98.4
106.8
106.2
103.2
101.4

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

114.5
108.6
107.8
109.4
110.5
113.3
110.2
117.6
122.2

118

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e II.—
RELATIVE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

SXiAUGHTERING AND MEAT PACKING.
B A C K S K I N N E R S , C A T T L E , M a le .

D R Y S A L T E R S , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 8,1904; 12,
1905, 1906.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13, 1904;
14, 1905,1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897 ...............
1898......................
1899......................
1900 ...................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903 ............. ...
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
100.0
100,0
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
120.0
120.0
129.6
102.1
102.1

100.0
102.9
102.9
104.7
104.3
96.1
96.1
96.1
96.1
97.8
102.9
109.8
109.8
114.8
125.4
129.0130.1
132.6

100.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
101.5
101.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
97.2
97.2
97.2
96.4
(«)

G U T T E R S , C A T T L E , M a le .

100.0
81.3
81.3
81.3
100.0
100.0
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
125.0
118.8
114.4
99.2
99.2

100.0
98.4
98.4
98.4
101.4
101.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.0
97.2
97.2
97.6

(a)

100.0
102.8
102.8
105.4
105.1
93.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
98.9
98.9
104.3
107.0
112.3
119.9
122.2
123.4
124.3

'

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
66.3
66.3
68.6
73.8
90.7
108.1
119.8
140.1
147.1
116.9
129.1
125.6
129.7
144.8
131.7
160.3
164.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.5
99.5
99.4

100.0
105.4
104.5
105.1
104.2
97.2
95.2
95.1
93.9
97.7
101.9
99.1
100.5
106.1
111.5
112.8
108.4
110.0

G U T T E R S , H O G , M a le .

I [Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 9,1904; 12,
1905,1906.]
l
Average 1890-99...
1890...................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

Year.

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 12,1904; 14
1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904 ...................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
107.7
107.7
107.7
115.4
115.4
115.4
140.1
136.2
136.2

100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.8
100.2
100.2
100.4
98.8

(a )

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
98.6
100.3
99.4
98.1
98.1
99.3
84.3
79.6
82.0

H E A D E R S, CATTLE, M ale.

H E A D E R S, HOG, Male.

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 9,1904; 11,
1905, 1906.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13, 1904;
15, 1905,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
105.9
105.9
105.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.1
lO fO
O
100.0
94.1
111.8
111.8
111.8
98.2
94.8




100.0
101.4
101.4
101.4
100.7
100.7
99.1
99.1
99.1
98.2
99.1
99.1
98.2
95.9
95.9
95.9
96.2

100.0
97.8
97.8
97.8
102.0
97.9
101.0
98.5
101.6
105.7
99.8
107.8
107.3
113.8
123.1
126.6
130.3
128.0

(a)

a

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Hours not reported.

100.0
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7

100.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
101.4
J01.4
101.4
101.4
(a)

100.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
107.6
107.6
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
96.2
99.4
99.4
97.8
106.6
107.3
106.7
111.4

119

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

SL A U G H T E R IN G A N D M E A T P A C K IN G —Continued.
L AR O R ER S, Male,

PIC K L ER S, M ale.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 13, 1904;
15, 1905,1906.]

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 12, 1904;
14, 1905,1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890
..........
1891
..........
1892
..........
1893
..........
1894
..........
1895
..........
1896
..........
1897
..........
1898
..........
1899
..........
1900
..........
1901
..........
1902
..........
1903
..........
1904
..........
1905
..........
1906
..........

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours pe»r wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
85.1
87.3
90.7
88.9
99.7
101.3
101.3
108.3
111.6
125.7
130.4
137.4
144.3
143.0
131.2
132.1
134.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
(a)

100.0
105.1
105.0
105.1
105.6
95.4
94.9
94.5
94.9
98.0
101.5
98.0
97.2
101.5
107.8
108.9
104.7
105.9

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative | Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0

60.8
69.0
70.7
74.6
88.7
104.8
115.5
136.1
147.0
132.4
136.6
150.7
153.8
159.4
14a 9
134.2
154.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

104.0
103.3
103.4
103.4
96.2
95.1
95.5
96.8
99.8

102.2

100.5

100.8

107.9
114.0
114.7
109.4
110.3

R UM P SK INNERS, CATTLE, M ale.

SC RA PER S, HOG, M ale.

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 6, 1904;
10, 1905,1906.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 12, 1904;
13, 1905,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
66.7
66.7
66.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
100.0
111.8
97.2
97.2

1
!
j

j

!
,
|
i
;
,

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
(a)

100.0 Average 1890-99..
102.9 1890.....................
102.9 1891.....................
102.9 i 1892.....................
100.3 1893.....................
95.0 1894.....................
95.0 1895.....................
95.0 1896.....................
95.0 1897.....................
100.3 1898.....................
110.8 1899.....................
110.8 1900.....................
110.8 1901.....................
118.7 1902.....................
129.3 1903.....................
136.0 1904.....................
132.3 1905.....................
133.9 1906.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
84.2
57.9
57.9
57.9
57.9
60.0
62.0
63.0

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
96.0
100.8
100.8
99.9
99.9
100.0
98.2
(a)

100.0
104.4
104.4
104.4
104.4
104.9
104.9
104.9
104.9
80.9
81.9
101.8
96.6
96.6
95.8
96.6
95.4
98.3

SIJDE SKINNERS, CATTLE, Male,

S P L IT T E R S , CATTLE, M ale.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 8, 1904;
12,1905,1906.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 9, 1904;
13, 1905,1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
87.8
87.8
87.8
102.4
102.4
104.9
104.9
104.9
104.9
107.3
107.3
109.8
119.5
114.6
111.0
97.7
100.7




100.0
98.3
98.3
98.3
101.0
101.0
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.0
98.2
98.2
98.6
(a)

100.0
104.3
104.3
106.9
106.9
95.1
95.1
95.1
95.1
96.7
100.5
106.9
106.9
111.3
116.4
118.8
119.5
120.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

a Hours not reported.

100.0
91.3
91.3
91.3
100.0
100.0
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
121.7
126.1
123.2
106.3
111.1

100.0
98.7
98.7
98.7
100.4
100.4
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
99.2
98.8
98.8
100.0
(a)

100.0
104.6
104.6
106.9
106.9
95.0
95.0
95.0
95.0
96.9
100.2
106.9
106.9
111.3
116.3
118.5
117.1
118.7

120

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

SL A U G H T E R IN G A N D M E A T P A C K IN G —Concluded.
SP L IT T E R S , HOG, M ale.

STIC K ERS, CATTLE, M ale.

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13, 1904;
15, 1905,1906.]

[D ata from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 8, 1904;
11,1905,1906.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
114.3
114.3
114.3
121.4
121.4
121.4
121.4
121.4
128.3

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.4
99.4
99.4
100.2
99.6
99.6
99.6
98.7

(a )

Year.

100.0 Average 1890-99..
98.4 1890.....................
98.4 1891.....................
98.4 1892.....................
99.0 1893.....................
99.0 1894.....................
100.9 1895.....................
100.9 1896.....................
100.9 1897.....................
101.2 1898.....................
102.9 1899.....................
102.9 1900.....................
102.0 1901.....................
102.0 | 1902.....................
109.4 1903.....................
110.1
111.5 | 1905.....................
112.7 1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
m o
m o
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
111.1
103.7
97.9
103.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.9
100.9
100.6
(°)

100.0
103.6
103.6
103.6
103.6
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4
98.5
101.5
101.5
108.7
115.3
119.3
119.0
119.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.4
98.4
98.4
98.4

101.1
104.2
104.2
104.2
105.8
113.7
113.7
115.4
119.9

STIC K ERS, HOG, M ale.
[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13,1904; 15, 1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99.
1890 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1894 ..............
1895 ..............
1896 ..............
1897 ..............

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
99.5
99.5
99.5
97.9
97.9
99.5
99.5
101.1

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

(a )

STREETS A N D SE W E R S, CO NTR ACT W O R K .
L ABO R ERS, M ale.
[Data from 36 establishments 1890-1903; 70, 1904; 120, 1905; 128,1906.]'
Average 1890-99.
1890 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1894 ..............
1895 ..............
1896 ...............
1897 ...............

100.0
102.3
121.7
112.3
109.7
107.3
91.1
98.9
85.6




100.0
101.2
101.4
101.3
101.0
101.0
100.6
99.7
97.4

100.0
95.7
98.1
98.2
95.9
97.0
98.5
102.9
103.7

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

o Hours not reported.

81.4
89.6
99.4
100.1
100.8
103.9
104.2
101.3
102.5

97.5
99.0
98.8
96.5
95.2
95.1
95.1
94.7
93.3

105.2
1049
107.1
114.9
120.2
124.3
125.3
128.6
139.8

121

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,
T able

I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
STREETS A N D SEW ER S, M U N IC IP A L W O R K .
LA B O R E R S, M ale.

[Data for employees from 47 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 47 establish­
ments 1890-1893; 48,1894-1903. Data from 58 establishments 1904; 70,1905,1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890
.............

1891
1802

............

1895
1896
1897

............
............
............

1893
1894

................
................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
85.8
86.2
94.6
98.8 115.1
106.1
98.4
104.3

100.0
101.1
100.6
100.9
101.5
100.7
100.0
100.6
100.1

100.0
99.8
99.5
98.3
98.1
100.9
99.7
98.1
' 98.7

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
102.3
108.2
106.6
112.0
99.4
93.5
100.1
109.3
116.6

98.7
95.7
93.3
92.6
92.7
91.8
91.1
90.9
91.0

100.9
105.8
110.3
110.6
111.0
111.8
113.8
113.0
114.9

TOBACCO, CIGARS.
BUNCH M A K E R S, HAND, M ale.

B U N C H M A K E R S , H A N D , F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 1, 1896-1903. Data from 4
establishments 1904; 11,1905; 9,1906.]

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 7, 1896-1903. Data from 12
establishments 1904; 19,1905; 21,1906.]

100.0
100.0
100.0
Average 1890-99.
98.9
99.5
74.4
1890
.......
92.5
98.3
81.4
1891
.......
84.2
93.3
65.1
1892
.......
112.2
96.3
81.4
1893
.......
101.9
96.5
102.3
1894
..... .
97.3
86.0
96.8
1895
.......
100.5
88.4
104.8
1896
.................. .................. ..................
113.5
104.8
120.9
1897
.......
100.4
104.8
127.9
1898
.......
98.5
104.8
160.5
1899
.......
100.1
104.8
27.9
1900
.......
107.2
104.8
90.7
1901
.......
101.7
104.8
102.3
1902
.......
117.1
104.8
134.9
1903
.......
100.6
121.8
134.9
1904
.......
102.0
115.1
176.3
1905
.......
100.4
125.5
149.6
1906
.......

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

BUNCH M A K E R S, MACHINE, Female[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 8,1904; 9
1905; 11,1906.]
Average 1890-99.
1890
......
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
...
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......
1906
.......

100.0
74.8
80.0
87.4
78.5
92.6
134.8
95.6
140.0

100.0
112.6

134.8
148.9
163.0
170.4
180.4
168.4
142.7




100.0

100.7
100.7

100.8

100.7
100.8
100.8
98.9
99.3
98.5
98.9
99.1
99.1
99.3
99.3
99.3
97.7
97.3

100.0
101.8
102.0
103.6
101.1
95.0
95.8
96.8
95.8
104.0
104.4
108.6
105.2
113.4
113.7
116.3
116.5
138.8

100.0
89.6
90.4
84.3
91.2
101.2
94.8,
92.8
117.3
108.8
128.9
60.6
90.4
97.2
110.0
105.3
105.9
98.3

100.0
100.0
100.2
99.4
100.9
101.3
101.2
99.1
98.8
99.0
99.9
93.3
97.0
99.3
100.2
98.7
98.2
97.4

100.0
97.1
100.1
98.1
99.4
99.9
98.0
100.8
107.8
101.7
97.3
91.9
104.3
101.2
125.3
135.7
137.8
152.2

C IG A R M A K E R S , M a le .
;
[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 22, 1904;
34,1905; 36,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
83.6
101.6
105.8
145.4
120.6
110.6
90.3
69.7
70.6
102.5
136.6
174.3
125.7
127.3
146.6
159.9
164.5

100.0
97.9
96.4
99.3
100.8
99.5
98.9
102.7
98.7
101.4
104.3
105.1
106.4
104.8
105.4
106.6
107.3
106.7

100.0
102.8
108.2
105.9
101.2
100.5
99.0
94.0
96.8
92.4
99.2
99.7
105.1
105.9
107.9
111.2
112.2
117.7

122

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table I I . — R E LA TIV E WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

TOBACCO, CIGARS—Continued.
CIGAR R O LLERS, HAND, M ale.
[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 7 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 5, 1896, 1897 ; 4, 1898-1903.
Data from 5 establishments 1904; 9, 1905; 12,
1906.]
Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905......................
1906......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
93.0
95.0
88.9
94.5
96.5
99.0
95.5
111.6
111.1
117.1
71.9
86.9
91.0
91.5
94.9
90.5
61.2

100.0
99.1
98.9
97.3
98.8
99.7
99.3
100.7
102.0
101.8
102.3
96.4
99.0
99.4
99.8
97.9
98.1
97.1

100.0
101.2
98.4
96.9
102.3
99.2
100.1
100.1
98.9
100.5
102.2
102.9
113.4
117.4
113.3
114.4
113.7
126.8

CIGAR R O LLER S, MACHINE,
F em a le .

CIGAR R O LLER S, HAND, F em a le .
[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 6, 1896, 1897; 7, 1898-1903.
Data from 16 establishments 1904; 18, 1905; 22,
1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

Average 1890-99.*
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
87.8
89.6
77.1
91.4
105.4
97.3
88.1
122.9
116.1
125.3
48.8
74.4
82.4
87.2
98.7
95.9
105.5

100.0
101.0
101.0
100.7
100.8
101.2
101.2
97.8
98.6
98.7
98.9
93.6
95.8
97.0
97.6
96.9
96.4
96.1

100.0
99.7
99.7
101.3.
97.6
99.0
105.3
97.6
98.7
98.6
102.8
89.1
105.8
111.6
116.7
110.4
119.9
130.8

PA C K E R S, M ale.

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 7, 1904; 10,
1905; 13, 1906.]

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 11 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 12, 1893-1898; 11, 1899-1903.
Data from 22 establishments 1904; 35, 1905; 38,
1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904......................
1905......................
1906......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894............. .......
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
54.1
54.1
78.7
64.7
93.3
138.3
128.9
124.9
141.3
122.2
151.4
165.7
204.3
204.9
177.4
178.4
160.7

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
99.6
99.2
99.4
99.2
99.5
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.0
99.0
99.0

100.0
104.5
105.5
104.3
107.7
109.2
96.4
92.0
94.8
91.9
93.8
107.5
129.5
123.0
129.2
136.4
138.0
152.3

100.0
74.4
75.2
95.3
87.6
103.1
102.3
93.8
117.8
121.7
131.8
72.9
76.7
94.6
83.7
80.6
74.6
83.0

100.0
100.3
100.2
100.6
100.5
100.4
100.5
99.2
99.6
99.3
99.4
99.6
98.9
99.9
100.8
100.5
100.1
99.6

100.0
91.8
100.9
99.3
98.4
98.7
100.1
103.1
100.9
102.2
104.7
104.6
108.0
103.1
114.2
118.1
119.9
125.9

PAC K ER S, F em a le .
[Data for employees from 3 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 3 establishments
1890-1899; 4,1900-1903. Data from 13 establishments 1904; 17,1905; 19,1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................

100.0
61.5
92.3
107.7
130.8
115.4
115.4
61.5
100.0




100.0
101.7
99.7
99.2
98.6
99.0
99.0
101.7
99.4

100.0
109.1
107.7
109.1
96.6
89.3
88.2
102.1
96.4

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

92.3
84.6
115.4
100.0
138.5
123.1
123.8
144.6
120.9

99.7
102.1
106.6
106.7
106.1
107.0
106.2
105.9
105.4

102.0
99.6
80.1
116.8
103.5
86.0
93.8
94.2
98.4

123

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

TOBACCO, CIGARS—Concluded.
STEM M ERS, M ale.

STEM M ERS, F e m a le .

[Data lor employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1897, 1899; 3, 1898, 1900-1903.
Data from 5 establishments 1904; 13, 1905,1906.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
52.1
75.5
109.6
144.7
104.3
124.5
120.2
56.4
91.5
121.3
114.9
60.6
72.3
73.4
48.3
47.5
50.7

100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
97.3
95.0
96.4

100.0
106.6
103.0
95.5
89.4
95.8
91.9
94.2
109.4
108.9
105.8
118.7
121.8
112.3
141.8
126.2
138.9
143.2

[Data for employees from 13 establishments 13901903. Data for hours and wages from 14 estab­
lishments 1890,1894-1896,1898-1903; 13,1891-1893,
1897. Data from 33 establishments 1904; 46,
1905; 49, 1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
18951...................
1896.....................
3897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
91.0
102.5
93.4
94.8
104.3
106.1
92.1
100.2
103.6
112.0
97.3
98.2
105.0
100.9
107.8
116.1
120.5

100.0
100.9
99.8
100.2
98.5
99.9
99.3
99.9
99.8
100.7
101.0
99.8
99.3
100.0
101.0
101.4
100.9
300.1

100.0
90.2
88.6
97.3
94.4
100.7
9*.2
103.0
112.9
109.8
105.8
105.5
120.0
117.0
120.4
125.1
124.1
130.8

W O O D EN A N D W O R STED GOODS.
B U R L E R S , F em a le .

C AR DERS, M ale.

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 13, 1904;
25, 1905; 26, 1906.]

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 14, 1904;
24, 1905, 1906.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
100.0
107.0
108.0
104.3
78.6
94.1
89.3
100.5
108.0
112.3
120.9
155.6
164.2
175.4
184.9
179.1
191.7

100.0
103.1
103.1
102.8
99.5
92.8
101.7
103.6
92.4
101.7
101.2
101.4
101.5
100.1
99.6
98.1
98.9
98.6

100.0
93.3
93.7
97.5
100.5
99.2
99.6
107.9
100.4
102.9
105.5
111.3
108.3
113.3
119.4
118.7
124.4
129.5

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
97.4
103.1
110.8
95.4
99.0
106.2
103.1
102.1
94.4
88.2
99.0
115.9
115.4
135.9
125.5
122.0
113.8

100.0
101.9
101.8
101.8
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.5
91.8
100.4
100.3
100.2
100.3
99.9
99.5
98.6
100.0
100.0

100.0
99.1
99.6
101.7
103.4
98.5
97.7
98.1
101.7
99.8
100.0
110.9
106.2
106.7
109.4
115.0
116.8
121.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.4
98.1
97.1

98.9
106.7
111.4
112.2
116.6
117.6
120.5
121.8
122.6

CARD S T R IP P E R S , M ale.
[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 8,1904; 13, 1905, 1906.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.
. ..
1896.......................
1897.......................

100.0
92.3
100.0
69.2
76.9
92.3
107.7
100.0
115.4




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
92.4
99.3
103.3
99.5
99.0
96.5
104.0
100.2

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

123.1
100.0
107.7
107.7
84.6
69.2
70.6
72.6
80.7

124

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

W O O L E N A N D W O R STED GOODS—Continued.
COMBERS) M ale.

COMBERS) F em a le .

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 2, 1904;
1905,1906.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900............. ........
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1 9 0 4 ....,...............
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.0
33.3
122.2
100.0
77.8
77.8
100.0
100.0
155.6
155.6
122.2
144.4
122.2
188.9
244.4
366.6
378.8
433.8

100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.6
99.3
99.5

D Y E R S, M ale.

1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906

1890 99

100.0
93.8
90.7
107.3
100.0
97.9
106.7
98.4
107.8
100.5
94.3
95.9
101.6
105.7
106.7
107.9
110.4
112.0 i

Year.

100.0 Average 1890-99..
95.7 1890.....................
98.0 1891.....................
95.7 1892.....................
99.5 1893.....................
107.2 1894........ *...........
94.0 1895.....................
104.6 1896.....................
95.4 1897.....................
• 95.9 1898.....................
113.3 1899.....................
106.6 1900.....................
107.9 1901.....................
103.8 1902.....................
102.1 1903.....................
93.3 1904.....................
94.8 1905.....................
95.3 , 1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
76.4
96.4
116.4
129.1
85.5
89.1
98.2
101.8
109.1
100.0
109.1
116.4
110.9
116.4
126.5
156.9
188.5

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.4
99.9
100.0
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.8
98.3
98.4
98.0
97.4
97.0

100.0
98.3
98.8
98.5
101.3
93.4
96.3
103.1
102.9
104.0
103.3
110.3
111.1
112.6
110.4
105.8
101.7
105.4

LOOM F IX E R S ) M ale.

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 15, 1904;
24, 1905, 1906.]
A v e ra g e
- ...
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................
.............................

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 5, 1904,
1905; 4,1906.]

100.0
99.5
99.6
99.5
98.4
101.8
101.4
100.4
97.8
100.7
100.8
100.5
100.6
99.1
99.6
98.9
99.9
99.8

100.0
100.2
101.5
100.7
103.1
95.5
96.5
98.5
99.4
101.4
102.6
109.3
106.8
108.4
108.2
108.9
109.3
114.8

SPIN N E R S, FRA M E) F em ale.

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 16, 1904;
26, 1905,1906.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1 1899.....................
1900.....................
; 1901.....................
j 1902.....................
! 1903.....................
| 1904.....................
1 1905.....................
1 1906.....................

100.0
100.0
96.7
101.3
96.1
90.1
93.4
98.7
103.3
111.2
106.6
117.8
111.8
115.1
114.5
112.5
120.1
120.1

100.0
100.5
100.4
100.3
99.9
97.1
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.2
100.4
100.3
100.3
99.1
99.0
98.2
98.8
98.5

100.0
98.3
98.2
100.2
102.0
96.4
96.7
101.2
102.0
102.0
102.8
112.5
112.2
114.0
115.9
112.7
114.5
122.7

SPIN N E R S, M ULE, M ale.

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4,1904; 8,
1905,1906.]

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 9 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 10, 1893-1896; 11, 1897-1903.
Data from 14 establishments 1904; 22, 1905,
19%.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

100.0
73.7
81.8
118.7
100.0
106.7
105.7
94.3
107.2
118 7
94.7
110.5
119.1
146.9
173.7
142.6
130.9
155.0




100.0
100.9
100.9
100.9
99.6
99.8
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.3
99.2
99.4
97.7
98.0
98.0
97.9
97.9

100.0
96.7
97.6
98.4
103.5
94.2
95.1
101.1
102.5
104.4
106.5
118.0
115.4
122.8
123.2
120.2
121.6
125.6

100.0
99.3
104.8
97.9
90.4
84.9
105.5
102.7
102.1
110.3
101.4
107.5
105.5
139.0
150.0
148.9
145.8
124.7

100.0
102.7
102.7
102.6
99.2
90.4
101.6
101.6
94.6
101.6
102.9
101.8
101.7
100.9
100.4
98.8
98.6
98.7

100.0
96.6
95.5
93.9
101.5
98.1
96.2
103.7
104.2
111.1
99.0
115.6
114.3
114.0
124.8
125.9
131.1
140.6

125

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e I I . — RELATIVE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Concluded.

W O O LE N A N D W O R STED GOODS—Concluded.
W E A V E R S, M ale.

W E A V E R S, F e m a le .

[Data lor employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890-1900; 11, 1901-1903. Data from
17 establishments 1904; 26,1905; 27,1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899 .....................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904 .....................
1905......................
1906......................

Relative Relative Relative 1
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
92.1
98.8
103.9
93.6
80.9
96.7
103.0
113.6
115.7
101.1
138.4
142.8
139.3
171.7
162.2
163.2
144.3

8891—No. 71—07---- 9




100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.6
99.6
98.7
98.4
98.1
98.5
98.3

100.0
101.6
102.2
103.8
109.7
92.8
94.9
94.7
98.0
101.1
100.9
111.7
113.6
120.4
124.7
116.6
123.8
136.0

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890-1895,1901-1903; 9,1896-1900. D ata
from 17 establishments 1904; 27,1905,1906.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
106.4
112.7
96.1
107.2
100.5
92.9
93.5
92.5
105.2
93.4
105.0
107.0
106.4
108.2
106.5
117.2
115.7

100.0
101.0
101.0
101.0
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
98.2
98.2
97.1
98.0
98.0

100.0
100.4
99.1
100.8
106.7
94.3
93.8
96.7
100.7
104.6
102.4
109.8
112.5
112.5
115.9
113.4
117.1
126.4

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

126

Table III.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
INDUSTRIES.

[Average 1890-1899=*100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 22.]
AGRICULTURAL IM PLEM ENTS.
Year.

BA K ER S, BREAD.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
86.2
88.2
95.1
105.1
95.8
98.1
94.5
95.3
120.9
120.6
130.7
105.9
115.8
124.8
108.5
123.7
133.3

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.2
100.3
99.9
99.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
99.4
97.3
97.1
96.6

97.1
100.8
101.6
102.5
97.3
96.4
102.0
99.4
101.0
101.8
105.8
107.6
112.8
117.2
122.5
124.4
129.3

Year.
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

BLACK.SMITHING AND H O R SE *
SHOEING.
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......... ...........
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

101.8
100.9
102.5
101.1
98.7
96.6
98.7
97.9
101.1
101.3
102.4
105.1
101.5
101.9
100.3
101.9
105.6

101.1
101.1
101.0
100.2
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.4
99.3
99.0
98.4
97.7
97.0
96.4
95.5
95.2
94.6

98.9
98.7
98.8
99.2
99.1
99.1
99.9
100.9
102.2
102.9
104.5
106.6
108.6
112.2
114.8
116.2
119.9

98.6
97.6
99.7
100.2
98.7
97.9
100.4
100.9
101.5
104.1
102.7
104.6
108.5
109.9
110.1
110.5
111.2

93.3
94.6
96.1
96.0
97.2
100.2
102.1
102.6
107.9
109.8
114.0
121.0
130.4
133.7
142.6
148.1
155.6

100.8
100.8
100.9
100.5
100.4
99.9
99.6
100.2
99.1
97.8
96.9
96.3
95.8
93.9
93.6
92.5
91.8

99.3
99.9
100.3
100.2
98.4
98.7
99.6
99.8
100.6
103.1
106.6
108.8
113.9
118.9
121.1
123.5
127.4

BOOTS AND SHOES.
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

77.2
80.0
86.4
97.1
99.0
103.2
110.5
111.3
111.3
118.4
123.2
127.7
124.0
130.4
143.8
155.4
170.2

100.2
100.8
100.5
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.0
99.2
98.0
96.6
96.9
96.8
96.3

97.9
96.2
98.2
100.5
99.5
100.6
100.7
102.5
101.8
102.3
105.3
105.2
108.8
115.6
117.1
118.4
120.4

BUILDING TR A D E S.

B R IC K ,
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.0
99.9
99.3
98.6
98.8
98.7

101.0
101.3
102.7
101.8
99.1
98.5
97.1
97.4
100.1
101.1
103.1
105.1
110.1
112.2
112.8
113.8
119.1

1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

96.5
100.0
106.8
101.7
90.2
92.4
99.2
99.7
104.1
109.8
113.6
119.8
126.1
123.2
122.5
128.0
140.0

102.5
101.8
100.7
100.5
100.7
100.3
99.2
98.6
98.1
97.5
95.5
94.4
92.6
91.8
91.3
91.2
90.9

97.0
97.9
99.9
100.0
97.6
98.4
99.9
101.3
102.8
105.3
109.9
114.5
121.1
126.8
129.7
132.2
140.2

92.9
96.6
91.2
91.9
103.1
107.6
113.4
114.7

100.4
100.4
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.3
100.1
100.2

100.7
99.0
109.5
108.5
109.3
112.2
114.3
118.9

CANDY.
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................




112.7
108.9
103.2
104.2
95.7
95.8
94.8
99.2
89.6

99.3
99.3
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.4

102.3
103.3
99.8
98.2
98.8
98.9
100.0
98.1
100.5

1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902................... „
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR. 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e I I I . — RELATIVE




127

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0.]

128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table III.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
INDUSTRIES— Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0.]
ELECTRICAL A PP A R A T U S AND
SU PPL IE S.
Year.
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
54.7
55.1 i
57.1 i
65.6
79.3
100.6
130.1
137.1
132.5
169.4
203.4
213.2
231.9
249.7
226.1
295.9
425.5

100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.4
100.4
99.6
99.9
99.7
99.9
100.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.0
94.0

98.6
98.7
98.2
97.7
95.7
97.3
99.7
103.0
105.8
105.5
102.6
107.8
107.3
110.8
110.2
110.8
122.0

FLOUR.

1890....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

FOUNDRY AND MACHINE SHOP.
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899..1..................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

101.8
101.1
94.5
99.6
87.7
93.2
93.9
93.5
108.1
125.1
126.8
132.0
139.2
149.1
133.2
155.0
168.3

100.5
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.9
100.1
99.8
99.7
99.9
99.4
99.2
98.1
96.6
95.4
94.6
94.8
94.8

99.2
100.3
102.7
101.6
98.7
99.1
100.5
99.7
99.0
99.1
101.5
104.7
108.2
112.2
113.9
114.0
117.9

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

110.1
95.4
91.3
84.1
100.5
95.6
93.2
111.0
129.8
91.6
104.0
99.0
121.1
119.4
138.0
141.4
150.2

100.3
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.3
99.9
100.1
99.5
99.4
99.3
99.3
98.1
97.7
97.5
97.8
97.6

99.4
100.3
100.3
99.7
98.7
98.5
99.8
100.1
101.5
101.8
103.3
107.6
110.4
111.2
111.4
111.0
112.5

101.2
100.4
99.5
100.2
98.3
100.0
100.4
99.9
100.2
100.0
99.7
98.4
97.3
97.2
96.3
96.1
95.6

99.3
101.9
102.5
100.5
99.2
97.0
97.6
100.3
98.7
103.0
103.4110.4
117.0
118.2
119.9
122.1
125.6

99.4
108.2
101.6
97.6
93.1
92.8
95.7
95.9
104.9
108.7
110.3
112.6
115.0
116.7
117.8
119.2
121.7

100.1
99.9
100.0
100.1
99.8
99.9
100.0
100.3
100.0
99.9
100.3
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.6
99.4
98.6

101.5
100.2
101.3
100.2
99.1
92.6
96.6
98.3
101.2
103.5
107.7
107.5
115.0
120.0
110.3
116.6
122.3

117.6
124.5
128.5
135.7
138.8
137.6
135.8
142.9

99.7
99.8
99.5
99.0
98.0
97.6
97.0
96.6

101.2
102.0
105.6
108.7
115.8
118.0
118.6
121.6

F U R N IT U R E .
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

CAS.
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.:...................
1906......................

90.3
89.4
91.6
96.1
92.8
92.4
106.5
107.1
117.2
117.7
118.7
120.6
123.4
124.0
124.0
130.2
134.2

93.7
95.3
101.4
98.5
95.2
96.1
99.0
102.8
104.5
113.4
110.0
113.5
119.8
117.2
116.3
120.7
126.3

CLASS.
100.6
100.7
101.0
101.0
101.0
100.7
100.9
100.8
97.3
96.3
94.8
97.4
95.3
96.3
96.2
96.2
96.5

99.5
99.0
99.6
100.4
101.2
99.7
101.0
100.7
98.6
100.3
101.3
96.5
104.9
101.3
101.8
102.0
103.8

1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

H A R NESS.
1890.......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................

91.0
91.8
94.1
94.2
94.5
99.3
104.3
105.9
110.2




100.4
100.4
100.2
100.1
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.9

100.2
100.6
100.6
101.0
99.0
98.5
98.7
99.5
100.7

1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

129

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e I I I . — RELATIVE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0.]

H O SIE R Y AND K N IT GOODS.

H A TS, FfJR.
Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
86.2
94.0
90.9

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.

100.0

103.2
90.1
94.5

101.0

109.5
132.1
147.0
160.9
164.6
168.6
166.9
186.5
184.7

100.7
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.0
99.4
98.3
98.5
98.7
94.2
92.6
92.9
92.3
92.2

104.4
100.5
100.0

97.5
99.6
97.8
98.8

100.6

99.8
100.9
102.4
103.0
110.3
113.8
115.7
119.2
125.2

99.4
98.4
98.3
105.9
100.2
103.7
93.9
97.7
99.7

101.6

108.9
100.7
104.1
109.2

100.2

103.6
97.0

102.7

101.6

101.8
101.4
101.3
100.7
101.0
97.1
96.6
95.9
97.3
98.4
98.8
98.4
97.9
98.1
97.9

1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

110.3
104.9

100.0

95.7
90.1
91.7
99.3
98.0
96.3
113.7
118.2
119.7
132.8
136.5
125.6
126.9
135.7

1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

94.1
95.1
106.1
99.7
99.8

100.2

98.9
98.3

102.6

104.1
104.1
106.5
104.2
101.7
100.2 |
104.7 i
109.0 |

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

104.4
105.3
107.1
105.2
91.4
96.5
100.1

93.4
93.9

102.8

107.3
108.1

111.2

99.6

114.4
109.6

100.6

114.1

100.0
100.6

101.5
101.5
101.5
100.3
95.0
100.2
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
98.9
98.7
98.9
98.4
98.3
98.3
98.2

106.1
107.3
99.0
102.5
97.7
102.9
99.8
94.7
95.5
$4.7
98.0
102.4
108.7
115.5
113.5
120.8
126.4

112.6

98.3
98.1
101.8
99.2
100.1
100.2
101.1
100.2
101.0
100.2
91.3
94.6
94.6
96.0
91.1
91.2
91.5

113.3
115.9
112.3
105.5
96.1
97.3
92.5
86.3
88.1
92.8
106.2
113.1
122.6
131.8
114.7
123.3
133.8

81.7
89.9
99.7
83.9
95.5
100.9
90.5
102.9
129.4
127.1
127.9
128.0
117.6
132.5
143.0
147.3
154.1

99.9
99.9
99.8
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.1
99.5
99.9
99.9

102.1
102.5
102.3
102.1
98.3
98.8
98.9
98.5
96.9
99.6
98.1
101.4
104.3
106.3
108.2
108.3
109.2

104.5
104.4
115.4
118.1
126.1
127.2
128.2
134.2

98.8
96.4
94.2
91.0
89.9
89.7
89.5
87.9

102.7
108.0
111.2
117.5
120.3
122.2
124.4
127.8

99.5
104.8
101.2
102.3
100.0
100.0
99.0
100.1
99.0
100.1
118.7
113.9
113.9
115.0
116.6
^ 1 8 .3
^ 1 6 .9

LEATHER.

IRON AND ST EE L , BLAST FURNACE.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.

81.3
89.3
122.6
116.4
83.7
99.8
93.1
93.1
111.3
107.9
120.8
131.8
121.2
125.6
125.6
167.0
188.5

IRON AND ST E E L , B E SSE M E R CON­
V ER TING .

IRON AND STEGL, B A R .
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

LIQUORS, HALT*
1890
1891

.......................
. . .

1892

...............

1893

.......................

1894.......................
1896

.......................

1896
.............
1897......................
1898......................

92.8
92.9
94.9
103.2
104.5
102.0
101.2
103.1
101.1




100.8
100.3
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.4
99.8
99.9
98.7

97.7
98.8
98.3
98.8
99.5
100.2
100.5
101.1
102.5

1899.....................
1900.....................
1 9 0 1 ..................
1902.....................
1903a ..................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

180

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I I ,—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y
INDUSTRIES— Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0.]
LUM BER.

M ARBLE AND STONE W ORK,

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

94.2
95.7
96.1
95.6
95.3
96.3
99.1
105.0
107.6
111.3
115.5
118.7
123.6
124.9
127.3
131.3
133.0

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898.
18y9.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
1906.

100.4
100.2
100.2
99.7
99.7
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.5
99.1
98.4
98.3
98.1
98.1
97.1

102.8
102.4
102.1
101.7
97.8
97.2
97.0
97.4
99.4
102.2
104.4
ibe.5
109.5
113.3
114.4
117.8
123.7

P A P E R AND WOOD PULP.
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
J902.......................
1903.......................
1904..... ................
1905.......................
1906.......................

92.0
95.4
98.6
100.6
93.4
100.6
103.6
107.3
105.6
102.6
114.9
115.4
118.3
123.5
135.7
136.7
146.4
-------—

100.5
100.4
100.4
99.9
100.9
100.7
100.7
100.8
101.2
99.5
99.6
98.6
93.0
92.7
91.1
92.8
93.1

101.8
104.8
100.8
103.1
101.2
93.3
95.0
98.6
95.4
99.7
102.0
100.7
99.5
103.5
109.9
115.8
118.1

1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

103.8
102.5
103.4
102.0
96.3
96.4
94.9
95.7
98.6
106.3
107.0
115.9
116.0
112.3
104.4
106.8
110.3

101.8

100.9
100.4
100.5
100.6
100.6
99.6
99.2
99.3
97.2
96.9
96.1
95.5
94.0
93.9
94.0
93.7

98.5
99.5
100.3
99.7
98.0
97.0
101.0
101.6
101.2
103.2
104.9
109.0
113.5
118.6
118.9
119.3
121.3

PLANING MILL.
96.5
98.8
93.6
99.7
98.7
99.2
100.6
99.8
99.3
108.6
108.7
110.9
111.1
118.7
122.3
122.4
121.1

1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

92.4
a3.4
95.6
94.9
94.9
99.2
101.4
102.2
104.6
115.5
115.5
125.3
128.0
135.4
137.2
146.8
155.3

101.2
100.4
100.5
100.1
100.6
99.3
99.4
99.7
99.5
99.2
99.3
99.0
98.2
98.0
97.6
97.5
96.4

99.3
100.8
100.8
100.7
97.7
98.2
98.4
99.5
100.9
103.8
104.9
107.9
110.8
113.6
114.8
116.6
120.6

P R IN T IN G AND PU B L ISH IN G , BOOK
AND JOB.

PO TTERY.
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................
1906.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

99.7
99.6
99.7
99. C
99.6
100.0
100.2
100.6
100.6
100.4
100.1
100.3
100.3
99.2
99.6
100.0
99.8

98.8
99.7
100.1
102.5
99.6
96.4
95.3
99.9
104.9
103.0
99.8
102.4
104.6
107.7
109.6
111.4
112.9

1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904 ..................
1905.....................
1906.....................

97.3
98.5
96.9
96.9
95.0
97.0
98.2
107.0
106.2
112.2
117.0
122.0
123.9
126.6
134.3
139.0
149.8

101.0
101.0
100.5
100.4
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.2
99.4
97.2
95.1
94.4
93.2
93.1
92.4
92.0
90.7

97.8
99.6
99.2
100.2
99.6
99.5
100.3
99.2
101.2
103.6
109.3
110.7
114.3
116.1
118.9
120.6
125.9

97.9
97.6
97.4
97.1
96.2
95.7
96.2
95.4

106.1
106.3
106.3
109.3
113.4
114.1
116.1
118.4

PR IN TIN G AND PU B L ISH IN G , N E W SP A PE R .
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896..................’
...
1897.......................
1898.....................

105.4
107.2
116.2
107.4
94.7
88.7
97.0
96.3
91.6




100.2
100.1
100.6
101.3
100.5
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.1

103.0
99.6
98.8
98.0
97.4
96.3
98.6
99.2
102.8

1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903............. .
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

92.1
89.1
90.3
96.7
95.5
92.0
99.0
104.9

131

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T a b l e I H . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906, B Y

IN D U ST R IE S—Concluded.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0.]

.

1890

1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................

................

1894

1895.......................
1896.....................
1897.......................
1898.......................




91.8
103.5
104.3
96.2
90.8
100.5
97.2
106.5
109.7

101.0
101.0
101.0
99.6
98.2
100.3
100.2
98.1 i
100.2 !

98.1
99.1
99.6
101.5
97.2
96.8
100.9
100.2
102.5

1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................
1906.....................

a Hours not reported.

100.0
109.4
112.1
121.3
134.1
138.3
137.7
142.5

100.3
100.1
100.2
99.3
99.3
98.4
98.8
98.6

103.7
110.4
110.6
113.5
115.2
116.4
118.3
124.0

132

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table I V .— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES.

B liA C K SM IT H IN G A N D H O R SE SH O E IN G .
H O R SE SH O E R S, FLOOR MEN, M ale.
Num­
ber of
establishments.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
BostonT Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a..................................................
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
Fall River, Mass........................................... ....
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Lynn, M ass........................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (a )........................................
Norfolk, V a........... ...........................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ............................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Richmond, V a ...................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Washington, D .C .............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

2
2
2
4
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
2
2
3
4
4
2
3
6
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
2

Number of
employees.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag<e wages
p erl iour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

5
5
5
13
5
2
7
8
4
4
3
4
3
3
3
5
3
4
3
5
3
0
4
7
9

5
5
5
13
5
3
9
9
3
5
3
4
3
3
3
5
4
7
3
5
3
6
4
7
9
7
5
18
8
5
13
6
4
4
5
4
47
2
2
4
6
4
6
4
4
8
8
2
5

54.00
60.00
53.80
53.00
53.00
53.00
53.00
53.00
53.25
53.50
54.00
53.75
59.00
56.00
59.33
53.00
54.00
54.00
59.00
53.00
54.00
53.00
57.75
59.00
54.00
53.71
53.00
53.00
53.00
56.40
53.00
53.00
53.00
53.00
59.25
54.00
53.00
59.00
54.00
60.00
53.00
54.00
53.67
54.00
54.00
55.63
53.00
60.00
54.00

54.00
60.00
53.80
53.00
53.00
47.00
53.00
53.00
52.33
53.40
54.00
53.75
59.00
54.00
55.33
53.00
54.00
54.00
55.67
53.00
54.00
53.00
57.75
59.00
54.00
53.71
53.00
53.00
53.00
56.40
53.00
53.00
53.00
53.00
59.20
54.00
53.00
53.00
54.00
60.00
53.00
54.00
53.67
54.00
54.00
55.63
53.00
56.00
54.00

10.2778
.2483
.3346
.3121
.3113
.4670
.3679
.3467
.3099
.3934
.2778
.2791
.2542
.3139
.2241
.3396
.2222
.3333
.2627
.2830
.2500
.3396
.2411
.2712
.2099
.2793
.2830
.3868
.2641
.3200
.3113
.4245
.3585
.2736
.1776
.2639
.3370
.2797
.2804
.1563
.4528
.3333
.3077
.3403
.2778
.2849
.3325
.2417
.2778

10.2778
.2650
.3346
.3121
.3113
.5213
.3679
.3742
.3251
.3932
.2778
.2930
.2797
.3704
.2542
.3396
.2222
.3333
.2792
.2830
.2500
.3396
.2665
.2785
.2099
.2793
.2830
.3868
.3325
.3200
.3113
.4056
.3608
.2759
.2138
.3056
.3384
.3113
.3084
.1568
.5660
.3611
.3077
.3403
.2778
.2849
.3325
.2667
.2778

54.00
60.00
53.75
53.00
53.00
47.00
53.00
53.00
52.00
53.33
54.00
53.75
59.00
56.00
53.00
54.00

10.3333
.2625
.3907
.3482
.3558
.5094
.4140
.3962
.3716
.3937
.3333
.3488
.3051
.2885
.3467
.3333

30.3333
.3063
.3907
.3482
.3639
.5745
.4151
.4245
.3831
.3937
.3333
.3627
.3051
.3033
.3396
.3055

5
18
6
5
13
6
3
3
4
4
44
2
2
4
6
4
6
4
4
8
8
2
5

H O RSESH O ERS, FORGEM EN, M ale.
Albany,
Atlanta, Ga.......
Birmingham, Ala
Boston, Mass___
Buffalo, N . Y . . . .
Butte, M o n t___
Chicago, 111.........
Cincinnati, Ohio.
Cleveland, Ohio..
Denver, Colo.......
Des Moines, Iowa
Detroit, Mich___
Dubuque, Iow a..
Fall River, Mass.
Indianapolis, Ind
Jacksonville, Fla.




2
2
2
4
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
2

4
4
4
11
7
2
9
8
2
3
3
4
2
2
4
3

a Greater New York.

4
4
4
11
7
2
10
8
2
3
3
4
3
2
4
3

54.00
60.00
53.75
53.00
53.00
53.00
53.00
53.00
53.50
53.33
54.00
53.75
59.00
59.00
53.00
54.00

133

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T

able

IV .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
B L A C K S M IT H IN G A N D H O R S E S H O E IN G —Concluded.
H O RSESH O ERS, FORGEM EN, M ale—
Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, l£ y ...................................................
Lynn, Mass .1 ....................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, M in n ....................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Haven, Conn..............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York. N. Y .(« )..........................................
Norfolk, Va........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ............................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ........................... ...................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. P a u l.k to n ...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah ........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Terre Haute, In d ...............................................
Toledo, O hio.....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

2
3
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
3
6
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2

3

Average
hours per
week.
1905.

3
4
5
4
6
3
3
5
7
3
17
6
6
12
4
2
2
4
2
18
3
2
4
5
4
2
2
4
7

54.00
56.50
53.00
54.00
53.00
57.33
59.00
54.00
53.71
53.00
53.00
53.00
57.00
53.00
53.00
53.00
53.00
59.67
54.00
53.00
59.00
54.00
60.00
53.00
54.00
53.50
54.00
54.00
56.00
53.00
2 60.00
5 54.00

4

5
4
6
3
3

5
7
3
17
6
6
12
4
2
2
3
2
18
3
2
4
6

4
2
2
4
7
2
2
5

1906.

Average wages
per nour.
1905.

1906.

54.00 10.3889
.3072
55.25
53.00
.3208
.2639
54.00
.3962
53.00
57.33
.3438
.3051
59.00
54.00
.3000
53.71
.3351
53.00
.3773
53.00
.4428
53.00
.3050
57.00
.3695
53.00
.3396
.4811
53.00
53.00
.3962
53.00
.3113
59.25
.2303
54.00
.3010
53.00
.3899
53.00
.2966
54.00
.3364
60.00
.2125
53.00
.4905
54.00
.3959
.3648
53.50
54.00
.3797
54.00
.3333
.3264
56.00
53.00
.3727
56.00
.2584
.3278
54.00

10.3889
.3286
.3208
.2778
.3962
.3438
.3051
.3000
.3351
.3773
.4428
.3962
.3695
.3396
.4740
.4245
.3208
.2601
.3333
.3931
.3302
.3364
.2125
.5773
.4028
.3648
.3797
.3333
.3264
.3727
.2844
.3278

10.5000
.4450
.3415
.6509
.4974
.5500
.5000
.7500
.3422
.6296
.6173
.5539
.7000
.6389
.5656
.5500
.5000
.4500
.5000
.5500
.7500
.6000
.5000
.6000
.6250
.6250
.7500
.6000
.5000
.4676

10.5000
.4659
.3833
.6381
.6203
.5895
.5500
.8088
.3916
.6284
.6214
.6000
.7242
.7156
.6008
.5700
.5719
.5000
.5000
.5671
.7500
.6000
.5000
.6500
.6250
.6875
.7500
.6000
;5500
.5000

B U IL D IN G T R A D E S.
B R IC K L A Y E R S, M ale.
Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Augusta, Ga......................................................
Baltimore, M d...................................................
Birmingham, Alq...............................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S .C .................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Fall River, Mass................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Hartford, Conn.................................................
Houston, Tex....................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F la ...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
Kansas City, Mo.............................. .................
Little Rock, Ark................................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Lynn, Mass.......................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................




2
3
3
3
3
8
4
2
3
4
4
6
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
3
2
2

15
40
47
117
1.9
103
105
16
25
345
-97
127
46
18
40
92
12
18
25
30
18
62
37
55
26
20
19
55
18
23

o Greater New York.

17
41
57
105
16
114
107
17
22
484
144
152
31
20
33
130
12
18
30
41
17
55
42
59
24
16
31
49
20
12

48.00
55.25
55.70
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
45.52
45.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
45.87
44.00
46.77
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

48.00
55.83
55.67
48.00
48.00
47.68
48.00
48.00
53.64
45.51
46.08
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
45.66
44.00
46.82
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

134
T

able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
I V .—

AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
B U IL D IN G TR AD ES—Continued.
B R I C K L A Y E R S , M a ie —Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is..................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Mobile, Ala.........................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
Nashville, Tenn..................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Haven, Conn..............................................
New Orleans, L a................................................
New York, N . Y . ( o ) .........................................
Norfolk, Va........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111...........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ............................
Portland, Me......................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Richmond, V a ...................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, Utah.........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a ......................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Tampa, F la ........................................................
Terre Haute, In d ...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, K ans....................................................
Trenton, N. J .....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

1905.

1906.

1905.

24
27
164
26
83
53
148
50
60
540
27
37
54
327
61
37
41
23
28
100
142
69
67
30
15
197
58
6
9
17
7
25
66
40
7
50
102
38
59
78
56

44.00
48.00
49.08
48.00
54.00
53.56
44.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
51.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

44.00
48.00
48.55
48.00
54.00
53.51
44.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
52.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

10.6875
.5500
.5387
.5513
.4567
.4980
.6000
.5084
.6250
.7000
.6250
.6250
.6250
.6000
.6333
.4384
.6951
.4500
.5743
.6075
.5300
.7082
.5758
.6926
.7000
.7500
.5000
.6875
.5150
.5586
.6875
.6250
.5500
.5471
.6250
.5000
.6250
.5625
.5000
.5259
.5000

10.6875
.5639
.5982
.6250
.4964
.5179
.6500
.5066
.6250
.7000
.7106
.6250
.6250
.6250
.6311
.5000
.7210
.5000
.6045
.6405
.5300
.7348
.6060
.7333
.7200
' .8890
.5000
.7500
.5000
.5824
.7411
.6250
.5992
.5544
.6250
.6000
.6250
.6000
.5686
.5446
.5000

89 48.00
42 59.83
90 55.39
104 48.00
88 49.20
147 48.15
215 48.00
74 48.00
74 54.00
160 44.00
353 48.00
71 48.00
30 48.00
43 44.00
90 48.00
281 48.00
17 48.00
56 48.00
67 48.00
44 54.00
17 54.00
13 48.00
79 52.85
151 48.00
45 44.00

48.00
59.45
55.22
48.00
48.75
48.12
48.00
48.00
53.80
54.00
48.00
48.00
47.80
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
52.71
48.00
44.00

10.3242
.2429
.2213
.4133
.3685
.3843
.3750
.6250
.2144
.5000
.4039
.4292
.3750
.4500
.3887
.3420
.3514
.3765
.3130
.3262
.2758
.3527
.3399
.2973
.4688

SO 3345
.
.2839
.2289
.3978
.3614
.4044
.4000
.6318
.2268
.5500
.4023
.4407
.3750
.5000
.3903
.3523
.3691
.4018
.3280
.3327
.2882
.3678
.3415
.3148
.5000

2
2
5
3
3
2
3
2
3
9
2
2
3
7
3
2
2
2
2
4
3
3
4
3
2
4
3
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
2

29
32
106
20
75
50
148
38
53
447
24
42
59
391
60
41
33
27
34
87
136
82
66
49
18
97
52
11
10
29
10
17
71
17
8
60
98
32
46
63
46

Averag e wages
p erl lour.
1906.

C A R P E N T E R S , M a le .
Albany, N. Y ..........
Atlanta, Ga.............
Augusta, Ga............
Baltimore, Md........
Birmingham, A la ...
Boston, Mass..........
Buffalo, N. Y ..........
Butte, Mont............
Charleston, S. C___
Chicago, 111..............
Cincinnati, Ohio___
Cleveland, Ohio.......
Dallas, Tex..............
Denver, Colo............
Des Moines, Iow a...
Detroit, Mich..........
Dubuque, Iow a.......
Duluth, Minn..........
Fall River, Mass___
Grand Rapids, Mich
Harrisburg, P a.......
Houston, Tex..........
Indianapolis, In d ...
Jacksonville, F la___
Jersey City, N. J ___




2
3

90
81

4
4
6
3
3
3

98
50
156
203
61
75

..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........

4
3
2
2
4
4

215
75
30
32
91
232

..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........

3
3
2
2
2
3
3
2

33
61
42
28
14
94
152
50

.......

2

20

a Greater New York.

135

WAGE9 AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T

able

IV .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
B U IL D IN G TR A D E S—Continued.
C A R P E N T E R S , M a le —Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Kansas City, Mo................................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y....................................................
Lynn, M ass.I.....................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is..................................................
Minneapolis, M in n ....................................................
M obile. A la .................................................................
M ontsrom erv. A la ________ 1____
Nashville, T e n n .........................................................

Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (a ).........................................
Norfolk, Va........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111...........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and A llegheny, P a............................
Portland, Me......................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Richmond, Va...................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, M in n ...........................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a................................. .•..................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Springfield, 111...................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Tampa, F la........................................................
Terre Haute, In d ...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Trenton, N. J .....................................................
Washington, D. C..............................................
W heeling, W. Va................................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a .......................................‘.......
Williamsport, P a...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
2
3
2
4
10
2
2
4
6
3
2
3
2
4
4
2
3
3
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
3
2
3
3
3
2

30
37
51
94
39
76
26
65
145
36
146
36
329
48
70
470
109
27
71
226
93
90
72
60
99
53
32
53
163
32
20
85
57
28
43
27
43
115
84
52
37
100
54
73
45
57
188

Average
hours per
week

Averagi3 wages
p eri lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

63 48.00
43 50.76
135 48.00
87 57.51
32 48.00
46 54.00
21 44.00
46 48.00
192 48.00
43 53.17
188 58.32
33 55.83
308 44.00
39 48.00
99 49.43
484 44.00
135 48.00
27 44.00
68 48.00
201 46.12
171 48.00
81 54.00
54 48.00
52 48.00
76 48.00
87 51.06
34 48.00
51 44.00
190 48.00
29 46.06
16 48.00
157 44.00
82 48.00
28 60.00
40 48.00
17 48.89
70 48.00
94 48.00
89 50.93
54 58.62
37 44.00
159 48.00
47 47.00
81 48.00
49 54.00
72 48.00
265 48.00

48.00
50.93
48.00
57.72
48.00
54.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
53.30
58.60
56.73
44.00
48.00
49.11
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.80
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.66
48.00
44.00
48.00
46.48
48.00
44.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
47.20
48.00
50.83
58.22
44.00
48.00
47.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00

$0.4000
.3273
.4375
.2800
.3750
.2495
.4000
.3198
.3728
.2906
.2445
.2515
.4500
.3750
.3579
.5366
.3570
.4000
.4028
.4000
.4375
.2695
.4167
.3488
.3813
.3025
.3750
.5500
.3732
.4214
.3500
.5044
.3446
.2598
.4000
.3417
.4500
.3750
.3250
.2957
.4100
.5000
.3779
.3106
.2800
.3500
.3135

$0.4000
.3624
.4375
.2790
.4100
.2628
.4000
.3329
.4000
.3242
.2735
.2697
.4756
.4063
.3607
.5730
.4152
.4000
.4500
.4500
.4375
.2984
.4306
.3496
.4197
.3367
.3750
.5500
.3926
.4690
.3750
.6111
.3429
.2607
.4000
.3596
.4536
.3750
.3216
.3162
.4554
.5000
.3790
.3391
.2800
.3757
.3166

48.00
54.83
48.00
46.93
49.66
46.22
53.59
45.66
45.19
47.34
50.92
48.00
44.00
54.00
48.00
49.29
48.00
54.00
53.58

$0.2223
.1230
.3178
.3093
.1968
.5841

$0.2489
.1504
.3174
.3218
.1988
.5868

.0X40
.3553
.2561
.2111
.2589
.3494

.3572
.3643
.2583
.2126
.2604
.3715
.2262
.2411
.3060
.2966
.1881
.2139

1906.

H O D C A R R I E R S , M a le .
Albany, N. Y ..........
Atlanta, Ga.............
Baltimore, Md........
Boston, Mass..........
Buffalo, N.Y...........
Butte, Mont............
Charleston, S. C___
Chicago, 111..............
Cincinnati, Ohio___
Cleveland, Ohio.......
Dallas, Tex..............
Davenport, Io w a ...
Denver, Colo...........
Des Moines, Iow a...
Detroit, Mich..........
Dubuque, Iow a.......
Evansville, Ind.......
Fall River, Mass___
Grand Rapids, Mich




2
2
4
8
5
4
2
6
4
6
2
2
8
2
6
3
2
2
3

53
21
82
163
174
29
26
796
89
139
50
14
50
22
175
12
19
17
39

« Greater New York.

56
36
77
165
159
54
34
1,075
84
163
37
15
14
197
14
17

22
50

48.00
56.14
48.00
46.94
48.00
46.90
54.00
45.64
45.00
47.37
51.60
48.00
44.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
53.38

.2222

.2413
.2583
.2646
.1863
.2010

.1120

136
T able I V .—

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
BIHXDINTG TR A D E S—Continued.
H O D - C A R R I E R S , M a l e — Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Harrisburg, Pa...................................................
Hartford, U onn..................................................
Indianapolis, Ind...............................................
Jacksonville, F la................................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
Kansas City, Mo................................................
Little Rock, Ark............................................ .
Los Angeles, Cal........................................ .......
Louisville, K y ......................I............................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn...........................* .....................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Mobile, A la ........................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y . ( a ) .........................................
Norfolk. Va........................................................
Oakland, CaL....................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, I1L.........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ............................
Portland, Me.....................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Racine, W is..................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah ........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a.....................................................
Seattle, Wash.....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Springfield, 111...................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Tampa, F la........................................................
Terre Haute, In d ..............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Trenton, N. J ....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a..............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ..............................................
Williamsport, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, Del................ ...............................
Worcester, Mass...............................................




3
2
4
3
5
4
3
4
4
2
2
4
4
8
2
2
2
3
2
3
12
5
2
3

4

8
3
2
5
3
2
6
3
9
5
2
6
3
3
3
2
2
3
2
5
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
2

14
27
70
60
99
42
33
39
40
30
24
48
44
162
6
45
49
169
71
37
820
36
12
18
79
114
37
55
33
34
51
137
131
141
44
22
95
61
30
13
14
32
12
30
52
33
33
59
36
43
7
27
8

< Greater New York.
*

27
46
58
60
117
58
33
71
38
24
14
43
45
204
8
65
55
168
57
34
988
53
21
17
73
111
34
53
41
27
41
166
138
116
43
15
195
74
26
13
14
21
6
42
49
51
11
60
43
55
9
33
8

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

50.71
45.78
47.04
48.00
44.00
46.57
48.00
48.00
48.50
48.00
48.00
44.67
48.00
53.22
52.00
60.00
55.22
44.00
48.00
52.86
44.00
48.00
44.00
44.00
48.00
45.96
48.54
48.00
48.18
48.00
48.00
49.14
48.00
44.32
44.82
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
55.38
48.00
51.38
45.33
48.00
48.00
51.27
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
52.29
48.00
49.50

50.37
45.74
47.07
48.00
44.00
45.93
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.84
48.00
52.74
52.50
60.00
55.75
44.00
48.00
52.59
44.00
48.00
44.00
44.00
48.00
46.88
48.65
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
49.01
48.00
44.35
44.93
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
55.38
48.00
51.71
45.33
48.00
48.00
50.76
44.00
47.60
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
49.50

10.2600
.3306
.2848
.1875
.3488
.3000
.2387
.3742
.2609
.3063
.2233
.2833
.2824
.2498
.1921
.1099
.1544
.3200
.2751
.1872
.3609
.2500
.5000
.2889
.2906
.3057
.3049
.2500
.3830
.2206
.2711
.2004
.2389
.4393
.3871
.1989
.4447
.2090
.3521
.2372
.2768
.2125
.3854
.1863
.2954
.2745
.3500
.2813
.2944
.2750
.2589
.3067
.2735

1906.
$0.2922
.3306
.2855
.1875
.3771
.3500
.2405
.3798
.2623
.3032
.2589
.2837
.2783
.2509
.2005
.1262
.1777
.3500
.2826
.1922
.3796
.2818
.5774
.2882
.3035
.3083
.2988
.2500
.3781
.2323
.2848
.2334
.2388
.4395
.3924
.1975
.5269
.2115
.3870
.2500
.2768
.2562
.4063
.2097
.3029
.2629
.4009
.2813
.2942
.2750
.2604
.3371
.2735

137

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR. 1890 TO 1906.
T

able

IV.—
AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
B U IL D IN G TR A D E S—Continued.
L A B O R E R S, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, G a.......................................................
Augusta, Ga......................................................
Baltimore, Md.................................................
Birmingham, A la...........................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, M ont......................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio........................................ .......
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, T ex.......... .............................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Fall River, M ass...............................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
Jacksonville, Fla...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
Kansas City, Mo................................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, M in n ....................................................
Mobile, A la........................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, La...............................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Norfolk, Va........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, I1L.........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
Scranton, P a.....................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Tacoma, Wash...................................................
Terre Haute, In d ...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, Kans....................................................
Trenton, N. J .....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Williamsport, P a ...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




a

2
4
3
7

4
5
2
2
2

3
5
6
2
2

4
4
2
2
2

3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
3
2

4
2
5
4

2
2
3
5
2
2
2
5

2
4

3
2
3
3
2
2
3

4
2

3
5
3
2

31
312
173
342
139
371
150
11
22
280
159
192
17
16
161
179
65
41
33
116
60
100
31
55
19
38
31
45
40
63
39
46
89
55
56
130
50
65
51
485
28
82
82
232
22
94
18
31
19
40
66
12
47
81
28
15
72
41
130

33
279
179
396
163
404
149
33
21
384
213
246
16
22
132
178
66
76
35
99
76
62
43
56
221
42
29
85
40
80
137
53
106
55
54
166
100
51
50
409
25
50
82
351
19
127
22
35
.18
44
45
17
33
76
30
21
101
60
155

Greater New York.

Average
hours per
week.
1905. i 1906.
53.32
58.38
55.36
57.00
56.81
54.46
52.04
48.00
54.00
47.66
56.15
56.69
48.00
51.50
49.86
57.99
59.23
54.00
58.55
59.86
48.00
57.75
56.90
59.45
48.00
59.79
51.48
54.00
55.35
60.00
55.85
54.00
57.24
48.00
49.29
51.52
51.60
47.63
55.29
56.14
52.71
48.00
48.00
59.56
48.00
59.55
46.89
60.00
48.00
52.50
59.64
48.00
57.19
48.00
53.79
52.80
56.58
53.27
54.00

53.67
58.37
55.40
54.26
55.77
53.37
51.79
48.00
53.71
50.54
53.66
57.02
48.00
51.27
50.41
57.17
57.64
54.00
58.63
59.84
48.00
56.58
56.84
59.46
48.00
59.76
51.10
54.00
55.50
60.00
54.00
54.00
57.85
48.00
49.11
49.80
52.50
47.53
55.68
58.08
52.32
48.00
48.00
59.97
48.00
59.67
46.36
60.00
48.00
52.77
59.47
48.00
56.36
48.00
53.80
52.86
52.81
53.60
54.00

Averag b wages
perr tour.
1905.
10.1631
.1186
.1011
.1749
.1324
.1799
.1802
.3750
.1162
.2761
.1895
.1935
.2188
.2370
.2327
.1794
.2069
.1741
.1848
.1750
.1588
.1867
.1863
.1742
.2500
.1472
.2566
.1667
.1731
.1872
.1923
.1627
.1226
.2768
.2089
.2017
.1628
.2500
.1750
.1642
.2852
.1965
.2305
.2020
.1875
.1517
.2726
.1847
.2977
.1771
.1860
.2094
.1578
.2018
.1891
.1720
.1615
.1649
.1944

1906.
10.1887
.1281
.1059
.1790
.1439
.1886
.1972
.3750
.1316
.2977
.2019
.1972
.2227
.2426
.2277
.1824
.2129
.1769
.1846
.1755
.1563
.2103
.2057
.1743
.2783
.1491
.2669
.1667
:1750
.2013
.2224
.1633
.1371
.2805
.2083
.2040
.1747
.2500
.1910
.1790
.2700
.2133
.2305
.2183
.1875
.1523
.3125
.2257
.3125
.1811
.2039
.2188
.1601
.2087
.1901
.1715
.1895
.1665
.1944

138
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

I V ,— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
B U IL D IN G TR A D E S—Continued.
P A IN T E R S, M ale,
Num­
ber of
estab-

Locality.

USD-

Number of
employees.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per nour.

ments.
Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga.............. ........................................
Augusta, Ga......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala...............................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
Chicago, 111.........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio.................................................
Cleveland, Ohio..................................................
Dallas, Tex.........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa.......:......................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a..................................................
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
Fall River, Mass................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Indianapolis, Ind...............................................
Jacksonville, F la................................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
Kansas City, Mo................................................
Little Rock, Ark................................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisvule, K y ....................................................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (a ) .........................................
Norfolk, Va........................................................
Oakland, Cal......................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111...........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Portland, Me.....................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Reading, P a .......................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a......................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................
Tacoma, W ash...................................................
Terre Haute, In d ...............................................
Toledo, Ohio.......................................................
Topeka, Kans....................................................
Trenton, N. J .....................................................
Washington, D. C..............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

2
2
3
3
2
8
4
2
4
4
4
4
2
3
2
4
2
2
2
2
4
6
3
2
2
4
3
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
3
2
4
7
3
2
2
2

53
20
34
121
28
194
152
22
36
226
83
108
31
23
69
117
32
40
27
23
98
84
66
36
20
54
72
34
38
15
103
116
20
41
85
45
95
200
21
58
22
36
294
38
44
42
82
20
18
34
45
76
44
21
30
95
14
28
19
21
25
62
22
22
40
67
54
37
64
68

58
22
38
114
32
156
160
28
37
243
87
100
31
24
75
173
35
40
28
21
90
76
62
32
20
59
67
32
44
16
106
120
23
37
82
39
99
220
17
49
27
35
280
44
46
38
93
• 12
23
33
55
94
48
27
30
118
14
42
22
21
23
58
27
27
38
82
55
61
74
69

48.00
54.75
57.82
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
5 400
48.00
54.00
4& 00
48.00
48.00
5 400
5400
48.00
4a 00
48.00
44.14
51.43
45.24
47.64

48.00
5 459
57.68
48.00
4a 00
4a 00
48.00
48.00
5400
4400
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
4a 00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
5 400
48.00
48.00
4400
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
4a 00
5400
54 0 0
4400
4a 00

4a 00

48.00
48.00
5 400
48.00
45.12
48.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
4400
48.00
44.00
48.00
4400
48.00
44.00
58.36
48.00

10.3094
.2489
.2128
.3750
.3563
.3515
.3750
.5625
.1977
.4500
.3750
.3836
.3500
.4374
.3750
.3323
.3414
.3750
.3044
.2464
.3500
.3181
.4100
.3861
.3125
.4103
.3034
.3500
.2266
.3833
.2985
.3765
.2615
.2500
.3790
.3340
.3125
.4591
.3087
.4375
.3955
.3533
.3750
.4250
.2475
.3747
.3336
.3125
.2500
.2574
.3292
.4566
.3636
.4375
.3260
.4375
.3304
.4420
.3151
.3765
.4400
.3102
.3040
.3295
.3781
.4347
.4000
.3039
.3531
.3100

5

2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
4
2
4
2
2
2
6
2
2
2
3
2
3
3
2

a Greater New York.

4a 00

4a oo

54 0 0

4a oo

46.39

4a oo

5400
5 400

4a oo

44.00
48.00

4a oo

48.00
47.75
48.00
48.00
58.53
4a 00
48.00
53.03
48.00

4a oo

44.10

4a oo

44.00
4400

4a oo

4a 00

4 a 00

52.76
48.00
48.00
4400

4a 00
4a oo

48.00
48.00
48.00

44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

4a 00
4a oo

1906.
10.3319
.2745
.2108
.3750
.3563
.3750
.3750
.5625
.2073
.5058
.3753
.3845
.3750
.4505
.3750
.3417
.3500
.3800
.3025
.2632
.3608
.3129
.4375
.4000
.3125
.4121
.3496
.3800
.2279
.3859
.3165
.4017
.2778
.2849
.4137
.3670
.3750
.4695
.3632
.5625
.4184
.3530
.3750
.4255
.2550
.3800
.3423
.3504
.2506
.2640
.3279
.5005
.3698
.5000
.3313
.5667
.3304
.5000
.3235
.3765
.4416
.3121
.3449
.3407
.3783
.4375
.4000
.3072
.3530
.3263

189

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

T able IV .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
B U IL D IN G T R A D E S—Continued.
P U S X E B E B S , M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Augusta, Ga......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
BostonT Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
Chicago, 111.........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a..................................................
Fall River, Mass................................................
Grand Rapids, Mfah..........................................
Indianapolis, In d..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Term..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, M inn .............................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
New Orleans, L a................................................
New York, N. Y. ( « ) .........................................
Norfolk, V a........................................................
Omaha, N ebr....................................................
Peoria, 111...........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Portland, Me......................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ! ..............................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, M inn ...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a........... ..........................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Fails, S. D ak...........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, Wash..................................................
Terre Haute, In d ...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, K ans....................................................
Trenton, N. J ....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ...............................................
Wilmington. Dei................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




2
2
2
3
4
2
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2

2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2

2.
2

2
2
2
2
2
2

6
3

2
2
4

3

2
2

3

2
2
2

2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2

3

2
2

3
3
2
2
2
2

9

31
10
91
14
94
20
11
12
124
57
33
13
20

22

41
15

6

8
30

22

21
20
14
16
18

10

8
18
21
61
26
21
18
293
16
12
32
150
46
25
13
14
36
46
14
11
11
26
25
35
12
8
15

22

30
9
20
78
12
26
23
19

®Greater New York.

9
25
11
99
16
89
21
28
16
155
73
43
13
23

22

37
16
4
12
27
19
35
30
20
37
19
8
8
17
24

61

26
23
17
332
30
11
30
83
49
23
20
6
37
34
15
15
13
40
34
37
13

7

19
21
29
10
21

77

14
35
30
21

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

48.00
54.00
56.50
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.73
5400
4400
4451
4400
48.00
44.00
48.00
46.54
48.00
48.00
48.00
46.27
4a 00
4400
45.00
4 a 00
4a oo
4400
4a oo
51.75
45.78
4 a 00
49.57
5400
56.86
48.00
4 4 00
48.00
4400
4a 00
4400
4a 00
48.00
4a oo
4429
5 4 00
4400
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
4a 00
44.00
56.00
48.00
4a 00
50.18
48.00
4a 00
4400
4a oo
47.42
4a oo
4a oo
4 a oo

48.00
5400
56.73
48.00
4 a 00
4400
4 a oo
4429

10.5000
.4000
.3228
.6030
.4786
.5019
.5000
.8750
.3685
.5847
.6250
.5625
.6250
.6250
.5000
.5092
.5000
.4500
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5670
.6250
.6036
.6250
.6000
.5000
.3698
.6250
.4500
.5441
.4216
.3000
.4500
.6875
.5625
.5500
.5625
.5625
.5560
.4375
.6250
.5149
.2921
.7500
.5518
.6250
.6250
.7500
.4240
.6875
.3917
.5000
.6250
.4818
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5625
.4429
.4255
.4500
.5000

53.75

4400
4451
4400
4 a 00
4400
4 a 00
45.62
4a 00
48.00
4a oo
46.33
4a oo
4400
4400
4 a oo
48.00
4400
4a oo
48.00
45.88
4 a 00
49.38
5400
57.13
4a 00
4 4 00
48.00
4400
4 a 00
4 4 00
48.00
4a 00
4 a oo
4 4 67
5 4 00
4400
4 a 00
4 a oo
4a oo
4 4 00
4a oo
4400
56.31
4 a oo
48.00
50.00
48.00
4a oo
4400
48.00
47.36
48.00
48.00
48.00

1906.
$0.5000
.4400
.3727
.6250
.5273
.5499
.5000
.8750
.3860
.6876
.6255
.5628
.7500
.6655
.5620
.5550
.5005
.5000
.5000
.5241
.5000
.5938
.6875
.6250
.6537
.6250
.5500
.3889
.6250
.5000
.5500
.4500
.3283
.4735
.6875
.6250
.6250
.5625
.5625
.5625
.4375
.6875
.5000
.3093
.7500
.5525
.6250
.7500
.8750
.4353
.7382
.4269
.5500
.6875
.5333
.5000
.5313
.5810
.6250
.5068
.4484
.5000
.5167

140
T

able

BULLETIN OP THE BUBEAU OF LABOK.
IV.—
AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
B U IL D IN G TR A D E S—Concluded.
P L U M B E R S, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y ........................ ............................
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
BostonT Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C........................................................
Chicago, 111.................................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex............ ...........................................
Davenport, Iowa...............................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit, “
Mirth.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a..................................................
Dulutfi, M in n .............................................................
Fall River, Mass................................................
Grand Rapids, M ihh................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
Kansas City, M o ..............................................
Little Rock,Ark.............. ................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisvme, K y ....................................................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Manchester, N. H ....................................... . . . .
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, M in n .............................................
Mobile, Ala........................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Norfolk, V a........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111...........................................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny*, P a............................
Portland, Me.....................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Reading, P a .......................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
St. Louis. Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, M in n ...........................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a ......................................................
Seattle, W ash............................._......................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Springfield, 111........................................................
Syracuse, N . Y .......................................................
Tacoma, Wash...................................................
Tampa, F la........................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, K ans....................................................
Trenton, N. J .....................................................
Troy, N . Y ..............................................................
Washington, D. C..............................................
Wheeling, w . V a ................................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




2
3
3
2
5
2
2

3

4
5

3
3
3
2

2

4

2
3

2
2
3

2
4
3

2
2

3
4

2

2

4
3

2
2

3
2
2

6

12
3
2
2

6

4
2
2
3

2
2
4

2
3
2
2
2
5
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2

15
19
70
24
31
10
11
12
141
40
54
21

16

16

' 16

29
10
19
13
20
17
9
15
24
13
22
17
14
10

18
42
28
15
17
15
17
g
58
312
22

14
10
84
18
7

10
34
7

20
15
23
27
12
10
9

64
12
23
11

7
17
10
13
12
22

13
15
9
38
24
12
20
17

o Greater New York.

15

Average
hours per
week.
1905.

1906.

44.00
53.11
“8.00
4
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
54.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
46.00
54.00
48.00
47.00
4a 00
44.00

44.00
53.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
54.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
45.00
54.00
48.00
47.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
46.67
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.36
48.00

Averag b wages
p erl tour.
1905.

$0.4375
.3924
.4103
.5625
.4563
.4375
.8125
id
.3333
173
.5625
38
.5000
51
.5000
22
.5417
16
.4258
16
.5450
18
.4375
21
.4537
10
.4375
24
.5553
14
.3611
10
.4300
17
.4750
10
.5000
18
.4833
25 4a oo
.5625
H 4 a oo
.5048
21 48.00
.5625
18 48.00
.4375
14 48.00
.4375
9 48.00
.3131
.4549
19 48.00
44 45. 33
.4896
27 4a 00
.4665
O
12 4a O 4a 00
.5000
15 48.00 4 a 00
.5000
.4045
20 50.07 47.60
13 48.00 48.00
.5000
7 48.00 48.00
.3828
62 48.00 4a 00
.5000
399 44.04 44.03
.5931
46 48.00 4a 00
.4546
14 48.00 48.00
.5000
10 48.00 48.00
.4813
77 47.71 47.74
.4375
20 48.00 4a 00*
.5000
5 54.00 50,40
.3016
16 48.00 48.00
.5625
32 44.00 4400
.4398
8 44.00 4400
.4375
23 54.00 54.00
.2964
21 4 a 00 48.00
.3604
28 4 a oo 48.00
.3805
30 44 00 4400
.6250
13 4a oo 48.00
.5208
12 44.00 44.00
.5753
9 48.00 48.00
.4306
141 47.52 44 00
.6316
12 48.00 4a 00
.4037
33 44.00 44.00
.6250
13 50.73 59.62
.3377
7 4 a 00 4a 00
.4688
13 48.00 4a oo
.4375
15 44.00 44.00
.5625
15 4a 00 48.00
.5625
12 54.00 5 400
.4000
17 44.00 4400
.4688
10 5L69 52.2Q
.3727
15 44.00 44 00
.4097
11 4 a 00 48.00
.3750
27 4a oo 4a 00
.5000
26 48.00 4a oo
.4688
17 48.00 4a oo
.3308
18 4a oo 48.00
.3714
17 4a oo 48.00
.4688
14

50
22
37
11
19

1906.
$0.5000
.4188
.4094
.5625
.4761
.4375
.8750
.3861
.5625
.5000
.5625
.6051
.4258
.6250
.4827
.4464
.5000
.5563
.3611
.4290
.4750
.5000
.5000
.5625
.5256
.6250
.4375
.4599
.3313
.4539
.4901
.4653
.5000
.5000
.4605
.5000
.4375
.5000
.5936
.6114
.5625
.4813
.4375
.5000
.3208
.6250
.4412
.5000
.3012
.3988
.4041
.6250
.5529
.5487
.5104
.8005
.4037
.6875
.3327
.5000
.4375
.6250
.5625
.4000
.4890
.3644
.4324
.3750
.5000
.4688
.3383
.3791
.4688

141

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.' 1890 TO 1906.
*
Table

IV.—
AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
C LO TH IN G , F A C T O R Y PRODUCT.
CUTTERS^ H AND, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, III.................................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Minneapolis, M in n ....................................................
New York, N. Y .(«)..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................

2
2
3
2
2
2
4
2
2

83
22
33
76
33
11
169
117
109

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

53.57
52.50
51.00
48.00
48.00
57.09
50.34
5400
54.00

53.62
49.67
51.00
48.00
48.00
57.00
50.41
54.00
54.00

10.3026
.3025
.3910
.4509
.3864
.3162
.3998
.3454
.3250

$0.2974
.3461
.3913
.4460
.3885
.3059
.4012
.3541
.3220

34
4
159
3
9

53.92
51.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

53.88
51.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

$0.3579
.3987
.4344
.4167
.4922

$0.3738
.4069
.4403
. .4167
.4861

271
27
121
126
12
148
52

57.74
54.00
54.00
54.00
57.30
56.92
54.00

58.02
54.00
54.00
54.00
57.17
56.70
54.00

$0.1002
.1134
.1546
- .1026
.1149
.0977
.1526

$0.1100
.1119
.1592
.1148
.1215
.1028
.1544

$0.2339
.2648
.2519
.2897
.2012
.2047
.2269

$0.2564
.2784
.2917
.3150
.2082
.2141
.2289

$0.1136
.1716
.1019
.1923
.1482
.1470
.1210
.1193
.1604

$0.1235
.1871
.1228
.2088
.1548
.1497
.1248
.1198
.1487

94
27
42
100
40
14
179
106
113

1906.

CUTTERS) MACHINE:, M ale.
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
New York, N. Y .(» )..........................................

2
3
3
2
3

48
3
159
2
8

F IN IS H E R S , F em a le .
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111..................................................... +
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
New York, N. Y.(<*)..........................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................

3
2
2
2
2
4
2

218
20
106
115
10
133
76

SEWING-MACHINE O PERA TO R S, M ale.
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
New York, N. Y .(« ).........................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................

3
2
2
3
5
2
2

138
36
5
47
279
214
26

122
50
15
44
289
228
27

58.76
50.58
54.00
54.00
56.48
54.00
54.00

58.87
49.14
54.00
54.02
56.85
54.00
54.00

SE! WING-MACHINE! O PERA TO R S, F e m a le
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Minneapolis, Mirm.............................................
New York, N. Y.(<*)..........................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
a

8891—No. 71—07--- 10




2
2
3
4
2
2
2
2
2

75
58
33
138
44
200
50
235
103

Greater New York.

95 59.25
69 55.10
28 53.55
150 54.14
62 54.00
239 57.00
54 53.38
406 54.00
103 54.00

58.99
52.57
53.14
54.15
54.00
56.97
53.13
54.00
54.00

142

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e IV.—
AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SHOP.
BLACKSM ITHS, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Atlanta, Ga........................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C....... *........................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio...............................................•.
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, T e x ........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a..................................................
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
Evansville, Ind..................................................
Fort Wayne, Ind...............................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, Wis.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Mobile, Ala........................................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Norfolk, Va........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Portland, Me......................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Richmond, V a....................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah.........................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a ......................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Troy, N. Y .........................................................
Washington, D. C..............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a...............................................
Williamsport, P a ...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

3
3
5

2
2
2
5

4
3
2
2
2
3
3
2
4
3
2
3
2
2
4
3
5

2
2
2
4
8 *
2
2
6
5

2

2
6
3
2
4
4
2
4
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2

3
18
9
6
3
4
26
5
25
4
11
5
14
3
13
26
21
5
18
9
7
9
6
34
11
6
2
13
29
3
3
16
63
24
4
18
12
2
10
11
4
16
9
9
5
6
3
6
16
4
6
4

3
15
10
6
5
4
27
5
38
5
16
5
16
3
15
29
23
8
18
9
10
9
5
44
13
6
2
12
30
3
4
22
67
25
4
20
15
2
11
14
10
21
11
9
5
6
3
6
20
5
7
5

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

59.67
54.00
55.11
58.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.80
55.24
54.00
56.09
54.00
59.29
59.67
55.92
59.77
59.76
59.00
51.83
53.00
56.57
59.67
56.00
55.15
55.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.72
54.00
60.00
56.19
57.81
59.00
54.00
57.28
58.25
54.00
54.00
59.09
54.00
54.00
55.00
54.00
54.00
59.00
59.33
51.33
60.00
56.00
54.00
57.50

59.67 $0.3184
$0.3436
54.00
.2690
.2722
55.00
.2821
.2724
58.00
.2745
.2795
48.00
.5000
.5625
54.00
.3264
.3333
54.00
.3422
.3547
54.80
.2895
.3093
55.18
.3116
.3252
54.00
.3194
.3333
55.44
.3286
.3263
54.00
.3667
.3722
59.25
.2382
.2469
59.67
.2528
.2611
56.33
.3491
.3574
59.79
.2837
.2940
59.52
.2612
.2661
59.00
.2635
.2460
.2614
51.83
.2608
53.00
.4025
.4270
.3714
58.50
.3448
59.67
.2667
.2750
56.40
.3322
.3715
55.09
.3109
.3041
55.00
.2804
.2869
54.00
.3704
.3889
54.00
.3195
.3472
54.00
.3575
.3595
53.73
.3942
.4097
54.00
.3148
.3241
57.00
.3067
.3238
56.23
.3235
.3000
60.81
.2768
.2898
59.00
.2499
.2531
54.00
.3958
.4190
57.60
.2957
.2923
.2611
57.73
.2670
54.00
.3195
.3195
54.00
.3273 * .3444
59.14
.2784
.2796
53.20
.3820
.3250
54.00
.4035
.4423
55.00
.2717
.2623
54.00
.3672
.3623
54.00
.2795
.3000
58.16
.2968
.3075
59.33
.2768
.2768
51.33
.3221
.3033
54.00
.2878
.3192
59.80
.2631
.2585
54.00
.2517
.2639
57.60
.3300
.3120

54.00
54.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
55.80
54.00
55.38
59.00
50.12
53.00
54.00
59.97
54.00
54.00

54.00 $0.2783
54.00
.3019
59.00
.2676
54.00
.3069
54.0Q
.3588
57.00
.3055
54.00
.3956
55.33
.2560
59.00
.2542
50.13
.2676
.3244
53.00
.3571
54.00
59.98
.2493
54.00
.3596
54.00
.3929

1905.

1906.

B O IL E R M A K E R S, M ale.
Baltimore, Md.........
Boston, Mass..........
Bridgeport, Conn...
Charleston, S. C___
Chicago, 111..............
Denver, Colo...........
Duluth, Minn..........
Fort Wayne, I n d ...
Grand Rapids, Mich
Indianapolis, Ind. . .
Jersey City, N. J ___
Los Angeles, Cal___
Louisville, K y.........
Mobile, Ala..............
New Orleans, L a_
_




2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2

25
32
19
6
37
10
25
21
11
33
38
7
37
18
14

« Greater New York.

24
47
22
6
44
18
31
27
9
30
31
8
43
12
13

$0.2909
.3002
.2635
.3333
.3649
.3203
.4036
.2541
.2542
.2775
.3441
.3688
.2591
.3843
.3932

143

WAGES AND HOTTRS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,
T able

IV .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H I N E S H O P —Continued.
B O IL E R M A K E R S, M ale—
Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

New York, N. Y .(o )......................;...................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ............................
Richmond, V a ...................................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a ......................................................

5
3
3
2
2
3
2

Average
hours per
week.

Averag*b wages
p erl lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

53.31
56.20
57.82
57.67
54.00
54.00
55.00

53.36
56.17
57.75
5o.83
54.00
54.00
55.00

$0.3423
.2580
.3244
.2311
.3195
.3887
.2689

$0.3463
.2654
.3339
.2445
.3333
.4331
.2695

54.00
58.00
5a 43
55.97
55.00

54.00
58.01
53.55
55.83
55.00

$0.2993
.2317
.2727
.2808
.2343

$0.3012
.2346
.2751
.2960
.2355

80 59.81
94
332
327 54.00
60 59.75
44
102
121 54.53
80
78 60.00
12
11 54.00
945 1,147 54.15
61
71 56.39
289
237 54.68
58
60 55.95
22 54.00
16
200
439 59.49
34
35 59.74
74
89 55.96
28
28 58.64
62
75 58.29
485
552 59.98
76
80 57.68
29
40 56.07
302
316 54.56
19
20 60.00
9 60.00
11
41 60.00
39
24
44 59.00
73 59.70
66
114
144 57.04
601 55.48
666
244
360 55.00
52
48 54.00
42
49 60.00
22
16 59.18
136 54.00
129
151
150 54.00
108
116 54.04
9 54.00
9
92
167 60.00
502
489 56.74
570 57.78
403
15 59.00
11
28
57 54.00
440
510 58.57
110 58.66
107
128
133 54.52
132
132 54.00
101
102 i 59.11
22
50 54.00
21
27 54.00
88 54 00
99
184
177 57.20
69
83 54.00

59.78
54.00
59.80
54.55
60.00
48.00
54.19
55.48
55.33
56.50
54.00
59.28
59.77
56.19
58.43
58.27
59.79
57.50
55.80
54.81
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.55
59.70
56.43
55.63
55.00
54.00
60.00
58.88
54.00
54.00
54.03
54.00
59.96
56.86
57.55
59.00
54.00
58.88
58.43
54.46
54.00
59.21
53.34
54.00
54.00
57.37
54.00

$0.1135
.1566
.1134
.1738
.1490
.3333
.1793
.1552
.1692
.1817
.2111
.1541
.1777
.2092
.1591
.1296
.1544
.1721
.1833
.1560
.1193
.1750
.1564
.2031
.1392
.1530
.1622
.1761
.1482
.1121
.1205
.1831
.1729
.1915
.1533
.1655
.1518
.1578
.1582
.2351
.1595
.1170
.1872
.1957
.1774
.2285
.1517
.2295
.1407
.2309

$0.1384
.1569
.1331
.1798
.1510
.3750
.1947
.1622
.1705
.1886
.2136
.1588
.1805
.2140
.1614
.1302
.1641
.1737
.1842
.1560
.1350
.1750
.1567
.2136
.1425
.1532
.1634
.1859
.1615
.1192
.1313
.1802
.1828
.1946
.1523
.1779
.1495
.1623
.1638
.2432
.1678
.1243
.1884
.1929
.1878
.2550
.1511
.2588
.1469
.2359

67
51
88
3
2
73
37

67
24
96
6
2
67
40

1906.

B RA SS F IN IS H E R S , M ale.
Chicago, 111.........................................................
Milwaukee, W is..................................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............1...............................
Providence, R. I ................................................

2
3
4
2
2

74
83
137
29
40

91
86
175
30
45

LA B O R E R S, M ale.
Atlanta, Ga............................
Baltimore, Md.......................
Birmingham, A la..................
Boston, Mass.........................
Buffalo, N. Y .........................
Butte, Mont..........................
Chicago, 111............................
Cincinnati, Ohio....................
Cleveland, Ohio.....................
Denver, Colo..........................
Des Moines, Iowa..................
Detroit, Mich.........................
Dubuque, Iow a.....................
Duluth, Minn........................
Evansville, In d .....................
Fall River, Mass....................
Fort Wayne, In d ..................
Grand Rapids, Mich.............
Hoboken, N. J .......................
Indianapolis, Ind..................
Jacksonville, Fla....................
Kansas City, Mo...................
Little Rock, Ark...................
Los Angeles, Cal....................
Louisville, K y .......................
Memphis, Tenn.....................
Milwaukee, W is.....................
Minneapolis, M in n ...................
Mobile, Ala............................
Montgomery, Ala..................
Nashville, Tenn.....................
Newark, N. J .........................
New Orleans, L a...................
New York, N. Y .(« ).............
Norfolk, Va........................
Omaha, Nebr.........................
Philadelphia, P a...................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa.
Portland, Me.........................
Portland, Oreg......................
Providence, R. I ....................
Richmond, V a .......... :...........
Rochester, N. Y ....................
St. Louis, Mo.........................
St. Paul, M in n ..........................
Salt Lake City, U tah ............
San Antonio, Tex..................
San Francisco, Cal................
Scranton, P a.........................
Seattle, W ash........................




3
3
2
7
2
2
5
3
4
2
2
3
2
2
4
2
3
4
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
6
2
2
3
2
2
4
8
2
2
7
5
2
2
6
3
5
2
3
2
2
4
2
2
a

Greater New York.

144
T

able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SHOP—Continued.

I V .—

L A B O R E R S , M a le —Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber ol employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio.....................................................
Troy, N. Y..........................................................
Washington, D. C..............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a...............................................
Williamsport, P a ...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

2
2
2
5
3
2
2
2
2

60
29
18
58
42
180
77
145
102

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

84 59.42
29 58.55
19 60.00
57 58.05
45 51.33
124 60.00
84 55.78
197 54.00
144 58.27

59.37
54.00
60.00
57.68
51.71
54.00
59.82
54.00
58.33

$0.1513
.1517
.1661
.1739
.1710
.1428
.1515
.1352
.1539

$0.1677
.1561
.1768
.1854
.1758
.1597
,1591
.1391
.1544

34
75
32
72
43
18
15
220
267
264
19
67
29
80
23
39
37
45
35
1.50
242
15
34
16
68
37
24
760
85
34
11
13
57
76
36*0
19
13
483
415
55
44
665
47
262
239
41
18
14
163
100
83
15
25
58
33
36
89
50
93
236

59.62
53.12
59.88
54.00
55.81
48.00
54.00
54.00
55.40
54.78
54.00
56.28
54.00
59.13
59.30
57.46
57.95
55.33
59.00
53.07
52.56
60.00
53.00
60.00
57.16
59.57
53.92
55.13
55.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.04
54.00
54.00
55.91
58.25
59.00
54.00
58.63
56.68
54.00
54.00
59.05
53.39
54.00
54.00
55.00
54.00
54.00
56.60
54.00
59.42
49.61
54.00
59.04
54.00
57.20

10.2972
.2798
.2970
.2880
.2739
.5000
.3062
.3274
.2459
.2529
.3284
.3197
.3098
.2698
.2373
.3265
. .2426
.2679
.2518
.3193
.2924
.3000
.3310
.3458
.3388
.2496
.3203
.2831
.2843
.3246
.2972
.3083
.3028
.3452
.3113
.2807
.3323
.2773
.2879
.2509
.3794
.2578
.2598
.2794
.3065
.2790
.3879
.3261
.3656
.2674
.3472
.2830
.2802
.2993
.2662
.3393
.2823
.2445
.2559
.2553

10.3020
.2878
.3064
.2987
.2777
.5625
.3034
.3300
.2553
.2614
.3304
.3175
.3138
.2763
.2533
.3387
.2578
.2827
..2522
.3234
.2955
.3150
.3511
.3458
.3382
.2611
.3139
.2885
.2918
.3423
.3023
.3336
.3164
.3479
.3208
.2807
.3469
.2834
.3160
.2676
.3902
.2563
.2647
.2864
.3032
.2898
.4080
.3424
.3955
.2731
.3642
.2915
.3023
.2935
.2682
.3345
.3121
.2507
.2848
.2656

1906.

MACHINISTS, M ale.
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
BostonT Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, M ont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, T ex........................................................
Denver, Colo_ :...............................................
_
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a..................................................
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
Evansville, In d ..................................................
Fort Wayne, Ind...............................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Hoboken, N. J ...................................................
Indianapolis, In d..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Mobile, A la........................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (« )..........................................
Norfolk, Va........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Portland, Me.....................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a ......................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Trenton, N. J .....................................................
Troy, N. Y .........................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ...............................................
Williamsport, P a ...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




3
4
2
5
2
2
2
4
5
4
2
2
2
3
3
2
4
3
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
6
2
2
2
2
2
4
10
2
2
6
5
2
2
5
3
3
5
3
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2

29
79
28
64
40
16
12
170
236
277
17
48
26
25
19
39
34
45
30
91
241
11
36
16
49
28
32
631
58
35
9
13
63
96
407
19
11
375
429
51
35
499
40
198
203
38
29
13
160
119
37
14
27
93
30
30
77
49
64
205

a Greater New York.

59.66
53.52
59.86
54.00
56.40
54.00
54.00
54.00
55.41
54.52
54.00
56.06
54.00
59.12
59.37
57.46
57.94
55.29
59.00
53.12
52.28
60.00
53.00
60.00
56.08
59.61
53.91
55.37
55.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
56.50
54.00
60.00
55.87
58.59
59.00
54.00
58.65
57.25
54.00
54.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
55.00
54.00
54.00
57.56
54.00
59.47
48.87
60.00
58.84
-54.00
57.21

145

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e IV.—
AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SHOP—Continued.
M OLDERS, IRON, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, AlaT.............................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y . . . ; ..............................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Evansville, Ind..................................................
Fall River, Mass................................................
Fort Wayne, Ind...............................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Hoboken, N. J ..................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F l a . ..........................................
Los Angeles, Cal............................. ...................
Louisville, K y....................................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, Wis.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Mobile, Ala........................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Norfolk, Va........................................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Richmond, Va...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a......................................................
Seattle, Wash....................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Wilkes-Barre, Pa...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Macs................................................




3
2
2
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
3
4
2
7
4
2
3
2
4
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

18
60
15
123
20
14
10
148
22
78
19
47
63
31
16
22
60
109
33
36
83
9
27
18
29
305
24
8
10
117
50
39
118
11
241
165
13
157
29
89
102
39
25
5
44
72
27
64
12
17
42
58
48

a Greater New York.

29
54
18
127
28
15
11
222
24
104
17
56
79
28
17
26
76
119
46
32
81
9
45
25
32
149
36
7
13
146
68
29
125
10
236
189
28
151
40
115
116
31
17
7
93
56
52
86
14
14
54
75
68

Average
hours per
week.
1905.

1906.

59.67
54.00
59.47
54.00
60.00
53.79
54.00
54.00
60.00
54.14
54.00
53.38
59.63
54.00
59.63
57.91
57.37
60.00
54.00
54.00
53.57
60.00
57.11
59.83
53.90
55.52
54.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
56.52
54.00
54.00
54.00
55.48
55.64
54.00
58.75
58.72
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
58.06
54.00
54.00
54.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
60.00

59.79
54.00
59.56
54.00
60.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
57.00
58.85
54.00
54.00
59.58
54.00
59.53
58.23
58.66
60.00
54.00
54.00
53.65
60.00
57.67
59.76
53.91
56.71
54.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
57.09
54.00
54.00
54.00
56.27
55.59
54.00
59.34
57.58
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.65
54.00
54.00
58.13
54.00
54.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
60.00

Averag e wages
perl lour.
1905.

1906.

10.3003
30.2959
.3161
.3162
.3083
.3103
.3068
.3241
.3068
.2936
.5000
.5625
.2746
.2828
.3246
.3373
.3145
.3353
.2402
.2629
.3222
.3562
.3912
.4187
.3045
.3036
.3456
.3446
.2448
.2683
.2683
.2707
.2580
.2614
.2508
.2623
.3098
.3096
.3366
.3427
.2841
.2909
.2639
.2778
.3571
.3537
.2733
.2820
.3276
.3333
.3241
.3321
.3128
.3372
.2951
.3254
.3000
.2942
.3348
.3302
.2828
.2779
.3333
.3333
.3349
.3481
.2803
.2834
.3341
.3399
.3302
.3442
.3910
.4058
.3283
.3380
.2474
.2527
.3180
.3284
.3416
.3421
.3240
.3726
.3889 . .4114
.3166
.3294
.3838
.4441
.2864
.2947
.3986
.4227
.3132
.3433
.2924
.3161
.2750
.3000
.2889
.3190
.2761
.3229
.3064
.2940

146

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e IV.—
AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SHOP—Concluded.
P A T T E R N M A K ERS, WOOD, M ale.
Average
Num­ Number of
hours per
ber of employees.
week.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906. _1905. 1906.

Locality

Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala...............................................
BostonT Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a..................................................
Dulutfi, M in n .............................................................
Evansville, Ind..................................................
Fall River, Mass................................................
Fort Wayne, In d ..............................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
Little Rock, Ark................................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y....................................................
Memphis, Tenn_ . ........ .....................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, M in n ....................................................
Mobile, A la........................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
Nashville, Term.................................................
Newark N. J .....................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y .(o )...........................................
Norfolk, V a........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Portland, Me......................................................
Portland, Oreg.............. >..................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, M inn.:................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a ......................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Wilkes-Barre, Pa...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




3
3
2
4
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
5

2
2
2
2
3
4
6
2
7
4
2
2
4
2
4
3
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

8
26
9
11
6
4
4
65
16
21
5
10
5
10
5
5
2
5
15
6
19
3
7
18
7
7
141
9
6
2
2
11
18
64
2
63
56
7
5
42
7
10
19
10
8
4
23
19
3
5
3
3
12
5
11

« Greater New York.

9 59.63
20 53.69
9 59.67
11 54.00
5 56.00
4 54.00
3 54.00
77 54.00
13 55.00
25 54.48
4 54.00
10 57.20
6 54.00
8 59.30
6 59.60
6 57.00
2 57.00
7 58.40
18 57.53
6 58.17
19 54.95
6 53.00
7 60.00
15 56.50
9 59.57
7 53.86
161 55.12
13 55.00
6 54.00
2 60.00
2 54.00
13 54.00
14 54.00
71 54.02
3 54.00
62 56.32
64 55.93
7 59.00
6 54.00
43 57.64
11 57.29
10 54.00
12 54.00
6 59.00
8 54.00
4 54.00
28 54.00
20 55.00
3 54.00
7 56.00
3 54.00
3 58.00
13 60.00
8 54.00
10 57.45

59.67
53.60
59.67
54.00
55.20
48.00
54.00
54.00
55.00
54.56
54.00
56.30
54.00
59.38
59.67
57.33
57.00
54.00
57.22
58.17
55.47
53.00
60.00
58.00
59.67
53.86
55.11
55.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.01
54.00
56.35
55.78
59.00
54.00
57.40
56.91
54.00
54.00
59.17
53.50
54.00
54.00
55.00
54.00
56.86
54.00
58.00
54.00
54.00
57.60

Averagib wages
p e r l Lour.
1905.
$0.3019
.3204
.3083
.3396
.3550
.5000
.3125
.3778
.3252
.3098
.3444
.3475
.3266
.2815
.2767
.3344
.2500
.2684
.2627
.2628
.3226
.3679
.3393
.3591
.2921
.3452
.3203
.3208
.3472
.3500
.2875
.4041
.3395
.4051
.3195
.3116
.3300
.2986
.4167
.2965
.2995
.3329
.3569
.3184
.3785
.3472
.4215
.3018
.4287
.2771
.2861
.3028
.2904
.2912
.2841

1906.
$0.3073
.3193
.3111
.3455
.3660
.5625
.3333
.4035
.3185
.3216
.3472
.3650
.3389
.2975
.2972
.3446
.2875
.2925
.2694
.2628
.3200
.4292
.3429
.3617
.2978
.3754
.3362
.3190
.3537
.3500
.3217
.4124
.3333
.4100
.3334
.3216
.3632
.3279
.4074
.3258
.3164
.3416
.4046
.3410
.4229
.3545
.5288
.3135
.4737
.3357
.3028
.3011
.3363
.3293
.3070

147

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e IV.—
AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
F U R N IT U R E .
CABINETM AKERS, M ale,
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Evansville, Ind..................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
High Point, N. C...............................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
New York, N. Y.(«)...........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................

2
6
6
5
3
2
4
3
3
2
3
6
3
3

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

52.42
50.38
54.53
55.57
51.64
60.00
60.00
59.80
60.00
58.67
60.00
58.01
56.42
56.48

48.64
49.16
55.12
55.30
50.98
60.00
60.00
59.83
59.14
$3.71
56.94
56.50
52.49
56.67

$0.2793
.3488
.2609
.2344
.2857
.2231
.2067
.2039
.1454
.2516
.2197
.2510
.2592
.2440

$0.3101
.3543
.2637
.2559
.3114
.2081
.2197
.2124
.1571
.2537
.2192
.2603
.2805
.2411

57.14
50.40
54.53
56.22
55.29
60.00
60.00
59.80
60.00
58.28
60.00
57.55
57.64
60.00

54.00
49.80
55.08
56.18
55.39
60.00
60.00
59.79
59.08
58.30
59.38
57.12
56.28
60.00

$0.2271
.3375
.2516
.2349
.2081
.1867
.1786
.2066
.1513
.1909
.1824
.2523
.2558
.1901

$0.2758
.3395
.2609
.2499
.2068
.2050
.1884
.2066
.1566
.1935
.1879
.2545
.2654
.1958

76
165
14
65
16

50.05
54.00
54.00
48.40
59.00

49.09
54.00
54.00
48.65
58.50

$0.3685
.2739
.2568
.4008
.2280

$0.3814
.2792
.2586
.4151
.2545

46
70
236
83
98
7
34
40
48
15
100
123
80
41

57.94
50.16
54.50
57.00
55.91
60.00
60.00
59.82
60.00
58.86
60.00
58.48
58.38
60.00

57.39
49.19
54.86
57.11
56.22
60.00
60.00
59.83
59.06
58.93
59.05
58.26
57.36
60.00

$0.1753
.2953
.2195
.1898
.1879
.1959
.1820
.1877
.1356
.2057
.1643
.2118
.2080
.2061

$0.1768
.3004
.2205
.1919
.1925
.2119
.1860
.1927
.1384
.2150
.1698
.2158
.2273
.2191

56
147
161
184
89
21
36
92
74
14
80
105
203
63

76
144
146
141
69
17
36
97
73
15
52
100
108
58

Average
hours per
week.

1906.

MACHINE W OODW ORKERS, M ale.
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Evansville, Ind..................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
High Point, N. C...............................................
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
St. Louis, Mo..................................... ...............

2
6
6
5
3
2
4
3
3
3
3
5
3
2

28
30
102
54
70
6
72
89
130
78
53
78
59
73

26
30
106
55
» 70
6
76
90
125
74
56
76
74
80

U PH O L ST ER E R S, M ale.
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Chicago, 111.........................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
New York, N. Y.(<*).........................................
St. Louis, Mo................ ...................................

4
4
2
4
2

65
141
22
73
24

V A R N 1SH E R S, M ale.
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a..................................................
Evansville, Ind..................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
High Point, N. C...............................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Milwaukee, Wis.................................................
New York, N. Y .(« ).........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................




2
5
7
5
4
2
4
3
3
2
3
5
3
2

31
58
214
74
92
8
34
38
45
14
93
124
77
29

« Greater New York.

148

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I V .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
LIQ U O R S, M A L T .
B O T T L E R S, M ale.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Boston, Mass............................. -.....................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Philadelphia, Pa.
................................. .
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
»

1905.

1906.

1905.

36
126
19
10
1,877
34
22
7
1,534

56.11'
54.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
53.99

54.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
53.98

$0.2411

.1750
.2614
.1862
.1725
.1714
.2064
.1950

$0.2490
.2222
.2396
.2719
.1857
.1809
.1633
.2064
.1847

52
15
32
23
8
185
12
162
44
20
107
21

54.41
54.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
59.60
60.00
54.00
48.00
48.00

54.52
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.68
54.00
48.00
48.00

$0.3017
.3160
.3750
.2507
.3403
.3167
.3426
.3026
.2721
.2870
.3416
.4375

$0.3007
.3160
.3750
.3351
.3620
.3194
.3426
.3347
.3036
.2870
.3429
.4375

11
5
8
240
21
12

48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
58.41
57.60
54.00
48.00

48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
53.67
54.00
54.00
48.00

$0.4500
.2778
.3810
.3172
.3082
.2752
.2870
.4388

$0.4489
.2945
.3802
.3211
.3363
.2963
.2870
.4583

76 54.00
25 54.00
27 48.00
34 60.00
16 60.00
18 60.00
52 51.51
30 58.34
293 59.89
71 61.43
14 54.00
44 62.31
24 60.00

54.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
55.88
60.00
51.46
58.40
57.26
60.38
54.00
62.32
60.00

$0.3086
.2719
.3834
.2387
.2952
.2584
.3112
.2997
.2931
.2708
.3120
.2750
.4098

$0.3056
.2737
.3834
.3232
.3229
.2704
.3115
.2998
.3065
.2849
.3135
.2704
.3902

2
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2

37
102
18
10
1,625
30
21
7
1,466

Average wages
per hour.

.2222

1906.

CELLAR MEN, M ale.
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
6
3
2
2
2

Boston, Mass..........
Buffalo, N. Y ..........
Chicago, 111..............
Cincinnati, Ohio___
Detroit, Mich..........
Milwaukee, Wis.......
Newark, N. J ..........
New York, N. Y.(«)
Philadelphia, P a_
_
Rochester, N. Y ___
St. Louis, Mo..........
San Francisco, C al..

44
16
32
24
9
184
12
150
43
20
99
45

COOPERS, M ale.
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
New York, N. Y .(o ).........................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................

2
2
2
3
6
3
2
2

10

5

7
241
22
10
8
16

9
11

D R IV E R S , M ale.
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y . . . . ................ ..............................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Milwaukee, Wis.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New York, N. Y .(a)..........................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................




2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
6
3
2
2
2

74
22
27
33
15
18
53
29
264
65
13
39
26

a Greater New York.

149

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I V .— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
[LIQUORS, M A L T —Concluded.
F ER M E N T E R S,. M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establishments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, IU........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New York, N. Y.(® )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................. 1..............................
St. Louis, M o.....................................................

2
2
3
2
2
2
2
6
3
2
2

6
6
12
3
4
65
8
40
16
6
36

Average
hours per
week.

Averageswages
p eri lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

7
6
12
3
4
66
8
48
16
6
39

55.50
54.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
59.40
60.00
54.00
48.00

55.29
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
55.50
54.00
48.00

$0.3377
.3148
.3785
.2667
.3333
.3173
.3472
.3033
.2771
.2963
.3400

$0.3265
.3148
.3785
.3403
.3542
.3163
.3495
.3333
.3043
.2886
.3405

7
5
9
5
2
58
6
40
13
7
19
9

54.00
54.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
59.14
60.00
54.00
48.00
48.00

54.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
55.38
54.00
48.00
48.00

$0.3271
.3167
.3750
.2792
.3438
.3163
.3357
.3107
.2834
.2897
.3505
.4375

$0.3122
.3167
.3750
.3583
.3646
.3190
.3457
.3407
.3134
.2897
.3514
.4375

51.00
48.00
53.60
51.62
57.69
53.50
55.33
51.27
50.47
60.00
53.00
54.00
53.67
59.00
53.15
44.00
52.17
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

$0.3464
.3550
.2430
.2954
.2570
.2951
.3180
.3636
.4516
.3050
.3274
.2685
.2761
.2675
.3294
.6250
.3488
.4643
.4722
.4716
.4344
.4600

$0.3464
.3951
.2916
.3355
.2893
.2951
.3519
.4250
.4297
.3063
.3292
.2685
.2946
.2655
.3423
.6250
.3464
.5313
.4643
.4789
.4931
.4392

1906.

K E T T L E MEN. M ale.
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
6
3
2
2
2

Boston, Mass..........
Buffalo, N. Y ..........
Chicago, 111..............
Cincinnati, Ohio___
Detroit, Mich..........
Milwaukee, W is......
Newark, N. J ..........
New York, N .Y .(a)
Philadelphia, P a _
_
Rochester, N. Y ___
St. Louis, Mo..........
San Francisco, Cal..

6
5
8
4
2
60
6
28
13
7
20
16

M ARBEE A N D STO NE W O R K .
M ARBLE C UTTER S, M ale.
Augusta, Ga......................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio............... ................................
Dallas, T ex........................................................
Davenport, Iow a...............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y .(<*)..........................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
3
4
2

4
39
6
30
8
4
6
11
17
5
5
3
15
8
13
76
13
7
9
11
10
3

a Greater New York.

4
48
5
13
13
4
6
11
17
4
6
3
15
9
20
38
12
12
7
16
9
3

51.00
48.00
53.50
52.97
57.00
53.50
55.33
51.27
49.76
60.00
52.80
54.00
57.67
58.88
53.23
44.00
52.77
50.57
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

150
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

I V , —AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES—Continued.

M A R B L E A N D STONE W O R K —Concluded.
STONECUTTERS, G R A N IT E , M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Atlanta, Ga......................................... : ............
Augusta, Ga......................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Jersey City, N. J ......................................*.........
Little Rock, Ark................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Milwaukee, W is..................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New York, N. Y. (a )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ............................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Quincy. Mass.....................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Trenton, N. J .....................................................
Washington, D. C..............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

3
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2

37
11
76
10
7
15
16
4
19
22
38
24
51
9
7
13
48
33
63
6
47
11
9
8
125

30
12
80
13
7
16
16
4
16
20
34
24
55
9
9
13
31
22
118
6
101
12
9
8
132

Average
hours per
week.

Averageb wages
p erl lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
47.25
57.00
48.00
56.27
44.00
45.50
44.63
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
44.02
48.00
48.00
53.25
48.00

48.00 $0.4297
.3750
48.00
48.00
.4030
48.00
.3970
48.00
.5486
.5063
44.00
.4129
46.25
.3750
57100
48.00
.3507
.2864
56.00
.4992
44.00
45.33
.5313
.4712
44.58
.4375
48.00
48.00
.5179
48.00
.3700
48.00
.3770
48.00
.3750
44.14
.5625
44.00
.5625
44.09
.4979
48.00
.4000
48.00
.4500
53.25
.2842
48.00
.3979

$0.4346
.3771
.4024
.4221
.6061
.5000
.4149
.3938
.3711
.2858
.4991
.5417
.4733
.4375
.5647
.3700
.3798
.3778
.5625
.5625
.4990
.4500
.4500
.2992
.3987

48.00
44.67
48.00
44.00
45.71
48.29
44.00
45.04
47.15
44.48
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
44.28
44.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
49.88

$0.5532
.4500
.5000
.5625
.5625
.4945
.5660
.5000
.4804
.5500
.4788
.6000
.5000
.4545
.5474
.5554
.5000
.4150
.5625
.5250
.5000
.4539

1906.

STONECUTTERS, SOFT STONE, M ale.
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala...............................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111.........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Davenport, Iow a...............................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
Little Rock, Ark................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Memphis, Tenn.................................................
Milwaukee, W is............. ....................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New York, N. Y. (<*)..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Washington, D. C..............................................
Wheeling. W. V a...............................................
H




2
3
2
2
2
2
4
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2

35
13
37
16
32
6
20
34
43
29
24
9
31
28
96
79

26
10
12
5
15

9

a Greater New York.

47
12
46
15
38
7
24
23
40
25
26
10
28
22

87
79
31

5

14
6
11

8

48.00
44.62
48.00
44.00
48.00
49.83
44.00
44.59
47.14
44.28
48.00
44.00
46.45
48.00
44.25
44.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
50.22

$0.5000
.4500
.5000
.5625
.5000
.4675
.5658
.5000
.4895
.5500
.4500
.6000
.5000
.4536
.5475
.5775
.5000
.4250
.5625
.5300
.5000
.4287

151

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e IV.—
AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
PLANTING MILL.
C A R PE N TE R S, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Atlanta, Ga........................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Indianapolis, Ind.......... ...................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Lake Charles, L a...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
Muscatine, Iow a...............................................
New Orleans, L a ...............................................
New York, N. Y. (a )..........................................
North Tonawanda, N. Y ..................................
Oshkosh, W is....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................... T..........................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Saginaw, Mich...................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Terre Haute, In d ...............................................

2
3
2
4
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
6
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
per rlour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

14
42
21
73
51
17
70
15
4
5
7
27
39
12
54
45
153
17
20
35
30
16
5
52
15
22
17

59.14
56.14
50.83
60.00
54.35
59.00
50.67
55.00
55.50
54.75
49.75
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
50.38
56.77
60.00
54.00
51.11
59.63
60.00
60.00
47.56
48.00
55.56

60.00
56.29
48.00
60.00
54.39
59.00
50.74
55.60
55.50
55.20
49.71
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
50.89
57.53
60.00
50.57
50.80
59.56
60.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
55.76

$0.2286
.2812
.3596
.2382
.2782
.2493
.3456
.2442
.2903
.2806
.4484
.2523
.2008
.2635
.2281
.2579
.3361
.2703
.1808
.2843
.4123
.2438
.1750
.2734
.3622
.4467
.2438

$0.2518
.2789
.3986
.2442
.2913
.2606
.3496
.2617
.2903
.3045
.4054
.2667
.2114
.2667
.2278
.2559
.3404
.2597
.1881
.3007
.4241
.2495
.1950
.2880
.3917
.5682
.2500

54
27
80
30
16
23
28
16
54
216
20
36
155
60
23
72
63
154

76
31
86
33
16
23
38
17
55
214
19
36
183
57
28
67
82
148
6

13
148
37
8

13
174
31
8

59.54
60.00
60.00
56.40
58.88
59.00
51.71
55.00
60.00
65.33
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.35
60.00
60.00
54.00
59.43
54.00
60.00
48.00
59.75

60.00
60.00
60.00
56.55
58.88
59.00
50.95
55.35
60.00
59.83
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
56.52
60.00
60.00
54.00
59.43
54.00
60.00
48.00
59.75

$0.1026
.1639
.1487
.1618
.1571
.1560
.1729
.1481
.1224
.1428
.1275
.1492
.1740
.1225
.1621
.1813
.1606
.1438
.1918
.1621
.1816
.1427
.2475
.1617

$0.1163
.1602
.1538
.1712
.1638
.1550
.1879
.1632
.1279
.1562
.1316
.1513
.1740
.1194
.1603
.1790
.1645
.1442
.1913
.1621
.1838
.1437
.3075
.1679

28
42
23
65
40
23
78
13
4
8
8
26
38
13
48
42
148
13
24
37
27
16
6
76
16
34
16

1906.

L A B O R E R S, M ale.
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Cadillac, Mich....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Lake Charles, L a...............................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (a )..........................................
North Tonawanda, N. Y ..................................
Oshkosh, W is.....................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
Saginaw, Mich...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................




2
4
2
2
3
2

2

2
2
3
2
2
3
*3

2
7

3
3
3
2
2
3
2
2

7
7

« Greater New York.

7

152

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e IV.—
AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
P L A N I N G M IX iXj—Concluded.
MACHINE: W OODW ORKERS, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Cadillac, M ich...................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Lake Charles, L a...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn........................ _..................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
Muscatine, Iow a................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (« ).........................................
North Tonawanda, N. Y ..................................
Oshkosh, W is....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Rochester, N. Y ...............................................
Saginaw, Mich...................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
Salt Lake City, Utah........................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Terre Haute, In d ...............................................

2
3
2
4
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
8
3
3
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2

16
40
15
24
35
24
30
28
32
14
27
30
15
21
41
53
14
52
39
79
11
110
12
17
16
62
72
52
9
27
7

15
43
16
23
36
23
35
29
34
16
22
32
22
25
33
52
16
56
41
73
12
104
14
18
15
64
82
51
10
13
8

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

59.31
57.90
50.67
60.00
60.00
57.00
54.30
59.00
51.00
55.00
58.00
62.60
49.20
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
55.03
52.76
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
59.44
54.00
60.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
55.43

60.00
57.77
48.00
60.00
60.00
57.13
54.29
59.00
51.06
55.56
57.55
58.69
49.36
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
52.62
60.00
60.00
52.57
54.00
59.47
54.00
60.00
60.00
48.50
48.00
55.25

$0.2234
.2433
.3377
.2427
.1857
.2890
.2844
.2661
.2832
.2589
.1915
.1938
.3833
.2444
.1846
.2201
.1821
.2109
.2507
.3167
.2273
.1542
.2974
.3814
.2145
.2504
.1467
.2680
.4117
.4618
.2679

$0.2275
.2460
.3447
.2457
.1888
.3043
.2924
.2803
.2973
.2719
.1973
.2089
.3731
.2552
.1940
.2221
.2004
.2153
.2575
.3491
.2382
.1560
.3190
.3921
.2238
.2423
.1566
.2719
.4033
.6503
.2747

60.00
56.50
48.00
60.00
56.30
54.20
59.00
50.00
49.20
60.00
60.00
54.00
53.74
60.00
60.00
52.50
60.00
48.00

$0.1625
.2197
.3679
.2350
.2932
.2892
.2569
.3180
.3423
.2025
.2057
.2576
.2915
.1950
.1706
.2521
.2591
.4018

$0.1963
.2241
. 3740
.2350
.3071
.2921
.2569
.3440
.3423
.2170
.2043
.2576
.2994
.2150
-. 1691
.2570
.2618
.5438

SA W Y E R S, CIRCULAR, M ale.
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Muscatine, Iow a................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (a )..........................................
North Tona wanda, N. Y ..................................
Oshkosh, W is....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................




a

2
2
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
7
3
3
2
2
2

6
11
5
10
13
14
6
5
5
18
15
11
29
5
26
11
22
7

Greater New York.

4
12
5
10
13
15
6
5
5
16
20
11
38
5
31
8
20
5

59.50
56.73
49.00
60.00
56.30
54.14
59.00
50.00
49.20
60.00
60.00
54.00
53.45
60.00
60.00
54.00
60.00
48.00

153

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

Table IV .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L ISH IN G , BOOK A N D JOB.
BOO KBINDERS, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
BostonT Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................... •...........
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, La____ •......................................
New York, N. Y .(« )......................................
Norfolk, Ya........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Pittsbuigand Allegheny, P a............................
Richmond, V a...................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, Kans....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a..............................................

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

52
6
13
4
11
11
2
9
95
39
14
16
13
5
29
27
3
14
16
14
13
11
51
5
10
29
14
14
44
14
5
2
4
3
6
6
8
4
5
11

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per ]hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

49
6
13
6
11
16
2
11
92
39
15
12
15
5
29
28
4
18
18
14
13
11
47
6
9
38
19
16
38
14
5
2
5
3
8
7
7
5
7
11

52.62
54.00
55.85
54.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.14
54.00
54.00
54.12
54.80
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.98
54.00
53.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
53.83
54.00
54.00
53.75
54.00
53.00

52.90
54.00
55.38
51.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.25
52.67
54.00
53.14
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.17
54.00
52.89
54.00
54.00
53.97
54.00
53.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
53.75
54.00
54.00
53.80
54.00
50.73

$0.3908
.2639
.3264
.3426
.3190
.3072
.6250
.2922
.3025
.2898
.2837
.3390
.3958
.3259
.3005
.3241
.3519
.3287
.2865
.3262
.2963
.2896
.3700
.2784
.3259
.3079
.2989
.2758
.2798
.3320
.3283
.3125
.3241
.3681
.2957
.2840
.3171
.3157
.2629
.2993

$0.3984
.2855
.3290
.3413
.3190
.3056
.6771
.2929
.3085
.2886
.2895
.3561
.3958
.3259
.3052
.3466
.3148
.3513
.2912
.3262
.2949
.2921
.3842
.3201
.3333
.3358
.3060
.2778
.3157
.3347
.3283
.3125
.3296
.4028
.3046
.2857
.3201
.3266
.2725
.3148

128
34
52
25
134
23
4
11
120
29
26
21
28
13
24
6
7
13
54
23
17
32
11
29
55
8

51.17
54.00
55.41
54.00
51.90
54.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
53.00
56.08
54.00
54.00
52.35
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
55.00

48.00
54.00
54.81
50.16
51.51
54.00
48.00
54.00
49.90
54.00
50.08
53.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
53.00
55.92
48.00
52.70
50.94
54.00
51.82
52.34
54.00
55.00

$0.3357
.2504
.3172
.3257
.3074
.3241
.6250
.3009
.3494
.3360
.3281
.3671
.4239
.2963
.3194
.2836
.3396
.2651
.3315
.3333
.3664
.2876
.3245
.3637
.2961
.2636

$0.3586
.2764
.3238
.3500
.3272
.3361
.6250
.3266
.3874
3306
.3682
.3711
.4241
.3077
.3310
.3160
.3234
.2887
.3718
.3424
.3886
.3030
.3394
.3631
.2982
.2568

1906.

COMPOSITORS, M ale.
Albany, N. Y ..........
Atlanta, Ga.............
Baltimore, Md........
Birmingham, A la ...
Boston, Mass..........
Buffalo, N. Y ..........
Butte, Mont............
Charleston, S. C___
Chicago, 111..............
Cincinnati, Ohio___
Cleveland, Ohio.......
Dallas, Tex.............
Denver, Colo............
Des Moines, Iow a...
Detroit, Mich..........
Dubuque, Iow a.......
Duluth, Minn..........
Grand Rapids, Mich
Indianapolis, In d ...
Jacksonville, F la___
Jersey City, N. J ___
Kansas City, Mo___
Little Rock, Ark___
Los Angeles, Cal___
Louisville, K y.........
Lynn, Mass.............




2
2
3
2
5
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
3
2

125
23
51
23
131
31
3
12
123
31
30
23
29
13
16
6
7
12
52
18
20
32
9
25
51
8

a Greater New York.

154

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

Table IV .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L ISH IN G , BO O K A N D JOB—Concluded.
COMPOSITORS, M ale—Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establicT
h
iisnments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, La................................................
New York, N .Y .(« ) .........................................
Norfolk, Va........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111...........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsbuig and Allegheny, P a ...........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a ......................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, Kans....................................................
Washington, D. C..............................................
Wheeling, W. Va...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, Pa...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

1905.

1906.

1905.

14
28
10
45
20
176
30
15
13
118
47
17
28
19
115
23
14
16
14
10
9
15
5
13
13
9
11
23
21
6
8

54.00
53.50
55.50
54.00
49.05
51.28
54.50
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
53.98
54.00
51.00
53.00
49.13
47.67
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
53.67
49.04
53.00
54.57
54.00

54.00
53.50
52.80
54.00
49.05
48.24
48.00
54.00
51.23
53.17
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.95
48.13
54.00
50.36
53.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
53.64
48.00
51.57
54.67
54.00

$0.3148
.3333
.2573
.3261
.3782
.4108
.2994
.3300
.3120
.3341
.3202
.4295
.3105
.2963
.3606
.3340
.3760
.3219
.4159
.3661
.4420
.2986
.4401
.3333
.3050
.3171
.3472
.3163
.3082
.2725
.3028

$0.30(82
.3333
.2921
.3152
.3782
.4469
.3373
.3321
.3405
.3400
.3270
.4305
.3307
.3329
.3636
.3047
.4166
.3267
.4777
.3688
.4479
.3012
.4125
.3365
.3148
.3148
.3409
.3229
.3210
.2657
.2871

53.00
55.60
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
50.25
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.25
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
54.00
54.00
53.71
53.00

52.91
56.00
50.09
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
50.25
54.00
53.56
52.85
54.00
53.20
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.25
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
54.00
54.00
53.71
49.67

$0.1392
.1116
.0977
.1184
.1061
.1458
.1435
.1126
.1771
.1235
.1188
.1074
.1389
.1153
.1271
.1109
.1667
.1173
.1352
.1749
.1435
.1188
.1157
.1558
.0791
.0981
.0937
.1278
.1116

$0.1480
.1071
.1054
.1232
.1222
.1505
:1435
.1117
.1750
.1268
.1126
.1126
.1389
.1168
.1344
.1119
.1667
.1167
.1352
.1861
.1356
.1223
.1321
.1505
.0814
.0926
.0915
.1310
.1180

2

2
3
3
3
4
3

2
2
5
2
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
3
4

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2

15
26
12
31
20
153
32
17
13
132
41
15
26
22
123
14
13
17
16
9
7
12
4
13
17
8
9
23
21
7
10

Average wages
per hour.
1906.

S E W E R S, BOOK., F em a le .
Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, A la..............................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Indianapolis, In d..............................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, La................................................
New York, N. Y.(<»).........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ............................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Topeka, Kans................................. ..................
Washington, D. C..............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ...............................................




2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2

12
10
22
19
5
19
4
17
20
12
8
4
8
8
22
28
4
21
10
19
14
12
16
6
26
5
17

14r
6

a Greater New York.

11
8
23
19
5
18
4
19
20
13
13
4
8
9
34
30
5
23
10
21
16
14
15
6
24
7
17
14
6

155

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e I V .—AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L ISH IN G , N E W S P A P E R .
COMPOSITOR S, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga........................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala...............................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio..................................................
Dallas, T ex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
Fall River, Mass................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Harrisburg, P a ..................................................
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (<*)........................................
Norfolk, V a .....................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111..........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ............................
Portland, Me.....................................................
Portland, O reg.................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, Pa......................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D a k ...........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Tampa, F la .......................................................
Terre Haute, In d ..............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, K ans....................................................
Washington, D .C ..............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilmington, D el................................................
Worcester, Mass............................................ . .




2
2
4
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
.2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

10
16
103
17
189
48
15
121
52
24
23
13
22
4
7
7
21
17
13
11
26
8
39
14
16
6
57
27
37
21
5
56
144
7
16
7
86
58
8
41
17
12
56
63
45
11
9
24
10
44
6
22
11
11
16
31
14
53
8
10
19

« Greater New York,

11
21
112
20
165
46
15
128
50
"24
23
13
22
5
11
8
24
17
11
12
27
9
53
17
16
6
52
27
37
31
5
56
162
11
17
7
100
58
8
53
23
13
61
79
49
11
9
39
10
45
5
22
13
22
20
32
13
64
8
10
27

Average
hours per
week.

Averagea wages
p erl lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

50.40
48.00
50.16
51.88
42.00
48.00
45.00
47173
48.23
48.00
48.00
47.23
48.00
51.00
48.00
48.00
48.24
54.00
48.00
44.73
48.00
50.50
48.00
48.50
47.00
50.00
48.98
48.00
45.68
48.00
50.40
48.36
49.04
48.00
48.00
56.00
49.21
48.00
48.63
48.00
49.59
52.00
48.00
45.25
48.80
48.55
49.00
45.00
48.00
43.82
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.55
48.00
48.00
48.00
43.53
48.00
52.80
48,00

50.73
48.00
48.00
49.50
42.00
48.00
45.00
45.79
48.24
48.00
48.00
47.23
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.25
54.00
48.00
45.00
48.00
50.22
48.00
48.47
47.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
45.68
48.00
50.40
48.36
47.99
48.00
48.00
56.00
49.12
48.00
48.63
48.00
48.00
52.62
48.00
45.19
48.82
48.55
49.33
45.00
48.00
44.47
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
43.41
48.00
52.80
48.00

30.3627
.4297
.4393
.4313
.5729
.4519
.7022
.6351
.5250
.4878
.4920
.5647
.4018
.3088
.4171
.2946
.4095
.2516
.4583
.4935
.4383
.3573
.5238
.5029
.4070
.3457
.4962
.4213
.4635
.4643
.4217
.5804
.5805
.3780
.4492
.3682
.4196
.5782
.3579
.5899
.4018
.3646
.4014
.5924
.4750
.5641
.4745
.6667
.4063
.6293
.3889
.4469
.5341
.3712
.3985
.4063
.3981
.6046
.4536
.2764
.4432

1900.
$0.3668
.4266
.4579
.4500
.5855
.4498
.7733
.6634
.5243
.4905
.4920
.5647
.4319
.3333
.4545
.3021
.4100
.2582
.4583
.4514
.4954
.3593
.5410
.5035
.4070
.3576
.4885
.4383
.4635
.4657
.4217
.5804
.5782
.3750
.4485
.4203
.4301
.5857
.3579
.5867
.4538
.3916
.4060
.5917
.4753
.5732
.5146
.6701
.4063
.6183
.3959
.4469
.5625
.4318
.4281
.4063
.4095
.C034
.4536
.2722
.4612

156

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able

I V .— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.

PRINTTHSTG A N D P U B L ISH IN G , [NEW SPAPER—Continued.
LINOTYPE OPERA TO R S, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga........................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala...............................................
BostonT Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati. Ohio__________________ ______
*
Cleveland, Ohio..........................
•
Dallas. T a x _________________
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Dubuque, Iow a..................................................
Dulutfi, Minti. ...................................................
Fall River, Mass................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Harrisburg, P a ..................................................
TndiatiApoTifl, T n d .................... . ..................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
Little Rock, Ark...................... *........................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, M inn............................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, La................................................
New York, N. Y .(«)...........................................
Norfolk, V a........................................................
Omaha Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111...........................................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Portland, Me......................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Richmond, V a ...................................................
Rochester, N. Y . ...............................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, Pa......................................................
Seattle, Wash.....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................
Tacoma, Wash...................................................
Terre Haute, Tnd...................................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, Trans ....................................................
W a sh in g to n , D. C..............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




2
2
4

2

3
2
2
2
3
3

2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2

2

2
2

2

2

2
2
2

4
2

2
2

4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2

18
24
89
13
130
35
10
11
93
57
46
35

17
25
87
14
132
36
10
10
95
60

22

22

15
13

22

10
15
12

22

15
12
36
21
12
27
23
40
21
13
45
199
10
40
14
92
108
3
37
31
16
30
29
24
17
37
10
30
6

20
14
11
22
12
54
18
18

a Greater New York.

49

30

15
14
26
10
14
12
23
18
12
34
22
13
25
24
46
25
13
45
172
11
40
16
87
109
8
46
29
23
36
30
21
17
38
10
38
5
20
20
13
21
13
56
19
19

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
per1 lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

48.00
45.00
42.40
44.31
42.00
48.00
45.00
48.73
47.97
48.00
48.00
42.60
46.91
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.47
54.00
48.00
48.00
50.92
43.50
48.52
46.83
52.00
48.00
42.80
48.00
53.54
47.78
49.43
48.00
48.00
56.00
45.90
48.00
48.00
48.00
45.10
51.00
48.00
49.10
44.13
49.94
45.00
48.00
42.80
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
43.44
48.00
48.00

48.00
44.64
42.41
44.14
42.00
48.00
45.00
48.70
46.13
48.00
48.00
42.00
46.91
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.43
54.00
48.00
48.00
50.92
43.59
48.45
46.85
52.00
48.00
42.70
48.00
53.54
47.78
48.36
48.00
48.00
56.00
44.69
48.00
49.63
48.00
43.45
51.91
48.00
49.07
45.86
49.53
45.00
48.00
43.21
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
43.29
48.00
48.00

10.4236
.7280
.5389
.5000
.6212
.4555
.7067
.5927
.6861
.5285
.5059
.8254
.6104
.4163
.3525
.4239
.3750
.4227
.4193
.4583
.4555
.5362
.7212
.4988
.4167
.5974
.4552
.5642
.4762
.4009
.6714
.5990
.3792
.4813
.3833
.5709
.5898
.4167
.5878
.5567
.4306
.4236
.4813
.6607
.5065
.6685
.4229
.6379
.3959
.4323
.5402
.3944
.4063
.3959
.6083
.4464
.4769

1903.
$0.4241
.7424
.5394
.5000
.6236
.4590
.7867
.6850
.7174
.5292
.5081
.9666
.6104
.4396
.3512
.4348
.3750
.4214
.4412
.4583
.5069
.5532
.7661
.4927
.4157
.6251
.4518
.5988
.4775
.4009
.6739
.5972
.3807
.4766
.4054
.6048
.5894
.3790
.5978
.7005
.4251
.4481
.4805
.6633
.5610
.6737
.4229
.6225
.4208
.4323
.5813
.4255
.4063
.4167
.6095
.4456
.4803

157

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I V .— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L ISH IN G , N E W SP A P E R —Concluded.
STEBEOT1TPERS, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab1% U
Q
Hsu*
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga........................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
Boston7 Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
Chicago, 111..................................................... ..
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex................................................... ....
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
Fall River, Mass................................................
Grand Rapids, M inh................................................
Harrisburg, P a..................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, Fla..... .........................................
Little Rock, Ark................................................
Los Angeles, C al................................................
Louisville, K y....................................................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Memphis, Tenn .........................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, M in n ....................................................
N e w H a v e n . C onn .'___________________________
.
N ew O rleans. La. ___________

New York, N. Y. («)...........................................
Norfolk, Va........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111...........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
P o r tla n d . M e. ....................... ..................................
P o r tla n d . Oreer..............................
Providence, R. I ............................................

Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N . Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, M in n ...........................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah ........................................
San A nton io, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, Pa......................................................
Seattle, Wash....................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................
Tacoma, Wash...................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, F a n s .............................. .....................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
10
18
2
51
5
2
2
42
18
9
4
7
4
4
2
4
4
6
4
2
6
4
3
8
9
6
2
5
69
2
8
2
35
20
3
7
13
6
6
15
7
6
2
12
2
8
3
2
2
7
2
7
3
4

a Greater New York.

8891—No. 71—07--- 11




2
10
19
2
64
5
2
3
43
18
9
4
7
5
4
2
4
3
8
4
2
9
5
3
8
10
7
2
5
70
2
9
2
33
24
3
7
16
5
6
15
7
5
2
12
2
9
.3
3
2
7
2
7
3
4

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour

1905.

1906.

1905.

52.00
48.00
42.33
51.00
42.00
52.80
50.50
48.50
48.00
49.00
37.33
42.00
47.43
52.00
48.00
48.00
51.00
54.00
48.00
46.75
54.50
48.00
45.50
44.00
48.63
56.33
55.00
63.00
53.20
43.23
48.00
55.00
56.00
46.40
56.00
53.00
49.14
48.46
50.40
40.00
45.00
45.43
55.67 *
43.00
45.00
52.00
57.00
53.33
52.00
52.50
48.00
52.00
51.43
48.00
52.00

52.00
48.00
42.00
51.00
42.00
52.80
50.50
48.33
48.00
49.17
34.67
42.00
47.43
51.20
48.00
48.00
51.00
54.00
48.00
46.75
54.50
48.00
45.00
44.00
52.00
55.20
54.86
63.00
53.20
42.53
48.00
55.11
56.00
47.03
56.00
53.00
48.00
45.50
50.40
40.00
45.00
45.43
55.60
43.00
45.00
52.00
56.89
53.33
53.33
52.50
48.00
52.00
52.57
48.00
52.00

$0.4063
.3625
.4625
.3965
.6088
.4161
.6702
.2566
.5129
.3983
.5938
.3720
.4076
.3672
.3906
.3750
.3944
.2616
.4462
.4066
.4442
.4474
.3919
.5476
.4127
.3651
.2963
.3286
.3839
.6578
.2813
.3482
.3393
.4201
.3549
.3403
.4733
.5051
.2805
.4435
.4926
.3852
.3599
.5894
.5444
.2361
.4297
.4454
.5938
.4158
.3661
.5105
.4857
.3472
.3958

1906.
$0.4271
.3625
.4667
.3965
.6131
.4161
.6702
.2544
.5121
.3970
.6320
.4256
.4076
.3770
.4011
.3750
.4048
.2562
.4206
.4066
.4974
.4205
.3658
.5476
.3933
.3572
.3069
.3286
.3839
.6540
.3125
.3459
.3750
.4162
.3773
.3403
.4688
.5222
.3481
.4435
.5037
.3852
.4234
.6552
.6000
.2897
.4321
.4454
.5625
.4337
.4063
.5105
.4715
.3011
.4323

158
T

able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
IT .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES—Continued.
STR EETS A N D SEW ER S, CONTRACT W ORK.
LAB O R E R S, M ale.

Locality.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga........................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111.........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio............. T
.................................. :
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a..............................................
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, Fla................................................
Kansas City, Mo................................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Milwaukee, Wis.................................................
Mobile, Ala.........................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, La................................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Norfolk, v a ........................................................
Peoria, 111...........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Racine, Wis........................................................ '
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Scranton, P a......................................................
Seattle, Wash.....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ................................................. .
Tacoma, Wash...................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Trenton, N. J .....................................................
Washington, D. C..............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................




2
2
2
2
2
4
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
4
3
2
2
7
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

114
82
184
135
414
279
666
156
119
158
150
347
19
112
107
239
89
435
60
139
56
237
232
29
490
718
538
75
107
2,898
147
305
425
70
80
392
328
259
230
50
168
71
132
236
176
360
80
494
24
65

a Greater New York.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
pernour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

137 55.32
109 60.00
290 48.00
127 60.00
425 59.80
540 60.00
520 56.77
299 58.76
130 60.00
204 54.00
145 54.00
308 60.00
27 59.63
309 60.00
88 60.00
466 59.30
187 58.04
449 56.03
159 60.00
118 59.57
61 54.00
198 60.00
207 60.00
40 60.00
457 60.00
709 59.54
423 57.64
80 60.00
102 60.00
1,787 60.00
177 60.00
167 60.00
434 60.00
66 59.54
58 59.13
417 48.00
290 60.00
270 48.00
638 48.00
50 52.80
102 48.00
64 60.00
74 59.00
636 48.00
180 55.23
278 50.17
62 60.00
493 54.46
24 54.00
86 57.42

55.50
60.00
48.00
60.00
59.79
51.36
56.13
58.54
60.00
54.00
54.00
60.00
59.67
60.00
60.00
59.72
58.81
57.33
60.00
59.58
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.54
58.16
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.45
59.22
48.10
60.00
48.00
48.00
52.80
48.00
60.00
59.00
49.19
55.00
51.84
60.00
53.90
54.00
57.56

$0.1672
.1181
.1987
.1242
.1998
.1553
.2275
.1827
.1620
.2143
.1944
.1803
.1788
.2107
.1750
.1833
.1397
.1948
.1958
.1671
.1853
.2005
.1456
.1224
.1514
.1737*
.1650
.1340
.1750
.1483
.1530
.2130
.1635
.1822
.1354
.2125
.2288
.2629
.2850
.1725
.2565
.2000
.1815
.2503
.1633
.2459
.1500
.1654
.1944
.1412

1906.
$0.1673
.1468
.1975
.1318
.1998
.2072
.2388
.1839
.1895
.2425
.1944
.1917
.2030
.2329
.1751
.1993
.1506
.1945
.2195
.1672
.1921
.2138
.1452
.1250
.1515
.1740
.1652
.1350
.1873
.1505
.1553
.2250
.1901
.1949
.1554
.2151
.2277
.2624
.3223
.1725
.2816
.2500
.1899
.2780
.1639
.2290
.1500
.1741
.1944
.1470

159

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T

able

IT.—
AVERAGE WAGES AND HO URS OF LABOR, 1905 A ND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES—Continued.
S T R E E T S A N D S E W E R S , M U N T IC IP A E W O R K .
L A B O R E R S, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga........................................................
Augusta, Ga............. ........................................
Baltimore, Md................................... -.............
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
Boston7 Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C....................................... .........
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.............................1..................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................
Detroit, Mich .....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Duluth, Mirm.....................................................
Evansville, Ind..................................................
Fall River, Mass................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Harrisburg, P a ..................................................
Hartford, 'Conn.................................................
Indianapolis, In d .........................................................................
Jacksonville, Fla ............................................................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
Kansas City, Mo............................................................................
Little Rock, Ark..........................................................................
Los Angeles, Cal.............................................. ..................
Louisville, K y ..................................................................................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Manchester, N. H .........................................................................
Memphis, Tenn........................................ ..............
Milwaukee, W is ..............................................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Mobile, Ala .........................................................................................
Montgomery, Ala...............................................
Nashville, Tenn ............................................................................ L
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New York, N. Y.(<»)...................................................................
Norfolk, V a........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111..........................................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ............................................
Portland, Me......................................................... ...........................
Portland, Oreg...............................................................................
Providence, R. I ............................................................................
Racine, Wis........................................................................................
Richmond, V a ......................................................: ........................
Rochester, N. Y .............................................................................
St. Louis, Mo....................................................................................
St. Paul, Minn.................................................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah ................................................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.......................................................................
Scranton, Pa .....................................................................................
Seattle, Wash...................................................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak ....................................................................
Syracuse, N. Y . ..............................................................................
Tacoma, W ash. ..............................................................................
Terre Haute, Ind ..........................................................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................................................
Topeka, a n s ....................................................
Trenton, N. J ...................................................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a..............................................
Wilmington, D e l..............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
'

l

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

112
51
82
360
33
692
273
62
90
1,805
305
1,111
18
104
243
269
46
61
99
353
25
94
167
238
140
63
116
18
357
274
202
227
356
525
2,177*
42
39
170
175
2,829
86
67
51
742
699
132
67
370
16
97
421
1,330
171
246
66
48
140
125
41
268
213
83
171
60
87
1,214
43
73
198
348

a Greater New York.

106
50
146
305
39
594
301
89
82
1,943
378
1,047
23
125
245
281
44
68
90
344
107
120
156
250
170
66
190
18
398
257
204
230
447
533
2,193
46
54
174
131
3,073
107
63
57
919
860
* 155
69
431
23
114
400
1,741
183
170
68
50
150
140
36
275
175
86
140
50
62
1,132
51
75
282
371

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
pernour.
1905.

1905.

1906.

48.00
60.00
60.00
48.00
63.64
44.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
44.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
45.75
48.00
54.00
48.00
60.00
54.00
56.00
48.00
48 00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

48.00 $0.2063
.1138
60.00
.1155
60.00
.2083
48.00
.0871
60.00
.2736
44.00
.1875
48.00
.3750
48.00
.1156
60.00
.2429
48.00
.2014
48.00
.2192
48.00
.2188
48.00
.2500
48.00
.2536
48.00
.2188
48.00
.1548
54.00
.2500
48.00
.1875
48.00
.2500
48.00
.1750
60.00
60.00
.1500
.2094
48.00
48.00 , .2000
.1486
54.00
.3424
44.00
.2188
48.00
.1442
60.00
.2500
48.00
.1677
54.00
.2500
48.00
.1806
54.00
.1864
48.00
.2194
48.00
.2313
48.00
.1667
54.00
.0833
60.00
.1667
54.00
.1984
54.00
48.00
.2591
.1667
54.00
48.00
.2200
.2188
48.00
.2162
45.76
.2188
48.00
.1944
54.00
.2589
48.00
.1588
60.19
54.00
.1806
56.00
.1869
.1911
48.00
.1875
48.00
48.00
.2000
48.00
.2500
.1875
48.00
48.00
.3125
48.00
.1875
48.00 ' .2813
60.00
.2000
.1902
48.00
48.00
.2298
48.00
.2000
48.00
.1928
48.00
.2000
.1500
60.00
.1947
48.00
.1944
54.00
48.00
.1875
48.00
.1875
48.00
.2352

1906.
$0.2063
.1377
.1091
O O
A
•A Q
m u
I/O
QA
A
075ft
• Z/dO
1Q
7(v
• XOtO
Q A
7K
•A U
iO
11 D
ft
• 11A
o
O 4A
K
• 0107
Zl9l
•Old
Zm
01 ftft
. iiloo
KA
•O U
ZA
OU
Ruo
•O Q
ZD Q
01 ftft
•Zloo
ft7
• 1A
lOoi
KU
•O U
ZA
OO
• Iftftft
looo
0500
• ZOUU
1 750
• 1/OU
i son
♦10UU
0111
•Z l l l
onnn
♦ZUUU
• 1507
1091
• uOUO

.2188
.1442

• 9 5 00
ZOw

.1680

•0500
ZOUU
IftOA
• lol/O
• 1ft75
lo /O

.2204
.2500
.1667
• lOOO
llnJU

.1667
.1946

OAQO
• ZOoU

.1944
.2200
.2188
.2161
.2188
.1944
.2813
.1599
.1776
.1875
.1912
.1875
.2000
.2813
.1875
.3125
.1875
.2813
.2000
.1923
.2500
.2000
.1949
.2000
.1500
.1953
.1944
.2104
.1929
.2348

160

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able IV .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES—Concluded.

TOBACCO, CIGAR S.
CIGAR MAKJERS, M ale.
Num­
ber of
estab1i all
usnments.

Locality.

Boston, Mass.....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Indianapolis, Ind...............................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
Tampa, F la........................................................

3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
5

Number of
employees.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

1905.

275
79
28
35
37
116
225
31
2,286

307
101
30
39
38
115
236
32
2,250

45.70
47.39
44.00
45.37
45.78
48.47
53.41
48.00
60.00

45.00
48.00
44.00
45.03
45.79
47.72
53.54
48.00
60.00

10.4297
.3416
.2629
.3180
.3609
.3199
.2496
.2843
.2906

$0.4819
.3510
.2895
.2719
.3508
.3406
.2654
.2871
.3026

53 57.94
78 45.89
32 48.00
105 53.05
8 44.00
104 52.98
27 49.83
515 56.43
51 46.39
74 48.95
10 51.00
186 60.00

53.21
45.00
48.00
52.93
44.00
52.02
49.78
55.80
46.45
49.12
51.00
60.00

$0.0718
.1429
.1325
.1136
.1269
.0708
.0816
.0997
.0989
.1187
.1052
.1335

$0.0883
.1417
.1423
.1133
.1219
.0821
.0666
.1047
.0896
.1164
.1053
.1417

1906.

STEM JftEBS, F e m a le .
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, M.ass.....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Detroit, Mich.......... : ........................................
Milwaukee, W is.............. ..................................
New York, N. Y .(a )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a............................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
Tampa, F la........................................................




2
3
2
3
2
3
2
7
3
3
2
5

53
61
37
79
6
107
24
494
64
91
10
171

a Greater New York.

WAGES

161

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906,

T a b l e V .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES.

A G R IC U I/T U R A Ii IM P LE M E N TS.
MACHINE W OODW ORKERS, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

State.

California...........................................................
Illinois................................................................
Kentucky...........................................................
New Y ork..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Wisconsin..............................................*...........

2
7
2
3
3
3

8
275
33
70
38
43

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

10
276
32
70
37
30

54.00
58.62
60.00
59.86
58.53
56.86

54.00
58.60
60.00
58.43
58.54
55.67

10.3161
.2546
.2505
.2058
.2011
.2000

$0.3277
.2598
.2314
.2106
.1064
.2138

57
387
74
60
237

54.00
58.36
59.81
58.52
56.46

54.00
58.56
59.78
58.52
55.12

$0.3034
.2827
.2456
.2099
.2473

$0.3347
.2869
.2534
.2138
.2862

16
479
45
291
86
135

54.00
58.24
60.00
59.91
58.92
57.17

54.00
58.21
60.00
59.90
58.91
55.62

$0.3718
.2930
.3083
.2421
.3246
.3243

$0.4026
.3042
. 3173
.2580
.3157
.3389

5
336
31
34
25
65

54.00
58.77
60.00
59.83
58.44
56.35

54.00
58.76
60.00
59.85
58.56
55.37

$0.3063
.2471
.3177
.2392
.2193
.2615

$0.3385
.2548
.3115
.2484
.2282
.2967

19 55.00
13 59.00
98 55.61
25 54.00
28 58.09
33 59.52
21 54.32
26 58.78
12 58.42
9 59.45

55.00
59.00
54.61
58.60
57.93
59.55
54.48
58.88
58.33
57.78

$0.1975
.1802
.2066
.1810
.1560
.1818
.2056
.1487
.1392
.1459

$0.2336
.1750
.1956
.1793
.1618
.1696
.2095
.1579
.1604
.1737

55.00
59.00
55.67
59.13
57.80
59.40
54.00
59.50
58.33
56.36

$0.2523
.2252
.2811
.2228
.2865
.2094
.2620
.2460
.2224
.2431

$0.2523
.2252
.2895
.2252
.2878
.2094
.2620
.2489
.2224
.2558

1906.

M ACHINISTS, M ale.
California.
Illinois_
_
New York
Ohio.........
Wisconsin

2
7
3
3
3

34
393
75
54
261

M OLRERS, IRON, M ale.
California.................. .*.......................................
Illinois................................................................
Kentucky...........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

2
7
2
3
2
3

13
393
46
291
86
138

P A IN T E R S, M ale.
California...........................................................
Illinois................................................................
Kentucky...........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

2
7
2
3
3
3

6
358
32
30
25
95

BOOTS A N D SHOES.
CLOSERS-ON, F em a le .
Illinois................................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

4
3
14
2
3
3
6
4
3
2

20
12
69
19
35
33
19
23
12
11

CUTTERS, OUTSOLE, M ale.
Illinois................................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire.................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................




3
2
13
2
2
3
2
4
3
2

8
14
62
14
9
15
2
17
9
11

8
14
63
16
10
15
2
16
9
11

55.00
59.00
55.85
59.14
57.89
59.40
54.00
59.53
58.33
59.27

162

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e V .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES—Continued.

BOOTS A N D SHOES—Continued.
CUTTERS, U P P E R , M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

State.

Illinois................................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire.................................................
New Y ork..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................

4
3
15
2
3
3
6
:4
3
2

113
72
707
64
237
129
82
115
81
28

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
perhour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

123 55.00
82 59.00
784 55.00
71 59.50
223 58.36
122 59.34
102 55.58
121 56.14
79 58.25
29 59.61

55.00
59.00
54.72
59.48
58.26
59.37
55.78
56.31
58.24
58.10

$0.2805
.2487
.2920
.2517
.2653
.2458
.3139
.3288
.2607
.2391

$0.2933
.2501
.2910
.2573
.2683
.2455
.3185
.3413
.2666
.2455

55.00
59.00
54.89
59.38
58.04
59.56
54.72
59.20
58.33
57.50

$0.4012
.2902
.3989
.2729
.3699
.2824
.4524
.3202
.3220
.2944

$0.4450
.2697
.3825
.2789
.3648
.2919
.4402
.3224
.3979
.3066

55.00
59.00
54.94
59.45
58.67
55.95
58.79
58.08
59.60

55.00
59.00
54.61
59.40
58.60
56.29
58.79
58.07
57.00

$0.4940
.3199
.4397
.2931
.3278
.3357
.3076
.2712
.3630

$0.5055
.2826
.4137
.2916
.3204
.3247
. 3140
.3055
.3612

55.00
59.00
55.78
59.09
58.32
59.28
54.50
59.49
58.12
59.41

55.00
59.00
55.67
59.45
58.11
59.31
54.52
58.82
58.12
56.88

$0.2936
.2434
.3544
.2674
.2969
.2482
.3438
.3230
.2250
.2874

$0.3327
.2358
.3517
.2898
.3058
.2561
.3242
.3312
.2278
.2898

59 55.00
14 59.00
407 54.98
11 59.36
44 58.57
60 59.69
8 57.50
7 58.00
12 59.71

55.00
59.00
54.68
59.36
58.41
59.72
58.75
58.00
58.75

$0.3019
.2468
.2780
.1935
.2117
.1672
.1902
.2247
.2022

$0.3120
.2595
.2549
.2013
.2274
.1667
.2035
.2572
.2247

1906.

EDG E T R IM M E R S, M ale.
Illinois................................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts....................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire.................................................
New York...........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................

4
3
15
2
3
3
6
4
3
2

32
13
179
9
44
29
16
28
14
7

34
14
230
8
48
27
18
30
15
6

55.00
59.00
55.27
59.44
58.23
59.52
54.50
59.14
58.43
59.57

GOODYEAR ST IT C H ER S, M ale.
Hlinois................................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio........................................................ '..........
Pennsylvania.....................................................
W isconsin...........................................................

4
3
12
2
3
6
4
3
2

28
6
134
11
48
19
19
12
5

31
6
165
10
40
21
19
14
5

MASTERS, MACHINE, M ale.
Hlinois................................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

4
3
14
2
3
3
6
4
3
2

177
54
277
11
82
109
26
45
73
17

198
55
293
11
85
101
25
38
73
16

T R E E R S , M ale.
Illinois................................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire.................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................




4
3
13
2
3
2
2
2
2

53
14
324
11
42
64
10
7
14

163

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T

able

V .—

AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 A ND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES—Continued.

BOOTS ANTI) SHOES—Concluded.
V A M P E B 8, F em a le .
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

State.

Illinois................................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire .................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................

4
3
16
2
3
3
6
4
3
2

53
19
259
29
91
46
37
79
35
12

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
p e r l lout.

1905.

1906.

1905.

55.00
59.00
55.79
54.00
58.32
59.43
54.68
59.48
58.26
59.50

55.00
59.00
55.33
55.17
58.07
59.47
54.66
59.31
58.31
57.73

30.2206
.2146
.2385
.2020
.2261
.2158
.2051
.1809
.1788
.1926

30.2173
.2071
.2542
.2044
.2365
.2233
.2317
.1813
.1863
.2251

54.00
53.54
59.02
56.30
55.13
57.37
54.87
56.35
57.03
60.00
59.70
59.42

54.00
53.56
58.90
55.00
55.07
55.90
53.59
56.56
56.11
60.00
59.67
59.32

30.3528
.3441
.2639
.2624
.3133
.2838
.2530
.2584
.3540
.2663
.3306
.2779

30.3494
.3575
.2759
.2687
.3090
.2936
.2810
.2843
.3633
.2653
.3268
.2814

103 54.00
201 54.04
85 56.78
91 56.70
61 55.18
17 54.67
85 56.48
57 55.38
36 59.83

54.00
53.69
60.00
55.00
55.31
52.24
53.88
55.05
59.81

30.3850
.3382
.2915
.2481
.3577
.3331
.2626
.2891
.3559

30.3808
.3417
.2836
.2557
.3621
.3527
.2751
.3160
.3504

54
21
285
30
99
45
38
88
36
11

1906.

CARS, STEAM R A IL R O A D .
BLACKSM ITHS, M ale.
California...........................................................
Illinois................................................................
Indiana...........................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri..............................................................
New York...........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Tennessee...........................................................
Texas..................................................................
Virginia..............................................................

3
6
4
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
2

111
196
61
92
48
65
92
96
177
15
54
31

158
218
60
81
58
70
103
111
144
15
67
28

B O IL E R M A K E R S, M ale.
California...........................................................
Illinois................................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland............................................................
Minnesota...........................................................
Missouri..............................................................
New York...........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Texas..................................................................

2
5
3
2
2
2
2
2
2

120
166
82
100
51
21
87
48
40

CABINETM AKERS, M ale.
Delaware............................................................
Illinois................................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
Ohio....................................................................

2
3
2
2
2
2

61
328
27
15
37
148

54.00
54.29
56.25
57.40
59.00
56.61

54.00
54.09
55.00
57.40
57.78
57.41

30.2760
.3312
.2327
.2567
.2566
.2748

30.2457
.3535
.2284
.2567
.2843
.2955

29
,200
1,213
220
214
174
306
424
536
328
29
115
155

54.00
54.00
55.57
59.41
55.38
57.24
57.58
53.81
57.24
57.39
60.00
56.81
59.05

54.00
54.00
55.39
59.62
55.00
57.07
55.12
53.25
57.90
57.76
60.00
56.90
59.06

30.3118
.2703
.3106
.2539
.2013
.2306
.2633
.2444
.2876
.2796
.2054
.2895
.2104

30.3443
.2441
.3291
.2787
.2174
.2358
.2531
.2520
.3062
.3029
.1986
.2910
.2105

40
252
28
15
28
132

C A R PE N TE R S, M ale.
California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Illinois................................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland............................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Y ork..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Tennessee...........................................................
Texas.................................................................
Virginia..............................................................




3
2
6
4
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
2

26
114
1,098
194
185
133
411
395
511
343
28
116
152

164
T

able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
V .—

AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES—Continued.
C A R S , S T E A M R A I L R O A D —Continued.
L ABO R ERS, M ale.
Num­ Number of | Average
ber of employees. . hours per
week.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906. i 1905. 1906.

State.

California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio..................................................... .............
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Tennessee...........................................................
Texas.................................................................
Virginia..............................................................

3
462
468
2
151
156
6 2,616 2,804
4
242
260
2
372
233
2
128
128
2
151
110
3
369
401
3
504
776
2 1,379 1,421
2
82
81
394
423
2
2
219
150

54.00
54.00
54.34
59.01
57.35
56.96
56.81
54.29
56.98
56.46
60.00
59.72
59.61

Average wages
per nour.
1905.

1906.

54.00
54.00
54.38
58.96
55.00
56.94
52.09
53.14
57.50
56.45
60.00
59.73
59.52

$0.2024
.1428
.1688
.1458
.1376
.1563
.1569
.1427
.1464
.1362
.1162
.1438
.1160

$0.2001
.1490
.1705
.1484
.1414
.1642
.1610
.1433
.1498
.1400
.3183
.1499
.1204

MACHINE W OODW ORKERS, M ale.
Delaware............................................................
Illinois...............................................................

I n d ia n a _______________________________________
M in n eso ta ___ _______

Missouri.............................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Tennessee...........................................................
Texas.................................................................
Virginia..............................................................

2
5
3
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
2

84
242
35
27
92
49
170
67
11
23
17

112
330
36
30
97
50
213
57
11
24
17

54.00
54.18
60.00
57.56
58.28
53.67
57.26
56.57
60.00
57.17
59.41

54.00
54.18
60.00
57.30
57.55
54.20
57.33
56.93
60.00
56.75
59.29

$0.2710
.2791
.2264
.2153
.2337
.2267
.2124
.2513
.2086
.2717
.2256

$0.2366
.2884
.2349
.2287
.2380
.2258
.2181
.2741
.1986
.2738
.2244

365
13
866
224
466
263
132
319
311
784
78
155
144

54.00
54.00
52.83
57.54
56.05
53.45
56.37
55.61
55.71
55.55
60.00
56.50
59.53

54.00
54.00
53.07
57.80
55.00
55.09
54.69
52.73
55.93
55.51
60.00
56.10
59.44

$0.3575
.2719
.3340
.2894
.2689
.3444
.3144
.2530
.2573
.3396
.2880
.3527
.2844

$0.4066
.2531
.3381
.2878
.2789
.3453
.3199
.2588
.2770
.3452
.2897
.3378
.2925

98
102
274
37
107
95
111
134
218
139
44
45

54.00
54.00
55.04
58.58
56.99
57.19
58.00
51.24
56.83
57.60
57.74
59.52

54.00
54.00
54.97
59.19
55.00
57.42
57.51
50.90
57.10
57.73
57.64
59.36

$0.2893
.2852
.3099
.2277
.2069
.2271
.2643
.3636
.2437
.3283
.2812
.2076

$0.2905
.2658
.3277
.2310
.2394
.2347
„ .2769
.3517
.2588
.3005
.2763
.2092

MACHINISTS, M ale.
California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri....................................... .....................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Tennessee................... -.....................................
Texas.................................................................
Virginia..............................................................

3
2
6
4
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
2

478
12
851
232
507
233
155
315
271
677
73
130
134

P A IN T E R S, M ale.
California...........................................................
Delaware......................... ..................................
Illinois...............................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri...........................................................
New York........................................... » .............
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Texas.................................................................
Virginia.............................................................




3
2
6
4
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2

83
66
220
38
88
98
110
132
222
144
43
54

165

WAGES AJtfD HOURS OF LA BOB, 1890 TO 1906,

T a b l e V . — AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 A ND 1906, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES—Continued.

CARS, STEAM R A IL R O A D —Concluded.
U PH O L ST E R E R S, M ale.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

State.

California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
•Illinois...............................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Y ork..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Texas.................................................................
Virginia..............................................................

2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

25
11
50
3
22
16
13
13
44
6
8

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1908.

1905.

54.00
54.00
54.30
60.00
55.45
56.75
59.00
50.77
57.36
55.67
59.75

54.00
54.00
54.18
60.00
55.00
56.75
56.69
50.77
57.00
55.43
59.50

$0.3010
.2691
.3250
.2234
.2085
.2225
.2588
.2477
.2618
.2958
.2175

$0.3025
.2821
.3600
.2363
.2151
.2351
.2773
.2477
.2673
.2964
.2256

6 64.71
40 66.00
34 60.00
125 58.00
107 60.00
17 66.00
21 60.00
29 58.00
48 66.00

65.00
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
63.41
60.00
58.00
65.00

$0.0763
.0820
.1130
.1196
.1135
.0934
.1196
.1258
.0729

$0.1033
.0862
.1196
.1284
.1267
.0914
.1204
.1275
.0858

23 65.48
54 66.00
67 60.00
206 58.00
294 60.00
24 66.00
18 60.00
55 '58.00
53 66.00

65.48
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
63.17
60.00
58.00
65.62

$0.1423
.1371
.1940
.2166
.2083
.1453
.1620
.2062
.1320

$0.1598
.1478
.2075
.2297
.2194
.1634,
.1656
.2169
.1346

65.33
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
65.27
60.00
58.00
66.00

65.24
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
63.13
60.00
58.00
65.75

$0.0462
.0754
.0941
.1055
.0966
.0690
.0872
.0983
.0746

$0.0596
.0787
.1088
. 1221
.1039
.0754
.0950
.1097
.0775

60.00
58.00
58.00

60.00
58.00
58.00

$0.2069
.2026
.1913

$0.2192
.2154
.2032

30
14
100
4
23
16
13
13
48
7
8

1906.

COTTON GOODS.
CABDING-MACHINE TEN D ER S, M ale.
Alabama.............................................. .............
Georgia..............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
North Carolina.................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................
South Carolina..................................................

2
5
3
6
2
3
3
2
2

7
41
33
120
71
14
20
26
43

LOOM F IX E R S , M ale.
2
5
3
6
2
3
2
2
2

Alabama............
Georgia.............
Maine................
Massachusetts..
New Hampshire.
North Carolina.
Pennsylvania...
Rhode Islan d ...
South Carolina..

23
57
66
183
225
24
18
67
52

SPIN NERS, F R A M E , F em a le .
Alabama............................................................
Georgia..............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
North Carolina..................................................
P p .T i n s y l v A .n ia ....................................................................................

Rhr»de Ts i A n d ....................................................................... ............
South Carolina..............................„..................

2
5
3
6
2
3
2
2
2

175
246
245
1,096
599
98
54
116
228

147
261
200
987
776
80
55
123
212

SPINNERS, MULE, M ale.
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................




3
3
2

31
46
44

29
47
48

166

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e V . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES—Continued.
C O T T O N G O O D S —Concluded.
W E A V E R S, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estabHoVfc
usnments. 1905. 1906.

State.

Alabama.............................................................
Georgia...............................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts....................................................
North Carolina..................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................
South Carolina...................................................

2
4
3
6
3
2
2
2

146
223
197
895
127
61
309
244

106
241
159
1,281
105
54
298
246

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
p erl lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

65.84
66.00
60.00
58.00
66.00
60.00
58.00
66.00

65.72
66.00
60.00
58.00
63.52
60.00
58.00
65.63

10.0940
.1055
.1581
.1646
.1101
.1276
.1475
.1028

$0.1153
.1118
.1748
.1725
.1237
.1341
.1646
.1105

64.98
66.00
60.00
58.00
66.00
60.00
58.00
66.00

64.52
66.00
60.00
58.00
64.19
60.00
58.00
65.51

30.0814
.0915
.1348
.1478
.0933
.1323
.1355
.0919

30.0901
.0957
.1474
.1552
.0963
.1310
.1505
.0975

1906.

W E A V E R S, F em a le .
Alabama..........
Georgia............
Maine...............
M assachusetts..
North Carolina..
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Islan d ...
South Carolina..

2
4
3
6
3
2
2
2

235
428
574
1,980
75
220
428
83

132
347
468
1,784
64
201
373
107

D Y E IN G , F IN IS H IN G , A N D P R IN T IN G T E X T IL E S .
BLEACHERS^ M ale.
Massachusetts....................................................
New Jersey.........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

4
3
2
5

96
38
11
249

113
48
16
245

58.00
58.68
60.00
59.57

58.00
58.65
60.00
58.55

30.1179
.1449
.1538
.1178

30.1214
.1464
.1672
.1252

25
57
27
199

58.00
58.67
60.00
59.43

58.00
58.67
60.00
59.11

30.1332
.1567
.1569
.1369

30.1342
.1562
.1562
.1391

163
40
104
176

58.00
58.76
60.00
59.48

58.00
58.73
60.00
58.44

30.1291
.1441
.1758
.1364

30.1322
.1436
.1816
.1380

41
16
15
29

58.00
59.38
60.00
57.14

58.00 30.4451
.3654
59.38
60.00 . .4594
.4787
57.07

30.4362
.3654
.4812
.4904

CALENDRERS, M ale.
Massachusetts....................................................
New Jersey.........................................................
Pennsylvania__I...............................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

4
3
2
5

21
49
24
220

D Y E R S , M ale.
Massachusetts........................ I.........................
New Jersey.........................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

4
3
5
5

133
37
97
173

P R IN T E R S , M ale
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey.........................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................




3
2
3
3

40
16
18
28

167

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e V . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES—Continued.
H A T S, FU R .
F IN IS H E R S , M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

State.

New Jersey.........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

4
2
5

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
pernour.

1906.

1905.

279
156
323

50.31
58.53
54.97

50.38
58.* 49
54.89

10.3470
- .3025
.2755

$0.3823
.3155
.2888

111
341
198
543

54.79
50.23
57.97
54.85

54.68
50.29
57.96
54.81

$0.3121
.3041
.2607
.2492

$0.3504
.3469
.2748
.2595

233
355
555

278
160
349

1905.

50.41
57.71
54.58

50.41
57.68
54.44

$0.1803
.1467
.1117

$0.1847
.1346
.1208

1906.

SIZ E R S, M ale.
Connecticut........................................................
New Jersey.........................................................
New York..........................................................
P e n n s y lv a n ia .

.

2
4
2
5

96
350
202
478

TR IM M ER S, F em a le .
New Jersey.........................................................
New York...........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

4
2
5

230
353
481

H O SIE R Y A N D K N IT GOODS.
F IN IS H E R S , F em a le .
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................

8
3
2

355
89
140

392
91
145

59.12
60.00
59.52

59.53
59.73
59.55

$0.1304
.1148
.0787

95
83
241
167

58.17
58.96
59.95
59.92

55.82
59.13
59.67
59.91

$0.1398
.1125
.1331
.0928

$0.1406
.1149
.1430
.0948

8 58.45 58.25 $0.1985

K N IT T E R S , F em a le .
Massachusetts...................................................
New Y ork..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................

2
5
4
2

63
69
222
152

LEATHER.
F liE S H E R S , M ale.
Illinois................................................................
Kentucky...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Michigan............................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New Y ork...........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Virginia..............................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

3
4
3
2
5
4
3
12
6
4

11
11
21

9

62
17
10
70
34
40

12
21
6
22
17
10
81
40
36

58.45
59.00
55.89
59.26
59.53
58.20
59.27
60.00
59.90

58.00
59.00
57.83
57.91
59.53
57.60
59.31
60.00
59.89

.2009
.1824
.1986
.1640
.1766
.2109
.1890
.1486
.1948

$0.2010
.2066
.1848
.1822
.2313
.1789
.2208
.1883
.1594
.1898

92
22
172
26
373

60.00
59.00
59.00
59.15
59.38

60.00
59.00
59.00
59.15
59.44

$0.1823
.1526
.1670
.1660
.1812

$0.1840
.1514
.1716
.1666
.1686

GLAZERS, Male*
Delaware............................................................
Illinois................................................................
Massachusetts....................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................




2
2
4
5

4

72
18
111
27
379

168

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e V . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES—Continued.
L E A T H E R —Concluded.
LIJHERS, M ale*

State.

California.......
Delaware.......
Illinois...........
Kentucky.......
Massachusetts
Michigan.........
New Jersey...
New York___
Ohio...............
Pennsylvania.
Virginia..........
Wisconsin____

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1906. 1906.
2
2
3
4
3
2
4
6
3
6
4
5

6
17
26
23
68
7
10
26
8
96
20
84

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

7 57.83
29 60.00
24 58.77
16 59.39
83 59.00
7 58.29
11 56.20
32 59.54
8 58.50
112 57.92
20 60.00
79 59.90

56.14
60.00
58.75
59.13
59.00
58.29
55.91
59.00
58.50
58.40
60.00
59.90

$0.2076
.1667
.1820
.1258
.1585
.1765
.2332
.1678
.1843
.1957
.1230
.1622

$0.2670
.1673
.1632
.1377
.1593
.1765
.2377
.1688
.1936
.1941
.1296
.1691

1906.

S E T T E R S OUT, M ale.
California.......
Delaware........
Illinois..'........
Massachusetts
New Jersey...
New York......
Ohio...............
Pennsylvania.
Wisconsin.......

2
2
2
4
3
6
3
5
4

6
13
15
55
46
56
26
49
85

6
21
17
77
49
52
26
43
94

57.00
60.00
59.00
59.00
59.26
59.41
56.31
58.98
59.92

56.00
60.00
59.00
59.00
59.31
59.38
56.31
59.02
59.93

$0.2456
.1359
.2067
.1672
.1629
.1924
.2464
.1800
.2082

$0.2866
.1393
.2078
.1698
.1583
.1963
.2519
.1935
.2058

44
35
107
15
224
31

60.00
59.00
59.00
58.95
59.54
59.87

60.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.55
59.87

$0.1776
.1741
.1773
.1612
.2267
.1703

$0.1847
.1707
.1752
.1538
.2314
.1705

9
58
31
35
103
68
62
48
227
164
181

57.83
60.00
57.94
59.66
59.00
58.34
59.87
56.74
59.17
60.00
59.95

55.67
60.00
57.65
59.66
59.00
57.94
59.92
57.13
59.26
60.00
59.94

$0.2003
.1346
.1806
.1228
.1588
.1606
.1476
.1760
.1583
.1251
.1656

$0.2416
.1320
.1834
.1345
.1579
.1742
.1503
.1754
.1608
.1272
.1674

11
36
31
7
57
21
22
6
85
55
31

57.00
60.00
58.27
60.00
59.00
58.29
59.41
56.00
58.68
60.00
59.87

56.18
60.00
58.23
60.00
59.00
58.05
59.32
56.00
59.02
60.00
59.77

$0.2337
.1701
.2052
.1340
.1732
.2074
.1587
.2127
* .2425
.1341
.1976

$0.2638
. 1676
.2053
.1498
.1722
.2112
.1637
.2141
.2403
. 1400
.2003

S I A K E R S , M ale.
Delaware........
Illinois...........
Massachusetts,
New York......
Pennsylvania.
Wisconsin.......

2
2
4
3
4
4

43
39
67
22
203
31

TAN YA RD HANDS, M ale.
California.......
Delaware........
Illinois...........
Kentucky.......
Massachusetts
New Jersey...
New York___
Ohio...............
Pennsylvania.
Virginia..........
Wisconsin.......

2
2
3
3
3
5
5
3
12
6
5

12
46
34
35
70
85
70
46
199
143
188

IJN H A IR ER S, M ale.
California.......
Delaware........
Illinois............
Kentucky.......
Massachusetts
New Jersey...
New York---Ohio...............
Pennsylvania.
Virginia..........
Wisconsin.......




2
2
3
2
2
4
6
2
10
6
5

14
59
33
13
41
24
29
6
74
60
54

169

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e V . — AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES—Continued.
LU M BER .
CARRIAGE: MEN, M ale.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estabI 2 mI*

Number of
employees.

ments.

State.

1905.

1906.

1905.

1906.

G

6
19
11
14
15
13
8
9
4
11
4
5
19
19

60.00
65.37
62.67
61.71
64.00
60.00
60.00
59.70
60.00
60.00
58.25
61.80
60.00
60.00

60.00 $0.1450
.1632
60.95
62.18
.1585
61.71
.1954
60.00
.1664
60.00
.1958
60.00
.2938
59.67
.1700
60.00
.1663
60.00
.2159
58.25
.1995
61.80
.1360
C . 00
O
.1927
60.00 . .1858

USD-

Alabama.............................................................
Arkansas............................................................
Florida...............................................................
Iow a...................................................................
Louisiana...........................................................
Michigan............................................................
Minnesota...........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Oregon...............................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
South Carolina...................................................
Washington................................ '.......................
Wisconsin...........................................................

3
5
4
4
6
6

3
3

2

2
3
2
4
6

19
9
14
15
12
8
10
4
11
4
5
22
19

Averag e wages
per 1lour.
1905.

1906.
$0.1500
.1758
.1620
.2019
.1783
.1942
.3125
.1750
.1688
.2273
.1995
.1360
.2171
.1961
As________

CH O PPERS AND SA W Y E R S IN WOODS, M ale.
Arkansas............................................................
California...........................................................
Florida...............................................................
Georgia..............................................................
Michigan............................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
Washington.......................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................

4
3
4
2
5
3
2
2
5

60
146
89
18
225
1,142
101
75
295

59
155
118
19
318
1,229
107
86
307

66.00
66.00
60.00
51.33
62.11
60.00
60.00
63.12
60.00

62.44
66.00
60.00
50.84
62.07
60.00
60.00
62.79
60.00

$0.1818
.2618
.1467
.1642
.1595
.1889
.1767
.2614
.1749

$0.1957
.2625
.1552
.1658
.1634
.2008
.1785
.2744
.1796

127
498
210
649
54
62
432
698
160
397
540
357
169
381
49
59
394
1,352
514

60.00
65.52
60.00
60.57
64.50
60.00
61.35
63.81
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.57
60.00
60.00
58.57
62.31
60.00
60.00
60.00

60.00
60.19
60.00
60.11
64.50
60.00
61.32
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.56
60.00
60.00
58.57
62.08
60.00
60.00
60.00

$0.1358
.1450
.1987
.1259
.0966
.1439
.1607
.1369
.1652
.1624
.1970
.1524
.1706
.2135
.1812
.0875
.1271
.1791
.1565

$0.1357
.1577
.2089
.1448
.1163
.1431
.1684
.1458
.1641
.1664
.2070
.1567
.1771
.2283
.1805
.0992
.1404
.2039
.1680

54.60
57.98
60.00
68.90
71.36
72.00
72.00

$0.2128
.1650
.1827
.1575
.1306
.1554
.1480

$0.2108
.1644
.1881
.1571
.1353
.1545
.1482

L A B O R E R S, M ale.
Alabama............................................................
Ar k a n sa s .......... ..........................................................
California...........................................................
Florida...............................................................
Georgia..............................................................
I n d ia n a ........................................................................

Iow a...................................................................
Louisiana...........................................................
Maine.................................................................
Michigan............................................................
Minnesota............ -...........................................
Missouri.............................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Oregon...............................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
South Carolina..................................................
Tennessee...........................................................
Washington.......................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

3
127
5
492
2
180
5
350
2
56
2
66
434
4
6
693
2
92
6
386
4
479
3
377
2
176
2
454
3
49
2 * 78
2
410
884
4
6
614

P A P E R A N D W OOD P U L P .
B E A T E R S , M ale.
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................

M ich igan ................... ..................................................

New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
W isconsin.!.......................................................




2
5
2
5
2
3
4

155
101
28
69
26
53
68

146
103
35
71
28
55
67

53.99
59.13
60.00
68.71
71.38
72.00
72.00

170

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table V .— AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES— Continued.

P A P E R A N D W O O D P U L P -C o n clu d ed .
CALENDRERS, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establies'll
lisnments. 1905. 1906.

State.

Massachusetts....................................................
Michigan.............................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................

3
3
3
4

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

30
35
53
36

66.79
60.00
65.31
66.19

66.20
60.00
63.17
68.00

$0.1725
.1970
.1621
.1537

$0.1741
.1948
.1598
.1551

210
120
107
282
78
354
55

55.63
57.54
60.00
59.98
59.62
63.86
62.16

55.09
57.88
60.00
59.98
59.65
61.79
63.49

10.1768
.1588
.1500
.1464
.1412
.1462
.1454

$0.1804
.1596
.1514
.1511
.1513
.1506
.1464

53.45
58.63
60.00
67.17
71.55
72.00
72.00

53.47
58.48
60.00
67.24
71.60
72.00
72.00

$0.3088
.2244
.3250
.3121
.2399
.2729
.2685

$0.3086
.2257
.3196
.3186
.2386
.2737
.2610

54.31
60.00
60.00

52.21
60.00
60.00

$0.0974
.1277
.0923

$0.1046
.1134
.0976

54.00
54.00
55.75
56.00
54.00
54.50
53.57
60.00
58.37

53.81
54.00
55.42
55.93
54.00
54.55
53.53
60.00
58.63

$0.3448
.2484
.2656
.2608
.2937
.3245
.3440
.2717
.2811

$0.3766
.2770
.2737
.2606
.3030
.3313
.3628
.2819
.2855

55.54
54.00
55.18
49.19
53.13
60.00
58.61

54.00
54.00
55.23
49.47
53.08
60.00
59.16

$0.3637
.2508
.2689
.3678
.3182
.2873
*.2443

$0.4382
.2670
.2713
.3632
.3352
.3001
.2493

28
22
35
31

1906.

L ABO R ERS, M ale.
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Michigan.............................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................

3
5
3
5
2
2
4

236
111
55
280
73
404
89

MACHINE T E N D E R S, M ale.
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Michigan.............................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................

3
5
2
5
2
3
4

72
73
14
45
10
33
24

69
72
10
47
11
33
24

RAO SO R T ER S, F e m a le .
Massachusetts ................................................
Michigan............................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

4
2
3

192
15
49

195
20
45

S H IP B U IL D IN G .
BLACKSM ITHS, M ale.
California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Maine..................................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
2
3
2
2
2
4

2
3

41
21
16
17
21
10
14
24
43

32
13
19
15
16
11
17
21
40

B O IL E R M A K E R S, M ale.
California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
New Jersey.........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................




2
2
2
2
2
2
3

39
42
65
59
15
47
118

50
38
64
62
24
50
170

171

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T able

V .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES—Continued.
S H I P B m M X E N G —Continued.
CALKERS, IRON, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establid'll
nsnments. 1905. 1906.

State.

New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania....... , ............................................

2
2
3

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per nour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

53.85
60.00
59.32

53.89
60.00
59.59

$0.3022
.2640
.2697

$0.3042
.2632
.2726

22

133
84

56.59
54.00
48.48
50.32
53.62

57.53
54.00
48.55
49.53
53.80

$0.2980
.2778
.3895
.3887
.3251

$0.2739
.3056
.3872
.4199
.3277

136
143
191
70
94
244
343
129
243

58.41
54.00
56.26
54.42
51.29
50.72
53.68
60.00
59.00

52.46
54.00
56.87
54.49
51.64
50.37
53.55
60.00
58.89

$0.3715
.2756
.2487
.2935
.3301
.3794
.3033
.2957
.2962

$0.4470
.2947
.2396
.3190
.3352
.4038
.3059
.2965
.2942

25
35
23
76
304

54.00
55.10
53.70
60.00
59.62

54.00
55.23
53.87
60.00
59.54

$0.1570
.1817
.2286
.1738
.2345

$0.1684
.1852
.2260
.1726
.2430

73
51
28
48
151

54.00
55.51
54.00
53.73
60.00
57.87

54.00
55.69
54.00
53.71
60.00
58.23

$0.2375
.2630
.3060
.3077
.2665
.2379

$0.2758
.2760
.2952
.3107
.2728
.2386

177
95
28
59
60
32
57
70
217

54.29
54.00
57.20
55.95
52.78
57.27
54.12
60.00
58.99

53.69
54.00
56.43
55.31
52.80
56.56
53.96
60.00
59.03

$0.3658
.2612
.2500
.2639
.3301
.2875
.3167
.2983
.2772

$0.4352
.2830
.2482
.2931
.3403
.2984
.3333
.2941
.2866

20

28
57
217

57
269

1906.

CALKERS, WOOD, M ale.
Maine..................................................................
Maryland............................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey.................................................. .
New York..........................................................

3

2
3
2
7

75
55

56
60
25
93
107

C AR PEN TER S, M ale.
California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey__.N
..................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

3
3
4
3
3
3
7

2
3

242
145
158
48
104
227
320
105
261

D R IL L E R S , M ale.
Delaware............................................................
Maine..................................................................
New York......... ................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
3
2
2
3

42

82
20

76
381

F IT T E R S , M ale.
Delaware............................................................
Maryland............................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New York.:.........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
2
2
3
2
3

43
55
35
37
77
215

66

JOINERS, M ale.
California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Maine..................................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................




3

2
2
3
2
2
4
2
3

168
154

20

169
69

22

85
97
174

172
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
V .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES—Continued.
SH IPBU IXiDIN G—Concluded.
L ABO R ERS, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

State.

California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey....... .................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

3
3
4

2
2
2
7
2
3

216
262
69
310

68

159
289
715
594

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
p e r l Lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

366
257
84
298
51
195
408
788
448

57.33
54.00
55.26
56.00
54.00
55.44
54.15
60.00
57.03

53.89 $0.2140
.1422
54.00
.1804
55.18
56.20‘
.1333
.2014
54.00
55.51
.1725
53.97
.1748
60.00
1507
57.59
.1484

$0.2210
.1502
.1860
.1322
.2052
.1734
.1864
.1599
.1393

419
159

54.10
54.00
55.82
54.00
51.08
53.27
60.00
58.60

54.00
54.00
55.94
54.00
52.10
53.36
60.00
59.13

$0.3401
.2806
.2603
.2831
.3333
.3104
.2735
.2552

$0.3745
.3011
.2583
.2886
.3269
.3193
.2778
.2568

54.00
54.70
57.50
54.85
60.00
58.10

54.00
54.19
56.50
53.56
60.00
59.15

$0.2429
.2294
.2500
.2501
.1941
.2942

$0.2679
.2340
.2625
.2529
.1955
.3158

48
14
18
30
51
13

54.46
54.00
55.78
54.00
53.82
60.00
59.32

49.50
54.00
55.89
54.00
53.84
60.00
59.55

$0.4961
.1929
.1942
.2425
.1881
.2269
.1968

$0.5514
.2433
.1861
.2486
.2049
.2269
.2004

18

54.00
53.73
59.02

54.00
53.77
59.28

$0.3410
.3121
.3027

19C6.

MACHINISTS, M ale.
California...........................................................
Delaware......................... •-................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York....... 1.................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania........................................... ; .......

2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3

429
128
87
93
84
74
152
558

102
105
94

88

215
622

P A IN T E R S, M ale.
Delaware............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................., .............................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
3
2
5
2
3

67
207

65
165

73
62
84

79
55
157

12

10

R IG G E R S, M ale.
California...........................................................
Delaware...................... -...................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

4

2
2
2
3
2
3

39

21

23
32
39
13

211

221

R IV E T E R S , M ale.
Massachusetts...................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................




2
3
2

35
93
224

86

181

173

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1906.
T able

V .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES'—Continued.
SILK GOODS.
(iU lL L lR S y F em a le *
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establiasnii V i
ments. 1905. 1906.

State.

Connecticut........................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2

82
152
35

5
3
5

111

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

60.00
55.00
58.37
58.49

60.00
55.00
58.07
58.64

10.0977
.0899
.0808
.0785

$0.0986
.0918
.0860
.0849

32 55.00
167 .58.44

55.00
58.52

$0.1221
.0768

$0.1213
.0822

135

76
124
30
89

1906.

SPIN NERS, M ale*
New Jersey........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2

28
183

3

W A R P E R S , F e m a le .

2

Connecticut........................................................
New Jersey........................................................
Pennsylvania^..................................................

3
5

108
115
288

120

60.00
55.00
58.49

60.00
55.00
58.50

$0.1458
.1818
.1305

$0.1511
.1848
.1342

262
253
92

60.00
55.00
55.74
59.11

60.00
55.00
55.72
59.34

$0.1951
.2017
.2048
.1351

$0.2053

122

264
348
242
965

60.00
55.00
59.72
58.24

60.00
55.00
59.55
58.30

$0.1549
.1804
.1687

.1220

$0.1636
.1802
.1657
.1226

242
204
46
338

60.00
55.00
57.42
58.92

60.00
55.00
57.15
58.93

$0.1077
.1269
.1326
.0918

$0.1060
.1251
.1389
.0921

$0.1486
.1160
.1041

$0.1611
.1077
.1141
.0998
.0985
.0920
.1064
.1154

264

W E A V E R S, M ale.
Connecticut........................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania................ ....................................

2
5
2
2

314
268
125
148

.2110

.1997
.1627

W E A V E R S, F em a le .
Connecticut........................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
5
2
4

277
422
217
1,039

W IN D E R S, F em a le .
Connecticut........................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2

. 6
3
5*

211
212
48
320

WOOLEK AND WORSTED GOODS.
B U R L E R S , F em ale*
Connecticut........................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

8891—No. 71—07--- 12



2
3
5

2
2
2

5
5

23
63
145
17
26
127

100
127

22

109
144

21
26
112
103
135

60.00
60.00
5a 00
60.00
56.15
57.57
60.00
58.00

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
56.15
57.64
59.27
57.04

.1002

.0908
.0908
.1032

.1102

174
T a b l e V .—

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1905 AND 1906, IN
SELECTED-OCCUPATIONS, BY STATES—Concluded.
W O O D E N A N D W O R S T E D G O O DS-C oncluded.
CARDERS, M ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1905. 1906.

•State.

Connecticut........................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire.................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

2
3
6
2
2
3

5

16
16
109
18
15
18
43

Average
hours per
week.

Averagi3wages
per 1lour.

1905.

1906.

1905.

60.00
60.00
58.11
60.00
58.80
60.00
58.00

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.59
59.79
58.00

$0.1244
.1056
.1145
.1229
.1151
.1366
.1078

$0.1264
.1125

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.35
60.00
61.33

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.39
58.85
60.89

$0.1341
.1400
.1293
.1375
.1352
.1546
.1252

$0.1442
.1422
.1385
.1419
.1365
.1595
.1312

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.23
60.00
58.00

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.23
58.50
58.00

$0.1857

$0.2057
.2453
.2530
.2179
.2432
.3042
.2510

57.38
58.00

57.41
58.00

$0.0909
.1081

70

60.00
60.00
58.09
60.00
55.65
60.00
58.00

60.00
60.00
59.41
60.00
55.47
58.35
58.00

$0.1589
.1968
.1941
.1847
.2228
.1563
.1995

$0.1541
.2195
.2127
.1841
.2329
.1523
.2003

151
163
321
23
37
106
245
414

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
56.79
59.50
60.00
58.00

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
56.62
59.29
59.11
58.00

$0.1942
.1464
.1726
.1692
.1810
.1763
.2114
.1918

$0.2266
.1629
.1955
.1807
.1987
.1810
.2242
.2085

35
137
756
97
108
219
163
707

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
55.41
57.58
60.00
58.00

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
55.37
57.95
58.79
58.00

$0.1789
.1480
.1479
.1700
.1595
.1354
.1928
.1671

$0.1796
.1453
.1693
.1784
.1654
.1365
.2044
.1749

17

20
90
24
17
14

86

1906.

.1211
.1146
.1194
.1304
.1123

D Y E R S, M ale.
Connecticut........................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts........................ ..........................
New Hampshire.................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

2
3
6
2
2

4
5

15
70

201
8
40
40
105

11

79
177

8

41
52
118

LOOM F IX E R S , M ale.
Connecticut........................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire.................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

2
3
6
2
2
5
5

14

20

14

21

82
7

79
7

32
89

44
79

22

22

.2212

.2377
.2179
.2420
.2764
.2393

SPIN N E R S, FR A M E , F e m a le .
New York..........................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

2
2

118
103

153
115

SPIN NERS, M ULE, M ale.
Connecticut........................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts........................ ..........................
New Hampshire.................................................
New Jersey........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

2
2
6
2
2
2
5

20

24
113
41
46
37
78

23
25

100
31
53

20

W E A V E R S, M ale.
Connecticut........................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New. York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

2
6
2
2
2
3

5
5

157
156
361
42
39
132
239
525

W E A V E R S, F em a le .
Connecticut................................................... .
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts....................................................
New Hampshire.................................................
New Jersey.........................................................
New York...........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................




2
3
6
2
2
2
5
5

27
138
936
73
109
196
156
616

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

Retail prices of food during 1906 were higher than in any other
year of the seventeen-year period beginning with 1890 covered by
the investigations of the Bureau of Labor, being 2.9 per cent higher
than in 1905.
The average prices of 25 of the 30 articles included in this com­
pilation of prices were higher in 1906 than in 1905. The articles
which showed the greatest advance in prices are lard 9.8 per cent,
evaporated apples 9.1 per cent, fresh pork 8.8 per cent, dry or pickled
pork 8.7 per cent, bacon 8.4 per cent, ham 7.3 per cent, while the
advance in fresh fish and mutton exceeded 5 per cent. The only
articles which showed any material decrease are flour 9.8 per cent
and sugar 5.5 per cent.
The table which follows shows the per cent of increase or decrease
in price for each of the 30 articles when the average price in 1906 is
compared with the average price in 1905:
PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF
THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN 1906 COMPARED W ITH THOSE IN 1905.
cent
Articles for which the average price in Per in­
of
1906 was higher than the average price crease in
in 1905.
price.
Com meal................................................
Molasses...................................................
Coflee.................................
Milk, fresh, unskimmed..........................
E ggs...................... .•.................................
Vinegar....................................................
Fish, salt.................................................
Beef, salt..................................................
Rice..........................................................
Beef, fresh, roasts...................................
Beef, fresh, steaks...................................
Potatoes, Irish........................................
Cheese......................................................
Chickens (year or more old), dressed___
Prunes.....................................................
Veal.........................................................
Butter......................................................
M utton....................................................
Fish, fresh...............................................
Pork, salt, ham .......................................
Pork, salt, bacon.....................................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.......................
Pork, fresh..............................................
Apples, evaporated.................................
Lard.........................................................

0.8
.9
1.2
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.6

cent
Articles for which the average price in Per de­
of
1906 was lower than the average price crease in
in 1905.
price.
Tea.........................................................
Beans, dry.........................:...................
Bread, wheat..........................................
Sugar......................................................
Flour, wheat..........................................

0.2
.9
2.1
5.5
9.8

2.7
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.8
4.1
4.4
4.5
4.7
4.9
5.3
5.7
7.3
8.4
8.7

8.8

9.1
9.8

Retail prices of food in December, 1906, were 5.1 per cent higher
than in December, 1905.
The average prices of 25 of the 30 articles included in this compila­
tion were higher in December, 1906, than in the corresponding month




175

176

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

of 1905. The articles which showed the most marked advance in
prices in December, 1906, over December, 1905, are butter 15.0 per
cent, lard 13.9 per cent, fresh pork 12.2 per cent, dry or pickled pork
11.9 per cent, bacon 11.1 per cent, and ham 9.8 per cent. The only
articles which show any marked decline in price in December, 1906,
from the price in December, 1905, are potatoes 5.8 per cent and flour
4.8 per cent.
The table which follows shows the per cent of increase or decrease
in price for each of the 30 articles of food when the average price in
December, 1906, is compared with the average price in December,
1905:
PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF THE
PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN DECEMBER, 1906, COMPARED WITH THOSE IN
DECEMBER, 1905.
Articles for which the average price in Per cent
of in­
December, 1906, was higher than the crease in
average price in December, 1905.
price.

cent
Articles for which the average price in Per de­
of
December, 1906, was lower than the crease in
average price in December, 1905.
price.

Sugar........................................................
Molasses...................................................
Com meal................................................
Apples, evaporated..................................
Coffee........................................................
Rice..........................................................
Vinegar....................................................
Prunes.....................................................
Milk, fresh, unskimmed..........................
Fish, salt.................................................
Cheese......................................................
Veal..........................................................
Beef, fresh, roasts...................................
Beef, sa lt..................................................
Beef, fresh, steaks........................ ;.........
Chickens (year or more old),dressed..
M utton....................................................
Eggs.........................................................
Fish, fresh................................................
Pork, salt, ham .......................................
Pork, salt, bacon.....................................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.......................
Pork, fresh...............................................
Lard.........................................................
Butter......................................................

Tea..........................................................
Bread, wheat............. j ...........................
Beans, dry..............................................
Flour, wheat..........................................
Potatoes, Irish................................

0.2
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.4
2.2
2.4
3.0
3.2
3.9
3.9
4.0
4.3
4.4
48
5.8
6.1
6.3
6.7
9.8
11.1
11.9
12.2
13.9
15.0

0.1
1.2
1.9
4.8
5.8

Some idea of the high prices of 1906 can be gained when it is
seen that the average prices of 17 of the 30 articles were higher in
1906 than in any other year of the seventeen-year period 1890 to 1906.
Compared with prices in 1896, the year of lowest prices during the
period, the price of every article, except coffee and prunes, was
higher in 1906 than in 1896, and in the case of 12 of the 30 articles
it was more than 25 per cent above the level of 1896. The increases
in the price of some of the more important articles over the 1896 prices
were as follows: Bacon, 55.5 per cent; potatoes, 48.6 per cent; fresh
pork, 41.4 per cent; lard, 38.4 per cent, and chickens, 33.0 per cent.
The average price in 1906 for each of the 30 articles separately
and as a whole is compared with the average price during each of
the years from 1890 to 1905 in the following table which shows the
per cent of increase or decrease:



177

BETAIL PBICES OE FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

PER CENT OF INCREASE (+ ) OR DECREASE ( - ) IN RETAIL PRICES OF PRINCIPAL
ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1906 COMPARED WITH PREVIOUS YEARS.
Per cent of increase or decrease in 1906 compared with—
Arncie.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

+ 6.1
+11.6
+16.3
+17.9
+13.6
+ 2.0
+19.2
+16.9
+27.4
- 10.2
+23.2
+33.4
+17.0
+16.0
- 1.5
+30.3
+ 8.4
+ .6
+23.2
+42.0
+57.0
+43.7
+28.9
+ 4.7
-27.1
+ 43
-1 7 .2
+ 5.5
+ 24 7
- .3

+ 4.8
+ 8.5
+15.7
+17.2
+12.7
+ 2.0
+11.1
+15.2
+24.1
-1 0 .0
+12.3
+25.5
+16.7
+14.8
- 3.9
+28.3
+ 8.4
+ 3.5
+23.4
+39.5
+55.7
+38.4
+28.1
- 1.9
- 2 7 .0
+ 3.1
- 44
+ 5.1
+23.7
- 2.7

+16.4
+12.5
+16.2
+17.3
+11.4
+ 2.0
+10.7
+13.8
+ 24 4
- 8.8
+17.1
+25.7
+16.1
+ 14 3
+ 2.9
+23.6
+ 8.3
+ 41
+22.9
+37.0
+51.8
+36.2
+ 24 8
+19.5
- 2 5 .0
+ 43
+ 2.1
+ 5.3
+23.2
- .1

+ 8.0
+ 9.7
+16.9
+17.0
+10.5
+ 2.2
+ 7.6
+13.5
+23.9
- 9.6
+19.5
+ 241
+16.1
+13.0
+12.5
+ 8.6
+ 8.5
+ 47
+ 24 2
+28.7
+38.0
+25.9
+16.4
+ 1.9
- 2 6 .4
+ 7.4
- 3.3
+ 5.4
+23.2
+ 3.1

+ 9.3
+12.1
+17.7
+18.6
+12.0
+ 2.4
+16.2
+13.7
+30.9
- 8.3
+20.5
+ 39.4
+15.7
+15.1
+21.9
+19.7
+ 8.7
+ 5.0
+26.9
+35.3
+45.2
+32.4
+ 24 8
+11.5
-15.7
+ 6.8
+ 47
+ 6.9
+ 24 8
+ 2.8

+18.7
+14.6
+17.3
+17.6
+11.2
+ 2.6
+21.9
+16.4
+31.2
- 6.9
+22.-2
+35.1
+16.4
+18.1
+21.5
+27.9
+ 8.9
+ 6.4
+25.7
+38.1
+51.3
+38.0
+28.7
+ 24 6
- 9.7
+ 7.0
+ 7.0
+ 7.1
+25.1
+ 3.7

+30.5
+ 24 3
+16.8
+17.1
+11.0
+ 2.4
+27.5
+18.0
+33.0
- 49
+29.7
+ 44 6
+16.0
+19.8
+16.6
+38.4
+ 9.0
+ 6.7
+25.7
+41.4
+55.5
+43.4
+30.3
+48.6
- 2.0
+ 9.3
+ 1.7
+ 6.8
+23.8
+ 5.6

+31.7
+25.9
+15.4
+16.3
+ 9.8
+ 2.3
+27.0
+16.7
+37.3
+ .1
+31.5
+46.8
+16.4
+22.7
+ 3.6
+42.5
+ 9.2
+ 7.8
+ 24 6
+41.1
+ 54 4
+40.7
+29.5
+23.0
+ .9
+ 8.0
+ 2.6
+ 7.1
+23.3
+ 5.3

All food, simple averages.................. +13.8
All food, weighted according to
family consumption....................... +13.0

+12.4

+ 141

+11.6

+15.9

+18.3

+21.3

+20.7

+11.5

+13.5

+10.8

+16.0

+18.3

+21.2

+20.1

Apples, evaporated...........................
Beans, dry.........................................
Beef, fresh, roasts.............................
Beef, fresh, steaks.............................
Beef, salt...........................................
Bread, wheat.....................................
Butter................................................
Cheese................................................
Chickens (year or more old), dressed.
Coffee.................................................
Com meal..........................................
f U l fresh.........................................
,
Fish, salt...........................................
Flour, wheat.......,..............................
Lard...................................................
Milk, fresh, unskimmed....................
Molasses............................................
M u tton .............................................
Pork, fresh........................................
Pork, salt, bacon..............................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.................
Pork, salt, ham .................................
Potatoes, Irish..................................
Prunes...............................................
Rice....................................................
Sugar.................................................
Tea.....................................................
Veal....................................................
Vinegar..............................................

Per cent of increase or decrease in 1906 compared with—
Article.
Apples, evaporated...........................
Beans, dry.........................................
Beef, fresh, roasts.............................
Beef, fresh, steaks.............................
Beef, salt...........................................
Bread, wheat.....................................
Butter................................................
Cheese................................................
Chickens (year or more old), dressed.
Coffee.................................................
Com meal..........................................
F&h, fresh.........................................
Fish, salt...........................................
Flour, wheat.....................................
Lard...................................................
Milk, fresh, unskimmed....................
Molasses............................................
M u tton .................................. ..........
Pork, fresh........................................
Pork, salt, bacon..............................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.................
Pork, salt, ham .................................
Potatoes, Irish..................................
Prunes...............................................
Rice.................................. ................
Sugar.................................................
Tea.....................................................
Veal....................................................
Vinegar.. .-r.......................................

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

1904.

1905.

+21.2
+20.1
+13.8
+ 14 2
+ 8.5
+ 2.5
+ 24 3
+18.5
+33.4
+ 4.0
+29.7
+39.5
+15.6
+18.2
+ .7
+36.3
+ 9.6
+ 7.6
+23.6
+39.7
+50.1
+38.1
+33.8
+ 8.5
- 1.4
+ 3.9
- 3.1
+ 48
+21.7
+ 48

+16.2
+15.5
+11.6
+12.1
+ 7.4
+ 2.7
+21.0
+12.8
+26.8
+ 46
+29.5
+32.7
+16.0
+16.6
+ 14 3
+31.8
+10.1
+ 7.2
+21.0
+35.4
+46.2
+ 34 5
+28.2
+19.0

+21.4
+ 47
+ 8.6
+ 9.5
+ 6.8
+ 2.6
+16.6
+11.2
+28.1
+ 40
+26.5
+ 34 3
+15.7
+17.9
+14.6
+22.6
+ 9.0
+ 3.0
+17.5
+27.9
+37.1
+27.1
+20.8
+22.4
+ 2.5
+ 3.2
- 6.4
+17.4
+ 42

+19.4
+ 1.1
+ 45
+ 5.0
+ 44
+ 2.9
+ 14 5
+11.8
+25.3
+ 44
+15.0
+27.0
+ 14 6
+15.8
+ 14 5
+ 8.4
+ 7.7
+ 3.9
+13.9
+16.8
+ 24 3
+16.5
+15.4
- 2.1
+ 3.0
+ 2.1
- 4.7
- 1.1
+13.2
+ 3.7

+10.7
- 1.4
- 2.4
- 1.7
- 4.5
+ 2.9
+ 6.0
+ 7.6
+ 14 0
+ 5.7
+ 3.7
+12.7
+10.7
+13.6
+13.9
- 47
+ 5.4
+ 3.1
+ 8.2
+ 7.3
+10.9
+ 3.3
+ 6.5
- 2.2
+ 2.0
+ 2.1
+ 2.3
- 1.6
+ 6.9
+ 3.1

+ 14 7
- 2.5
+ 2.3
+ 3.2
+ 1.8
+ 2.1
+ 6.7
+ 5.6
+ 8.9
+ 6.0
+ 2.1
+ 7.1
+ 8.3
+ 7.7
+ 6.8
+ 1.0
+ 2.9
+ 1.4
+10.2
+ 8.4
+ 7.6
+ 6.1
+ 49
- .3
+ 6.1
+ 1.7
+ 2.2
- .5
+ 7.2
+ 3.5

+16.5
- 1.4
+ 2.6
+ 2.7
+ 2.3
- 1.5
+ 8.4
+ 7.5
+ 7.0
+ 3.2
+ 1.4
+ 2.5
+ 7.7
+ 46
- 9.8
+ 9.1
+ 2.4
+ 1.3
+ 8.8
+11.0
+ 9.1
+ 8.8
+ 7.4
- 5.7
+ 6.9
+ 4.0
- 3.6
- .3
+ 6.7
+ 3.7

+ 9.1
- .9
+ 3.1
+ 3.2
+ 2.7
- 2.1
+ 4.9
+ 41
+ 44
+ 1.2
+ .8
+ 2.0
+ 5.7
+ 2.6
- 9.8
+ 9.8
+ 1.8
+ .9
+ 5.3
+ 8.8
+ 8.4
+ 8.7
+ 7.3
+ 3.8
+ 45
+ 3.0
— 5.5
- .2
+ 4.7
+ 2.3

+16.7

+14.5

+10.1

+ 48

+ 48

+ 41

+ 3.3

+16.3

+ 14 4

+10.0

+ 43

+ 49

+ 3.6

+ 2.9

All food, simple averages.................. +18.0
All food, weighted according to
family consumption....................... +17.2




(a )

+ 3.2
- 3.4
+ 1.1
+18.8
+ 44

(a )

a No change.

178

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The line of this table relating to eggs, for example, shows that the
1906 price of eggs was 33.4 per cent higher than the price in 1890,
25.5 per cent higher than the price in 1891, etc.
When the 30 articles are taken as a whole and weighted according
to family consumption, the price in 1906 was, according to the above
table, 13.0 per cent above the price in 1890, 11.5 per cent above that
in 1891, 13.5 per cent above 1892, 10.8 per cent above 1893, 16.0 per
cent above 1894, 18.3 per cent above 1895, 21.2 per cent above 1896,
20.1 per cent above 1897, 17.2 per cent above 1898, 16.3 per cent
above 1899, 14.4 per cent above 1900, 10.0 per cent above 1901, 4.3
per cent above 1902, 4.9 per cent above 1903, 3.6 per cent above 1904,
and 2.9 per cent above 1905.
In order that the course of prices of the various articles may be
studied, relative prices have been computed for each of the 30 articles
included in this investigation; these relative prices have also been
combined so that the course of prices of food as a whole may be seen.
A relative price, or index number as it is technically called, of any
article is the, per cent which the price of that article at any certain
date is of the price of the same article at a date or period which has
been selected as the base or standard. The base selected for the com­
pilation of retail prices is the average price for the ten-year period
1890 to 1899. This base period is the same as was used in the pre­
sentation of wholesale prices in Bulletin Nos. 39,45, 51, 57, 63, and 69
of this Bureau. The value of the relative price is that it enables the
reader to follow more readily the course of prices of a single article
or of groups of articles.
The table which follows shows for each of the five geographical
divisions and for the United States the relative prices of food for each
year from 1890 to 1906. In the first column under each division is
shown the simple average of the relative prices of the 30 articles. In
the second column under each division is shown the relative prices
weighted according to the average consumption of the various articles
of food in workingmen’s families. The relative prices obtained by
the two methods are presented so that the reader can make such use
or comparison as he may desire.




179

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, SIMPLE AND WEIGHTED AVERAGES, BY
GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1890 TO 1906.
[Average price lor 1890-1899=100.0.]
North Atlantic South Atlantic North Central South Central
division.
division.
division.
division.
Year.

1890........
1891........
1892........
1893........
1894........
1895........
1 8 9 6 ......
1897........
1898........
1899........
1900........
1901........
1902........
1903........
1904........
1905........
1906........

Western
division.

United States.

Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weightple.
ple.
ple.
ple.
ple.
ple.
101.9
102.9
102.0
104.3
99.9
98.2
96.2
96.9
98.3
99.3
101.3
104.4
110.0
110.4
111.2
111.8
115.2

102.3
103.2
102.1
104.4
99.2
97.7
97.0
96.9
98.8
99.5
101.2
104.7
110.5
110.1
111.7
112.1
114.8

100.7
101.5
100.6
102.1
100.3
99.5
97.5
97.8
99.4
100.6
102.2
106.6
110.8
110.1
110.2
111.2
115.9

101.2
102.1
101.1
103.2
100.0
98.7
96.8
97.1
99.3
100.5
102.4
106.9
111.8
111.2
111.9
113.0
116.2

102.3
104.1
101.7
105.0
100.9
98.3
94.9
95.3
98.1
99.4
101.7
106.7
112.1
112.0
112.6
114.0
117.8

102.3
104.5
101.8
105.4
100.6
98.0
94.6
95.6
98.4
98.9
100.8
106.1
111.7

101.1
102.9
100.6
102.9
99.9
98.2
96.2
97.2
99.9
101.0
103.3
108.1
114.1
111.0 114.0
112.1 115.0
113.1 115.9
116.5 118.9

102.1
103.6
100.7
103.5
100.0
98.1
96.1
97.3
98.8
99.9
101.1
106.9
113.5
113.5
115.0
115.9
119.0

105.4
106.2
104.4
102.7
99.4
97.3
93.9
94.2
96.7
99.8
100.1
102.0
106.9
108.1
109.4
110.0
113.6

107.7
108.7
105.2
102.9
99.3
96.7
93.2
92.7
95.2
98.5
98.1
99.9
104.4
103.7
104.9
105.7
110.1

102.1
103.4
101.8
104.1
100.3
98.2
95.8
96.3
98.5
99.6
101.5
105.5
110.9
110.9
111.6
112.5
116.2

102.4
103.8
101.9
104.4
99.7
97.8
95.5
96.3
98.7
99.5
101.1
105.2
110.9
110.3
111.7
112.4
115.7

The columns giving the relative prices, when the various articles of
food are weighted according to their consumption in workingmen’s
families, indicate that the lowest relative price was reached in the
North Atlantic and Western divisions in 1897 and in each of the other
geographical divisions and in the United States as a whole in 1896.
The highest relative price was reached in each of the five geographical
divisions and in the United States as a whole in 1906.
It is interesting to compare the results under the two methods of
computing relative prices of food. In the North Atlantic division
there is a difference of 0.4 in 1890, 0.3 in 1891, 0.1 in 1892, 0.1 in 1893,
0.7 in 1894, 0.5 in 1895, 0.8 in 1896, nothing in 1897, 0.5 in 1898,
0.2 in 1899, 0.1 in 1900, 0.3 in 1901, 0.5 in 1902, 0.3 in 1903, 0.5 in
1904, 0.3 in 1905, and 0.4 in 1906. The greatest difference in results
obtained under the two methods is found in the Western division.
In the United States, considered as a whole, there is a difference
under the two methods of 0.6 in two years, 0.5 in one year, 0.4 in
three years, 0.3 in four years, 0.2 in one year, 0.1 in four years, and
nothing in two years.
The table which follows shows the relative prices of food for each
month of the years 1905 and 1906. The table presents figures com­
puted by two methods; under one method the relative prices are
simple averages of the relative prices of the 30 articles, and under the
other method the various articles of food are given a weight according
to their average consumption in workingmen’s families.




180

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, SIMPLE AND WEIGHTED AVERAGES, BY
MONTHS, 1905 AND 1906.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Simple.
Month.

Weighted.

1905.

1906.

1905.

January...................................................................................................
February.................................................................................................
March.......................................................................................................
April........................................................................................................
May..........................................................................................................
June.........................................................................................................
July..........................................................................................................
August.....................................................................................................
September................................................................................................
October....................................................................................................
November................................................................................................
December.................................................................................................

113.8
113.8
113.0
112.1
111.5
111.2
111.2
111.3
111.7
112.5
113.5
114.4

115.9
115.6
115.2
115.0
114.7
115.0
115.3
115.6
116.3
117.4
118.6
119.5

115.6
115.7
113.8
112.0
110.6
109.8
109.7
110.1
110.7
112.1
113.8
115.3

117.0
116.2
115.0
113.9
113.0
112.9
113.3
113.8
115.2
117.1
119.4
121.2

Year...............................................................................................

112.5

116.2

112.4

115.7

1906.

In every month of 1906 the price of food was higher than in the
corresponding month of 1905. Using the relative prices, found by
giving each article a weight according to its average consumption in
workingmen's families, the comparison of each month of 1906 with the
corresponding month of 1905 was as follows: January, 1.2 per cent
higher; February, 0.4 per cent higher; March, 1.1 per cent higher;
April, 1.7 per cent higher; May, 2.2 per cent higher; June, 2.8 per
cent higher; July, 3.3 per cent higher; August, 3.4 per cent higher;
September, 4.1 per cent higher; October, 4.5 per cent higher; Novem­
ber, 4.9 per cent higher; December, 5.1 per cent higher.
The relative price of food in December, 1906, was 4.8 per cent
above the average for the year 1906, while the price in December,
1905, was but 2.6 per cent above the average for the year 1905.
The relative price of food in December, 1906, was 21.2 per cent
above the average price for the ten-year period 1890-1899.
The relative price computed by giving to each article a weight
according to its average consumption in workingmen's families was
higher than the simple average during each of the winter months and
lower during each of the summer months. This difference is due to
the seasonal fluctuations of articles of large consumption, such as
butter and eggs.
The course of relative prices of food during the years 1905 and 1906
is shown in the accompanying graphic table.




181

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

RELATIVE
PRICES

1905.
JAN

APR.

JULY

1906.
OCT.

JAN.

APR.

JULY

OCT.

126
124
12

2

120
U S
1 116
l U 4
l

" 2

"

n o
108
106
104

RELATIVE

RETA IL

PRICES OF FOOD

\NE/6HTED ACCORDING TO AVERAGE CONSUMPTION

102

AN

100

B Y MONTHS, 1905 AND 1906.

9$
a x
7 0




WORKINGMEN'S

F A M IL IE S ,

DEC.

182

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

The relative retail prices in the United States, considered as a
whole, of the 30 articles of food for the seventeen years 1890 to 1906
are presented in the table which follows. In this table the aver­
age price for the ten-year period 1890 to 1899 equals 100.0. The fig­
ures in the column for evaporated apples, for instance, indicate
that the price for evaporated apples in 1890 was 109.0 per cent of
the average price, for 1890 to 1899, or 9.0 per cent above that aver­
age price. The price of evaporated apples in 1906 was 115.6 per
cent of the average price for 1890 to 1899, or 15.6 per cent above
that average price.
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED
STATES 1890 TO 1906.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Year.

1890..........
1891..........
1892..........
1893..........
1894..........
1895..........
1896..........
1897..........
1898..........
1899..........
1900..........
1901..........
1902..........
1903..........
1904..........
1905..........
1906..........

Year.

1890..........
1891..........
1892..........
1893..........
1894..........
1895..........
1896..........
1897..........
1898..........
1899..........
1900..........
1901..........
1902..........
1903.... ...
1904..........
1905..........
1906..........

Apples, Beans,
evapo­
dry.
rated.

Beef,
fresh,
roasts.

Beef,
fresh,
steaks.

103.3
106.2
102.4
105.0
102.8
100.5
92.7
91.5
95.9
99.7
-110.0
113.9
116.8
11a 1
116,8
116.3
115.2

99.5
100.0
99.6
99.0
98.3
98.6
99.1
100.3
101.7
103.7
106.5
110.7
118.6
113.1
112.8
112.2
115.7

9a 8
99.4
99.3
99.6
9a 2
99.1
99.5
100.2
102.0
103.9
106.4
111.0
lia s
112.9
na4
112.9
116.5

109.0
110.3
99.3
107.0
105.8
97.4
88.6
87.8
95.4
99.5
95.2
96.8
104.4
100.8
99.2
106.0
115.6
Corn
meal.
100.0
109.7
105.2
103.1
102.2
100.8
95.0
93.7
95.0
95.1
97. 4
107.1
118.8
120.7
121.5
122.2
123.2

Eggs.

100.6
106.9
106.8
108.1
96.3
99.3
92.8
91.4
96.2
101.1
99.9
105.7
119.1
125.3
13a 9
131.6
134.2




Fish,
fresh.
99.3
99.6
100.1
100.1
100.4
99.8
100.2
99.8
100.5
100.2
100.4
101.4
105.0
107.3
107.9
109.9
116.2

Fish,
salt.
100.7
101.7
102.2
103.4
101.5
9a 9
97.5
95.2
9a 8
100.2
99.1
100.9
102.8
io a 4
111.7
113.8
116.8

Beef,
salt.

Chick­
ens
Bread, Butter. Cheese.
Coffee.
(full
wheat.
grown),
dressed.

97.5
9a 3
99.5
100.3
* 9a 9
99.6
99.8
100.9
102.1
103.2
103.7
106.1
116.0
lo a s
ioa 3
107.9
110.8

100.3
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.7
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.7
99. 4
99. 4
100.2
103.9
104 5
102.3

Flour,
wheat.

Lard.

109.7
112.5
105.1
96.1
88.7
89.0
92.7
104.3
107.4
94 6
94 3
94 4
94 9
101.2
119.9
119.9
io a i

9a 2
99.8
103.6
117.9
106.9
100.1
92.5
89.8
93.9
97.1
104 4
na i
134 3
126.7
117.3
116.6
12a 0

99.2
106.4
106.8
109.9
101.7
97.0
92.7
93.1
95.1
97.7
101.4
103.2
111.5
110.8
109.0
112.7
na2

9a 8
100.3
101.5
101.8
101.6
99.2
97.9
99.0
97.5
102.4
103.9
103.3
107.3
109. 4
107. 4
110.9
115.5

101.3
104 0
103.8
104 2
9a 6
9a 4
97.1
94 0
96.8
101.8
100.8
103.0
na2
lia s
120.7
12a 6
129.1

Milk,
fresh, Molas­ Mutton.
unskim­ ses.
med.
100.5
100.5
100.6
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.4
9a 9
99.9
101.1
103.3
105.8
106.3
107.0
108.9

104 7
101.7
101.2
100.6
100.3
99.0
9a 7
97.7
97.9
9a 2
102.2
101.3
102.1
103.8
104 0
104 4
105.3

100.7
100.6
101.0
99.9
97.8
9a 7
9a 7
99.6
100.4
102.6
105.6
109.0
114 7
112.6
114 1
117.8
1241

105.4
105.2
103.8
104 8
103.3
101.7
99.6
94 6
91.1
90.5
91.1
90.7
89 6
89.3
91.8
93.6
94 7
Pork,
fresh.
97.0
9a 7
100.5
107.0
101.8
99.7
97.4
97.6
98.6
101.7
107.7
117.9
m 3
127.0
124 0
m e
137.7

183

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED
STATES, 1890 TO 1906—Concluded.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Year.

1890..........
1891..........
1892..........
1893..........
1894..........
1895..........
1896..........
1897..........
1898..........
1899..........
1900..........
1901..........
1902..........
1903..........
1904..........
1905..........
1906..........

Pork,
Pork,
salt,
salt,
dry or
bacon. pickled.
95.8
96.6
99.1
109.0
m e
99.4
96.7
97.4
100.2
102.9
109.7
121.0
135.6
139.8
137.9
138.8
150.4

95.3
98.9
100.5
108.7
103.4
99.2
95.5
97.3
99.1
101.8
107.7
117.5
132.5
129.0
125.8
12a 0
136.9

Pork,
salt,
ham.
98.7
99.3
101.9
109.3
101.9
98.8
97.6
98.2
95.1
99.2
105.3
110.2
119.4
121.3
118. 4
118.5
127.2

Pota­
toes, Prunes.
Irish.
109.3
116.6
95.7
112.3
102.6
91.8
77.0
93.0
105.4
96.1
93,5
116.8
117.0
114.8
121.3
110.2
114.4

116.8
116.5
113.5
115.6
100.9
94 2
86.8
84 3
86.3
85.1
83.0
82.6
83.4
80.2
79.6
81.4
85.1

Rice.

101.3
102.5
101.3
98.4
99.0
98.8
9a 7
97.9
101.7
102.4
102.4
103.5
103.5
103.9
101.6
102.6
105.7

Sugar.

118.6
102.7
96.2
101.5
9a 8
91.8
96.6
95.7
101.3
101.7
104 9
103.0
96.0
96.1
101.9
103.9
98.2

Tea.

100.0
100.4
100.2
100.1
9& 7
9a 5
9a 8
9a5
100.7
104 4
105.5
106.7
107.2
ioao
105.8
105.7
105.5

Veal.

9a 8
99.6
100.0
100.0
9a 7
9a 5
99.5
99.9
101.2
103.7
1049
lo a s
115.2
114 9
115.5
117.7
123.2

Vinegar.

102.9
105.5
102.7
99.5
99.8
9a 9
97.2
97.4
97.9
9a 3
9a 5
9a 9
99.5
99.1
9a 9
100.3
102.6

From this table it is seen that the price of fresh roasting beef in
1890 was 99.5 per cent of the average price during the ten-year period
from 1890 to 1899. In 1891 the price was exactly the same as the
average price for the ten-year period—that is, 100.0. The lowest
point reached was in 1894, when it was 98.3 per cent of the average
price for the ten-year period. The highest point reached was in 1902,
when it stood at 118.6. In 1906 it stood at 115.7, or 15.7 per cent
higher than the average price for the period from 1890 to 1899. In the
use of these tables showing the relative figures it should be borne in
mind that the difference between the relative prices in any two years
is not the per cent of difference in the cost. For example, the relative
price of fresh roasting beef was 98.3 in 1894 and 115.7 in 1906 The
difference between these relative prices is 17.4; and this figure being
17.7 per cent of 98.3, the per cent of increase in 1906 over 1894 is 17.7
per cent.
Lard, evaporated apples, fresh pork, bacon, dry or pickled pork,
and ham show a marked increase in price during the last few years.
The table which follows shows the articles whose price in 1906 was
higher than the average price for the ten-year period 1890 to 1899
and also the articles whose price ill 1906 was lower than the average
for 1890 to 1899.




184

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED
STATES, 1906 COMPARED WITH AVERAGE PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Articles for which the average price in Relative
price
1906 was higher than the average for
1906.
1890-1899.
Vinegar....................................................
M olasses ' ......................................................

Tea...........................................................
Rice..........................................................
Flour, w heat...........................................
Milk, fresh...............................................
Beef, salt.................................................
Potatoes, Irish........................................
Beans, dry...............................................
Cheese......................................................
Apples, evaporated.................................
Beef, fresh, roasts...................................
Fish, fresh...............................................
Beef, fresh, steaks...................................
Fish, salt.................................................
Butter....... .............................................
Com meal................................................
Veal ......................................................
Mutton and lam b....................................
Pork, salt, bam .......................................
Lard.........................................................
Chickens...................................................
Eggs.........................................................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled........................
Pork, fresh...............................................
Pork, salt, bacon.....................................

102.3
102.6
105.3
105.5
105.7
108.1
108.9
110.8
114.4
115.2
115.5
115.6
115.7
116.2
116.5
116.8
118.2
123.2
123.2
124.1
127.2
128.0
129.1
134.2
136.9
137.7
150.4

Articles for which the average price in Relative
1906 was lower than the average for
price
1890-1899.
1906.
Sugar......................................................
Coffee......................................................
P runes...................................................

98.2
94.7
85.1

This table shows that the price of each of the articles except sugar,
coffee, and prunes was higher in 1906 than the average price for the
ten-year period 1890 to 1899. The price of bacon was 50.4 per cent
higher; fresh pork, 37.7 per cent higher; dry or pickled pork, 36.9
per cent higher; eggs, 34.2 per cent higher, etc. The price of only
three articles was lower in 1906 than the average for the ten-year
period 1890 to 1899. Prunes were 14.9 per cent lower; coffee, 5.3
per cent lower, and sugar, 1.8 per cent lower.
The preceding table is summarized in the short table which follows:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD, CLASSIFIED BY
PER CENT WHICH THE 1906 RETAIL PRICE IS ABOVE OR BELOW THE AVERAGE
PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
Price higher.

Number Per cent
of
of
articles. articles.

Price lower.

Number Per cent
of
of
articles. articles.

40 per cent or over.................
25 to 40 per cent.....................
10 to 25 per cent.....................
Less than 10 per cent.............

1
6
13
7

3.3
20.0
43.4
23.3

Less than io per cent.............
10 to 25 per cent.....................

2
1

6.7
3.3

Total.............................

27

90.0

Total.............................

3

10.0

From this table it is seen that in 1906 the price of one of the 30
articles was more than 40 per cent (50.4 per cent) higher than the
average price for the ten-year period 1890 to 1899; the price of 6
articles, or 20.0 per cent of the total, was from 25 to 40 per cent higher
than the average price for the ten-year period; the price of 13 arti­
cles, or 43.4 per cent of the total, was from 10 to 25 per cent higher



185

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

than the average price for the ten-year period, and the price of 7
articles, or 23.3 per cent of the total, was less than 10 per cent higher
than the average price for the ten-year period. On the other hand,
the price of 2 articles, or 6.7 per cent of the whole number, was less
than 10 per cent lower than the average price for the ten-year period,
and the price of one article, or 3.3 per cent of the whole number,
was from 10 to 25 per cent (14.9 per cent) lower than the average
price for the ten-year period.
The following table compares for each article the price in December,
1906, with the average price for the ten-year period 1890 to 1899:
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED
STATES, DECEMBER, 1906, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Articles for which the average ]price in Relative
price,
December, 1906, was higher tl lan the Decem­
averaere for 1890-1899.
ber, 1906.
Bread.......................................... ...........
Vinegar....................................................
Tea...........................................................
Molasses..................................................
Flour........................................................
Rice..........................................................
Potatoes..................................................
Beef, salt, corned.....................................
Millr..........................................................
Beans, dry...............................................
Applfts, evaporated..................................
Beef, fresh, roasts...................................
Beef, fresh, steaks........................i .........
Fish, sa lt.................................................
Cheese......................................................
Fish, fresh...............................................
Corn m eal................................................
Veal.........................................................
Mutton...................................................:
Pork, salt, ^«nn.......................................
Chickens...................................................
Lard.........................................................
B utter......................................................
Pork, fresh...............................................
Pork, salt, dry, or pickled......................
Pork, salt, bacon.....................................
E g g s ........................................................

102.3
103.1
105.5
105.9
106.2
106.7
109.1
112.1
113.3
113.6
114.4
115.5
116.5
118.5
119.8
121.9
123.2
124.7
125.9
129.6
131.5
134.0
137.4
139.4
140.9
154.8
180.6

Articles for which the average price in Relative
price,
December, 1906, was lower than the Decem­
average for 1890-1899.
ber, 1906.
Sugar......................................................
Coffee.....................................................
Prunes....................................................

97.7
95.3
85.6

•

This table shows that in December, 1906, eggs were 80.6 per cent
higher than the average price for the ten-year period from 1890
to 1899, bacon was 54.8 per cent higher than during the ten-year
period, etc.
The only articles which show a decline in price are sugar, 2.3 per
cent; coffee, 4.7 per cent, and prunes, 14.4 per cent.
The table which follows summarizes the above table.




186

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD, CLASSIFIED BY
PER CENT WHICH THE DECEMBER, 1906, RETAIL PRICE IS ABOVE OR BELOW
THE AVERAGE PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
Number Per cent
of
of
articles. articles.

Price higher.
40 per cent or over.................
25 to 40 per cent.....................
10 to 25 per cent.....................
Less than 10 per cent.............

3
6
11
7

10.0
20.0
36.7
23.3

Total.............................

27

90.0

Number Per cent
of
of
articles. articles.

Price lower.
Less than 10 per cent.............
10 to 25 per cent.....................

2
1

6.7
3.3

T otal.............................

3

10.0

---- -------------------------

From this table it is seen that in December, 1906, the price of 3, or
10 per cent of the total, of the 30 articles was more than 40 per cent
higher than the average price for the ten-year period 1890 to 1899.
The price of 6 articles, or 20 per cent of the total, was from 25 to 40
per cent higher than the average price for the ten-year period, etc.
A table follows which shows for the United States the lowest and
highest yearly relative price of each of the 30 articles of food for the
seventeen years 1890 to 1906; also the year in which the lowest and
highest yearly prices were reached:
LOWEST AND HIGHEST YEARLY RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL
ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED STATES, 1890 TO 1906.
[Average price for 1890-1899*=100.0.]
Lowest.
Articie.

Year.

Apples, evaporated...................... 1......................................
1897
Beans, dry............................................................................
1897
Beef, fresh, roasts................................................................
1894
Beef, fresh, steaks................................................................
1894
Beef, sa lt..............................................................................
1890
Bread, wheat........................................................................ 1901,1902
Butter.....................1............................................................
1896
Cheese...................................................................................
1898
Chickens (year or more old), dressed..................................
1897
Coffee....................................................................................
1903
Com meal.............................................................................
1897
E ggs.....................................................................................
1897
Fish, fresh............................................................................
1890
Fish, salt..............................................................................
1897
Flour, wheat........................................................................
1894
Lard.....................................................................................
1897
Milk, fresh, unskimmed.......................................................
1899
Molasses...............................................................................
1897
Mutton.................................................................................
1894
Pork, fresh
................................................................
1890
Pork, salt, bacon.. ..............................................................
1890
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.....................................................
1890
Pork, salt, ham....................................................................
1898
Potatoes, Irish.....................................................................
1896
Prunes..................................................................................
1904
Rice.......................................................................................
1896
Sugar....................................................................................
1895
Tea........................................................................................ 1895,1897
Veal.......................................................................................
1895
1896
Vinegar........................... .....................................................

Highest.

Relative
price.
87.8
91.5
98.3
98.2
97.5
99.4
92.7
97.5
94.0
89.3
93.7
91.4
99.3
95.2
88.7
89.8
98.9
97.7
97.8
97.0
95.8
95.3
95.1
77.0
79.6
96.7
91.8
98.5
98.5
97.2

Year.
1906
1903
1902
1902
1902
1905
1906
1906
1906
1890
1906
1906
1906
1906
1904,1905
1902
1906
1906
1906
1906
1906
1906
1906
1904
1890
1906
1890
1902
1906
1891

Relative
price.
115.6
118.1
118.6
118.5
116.0
104.5
118.2
115.5
129.1
105.4
123.2
134.2
116.2
116.8
119.9
134.3
108.9
105.3
124.1
137.7
150.4
136.9
127.2
121.3
116.8
105.7
118.6
107.2
123.2
105.5

Of the 30 articles the lowest yearly relative price was reached by 5
in 1890, 4 in 1894, 2 in 1895, 1 in 1895 and 1897 (the price being the
same for the two years), 4 in 1896, 8 in 1897, 2 in 1898,1 in 1899,1 in
1901 and 1902, 1 in 1903, and 1 in 1904. The highest yearly



187

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906,

relative price was reached by 3 in 1890, 1 in 1891, 5 in 1902, 1 in 1903,
1 in 1904, 1 in 1904 and 1905, 1 in 1905, and 17 in 1906. Thus the
highest yearly price of the seventeen-year period was reached by
five-sixths of the 30 articles during the last five years and by more
than one-half of the 30 articles during the last year.
Certain of the articles included in this investigation are related to
each other in such a way as to make a comparison of the course of
prices of such articles very interesting. These groups of related
articles are shown in the table which follows:
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cattle products.
Beef,
fresh,
roasts.

1890...........................................
1891...........................................
1892........................................... .
1893........................................... .
1894........................................... .
1895...............:............................
1896............................................
1897............................................
1898............................................
1899............................................
1900............................................
1901............................................
1902............................................
1903............................................
1904............................................
1905............................................
1906............................................

Beef,
fresh,
steaks.

99.5
100.0
99.6
99.0
98.3
98.6
99.1
100.3
101.7
103.7
*106.5
110.7
118.6
113.1
112.8
112.2
115.7

Year.

98.8
99.4
99.3
99-6
98.2
99.1
99.5
100.2
102.0
103.9
106.4
111.0
118.5
112.9
113.4
112.9
116.5

Dairy products.

Beef,
salt.
97.5
98.3
99.5
100.3
98.9
99.6
99.8
100.9
102.1
103.2
103.7
106.1
116.0
108.8
108.3
107.9
110.8

Milk,
fresh, un­ Butter.
skimmed.
100.5
100.5
100.6
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.4
98.9
99.9
101.1
103.3
105.8
106.3
107.0
108.9

Hog products.
Year.

1890............................................
1891............................................
1892............................................
1893............................................
1894............................................
1895............................................
1896............................................
1897............................................
1898............................................
1899............................................
1900............................................
1901............................................
1902............................................
1903............................................
1904............................................
1905............................................
1906............................................

Pork,
fresh.
97.0
98.7
100.5
107.0
101.8
99.7
97.4
97.6
98.6
101.7
107.7
117.9
128.3
127.0
124.0
126.6
137.7

Pork,

a c tll/ , h o «*
o o l^
UH

con.

95.8
96.6
99.1
109.0
103.6
99.4
96.7
97.4
100.2
102.9
109.7
121.0
135.6
139.8
137.9
138.8
150.4

98.8
100.3
101.5
101.8
101.6
99.2
97.9
99.0
97.5
102.4
103.9
103.3
107.3
109.4
107.4
110.9
115.5

Flour and bread.

Pork,
salt, dry Pork,
or
salt, ham.
pickled.
95.3
98.9
100.5
108.7
103.4
99.2
95.5
97.3
99.1
101.8
107.7
117.5
132.5
129.0
125.8
126.0
136.9

99.2
106.4
106.8
109.9
101.7
97.0
92.7
93.1
95.1
97.7
101.4
103.2
111.5
110.8
109.0
112.7
118.2

Cheese.

98.7
99.3
101.9
109.3
101.9
98.8
97.6
98.2
95.1
99.2
105.3
110.2
119.4
121.3
118.4
118.5
127.2

Lard.

98.2
99.8
103.6
117.9
106.9
100.1
92.5
89.8
93.9
97.1
104.4
118.1
134.3
126.7
117.3
116.6
128.0

Flour,
wheat.
109.7
112.5
105.1
96.1
88.7
89.0
92.7
104.3
107.4
94.6
94.3
94.4
94.9
101.2
119.9
119.9
108.1

Bread,
wheat.
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.1
•99.9
99.7
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.4
99.4
100.2
103.9
104.5
102.3

Under cattle products are shown the three articles, beef, fresh,
roasts; beef, fresh, steaks, and beef, salt. The price of each of these
three articles was higher in 1891 than in 1890; that of the two
descriptions of fresh beef was lower, and that of salt beef was higher
in 1892 than in 1891; prices of roasts were lower and of steaks and




188

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

salt beef higher in 1893 than in 1892; all three of the articles show
lower prices in 1894 than in 1893; in each year from 1895 to 1902,
inclusive, the price of each of the three articles increased; all were
lower in 1903 than in 1902; prices of roasts and salt beef were lower
and steaks higher in 1004 than in 1903; the price of each of these
three articles was lower in 1905 than in 1904; and the prices of
all were higher in 1906 than in 1905..
In the group of hog products, all of the 5 articles take the same
course in each of the six years, 1891 to 1896; in 1897 all except lard
were higher than in 1896; in 1898 all except salt ham were higher
than in 1897; in each of the four years, 1899 to 1902, all of the 5 arti­
cles were higher than in the year immediately preceding; in 1903
fresh pork, dry or pickled pork, and lard were lower, while bacon and
ham were higher than in 1902; in 1904 all were lower than in 1903;
in 1905 all except lard were higher than in 1904; in 1906 all were
higher than in 1905.
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD.
In connection with this report on retail prices it is interesting to
compare the course of wholesale prices and the course of retail prices.
Retail prices usually follow the wholesale but do not always vary in
the same proportion. The table which follows shows the relative
wholesale prices of food (simple averages of 53 articles from 1890 to
1892 and 1904 to 1906, and of 54 articles from 1893 to 1903) and the
relative retail prices of food (simple averages of 30 articles). The
figures for wholesale prices are from Bulletin No. 69 of this Bureau.
RELATIVE WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED STATES, 1890
TO 1906.
[The wholesale prices are from Bulletin No. 69 of the Bureau of Labor and are simple averages of 53 articles
from 1890 to 1892 and 1904 to 1906, and of 54 articles from 1893 to 1903. The retail prices are simple aver­
ages of 30 articles. Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.]

Year.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................

Relative
wholesale
prices of
food.
112.4
115.7
103.6
110.2
99.8
94.6
83.8
87.7
94.4

Relative
retail
prices of
food.
102.1
103.4
101.8
104.1
100.3
98.2
95.8
96.3
98.5

Year.
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................
1904...................................
1905................... , ..............
1906...................................

Relative
wholesale
prices of
food.
98.3
104.2
105.9
111.3
107.1
107.2
108.7
112.6

Relative
retail
prices of
food.
99.6
101.5
105.5
110.9
110.9
111.6
112.5
116.2

The facts presented in this table are clearly shown in the accom­
panying graphic table.




RETAIL PRICES OP POOD, 1890 TO 1906.

8891—No. 71—07--- 13




189

190

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

From this table it is seen that both wholesale and retail prices of
food were higher in 1891 than in 1890, the wholesale, however, show­
ing a much greater advance; both wholesale and retail prices were
lower in 1892 than in 1891, the decline being much greater in whole­
sale than in retail; both were higher in 1893 than in 1892; both lower
in 1894 than in 1893; both lower in 1895 than in 1894; both lower
in 1896 than in 1895, the decline in wholesale being much greater
than in retail; both were higher in each of the years from 1897 to 1902
than in the year immediately preceding; wholesale prices were lower
in 1903 than in 1902, while retail prices remained on the same level;
wholesale prices were slightly higher in 1904 than in 1903, while
retail prices made a more marked advance; both wholesale and retail
prices were higher in 1905 than in 1904, and were also higher in 1906
than in 1905.
RETAIL PRICES AND COST OF LIVING.
- The significance of changes in the retail prices of food will be better
understood in connection with certain information in regard to
detailed family expenditures covering the entire cost of living fur­
nished by 2,567 workingmen’s families and published in the Eighteenth
Annual Report of this Bureau. If it be assumed that the expenditure
for each of the various articles bore the same relation to the total
expenditure for food in each of the other years of the seventeen-year
period covered by this investigation as in 1901, the average cost for
food per family in 1906 was $359.53, against $296.76 in 1896, the
year of lowest prices, and against an expenditure of $349.27 in
1905, a difference between 1896 and 1906 of $62.77, or 21.2 per cent.
The increase in 1906 over 1905 was $10.26, or 2.9 per cent.
The table which follows shows by geographical divisions the average
food cost per family each year from 1890 to 1906. This table is based
on the average food cost per family in 1901 as reported by the fam­
ilies investigated in each geographical division, and the course of retail
prices of food as indicated by the relative prices, weighted according
to family consumption in that division.
In each of the geographical divisions and in the United States as a
whole it is considered in this table that the expenditure for each of
the various articles bore the same relation to the total expenditure
for food in each of the other years of the seventeen-year period
covered by this investigation as in 1901.
The table follows:




191

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

AVERAGE FOOD COST PER WORKINGMAN'S FAMILY, BY GEOGRAPHICAL
DIVISIONS, FOR EACH YEAR, 1890 TO 1906.
[Based on the average cost per family in 1901 and the course of retail nrices of food as indicated by
the relative prices weighted according to family consumption.]

Year.

1890.............................................................
1891_________________________ ______
.
1892_______
1893.............................................................
1894.........................................., .................
1895.............................................................
1896............................................................
1897............................................................
1898............................................................
1899............................................................
1900............................................................
1901............................................................
1902............................................................
1903.............................................................
1904.............................................................
1905.............................................................
1906.............................................................

South
North
South
North
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
division, division, division, division, division, States,
90
2,567
122
721
1,415
219
families. families. families. families. families. families.
$330.35
333.26
329.70
337.13
320.34
315.50
313.23
312.91
319.05
321.31
326.80
338.10
356.83
355.54
360.70
362.00
370.72

$282.72
285.23
282.44
288.30
279.36
275.73
270.42
271.26
277.41
280.76
286.07
298.64
312.33
310.65
312.61
315.68
324.62

$310.08
316.75
308.57
319.48
304.93
297.05
286.74
289.77
298.26
299.78
305.54
321.60
338.57
336.45
339.79
342.82
353.12

$279.54
283.64
275.71
283.37
273.79
268.59
263.11
266.40
270.50
273.51
276.80
292.68
310.75
310.75
314.86
317.32
325.81

$332.61
335.72
324.90
317.80
306.68
298.65
287.84
286.29
294.01
304.21
302.97
308.53
322.43
320.27
323.97
326.44
340.03

$318.20
322.55
316.65
324.41
309.81
303.91
296.76
299.24
306.70
309.19
314.16
326.90
344.61
342.75
347.10
349.27
359.53

From this table it is seen that in the North Atlantic division the
average food cost per family (assuming that food was purchased in
the same quantity each year and that the expenditure for each of
the various articles bore the same relation to the total expenditure
for food in each of the years) was $330.35 in 1890, $333.26 in 1891,
etc. The lowest cost was $312.91 in 1897, and the highest was
$370.72 in 1906, a difference of $57.81.
For the United States, considered as a whole, the average cost of
food per family in 1890 was $318.20. In 1896, the year of lowest
prices, it fell to $296.76; in 1906 it reached the highest point of the
period, being $359.53.
The changes in the cost of living, as shown by this table, relate
to food alone, representing 42.54 per cent of all family expenditures
in the 2,567 families furnishing information relative to cost of living.
The table which follows shows for the United States the average
cost of a year’s food supplies in representative workingmen’s families
if purchased at the prices for the specified month of 1905 and 1906.
This table is based on the average food cost per family in 1901 as
reported by the 2,567 families investigated.
In computing this table it was considered that the expenditure for
each of the various articles bore the same relation to the total expen­
diture for food in each month of 1905 and 1906 as in the year 1901.




192

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

AVERAGE COST OF A YEAR’S FOOD SUPPLIES PER WORKINGMAN’S FAMILY IF
PURCHASED AT THE PRICES FOR EACH SPECIFIED MONTH OF 1905 AND 1906.
[Based on the average cost per family in 1901 and the course of retail prices of food as indicated by the
relative prices weighted according to family consumption.]
Month.

1905.

1906.

January........................................................................................................................
February.... .................................................................................................................
March...........................................................................................................................
A prih...........................................................................................................................
May..............................................................................................................................
June............................................................................................ ................................
July..............................................................................................................................
August........................................................................................................................
September....................................................................................................................
October........................................................................................................................
November.....................................................................................................................
December.....................................................................................................................

1359.22
359.53
353.62
348.03
343.68
341.19
340.88
342.12
343.99
348.34
353.62
358.28

1363.57
361.08
357.35
353.93
350.83
350.83
352.07
353.62
357.97
363.88
371.03
376.62

Y ea r........................ :.........................................................................................

349.27

359.53

The average cost at December, 1906, prices of a year’s food sup­
plies per family (assuming that food was purchased in the same
quantity and that the expenditure for each of the various articles
bore the same relation to the total expenditure for food as in the
year 1901) was $376.62; which was an advance of $18.34 over the
average cost of a year’s supplies at December, 1905, prices. The
lowest point reached during the two years was $340.88, the average
cost of a year’s food supplies at July, 1905, prices. By referring to
the table on page 191 comparison may be made with each of the years
since 1890.
For a comparison of the relative advance of retail prices of food
and wages in the manufacturing and mechanical industries the
reader is referred to the article on “ Wages and hours of labor,”
pages 1 to 174 of this Bulletin. The increase in wages in many indus­
tries has exceeded the advance in food, but, as has been mentioned in
previous numbers of the Bulletin, the increased cost of food has been
felt by everyone, and perhaps more keenly by employees on salaries,
as the general tendency is to advance employees on salaries less rapidly
than those employed by the day or week or whose services are con­
tracted for at frequent intervals.
The table which follows shows for 20 articles of food the amount
which could have been bought for one dollar in each of the years 1890
to 1906.
The table is based on the average price reported paid by the 2,567
families in 1901, the quantities for the other years being calculated
from the relative retail prices for each of the articles. Flour and
meal were combined on the family budgets; therefore the average
price reported for these two articles by the retail merchants was used
in computing the number of pounds of each which could have been
bought for one dollar.




RETAIL PRICES OE FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

193

No detailed description of the various articles can be given, but
they were of the grade reported used by the 2,567 workingmen's
families reporting expenditures in detail.
The table follows:
AMOUNT OF VARIOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD OF THE GRADE USED BY THE 2,567 WORK­
INGMEN’S FAMILIES REPORTING EXPENDITURES IN DETAIL, WHICH COULD HAVE
BEEN BOUGHT FOR ONE DOLLAR IN EACH YEAR FROM 1890 TO 1906.
[Based on the average price paid by the 2,567 workingmen’s families in 1901, and the course of retail
prices.]

Year.

Poul­
Fresh
Salt
try
Fresh
Salt
Fish, Eggs, Milk, Butter,
beef,
beef, pork, pork, (chick­ pounds. dozens. quarts. pounds. Cheese,
pounds.
pounds. pounds. pounds. pounds. ens),
pounds.

1890.........................
1891..........................
1892..........................
1893..........................
1894..........................
1895..........................
1896..........................
1897..........................
1898..........................
1899..........................
1900..........................
1901..........................
1902..........................
1903..........................
1904..........................
1905..........................
1906..........................

Year.

1890..........................
1891..........................
1892..........................
1893..........................
1894..........................
1895..........................
1896..........................
1897..........................
1898..........................
1899..........................
1900..........................
1901..........................
1902..........................
1903..........................
1904..........................
1905..........................
1906.........................

7.81
7.78
7.79
7.81
7.89
7.84
7.81
7.73
7.61
7.47
7.28
6.99
6.54
6.86
6.85
6.88
6.68

10.06
9.97
9.85
9.77
9.91
9.84
9.82
9.72
9.60
9.50
9.45
9.24
8.45
9.01
9.05
9.09
8.85

9.89
9.72
9.55
8.97
9.43
9.63
9.84
9.83
9.73
9.44
8.91
8.14
7.48
7.56
7.74
7.58
6.97

9.s
58
9.41
9.20
8.49
8.98
9.33
9.58
9.48
9.43
9.13
8.60
7.96
7.16
7.12
7.26
7.24
6.69

7.25
7.06
7.08
7.05
7.45
7.46
7.56
7.81
7.59
7.21
7.29
7.13
6.49
6.20
6.08
5.94
5.69

10.09
10.02
9.97
9.91
9.99
10.15
10.20
10.35
10.12
10.07
10.11
9.97
9.71
9.35
9.19
9.02
8.66

5.33
5.01
5.02
4.96
5.56
5.40
5.77
5.86
5.57
5.30
5.36
5.07
4.50
4.28
4.09
4.07
3.99

16.74
4.23
16.74 v 3.95
16.72
3.93
16.76
3.82
16.79
4.13
16.82
4.33
16.84
4.53
16.87
4.51
16.92
4.42
17.01
4.30
16.84
4.14
16.64
4.07
16.29
3.77
15.90
3.79
15.83
3.85
15.72
3.73
15.45
3.55

6.39
6.29
6.22
6.20
6.21
6.36
6.45
6.38
6.47
6.16
6.07
6.11
5.88
5.77
5.88
5.69
5.46

Flour, Com Bread, Rice, Pota­
Tea, Coliee, Sugar, Molas­ wheat, meal,
Lard,
oneses,
toes,
pounds. pounds. pounds. pounds. gallons. pounds. pounds. pound pounds. bushels
loaves.
10.86
10.69
10.29
9.05
9.98
10.65
11.53
11.88
11.36
10.98
10.21
9.03
7.94
8.42
9.09
9.15
8.33

2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.16
2.17
2.16
2.17
2.12
2.04
2.02
2.00
1.99
2.01
2.02
2.02
2.02

3.75
3.76
3.81
3.77
3.83
3.89
3.97
4.18
4.34
4.37
4.34
4.36
4.41
4.43
4.31
4.22
4.18

14.80
17.09
18.24
17.29
18.71
19.12
18.17
18.34
17.33
17.26
16.73
17.04
18.28
18.26
17.22
16.89
17.87

2.06
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.18
2.19
2.21
2.20
2.20
2.11
2.13
2.11
2.08
2.07
2.07
2.05

34.42
33.56
35.93
39.29
42.57
42.43
40.73
36.20
35.16
39.92
40.04
40.00
39.79
37.31
31.49
31.49
34.93

46.57
42.45
44.27
45.17
45.56
46.20
49.02
49.70
49.02
48.97
47.81
43.48
39.20
38.58
38.33
38.11
37.80

20.15
20.15
20.15
20.19
20.23
20.27
20.23
20.21
20.25
20.29
20.27
20.33
20.33
20.17
19.45
19.34
19.75

12.51
12.36
12.51
12.87
12.80
12.82
13.10
12.94
12.46
12.37
12.37
12.24
12.24
12.19
12.47
12.35
11.99

1.22
1.14
1.39
1.19
1.30
1.45
1.73
1.43
1.26
1.39
1.42
1.14
1.14
1.16
1.10
1.21
1.16

From this table it is seen that the amount of fresh beef (of the
grade consumed by the 2,567 families investigated) which could have
been bought for $1 was 7.81 pounds in 1890, 7.78 pounds in 1891, 7.79
pounds in 1892, 7.81 pounds in 1893, 7.89 pounds in 1894, 7.84 pounds
in 1895, 7.81 pounds in 1896, 7.73 pounds in 1897, 7.61 pounds in 1898,
7.47 pounds in 1899, 7.28 pounds in 1900, 6.99 pounds in 1901, 6.54
pounds in 1902, 6.86 pounds in 1903, 6.85 pounds in 1904, 6.88 pounds
in 1905, and 6.68 pounds in 1906.
The investigation into the cost of living of workingmen's families
which the Bureau conducted in 1901 included 2,567 families and
13,643 persons. The table which follows shows by geographical



194

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

divisions the total number of families reporting expenditures in
detail, average size of family and average income, average expendi­
ture for all purposes, and average expenditure for food per family for
the year 1901:
NUMBER OF FAMILIES, AVERAGE SIZE OF FAMILY, AVERAGE INCOME PER FAMILY,
AVERAGE EXPENDITURE PER FAMILY FOR ALL PURPOSES, AND AVERAGE
EXPENDITURE PER FAMILY FOR FOOD, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1901.

Geographical division.

North A tlan tic.........................................................
South A tlantic...........................................................
North Central...........................................................
South Central............................................................
W estern.....................................................................
United S ta tes..............................................

Families.

Average
Average Average expendi­
income ture per
size oi
per
family
family. family.
for all
purposes.

Average
expendi­
ture per
family
for food.

1,415
219
721
122
90

5.25
5.30
5.46
5.65
4.69

$834.83
762.78
842.60
715.46
891.82

$778.04
700.62
785.95
690.11
751.46

$338.10
298.64
321.60
292.68
308.53

2,567

5.31

827.19

768.54

326.90

A marked difference in condition is seen by comparing the geo­
graphical divisions. The average family income varied from $715.46
in the South Central division to $891.82 in the Western division.
The average family expenditure for all purposes was $690.11 in the
South Central division and $785.95 in the North Central division.
The average family expenditure for food was $292.68 in the South
Central division and $338.10 in the North Atlantic division.
The average expenditure for food, when compared with the average
expenditure for all purposes, does not vary materially in the five
divisions. In the North Atlantic division the average expenditure for
food was 43.46 per cent of the average expenditure for all purposes;
in the South Atlantic division, 42.63 per cent; in the North Central
division, 40.92 per cent; in the South Central division, 42.41 per cent;
in the Western division, 41.06 per cent, and in the United States,
cpnsidered as a whole, 42.54 per cent.
The table which follows shows, for the 2,567 families reporting
expenditures in detail, the average amount expended per family for
each of the principal items entering into the cost of living, and also
the per cent which the amount expended for each item is of the total
family expenditure:




195

RETAIL PRICES OP FOOD, 1890 TO 1906,

AVERAGE EXPEND ITU RE OF 2,567 WORKINGMEN'S FAMILIES FOR EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL ITEMS ENTERING INTO COST OF LIVING, A N D *PER CENT OF AVER­
AGE TOTAL EXPEND ITU RE, 1901.
Expenditure based
on all families.
Percent
of total
Average. expendi­
ture.

Items of expenditure.

Food.............................................................................................................................
Rent.............................................................................................................................
Mortgage:
Principal................................................................................................................
Interest..................................................................................................................
Fuel..............................................................................................................................
Lighting.......................................................................................................................
Clothing:
Husband................................................................................................................
Wife.......................................................................................................................
Children.................................................................................................................
Taxes............................................................................................................................
Insurance:
Property................................................................................................................
Life........................................................................................................................
Organizations:
Labor.....................................................................................................................
Other......................................................................................................................
Religious purposes......................................................................................................
Charity.........................................................................................................................
Furniture and utensils................................................................................................
Books and newspapers................................................................................................
Amusements and vacation..........................................................................................
Intoxicating liquors...................................... :...........................................................
Tobacco........................................................................................................................
Sickness and death......................................................................................................
Other purposes............................................................................................................

1326.90
99.49

42.54
12.95

«8.15
63.98
32.23
8.15

1.06
.52
4.19
1.06

33.73
26.03
48.08
5.79

4.39
3.39
6.26
.75

1.53
19.44

2.53

3.87
5.18
7.62
2.39
26.31
8.35
12.28
12.44
10.93
20.54
45.13

.50
.67
.99
.31
3.42
1.09
1.60
1.62
1.42
2.67
5.87

Total...................................................................................................................

768.54

100.00

.20

a Including interest paid by 13 families.

&Not including interest paid by 13 families, included in principal.

The following table shows for each of the geographical divisions
and for the United States the average quantity per family of certain
principal articles of food consumed in one year. These averages are
based on all families from which detailed statements were secured in
each geographical division.
AVERAGE QUANTITY PER WORKINGMAN'S FAMILY OF CERTAIN PRINCIPAL
ARTICLES OF FOOD CONSUMED IN 1901, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.

Article.

Fresh beef.................................
Salt beef....................................
Fresh hog products..................
Salt hog products....................
Other m eat...............................
P oultry.....................................
Fish...........................................
E ggs..........................................

m .................................

B utter.......................................
Cheese.......................................
Lard..........................................
Tea............................................
Coflee........................................
Flour and m eal.........................
Bread........................................
R ice...........................................
P otatoes...................................




Unit.

South
North
South
North
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
division, division, division, division, division, States,
90
2,567
122
721
1,415
219
families. families. families. families. families. families.

Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
D ozen ..
Quarts..
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Gallons.
Pounds.
Loaves.. '
Pounds.
Bushels.

352.2
75.3
103.4
95.2
98.1
67.2
98.9
85.8
396.3
118.9
15.9
73.8
12.9
38.5
282.8
3.2
624.0
310.2
22.2
13.8

306.8
9.4
85.3
222.0
28.1
73.6
66.1
90.6
191.9
102.1
15.2
119.5
8.2
60.7
240.4
4.6
851.8
197.0
49.1
11.1

363.5
21.3
152.6
87.3
68.8
71.3
56.5
88.3
348.2
124.0
17.4
89.1
8.5
57.5
253.1
3.4
718.2
165.6
21.8
18.3

317.4
3.5
128.1
248.7
11.2
53.0
39.5
85.0
220.8
88.9
18.9
143.3
4.9
71.4
245.8
6.2
979.5
199.8
47.2
13.3

348.4
3.8
28.4
76.6
37.8
53.5
57.5
39.8
324.4
108.9
3.8
48.5
5.6
25.2
267.2
4.0
452.3
255.2
10.3
10.3

349.7
48.6
114.2
110.5
77.7
67.7
79.9
85.2
354.5
117.1
16.0
84.4
10.6
46.8
268.5
3.6
680.8
252.7
25.1
14.7

196

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

From this table it is seen that 349.7 pounds was the average quan­
tity per family of fresh beef consumed in the 2,567 families investi­
gated. In the North Atlantic division the average quantity was 352.2
pounds; in the South Atlantic division, 306.8 pounds; in the North
Central division, 363.5 pounds; in the South Central division, 317.4
pounds, and in the Western division, 348.4 pounds.
In the five divisions a great difference is seen in the consumption of
salt beef. The average quantity consumed per family in the North
Atlantic division was 75.3 pounds; in the South Atlantic division, 9.4
pounds; in the North Central division, 21.3 pounds; in the South
Central division, 3.5 pounds, and in the Western division, 3.8 pounds.
The average for the United States was 48.6 pounds.
Of the more important articles salt hog products show the greatest
variation in quantity consumed per family. The average consump­
tion of these products in the North Atlantic division was 95.2 pounds;
in the South. Atlantic division, 222 pounds; in the North Central
division, 87.3 pounds; in the South Central division, 248.7 pounds,
and in the Western division, 76.6 pounds. The average for the 2,567
families investigated was 110.5 pounds.
The average quantity of sugar consumed per family varied but little
in the different localities. In the North Atlantic division it was 282.8
pounds; in the South Atlantic division, 240.4 pounds; in the North
Central division, 253.1 pounds; in the South Central division, 245.8
pounds, and in the Western division, 267.2 pounds. The average for
the 2,567 families was 268.5 pounds.
Another table shows the average cost per family of the principal
articles of food consumed in one year. These averages are based
on all families from which detailed statements were secured in each
of the geographical divisions.




197

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

AVERAGE COST PER WORKINGMAN'S FAMILY OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF
FOOD CONSUMED IN 1901, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.

Article.

South
North
South
North
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
division, division, division, division, division, States,
90
2,567
1,415
122
219
721
families. families. families. families. families. families.

Fresh beef..................................................
Salt beef.....................................................
Fresh hog products..................................
Salt hog products.....................................
Other meat................................................
Poultry......................................................
Fish...........................................................
Eggs..........................................................
MUk...........................................................
Butter!......................................................
Cheese........................................................
Lard..........................................................
Tea.............................................................
Coffee.........................................................
Sugar.........................................................
Molasses....................................................
Flour and meal.........................................
Bread.........................................................
Rice............................................................
Potatoes....................................................
Other vegetables.......................................
Fruit..........................................................
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments............
Other food.................................................

154.27
8.18
12.83
12.19
12.26
10.18
10.06
18.44
24.29
29.77
2.55
8.15
6.33
9.70
16.67
1.51
16.24
15.41
1.94
13.77
16.08
15.31
4.06
17.91

$41.08
1.13
10.48
26.79
3.86
8.44
5.21
15.55
13.02
25.76
2.65
12.72
4.40
10.58
14.15
2.01
21.10
9.34
2.77
9.29
20.75
15.22
3.21
19.13

$46.06
2.20
18.39
11.25
8.68
9.34
5.67
15.24
19.67
28.48
2.87
10.34
4.22
12.91
14.63
1.53
16.47
8.11
1.92
13.01
22.03
17.15
4.80
26.63

$37.84
.33
15.60
28.09
1.40
5.93
3.95
13.20
12.25
21.74
3.36
14.31
2.69
12.22
15.70
2.93
22.68
9.55
3.70
11.54
16.62
11.52
4.41
21.12

$54.13
.66
4.04
11.06
5.35
7.15
6.90
11.01
20.46
31.81
.69
5.44
3.43
8.06
14.49
3.28
8.85
11.93
.91
9.84
35.41
40.53
1.49
11.61

$50.05
5.26
14.02
13.89
9.78
9.49
8.01
16.79
21.32
28.76
2.62
9.35
5.30
10.74
15.76
1.69
16.76
12.44
2.05
12.93
18.85
16.52
4.12
2Q 40
i

Total.............................................!.

338.10

298.64

321.60

292.68

30a53

326.90

From this table it is seen that the average cost per family of the
fresh beef consumed was $54.27 in the North Atlantic division, $41.08
in the South Atlantic division, $46.06 in the North Central division,
$37.84 in the South Central division, and $54.13 in the Western divi­
sion. The average cost for the 2,567 families investigated was $50.05.
The average cost per family of salt hog products consumed was
$12.19 in the North Atlantic division, $26.79 in the South Atlantic
division, $11.25 in the North Central division, $28.09 in the South
Central division, and $11.06 in the Western division. The average for
all families investigated was $13.89.
The average cost of all food consumed during the year was $338.10
m the North Atlantic division, $298.64 in the South Atlantic division,
$321.60 in the North Central division, $292.68 in the South Central
division, and $308.53 in the Western division.
The average expenditure for food in the families investigated in
the North Atlantic division was 15.52 per cent above the average
expenditure in the families investigated in the South Central division.
The average expenditure for the 2,567 families in the United States
was $326.90.
From the table just shown another table has been computed,
showing the relative importance, as measured by the average family
expenditure, of the principal articles of food consumed in one year.
For the purpose of computing the relative importance of the various
articles, the total value of food consumed is considered equal to
10,000. The table follows.



198

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE IN WORKINGMEN’S FAMILIES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTI­
CLES OF FOOD CONSUMED IN 1901, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.
[Total value of food consumed**10,000.]

Article.

North
South
North
South
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
division, division, division, division, division, States,
90
2,567
1,415
219
721
122
families. families. families. families. families. families.

Fresh beef..................................................
Salt beef.....................................................
Fresh hog products..................................
Salt hog products.....................................
Other m eat................................................
Poultry......................................................
F ish...........................................................
Eggs...........................................................
Milk...........................................................
Butter.......................................................
Cheese........................................................
Lard..........................................................
Tea............................................................
Coffee.........................................................
Sugar.........................................................
Molasses....................................................
Flour and meal.........................................
Bread.........................................................
Rice............................................................
Potatoes....................................................
Other vegetables.......................................
Fruit..........................................................
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments............
Other food...........:....................................

1,605
242
379
361
363
301
298
545
718
881
75
241
187
287
493
45
480
456
57
407
476
453
120
530

1,375
38
351
897
129
283
174
521
436
863
89
426
147
354,
474
67
706
313
93
311
695
510
107
641

1,432
68
572
270
290
176
474
612
886
89
322
131
401
455
48
512
252
60
405
685
533
149
828

1,293
11
533
960
48
203
135
451
418
743
115
489
92
417
536
100
775
326
126
394
568
394
151
722

Total................................................

10,000

10,000

10,000

10,000

m

1,754
21
131
359
173
232
224
357 .
663
1,031
22
176
111
261
470
106
287
387
30
319
1,148
1,314
48
376
10,000

1,531
161
429
425
299
290
245
514
652
880
80
286
162
328
482
52
513
381
63
395
577
505
126
624
10.000*

This table shows that upon the basis of the reported expenditures
for food in the 2,567 families, the total value of food being represented
by 10,000, fresh beef has a value of 1,531; salt beef, 161; fresh hog
products, 429; salt hog products, 425; other meat, 299; poultry, 290;
fish, 245; eggs, 514; milk, 652; butter, 880; cheese, 80; lard, 286;
tea, 162; coffee, 328; sugar, 482; molasses, 52; flour and meal, 513;
bread, 381; rice, 63; potatoes, 395; other vegetables, 577; fruit, 505;
vinegar, pickles, and condiments, 126, and other food, 624. I t
should be understood that these figures of relative importance are
based on the cost of the various articles—that is, for every $100 spent
for food, $15.31 was spent for fresh beef, $1.61 for salt beef, etc.
I t is interesting to note that in the 2,567 families fresh hog products
and salt hog products have almost equal importance, and that the
two combined have almost exactly one-half the importance of fresh
beef and salt beef combined. Eggs are practically equal in impor­
tance to flour and meal. Tea has one-half the importance of coffee,
and sugar is almost equal in importance to the sum of tea and coffee.
Butter is almost equal in importance to the sum of flour and meal
and bread.
Marked differences in the importance of the various articles are
shown in the 5 geographical divisions. In the North Atlantic division
fresh beef has a relative importance of 1,605; in the South Atlantic
division, 1,375; in the North Central division, 1,432; in the South
Central division 1,293, and in the Western division, 1,754. The rela­



RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

199

tive importance of salt beef is 11 in the South Central division, while
in the North Atlantic division it is 242, or 22 times its importance in
the South Central division.
The importance of salt hog products is 361 in the North Atlantic
division, 897 in the South Atlantic division, 350 in the North Central
division, 960 in the South Central division, and 359 in the Western
division. The importance of sugar does not show a great difference;
it is 493 in the North Atlantic division, 474 in the South Atlantic
division, 455 in the North Central division, 536 in the South Central
division, and 470 in the Western division.
By the use of this table a series of index numbers, or relative
prices, has been computed in which the principal articles of food
have been given the weight or importance shown in the preceding
table, thus showing the course of retail prices from year to year
when the various articles are weighted according to average family
consumption.
Certain groupings of the articles for which retail prices were
secured are necessary in order to bring them within the classification
reported in the family budgets.
Fresh beef is represented by the two articles—one, roasts, and the
other, steaks; salt hog products by the three articles—salt bacon,
dry or pickled pork, and salt ham; other meat by the two articles—
mutton and veal; poultry by the single article—chickens; fish by
fresh fish and salt fish; flour and meal by wheat flour and corn meal.
However, in obtaining an average index number to be used in weight­
ing by relative importance, wheat flour is given twice the importance
of corn meal. It would be necessary to give wheat flour even a
greater weight as compared with corn meal but for the fact that
bread is considered separately from flour and meal. Fruit is repre­
sented by two articles only—evaporated apples and prunes—as it
was impossible to secure complete series of prices of other descrip­
tions of fruits. Vinegar, pickles, and condiments are represented by
the single article vinegar.
This list includes all articles for which retail prices were secured
except beans. The groupings are as follows:
Other meat:
Fresh beef:
Mutton.
Roasts,
Veal.
Steaks.
Poultry:
Salt beef.
Fresh hog products:
Chickens (year or more old),
Pork, fresh.
dressed.
Fish:
Salt hog products:
Pork, salt, bacon.
Fresh.
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.
Salt.
Pork, salt, ham.
Eggs.



200

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Bread.
Milk, fresh, unskimmed.
Rice.
Butter.
Potatoes.
Cheese.
Lard.
Fruit:
Apples, evaporated.
Tea.
Prunes.
Coffee.
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments:
Sugar.
Vinegar.
Molasses..
Flour and meal:
Other food:
Flour, wheat (2).
The same index as for “ total
Com meal (1).
food, except meat.”
The figures showing the relative importance of the various articles
of food are based on the family consumption for 1901. There is no
doubt that the relative importance of articles varied slightly from
year to year, but no figures are available covering the 17 years, there­
fore the relative consumption of the various articles of food is, in
this study, considered the same for each of the years.
The method of computing the series of relative prices weighted
according to family consumption, for each of the geographical divi­
sions and for the United States considered as a whole, can best be
explained by illustrating the process.
The following table is for the United States for the year 1906:
TABLE ILLUSTRATING THE METHOD OF COMPUTING THE RELATIVE RETAIL
PRICE OF FOOD IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1906, THE VARIOUS ARTICLES BEING
WEIGHTED ACCORDING TO AVERAGE CONSUMPTION IN 2,667 WORKINGMEN'S
FAMILIES.
Article.
Fresh beef.................................................................................................
Salt beef...................................................................................................
Fresh hog products..................................................................................
Salt hog products.....................................................................................
Other meat...............................................................................................
Total m eat......................................................................................

Relative Relative
impor­
price.
tance.
1,531
161
429
425
299

Result.

116.1
110.8
137.7
138.2
123.7

177,749.1
17,838.8
59.073.3
58,735.0
36.986.3

2,845 |

123.2

350,382.5

Poultry.....................................................................................................
Fish...........................................................................................................
Eggs..........................................................................................................
Milk...........................................................................................................
Butter.......................................................................................................
Cheese.......................................................................................................
Lard..........................................................................................................
Tea,..........................................................................................................
Coflee.........................................................................................................
Sugar........................................................................................................
Molasses...................................................................................................
Flour and meal.........................................................................................
Bread........................................................................................................
Rice.............................................................„............................................
Potatoes....................................................................................................
Fruit.........................................................................................................
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments............................................................

290
245
514
652
880
80
286
162
328
482
52
513
381
63
395
505
126

129.1
116.5
134.2
108.9
118.2
115.5
128.0
105.5
94.7
98.2
105.3
113.1
102.3
105.7
114.4
100.4
102.6

37.439.0
28.542.5
68.978.8
71.002.8
104,016.0
9.240.0
36.608.0
17.091.0
31.061.6
47,332.4
5,475.6
58.020.3
38.976.3
6.659.1
45.188.0
50.702.0
12.927.6

Total, except m eat.........................................................................
Other food................................................................................................
Meat..........................................................................................................

5,954
624
2,845

112.4
112.4
123.2

669,261.0
70,137.6
350,382.5

Grand total.....................................................................................

9,423

115.7

1,089,781.1




j

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

201

The sum of the numbers indicating the relative importance of the
various kinds of meat is 2,845, the relative importance in family con­
sumption of all meat. The sum of the results which were obtained
by multiplying the relative price of each of the kinds of meat by the
number indicating its relative importance is 350,382.5. Therefore
to obtain the relative price of the group, meat, for the United States
in 1906, the sum of the results is divided by 2,845, the relative impor­
tance of the meat group. The quotient, 123.2, shows the relative
price of the meat group in 1906 when weighted according to family
consumption.
Each of the remaining 17 articles or classes of articles is taken up
in the same way as were the several kinds of meat, the relative price
for the United States in 1906, as shown in Table II, being multiplied
by the relative importance of the article, as shown in the table on
page 198. For the group of 17 articles comprised in “ total, except
meat,” the relative price, 112.4, was found in the same way as was the
relative price for all meat, the sum of the results, 669,261.0, being
divided by 5,954, the sum of the numbers indicating relative impor­
tance. One other group, designated “ other food,” remains to be
considered. As the various descriptions of meat most generally used
and also a class, “ other meat,” were included in the total meat, it is
presumed that all meat was included in that total and that the food
which in the family budgets was classed as “ other food” must be
more nearly related to the various articles considered in the group
“ total food, except meat,” and therefore “ other food” was given the
same relative price as “ total food, except meat.”
The grand total of the numbers indicating relative importance was
9,423, and the sum of the results obtained by multiplying the relative
price of each of the various articles considered by its relative impor­
tance was 1,089,781.1. The sum of the results divided by 9,423 is
115.7, the relative price of food for the United States in 1906, when
the various articles are weighted according to the reported consump­
tion in 2,567 families. The class “ other vegetables” has a relative
importance of 577, but it was impossible to collect retail prices of
articles to represent properly this class for the sixteen years; hence it
was not possible to include that class in this table, and therefore the
grand total of relative importance, 9,423, lacks 577 of making the
10,000 total importance of food indicated in the table on page 198.
That is, 94.23 per cent of the total food consumption per family is
represented in this table.
It is interesting to see, from the table on page 179, that the relative
price for 1906, weighted according to family consumption and includ­
ing 94.23 per cent of the total food consumption, differed but little
from the simple average of the 30 articles of food shown on the same
page, the weighted price being 115.7 and the simple average 116.2.



202

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

It should not be understood that the 30 articles for which retail prices
were secured, and which are enumerated on page 204, comprise 94.23
per cent of the food consumed, but these articles represent groups or
classes which do, according to the 2,567 family budgets, comprise
94.23 per cent of the food consumed.
The weighted relative price for the United States for each of the
years from 1890 to 1905 was found in the same way as has been
explained for 1906.
The same method was employed in computing the weighted rela­
tive prices for each of the five geographical divisions as for the United
States. The relative importance of the various articles, or classes of
articles, in the different geographical divisions is shown in the table on
page 198.
The following table shows the average price per pound, dozen,
quart, etc., in 1901, of various articles of food. One column shows
the average price paid by the 2,567 workingmen’s families investigated
in the United States, as reported by the housewife or other member
of the family—that is, the average amount paid per family for each
article was divided by the average quantity of the article consumed.
Another column shows the average price computed from the reports
obtained from the retail merchants. The average price shown for
fresh beef in the last column, for instance, is the simple average of
the prices quoted on the 614 schedules for fresh beef; the average
for salt beef is the simple average of the prices quoted on the 121
schedules for that article, etc.
AVERAGE PRICE PER

POUND, DOZEN, QUART, ETC., OF CERTAIN PRINCIPAL
ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1901.
Average price—

Article.

Fresh beef..............
Salt beef.................
Fresh hog products
Salt hog products..
Other m eat............
Poultry..................
Fish........................

Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
D ozen..
Q uart..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Gallon..
Pound...
Loaf___
Pound..
Bushel..

Butter....................
Cheese.....................
Lard.......................
Tea.........................
Coffee......................
Sugar.....................
Mmasses.................
Flour and meal___
Bread.....................
Rice........................
Potatoes................




Unit.

a Flour, $0.0250; com meal, $0.0230.

Com­
puted
from
2,567
family
budgets.
10.1431
.1082
.1228
.1257
.1259
.1402
.1003
.1971
.0601
.2456
.1638
.1108
.5000
.2295
.0587
.4694
.0246
.0492
.0817
.8796

Com­
puted
from
retailprice
sched­
ules.
10.1470
.0931
.1300
.1457
.1430
.1529
.1166
.2194
.0617
.2644
.1634
.1190
.5455
.2445
.0587
.5136
(a )

.0545
.0837
.9908

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

203

The average price per pound for fresh beef reported paid by the
2,567 families was 14.31 cents; the simple average price from the 614
schedules for fresh beef secured from the retail merchants was 14.70
cents. The average price per pound for salt beef reported in the family
budgets was 10.82 cents; the average from the 121 schedules for salt
beef secured from the retail merchants was 9.31 cents. In the family
budget salt beef included dried beef, while the prices from retail mer­
chants are for corned beef. The prices for the other articles can be
compared by referring to the table.
It will be noticed that for all articles except four—salt beef,
cheese, sugar, and flour and meal—the average price computed from
the family budgets is less than the reports of retail merchants. In
explanation of this difference, two suggestions may be offered. The
first is, that when the price of any article of food advances there is a
tendency on the part of the consumers to use some substitute for
that article. Therefore, if an article is low for six months of the year
and high for the remaining six months the greater quantity con­
sumed by the family may have been purchased during the months
when the price was low, thus producing a lower average for the year
than would the simple average of twelve monthly quotations. A
second suggestion is that prices secured from retail merchants were
usually for some standard grade or brand of article, while in some
families investigated it is no doubt true that articles of a lower grade
were purchased at times.
The table which shows for each of the 5 geographical divisions
and for the United States the relative price of food for each year
from 1890 to 1906 is presented on page 179. The results were com­
puted by two methods. By one method the figures obtained are
the simple average of the relative prices of the 30 articles, and by
the other method the relative prices of the various articles were
weighted according to their average consumption in the working­
m ens families investigated in the States included in the geograph­
ical division.
EXPLANATION OF SCOPE AND METHOD.
The present report gives the results of an investigation of retail
prices in 69 of the principal cities of the United States for the year
1906 and also summaries covering the seventeen-year period from
1890 to 1906. Previous investigations of retail prices have been
made and published by the Bureau of Labor, as follows: Eighteenth
Annual Report, covering 1890 to 1903; Bulletin No. 59 (July, 1905),
covering 1904; Bulletin No. 65 (July, 1906), covering 1905.
The present investigation includes 6,176 schedules or statements
of prices secured from 993 firms in the principal industrial localities
in 39 States, including the District of Columbia. In the Eighteenth



204

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Annual Report, the first of the series, were included 5,302 schedules
from 814 retail merchants for the years 1890 to 1902, and 5,293
schedules from 811 merchants for the year 1903. The prices were
secured in the principal industrial localities in 33 States, including
the District of Columbia. In collecting the prices published in Bul­
letin No. 59 the scope of the investigation was enlarged and included
6,760 schedules from 1,064 firms in 40 States. The report in Bulletin
No. 65 included 6,193 schedules from 999 firms in 39 States.
As far as possible 1906 prices were secured from those firms which
furnished prices for previous years. If a firm which had heretofore
furnished prices to the Bureau was no longer in business, or where
additional firms were desired, prices were secured for both 1905 and
1906, so that in every case the 1905 and 1906 prices shown in this
compilation are from the same firm.
The schedules were in all cases secured by personal visits of agents
of the Bureau. The firms furnishing prices were those selling largely
to the workingmen. In this compilation prices are quoted for 30
distinct articles and under each article prices are shown for various
grades and descriptions of that article. The articles for which retail
prices are quoted in this report, the number of schedules or state­
ments of prices secured for each article, and the number of cities
and States in which the schedules were secured are shown in the
table which follows:
ARTICLES FOR WHICH RETAIL PRICES ARE SHOWN, NUMBER OF SCHEDULES
SECURED FOR EACH ARTICLE, AND NUMBER OF CITIES AND STATES IN WHICH
THE SCHEDULES WERE SECURED FOR 1905 AND 1906.
Article.

Cities
States
Total
schedules. in which in which
secured. secured.

Apples, evaporated..................................................................................
Beans, dry................................................................................................
Beef, fresh, roasts.....................................................................................
Beef, fresh, stea k s...................................................................................
Beef, s a lt .................................................................................................
Bread, wheat...........................................................................................
Butter......................................................................................................
Cheese.......................................................................................................
Chickens (full grown), dressed................................................................
Coffee........................................................................................................
Com meal................................. ..............................................................
Eggs..........................................................................................................
Fish, fresh................................................................................................
Fish, sa lt.........................................................•........................................
Flour, wheat.............................................................................................
Lard.........................................................................................................
Milk, fresh, unskimmed...........................................................................
Molasses...................................................................................................
Mutton and lam b.....................................................................................
Pork, fresh...................... ................................................ :......................
Pork, salt, bacon.....................................................................................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled........................................................................
Pork, salt, ham ........................................................................................
Potatoes, Irish............ ...........................................................................
Prunes......................................................................................... ............
Rice..........................................................................................................
Sugar........................................................................................................
Tea............ .......................................................................................
Veal...........................................................................................................
Vinegar.....................................................................................................

155
159
449
451
155
225
237
173
161
182
176
227
172
173
227
178
211
176
163
221
228
163
236
224
161
174
227
169
161
162

68
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
68
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
68
69

39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
* 39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
38
39

Total...............................................................................................

6,176

69

39




205

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906,

The 69 cities in which quotations of retail prices were secured are
enumerated in the following table. The cities selected are so dis­
tributed that the prices fairly represent the prices to the consumers
in the principal industrial localities in all parts of the country.
CITIES IN WHICH RETAIL PRICES WERE SECURED, NUMBER OF FIRMS FROM WHICH
SECURED, AND NUMBER OF SCHEDULES OR QUOTATIONS OF PRICES SECURED.
Cities.

12
9
19
24
13
30
7
28
8
21
18
23
17
13
10
6
14
11
8
14
13
10
1218
15
12
12
14
16
5
13
6
16
12
10
17
19
12
28
24
12
8
12
38
6
12
16
16
19
12
14
9
13
13
23
17
12
11
10
12
10
14
10
11
11
12
20
14
17

Albany, N. Y .............. .
Allegheny, P a..............
Atlanta, Ga.................
Baltimore, Md............
Birmingham, Ala.........
Boston, Mass..............
Brooklyn, N. Y ...........
Buffalo, N. Y ..............
Butte, Mont................
Charleston, S. C..........
Chicago, 111..................
Cincinnati, Ohio..........
Cleveland, Ohio...........
Dallas, Tex..................
Denver, Colo...............
Des Moines, Iow a.......
Detroit, Mich..............
Dubuque, Iowa...........
Duluth, Minn..............
Fall River, Mass.........
Flushing N. Y ............
Grand Rapids, M ich...
Indianapolis, Ind....... .
Jacksonville, Fla.........
Jersey City, N. J .........
Kansas City, Mo.........
Little Rock, Ark.........
Los Angeles, Cal.........
Louisville, K y.............
Lynn, Mass.................
Malden, Mass..............
Manchester, N. H .......
Memphis, Tenn...........
Milwaukee, W is...........
Minneapolis, Minn.......
Montgomery, Ala.......
Nashville, Tenn...........
New Haven, Conn.......
New Orleans, La.........
New York, N. Y .(a )...
Norfolk, V a.................
Omaha, Nebr..............
Peoria, 111....................
Philadelphia, P a ........
Pittsburg, P a..............
Portland, Me...............
Portland, Oreg............
Providence, R. I .........
Richmond, V a.............
Rochester, N. Y ..........
St. Louis, Mo..............
St. Paul, Minn............
Salt Lake City, U tah..
San Antonio, Tex.......
San Francisco, Cal___
Scranton, P a...............
Seattle, W ash.............
Sioux Falls, S. Dak___
Syracuse, N. Y ............
Tacoma, W ash............
Terre Haute, Ind........
Toledo, Ohio...............
Topeka, Kans..............
Trenton, N. J ..............
Washington, D. C.......
Wheeling, W. V a........
Wilkes-Barre, P a.........
Wilmington, Del.........
Worcester, Mass.........
Total..................

993
« Borough of Manhattan only.

8891— 71—
No.
07---14



Number of firms Number of sched­
from which quo­ ules or quota­
tations of prices tions of prices
were secured.
secured.
79
81
88
113
81
114
85
125
78
86
144
113
119
78
82
78
102
79
79
76
81
87
82
107
78
75
79
78
78
75
76
80
87
84
104
78
79
90
107
153
78
78
110
148
78
79
82
83
87
88
113
82
84
79
131
79
90
78
82
78
79
76
78
84
102
78
80
73
81
6,176

206

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

EXPLANATION OF TABLES.
This report includes three general tables, as follows:
T able I.—Retail prices of food, 1905 and 1906.
T able II.—Relative retail prices of food, by months, 1905 and
1906.
T able III.—Relative retail prices of food, 1890 to 1906.
Table / .— R eta il prices o f fo od , 1906 and 1906 (pp. 210 to 816 ).—This
table shows for each of the years 1905 and 1906 the average price of
the particular article enumerated in each separate schedule or state­
ment of prices. The agents of the Bureau obtained from the retail
merchants the prevailing price for the various articles of food during
each month of the two years. The monthly prices of the various arti­
cles are not published in detail, but from these monthly prices an
average price for each year has been computed for each schedule or
separate statement of prices. The average price for the year is a
simple average, found by adding together the 12 monthly quotations
of prices for each article for the year and dividing by 12. The 30
articles are presented in alphabetical order, the prices for each article
being shown under each State, by localities in which secured.
The particular grade or description of each article is shown in con­
nection with the average prices. The greatest care was taken to
secure prices throughout the two years for an article of uniform grade
or quality, as changes in quality are, of course, reflected in prices.
A reference to Table I (page 210) shows that the first article is
“ Apples, evaporated,” and the first line shows the average price
computed from monthly statements of the price of evaporated apples
as sold by a certain retail merchant in Birmingham, Ala. The third
column shows the average price per pound, 12.50 cents, in 1905,
the fourth column the average price per pound, 12.50 cents, in 1906.
The second line presents the average price of evaporated apples
computed from statements of monthly prices furnished by a certain
other retail merchant in Birmingham, Ala. The third line shows
the price of evaporated apples computed from statements of monthly
prices furnished an agent of the Bureau by a certain retail merchant
in Montgomery, Ala.
For evaporated apples 155 statements of prices are shown. These
statements were obtained in 68 cities in 39 States. For dry beans 159
statements of prices are shown. For fresh beef (roasts) 449 state­
ments are shown. The number of statements of prices, or schedules,
shown for each of the 30 articles may be seen by reference to the table
on page 204.
In some localities the weight of a loaf of bread is fixed by statute,
but in many other localities the weight of a loaf varies to some extent
with the fluctuations in the price of flour. For this reason the por­



RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

20T

tion of Table I relating to bread shows the weight of the loaf for
which the statement of prices was secured, the average price per
loaf for 1905 and 1906, and the computed average price per pound
(after baking) for each of the two years. A loaf of bread is the usual
unit of purchase, but in comparing 1906 and 1905 prices the price per
pound should be used in preference to the price per loaf when the
weight per loaf has changed.
Table I I . — Relative retail prices o f food, by months, 1905 and 1906
(pp. 317 and 318).—This table shows for each month of 1905 and

1906 the relative price for each of the 30 articles of food included in
this compilation. This table has not been included in previous reports
on retail prices published by the Bureau.
The method followed in computing the relative prices is fully ex­
plained in the description of Table III, which immediately follows.
Table I I I .— Relative retail prices o f food, 1890 to 1906 (pp. 319 to
328).—In the Eighteenth Annual Report of this Bureau were shown

the relative retail prices for each of the fourteen years from 1890 to
1903 for each of the 30 articles of food included in that report, in
Bulletin No. 59 those prices were extended to include 1904, in Bul­
letin No. 65 to include 1905, and in the present compilation they are
extended to include 1906.
As explained on a previous page, a Relative price, or an index num­
ber as it is technically called, of any article is the per cent which
the price of that article at any certain date is of the price of the
same article at a date or a period which has been selected as the
base or standard.
The base selected for the compilation of retail prices is the average,
price for the ten-year period 1890 to 1899. This base period is the
same as was used in the presentation of wholesale prices in Bulletin
Nos. 39,45,51,57, 63, and 69 of this Bureau. The average for the tenyear period is used as the base for the reason that an average price
for a number of years more nearly represents average or normal
conditions than does the price for a single year. The value of the
relative price is that it enables the reader to follow more readily the
course of prices of a single article or of groups of articles.
In the Eighteenth Annual Report relative prices were computed
for each of the schedules of prices. The method followed after com­
puting the average price for each year was to determine for each
schedule the base price, which is the sum of the average prices of
the ten years, 1890 to 1899, divided by 10. The relative price or
index number was then obtained for the schedule for each year in
the period covered by dividing the average price of the article shown
on that schedule for each year by the average price of the same arti­
cle for the ten-year period 1890 to 1899. The quotient thus obtained




208

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

multiplied by 100 is the per cent which the average price that year
was of the base price, and is called the index number or relative
price.
In the compilations of prices published in Bulletin Nos. 59 and 65 and
in the present compilation of prices for 1905 and 1906 schedules
were secured from many firms who had not before furnished prices,
and in many cases such firms had been in existence but a few years.
I t was therefore necessary to follow a slightly different method in
determining the relative price or index number for 1904, as shown
in Bulletin No. 59, and for 1905, as shown in Bulletin No. 65, and the
relative price or index number for 1906, as shown in this Bulletin. The
method adopted for determining the 1904 relative price was to com­
pute for each schedule or statement of prices the average price for
each year, 1903 and 1904, and then the per cent which the average
price in 1904 was of the average price in 1903. These per cents or
relative prices for all of the various grades and descriptions of the
article were added and the sum divided by the number of schedules
secured for that article. Thus for evaporated apples the 33 sched­
ules secured in the North Atlantic division showed that the average
price in 1904 was 98.48 per cent of the average price in 1903; the 18
schedules secured in the South Atlantic division showed that the aver­
age price in 1904 was 98.14 per cent of the average price in 1903; the 33
schedules from the North Central division, 97.93 per cent; the 17 sched­
ules from the South Central division, 98.47 per cent; the 17 schedules
from the Western division, 99.32 per cent, and the total schedules, 118,
showed that the average price in 1904 was 98.39 per cent of the
• average price in 1903. By referring to Table III (page 319) it is
seen that the relative price*or index number (average price for 1890
to 1899 = 100.0) for evaporated apples in the North Atlantic division in
1903 was 107.5; therefore in 1904 the relative price was 98.48 per cent
of 107.5, or 105.9. The relative price for each of the geographical
divisions and also for the United States was found by the same method.
The relative prices for other articles were determined in the same
way.
After collecting prices for 1904 and 1905 the relative price for 1905
was determined in the same way as was the relative price for 1904,
as has just been explained.
In the present report a table (Table II) has been added, showing
relative prices for each of the months of 1905 and 1906. A great
amount of work would have been required to compute the relative
prices for each month according to the method heretofore followed
for the years 1904 and 1905, therefore a shorter method which pro­
duces practically the same results was used. The method followed
was to compute the average price for each article for each month of
1905 and 1906, and also for each of the two years. Thus for evapo­



RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

209

rated apples the average price was 10.86 cents per pound in January,
1905,11.28 cents for the year 1905,12.03 cents in January, 1906, and
12.30 cents for the year 1906. By referring to Table II I (p. 319) it is
seen that the relative price or index number (average price for 1890 to
1899 = 100.0) for evaporated apples in 1905 was 106.0. The relative
price for January, 1905, would bear the same relation to 106.0 as the
average price in January, 1905, (10.86 cents) bears to the average price
for the year 1905 (11.28 cents). Upon computation, the number is
found to be 102.1. The same method was followed in computing
the relative prices for each month of 1905 and also for the year 1906.
The relative prices for each month of 1906 were found by comparing
the average price each month with the average for the year 1906.
For reasons explained in the discussion of Table I the relative
prices for bread are computed from the price per pound and not from
the price per loaf.
Kelative prices are not presented for each of the schedules or state­
ments of prices, owing to the large amount of space which would be
required, and it is not believed that such presentation would mate­
rially add to the value of the report. The 39 States from which
prices were secured have been grouped. The relative prices for each
of the 30 articles are shown for each of the five geographical divisions,
and for the United States. The classification into groups of the
States represented is as follows:
North Atlantic division:
Connecticut.
Maine.
Massachusetts.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.
New York.
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Atlantic division:
Delaware.
District of Columbia.
Florida.
Georgia.
Maryland.
South Carolina.
Virginia.
West Virginia.
North Central division:
Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa.
Kansas.




North Central division—Concluded.
Michigan.
Minnesota.
Missouri.
Nebraska.
Ohio.
South Dakota.
Wisconsin.
South Central division:
Alabama.
Arkansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana.
Tennessee.
Texas.
Western division:
California.
Colorado.
Montana.
Oregon.
Utah.
Washington.

210

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I.— RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906.
A P P L E S, E V A PO R A T E D , P E R POUNJD.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1905.

1906.

ALABAMA.

10.1250
.1250
.1104
.1000

$0.1250
.1250
.1200
.1000

Evaporated...............................................
E vaporated.............................................

.1063
.1250

.1250
.1250

Los Angeles........................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
San Francisco........................................ Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1000
.0850
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

.1229
.1292
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

Denver................................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1250
.1067

.1250
.1200

New H aven........................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1200
.1500
.1300

.1200
.1467
.1308

W ilmington........................................... Sold in 3-pound lo ts........ ........................
Sold in 1-pound packages..........................

.0956
.1050

.1200
.1100

Washington..........................................

Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated............... ...............................

.1000
.1117
.1075

.1267
.1500
.1417

Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1250
.1058
.1250

.1500
.1333
.1250

Atlanta.................................................. Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1050
.1017
.1000

.1250
.1000
.1000

Chicago.................................................. Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Peoria.................................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1300
.1000
.1200
.1063
.1167
.1500

.1300
.1000
.1200
.1250
.1500
.1500

Indianapolis.......................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Terre H aute.......................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1000
.1000
.1500
.1500

.1000
.1000
.1500
.1500

Des Moines............................................

Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Dubuque................................................ Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1250
.1000
.1000
.1083

.1292
.1000
.1000
.1542

Topeka...............................................

Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.0944
.1000

.1196
.1188

Louisville............................................... Evaporated .. _..........................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1000
.1014

.1104
.1125

New Orleans.......................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1067
.1146

.10 00

.1000
.1171
.1396

Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1400
.1500

.1400
.1500

Baltimore............................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.0833
.1200
.1000

.0808
.1200
.1200

Birmingham.......................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Montgomery.......................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
ARKANSAS.

Little Rock...........................................
CALIFORNIA.

COLORADO.

CONNECTICUT.

DELAWARE.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

FLORIDA.
J a ck so n v ille .......................................... Evaporated...............................................
GEORGIA.

ILLINOIS.

INDIANA.

IOWA.

KANSAS.

KENTUCKY.

LOUISIANA.

MAINE.

Portland................................................
MARYLAND.




211

RETAIL PRICES OP POOD, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e

I . —

RETA IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 A ND 1906—Continued.

A PP L E S, E V A PO R A T E D , P E R POUND—Continned.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.
1905.

MASSACHUSETTS.
Boston......................................................

1906.

Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................

$0.1250
.1367
.0967
.1067
.1200
.1275
.1175
.1208
.1058
.1225
.1133

$0.1425
.1233
.1208
.1450
.1367
.1450
.1244
.1250
.1217
.1517
.1117

Evaporated..................................................
SoldTin 3-pound lots....................................
Grand Rapids.......................................... Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
MINNESOTA.
Duluth...................................................... Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Minneapolis.............................................. Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
St. P a u l................................................ Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
MISSOURI.
Kansas City............................................. Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
St. Louis................................................... Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated.............: ...................................
MONTANA.
Butte.... ................................... ................ Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
NEBRASKA.
Omaha...................................................... Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
NEW HAMPSHIRE.

.1050
.0972
.1000
.1000

.1083
.1250
.1000
.1000

.1042
.1146
.1146
.1000
.1200
.0717
.1063

.1217
.1208
.1313
.1458
.1200
.0967
.1250

.1146
.1000
.1063
.1063
.1000

.1250
.0833
.1229
.1229
.1000

.1250
.1292

.1292
.1500

.1250
.1250

.1250
.1250

.1167
.1142

.1308
.1625

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1200

.1117
.1267
.1200
.1400
.1200

.1000
.1300
.1225
.1322
.1114
.1000
.1225
.1200
.1167
.1450
.1200
.1050
.1000
.1100

.1367
.1300
.1500
.1450
.1057
.1000
.1400
.1475
.1500
.1500
.1200
.1033
.1100
.1200

.1250
.1500
.1200
.1117
.1400
.1000
.1500

.1125
.1500
.1200
.1000
.1400
.1100
.1500

Fall River................................................
Lynn.........................................................
Maiden......................................................
W orcester................................................
MICHIGAN.
Detroit.....................................................

Manchester.......................... ................... Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
NEW JERSET.
Jersey City............................................... Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Trenton..................................................... Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
NEW YORK.
Albany...................................................... Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Brooklyn.................................................. Evaporated..................................................
Sold in 1-pound boxes.................................
Buffalo...................................................... Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Flushing................... r ............................. Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
New York................................................ Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated................................................
Sold in 1-pound packages...........................
Sold in 1-pound packages...........................
Syracuse................................................... Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
OHIO.

Cincinnati................................................. Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Cleveland.................................................. Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Evaporated..................................................
Toledo....................................................... Evaporated..................................................




212

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I . —RETA IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 A ND 1906—Continued.
A PP L E S, EV A PO R A TED , P E R POUND—
Concluded.
Average price.
State* and locality.

Description.

1905.

1906.

OREGON.

Portland................................................ Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

10.0903
.0889

10.0930
.1083

Allegheny............................................... Evaporated....................................... i ___
Evaporated...............................................
Philadelphia.......................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Pittsburg.............................................. Evaporated.......... ...................................
Evaporated...............................................
Scranton................................................ Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Wilkes-Barre......................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1200
.1375
.1183
.1033
.1050
.1208
.1075
.1200
.1250
.1133
.1154

.1300
.1292
.1200
.1200
.1125
.1250
.1300
.1200
.1250
.1250
.1325

Providence............................................

Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1333
.1250
.1483

.1600
.1500
.1508

Charleston............................................. Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated..............................................

.0917
.1000

.1000
.1000

Sioux Falls............................................ Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1000
.1104

.1000
.1438

Memphis................................................ Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Nashville......................... ..................... Evaporated ..................................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1104
.1050
.1000
.0833

.1100
.1042
.1000
.0833

Dallas.................................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
San Antonio.......................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1250
.1167
.1083
.1000

.1250
.1250
.1167
.1000

Salt Lake City....................................... Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1250
.1250

.1875
.1875

Norfolk.................................................. Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated...............................................
Richmond ................................................ Evaporated...............................................
Evaporated ..................................................

.1000
.0800
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200

Seattle ...................................................... Evaporated ..................................................
Evaporated ..................................................
Tacoma .................................................... Evaporated ..................................................
Evaporated ..................................................

.1250
.1042
.1000
.1250

.1250
.1250
. 1000
.1250

Wheeling...............................................

Evaporated ..................................................
Evaporated ..................................................

.1000
.1292

.1000
.1500

Milwaukee................................................ Evaporated ..................................................
Evaporated...............................................

.1250
.1000

.1000
.1000

. Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
. Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................

10.1250
.1250
.1000
.1000

10.1250
.1250

. Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy' sold by the pound...........................

.1113
.1172

.1172
.1172

. Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Pint, sold by the pound............................

.0750
:0750

.0750
.0750

PENNSYLVANIA.

RHODE ISLAND.

SOUTH CAROLINA.

SOUTH DAKOTA.

TENNESSEE.

TEXAS.

UTAH.

VIRGINIA.

WASHINGTON.

WEST VIRGINIA.

WISCONSIN.

REANS, D R V , P E R QUART.
ALABAMA.

Birmingham......................
Montgomery......................

.1000

ARKANSAS.

Little Rock........................
CALIFORNIA.

Los Angeles.......................




213

RETAIL PRICES OP POOD 1890 TO 1906.
T

able

I ,—

R ETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906—Cantinued.
BEANS, D R Y , P E R <IUART—
Continued.
Average price.

State and locality.

Description.

1905.

1906.

CALIFORNIA—concluded.
San Francisco......................................... Navy...................................................... .
Pea,"sold by the pound..............................
Pea, sold 4 pounds for 25 cents.................
Pink, sold 6 pounds for 25 cents, Jan. to
Oct., 1905r 7 pounds for 25 cents, Nov.,
1905, and Dec., 1906.
CO
LORAD
O.
Denver...................................................... Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy^ sold by the pound...........................
CONNECTICUT.
New Haven.............................................. Pea................................................................
Pea................................................................
DELAWARE.
W i l m i n g t o n ....................................................... Navy.............................................................
Pea................................................................
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

$0.0750
.0938
.1172
.0763

$0.0750
.0938
.1172
.0670

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

.1000
.0800

.0800
.0800

W ashington............................................. Navy.............................................................
Pea.v
..............................................................
Pea................................................................
FLORIDA.
Jacksonville.............................................. Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
GEORGIA.
Atlanta..................................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.................................. ..........................
Navy.............................................................
ILLINOIS.
Chicago..................................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Peoria....................................................... Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound............................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
INDIANA.
Indianapolis............................................ Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Terre Haute............................................ Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold in 7-pound lots........................
IOWA.
Des Moines............................................... Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Dubuque................................................... Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
KANSAS.
Topeka..................................................... Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
KENTUCKY.
Louisville................................................. Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
LOUISIANA.
New Orleans............................................ Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navv, sold by the pound...........................
MAINE.
Portland................................................... Pea................................................................
Pea................................................................
MARYLAND.
Baltimore................................................. Navy............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
MASSACHUSETTS.
Boston...................................................... Navy or pea.................................................
Navy or pea, sold by the £ peck................
Pea................................................................
Fall River................................................ Pea................................................................
Pea................................................................
.
........................ .
Lynn......................................................... N a v y o r p ea
Navy or pea.................................................

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.0833

.1000
.1000
.0833

* .0800
.1000
.1000
.0813
.0938
.0938

.0800
.1000
.1000
.0938
.0938
.1172

.0833
.1000
.0750
.0670

.0833
.1000
.0750
.0670

.0938
.0750
.0938
.0938

.0938
.0750
.0938
.0750

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.0781
.0797

.0781
.0719

.0938
.1000
.0938

.0938
.0938
.0938

.0800
.0800

.0800
.0767

.0783
.1000
.1000

.0800
.1000
.1000




.0800
.0817
.1000
.1000
.0800
.0767
.0913

•

.0800
.0635
.1000
.0800
.0780
.0703
.0800

214

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I . —RETA IL PRICES OP FOOD, 1905 AND 1906—Continued.
BEANS, D B I , P E R QUART—
Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.
1905.

1906.

Navy or pea.................................................
Navy or pea, sold by the £ peck................
Pea................................................................
Pea................................................................

$0*0850
.0758
.0800
.0700

$0.0900
.0683
.0900
.0600

Navy.............................................................
Navy, sold in 6-pound lots........................
Grand Rapids.......................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
MINNESOTA.
Duluth....................................................... Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy', sold by the pound...........................
MirmAA.polis.............................................. Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
St. Paul.................................................... Navy.............................................................
Pea.'...............................................................
MISSOURI.
Kansas C i t y . ..................................... Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy^ sold by the pound...........................
St. Louis................................................... Hand picked, sold by the pound...............
Navy,*sold by the pound.*.........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
MONTANA.
Butte........................................................ Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
NEBRASKA.
Omaha...................................................... Navy, sold by the pound............................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
NEW HAMPSHIRE.

.0779
.0781
.0800
.0700

.0708
.0781
.0767
.0700

.0938
.0938
.1000
.1000
.1000
.0800
.1000
.1000

.0828
.0938
.1000
.1000
.1000
.0800
.1000
.1000

.0938
.0938
.0938
.0938
.0797

.0856
.0938
.0922
.0907
.0750

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

Manchester..............................................

Navy.............................................................
Pea................................................................

.0800
.0800

.0708
.0733

Pea................................................................
Pea................................................................
Trenton.................................................... Navy.............................................................
Pea................................................................
Pea................................................................
NEW YORK.
Albany..................................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Brooklyn .................................................. Marrow.........................................................
Pea................................................................
Buffalo...................................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Flushing................................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
New Y ork .. .■
........................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Pea................................................................
White............................................................
Rochester................................................. Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Syracuse................................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
OHIO.
Cincinnati................................................ Dry................................................................
Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Cleveland.................................................. Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Toledo....................................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
OREGON.
Portland................................................... Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................

.0825
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

.0858
.1000
.1000
.0850
.1000

.0800
.1000
.1283
.0900
.0900
.0800
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200
.0758
.0800
.1000
.1000
.0850

.0783
.1000
.1400
.0900*
.0900
.0800
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1067
.1000
.1200
.0733
.0800
.0867
.1200
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.0800
.0800
.0800

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.0800
.0800
.0800

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

MASSACHUSETTS—concluded.
Malden........................................ ............
Worcester................................................
MICHIGAN.
Detroit.....................................................

NEW JERSEY.

Jersey City............................................




215

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e

I . —

R ETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 A ND 1906—Continued.
BEANS, D R IT, P E R QUART—
Concluded.
Average price.
Description.

State and locality

PENNSYLVANIA.
Allegheny................................................. Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Philadelphia............................................ Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Pea, sold by the pound...............................
Pittsburg................................................. Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Scranton................................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Wilkes-Barre........................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
RH
ODE ISLAND.
Providence............................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
SOUTH CAROLINA.
Charleston................................................ Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
SOUTH DAKOTA.
Sioux Falls............................................... Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
TENNESSEE.
Memphis................................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Nashville.................................................. Navy.............................................................
Navy, sold in 6-pound lots........................
TEXAS.
Dallas....................................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
San Antonio............................................ Navy........................ i...................................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................

1905.

1906.

10.1000
.1000
.1000
.0938
.0938
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1000
.1000

10.1000
.1000
.1000
.0938
.0930
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1000
.1000

.1000
.0967

.1000
.1017

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.1000
.0938
.1000.
.0938

.1000
.0938
.0750
.0938

.1172
.1156
.0938
.0938

.1172
.1172
.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.1000

UTAH.

Salt Lake City......................................... Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
VIRGINIA.

Norfolk.................................................... Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Richmond................................................ Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................

.0800

.10 00
.10 00
.1000
.08 00

Navy.............................................................
Navy.............................................................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

Navv.............................................................
Navy.............................................................

.0800
.0800

.0800
.0750

Milwaukee................................................ Navy, sold by the pound...........................
Navy, sold by the pound...........................

.0656
.0938

.0563
.0750

10.1000

$0.1000
.1075
.1208
.1250
.1800
.1867
.1725
.0800
.0933
.0917
.1250
.1250
.1250

.0800
.1000

WASHINGTON.

Seattle......................................................
Tacoma....................................................

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

WEST VIRGINIA.

Wheeling..................................................
WISCONSIN.

B E E F , F R E S H , ROASTS* P E R POUND.

Birmingham

Montgomery




. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib............................................................
Rib............................................................

.1017
.1083
.1250
.1800
.1733
.1567
.0800
.0950
.0917
.1271
.1146
.1167

216

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR,
T a b l e

I

— RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906—Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , ROASTS, P E R POUND—Continued.

State and locality.

Average price.
Asosuripi/ioii.

1905.

1906.

ARKANSAS.

Little Rock.

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck....................................... .................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

$0.1000
.1000
.0800
.1500
.1250
.1000

$0.1000
.1000
.0800
.1500
.1250
.1000

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.0817
.0867
.1000
.1700
.1800
.1500
.1000
.1000
.1250
.0800
.1500
.1800
.1500
.2000

.0800
.0900
.1000
.1700
.1800
.1500
.1000
.1000
.1250
.0800
.1500
.1933
.1500
.2000

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib ............................................... ............
Rib.............................................................

.0600
.0800
.0700
.1250
.1250
.2000

.0600
.0800
.0700
.1333
.1250
.2000

New Haven.

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.1183
.1375
.1300
. 1817
.2500
.2083

.1200
.1400
.1317
.1800
.2500
.2083

Wilmington.

Chuck........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.1233
.1117
.1800
.1500

.1200
.1000
.1800
.1500

Washington...............................

Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Rib............................................................
Rib............................................................
R ib ...........................................................

.1133
.1208
.1208
.1500
.1525
.1700

.1250
.1242
.1250
.1683
.1658
.1700

Jacksonville.,

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib .............................................................
R ib ............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.1250
.0867
.1000
.1250
.1800
.1783
.1500

.1250
.0883
.1250
.1250
.1800
.1867
.1500

Atlanta.

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.1000
.1000
.1250
.1333
.1867
.1750

.1000
.1000
.1250
.1500
.1892
.1750

Chicago.

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.1050
.0600
.0842
.1000
.1083
.0867
.1200
.1383

.1033
.0600
.0858
.1079
.1117
.0917
. 1150
.1479

CALIFORNIA.

Los Angeles..

San Francisco..

COLORADO.

Denver..

CONNECTICUT.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.




217

RETAIL PRICES OE FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.
Table

I .—

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906—Continued.

B E E F , F R E S H , ROASTS, P E R POUND^-Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.
1 90 5 .

Illinois—
concluded.
Peoria.................................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib............................................................

1 90 6 .

$ 0 .0 8 0 0
.0 7 5 0
.0 8 0 0
.0 5 6 7
.1 0 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.0 9 8 3
.1 0 9 2

$ 0 .1 0 0 0
.0 8 0 0
.0 9 0 0
.0 8 0 0
.1 1 6 7
.1 2 0 0
.1 2 0 0
.1 2 5 0

Indianapolis.......................................... Chuck..................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
R ib ...........................................................
Rib............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Terre H aute............
............. Chuck............................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
i R i b ............................................................
Short rib...................................................
Short rib...................................................

.1 2 5 0
.1 0 5 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 6 2 5
.1 6 1 7
.1 2 5 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 3 1 3
.1 5 0 0
.1 4 3 8

.1 3 0 0
.1 1 5 0
.1 1 6 7
.1 6 5 0
.1 6 2 5
.1 3 1 7
.1 0 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 3 4 2
.1 5 8 3
.1 4 5 8

Des Moines............................................ Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Dubuque................................................ Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.0 8 6 9
.1 0 2 5
.0 8 3 3
* 155 0
.1 9 5 0
.1 1 6 7
.1 1 0 4
.1 0 6 3
.1 0 6 3
.1 5 0 0
.1 2 5 0
. 1313

.0 8 8 9
.1 0 8 3
.0 8 3 3
.1 5 6 7
.1 9 3 3
.1 2 5 0
.1 2 0 8
.1 0 8 3
.0 9 7 5
.1 5 0 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 3 3 3

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Cnuck........................................................
Rib............................................................
Rib............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.0 8 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 3 1 3
.1 4 1 7
.1 4 1 7

.0 8 6 7
.1 0 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 1 6 7
.1 3 7 5
.1 5 0 0

Louisville............................................... Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Rib............................................................
R ib............................................................
Rib............................................................
Rib............................................................
Rib............................................................

.0 8 5 8
.0 8 5 0
.0 8 9 2
.1 2 3 3
.1 3 5 8
.1 3 3 3
.1 4 3 8
.1 3 1 3

.1 0 0 0
.0 9 5 8
.1 0 0 0
.1 4 5 0
.1 5 3 3
.1 3 5 0
.1 5 0 0
.1 3 8 3

New Orleans.......................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
R ib............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.1 0 3 3
.0 9 0 0
.0 8 5 8
.0 9 0 0
.1 5 0 0
.1 5 0 0
.1 6 6 7
.1 5 0 0

.1 0 5 8
.1 0 0 0
.0 8 6 7
.1 0 0 0
.1 5 0 0
.lp 0 0
.1 6 6 7
.1 5 0 0

Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.0 8 7 5
.0 8 6 7
.1 0 0 0
.1 2 0 0
1408
.1 4 2 5

.0 8 6 7
.0 8 3 3
.1 0 0 0
.1 2 0 0
.1 4 8 3
.1 5 2 5

Baltimore.............................................. Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.1 0 0 0
.0 9 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.0 9 1 7
.1 7 6 7
.1 2 8 3
.1 5 6 7

.1 0 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 7 5 0
.1 3 3 3
.1 6 5 0

INDIANA.

IOWA.

KANSAS.

Topeka..................................................

KENTUCKY.

LOUISIANA.

P o r tla n d .

MAINE.
............. .......................

MARYLAND.




218

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T a b l e I.—
RETAIL

PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906—Continued.

B E E F , F R E S H , ROASTS, P E R TOUNO—Continued.

State and locality.

Average price.
i^Bcnpuou.

1905.

1906.

MASSACHUSETTS.

Boston.

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
C huck..:...................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib .............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

Fall River.

Lynn..

Malden.

W orcester.

Detroit.

Grand Rapids.

MINNESOTA.

Duluth..

Minneapolis.

St. Paul..

Kansas City.




10.1067
.1133
.1138
.0900
.1708
.1567
.1917
.1950
.0750
.0867
.0892
.1725
.1250
.1300
.0850
.1233
.1300
.1283
.1775
•J617
.1167
.1217
.1113
.1650
.1600
.1313
.0992
.0908
.0808
.1658
.1692
.1617

10.1000
.1250
.1163
.0950
.1758
.1500
.1933
.1933
.0858
.1033
.1008
.1800
.1533
.1467
.0800
.1200
.1288
.1221
.1800
.1592
.1229
.1233
.1100
.1667
.1733
.1250
.0992
.0958
.0700
.1700
.2000
.1650

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Rib.............................................. :............
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.0800
.0933
.0842
.0917
.1250
.1117
.1133
.1104
.1379
.1000
.0900
.1021
.1400
.1400
.1300

.0883
.0925
.0842
.0800
.1375
.1308
.1125
.1000
.1404
.1000
.0900
.0967
.1400
.1400
.1288

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib................................ ...........................
R ib.............................................................
Rib..........:.................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.0800
.1083
.1188
.1000
.1354
.1725
.0817
.0883
.0883
.1396
.1600
.1313
.0900
.1117
.0800
.1354
.1692
.1000

.0933
.1083
.1250
.1133
.1375
.1800
.0792
.1000
.0867
.1500
.1600
.1375
.1033
.1225
.0800
.1458
.1767
.1146

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib........................................ :...................
R ib.............................................................

.1000
.0817
.0800
.1563
.1292
.1188

.1000
.0833
.0800
.1667
.1438
.1150

219

RETAIL PRICES OP FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.
T a b l e

I . —

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906—Continued.

B E E F , F R E S H , ROASTS, P E R 1 *0 UNO—
Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1905.

1906.

HissouBi—concluded.
fit. Louis................................................ Chuck.........................................................
Chuck............................................1...........
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib................ •...........................................

$0 0850
.0758
.0867
.0842
.1388
.1592
.1400
.1575

$0.0808
.0733
.0958
.0750
.1250
.1592
.1213
.1500

B utte..................................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.0819
.0575
.0700
.1250
.0963
.1333

.0917
.0538
.0708
.1250
.1083
.1375

Omaha................................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.0800
.0800
.0850
.1313
.1250
.1313

.0800
.0800
.0800
.1333
.1250
.1333

Manchester............................................ Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.1017
.0900
.0967
.2000
.1000
.1167

.1083
.1000
.1150
.2000
.1133
.1375

Jersey City............................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Trenton.:.............................................. Chuck.................................................... .
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.1113
.1050
.1317
.1542
.1271
.1867
.1275
.1250
.1200
.1650
.1650
.1567

.1092
.1050
.1292
.1650
.1296
.1850
.1300
.1250
.1200
.1767
.1667
.1667

A lbany.......... ........................... ......... . Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Brooklyn............................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.................. .....................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Buffalo...................................... ............ Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Flushing........................................ ........ Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.1450
.1250
.1275
.1825
.1800
.1800
.1200
.1200
.1000
.1300
.1800
.1517
.2000
.0842
.1133
.0967
.0900
.0900
.1025
.1300
.1517
.1196
.1183
.1642
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1750
.1900

.1400
.1200
.1250
.1867
.1800
.1800
.1200
.1200
.1050
.1300
.1800
.1533
.2000
.0842
.1183
.0967
.1067
.0983
.1042
.1300
.1517
.1321
.1233
.1775
.1200
.1050
.1042
.1950
.1883

MONTANA.

NEBRASKA.

NEW HAMPSHIRE.

NEW JERSEY.

NEW YORK.




220

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

!•—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906—Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , ROASTS, P E R POUND—
Continued.
Average price.

State and locality.
new

Description.

1905.

1906.

York—concluded.

New York.............................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck............................... .........................
Rib.............................................................
R ib........................................... .•...............
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rochester..............................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Syracuse.............
........................ Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib ............................................................
Rib.............................................................
OHIO.
Cincinnati.............................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Cleveland............................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.................. .....................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib........... :...............................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Toledo.................................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
OREGON.
Portland................................................ Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
PENNSYLVANIA.
Allegheny.............................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Philadelphia.......................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Pittsburg............................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................




10.0917
.1250
.1117
.0900
.1167
.1388
.1800
. 1442
.2000
.1333
.1767
.0800
.1025
.1000
.1338
.1433
.1417
.1000
.1200
.1200
.1288
.1967
.1950

10.1000
.1333
.1133
.1083
.1167
.1400
.1950
.1425
.2000
.1338
.1800
.0800
.1000
.1000
.1375
.1400
.1400
.1000
.1250
.1200
.1250
.2050
.1933

.0883
.0800
.1250
.0800
.1392
.1500
.1500
.1375
.1375
.0800
.1158
.1167
.1142
.1250
.1438
.1600
.1454
.1200
.0850
.1263
.1100
.1800
.1600

.0850
.0800
.1250
.0800
.1392
.1500
.1500
.1417
.1367
.0900
.1200
.1250
.1183
.1400
.1500
.1600
.1500
.1150
.0908
.1400
.1275
.1800
.1800

.0900
.0900
.0992
.1375
.1500
.1250

.0900
.0900
.1000
.1500
.1500
.1479

.1200
.1250
.1200
.1550
.1550
.1533
.1200
.1000
.1200
.1200
.1117
.1700
.1400
.1800
.2000
.1883
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1767
.1800
.1567

.1250
.1250
.1250
.1567
.1533
.1600
.1200
.0933
.1200
.1200
.1167
.1800
.1350
.1833
.2000
.1800
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1800
.1867
.1600

221

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

Table I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906— Continued.
BEEF, FRESH, ROASTS* PER P C N —
O J RContinued.

State and locality.

JL/escripnon.

Average price.
1905.

1906.

PENNSYLVANIA—concluded.

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib............................................................
R ib............................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck.......................... I............................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

$0.1146
.1250
.1250
.1400
.2000
.1600
.1000
.1000
.1021
.1600
.1400
.1417

60.1050
.1300
.1250
.1400
.2150
.1750
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1600
.1425
.1417

Chuck........................................................
Chuck..............*
..........................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.1283
.0800
.2150
.1800

.1267
.0800
.2117
.1800

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib........................ ...................................
Rib.............................................................

.0800
.1000
.1000
.1525
.1250
.1250

.0800
.1000
.1000
.1500
.1313
.1458

Sioux Falls.

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.0625
.0833
.0800
.1250
.1250
.1250

.0650
.0833
.0800
.1333
.1250
.1250

Memphis.

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib .... ’.....................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck.................. :....................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1288
.1450
.1250
.0950
.0733
.0800
.1375
.1313
.1333

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1300
.1458
.1288
.0933
.0758
.0883
.1313
.1375
.1354

Chuck.................................. .....................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
R ib ...................................... .....................
R ib ............................................................
R ib.............................•...............................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.0917
.1000
.0875
.1146
.1083
.1104
.0500
.0600
.0700
.1125
.1250
.1083

.0900
.1000
.1000
.1083
.1188
.1188
.0600
.0600
.0700
.1125
.1250
.1063

Salt Lake City.

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1750
.1500
.1250

.1000
.1000
.1250
.2000
.1500
.1500

Norfolk.

Chuck....... ................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck....... ................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.1000
.1021
.1000
.1500
.1271
.1250

.1000
.1042
.1250
.1500
.1292
.1500

Scranton........................................

Wilkes-Barre.

RHODE ISLAND.

Providence.
SOUTH CAROLINA.

Charleston.

SOUTH DAKOTA.

Nashville.

Dallas.

San Antonio.

8891—No. 71—07--- 15




222

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T a b l e I . — RETAIL

PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906—Continued.

B E E F , F R E S H , ROASTS, P E R POUND -Concluded.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1905.

1906.

Virginia—concluded.
Richmond.............................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

$0.1000
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1250
.1250

$0.1250
.1000
.1000
.1500
.1250
.1250

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.0725
.1000
.0800
.1375
.1500
.1500
.0883
.0917
.1125
.1438
.1500
.1500

.0892
.1000
.0800
.1396
.1500
.1500
.0900
.1033
.1021
.1500
.1558
.1500

Wheeling................................................ Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.1250
.1250
.1104
.1500
.1500
.1292

.1250
.1250
.1204
.1500
.1500
.1383

.0900
.1375
.0900
.1313
.1800
.1117

.1000
.1375
.1000
.1400
.2050
.1250

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round.......................................................
Round.......................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

$ 0 .1 5 0 0
.1 5 0 0
.1 5 0 0
.1 8 6 3
.1 8 5 0
.1 8 0 4
.1 1 6 7
.1 2 5 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 5 0 0
.1 4 1 7

$ 0 .1 5 0 0
.1 5 0 0
.1 5 0 0
*2000
.1 9 3 3
.1 9 3 8
.1 1 4 6
.1 2 5 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 5 0 0
.1 5 0 0

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1 5 0 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 7 5 0
.1 7 5 0
.1 0 8 3

.1 5 0 0
.1 2 9 2
.1 0 0 0
.1 7 5 0
.1 8 1 3
.1 2 5 0

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1 2 5 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 5 1 7
.1 5 0 0
.1 6 0 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 3 9 6
.1 5 0 0
.1 3 9 6
.1 5 0 0

.1 2 5 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 7 0 0
.1 5 0 0
.1 6 0 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 0 0 0
.1 2 5 0
.1 5 0 0
.1 2 5 0

WASHINGTON.

Seattle, T ................... -____ ________

Tacoma............. -__________________

WEST VIRGINIA.

WISCONSIN.

Milwaukee............................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

R E E F , F R E S H , STEA K S, P E R POUND.
ALABAMA.

Birmingham.

Montgomery.

ARKANSAS.

Little Rock.

CALIFORNIA.

Los Angeles.

>0.................................
San Francisco.




.1500

223

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.
T ble I.—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906— Continued.
a
BEEF, FRESH, STEAKS, PER PO
UNR Continued.
—

Description.

State and locality.

Average price.
1905.

1906.

COLORADO.

Denver,

Round
Round
Round
Sirloin
Sirloin
Sirloin

$0.1000
.1000

Round.
Round.
Round,
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.

.1775
.2017
.2167
.2217
.2400
.2325

Round.
Round.
Round
Sirloin.
Sirloin.

.1900
.1600
.1500
.2033

CONNECTICUT.

New Haven

.1500
.1500
.1250

.2000

$0.1083
.1000
.1500
.1583
.1250

.2000

.2000

.2200

.2083
.2217
.2500
.2425

DELAWARE.

Wilmington

DISTRICT OP COLUMBIA.

Washington...............................

FLORIDA.

Round.
Round.
Round.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.

.2100

.1 0 2 9

.1438
.1833
.1850
.1883

.2000

.1600
.1500

.2200
.2150

.1525
.1542
.1500
.1917
.1883
.1933

Round
Round,
Round
Round
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.

.1250
.1800
.1350
.1500
.1500
.1800
.1950

.1500
.1800
.1433
.1500

Round
Round
Round
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.

.1342
.1500
.1250
.1500
.1750

.1354
.1396
.1250
.1500
.1750
.2000

Round.
Round
Round
Round
Round
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Round.
Round.
Round.
■ Round.
Round.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.

Jacksonville

.1100

.1200

.1250
.1267
.1217
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1458
.1583

.1075
.1133
.1058
.1458
.1383
.1429
.1083
.1425
.1313
.1383
.1300
.1408
.1317
.1288
.1467
.1600
.1542
.1542

Round
Round
Round
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.

.1500
.1442
.1250
.1800
.1592
.1500

.1500
.1483
.1350
.1800
.1658
.1675

.2000

.2000

.1800
.2033

.2000

GEORGIA.

Atlanta,

.2000

ILLINOIS.

Chicago

Peoria

.0950
.1083
.1146
.1125
.1458
.1313
.1417
.1050
.1508
.1325

. 1UUU

INDIANA.

Indianapolis,




224

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T a b l e

I . —

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906—Continued.

B E E F , F R E S H , STEA K S, P E R FOUND—
Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1905.

1906.

Indiana—concluded.
10.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1500

10.1250
.1300
.1475
.1592
.1500
.1600

.1208
.1163
.1042
.1600
.1667
.1208
.1625
.1354
.1250
.1792
.1708
.1500

.1250
.1417
.1083
.1600
.1767
.1333
.1500
.1438
.1250
.1958
.1750
.1500

Round........................................................
Round...................... , ...............................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin...:..................................................

.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1608
.1567

.1313
.1396
.1250
.1500
.1683
.1583

Round........................................................
Round......... .............................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1333
.1313
.1250
.1500
.1417
.1500

.1425
.1400
.1367
.1675
.1500
.1688

New Orleans.......................................... Round........................................................
Round........;..............................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin.......................................................
Sirloin................ .......................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1050
.1063
.1146
.1258
.1500

.1104
.1167
.1083
.1250
.1500

.2 0 0 0

.2 0 0 0

Portland................................................ Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin..................................................... .

.1 0 0 0

.1250
.1400
.1300
.2017
.2850

.1250
.1250
.1379
.1300
.2017
.2700

Baltimore.............................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1800
.1642
.1592

.1508
.1467
.1550
.1500
.1817
.1650
.1667

.2025
.2008
.1925
.2308
.2225
.2433
.2192
.2596
.1300
.1275

.2 0 0 0
.2 0 0 0

Terre H aute.......................................... Round.......................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
IOWA.

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round....... .1 ............................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Dubuque................................................ Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
KANSAS.

Topeka..................................................

KENTUCKY.

Louisville..............................................

LOUISIANA.

.1717
.1771

.1700
.1800

MAINE.

MARYLAND.

MASSACHUSETTS.

Boston................................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin....................:...................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Fall River.............................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........ :..............................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................




.1 2 0 0

.2233
.2083
.2350

.1842
.2367
.2208
.2400
.2158
.2533
.1467
.1383
.1250
.2400
.2233
.2400

225

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1906.

T able I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1906—Continued.
BEEF, FBESH, STEAKS, PER PO
UND—
Continued.

Description.

State and locality.

Average price.
1905.

* 1906.

MASSACHUSETTS—c o n c lu d e d .

Lynn.'.............................................

Detroit.

Grand Rapids.

MINNESOTA.

Duluth..

Minneapolis.

St. Paul..

$0.1475
.2067
.1658
.2300
.2817
.2675
.1950
.2000
.1608
.2500
.2675
.2150
.1883
.2000
.1550
.3000
.2800
.2600

RoundR,oundRound..
Sirloin.
Sirloin..
SirloinRound..
Round.
Round..
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.

.1000
.1225
.1075
.1250
.1425
.1383
.1250
.1042
.1300
.1600
.1408
.1450

.1042
.1221
.1175
.1500
.1600
.1442
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1600
.1600
.1450

.1288
.1354
.1425
. 1517
.1542
.1750
. 1217
.1104
.1263
.1500
.1600
.1533
. 1313
. 1417
.1250
.1600
.1917
.1500

.1363
.1396
.1500
.1567
.1658
.1933
.1208
.1208
.1317
.1500
.1600
.1575
.1396
.1433
.1250
.1700
.1983
.1500

Round..
Round..
Round..
Sirloin..
Sirlo’n..
Sirloin..
Round..
Round..
Round..
Round..
Sirloin..
Sirioin..
Sirloin..
Sirloin..

Worcester..

$0.1508
.2158
.1667
.2350
.2642
.2433
.1867
.2025
.1558
.2533
.2608
.2308
.1917
.1867
.1550
.2800
.2750
.2533

Round..
Round..
RoundSirloinSirloin..
Sirloin..
Round..
Round..
RoundSirloin. .
Sirloin..
Sirloin..
Round..
Round..
RoundSirloin..
Sirloin..
Sirloin..

Malden..

RoundRound..
RoundSirloin..
Sirloin..
Sirloin.,
RoundRound..
RoundSirloin..
SirloinSirloin..
Round..
Round..
RoundSirloin..
SirloinSirloin..

. 1175
. 1167
.1146
.1604
.1500
.1438
.1075
.1100
.1133
.1158
. 1533
.1600
. 1646
.1642

.1250
.1313
.1250
.1750
.1604
.1417
.1229
.1200
.1200
.1263
.1492
.1500
.1746
.1604

Round.,
RoundRound..
Sirloin a
SirloinSirloin..

.1000
.0833
.1063
.1500
.1083
. 1375

.1146
.0900
.1008
.1500
.1125
.1375

MISSOURI.

Kansas City.

St. Louis..

MONTANA.

Butte.




226

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I . —RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1905 AND 1 9 0 6 - Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , ST EA K S, P E R POTJNR—
Continued.

Description.

State and locality.

Average price.
1905.

1906.

NEBRASKA.

Round
Round
Round
Sirloin
Sirloin
Sirloin

10.1104
.1104
.1083
.1500
.1500
.1500

it