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58th

C on g ress,!

3d Session.

J

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. (Doc. No. 386,
l Part 4.

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR.

BULLETIN
OF THE

BUREAU OF LABOR.




No 59-JDLY, 1905
ISSUED EVERY OTHER MONTH.

WASHINGTON:
G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G

1905.

O FF IC E .




EDITOR,

CHAS. P. N EILL,
COMMISSIONER.

ASSOCIATE EDITORS,

G. W . W . H A N G E R ;
CHAS. H . V E R R IL L , G. A. W E B E R

CONTENTS.
Wages and hours of labor in manufacturing industries, 1890 to 1904......................
Retail prices of food, 1890 to 1904......................................................................................
Laws relating to child labor in European countries......................................................
est of recent reports of State bureaus of labor statistics.......................................
0est o f recent foreign statistical publications..............................................................
Decisions o f courts affecting labor......................................................................................
Laws o f various States relating to labor enacted since January 1, 1904..................




lit

Page.
1-147
148-301
302-319
320-328
329-333
334-377
378-387




B U L L E T IN
OF THE

BUREAU
No. 59.

OF

WASHINGTON.

LABOR.
Ju

ly

,

1905.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES,
1890 TO 1904.

In Bulletin No. 53 of this Bureau, published in July, 1904, an
article was presented entitled “ Wages and cost of living.7’ That
part of the article relating to cost of living was a summary of the data
since published in full in the Eighteenth Annual Report of the
Bureau of Labor entitled “ Cost of living and retail prices of food.”
The part relating to wages was a preliminary summary of the data
shown in much more extended detail in the forthcoming Nine­
teenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor entitled “ Wages and
hours of labor.”
The object of the extended investigations into cost of living and
retail prices of food and wages and hours of labor, was to meet the
constant and growing demand on the part of the public for regular
and adequate statistical information concerning these important
subjects. The two reports are believed to furnish fairly adequate
presentations of conditions as to family income and expenditure in
1901, and wages and retail prices in the years from 1890 to 1903,
inclusive.
The present article on “ Wages and hours of labor” and the one
immediately following on “ Retail prices of food” are the beginning
of a regular series of Bulletin articles to be published annually, sup­
plementing and continuing the two reports above named. The work
of the Bureau, so far as the preparation of the present article is con­
cerned, has been limited to gathering data for the year 1904. The
work was begun in December of that year and was continued up to
the month of June, 1905.
l



2

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

In taking up the investigation of rates of wages and hours of
labor the design was to cover thoroughly the principal distinctive
occupations in the leading manufacturing and mechanical indus­
tries in the United States with a view to securing data that would
be representative of conditions and show the trend of wages and
hours of labor during the period covered. The office and field force
available for the prosecution of the work did not admit of the exten­
sion of the investigation to cover transportation, mining, agricul­
ture, and the other great industrial groups. It is believed, how­
ever, that the data presented in the forthcoming Nineteenth Annual
Report are more comprehensive and representative, so far as the
manufacturing and mechanical industries are concerned, than any
that have been published heretofore.
The scope of the investigation relating to wages and hours of labor
has been reduced to some extent in this article. The work of securing
data being so great, it was deemed advisable to attempt to cover
only those industries in which the wages paid in the United States
in one year were $10,000,000 or over, as shown by the census of 1900.
The data presented in this article and in the Nineteenth Annual
Report were secured in all cases by personal visits of special agents
of the Bureau to the several establishments represented, and have
been taken directly from the pay rolls and other records in exist­
ence and available for reference. The preservation of records of
this character for any considerable period of years is not usual, and
in securing data for the period from 1890 to 1903 great difficulty
was experienced in some industries in finding establishments which
had been in existence since 1890 and had preserved their pay rolls
and other records of transactions with their employees. It was
necessary in many cases to take data from small establishments
when large establishments canvassed had not preserved their records
or were not in existence in 1890, and even then some of the industries
were not so well represented as it was intended and hoped they
would be. In securing the data for 1904 for this Bulletin a number
of the small establishments carried in the Nineteenth Annual Report
were dropped and quite a number of important establishments
added in order to secure as good a representation for the several indus­
tries as was obtainable.
An examination of Table I shows that all occupations usually per­
taining to the various industries are not covered. As has been
mentioned, this is in accordance with the plan adopted of securing
data for only the important and distinctive occupations which are
considered representative of each industry. This plan resulted in
a great saving of time in the collection of the data, without mate­
rially affecting their representative character. Data concerning all
occupations engaged in each industry would be desirable, but the



3

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

work necessarily has been restricted. In outlining this investiga­
tion it was recognized that a comparison of wages and hours of
labor for one year with those for another year could not be made
for establishments as a whole, owing to the changes that so often
take place in the relative number of persons employed in the sev­
eral skilled and unskilled occupations engaged therein, and that
comparisons, therefore, must be made within the limits of the occu­
pation. All occupations pertaining to an industry are not always to
be found in a single establishment; for this reason the number of
establishments for which data are reported is not the same for each
occupation. The following table shows the industries covered in
this article, the number of different occupations covered for each
industry, and the number of establishments in each industry from
which data were secured:
INDUSTRIES, NUMBER OF OCCUPATIONS, AND NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS
FROM WHICH REPORTS W ERE SECURED, 1903 AND 1904.

Industry.

Agricultural implements........
Bakery, bread.........................
Blacksmithing and horseshoeBoots and shoes......................
Brick........................................
Building trades.......................
Candy......................................
Carpets....................................
Carriages and wagons............
Cars, steam railroad...............
Clothing, factory product--Clothing, men’s, custom work.
Cotton goods...........................
Dyeing, finishing, and print­
ing textiles...........................
Electrical apparatus and sup­
plies......................................
Flour.......................................
Foundry and machine shop. . .
Furniture................................
Gas..........................................
Glass................. ......................
Harness...................................
Hats, f u r .................................
Hosiery and knit go o d s.........
Iron and steel, bar iron and
steel .....................................

Number
Number of estab­
of occu­
lish­
pations. ments.

8

17
141

5

182
50
40
1,411
23

4

10

6

19

2
8

8

16
7
4
6

106
52
38
71
15

5

5

9

10
9
3
14
6
14
7

61
23
14
44
7
9

6

Industry.

Iron and steel, Bessemer con­
verting...............................
Iron and steel, blast furnace.
Leather.................................
Liquors, m alt.......................
Lumber.................................
Marble and stone..................
Paper and wood pulp...........
Planing m ill..........................
Pottery.................................
Printing and publishing,
book and job.....................
Printing and publishing,
newspaper..........................
Shipbuilding.........................
Silk goods..............................
Slaughtering and meat packStreets and sewers, contract
work...................................
Streets and sewers, munici­
pal work.............................
Tobacco, cigars.....................
Woolen and worsted goods. .

Number
Number of estab­
of occu­
lish­
pations. ments.
6
5
10
8
12
12
16
9
8

10
22
43
62
49
184
19
112
5

10

117

4
17
12

143
40
12

15

14

1

70

1
7
9

60
40
17

350

3,732

20

Total............................

From the above table it is seen that data were secured covering
350 occupations and from a total number of 3,732 establishments
engaged in 42 industries.
The work of almost every establishment fluctuates during the
year according to the demands of trade. This fluctuation affects the
number of employees and, to a less extent, the wages and hours of
labor. I t was not possible for the force of the Bureau to secure data
from the pay rolls of each establishment for an entire year, so that
the true average for the year might be computed; the only thing
practicable was to secure data from each establishment for that



4

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

period of the year which most nearly represented the normal con­
dition of the establishment during the year.
I t must not be presumed that the figures presented in the Nine­
teenth Annual Report or in this Bulletin are exhaustive. The
Bureau could not undertake a complete wage census. It is believed,
however, that the figures presented are fairly representative for the
United States as a whole and in most of the industries for each geo­
graphical division covered.
Employees are either time workers or piece workers. Time
workers are persons paid by the hour, day, week, month, or year.
The method of their payment is readily understood, and securing a
statement of their wages is comparatively easy. The rate per piece
paid to piece workers would convey but little information to the
general reader, as all conditions under which the work is performed
must be considered in connection with the piece rate. For this
reason piece rates are not shown, but instead are shown earnings in
a definite period of time. Data for piece workers were secured from
those establishments only in which a record was kept of time worked,
or where the time worked to earn the wages paid could be determined
approximately.
A peculiar condition is sometimes found in the work of piece
workers. The speed of a piece worker is regulated to a great extent
by the amount of work before him. If work is pressing his speed
is high and his earnings are at their maximum. If work is slack he is
inclined to reduce his speed, and thus his earnings per hour are
reduced, although no change has been made in his piece rate.
All wages have been reduced to earnings per hour, in order that
the data may be thoroughly and fairly comparable. The working
day is an uncertain unit, as the time actually worked may be long or
short—eight hours, nine hours, ten hours, etc.—and the week,
month, or year is a still more indefinite unit of time. Hence
all wages, however shown on the pay rolls, have been reduced to
the one definite standard—the rate per hour. The average wages
per hour shown in this article as well as in the Nineteenth Annual
Report are true averages—that is, the individual rates of wages per
hour of the several employees are added and the total divided by
the number of employees. The average hours of labor per week are
likewise true averages.
In order to meet every possible demand that might be made upon
a statistical publication it would be necessary first to present all
data in minute detail and then summarize in as many ways as prac­
ticable. An ideal report on wages would show the data for each
individual employee, followed by a summarization showing the true
average rate, the median rate, the quartile and decile rates, the
maximum and the minimum rates, the predominant rates, etc.



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

5

Space, however, does not permit the publication in detail of the great
mass of data on which this report is based nor all the summaries that
with propriety might be made.
The true average rate of wages of itself is not a full and complete
summary of a series of rates, but it is believed that no other single
expression or group of expressions is as comprehensive and as satis­
factory for purposes of comparison as the true average rate when
used within its proper sphere and based on accurate data.
An average rate of wages is almost meaningless unless limited to
an occupation. For example, a statement that the average wages
of employees in a shoe factory is a certain number of cents per hour
means but little, as it includes both sexes and many occupations
with their varying degrees of skill, but a statement that the average
wages of male upper cutters in shoe factories were 27.25 cents per
hour in 1904 conveys a definite idea. Since all data presented in this
report are for well-defined occupations, it is believed that the aver­
age rate is properly used in this respect.
The average rate of wages does not always express the facts fully
as to the individual employees, for a change in the proportionate
number of employees at different rates will make a change in the
average, although no individual person in employment has had a
change made in his rate of wages. The average rate, however, does
represent the pccupation as a whole.
Another objection to the use of the true average rate is that it is
always affected, and sometimes quite materially, by the improper
inclusion or exclusion of certain rates, especially if such rates fall at
either extreme of the series of rates. It is sometimes a matter of
judgment whether or not some particular employee shall be classed
within an occupation, and especially is this true in a nonunion shop
where the line of demarcation between the helper and the journeyman
often is not clear. The inclusion or exclusion of an extreme high or
low rate must always affect, to some extent, the true average rate,
while in a majority of cases it would not affect the median or the
predominant rate. With all of the details given, the careful reader
might accept certain rates with allowance or might possibly detect
an error. Inasmuch, however, as all of the field work for this report
was carefully done by experienced agents of the Bureau, it is believed
that few errors exist in such work, and that a true average may
properly and safely be made of the data gathered.
The tabular matter of this article relating to wages and hours of
labor is set forth in five general tables, and a number of short tables
are shown in the text explaining and summarizing the general tables.
The five general tables are entitled:
T a b l e I. Average wages and hours of labor, 1903 and 1904, by
occupations and geographical divisions.



6

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e II. Relative wages and hours of labor, 1890 to 1904, by
occupations.
T a b l e III. Relative wages and hours of labor, 1890 to 1904, by
industries.
T a b l e IV. Average wages and hours of labor, 1903 and 1904, in
twenty-one selected occupations, by cities.
T a b l e V. Average wages and hours of labor, 1903 and 1904, in
eighteen selected occupations, by States.
Table I.—Average wages and hours of labor, 1903 and 1904, %

occupations and geographical divisions (pp. 19 to 57).

As previously stated, certain industries shown in Bulletin No. 53
and in the Nineteenth Annual Report are not included in this Bulle­
tin, and a number of changes have been made in the establishments
covered.
In preparing to secure data for 1904 copies were made of the
data for 1903. These copies were placed in the hands of the special
agents of the Bureau, who visited the establishments and secured
1904 data, and whenever any doubt arose verified or, if necessary,
revised the data for 1903. As heretofore stated, the agents were
also instructed to secure data from a number of additional estab­
lishments, in order to secure a better representation for the several
industries and localities covered. Where data were obtained from
additional establishments, figures were taken for both 1903 and
1904. All data for the two years, 1903 and 1904, shown in this
article, therefore, are from the same establishments, and may properly
be compared. During the course of the field work it was also found
that some of the establishments covered in the Nineteenth Annual
Report had gone out of business. With some establishments added
and others discontinued it will be seen that the establishments from
which data were secured for this Bulletin differ to some extent, and
in some industries to a considerable extent, from the establishments
shown in the Nineteenth Annual Report.
With a change in the establishments reporting some difference
necessarily must be expected in the average hours of labor and average
wages per hour shown for the year 1903 in the two publications.
Two groups of establishments, even though a number of establish­
ments are common to both groups, can not be expected to show the
same averages. Neither statement may be absolutely exact for the
occupation throughout the entire United States, yet if each group
embraces a considerable number of establishments in different parts
of the country the average rates found may be accepted as repre­
senting approximately the average rate in the United States in the
occupation considered. The average based on the larger number of
establishments probably would be more nearly representative.



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

7

To secure the exact average rate for the United States it would
be necessary to take a complete wage census of the United States,
and, as previously stated, such a task is so great as to be practically
impossible.
Were the figures in Table I not used to measure the trend from
one year to another the decimals of the hour and of the cent might
well be dropped from the table. But while a slight difference is not
material in itself, so far as it affects a representative number, it is
very material when indicating a trend or movement upward or down­
ward in hours or wages, hence the measure of the trend or movement
in wages, hours, or employees, from one year to another, must be
made in the same establishments. As stated above, the establish­
ments that reported the data for 1903 shown in this Bulletin are the
same as those that reported the data for 1904; hence there is oppor­
tunity for an exact comparison between the number of employees,
the hours of labor, and the wages per hour in 1903 and in 1904, and
the figures may safely be used to indicate and measure the trend or
movement upward or downward of employees, hours, and wages in
the several occupations and localities covered.
Table I presents the data secured for each occupation in each
industry, by geographical divisions and for the United States. The
classification of the States into geographical divisions is as follows:
North Atlantic States:
Connecticut.
Maine.
Massachusetts.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.
New York.
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
Vermont.
South Atlantic States:
Delaware.
District of Columbia.
Florida.
Georgia.
Maryland.
North Carolina.
South Carolina.
Virginia.
W est Virginia.
North Central States:
Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa.

North Central States— Concluded.
Kansas.
Michigan.
Minnesota.
Missouri.
Nebraska.
Ohio.
South Dakota.
Wisconsin.
South Central States:
Alabama.
Arkansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana.
Mississippi.
Tennessee.
Texas.
Western States:
California.
Colorado.
Montana.
Oregon.
Utah.
Washington.

In Table I (page 19) the second column shows the number of estab­
lishments from which data were secured for both 1903 and 1904.



8

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

The next two columns show the number of persons employed in 1903
and 1904, respectively, in the establishments from which data were
secured. The two columns following show the average number of
hours worked per week in each of the two years in these establish­
ments, while the last two columns on the page show the average
wages per hour in each of the two years covered. The averages
shown are true arithmetical averages. They are obtained by adding
the hours worked per week and the amount earned per hour by each
individual, and dividing the sums by the number of persons considered.
An illustration will assist in explaining the table. The figures for
bricklayers in the building trades are presented on page 22. Data
for this occupation were secured for both 1903 and 1904 from 75
establishments in the North Atlantic States. In these establish­
ments 2,182 persons were employed in 1903, and 2,053 persons in
1904, a decrease of 129 persons. The average hours of work per week
of these employees were 47.07 in 1903 and 46.92 in 1904, a reduc­
tion of 0.15 hour per week. In 1903 the average wages per hour
were $0.5359 and in 1904 $0.5438, showing in this occupation an
increase in wages of $0.0079 per hour in the North Atlantic States.
The occupations shown in this Bulletin are the same as those
shown for the same industries in the Nineteenth Annual Report,
with a very few exceptions. Occupations followed by the words
“ not specified” include those persons who, on account of the nature
of the work done, could not be otherwise classified; for instance, a
stonecutter, not specified, is one who cuts granite, soft stone, and
often marble.
Table II.—Relative wages and hours of labor, 1890 to 1904, ty occupa­
tions (pp. 58 to 124)-—In Table I actual or concrete numbers only

are shown, and such figures relate only to the two years 1903 and
1904. No attempt has been made to join the actual numbers expres­
sing employees, hours, and wages for 1904 to the actual numbers
for the period from 1890 to 1903, shown in the Nineteenth Annual
Report. On page 6 an explanation has been given why such a
combination can not be made.
The figures presented in Table II are relative numbers or, in other
words, a series of percentages. Relative numbers serve a double
purpose. First, they present to the mind of the reader more clearly
than the actual or concrete numbers the measure of difference between
the data for a series of years; and second, by their use combinations
are made possible that are not possible with concrete numbers.
In Table II all figures for the years from 1890 to 1903 are from
the Nineteenth Annual Report; the figures for 1904 were obtained
by computation. An illustration will best explain the method of




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

9

computing relative numbers and the method of attaching one series
of data to another by use of the relative number. Data were secured
for the Nineteenth Annual Report from 212 establishments in the
United States employing bricklayers in the building trades for each
year from 1890 to 1903. The following table shows the number of
persons employed each year and the relative numbers computed
therefrom:
ACTUAL AND RELATIVE NUMBER OP BRICKLAYERS EMPLOYED IN 212 BUILDING
ESTABLISHMENTS, 1890 TO 1903.
[From the Nineteenth Annual Report. Average number for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Year.
Average 1890-1899..................................................................................................
1890.........................................................................................................................
1891.........................................................................................................................
1892.........................................................................................................................
1893.........................................................................................................................
1894.........................................................................................................................
1895.........................................................................................................................
1896.........................................................................................................................
1897.........................................................................................................................
1898.........................................................................................................................
1899.........................................................................................................................
1900.........................................................................................................................
1901................................................................................._......................................
1902.........................................................................................................................
1903.........................................................................................................................

Relative
Number of number of
employees. employees.
4,355
4,422
4,892
4,967
4,535
4,055
3,841
3,998
4,010
4,150
4,675
4,576
5,142
4,781
5,062

100.0
101.5
112.3
114.1
104.1
93.1
88.2
91.8
92.1
95.3
107.3
105.1
118.1
109.8
116.2

The average number of persons employed for the ten years from
1890 to 1899 was first computed. This average number, 4,355,
was adopted as a base or standard for comparison. All compari­
sons might be made with 1890 or any other year, but owing to the
fact that the conditions in any one year might have been abnormal
it was determined to take as a base for comparison, or 100.0, not
any one year, but the average for the ten years 1890 to 1899. The
number of employees in the 212 establishments in 1890 was 4,422,
which was found by computation to be 101.5 per cent of 4,355, the
base number. The relative number of employees then was 101.5
in 1890. The relative number was computed in like manner for
each succeeding year. In looking down the two columns the reader
will see that the relative numbers convey a clearer idea of the
measure of change in the number of employees from year to
year in the establishments reporting than do the actual numbers
themselves.
Data for bricklayers were secured for this Bulletin from 229
establishments for 1903 and 1904. As these establishments differed
to some extent from those shown for the years 1890 to 1903 in the
Nineteenth Annual Report, direct comparison can not properly be
made between the number of employees in 1904 here shown and the




10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

number in 1903 reported from the 212 establishments in the Nine­
teenth Annual Report. For the establishments covered in this
article, however, comparison can be made between the number of
persons employed in the two years as shown in Table I. On page 22
it is seen that 4,853 bricklayers were employed in 1903, and 4,644
in 1904 in the 229 establishments. The number employed in 1904
is 95.69 per cent of the number employed in 1903. As shown in
the above text table, the relative number of employees in 1903 was
116.2 as compared with the average number from 1890 to 1899, and
in the present investigation, as just stated, the number of employees
in 1904 was 95.69 per cent of the number in 1903, therefore the rela­
tive number in 1904 in the series from 1890 to 1904 would be 95.69
per cent of 116.2, or 111.2. It must not be understood that the
number of employees (4,644) in 1904 in the 229 establishments is
111.2 per cent of the average number (4,355) for the ten-year period,
1890 to 1899, in the 212 establishments, but that the relative figures
in the series from 1890 to 1904, calculated as above, do show condi­
tions in the occupation generally.
A caution should be given here as to the use of relative numbers.
The difference between the relative numbers in any two years does
not represent the per cent of increase or decrease in the actual
numbers. For example, the relative number of bricklayers in the
building trades in 1890 was 101.5. The relative number in 1904
was 111.2. The difference in the relative numbers is 9.7, and this
difference is 9.6 per cent of 101.5—that is, the number of brick­
layers employed, so far as can be determined from the establish­
ments covered, was 9.6 per cent greater in 1904 than in 1890.
In Table II the second column shows the relative number of
employees each year from 1890 to 1904; the third, the relative hours
of work per week in each year; and the fourth, the relative wages per
hour. By referring again to the occupation of bricklayers in the
building trades, as shown on page 64, it is seen that the relative
wages per hour in this occupation increased from 98.4 in 1890 to
127.3 in 1904. If the per cent of increase is desired, it may be
obtained by computation. Thus 28.9, the difference between 98.4
and 127.3, is 29.4 per cent of 98.4, making an increase in the wages
per hour of bricklayers between 1890 and 1904 of 29.4 per cent,
as nearly as can be determined from the establishments that have
been canvassed. Any other two years may be compared in like
manner.
The few new occupations incorporated in this report can not
have relative numbers shown for them, as no data were secured for
them in the years adopted as the base period.
Table III.—Relative wages and hours of labor, 1890 to 1904, ty indus­
tries (pp 125 to 180).—The relative figures shown in Table II have



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

11

been summarized so as to show conditions in each industry, as a whole,
and are presented in this report as Table III. This summary table
shows the relative conditions in each year compared with the tenyear period, 1890-1899. In computing the relative numbers shown
in Table III, the relative numbers for a year for all occupations of
the industry were added and the sum divided by the number of
occupations entering into the total. When both sexes were reported
in an occupation, each sex was considered a separate occupation in
this computation. A method somewhat different was pursued for
1904 in the few industries in which occupations were added or
discontinued. This method was to compute for employees, hours,
and wages the per cent which the 1904 figures were of the 1903
figures, as shown in the present article; the percentages for all the
occupations in the industry were then added and the sum divided by
the number of occupations. The index for 1903 was then multi­
plied by this average percentage to determine the index or relative
number for 1904.
The table shows the trend of wages and hours of labor in the
occupations of an industry taken as a whole. The average wages of
all employees in an industry, irrespective of occupation, may differ to
some extent, possibly, from the figures here shown because of a
change during the period in the proportionate number of employees
in the several occupations. It is presumed that the work done in
the occupations themselves has not changed materially. The table
is intended to show the changes as regards the same or like employees
of an establishment, rather than the change in the establishment
considered as a unit.
Like Table II, Table III embraces three columns relating to the
number of employees in the several years, the hours of work per
week, and the wages per hour. The base on which the relative num­
ber is computed is the average for the ten-year period, 1890-1899.
By reference to the table, it is seen that in 1890 the number of
employees engaged in the agricultural implement industry was 86.2
per cent of the average number employed during the ten-year period,
1890 to 1899. In each of the years thereafter a greater number was
employed than in 1890, the highest being in 1900, when 30.7 per cent
more persons were employed in the occupations and establishments
covered in this industry than the average during the base period. In
1903 the number employed was 24.8 per cent more than the average
number employed during the ten-year base period, and in 1904, 8.5
per cent more. W ith this explanation the other columns of the
table relating to hours per week and wages per hour will be readily
understood.




12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

In the short table immediately following, the facts relating to the
several industries have been combined to form a general index of all
industries:
COURSE OF WAGES AND HOU RS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, W HEN WEIGHTED ACCORDING
TO AGGREGATE WAGES PAID IN EACH INDUSTRY,AS REPORTED BY THE CENSUS
OF 1900.
[Relative numbers computed on basis of average for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of
Per cent of
Per cent of
increase (+ ) or
increase (+ ) or
increase (+ ) or
decrease (—) Relative decrease (—) Relative decrease (—)
Relative in 1904 as com­
1904
1904
number. pared with
number. inparedas com­ number. inparedas com­
with
with
year specified.
year specified.
year specified,
(a)

1890...............................
1891...............................
1892...............................
1893...............................
1894...............................
1895...............................
1896...............................
1897...............................
1898...............................
1899...............................
1900...............................
1901...............................
1902...............................
1903...............................
1904...............................

94.8
97.3
99.2
99.4
94.1
96.4
98.6
100.9
106.4
112.1
115.6
119.1
123.6
126.5
125.7

+ 32.6
+ 29.2
+ 26.7
+ 26.5
+ 33.6
+ 30.4
+ 27.5
+ 24.6
+18.1
+ 12.1
+ 8.7
+ 5.5
+ 1.7
- .6
(«)

100.7
100.5
100.5
100.3
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.2
98.7
98.1
97.3
96.6
95.9

- 4 .8
- 4 .6
—4.6.
- 4 .4
- 3 .9
- 4 .2
- 3 .9
- 3 .7
- 3 .8
- 3 .3
- 2 .8
- 2 .2
- 1 .4
- .7
(°)

100.3
100.3
100.8
100.9
97.9
98.3
99.7
99.6
100.2
102.0
105.5
108.0
112.2
.116.3
117.0

+ 16.7
+ 16.7
+ 16.1
+ 16.0
+ 19.5
+ 19.0
+ 17.4
+ 17.5
+ 16.8
+ 14.7
+ 10.9
+ 8.3
+ 4.3
+ .6
(«)

a The figures in this column give, opposite each year, the per cent of increase or decrease (indicated
by + or —) which the 1904 figures show as compared with the year specified. Thus, opposite the year
1890, under employees, appears +32.6; this shows that the increase in the number of employees in 1904
as compared with 1890 was 32.6 per cent. Opposite 1890, under hours per week, appears —4.7; this
shows that the decrease in the hours of labor per week in 1904 as compared with 1890 was 4.7 per cent.
In like manner, under wages per hour, appears +16.7; this shows that the increase in the wages per
hour in 1904 as compared with 1890 was 16.7 per cent. The figures opposite each year should be read
in like manner. Opposite the year 1904, of course, no figures can be placed.

The second column of the table shows the relative number of per­
sons employed in all of the establishments investigated. This col­
umn probably does not show the full extent of the changes that
have taken place in the industries of the United States during the
period covered; it measures only the changes that have taken place
in those establishments investigated. No figures are available
showing the decrease in the number of employees caused by the
shutting down of establishments for one or more years of the period,
or by the permanent closing of establishments. Neither are there
any figures showing the increase in the number of wageworkers
caused by the opening of new establishments during these years.
The figures in this table relating to employees are of great value,
however, for they show the changes that have taken place in a
large number of establishments, and undoubtedly indicate to some
extent the changes that have taken place in the number of persons
employed in all industries throughout the country. The table shows
that the lowest number employed was in the year 1894, or 94.1 per
cent of the average number employed during the period from 1890 to
1899. So far as these establishments are concerned it is seen that
the number of employees engaged therein gradually increased from



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904,

13

1894 until 1903. The highest point reached in the period covered
was in 1903, when 26.5 per cent more persons were employed than
the average for the ten-year base period. In the year 1904, how­
ever, there was a decrease from 126.5 to 125.7, or 0.6 per cent.
The next column shows the per cent of increase or decrease in the
number of persons employed in 1904 as compared with each of the
preceding years. Thus in 1904 there were employed 32.6 per cent
more persons than in 1890, 33.6 per cent more than in 1894, and 0.6
per cent less than in 1903.
The next section of the table relates to the hours of labor: The
relative number shown is a comparison of the hours of work per week
in each year with the average hours worked per week during the tenyear period from 1890 to 1899. In 1890 the hours of work per week
were 0.7 per cent more than the average hours worked during the
ten-year base period, while in 1904 the hours of work were but 95.9
per cent of the average for the base period, or 4.1 per cent less than
the average hours worked during the period from 1890 to 1899. The
next column shows the per cent of increase or decrease of hours per
week in 1904 when compared with each of the preceding years; thus
in 1904 the hours of work were 4.8 per cent less than in 1890, and
0.7 per cent less than in 1903. The tendency toward a gradual reduc­
tion of the hours of labor of the workingman is clearly shown hereThe third section of the table relates to the wages per hour paid in
all of the industries covered by the report. In 1890 wages per hour
were 0.3 per cent higher than the average wages per hour paid dur­
ing the ten years from 1890 to 1899. The lowest point reached was
in 1894, when wages per hour were 97.9 per cent of the average wages
for the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899, or, in other words, 2.1 per
cent lower than the average for the ten-year period. From 1894 the
movement was upward for two years; in 1897 there was a slight
decline. From 1897 there was an advance each year. In 1904 the
average wages per hour were 117.0 per cent of the average for the
base period, or, in other words, 17.0 per cent higher than the average
wages per hour during the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899. The
caution before given is here repeated. The per cent of change
between one year and another is not the result of the subtraction of
the two relative numbers. For example: The relative wages in all
industries was 97.9 in 1894 and 117.0 in 1904; the difference between
these relative numbers is 19.1. The per cent of increase in wages,
however, from 1894 to 1904 was not 19.1. This difference, 19.1, is
19.5 per cent of 97.9, the number with which the comparison was
made, making wages per hour in 1904 19.5 per cent higher than
wages per hour in 1894. The column following the relative wages
shows the per cent of increase or decrease in the average wages per
hour in 1904 as compared with the preceding years. In this column
it is seen that wages per hour in 1904 were 16.7 per cent higher than
17098— N o. 59— 05----- 2




14

BULLETIN’ OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

in 1390 and 1891, 10.1 per cent higher than in 1892, 19.5 per cent
higher than in 1894, and 0.6 per cent higher than in 1903.
The relative numbers presented in the table on page 12 are shown
in graphic form facing page 18, to which the reader is referred. In
computing the figures for the table on page 12, each industry has
been given a weight in proportion to the amount of wages paid
therein, as shown by the United States census of 1900. This was
deemed to be the most equitable method of making allowance for the
greater or less importance of the several industries. The agricultural
implement industry is an important industry, but by no means as
great as the building industry of the country; therefore allowance for
the importance was deemed necessary, and the most satisfactory
method of weighting is believed to be the weighting in proportion to
the wages paid in the several industries. In computing this weighted
average the relative number or index for a year for each industry was
multiplied by the wages paid in each industry, respectively, as shown
by the United States census of 1900, expressed in the nearest $100,000.
The products were then added and the sum divided by the total wages
paid in the industries represented. When the industry classification
differed from that given by the United States census, the wages paid
were estimated from the census figures. Street and sewer work, not
reported as such by the census, was estimated from the best available
data—that is, the wages paid in the District of Columbia. When
two or more industries shown separately in this report were classed
as one industry by the census, the relative numbers for the several
industries were added year by year, and the totals divided by the
number of subindustries to obtain a relative number for the general
industry as shown by the census. The following table shows the
relative weight accorded to each industry:
WEIGHT OF EACH INDUSTRY ACCORDING TO WAGES PAID.
[The weight given to each industry was determined by the wages paid, expressed in the nearest $100,000
as shown by the United States census of 1980.]
Industry.
Agricultural implements........................
Bakery, bread.........................................
Blacksmithing and horseshoeing...........
Boots and sh o e s.....................................
Brick............................................ ’I........
Building trades................ .....................
Candy......................................................
Carpets....................................................
Carriages and wagons............................
Cars, steam railroad.............................
Clothing..................................................
Cotton g o o d s..........................................
Dyeing, finishing, and printing tex tiles.
Electrical apparatus and supplies........
F lour.......................................................
Foundry and machine sh o p ...................
Furniture....... ........................................
Gas............. .......................... .... ............
Glass........................................................
Harness..................................................

Weight.
225
279
180
592
219
«2,127
109
111
298
1,194
794
867
127
202
177
1,822
426
124
271
107

Industry.

Weight.

Hats, f u r ................................................
Hosiery and knit good s........................
Iron and s te e l........................................
Leather..................................................
Liquors, m a lt........................................
Lum ber..................................................
Marble and stone w ork .........................
Paper and wood pulp............................
Planing m ill............................................
P ottery............... ............................ ....
Printing and publishing........................
Shipbuilding...........................................
Silk goods...............................................
Slaughtering and meat packing............
Streets and sewers.................................
Tobaceo, cigars, and cigarettes_______
W oolen ana worsted goods...................

ft 151
244
1,208
226
258
1,046
287
207
327
177
842
248
210
339
C395
409
448

T otal.............................................

17,273

a Includes census figures for carpentering, masonry, plumbing, painting and paper hanging, and onehalf of roofing, architectural Iron, electrical construction, and tinsmithing.
b Includes census figures for wool hats.
o Estimated from wages paid in the District of Columbia.




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

15

In preparing the figures for Bulletin No. 53 and for the Nineteenth
Annual Report, in order to ascertain the difference, if any, between
the results obtained by the method adopted for the computation of
the relative number or index for all industries and the results secured
by other methods, the relative wages were computed by three other
methods—first, by giving all occupations an equal weight; second, by
giving each industry an equal weight; and, third, by giving each
industry a weight in proportion to the number of employees engaged
in the industry as shown by the census of 1900.
The results obtained by the four different methods were very
nearly the same, and any one of the three other methods might not
improperly have been used.
- As has been stated, several industries shown in the Nineteenth
Annual Report have not been continued in this Bulletin article. In
order to determine what difference there would be in the relative
numbers for all industries if computed only from the industries
retained in the Bulletin, relative numbers for the forty-two industries
retained were computed for 1890 to 1903. It was found that the
relative numbers for 1903 based on the forty-two industries were
practically the same as those based on the sixty-seven industries—
the variation being not more than one-tenth of 1 per cent for employ­
ees, for hours, or for wages.
In studying the several tables thus far presented, the reader should
bear in mind that the wages shown are the average rates of wages per
hour and the hours shown the average number of hours worked per
week. A reduction in hours in any year, therefore, implies a reduction
of weekly earnings, unless accompanied by a corresponding increase
in the rate of wages per hour. In order to show the changes in weekly
earnings that have taken place from year to year during the period,
in all industries as a whole, the following table has been prepared:
RELATIVE W EEKLY EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE AND FOR ALL EMPLOYEES, 1890
TO 1904.
[Relative numbers computed on basis of average for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Weekly earnings per
employee.
Year.

1890.......................................................................
1891.......................................................................
1892.......................................................................
1893.......................................................................
1894.......................................................................
1895....................................................................... ;
1896...................................................................... 1
1897....................................................................... '
1898....................................................................... !
1899.......................................................................
1900....................................................................... !
1901......................................................................
1902..................................................... ................
1903.......................................................................
1904.......................................................................




Weekly earnings of all
employees.

Per cent of
Per cent of
increase (+ ) or
increase (+ ) or
decrease ( —
)
decrease ( —)
Relative. in 1904 as com­ Relative. in 1904 as com­
pared with
pared with
year specified.
year specified.
101.0
100.8
101.3
101.2
97.7
98.4
99.5
99 2
99.9
101.2
104.1
105.9
109.2
112.3
112.2

+11.1
+11.3
+10.8
+10.9
+14.8
+14.0
+12.8
+13.1
+12.3
+10.9
+ 7.8
+ 5.9
+ 2.7
- .1

95.7
98.1
100.5
100.6
91.9
94.9
98.1
100.1
106.3
113.4
120.3
126.1
135.0
142.1
141.0

+47.3
+43.7
+40.3
+40.2
+53.4
+48.6
+ 43.7
+40.9
+32.6
+24.3
+17.2
+ 11.8
+ 4.4
- .8

16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The first section of the table relates to the weekly earnings of the
individual employee. From this table it is seen that the weekly earn­
ings per employee in 1890 were 1.0 per cent higher than the average
weekly earnings for the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899. In 1894 the
average weekly earnings were 2.3 per cent lower than the average for
the ten-year period; in 1903 they were 12.3 per cent higher, and in
1904 they were 12.2 per cent higher. The next column shows that
the weekly earnings per employee in 1904 were 11.1 per cent higher
than in 1890, 11.3 percent higher than in 1891, 14.8 per cent higher
than in 1894, 2.7 per cent higher than in 1902, and 0.1 per cent lower
than in 1903.
The second section of the table, relating to the aggregate weekly
earnings of all employees engaged in the occupations covered, is of
great interest as indicating to some extent the change in the relative
amount paid out in wages by the manufacturing and mechanical
establishments of the country each year. While the figures given
show that the increase has been very great, it is believed that they
do not mark the extreme increase that would be shown were the fig­
ures available for the entire number of employees in all industries, for
reasons previously stated. Bearing in mind the previous statement
that this report probably does not represent fully the change in the
number of employees in the United States, the table shows that the
weekly earnings of the employees engaged in the occupations covered
in the establishments reporting were, in 1890, 95.7 per cent of the
average for the ten-year period from 1890 to 1899; in the year 1891
they were 98.1 per cent; in 1894 they were 91.9 per cent; in 1902 the
relative figure was 135.0; in 1903 it was 142.1, while in 1904 it dropped
to 141.0.
The next column of the table, comparing the last year of the period
with each of the other years, indicates that in 1904 the aggregate
weekly earnings of all employees were 47.3 per cent more than in the
year 1890, 53.4 per cent more than in 1894, 4.4 per cent more than in
1902, and 0.8 per cent less than in 1903.
Thus it is seen that considering the employees covered by this
report, the average weekly earnings per employee in 1904 were 12.2
per cent higher than the average for the ten-year period 1890 to 1899,
and that the aggregate weekly wages paid out to all employees in 1904
were 41.0 per cent more than the average weekly wages for the same
ten-year period.
Table IV .—Average wages and hours of labor, 1903 and 1904, i n
twenty-one selected occupations, by cities (pp. 131 to 144)*—In this table
the average wages and hours of labor of the most important general
occupations are shown by cities. Like Table I, it is divided into three
columns, relating to the number of employees covered, the average
hours of work per week, and the average wages per hour, respectively.
Localities in which data were secured from only one establishment



17

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 189£ TO 1904.

have been omitted from this table to avoid identification, except for
the occupation of laborers on streets and sewers, municipal work.
The first occupation shown in Table IV (page 131) is bricklayers,
building trades. The first line relates to wages in Atlanta, Ga., and
shows that in the three building establishments from which data for
bricklayers were secured, 30 were employed in 1903 and 49 in 1904, the
average hours per week were 57.67 in 1903 and 57.37 in 1904, and the
average wages per hour, $0.38 in 1903 and $0.4041 in 1904.
Table V.—Average wages and hours of labor, 1903 and 1904, in
eighteen selected occupations, by States ipp. 145 to 147)-—In this table
the average wages and hours of labor of certain important occupa­
tions are shown by States. The data are not presented by cities, as
in many instances the identity of the establishments furnishing the
data might have been disclosed by such classification. The form of
this table is like that of Table IV, and needs no explanation.
The article immediately following the present one in this Bulletin
is entitled “ Retail prices of food, 1890 to 1904.” That investiga­
tion covers the same period as does this investigation into wages and
hours of labor, and the data have been summarized, as in this article,
by the use of relative or index numbers. The base adopted for com­
puting the relative numbers is the same in each case, namely, the
average for the years 1890 to 1899.
In order that a comparative study may be made of the summary
figures of these two articles they are here presented in parallel col­
umns. The table immediately following shows the relative or index
numbers taken from the two articles, and in addition two columns
computed therefrom showing the relative purchasing power of wages
in the several years covered as measured by retail prices of food.
RELATIVE EMPLOYEES, HOURS PER WEEK, WAGES PER HOUR, W EEKLY EARN­
INGS PER EMPLOYEE AND OP ALL EMPLOYEES, RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, AND
PURCHASING POWER OF HOURLY WAGES AND OF W EEKLY EARNINGS PER
EMPLOYEE, MEASURED BY RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
[Relative numbers computed on basis of average for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Year.

1890..........................
1891..........................
1892..........................
1893..........................
1894..........................
1895..........................
1896..........................
1897..........................
1898..........................
1899..........................
19C0..........................
1901..........................
1902.........................
1903..........................
1904.........................

Purchasing power,
Retail
measured by re­
prices of
tail prices of
Weekly Weekly
food,
food, of—
Wages earnings earnings weighted
Employ­ Hours
ees.
per week. per hour. per em­ of all em­ according
Weekly
ployee. ployees. to family Hourly earnings
consump­ wages.
per em­
tion.
ployee.
94.8
97.3
99.2
99.4
94.1
96.4
98.6
100.9
106.4
112.1
115.6
119.1
123.6
126.5
125.7




100.7
100.5
100.5
100.3
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.2
98.7
98.1
97.3
96.6
95.9

100.3
100.3
100.8
100.9
97.9
98.3
99.7
99.6
100.2
102.0
105.5
108.0
112.2
116.3
117.0

101.0
100.8
101.3
101.2
97.7
98.4
99.5
99.2
99.9
101.2
104.1
105.9
109.2
112.3
112.2

95.7
98.1
100.5
100.6
91.9
94.9
98.1
100.1
106.3
113.4
120.3
126.1
135.0
142.1
141.0

102.4
103.8
101.9
104.4
99.7
97.8
95.5
96.3
98.7
99.5
101.1
105.2
110.9
110.3
111.7

97.9
96.6
98.9
96.6
98.2
100.5
104.4
103.4
101.5
102.5
104.4
102.7
101.2
105.4
104.7

98.6
97.1
99.4
96.9
98.0
100.6
104.2
103.0
101.2
101.7
103.0
100.7
98.5
101.8
100.4

18

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

This table shows that in 1904, as compared with the average for
the ten years from 1890 to 1899, 25.7 per cent more persons were
employed, hours of labor per week had been reduced 4.1 per cent,
wages per hour had increased 17 per cent, weekly earnings per em­
ployee had increased 12.2 per cent, weekly earnings of all persons
employed had increased 41.0 per cent, retail prices of food had
increased 11.7 per cent, the wages of one hour would purchase 4.7
per cent more food, and the earnings of a week would purchase 0.4
per cent more food.
The next table shows the per cent of increase or decrease in the
several items in 1904 as compared with each preceding year:
PER CENT OF INCREASE (+ ) OR DECREASE ( - ) IN 1904, AS COMPARED WITH PRE­
VIOUS YEARS, IN EMPLOYEES, HOURS PER WEEK, WAGES PER HOUR, WEEKLY
EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE AND OF ALL EMPLOYEES, RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD,
AND PURCHASING POWER OF HOURLY WAGES AND OF W EEKLY EARNINGS PER
EMPLOYEE, MEASURED B Y RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
Per cent of increase (+ ) or decrease (—) in 1904 as compared with previous
years.

Year.

Average 1890-1899...
1890..........................
1891..........................
1892..........................
1893..........................
1894..........................
1895..........................
1896..........................
1897..........................
1898..........................
1899..........................
1900..........................
1901..........................
1902..........................
1903..........................

Purchasing power,
Retail
measuied by re­
prices of
tail prices of
Weekly Weekly
food,
food, oit—
Employ­ Hours
Wages earnings earnings weighted
per week. per hour. per em­ of all em­ according
ees.
Weekly
ployee. ployees. to family Hourly earnings
consump­ wages. per em­
tion.
ployee.
4-25.7
4-32.6
4-29.2
4-26.7
+26.5
+53.-6
+ 30.4
+27.5
+ 24.6
+ 18.1
+ 12.1
+ 8.7
+ 5.5
+ 1.7
— .0

- 4 .1
- 4 .8
—4.6
- 4 .6
- 4 .4
- 3 .9
- 4 .2
—3 .9 ,
- 3 .7
- 3 .8
- 3 .3
- 2 .8
- 2 .2
—1.4
- .7

+ 17.0
+ 16.7
+ 16.7
+16.1
+ 16.0
+19.5
+ 19.0
+ 17.4
+ 17.5
+ 16.8
+ 14.7
+ 10.9
+ 8.3
+ 4.3
+ .6

+12.2
+11.1
+11.3
+ 10.8
+ 10.9
+ 14.8
+14.0
+ 12.8
+13.1
+12.3
+ 10.9
+ 7.8
+ 5.9
+ 2.7
- .1

+ 41.0
+47.3
+ 43.7
+40.3
+ 40.2
+ 53.4
+ 48.6
+ 43.7
+ 40.9
+ 32.6
+24.3
+ 17.2
+11.8
+ 4.4
- .8

+ 11.7
+ 9.1
+ 7.6
+ 9.6
+ 7.0
+12.0
+14.2
+ 17.0
+16.0
+13.2
+ 12.3
+10.5
+ 6.2
+ .7
+ 1.3

+ 4.7
+ 6.9
+ 8.4
+ 5.9
+ 8 .4
+ 6.6
+4.2*
+ .3
+ 1.3
+ 3.2
+ 2.1
+ .3
+ 1.9
+ 3.5
- .7

+ 0.4
+ 1.8
+ 3 .4
+ 1.0
+ 3.6
+ 2.4
— .2
- 3 .6
- 2 .5
- .8
- 1 .3
- 2 .5
- .3
+ 1.9
- 1 .4

This table shows that in 1904, as compared with 1903, the to ta l'
number of employees decreased 0.6 per cent, the hours of labor
decreased 0.7 per cent, wages per hour increased 0.6 per cent, weekly
earnings per employee decreased 0.1 per cent, the total weekly
earnings of all employees decreased 0.8 per cent, retail prices of food
increased 1.3 per cent, the wages of one hour would purchase 0.7
per cent less food, and the earnings per employee in a week would
purchase 1.4 per cent less food.
The accompanying graphic table shows for the 15 years, 1890 to
1904, the relative number of employees, relative hours of work per
week, relative wages per hour, and relative retail prices of food.







W aces
H ours of W ork
N umber of E mployees
R etail P rices of F ood

1890

R elative F igures
[A verace

RELATIVE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.

to

for 1890 to

1904

s U n ited S t a te s .
1899 = 100.1

IN 2567 WORKINGMEN’ S FAMILIES.
NORRIS PETERS CO . PHOTO-l ITHO..

ASHINGTON.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOB, 1890 TO 1904.

19

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S.

A G R IC U L T U R A L . IM P L E M E N T S.

Occupation and geographical division.

Blacksmiths, male:
N orth Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag;e wages
per ]hour.

1903.

1904.

1903.
50.1628
.2599
.2542
3542

1904.

17
221
4
5

16
237
3
6

60.00
57.70
59.00
54.00

60.00
58.27
59.00
54.00

United S tates..........................................

1
12 1
1 !
1
1
15 j

247

262

57.80

58.29

.2551 !

.2587

Fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

1 !
8
1

8
426
6

8
337
7

60.00
58.26
59.00

60.00
56.00
59.00

.1781
.2273
.1751

.1802
. 2451
.1792

10.1782
.2609
.2542
.3880

United S tates..........................................

10

440

352

58.30

56.15

.2257

.2423

Grinders, male:
North A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central............................... ..............

1
6
1

9
179
6

9
173
10

60.00
57.30
59.00

60.00
55.85
59.00

.1611
.2235
.2485

.1685
.2489
.2765

United S tates.................................... ......

8

194

192

57.48

56.21

.2214

.2465

Machine woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

1
13
1
1

14
483
3
3

15
352
4
3

60.00
58.45
59.00
54.00

60.00
57.63
59.00
54.00

.1580
.2069
.2260
.2997

. 1572
.2179
.2182
.3287

United S tates..........................................

16

503

374

58.47

57.71

.2062

.2163

Machinists, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern................ ............................. .

1
12
1

43
1,096
25

43
902
26

60.00
58.42
54.00

60.00
55.93
54.00

.1766
.2449
.2996

.1826
.2648
.3015

United States _ .... ....................................

14

1,164

971

58.38

56.06

.2435

.2621

Western....... .................................- ...............

1
9
1
1

31
1,174
4
6

35
1,064
8
3

60.00
58.34
48.00
54.00

60.00
57.24
48.00
54.00

.2389
.2499
.2487
.3610

.2316
.2520
.2445
.3888

United S tates..........................................

12

1,215

1,110

58.33

57.25

.2501

.2517

Painters, male:
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

13
1
1

538
2

3

469
3
2

59.53
54.00
59.00

57.10
54.00
54.00

.2421
.2181
.2813

.2372
.2504
.2995

United States..........................................

15

543

474

59.51

57.07

.2422

.2376

Pattern makers, male:
North Central.............................................

12

89

74

58.01

57.80

.2822

.2951

Holders, iron, male:
North Atlantic................................ ..........
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

BAKERY, BREAD.
Bakers, first hands, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern........................ .............................

34
20
35
34
11

80
34
88
19
17

77
36
101
20
18

63.35
63.41
59.58
67.42
59.82

63.64
63.22
59.31
66.45
59.67

$0.2790
.2395
.2798
.2316
.3711

$0.2813
.2451
.2843
.2416
.3808

United States..........................................

114

238

252

62.04

61.78

.2764

.2813




20

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

T a b le I . — A V E B A G E W AG ES A N D H O U BS O F LA B O B , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G EO G BAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— Continued.

B A K E R Y , B R E A D —Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estabBoTi
usnments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Bakers, second hands, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

35
20
34
15
10

193
74
113
30
24

187
74
114
33
26

66.57
61.47
59.21
68.30
60.54

66.81
61.39
58.65
68.09
60.38

$0.2096
.1748
.2293
.1811
.2905

$0.2101
.1832
.2370
.1855
.2988

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
p eri lour.
1904.

United States..........................................

114

434

434

63.57

63.46

.2113

.2160

Bakers, third hands, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

20
8
25
7
3

65
24
190
19
14

67
28
225
23
14

59.89
61.38
57.89
68.00
58.79

60.25
61.50
58.06
67.13
58.43

.1894
.1759
.2154
.1612
.2452

.1892
.1684
.2231
.1632
.2765

United States...........................................

63

312

357

59.23

59.34

.2050

.2107

Bakers, not specified,Inale:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

8
4
11
2
1

367
50
261
8
25

388
50
272
10
22

60.18
60.36
59.15
60.00
60.00

60.08
60.36
57.99
60.00
60.00

.2679
.2773
.2306
.2444
.3000

.2670
.2797
.2347
.2557
.3000

United States...........................................

26

711

742

59.81

59.33

.2557

.2569

B E A C K S M IT H IN G A N D H O R S E SH O E IN G .
Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

13
8
19
5
3

34
19
43
13
6

31
20
40
11
6

56.21
59.37
59.44
57.85
57.00

55.61
59.10
59.43
57.45
56.00

$0.2764
.2306
.2674
.2956
.3296

$0.2814
.2317
.2629
.2857
.3222

United States...........................................

48

115

108

58.17

57.88

.2704

.2680

Horseshoers, fitters, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

14
2
10
6
3

30
6
13
7
5

29
4
13
8
6

53.50
60.00
56.46
55.29
53.60

53.21
60.00
56.46
55.13
53.67

.3326
.2583
.3451
.3282
.4089

.3404
.2438
.3374
.3566
.4056

United States...........................................

35

61

60

54.98

54.67

.3337

.3420

Horseshoers, floor men, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
N orth Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

37
18
48
14
10

88
38
116
26
19

85
38
116
23
20

54.39
57.95
55.64
55.88
54.05

53.92
57.95
55.25
55.96
54.00

.2990
.2182
.3003
.2682
.3696

.3071
.2218
.3071
.2762
.3960

United States...........................................

127

287

282

55.48

55.18

.2907

.2994

Horseshoers, forgemen, male:
N orth Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

23
15
40
8
9

41
25
77
14
16

42
24
75
14
18

54.29
57.00
55.77
56.21
53.75

54.29
56.88
55.59
56.21
53.72

.3610
.2736
.3450
.3017
.4091

.3563
.2699
.3475
.3283
.4121

United States...........................................

95

173

173

55.45

55.31

.3409

.3440

Horseshoers, not specified, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic..........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

9
5
6
5
2

16
13
9
10
3

13
18
7
10
4

57.06
60.00
60.00
56.50
55.33

56.46
56.11
59.14
56.00
54.75

.2543
.2167
.2444
.2547
.4019

.2653
.2379
.2575
.2702
.4146

United States...........................................

27

51

52

58.12

56.48

.2517

.2672




21

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G E O G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— Continued.

BO O TS A N D SH O ES.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
perl tiour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

Closers-on, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

25
15

133
104

123
118

57.01
57.73

56.82
57.92

$0.1932
.1465

*0.1865
.1511

United States..........................................

40

237

241

57.32

57.36

.1727

.1691

Cutters, outsole, male:
N orth Atlantic ..........................................
North Central............................................

20
17

87
96

92
83

57.69
57.75

57.58
58.43

.2409
.2470

.2491
.2542

United States..........................................

37

183

175

57.72

57.98

.2441

.2515

Cutters, upper, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.......... ..................................

25
17

701
445

741
486

56.88
57.88

56.61
58.70

.2688
.2572

.2766
.2663

United States..........................................

42

1,146

1,227

57.27

57.44

.2643

.2725

Edge trimmers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

24
17

173
88

177
104

56.74
58.00

56.34
58.44

.3740
.3130

.3749
.3313

United S tates..........................................

41

261

281

57.16

57.12

.3535

.3588

Goodyear stitchers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

20
14

109
68

116
83

55.62
57.84

55.34
58.28

.4106
.3317

.4067
.3587

United S tates............................-............

34

177

199

56.47

56.57

.3803

.3866

Heel trimmers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

22
17

49
36

51
42

56.69
57.67

55.65
58.24

.3967
.2963

.3993
.3418

United S tates..........................................

39

85

93

57.11

56.82

.3541

.3733

Lasters, machine, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

23
14

329
173

343
237

57.02
56.59

56.89
57.11

.2758
.2713

.2791
.2971

United S tates..........................................

37

502

580

56.87

56.98

.2743

.2865

McKay stitchers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

17
11

48
27

44
31

57.63
58.11

56.66
58.94

.3188
.2938

.3073
.3127

United States..........................................

28

75

75

57.80

57.60

.3098

.3095

Treers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
N orth Central.............................................

15
13

234
84

231
85

56.67
57.64

56.49
57.94

.2642
.2231

.2657
.2190

United States..........................................

28

318

316

56.92

56.88

.2533

.2531

Vampers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

11
5

57
6

70
25

54.70
56.50

55.06
58.80

.3147
.2524

.3076
.2875

United States..........................................

16

63

95

54.87

56.25

.3088

.3023

Vampers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

23
17

255
201

247
221

56.85
57.42

56.28
57.95

.2266
.1865

.2277
.1886

United States...........................................

40

456

468

57.10

57.07

.2090

.2093




22

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— Continued.

B R IC K .
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
establishments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Brick-machine tenders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

10
5
16
2
3

52
16
94
59
5

52
20
92
54
5

53.54
55.50
56.62
60.00
54.00

53.54
56.40
56.67
60.00
54.00

$0.2151
.1956
.2156
.1364
.2950

$0.2145
.1965
.2117
.1428
.2950

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

United S tates..........................................

36

226

223

56.65

56.66

.1952

.1962

Kiln burners, male:
North Atlantic....................... .... ...............
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

9
5
17
3
3

46
22
85
33
10

45
22
95
32
10

82.70
82.73
83.72
77.45
84.00

82.67
82.73
83.31
76.13
84.00

.1671
.1090
.1855
.1447
.2417

.1749
.1090
.1849
.1460
.2417

United States...........................................

37

196

204

82.33

82.01

.1686

.1712

K iln setters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South C en tra l...........................................
Western.......................................................

10
4
17
2
3

33
18
86
6
7

34
18
78
6
7

54.73
45.67
57.00
60.00
57.86

54.88
45.67
56.92
60.00
57.86

.2178
.2349
.2374
.2976
.2869

.2122
.2349
.2413
.2949
.2821

United S ta tes.............................. ..........

36

143

55.30

55.20 |

.2375

.2378

282
292
281
185
52

58.68
58.97
55.65
60.00
58.72

58.55
59.03
55.41
60.00
58.85

.1449
.1219
.2042
.1311 !
.2285

.1438
.1224
.2001
.1288
.2258

1,092

58.19

58.13

.1561

.1539

Laborers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central....... .....................................
Western.......................................................
United States...................... ....................

10
6
16
3
3

i

1
!
1
|
|

150 |
279
262
280
190
47

38 | 1,058

1
S

Holders, hand, male:
South Atlantic............ ..............................
North Central................................. ...........

3
2

20
8

20
8

45.60
57.00

45.60
51.00

!
i

.2521
.2306

.2521
.2587

United States..........................................

5

28

28

48.86

47.14

|

.2460

.2540

Offbearers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

7
3
15
1
3

56
26
169
10
14

61
26
103
10
14

54.21
47.54
55.46
60.00
53.57

54.89
47.54
54.88
60.00
53.57

.1776
.1618
.2043
.1100
.2750

.1724
.1646
.2048
.1100
.2650

United States...........................................

29

275

274

54.52

54.31

.1950

.1934

B U IL D IN G T R A D E S .
Bricklayers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

75
36
70
28
20

2,182
605
1,340
432
294

2,053
626
1,370
288
307

47.07
51.78
46.77
48.26
46.05

46.92
50.83
46.51
48.22
45.58

$0.5359
.4500
.5696
.5680
.7009

$0.5438
.5058
.5702
.5802
.6936

United States...........................................

229

4,853

4,644

47.62

47.32

.5474

.5586

Carpenters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic... .•.....................................
North Central............. . ......................... .
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

82
39
69
30
22

2,902
1,003
2,045
690
592

2,710
997
1,943
562
530

47.82
53.08
48.83
51.78
46.95

47.89
52.09
48.74
51.81
46.70

.3793
.2938
.3698
.3126
.4333

.3771
.2973
.3670
.3128
.4565

United States...........................................

242

7,232

6,748

49.14

48.99

.3653

.3633




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1S90 TO 1904.

23

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G E O G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

B U IX J M N G T R A D E S —Continued.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

Cornice makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

15
8
21
6
5

276
95
260
55
41

306
75
237
55
39

47.72
50.18
47.61
49.85
48.00

46.16
49.69
47.66
50.40
46.72

$0. 4077
.3793
.4089
.3399
.4772

$0.4213
.3779
.4176
.3315
.5120

United States..........................................

55

727

712

48.18

47.39

.4032

.4135

Gas fitters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Gentral.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

15
8
35
8
13

49
37
115
23
30

54
35
112
18
34

47.53
50.19
48.22
48.78
46.73

46.22
48.60
48.21
49.00
44.82

.4198
.3417
.4339
.4149
.5697

.4478
.3553
.4657
.4375
.5849

United States..........................................

79

254

253

48.25

47.44

.4321

.4606

Hod carriers, male: (a )
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central................................... .........
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

92
28
87
29
26

1,967
411
1,759
366
282

1,925
456
1,806
307
320

46.83
50.31
47.22
49.61
48.35

46.72
50.57
46.89
50.96
47.46

.2960
.2066
.2888
.2145
.3798

.2972
.2165
.2898
.2080
.3796

United States..........................................

262

4,785

4,814

47.57

47.47

.2844

.2866

Inside wiremen, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

13
14
21
5
3

270
215
271
72
44

285
219
265
61
50

46.07
53.80
47.84
50.17
48.00

45.84
51.79
47.43
49.48
48.00

.4337
.3093
.4297
.3206
.4489

.4490
.3182
.4120
.3813
.4625

United States..........................................

56

872

880

48.96

48.17

.3932

.4014

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

45
40
58
20
9

2,068
1,219
1,980
555
110

1,851
1,122
1,688
285
96

55.35
57.68
54.12
55.55
52.98

54.70
57.09
55.15
56.02
50.61

.1663
.1391
.2188
.1436
.2631

.1736
.1408
.2070
.1481
.2802

United S tates..........................................

172

5,932

5,042

55.39

55.38

.1779

.1781

Lathers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central...........................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

3
9
18
6
3

72
55
173
28
90

82
58
211
37
105

44.00
48.69
47.49
52.50
47.56

44.00
49.28
47.41
46.81
47.62

.3965
.3099
.4118
.2775
.6076

.3997
.3168
.4318
.4125
.6101

United States..........................................

39

418

493

47.39

47.06

.4289

.4494

71
26
67
23
21

1,597
497
1,367
301
344

1,630
517
1,328
328
321

48.60
51.50
47.58
50.52
47.59

48.40
50.48
47.52
50.32
47.15

.3418
.2934
.3578
.2973
.4362

.3501
.3039
.3717
.3038
.4367

Painters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............................................. ;
South Gentral............................................. !
Western.......................................................
United S tates..........................................

208

4,106

4,124

48.67

48.43

.3459

.3543

Paper hangers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

34
12
36
7
14

256
75
229
60
82

242
76
.235
51
79

50.29
53.40
49.25
49.00
47.32

50.24
52.97
49.42
49.18
47.54

.3496
.2793
.3728
.3502
.4500

.3558
.2867
.3685
.3686
.4522

United States..........................................

103

702

683

49.83

49.87

.3614 |j

.3646

« Includes men who mix mortar and wait on bricklayers, plasterers, and stone masons, whether or
not a hod is used.




24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S—Continued.

BT JIB D IN G T R A D E S —Continued.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
establlSilments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Plasterers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western......................................................

46
21
51
20
14

685
210
610
138
186

679
208
625
113
168

45.82
50.78
46.76
48.07
44.99

45.56
51.18
46.30
47.65
45.98

$0.5283
.4122
.5385
.4955
.6841

$0.5358
.4171
.5563
.5065
.6685

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average3 wages
p ert tour.
1904.

United States..........................................

152

1,829

1,793

46.79

46.64

.5318

.5398

Plumbers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

84
37
66
23
22

596
262
539
150
201

623
267
516
155
210

48.41
51.53
47.00
49.31
46.69

48.00
50.21
47.18
48.71
46.56

.4118
.3828
.4925
.4490
.5724

.4291
.4066
.4974
.4635
.5917

United States..........................................

232

1,748

1,771

48.32

47.98

.4540

.4679

Roofers, gravel and tar, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western......................................................

10
5
13
3
4

115
46
165
47
47

150
50
183
77
50

48.89
56.61
49.33
55.28
49.79

47.00
56.88
49.72
55.64
49.92

.3268
.1543
.3991
.1672
.4065

.3271
.1628
.3999
.1678
.4010

United States..........................................

35

420

510

50.72

50.53

.3274

.3203

Roofers, slate and tile, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

14
5
16
6

74
40
88
30

54
34
76
37

46.78
51.75
48.25
51.20

47.44
51.00
48.47
49.30

.4519
.3302
.4421
.3104

.4411
.3891
.4438
.3477

United States..........................................

41

232

201

48.77

48.78

.4089

.4161

Roofers, tin, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

37
22
31
8
2

303
132
297
77
17

305
149
277
81
10

47.97
53.69
50.08
49.38
48.00

48.30
50.70
49.85
50.05
47.70

.3691
.2869
.3325
.3381
.4743

.3625
.3111
.3370
.3365
.5375

United States..........................................

100

826

822

49.78

49.42

.3421

.3441

Steam fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

28
6
35
6
11

255
47
333
32
36

274
49
295
45
38

47.40
51.04
47.12
49.88
46.06

47.27
50.12
47.13
49.33
46.18

.4238
.3923
.4656
.4206
.5824

.4442
.4067
.4788
.4386
.6072

United States..........................................

86

703

701 1 47.55

47.49

.4495

.4646

Stone masons, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western...............* .....................................

44
9
39
8
10

489
90
301
69
44

461
76
288
47
93

49.83
50.99
48.63
50.78
51.36

49.82
52.09
47.82
51.28
48.69

.4225
.4668
.4989
.4483
.5699

.4162
.4566
.5137
.4491
.6056

965

49.71

49.37

.4580

.4683

63 47.53
19 49.91
51 48.82
18 49.29
10 48.00

46.79
50.21
49.55
49.00
48.00

.5146
.5305
.5016
.4881
.5417

.5360
.5263
.5049
.4907
.5125

.5109

.5184

United States...........................................

110

993

Stone setters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

8
8
17
5
2

68
22
57
14
6

United States..........................................

40

167




161

48.45 1 48.43 |

25

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— Continued.

B P I E D I N G T R A D E S —Concluded.
Num­
ber of
establishments.

Occupation and geographical division.

Structural iron workers, male:(a)
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................
United States...........................................

Number of
employees.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wagei,
perhour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

4

843
108
771
40
42

895
99
690
52
58

46.89
54.94
54.97
59.48
55.00

46.69
52.79
53.59
59.46
56.79

$0.4914
.3711
.3191
.1914
.3239

$0.4986
.3727
.3726
.1952
.3289

37

1,804

1,794

51.29

50.38

.4000

.4289

10
4
17
2

1904.

CANDY.
Candy makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
2
12
2
1

92
48
475
8
5

90
51
480
8
5

55.03
59.52
59.97
53.25
53.60

55.00
59.49
59.94
53.25
53.60

$0.2336
.2100
.1908
.3200
.3850

$0.2324
.2056
.1974
.2957
.4037

United States..........................................

22

628

634

59.08

59.07

.2017

.2059

Dippers, female:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
2
12
2
1

181
18
546
6
10

174
17
603
6
11

53.08
59.61
59.56
57.83
53.50

53.52
59.65
59.34
57.83
53.55

.1160
.0944
.0923
.0847
.1217

.1231
.0911
.0950
.0847
.1286

United States...........................................

22

761

811

57.92

58.01

.0983

.1013

$0.1275

C A R P E T S.
Burlers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Dyers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Loom fixers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Spoolers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
Twisters, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
Weavers, Brussels and Wilton, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Weavers, Brussels and Wilton, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
Weavers, ingrain, male:
N orth Atlantic...........................................
Weavers, ingrain, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Winders, female:
North Atlantic...........................................

8

166

181

59.17

58.91

$0.1491

6

215

213

58.75

58.56

.1545

.1515

8

84

89

58.89

58.69

.2666

.2651

8

137

128

58.87

57.98

.1173

.1148

6

124

154

58.72

56.25

.1085

.1098

3

342

361

58.31

58.32

.2719

.2686

2

141

167

58.00

58.00

.1613

.1663

5

152

158

57.85

57.89

.1936

.1829

6

493

474

58.73

57.78

.1499

.1395

7

288

300

58.34

57.10

.1166

.1162

C A R R IA G E S A N D W A G O N S.
Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................
United States..........................................




33
15
38
8
2

196
53
255
20
9

193
50
253
20
6

55.89
59.66
59.05
58.10
54.00

56.18
59.64
58.96
58.10
54.00

$0.2887
.2280
.2489
.2609
.3055

$0.2834
.2207
.2602
.2587
.3639

96 |

533

522

57.83

57.91

.2629

.2661

a Work both on buildings and bridges-

26

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS O F LA B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— Continued.

C A R R IA G E S A N D W A G O N S—Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
establishments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Body makers, carriage, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

17
5
14
1
2

184
17
63
2
3

200
17
72
2
4

57.54
60.00
58.70
60.00
54.00

57.56
60.00
58.69
60.00
54.00

$0.2728
.2451
.2557
.2500
.3889

$0.2730
.2377
.2583
.2625
.3796

United S tates..........................................

39

269

295

57.95

57.94

.2682

.2688

Body makers, not specified, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

8
3
14

44
10
102

43
9
96

58.45
58.80
59.01

58.28
58.67
58.84

.2745
.2252
.2188

.2790
.2335
.2258

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

25)

156

148

58.84

58.67

.2349

.2417

Ironers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic....................-......................
North Central............. ...............................
W estern.......................................................

10
3
14
1

140
17
89
2

125
18
89
2

54.72
58.47
57.46
54.00

57.29
58.56
57.11
54.00

.2569
.1683.2041
.2500

.2495
.1700
.2190
.2770

United States..........................................

United States......... .................................

28

248

234

55.96

57.29

.2318

.2320

Machine woodworkers, male:
North A t l a n t i c ........................................
South A t l a n t i c ........... ............................
North Central............................................
South Central..............................................

4
3
16
1

24
21
318
4

24
21
290
4

57.67
59.81
58.99
60.00

58.04
59.86
57.19
60.00

.2762
.2224
.1897
.1750

.2776
.2092
.1880
.1792

United States..... . .................................

24

367

339

58.96

57.45

.1971

.1956

Painters, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..................................... .......
Western.......................................................

34
15
37
7
2

365
88
666
24
8

348
80
614
23
8

55.51
59.73
58.86
58.33
54.00

55.80
59.70
58.76
58.30
54.00

.2659
.2024
.2248
.2222
.3021

.2621
.1965
.2372
.2148
.3210

United States......... ...............................

95

1,151

1,073

57.82

57.83

.2366

.2424

1

Trimmers, carriage, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central............ ................................
Western.......................................................

28
12
28
6
2

144
36
183
8
4

122
30
188
8
4

56.09
59.97
59.46
58.75
54.00

56.35
59.97
59.15
58.75
54.00

.2681
.2263
.2313
.2489
.3169

.2706
.2304
.2460
.2551
.3533

United States...........................................

76

375

352

58.14

58.18

.2462

.2546

Woodworkers, male: («)
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic..........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

19
7
16
7
2

69
20
58
18
3

63
21
63
17
3

56.09
59.70
59.02
57.83
54,00

56.16
59.71
58.14
57.71
54.00

.2716
.1947
.2125
.2515
.3333

.2777
.1993
.2126
.2535
.3333

United States..........................................

51

168

167

57.68

57.47

.2410

.2418

C A R S, ST E A M R A IE R O A D .
Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6
8
22
6
6

236
143
611
145
225

209
154
524
133
242

56.54
59.06
57.64
59.90
54.00

55.68
58.09
56.32
59.88
54.00

$0.3508
.2686
.2655
.2782
.3392

$0.3776
.2723
.2956
.2847
.3427

United States..........................................

48

1,360

1,262

57.24

56.36

.2942

.3142

a Work with hand tools and are often called wheelwrights.




27

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS O F L A B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G E O G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

C A E S, ST E A M B A IB B O A D —Continued.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Boiler makers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic..................................... ......
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

4
6
16
6
6

219
96
378
178
272

202
98
378
160
246

56.04
59.57
56.46
60.76
54.00

56.21
59.69
56.30
60.57
54.00

90.2811
.2551
.3062
.2896
.3498

$0.2935
.2545
.3193
.2953
.3768

United S ta tes..........................................

38

1,143

1,084

56.73

56.70

.3049

.3181

Brass finishers, male:
North Atlantic........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

2
6
1

14
148
3

15
140
4

57.00
55.10
60.00

53.40
54.95
60.00

.2348
.3212
.3033

.2398
.3515
.2925

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Averageb wages
per 1lour.
1904.

0

165

159

55.35

54.93

.3135

.3394

Cabinetmakers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central..........................................
South Central.......................................
Western.......................................................

3
3
11
2
1

205
73
641
33
26

216
67
888
31
22

55.69
58.10
55.52
60.00
54.00

54.51
56.60
54.79
60.00
54.00

.3847
.2572
.3126
.2524
.3212

.3701
.2525
.3239
.2609
.3216

United S tates..................................... . _

20

978

1,224

55.86

54.95

.3218

.3265

6
8
22
7
6

1,080
617
3,773
590
892

895
600
3,583
551
848

57.19
58.49
56.79
60.02
54.00

54.59
57.70
55.97
60.15
54.00

.2373
.2224
.2358
.2235
.2454

.2422
.2301
.2474
.2255
.2456

United S tates....................................... .

Carpenters, male: (<*)
North Atlantic........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..........................................
South Central..........................................
Western................................................

U nited

S tates....................................

49

6,952

6,477

56.92

56.04

.2350

.2430

Coppersmiths, male:
N ort.h Atlantic...................................
South Atlantic.........................................
North Central..................... -......................
South Central....... -.................. ................
Western..................................... ............. .

3
1
9
5
1

13
2
27
14
7

13
2
21
17
4

55.00
59.00
57.96
60.36
54.00

54.54
60.00
56.90
60.18
54.00

.2990
.3305
.2710
.3055
.3198

.3247
.2875
.2861
.3135
.3263

United States..........................................

19

63

57

57.48

57.25

.2917

.3060

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic..................................
South Atlantic.........................................
North Central..........................................
South Central.............................................
W estern...................................................

5
5
19
7
5

1,303
597
3,230
1,586
588

1,254
563
2,913
1,269
666

55.99
58.29
56.33
61.12
54.00

54.98
58.08
55.18
61.21
54.00

.1438
.1362
.1556
.1337
.2023

.1445
.1352
.1584
.1344
.2025

United States..........................................

41

7,304

6,665

57.28

56.42

.1509

.1537

Machine woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

5
4
19
7

141
82
723
73

132
123
646
83

56.72
57.40
57.40
59.85

54.70
55.22
56.24
59.86

.2458
.2274
.2270
.2279

.2512
.2511
.2274
.2348

984

57.48

56.21

.2297

.2342

United States..........................................

35

1,019

Machinists, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
8
22
7
6

890
578
1,991
460
769

906 55.92
579 59.40
2,091 56.58
505 60.57
785 54.00

56.00
58.89
55.69
60.39
54.00

.2921
.2651
.2875
.3078
.3364

.3011
.2652
.3039
.3123
.3532

United States..........................................

48

4,688

4,866

56.77

56.34

.2956

.3076




a Includes also car builders and car repairers.

28

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— Continued.

C A R S, ST E A M R A IL R O A D —Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Molders, brass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
N orth Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

1
1
9
4

19
1
88
20

19
3
79
21

60.00
59.00
54.80
59.90

60.00
54.00
54.13
59.86

$0.3402
.3090
.3106
.2836

$0.3829
.3200
.3137
.2922

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

United States..........................................

15

128

122

56.40

56.02

.3108

.3210

Holders, iron, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

3
2
5
4

148
78
253
104

152
74
203
87

58.30
59.69
57.62
59.89

57.99
58.30
56.05
59.92

.3297
.2672
.2690
.2628

.3271
.2675
.2900
.2680

United States..........................................

14

583

516

58.47

57.59

.2831

.2940

Painters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6
7
21
6
6

310
192
648
153
113

304
187
857
160
137

57.01
58.72
57.41
59.91
54.00

54.30
57.66
55.63
59.90
54.00

.2709
.2277
.2230
.2283
.2905

.2849
.2330
.2451
.2354
.2880

United States..........................................

46

1,416

1,645

57.50

55.90

.2401

.2537

Pattern makers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6
4
16
6
2

40
24
73
15
19

42
27
67
18
18

56.98
59.46
56.04
59.93
54.00

55.00
58.22
56.25
59.94
54.00

.2923
.2717
.2848
.3156
.3579

.3017
.2752
.2962
.3055
.3553

United States...........................................

34

171

172

56.85

56.41

.2955

.3014

Pipe fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
5
16
5
5

98
63
202
45
123

106
74
213
45
137

55.70
59.00
56.65
60.27
54.00

54.56
58.95
55.51
60.04
54.00

.2619
.2266
.2780
.2592
.2720

.2861
.2308
.2859
.2658
.2792

United States..........................................

36

531

575

56.45

55.77

.2659

.2757

Tinsmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
8
19
6
6

74
117
328
73
95

71
113
332
77
102

55.91
58.93
56.15
59.90
54.00

54.41
58.19
55.45
59.94
54.00

.2863
.2247
.2778
.2630
.3094

.2958
.2402
.2779
.2674
.3193

United States..........................................

44

687

695

56.70

56.07

.2725

.2785

Upholsterers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western..................................... .>
•
................

3
6
15
5
5

76
34
190
11
30

84
32
320
10
35

56.25
59.85
56.04
59.91
54.00

51.71
57.75
55.02
59.90
54.00

.3078
.2497
.2557
.2769
.3040

.3064
.2513
.3032
.2761
.2941

United States..........................................

34

341

481

56.41

54.65 1

.2716

.2991

CEOTHINTG, F A C T O R Y P R O D U C T .
Buttonhole makers, machine, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

3
1
3

4
9
4

4
9
4

55.75
60.00
54.50

55.75
60.00
54.50

$0.2507
.2556
.1642

$0.2675
.2556
.1508

United States..........................................

7

17

17

57.71

57.71

.2329

.2337




29

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV IS IO N S -C on tin u ed .

C L O T H IN G , F A C T O B Y P B O D U C T —Continued.

Occupation and geographical division.

Buttonhole makers, machine, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
United States...........................................
Cutters, hand, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
United States..........................................

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.
1903.

1904.,

Averag;e wages
per ]hour.
1903.

1904.

4
2
10
4

19
13
51
16

19
14
51
16

55.16
54.46
54.75
56.19

55.16
54.43
54.57
56.19

$0.1237
.0997
.1366
.0802

10.1277
.0984
.1404
.0802

20 |

99

100

55.02

54.92

.1202

.1225

10
2
12
2

310
67
151
4

310
69
162
4

50.33
54.18
51.67
59.50

50.02
54.17
51.74
55.00

.3824
.3039
.3508
.2116

.3895
.3024
.3495
.2389

26 I

532

545

51.26

51.09

.3622

.3655

Cutters, machine, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

3
1
10
4

8
3
66
8

8
3
84
8

48.00
54.00
50.64
57.50

48.00
54.00
50.49
56.75

.4922
.2161
.3936
.2499

.4922
.2161
.4025
.2731

United States..........................................

18

85

103

51.15

50.88

.3831

.3940

Examiners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

7
2
6
1

57
12
20
1

69
12
23
1

52.05
54.50
51.25
58.00

51.94
54.50
51.00
58.00

.2797
.2295
.3133
.1543

.2720
.2295
.3157
.1543

United States..........................................

16

90

105

52.27

52.09

.2790

.2756

Examiners, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

2
1
12
2

9
4
86
2

7
5
82
2

53.22
54.00
55.06
57.00

54.00
54.00
55.18
57.00

.1416
.1551
.1172
.1136

.1280
.1487
.1225
.1312

United States..........................................

17

101

96

54.89

55.07

.1208

.1244

Finishers, female:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

7
2
9
2

154
80
144
37

169
87
147
37

55.31
59.63
54.58
57.70

53.98
59.66
54.73
57.70

.0965
.0807
.0974
.0777

.0987
.0803
.0962
.0777

United States..........................................

20

415

440

56.10

55.67

.0921

.0925

Pressers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

11
3
13
2

194
61
102
12

217
64
104
12

53.85
59.51
54.77
57.75

53.47
59.53
54.79
57.75

.2149
.1928
.2351
.1855

.2187
.1959
..2371
.1971

United States...........................................

29

369

397

55.17

54.92

.2159

.2192

Pressers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

3
4
1

7
55
4

9
19
4

53.29
56.11
58.00

52.22
56.11
58.00

.1547
.0723
.1034

.1470
.0909
.1006

United States..........................................

8

66

32

55.92

55.25

.0829

.1079

Sewing-machine operators, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

9
1
5
1

306
20
14
6

373
20
25
6

54.30
60.00
55.29
58.33

53.72
60.00
55.28
58.33

.2257
.2266
.3043
.2171

.2175
.2266
.2329
.2171

United States..........................................

16

346

424

54.74

54.17

.2288

.2183

17098—No. 59—05--- 3



30

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
P A T IO N S AN D G E O G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— C ontinued

C L O T H IN G , F A C T O R Y PRODUCT-Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Sewing-machine operators, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

8
3
13
3

304
290
1,411
128

387
296
1,341
125

54.03
57.02
55.23
57.17

54.02
57.00
55.21
57.22

$0.1257
.1065
.1122
.1088

$0.1229
.1094
.1237
.1111

United States..........................................

27

2,133

2,149

55.42

55.36

.1131

.1209

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per ]lour.
1904.

C L O T H IN G , M E N ’S, CUSTOM W O RK .
Bushelmen, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

17
11
24
8
7

76
26
92
14
9

73
26
94
12
10

56.86
59.08
57.82
57.43
58.00

56.64
59.08
57.82
57.50
57.00

$0.2538
.2400
.2497
.2860
.3177

$0.2512
.2457
.2540
.2938
.3226

215

57.61

57.52

.2551

.2575

60.00
58.00
57.00
60.00

60.00
58.50
57.33
60.00

.1417
.1336
.1208
. 1028

.1500
.1273
. 1314
.1083

58.67 ,

.1251

.1258

United States...........................................

67

217

Bushelmen, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

1
3
2
1

2
6
4
3

United States...........................................

7

15

5
8
12
2
3

20
52
117
7
31

24
76
134
7
31

74.60
59.65
58.31
60.00
55.35

73.92
59.61
58.24
60.00
55.35

.2345
.3617
.3041
.3446
.3737

.2389
.3304
.3054
.3576
.3737

Coat makers, male:
|
North Atlantic............................................i
South Atlantic............................................!
North Central.......... .................................. i
South Central..............................................1
W estern....................................................... !

1
8
3
3 |

15 i 58.40

30

227

272

59.70

59.72

.3219

.3157

Cutters, male:
1
1
North A tlantic............................................ 1
South A tlantic............................................ |
North Central............................................. ■
South Central.............................................. i
Western....................................................... j

17
9
24
8
5

58
19
65
12
7

62
19
70
12
7

55.19
56.53
56.60
58.00
52.29

54.71
56.53
56.74
58.00
52.29

.5045
.4588
.5154
.5469
.7229

.4990
.4809
.4871
.5653
.7229

United States........................................... I

United States...........................................

63

161

170

56.00

55.88

.5161

.5060

Pants makers, male:
i
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Efouth Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3
5
11
2
3

7
19
44
3
23

7
19
44
3
23

76.86
59.37
57.95
60.00
54.78

76.86
59.37
58.45
60.00
54.78

.2238
.2852
.2706
.3306
.3833

.2294
.3027
.2720
.3242
.3833

United States...........................................

24

96

96

58.92

59.15

.2989

.3033

Pants makers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

1
2
3

2
22
35

2
26
37

72.00
54.55
56.29

84.00
54.46
56.22

.0972
.0990
.1453

.0774
.0991
.1409

United States...........................................

6

59

65

56.17

56.37

.1264

.1222

C O TTO N GOODS.
Carding-machine tenders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
South Central..............................................

14
7
1

231
77
3

239
71
3

58.97
66.00
63.00

58.94 $0.1131
66.00 , .0722
63.00
.0810

$0.1118
.0749
.0794

United States...........................................

22

311

313

60.75

60.58

.1027

.1031




31

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T able I . —A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, BY OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G E O G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— Continued.

COTTON GOODS—Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag;e wages
per] hour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

Dyers, male:
North Atlantic........................ ..................
South Atlantic....... ....................................

2
3

20
25

19
23

58.20
66.00

58.21
66.00

10.1566
.0965

10.1485
.0963

United States..........................................

5

45

42

62.53

62.48

.1232

.1199

Loom fixers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central.............................................

13
7
2

322
96
21

331
102
19

58.68
66.00
63.00

58.75
66.00
63.00

.2070
.1332
.1527

.2013
.1323
.1554

United States..........................................

22

439

452

60.49

60.56

.1882

.1838

Spinners, frame, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................

7
5

68
146

40
155

58.59
66.00

58.95
66.00

.0940
.0587

.0785
.0600

United States..........................................

12

214

195

63.64

64.55

.0699

.0638

Spinners, frame, female:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
South Central.............................................

13
7
2

1,086
458
118

1,142
473
124

58.70
66.00
63.00

58.73
66.00
63.00

.0989
.0565
.0510

.0977
.0607
.0571

United States..........................................

22

1,662

1,739

61.02

61.01

.0838

.0847

Spinners, mule, male:
North Atlantic...........................................

11

273

273

59.33

59.32

.1967

.1895

Weavers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
South Central.............................................

13
6
1

1,312
504
5

1,302
376
16

58.59
66.00
63.00

58.78
66.00
63.00

.1586
.0949
.0729

.1477
.1029
.0726

United States..........................................

20

1,821

1,694

60.66

60.42

.1407

.1371

Weavers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central.................................. ;.........

13
7
1

2,996
593
61

2,893
635
64

58.85
66.00
63.00

58.77
66.00
63.00

.1353
.0910
.0696

.1340
.0951
.0735

United States...........................................

21

3,650

3,592

60.08

60.13

.1270

.1261

D X E IN G , F IN IS H IN G , A N D P R I N T I N G T E X T IL E S .
Bleachers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Calendrers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
Color mixers, male:
North Atlantic.................. ........................
Dyers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Engravers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Printers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................

11

257

276

58.87

58.83

$0.1232

10.1226

10

179

178

58.73

58.71

.1413

.1438

6

115

106

58.54

58.58

.1311

.1317

13

434

398

58.93

59.18

.1467

.1475

5

64

66

58.00

58.33

.4436

.4466

6

75

71

58.09

58.54

.4643

.4651

E L E C T R IC A L A P P A R A T U S A N D S U P P L IE S .
Armature winders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central..........................................

5
2

303
17

277
17

54.58
54.41

54.49
54.41

10.2678
.2484

$0.2604
.2520

United States..........................................

7

320

294

54.58

54.48

.2667

.2599




32

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I . — AVE R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— Continued.

E L E C T R IC A L A P P A R A T U S A N D S U P P L IE S —Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estabiisnments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Brass finishers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

4
1

76
8

57
8

54.99
54.00

54.98
54.00

10.2904
.2328

$0.2930
.2306

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

United States..........................................

5

84

65

54.89

54.86

.2849

.2854

Incandescent lamp makers, female: (<*)
North Atlantic...........................................

1

457

459

55.00

55.00

.1254

.1237

Machinists, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

5
2

609
74

476
55

54.93
54.05

54.95
54.09

.2797
.2316

.2832
.2400

United States..........................................

7

683

531

54.83

54.86

.2745

.2788

Pattern makers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

3
1

151
22

164
18

54.67
54.00

54.66
54.00

.3564
.3458

.3546
.3366

United States..........................................

4

173

182

54.58

54.60

.3551

.3529

FLOUR.
Bolters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

2
14
3
2

4
64
17
4

4
63
18
4

63.00
57.53
70.59
70.50

63.00
57.49
70.67
70.50

$0.2334
.2765
.1379
.2131

$0.2334
.2762
.1480
.2131

United States..........................................

21

89

89

60.85

60.99

.2452

.2455

Laborers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

5
19
3
4

77
748
146
27

84
730
151
28

61.71
60.40
69.86
67.78

61.57
60.49
69.62
67.50

.1693
.1779
.1011
.2218

.1715
.1784
.0985
.2220

United States...........................................

31

998

993

62.09

62.17

.1672

.1669

Millers, male: (&)
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

7
24
3
5

26
233
19
8

27
230
19
12

62.00
57.33
70.74
67.50

61.26
57.53
70.74
68.00

.2245
.2873
.2544
.3545

.2335
.2888
.2611
.3308

United States...........................................

39

286*

288

58.93

59.19

.2813

.2835

Millwrights, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

3
17
3
3

3
58
11
3

3
63
15
3

60.00
61.14
60.00
50.67

60.00
60.86
59.60
54.67

.3083
.2862
.3000
.4639

.3083
.2912
.3039
.4153

United States..........................................

26

75

84

60.51

60.38

.2962

.2985

Packers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

6
21
3
5

41
688
90
15

40
613
99
15

61.46
57.37
64.80
66.80

61.80
56.12
64.00
66.80

.1680
.2250
.1434
.2552

.1696
.2254
.1446
.2552

United S tates..........................................

35

834

767

58.54

57.65

.2139

.2127

a Includes carbon mounting, sealing in, and exhausting and sealing.
b Includes all classes of millers.




33

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G E O G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S—Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SH O P.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per nour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

72
18
63
22
17

386
49
300
44
68

337
56
282
43
58

56.54
55.49
56.78
56.48
55.69

57.03
54.88
56.41
56.44
54.10

$0.2976
.2791
.2947
.3220
.3662

$0.2933
.2812
.2863
.3079
.3893

United States..........................................

192

847

776

56.49

56.40

.3023

.2979

Boiler makers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

36
11
26
12
11

708
75
444
106
97

619
60
380
116
114

56.12
55.72
57.09
59.03
56.41

55.94
54.95
56.05
58.17
54.21

.2862
.2840
.2655
.2801
.3535

.2898
.2972
.2703
.3030
.3873

United S tates..........................................

96

1,430

1,289

56.63

55.98

.2838

.2942

Boiler riveters, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

10
1
1
3
1

105
29
17
8
4

99
25
8
9
1

55.55
54.00
60.00
59.13
54.00

55.60
54.00
55.00
59.11
54.00

.2677
.2423
.2350
.2646
.2500

.2822
.2456
.2350
.2852
.2500

United States..........................................

16

163

142

55.88

55.49

.2592

.2731

Brass finishers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

14
1
9
1
1

347
2
206
1
19

313
2
214
1
23

54.54
54.00
55.85
54.00
56.00

54.31
54.00
55.09
54.00
54.00

.2605
.2500
.2528
.2222
.3153

.2644
.2500
.2553
.2778
.3076

United States..........................................

26

575

553

55.06

54.59

.2594

.2626

Core makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

61
10
28
5
10

339
41
253
9
22

299
33
189
8
20

57.49
55.66
55.77
55.11
55.64

56.76
56.06
54.98
54.63
55.20

.2426
.2122
.2215
.2241
.3164

.2430
.2158
.2345
.2580
.3350

United States..........................................

104

664

549

56.63

56.01

.2349

.2420

Core makers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

2
3

3
277

5
245

59.00
55.20

55.80
54.22

.0819
.1099

.1111
.1133

United States..........................................

5

280

250

55.24

54.25

.1096

.1133

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

68
23
58
20
17

2,738
998
3,436
494
328

2,417
1,016
3,272
486
327

57.73
56.01
56.61
56.69
55.69

57.61
56.10
56.41
56.45
54.95

.1555
.1417
.1632
.1490
.2211

.1566
.1367
.1675
.1504
.2345

United States..........................................

186

7,994

7,518

56.89

56.69

.1594

.1616

Machinists, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

89
28
73
21
17

4,064
349
3,917
269
477

3,570
367
3,163
296
373

56.31
55.44
56.01
56.24
55.89

56.07
55.46
55.27
54.72
54.16

.2785
.2735
.2562
.3065
.3433

.2736
.2701
.2575
.3165
.3583

United States..........................................

228

9,076

7,769

56.12

55.57

.2729

.2726




34

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G EO G R A PH IC A L D IV ISIO N S—Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SH O P —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

Holders, brass, male:
North Atlantic.................. ........................
South A tlantic...........................................
North Central................ ............................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

32
2
14
3
1

209
4
130
5
14

184
4
135
5
14

55.57
54.00
55.54
56.40
56.00

55.17
54.00
55.12
56.40
54.00

10.3036
.2709
.2687
.3139
.3168

10.3061
.2709
.2717
.3139
.3007

United States................. ........................

52

362

342

55.57

55.11

.2913

.2920

Molders, iron, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central....... ............ -........................
W estern.......................................................

69
22
57
15
16

2,042
255
1,466
145
252

1,619
252
1,236
116
185

56.58
56.80
56.59
55.34
55.96

56.38
56.38
56.11
54.96
54.42

.3087
.2713
.3034
.3165
.3806

.3046
.2821
.3000
.3206
.4042

United States..........................................

179

4,lf0

3,408

56.52

56.13

.3091

.3072

Patternmakers, male:
North Atlantic........................................
South Atlantic..................................... ......
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

68
22
53
18
17

461
86
344
47
93

387
69
359
42
78

56.30
55.83
55.79
55.28
55.76

56.25
56.28
55.50
55.05
54.30

.3212
.2964
.3148
.3313
.3692

.3177
.3053
.3198
.3352
.3951

United States..........................................

178

1,031

935

55.99

55.75

.3218

.3248

52.83
60.00
57.34
60.00
48.00

52.40
59.51
56.90
60.00
48.00

$0.3159
.1441
.2244
.1896
.3866

$0.3275
.1388
.2247
.1867
.4375

56.34 ; 55.89

.2427

.2470

49.96
60.00
57.29
48.00

.3428
.3000
.2715
.5000

.3636
.3000
.2778
.5000

F U R N IT U R E .
Cabinetmakers, male:
Nerth Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

13
5
32
3
2

260
89
624
51
27

256
113
604
52
43

United States..........................................

55

1,051

1,068

Carvers, hand, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

7
1
16
1

25
1
98
1

23
1
97
1

49.13
60. C
O
55.63
48.00

United States..........................................

25

125

122

55.77 ; 54.38

.2878

.2960

Finishers, male:
North A tlantic........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
2
12
1
1

60
33
284
4
21

57
37
248
5
7

56.68
60.00
57.73
60.00
48.00

56.11
60.00
57.96
60.00
48.00

.2156
.1339
.1759
.1944
.3750

.2258
.1343
.1742
.2290
.4375

United States..........................................

21

402

354

57.28

57.71

.1889

.1843

Machine woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

11
5
33
3
1

149
159
781
37
8

134
221
810
41
10

56.15
60.00
59.04
60.00
48.00

55.91
59.48
58.58
60.00
48.00

.2541
.1404
.1873
.1787
.3906

.2675
.1392
.1868
.1739
.4500

United States.......... ................................

53

1,134

1,216

58.75

58.41

.1906

.1888

Sawyers, band, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

7
4
18
2
1

14
16
52
2
2

13
16
49
2
2

56.14
60.00
59.38
60.00
48.00

56.85
59.56
58.27
60.00
48.00

.2390
.1589
.1956
.3386
.4063

.2397
.1630
.2037
.3383
.4688

United States..........................................

32

86

82

58.72

58.09

.2040

.2112




35

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— Continued.
F U R N I T U R E — C on clu d ed.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Sawyers, circular, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

8
3
20
1
1

22
15
127
4
4

21
17
127
6
3

54.32
60.00
58.85
60.00
48.00

54.00
60.00
58.25
60.00
48.00

10.2562
.1444
.1942
.1625
.4375

$0.2657
.1456
.1971
.1708
.4375

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

United States..........................................

33

172

174

58.15

57.79

.2027

.2036

Sawyers, jig, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
N orth Central.............................................

5
3

6
3

6
3

53.50
56.00

52.83
56.00

.2899
.2317

.3129
.2409

United States..........................................

8

9

9

54.33

53.89

.2705

.2889

Upholsterers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6
11
1

65
137
3

70
136
3

49.82
57.99
48.00

50.10
57.34
48.00

.3844
.2334
.4375

.3766
.2326
.4375

United S tates..........................................

18

205

209

55.25

54.78

.2843

.2838

Varnishers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

10
5
24
2
1

119
39
299
13
3

107
52
282
20
2

55.75
60.00
58.75
60.00
48.00

56.04
59.62
57.61
60.00
48*00

.2249
.1386
.1845
.1449
.4375

.2283
.1371
.1946
.1438
.4375

United. States...........................................

42

473

463

58.07

57.54

.1914

.1948

GAS.
Laborers, male: («)
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

4
6
8
2
3

356
364
794
160
283

428
374
926
199
386

62.21
62.12
63.56
60.00
51.35

62.94
61.97
63.44
60.00
50.55

$0.1578
.1445
.1656
.1491
.2855

$0.1585
.1423
.1680
.1503
.2919

United States..........................................

23

1,957

2,313

60.99

60.66

.1763

.1812

Pipe fitters, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

4
5
7
2
3

74
42
160
24
145

63
38
262
40
153

60.14
57.69
59.52.
60.00
50.90

60.16
57.45
59.21
60.00
50.75

.2367
.2427
.2328
.2292
.3986

.2443
.2465
.2435
.2356
.3959

United States..........................................

21

445

556

56.67

56.93

.2882

.2852

Stokers, male: (&)
North Atlantic...........................................
South. Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western......................................................

3
4
8
1
2

150
110
494
18
16

169
105
510
18
14

65.01
81.16
84.00
84.00
75.25

64.82
81.14
84.00
84.00
78.00

.2504
.1631
.2009
.1833
.2539

.2553
.1551
.1980
.1833
.2471

United States..........................................

18

788

816

79.81

79.56

.2057

.2049

a At gas works and on streets.
6 Includes both chargers and retortmen, which are given separately in the Nineteenth Annual
Report of this Bureau.




36

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOE.

T able S .— A V E E A G E W AG ES AN D H O U ES OF LA B O E , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S AN D G EO G EAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

G LA SS,
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

Occupation and geographical division.

Batch makers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

13
1

41
6

42
6

54.20
58.00

54.12
58.00

$0.2085
.2285

$0.2096
.2285

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

United States..........................................

14

47

48

54.68

54.60

.2110

.2119

Blowers, flint glass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

6
1

297
135

337
160

50.74
49.50

50.63
49.50

.5610
.5148

.5556
.5142

United States...........................................

7

432

497

50.35

50.27

.5466

.5423

4

425

513

51.00

51.00

.6049

.6653

3

53

54

40.83

40.74

.9542

.6696

3

22

21

58.91

59.14

.4852

.3778

3

14

14

54.29

54.29

.7125

.5832

Gaflers, flint glass male:
North Atlantic...........................................
N orth Central........................................ ....

4
1

85
5

84
7

51.53
49.60

51.56
49.57

.5115
.7889

.5095
.8032

United States..........................................

5

90

91

51.42

51.41

.5269

.5321

Gatherers, flint glass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

4
1

137
144

141
105

50.75
49.50

50.72
49.50

.2936
.3251

.2915
.3200

Blowers, green glass, male:
N orth Atlantic...........................................
Blowers, window glass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Cutters, window glass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Flatteners, window glass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................

United States..........................................

5

281

246

50.11

50.20

.3097

.3037

Gatherers, window glass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Gathering boys (bit), male:
North Atlantic...........................................

3

54

54

40.74

40.74

.6846

.4716

5

35

32

51.69

51.19

.1358

.1453

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

11
1

176
35

173
31

59.73
58.00

59.72
58.00

.1444
.1552

.1423
.1560

United States...........................................

12

211

204

59.44

59.46

.1462

.1444

Leersmen, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

13
1

81
3

76
5

60.23
58.00

60.17
58.00

.1804
.2069

.1806
.2069

United States.......... ...............................

14

84

81

60.15

60.04

.1813

.1822

13 *
1

142
25

145
16

56.53
58.00

56.19
58.00

.1974
.1807

.2019
.1869

Packers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
United States..........................................

14

167

161

56.75

56.37

.1949

.2004

Teasers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

11
1

63

12

63
7

79.41
84.00

79.41
84.00

.1751
.1667

.1777
.1667

United States..........................................

12

75

70

80.15

79.87

.1737

.1766

H A R N ESS.
Collar makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6
12
4
1

20
159
32
4

19
160
35
4

58.00
57.83
57.63
54.00

55.47
57.58
57.74
54.00

$0.2848
.2292
.1848
.3611

$0.3093
.2318
.1921
.3611

United States..........................................

23

215

218

57.74

57.35

.2302

.2346




WAGES AND HOURS

37

LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

OF

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S—Continued.

H A R N E S S —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­
ber of
estabH sn -

Number of
employees.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag;e wages
per ]hour.

ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Cutters, male:
N orth A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

7
19
5
2

8
110
37
3

8
110
45
3

56.13
57.90
58.14
54.00

55.38
57.91
58.29
54.00

$0.3191
.2649
.2564
.3889

$0.3261
.2757
.2662
.3704

1904.

United States..........................................

33

158

166

57.79

57.82

.2680

.2773

Fitters and finishers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
N orth Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

6
11
3
2

41
197
14
8

39
183
15
13

55.41
56.35
59.00
54.00

55.54
56.31
59.00
54.00

.2925
.2596
.1604
.3021

.2900
.2685
.1627
.3191

United States..........................................

22

260

250

56.27

56.23

.2608

.2681

Harness makers, male: (<*)
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

8
14
1

49
308
78
5

43
310
82
5

59.43
59.42
57.10
54.00

56.51
59.40
57.20
54.00

.2361
.2166
.2347
.3056

.2481
.2186
.2382
.3056

United States..........................................

29

440

440

58.95

58.65

.2230

.2261

7
6

1

43
18
2

37
19
2

56.56
58.50
54.00

55.03
58.47
54.00

.2144
.2175
.3333

.2181
.2091
.3333

Stitchers, hand, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6

United States..........................................

14

63

58

57.03

56.12

.2190

.2191

Stitchers, machine, male:
N orth Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

2
20
5
2

2
134
23
3

2
131
31
2

56.00
57.64
57.78
54.00

53.00
57.65
57.97
54.00

.2993
.2570
.2562
.3611

.3161
.2644
.2527
.3472

United States...........................................

29

162

166

57.57

57.61

.2594

.2638

$0.3754

H A TS, EUR.
Blockers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
Colorers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
Coners, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
Curlers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
Feeders, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
Feeders, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Finishers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Flangers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Fur blowers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Hardeners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Pouncers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Sizers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
Stiffeners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Trimmers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Weighers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................




4

62

55

53.76

53.84

$0.3734

4

31

34

53.48

53.56

.1964

.2023

5

28

29

53.61

53.55

.2652

.2769

4

29

32

54.76

54.78

.4074

.4165

2

9

6

55.78

55.17

.0997

.0998

(

3

22

26

53.23

53.00

.1069

.1126

5

395

319

52.70

53.90

.3263

.3095

4

41

37

53.10

53.76

.3232

.3269

4

21

23

53.48

53.35

.1660

.1786

5

25

30

53.44

53.43

.2730

.2855
.2187

4

97

97

53.34

53.78

.2305

5

473

489

53.47

54.18

.2788

.2739

4

10

11

54.00

54.00

.3392

.3443

5

480

492

53.97

54.31

.1156

.1224

3

10

10

52.90

53.30

.1232

.1223

a Do all parts of the work,

38

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1SG3 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— Continued.

H O S IE R Y A N D K N IT GOODS.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab-

Number of
employees.

ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Boarders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

6
2

81
28

90
32

56.83
59.79

56.98
59.81

$0.1841
.0820

$0.1839
.0755

Occupation and geographical division.

14 dK
JIS-U-

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

United States..........................................

8

109

122

57.59

57.72

.1578

.1554

Finishers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

5
3

475
ie o

356
147

56.56
59.33

57.04
59.22

.1182
.0706

.1163
.0771

United States..........................................

8

635

503

57.26

57.68

.1062

.1048

Knitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................

4

128

102

56.86

56.98

.2016

.1878

Knitters, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

6
3

241
246

161
236

57.64
59.51

56.71
59.49

.1214
.0844

.1224
.0816

United States...........................................

9

487

397

58.59

58.36

.1027

.0981

Loopers, female:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

4
1

66
4

64
4

57.24
57.00

57.16
57.00

.1499
.1272

.1308
.1272

United States..........................................

5

70

68

57.23

57.15

.1486

.1306

6

97

112

58.22

58.25

.1219

.1170

5

34

50

58.62

58.76

.1817

.1766

2

27

25

58.00

56.92

.0822

.0996

2

63

65

60.00

60.00

.1650

.1626

Menders, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Pressers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Pressers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Ribbers, female:
North Atlantic............................................

IR O N A N D S T E E D , B A R IR O N A N D ST E E D .
Catchers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

8
3
5
1

24
35
25
13

23
33
25
6

66.17
60.00
63.84
72.00

65.13
60.00
63.84
72.00

$0.4183
.2419
.6877
.1414

$0.3667
.2164
.5551
.1843

United States...........................................

17

97

87

64.12

63.29

.3870

.3513

Heaters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

8
3
7
1

34
42
42
8

30
45
42
6

64.82
60.00
67.52
72.00

64.47
60.00
67.52
72.00

.5296
.4147
.8768
.3327

.4986
.3480
.8037
.4692

United States...........................................

19

126

123

64.57

64.24

.5945

.5463

Heaters’ helpers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

7
3
7
1

29
49
46
10

24
41
46
10

65.52
60.00
66.70
72.00

64.92
60.00
66.70
72.00

.2800
.2145
.3913
.1366

.2501
.1868
.3614
.1794

134

121

64.39

64.51

.2835

.2651

United States...........................................

18

Hot straighteners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

7
3
5
1

40
49
47
i
26 ;

37
52
47
12

64.10
60.00
65.87
72.00

64.11
60.00
65.87
72.00

.2076
.1423
.3045
.0941

.1638
.1309
.2505
.1032

United States...........................................

16

162 1
|

148

64.64

63.86

.1977

. 1749




89

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904,

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS O F L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G E O G R A PH IC A L D IV ISIO N S— Continued.

IR O N A N D S T E E L , B A R IR O N A N D S T E E L —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

Rollers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

8
3
4
1

19
33
15
9

20
27
15
6

64.63
60.00
67.20
72.00

64.70
60.00
67.20
72.00

$0.7209
.5487
1.1578
.5202

$0.6380
.5241
.9949
.6285

United States..........................................

16

76

68

64.00

64.03

.7086

.0707

Roughers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central....... .....................................
South Central..............................................

8
3
8
1

34
64
73
20

35
54
75
12

63.24
60.00
63.71
72.00

63.31
60.00
63.93
72.00

.4213
.3079
.6116
.2066

.3351
.3070
.5208
.2954

United States...........................................

20

191

176

63.25

63. m

.4335

.4029

IR O N A N D S T E E L , B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T IN G .
Blowers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central....... ......... ...........................

4
2
3
1

10
4
7
2

12
5
7
2

64.80
71.00
61.71
72.00

54.00 $0.5483
68.40
.5084
61.71
.7191
72.00
.4440

$0.5763
.4089
.6191
.3551

United S tates.........................................

10

23

26

65.57

60.23

.5843

.5386

Bottom makers, male:
North A tlantic_______ _____ __________
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.......... -................................
South Central.............................................

4
2
3
1

7
8
13
5

7
6
13
6

72.00
72.00
66.46
57.60

72.00
72.00
66.46
57.33

. 3465
.2199
.3218
.1887

.2775
.1890
.2565
.1840

United States..........................................

10

33

32

67.64

67.00

.2821

.2348

Ladle liners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.........................................•...

4
2
3
1

11
8
6
2

11
5
6
2

65.45
71.00
60.00
72.00

65.45
67.00
60.00
72.00

.3569
.3147
.6366
.3386

.3179
.2359
.4882
.2650

United States..........................................

10

27

24

66.37

64.96

.4052

.3390

Melters, male:
North Atlantic..................................... ......
South Atlantic............................................
North Central........................ ....................
South Central.............................................

4
2
3
1

8
5
25
2

9
4
34
2

63.00 56.00
70.80 69.00
57.60 50.82
72.00 , 72.00

.7076
.5161
.5697
.4352

.4621
.3673
.4872
.3770

United States...........................................

10

40

49

61.05

54.12

.5831

.4683

Steel pourers,, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central............... „............................

4
2
3
1

15
5
12
2

15
4
12
2

51.20
70.80
48.00
72.00

51.20
69.00
48.00
72.00

.4288
.4272
.6711
.4633

.3630
.3385
.6182
.3802

United States..........................................

10

34

33

54.18

53.45

.5161

.4539

Vessel men, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

4
2
3
1

11
17
17
2

11
10
18
2

56.73
70.24
50.82
72.00

56.73
67.20
48.00
72.00

.6109
.4504
.9279
.4184

.5039
.3120
.8806
.3461

United States..........................................

10

47

41

60.13

56.20

.6593

.6148




40

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS O F L A B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S—Continued.

IR O N A N D S T E E L , B L A S T ETJRNACE.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
perl lour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

Cinder snappers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central....................... .....................

8
2
6
6

76
38
66
21

83
38
60
21

83.87
84.00
84.00
84.00

84.00
77.68
84.00
84.00

$0.1414
.1403
.1745
.1171

$0.1400
.1550
.1599
.1143

United States...........................................

22

201

202

83.95

82.81

. 1495

.1461

Hot-blast men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

8
2
6
6

54
10
29
16

57
10
29
16

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

.1563
.1613
.1811
.1396

.1516
. 1517
.1750
.1370

United States..........................................

22

109

112

84.00

84.00

.1609

.1555

Keepers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

8
2
6
6

48
10
40
18

51
10
40
16

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

.1919
.1833
.2211
.1477

.1827
.1700
.2007
.1495

United States..........................................

22

116

117

84.00

84.00

.1944

.1832

Keepers’ helpers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

8
2
6
6

88
27
114
51

82
30
107
50

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

84.00
84.00
84.60
84.00

.1526
.1470
.1802
.1172

.1445
.1400
.1652
.1142

United States...........................................

22

280

269

84.00

84.00

.1569

.1466

Top fillers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

6
1
6
6

54
34
85
28

54
18
85
23

84.00
84.00
71.48
84.00

84.00
84.00
71.48
84.00

.1484
.1450
.2318
.1313

.1433
.1350
.2140
.1322

United States...........................................

19

201

180

78.71

78.09

.1807

.1745

LEATHER.
Colorers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

11
2
7
1
2

97
25
49
5
2

97
26
31
5
2

59.36
60.00
57.16
60.00
58.50

59.04
60.00
58.52
60.00
57.00

$0.1739
.1430
.1989
.2325
.2353

$0.1777
.1436
.2029
.2325
.2412

United States...........................................

23

178

161

58.85

59.10

.1788

.1795

Fleshers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

12
10
11
4
1

71
62
113
16
3

66
59
95
14
3

57.89
60.00
57.97
56.81
57.00

57.61
59.95
56.12
57.21
57.00

.1986
.1566
.1938
.1868
.2632

.2014
.1548
.2037
.1857
.2632

United States...........................................

38

265

237

58.34

57.56

.1867

.1906

Glazers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

11
2
5

377
101
47

373
101
19

59.28
60.00
56.70

59.03
60.00
55.63

.1827
.1833
.1658

.1812
.1553
.1567

United States...........................................

18

525

493

59.18

59.10

.1813

.1749




41

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T able I.— V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
A
PATIO N S A N D G E O G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S— Continued.
L E A T H E R — C on clu d ed.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

Glazers, female:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

1
2
3

9
110
3

8
165
32

59.00
60.00
59.00

59.00
60.00
59.69

$0.1205
.1011
.0706

$0.1207
.1083
.1070

United States..........................................

6

122

205

59.90

59.91

.1017

.1086

Limers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

11
9
12
4
2

139
54
148
22
6

142
37
154
22
6

58.53
60.00
58.80
58.14
59.83

58.19
59.89
58.43
58.14
57.83

.1807
.1404
.1746
.1560
.2006

.1794
.1289
.1733
.1560
.2076

United States..........................................

38

369

361

58.85

58.46

.1712

.1707

Rollers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

4
4
4
2

15
15
23
6

17
14
22
6

51.93
60.00
59.17
59.67

52.76
60.00
52.27
59.67

.2211
.1403
.1998
.1834

.2131
.1424
.2386
.1726

United States..........................................

14

59

59

57.59

55.00

.1884

.2017

Setters out male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

12
3
10
1
2

316
26
154
6
5

277
27
141
6
5

59.29
60.00
57.97
60.00
58.80

59.06
59.96
57.76
60.00
57.00

.1652
.1571
.1967
.2375
.2332

. 1710
.1341
.2035
.2375
.2456

United States..........................................

28

507

456

58.93

58.70

.1759

.1805

Shavers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

10
2
9
1
2

38
17
95
3
3

39
20
100
3
3

59.45
60.00
57.71
60.00
58.00

59.18
60.00
58.46
60.00
57.00

.2506
.1867
.2355
.2583
.2597

.2673
.1846
.2412
.2583
.2749

United States..........................................

24

156

165

58.43

58.82

.2348

.2414

Stakers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

10
2
4
1

184
37
56
10

188
31
55
12

59.40
60.00
55.59
60.00

59.02
60.00
56.60
57.00

.1896
.1864
.1755
.2254

.1948
.1893
.1746
.2339

United States..........................................

17

287

286

58.76

58.58

.1877

.1920

Tanyard hands, male: (a)
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

12
10
10
3
2

144
211
251
38
11

154
214
315
34
6

58.90
60.00
58.17
59.37
60.00

58.68
59.97
57.83
59.65
57.50

.1652
.1201
.1791
.1186
.2057

.1652
.1220
.1767
.1153
.2258

United States..........................................

37

655

723

59.02

58.73

.1540

.1556

Unhairers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

10
9
8
1
2

74
132
84
11
22

76
107
69
11
14

56.04
60.00
57.76
60.00
59.45

56.95
59.93
58.16
60.00
57.00

.1899
.1434
.2000
.1223
.2183

.1847
.1378
.2000
.1214
.2343

United States..........................................

30

323

277

58.47

58.53

.1732

.1704

a Handle hides at the vats and in the yards, and are called tanners in the Nineteenth Annual
Report of this Bureau.




42

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O URS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S-U on tin ued.

L IQ U O R S, M ALT.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estabiisnments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Bottlers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

14
3
18
2
3

82
29
2,320
86
48

92
31
2,300
110
42

57.48
60.00
52.63
55.40
48.00

57.49
60.00
51.88
56.73
48.00

$0.1979
.1575
.1776
.2017
.2893

$0.2016
.1565
.1838
.1975
.3058

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Averag b wages
p erl lour.
1904.

United States..........................................

40

2,565

2.575

52.87

52.32

.1810

.1867

Cellar men, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

25
3
21
4
4

312
18
425
43
68

309
19
469
40
69

57.92
60.00
49.98
55.40
48.88

57.79
60.00
49.85
53.25
48.00

.2943
.2370
.3111
.2740
.4105

.2963
.2401
.3148
.2920
.4191

United States...........................................

57

866

906

53.23

52.78

.3094

.3139

Coopers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

22
3
10
2
4

66
6
311
18
27

63
7
306
14
25

55.06
60.00
48.33
57.33
50.67

54.81
60.00
48.33
54.00
50.40

.3151
.2389
.3068
.2643
.3879

.3205
.2274
.3043
.3091
.4078

415

50.06

49.83

.3104

.3119

535 58.64
24 64.00
527 57.46
89 62.34
4 * 57.07
1,217 58.43

59.65
64.50
58.38
61.75
57.57

.2833
.2238
.2604
.2409
.3891

.2832
.2187
.2594
.2430
.3805

59.28

.2728

.2720

United States...........................................

41

428

Drivers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

26
3
21
4
4

518
21
519
85
41

United States...........................................

58

1,184

Fermenters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

22
3
16
1
3

88
8
135
1
7

88
8
141
1
8

58.35
60.00
48.82
54.00
48.00

58.20
60.00
48.66
54.00
48.00

.2976
.2933
.3182
.2769
.4226

.3014
.2933
.3233
.2982
.4245

United States...........................................

45

239

246

52.70

52.44

.3126

.3177

Kettle men, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

24
3
21
4
4

83
5
127
11
26

79
5
129
11
27

57.48
60.00
50.29
56.73
48.00

57.20
60.00
50.22
54.55
48.00

.3007
.2808
.3152
.2863
.4183

.3025
.2808
.3242
.3248
.4198

United States...........................................

56

252

?51

52.90

52.56

.3191

.3268

Malt house men, male:
North A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
16
4

70
244
34

73
263
33

61.00
49.70
48.00

61.30
49.39
48.00

.2584
.3146
.4326

.2580
.3229
.4217

United States..........................................

25

348

369

51.81

51.62

.3148

.3189

Washers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

25
3
21
3
4

245
11
405
24
49

245
11
356
25
53

57.39
60.00
49.39
52.00
48.00

57.20
60.00
49.47
52.08
48.00

.2628
.2197
.2897
.2944
.4171

.2669
.2212
.2947
.2971
.4194

United States.............................. -...........

56

734

690

52.21

52.36

.2883

.2933




43

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

Table I .— A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS O F LA B O R . 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­

PATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV IS IO N S -C on tin ued.

LUM BER.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

Band setters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

2
2
14
4
4

5
3
47
8
11

5
3
46
6
12

60.00
64.00
62.68
60.75
60.00

60.00
64.00
61.04
62.00
60.00

10.2860
.2485
.2738
.1974
.2460

SO 2860
.
.2485
.2718
.1970
.2388

United States..........................................

26

74

72

61.95

61.00

.2612

.2601

Cant setters, gang, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

1
9
2
2

2
21
2
3

2
22
2
3

60.00
61.14
60.00
60.00

60.00
61.09
63.00
60.00

.1925
.1862
.2500
.2000

.1925
.1867
.2637
.2000

United States..........................................

14

28

29

60.86

61.03

.1927

.1938

Carriage men, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3
7
9
7
4

4
17
26
18
22

4
15
26
17
22

58.25
62.35
61.62
61.61
60.00

58.25
62.27
61.62
63.53
60.00

.1983
.1260
.1969
.1692
.2095

.1983
.1301
.1940
.1650
.2020

United States..........................................

30

87

84

61.20

61.54

.1806

.1791

Choppers and sawyers, in woods, male:
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6
9
4
5

92
924
104
150

98
1,393
96
134

58.57
60.20
61.38
64.04

58.65
60.08
61.50
64.21

.1484
.1769
.1429
.2840

.1485
.1694
.1455
.2682

United States..........................................

24

1,270

1,721

60.64

60.40

.1847

.1746

Circular setters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern......................................................

3
6
2
4
4

3
17
3
12
8

3
14
5
11
7

57.67
63.47

00.00
61.00
60.00

57.67
63.57
60.00
61.64
60.00

.2493
.1081
.2917
.1758
.2476

.2493
.1124
.3050
.1826
.2456

United States..........................................

. 19

43

40

61.49

61.53

.1756

.1894

Edgermen, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

4
9
15
9
6

4
12
45
25
11

4
11
48
23
- 11

58.25
62.92
61.20
61.16
60.00

58.25
63.09
60.38
61.57
60.00

.2712
.1745
.2646
.2077
.3198

.2749
.1774
.2620
.2122
.3046

United States..........................................

43

97

97

61.14

60.84

.2453

.2459

Fflers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

5
7
10
9
6

10
9
26
18
22

11
9
26
16
20

60.00
62.22
60.00
61.28
60.27

60.00
62.22
60.00
62.25
60.30

.3592
.3337
.4558
.4295
.4182

.3538
.3117
.4402
.4598
.4612

United States..........................................

37

85

82

60.58

60.76

.4162

.4234

Laborers male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

4
10
14
9
5

87
481
1,209
1,002
684

100
520
1,261
986
729

59.20
62.34
60.83
60.88
60.00

59.30
62.11
60.39
61.93
60.00

.1616
.1057
.1633
.1353
.1802

.1643
.1082
.1662
.1347
.1737

United States..........................................

42

3,463

3,596

60.85

60.95

.1505

.1507




44

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W A G ES AN D H O URS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIO N S A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

L UM BER—Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Sawyers, band, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

3
2
15
5
5

6
3
34
10
17

6
3
34
8
17

60.00
64.00
61.59
60.60
60.00

60.00
64.00
60.53
61.50
60.00

$0.4542
.5576
.5637
.4455
.3946

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.
10.4583
.5576
.5490
.4324
.3892

United States..........................................

30

70

68

61.03

60.62

.4961 i
|

.4877

Sawyers, circular, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

2
5
2
5
4

2
6
2
18
6

2
6
3
12
5

56.50
62.83
60.00
60.67
60.00

56.50
62.83
60.00
62.00
60.00

.4156
.3049
.5875
.3275
.4904

.4156
.3091
.6250
.3447
.4785

United States..........................................

18

34

28

60.65

61.21

.3727

.3960

Sawyers, gang, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

3
2
10
2
1

6
4
16
2
1

6
4
16
3
1

60.00
63.00
61.50
63.00
60.00

60.00
63.00
60.38
66.00
60.00

.2225
.1318
.3185
.2982
.2750

.2292
.1318
.3092
.2806
.2750

United States..........................................

18

29

30

61.45

61.20

.2700

.2655

Trimmers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

3
7
13
7
6

7
11
61
15
20

7
11
75
15
19

59.00
63.45
61.57
61.93
60.00

59.00
63.45
60.48
62.40
60.00

.2330
.1174
.2116
.1521
.2265

.2459
.1195
.2301
.1508
.2256

United States..........................................

36

114

127

61.37

60.81

.1986

.21X4

M A R B L E A N D ST O N E W O RK .
Bed rubbers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

19
5
16
6
4

81
24
98
32
9

75
21
96
33
12

46.89
54.42
55.13
57.78
47.56

46.95
54.48
53.68
58.06
49.00

$0.3693
.2054
.2545
.2056
.2986

$0.3644
.2012
.2641
.2028
.3096

United States..........................................

50

244

237

52.39

51.99

.2830

.2841

Carvers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic..........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

17
3
10
6
3

97
11
29
11
5

91
11
27
11
7

44.94
51.64
54.03
51.91
49.60

44.85
51.64
53.78
51.91
49.43

.6345
.4577
.3667
.4518
.4632

.6281
.4577
.3799
.4564
.4464

United States..........................................

39

153

147

47.80

47.74

.5523

.5483

Laborers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

19
10
19
11
3

213
89
163
120
19

210
108
184
117
28

47.99
54.91
57.55
57.23
48.00

47.89
55.27
57.85
57.35
48.00

.3005
.1614
.1913
.1478
.2714

.3031
.1607
.1906
.1511
.2701

United States..........................................

62

604

647

53.43

53.67

.2193

.2184




45

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I.— V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O URS OF LA B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
A
PATIO NS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIONS— Continued.

M A R B R E A N D ST O N E W O R K —Continued.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

0

1904.

Letterers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

16
3
11
4
4

36
10
27
19
8

38
10
24
21
9

50.25
54. eo
52.93
55.89
48.75

50.71
54.10
52.58
55.14
46.22

$0.3691
.2815
. 3463
.2882
.4767

10.3645.
.2840
.3670
.2965.5347

United States..........................................

38

100

102

52.36

52.05

.3474

.3582

Marble cutters, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

21
12
18
14
6

358
64
105
80
13

235
50
90
64
13

46:0453.75
53.24
55.91
48.92

46.75
53.42
54.58
56.22
48.46

.5358
.3180
.3024
.2959
.4412

.5067
.3168.
.29491
.2955.4487

United States..........................................

71

620

452

49.39

50.44

.4408

.4120

Marble polishers male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

13
7
13
9
6

176
45
177

70
14

168
57
149
65
16

46.40
55.16
55.21
57.96
48.00

46.86
55.23
54.24
58.31
47.75

.3480
.1768
.2132
.1686
.3214

.3354
.1727
.2100
.1765
.3281*

United States..........................................

48

482

455

52.18

51.99

.2557

.2510

Sawyers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

14
3
24
6
3

41
6
54
25
7

47
6
52
20
6

49.27
53.83
58.59
58.08
48.00

48.30
53.83
58.44
59.10
48.00

.3419
.1950
.2471
.1763
.3304

.3429
.1950
.2517
.1848
.3438

United States..........................................

50

133

131

54.85

54.21

.2650

.2758

Stone cutters, granite, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

40
14
13
6
10

489
100
85
53
251

476
119
77
51
202

48.48
50.14
52.05
51.28
47.12

48.01
49.71
52.40
51.22
47.70

.3888
.3608
.3550
.3436
.5033

.3881
. 373k
.3591
.3495
.5597

United S ta tes,.........................................

83

978

925

48.76

48.71

.4100

.4191

Stone cutters, soft stone, male:
'North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

17
5
27
8
7

325
50
299
54
42

373
72
270
49
73

45.06
48.00
46.95
47.26
44.86

44.95
48.00
47.26
47.35
45.04

.5584
.4563
.4801
. 4646
.5592

.5563
.4531
. 4943'.
.4792
.540L

United States..........................................

64

770

837

46.13

46.11

.5172

.5215

Stone cutters, not specified, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic..................................... .
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

5
2
6
1
1

57
25
69
4
40

61
22
45
4
29

48.35
48.00
48.71
60.00
48.00

48.41
48.00
48.73
48.00
48.00

.4164
.4250
.4816
.4000
.5000

.4154
.4148.4873
.3625
.5625-.

United States..........................................

15

195

161

48.60

48.36

.4$74

.4606

Stone polishers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

12
2
9
1
2

31
4
21
3
4

31
4
24
3
4

50.68
53.25
56.38
60.00
45.00

50.48
53.25
56.33
60.00
45.00

.2526
.1928
.2003
.1250
.3750

.2496
.1928
.2038
.1250
.3750

United States..........................................

26

63

66

52.83

52.88

.2331

.2315

17098— N o. 59— 05----- 4




46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I .— AVER A G E W A G ES A N D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­

PATIONS A N D G E O G R A PH IC A L DIVISIONS—Continued.

M A R B L E A N D S T O N E W O R K —Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Turners, male:
South Atlantic............. -.......... .................
North Central.............................................
South Central. , .......... .......... ....................

2
6
4

3
14
8

4
7
6

52.00
54.14
56.25

52.50
53.43
57.00

$0.2611
.2878
.2389

$0.2375
.3276
.2389

United States..........................................

12

25

17

54.56

54.47

.2690

.2751

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
lour.
per 1
1904.

P A P E R A N D WOOD P U L P .
Back tenders, male:
North Atlantic..................................... „...
North Central.............................................

11
4

141
24

141
26

64.82
72.00

62.70
72.00

$0.1708
.1245

$0.1773
.1357

United S tates..........................................

15

165

167

65.86

64.15

.1641

.1708

Beaters, male:
North Atlantic.................................... .....
North Central.............................................

12
6

242
51

275
53

58.60
70.94

56.77
70.98

.1863
.1437

.1890
.1529

United States..........................................

18

293

328

60.75

59.06

.1789

.1831

Black ash burners, male:
North A tlantic................ ..........................

2

16

19

51.00

50.53

.2352

.2370

Bleaehers, male:
North A tlantic................ ..........................
N orth Central..................................... .......

5
3

54
13

63
13

60.63
66.46

60.41
66.46

.1769
.1498

.1773
.1498

United States............... .........................

8

67

76

61.76

61.45

.1717

.1726

Caiendrers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central............................................

3

4

110
22

114
25

52.31
62.18

52.28
64.80

.2070
.1452

.2069
.1531

United S t a t e s .. . . . .. . .............................

7

132

139

53.95

54.53

.1967

.1972

Caiendrers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................

1

19

25

55.00

55.00

.1251

.1338

Color mixers, male:
North A tlantic............................................

1

9

13

48.00

48.00

.2604

.2551

Cutters, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North C e n t r a l . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .......................

7
3

108
15

95
15

51.18
52.80

49.09
52.80

.2078
.1804

.2250
.1819

United States................. ........................

10

123

110

51.37

49.60

.2044

.2192

Cutters, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
N orth Central......................... ..................

9
4

106
23

107
23

59.37
60.00

59.57
60.00

.0987
.0770

.0988
.0857

United S ta te s .........................................

13

129

130

59.48

59.65

.0949

.0965

Enamelers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................

2

55

63

48.44

48.57

.2317

.2307

Finishers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

11
5

83
21

87
22

63,14
60.00

63. fO

to. 00

.1783
.1808

.1775
.1797

United States..........................................

16

107

109

62.52

62.87

.1788

.1779

Finishers, female:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

4
2

42
12

34
13

56.19
60.00

56.47
60.00

.1100
.0938

.1345
.1115

United States...........................................

6

54

47

57.04

57.^5

.1064

.1281




47

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOB, 1890 TO 1904.

Table I .— A V E R A G E W A G ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­

PATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL DIVISIO N S—Continued.

P A P E R ANTE W O O D P U L P —Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Laborers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

11
5

584
67

608
81

61.11
57.67

60.61
61.19

$0.1542
.1623

United States..........................................

16

651

689

60.76

60.68

.1550

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per hour.

Machine tenders, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

12
5

157
24

168
24

59.32
72.00

56.88
72.00

.2544
.2222

1904.
$0.1546
.1533
.1545
i
I

. 2624
.2251

United S ta te s..........................................

17

181

192

61.00

58.77

.2501 1

.2577

Press tenders, male:
North Atlantic...........................................

3

20

18

72.00

72.00

.1596

.1606

Pulp grinders, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

4
1

73
10

92
10

72.00
72.00

58.96
72.00

.1540
. 1542

.1710
.1667

United States..........................................

5

83

102

72.00

60.24

.1541

.1706

Rag sorters, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

1
1

34
3

41
3

48.00
60.00

48.00
60.00

.1950
.1583

.1938
.1583

United States..........................................

2

37

44

48.97

48.82

.1920

.1914

Rag sorters, female:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

3
4

150
28

153
51

53.48
58.71

52.81
50.29

.0923
.0801

.0974
.0912

178 1 204

54.30 ! 54.43

.0904

.0959

United States..........................................

7

Wood cookers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

3
1

27
5

30
5

55.11 ! 52.80
72.00 72.00

.2033
.1666

.2098
.1666

United States..........................................

4

32 I

35

57.75 j 55.54

.1976

.2037

Wood preparers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

6
1

75
41

90
41

69.28 j 67.07
60.00 | 60.00

.1627
.1543

.1635
.1543

United States..........................................

7

116

131

66.00

64.85

.1597

.1606

PLANTING M IL L .
Carpenters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

27
14
41
9
5

493
255
624
97
78

484
290
635
101
65

54.72
56.75
56.38
56.00
52.15

54.65
55.76
56.39
55.96
52.80

$0.2954
.2451
.2606
.2557
.4006

$0.2977
.2743
.2703
.2587
.3765

United States..........................................

96

1,547

1,575

55.68

55.56

.2759

.2831

Framers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
6
23
1

48
48
180
3

49
53
182
3

55.46
59.08
57.91
60.00

55.00
58.23
58.33
60.00

.2083
.2150
.2330
.2750

.2139
.2281
.2266
.2750

United States...........................................

35

279

287

57.71

57.76

.2261

.2252

Glaziers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

7
5
16
4
2

19
9
34
5
8

21
9
27
6

55.95
56.33
59.24
55.20
60.00

55.76
56.33
58.81
57.00
60.00

.2385
.2693
.1982
.1860
.2344

.2396
.2724
.2048
.2062
.2583

United States..........................................

34

75

71

57.87

57.49

.2200

.2283




8

48

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOE,

T a b le I . — A V E E A G E W AG ES A N D HOUES OF LA B O E , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIONS A N D G EO G EAPH ICAL D IVISIONS— Continued.

P E A N I N G MIX iXj
—Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Occupation and geographical division.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central............ .•...............................
Western.......................................................

21
13
30
12
4

138
364
481
463
146

156
408
531
457
120

56.96
57.31
58.99
61.39
58.27

57.07
57.47
58.77
62.82
57.90

$0.1707
.1077
.1612
. 1411
.2113

10.1703
.1062
.1566
.1388
.2115

United States..........................................

80

1,592

1,672

59.06

59.34

.1485

.1447

Machine woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South' Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

31
16
46
12
5

318
210
667
141
68

331
210
741
145
50

55.44
58.13
58.01
58.45
54.88

55.63
57.35
58.15
58.55
53.76

.2690
.2237
.2177
.2139
.3506

.2678
.2289
.2158
.2151
.3853

United States..........................................

110

1,404

1,477

57.34

57.36

.2363

.2350

Sawyers, band, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

17
7
19
6
4

24
9
30
10
5

25
10
32
10
5

55.58
57.67
58.57
61.10
50.40

55.64
56.10
58.81
58.80
50.40.

.2792
.2590
.2182
.2230
.4500

.2776
.2741
.2251
.2284
, .4438

United States..........................................

63

78

82

57.35

57.00

.2571

.2608

Sawyers, circular, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

21
10
24
5
5

94
20
160
18
32

98
21
151
19
28

55.21
58.70
58.83
57.33
55.88

55.24
57.52
58.92
56.21
55.71

.2649
.2074
.2139
.2182
.3133

.2643
.2046
.2130
.2325
.3138

United States..........................................

65

324

317

57.40

57.25

.2384

.2384

Sawyers, jig, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

8
4
11
3
1

9
4
13
6
1

9
4
14
6
1

54.78
56.75
58.77
61.00
48.00

54.78
55.25
59.21
58.00
48.00

.2888
.2148
.2055
.1881
.4375

.2930
.2298
.2100
.1956
.4375

United States...........................................

27

33

34

57.52

57.03

.2332

.2384

Sawyers, not specified, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

3
6
13

3
32
24

4
32
26

58.00
55.78
53.96

58.50
54.19
54.19

.2783
.2315
.2541

.2650
.2348
.2658

United States..........................................

22

59

62

55.15

54.47

.2430

.2498

POTTERY.
Dippers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Jigger men, male:
North Atlantic........................................
Kiln firemen, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Kiln men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Mold makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Pressers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Sagger makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Setters out, male:
North Atlantic...........................................




4

4

4

45.75

45.75

10.5297

$0.5438

4

15

12

52.40

53.00

.3996

.4194

4

15

15

59.87

59.87

.1870

.1903

5

36

35

48.17

48.06

.3299

.3339

5

8

13

54.63

56.31

.3456

.3122

5

142

131

54.04

53.83

.3784

.4252

4

6

6

49.67

49.67

.3805

.3834

4

7

7

46.86

46.86

.4210

.4242

49

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

Table I .— A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­

PATIO N S A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL DIVISIO N S—Continued.

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , BO O K A N D JO B .

Occupation and geographical division.

Bookbinders, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estabH i
oV
lisnments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

16*
7
23
7
2

129
32
361
30
33

128
35
382
34
28

54.30
54.81
54.04
53.80
55.09

54.11
54.80
53.90
53.79
54.00

$0.3277
.2409
.3027
.2985
.3458

$0.3483
.2831
.3048
.3059
.3680

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

United States..........................................

55

585

607

54.19

54.00

.3071

.3157

Compositors, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

40
16
28
7
5

665
149
537
98
47

680
143
511
85
56

52.84
54.81
54.02
53.88
53.89

52.16
54.62
53.90
53.72
51.00

.3338
;2858
.3243
.3213
.3565

.3497
.2886
.3302
.3169
.3861

United States..........................................

96

1,496

1,475

53.56

53.05

.3255

.3365

Compositors, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

4
2

24
8

24
9

53.96
54.00

50.75
54.00

.2735
.2778.

.•2886
.2901

United States..........................................

6

32

33

53.97

51.64

.2746

.2890

Electro typers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western......................................................

8
6
1

63
62
2

69
60
2

54.00
54.00
54.00

54.00
52.87
53.50

.3752
.3333
.4306

.3733
.3547
.4346

United States...........................................

15

127

131

54.00

53.47

.3556

.3657

Linotype operators, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..........................................
Western.......................................................

10
5
12
2
4

64
15
85
3
15

74
17
86
6
20

52.50
53.27
48.25
50.00
47.47

52.38
53.35
48.10
52.00
46.65

.4000
.3629
.5014
.4358
.5199

.4103
.3806
.5111
.4054
.5455

United States..........................................

33

182

203

50.12

50.07

.4548*

.4637

Press feeders, male:
North Atlantic..........................................
South Atlantic..........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

21
11
23
6
4

318
54
313
36
18

302
57
332
40
22

53.66
54.61
54.03
54.00
53.72

53.37
54.58
54.06
53.55
50.45

.2020
.1307
.1946
.1674
.1829

.2061
.1364
.1952
.1740
.2082

United States...........................................

65

739

753

53.93

53.69

.1915

.1944

Press feeders, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic..........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central............................................

8
4
6
1

80
7
52
2

86
15
C5
2

53.94
54.00
53.77
54.00

53.92
54.00
53.82
54.00

.1169
.0899
.1250
.1111

.1188
.1012
.1504
.1111

United States...........................................

19

141

168

53.88

53.89

.1185

.1294

Pressmen, male: («)
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

34
14
27
7
5

287
52
247
27
38

306
54
268
29
26

53.85
54.79
54.02
53.89
53.89

53.70
54.57
53.90
53.62
51.23

.3364
.2719
.3430
.2891
.3160

.3424
.2730
.3470
.2923
.3555

United States...........................................

87

651

683

53.99

53.75

.3306

.3371

Proof readers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

16
3
10
2
2

54
7
18
2
2

71
7
14
2
2

52.39
55.43
53.89
54.00
54.00

52.38
55.43
53.86
54.00
51.00

.3915
.3184
.3718
.3611
.4553

.3760
.3237
.3808
.3935

.5 0 9 8

United States..........................................

33

83

96

53.05

52.82

.3818

.3761




o Generally including pressmen and helpers.

50

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O URS OF L A B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , B O O K A N D JO B —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.

Averagib wages
per tlour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

Proof readers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
1
4
3
2

10
1
7
6
3

9
1
9
6
4

51.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
50.00

51.22
54.00
52.67
54.00
49.50

$0.3509
.2778
.3254
.2068
.3426

$0.3461
.2778
.3480
.2068
.3444

United States...........................................

15

27

29

52.44

52.10

.3086

.3153

Sewers, book, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

12
5
14
5
2

66
18
89
34
10

72 54.55
22 54.39
95 54.87
34 •54.00
9 52.80

54.50
54.68
53.78
54.00
51.00

.1370
.0976
.1279
.1126
.1687

.1424
.1017
.1304
.1139
.1765

United States...........................................

38

217

232

54.50

54.01

.1276

.1307

Stereotypers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3
1
3
1

12
1
7
8

14
1
7
8

54.00
54.00
53.29
54.00

54.00
54.00
53.29
53.50

.4599
.2222
.3155
.4109

.4405
.2222
.3207
.4147

United States..........................................

8

28

30

53.82

53.70

.4013

.3984

Stitchers, book, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

10
1
6
2
2

49
9
42
6
4

41
11
43
6
4

53.84
54.00
53.90
54.00
52.50

53.93
54.00
53.94
54.00
51.00

.1199
.0525
.0982
.1050
.1229

.1187
.0539
.0988
.1127
.1569

United States...........................................

21

110

105

53.84

53.83

.1054

.1049

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , N E W S P A P E R .
Compositors, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

41
24
44
15
11

672
203
586
124
122

739
217
565
139
135

45.94
49.03
48.67
49.42
48.23

45.24
47.93
48.67
49.55
48.57

$0.4837
.4154
.4867
.4859
.5629

$0.5028
.4368
.4811
.4924
.5613

United States..........................................

135

1,707

1,795

47.66

47.23

.4824

.4916

Compositors, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

5
2

16
2

11
3

48.06
48.00

48.64
48.00

.4129
.3125

.3777
.3889

United States...........................................

7

18

14

48.06

48.50

.4018

.3801

Linotype operators, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

43
23
43
14
12

671
222
544
136
137

682
224
564
136
146

47.44
44.92
48.03
46.46
45.86

47.11
44.50
48.26
46.26
46.01

.5322
.5282
.5071
.6282
.6460

.5508
.5511
.5062
.6367
.6352

United States...........................................

135

1,710

1,752

47.10

46.99

.5405

.5502

Linotype operators, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

8
3

23
8

23
2

49.26
48.75

48.87
48.00

.2796
.3601

.2908
.4490

United S tates...........................................

11

31

25

49.13

48.80

.3004

.3035




51

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , N E W S P A P E R —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
p erl lour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

Pressmen, male: (a)
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................

43
22
44
15
11

325
65
220
35
55

353
73
235
34
55

47.20
48.94
50.40
54.43
52.09

46.80
48.41
50.03
54.71
52.15

$0.4391
.3429
.3674
.3590
.4070

$0.4470
.3384
.3745
.3786
.4088

United States..........................................

135

700

750

49.11

48.72

.4011

.4078

Stereotypers, male:
Nortn Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
N orth Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

33
15
39
12
10

210
41
154
24
35

211
45
167
26
38

47.15
45.00
49.91
49.17
48.83

45.60
45.80
49.87
48.85
48.63

.5147
.4341
.4068
.3838
.4737

.5338
.4376
.4181
. 4123
.4856

United States..........................................

109

464

487

48.11

47.49

.4619

.4750

65
83
16
61

57.25
59.48
59.80
58.05

56.66
59.12
59.69
54.00

$0.2756
.2719
.2937
.3240

$0.2769
.2735
.2706
.3562

S H IP B U IL D IN G .
Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3

79
111
15
63

United S ta tes.........................................

17

268

225

58.50

57.06

.2864

.2967

Boiler makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3
4
2
3

171
155
61
66

165
196
48
52

58.16
59.38
59.67
58.24

57.43
59.38
59.48
54.58

.2510
.2451
.2959
.3235

.2522
.2539
.2977
.3491

8
4
9

United S tates...........................................

12

453

461

58.79

58.15

.2656

.2686

Calkers, iron, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

2
1
2
2

74
18
32
108

59
17
31
137

59.59
56.11
58.50
58.49

59.49
56.12
58.84
54.00

.3776
.2444
.2758
.3091

.3835
.2456
.2710
.3165

United S tates...........................................

7

232

244

58.66

56.09

.3213

.3220

Calkers, wood, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

10
1
2
2

300
5
111
7

247
5
96
28

51.28
60.00
59.40
54.00

50.31
60.00
59.69
54.00

.3629
.2800
.3010
.5103

.3742
.2700
.3005
.5481

United States..............................................

15

423

376

53.56

53.11

.3481

.3669

Carpenters, male:
N orth Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

13
5
2
4

775
281
48
175

767
347
22
125

53.04
58.42
56.13
57.30

52.48
58.76
56.73
55.01

.3277
.2545
.2982
.3752

.3336
.2576
.2985
.3972

United States..........................................

24

1,279

1,261

54.92

54.54

.3170

.3184

Drillers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

2
3
2
2

144
43
64
156

184
51
57
53

59.79
57.09
58.69
57.94

59.87
56.90
59.47
54.00

.2288
.1846
.1644
.2486

.2476
.1809
.1566
.2779

United States..........................................

9

407

345

58.62

58.46

.2216

.2274




a Generally including pressmen and helpers.

52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I .— AVERA G E . W AG ES A N D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1C03 AN D 1C04, B V OCCU­

PATIONS AND GEOG RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S—Continued.

S H I P B U I L D I N G —Continued.
Num­
ber of
estabHalt
llSnments.

Number of
employees.

Average
hours per
week.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

4
3
2
2

215
204
67
219

160
302
55
106

58.60
59.30
58.21
58.45

58.94
59.38
58.47
54.00

$0.2492
.2460
.2845
.3099

$0.2494
.2432
.2775
.3563

Occupation and geographical division.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

United States..........................................

11

705

623

58.72

58.27

.2705

.2671

Joiners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

8
3
1
4

416
128
33
111

352
210
38
109

56.54
58.13
60.00
57.79

55.38
58.88
60.00
54.44

.2974
.2608
.3040
.3396

.3099
.2610
.3090
.3608

United States...........................................

16

688

709

57.20

56.52

.2977

.3032

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

6
5
2
4

309
828
439
188

404
1,021
566
153

56.37
58.46
59.00
58.49

56.28
58.78
58.63
55.06

. 1623
. 1260
.1534
.2030

.1620
.1255
. 1521
.2224

United States..........................................

17

1,764

2,144

58.23

58.01

.1474

. 1464

Machinists, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

6
4
2
3

624
413
133
405

522
677
168
438

57.83
58.75
59.60
58.30

57.55
58.35
59.65
54.07

.2606
.2693
.2733
.3187

.256?
.2650
.2722
.3513

United States..........................................

15

1,575

1,805

58.34

57.20

.2789

.2842

Molders, iron, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

2
3
2
2

168
131
80
90

130
116
74
75

59.55
57.99
59.85
58.00

59.42
57.92
59.57
54.00

. 2022
.2671
. 2949
.3356

.2213
.2705
.2870
.3696,

United States.................................... :...

9

469

395

58.87

57.98

.2617

.2762,

Painters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

9
3
1
1

297
108
42
41

353
118
25
32

55.18
57.74
60.00
60.00

53.73
58.28
00.00
60.00

.2943
.2240
.1698
.3000

.3103,
.2280,
. 1767
.3000,

United States...........................................

14

488

528

56.56

55.42

.2685

.2849,

Pattern makers, male:
North Atlantic..........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

6
3
2
2

55
45
15
19

50
59
18
23

58.69
58.51
59.53
56.37

58.48
58.58
59.50
54.00

.3049
.2965
.3017
.3792

.3150,
.2946
.29 9,
.4154

United States...........................................

13

134

153

58.40

57.88

.3122

.3221

Riggers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6
3
1
4

213
34
2
78

147
27
2
90

58.82
57.82
60.00
56.90

58.82
57.78
00.00
54.13

.2133
. 2248
.2075
.3697

.2182
.2237
.2000.
.3409
.2601,

United States...........................................

14

327

266

58.23

57.14 . .2517

Riveters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3
3
1
2

107
241
18
221

108
358
24
234

58.60
59.22
54.00
58.52

58.44
59.18
54.00
54.00

.3083
.2301
.2750
.2971

.3161
.2204
.2750
..3201

United States...........................................

9

587

724

58.69

57.24

.2710

.2687




53

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

Table I .— A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­

PATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL DIVISIONS— Continued.

S H IP B U IL D IN G —Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Sawyers, circular, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6
1
1
2

11
1
1
2

9
1
1
2

52.18
54.00
54.00
56.50

52.22
54.00
54.00
54.00

$0.8000
.2037
.2750
.4010

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per nour.
1904.
$0.2962
.2037
.2750
.4010

United States..........................................

10

15

13

53.00

52.77

.3054 | ‘ .3036-

Spar makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Western.......................................................

2
1

18
3

15
3

54.00
54.00

54.00
54.00

.3117
.5556

.3167
.5556

United States..........................................

3

21

18

54.00

54.00

.3466

.3565-

S IL K GOODS.
Beamers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Doublers, female:
North A tlantic............................................
Dyers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Loom fixers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Pickers, male: («)
North A tlantic............................................
Pickers, female: (»)
North A tlantic............................................
Quillers, female:
North A tlantic............................................
Spinners, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Twisters-in, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
Warpers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Warpers, female:
North A tlantic...........................................
Weavers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Weavers, female:
N orth A tlantic...........................................
Weavers, ribbon, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
Weavers, ribbon, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
Winders, female:
N orth A tlantic...........................................

3

7

6

56.86

56.67

6

75

73

57.21

56.89'

.0967

. 1020>

4

852

1,125

55.08

55.05

.1988

.1994

6

41

38

56.49

56.26

.2811

. 2829'

2

33

17

55.61

56.18

.2298

.2259

5

101

86

55.62

55.91

.1080

.1069*

8

139

114

56.69

56.78

.1143

»U4L

4

150

146

58.67

57.42

.0734

.0763-

4

47

41

55.00

55.00

. 2241

.2174

3

41

27

55.00

55.00

.2751

.3043,

6

186

180

58.17

57.81

.1569

. 1682*

6

228

174

56.62

56.52

.1604

.1724

7

837

784

57.98

57.82

.1512

.1417

2

97

109

55.00

52.98

.2061

.2063'

$0.1793 " $0.1850*

2

147

136

55.00

50.71

.2090

^1940

9

290

282

57.67

57.46

.1117

. 111ft,

S L A U G H T E R IN G A N D M EA T P A C K IN G .
Back skinners, cattle, male:
' North Central.............................................

8

25

27

60.00

60.00

$0.4152

$0.4270*

Dry salters, male:
North Central.............................................
South Central*.............................................

12
1

307
25

270
32

60.00
50.00

60.00
50.00

.1880
.1680

.1887
.1883.

United States...........................................

13

332

302

59.25

58.94

.1865

.1887

Gutters, cattle, male:
North A tlantic............................................
N orth Central.............................................

1
8

1
26

1
25

60.00
60.00

60.00
60.00

.2833
.2542

.2833.
.2591

United States..........................................

9

27

26

60.00

60.00

.2552

.2601




o Does not include warp pickers.

54

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O URS OF LA B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU
PATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

S L A U G H T E R IN G A N D M E A T P A C K IN G —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Gutters, hog, male:
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 19C4.

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

11
1 l
12 |

26
2

32
2

50.00

eo.oo

eo.oo
50.00

$0.3266
.3000

$0.2747
.2900

28

34

59.29

59.41

.3247

.2756

Headers, cattle, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

1
8

2
27

2
27

60.00

eo.oo

60.00
60.00

.3000
.3155

.3000
.3250

United States...........................................

United States...........................................

9

29

29

eo.oo

60.00

.3144

.3233

Headers, hog, male:
North Central.............................................
South Central.................................... ........

12
1

13

13
1

60.00
50.00

60. C
O
50.00

.2569 1
.2500 j
|

. 2569
.2750

United States...........................................

13

14

14

59.29

59.29

.2564

.2582

Laborers, male:
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

12
1

9,750
115

8,949
99

6Q.00
50.00

60.00
50.00

.1732
. 1524

.1746
.1768

United States..........................................

13

9,865

9,048

59.88

59.89

.1729

.1746

Picklers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

1
10
1

10
599
15

10
558
15

60.00
60.00
50.00

60.00
60.00
50.00

.1900
.1867
.1733

.1900
.1876
.1840

United S ta tes..........................................

12

624

583

59.76

59.74

.1864

.1876

Rump skinners, cattle, male:
North Central.............................................

6

17

19

60.00

eo.oo

.3760

.3956

Scrapers, hog, male:
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

11
1

50
6

52
6

60.00
.50.00

60.00
50.00

.2320
.1750

.2322
.1896

United States...........................................

12

56

58

58.93

58.97

.2259

.2278

Side skinners, cattle, male:
N orth Central.............................................

8

63

61

eo.oo € 0.00

.4780

.4880

Splitters, cattle, male:
North Central.............................................

9

43

42

60.00

eo.oo

.4653

.4740

Splitters, hog, male:
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

12
1

26
2

26
2

60.00
50.00

50.00

eo.oo

.3138
.2750

.3147
.2900

United States...........................................

13

28

28

59.29

59.29

.3110

.3130

Stickers, cattle, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

1
7

1
14

1
13

60.00
60.00

60.00
60.00

.3333
.3429

.3333
.3558

United States.........................................

8

15

14

60.00

60.00

.3422

.3542

Stickers, hog, male:
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

12
1

13
1

13
1

60.00
50.00

50.00

eo.oo

.2776
.2750

.2776
.2750

United States...........................................

13

14

14

59.29

59.29

.2774

.2774




55

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I.— A V E R A G E W AGES AN D H O URS OF LA B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­
PATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO NS— Continued.

S T R E E T S A N D SE W E R S, C O N TR ACT W ORK.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Average
hours per
week.

Averages wages
per hour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

19C4.

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central....................................... ......
Western.....................................................

15
9
29
8
9

2,337
715
3,367
1,396
439

2,439
624
3,359
1,389
464

57.78
53.77
58.23
58.74
51.35

58.28
53.71
58.13
57.94
51.97

00.1623
.1601
.1984
. 1470
.2684

00.1630
.1619
.1946
.1635
.2631

United States..........................................

70

8,254

8,275

57.44

57.46

.1799T

.1814

S T R E E T S A N D SE W E R S, M U N IC IP A L W ORK.
Laborers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central................................ ............
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................
United States..........................................

17
9
18
6
8

6,258
1,800
4,066
772
500

6,313
1,750
4,845
818
620

50.44
52.45
49.35
51.93
48.00

50.42
50.29
49.35
51.67
48.00

00.2291
.1682
,1997
.1639
.2769

00.2312
.1808
.2025
.lYll
.2727

58 113,396 ;14,346
1
1

50.38

50.01

.2100

.2137

TOBACCO, CIG ARS.
Bunch makers, hand, male:
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

1
3

19
18

18
19

60.00
49.56

56.50
49.16

$0.1930
.2116

00.1791
.2396

United States...........................................

4

37

37

54.92

52.73

.2020

.2101

Bunch makers, hand, female:
North Atlantic................................... .......
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

5
2
4
1

87
100
130
9

106
86
108
12

50.59
60.00
50.75
46.00

50.75
59.31
49.91
46.00

.1363
.0837
.1502
.1186

.1396
.0970
.1607
.1469

United States..........................................

12

326

312

53.41

52.63

.1252

.1856

Bunch makers, machine, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

5
3

298
195

329
193

56.69
53.12

56.97
52.47

.1230
.1203

.1213
.1306

United States..........................................

8

493

522

55.28

55.30

.1220

.1248

Cigar makers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

6
5
11

303
1,070
216

312
1,325
193

48.58
60.00
47.11

48.71
60.00
46.91

.3662
.2747
.3072

.3644
.2901
.3165

United States..........................................

22

1,589

1,830

56.07

56.69

.2966

.3056

Cigar rollers, hand, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

1
1
3

88
33
92

103
23
95

48.00
60.00
49.98

48.00
56.52
49.94

.2833
.2006
.2139

.2634
.2035
.2302

United States..........................................

5

213

*221

50.71

49.72

.2405

.2429

Cigar rollers, hand, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

7
2
6
1

259
115
175
14

280
160
177
20

54.75
60.00
52.10
46.00

54.08
58.56
52.03
46.00

.1417
.1043
.1529
.1183

.1220
.1122
.1580
.1235

United States..........................................

16

563

637

54.78

54.38

.1370

.1296




56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I.— A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D HOURS OF L A B O R , 1903 AND 1904, B Y OCCU­

PATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO NS— Continued.

TOBACCO, C IG A R S—Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

1903.

1404.

1903.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

Cigar rollers, machine, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central___a ....................................

5
2

371
388

347
310

55.42
53.36

55.21
52.63

$0.1356
.1020

10.1343
.1145

United States...........................................

7

759

657

54.37

53.99

.1184

.1250

Packers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic___ 1....................................
North Central.............................................

6
5
11

36
82
45

28
81
48

50.69
60.00
49.24

49.39
60.00
49.29

.4324
.5806
.3510

.4934
.6034
.3332

United States...........................................

22

163

157

54.98

54.83

.4845

.5012

Packers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

7
1
3
2

56
25
50
47

74
21
42
42

53.29
60.00
52.06
59.70

53.16
60.00
51.83
59.67

.1244
.0717
.1259
.1120

.1330
.0904
.1351
. 1151

United States..........................................

13

178

179

55.58

55.18

.1141

.1245

Stemmers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

1
2
1
1

7
32
1
1

19
1
1

6

50.00
60.00
48.00
46.00

50.00
58.89
48.00
46.00

.0914
.0731
.1250
.1348

.0570
.0696
. 1250
.1083

United States..........................................

5

41

27

57.66

56.04 1

Stemmers, female:
12
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................ . . .. 7
North Central.............................................
13
1
South Central.............................................

353
128
258
6

385
140
263
8

52.83
60.00
51.09
46.00

53.01
59.80
51.41
46.00

.1045
.1184
.0967
.0907

.1144
.1140
.0970
.0733

33

745

796

53.40

53.61

.1041

.1082

United States...........................................

.0790

.0703

W O O D E N A N D W O R ST E D GOODS.
Burlers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

10
1
2

312
7
13

332
7
11

58.42
60.00
60.31

57.49
60.00
60.27

$0.1003
.0471
.0950

$0.0992
.0471
.1078

United States...........................................

13

332

350

58.52 | 57.63

.0990

.0984

Carders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

11
1
2

222
2
12

204
2
12

58.96
60.00
60.17

58.41
60.00
60.08

.1117
.1250
.1293

.1175
.1313
.1336

United States..........................................

14

236

218

59.03

58.52

.1127

.1185

Carders, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

3
1

27
4

20
2

60.00
60.00

59.25
60.00

.0738
.0500

.0826
.0600

United States......................... :...............

4

31

22

60.00

59.32

.0708

.0805

8

51

52

59.18

58.25

.1215

.1245

2

22

33

58.00

58.33

.1334

.1219

5

92

100

57.63

57.40

.0999

.0957

Card strippers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Combers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Combers, female:
North Atlantic............................................




•

57

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T able I .— A V E R A G E W AGES AN D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, B Y OCCU­

PATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL DIVISIONS— Concluded.

W O O D E N A N D W O R ST E D G O O DS—Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

Dyers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.......... ..................................
Western.......................................................

12
1
2

331
7
6

341
3
4

59.47
60.00
60.50

59.09
60.00
60.25

fO.1316
.1286
.1580

$0.1320
.1625
.1894

United States..........................................

15

344

348

59.50 | 59.11 |

.1320

.1329

Occupation and geographical division.

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

Loom fixers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

13
1
2

172
1
2

169
1
2

58.52 | 58.02
60.00 | 60.00
60.50 | 60.50

.2461
.2500
.2361

.2391
.2500
.2366

United States..........................................

16

175

172

58.55 i 58.06

.2460

. 2392

1
298 |! 58.31

58.34 |[

.1146

.1118

239
1
22

58.17
60.00
60.14

.1798
.1137

.1828
.2500
.1207

262 | 59.31 j 58.34

.1758

. 1774

i

Spinners, frame, female:
North Atlantic...........................................

4

363

Spinners, mule, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

11
1
2

248

United States. .•.......................................

14

264

Spinners, mule, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

2
1
1

24
5
4

21 ! 60.00
6 60.00
4 60.75

58.33
60.00
60.50

.0699
.0500
. 1086

.0861
.0650
.1091

31 I 60.09

58.94

.0716

.0850

58.45 '
60.00
60.20

.1812
.1419
.1108

.1698
.1331
.1292

16

United States..........................................

4

33

Weavers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

14
1
2

1,204
8

1,135
1
10

59.26
eo. is

58.65
60.00
60.38

United States..........................................

17

1,213

1,146 | 58.66

58.47

.1807

.1689

Weavers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

14
1
2

1,610
15
22

1,584
• 15
22

58.18
60.00
60.23

57.51
60.00
60.14

.1569
.1224
.1120

.1533
.1147
.1377

United States..........................................

17

1,647

1,621

58.22

57.57

.1560

.1527




58

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

A G R IC U LTU R A L! IM P L E M E N T S .
BLACKSMITHS, Male.

FITTERS, Male.

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 10 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 15 establishments.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
90.5
91.3
104.0
104.8
98.4
96.0
100.8
97.6
110.3
107.1
113.5
114.3
106.3
112.7
119.5

100.0
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8
96.4
100.8
100.8
97.5
100.8
100.4
100.5
100.4
100.4
99.2
100.0

100.0
98.4
101.3
105.6
115.4
100.0
90.9
95.4
95.8
101.7
95.2
•96.5
95.3
100.2
104.7
106.2

GRINDERS) Male.

100.0
47.1
70.6
82.4
105.9
94.1
105.9
94.1
94.1
164.7
158.8
176.5
147.1
70.6
70.6
69.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.8

100.0
84.8
99.4
84.9
79.4
100.8
99.2
107.9
120.8
113v0
109.6
114.5
105.6
108.4
123.0
136.9

MACHINISTS, Male.

100.0
97.9
98.8
98.5
107.1
93.8
94.1
100.0
91.7
105.6
113.0
123.9
128.6
124.5
146.6
122.3




100.0
100.5
100.4
100.4
100.4
97.8
100.5
100.4
99.1
100.4
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0
97.8
93.9

100.0
111.1
88.9
88.9
100.0
100.0
88.9
77.8
100.0
122.2
111.1
111.1
122.2
111.1
100.0
80.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.J0
100.0
100.0
96.3

100.0
92.7
90.3
98.6
• 100.0
100.7
102.7
121.5
93.4
96.4
103.8
102.1
129.6
135.3
134.8
144.7

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 16 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.....................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
93.0
89.8
95.3
110.9
86.7
98.4
90.6
91.4
112.5
128.9
128.1
126.6
130.5
151.6
112.7

100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.2
98.3
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
99.7
98.4

100.0
101.5
102.8
101.8
104.9
99.2
96.2
96.4
99.1
99.7
98.3
104.0
103.8
110.8
108.9
114.2

MOLDERS, IRON, Male.

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 14 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

MACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male.

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 8 establish­
ments 1904.]
Average 1890-99..1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Year.

100.0
100.3
102.1
104.0
106.6
94.5
93.7
96.4
96.6
101.3
104.6
108.2
104.8
107.7
111.9
120.4

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 12 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.....................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
86.4
88.9
104.0
109.1
87.4
95.5
90.9
91.9
117.2
127.8
132.8
126.8
121.7
141.4
129.2

100.0
100.9
100.9
101.0
100.9
99.1
100.7
98.3
97.0
100.4
100.7
100.9
100.8
100.8
100.1
98.2

100.0
102.3
103.6
106.3
107.9
96.0
93.3
98.1
94.0
96.7
101.6
109.2
108.6
119.8
120.4
121.2.

59

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904,

T able II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 18S0 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 == 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

A G R IC U L T U R A L IM P L E M E N T S —Concluded.
PATTERN MAKERS, Male.

PAINTERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 12 estab­
lishments 1890-1894; 13,1895-1903. Data from 15
establishments 1904.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1899.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901..................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative ] Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.
100.0
87.4
91.6
89.9
93.3
113.4
100.8
101.7
98.3
117.6
103.4
97.5
126.9
126.1
121.0
105.6

100.0
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.8
100:1
00.1
100.0
100.1
100.2
100.0
95.9

100.0
97.6
108.8
106.5
104.6
91.8
97.1
99.4
97.8
98.3
99.9
109.6
107.4
110.2
120.8
118.5

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 12 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
76.2
85.7
97.6
109.5
92.9
104.8
100.0
97.6
116.7
114.3
161.9
154.8
135.7
154.8
128.7

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.9
LO
O .O
99.8
99.9
09.9
09.9
100.0
08.6
98.2

100.0
99.4
98.4
104.7
101.4
95.5
98.1
101.1
97.4
103.2
101.0
104.0
105.6
109.7
112.8
118.0

BAKERY, BREAD.
RAKERS, FIRST HANDS, Male.

[Data from 103 establishments 1890-1903; 114 es­
tablishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.................. ..
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
95.1
94.5
96.7
97.3
99.5
100.5
101.6
102.2
104.9
107.7
108.2
114.3
117.6
119.2
126.2

100.0
100.7
100.8
100.8
100.7
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.7
99.2
98.2
96.8
96.2
95.8
94.4
94.0

100.0
99.4
99.6
99.8
98.8
98.3
99.0
99.3
100.1
101.5
104.3
107.4
109.9
112.8
116.4
118.5

RAKERS, TH IR D HANDS, Male.




Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904......................

100.0
92.4
93.3
93.6
94.8
97.6
98.8
100.9
102.4
112.4
113.3
118.5
121.5
134.8
128.5
128.5

100.0
100.0
100.1
100.3
100.2
99.6
99.7
99.7
102.6
99.3
98.4
97.0
97.2
96.6
94.2
94.0

100.0
99.0
99.6
99.8
99.1
99.0
98.9
100.0
100.4
101.0
103.1
106.7
109.1
114.1
118.2
120.8

RAKERS, NOT SPECIFIED, Male.

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903; 26 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 63 establishments.]
100.0
Average 1890-99...
100.0
100.4
93.6
1890
...........
101.0
96.3
1891
...........
101.5
1892
...........
96.8
100.3
94.7
1893
...........
.1894.......................
100.9
97.9
99.5
1895
...........
102.7
1896
...........
99.4
104.3
1897
.................. .................. 99.9
102.7
1898
...........
104.3
99.6
1899
...........
100.9
97.5
1900
...........
113.8
96.6
1901
...........
127.7
95.1
1902
............
138.3
94.6
1903
...........
158.0
91.8
1904
...........
180.8
92.0

RAKERS, SECOND HANDS, Male.

[Data from 103 establishments 1890-1903; 114 es­
tablishments 1904.]

100.0

99.6

100.2
100.1

100.9
98.4
99.1
99.6
98.8

100.0

103.0

110.6

112.9
120.3
131.2
134.8

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
92.2
94.3
97.1
97.3
93.9
98.7
101.7
103.1
110.1
111.3
115.3
120.3
130.8
129.1
134.7

100.0
102.2
101.1
101.1
100.9
101.1
100.4
99.3
98.7
98.3
96.9
97.0
96.5
96.2
95.3
94.5

100.0
99.3
100.3
101.3
102.1
97.9
97.8
99.4
100. a
100.0
102.0
101.7
103.2
108.5
109.9
110.4

60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

B liA C K S M I T H I N G A N D H O R S E S H O E IN G .
BLACKSMITHS, Male.

HORSESHOERS, FITTERS, Male.

[Data from 59 establishments 1890-1903; 48 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

100.0
100.0
102.8
102.8
103.5
94.4
95.1
101.4
97.2
102.8
102.1
105.6
109.2
107.7
107.7
101.1

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.................. .
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1 8 9 8 ....................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1 9 0 1 ....: ...............
1902 ..:..................
1903.........*.............
1904.......................

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.1
99.4
99.3
98.3
97.9
97.4

100.0
100.1
100.3
101.0
100.7
98.6
98.2
98.5
99.9
101.1
101.5
102.5
104.1
107.6
109.9
108.9

[Data from 33 establishments 1890-1903; 35 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
97.1
94.3
100.0
100.0
102.9
100.0
101.4
101.4
102.9
101.4
101.4
107.1
101.4
107.1
105.3

100.0
102.1
102.3
102.1
99.5
99.2
99.0
98.9
98.8
98.9
99.0
98.5
98.1
97.8
97.3
93.8

100.0
97.0
96.7
97.4
99.8
100.2
100.2
101.6
102.6
102.6
101.8
103.1
104.9
104.2
106.6
109.3

HORSESHOERS, FLOOR MEN, Male. HORSESHOERS, FORGEMEN, Male.

[Data from 109 establishments 1890-1903; 127 es­
tablishments 1904.]
100.0
105.7
101.9
103.4
101.1
100.4
96.6
97.7
95.5
98.9
99.6
101.5
102.3
100.4
100.0
98.3

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
102.0
101.9
101.9
100.8
99.399.2
99.2
98.9
98.6
98.2
97.7
96.7
96.0
95.6
95.1

100.0
98.1
97.6
97.8
98.4
101.1
99.9
100.5
101.1
102.3
103.1
104.9
106.6
107.8
113.4
116.8

[Data from 69 establishments 1890-1903; 95 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.,...................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
102.9
102.9
102.1
100.7
99.3
97.9
98.6
97.1
100.0
99.3
97.1
99.3
97.9
96.4
96.4

100.0
101.3
101.1
101.1
100.9
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.3
98.9
97.9
96.9
96.6
95.5
94.9
94.7

100.0
98.6
98.5
98.5
97.9
98.3
98.8
100.1
101.2
103.0
104.8
107.9
109.8
111.6
114.8
115.8

100.0
100.1
99.9
99.3
97.7
97.5
96.4
93.7

99.7
102.1
103.3
103.9
107.6
112.0
116.2
123.4

HORSESHOERS, NOT SPECIFIED, Male.

[Data from 62 establishments 1890-1903; 27 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ..................
1894 ...................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................

100.0
103.3
102.5
104.1
m o96.7
93.4
94.3




100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9

100.0
100.9
100.5
99.5
99.2
97.4
98.4
99.0

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

98.4
100.8
104.1
106.6
107.4
100.0
98.4
100.3

61

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T able I I . — R E L A T IV E W AG ES A N D H O URS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

BOOTS A N D SH O ES.
CUTTERS, OUTSOLE, ITIale.

CLOSERS-ON, Female.

[Data for employees from 15 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 15 estab­
lishments 1890; 17, 1891, 1892; 18, 1893; 20, 1894;
24, 1895; 25, 1896; 26, 1897; 28, 1898; 32, 1899; 33,
1900, 1901; 34, 1902, 1903. Data from 40 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
87.3
83.1
87.3
90.1
108.5
100.0
111.3
114.1
107.0
116.9
111.3
116.9
114.4
129.6
131.8

100.0
100.3
100.5
99.9
100.1
100.1
99.6
99.7
99.7
100.4
99.7
99.5
99.3
99.4
98.8
98.9

100.0
90.7
96.8
98.3
100.4
103.6
98.4
103.3
105.2
100.1
102.9
102.4
105.5
103.4
108.4
106.1

CUTTERS, UPPER, Male.

[Data for employees from 26 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 26 estab­
lishments 1890; 27, 1891; 28, 1892; 29, 1893, 1894;
30,1895,1896; 31,1897; 32,1898,1899 ; 33,1900-1903.
Data from 37 establishments 1904.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
88.7
94.8
97.4
98.3
87.8
93.9
104.3
117.4
107.8
113.0
114.8
121.7
125.2
140.0
133.9

100.0
100.2
101.7
100.2
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.6
99.6
98.2
98.6

100.0
102.0
99.5
99.1
100.1
96.3
100.2
98.8
101.2
101.4
100.6
102.2
100.5
103.5
106.0
109.2

EDGE TRIMMERS, BEALE.

[Data for employees from 22 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 22 estab­
lishments 1890; 23, 1891; 25, 1892; 27, 1893; 28,
1894; 31, 1895, 1898; 32, 1897; 33, 1898; 37, 1899;
39, 1900-1903.* Data from 42 establishments
1904.
]

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 18 estab­
lishments 1890; 20, 1891; 21, 1892; 23, 1893 ; 24,
1894; 27, 1895, 1896; 28, 1897; 30, 1898; 33, 1899;
34, 1900; 35, 1901-1903. Data from 41 establish­
ments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891....... :..............
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......... ............
1899.......................
1900....... ...............
1901.......................
1902.........i ............
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.'....................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
76.0
82.0
94.7
95.2
96.3
99.8
105.5
113.6
118.0
119.6
129.1
142.3
136.5
144.3
154.5

100.0
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
99.8
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.7
99.7
99.8
98.4
96.6
96.9

100.0
99.9
99.4
99.8
100.4
98.0
100.0
99.1
101.0
99.7
102.8
103.3
102.6
107.4
110.8
114.2

100.0
74.2
76.4
86.5
96.6
102.2
100.0
112.4
114.6
111.2
120.2
123.6
138.2
134.8
140.4
151.2

100.0
100.8
100.8
101.0
100.8
99.8
99.5
99.7
99.9
98.5
99.2
98.2
99.2
97.3
95.8
95.7

100.0
97.7
97.2
99.2
105.1
99.2
103.1
99.2
100.4
99.9
99.0
105.3
105.0
110.1
114. r
116.4

GOODYEAR STITCHERS, Male.

HEEL TR1KEREERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 10 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890; 12, 1891; 13, 1892; 14, 1893; 15,
1894; 19, 1895, 1896; 21, 1897; 22, 1898; 25, 1899;
27, 1900, 1901; 29, 1902; 30, 1903. Data from 34
establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 15 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 15 estab­
lishments 1890; 17, 1891; 18, 1892; 20, 1893; 21„
1894; 25, 1895-1897; 26, 1898; 28, 1899; 29, 1900r
30, 1901-1903. Data from 39 establishments*
1904.
]

Average 1890-99...
1890....... :..............
1891.......................
1892.......... ............
1893.......................
1 8 9 4 ....: ; ." ........
1895............:.........
1896............ ■ ..........
1897.......................
1898............:.........
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901............ ..........
1902.......................
1903.......................
1 9 0 4 .......; ; ........

100.0
91.7
86.1
86.1
97.2
91.7
94.4
105.6
108.3
105.6
130.6
150.0
155.6
158.3
161.1
- 181.1

100.0
101.3
100.6
100.5
100.7
99.5
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.5
98.9
98.8
98.7
95.1
94.4
94.6

17098— No. 59— 05----- 5




100.0
88.6
93.9
96.5
96.4
99.6
100.9
98.6
108.4
106.6
110.4
115.6
117.3
121.7
131.0
133.2

Average 1890-99 ..
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904....................

100.0
77.1
85.7
94.3
100.0
100.0
108.6
108.6
111.4
105.7
97.1
102.9
100.0
88.6
85.7
93.8

100.0
101.6
100.7
100.7
100.4
99.7
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.6
99.1
97.7
97.6
96.7
96.2
95.7

100.0
91.9*'
90.8
97.0
104.7
102.3
103.6
101.0'
102.3
105.0101.5
104.8
105.5106.0115.7
122.0-

62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

B O O T S A N D S H O E S —Concluded.
LASTEBS, MACHINE, Male.

McKAIf STITCHERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 10 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 12, 1892; 14, 1893; 15, 1894;
16, 1895; 20, 1896 ; 23, 1897 ; 25, 1898; 30, 1899; 31,
1900; 32, 1901; 33, 1902, 1903. Data from 37 es­
tablishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
59.8
67.7
77.2
86.6
102.4
117.3
126.0
120.5
100.0
138.6
148.8
134.6
126.8
148.8
171.9

100.0
99.5
100.2
100.0
99.8
100.6
100.5
100.5
100.0
98.6
100.3
98.8
99.9
98.5
97.8
98.0

100.0
97.3
98.1
101.2
96.1
101.3
101.1
103.9
97.6
103.9
100.6
103.0
106.6
114.4
120.1
125.4

[Data for employees from 14 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 14 estab­
lishments 1890; 16, 1891; 17, 1892; 19, 1893; 20,
1894-1896; 21, 1897; 23, 1898; 24, 1899; 25, 1900;
26, 1901-1903. Data from 28 establishments
1904.
]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896........ .............
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

TBEEBS) Male.

100.0
77.8
30.0
104.4
104.4
102.2
111.1
117.8
104.4
102.2
100.0
97.8
106.7
97.8
86.7
86.7

100.0
101.6
101.5
100.4
100.4
99.8
100.2
99.8
99.1
98.5
98.6
96.4
98.0
96.7
96.6
96.3

100.0
95.0
94.1
99.3
104.4
100.6
104.3
98.9
101.2
102.6
99.6
99.9
99.1
100.7
103.6
103.5

TAMPERS, Male.

[D ata for employees from 13 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 14, 1892; 15, 1893, 1894; 16,
1895, 1896; 17, 1897-1899; 19, 1900-1903. Data
from 28 establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890; 2, 1891, 1892; 4, 1893, 1896; 5, 1894,
1895,1897,1898; 7,1899,1900; 9, 1901; 11,1902; 10,
1903. Data from 16 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
]$04.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892............. ’........
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901....................... ;
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
64.2
83.2
78.8
108.0
102.9
107.3
121.9
114.6
113.1
102.9
105.1
108.8
91.2
94.2
93.6

100.0
100.1
100.7
99.4
99.0
99.7
100.9
100.3
99.9
100.3
99.7
99.6
99.8
98.2
96.0
95.9

100.0
101.4
97.4
98.8
100.4
101.4
100.9
101.6
97.9
97.7
102.6
107.9
105.5
110.0
123.4
123.3

100.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
226.2

100.0
95.8
101.9
102.4
100.2
99.7
99.8
100.0
100.2
100.3
99.5
100.5
100.1
99.4
93.9
96.3

100.0
112.3
97.3
92.4
95.6
89.4
90.7
101.5
111.4
103.0
106.7
110.6
106.0
114.7
127.1
124.4

VAMPERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 16 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 16 establish­
ments 1890; 18,1891; 19,1892; 20,1893 ; 22,1894; 26,1895,1896; 27, 1897 ; 29,1898; 33, 1899; 34, 1900, 1901;
35,1902; 33,1903. Data from 40 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................

100.0
102.6
91.4
94.0
92.2
94.8
102.6
101.7




100.0
100.4
100.2
100.4
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.6

100.0
99.9
93.7
98.3
101.6
102.3
103.2
102.0

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904...............

105.2
103.4
113.8
121.6
130.2
140.5
153.4
157.4

99.5
100.1
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.2
98.5
98.5

100.8
99.4
98.5
103.0
103.9
104.5
110.5
110.7

63

WAGES AND HOUBS OF LABOB, 1890 TO 1904.
Table I f . — R E L A T IV E

W AG ES A N D H O U RS O F L A B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.1

B R IC K .
B R 1 C K - H 1 A C H 1 N F T E N B E R S , M a le .

K I L N B E R N E R S , M a le ,

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1908 ; 36 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 22 establishments 1890-1903; 37 establishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894 .....................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
3902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
m o
90.2
100.8
100.0
98.4
99.2
99.2
99.2
99.2
100.8
102.4
103.2
101.6
104.0
109.5
108.0

100.0
100.0
99.9
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.2
99.5
99.5

100.0
99.9
99.6
103.0
101.7
98.4
97.8
98.6
97.3
100.6
103.2
104.6
106.6
111.3
112.9
113.5

K IL N S E T T E R S , M a le .

100.0
97.0
90.1
95.0
102.0
98.0
98.0
102.0
103.0
102.0
108.9
105.9
106.9
108.9
113.9
108.6

100.0
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.1
100.3
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.5
100.4
99.6
99.4

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
99.0
101.0
96.0
300.0
98.0
102.0
102.0
98.0
103.0
106.0
108.0
109.0
113.4

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.4
100.0
100.3
99.5
99.9
99.2
99.8
100.6
99.6
99.0
99.3
98.6
98.2

100.0
100.6
101.2
100.5
100.1
95.2
99.1
96.2
102.0
104.2
101.1
104.8
109.9
113.8
115.9
117.7

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

fData from 24 establishments 1890-1903; 36 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890
..................
1891
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904
.............

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year

100.0
99.2
99.7
104.9
99.8
99.5
97.8
97.9
96.5
101.9
102.7
102.9
101.2
106.9
107.4
107.5

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 38 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................

100.0
93.8
97.4
99.0
102.0
103.0
101.6
98.0
98.0
100.0
107.2
104.3
105.6
120.3
119.0
122.8

100.0
99.3
99.8
99.8
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.8
99.8
100.4
100.1
99.6
99.6
99.2
98.5
98.4

m o
104.0
102.2
102.2
100.8
99.4
97.1
98.8
98.8
97.0
99.3
102.0
m i
109.2
112.9
111.3

M O L D E R 8 , H A N D , M a le

O F F B E A R E R S , M a le .

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 5 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903; 29 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890
1891
. . .
1892 ....................
1893
1894
. . . .
1895.......................
1896
..........
1897.......................
1898 ....................
1899.......................
1900 .....................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
89.5
105.3
105.3
105.3
105.3
105.3
110.5
110.5
110.5
110.5




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
96.7

100.0
100.8
100.8
100.8
101.4
100.8
100.7
95.5
95.5
101.1
102.6
102.6
103.1
108.5
109.7
113.3

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

100.0
101.3
97.4
105.3
98.0
96.0
99.3
100.0
98.0
98.7
102.6
94.7
96.7
99.3
97.4
97.0

100.0
100.0
99.7
100.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
99.8
100.1
99.8,
99.5
99.1

100.0
101.5
104.3
104.9
108.7
101.0
98.3
95.7
94.1
95.5
97.6
101.6
106.5
111.1
114.4
113.5

64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATION S—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

BTJII jD I K G

t r a d e s

.

B R I C K L A Y E R S , M a le .

CARPENTERS, Male.

[Data from 212 establishments 1890-1903; 229 es­
tablishments 1904.]

[Data from 227 establishments 1890-1903; 242 es­
tablishments 1904.]

Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
101.5
112.3
114.1
104.1
93.1
88.2
91.8
92.1
95.3
107.3
105.1
118.1
109.8
116.2
111.2

100.0
103.2
102.4
101.2
100.1
100.8
100.0
99.9
99.1
97.9
95.5
95.6
94.3
93.6
92.7
92.1

100.0
98.4
99.5
101.0
101.1
98.6
99.5
98.9
99.4
98.7
104.8
106.5
112.0
118.0
124.7
127.3

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
104.8
110.2
114.3
97.8
89.3
88.8
95.7
95.4
95.5
108.2
112.1
117.8
122.1
116.4
108.6

100.0
102.0
101.3
100.5
100.7
100.7
100.3
99.7
99.0
98.5
97.4
94.5
92.5
90.6
90.2
89.9

100.0
98.6
99.2
102.7
99.7
97.9
97.8
99.6
100.0
101.4
103.2
110.8
115.9
123.7
130.6
129.9

CORNICE MAKERS, Male.

G A S F I T T E R S , M a le .

[Data from 40 establishments 1890-1903; 55 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 64 establishments 1890-1903; 79 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
106.2
105.4
133.5
99.8
80.5
85.3
93.6
90.1
96.9
108.7
103.5
104.1
114.7
117.2
114.8

100.0
104.4
101.3
98.4
100.6
100.3
100.1
99.5
99.0
98.6
97.9
96.1
94.5
92.5
91.7
90.2

100.0
95.0
97.1
99.2
98.8
97.6
98.6
101.4
102.9
103.0
106.4
113.5
115.6
125.1
134.3
137.7

HOB CARRIERS, Male.

100.0
102.0

109.5
115.4
105.0
87.2
90.6
93.3
94.2
92.4
110.4
104.1

120.2

119.3
123.5
124.3




100.0

102.3

101.8

100.4

100.1

100.8

99.9
99.7
99.7
98.9
96.5
96.5
95.6
94.1
93.0
92.8

100.0
99.4
100.0
105.6
93.2
96.3
90.1
100.6
100.0
106.8
110.5
108.0
109.3
114.8
114.8
114.4

100.0
103.5
102.6
100.6
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.4
98.4
99.1
97.3
96.4
95.4
92.6
90.9
89.4

100.0
95.5
96.3
98.9
99.7
99.1
99.3
100.0
101.6
103.7
105.8
110.0
114.1
123.3
130.5
139.1

1NS1BE WIREMEN, Male.

[Data from 250 establishments 1890-1903; 262 es­
tablishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
..................
1903
......
1904
......

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
97.0
96.5
99.4
99.8

100.3
99.7

100.6

108.1
107.3
109.3
114.9
122.9
123.8

[Data from 40 establishments 1890-1903 ; 56 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
74.2
78.1
94.5
91.1
93.7
93.3
102.7
130.4
122.4
119.8
146.7
149.4
176.6
184.1
185.8

100.0
102.8
102.6
98.8
101.2
101.5
101.2
99.3
97.5
97.2
98.0
94.7
94.5
92.8
89.6
88.2

100.0
89.6
89.1
91.6
97.9
96.1
100.0
104.5
107.6
112.1
111.7
120.7
119.6
129.7
140.6
143.5

65

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

J3U II jD I!N G T R A D E S —Continued.
LABORERS, male.

LATHERS, Male.

[Data from 146 establishments 1890-1903; 172 es­
tablishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
114.8
109.0
107.9
101.3
92.6
85.1
90.1
89.7
101.4
108.1
118.3
104.2
119.2
113.9
96.8

100.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.3
99.8
99.0
98.5
96.3
95.8
95.8

100.0
102.7
103.0
103.5
101.8
96.7
98.2
96.5
98.5
99.9
99.3
99.6
108.0
112.0
114.2
114.3

PAINTERS, Male.

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 39 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative
number hours per Relative
wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

100.0
85.2
81.5
108.3
91.7
90.7
110.2
105.6
99.1
119.4
109.3
121.3
121.3
135.2
114.8
135.4

100.0
105.4
105.4
104.9
104.8
104.7
103.7
93.2
93.2
92.3
92.3
87.3
87.9
87.7
88.0
87.4

100.0
94.0
93.8
95.9
93.8
93.8
97.9
106.3
106.2
109.5
108.7
110.8
111.2
115.1
111.4
116.7

P A P E R H A N G E R S , m a le .

[Data from 203 establishments 1890-1903; 208 es­
tablishments 1904.]

[Data from 93 establishments 1890-1903; 103 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892................ .
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

100.0
96.3
100.9
105.5
99.7
93.9
94.1
99.2
101.7
101.3
107.5
111.2
116.5
115.7
109.4
109.9

100.0
102.6
101.9
101.1
100.1
100.4
100.1
99.6
99.0
98.1
97.1
94.6
92.6
91.5
90.8
90.4

100.0
97.0
98.2
99.4
101.2
99.1
98.4
99.2
100.5
102.3
104.7
110.5
114.7
119.5
124.9
127.9

PLASTERERS, Male,

100.0
100.2
106.0
110.5
102.4
92.0
92.0
97.7
94.4
97.0
108.1
111.5
105.2
120.8
112.7
110.5




100.0
103.2
101.6
100.5
100.3
100.3
99.6
99.4
100.3
98.6
96.1
94.1
93.1
91.2
90.8
90.5

100.0
101.4
100.9
101.0
100.8
100.4
100.5
99.8
99.0
98.4
97.9
96.1
92.8
91.4
90.2
90.3

100.0
98.5
99.3
99.4
98.9
98.4
98.5
99.5
101.1
102.9
103.7
108.4
113.4
118.8
125.7
126.8

P L U m B E R S , m a le .

[Data from 146 establishments 1890-1903; 152 es­
tablishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904......................

100.0
94.1
94.9
100.6
93.5
92.1
93.5
99.8
105.7
108.5
117.8
119.2
127.9
124.2
120.4
117.1

100.0
98.4
99.2
102.6
100.5
97.9
98.1
99.7
97.6
99.4
106.4
109.5
114.3
123.7
131.8
133.8

[Data from 221 establishments 1890-1903; 232 es­
tablishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

100.0
99.1
100.3
103.4
99.8
94.4
94.3
98.9
99.1
104.6
106.2
110.4
118.3
117.9
115.7
117.2

100.0
102.1
101.6
101.2
100.2
100.1
99.7
99.3
98.9
98.7
98.2
96.6
95.4
93.0
91.9
91.3

100.0
97.4
98.1
98.7
99.9
98.8
99.7
100.4
101.2
102.3
103.6
107.1
110.6
117.6
124.5
128.3

66

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATION S—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 == 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page &.]

B G I R D I N G T R A D E S —Continued.
ROOFERS, GRAVEL AND TAR, Male.

ROOFERS, SLATE AND TILE, Male.

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 35 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 40 establishments 1890-1903; 41 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................:
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
82.9
89.5
92.1
136.8
76.3
90.8
101.3
100.0
110.5
122.4
105.3
109.2
94.7
97.4
118.3

100.0
100.4
100.2
101.3
98.1
100.0
101.1
99.9
99.7
99.6
99.6
95.9
96.2
95.8
98.6
98.2

100.0
97.1
101.0
103.6
107.6
98.0
92.5
96.5
100.9
100.1
102.9
114.5
115.9
114.4
113.1
110.6

ROOFERS, TIN, Male.

100.0
96.6
102.5
100.1
105.2
94.9
93.7
101.0
96.7
102.3
107.6
105.5
109.1
115.0
110.3
109.8

100.0
102.0
101.2
101.1
100.4
100.7
100.3
99.6
99.0
98.3
97.4
95.6
93.8
91.4
91.4
90.7

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
110.3
107.7
105.9
100.7
90.4
91.5
97.8
100.4
95.9
100.7
98.2
95.6
100.4
95.2
82.5

100.0
100.8
100.9
101.0
100.5
100.7
100.7
99.9
98.9
99.0
97.7
95.2
94.8
91.7
91.0
91.0

100.0
101.2
99.8
100.9
100.3
97.5
98.1
98/4
98.6
101.3
103.8
109.5
112.0
118.5
128.3
130.6

STEAM FITTERS, Male.

[Data from 94 establishments 1890-1903; 100
establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894........................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901........................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Year.

100.0
97.0
99.1
99.1
100.0
97.8
98.8
100.1
100.4
102.5
105.2
108.7
111.9
119.7
122.2
122.9

STONE MASONS, Male.

[Data from 73 establishments 1890-1903; 86 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................

100.0
93.0
90.9
99.5
107.9
96.6
95.3
99.8
105.8
101.8
108.4
106.8
115.2
129.3
129.0
128.6

100.0
102.6
101.9
101.3
101.6
99.4
99.8
99.2
98.7
98.6
96.9
96.0
94.0
92.4
89.0
88.9

100.0
95.9
96.2
99.4
97.4
99.2
98.2
100.5
101.5
104.3
107.4
108.1
115.1
120.2
127.3
131.6

STONE SETTERS, Male.

[D ata from 115 establishments 1890-1903; 110
establishments 1904.]

[Data from 27 establishments 1890-1903; 40 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.................... J.
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1802.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
106.9
115.2
111.1
101.4
90.2
90.1
93.5
89.8
105.2
97.1
105.5
104.6
107.7
121.1
117.7




100.0
101.3
101.3
101.2
100.6
100.9
100.4
100.3
98.6
97.4
98.0
96.4
95.2
93.2
92.0
91.4

. 100.0
102.9
103.2
101.5
100.7
95.1
98.4
98.1
100.3
99.0
102.8
104.7
110.8
119.0
126.6
129.4

100.0
88.1
88.1
99.1
101.8
96.3
108.3
106.4
98.2
99.1
111.9
122.9
133.9
130.3
122.9
118.5

100.0
103.9
103.4
100.1
99.7
99.2
98.8
99.4
98.9
98.4
98.2
96.3
95.4
95.4
94.8
94.8

100.0
92.3
92.9
100.2
99.9
100.8
102.0
100.8
103.0
104.3
103.9
107.5
113.1
110.9
116.2
117.9

67

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T a b l e I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

B U I L D I N G TRAJDES—Concluded.
STRUCTURAL IRON WORKERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 19 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 19 establish­
ments 1890-1892; 20,1893-1903. Data from 37 establishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
77.7
98.2
107.3
98.8
74.2
79.5
115.5

100.0
102.9
101.8
99.3
100.1
101.9
100.1
98.5

100.0
93.6
98.0
100.6
100.9
93.5
97.7
97.5

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

1897............. ;........
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1S01.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

111.9
122.1
115.5
142.2
195.5
228.2
206.6
205.5

97.0
97.8
100.5
98.0
96.7
91.6
92.2
90.6

104.1
105.3
108.8
1250.4
138.4
155.9
159.8
171 4

C A JS T D Y .

CANDY MAKERS, Male.

DIPPERS, Female.

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 22 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903 ; 22 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897 .......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99.,.
1890
..........
1891
..........
1892
..........
1893
..........
1894
..........
1895
..........
1890.......................
1897
..........
1898
..........
1899
..........
I960......................
1901
..........
1902
..........
1903
..........
1904
..........

100.0
108.2
104.9
103.3
101.6
95.1
100.0
95.1
103.3
90.2
91.8
90.2
78.7
82.0
83.6
84.4

100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.9

100.0
98.2
98.1
98.8
95.7
96.2
100.8
103.7
99.3
104.6
104.8
98.7
104.9
103.4
103.4
105.6

100.0

117.1

112.8

103.0
106.7
96.3
91.5
94.5
89.0
93.9
103.0
103.7

101.8
122.6

130.7

100.0
98.6
98.6
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.7
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.4
100.6

|1
1
,
!
|

100.0
106.3
108.5
100.8
100.7
101.3
97.0
96.2
96.8
96.4
96.6
99.2
114.0
113.5
115.2
118.7

C A R P E T S. *
•
JBURLERS, Female.

DYERS, Male.

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 8 estab• lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
97.9
95.9
90.7
111. 3
75.3
103.1
112.4
95.9
m 2
107.2
112.4
117.5
119.6
123.7
134.9




100.0
100.7
100.7
100.7
99.3
100.3
99.5
99.5
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.5
99.1

100.0
97.4
99.8
104.2
101.6
94.0
97.0
102.7
97.4
108.5
97.3
105.4
111.1
112.9
123.4
105.5

[Data from 0 establishments.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
120.4
109.7
94.6
105.4
90.3
100.5
98.4
88.7 i
93.0
96.2
97.3
96.8
110.8
115.6
114.5

100.0
101.4
101.4
100.9
99.4
99.9
90.4
99.3
99.6
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.4
99.2
99.3
99.0

100.0
98.4
99.3
102.0
101.3
95.9
95.9
100.7
103.3
101.5
101.5
100.9
100.9
100.2
104.8
1 0 2 .8

68

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I I __ RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO

1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

C A R P E T S —Continued.
LO O M F I X E R S , M a le .

S P O O L E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 8 establishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.
100.0
90.9
96.1
100.0
101.3
97.4
101.3
98.7
100.0
106.5
101.3
102.6
105.2
106.5
111.7
118.3

100.0
101.6
98.0
100.2
100.7
99.6
98.4
98.4
102.7
99.4
100.8
101.0
100.8
102.4
106.3
105.7

100.0
101.1
101.1
99.9
99.4
99.4
99.5
99.5
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.6
99.3
99.0

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 8 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number 'hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904......................

100.0
104.3
104.3
107.2
113.8
102.9
110.9
100.0
85.5
81.9
91.3
100.7
102.2
99.3
98.6
92.1

100.0
101.4
101.4
99.8
99.3
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.7
99.9
99.7
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.7
98.2

i

m

*

W E A V E R S, BR U SSE LS AND
T O N , M a le .

T W I S T E R S , F e m a le .

100.0
100.4
95.7
98.0
101.5
103.6
99.3
100.3
101.2
99.8
100.5
99.6
101.2
104.6
106.2
103.9

t

[D ata from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 6 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
116.1
109.7
109.7
101.6
85.5
103.2
108.1
85.5
72.6
109.7
132.3
121.0
132.3
145.2
180.3

100.0
101.2
101.2
101.2
99.6
99.6
99.1
99.4
99.6
99.7
99.3
99.5
99.2
99.5
99.7
95.5

i
M
*

W E A V E R S, B R U SSE LS AND
TO N, F e m a le .

100.0
103.3
104.4
104.6
103.4
89.9
91.7
99.9
99.5
102.2
100.9
103.5
103.3
103.5
107.2
108.5

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 2 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
189 6 .......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
108.1
100.0
98.6
129.7
32.4
95.9
110.8
68.9
113.5
141.9
154.1
177.0
177.0
171.6
203.2




100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0

100.0
98.7
91.2
91.6
95.9
86.8
92.4
106.7
107.1
110.3
119.2
112.4
140.7
108.6
117.0
120.6

[Data from 3 establishments.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
97.6
92.9
101.4
94.8
94.8
106.9
104.8
106.4
94.1
106.4
110.2
119.0
127.6
143.5
151.5

100.0
101.0
101.0
99.6
100.0
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9

100.0
99.8
97.1
98.9
97.1
93.5
102.2
102.2
102.7
102.0
104.7
106.9
108.3
116.9
122.9
121.4

W E A V E R S , IN G R A IN , F e m a le *
[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903 ; 6 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
96.9
102.9
104.3
92.6
106.0
89.5
95.2
100.0
103.8
108.1
105.3
100.2
103.6
99.3
95.5

100.0
101.8
101.7
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
98.3

100.0
96.3
93.0
94.7
98.5
100.4
100.8
101.6
107.2
100.3
106.8
103.4
106.1
93.4
107.4
99.9

69

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I I . — R E L A T IV E W A G ES A N D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

C A R P E T S —Concluded.
WEAVERS, INGRAIN,

WINDERS, Female.

(a)

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 7 estab­
[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903.]
lishments 1904.]
—%
-------Relative Relative Relative
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
number horns per wages per
Year.
Year.
of em­
of em­
hour.
week.
week.
hour.
ployees.
ployees.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
119.8
103.9
106.9
100.7
96.8
97.9
92.0
97.0
93.6
91.3
86.9
95.2
92.9
87.6
(*>

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.1
(*>

100.0
99.4
103.9
105.0
97.9
91.6
95.9
• 105.3
98.1
103.5
99.7
100.9
105.3
107.7
111.3
(&
)

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
89.8
89.4
92.8
104.2
88.6
108.9
105.9
103.4
104.7
111.0
113.6
117.8
124.6
128.4
133.8

100.0
101.4
101.4
99.9
99.4
99.6'
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.5
99.6
98.9
96.8

100.0
100.5
96.9
100.4
99.6
97.9
97.9
101.2
98.4
102.2
105.1
107.0
103.7
104.2
108.5
106.1.

C A R R IA G E S A N D W A G O N S.
BLACKSMITHS, Male.

BODY MAKERS, CARRIAGE, Male.

[Data from 98 establishments 1890-1903; 96 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
101.2
101.2
104.6
115.4
99.3
104.3
85.2
88.2
100.3
100.7
102.9
111.1
107.5
112.0
109.7

100.0
100.7
100.8
100.7
100.6
98.7
99.4
99.4
100.0
100.2
99.6
99.5
99.7
99.2
98.3
98.4

100.0
102.4
101.8
101.9
94.3
96.6
95.0
101.7
102.4
100.9
102.9
101.8
102.4
104.8
106.5
107.8

EOD1T MAKERS, NOT SPECIFIED,
Male.

[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903; 25 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898*.....................
189 9 ......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904..................

100.0
100.0
104.2
105.0
118.3
93.3
93.3
90.8
99.2
96.7
97.5
97.5
103.3
81.7
85.0
80.6

a gex not reported.




100.0
100.1
100.4
100.1
99.7
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.6
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.3
99.8
99.5

100.0
99.9
100.1
100.8
101.9
97.8
95.6
100.0
100.7
100.5
102.8
101.9
102.0
102.0
107.5
110.6

[Data from 26 establishments 1890-1903; 39 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902........... :.........
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
86.2
95.9
95.9
97.4
116.9
93.8
91.3
101.0
100.5
118.5
116.4
137.9
139.0
139.0
152.4

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.3
100.1
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.8
98.6
99.5
99.7
99.7
98.7
98.7

100.0
100.1
99.7
101.2
100.1
98.6
97.8
98.5
98.5
101.5
103.8
100.5
98.4
102.6
104.4
104.6

1RONERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 7 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890-1896, 1898-1903; 7, 1897. Data
from 28 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.....................

100.0
100.0
104.1
114.4
106.2
89.7
95.9
79.4
92.8
104.1
111.3
124.7
120.6
117.5
128.9
121.6

100.0
100.9
101.2
101.2
99.6
99.4
100.0
99.9
99.3
100.0
97.7
97.4
99.3
100.9
96.4
98.7

100.0
98.2
96.4
95.0
99.0
101.7
99.8
103.0
102.2
98.8
103.6
103.4
100.2
99.7
111.0
112.0

&No data shown for 1904. Sex reported by all establishments visited.

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU Off LABOR.

70

T ab le II___RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904,, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

C A R R IA G E S A N I> W A G O N S—Concluded.
MACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male.

Data from 18 establishments 1890-1903; 24 estab­
lishments 1904-.]

Year.
Average 1890-96...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
3896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1890.......................
1000.......................
1901........................
1002.......................
1903:....... ...............
1904.........:............

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
94.7
98.2
97.4
92.1
83.7
102.2
93.4
100.4
117.2
122.0
118.9
134.8
136.6
134.4
124.1

100.0
100.8
100.9
100.8
100.7
97.5
100.1
98.7
99.7
100.8
100.1
99.0
100.0
99.8
99.6
97.1

100.0
99.0
97.7
101.1
99:3*
10Q.7
96.4
102.6
100.1
100.7
102.2
105.1
103.3
109. L
110.7
109.9

PAISTERS, Male.

[Data from 76 establishments 1890-1903; 95 establishments 1904.]

Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em
>week.
hour.
ployees.

Average 1890-99:..
1890.......................
1891...............
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......... ............
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898............... .......
1899.......................
I960.......................
1901........................
1902^......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
95.9
98.8
101.9
100.7
01.6
96.3
98.8
96.3
304.8
3j 7
14.
117.5
322.5
120.5
116.2
108.3

100.0
100.1
m 3
100.1
100.0
100.3
100.1
m o
99.9
100.0
99.4
99.1
99.5
99.7
98.5
98.5

m o
98.6
98.4
100.9
100.8
99; 7
100:3
99:7
99.4
10018
101.4
102; 5
103.5
108.5
108.2
110.9

TRIMMERS, CARRIAGE, Male*

WOODWORKERS, Male.

[Data from 46 establishments 1890-1903; 76 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 29 establishments 1890-1903;; 51 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899-.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
92.4
92.9
100.0
93.4
96.2
96.7
99.5
101.9
110.0
117.1
116.1
128.9
146.6
118.0
110.8

100.0
100.4
100.5
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.1
99.9
98.6
98.7
98.7
99.4
98.1
98. $

m o
101.3
100.9
100:7
101.8
98.7
99.1
98.5
98.9
98; 9
I0L3
101.0
101.6
102.8
106.6
110.2

m o
93.6
93.6
103.7
103.7
94.5
95.4
103.7
102.8
102.8
106.4
107.3
111.9
101.8
96.3
95.7

100.0
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.2
99.8
100.1
99.4
100.3
100.4
99.4
99.4
98.8
98.8
97.4
97.0

100.0
100.5
100.4
100.3
99.2
99; 4
101.2
100.5
99:4
99.0
100:2
101.6
101.2
102.3
104.7
105; 0

CA R S, STEA M R A IE R O A 3>.
BLACKSMITH#, Male.

BOILER MAKERS, Mate.

[Data for employees from 44 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 44 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 45, 1899-1903. Data from
48 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 34. establishments 1890-1903 ; 38 estab­
lishments 1904. j

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892*.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895-.......................
1896*.......................
1897.......................
3898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893i.....................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896-......................
1897.......................
1898-......................
1899-......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
111. 5
104.7
107.9
106.8
82.1
81.4
100.6
91.3
104.6
109.6
121.3
123.4
129.6
137.5
127.6




100.0
101.9
100.8
101.5
101.1
96.6
98.1
98.8
98.1
101.1
101.8
101.9
100.9
100.7
99.9
98.4

100.0
102.3
101.0
101.6
ior. 8
101.1
102.2.
96.1
99.4
97.0
97.5
97.9
99.2
100.4
104.4
111.5

100.0
91.5
92.2
100.9
101.6
94.0
94.7
100.2
103.0
108.7
113.9
118.3
134.9
139.7
168.0
1)59.3

100.0
103.7
100.9
103.3
102.6
94.8
97.2
97.2
97.4
101.5
101.4
101.8
100.2
99.8
98.5
98.5

100.0
100.4
101.8
100.8
101.3
99.1
98.7
99.1
98.7
99.4
100.5
101,9
102.7
105.5
113.4
118.3

71

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T able I I , —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

C A R S , S T E A M R A I L R O A D —Continued.
BRASS FINISHERS, Male.

CABINETMAKERS, Male.

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 9 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892............ - .........
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
87.5
84.7
94.4
106.9
83.3
87.5
125.0
98.6
138.9
91.7
102.8
101.4
109.7
201.4
194.1

100.0
100.2
99.2
100.3
100.4
99.8
99.6
99.8
99.6
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.3
100.4
94.0
93.3

100.0
105.8
105.1
104.2
107.0
87.9
93.8
98.5
99.1
98.2
100.3
105.5
101.0
112.0
120.6
130.6

CARPENTERS, Male.

100.0
100.9
101.5
105.5
104.7
90.3
89.6
95.3
95.9
105.2
111.3
121.3
122.2
131.8
133.7
124.6

100.0
101.2
100.4
101.3
100.5
97.9
99.0
98.9
98.6
101.2
101.0
101.3
100.6
100.7
99.0
97.5

100.0
101.6
101.4
102.9
104.6
96.9
98.4
97.5
98.2
97.8
100.8
100.6
102.3
105.9
109.7
113.4

LABORERS, Male.

100.0
105.6
111.1
107.2
105.2
70.2
81.2
103.7
82.6
109.6
123.8
149.0
145.8
120.5
140.9
128.6




100.0
101.2
101.3
101.0
100.3
97.5
99.8
99.6
99.1
100.2
100.0
100.2
100.6
100.3
102.4
100.9

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
98.1
96.7
74.0
88.3
84.5
107.6
96.1
116.6
100.0
137.7
124.6
126.1
134.1
103.0
128.9

100.0
100.1
99.8
99.9
100.3
99.9
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.2
99.4
99.6
93.4*
91.9

100.0
107.6
107.3
102.3
105.4
86.5
91.8
97.9
97.2
99.3
104.7
106.9
112.7
122.5
130.4
132.3

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 19 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
90.9
84.8
87.9
87.9
93.9
84.8
103.0
115.2
124.2
124.2
133.3
136.4
163.6
145.5
131.6 I
|

100.0
105.6
104.1
103.7
101.7
93.4
96.6
95.5
95.7
102.1
101.7
103.0
101.6
102.8
102.3
101.9

100.0
101.4
101.3
100.6
102.9
99.8
101.4
99.2
97.4
96.2
99.5
99.4
99.0
100.4
102.5
107.5

MACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male.

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903 ; 41 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Year.

COPPERSMITHS, Male.

[Data for employees from 40 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 40 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 41, 1899-1903. Data from
49 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903 ; 20 estab­
lishments 1904.]

100.0
99.7
99.2
100.7
112.3
99.9
97.2
98.1
98.5
97.2
97.5
100.5
100.3
103.1
104.4
106.3

[Data for employees from 21 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 21 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 22, 1899-1903. Data from
35 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................

100.0
112.1
119.3
135.0
143.2
74.0
74.3
79.2
74.6
88.7
99.5
110.0
119.8
127.8
139.6
134.8

100.0
100.8
100.7
101.2
101.2
98.9
99.3
99.3
98.8
99.8
100.1
100.6
99.6
99.7
96.1
94.0

100.0
102.9
106.0
100.4
102.5
97.3
96.4
99.1
95.4
99.1
100.9
101.7
100.8
106.0
113.7
115.9

72

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

C ARS, ST E A M R A IR R O A D —Continued.
MACHINISTS, Male.

M O L D E R S , B R A S S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 44 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 44 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 45, 1899-1903. Data from
48 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 15 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.
Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0

94.8
94.7
99.6

100.1

90.9
94.9
101.9
99.1
108.5
115.7
118.5
118.3
124.3
133.7
138.8

100.
102.
100.
102.

101.
95.

100.

101.
101.
101.
101.

100.0

100.5
100.1
100.3
100.8
100.7
99.9
99.5
99.4
98.9
100.2
100.6
102.1
104.8
110.7
115.2

MOLDERS, IRON, Male.

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898..................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901........... ..........
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
97.1
102.9
107.4
102.9
79.4
82.4
86.8
100.0
114.7
119.1
132.4
147.1
155.9
158.8
151.4

100.0
. 101.0
101.4
101.4
101.1
94.5
101.2
100.9
96.3
101.1
101.2
101.5
101.6
101.8
95.5
94.9

100.0
105.6
106.9
98.9
101.0
104.4
93.8
94.2
96.4
97.0
101.6
99.7
102.1
109.2
117.5
121.4

P A I N T E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 13 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 14, 1899-1903. Data from
14 establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 35 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 35 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 36, 1899-1903. Data from
46 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
'113.0
106.3
111.6
97.7
86.0
83.2
101.6
85.3
100.0
115.2
124.7
113.5
125.6
122.4
108.3

100.0
100.4
100.8
100.8
100.7
96.4
100.7
101.2
96.9
101.0
101.1
101.1
100.2
100.2
99.3
97.8

100.0

105.1
103.7
104.5
108.5
99.2
99.1
92.6
96.2
95.5
95.7
97.9
98.8
101.2
106.0
110.1

P IP E

PATTERN MAKERS, Male.

100.0
113.8
124.5
113.1
129.0
79.8
87.7
85.6
77.3
88.3
101.1
98.0
103.5
104.6
93.2
108.3

100.0
101.3
101.1
101.3
101.4
98.2
99.1
99.0
98.1
100.2
100.4
100.8
99.8
99.7
98.9
96.2

100.0
102.5
102.4
101.6
103.1
97.8
96.5
98.7
100.8
98.3
98.6
97.3
99.4
101.5
105.4
111.4

F I T T E R S , M a le .

•[Data for employees from 24 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 24 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 25, 1899-1903. Data from
34 establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 7, 1899-1903. Data from
36 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
101.8
99.1
105.4
97.3
88.3
92.8
99.1
91.9
112.6
114.4
117.1
127.0
125.2
126.1
126.8




100.0
101.6
100.9
101.6
101.7
98.9
97.8
97.7
97.1
101.0
101.8
101.7
101.0
101.5
98.3
97.5

100.0
101.8

102.5

101.2

103.4
100.9
99.0
95.8
97.0
100.0
98.7
100.1

102.1

102.5
108.5
110.7

100.0
101.9
94.4
113.0
124.1
92.6
94.4
87.0
94.4
96.3
96.3
94.4
127.8
135.2
144.4
156.4

100.0
102.5
102.7
103.3
102.5
94.5
96.7
96.3
96.4
102.1
103.0
102.9
101.4
101.4
100.5
99.3

100.0
103.6
97.0
95.7
101.7
102.5
99.5
99.2
99.6
101.4
99.9
99.1
101.2
100.1
106.5
110.4

73

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899.= 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

C A R S , S T E A M R A ID R O A D —Concluded.
TINSMITHS, Male.

UPHOLSTERERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 34 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 34 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 35,1899-1903. Data from 44
establishments 1904.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1 8 9 7 .....................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
94.7
102.4
93.9
99.7
96.5
92.3
94.9
95.2
117.3
113.3
116.0
127.2
129.3
127.5
129.0

100.0
102.1
101.1
101.1
100.6
97.3
98.6
98.6'
98.2
101.3
101.2
102.0
100.7
100.3
97.6
96.5

100.0
98.2
97.1
102.9
101.4
97.8
99.3
101.8
102.3
96.6
102.6
103.4
103.4
112.2
119.1
121.7

[Data from 25 establishments 1890-1903; 34 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

CXjOTHINTG, f a c t o r y

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
100.6
116.1
106.3
120.7
87.4
88.5
85.1
91.4
98.9
102.9
117.2
106.3
105.2
108.0
152.3

pro duct

100.0
100.7
100.9
100.9
101.1
98.5
98.7
99.5
99.0
100.2
100.6
101.0
100.5
100.0
94.9
91.9

100.0
108.0
105.3
105.1
107.0
92.9
97.0
94.9
96.2
96.2
97.2
98.1
100.0
103.9
111.8
123.1

.

BUTTONHOLE MAKERS, MACHINE,
Male*

BUTTONHOLE MAKERS, MACHINE,
Female.

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 7 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903 ; 20 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
66.7
66.7
66.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
66.7
66.7
66.7
66.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5

100.0
102.2
102.2
102.2
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
111.6
111.6
111.6
112.0

CUTTERS, HAND, Male*

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 26 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
90.5
90.5
100.0
95.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
104.8
109.5
114.3
109.5
119.0
128.6
123.8
126.8




100.0
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.9
100.1
99.8

100.0
98.3
98.3
98.3
99.8
97,2
99.7
99.7
103.4
102.9
102.7
104.7
105.4
104.7
110.9
111.9

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................

100.0
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
93.3
93.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
106.7
106.7
106.7
113.3
126.7
128.0

100.0
101.6
101.6
101.6
99.6
98.9
98.9
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.6
99.6
99.6
96.8
97.9
97.7

100.0
96.2
96.2
96.7
96.4
99.6
99.6
102.3
103.4
107.2
102.4
99.0
99.3
99.5
104.2
106.2

C U T T E R S , M A C H IN E , M a le .
[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 18 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
105.9
105.9
111.8
105.9
100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
105.9
111.8
111.8
111.8
135.5

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1
99.9
99.0
98.6
98.1

100.0
100.8
100.8
99. a
ioo. a
96.7
99.7
99.7
98.4
99.9
103.4
103.6
103.7
106.1
107.2
110.3.

74

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

C L O T H IN G , F A C T O R Y P R O D U C T —Concluded.
EXAMINERS, Female.

FINISHERS, Female.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 17 estabments 1904-3
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896............„.........
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
105.9
100.0
88.2
88.2
111.8
88.2
88.2
111.8
123.5
141.2
182.4
211.8
201.3

100.0
99.9
99.9
100.1
99.9
100.4
100.4
100.0
99.6
99.6
99.8
100.0
99.6
98.8
97.0
97.3

100.0
98.0
98.0
94 7
98.0
99.9
100.4
100.7
102.8
102.0
105.1
103.6
107.2
87.5
86.6
89.2

PRESSERS, Male.

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 20 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
90.5
90.5
98.4
96.8
88.9
90.5
93.7
103.2
115.9
123.8
138.1
133.3
147.6
142.9
151.5

100.0
100.8
100.8
100.4
100.3
100.7
100.1
99.4
99.3
99.2
99.0
99.0
98.5
98.4
98.4
97.6

100.0
100.1
100.1
98.2
97.9
97.9
101.3
101.3
101.3
102.3
99.2
m 2
103.3
101.3
101.1
101.5

PRESSERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 7 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890-1899; 7, 1900 -1903. Data from 29
establishments 1904.]

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 8 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904....................... [

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

m o
107.7
107.7
111.5
100.0
111.5
115.4
88.5
88.5
92.3
88.5
103.8
115.4 !
107.7 i
103.8
111.7,

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.0
100.3
100.2
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.9 1
99.9
98.3
97.9 i

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.3
103.9
100.3
100.1
96.8
95.0
97.5
105.2
104.9
109.4
111.0
113.5
115.2

SEWING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
Male.

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890-1901; 2,1902,1903. Data from 16
establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
83.3
83.3
91.7
91.7
108.3
108.3
83.3
108.3
108.3
100.0
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3
132.7




m o

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

m o

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.5
91.5
92.0
91.6
90.6

100.0
99.3
99.3
101.9
101.9
98.6
98.6
99.3
98.6
98.6
194.1
103.5
113.0
95.3
108.4
103.7

m o
102.6
102.6
105.1
105.1
82.1
87.2
192.6
105.1
105.1
112.8
126.5
138.5
151.3
164.1
79.6

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
m o
m o
m o
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
98.8

100.0
102.3
102.3
103.1
103.1
86.4
90.9
100.3
103.3
103.3
105.3
108.2
109.9
105.7
104.1
135.5

SEWING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
Female.

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 27 estab­
lishments 1904. ]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
94.1
101.9
98.6
88.9
97.8
99.9
96.7
103.6
111.2
107.3
105.9
108.2
99.5
108.6
109.4

100.0
100.2
99.9
100.0
100.5
100.1
100.2
100.0
99.7
99.6
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.5
99.3
99.2

100.0
97.5
99.4
101.1
98.8
96.6
97.3
99.6
99.0
105.7
105.4
103.0
104.2
108.6
111.5
119.2

75

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

C L O T H IN G , M E N ’S, CUSTOM W ORK.
B1ISHELMEN, Female#

BtSHELMEN, Male.

[Data from 43 establishments 1890-1903; 67 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.
100.0
92.8
91.9
95.5
96.4
94.6
98.2
104.5
104.5
111.7
109.0
108.1
109.9
114.4
117.1
116.0

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.6
99.0
99.0
98.8
98.0
97.8

100.0
100.7
101.7
100.6
100.1
97.9
98.4
97.4
99.-5
101.0
102.8
103.8
104.2
104.7
105.8
106.8

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890-1895; 2, 1896, 1897; 3, 1898-1903.
Data from 7 establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................!
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................i
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1
1900......................1
1901.......................!
1902.......................| |
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.0
150.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
200.0
200.0
200.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.5
97.9

100.0
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
96.4
98.1
92.9
93.6
96.4
100.2
101.5
105.0
105.6

CUTTERS, Male.

COAT MAKERS, Male.

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 30 es­
tablishments 1904.]

[Data from 34 establishments 1890-1903; 63 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
91.3
90.4
100.0
104.8
96.2
98.1
99.0
103.8
101.9
111.5
117.3
117.3
121.2
125.0
149.8

100.0
101.8
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.0
98.5
98.6
97.2
97.2
97.3
95.9
95.9

100.0
95.0
95.7
95.1
98.4
107.2
106.8
99.9
99.5
102.4
99.9
108.3
106.8
109.2
111.8
109.6

PANTS MAKERS, Male.

100.0
102.7
100.0
100.0
101.3
94.7
94.7
101.3
100.0
102.7
104.0
102.7
106.7
109.3
112.0
118.3

100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.1
99.7
99.5
99.3
98.8
98.4
97.1
96.9

100.0
99.9
100.6
100.8
101.4
99.9
100.7
97.8
98.8
99.6
100.3
101.6
103.0
104.3
105.8
103.7

PANTS MAKERS, Female.

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903 ; 24 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 1, 1899; 2, 1900-1903. Data
from 6 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.................. .
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
97.6
95.1
97.6
97.6
92.7
95.1
102.4
95.1
97.6
134.1
104.9
109.8
109.8
112.2
112.2




100.0
100.4
100.3
100.4
100.4
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.3
98.3
99.1
96.9
97.1
97.1
95.9
96.3

100.0
99.6
100.0
99.4
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.5
101.4
105.1
95.4
115.1
116.4
116.9
122.1
123.9

100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
105.9
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
111.8
117.6
117.6
129.6

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.5
101.0
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.4
100.0
96.4
101.2
101.9
101.7
98.3
98.7

100.0
103.4
101.4
103.4
105.7
97.6
96.6
99.5
103.6
101.2
87.6
108.2
109.1
109.4
115.9
112.1

76

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le I I __ RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, I860 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

CO TTO N GOODS.
CARDIN6-MA€H1N£ TENDERS,
Male*

[B ata for employees from 21 establishments 18901903. B ata for hours and wages from 21 estab­
lishments 1890; 22, 1891; 23, 1892-1903. Bata
from 22 establishments 1904.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
86.5
94.9
101.9
100.5
101.4
99.1
102.8
100.0
103.3
107.9
111.2
110.2
110.2
114.4
115.1

100.0
100.7
101.1
101.2
99.6
97.8
99.7
100.0
98.9
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.8
100.2
100.2
99.9

100.0
98.0
99.8
99.5
101.4
102.1
101.4
101.9
100.8
97.8
97.0
104.5
103.2
108.3
108.9
109.3

100.0
89.6
92.5
97.5
95.3
98.7
102.2
99.7
108.5
111.0
105.7
112.6
117.0
124.8
129.6
133.4

100.0
100.4
101.0
100.8
99.9
97.4
99.6
99.9
99.3
100.7
100.9
100.6
100.5
99.7
99.8
99.9

100.0
102.6
100.4
101.2
103.9
99.2
98.0
100.5
99.9
97.6
96.4
105.7
105.8
110.3
111.4
108.8

SPINNERS, FRAME, Female*

100.0
88.8

88.7
92.3
93.9
95.4
94.4
97.0
110.9
119.9
118.4
107.8
115.2
110.5

120.0

125.6




100.0

100.2

101.0

101.5
100.3
98.1

100.0

99.6
98.8
100.1
100.2
100.1
99.5
99.2
98.9
98.9

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
116.7
118.5
113.0
100.0
90.7
88.9
96.3
87.0
90.7
92.6
101.9
103.7
120.4
118.5
110.6

100.0
99.1
98.9
99.7
99.6
100.3
100.7
100.2
100.6
100.3
100.7
100.5
100.0
98.6
98.8
98.7

100.0
106.3
107.2
105.1
104.1
95.6
92.3
95.2
96.9
99.4
97.8
100.9
102.3
107.1
107.7
104.8

[Bata for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Bata for hours and wages from 8 establishments 1890, 1897; 9, 1891,, 1893, 1898, 1901; 10,
1894, 1896, 1899, 1903; 11, 1892, 1895, 1900, 1902.
Bata from 12 establishments 1904.]
Average 1880-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
36.1
101.4
83.3
101.4
72.2
70.8
95.8
120.8
156.9
161.1
173.6
119.4
168.1
86.1
78.5

100.0
97.3
100.5
102.4
100.2
100.4
100.9
98.3
99.2
100.5
100.3
100.0
99.0
98.0
96.4
97.8

100.0
111.6
89.7
91.6
89.9
85.7
91.2
127.0
109.2
98.9
105.8
128.5
135.8
147.3
185.9
169.7

SPINNERS, MULE, Male *

[B ata for employees from 20 establishments 18901903. Bata for hours and wages from 20 estab­
lishments 1890; 21, 1891; 22, 1892-1903. Bata
from 22 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897.................
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902.;...............
1903
......
1904
.......

Year.

SPINNERS, FRAME, Male.

LOOM FIXERS, Male*

[Bata for employees from 22 establishments 18901903. Bata for hours and wages from 22 estab­
lishments 1890; 23, 1891; 24, 1892-1903. Bata
from 22 establishments 1904.]*
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

DYERS, Male*

[Bata for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Bata for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 7, 1892-1903. Bata from 5
establishments 1904.]

100.0

99.8
99.4
95.4

102.1

97.9
99.5
108.3
104.1
97.6
96.3
108.7

111.8

117.1
123.7
125.0

[Bata from 11 establishments.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896............. .........
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
104.8
106.2
92.4
94.8
112.4
102.9
98.6
95.2
99.5
91.0
95.7
98.6
89.0
84.3
84.3

100.0
101.0
101.0
101.0
99.7
99.4
99.7
99.2
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
98.9
99.0
99.0

100.0
91.4
93.2
110.7
114.2
96.2
97.8
99.5
102.3
98.2
96.4
110.0
110.0
116.5
115.2
111.0

77

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR, 1890 TO 1904,

T a b le I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

CO TTO N G O O DS—Concluded.
WEAVERS, Male.

WEAVERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 16 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 17 estab­
lishments 1890; 19,1891,1893, 1897,1903; 20,1892,
1894-1896, 1898-1902. Data from 20 establish­
ments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 19 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890; 20, 1891; 21, 1892-1903. D ata
from 21 establishments 1904.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.
100.0
80.3
80.4
84.5
98.2
95.0
98.0
100.2
117.1
120.7
125.4
124.3
116.3
121.3
117.2
109.0

100.0
99.2
100.7
101.5
99.5
99.0
99.7
99.3
100.1
100.5
100.5
100.0
100.2
99.5
98.9
98.5

100.0
113.5
103.1
99.0
107.6
98.6
96.6
102.9
95.3
91.5
92.1
105.1
104.3
110.7
118.3
115.3

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
98.7
103.7
101.6
101.4
102.7
102.7
99.6
97.2
97.6
94.9
97.0
91.7
93.0
87.5
86.1

100.0
101.1
101.5
101.8
100.2
96.6
99.8
99.6
98.6
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.6
99.6
99.7

100.0
99.1
98.6
99.7
105.2
99.6
98.3
103.5
100.8
98.4
96.8
1C9.8
109.6
112.2
114.3
113.5

D Y E IN G , F IN IS H IN G , A N D P R I N T I N G T E X T IL E S .
BLEACHERS, Male.

CALENDRERS, Male.

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 11 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 10 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......... 1...........
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
79.6
81.5
96.3
107.4
95.4
105.6
100.0
113.0
101.9
115.7
122.2
138.9
159.3
185.2
198.9

100.0
101.4
101.4
100.7
99.6
99.3
99.6
99.6
99.0
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.5
99.5
99.8
99.7

100.0
99.8
94.6
97.7
99.7
99.2
100.2
102.5
101.6
102.7
101.7
102.9
102.2
103.3
104.2
103.7

100.0
105.6
100.0
95.8
97.2
93.0
101.4
105.6
108.5
94.4
104.2
94.4
105.6
115.5
112.7
103.9

100.0
102.5
102.5
101.6
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.2

17098— N o. 59— 05------ 6




100.0
101.0
100.9
100.5
99.8
98.8
99.8
99.9
99.2
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2

100.0
98.8
99.3
100.1
101.4
99.5
98.8
100.3
100.9
101.1
100.0
103.0
104.1
105.5
106.0
107.9

MITERS, Male.

COLOR MIXERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 4, 1892-1903. Data from
6 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904............. .........

100.0
93.9
98.8
102.4
100.0
92.7
95.1
92.7
102.4
106.1
117.1
123.2
126.8
132.9
147.6
146.8

100.0
97.3
98.8
100.2
101.6
97.4
100.3
101.0
100.6
102.0
100.6
105.1
103.7
104.1
105.9
106.4

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903: 13 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
95.3
115.0
106.2
104.7
98.5
95.3
97.5
98.7
94.5
94.8
93.6
107.4
99.2
106.6
97.8

100.0
102.0
102.0
101.3
99.8
97.3
99.9
99.9
97.6
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.5

100.0
99.4
96.5
98.5
101.8
98.7
98.9
101.8
101.4
101.3
101.6
104.9
103.8
106.0
107.6
108.2

78

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATION S—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

D Y E IN G , F I N IS H IN G , A N D P R I N T I N G T E X T IL E S —Concluded.
ENGRAVERS) Male.

PRINTERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 5, 1892-1903. Data from
5 establishments 1904. ]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893 .....................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897 .....................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
101.8
98.2
101.8
94.7
91.2
78.9
100.0
101.8
108.8
122.8
138.6
115.8
124.6
103.5
106.7

100.0
101.8
101.8
101.3
99.3
99.2
99.1
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.4
99.3
99.0
99.6

100.0
99.3
98.2
99.1
96.7
98.6
99.9
100.4
101.2
103.7
102.8
103.6
106.5
105.8
105.9
106.6

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 6, 1892-1903. Data from 6
establishments 1904.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
107.3
100.0
94.5
98.2
85.5
96.4
96.4
101.8
107.3
110.9
103.6
110.9
125.5
112.7
106.7

100.0
101.7
101.7
101.1
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.4
99.3
100.1

100.0
97.0
97.8
100.8
102.7
103.2
99.6
100.3
100.3
98.1
100.3
100.5
100.7
100.8
100.3
100.5

E L E C T R IC A L A P P A R A T U S A N D S U P P L IE S .
ARMATURE WINDERS, Male.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 7 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
68.3
56.1
63.4
63.4
97.6
114.6
136.6
129.3
129.3
136.6
175.6
175.6
187.8
222.0
204.0

100.0
100.9
100.7
100.8
100.8
101.3
101.4
98.3
98.8
98.1
98.7
99.4
94.7
94.7
94.6
94.4

100.0
98.3
100.8
99.3
98.1
94.0
95.7
108.3
102.0
101.9
101.6
99.7
111.7
109.7
112.8
109.9

MACHINISTS, Male.

100.0
50.4
57.8
58.5
61.5
82.2
112.6
114.8
137.8
157.0
165.9
206.7
220.7
258.5
264.4
205.6




100.0
99.0
99.4
99.4
99.5
100,1
100.3
100.1
100.6
100.7
100.7
101.0
95.3
95.2
95.2
95.2

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
50.0
56.3
56.3
62.5
62.5
75.0
143.8
156.3
118.8
200.0
181.3
206.3
256.3
262.5
203.1

100.0
100.0.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.2

100.0
101.1
100.0
100.0
99.1
98.7
97.4
98.5
101.0
103.9
100.6
104.9
103.8
104.9
105.2
105.4

PATTERN MAKERS, Male.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 7 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891........................
1892........................
1893........................
1894 ......................
1895........................
1896.......................
1897........................
1898........................
1899........................
1900........................
1901........................
1902........................
1903.......................
1904.......................

JBRASS FINISHERS, Male.

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 5 estab­
lishments 1904.]

100.0
101.1
100.1
99.4
99.4
96.2
102.0
97.9
99.4
101.4
103.3
106.4
110.8
107.4
108.7
110.4

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 4 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
75.0
75.0
100.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
175.0
250.0
250.0
225.0
250.0
263.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.2

100.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
109.7
116.0
116.4
99.3
105.0
107.2
116.3
115.6

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

79

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

FLOUR.
BOLTERS, Male.

LABORERS, Male.

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-19J3; 21 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
104.3
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7

100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.4

100.0
100.9
100.9
101.4
101.4
99.6
100.4
98.8
98.7
99.0
99.0
100.8
103.7
106.6
106.5
106.6

MILLERS, Male.

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 31 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
81.3
82.4
83.0
84.7
84.1
88.1
118.8
119.3
129.0
127.3
127.8
134.1
134.1
131.3
130.6

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.2
99.5
99.5
99.3
99.4
99.4
98.4
96.9
96.9
97.0

100.0
97.0
97.3
97.4
97.8
97.8
99.1
103.1
103.0
103.8
103.5
103.9
115.1
117.6
118.0
117.8

MILLWRIGHTS, Male.

[Data from 33 establishments 1890-1903; 39 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 18 establishments 1890-1903; 26 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
92.5
92.5
94.8
94.8
96.5
96.5
106.4
106.4
109.2
111.0
112.1
111.6
116.2
119.1
119.9

100.0
99.7
99.7
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.3
100.5
100.2
99.8
99.8
99.8
95.4
93.0
93.4

100.0
100.4
100.6
100.3
100.4
99.9
100.2
99.4
98.7
100.0
100.2
101.5
102.1
107.8
110.7
111.6

100.0
93.8
87.5
93.8
114.6
95.8
91.7
100.0
93.8
120.8
114.6
110.4
102.1
106.3
104.2
116.7

100.0
100.1
100.4
100.1
99.2
100.0
100.2
99.8
100.9
99.6
99.8
100.0
100.4
100.2
100.3
100.1

100.0
100.2
99.7
100.7
101.9
99.8
98.5
98.3
98.6
101.4
1QP.9
102.9
103.6
105.4
106.2
107.0

99.3
98.4
97.8
97.2
97.5
97.6
98.0
96.5

101.6
103.5
105.3
107.5
113.7
114.5
114.6
114.0

PACKERS, Male.

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 35 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................

100.0
88.0
88.9
90.7
90.7
91.7
89.8
102.8




100.0
101.1
99.8
100.4
101.0
101.2
101.0
100.0

100.0
98.5
102.9
101.6
96.8
96.4
94.1
99.5

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904....'................

107.4
118.5
126.9
134.3
146.3
151.9
156.5
143.9

80

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SH O P.
BLACKSMITHS, Male.

B O I L E R M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data from 166 establishments 1890-1903; 192 es­
tablishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99
......
1890
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
ployees.
100.
99.
100.

101.

101.

88.
93.
95.
93.

110.

115.

120.

130.
139.
142.
130.

100.0

100.0

100.2

1 01 .6
1 01.2

100.5
100.5
99.9
99.3

100.2

99.7
99.8
100.2
99.8
99.6
97.8
96.8
95.7
95.5

101.4

101.4
99.1
98.6

100.1

98.6
98.0
99.9
101.7
104.4
107.7

111.8
110.2

BOILER RIVETERS, Male.

[Data from 97 establishments 1890-1903 ; 96 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
! 1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per
wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
105.8
102.2
105.1
101.3
87.5
89.9
97.9
94.8
107.2
108.4
116.9
125.5
128.6
134.6
121.3

100.0
101.2
101.2
100.6
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.1
99.3
99.6
99.2
98.0
97.1
96.3
96.1
95.0

100.0
99.4
98.8
99.1
99.0
100.2
100.8
100.7
99.9
100.3
101.7
106.3
107.1
107.3
109.2
113.2

B R A S S F I N I S H E R S , M a le .

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 16 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903; 26 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
189?..................
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0

84.8
131.6
62.0
117.7
98.7
94.9

100.0

100.
101.
101.
99.
100.

100.
100.

100.0

107.0
92.9
108.5
93.3
94.3
99.0
96.8

102.6

77.2
89.9
141.8
132.9
168.4
102.5
149.4*
130.2

96.1
109.6
94.8
101.5
115.3
113.1
119.2

100.0
108.7
104.8
102.5
103.1
86.5
94.4
89.6
96.3
102.2
111.5
108.4
120.8
127.5
142.4
136.9

100.0
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.2
99.7
99.7
99.9
100.0
100.2
100.2
98.5
98.6
95.1
92.9
92.1

100.0
100.7
102.2
101.4
99.9
101.1
100.9
100.0
98.0
97.5
98.2
102.0
101.1
109.6
111.9
113.3

CO RE M A K E R S , F e m a le

CORE MAKERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 40 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 40 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 41, 1902, 1903.* Data from
104 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 5 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0

95.7
97.0
97.0
102.4
95.7
95.7
95.7
92.7
107.3

122.0

134.1
134.1
154.9
154.9
128.1




100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2

99.9
100.2

100.1

99.4
99.8
99.7
99.5
98.4
97.5
95.7
94.7

100.0
100.2

100.3
100.9
99.0
97.2
98.1
100.3
101 .2
101 .2

101.4
102.9
107.0
106.3
113.0
116.4

100.0
142.9
85.7
71.4
57.1
85.7
85.7
71.4
100.0
114.3
171.4
157.1
114.3
185.7
185.7
165.8

100.0
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.7
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.2
98.4

100.0
83.3
102.3
109.6
116.6
.05.0
135.5
107.9
97.5
96.6
75.4
88.7
93.9
86.5
97.0
100.3

81

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E S H O P —Concluded.
MACHINISTS, Male.

LABORERS, Male.

[Data from 128 establishments 1890-1903; 186 es­
tablishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ...................
1897 ..................
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.

100.0
102.6
100.2
103.2
98.4
81.1
93.7
97.8
94.0
109.1
119.8
126.8
135.6
143.5
154.3
145.1

100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.1
99.4
100.1
100.0
99.5
99.9
100.3
99.7
97.7
97.1
96.0
95.7

100.0
99.6
101.6
102.2
101.7
98.2
98.3
99.6
99.9
99.2
99.9
102.7
104.7
107.0
111.7
113.2

1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.

100.0
90.5
96.8
100.9
100.9
90.9
93.6
92.3
97.7
114.1
122.7
115.9
133.2
137.3
142.7
134.8

100.0
100.0
99.8
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
99.9
100.1
99.5
99.1
96.8
94.8
94.0

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893...............; ....
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
97.9
100.0
99.9
104.9
80.1
90.8
95.6
93.4
111.9
125.5
130.9
141.2
151.8
158.5
135.7

100.0
100.7
100.6
100.2
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.7
100.0
99.3
99.1
97.0
95.7
94.9
94.0

100.0
100.5
101.2
102.3
101.9
97.5
97.5
99.6
99.7
99.0
100.8
103.6
106.8
110.3
112.9
112.8

MOLBERS, IRON, Male.

MOLDERS, BRASS, Male*

[Data from 38 establishments 1890-1903; 52 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................

[Data from 218 establishments 1890-1903; 228 es­
tablishments 1904.]

100.0
98.4
99.8
102.3
101.5
98.5
,96.2
101.1
100.3
100.9
101.1
102.9
107.5
114.0
117.0
117.3

[Data from 183 establishments 1890-1903; 179 es­
tablishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
99.6
99.3
102.0
107.0
84.7
93.5
97.8
91.9
108.7
115.6
127.4
127.5
133.4
141.8
116.2

100.0
100.4
100.5
100.3
99.8
99.7
100.0
99.9
99.8
100.0
99.7
99.6
98.6
97.2
95.8
95.1

100.0
100.6
101.5
100.9
101.2
97.9
98.0
99.2
100.0
99.1
101.7
106.7
108.4
114.6
120.2
119.5

99.5
100.1
99.3
98.9
97.7
96.3
94.8
94.4

99.5
101.1
100.9
104.3
106.8
111.4
116.2
117.3

PATTERN MAKERS, Male.

[Data from 161 establishments 1890-1903; 178 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................

100.0
92.2
94.1
94.4
101.4
85.8
98.8
100.1




100.0
100.6
100.6
100.5
99.8
100.0
99.9
99.7

100.0
100.3
101.0
101.0
102.1
96.6
97.7
99.9

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

96.4
114.0
122.3
124.1
120.2
126.7
132.9
120.5

82

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATION S—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, ee page 8.]

F U R N IT U R E .
CABINETMAKERS, Male.

CARVERS, HAND, Male.

[Data for employees from 50 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 50 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 51,1893-1903. Data from 55
establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
92.0
91.6
102.1
101.3
95.9
92.8
96.9
105.4
103.3
118.3
112.8
108.4
119.6
125.7
127.7

100.0
101.2
100.5
99.7
99.4
98.4
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.7
100.4
99.9
98.3
96.8
96.7
95.9

100.0
101.8
102.3
104.5
103.6
100.1
98.2
97.2
98.1
95.7
98.6
100.4
107.2
115.1
116.9
119.0

FINISHERS, Male.

100.0
96.2
97.4
105.1
110.3
106.4
97.4
96.2
93.6
92.3
103.8
94.9
107.7
115.4
88.5
77.9

100.0
100.8
100.5
99.4
98.8
98.3
98.5
100.7
100.5
100.7
101.7
100.2
98.0
95.4
94.1
94.8

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.....................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
83.3
94.9
121.8
94.9
91.0
98.7
91.0
100.0
102.6
126.9
94.9
101.3
124.4
120.5
117.6

100.0
103.1
99.8
96.0
102.6
99.2
102.2
101.6
99.5
99.8
96.4
101.2
99.4
97.2
99.8
97.3

100.0
97.0
103.2
113.7
97.7
95.6
84.6
95.2
101.0
99.7
112.3
102.2
112.3
119.0
112.7
115.9

MACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male.

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 21 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903 ; 25 estab­
lishments 1904.]

100.0
97.6
104.6
100.9
102.1
99.4
96.8
100.1
100.3
98.3
99.9
102.3
115.8
127.7
141.3
137.9

SAWYERS, BAND, Male.

[Data for employees from 41 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 41 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 42,1893-1903. Data from 53
establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1890.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
99.4
99.5
98.2
96.3
93.8
97.1
102.9
104.4
102.1
105.5
112.0
118.8
115.4
115.7
124.1

100.0
101.4
101.0
100.0
100.0
98.0
99.4
99.9
99.3
100.2
100.8
100.8
101.1
100.6
100.3
99.7

100.0
100.7
101.1
101.4
99.8
98.6
98.6
99.2
100.4
99.5
101.1
102.1
103.0
108.7
112.2
111.1

SAWYERS, CIRCULAR, Male.

[Data for employees from 25 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 25 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 26,1893-1903. Data from 32
establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 25 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 25 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 26,1893-1903. Data from 33
establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1595.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.*.....................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
94.4
94.4
92.6
98.1
90.7
96.3
101.9
101.9
113.0
118.5
124.1
129.6
137.0
135.2
128.9




100.0
101.4
100.3
99.5
100.5
96.3
99.3
100.8
100.0
100.0
101.9
101.3
100.8
100.8
100.7
99.6

100.0
105.2
102.6
102.7
101.2
99.1
98.8
97.7
98.4
97.1
97.5
100.5
103.7
104.4
105.8
109.5

100.0
90.9
90.9
91.8
92.7
92.7
99.1
109.1
106.4
110.0
113.6
114.5
108.2
110.0
120.0
121.4

100.0
100.5
100.4
100.3
100.3
96.2
100.4
100.3
100.5
100.3
100.8
99.9
99.3
98.9
99.1
98.5

100.0
101.7
102.2
102.6
102.0
97.9
98.7
98.0
99.4
98.4
99.2
102.9
107.1
111.4
113.4
113.9

83

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

F U R N I T U R E —Concluded.
SAW ITERS, JIG, Male,

UPHOLSTERERS, Male.

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 8 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 18 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.4
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
98.9
95.7
94.6
93.1
93.1
92.3

100.0
92.9
100.5
98.6
100.9
100.9
100.3
98.6
101.9
100.9
104.4
107.6
113.8
124.1
124.1
132.5

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.7
99.3
107.4
100.0
98.7
93.3
98.0
98.0
100.7
106.0
106.7
113.4
113.4
112.1
114.3

100.0
100.5
100.3
99.9
100.3
100.2
100.1
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.6
98.3
94.4
94.9
92.1
91.3

100.0
99.4
101.4
100.2
98.2
100.6
99.9
98.1
97.6
100.6
104.0
106.0
121.1
125.2
125.3
125.1

VARNISHERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 35 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 35 establish­
ments 1890-1892; 36, 1893-1903. Data from 42 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ...................

100.0
86.0
90.0
97.6
92.7
87.2
90.3
95.1

100.0
101.5
100.8
100.3
99.8
97.6
100.2
100.3

100.0
97.7
99.2
98.3
99.2
100.2
97.3
94.6

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

115.5
116.1
128.0
130.4
134.0
143.2
137.4
134.5

99.3
100.5
99.7
99.9
99.5
98.3
98.6
97.7

105.5
98.1
109.9
106.3
109.7
117.1
112.4
114.4

GAS.
LABORERS, Male.

CHARGERS, Male,

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
145.3
132.1
110.4
89.6
85.8
84.9
93.4
91.5
77.4
87.7
89.6
102.8
88.7
83.0
(<*)

100.0
100.1
100.3
101.3
101.9
102.0
101.7
101.6
101.2
97.9
92.0
92.3
94.1
92.2
94.3
(a)

100.0
98.9
98.4
99.5
100.0
100.2
100.5
100.6
100.2
100.8
100.9
103.9
91.5
98.2
102.8
(<*)

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 23 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
104.3
68.6
65.7
57.1
120.0
82.9
67.1
164.3
174.3
101.4
138.6
111.4
135.7
182.9
216.2

a Chargers and retortmen combined as stokers in 1904.




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.5

100.0
98.7
98.1
94.1
99.8
103.9
98.1
103.3
103.5
98.7
101.7
96.6
105.5
99.7
99.1
101.9

84

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le II.— E L A T IV E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
R
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

G A S—Concluded.
PIPE FITTERS, Male,

RETORT MEN, Male.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 21 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
68.9
60.7
72.1
86.9
95.1
111.5
104.9
91.8
200.0
114.8
109.8
109.8
188.5
132.8
165.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.5
97.9

100.0
102.3
102.4
101.7
102.5
101.6
101.7
101.3
99.6
91.5
95.4
100.1
94.8
98.3
103.0
101.9

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ploye 3s.
m o
122.0
1212
117.0
102.8
100.9
103.2
107.3
96.3
67.4
62.4
78.0
72.0
71.6
78.9
(«)

100.0
102.1
102.3
102.5
102.2
101.8
101.1
101.9
101.9
91.1
93.1
87.0
95.6
89.0
93.2

(a)

100.0
98.2
97.2
102.9
99.2
99.2
98.5
98.9
99.3
103.4
103.1
104.5
94.2
123.3
100.1

(a)

G LA SS.
BATCH MAKERS, Male.

BLOWERS, FLINT GLASS, Male.

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 14 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903 ; 7 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
89.7
103.4
103.4
103.4
89.7
> 89.7
89.7
103.4
103.4
110.3
103.4
103.4
106.9
100.0
102.1

100.0
101.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.8
98.8
98.8
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.4
100.4
99.7
100.1
99.9

100.0
98.6
98.6
98.6
99.4
101.9
101.7
101.9
99.4
99.9
100.2
100.5
100.2
100.6
103.0
103.4

BLOWERS, GREEN GLASS, Male.

100.0
61.3
109.5
73.0
59.9
65.3
76.6
115.3
134.7
135.6
168.9
195.9
175.2
173.0
191.4
231.0

100.0
101.3
99.5
100.2
101.8
99.7
99.3
99.4
99.7
101.5
97.7
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1

100.0
97.2
98.4
96.9
98.6
105.6
98.9
102.3
103.4
96.5
102.3
101.4
106.1
105.5
106.8
106.0

BLOWERS, WINDOW GLASS, Male.

100.0
101.1
98.7
106.4
99.4
100.2
97.9
99.3
96.0
94.7
106.4
117.3
125.2
118.1
120.2
132.2

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
120.8
108.3
104.2
104.2
95.8
87.5
83.3
104.2
104.2
100.0
104.2
108.3
95.8
97.6

a Retortmen and chargers combined as stokers in 1904.




100.0
99.8
99.7
99.9
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.3

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 3 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 4 establishments.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

10C.O
107.1
123.6
97.3
68.9
100.4
94.7
107.6
94.2
96.9
109.3
100.9
140.9
148.0
160.4
184.5

100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.1
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.3
100.1

100.0
110.8
104.5
109.8
104.0
94.6
75.1
88.3
93.8
110.1
109.0
131.4
111.6
144.9
158.5
111.2

85

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

Table I I .— R E L A T IV E W AGES AN D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]
G L A S S — Continued.
CUTTERS, WINDOW GLASS, Male.

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1899; 1,1900; 2,1901-1903. Data
from 3 establishments 1904.]

Year

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 3 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
112.5
112.5
100.0
95.5

100.0
98.8
99.5
99.5
98.8
100.2
101.1
101.1
101.1
98.8
101.1
102.2
100.4
100.4
98.8
99.2

100.0
110.8
108.5
107.6
101.8
103.3
80.0
91.5
91.2
100.3
106.8
100.9
114.1
119.3
123.9
96.5

GAFFERS, FLINT GLASS, Male.

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 5 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

FLATTENERS, WINDOW GLASS,
Male.

100.0
112.8
110.3
115.4
118.0
94.9
92.3
89.7
89.7
92.3
89.7
92.3
100.0
110.3
112.8
114.1

100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
97.4
99.7
98.0
98.5
99.9
101.0
101.6
101.7
101.0
101.0
101.9
103.4
105.3
105.6
106.6

GATHERERS, WINDOW GLASS,
Hale.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
83.3
83.3
83.3
100.0
100.0
83.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
101.6
101.6
101.6
99.3
99.3
101.6
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3

100.0
108.1
106.4
105.4
106.8
97.1
74.2
85.9
95.9
108.3
111.9
125.0
116.4
141.9
143.9
117.8

GATHERERS, FLINT GLASS, Hale.

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903 ; 5 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
125.9
125.0
96.4
92.0
83.9
92.0
92.0
92.0
100.0
103.6
134.8
146.4
161.6
208.9
182.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2

100.0
96.3
97.1
97.7
98.4
101.0
99.8
100.4
102.8
102.5
103.9
104.1
105.3
109.7
114.4
112.2

GATHERING BOYS (BIT)', Hale.

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903 ; 3 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 5 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.....................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890
..........
1891
..........
1892
..........
1893
..........
1894
..........
1895
..........
1896
..........
1897
..........

100.0
96.0
116.0
108.0
104.0
104.0
96.0
88.0
84.0
108.0
108.0
88.0
100.0
104.0
96.0
96.0




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
104.9
98.3
103.3
100.6
92.7
76.8
92.0
100.7
115.3
115.4
134.0
122.5
165.1
179.0
123.3

1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.

100.0
100.0
100.0

104.9
107.3
107.3
124.4
119.5
82.9

70.7
70.7
70.7
70.7
70.7
64.6

100.0
100.0
100.0

-99.9
99.8
99.8
99.6
99.7
100.4
100.5
100.2
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
100.1

100.0

99.7
99.7
99.4
99.2
99.2
98.4
98.6

101.1

101.3
103.0

102.2
102.2
102.2
102.6

109.8

86

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

G E A S S —Concluded.
LABORERS, Male.

LEERSMEN, Male.

[D ata from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 12 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
71.4
77.6
91.8
102.0
161.2
161.2
175.5
114.3
108.2
108.2
104.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.2
92.1
89.8
90.1
93.4
92.8
92.8
93.6
97.7
98.0
109.1
107.8

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 14 establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
108.8
108.8
114.0
108.8
87.7
93.0
93.0
94.7
96.5
89.5
100.0
110.5
107.0
103.5
99.8

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.1
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.8
100.0
100.2
99.6
99.5
99.3

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
99.8
99.9
100.1
99.8
99.4
99.9
99.8
98.2
99.9
101.1
103.1
103.6

PACKERS, Male.

TEASERS, Male.

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 14 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 12 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904............ ...........

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
102.0
103.0
107.0
108.0
98.0
85.0
88.0
102.0
100.0
106.0
103.0
102.0
100.0
91.0
87.7

100.0
101.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.3
98.3
99.2
100.5
100.2
100.4
100.7
100.6
100.6
99.5
98.8

100.0
99.8
99.6
100.4
100.7
99.7
102.6
100.8
98.5
99.1
98.5
98.2
101.0
100.4
106.3
109.3

100.0
101.7
108.5
108.5
106.8
96.6
98.3
94.9
96.6
89.8
100.0
96.6
96.6
100.0
94.9
88.6

100.0
100.1
100.5
100.5
100.4
99.8
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.3
100.0
99.8
99.8
100.0
99.7
99.4

100.0
103.3
101.5
101.5
102.3
100.3
100.1
99.2
98.7
95.3
97.6
99.3
99.3
98.5
103.3
105.0

H AR N ESS.
COLLAR MAKERS, Male.

CUTTERS, Male.

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 23 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 21 establishments 1890-1903 ; 33 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
92.4
91.0
92.4
95.8
93.8
102.1
109.7
108.3
109.0
103.5
115.3
111.1
115.3
111.8
113.4




100.0
100.4
100.4
100.2
99.7
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.5
99.7
99.4
99.2
98.3
97.6

100.0
100.8
100.4
101.4
100.7
100.0
98.6
99.8
99.2
99.2
100.0
102.1
107.6
109.3
115.3
117.5

100.0
92.0
93.1
97.7
97.7
98.9
95.4
101.1
104.6
106.9
117.2
116.1
116.1
124.1
121.8
128.0

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.9
99.7
98.7
97.8
97.8

100.0
100.9
100.4
99.6
100.3
99.5
100.5
99.7
98.9
100.1
99.9
101.4
104.3
106.0
118.6
122.7

87

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

H A R N E S S —Concluded.
FITTERS ANJD FINISHERS, Male.

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 22 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
87.3
94.5
90.9
88.2
85.5
99.1
110.9
111.8
108.2
127.3
120.9
130.0
151.8
161.8
155.6

100.0
100.8
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.6
99.4
98.9
99.2
99.5
98.8
99.1
98.5
97.8
95.8
95.7

100.0
99.9
101.9
101.3
100.6
98.3
98.4
96.1
97.4
102.1
103.7
104.0
110.4
114.6
124.5
128.0

HARNESS MAKERS, Male.

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 29 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
89.8
91.6
87.4
90.2
88.8
97.2
105.1
110.7
115.3
124.7
129.3
128.4
128.4
133.0
133.0

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.4
99.5
99.0

100.0
99.1
99.6
99.8
100.7
99.2
98.7
99.5
99.9
102.1
101.4
101.9
102.2
102.7
105.9
107.4

STITCHERS, HAND, Male.

STITCHERS, MACHINE, Male.

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 14 estab. lishments 1904.]

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903; 29 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
90.6
90.6
96.9
103.1
103.1
100.0
93.8
96.9
112.5
125.0
134.4
153.1
162.5
159.4
146.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.2
97.6

100.0
100.5
100.5
101.4
101.7
98.1
97.4
98.8
101.8
100.1
99.4
100.1
101.3
108.9
116.1
116.2

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
94.0
90.0
99.0
90.0
97.0
102.0
105.0
103.0
109.0
108.0
131.0
132.0
132.0
145.0
148.6

100.0
100.5
100.4
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.5
98.8
97.6
97.7

100.0
99.9
100.8
99.8
102.2
99.1
97.3
98.1
99.6
100.3
102.9
102.6
107.9
110.4
114.2
116.1

H ATS, FU R .
BLOCKERS, Male.

COLORERS, Male.

[Data from 4 establishments.]

[Data from 4 establishments.]

Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ...................
1897 ...................
1898 ...................
1899 ...................
1900 ...................
1901 ...................
1902 ...................
1903 ...................
1904 ...................

100.0
75.0
80.8
86.5
92.3
113.5
98.1
96.2
101.9
115.4
134.6
111.5
121.2
117.3
119.2
105.7




100.0
101.8
101.6
100.7
101.5
100.9
101.0
101.5
101.5
94.5
94.9
94.7
94.6
93.2
92.1
92.2

100.0
106.4
97.9
100.3
92.9
98.8
91.9
93.4
95.5
110.0
112.8
113.6
106.9
113.2
111.2
111.8

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
112.5
95.8
129.2
133.3
79.2
79.2
79.2
87.5
104.2
87.5
112.5
116.7
129.2
141.7

100.0
100.0
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.4
99.7
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.7
99.5
92.2
90.6
90.7

100.0
102.7
98.1
95.8
96.4
98.9
100.6
106.3
101.4
100.8
99.0
100.4
100.6
109.6
112.1
115.5

88

BULLETIN OP 'TH E BUREAU OP LABOR,

Table I I .— R E L A T IV E W A G ES A N D H O U RS OP L A B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y

OCCUPATIONS— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

H A T S , F U R —Continued.
CONERS, Male.

CURLERS, Male.

[Data from 5 establishments.]

[Data from 4 establishments.]

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
86.4
100.0
100.0
109.1
104.5
86.4
86.4
100.0
104.5
118.2
136.4
154.5
140.9
140.9
145.9

100.0
100.6
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.6
99.6
99.7
97.3
97.1
97.4
92.6
90.8
90.7

100.0
99.7
99.5
99.5
100.9
99.2
99.6
94.3
106.2
99.9
101.3
102.7
103.1
120.1
130.3
136.0

FEEDERS, Male.

100.0
66.7
83.3
83.3
83.3
100.0
83.3
66.7
133.3
83.3
183.3
200.0
216.7
200.0
200.0
133.3

100.0
101.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.8
100.1
101.0
99.2
100.1
98.4
98.7
98.9
97.0
97.0
95.9

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903- .....................
.
1904.......................

100.0
76.2
76.2
81.0
85.7
109.5
95.2
104.8
114.3
109.5
142.9
123.8
123.8
100.0
133.3
147.1

100.0
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.2
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.1
99.5
99.6
99.9
99.3
99.4
99.4

100.0
110.9
116.8
113.0
101.5
98.4
93.2
93.2
90.5
92.1
90.4
90.1
101.8
106.5
107.3
109.7

FEEDERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1892,1894,1897-1903 ; 4, 1893, 1895,
1896. Data from 3 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 2 establishments.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative
number hours per Relative
wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

100.0
91.9
96.6
90.3
92.4
99.9
102.9
97.2
124.9
100.8
102.7
101.5
100.4
119.8
119.6
119.7

FINISHERS, Male.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894..... .................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
89.5
105.3
105.3
105.3
110.5
84.2
89.5
89.5
105.3
94.7
89.5
105.3
121.1
115.8
136.9

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.4
100.0
100.0
100.4
100.3
97.5
97.8
98.2
91.2
89.2
88.8

100.0
100.8
99.1
99.1
99.1
98.7
100.8
99.6
100.2
100.2
102.6
101.7
99.9
113.1
115.6
121.8

FLANDERS, Male.

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 5 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
105.8
95.7
94.2
91.7
85.2
85.9
92.8
104.3
109.4
134.7
141.5
149.5
170.0
183.4
148.1




100.0
100.4
99.3
99.8
99.8
100.4
100.0
100.1
99.6
100.2
100.5
100.2
100.5
98.5
95.7
97.9

100.0
103.2
97.6
99.1
98.4
100.7
101.3
99.8
98.0
98.7
103.4
102.9
106.4
114.6
116.8
110.8

100.0
92.9
78.6
78.6
71.4
92.9
78.6
85.7
78.6
142.9
178.6
250.0
300.0
250.0
242.9
219.2

100.0
100.8
100.4
100.4
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.9
100.4
100.3
99.3
99.9
98.6
95.7
92.4
93.5

100.0
124.0
101.8
109.5
91.8
113.7
88.2
97.5
92.5
89.4
91.6
90.6
91.9
108.9
95.3
96.4

89

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T a b le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation ol relative figures, see page 8.]

H A T S , FTJR—Continued.
H A R D E N E R S ) M a le .

FUR BLOWERS, Male*

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4 establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
90.0
100.0
120.0
100.0
80.0
90.0
90.0
80.0
90.0
130.0
190.0
200.0
190.0
200.0
219.0

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
98.4
98.6
98.7
91.2
89.5
89.3

100.0
103.9
96.1
96.4
100.0
95.9
101.0
101.0
100.7
96.7
108.4
107.2
106.4
119.6
131.1
141.1

POITNCERS, Male.

100.0
104.2
100.0
91.7
112.5
112.5
91.7
83.3
70.8
108.3
137.5
212.5
275.0
383.3
379.2
379.2

100.0
100.2
100.1
100.4
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.8
99.7
99.5
99.6
100.2
100.3
91.4
89.8
90.5

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
90.5
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
85.7
100.0
104.8
109.5
109.5
109.5
123.8
119.0
119.0
142.8

100.0
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.4
100.2
99.5
99.6
97.4
97.3
97.9
92.3
92.3
92.3

100.0
107.0
100.6
102.6
100.3
100.0
103.1
97.4
99.9
95.3
93.7
94.5
96.7
109.0
110.0
115.0

S I Z E R S , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

[Data from 5 establishments.]

[Data from 5 establishments.]
100.0
104.6
106.2
86.6
95.6
92.1
93.8
106.9
105.6
111.0
97.4
100.0
90.6
88.7
96.4
91.5

STIFFENERS.i Male.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
89.1
97.7
71.3
88.4
106.6
100.0
104.3
102.6
116.8
124.4
150.5
155.4
141.9
152.5
157.7

100.0
101.9
101.4
101.3
101.1
100.4
100.3
101.0
101.0
95.9
95.8
96.6
96.9
94.0
92.1
93.3

100.0
109.7
105.0
110.9
96.4
102.5
98.7
89.3
91.3
96.5
99.9
108.3
111.1
114.1
128.1
125.8

T R I M M E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 5 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893........ .............
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
120.0
80.0
100.0
140.0
140.0
120.0
120.0
120.0
60.0
100.0
100.0
110.0




100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
99.6
100.6
100.1
99.4
99.4
99.6
99.6
99.6
101.9
96.6
94.9
94.9

100.0
91.4
85.8
92.8
94.1
101.7
103.9
108.1
106.7
108.3
107.3
113.0
124.7
104.1
120.8
122.6

100.0
63.9
78.7
71.0
90.3
114.2
93.5
98.7
116.1
123.2
151.6
165.2
165.8
151.6
146.5
150.2

100.0
101.1
101.5
101.0
99.6
99.4
99.6
98.7
99.4
99.9
99.8
100.0
100.1
96.2
93.8
94.4

100.0
108.0
105.0
105.9
102.2
97.3
89.7
97.5
97.5
97.4
99.6
103.9
98.3
100.1
98.4
104.2

90

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I I . — R E L A T IV E W AG ES A N D H O U RS O F L A B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
OCCUPATION S— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

H A T S , F U R —Concluded.
WEIGHERS, Female.

[Data from 3 establishments.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................

100.0
83.3 ,
116.7
100.0
116.7
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.3
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4

100.0
102.5
102.0
98.3
99.8
95.8
98.3
100.9

Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
150.0
166.7
166.7
166.7

100.4
100.4
96.8
96.8
96.7
91.2
88.7
89.4

98.3
99.8
104.0
106.2
106.1
112.7
114.5
113.7

H O IS E R Y A N D K N IT GOODS.
BOARDERS, Hale.

F1MSHERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 6,1902,1903. Data from 8
establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 6,1902, 1903. Data from 8
establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
98.7
103.9
105.3
119.7
76.3
107.9
93.4
84.2
109.2
106.6
111.8
105.3
118.4
102.6
114.8

100.0
101.3
101.3
101.3
99.7
98.2
99.4
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.6
99.2
99.2
98.2
98.4

100.0
107.9
100.3
90.3
106.8
91.5
110.8
99.9
99.0
99.3
94.2
91.9
116.2
107.8
125.4
123.5

KNITTERS, Male.

100.0
76.0
91.8
137.2
100.5
79.1
98.5
105.1
99.5
109.2
101.0
121.9
115.8
114.8
122.4
97.0

100.0
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.0
91.3
101.1
100.8
100.8
100.6
100.6
98.1
97.8
98.1
96.0
96.7

100.0
106.6
113.2
105.2
97.4
92.4
93.4
100.9
98.8
100.7
92.3'
99.3
103.4
118.7
121.3
119.7

KNITTERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 4,1902,1903. Data from 4
establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 7 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 6, 1896, 1897, 1902, 1903; 5,
1898-1901. Data from 9 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
47.7
59.1
84.1
75.0
56.8
81.8
115.9
138.6
177.3
165.9
181.8
220.5
202.3
193.2
154.0




100.0
102.8
102.8
102.8
100.5
91.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.8
99.8
98.7
98.7
98.7
97.4
97.6

100.0
107.7
118.6
99.8
113.4
110.0
112.2
90.4
81.8
85.4
80.7
90.9
92.3
95.7
123.9
115.4

100.0
82.1
109.7
107.6
124.8
90.0
97.9
96.6
86.6
98.3
105.5
106.2
100.3
109.7
121.4
99.0

100.0
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.5
95.7
100.4
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.3
99.6
99.3
98.6
98.2

100.0
104.9
104.8
99.0
97.4
101.1
104.6
98.5
98.7
96.2
94.5
91.5
103.1
112.4
116.6
111.4

91

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904,

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

H O S IE R Y A N D K N IT GO O DS—Concluded.
MENDERS, Female.

LOOPERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1893; 5, 1894-1902; 6, 1903. Data
from 5 establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
94.8
139.7
143.1
132.8
70.7
75.9
69.0
82.8
87.9
96.6
115.5
87.9
82.8
96.6
93.8

100.0
101.9
102.0
102.0
101.6
91.5
101.3
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
98.3
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.1

100.0
99.8
103.3
100.0
104.2
95.9
106.7
117.4
91.0
93.3
88.5
80.7
94.3
92.9
106.1
93.3

100.0
94.1
76.5
117.6
117.6
111.8
94.1
105.9
100.0
94.1
105.9
111.8
94.1
117.6
141.2
207.6

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
85.5
95.2
166.3
109.6
110.8
89.2
74.7
68.7
120.5
84.3
106.0
116.9
120.5
110.8
127.9

100.0
101.8
101.8
101.8
99.5
95.9
99.4
99.7
100.1
100.2
99.8
99.2
98.8
99.0
98.6
98.6

100.0
108.9
105.5
99.6
100.8
92.4
113.4
97.8
92.1
95.8
93.8
104.1
92.3
112.2
110.5
106.1

PRESSERS, Female.

PRESSERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891, 1902, 1903; 4, 1892-1901.
Data from 5 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ....................
1891 ....................
1892 ....................
1893 ....................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ....................
1897 ...................
1898 ...................
1899 ...................
1900 ...................
1901 ...................
1902 ...................
1903 ...................
1904 ...................

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 6, 1902, 1903. Data from 6
establishments 1904.]

100.0
101.1
101.1
101.1
100.8
92.3
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
98.3
97.4
99.0
99.3
99.5

100.0
107.4
105.2
92.6
98.9
94.6
94.4
100.9
100.8
103.9
101.4
106.6
103.6
107.1
116.2
112.9

[Data from 2 establishments.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
45.0
25.0
130.0
160.0
55.0
155.0
85.0
80.0
115.0
125.0
135.0
250.0
135.0
135.0
125.0

100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
97.2

100.0
110.8
102.3
101.5
99.8
109.6
91.4
105.4
97.9
88.8
92.9
107.1
104.0
110.3
100.9
122.3

97.5
90.0
80.0
97.5
95.0
90.0
107.5
110.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

92.0
96.4
114.4
110.1
112.8
120.9
119.0
117.3

RIRRERS, Female.

[Data from 2 establishments.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................

100.0
107.5
102.5
112.5
107.5
102.5
97.5
92.5




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.5
112.3
103.1
103.4
91.8
98.8
87.2

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

92

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le II.— E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
R
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

IR O N A N D ST E E D , B A R IR O N A N D STEED .
CATCHERS, Male.

HEATERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890, 1894, 1895; 14, 1891-1893, 18901898; 15,1899; 16, 1900-1903. Data from 17 es­
tablishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99
......
1890
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......

100.0

93.8
93.8
96.9
112.5
103.1
109.4
87.5
96.9

100.0

103.1
103.1
103.1
112.5
118.8
106.6

100.0
102.8

101.4
101.4

100.8

101.3

100.0
100.8

97.8
97.6
96.2
97.0
96.9
98.4
98.3
97.0

100.0

116.1
104.8
99.8
91.8
87.4
87.8
101.7
98.4
94.0
118.4

121.2

120.7
137.4
144.7
131.4

[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 14,1891-1893,1896-1898;
15, 1899; 16, 1900-1903. Data from 19 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
95.9
100.0
98.0
100.0
91.8
104.1
93.9
106.1
100.0
102.0
110.2
93.9
95.9
108.2
105.6

100.0
103.3
101.8
102.2
101.7
101.8
101.0
101.3
95.7
96.0
95.1
96.3
99.7
99.9
99.2
98.7

100.0
116.9
106.5
98.0
92.1
94.2
88.0
95.4
97.6
98.5
112.6
119.7
109.8
116.9
121.1
111.3

HEATERS9 HELPERS, Male.

HOT STRAIGHTENERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 12 estab­
lishments 1890, 1894, 1895; 13, 1891-1893, 18961898; 14,1899; 15,1900-1903. Data from 18 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 11 estab­
lishments 1890; 12,1891-1899; 13,1900-1903. Data
from 16 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
105.7
103.8
107.5
103.8
96.2
92.5
96.2
96.2
98.1
101.9
86.8
90.6
92.5
83.5

100.0
103.9
102.4
102.6
102.5
100.3
100.9
100.1
96.1
96.0
95.3
98.3
101.1
101.0
100.7
100.9

100.0
118.2
101.7
99.1
96.6
90.9
93.5
96.2
94.9
96.9
111.8
119.0
116.6
127.8
135.8
127.0

ROLLERS, Male.

100.0
103.4
93.1
96.6
117.2
103.4
103.4
93.1
96.6
96.6
100.0
113.8
103.4
110.3
113.8
101.8




100.0
101.5
101.3
101.6
100.0
101.1
100.5
100.9
97.7
97.7
97.6
98.6
99.0
99.0
98.9
98.9

100.0
101.5
101.5
101.5
101.5
97.0
100.0
100.0
95.5
98.5
103.0
111.9
111.9
113.4
114.9
105.0

100.0
102.8
101.4
101.5
101.5
101.8
101.0
101.2
98.1
95.4
95.4
96.1
96.2
96.6
95.5
94.3

100.0
102.0
102.6
96.9
98.9
87.1
103.7
108.2
91.7
96.2
112.9
110.7
120.0
140.3
136.1
120.4

ROUGHERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 14,1891-1893,1896-1899;
15,1900-1903. Data from 16 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
102.8
105.1
99.6
92.6
89.0
89.7
98.8
106.0
102.0
114.5
119.5
124.9
134.0
136.8
129.5

[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 14,1891-1893,1896-1898;
15, 1899; 16, 1900-1903. Data from 20 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
101.8
96.5
93.0
96.5
101.8
108.8
96.5
94.7
107.0
103.5
112.3
105.3
101.8
107.0
98.6

100.0
101.9
101.3
101.5
101.6
101.3
100.9
101.5
97.3
96.8
95.9
97.3
97.6
97.8
97.5
97.3

100.0
105.6
108.9
106.5
102.2
92.0
87.5
95.6
99.5
90.0
112.1
119.3
126.1
140.6
144.4
134.2

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

93

T able I I . — R E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

IR O N A N D ST E E B , B E SSE M E R C O N V E R T IN G .
B O T T O M M A K E R S , M a le .

BLOWERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 7, 1891, 1894-1896; 8, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900; 9, 1901-1903. Data from 10 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.
100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
125.0
141.3

100.0
104.3
97.3
101.6
99.2
99.3
99.9
99.9
99.6
99.6
99.6
88.5
90.4
90.4
89.5
82.2

100.0
85.3
101.3
92.4
98.1
97.7
102.0
108.3
101.1
104.0
110.8
121.4
129.6
134.7
144.4
133.1

100.0
106.7
100.0
100.0
106.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
106.7
100.0
106.7
113.3
113.3
113.3
120.0
106.7

100.0
91.5
101.1
100.7
97.6
103.4
103.4
103.4
98.0
102.9
98.0
93.8
95.1
95.1
99.8
97.7

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.7
88.9

100.0
103.7
99.8
101.6
100.7
99.3
99.3
99.3
98.7
98.9
98.7
94.0
94.9
94.9
99.7
98.8

100.0
126.0
117.7
120.3
105.8
98.6
100.4
95.2
78.2
79.8
78.0
90.2
105.5
115.4
122.2
101.7

M E L T E R S , M a le .

LADLE LINERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 establishments 1890; 7, 1891, 1894-1896; 8, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900; 9. 1901--1903. Data from 10 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890; 7, 1891-1893, 1897-1900; 6, 18941896; 8,1901-1903. Data from 10 establishments
1904. ]

100.0
122.4
111.4
117.7
113.7
92.4
95.1
89.5
86.4
81.2
90.0
101.0
108.4
116.4
127.6
106.8

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890; 6, 1891, 1894-1896; 7, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900; 8, 1901-1903. Data from 10 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903................... .
1904......................

100.0
100.0
121.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.0
121.4
121.4
121.4
148.7

100.0
93.9
95.1
104.9
101.5
100.1
100.1
100.1
101.4
101.4
101.4
92.7
105.4
105. 4
105.4
93.4

100.0
117.4
121.6
112.8
102.5
93.2
94.1
85.4
87.0
92.4
93.8
106.8
97.4
109.7
122.3
98.2

STEEL POURERS, Male.

V E S S E L M E N , M a le .

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 7, 1891, 1894-1896; 8, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900 ; 9, 1901-1903. Data from 10 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 7, 1891, 1894-1896; 8, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900; 9, 1901-1903. Data from 10 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
3899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
114.1

100.0
96.1
97.7
101.2
97.8
97.7
97.7
103.1
102.9
102.9
102.9
85.8
87.7
87.7
87.7
86.5

17098— No. 59— 05------7




100.0
112.0
123.1
118.2
106.8
94.9
94.4
81.7
86.6
88.0
94.3
109.0
122.2
133.6
137.8
121.2

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................|
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
99.7

100.0
100.1
97.7
100.7
98.2
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
92.7
93.9
93.9
93.9
87.8

100.0
116.9
120.1
112.6
106.3
100.0
98.0
94.8
78.3
83.3
89.6
108.7
115.7
126.0
136.3
127.1

94

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

IR O N A N D ST E E L , B L A S T F U R N A C E .
CINDER SNAPPERS, Male.

ROT BLAST REN, Rale.

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 18, 1894, 1895.
Data from 22 establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
103.8
100.0
102.5
97.5
96.9
100.6
99.4
98.1
99.4
100.6
101.9
107.5
97.5
98.1
98.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.6

100.0
102.6
102.7
105.7
102.9
90.8
98.3
102.5
93.4
95.3
106.1
109.9
112.9
113.0
116.9
114.2

KEEPERS, Rale,

[Data for employees from 17 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 18 estab­
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 17, 1894, 1895.
Data from 22 establishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees
100.0
97.0
98.5
104.5
101.5
98.5
97.0
101.5
98.5
101.5
101.5
104.5
106.1
112.1
113.6
116.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
104.0
104.1
105.8
104.2
92.5
94.8
99.1
96.3
96.4
102.9
109.0
109.1
113.8
118.0
114.0

KEEPERS’ HELPERS, Rale.

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 18, 1894, 1895.
Data from 22 establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 18, 1894, 1895.
Data from 22 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ...................
1897 ...................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894................ .
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

1900
1901
1902,
1903
1904

100.0
92.7
95.1
106.1
98.8
100.0
100.0
96.3
96.3
104.9
106.1
104.9
109.8
114.6
113.4
114.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
106.3
108.5
108.8
106.5
92.5
97.3
99.0
91.2
91.1
98.7
103.6
104.1
108.9
111.8
105.4

100.0
89.7
89.7
10811
99.1
99.6
98.2
98.7
99.6
105.8
109.4
107.6
113.9
114.8
107.2
103.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
105.1
107.1
108.3
106.9
88.6
98.6
100.9
90.9
92.2
101.4
105.3
105.6
109.8
113.4
106.0

TOP FILLERS, Rale.

[Data for employees from 16 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 17 establish­
ments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 16, 1894, 1895. Data from 19 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ...................

100.0
87.5
92.3
109.5
101.8
104.2
105.4
98.8




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0 i 1897.......................
103.8 ; 1898.......................
103.9 1899.......................
106.8 1900.......................
105.4 1901.......................
92.5 I 1902.......................
93.7 1 1903.......................
99.1 1904.......................

98.8
101.2
103.0
101.8
95.2
82.1
76.2
68.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.2

95.1
94.7
105.1
108.7
108.6
110.3
112.0
108.2

95

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904,

T ab le I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

[LEATH ER.
FLESHERS, Male.

('O.LORERSy Male.

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 23 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
94.3
91.5
111.3
74.5
118.9
110.4
81.1
88.7
101.9
126.4
119.8
104.7
95.3
104.7
94.7

100.0
100.1
100.0
99.7
100.2
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
100.0
99.7
99.5
99.6
100.0

[Data for employees from 31 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 31 estab­
lishments 1890-1891; 32,1892-1903. Data from 38
establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
weex.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

100.0 Average 1890-99...
95.4 1890......................
97.1 1891......................
98.2 1892......................
99.7 1 1893......................
98.4 1894......................
99.2 1895......................
102.9 1896......................
105.4 1897......................
102.4 1898......................
101.2 1899......................
■ 103.6 1900......................
105.6 1901......................
109.0 1902......................
110.6 1903......................
111.0 1904......................

OIj
AZERS, Male.

100.0
103.8
98.9
106.0
98.9
98.4
103.3
94.5
93.4
94.5
109.9
106.6
104.9
111.5
122.0
109.1

100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.7
99.4

100.0
105.8
104.6
104.4
103.8
97.2
95.7
98.2
96.1
97.2
97.3
101.0
102.4
103.4
105.3
107.5

GLAZERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891, 1894-1903; 9, 1892, 1893.
Data from 18 establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890, 1891; 2, 1892-1894; 3. 1895-1903.
Data from 6 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

100.0
58.7
77.8
86.8
74.6
103.2
101.1
128.6
126.5
110.1
134.4
142.3
133.3
127.5
171.4
160.9

100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.1

100.0
97.8
96.4
98.4
91.3
96.0
106.2
100.9
101.1
105.6
106.5
105.1
114.5
117.5
130.1
125.5

LIMERS, Male.

100.0
17.1
46.3
48.8
12.2
24.4
85.4
68.3
109.8
363.4
231.7
261.0
212.2
168.3
241.5
405.8

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
101.1
98.5
94.6
92.5
98.1
97.8
106.4
108.9
97.5
104.4
107.2
116.5
126.6
125.1
133.6

ROLLERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 29 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 29 estab­
lishments 1890,1891; 30,1892-1903. Data from 38
establishments 1904.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 14 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................

100.0
91.9
95.7
102.7
87.1
94.6
98.4
96.2
105.9
103.8
123.1
120.4
125.8
133.9
148.4
145.2




100.0
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.6
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.3
99.. 6

100.0
105.5
103.5
104.3
102.8
98.4
97.9
96.1
95.5
95.8
99.9
101.9
101.4
105.1
106.4
106.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
105.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
105.3
110.5
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
95.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.6
99.6
101.1
99.6
99.6
99.6
101.1
100.2
1(B. 5
106.1
106.1
113.6

96

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

E E A T H E R —Concluded.
SETTERS OUT* Male.

SHAVERS* Male.

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 28 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 16 establishments 1890-1903; 24 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1808.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
84.0
91.8
117.2
66.8
116.4
106.7
63.4
118.3
107.5
127.2
124.3
131.0
122.0
114.9
103.3

100.0
100.2
100.1
100.0
100.5
99.9
100.0
100.1
99.8
99.9
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.2

100.0
103.6
103.0
98.6
107.8
96.5
96.5
99.9
96.9
95.4
101.9
101.5
103.0
102.7
105.5
108.3

STAKERS, Male.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.....................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
95.6
115.6
114.4
96.7
97.8
94.4
78.9
87.8
111.1
104.4
112.2
113.3
97.8
108.9
115.2

100.0
100.4
100.5
100.4
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.2
100.3
100.4
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.3
100.3
101.0

100.0
112.2
114.0
111.9
115.0
101.0
97.2
89.0
86.5
84.7
88.2
87.5
89.4
92.3
94.3
96.9

TAN YARD HANDS* Male.

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 17 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903; 37 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1898.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
69.5
89.2
112.6
106.6
104.2
111.4
89.8
96.4
107.2
114.4
86.2
123.4
77.8
83.8
83.5

100.0
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.0

100.0
92.1
100.8
105.3
105.0
102.1
102.4
100.0
96.0
94.9
101.6
71.6
76.5
74.1
73.4
75.1

100.0
91.7
92.6
101.8
102.5
97.7
98.6
92.8
98.0
111.3
112.4
108.8
114.0
109.0
113.7
125.5

100.0
99.5
99.2
99.4
99.6
99.7
100.0
100.2
100.6
101.1
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.3
99.8

100.0
103.5
105.1
105.3
103.8
98.2
96.6
97.0
97.8
95.5
97.0
100.2
101.0
104.5
107.1
108.2

100.8
100.8
100.8
100.7
100.8
100.7
99.8
99.9

99.7
97.2
96.0
99.1
101.2
105.6
105.8
104.1

UNHAIRERS* Male.

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 30 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................

100.0
91.6
89.4
95.5
103.4
95.0
94.4
102.2




100.0
99.5
99.6
99.4
99.4
99.6
100.2
99.9

100.0
105.6
104.4
104.4
102.0
95.6
96.6
98.4

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

106.7
112.3
108.9
114.5
124.0
129.1
126.8
108.7

97

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATION S—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 — 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

L IQ U O R S, M ALT.
CELLAR MEN, Male.

BOTTLERS, Male.

[Data from 23 establishments 1890-1903; 40 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896...*..................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
95.0
90.4
96.0
99.8
100.7
87.2
100.5
103.2
105.4
121.6
321.1
187.8
208.6
243.6
244.6

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.1
100.1
92.8
93.2
91.2
91.6
90.6

100.0
98.3
102.7
99.5
98.2
100.6
101.6
99.4
99.8
99.9
99.9
117.9
115.8
124.4
127.3
131.3

[Data from 47 establishments 1890-1903; 57 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904......................

100.0
97.2
96.6
101.0
101.0
98.2
98.4
99.1
104.2
102.1
101.5
105.2
104.2
106.4
109.2
114.2

100.0
100.6
100.3
100.4
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.1
99.8
99.2
98.9
97.4
95.4
92.4
90.2
89.4

100.0
96.5
97.9
98.2
99.7
100.3
100.5
101.3
101.3
101.9
102.4
104.7
107.6
113.6*
117.0
118.7

DRIVERS, Male.

COOPERS, Male.

[Data from 32 establishments 1890-1903; 41 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 46 establishments 1890-1903; 58 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................

100.0
69.6
70.6
75.9
110.2
114.9
116.8
108.3
119.1
103.3
110.9
94.7
102.0
103.0
106.6
103.4

100.0
101.1
100.6
101.0
101.5
101.5
101.3
97.2
101.1
97.2
97.5
98.2
91.8
85.9
85.7
85.3

100.0
99.0
100.2
98.6
98.1
99.4
100.2
100.1
99.8
102.7
101.6
107.4
115.1
125.7
126.8
127.4

100.0
89.4
93.6
94.9
99.1
96.4
101.9
105.0
107.1
105.0
108.0
108.5
112.4
113.6
117.4
120.7

100.0
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.2
98.1
97.2
96.9
98.3

100.0
99.0
99.9
99.3
100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.5
102.3
104.3
107.0
107.5
107.2

KETTLE MEN, Male.

FERMENTERS, Male.

[Data from 32 establishments 1890-1903; 45 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 43 establishments 1890-1903; 56 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................

100.0
86.6
94.9
92.4
105.1
107.6
107.0
100.6
101.9
101.3
103.8
108.3
105.7
110.2
117.2
120.6




100.0
102.2
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.3
99.9
99.9
99.4
98.6
98.6
96.2
93.6
90.2
88.8
88.4

100.0
97.9
96.3
98.2
99.1
99.4
100.3
100.5
101.4
103.4
103.4
106.8
110.3
116.2
119.7
121.7

100.0
96.6
96.6
100.6
100.6
103.4
101.7
99.4
99.4
102.9
100.6
105.7
104.6
108.6
114.9
114.4

100.0
101.2
100.5
100.5
100.3
100.4
100.1
100.0
99.3
98.9
98.9
97.7
95.7
90.8
88.9
88.3

100.0
96.0
97.6
97.8
97.9
98.9
100.4
101.0
102.6
103.8
103.8
105.1
108.6
115.4
119.2
122.1

98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued,
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

[LIQUORS, M A LT—Concluded.
HALT HOUSE HEN.

WASHERS, Hale.

[Data from 21 establishments 1890-1903; 25 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 46 establishments 1890-1903; 56 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
107.9
99.0
95.4
97.4
107.3
99.7
102.3
97.7
94.1
99.0
103.6
105.0
92.1
95.7
* 101.5

100.0
100.0
99.9101.0
100.7
100.8
100.9
100.8
99.9
98.2
97.9
92.9
91.8
90.2
88.6
88.3

100.0
98.0
99.5
96.6
98.7
98.2
98.7
100.1
101.8
103.7
104.7
111.4
114.3
117.5
120.7
122.3

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
100.0
101.6
103.3
112.6
107.7
103.1
94.2
92.0
94.6
90.6
87.9
101.7
102.5
104.3
98.1

100.0
100.5
100.3
100.5
100.7
100.6
100.3
100.2
99.8
98.7
98.4
96.6
93.7
90.3
88.6
88.9

100.0
96.5
96.6
98.1
98.5
98.7
99.8
101.1
101.4
104.1
105.0
108.0
113.2
120.5
124.4
126.6

D U M BER .
BAND SETTERS, Hale.

CANT SETTERS, GANG, Hale.

[Data from 22 establishments 1890-1903 ; 26 estab­
lishments 1904.]
100.0
100.0
100.0
101.8
98.2
96.5
101.8
96.5
98.2
103.5
105.3
103.5
100.0
114.0
103.5
100.7

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.0
100.0
99.7
99.6
100.0
100.1
100.0
98.4
99.1
99.5
98.0

100.0
102.5
102.8
103.7
101.4
96.2
94.7
96.6
98.5
99.7
103.9
104.5
104.5
113.9
115.5
115.0

CARRIAGE HEN, Hale.

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 14 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.2
103.2
90.3
90.3
90.3
90.3
90.3
87.1
90.2

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
‘
97.8
95.8
96.1

100.0
101.3
101.4
101.6
101.5
101.4
99.6
95.4
95.4
99.2
103.4
104.3
104.7
106.7
113.1
113.7

CHOPPERS AND SAWYERS IN
WOODS, Hale.

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 30 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 16 establishments 1890-1903 ; 24 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
96.6




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.5
97.3
97.3
97.8

100.0
98.5
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.5
97.3
98.8
99.1
100.4
107.8
107.1
112.3
117.9
122.8
121.8

100.0
98.2
100.6
100.8
95.0
95.9
97.0
97.5
103.1
103.3
108.1
114.8
115.1
121.4
135.2
183.2

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
100.0
99.8
99,6
100.2
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.4

100.0
98.6
97.8
99.3
95.9
94.7
98.5
98.3
101.0
106.5
109.4
109.5
113.2
115.7
116.3
109.9

99

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

X iU M B E R —Continued.
EDGER MEN, Male.

CIRCULAR SETTERS; Male.

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 19 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890...'..................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
89.3
92.9
92.9
92.9
92.9
92.9
96.4
107.1
114.3
125.0
125.0
132.1
146.4
146.4
136.2

100.0
101.0
100.4
100.4
98.6
98.6
100.4
100.6
100.2
100.0
99.7
98.8
98.7
98.0
98.0
98.1

100.0
105.7
102.8
103.3
102.5
98.7
97.8
97.7
95.8
98.2
97.5
100.9
101.5
101.4
106.7
115.1

FILERS, Male,

[Data from 23 establishments 1890-1903; 43 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
94.2
96.2
96.2
100.0
92.3
94.2
98.1
105.8
107.7
111.5
119.2
125.0
128.8
132.7
132.7

100.0
100.8
100.3
100.3
99.3
99.3
100.4
100.3
100.0
99.8
99.5
99.2
98.9
98.4
98.7
98.2

100.0
104.8
104.9
106.1
104.4
97.7
94.6
97.6
95.5
96.2
98.3
102.9
105.8
105.9
110.2
110.5

LABORERS, Male.

[Data from 36 establishments 1890-1903; 37 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903 ; 42 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
95.9
97.3
98.6
97.3
98.6
95.9
94.5
102.7
106.8
105.5
105.5
113.7
124.7
124.7
120.3

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.1
99.5
99.4
100.2
100.3
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.5
98.8
98.4
98.7

100.0
100.6
101.2
100.1
102.0
97.6
96.4
98.9
98.8
100.4
104.1
107.0
108.2
108.2
112.8
114.8

SAWYERS, RAND, Male.

100.0
93.3
98.5
94.9
95.5
101.3
101.0
97.3
100.7
108.4
109.1
120.1
129.6
136.7
140.7
146.1

100.0
100.3
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.4
99.5
99.1
98.8
97.5
96.8
97.0

100.0
104.8
104.4
103.3
102.8
98.1
95.6
96.7
94.8
97.9
101.2
102.3
105.8
110.6
113.1
113.2

SAWYERS, CIRCULAR, Male.

[Data from 24 establishments 1890-1903; 30 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 18 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ...................
1897 ...................
1898 ...................
1899 ...................
1900 ...................
1901 ...................
1902 ...................
1903 ..................
1904 ...................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................

100.0
98.1
96.2
96.2
94.2
98.1
101.9
98.1
98.1
109.6
111.5
121.2
121.2
128.8
128.8
125.1




100.0
100.3
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.9
99.5
99.5
98.8
98.7
98.0

100.0
101.0
101.9
101.5
102.5
97.8
99.8
98.6
99.5
98.6
101.0
105.0
107.7
•114.8
122.0
119.9

100.0
92.0
92.0
88.0
88.0
88.0
92.0
100.0
108.0
116.0
124.0
132.0
132.0
140.0
140.0
115.3

100.0
101.0
100.6
100.8
98.6
98.6
100.6
100.5
100.1
99.7
99.4
98.6
98.2
96.9
96.9
97.8

100.0
104.9
105.4
102.8
102.9
101.2
100.0
99.5
95.0
94.9
93.7
96.3
99.6
103.5
107.2
113.9

100

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able II.—
RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATION S—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

L U M B E R —Concluded.
SAWYERS, GANG, Male.

TRinOKERS, Male.

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 18 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 36 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.*....................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
96.3
96.3
96.3
100.0
100.0
107.4
107.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.7
107.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.5
99.5
98.8
99.1
98.7

100.0
97.7
97.7
98.5
98.3
93.5
95.2
95.5
107.0
106.7
110.0
113.6
115.4
119.3
122.1
120.1

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99 ..
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
73.4
78.1
87.5
85.9
79.7
79.7
100.0
132.8
131.3
145.3
154.7
165.6
151.6
156.3
174.1

100.0
100.4
100.3
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
100.7
99.8

ioo.o

113.7
108.9
108.1
107.2
97.2
97.4
90.5
88.9
94.5
95.5
98.9
99.2
96.2
98.1
104.4

M A R B L E A N D ST O N E W ORK.
CARTERS, Male.

BED RUBBERS, Male.

[Data from 29 establishments 1890-1903; 50 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
104.8
101.4
104.8
107.6
92.4
100.0
90.3
98.6
99.3
97.2
97.9
111.0
117.9
113.8
110.5

100.0
101.6
100.6
100.6
100.7
100.2
100.6
99.4
99.8
99.9
96.7
96.9
95.1
94.0
90.6
89.9

100.0
96.8
99.1
97.8
98.9
99.5
97.7
102.0
100.2
99.4
108.5
108.8
117.6
124.6
125.6
126.1

LABORERS, Male.

1900.
1901
1902
1903
1904.

100.0
105.9
103.0
109.4
104.5
94.1
94.1
97.0
99.5
98.5
94.1
85.6
106 9
107.9
95.0
101.8




100.0
103.0
102.1
101.6
101.2
99.7
99.9
99.9
98.9
99.1
94.6
100.4
99.6
98.9
99.1
99.5

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897
.............
18&R ...................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
95.8
89.2
93.3
95.0
114.2
100.8
99.2
85.8
95.0
127.5
139.2
138.3
121.7
104.2
100.1

100.0
100.1
101.2
98.5
99.2
102.8
102.7
101.2
99.5
100.0
94.7
94.1
93.8
92.7
93.0
92.9

100.0
99.2
95.4
99.8
99.2
98.3
93.0
103.8
103.7
102.4
107.3
108.0
116.1
125.0
124.8
123.9

LETTERERS, Male.

[Data from 18 establishments 1890-1903; 62 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ...................
1897 ...................

[Data from 28 establishments 1890-1903; 39 estab­
lishments 1904 ]

100.0
99.9
96.6
100.4
102.9
100.1
99.4
99.7
102.1
102.1
96.5
99.4
105.1
108.6
112.4
111.9

[Data from 42 establishments 1890-1903; 38 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
97.4
98.7
96.1
100.0
94.7
101.3
94.7
101.3
103.9
105.3
106.6
111.8
113.2
110.5
112.7

100.0
101.3
100.4
99.3
99.4
100.4
100.3
100.0
100.2
99.5
99.3
96.5
96.0
95.4
91.6
91.1

100.0
97.6
98.0
99.0
97.8
99.1
99.5
102.0
101.9
102.3
102.7
106.1
108.8
112.8
118.0
121.7

101

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I I __ RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1 8 9 0 TO 1 9 0 4 , BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

M A R B E E ANTI) ST O N E W O RK —Continued.
MARBLE CUTTERS, Male.

MARBLE POLISHERS, Male.

[Data from 58 establishments 1890-1903; 71 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per ivages per
of em­
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......

100.0

106.3
109.2
98.8
96.6
88.3
89.5
93.2
95.4
98.1
124.8
129.9
130.2
128.2
133.6
97.4

100.0
102.7
100.1
99.6
99.7
100.9
100.6

100.4
99.9
99.9
96.1
95.4
95.2
95.0
93.0
95.0

100.0

95.8
101.9
100.3
99.7
95.8
95.8
100.9

101.8

101.3
108.7
108.8
115.5
123.3
129.6

121.1

SAWYERS, Male.

100.0

97.8
97.8
98.9
97.8
98.9

100.0
101.1

103.3
103.3
103.3
105.5
109.9
105.5
108.8
107.2

100.0

101.7

101.6

101.7

100.8

100.7
101.1

98.7
98.2
98.0
97.4
96.8
95.3
95.8
95.6
94.5

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
99.2
105.7
108.4
99.6
103.8
101.5
85.6
89.4
93.2
111.8
117.1
119.4
120.2
120.5
113.8

100.0
102.3
101.5
100.5
100.5
100.7
100.8
99.3,
99.1
99.5
95.8
96.2
95.8
96.5
93.8
93.5

100.0
97.5
96.7
99.8
100.0
93.8
93.1
101.3
102.0
103.0
112.7
112.2
118.4
122.9
128.2
125.8

STONECUTTERS, GRANITE, Male.

[Data from 35 establishments 1890-1903; 50 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890
...........
1891
...........
1892
...........
1893
...........
1894
...........
1895
...........
1896
...........
1897
...........
1898
...........
1899
...........
1900
...........
1901
...........
1902
...........
1903
...........
1904
...........

[Data from 29 establishments 1890-1903; 48 estab­
lishments 1904.]

100.0
95.6
96.1
95.4
97.2
98.2
96.5
104.2
104.9
105.3
106.9
108.4
113.4
111.4
115.5
120.2

[Data from 72 establishments 1890-1903; 83 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

100.0
121.0
113.5
113.8
100.4
91.0
88.4
91.5
87.5
90.1
103.0
116.3
109.9
110.5
116.1
109.8

100.0
100.0
99.7
100.0
100.8
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.5
100.6
98.1
95.2
94.8
94.2
92.3
92.2

100.0
102.8
104.8
103.4
99.7
99.0
99.5
99.0
97.1
95.6
99.1
108.1
106.6
108.5
116.5
119.1

STONECUTTERS, SOFT STONE, Male,

STONECUTTERS, NOT SPECIFIER,
Male.

[Data from 49 establishments 1890-1903; 64 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 30 establishments 1890-1903; 15 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......

100.0

110.3
109.4
105.1
103.3
91.4
91.3
98.8
87.2
115.9
87.4
85.8
88.3
96.3
92.3
100.3




100.

103.

100.
100.
101.
100.
100.

97.

100.0
100.5
104.2
103.9
100.5
97.2
96.2
97.0
98.7
101.9
99.9
100.4
102.5
108.6
116.2
117.2

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1391......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
108.9
100.2
114.7
109.6
94.2
92.3
94.4
90.9
83.7
112.1
99.8
128.7
131.7
117.5
97.0

100.0
103.4
101.8
101.9
100.7
98.7
100.6
99.3
97.9
98.9
96.8
95.8
94.4
94.1
93.9
93.4

100.0
99.7
101.4
101.8
102.5
102.5
98.1
99.6
99.9
96.7
97.8
98.7
104.1
107.7
112.3
113.1

102

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

M A R B D E A N D S T O N E W O R K -Concluded.
STONE POLISHERS, Male.

TURNERS, Hale.

[Data from 22 establishments 1890-1903; 26 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......
........
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
98.0
102.0
98.0
110.0
92.0
98.0
104.0
104.0
102.0
98.0
100.0
110.0
118.0
114.0
119.4

100.0
101.5
100.3
99.8
100.9
101.0
100.5
98.1
98.7
99.4
99.7
97.3
97.0
94.4
93.3
93.4

100.0
100.3
100.9
103.3
97.7
93.8
95.5
100.7
105.7
102.4
99.5
95.7
97.0
101.2
106.5
105.8

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 12 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
89.5
105.3
100.0
110.5
100.0
126.3
121.1
121.1
82.3

100.0
101.1
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
98.9
99.2
99.4
99.0
99.4
98.4
98.6
95.5
95.3

100.0
96.5
98.3
98.3
100.6
100.6
99.5
102.1
101.0
101.9
100.9
104.1
102.9
107.9
118.1
120.8

P A P E R A N D W O O D PTJLP.
BACK TENDERS, Male.

B E A T E R S , M a le .

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 15 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
85.4
94.8
91.7
100.0
93.8
101.0
102.1
106.3
117.7
108.3
119.8
117.7
120.8
121.9
123.4

100.0
100.4
100.2
100.3
100.3
100.0
100.4
100.4
100.8
101.2
96.0
95.0
94.5
92.6
93.0
90.6

100.0
97.1
97.4
98.1
97.5
98.9
99.9
98.5
101.8
101.9
109.1
110.0
110.2
111.7
120.2
125.1

BLACK ASH BURNERS, Male.

100.0
111.8
76.5
100.0
88.2
111.8
111.8
105.9
147.1
88.2
70.6
129.4
64.7
64.7
94.1
111.7




100.0
101.3
102.3
101.6
101.9
101.3
101.3
101.5
100.8
101.9
86.0
83.0
86.6
86.6
84.4
83.6

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
97.9
102.6
101.6
99.5
97.9
95.2
100.5
100.5
98.4
104.8
107.9
108.5
112.2
120.1
134.5

100.0
100.5
100.3
100.4
100.9
100.6
100.6
99.5
100.6
100.5
96.2
95.8
92.2
90.7
89.2
86.7

100.0
95.4
98.9
98.6
98.5
100.1
99.9
100.7
100.4
99.8
107.5
108.7
114.1
116.8
123.2
126.1

B L E A C H E R S , M a le .
[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 8 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 2 establishments.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 18 establishments 1904.]

100.0
90.6
99.7
95.3
95.5
97.1
94.2
102.0
102.5
100.1
122.9
113.0
121.0
121.0
135.7
136.7

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
119.1
122.1
129.4
111.8
104.4
86.8
92.6
75.0
72.1
79.4
86.8
86.8
91.2
89.7
101.7

100.0
99.1
99.3
99.3
100.0
99.4
100.5
101.1
103.6
103.9
93.7
101.6
101.6
94.5
94.8
94.3

100.0
96.0
96.9
98.8
98.6
98.1
101.1
100.1
100.5
99.9
109.9
106.6
106.4
108.6
110.4
111.0

103

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T a b le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

P A P E R A N D W O O D P E E P —Continued.
CALENDRERS, Male.

C A L E IV D R E R S , F om a lC i

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 4, 1893. Data
from 7 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 1 establishment.]

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
80.0
92.7
100.0
110.9
100.0
100 0
92.7
89.1
120.0
114.5
140.0
169.1
172.7
190.9
201.0

100.0
102.4
101.7
101.3
99.9
101.3
101.3
101.7
102.2
100.8
87.5
87.1
85.5
84.5
85.1
86.0

100.0
94.2
93.2
92.7
98.9
97.2
102.6
103.3
101.9
98.7
117.0
117.7
122.5
122.9
127.6
127.9

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 1, 1893. Data
from 1 establishment 1904.]
100.0
83.3
83.3
83.3
66.7
83.3
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
133.3
150.0
150.0
133.3
150.0
216.7

100.0
102.7
102.7
102.7
97.2
102.7
102.0
101.5
101.5
101.5
85.5
84.8
84.8
85.5
84.8
84.8

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
105.3
105.3
126.3
126.3
84.2
105.3
100.0
94.7
94.7
68.4
78.9
78.9
84.2
100.0
131.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.8
94.8
94.8

100.0
96.0
107.3
102.3
109.7
93.6
91.0
108.4
95.9
94.4
101.1
105.9
101.0
99.3
97.7
104.5

CUTTERS, Male.

COLOR MIXERS, Male.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

100.0
90.2
90.4
92.5
96.8
99.4
99.7
105.0
105.0
105.0
115.8
113.2
114.8
113.7
123.6
121.1

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 5, 1893. Data
from 10 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
74.6
78.0
84.7
96.6
113.6
113.6
110.2
108.5
111.9
113.6
116.9
130.5
132.2
154.2
137.9

100.0
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.5
101.5
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
85.4
85.0
84.9
84.9
84.4
81.5

CUTTERS, Female.

ENAMELERS, Male.

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13 estab­
lishments 1904.]

100.0
99.8
100.8
100.4
96.2
98.1
96.8
96.6
97.4
97.6
116.4
116.7
115.0
118.2
122.9
131.8

[Data from 2 establishments.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.....................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
107.6
127.2
96.7
103.3
88.0
96.7
98.9
97.8
92.4
89.1
93.5
97.8
106.5
110.9
111.8




100.0
102.7
101.7
101.8
99.2
100.3
99.6
99.5
99.6
99.9
95.9
95.3
94.5
94.6
93.9
94.2

100.0
99.2
99.0
99.2
101.9
98.8
99.2
99.1
99.4
99.6
105.0
104.2
105.0
102.0
109.0
110.8

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
55.6
77.8
80.6
116.7
122.2
105.6
122.2
113.9
105.6
88.9
86.1
94.4
138.9
152.8
175.0

100.0
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
301.9
101.9
101.9
82.8
82.8
82.7
82.3
82.3
82.5

100.0
95.2
96.3
95.6
98.2
96.4
97.2
97.2
97.2
100.1
126.8
128.9
134.8
135.3
142.1
141.5

104

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 — 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

P A P E R A N D W O O D P U L P —Continued.
FINISHERS, Male.

FINISHERS, Female.

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 16 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1893
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
84.4
87.5
90.6
101.6
100.0
93.8
95.3
112.5
114.1
115.6
128.1
128.1
125.0
150.0
152.8

100.0 100.5
100.4
100.2
99.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.6
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.3
99.1
98.1
98.6

100.0
100.2
101.9
100.5
103.7
101.6
100.9
99.8
97.3
96.7
97.4
98.2
98.8
101.4
105.8
105.3

LABORERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 4, 1893. Data
from 6 establishments 1904.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
87.5
112.5
130.0
122.5
77.5
92.5
95.0
92.5
97.5
90.0
107.5
105.0
90.0
107.5
93.6

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.1
99.6
100.2
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
100.1
99.9
100.0
97.4
96.9
97.6

100.0
93.9
105.2
103.0
105.0
94.8
99.6
103.9
98.5
94.5
101.2
103.4
100.6
105.0
107.4
129.3

MACHINE TENDERS, Male.

IData from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 16 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 15 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 16 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 15, 1893. Data
from 17 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902..... .................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
113.6
109.0
98.9
100.0
96.6
103.4
90.4
93.8
84.7
108.5
102.3
134.5
118.1
127.1
134.5

100.0
98.4
98.9
100.5
100.8
100.3
101.4
102.1
101.5
102.3
93.8
96.1
91.7
96.6
96.2
96.1

100.0
97.9
98.7
98.8
97.5
97.8
99.5
99.2
99.9
98.7
112.2
111.0
115.5
109.1
118.5
118.1

PRESS TENDERS, Male.

100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.7
100.0
108.3
108.3
125.0
100.0
90.0




100.0
100.0
100.0
m o
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.0
99.6
99.9
100.2
100.3
100.8
101.0
97.0
97.9
91.3.
88.9
87.9
84.7

100.0
97.1
99.5
100.0
100.4
99.7
99.3
98.6
99.5
100.0
105.7
104.1
111.6
113.4
116.6
120.1

PULP GRINDERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1893; 4, 1894-1903. Data from 3
establishments 1904]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892............... .
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
89.9
97.7
97.7
104.7
97.7
101.6
102.3
100.0
101.6
106.2
118.6
124.0
124.8
133.3
141.4

100.0
97.9
97.9
97.9
96.5
101.5
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.5
101.6
104.0
106.2
106.2
132.1
132.9

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 3, 1893. Data
from 5 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
93.5
93.5
93.5
103.2
103.2
96.8
103.2
96.8
96.8
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
93.5
114.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
83.7

100.0
99.8
99.8
99.8
96.4
99.9
100.3
101.1
101.1
101.1
100.7
100.7
101.5
101.5
115.4
127.8

W AGES

AND

HODKS

OF L A B O R , 1890 TO

105

1904.

T able I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

P A P E R A N D W O O D P U L P -C onclu ded.
R A G S O R T E R S , M a le .

R A G S O R T E R S , F e m a le .
[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 7 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 2 establishments.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......... -...........
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
102.0
90.0
110.0
104.0
92.0
98.0
104.0
118.0
98.0
88.0
114.0
88.0
110.0
134.0
159.4

100.0
98.6
99.5
98.1
98.9
99.8
99.8
100.2
98.5
103.3
103.3
102.3
96.2
103.5
103.2
102.9

100.0
94.5
97.4
99.8
101.1
103.1
102.4
99.2
101.9
98.0
102.3
101.2
103.1
101.0
103.8
103.5

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
3895.......................
1896.....................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
94.2
108.3
109.6
112.8
90.4
104.5
108.3
86.5
86.5
100.6
117.9
92.3
87.2
111.5
127.8

100.0
101.2
99.9
101.0
99.5
98.6
99.3
98.9100.1
101.0
100.5
100.5
102.6
101.1
101.6
301.8

100.0
97.6
100.2
99.8
99.5
102.3
101.5
100.3
99.2
101.4
97.6
99.8
100.1
98.7
97.6
103.5

W O O D C O O K E R S , M a le •

W O O D P R E P A R E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890-1893; 2, 1894-1903. Data from 4
establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1901-1903; 3, 1893 ; 5, 18941900. Data from 7 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893 .....................
1894.......................
1895 .....................
1896 .....................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
75.0
68.8
56.3
43.8
25.0
100.0
100.0
175.0
187.5
137.5
162.5
200.0
200.0
118.8
129.9

100.0
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
110.5
104.0
104.0
101.8
101.6
88.4
87.2
85.8
85.8
87.3
84.0

100.0
95.3
94.7
98.3
99.8
97.7
99.7
99.6
96.2
99.2
119.3
122.3
121.4
119.3
131.1
135.2

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
63.2
63.2
73.7
100.0
94.7
105.3
131.6
121.1
136.8
131.6
126.3
126.3
126.3
110.5
124.8

100.0
99.3
99.3
100.3
100.8
100.6
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.4
98.5
98.2
96.7
96.7
95.3
93.6

100.0
101.4
100.6
100.4
103.1
97.7
98.4
98.7
98.8
98.7
102.0
103.8
114.2
118.1
133.6
134.3

P E A K I N G M IL E .
FRAMERS, Male.

CARPENTERS, Male.

[Data from 65 establishments 1890-1903; 96 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
94.7
94.3
100.3
98.7
92.1
92.7
104.7
101.7
103.4
116.9
122.5
129.9
132.8
135.9
138.4




100.0
101.9
101.1
101.3
100.2
100.1
99.8
98.0
99.1
99.4
99.0
98.4
98.2
97.0
96.5
96.3

100.0
98.7
100.0
99.2
100.2
96.7
98.0
100.8
101.1
102.3
102.8
106.7
108.0
113.6
119.3
122.4

[Data from 26 establishments 1890-1903; 35 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
87.2
91.0
96.3
95.2
89.9
105.9
102.7
105.9
110.6
113.3
111.2
•119.1
115.4
123.4
126.9

100.0
100.5
100.0
100.0
99.8
100.5
99.8
100.2
100.2
100.0
98.9
99.2
98.6
97.9
97.9
98.0

100.0
100.3
101.5
103.0
102.3
98.1
97.0
95.9
97.6
100.2
104.0
105.2
108.6
111.3
114.2
113.7

106

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

T a b le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]
P liA N I N G

M I J j I j— Continued.

GLAZIERS, Male.

LABORERS, Male.

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 34 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 80 establishments 1904.]

Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of emhour.
week.

100.0
Average 1890-99
81.8
1890
......
81.8
1891
......
81.8
1892
......
81.8
1893
......
90.9
1894
......
1895
.................. . .100.0
...
100.0
1896
......
100.0
1897
......
100.0
1898
......
136.4
1899
......
145.5
1900
......
181.8
1901
......
200.0
1902
......
254.5
1903
......
240.9
1904
......

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
100.0
98.3
98.3
98.6
99.1
98.4

100.0
95.7
99.0
100.5
104.7
102.8
97.7
96.8
100.7
99.8
102.4
106.7
105.7
103.1
107.0
111.0

MACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
85.9
89.8
88.7
87.1
93.8
102.0
105.1
103.5
107.0
135.9
110.2
134.4
127.7
115.6
121.4

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.9
100.0
100.2
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.4

100.0
102.4
105.3
101.5
98.3
94.1
95.9
96.5
96.0
101.5
108.5
102.8
110.8
110.8
113.3
110.4

SAWYERS, RAND, Male.

[Data from 92 establishments 1890-1903; 110 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 31 establishments 1890-1903; 53 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ...................
1897 ...................
1898 ...................
1899 ...................
1900 ...................
1901 ...................
1902 ...................
1903 ...................
1904 ...................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0

97.3
97.4
98.4
97.9
96.0
97.8
99.8
101.9
105.8
107.3
111.4
113.7

120.8
122.2

128.6

100.0
101.2
100.6
100.6

100.1
100.4
99.6
99.4
99.7
99.2
99.0
98.9
98.7
97.3
96.7
96.7

100.0

98.4
99.2
99.7
99.6
97.4
98.8
99.7

101 .0
1 0 2 .0

104.0
106.6
108.7
113.0
116.3
115.7

100.0
95.9
95.9
98.0
95.9
95.9
95.9
102.0
104.1
106.1
106.1
110.2
112.2
116.3
122.4
128.7

100.0
101.7
100.2
100.0
100.2
101.5
98.4
99.8
99.6
99.5
99.2
100.5
100.5
99.7
99.5
98.9

100.0
100.7
101.5
100.9
100.0
97.6
99.3
‘ 98.6
99.9
100.6
101.2
102.1
103.6
106.6
110.4
112.0

SAWYERS, CIRCULAR, Male.

SAWYERS, JIG, Male.

[Data from 45 establishments 1890-1903 ; 65 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903; 27 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99
1890 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1864..................
1895 ...............
1896 ..............
1897 ..............
1898 ..............
1899 ..............
1900 ..............
1901 ..............
1902 ..............
1903 ..............
1904 ..............

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0

92.1
93.8
93.3
93.8
98.3
98.3
101.7

102.8
111.8

116.3
120.8

128.7
131.5
137.1
134.1




100.0

100.8
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.5
99.5
99.1
99.9
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.1
99.0
98.3
98.0

100.0

100.2

100.5
100.4

101.2

98.8
98.8
98.1
98.5
99.7
103.6
105.0
108.5
110.8
114.1
114.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.8
103.8
103.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.8
107.7
107.7
103.8
107.7
111.0

100.0
102.6
100.2
100.2
100.0
102.3
96.9
99.8
99.4
99.4
98.9
101.4
101.6
100.4
99.8
99.0

100.0
98.2
100.4
100.1
99.5
97.3
101.0
98.3
99.7
100.9
104.5
103.7
106.1
107.9
110.0
112.5

107

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le I I . — KELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

P L A N I N G M I L L —Concluded.
SAWYERS, NOT SPECIFIED, Male.

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 22 establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................

100.0
96.7
96.7
103.3
100.0
93.3
96.7
96.7

100.0
101.3
100.9
101.1
100.3
100.6
100.4
98.7

100.0
99.0
99.5
101.5
100.8
96.2
97.4
100.7

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year,

1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904......................

100.0
96.7
103.3
100.0
100.0
103.3
100.0
105.1

99.5
98.6
98.4
97.6
96.3
93.6
93.9
92.7

100.8
101.0
103.2
105.3
110.9
120.2
117.9
121.2

POTTERY.
DIPPERS, Male.

JIGGER MEN, Male.

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 4 establishments.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897...'.................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0

100.0
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
99.7
99.7
104.2
104.2
104.2
99.7
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9

100.0
95.1
95.1
96.3
106.2
103.7
97.4
88.9
104.9
104.9
107.4
101.1
109.6
109.6
113.5
116.5

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892. J ...................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................

100.0
107.1
107.1
92.9
121.4
114.3
78.6
100.0
85.7
92.9
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
107.1
85.7

100.0
99.7
99.7
100.1
99.4
99.6
100.7
99.9
100.4
100.1
100.4
101.4
100.4
100.4
96.1
97.2

KILN FIREMEN, Male.

KILN MEN, Male.

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4 estab­
lishments 1904.]

100.0
100.7
101.2
97.8
104.7
99.0
93.6
97.1
92.2
102.1
111.6
101.9
108.8
110.9
113.2
118.8

[Data from 5 establishments.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
91.5
91.5
101.0
101.0
101.0
95.3
95.3
114.2
114.2
95.3
95.3
95.3
104.7
110.4
112.3

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
93.2
104.5
102.3
102.3
102.3
100.0
88.6
97.7
95.5
105.8
113.6
102.3
104.5
102.3
99.5

100.0
99.8
99.2
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.4
101.3
100.6
100.8
101.1
100.7
101.4
101.3
100.9
100.7

100.0
101.3
104.2
103.8
104.0
101.5
102.2
94.0
96.2
95.6
97.3
98.7
95.7
98.6
98.4
99.6

108

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e II— RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATION S—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

P O T T E R Y —Concluded.
MOLD MAKERS, Male.

PRESSERS, Male.

[Data from 5 establishments.]

[Data from 5 establishments.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904............... .

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
216.6

100.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.5
99.5
98.9
98.9
98.9
98.9
97.6
100.6

Year.

100.0
99.7
99.3
99.1
94.1
97.8
97.5
97.3
96.0
114.1
105.0
101.2
104.2
105.5
114.3
103.3

Average 1890-99,..
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892........ ..............
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative
Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
97.0
110.4
94.8
100.7
92.6
88.1
91.1
108.9
111.1
108.1
103.7
104.4
92.6
105.2
97.0

100.0
99.5
99.6
99.9
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.6
100.5
100.3
100.9
100.2
99.8

SAGGER MAKERS, Male.

SETTERS-OGT, Male.

[Data from 4 establishments.]

100.0
101.7
105.6
103.0
110.7
94.9
87.9
92.7
99.9
101.2
102.4
94.4
102.1
99.5
103.6
116.4

[Data from 4 establishments.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......... ............
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
66.7
83.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.7
98.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
98.0
98.0

100.0
99.7
99.6
99.4
98.0
99.1
97.4
97.6
96.6
107.6
105.0
105.2
103.5
106.5
107.6
108.4

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.8
98.8

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.3
100.9
99.5
99.5
99.1
99.5
99.4
100.1
100.4
100.2
101.3
100.7
101.5

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , B O O K A N D JO B .
BOOKBINDERS* Male.

COMPOSITORS* Male.

[Data for employees from 32 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages fr<5m 32 estab­
lishments 1890-1894; 33, 1895-1903. Data from
55 establishments 1904.]

[Data from 85 establishments 1890-1903; 96 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
87.6
89.1
92.2
95.3
93.0
91.5
99.6
112.0
117.8
121.7
129.1
131.8
134.1
136.8
141.9




100.0
101.1
101.0
100.8
100.3
100.2
100.6
100.4
99.5
98.8
97.2
96.2
95.6
94.8
94.5
94.2

100.0
96.1
96.2
98.1
100.0
99.3
99.5
100 2
102.5
103.3
104.8
104.9
108.9
111.1
111.9
115.0

I

100.0
92.9
93.1
94.4
95.3
97.5
99.6
99.4
105.9
107.9
113.6
122.2
120.8
116.7
120.0
118.3

100.0
101.0
101.0
100.9
100.4
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.5
96.9
94.6
93.7
92.4
92.4
91.5

100.0
97.7
98.8
98.9
99.6
100.3
99.9
99.4
100.3
101.0
104.3
107.3
109.6
113.7
115.7
119.6

109

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T able I I . — R E L A T IV E W AGES A N D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , B O O K A N D JO B —Continued.
COMPOSITORS, Female.

ELECTROTYPERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890,1891,1893-1896,1898,1899; 6,1892,
1897; 4, 1900; 3, 1901-1903. Data from 6 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99. . .
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896 .................................
1897 .................................
1 8 9 8 . ................................

1899.......................
1900.......................
1901

..............................

1902.......................
1903.......................
1 9 0 4 ...................................

100.0
100.0
100.0
96.0
104.0
100.0
96.0
108.0
116.0
100.0
96.0
100.0
112.0
112.0
124.0
127.9

100.0
103.3
103.6
100.4
99.8
98.7
98.5
98.8
98.7
99.4
98.8
99.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
92.0

100.0
95.0
94.9
98.9
101.2
100.2
105.0
101.4
102.7
99.2
101.5
107.8
109.2
109.2
116.0
122.1

PRESS FEEDERS, Male.

Average 1890-99...
1 89 0

.........................

189 8
1 89 4

1895

.........................
...........................

..................

1896

.........................

1897
1898

..................
..................

1 80 9
1900
1901
1 90 2

. ..
...............
...............
...........................

1903
..................
1904 .....................

100.0
84.1
85.0
89.0
93.1
92.3
102.0
104.5
109.8
117.9
122.4
130.5
124.8
136.6
134.1
136.6

100.0
100.8
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
100.3
100.4
100.4
98.9
98.6
95.3
95.5
94.2
94.0
93.6

100.0
97.9
100.0
99.0
98.5
100.1
101.1
99.2
99.2
101.6
103.5
119.8
120.1
121.5
124.8
126.7

[Data from 64 establishments 1890-1903; 87 establishments 1904.1

1903.....................
1 90 4

100.0
90.6
93.0
94.0
95.8
95.3
96.9
101.6
105.0
112.5
115.7
117.8
120.1
118.8
120.6
126.5

100.0
100.7
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.3
99.6
97.3
95.5
93.9
92.8
92.8
92.4

17098— No. 59— 05----- 8




Average 1890-99.. .
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895..................................
1896..................................
1897......................
1898......................
1899..................................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904..................................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
97.4
97.4
* 94.7
92.1
97.4
100.0
100.0
110.5
107.9
105.3
97.4
100.0
105.3
102.6
105.8

100.0
100.3
100.3
100.4
100.1
100.3
100.5
100.5
100.7
99.7
97.1
97.2
96.4
96.4
96.4
95.5

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.6
101.4
100.2
98.8
99.1
99.0
99.8
99.7
100.1
106.4
105.1
105.2
108.2

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1897, 1900, 1901; 6, 1898,1899,1902,
1903. Data from 19 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99.. .
1890......................
1891..................................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900..................................
1901......................
1902..................................
1903.......................
1 9 0 4 ....................

100.0
94.1
94.1
88.2
97.1
91.2
91.2
91.2
102.9
102.9
147.1
129.4
132.4
126.5
117.6
140.1

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.5
100.6
100.6
98.6
96.6
92,2
92.2
92.1
91.8
91.8

100.0
99.3
99.3
100.0
98.5
98.3
97.5
99.9
99.6
102.5
105.3
108.9
111.5
114.4
116.9
127.7

PROOF READERS, Male*

PRESSMEN, Male.

Average 1890-99.. .
1 89 0
1891
1 892
....................
1893
1 89 4
- ...
1 89 5
. -1896
.........................
1 89 7
...............
1898
1899
____
1 9 0 0 ...................................
1901
. - .
1 90 2

Year.

PRESS FEEDERS, Female.

[Data from 23 establishments 1890-1903; 65 establishments 1904.1

1891...................................
1892...................................

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 15 estab­
lishments 1904.]

100,0
97.8
99.0
99.4
98.9
99.3
99.6
99.5
100.8
101.0
104.7
107.3
111.1
112.5
114.7
117.0

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1891; 12,1892-1894, 1902,1903; 11,
1895-1901. Data from 33 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99.. .
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896..................................
1897......................
1898..................................
1899......................
1900......................
1901..................................
1902....................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
103.6
103.6
103.6
103.6
96.4
92.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
107.1
114.3
121.4
125.0
132.1
152.8

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.1
94.8
92.3
92.4
88.5
88.3
87.9

100.0
100.6
101.1
98.9
100.0
99.4
100.8
99.9
100.1
101.0
98.1
107.3
109.4
119.2
121.3
119.5

110

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

P R IN T IN G

AND

P U B L IS H IN G , BO O K A N D

PROOF READERS, Female.

SEWERS, ROOK, Female.

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 7, 1892-1894, 1902, 1903; 8,
1895-1901. Data from 15 establishments 1904.]
Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Average 1890-99 ..
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
110.0
140.0
100.0
110.0
100.0
110.0
80.0
120.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
100.0
110.0
110.0
118.2

100.0
. 101.4
102.2
99.7
100.5
99.7
100.3
99.2
100.9
99.1
97.1
94.4
93.1
93.1
93.1
92.5

JO B —Concluded.

100.0
100.8
107.6
106.3
101.1
99.6
92.9
99.3
88.8
97.5
106.1
116.2
107.9
115.7
115.7
118.2

STEREOTYPERS, Male.

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 38 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890 .....................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
111.9
92.9
100.0
78.6
85.7
90.5
100.0
102.4
114.3
121.4
119.0
150.0
126.2
150.0
160.4

100.0
100.7
100.4
100.7
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.9
99.1
98.9
96.8
96.8
95.4
95.2
94.3

100.0
91.2
99.2
99.3
102.5
101.0
100.3
104.0
101.1
102.0
99.5
102.5
95.9
102.0
98.5
100.9

STITCHERS, ROOK, Female.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 8 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 21 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
107.1
107.1
114.7

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
94.8
94.1
94.1
90.7
90.7
90.5

P R IN T IN G

AND

100.0
99.4
99.7
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
105.4
105.1
106.0
112.6
114.2
113.4

100.0
95.7
93.6
110.6
97.9
91.5
93.6
93.6
100.0
112.8
106.4
144.7
151.1
168.1
163.8
156.3

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.8
98.0
93.3
92.3
92.2
91.6
91.6

100.0
97.2
98.3
91.3
100.8
98.5
98.8
101.8
97.2
105.6
110.3
124.3
131.9
134.0
137.8
137.2

P U B L IS H IN G , N E W S P A P E R .

COMPOSITORS, Male,

COMPOSITORS, Female.

[Data for employees from 91 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 91 estab­
lishments 1890; 92, 1891, 1892; 93, 1893 ; 94, 1894;
95, 1895-1903. Data from 135 establishments
1904. ]

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 7 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891, 1894, 1895; 8, 1892, 1893; 6,
1896-1898, 1901, 1903; 5, 1899, 1900, 1902. Data
from 7 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................




100.0
131.4
133.3
130.1
115.6
91.9
79.7
76.9
80.8
78.2
82.2
84.4
83.5
83.1
87.9
92.4

100.0
101.2
100.2
100.1
101.1
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.9
99.1
97.6
97.3
95.9
95.1
94.8
93.9

100.0
101.0
101.5
101.9
99.8
96.4
97.2
98.9
99.6
99.9
103.7
103.4
107.9
* 110.5
113.4
115.6

100.0
132.4
129.4
150.0
132.4
111.8
76.5
82.4
73.5
58.8
44.1
38.2
44.1
44.1
41.2
32.0

100.0
98.1
99.9
99.8
101.2
100.7
101.4
102.2
102.4
99.0
95.4
94.6
95.4
95.1
90.9
91.7

100.0
110.1
97.5
104.7
95.3
93.4
86.6
91.5
93.7
108.4
119.0
118.6
111.5
118.4
128.4
121.5

WAGES AND HOURS. OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

I ll

T a b l e I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

P R IN T IN G

AND

P U B L I S H I N G , N E W S P A P E R —Concluded.

LINOTYPE OPERATORS, Male.

[Data for hours and wages from 1 establishment
1890; 5,1891; 16,1892; 32,1893; 54,1894; 69,1895;
80, 1896; 88, 1897; 94, 1898; 99, 1899; 100,1900;
102, 1901; 103, 1902; 104, 1903. Data from 135
establishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
(a)
(a)

(a)
(a)
(a)

<«)

(a)

(°)

(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)

'

100.0
100.1
98.6
101.4
102.5
100.6
99.4
99.2
99.3
99.5
99.5
99.4
99.9
99.4
99.6
99.4

100.0
110.8
106.2
91.9
97.5
99.9
99.4
99.1
98.7
98.2
98.2
99.6
99.6
101.0
104.0
105.9

PRESSMEN) Male.

[Data for employees from 106 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 106 estab­
lishments 1890; 107, 1891-1894; 108, 1895-1903.
Data from 135 establishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
86.6
88.5
92.5
94.7
95.5
95.3
105.9
107.3
114.5
119.0
123.2
127.9
133.8
138.5
148.4

100.0101.1
101.0
100.9
101.0
100.5
100.1
99.6
98.8
98.7
98.2
97.8
97.5
97.3
97.1
96.3

100.0
97.9
97.7
97.6
98.3
98.9
99.5
101.5
101.8
102.9
104.2
104.9
106.1
109.1
112.6
114.5

STEREOTYPERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 76 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 76 establish­
ments 1890; 77, 1891-1893; 78, 1894, 1895; 79, 1896-1903. Data from 109 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890
..................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893 ....................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................

100.0
84.4
84.7
90.7
97.0
97.3
99.7
109.6

100.0
100.3
100.6
100.7
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.0

100.0
95.3
95.3
98.1
99.3
98.6
99.0
101.8

1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

109.6
111.6
115.0
115.0
119.3
122.6
122.9
129.0

99.4
99.0
98.6
98.7
98.4
98.5
98.5
97.2

102.3
104.6
105.5
104.9
106.5
107.3
108.4
111.5

S H IP B U IL D IN G .
BLACKSMITHS, Male.

BOILER MAKERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from II estab­
lishments 1890; 12, 1891-1895” 13, 1896-1898; 14,
;
1899-1903. Data from 17 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896 ......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
65.5
74.8
84.0
81.5
99.2
137.8
96.6
100.8
140.3
121.8
116.8
122.7
142.0
131.1
110.1

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.9
100.0
100.2
99.4
99.5
99.9
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.2
98.9
96.5

100.0
97.0
100.2
99.7
99.3
96.8
97.8
104.7
104.0
99.4
101.0
101.1
100.6
103.8
105.6
•109.4

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890,1894, 1895; 7,1891-1893,1896-1898;
8,1899-1903. Data from 12 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903......................
1904.......................

100.0
55.3
44.7
62.4
90.1
95.7
107.1
90.1
87.9
209.9
153.9
207.1
175.9
185.8
172.3
175.3

100.0
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.7
99.7
100.1
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.3
98.2

100.0
98.2
98.6
100.6
99.2
95.3
100.0
104.4
101.8
100.5
101.5
99.6
101.5
102.6
101.8
103.0

a No relative numbers shown as reports were secured from but one establishment employing lino­
type operators as early as 1890.




112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 — 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

S H IP B T J IX iD IN G —Continued.
CALKERS, WOOD, Male.

CALKERS, IRON, Male,

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890, 1895; 5, 1891-1894, 1896-1898; 6,
1899-1902; 7,1903. Data from 7 establishments
1904. ]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
...........
1890
1891
...........
1892
...........
1893
...........
1894
...........
1895
...........
1896
...........
1897
...........
1898
...........
1899
...........
1900
...........
1901
...........
1902
...........
1903
...........
1904
...........

100.0

85.3
179.4
76.5
55.9
52.9
50.0
117.6
100.0
126.5
152.9

120.6
182.4

200.0

155.9
164.0

100.0
100.5
101.3
100.3
99.3
98.7
98.8
100.6
99.6
100.6
100.3
99.9
96.1
94.3
97.7
93.4

100.0
92.3
84.7
93.7
103.0
100.3
103.5
107.0
103.1
109.6
102.9
108.1
109.4
124.2
147.8
148.1

CARPENTERS, Male,

100.0
83.4
93.9
85.4
84.2
82.7
99.7
97.6
106.2
119.1
147.3
144.2
145.3
140.0
153.4
151.2

100.0
101.1
100.4
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.5
100.0
99.8
98.5
97.8
96.9
96.2

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890
..........
1891
..........
1892
..........
1893
..........
1894
..........
1895
..........
1896
..........
1897
..........
1898
..........
1899
..........
1900
..........
1901
..........
1902
..........
1903
..........
1904
..........

100.0
92.3
92.3
89.5
111.2
83.2
92.3
91.6
101.4
125.2
121.7
123.1
155.2
155.9
165.0
146.7

100.0
100.4
100.6
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.6
100.0
99.7
99.7
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.6
93.7
92.9

100.0

99.4
99.2
98.8
99.3
98.4
98.3
98.5
100.3
103.8
104.0
105.6

110.1

108.4
109.6
115.5

DRILLERS, Male*

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890-1892,1894,1895; 20,1893,1896-1898;
21, 1899-1903. Data from 24 establishments
1904. ]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 15 establishments 1904.]

100.0
98.6
99.8
98.9
99.8
100.6
100.3
99.0
100.5
100.5
102.1
104.4
105.9
109.4
110.1
110.6

FITTERS, Male,

[Data for employees from 2 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890,1895; 3,1891,1892,1894,1896-1898;
4, 1893, 1899-1903. Data from 9 establishments
1904. ]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
113.3
66.7
100.0
86.7
53.3
66.7
80.0
153.3
93.3
180.0
133.3
140.0
146.7
173.3
146.9

100.0
100.9
99.3
99.0
99.0
98.0
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
99.9
98.6
95.1
94.5
91.9
91.7

100.0
96.6
92.3
94.8
95.0
85.6
93.2
105.7
107.1
114.7
114.7
110.6
110.8
125.6
122.1
125.3

JOINERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estabr
lishments 1890; 7,1891-1895; 8,1896,1897; 9,1898;
10, 1899-1903. Data from 11 establishments
1904. ]

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 12 estab­
lishments 1890-1892,1894,1895; 13,1893,1896-1898;
14, 1899-1903. Data from 16 establishments
1904. ]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.;...................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
60.5
95.3
90.7
89.1
141.9
107.0
103.9
87.6
86.8
133.3
217.8
191.5
165.1
162.0
143.2




100.0
99.0
100.2
100.1
99.8
100.2
100.7
100.6
99.9
99.9
99.6
100.4
98.6
99.6
99.5
98.7

100.0
96.7
92.8
98.3
99.3
92.4
99.4
102.1
105.5
109.4
104.2
100.4
103.5
105.7
107.0
105.7

100.0
87.9
68.6
96.5
91.6
97.1
210.7
95.1
46.7
93.4
111.0
147.8
144.4
149.9
135.4
139.5

100.0
101.1
99.4
99.9
99.7
100.3
101.9
99.9
97.4
100.4
100.1
101.1
100.3
100.0
98.8
97.6

100.0
96.3
99.5
99.2
100.9
99.1
95.9
100.8
106.8
103.3
98.3
101.2
101.4
102.7
106.2
108.2

113

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904,

T a b le I I __ RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

8 H I P B U I X 1 I N G— Continued.
D
LABORERS, Male.

MACHINISTS, Male.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1894; 4, 1895-1903. Data from 17
establishments 1904.]
Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890..................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number
~ of em­ hours per wages per
hour.
week.
ployees.
100.0
205.6
72.2
84.7
69.4
73.6
70.8
63.9
79.2
104.2
169.4
287.5
248.6
234.7
194.4
236.3

100.0
101.5
98.1
99.1
98.1
98.4
99.9
101.3
101.4
100.7
101.4
101.2
101.6
98.9
98.9
98.5

100.0
84.7
103.8
97.3
102.0
103.8
106.1
101.5
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.8
100.5
108.3
110.6
109.8

MOLDERS, IRON, Male.

100.0
96.2
98.1
98.1
84.6
73.1
94.2
111.5
98.1
115.4
123.1
109.6
117.3
126.9
121.2
102.1

100.0
100.2
101.0
100.6
100.5
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.3
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.6
98.2
98.1
96.6

100.0
105.4
95.2
97.0
98.8
95.9
99.6
97.2
103.3
102.3
105.0
107.5
110.2
112.5
115.6
122.0

PATTERN MAKERS, Male.

100.0
60.5
81.6
82.9
84.2
101.3
114.5
127.6
100.0
110.5
135.5
130.3
125.0
142.1
143.4
163.7




100.0
99.9
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.1
99.5
99.8
99.7
99.9
99.1
98.4
97.3
96.4

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

100.0
66.6
67.0
97.6
90.7
89.7
104.0
104.2
104.4
109.9
165.8
135.6
193.8
230.2
200.2
229.4

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.5
100.0
99.9
99.6
98.8
98.3
96.4

100.0
96.8
97.7
97.9
97.5
96.2
100.1
103.4
103.4
104.3
102.5
105.8
105.1
108.2
110.1
112.2

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 9 estab­
lishments 1890; 11,1891-1894,1899-1903; 10, 18951898. Data from 14 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
78.4
78.4
85.1
112.5
102.4
154.8
97.1
83.7
101.0
108.7
132.2
130.8
134.1
131.7
142.5

100.0
103.1
102.4
102.4
102.8
102.7
99.9
97.6
94.8
96.7
97.6
98.9
98.4
97.0
97.8
95.8

100.0
95.1
93.8
95.0
99.3
98.3
105.6
105.7
105.6
102.7
99.0
101.5
101.5
103.3
102.6
108.9

RIGGERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 8 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890; 9,1891-1898; 10,1899-1903. Data
from 13 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

PAINTERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890; 4.1891-1898; 5,1899-1901; 6,1902,
1903. Data from 9 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

[Data for employees from 8 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890; 9,1891-1898; 10,1899-1903. Data
from 15 establishments 1904.]

100.0
102.9
97.8
97.7
97.9
95.3
100.6
99.8
102.7
100.8
104.4
107.0
109.6
112.1
114.3
117.9

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 8,1891-1898; 9, 1899-1903. Data
from 14 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
79.0
70.0
100.0
119.0
115.0
110.0
71.0
54.0
94.0
184.0
244.0
98.0
242.0
228.0
185.5

100.0
99.7
98.1
98.9
100.3
100.7
100.8
100.4
99.6
100.1
101.4
102.0
99.9
102.0
101.9
99.9

100.0
112.1
106.0
101.4
95.0
86.9
92.9
102.1
108.3
104.2
91.0
89.2
99.5
94.9
99.3
102.6

114

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

S H IP B U IL D IN G —Concluded.
RIVETERS, Male.

SAW YERS, CIRCULAR, Male.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 5,1891-1893,1896-1898;
6, 1899-1903. Data from 9 establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
58.0
137.7
155.1
15.9
14.5
11.6
23.2
27.5
247.8
301.4
211.6
331.9
281.2
315.9
389.6

100.0
101.1
100.6
100.5
98.4
98.5
99.9
100.1
99.9
100.7
100.2
100.2
99.7
98.9
99.0
96.6

100.0
81.9
84.3
92.5
94.2
85.2
128.1
107.2
118.1
103.8
104.7
103.7
94.3
107.2
107.1
106.2

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 10 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900..................:..
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
77.8
100.0
88.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
88.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
88.9
100.0
100.0
111.1
96.3

100.0
103.8
103.7
103.1
103.7
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
93.6
93.6
93.3
92.9

100.0
93.6
96.7
96.0
96.7
103.1
103.1
101.7
103.1
103.1
103.1
101.7
108.1
110.6
107.1
106.5

87.0
100.0
100.0
104.3
108.7
104.3
91.3
78.3

100.2
99.4
99.9
100.1
99.8
99.6
94.4
94.4

93.4
101.6
100.9
97.3
100.2
100.3
97.4
100.2

SPAR MAKERS, Male.

[Data from 3 establishments.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ..................

100.0
108.7
104.3
104.3
113.0
87.0
91.3
91.3

100.0
100.7
98.8
99.6
100.0
100.7
100.4
100.4

100.0
109.4
109.2
106.1
101.5
92.6
92.3
93.0

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

S IL K G O ODS.
REAMERS, Male.

BOUBJLERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 2 establishments* 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1896; 3, 1897-1903. Data from 3
establishments 1904.]

[Data from 6 establishments.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................




100.0
100.0
100.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
100.0
75.0
100.0
75.0
225.0
75.0
150.0
100.0
125.0
107.1

100.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
98.2
98.2
97.5
98.2
98.5
99.9
97.4
99.9
98.2
99.1
98.6
98.3

100.0
104.5
99.8
102.1
102.1
102.1
99.8
102.1
93.0
88.0
106.6
93.2
100.6
100.2
101.3
104.5

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
77.1
78.3
98.8
114.5
108.4
92.8
101.2
106.0
112.0
107.2
100.0
100.0
89.2
90.4
88.0

100.0
102.8
102.8
102.2
98.7
98.3
98.7
98.7
99.3
99.1
99.4
99.3
98.9
99.0
98.0
97.5

100.0
107.0
98.6
99.6
98.4
101.8
102.5
102.0
95.5
97.9
96.2
97.0
106.9
114.3
123.4
130.2

115

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T a b le I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

S II jK G OODS—Continued.
LOOM FIXERS, Male.

D Y E R S , M a le .

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 6 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 4 establishments.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
73.1
92.3
101.9
87.5
85.6
97.1
' 98.1
131.7
119.2
117.3
109.6
137.5
384.6
351.9
464.6

100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
98.7
98.2
97.9
96.9
97.9
97.8
98.1
97.4
94.8
94.8
94.8

100.0
97.2
96.1
95.1
92.6
100.9
102.0
103.1
106.6
102.3
104.0
103.8
105.2
102.2
103.1
103.4

P I C K E R S , M a le .

100.0
66.7
133.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
68.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
101.0

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
69.6
73.9
87.0
82.6
95.7
117.4
108.7
126.1
130.4
126.1
152.2
143.5
143.5
139.1
128.9

100.0
104.4
104.5
101.6
98.6
98.4
98.2
98.6
98.4
98.4
98.7
98.5
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.2

100.0
94.7
93.8
96.4
99.0
97.7
103.7
101.0
104.2
105.1
104.3
106.2
105.3
103.0
103.3
104.0

PICKERS, Female.

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 2 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

100.0
109.7
111.7
98.6
84.2
96.8
104.2
82.3
94.2
110.6
107.7
111.4
107.3
111.5
119.4
117.4

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903 ; 5 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

100.0
48.4
61.3
71.0
67.7
83.9
103.2
106.5
135.5
145.2
167.7
154.8
177.4
190.3
161.3
137.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.5

Q F I L L E R S , F e m a le .

SPINNERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1896; 7, 1897-1903. Data from 8
establishments 1904.]

100.0
84.9
108.6
119.8
108.2
97.9
100.9
80.2
93.2
101.5
104.8
107.2
107.1
103.9
123.2
121.9

[Data from 4 establishments.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
81.3
71.4
83.5
86.8
87.9
141.8
85.7
111.0
118.7
127.5
115.4
133.0
127.5
126.4
103.7




100.0
104.0
103.4
101.9
98.4
98.1
97.9
98.5
99.3
99.0
99.4
99.8
99.4
99.3
98.7
98.9

100.0
103.1
99.5
94.8
104.7
96.3
97.4
109.8
99.2
99.2
95.6
95.9
96.4
97.6
107.9
107.7

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
52.9
70.6
92.9
122.4
89.4
112.9
94.1
105.9
129.4
123.5
•151.8
143.5
183.5
195.3
190.1

100.0
102.7
102.7
100.1
99.2
99.5
98.9
99.1
99.0
99.3
99.6
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.8
97.7

100.0
103.2
93.9
99.9
98.5
95.9
99.7
103.4
104.4
99.7
101.5
97.2
105.3
103.3
105.3
109.5

116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

S IL K GOODS—Continued.
TW1STERS-1N, Male.

W AR PER S, Male.

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 4 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 3 establishments.]

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.
100.0
66.7
50.0
83.3
91.7
79.2
50.0
225.0
158.3
83.3
100.0
83.3
145.8
145.8
87.5
76.3

100.0
106.2
106.2
106.2
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3

100.0
98.2
100.2
100.5
97.7
104.2
104.8
98.9
102.3
95.2
98.0
102.6
87.4
100.2
103.4
100.3

WARPERS^ Female.

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896/.....................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
86.1
91.7
97.2
75.0
116.7
133.3
88.9
122.2
111.1
77.8
83.3
102.8
122.2
113.9
75.0

100.0
105.3
105.4
102.9
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1

100.0
93.1
90.6
97.9
100.4
93.8
110.1
96.8
110.5
105.0
101.7
111.6
116.3
122.8
112.4
124.3

W EAVERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1896 ; 6, 1897-1903. Data from 6
establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890; 4, 1891-1896; 5,1897-1903. Data
from 6 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
90.2
100.9
101.8
83.0
86.6
100.0
101.8
113.4
118.8
102.7
105.4
105.4
114.3
117.0
113.2

100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
98.4
97.8
98.6
98.4
98.6
99.3
99.3
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.0
99.4

100.0
96.1
88.6
97.6
103.8
104.3
105.6
111.0
105.7
90.8
96.5
90.0
88.3
94.4
90.9
97.4

100.0
139.6
81.1
97.6
84.9
92.9
102.8
77.4
100.9
110.4
110.8
87.3
83.5
76.4
61.3
46.8

100.0
102.9
103.7
101.1
98.2
98.2
98.3
98.1
99.3
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.6
100.9
100.3
100.1

WEAVERS, Female,

W EAVERS, RIBBON, Male.

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1896; 7,1897-1903. Data from 7
establishments 1904.]

100.0
95.6
98.0
102.6
105.8
101.2
97.3
111.2
97.9
95.5
94.6
98.9
90.8
97.4
94.3
101.4

[Data from 2 establishments.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
76.9
60.6
79.4
79.2
92.1
102.7
96.2
118.1
153.8
141.2
139.8
170.1
187.1
190.3
178.3




100.0
100.8
102.0
100.6
98.7
99.0
98.7
100.2
100.1
99.9
100.0
100.1
99.2
99.4
99.7
99.4

100.0
95.6
89.9
100.6
105.2
111.0
101.0
113.3
96.1
94.5
92.8
96.1
94.0
100.5
99.0
92.8

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898...:................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
104.2
80.5
95.8
89.8
129.7
122.0
78.8
100.0
129.7
67.8
98.3
56.8
49.2
82.2
92.4

100.0
105.0
104.0
105.3
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
94.4

100.0
116.5
98.4
98.7
107.1
90.2
100.1
102.1
88.7
99.1
99.0
93.0
83.4
82.8
86.8
86.9

117

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.
Table

II.— E L A T IV E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
R
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

S IL K GOODS—Concluded.
WEAVERS, RIBBON, Female.

WINDERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890-1899; 2, 1900-1903. Data from 2
establishments 1904.]

[Data from 9 establishments.]

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.................. .
1897.......................
1888.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
135.6
101.7
101.7
76.3
76.3
93.2
118.6
84.7
93.2
110.2
118.6
67.8
161.0
122.0
112.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
92.2

100.0
99.3
102.0
100.2
101.4
100.2
95.6
99.7
97.7
104.0
100.0
95.2
95.4
84.6
89.7
83.3

Year.
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
95.3
82.8
‘ 96.9
102.7
93.0
105.9
95.7
103.1
114.5
108.6
107.8
109.4
110.5
113.3
110.2

100.0
103.0
103.1
102.2
98.4
98.7
98.7
99.0
99.0
98.8
99.1
99.3
99.1
99.2
99.3
98.9

100.0
95.9
84.3
92.8
98.4
106.8
106.2
103.2
101.4
107.4
103.3
105.3
109.1
111.2
115.3
115.2

S L A U G H T E R IN G A N D M EA T P A C K IN G .
B A C K S K IN N E R S , C A T T L E , M ale*

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 8 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
100.0
100.0
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
108.7
120.0
120.0
129.6

100.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
101.5
101.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
97.2
97.2
97.2

100.0
102.9
102.9
104.7
104.3
96.1
96.1
96.1
96.1
97.8
102.9
109.8
109.8
114.8
125.4
129.0

100.0
81.3
81.3
81.3
100.0
100.0
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
125.0
118.8
114.4




100.0
98.4
98.4
98.4
101.4
101.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.0
97.2
97.2

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................

100.0
66.3
66.3
68.6
73.8
90.7
108.1
119.8
140.1
147.1
116.9
129.1
125.6
129.7
144.8
131.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.5

100.0
105.4
104.5
105.1
104.2
97.2
95.2
95.1
93.9
97.7
101.9
99.1
100.5
106.1
111.5
112.8

GUTTERS, HOG, Male.

G U T T E R S , C A T T L E , M a le .

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 9 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

DRV SALTERS, Male.

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13 estab­
lishments 1904.]

100.0
102.8
102.8
105.4
105.1
93.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
98.9
98.9
104.3
107.0
112.3
119.9
122.2

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 12 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99.
.......
1890
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
107.7
107.7
107.7
115.4
115.4
115.4
140.1

100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.8
100.2
100.2
100.4

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
98.6
100.3
99.4
98.1
98.1
99.3
84.3

118

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

S E A U G H T E K I N G A N D M E A T P A C K I N G —Continued.
HEADERS, HOG, Male.

HEADERS, CATTLE, Male.

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903 ; 9 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
105.9
105.9
105.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.1
100.0
100.0
94.1
111.8
111.8
111.8

100.0
101.4
101.4
101.4
100.7
100.7
99.1
99.1
99.1
98.2
99.1
99.1
98.2
95.9
95.9
95.9

100.0
97.8
97.8
97.8
102.0
97.9
101.0
98.5
101.6
105.7
99.8
107.8
107.3
113.8
123.1
126.6

100.0
85.1
87.3
90.7
88.9
99.7
101.3
101.3
108.3
111.6
125.7
130.4
137.4
144.3
143.0
131.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
85.7
85.7
85 7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7

100.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
101.4
101.4
101.4

100.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
107.6
107.6
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
96.2
99.4
99.4
97.8
106.6
107.3

TICKLERS, Male.

LABORERS, Male.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 13 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13 estab­
lishments 1904.]

100.0
105.1
105.0
105.1
105.6
95.4
94.9
94.5
94.9
98.0
101.5
98.0
97.2
101.5
107.8
108.9

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 12 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......:..............
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
60.8
69.0
70.7
74.6
88.7
104.8
115.5
136.1
147.0
132.4
136.6
150.7
153.8
159.4
148.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
104.0
103.3
103.4
103.4
96.2
95.1
95.5
96.8
99.8
102.2
100.5
100.8
107.9
114.0
114.7

RUMP SKINNERS, CATTLE, Male.

SCRAPERS, HOG, Male.

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903 ; 6 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 12 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.:....................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
3902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................




100.0
66.7
66.7
66.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
100.0
111.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
102.9
102.9
102.9
100.3
95.0
95.0
95.0
95.0
100.3
110.8
110.8
110.8
118.7
129.3
136.0

Average 1890-99.;.
1890......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
84.2
57.9
57.9
57.9
57.9
60.0

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
96.0
100.8
100.8
99.9
99.9
100.0

100.0
104.4
104.4
104.4
104.4
104.9
104.9
104.9
104.9
80.9
81.9
101.8
96.6
96.6
95.8
96.6

119

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T a b le I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

S L A U G H T E R I N G A N D M E A T P A C K I N G —Concluded.
SIDE SKINNERS, CATTLE, Male.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 8 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

SPLITTERS, CATTLE, Male.

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903 ; 9 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.
100.0
87.8
87.8
87.8
102.4
102.4
104.9
104.9
104.9
104.9
107.3
107.3
109.8
119.5
114.6
111.0

100.0
98.3
98.3
98.3
101.0
101.0
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.0
98.2
98.2

100.0
104.3
104.3
106.9
1G6.9
95.1
95.1
95.1
95.1
96.7
100.5
106.9
106.9
111.3
116.4
118.8

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.......................

SPLITTERS, HOG, Male.

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
91.3
91.3
91.3
100.0
100.0
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
121.7
126.1
123.2

100.0
98.7
98.7
98.7
100.4
100.4
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100 6
100.6
99.2
98.8
98.8

100.0
104.6
104.6
106.9
106.9
95.0
95.0
95.0
95.0
96.9
100.2
106 9
106.9
111.3
116.3
118.5

STICKERS, CATTLE, Male.

fData from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903 ; 8 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99... I
1890 ..................
1891.......................i
1892.......................|
1893 ............. .
1894 .............
1895 ............. .

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
114.3
114.3
114.3
121.4
121.4
121.4
121.4

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.4
99.4
99.4
100.2
99.6
99.6
99.6

100.0
98.4
98.4
98.4
99.0
99.0
100.9
100.9
100.9
101.2
102.9
102.9
102.0
102.0
109.4
110.1

1897..
1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
111.1
103.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.9
100.9

V

100.0
103.6
103.6
103.6
103.6
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4
98.5
101.5
101.5
108.7
115.3
119.3

STICKERS, HOG, Male.

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ...................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
99.5
99.5
99.5
97.9
97.9
99.5
99.5

1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.4
98.4
98.4

101.1
101.1
104.2
104.2
104.2
105.8
113.7
113.7

120

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

STR EETS A N D SEW ER S, CONTRACT W ORK.
LABORERS, Rale.

[Data from 36 establishments 1890-1903; 70 establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................

100.0
102.3
121.7
112.3
109.7
107.3
91.1
98.9

100.0
101.2
101.4
101.3
101.0
101.0
100.6
99.7

100.0
95.7
98.1
98.2
95.9
97.0
98.5
102.9

Year.

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
85.6
81.4
89.6
99.4
100.1
100.8
103.9
104.2

97.4
97.5
99.0
98.8
96.5
95.2
95.1
95.1

103.7
105.2
104.9
107.1
114.9
120.2
124.3
125.3

ST R E E T S A N D SE W E R S, M U N IC IP A L W O R K .
LABORERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 47 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 47 establish­
ments 1890-1893 ; 48, 1894-1903. Data from 58 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890 ...................
1891 ...................
1892 ...................
1893 ...................
1894 ...................
1895 ...................
1896 ...................

100.0
85.8
86.2
94.6
98.8
115.1
106.1
98.4

100.0
101.1
100.6
100.9
101.5
100.7
100.0
100.6

100.0
99.8
99.5
98.3
98.1
100.9
99.7
98.1

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

104.3
102.3
108.2
106.6
112.0
99.4
93.5
100.1

100.1
98.7
95.7
93.3
92.6
92.7
91.8
91.1

98.7
100.9
105.8
110.3
110.6
111.0
111.8
113.8

T O B A C C O , C IG A R S .
BUNCH MAKERS, HAND, Male.

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 1, 1896-1903. Data from 4
establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
74.4
81.4
65.1
81.4
102.3
86.0
88.4
120.9
127.9
160.5
27.9
90.7
102.3
134.9
134.9




100.0
99.5
98.3
93.3
96.3
96.5
96.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
100.6

100.0
98.9
92.5
84.2
112.2
101.9
97.3
100.5
113.5
100.4
98.5
100.1
107.2
101.7
117.1
121.8

BUNCH MAKERS, HAND, Female.

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 7, 1896-1903. Data from 12
establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
89.6
90.4
84.3
91.2
101.2
94.8
92.8
117.3
108.8
128.9
60.6
90.4
97.2
110.0
105.3

100.0
100.0
100.2
99.4
100.9
101.3
101.2
99.1
98.8
99.0
99.9
93.3
97.0
99.3
100.2
98.7

100.0
97.1
100.1
98.1
99.4
99.9
98.0
100.8
107.8
101.7
97.3
91.9
104.3
101.2
125.3
135.7

121

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T a b le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

T O B A C C O , C I G A R S —Continued.
BUNCH MAKERS, MACHINE, Female.

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 8 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.
100.0
74.8
80.0
87.4
78.5
92.6
134.8
95.6
140.0
100.0
112.6
134.8
148.9
163.0
170.4
180.4

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.8
100.7
100.8
100.8
98.9
99.3
98.5
98.9
99.1
99.1
99.3
99.3
99.3

100.0
101.8
102.0
103.6
101.1
95.0
95.8
96.8
95.8
104.0
104.4
108.6
105.2
113.4
113.7
116.3

CIGAR ROLLERS, HAND, Male.

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 7 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 5, 1896,' 1897; 4, 1898-1903.
Data from 5 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
93.0
95.0
88.9
94.5
96.5
99.0
95.5
111.6
111.1
117.1
71.9
86.9
91.0
91.5
94.9

100.0
99.1
98.9
97.3
98.8
99.7
99.3
100.7
102.0
101.8
102.3
96.4
99.0
99.4
99.8
97.9

100.0
101.2
98.4
96.9
102.3
99.2
100.1
100.1
98.9
100.5
102.2
102.9
113.4
117.4
113.3
114.4

CIGAR ROLLERS, MACHINE,
Female.

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903 ; 7 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
54.1
54.1
78.7
64.7
93.3
138.3
128.9
124.9
141.3 .
122.2
151.4
165.7
204.3
204.9
177.4




100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
99.6
99.2
99.4
99.2
99.5
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.0

100.0
104.5
105.5
104.3
107.7
109.2
96.4
92.0
94.8
91.9
93.8
107.5
129.5
123.0
129.2
136.4

CIGAR MAKERS, Male.

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903 ; 22 estab­
lishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
83.6
101.6
105.8
145.4
120.6
110.6
90.3
69.7
70.6
102.5
136.6
174.3
125.7
127.3
146.6

100.0
97.9
96.4
99.3
100.8
99.5
98.9
102.7
98.7
101.4
104.3
105.1
106.4
104.8
105.4
106.6

100.0
102.8
108.2
105.9
101.2
100.5
99.0
94.0
96.8
92.4
99.2
99.7
105.1
105.9
107.9
111.2

CIGAR ROLLERS, HAND, Female.

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 6, 1896, 1897; 7, 1898-1903.
Data from 16 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
87.8
89.6
77.1
91.4
105.4
97.3
88.1
122.9
116.1
125.3
48.8
74.4
82.4
87.2
98.7

100.0
101.0
101.0
100.7
100.8
101.2
101.2
97.8
98.6
98.7
98.9
93.6
95.8
97.0
97.6
96.9

100.0
99.7
99.7
101.3
97.6
99.0
105.3
97.6
98.7
98.6
102.8
89.1
105.8
111.6
116.7
110.4

PACKERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 11 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 12, 1893-1898; 11, 1899-1903.
Data from 22 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
74.4
75.2
95.3
87.6
103.1
102.3
93.8
117.8
121.7
131.8
72.9
76.7
94.6
83.7
80.6

100.0
100.3
100.2
100.6
100.5
100.4
100.5
99.2
99.6
99.3
99.4
99.6
98.9
99.9
100.8
100.5

100.0
91.8
100.9
99.3
98.4
98.7
100.1
103.1
100.9
102.2
104.7
104.6
108.0
103.1
114.2
118.1

122

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY »

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

T O B A C C O , C IG A R S —Concluded.
PACKERS, Female.

STEMMERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1899; 4, 1900-1903. Data from 13
establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
61.5
92.3
107.7
130.8
115.4
115.4
61.5
100.0
92.3
84.6
115.4
100.0
138.5
123.1
123.8

100.0
101.7
99.7
99.2
98.6
99.0
99.0
101.7
99.4
99.7
102.1
106.6
106.7
106.1
107.0
106.2

100.0
109.1
107.7
109.1
96.6
89.3
88.2
102.1
96.4
102.0
99.6
80.1
116.8
103.5
86.0
93.8

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1897, 1899; 3, 1898, 1900-1903.
Data from 5 establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
52.1
75.5
109.6
144.7
104.3
124.5
120.2
56.4
91.5
121.3
114.9
60.6
72.3
73.4
48.3

100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
97.3

100.0
106.6
103.0
95.5
89.4
95.8
91.9
94.2
109.4
108.9
105.8
118.7
121.8
112.3
141.8
126.2

STEMMERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 13 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 14 establish­
ments 1890,1894-1896,1898-1903; 13, 1891-1893, 1897. Data from 33 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................

100.0
91.0
102.5
93.4
94.8
104.3
106.1
92.1

100.0
100.9
99.8
100.2
98.5
99.9
99.3
99.9

100.0
90.2
88.6
97.3
94.4
100.7
97.2
103.0

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901..
..........
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.2
103.6
112.0
97.3
98.2
105.0
100.9
107.8

99.8
100.7
101.0
99.8
99.3
100.0
101.0
101.4

112.9
109.8
105.8
105.5
120.0
117^0
120.4
125.1

W O O L E N A N D W O R ST E D GO O DS.
BURLERS, Female.

CARDERS, Male.

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 13 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 14 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
107.0
108.0
104.3
78.6
94.1
89.3
100.5
108.0
112.3
120.9
155.6
164.2
175.4
184.9




100.0
103.1
103.1
102.8
99.5
92.8
101.7
101.6
92.4
101.7
101.2
101.4
101.5
100.1
99.6
98.1

100.0
93.3
93.7
97.5
100.5
99.2
99.6
107.9
100.4
102.9
105.5
111.3
108.3
113.3
119.4
118.7

100.0
97.4
103.1
110.8
95.4
99.0
106.2
103.1
102.1
94.4
88.2
99.0
115.9
115.4
135.9
125.5

100.0
101.9
101.8
101.8
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.5
91.8
100.4
100.3
100.2
100.3
99.9
99.5
98.6

100.0
99.1
99.6
101.7
103.4
98.5
97.7
98.1
101.7
99.8
100.0
110.9
106.2
106.7
106.4
115.0

123

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T a b l e I I ___RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation ot relative flgnres, see page 8.]

W O O L E N A N D W O R S T E D G O O D S —Continued.
CARD STRIPPERS, Male.

CARDERS, Female*

[Bata for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Bata for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890, 1901; 2, 1892, 1895, 1897; 1, 1893;
3, 1891, 1894, 1896, 1899, 1900, 1902, 1903; 5, 1898.
Bata from 4 establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
71.0

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
96.3
100.5
100.2
100.5
99.9
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.5
100.5
99.4

100.0
104.1
104.6
101.1
79.1
97.6
103.5
100.3
96.0
108.1
105.5
107.0
112.8
108.9
111.9
127.2

[Bata from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 8 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900;.....................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
92.3
100.0
69.2
76.9
92.3
107.7
100.0
115.4
123.1
100.0
107.7
107.7
84.6
69.2
70.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.4

100.0
92.4
99.3
103.3
99.5
99.0
96.5
104.0
100.2
98.9
106.7
111.4
112.2
116.6
117.6
120.5

COMBERS, Female.

COMBERS, Male.

[Bata from 1 establishment 1890-1903 ; 2 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Bata from 4 establishments 1890-1903 ; 5 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
33.3
122.2
100.0
77.8
77.8
100.0
100.0
155.6
155.6
122.2
144.4
122.2
188.9
244.4
366.6

100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.6

100.0
95.7
98.9
95.7
99.5
107.2
94.0
104.6
95.4
95.9
113.3
106.6
107.9
103.8
102.1
93.3

100.0
76.4
96.4
116.4
129.1
85.5
89.1
98.2
101.8
109.1
100.0
109.1
116.4
110.9
116.4
126.5

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.4
99.9
100.0
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.8
98.3
98.4
98.0

100.0
98.3
98.8
98.5
101.3
93.4
96.3
103.1
102.9
104.0
103.3
110.3
111.1
112.6
110.4
105.8

LOOM FIXERS, Male.

DYERS, Male.

[Bata from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 15 estab­
lishments 1904.]

[Bata from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 16 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.........*.............
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
93.8
90.7
107.3
100.0
97.9
106.7
98.4
107.8
100.5
94.3
95.9
101.6
105.7
106.7
107.9




100.0
99.5
99.6
99.5
98.4
101.8
101.4
100.4
97.8
100.7
100.8
100.5
100.6
99.1
99.6
98.9

100.0
100.2
101.5
100.7
103.1
95.5
96.5
98.5
99.4
101.4
102.6
109.3
106.8
108.4
108.2
108.9

100.0
100.0
96.7
101.3
96.1
90.1
93.4
98.7
103.3
111.2
106.6
117.8
111.8
115.1
114.5
112.5

100.0
100.5
100.4
100.3
99.9
97.1
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.2
100.4
100.3
100.3
99.1
99.0
98.2

100.0
98.3
98.2
100.2
102.0
96.4
96.7
101.2
102.0
102.0
102.8
112.5
112.2
114.0
115.9
112.7

124

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I I . — RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904, BY

OCCUPATION S—Concluded.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

W O O D E N A N D W O R S T E D G O O D S —Concluded.
SPINNERS, MULE, Male.

SPINNERS, FRAME, Female.

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903 ; 4 estab­
lishments 1904.]

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
100.0
73.7
81.8
118.7
100.0
106.7
105.7
94.3
107.2
118.7
94.7
110.5
119.1
146.9
173.7
142.6

100.0
100.9
100.9
100.9
99.6
99.8
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.3
99.2
99.4
97.7
98.0
98.0

100.0
96.7
97.6
98.4
103.5
94.2
95.1
101.1
102.5
104.4
106.5
118.0
115.4
122.8
123.2
120.2

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 9 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 10, 1893-1896; 11, 1897-1903
Data from 14 establishments 1904.]
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
99.3
104.8
97.9
90.4
84.9
105.5
102.7
102.1
110.3
101.4
107.5
105.5
139.0
150.0
148.9

100.0
102.7
102.7
102.6
99.2
90.4
101.6
101.6
94.6
101.6
102.9
101.8
101.7
100.9
100.4
98.8

100.0
96.6
95.5
93.9
101.5
98.1
96.2
103.7
104.2
111.1
99.0
115.6
114.3
114.0
124.8
125.9

WEAVERS, Male.

SPINNERS, MULE, Female.

[Data for employees from 2 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1896, 1901-1903 ; 2,1893,
1897-1900. Data from 4 establishments 1904.]

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890-1900; 11, 1901-1903. Data from
17 establishments 1904.]

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

100.0
128.6
131.4
125.7
80.0
85.7
108.6
82.9
82.9
74.3
85.7
65.7
51.4
60.0
77.1
72.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.1

100.0
99.1
99.8
99.6
110.3
97.3
98.0
97.7
99.3
98.9
99.5
100.9
104.7
121.4
113.8
135.1

100.0
92.1
98.8
103.9
93.6
80.9
96.7
103.0
113.6
115.7
101.1
138.4
142.8
139.3
171.7
162.2

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.6
99.6
98.7
98.4
98.1

100.0
101.6
102.2
103.8
109.7
92.8
94.9
94.7
98.0
101.1
100.9
111.7
113.6
120.4
124.7
116.6

W EAVERS, Female.

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 10 establish­
ments 1890-1896, 1901-1903; 9, 1896-1900. Data from 17 establishments 1904.]
Average 1890-99...
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................

100.0
106.4
112.7
96.1
107.2
100.5
92.9
93.5




100.0
101.0
101.0
101.0
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.7

100.0
100.4
99.1
100.8
106.7
94.3
93.8
96.7

1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

92.5
105.2
93.4
105.0
107.0
106.4
108.2
106.5

99.7
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
98.2.
98.2
97.1

100.7
104.6
102.4
109.8
112.5
112.5
115.9
113.4

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

125

T a b le I I I ___R E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
IND USTRIES.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]

17098— N o. 59— 05------9




126

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le III.— E L A T IV E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
R
IN DUSTR1ES— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 == 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]




127

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le 1 1 1 .— R E L A T IV E W AG ES A N D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
IN DU STR1ES— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]
F U R N IT U R E .

FOUNJDBY AND MACHINE SHOP.

Year.
1890.
1891.
1892
1893.
1894.
1895.
1890.
1897.
1898.
1899
1900.
1901.
1902
1903.
1904

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per images per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.
101.8
101.1

94.5
99.6
87.7
93.2
93.9
93.5
108.1
125.1
126.8
132.0
139.2
149.1
133.2

100.5
100.4

100.2
100.0

99.9

100.1

99.8
99.7
99.9
99.4
99.2
98.1
96.6
95.4
94.6

99.2
100.3
102.7
101.6
98.7
99.1
100.5
99.7
99.0
99.1
101.5
104.7
108.2

112.2

113.9

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899................
1900......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

110.1

100.6

99.5
99.0
99.6
100.4

95.4
91.3
84.1
100.5
95.6
93.2

100.7

100.7
100.9

101.0

129.8
91.6
104.0
99.0

97.3
96.3
94.8
97.4
95.3
96.3
96.2

101.8

111.0

121.1

119.4
138.0

101.0
101.0
101.0

100.8

101.2

99.7

100.7
98.6
100.3
101.3
96.5
104.9
101.3

HARNESS.

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893
1894.
1895.
1890.
1897.
1898.
1899.
1900
1901
1902
1903.
1904

91.0
91.8
94.1
94.2
94.5
99.3
104.3
105.9

110.2

117.6
124.5
128.5
135.7
138.8
137.6

81.3
89.3

122.6

116.4
83.7
99.8
93.1
93.1
111.3
107.9

120.8

131.8

121.2

125.6
125.6




99.3
101.9
102.5
100.5
99.2
97.0
97.6
100.3
98.7
103.0
103.4
110.4
117.0
118.2
119.9

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.....................
1903.......................
1904.......................

99.4
108.2
101.6
97.6
93.1
92.8
95.7
95.9
104.9
108.7
110.3
112.6
115.0
116.7
117.8

100.1
99.9
100.0
100.1
99.8
99.9
100.0
100.3
100.0
99.9
100.3
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.6

101.5
100.2
101.3
100.2
99.1
92.6
96.6
98.3
101.2
103.5
107.7
107.5
115.0
120.0
110.3

100.7
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.0
99.4
98.3
98.5
98.7
94.2
92.6
92.9

104.4
100.5
100.0
97.5
99.6
97.8
98.8
100.6
99.8
100.9
102.4
103.0
110.3
113.8
115.7

HATS, FUR.

100.4
100.4
100.2

100.1
100.0

99.8
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.5
99.0
98.0
97.6

100.2 , 1890.......................
100.6 1891.......................

100.6

101.0

99.0
98.5
98.7
99.5
100.7
101.2
102.0

105.6
108.7
115.8
118.0

HOSIERY AND KNIT GOODS.

1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904

101.2
100.4
99.5
100.2
98.3
100.0
100.4
99.9
100.2
100.0
99.7
98.4
97.3
97.2
96.3

G LA SS.

GAS.

1890.
1891
1892.
1893
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904,

93.7
95.3
101.4
98.5
95.2
96.1
99.0
102.8
104.5
113.4
110.0
113.5
119.8
117.2
116.3

101.
101.
101.
100.

95.

.

100
100.
100
100
100.

..

98.

106.1
107.3
99.0
102.5
97.7
102.9
99.8
94.7
95.5
94.7
98.0
102.4
108.7
115.5
113.5

1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902................
1903................
1904.......................

86.2
91.0
90.9
100.0
103.2
90.1
94.5
101.0
109.5
132.1
147.0
160.9
164.6
168.6
166.9

IRON AND STEEL, BAR IRON AND
STEEL.

1890......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

99.4
98.4
98.3
105.9
100.2
103.7
93.9
97.7
99.7
101.6
108.9
100.7
104.1
109.2
100.2

102.7
101.6
101.8
101.4
101.3
100.7
101.0
97.1
96.6
95.9
97.3
98.4
98.8
98.4
97.9

110.3
104.9
100.0
95.7
90.1
91.7
99.3
98.0
96.3
113.7
118.2
119.7
132.8
136.5
125.6

128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le III.— E L A T IV E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
R
IN D U STRIES— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]
IRON AND STEEL, BESSEHER CON­
VERTING.

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
99.5
104.8
101.2
102.3
100.0
100.0
99.0
100.1
99.0
100.1
118.7
113.9
113.9
115.0
116.6

1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904

98.3
98.1
101.8
99.2
100.1
100.2
101.1
100.2
101.0
100.2
91.3
94.6
94.6
96.0
91.1

113.3
115.9
112.3
105.5
96.1
97.3
92.5
86.3
88.1
92.8
106.2
113.1
122.6
131.8
114.7

81.7
89.9
99.7
83.9
95.5
100.9
90.5
102.9
129.4
127.1
127.9
128.0
117.6
132.5
143.0

99.9
99.9
99.8
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.1
99.5

102.1
102.5
102.3
102.1
98.3
98.8
98.9
98.5
96.9
99.6
98.1
101.4
104.3
106.3
108.2

LUMBER.

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

94.2
95.7
96.1
95.6
95.3
96.3
99.1
105.0
107.6
111.3
115.5
118.7
123.6
124.9
127.3

92.0
95.4
98.6
100.6
93.4
100.6
103.6
107.3
105.6
102.6
114.9
115.4
118.3
123.5
135.7




1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

94.1
95.1
106.1
99.7
99.8
100.2
98.9
98.3
102.6
104.1
104.1
106.5
104.2
101.7
100.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.6

104.4
105.3
107.1
105.2
91.4
96.5

100.1

93.4
93.9

102.8

107.3
108.1

111.2

114.4
109.6

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

92.8
92.9
94.9
103.2
104.5
102.0
101.2
103.1
101.1
104.5
104.4
115.4
118.1
126.1
127.2

100.8
100.3
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.4
99.8
99.9
*98.7
98.8
96.4
94.2
91.0
89.9
89.7

97.7
98.8
98.3
98.8
99.5
100.2
100.5
101.1
102.5
102.7
108.0
111.2
117.5
120.3
122.2

MARBLE AND STONE WORK.

100.4
100.2
100.2
99.7
99.7
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.5
99.1
98.4
98.3
98.1

102.8
102.4
102.1
101.7
97.8
97.2
97.0
97.4
99.4
102.2
104.4
106.5
109.5
113.3
114.4

100.5
100.4
100.4
99.9
100.9
100.7
100.7
100.8
101.2
99.5
99.6
98.6
93.0
92.7
91.1

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

103.8
102.5
103.4
102.0
96.3
96.4
94.9
95.7
98.6
106.3
107.0
115.9
116.0
112.3
104.4

101.8
100.9
100.4
100.5
100.6
100.6
99.6
99.2
99.3
97.2
96.9
96.1
95.5
94.0
93.9

98.5
99.5
100.3
99.7
98.0
97.0
101.0
101.6
101.2
103.2
104.9
109.0
113.5
118.6
118.9

PLANING MILL.

PAPER AND WOOD PULP.

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

LIQUORS, MALT*

LEATHER.

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892............... .......
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

IRON AND STEEL, BLAST FURNACE.

96.5
98.8
93.6
99.7
98.7
99.2
100.6
99.8
99.3
108.6
108.7
110.9
111.1
118.7
122.3

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

92.4
93.4
95.6
94.9
94.9
99.2
101.4
102.2
104.6
115.5
115.5
125.3
128.0
135.4
137.2

101.2
100.4
100.5
100.1
100.6
99.3
99.4
99.7
99.5
99.2
99.3
99.0
98.2
98.0
97.6

99.3
100.8
100.8
100.7
97.7
98.2
98.4
99.5
100.9
103.8
104.9
107.9
110.8
113.6
114.8

129

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le III.— E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
R
IN D U STRIES— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]
PRINTING AND PUBLISHING, , BOOK
AND JOB.

POTTERY •

Year.
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904

Relative Relative | Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
101.

104.
100.
103.

99.7
99.6
99.6

101.

93.
95.
98.
95.
99.

102.
100.

99.
103.
109.

100.0
100.2
100.6
100.6

100.4
100.1

100.3
100.3
99.2

98.8
99.7

100.1

102.5
99.6
96.4
95.3
99.9
104.9
103.0
99.8
102.4
104.6
107.7
109.6

PRINTING AND PUBLISHING,
NEWSPAPER.

1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904

105.4
107.2
116.2
107.4
94.7
88.7
97.0
96.3
91.6
92.1
89.1
90.3
96.7
95.5
92.0

100.2
100.1
100.6

101.3
100.5
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.1
97.9
97.6
97.4
97.1
96.2
95.7

103.0
99.6
98.8
98.0
97.4
96.3
98.6
99.2

102.8

106.1
106.3
108.3
109.3
113.4
114.1

85.
83.
91.
88.
93.
104.
103.
113.
117.
121

.
.

113.
122

144.
138.
130.

103.0
103.0

102.1

99.0
98.6
98.6
98.8
98.9
99.1
99.0
99.3
99.1
99.0
98.8
97.9

99.7
97.1
99.8
100.5

100.1

101.9
101.3
99.4
99.7
100.4
100.3
99.9
101.9
104.9
106.3

STREETS AND SEWERS, CONTRACT
WORK*

1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904

102.3
121.7
112.3
109.7
107.3
91.1
98.9
85.6
81.4
89.6
99.4

100.1
100.8

103.9
104.2




1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897........... ...........
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

97.3
98.5
96.9
96.9
95.0
97.0
98.2
107.0
106.2
112.2
117.0
122.0
123.9
126.6
134.3

101.0
101.0
100.5
100.4
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.2
99.4
97.2
95.1
94.4
93.2
93.1
92.4

97.8
99.6
99.2
100.2
99.6
99.5
100.3
99.2
101.2
103.6
109.3
110.7
114.3
116.1
118.9

SHIPBUILDING*

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

86.7
89.7
93.0
87.0
86.0
101.3
91.2
89.3
122.2
147.6
156.2
159.5
169.5
163.9
164.7

100.8
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.7
100.0
99.9
99.3
99.7
99.8
99.9
98.8
98.2
97.4
96.0

97.5
97.2
97.9
98.7
95.6
101.0
102.0
104.0
103.8
102.3
102.6
104.2
108.2
110.3
112.5

SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT PACK­
ING*

SILK GOODS.

1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

101.2
101.4
101.3

101.0
101.0

100.6
99.7
97.4
97.5
99.0
98.8
96.5
95.2
95.1
95.1

95.7
98.1
98.2
95.9
97.0
98.5
102.9
103.7
105.2
104.9
107.1
114.9

120.2

124.3
125.3

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

89.3
90.0
90.5
96.9
99.7
101.8
103.3
106.5
108.9
107.5
107.2
109.1
114.9
115.3
115.0

99.5
99.5
99.5
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.0
100.3
100.3
99.3
99.2
99.2

102.2
102.1
102.7
103.4
97.9
97.8
97.6
98.0
98.0
100.2
103.6
103.3
107.1
113.6
114.6

STREETS AND SEWERS, MUNICIPAL WORK.

1890.......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

85.8
86.2
94.6
98.8
115.1
108.1
98.4
104.3
102.3
108.2
106.6
112.0
99.4
93.5
100.1

101.1
100.6
100.9
101.5
100.7
100.0
100.6
100.1
98.7
95.7
93.3
92.6
92.7
91.8
91.1

99.8
99.5
98.3
98.1
100.9
99.7
98.1
98.7
100.9
105.8
110.3
110.6
111.0
111.8
113.8

130

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le III.— E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1904, B Y
R
IN D U STRIES— Concluded.
[Average 1890-1899 = 100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 8.]
WOOLEN AND WORSTED GOODS.

TOBACCO, CIGARS.

Year.

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
76.0
85.2
90.3
100.5
103.5
109.9
95.2
107.4
107.7
119.9
93.9
106.1
116.0
118.8
118.1




100.1
99.6
99.2
99.7
99.9
99.8
100.4
100.0
100.3
101.0
99.8
100.6
100.9
101.4
100.4

100.3
100.6
99.6
100.0
99.0
97.2
98.6
102.4
101.1
101.3
100.8
112.5
110.0
116.9
119.0

Year.

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1803.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897................ .
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.....................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.
91.8
103.5
104.3
96.2
90.8
100.5
97.2
106.5
109.7
100.0
109.4
112.1
121.3
134.1
138.3

101.0
101.0
101.0
99.6
98.2
100.3
100.2
98.1
100.2
100.3
100.1
100.2
99.3
99.3
98.4

98.1
99.1
99.6
101.5
97.2
96.8
100.9
100.2
102.5
103.7
110.4
110.6
113.5
115.2
116.4

131

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le IV.— V E R A G E W AGES AN D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
A
TW E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES.

B U IL D IN G T R A D E S .
BRICKLAYERS, Male.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Locality.

Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Augusta, Ga......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. V .....................................................
Butte, Mont......................................................
Charleston, S. C................................................
Chicago, III........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iow a.............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Duluth, Minn....................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
Hartford, Conn........................................;.......
Houston, T ex....................................................
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Kansas City, Mo...............................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal...............................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Manchester, N. H .............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Meridian, Miss...................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn............................................
Mobile, Ala........................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Orleans, La...............................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ...............................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
South Bend, In d ...............................................
Tampa, F la.......................................................
Terre Haute, Ind..............................................
Vicksburg, Miss................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. Va...............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................

3
2
3
3
7
3
2
3
4
5
4
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
5
3
4
3
9
2
7
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
4
2
2
2
2
4
2
3
2
3

30
86
108
100
289
293
16
19
395
67
75
14
41
62
16
35
46
21
26
54
53
49
27
28
35
74
23
26
12
33
41
8
73
91
437
31
355
44
37
17
40
38
92
31
17
97
28
12
27
27
35
10
63
31
39

49
30
164
11
229
319
14
18
454
86
89
16
33
86
21
31
25
23
10
53
27
47
21
25
66
59
24
22
11
23
51
16
55
58
473
16
255
36
28
32
31
58
71
39
16
111
27
14
22
20
39
11
64
34
45

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
perhour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

57.67
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
44.00
48.00
49.92
44.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
53.81
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
51.13
48.00
55.00
48.00
49.61
51.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
44.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
46.59
45.61
44.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

57.37
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
44.00
45.80
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
47.60
51.15
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
51.00
44.00
55.64
48.00
49.76
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
44.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
44.00
44.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

30.3800
.3456
.5556
.5000
.5253
.5000
.7500
.3438
.6000
.5625
.5293
.6652
.5625
.5300
.5000
.6571
.5000
.5000
.7500
.6000
.4421
.5500
.6250
.5625
.6250
.5625
.4278
.6250
.4458
.5000
.5244
.4472
.5702
.6250
.6366
.6250
.6000
.6000
.6875
.4500
.4975
.5000
.6418
,5242
.6618
.7500
.6875
.5500
.5056
.5347
.5329
.5000
.5625
.5625
.5000

$0.4041
.3386
.6402
.4909
.5400
,5000
.7500
.3926
.6000
.5965
.5000
.6250
.5625
.5000
.5000
.6484
.5000
.5000
.7500
.6000
.4739
.5500
.6250
.5625
.6250
.6000
.4458
.6250
.4591
.5174
.5363
.5359
.5750
.6250
.6500
.6250
.6000
.6000
.6875
.4500
.5210
.5259
.6577
.5385
.6211
.7500
.6875
.5500
.5159
.5975
.5436
.5000
.5625
.5625
.5156

60.00
60.00
54.17
48.00
49.16
48.51
48.00
48.00
54.00
44.00

60.00
59.79
54.26
48.00
49.96
48.12
49.43
48.00
54.00
44.00

$0.2714
.2389
.2196
.3720
.3269
.3491
.3529
.6250
.2231
.5000

$0.2717
.2427
.2201
.3738
.3174
.3705
.3754
.6250
.2149
.5000

1904.

CARPENTERS, Male.

Altoona, P a . . —
Atlanta, Ga....... .
Augusta, Ga.......
Baltimore, Md. . .
Birmingham, Ala
Boston, Mass___
Buffalo, N. Y ......
Butte, Mont........
Charleston, S. C..
Chicago, 111.........




........
2
35
..........
3
72
..........
3
71
..........
4
116
..........
4
93
..........
5
319
..........
3
173
..........
2
24
..........
3
63
..........
3
179
a Greater New York.

39
68
46
106
46
323
193
23
68
90

132

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB.

T able I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
TW E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES—Continued.

B U I L D I N G T K A D E S —Continued.
C A R P E N T E R S , J fla le—Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establishments. 1903. 1904.

Locality.

Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Denver, Colo.....................................................
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
Detroit, Mich....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Grand* Rapids, Mich..........................................
Harrisburg, P a..................................................
Houston, Tex....................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Kansas City, Mo...............................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Manchester, N. H .................... '........................
Memphis, Tenn.................................................
Meridian, Miss...................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Mirm............................................
Mobile, A la........................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (a )..........................................
Omaha, Nebr....................................................
Paterson, N. J ...................................................
Peoria, 111..........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I .............................. ................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Richmond, V a ...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, W ash...................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
South Bend, In d ...............................................
Springfield, 111...................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, W ash....................... ..........................
Tampa, F la.......................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Vicksburg, Miss.................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Williamsport, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................

4
3
2
4
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
4
10
2
2
2
6
3
3
2
4
4
2
3
3
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
3
2
4
3

243
139
55
99
160
37
43
14
38
59
164
29
35
40
81
116
81
80
46
47
102
10
315
59
403
38
112
11
295
268
83
45
96
30
14
111
65
96
44
27
66
31
36
45
101
50
29
110
40
54
25

191
72
32
90
316
36
41
20
32
73
171
35
32
52
97
119
59
27
40
54
109
18
331
57
300
40
116
55
244
185
124
35
82
30
22
86
90
84
8
29
55
46
24
28
118
70
30
73
42
43
30

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
perhour.
1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

48.00
48.00
45.82
48.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
48.81
54.00
44.00
48.00
58.50
48.00
54.00
54.00
45.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
44.36
48.00
44.00
44.00
44.00
48.00
46.28
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
45.08
44.00
60.00
56.91
48.00
51.67
48.00
48.00
54.48
54.83
48.00
47.50
54.00
48.00

48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
49.64
48.53
44.00
48.00
50.42
48.00
54.00
54.00
44.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
44.00
44.00
48.00
46.36
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
44.00
60.00
57.05
48.00
50.50
48.00
48.00
51.09
54.80
48.00
47.43
54.00
48.00

$0.3696
.3933
.4500
.3949
.3191
.2987
.3121
.2718
.3717
.3640
.2712
.4100
.3856
.2833
.4375
.2900
.2451
.3672
.2016
.3111
.3719
.2596
.4069
.3525
.5357
.3967
.3750
.4000
.4000
.4370
.4349
.3139
.3391
.2750
.3393
.5320
.3658
.4971
.5000
.2713
.2735
.4000
.2806
.4500
.3676
.2860
.2769
.4375
.3914
.2726
.2980

$0.3794
.4000
.4500
.3939
.3432
.3238
.3268
.2667
.3604
.3438
.3009
.4100
.3922
.3373
.4375
.2904
.2686
.4000
.2163
.3152
.3727
.2717
.4099
.3570
.5291
.3969
.3750
.4000
.4000
.4350
.4226
.3316
.3433
.2787
.3449
.5233
.3694
.4993
.5000
.2716
.2741
.4000
.2917
.4500
.3750
.3104
.2845
.4375
.3689
.2800
.3500

48.00
48.00
47.77
48.00
51.70
44.00
48.00
49.66
48.00
52.74
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00

48.00
48.00
47.78
48.00
51.70
44.00
45.51
48.00
48.00
51.80
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00

$0.2368
.3145
.2909
.1744
.1377
.3116
.3500
.2500
.2545
.3056
.2222
.2318
.2591
.2929

$0.2320
.3212
.3036
.1905
.1377
.3091
.3532
.2466
.2583
.3038
.2222
.2360
.2611
.2900

H O D C A R R I E R S , M a le .
Albany, N. Y .........
Baltimore, Md.......
Boston, Mass........ .
Buffalo, N. Y .........
Chattanooga, Tenn
Chicago, 111.............
Cincinnati, Ohio__
Cleveland, Ohio___
Davenport, Iow a...
Denver, Colo..........
Des Moines, Io w a ..
Detroit, Mich.........
Dubuque, Iow a--Evansville, Ind......




..........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
..........
..........

........

2
4
8
5
2
6
5
4

2

38
77
185
119
27
729
54
94

21

..........
5
38
.........
3
57
.........
3
89
..........
3
19
..........
2
14
o Greater New York.

25
104
157
169
27
768
70
87
15
41
44
130
20
15

133

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904,

T able I V . — A V E R A G E W AGES A N D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, IN
TW E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

BUIIiBINTG T R A D E S —Continued.
H O D C A R R I E R S , M a le —Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Locality.

Fort Wayne, In d ..............................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Harrisburg, P a..................................................
Hartford, Conn.................................................
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
Jacksonville, F la ...............................................
jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Kansas City, Mo...............................................
Little Rock"/Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ..................................................
Lowell, Mass"....................................................
Manchester, N. H .............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee^ W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn............................................
Mobile, A la........................................................
Nashua, N. H ....................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y .(a )..........................................
Norfolk, V a .......................................................
Oakland, Cal.....................................................
Peoria, 111..........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Portland, Me.....................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ......................... . ....................
’
Racine, W is.......................................................
Reading, P a ......................................................
Richmond, Va...................................................
Sacramento, Cal................................................
St. Louis, Mo....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a .....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
South Bend, In d ...............................................
Springfield, 111...................................................
Tacoma, W ash............................*....................
Tampa, F la.......................................................
Terre Haute, Ind..............................................
Vicksburg, Miss.................................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilkesbarre, P a ................................................
Williamsport, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, D el..............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

2
2
3
2
4
3
4
2
2
4
4
2
2
4
4
7
3
2
4
4
11
2
2
2
8
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
6
3
4
2
4
2
2
2
2
4
2
3
2
2
3
2

21
66
13
30
71
66
79
27
30
41
85
13
24
37
51
51
12
22
71
63
703
11
12 '
15
98
23
41
42
32
44
20
36
4
115
13
97
50
10
39
7
20
60
30
16
41
25
15
20
23

Average
hours per
week.
1903.

1904.

Average wages
perl lour.
1903.

1904.

18
51
12
26
72
32
74
20
24
67
55
15
31
37
31
67
22
29
54
53
700
9
13
30
94
22
44
46
36
40
17
69
3
103
18
111
44
10
36
13
5
33
29
19
40
30
7
23
13

48.86 49.00
54.00 54.00
52.62 52.17
48.00 48.00
47.41 47.00
54.00 51.09
44.00 44.00
48.00 48.00
48.00 48.00
49.46 48.00
48.35 48.47
48.00 48.00
51.50 50.52
48.00 45.51
48.00 48.00
53.65 54.09
55.00 52.36
54.00 54.00
44.00 44.00
48.00 53.43
44.00 44.00
48.00 48.00
46.67 46.15
48.00 48.00
44.24 44.26
48.00 48.00
54.00 54.00
52.71 53.09
52.50 52.00
50.32 48.00
51.20 51.24
48.83 48.87
48.00 48.00
44.00 44.00
50.77 52.00
46.14 44.00
48.00 48.00
58.20 58.20
54.00 54.00
48.00 48.00
44.00 44.00
48.00 48.00
52.40 50.90
57.00 57.79
48.00 48.00
48.00 48.00
52.40 .52.29
48.00 48.00
54.00 54.00

10.3043
.1788
.2480
.3000
.2741
.1646
.3462
.3000
.2042
.3377
.2518
.2879
.2046
.2500
.2789
.2328
.1500
.1667
.3000
.2095
.3601
.2415
.5000
.2604
.3484
.3174
.2276
.3383
.1999
.2540
.2650
.1915
.4375
.3985
.2817
.4322
.2078
.2275
.2423
.2500
.3688
.1700
.2573
.1446
.2878
.2750
.2583
.2753
.2419

10.3022
.1920
.2598
.3000
.2771
.1767
.3493
.3000
.2227
.3680
.2512
.2870
.2146
.2554
.2766
.2322
. 1752
.1667
.3000
.1882
.3591
.2396
.5000
.2750
.3294
.3227
.2285
.2950
.2060
.2625
.2643
.2064
.4583
.4070
.2715
.4375
.2165
.2450
.2417
.2740
.3625
.1858
.2734
.1459
.2925
.2750
.2589
.2846
.2196

19
177
90
255
94
395
402
25
317
89
67
80
209
70
86
159

54.24
58.05
54.75
57.64
58.09
57.38
48.43
54.00
46.17
54.61
54.00
53.41
55.98
60.00
59.00
59.79

10.1888
.1068
.0996
.1689
.1250
.1720
.1662
.1065
.2841
.1736
.2192
.1998
.1855
.2010
.2083
.1750

10.1793
.1090
.0941
.1788
.1250
.1703
.1982
.1167
.2803
.1781
.2123
.2048
.1868
.2065
.1802
.1754

L A B O R E R S , M a le .
Albany, N. Y . . . .
Atlanta, Ga.........
Augusta, Ga.......
Baltimore, Md. . .
Birmingham, Ala
Boston, Mass___
Buffalo, N. Y . . . .
Charleston, S. C ..
Chicago, 111..........
Cincinnati, Ohio..
Cleveland, Ohio..
Des Moines, Iowa
Detroit, Mich___
Dubuque, Io w a ..
Duluth, Minn--Indianapolis, Ind




.........
.........

.......

2
4

2

84
130

88

.........
7
367
.........
4
320
.........
7
386
..........
2
421
.........
2
24
.........
3
550
.........
3
59
.........
4
98
..........
3
133
..........
5
161
..........
2
50
..........
3
48
..........
4
145
a Greater New York.

49.74
58.18
54.73
57.27
58.47
56.01
48.45
54.00
47.03
56.09
52.84
52.88
55.58
59.24
59.58
59.25

134
Table

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
IV.—A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O URS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
TW E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.
B U IL D IN G

T R A D E S — Continued.

L A B O R E R S ^ M a le —Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Locality.

Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (<*).........................................
Norfolk, V a .......................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
St. Louis, Mo....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Terre Haute, Ind..............................................
Washington, D. C........................ 1...................
Williamsport, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................

6
2
6
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
4
2
2
3
3
4
3

139
184
49
112
51
27
84
72
24
44
397
151
143
23
14
21
50
17
15

Average
hours per
week.

Averagsw ages
perl lour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

133
79
72
52
57
16
27
54
31
42
423
145
84
22
19
24
45
18
30

58.60
59.00
53.02
60.00
55.41
60.00
48.00
58.83
53.42
47.27
57.26
60.00
59.17
47.83
60.00
55.71
48.00
53.29
60.00

57.97
59.00
54.17
60.00
54.74
60.00
48.00
55.56
50.71
47.05
58.07
60.00
59.75
44.68
60.00
54.50
48.00
53.00
56.00

$0.1291
.1780
.1544
.1821
.1980
.1120
.2013
.1567
.1323
.2500
.1564
.2063
.2035
.2889
.1750
.1643
.2125
.1708
.1500

$0.1316
.1780
.1651
.1758
.1993
.1135
.2093
.1691
.1494
.2500
.1545
.2003
.1901
.2887
.1868
.1632
.2121
.1711
.1661

57
26
128
15
193
107
38
257
81
78
26
33
71
62
37
7
87*
57
28
41
68
15
106
98
81
25
107
204
55
19
314
34
33
89
21
22
30
36
78
47
94
25
22
38
59
52
73

48.00
55.80
50.67
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.14
54.00
44.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.12
48.00
47.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
46.70
48.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

48.00
55.15
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
52.32
44.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.13
45.45
46.53
48.00
48.00
48.00
46.52
48.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
57.45
53.05
48.00
48.00
48.00

$0.3178
.2280
.2969
.4000
.3396
.3603
.2150
.4000
.3500
.3750
.3258
.4374
.3794
.2957
.3426
.4000
.3500
.2839
.4098
.3771
.2788
.3750
.3032
.3767
.3446
.3125
.2852
.4791
.4375
.3938
.3750
.4250
.3750
.3235
.2891
.2500
.2429
.2928
.4489
.3448
.4375
.4303
.2861
.2941
.3750
.4000
.3138

$0.3098
.2451
.3125
.3533
.3539
.3601
.1991
.4500
.3750
.3750
.3387
.4374
.3778
.3237
.3323
.4000
.3500
.2948
.4098
.4000
.2788
.3750
.3057
.3765
.3617
.3125
.3058
.4657
.4375
.3908
,3750
.4250
.3750
.3216
.2902
.2500
.2509
.3011
.4500
.3468
.4375
.4375
.3008
.3094
.4000
.4000
.3142

1904.

P A I N T E R S , M a le .

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala...................................... .......
Boston, Mass....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ....................................................
Charleston, S. C................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
Detroit, Mich....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a......................................... ..... .
East St. Louis, 111.............................................
Indianapolis Ind.............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Kansas Citv, Mo...............................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is............ ....................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. ( a ) .........................................
Oakland, Cal.....................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ..............................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Reading, P a .......................................................
Richmond, V a ...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, W ash.................................„.................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Terre Haute, Ind..............................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a ...............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................




2
2
3
2
6
4
4
4
4
3
2
3
3
3
2
2
4
3
2
2
3
2
3
4
3
2
4
7
2
2
5
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
4
4
2
6
2
2
3

56
20
122
15
218
108
33
259
101
79
25
35
80
88
26
26
72
55
28
35
65
19
111
87
73
24
84
154
48
20
279
34
37
105
12
25
35
38
89
43
88
26
18
50
63
49
59

a Greater New York.

135

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

Table I V .— A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O URS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN

TW E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

B U I I iM lN O T R A D E S —Continued.
PLASTERERS, Male.

Num­
ber of
estab14

Number of
employees.

ments.

Locality.

1903.

2
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2

20
54
39
108

JlSol-

Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
BostonT Mass....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ....................................................
Charleston, S. C................................................
Chicago, 111......................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio..... .................. .......................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iow a.............................................
D etroit, Mich......................... -............... .........
Indianapolis, In d ......... ............ .......................
Jacksonville, F la............... -.............................
Jersey City, N. J ..................... .........................
Los Angeles, Cal...................... . .......................
Louisville, K y ........................ -.........................
Memphis, Term........ ........................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn............................................
New Orleans, La . . ...........................................
New York, N. Y. (<*).........................................
Omaha, Nebr......... ............... ..........................
Philadelphia, ^ a _______ ______ -...................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ...............................................
St. Louis, Mo............................. ............. .
San Francisco, Cal.................... .......................
Scranton, P a .....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Terre Haute, Ind..............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................

11
11

164
84
32
30
22
29
37
10

18
15
22
9
15
22
13
213
8
100
21

18
13
41
33
8
15
16
22

1904.

Average
hours per
week.
1903.

1904.

Average wages
per hour.
1903.

1904.

54.00 54.00
48.00 48.00
48.00 48.00
99 44.56 .44.32
11 48.00 48.00
14 54.00 54.00
152 44.00 44.00
86 45.58 44.50
40 48.00 44.00
22 44.00 44.00
25 48.00 48.00
31 48.00 48.00
42 45.65 45.90
10 53.40 50.00
25 44.00 44.00
63 48.00 48.00
17 44.00 44.00
14 48.00 48.00
18 48.00 48.00
25 50.72 51.00
12 48.00 48.00
192 44.00 44.00
9 44.00 44.00
112 44.00 44.00
26 48.00 48.00
1 2 48.00 48.00
13 48.00 44.31
42 44.00 44.00
35 44.00 44.00
2 1 48.00 48.00
11 60.00 60.00
14 51.75 50.57
22 48.00 48.00

$0.3167
.5000
* .5205
.4563
.5000
.3515
.5625
.5625
.5000
.6375
.5318
.5000
.4500
.4067
.5486
.6250
.5500
.5025
.4500
.5398
.3750
.6819
.5500
.5000
.5071
.6250
.3894
.7500
.7273
.3750
.3667
.4354
.4000

$0.3495
.5183
.4636
.4939
.5000
.3905
.5625
.6250
.5000
.6250
.5280
.5000
.5095
.4647
.5663
.6250
.5500
.6250
.4500
.5400
.4000
.6803
.5500
.5000
.5250
.6250
.5145
.7500
.7500
.4000
.3909
.4905
.4000

6 54.00 54.00
23 54.67 53.13
67 49.25 48.00
33 47.77 47.76
39 48.00 48.00
42 48.00 48.00
17 54.00 54.00
130 44.00 44.00
27 48.00 48.00
34 48.00 48.00
5 53.00 53.00
5 48.00 48.00
13 48.00 48.00
19 44.00 44.00
15 48.00 48.00
21 48.00 48.00
10 48.00 48.00
11 44.00 44.00
14 44.00 44.00
6 57.60 56.50
6 60.00 60.00
16 47.00 47.00
8 54.00 48.00
15 44.00 44.00
18 48.00 48.00
21 48.00 48.00
16 51.00 48.00
10 48.00 48.00
13 54.00 54.00
35 47.47 47.54
21 48.00 48.00
5 54.00 1 49.20

$0.3394
.3781
.3561
.5024
.4528
.4375
.3366
.5625
.4602
.5000
.3000
.5000
.4401
.5313
.4375
.3668
.4375
.5500
.6250
.2675
.2643
.4513

$0.3058
.3967
.4039
.5026
.4487
.4375
.3366
.5625
.5000
.5000
.3000
.5000
.4399
.5313
.4375
.4286
.4375
.5591
.6250
.3112
.2833
.4750
.5000
.4375
.5625
.5625
.4375
.4375
.4188
.4420
.5060
.4278

33
41
11

PLUMBERS, Male.

2
5
Altoona, P a ......................................................
21
3
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
48
3
Baltimore, Md...................................................
2
26
Birmingham, A la..............................................
5
39
Boston, Mass............................................ .......
4
51
Buffalo, N. Y ....................................................
17
3
Charleston, S.C..........................................
4
169
Chicago, 111............. ...................... .................
4
33
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
3
27
Cleveland, Ohio................................................
2
6
Cohoes, N. Y . ...................................................
2
5
Dallas, Tex........................................................
12
3
Davenport, Iow a...............................................
2
19
Denver, Colo....................................................
2
13
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
3
19
Detroit, Mich....................................................
2
9
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
2
Duluth, M irm ............................................................
13
2
16
East St. Louis, 111.............................................
2
19
Fort Wayne, Ind...............................................
2
7
Greenville, S. C..................................................
12
3
Indianapolis, Ind.............................................
2
11
Jacksonville F la...............................................
4
17
Jersey City, N. J . .............................................
2
ITjmaa.a City, M o.................... ................ .......
16
Los Angeles, Cal........................................
2
18
18
3
Louisville, K y ...................................................
3
10
Lynn, Mass........... ...........................................
11
2
Macon, G a................................... ....................
Milwaukee, W is................................................
4
30
3
Minneapolis, M in n ...................................................
15
2
5
Mobile, Ala........................................................
a Gresiter NewrYork.




\\W

i4375
.5000
.5625
.4132
.4375
.3535
.4428
.5042
.3889

136

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
T W E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

B U IE D IN G T R A D E S —Concluded.
PLUMBERS, Male—Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Locality.

Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. ( « ) .........................................
Norfolk, V a.......................................................
Philadelphia, P a ............ ..................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa............................
Portland, O reg.................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Reading, P a ......................................................
Richmond, V a...................................... ............
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
South Bend, In d ...............................................
Springfield, 111...................................................
Taccma, W ash..................................................
Tampa, F la .......................................................
Troy, N. Y .........................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling W. Va...............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................

2
2
5
11
2
6
4
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
5
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3

11
8
37
132
11
38
23
10
19
7
22
8
27
11
8
60
33
8
5
10
9
16
11
40
20
22

13
8
34
159
15
37
21
14
25
7
19
8
27
11
8
63
27
10
10
10
10
13
11
37
20
18

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

48.00
48.00
48.00
44.36
53.00
47.16
47.91
48.00
46.74
44.00
54.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
47.87
44.00
60.00
53.00
48.00
48.00
50.63
48.00
48.00
48.00
50.18

48.00
48.00
48.00
44.15
48.00
47.03
47.90
48.00
48.00
44.00
54.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
47.52
44.00
60.00
53.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

10.4403
.3750
.4307
.5247
.3679
.4046
.4927
.5625
.4145
.4375
.3024
.3750
.6250
.4886
.4766
.5642
.6250
.3250
.3566
.4375
.5625
.4514
.3750
.5000
.4375
.3204

10.4375
.3828
.4835
.5588
.3646
.4375
.4920
.5625
.4404
.4375
.2993
.3750
.6250
.5227
.4609
.6316
.6250
.3250
.3566
.4688
.5625
.5000
.3750
.5000
.4375
.3641

$0.3303
.2653
.3026
.2838
.2850
.3255
.2831
.2988
.2875
.3194
.3667
.2299
.2472
.3257
.3658
.2352
.3864
.3463
.3911
.2743
.3333
.2851
.2792
.3706
.3274
.3704
.3518
.3635
.2375
.3085
.2905
.2744
.3778
.2789
.3625
.3056

$0.3553
.2634
.2996
.2653
.3236
.3324
.2883
.3103
.2913
.3194
.3667
.2355
.2472
.2595
.3512
.2245
.3985
.3320
.3625
.2686
.3111
.2953
.2818
.3333
.3028
.3704
.3498
.3760
.2375
.3117
.2750
.2733
.3750
.2881
.3625
.3167

1904.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SH O P .
BLACKSMITHS, Male.

Atlanta, Ga..........................
Baltimore, Md......................
Boston, Mass........................
Buffalo, N. Y ........................
Charleston, S. C....................
Chicago, 111...........................
Cincinnati, Ohio...................
Cleveland, Ohio....................
Columbus, Ohio....................
Dallas, Tex...........................
Des Moines, Iow a.................
Detroit, Mich........................
Dubuque, Iow a....................
Evansville, In d .....................
Hoboken, N. J ......................
Indianapolis, In d .................
Jersey City, N. J ..................
Little Rock, Ark..................
Los Angeles, Cal...................
Louisville, K y .......................
Memphis, Tenn.....................
Milwaukee, W is....................
Minneapolis, Minn................
Mobile, Ala...........................
Nashville, Tenn....................
Newark, N. J ........................
New Orleans, L a..................
New York N. Y .(« )..............
Oshkosh, W is.......................
Philadelphia, P a ...................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa
Portland, M e........................
Portland, Oreg......................
Providence, R. I ...................
Pueblo, Colo..........................
Rochester, N. Y ....................




3
3
9

2
2

6
4
3
3

2
2

3
3
3

2
3

2
2
2

4
3

6
2
2
2
3
4
7

2
6
5
2
2
5
2
2

4

20

15
4
5
25
6
30
4
4
5
18
3
34
15
25
16
3
9
7
5
55

6
7

2
6

9
37

2

27
81
29
5
18

o Greater New York.

2
2

4
27
16
8
4
26
6
29
4
4
5
15
3
27
15
43
10
2
8
7
6
31
8
6
2
6
9
31
2
20
55
33
4
14
2
2

59.75
54.00
54.67
57.00
60.00
54.00
56.67
56.00
59.50
54.00
54.00
59.61
59.67
59.97
53.33
54.00
53.00
58.00
54.00
59.43
55.20
55.16
55.17
54.00
59.50
54.00
54.00
52.70
60.00
56.70
56.30
59.00
54.00
57.72
56.50
54.00

59.75
54.00
54.63
58.50
55.50
54.00
54.83
55.34
57.50
54.00
54.00
59.53
59.67
59.96
53.40
52.16
53.00
57.00
54.00
59.57
56.00
55.48
55.00
54.00
57.00
54.00
54.00
53.68
60.00
55.65
59.24
59.00
54.00
57.43
57.00
52.00

137

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T a b le I V . — A V E R A G E W AGES A N D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
TW E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E S H O P —Continued.
BLACKSMITHS, Hale—Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Locality.

St. Louis, Mo....................................................
St. Paul, Minn....................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Terre Haute, In d ..............................................
Troy, N. Y ........................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Williamsport, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................

3
3
4
2
2
3
2
2
2

8
8
30
8
6
4
6
3
4

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

54.00
57.13
57.67
54.00
54.00
59.25
51.33
60.00
54.00

54.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
59.33
51.33
56.00
54.00

$0.3101
.2894
.3436
.3820
.2625
.2674
.2928
.2642
.2513

10.3101
.2782
.3902
.3986
.2663
.2718
.3033
.2631
.2671

30
74
18
6
27
49
25
59
40
4
32
20
14
95
14
73
5
86

54.00
54.00
59.00
60.00
60.00
53.11
57.19
54.00
53.00
54.00
59.96
54.00
54.00
52.77
55.61
54.00
58.80
57.39

54.00
54.00
59.00
56.00
60.00
53.02
56.60
50.05
53.00
54.00
59.94
54.00
54.00
52.64
54.86
57.53
58.80
54.00

$0.2726
.2941
.2682
.2917
.2495
.3318
.2611
.2351
.3318
.3445
.2490
.3611
.3939
.3305
.2403
.3150
.3200
.3448

$0.2931
.2967
.2612
.3171
.2381
.3415
.2590
.2312
.3385
.3320
2500
.3611
.3929
.3409
.2381
.3283
.3000
.3925

108
397
248
159
746
78
95
18
193
79
29
391
22
48
81
64
112
590
119
57
18
142
125
67
313
367
80
26
311
8
43
22
143

59.83
54.00
55.97
59.39
54.24
56.71
57.41
54.00
59.35
59.94
58.70
56.56
54.86
59.17
59.38
60.00
57.00
55.29
55.06
54.00
59.79
54.00
54.00
54.10
56.66
59.51
59.00
54.00
58.51
56.40
60.00
57.69
54.00

59.86
54.00
56.00
59.66
54.14
56.22
54.88
54.00
59.31
59.94
58.66
54.58
54.55
59.50
59.57
60.00
57.11
55.85
54.98
54.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
53.87
56.28
59.43
59.00
54.00
58.69
60.00
60.00
56.73
54.00

$0.1070
.1558
.1854
.1532
.1747
.1578
.1578
.2021
.1553
.1678
.1580
.1441
.1571
.2000
.1350
.2263
.1529
.1599
.1739
.1443
.1254
.1785
.1729
.1904
.1422
.1540
.1526
.2285
.1490
.2000
.1532
.1697
.1682

$0.1107
.1556
.1847
.1544
.1828
.1593
.1645
.2021
.1573
.1683
.1597
.1528
.1580
.2000
.1432
.1772
. 1527
.1619
.1726
.1473
.1142
.1776
.1738
.1912
.1483
.1533
.1532
.2382
.1531
.1781
.1578
.1767
.1808

8
7
26
8
6
3
6
4
5

1904.

BOILER MAKERS, Hale.

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass....................................................
Bridgeport, Conn..............................................
Charleston, S. C................................................
Chattanooga, Tenn...........................................
Chicago, III........................................................
Fort Wayne, In d ...............................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Mobile, Ala........................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y .(a )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ............................
Pueblo, Colo......................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................

2
6
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
5
3
3
2
3

40
85
15
9
41
71
27
51
46
4
26
5
11
116
18
116
5
62

LABORERS, Hale.

3
90
Atlanta, Ca.......................................................
3
Baltimore, Md...................................................
365
271
Boston, Mass.............................!......................
10
2
157
Buffalo, N. Y ....................................................
597
4
Chicago, 111........................................................
3
84
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
4
247
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
2
18
Des Moines, Iow a.............................................
2
147
Detroit, Mich....................................................
2
69
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
30
4
Evansville, Ind.................................................
3
216
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
2
21
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
2
65
Los Angeles, Cal...............................................
3
113
Louisville, K y ...................................................
2
81
Macon, Ga.........................................................
3
104
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
7
887
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
2
121
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
2
29
Mobile, A la........................................................
2
19
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
4
185
Newark, N. J .....................................................
4
138
New Orleans, L a...............................................
6
62
New York, N. Y. ( a ) ..........................................
7
475
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
5
463
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
2
71
Portland, Me.....................................................
2
40
Portland, Oreg..................................................
6
320
Providence, R. I ................................................
2
5
Pueblo, Colo......................................................
2
34
Quincy, 111.........................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
2
13
St. Louis. Mo......... ...................................
2
185
a Greater New York.




138

BULLETIN OB' THE BUEEAU OF LABOR,

T able I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O URS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
TW E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.
F O in S T D R Y

AN D

M A C H IN E

S H O P — Continued.

L A B O R E R S ^ M a l e —Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estabMalt
lisnments.

Locality.

St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, Wash....................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Troy, N. Y .........................................................
Washington, D. C............... v..... ......................
Williamsport, P a ......... ....................................
Wilmington, Del...............................................

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

3
4
2
2
5
3
3
2

103
97
32
18
72
45
77
209

75
101
75
20
47
47
81
165

59.12
56.12
54.00
57.67
58.40
51.44
60.00
54.00

59.16
54.00
54.00
57.90
58.17
51.30
56.11
54.00

$0.1872
.2022
.2366
.1435
.1644
. 1681
.1390
. 1348

$0.1957
.2298
.2394
.1552
.1662
.1700
.1516
.1348

42
118
121
68
11
348
339
284
65
16
28
20
21
51
73
6
65
366
55
4
27
30
36
14
32
893
63
26
20
138
68
113
420
21
568
335
57
23
370
17
32
8
156
199
30
188
37
200
17
50
38
60
68

59.89
54.00
54.16
57.00
60.00
54.00
56.61
57.01
59.23
54.00
54.00
59.25
59.41
57.92
57.04
60.00
53.04
54.72
53.00
60.00
57.64
54.00
59.33
60.00
54.00
55.36
55.37
54.00
59.55
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.79
60.00
56.06
55.68
59.00
54.00
58.44
57.86
60.00
55.50
54.00
54.00
57.04
57.18
54.00
57.59
54.00
59.35
51.48
60.00
54.00

59.57
54.00
54.17
57.35
56.73
54.00
55.34
55.12
56.38
54.00
54.00
59.35
59.33
57.67
56.32
60.00
53.12
51.95
53.00
60.00
57.11
54.00
54.42
60.00
54.00
55.30
55.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.86
60.00
55.51
58.19
59.00
54.00
58.52
57.53
55.78
57.00
52.85
54.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
57.40
54.00

$0.2865
.2777
.2867
.2614
.2844
.2966
.2293
.2383
.2603
.3177
.3119
.2667
.2220
.2334
.2476
.2214
.3295
.2284
.3224
.2438
.3045
.3354
.2655
.2786
.3260
.2533
.2812
.3173
.2532
.2852
.2837
.3452
.3023
.2241
.3000
.3137
.2589
.3711
.2465
.3000
.2414
.2573
.2790
.3206
.2722
.3308
.3622
.2542
.2856
.2368
.2937
.2381
.2630

$0.2827
.2617
.2845
.2557
.3058
.3009
.2290
.2381
.2622
.3118
.3088
.2658
.2410
.2296
.2553
.2250
.3207
.2223
.3307
.2438
.3031
.3367
.2558
.2911
.3203
.2543
.2785
.3269
.3100
.2912
.2643
.3409
.3015
.2179
.2824
.2978
.2580
.3913
.2553
.3088
.2506
.2226
.2848
.3048
.2742
.3558
.3432
.2476
.2793
.2467
.3122
.2423
.2649

Number of
employees.

Average wages
perhour.
1904.

M A C H I N IS T S , M a le .
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Charleston, S. C ...............................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Columbus, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
Detroit,Mich......................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Evansville, In d .................................................
Fort Wayne. Ind................................................
Greenville, S. C..................................................
Hoboken, N. J ...................................................
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Lincoln, Nebr............................................ .......
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ....................................................
Macon, Ga................................................-........
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn................ ............................
Mobile, A la........................................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
Newark, N. J ....................................................
New London, Conn...........................................
New Orleans, La...............................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Oshkosh, W is....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Portland, Me.....................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Pueblo, Colo......................................................
Quincy, III.........................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
South Norwalk, Conn.......................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Troy N. Y .........................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Williamsport, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................




3
4
10
2
2
4
5
4
2
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
7
2
2
2
5
2
4
9
2
6
5
2
2
6
2
2
2
3
5
3
4
2
2
2
3
4
3
2

27
89
125
96
16
412
448
401
80
21
25
24
29
50
70
7
77
471
70
4
33
36‘
43
14
34
1,209
60
26
22
164
65
61
403
24
748
385
49
36
479
14
35
8
172
166
26
267
48
273
21
49
52
70
81

a Greater New York.

5 9 .3 4

49.47
59.03
54.00

139

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.

T a b l e I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
T W E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

IW JNTDRX A N D MACHIINE S H O P —Continued.
MOLIkEItS, IRON, Male.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. r 1903. 1904.

Locality.

Atlanta, Ga.............................. ........................
Baltimore, Md1
............. .....................................
Boston, Mass’....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ....................................................
Burlington, V t..................................................
Charleston, S. C................................................
Chicago, Iii-........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio................. ..............................
Dallas, T ex................................ .......................
Des Moines-, Iow a.............................................
Detroit, Mich....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Evansville, In d ........................ .........................
Greenville, S. C.................................................
Hoboken, N. J ..................................................
Indianapolis,. Ind..............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................. ...........-................
Louisville, K y ................... ................................
Macon, Ga.........................................................
Memphis, Tenn.................................................
Middletown,. Conn............... -...........................
Milwaukee, W is.......................... .....................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Mobile, A la........................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. ( « ) ........................ ...............
Oshkosh, W is....................................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Portland,. Oreg.......... ................................. -...
Providence, R - 1 ...............................................
Pueblo, CoLo.....................................-...............
Quincy, 111.........................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, M
o>.............. ....... .............................
St-Paul, Minn.............-...................................
San Franeisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, W ash............... ...................................
South Norwalk, Conn.. ..................................
Terre Haute, Tnd....... .......................................
Wilmington, D el...........-..................................

1903.

1904.

17
63
136
23
51
12
178
22
54
17
37
67
14
35
7
21
96
18.
13
21
29
11
211
20
6
114
40
27
127
7
177
104
11
91
13
30
21
96
37
42
30
82
18
61

59.78
54.00
55.06
60.00
54.35
60.00
54.00
60.00
56.18
54.00
54.00
56.38
59.55
58.48
66.00
53.46
56.56
58.50
59.48
66.00
54.00
58.57
55.84
54.64
54.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
60.00
56.32
55.64
64.00
58.77
60.00
57.75
54.00
54.00
56.00
56.50
54.00
57.14
54.00
54.00

59.76 $0.2775
$0.2821
.3006
54.00
.3051
.2994
55.04
.3081
.2834
.2907
60.00
.3712.
54.24
.3651
.2799
.2550
57.00
.3259
.3377
54.00
-3211
60.00
.3311
.2921
.2726
52; 33
.3387
54.00
.3333.
.3424
.3408
54.00
.2996
59.57
.2997
.2438
.2348
59.64
.2457
.2380
57.60
.2389
.2426
60.00
.3348
53.57
.3368
.2826
53.98
-2615
.3688
54.00
.3591
59.85
.2783
► 2765
.2767
66.00
.2756
.3345
.3345
54.06
.2607
59.09
.2705
.3128
.3235
56.04
-3267
.3227
54.0Q
54.00
.3102
.3210
.3307
.3329
54.00
.2619
60.00
.2630
.3312
.3224
54.00
.3328
.3374
54.00
.2188
.1857
60.00
.3403
.3190
55.08
-3327
57.98
.3483
.3889
-3990
54.00
-3182 ; \3261
58.49
. 3565
.3288
60.00
-3015
.3174
54.00
-3076 ‘ -3194
54.00
.3457
.3218
54.00.3408
.3273
54.00
.3486.3874
54.00
.3966
.4049
54.00
57.12
.2614
-2650
.2904
. 2894
54.00
.2794
.2990
54.00

3
2
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
5

2

3
4
2
6
4
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2

18
60
156
60
51
13
230
22
66
26
33
90
11
29
0
26
54
24
21
29
28
14
321
25
9
140
46
38
144
4
203
212
17
122
31
24
14
90
66
80
38
84
20
63

Average wages
per hour.
1903.

1904.

PATTERN H IK E R S , Male.

Atlanta, Ga.........
Baltimore, M d ...
Boston, Mass___
Buffalo, N. Y . . . .
Charleston, S. C ..
Chicago, 111..........
Cincinnati, Ohio.
Cleveland,. O hio..
Columbus, Ohio..
Dallas, T ex.........
Des Moines, Iowa
Detroit, Mich___
Dubuque, Iow a..
Evansville,. Ind..
Hartford, Conn..
Indianapolis, Ind
Jersey Cityr N. J .
Little Rock, Ark.
Los Angeles, Cal.
Louisville, K y ...
Memphis, T enn ..




a
5
4
2

2

4
3
3

2
2
2
2

2

2
2
3

2
2
2
2
2

9
43

12

6
3
76
14
30
5

6

8

7
5

2

5
17
7

2

19
7

8

a Greater New York.

9
31
12
5
4
79
14
18
5
4
6
8
5
2
5
18
5
2
13
4
7

59.67 59.67
54.00 54.00
55.25 55.67
58.00 57.60
60.00 57.00
54.08 54.08
56.64 55.00
57.33 55.56
59.20 56.00
54.00 64.00
54.00 54.00
59.57 59.63
59.60 59.60
56.50 56.50
56.00 54.00
54.82 54.33
53.00 53.00
57.00 57.00
54.00 54.00
59.43 59.75
54.00 54.00

$0.2849
.3185
.3226
.3008
.2583
.3691
.2903
.2798
.2600
.3518
.3363
.2814
.2664
.2500
.3285
.3168
.3760
.3695
.3397
.2957
.3437

$0.2877
.3208
.3208
.2960
.2966
.3627
.3021
.m i
.2800
-3611
.3317
-2763
.2533
.2500
.3389
-3275
.3679
.3445
-3406
.3050
.3452

140

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
TW E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SH O P —Concluded.
PATTERN MAKERS, Male—Concluded.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

Locality.

Middletown, Conn.............................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn............................................
Mobile, Ala........................................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. ( a ) ........................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ...............................................
Pueblo, Colo......................................................
Quincy, 111.........................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
South Norwalk, Conn.......................................
Terre Haute, Ind..............................................
Troy, N. Y ........................................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................

1903.

1904.

1903.

2
107
21
4
2
22
15
56
59
47
4
40
4
4
12
18
10
31
9
11
3
2
5

57.50
55.17
55.21
54.00
59.50
54.00
53.23
53.98
56.83
55.52
54.00
57.81
60.00
58.00
54.00
54.00
56.23
57.59
54.00
57.64
54.00
59.67
54.00

59.00
55.08
55.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.02
55.92
58.34
54.00
57.53
60.00
58.50
53.33
54.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
57.55
54.00
59.50
54.00

$0.3125
.3025
.3079
.3278
.2625
.3829
.3397
.3887
.3006
.3455
.3935
.2896
.2988
.2950
.3029
.3506
.3180
.3645
.4271
.3266
.2667
.2768
.2521

$0.3131
.3157
.3032
.3333
.2875
.3935
.3370
.3935
.3088
.3171
.4098
.2928
.2813
.3160
.3174
.3528
.3159
.4109
.4299
.3240
.2750
.3153
.297^

50.77
56.64
58.64
53.26
60.00
60.00
59.93
60.00
57.59
60.00
54.57
47.36
60.00
60.00
55.83
48.00

50.37
52.00
58.39
51.85
60.00
60.00
59.83
59.34
57.59
60.00
54.86
47.06
60.00
60.00
55.79
48.00

$0.3304
.2491
.2153
.2614
.2105
.1909
.1902
.1359
.2339
.2344
.2298
.4079
.1596
.2451
.2657
.3866

$0.3455
.2524
.2134
.2747
.2057
.1887
.1932
.1298
.2338
.2321
.2164
.4166
.1663
.2448
.2626
.4375

59.33
58.09
53.39
60.00
54.00
54.29
58.52
51.08
55.00
60.00
63.12
54.00
60.00
60.00

$0.2238
.2283
.3180
.2266
.2713
.2621
.2333
.2750
.2521
.1694
.1941
.2354
.1877
.2110

SO.2124
.2431
.3132
.2272
.2772
.2706
.2400
.3041
.2521
.1829
.1966
.2393
.1793
.2185

2
5
2
2
2
5
4
6
7
4
2
4
2
2
4
3
2
4
2
2
2
2
2

2
82
14
5
2
28
13
66
69
67
6
54
4
5
16
17
13
39
8
14
3
3
11

Average wages
perl lour.
1904.

F U R N IT U R E .
CABINETMAKERS) Male.

Boston, Mass....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mich....................................................
Dubuque, Iowa.................................................
Evansville, Ind.................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
High Point, N. C...............................................
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
New York, N. Y. ( « ) .........................................
Oshkosh, W is....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
St. Louis, Mo....................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................

6
3
3
3
3
5
3
3
2
2
2
3
2
3
4
2

119
42
81
121
29
65
111
59
17
19
42
59
28
62
72
27

130
42
85
98
29
62
114
83
17
18
35
53
31
56
77
43

P E A N I N G M IED .
MACHINE WOODWORKERS) Male.

Atlanta, Ga..........
Baltimore, Md___
Boston, Mass.......
Buffalo, N. Y ........
Chicago, 111...........
Cincinnati, Ohio...
Cleveland, O hio...
Detroit, Mich.......
Indianapolis, Ind.
Jacksonville, F la..
Lake Charles, L a ..
Louisville, K y ......
Milwaukee, W is.. .
Minneapolis, Minn




2
23
39
3
2
15
38
4
2
23
46
3
2
24
29
3
2
12
2
12
29
3
2
28
2
49
46
3
a Greater New York.

15
45
18
39
22
45
21
37
12
12
25
28
42
48

59.17
59.79
53.47
60.00
54.00
54.30
57.96
50.83
52.08
59.50
60.00
54.00
60.00
60.00

141

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904,

T able I V . — AV E R A G E W AGES A N D H O URS OF L A B O R , 1903 AN D 1904, IN
TW E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

P L A N I N G M IL L —Concluded.
MACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male—Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establishments. 1903. 1904.

Locality.

Muscatine, Iow a......................... ......................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. ( a ) .........................................
Oshkosh, W is....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ..........................
Racine, W is........................................ ..............
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.................................... ............
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Terre Haute, ln d ..............................................

2
2
8
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

33
36
69
92
12
15
24
41
48
23
10

57
39
66
114
12
19
21
54
52
21
10

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
perl lour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

60.00
54.00
50.16
60.00
54.00
54.00
59.50
54.24
60.00
48.00
56.50

60.00
54.00
51.68
60.00
54.00
54.00
59.43
54.22
60.00
48.00
56.50

10.1925
.2438
.3330
.1608
.2947
.3804
.2090
.2456
.2646
.4688
.2620

1904.
|0 . 1719
.2303
.3144
.1538
.2947
.3822
.2091
.2503
.2635
.4821
.2650

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , N E W S P A P E R .
COMPOSITORS, Male.

Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mi*ss....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Des Moines, Iow a.............................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Duluth, Minn....................................................
Harrisburg, P a..................................................
Indianapolis, ln d ..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Kansas City, K ans...........................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Montgomery, A la..............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York,N. Y. (a )..........................................
Omaha, Nebr....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Providence, R. I ...............................................
St. Joseph, Mo..................................................
St. Louis, Mo....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Tampa, F la.......................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................

2
4
3
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

23
75
184
28
136
70
30
26
3
7
17
27
6
26
4
17
10
30
6
44
142
15
93
52
19
24
55
19
16
6
13
42
11

15
80
236
29
104
61
26
30
3
7
16
38
6
27
4
19
12
27
6
53
168
16
89
44
19
16
59
19
17
6
13
57
11

49.04
49.84
36.26
51.43
49.09
48.00
48.00
48.00
53.00
48.00
58.00
48.00
61.67
48.00
53.75
51.82
48.50
48.00
48.00
48.29
48.68
48.00
48.67
48.00
53.89
48.00
45.00
53.42
45.00
48.00
54.00
43.57
52.36

49.60
49.50
36.51
51.52
49.13
48.00
48.00
48.00
51.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
61.67
48.00
53.75
51.95
48.42
48.00
48.00
48.45
48.57
48.00
48.90
47.73
53.89
48.00
45.00
53.42
45.00
48.00
48.46
43.32
52.36

10.3677
.4397
.5502
.3554
.5892
.5143
.4986
/.3650
.2956
.4171
.2358
.4583
.3730
.4447
.3206
.3247
.5185
.4195
.3167
.5733
.5677
.4500
.4219
.6083
.3905
.5000
.5920
.4097
.6542
.3959
.2222
.5859
.2645

SO 4037
.
.4420
.5745
.3721
.6077
.5299
.4960
.3838
.3072
.4171
.2681
.4583
.4167
.4344
.3206
.3262
.5138
.4213
.3333
.5839
.5765
.4492
.4238
.6091
.3905
.5000
.5442
.4097
.6667
.3820
.2521
.5801
.2683

44.87
42.44
42.00
48.00
44.00
49.81
48.00
48.00
47.14
46.50

SO 6103
.
.5259
.6001
.4212
.6532
.6781
.5087
.4921
.6242
.5950

SO 7217
.
.5370
.6193
.4416
.6856
.6899
.5296
.4932
.6162
.5526

LINOTYPE OPERATORS, Male.

Atlanta, Ga--Baltimore, Md..
Boston, M ass...
Buffalo, N. Y ...
Charleston, S. C
Chicago, 111.......
Cincinnati, Ohio
Cleveland, Ohio.
Denver, Colo. . .
Detroit, M ich...
17098— N o. 59— 05----- 10




2
24
80
4
3
125
2
23
2
9
67
3
3
57
2
50
2
20
2
49
a Greater New York.

23
82
121
23
9
68
57
49
21
48

44.50
43.13
42.00
48.00
44.00
49.79
48.00
48.00
47.10
46.78

142

BULLETIN OK THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e IV.— V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS O F L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
A
T W E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , N E W S P A P E R —Continued.
LINOTYPE OPERATORS, Male—Concluded.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

Locality.

Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Duluth, Minn....................................................
Harrisburg, P a..................................................
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N .Y . (« )..........................................
Omaha,'Nebr....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Providence, R. I ...............................................
St. Joseph, Mo..................................................
St. Pam, Minn...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Tampa, F la.......................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

13
17
H
36
12
14
18
23
10
42
189
38
97
62
31
14
14
31
6
5
47

12
18
10
32
13
15
18
23
9
40
194
40
90
72
31
15
14
35
6
5
45

48.00
48.00
56.55
48.00
42.00
48.00
48.50
48.00
45.90
46.38
48.52
48.00
47.92
48.00
49.68
48.00
53.29
45.00
48.00
54.00
43.60

48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
42.92
48.00
48.50
48.00
43.33
46.38
48.57
48.00
46.07
47.42
49.68
48.00
53.29
45.00
48.00
49.20
43.53

10.3525
.4279
.3419
.4583
.6073
.4583
.4875
.4565
.5912
.6652
.5839
.4720
.5211
.6077
.5459
.4732
.4310
.6667
.3959
.3992
.5865

10.3542
.4297
.3803
.4583
.5953
.4555
.4975
.4552
.6086
.6732
.6036
.4813
.5918
.6081
.5292
.5000
.4310
.6686
.3959
.5611
.5851

12 54.00
26 46.15
89 46.97
7 55.25
3 53.33
81 50.59
25 51.00
9 52.11
4 56.00
20 48.74
2 55.50
2 52.00
4 58.00
10 48.00
4 48.00
2 54.00
9 52.00
3 48.33
11 55.78
2 48.00
10 64.40
155 44.11
8 50.00
29 52.81
10 51.56
8 49.88
4 48.00
27 48.00
23 46.85
2 48.00
6 55.00
11 47.33

54.00
46.15
45.91
55.14
53.33
50.37
50.88
52.11
56.00
48.80
51.00
52.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
51.89
48.33
50.36
48.00
64.40
43.82
50.00
53.72
52.00
49.88
48.00
48.00
46.57
48.00
50.00
46.91

$0.2677
.3591
.4812
.3353
.3839
.3683
.3061
.3333
.3572
.3484
.3378
.3840
.2823
.3647
.4167
.2885
.2942
.3274
.3034
.4583
.3147
.4750
.3824
.3982
.3413
.3526
.3750
.3785
.4631
.4063
.2315
.4090

$0.2454
.3647
.4910
.3602
.3839
.3662
.3090
.3681
.3527
.3750
.3530
.3840
.3102
.3761
.3490
.3440
.3165
.3274
.2987
.5417
.3147
.4787
.3936
.3750
.3348
.4114
.3750
.3898
.4756
.4063
.2569
.3577

48.00
42.00
42.00
55.33
48.50
48.00

$0.5023
.4636
.5440
.2807
.2566
.4454

$0.4375
.4780
.6081
.2837
.2566
.4629

Number of
employees.

Average wages
perhour.
1904.

PRESSMEN, Male.

Atlanta, Ga...........................
Baltimore, Md.......................
Boston, Mass.........................
Buffalo, N. Y .........................
Charleston, S. C.....................
Chicago, 111........................... .
Cincinnati, Ohio...................
Cleveland, Ohio.................... .
Des Moines, Iow a.................
Detroit, Mich.........................
Dubuque, Iow a.....................
Duluth, Minn........................
Harrisburg, P a.....................
Indianapolis, In d .................
Jersey City, N. J ...................
Kansas City, K ans...............
Little Rock, Ark..................
Louisville, K y .......................
Milwaukee, Wis....................
Montgomery, Ala.................
New Orleans, L a..................
New York, N .Y . (« )............. .
Omaha Nebr.........................
Philadelphia, P a ....................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa
Providence, R. I ...................
St. Joseph Mo......................
St. Louis, Mo........................
San Francisco, Cal...............
Sioux Falls, S. Dak..............
Tampa, F la...........................
Washington, D. C................

2
4
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

11
26
70
8
3
74
24
9
4
19
2
2
4
7
3
2
10
3
9
2
10
151
8
27
9
8
4
26
26
2
6
6

STEREOTYPERS, Male.

2
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
9
Baltimore, Md...................................................
3
16
Boston, Mass.....................................................
3
52
Buffalo, N . Y .....................................................
2
3
Charleston, S. C.................................................
2
2
Chicago, 111........................................................
3
29
a Greater New York,




10
18
52
3
2
30

42.67
42.00
47.38
55.33
48.50
48.00

143

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.
Table I V .— A V E R A G E W AGES A N D

HOURS OF LA B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
T W E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , N E W S P A P E R —Concluded.
STEHEOTYPEBS, Male—Concluded.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

Locality.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2

15
10
4
10
3
3
8
2
4
10
7
68
8
36
9
12
5
14
13
6

16
10
4
12
3
3
9
3
4
10
7
67
10
35
10
13
5
15
12
7

50.00
35.60
52.00
48.80
50.67
58.00
48.00
50.50
45.50
56.30
53.00
43.99
53.00
46.44
53.33
49.00
48.00
48.00
45.00
48.00

50.25
35.60
52.00
49.00
50.67
54.00
48.00
49.67
45.50
56.30
53.00
43.66
52.80
46.40
52.70
49.00
48.00
48.00
45.00
48.00

10.3277
.5688
.3578
.4005
.3373
.2431
.4206
.3573
.3684
.4000
.3582
.6463
.3940
.4085
.3552
.4286
.4708
.4457
.5436
.4531

Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Des Moines, Iow a.............................................
Detroit, Mich....................................................
Duluth, Minn....................................................
^Harrisburg, P a.................................................
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Milwaukee, w is ............... •
................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (a ).........................................
Omaha, Nebr....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Providence, R. I ...............................................
St. Joseph, Mo..................................................
St. Louis, Mo....................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Washington, D. C.............................................

Number of
employees.

Averagb wages
p erl tour.
1904.
10.3398
.6063
.3578
.3913
.3582
.2704
.4862
.3215
.3684
.3822
.3967
.6466
.3881
.4155
.3723
.4485
.4813
.4451
.5444
.4836

ST R E E T S A N D SE W E R S, C O N TR ACT W O RK .
LABORERS, Male.

Baltimore, Md..................................................
Boston, Mass....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................I!
Des Moines, Iow a.............................................
Detroit, Mich....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Indianapolis, In d ..............................................
Jacksonville, F la ...............................................
Louisville, K y...................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N .Y .(« )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a ..........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak........................................... !
Wilmington, D el...............................................

2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2

12

175
155
40
35
275
289
761 1,020
528
505
225
378
275
300
277
371
38
31
160
120
70
74
141
161
325
451
100
105
673
525
616
760
629
455
189
195
72
113
77
118
208
205
33
28
89
87

48.00
54.00
60.00
57.37
59.10
60.00
54.00
57.31
59.00
59.17
54.00
59.57
60.00
59.62
58.54
56.70
60.00
60.00
58.33
59.51
48.00
60.00
55.69

48.00
54.00
60.00
56.87
58.32
60.00
54.00
60.00
59.00
58.88
54.00
59.63
60.00
58.00
58.37
58.13
60.00
60.00
59.10
59.73
48.00
60.00
55.86

$0.1934
.1918
.1609
.2165
.1792
.1767
.1967
.1945
.1746
.1754
.1550
.1590
.2267
.1048
.1691
.1640
.1575
.1562
.2418
.1923
.2867
.1821
.1480

$0.1982
.1893
.1521
.2164
.1825
.1752
.2005
.1681
.1821
.1745
.1512
.1646
.2042
.1183
.1736
.1596
.1550
.1572
.2172
.1808
.2866
.2000
.1480

ST R E E T S A N D SE W E R S, M U N IC IP A L W O RK .
LABORERS, Male.

Atlanta, Ga___
Augusta, Ga—
Baltimore, Md..
Boston, M ass...
Buffalo, N. Y ...
Burlington, Vt.
Butte, Mont_
_
Camden, N. J ...
Charleston, S. C
Chicago, 111.......




100
1
91
1
1
308
1
451
89
1
1
63
1
60
42
1
1
140
674
1
a Greater New York.

50
54
401
390
89
79
60
40
86
803

58.00
60.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
60.00
60.00
55.69

60.00 % ). 1034
.1219
60.00
.2083
48.00
.2742
44.00
48.00
.1875
.1667
54.00
48.00
.3750
60.00
.1500
60.00
.1134
.1747
55.71

$0.1062
.1211
.2083
.2741
.1875
.1667
.3750
.1500
.1142
.1746

144

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b le I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS O F L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
TW E N TY -O N E SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Concluded.

ST R E E T S A N D SE W E R S, M U N IC IP A L W O RK —Concluded.
L A B O R E R S , M a le —Concluded.

Locality.

Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland / Ohio.................................................
Columbus, Ga....................................................
Denver, Colo.....................................................
Des Moines, Iow a.............................................
Detroit, Mich....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Duluth, Minn....................................................
Evansville, In d.................................................
Greatfalls, M ont...............................................
Harrisburg, P a .................................................
Hartford, Conn.................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Lincoln, Nebr....................................................
Los Angeles, Cal...............................................
Louisville, K y...................................................
Lowell, Mass.....................................................
Manchester, N. H .............................................
Memphis, Tenn.................................................
Meridian, Miss..................................................
Milwaukee, W is................................................
Minneapolis, Minn............................................
Mobile, A la........................................................
Montgomery, Ala.............................................
Nashua, N . H ....................................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New York, N. Y. (a ).........................................
Omaha, Nebr....................................................
Peoria, 111..........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Portland, Me.....................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, It. I ...............................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
St. Louis, Mo....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Williamsport, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, Del...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estab118X
1ments.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

72
378
59
68
125
189
42
53
92
8
45
173
400
50
35
110
250
210
291
300
22
505
337
10
30
59
160
147
2,633
62
75
834
558
99
77
343
7
73
821
158
30
118
41
29
759
11
220
210

106
369
68
72
125
492
45
67
94
9
47
183
400
56
37
201
250
396
239
350
18
502
505
10
30
69
160
158
2,700
64
75
698
593
90
77
349
12
73
964
140
45
113
45
43
792
12
170
181

48.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
51.37
54.00
48.00
55.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
51.07
48.00
48.00
45.29
48.00
54.00
48.00
60.00
54.00
56.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
60.00
48.00

48.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
55.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
51.00
48.00
48.00
45.33
48.00
54.00
48.00
60.00
54.00
56.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00

30.2057
.2000
.0890
.2500
.2613
.1875
.1546
.2500
.1875
.3125
.1500
.2105
.2000
.1159
.1875
.2500
.1667
.2207
.1667
.1875
.1000
.2188
.2313
.1667
.0833
.1525
.1389
.1978
.2550
.2200
.2000
.2222
.2188
.1833
.2557
.1534
.1667
.1607
.1875
.2000
.3125
.2813
.2000
.2313
.1916
.1650
.1500
.2322

Number of
employees.

o Greater New York.

Average wages
p e r l tour.
1904.
30.2188
.2000
.0950
.2500
.2600
.2188
.1549
.2500
.1875
.3125
.1500
.2106
.2000
.1169
. 1875
.2500
.1667
.2342
.1667
.1875
.1000
.2189
.2313
.1667
.0833
.1551
.1667
.1730
.2597
.2200
.2000
.2216
.2188
.1833
.2557
.1549
.1713
.1875
.1875
.2000
.3125
.2813
.2000
.2313
.1922
.1650
.1901
.2349

145

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.
Table V .— A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O URS

OF LA B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
EIG H TEEN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES.

BOOTS A N D SH O ES.
CLOSERS-ON, Female.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establishments. 1903. 1904.

State.

Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Michigan............................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................
----------------------------- i----------------

3
11
2
2
2
3
6
5
2
3

14
58
9
22
22
26
24
33
11
16

14
51
10
22
31
29
18
36
11
16

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
perl lour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

58.14
56.41
57.00
53.45
57.91
59.50
54.63
60.00
58.00
59.44

58.14
55.51
57.00
54.00
58.10
59.48
54.50
60.00
58.00
59.44

10.1776
.2119
.1111
.1736
.1356
.1744
.1893
.1507
.1681
.1370

10.1643
.2124
.1228
.1893
.1442
.1583
.1902
.1479
.1629
.1400

55.00
58.72
55.96
58.15
54.43
58.39
59.32
55.34
60.00
58.00
59.72

55.00
58.72
55.61
57.92
59.52
58.34
59.34
55.76
60.00
58.00
59.74

10.2880
.2242
.2822
.2008
.2484
.2450
.2270
.3082
.2730
.2595
.2512

10.2857
.2244
.2858
.2048
.2478
.2540
.2329
.3102
.2942
.2927
.2511

55.00
58.27
56.07
58.50
54.09
58.21
59.52
54.50
60.00
58.00
59.67

55.00
58.29
55.42
58.50
59.40
58.17
59.54
54.76
60.00
58.00
59.63

$0.4981
.2555
.4081
.2477
.2503
.3320
.2774
.4346
.2750
.3461
.2432

$0.4080
.2882
.4056
.2969
.2726
.3535
.2711
.4159
.3012
.3757
.2736

55.00
58.25
55.04
56.00
58.31
55.67
60.00
58.00
59.50

55.00
58.25
54.43
59.33
58.33
56.18
60.00
58.00
59.60

$0.4546
.3319
.4564
.2666
.3064
.3326
.3183
.2845
.2963

$0.4912
.3241
.4511
.2818
.3461
.3427
.3289
.2831
.2970

55.00
58.43
55.20
53.30
57.43
59.28
54.35
60.00
58.00
59.52

55.00
58.49
55.04
54.82
57.75
59.33
54.59
60.00
58.00
59.52

$0.2790
.2380
.3315
.2537
.2780
.2149
.3307
.2541
.2265
.2708

$0.2998
.2244
.3423
.2711
.3128
.2106
.3149
.2767
.2251
.2739

1904.

CUTTERS, UPPER, Male.

2
3
11
2
2
2
3
6
5
2
3

Illinois..............
Maine................
M assachusetts..
Michigan...........
Minnesota........
Missouri........... .
New Hampshire
New York........
Ohio..................
Pennsylvania...
Wisconsin..........

T----59
54
381
13
65
154
127
80
107
59
46

56
50
431
13
66
169
117
84
134
59
47

EDGE TRIMMERS, Male.

Illinois...............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Michigan............................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

2
3
10
2
2
2
3
6
5
2
3

11
15
107
2
11
28
27
16
26
8
9

15
14
111
2
10
41
28
17
27
7
8

GOODYEAR STITCHERS, Male.

Illinois...............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Y ork..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

2
3
8
2
2
6
5
2
3

13
4
74
9
26
18
16
12
4

15
4
79
9
36
17
18
12
5

LISTER S, MACHINE, Male,

Illinois...............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................




2
3
9
2
2
3
6
4
2
3

59
35
137
23
51
110
26
18
21
21

69
43
150
22
96
100
27
26
23
23

146

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table V .—A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS O F L A B O R , 1603 A N D 1904, IN
EIG H TEEN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES— Continued.

CO TTO N GOODS.
CAR D IN G -m A CH IN E T E N D E R S , m ale.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

State.

Georgia..............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Rhode Island....................................................

1903.

1904.

1903.

52
6
100
14
7
27

66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
60.00
58.00

66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
60.00
58.00

$0.0770
.0943
.1206
.0959
.1333
.1333

$0.0776
.0883
.1184
.0979
.1363
.1192

66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.00

66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.00

$0.1338
.2020
.2118
.1855
.2174

$0.1370
.2033
.2073
.1876
.2037

5
2
5
2
2
2

49
7
93
11
7
26

Average wages
pernour.
1904.

LOOm F IX E R S , m ale.
Georgia..............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

5
2
5
2
2

52
39
124
36
83

50
33
128
31
84

S^PINNERS, FRAJRE, Fcra.si.lo*

Georgia..............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
Rhode Island....................................................

5
2
5
2
2

235
73
579
147
125

257
55
587
181
138

66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.00

66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.00

$0.0608
.0757
.1064
.0909
.0977

$0.0636
.0915
.1049
.0964
.0853

157
152
467
80
328

66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.00

66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.00

$0.1119
.1439
.1604
.1532
.1671

$0.1082
.1303
.1532
.1490
.1431

536
156
1,284
427
488

66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.00

66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.00

$0.0955
.1255
.1411
.1237
.1462

$0.0976
.1171
.1367
.1321
.1368

WEAVERS, Male.

Georgia..............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

4
2
5
2
2

166
92
542
85
380

W EAVERS, Female*

Georgia..............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

5
2
5
2
2

439
259
1,174
512
551

D Y E IN G , F IN IS H IN G , A N D P R I N T I N G T E X T IL E S .
RLE ACHE RS, Male*

Massachusetts...................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island....................................................

4
2
4

92
10
136

102
10
142

58.00
60.00
59.56

58.00
60.00
59.55

$0.1175
.1492
.1235

$0.1170
.1558
.1220

133
118
147

58.00
60.00
59.02

58.00
60.00
59.59

$0.1317
.1803
.1347

$0.1301
.1820
.1356

40
18

58.00
57.05

58.00 $ 0.4381
58.67
.5112

DYERS, Male*

Massachusetts...................................................

Pennsylvania.............................................

Rhode Island.....................................................

4
5
4

158
125
151

PRINTERS, Male.

Massachusetts...................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................




3
2

42
20

147

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1904.
T a b le

V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1903 A N D 1904, IN
EIG H TEEN SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES— Concluded.

W O O D E N A N D W O R ST E D GOODS.
CARDERS, Male.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1903. 1904.

State.

California...........................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
2
3
2

Average
hours per
week.

Averagi8 wages
p erl lour.

1903.

1904.

1903.

12
11
76
82

60.17
60.00
68.25
60.00

60.08
60.00
56.39
60.00

$0.1293
.0932
.1019
.1367

$0.1336
.0932
.1095
.1357

4
11
165
72

60.50
60.00
58.00
60.00

60.25
60.00
56.98
60.00

$0.1580
.1295
.1271
.1529

$0.1894
.1318
.1286
.1524

2
9
69
27

60.50
60.00
58.00
60.00

60.50
60.00
56.78
60.00

$0.2361
.1969
.2377
.2654

$0.2366
.1944
.2366
.2628

10
89
387
53
269

60.38
60.00
58.00
57.73
60.00

60.20
60.00
57.32
57.64
60.00

$0.1108
.1534
.1844
.1455
.1979

$0.1292
.1467
.1570
.1740
.1963

22
22
797
106
197

60.23
60.00
58.00
55.19
60.00

60.14
60.00
56.74
55.28
60.00

$0.1120
.1379
.1462
.1380
.1890

$0.1377
.1312
.1432
.1465
.1857

12
11
79
76

1904.

DYERS, Male.

California...........................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................

2
2
3
4

6
11
171
58

LOOM FIXERS, Male.

California...........................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................

2
2
3
4

2
8
67
26

WEAVERS , Male.

California...........................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................

2
2
3
2
4

8
87
407
55
250

WEAVERS, Female.

California...........................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................




2
2
3
2
4

22
31
741
104
209

RETAIL PRICES OP POOD, 1890 TO 1904.

In the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor were
published retail prices of the principal staple articles of food for the
14 years from 1890 to 1903. It is the purpose of the Bureau of
Labor to continue this compilation of prices from year to year; in
the present Bulletin the prices have been continued to include 1904.
In the Eighteenth Annual Report were included a total of 5,302
schedules or statements of prices from 814 retail merchants for the
years 1890 to 1902 and 5,293 schedules from 811 merchants for
the year 1903. The prices were secured in the principal industrial
localities in 33 States, including the District of Columbia.
It has seemed desirable to enlarge the scope of this investigation
of retail prices, and the present compilation includes 6,760 schedules
from 1,064 firms doing business in the principal industrial localities
in 40 States, including the District of Columbia. This investigation
of prices includes 7 States not included in the Eighteenth Annual
Report, and also many more schedules from some of the leading
cities. The cities selected are so distributed that the prices fairly
represent the prices to the consumers in the principal cities in all
parts of the country. From the important cities prices were secured
from three or more firms in different parts of the city. As far as
possible 1904 prices were secured from those firms which furnished
prices for 1890 to 1903. If a firm which had heretofore furnished
prices to the Bureau was no longer in business, or where additional
firms were desired, prices were secured for both 1903 and 1904 from
some other firm, so that in every case the 1903 and 1904 prices
shown in this compilation are from the same firm. In the smaller
cities no new firm was substituted for any which had discontinued
business.
The schedules were in all cases secured by personal visits of the
agents of the Bureau. The firms furnishing prices were those selling
largely to workingmen.
In this compilation prices are quoted for 30 distinct articles, and
under each article prices are shown for various grades and descrip­
tions of that article. The articles for which retail prices are quoted
in this report, the number of schedules or statements of prices secured
148




149

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

for each article, and the number of cities and States from which the
schedules were secured are shown in the table which follows:
ARTICLES FOR WHICH RETAIL PRICES ARE SHOWN, NUMBER OF SCHEDULES
SECURED FOR EACH ARTICLE, AND NUMBER OF CITIES AND STATES FROM
WHICH THE SCHEDULES WERE SECURED IN 1903 AND 1904.

Articles.

Total
schedules.

Cities
from
which
secured.

States
from
which
secured.

Apples, evaporated................................................................................
Beans, dry ....................................................... ...................................
Beef, fresh, roasts and ste w s...............................................................
Beef' fresh' ste a k s.................................................................................
Beef, sa lt................................................................................................
Bread, wheat.........................................................................................
B utter....................................................................................................
Cheese.....................................................................................................
Chickens.................................................................................................
Coffee......................................................................................................
Com meal...............................................................................................
E ggs.......................................................................................................
Fish, fresh..............................................................................................
Fish, sa lt................................................................................................
Flour, wheat..........................................................................................
Lard.......................................................................................................
Milk, fresh..............................................................................................
Molasses.................................................................................................
Mutton and lam b..................................................................................
Pork, fresh.............................................................................................
Pork, salt, bacon...................................................................................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled......................................................................
Pork, salt, ham ......................................................................................
Potatoes, Irish.....................................................................................
Prunes....................................................................................................
Rice........................................................................................................
Sugar......................................................................................................
Tea.........................................................................................................
Veal........................................................................................................
Vinegar..................................................................................................

118
123
453
488
168
229
271
228
170
301
173
254
190
158
270
233
211
240
201
274
205
159
242
247
124
245
255
258
139
133

58
63
105
134
86
123
141
136
91
144
95
141
86
75
138
134
115
131
75
133
92
86
112
134
62
140
142
141
67
71

39
38
40
40
38
40
40
40
38
40
40
40
38
38
40
40
39
40
39
40
39
39
40
40
38
40
40
40
38
40

Total.............................................................................................

6,760

151

40

Table I .—Retail prices o f food, 1903 and 1904 (.PP- 176 to 293).—
This table shows for each of the years 1903 and 1904 the average
price of the particular article enumerated in each separate schedule
or statement of prices. The agents of the Bureau obtained from the
retail merchants the prevailing price for the various articles of food
during each month of the two years. The monthly prices of the
various articles are not published in detail, but from these monthly
prices an average price for each year has been computed for each
schedule or separate statement of prices. The average price for the
year is a simple average, found by adding together the 12 monthly
quotations of prices for each article for the year and dividing by 12.
The 30 articles are presented in alphabetical order, the prices for
each article are then shown by States, and, under the States, by
localities from which secured.
The particular grade or description of each article is shown in
connection with the average prices in as much detail as possible.
The greatest care was taken to secure prices throughout the two
years for an article of uniform grade or quality, as changes in quality
are, of course, reflected in prices. A reference to Table I (page 176)



150

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

shows that the first article is “Apples, evaporated,” and the first
line shows the average price computed from monthly statements of
the price of evaporated apples as sold by a certain retail merchant
in Birmingham, Ala. The third column shows the average price per
pound, $0.1250, in 1903, the fourth column the average price
per pound, $0.1250, in 1904. The second line presents the average
price of evaporated apples computed from statements of monthly
prices furnished by a certain other retail merchant in Birmingham,
Ala. The third line shows the price of evaporated apples computed
from statements of monthly prices furnished an agent of the Bureau
by a certain merchant in Montgomery, Ala.
For evaporated apples 118 statements of prices are shown. These
statements were obtained from 58 cities in 39 States. For dry
beans '123 statements of prices are shown. For fresh beef (roasts
and stews) 453 statements are shown, and those statements were
secured from 105 cities in 40 States. The number of statements of
prices, or schedules, shown for each of the 30 articles may be seen
by reference to the preceding text table.
In some localities the weight of a loaf of bread is fixed by statute,
but in many other localities the weight of a loaf varies to some
extent with the fluctuations in the price of flour. For this reason
the portion of Table I relating to bread shows the weight of the
loaf for which the statement of prices was secured, the average
price per loaf for 1903 and 1904, and the computed average price
per pound (after baking) for each of the two years. A loaf of bread
is the usual unit of purchase, but in comparing 1904 and 1903 prices
the price per pound should be used in preference to the price per
loaf, when the weight per loaf has changed. Probably in recent
years there has never been such marked fluctuations in the weight
of loaves of bread as during 1903 and 1904, which is not surprising
in view of the marked advance in the price of flour. The wholesale
price of flour, spring patents, in New York City in 1904 was 24.2
per cent above the price of the same grade in 1903, and the whole­
sale price of flour, winter straights, in the same city in 1904 was
34.4 per cent above the price of that grade in 1903 (U. S. Bureau
of Labor, Bulletin 57). The retail price of flour, as shown by the
270 statements of prices in this investigation, advanced until the
average price in 1904 was 18.44 per cent above the average price
in 1903. In many localities the retail price during the latter months
of 1904 was from 30 to 50 per cent above the*price during the early
months of 1903.
The Bureau of Statistics of the Agricultural Department esti­
mated the yield of Irish potatoes in the United States at 247,127,880
bushels in 1903 and 332,830,300 bushels in 1904. Yet with the
much larger yield the average price in general was higher in 1904



RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

151

than in 1903. This was due to the unusually high prices during the
first half of 1904, when the supply, dependent upon the 1903 crop,
was comparatively low. During the last few months of 1904 the
price of potatoes in many localities was not more than 50 per cent
of the price during the corresponding months of the preceding year,
while during the early months of 1904 the price in some localities
was practically double the price during the corresponding months
of 1903.
The average price of sugar in 1904 was 6.04 per cent above the
average price in 1903. The price in December, 1904, however, was
in many localities from 20 to 35 per cent above the price in Janu­
ary, 1903.
Table II.—Relative retail prices o f food , 1890 to 1904 (PP- @94 to
801).—In the Eighteenth Annual Report of this Bureau were shown
the relative retail prices for each of the 14 years from 1890 to 1903
for each of the 30 articles of food included in that report and which
are continued in the present compilation.
A relative price, or an index number as it is technically called, of
any article is the per cent which the price of that article at any certain
date is of the price of the same article at a date or a period which has
been selected as the base or standard.
The base selected for the compilation of retail prices is the average
price for the 10-year period 1890 to 1899. This base period is the
same as was used in the presentation of wholesale prices in Bulletins
39, 45, 51, and 57 of this Bureau. The average for the 10-year
period is used as the base for the reason that an average price for a
number of years more nearly represents average or normal conditions
than does the price for a single year* The value of relative prices is
that it enables the reader to follow moie readily the course of prices
of a single article or of groups of articles.
In the Eighteenth Annual Report relative prices were computed for
each of the schedules of prices. The method followed after, comput­
ing the average price for each year was to determine for each schedule
the base price, which is the sum of the average prices of the 10 years,
1890 to 1899, divided by 10. The relative price or index number was
then obtained for the schedule for each year in the period covered by
dividing the average price of the article shown on that schedule for
each year by the average price of the same article for the 10-year
period, 1890 to 1899. The quotient thus obtained multiplied by
100 is the per cent which the average price that year was of the base
price, and is called the index number or relative price.
In the present compilation of prices for 1903 and 1904 schedules
were secured from many firms who had not heretofore furnished prices,
and in many cases such firms had been in existence but a few years.
It was therefore necessary to follow a slightly different method in



152

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

determining the relative price or index number for 1904. The
method adopted was to compute for each schedule or statement of
prices the average price for each year, 1903 and 1904, and then the
per cent which the average price in 1904 was of the average price in
1903. These per cents or relative prices for all of the various grades
and descriptions of the article were added and the sum divided by the
number of schedules secured for that article. Thus for evaporated
apples the 33 schedules secured in the North Atlantic States show
that the average price in 1904 was 98.48 per cent of the average price
in 1903; the 18 schedules secured in the South Atlantic States show
that the average price in 1904 was 98.14 per cent of the average price
in 1903; the 33 schedules from the North Central States, 97.93 per
cent; the 17 schedules from the South Central States, 98.47 per cent;
the 17 schedules from the Western States, 99.32 per cent, and the
total schedules, 118, show that the average price in 1904 was 98.39
per cent of the average price in 1903. By referring to Table II
(page 294), it is seen that the relative price or index number (aver­
age price for 1890 to 1899=100) for evaporated apples in the North
Atlantic States in 1903 was 107.5; therefore in 1904 the relative
was 98.48 per cent of 107.5, or 105.9. The relative price for each of
the geographical divisions and also for the United States was found
by the same method. The relative prices for other articles were
determined in the same,way. For reasons explained in the discus­
sion of Table I, the relative prices for bread are computed from the
price per pound.
Considering the United States as a whole, the articles which show
the greatest difference between 1903 and 1904 prices are flour and
lard. The average price of flour in 1904 was 118.44 per cent of the
average price in 1903, or an advance of 18.44 per cent. The average
price of lard in 1904 was 92.61 per cent of the average price in 1903,
or a decline of 7.39 per cent. Of the 30 articles included in this
compilation 15 show an advance and 15 a decline when 1904 is com­
pared with 1903.
The tabie which follows shows the per cent of advance or decline
for each of the 30 articles when the average price in 1904 is compared
with the average price in 1903.




153

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED STATES.
AVERAGE PRICE IN 1904 COMPARED WITH AVERAGE PRICE IN 1903.
Articles for which the aver­ Number Per cent
age price in 1904 was higher
of
of
than the average price in schedules advance
1903.
secured. in price.
Beef, fresh, steaks...................
Bread, wheat..........................
Chickens..................................
Coffee.......................................
Corn meal................................
E ggs........................ ...............
Fish, fresh.............................
Fish, sa lt.................................
Flour, wheat...........................
Milk, fresh...............................
Molasses..................................
Mutton and lamb...................
Potatoes, Irish.......................
Sugar.......................................
Veal.........................................

488
229
170
301
173
254
190
158
270
211
240
201
247
255
139

0.41
3.74
1.84
2.81
.64
4.43
.56
3.01
18.44
.45
.18
1.29
5.68
6.04
.55

Articles for which the aver­ Number Per cent
age price in 1904 was lower
of
of
than the average price in schedules decline in
1903.
secured.
price.
Apples evaporated..............
Beans, dry............................
Beef, fresh, roasts and stew s.
Beef, salt...............................
Butter...................................
Cheese....................................
Lard......................................
Pork, fresh............................
Pork, salt, bacon..................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled___
Pork, salt, ham ....................
Prunes...................................
Rice.......................................
Tea........................................
Vinegar.................................

118
123
453
168
271
228
233
274
205
159
242
124
245
258
133

1.61
1.13
.25
.50
1.63
1.81
7,39
2.36
1.36
2.48
2.36
.80
2.21
.16
.25

A simple average of the per cent of advance of the prices of the 15
articles which show an advance is 3.34 per cent, while a similar
average for the 15 articles which show a decline is 1.75 per cent.
The articles which show an advance are worthy of especial attention
for the reason that the advance in the 1904 average price was most
marked in certain articles for which it is difficult for the consumer to
find substitutes. For flour, with an advance of 18.44 per cent, and
bread, with an advance of 3.74 per cent, there are practically no
substitutes. Sugar advanced 6.04 per cent and has no substitute
except in a limited way for use in cooking. Eggs advanced 4.43
per cent; substitutes for eggs for direct consumption are available,
but there is no substitute for eggs for culinary purposes. Milk shows
a slight advance and has no substitute. Potatoes advanced 5.68
per cent; other vegetables, however, are available as substitutes.
Relative prices are not presented for each of the schedules or state­
ments of prices, owing to the large amount of space which would be
required, and it is not believed that such presentation would materially
add to the value of the report. The 40 States from which prices were
secured have been grouped. The relative prices for each of the 30
articles are shown for each of the five geographical divisions, and for




154

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

the United States.
follows:
North Atlantic States:
Connecticut.
Maine.
Massachusetts.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.
New York.
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Atlantic States:
Delaware.
District of Columbia.
Florida.
Georgia.
Maryland.
North Carolina.
South Carolina.
Virginia.
W est Virginia.
North Central States:
Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa.

The classification of the States into groups is as
North Central States— Concluded.
Kansas.
Michigan.
Minnesota.
Missouri.
Nebraska.
Ohio.
South Dakota.
Wisconsin.
South Central States:
Alabama.
Arkansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana.
Tennessee.
Texas.
Western States:
California.
Colorado.
Montana.
Oregon.
Utah.
Washington.

From an examination of the part of Table II which shows relative
prices for fresh beef, roasts and stews, page 294, it is seen that meat
of this description in the North Atlantic States reached the lowest
price of the 15-year period in 1894, the relative price for that year
being 97.9, or 2.1 per cent below the average price for the 10-year
period 1890 to 1899; in the South Atlantic States the lowest rela­
tive price, 97, was in 1893; in the North Central States the lowest,
98.8, was in 1896; in the South Central States the lowest, 95.3, was
in 1890; in the Western States the lowest, 95.7, was in 1893. Con­
sidering all the schedules secured in the United States for this article
the lowest relative price was 98.3, in 1894.
In each of the five divisions of States, and also in the United States
considered as a whole, the highest relative price for this article during
the 15-year period was reached in 1902. In the North Atlantic
States the relative price for that year was 118.9, or 18.9 per cent
above the average price for the 10-year period 1890 to 1899; in the
South Atlantic States the relative price was 120.2; in the North
Central States, 117.2; in the South Central States, 118.5; in the
Western States, 119.9, and in the United States, 118.6.
The relative retail prices in the United States, considered as a
whole, of the 30 articles of food for the fifteen years from 1890 to 1904
are presented in the table which follows:




155

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904,

RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED
STATES, 1890 TO 1904.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Year.

Apples, Beans,
evapo­ dry.
rated.

1890.........
1891.........
1892.........
1893.........
1894.........
1895.........
1896.........
1897.........
1898.........
1899.........
1900.........
1901.........
1902.........
1903.........
1904.........

109.0
110.3
99.3
107.0
105.8
97.4
88.6
87.8
95.9
99.5
95.2
96.8
104.4
100.8
* 99.2

Year.

Corn
meal.

1890.........
1891.........
1892.........
1893.........
1894.........
1895.........
1896.........
1897.........
1898.........
1899.........
1900.........
1901.........
1902.........
1903.........
1904.........

Year.

1890.........
1891.........
1892.........
1893.........
1894.........
1895.........
II
3°^

1896 _____

1899.........
1900.........
1901.........
1902.........
1903.........
1904.........

103.3
106.2
102.4
105.0
102.8
100.5
92.7
91.5
95.9
99.7
110.0
113.9
116.8
118.1
116.8

Beef,
fresh,
roasts
and
stews.
99.5
100.0
99.6
99.0
98.3
98.6
99.1
100.3
101.7
103.7
106.5
110.7
118.6
113.1
112.8

Eggs.

Fish,
fresh.

100.0
109.7
105.2
103.1
102.2
100.8
95.0
93.7
95.0
95.1
97.4
107.1
118.8
120.7
121.5

100.6
106.9
106.8
108.1
96.3
99.3
92.8
91.4
96.2
101.1
99.9
105.7
119.1
125.3
130.9

99.3
99.6
100.1
100.1
100.4
99.8
100.2
99.8
100.5
100.2
100.4
101.4
105.0
107.3
107.9

Pork,
salt,
bacon.

Pork,
salt,
dry or
pickled.

Pork,
salt,
bam.

95.8
96.6
99.1
109.0
103.6
99.4
96.7
97.4
100.2
102.9
109.7
121.0
135.6
139.8
137.9

95.3
98.9
100.5
108.7
103.4
99.2
95.5
97.3
99.1
101.8
107.7
117.5
132.5
129.0
125.8

98.7
99.3
101.9
109.3
101.9
98.8
97.6
98.2
95.1
99.2
105.3
110.2
119.4
121.3
118.4

Beef,
fresh,
steaks.
98.8
99.4
99.3
99.6
98.2
99.1
99.5
100.2
102.0“
103.9
106.4
111.0
118.5
112.9
113.4
Fish,
salt.
100.7
101.7
102.2
103.4
101.5
98.9
97.5
95.2
98.8
100.2
99.1
100.9
102.8
108.4
111.7

Beef,
salt.

97.5
98.3
99.5
100.3
98.9
99.6
99.8
100.9
102.1
103.2
103.7
106.1
116.0
108.8
108.3

100.3
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.7
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.4
99.4
100.2
103.9

99.2
106.4
106.8
109.9
101.7
97.0
92.7
93.1
95.1
97.7
101.4
103.2
111.5
110.8
109.0

Flour,
wheat.

Lard.

Milk,
fresh.

109.7
112.5
105.1
96.1
88.7
89.0
92.7
104.3
107.4
94.6
94.3
94.4
94.9
101.2
119.9

98.2
99.8
103.6
117.9
106.9
100.1
92.5
89.8
93.9
97.1
104.4
118.1
134.3
126.7
117.3

100.5
100.5
100.6
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.4
98.9
99.9
101.1
103.3
105.8
106.3

Pota­
toes, Prunes.
Irish.
109.3
116.6
95.7
112.3
102.6
91.8
77.0
93.0
105.4
96.1
93.5
116.8
117.0
114.8
121.3

Bread,
wheat. Butter. Cheese.

116.8
116.5
113.5
115.6
100.9
94.2
86.8
84.3
86.3
85.1
83.0
82.6
83.4
80.2
79.6

Rice.

101.3
102.5
101.3
98.4
99.0
98.8
96.7
97.9
101.7
102.4
102.4
103.5
103.5
103.9
101.6

Sugar.

118.6
102.7
96.2
101.5
93.8
91.8
96.6
95.7
101.3
101.7
104.9
103.0
96.0
96.1
101.9

98.8
100.3
101.5
101.8
101.6
99.2
97.9
99.0
97.5
102.4
103.9
103.3
107.3
109.4
107.4

Chick­
ens.

101.3
104.0
103.8
104.2
98.6
98.4
97.1
94.0
96.8
101.8
100.8
103.0
113.2
118.5
120.7

Molas­ Mutton
and
ses.
lamb.
104.7
101.7
101.2
100.6
100.3
99.0
98.7
97.7
97.9
98.2
102.2
101.3
102.1
103.8
104.0

Tea.

100.0
100.4
100.2
100.1
98.7
98.5
98.8
98.5
100.7
104.4
105.5
106.7
107.2
106.0
105.8

100.7
100.6
101.0
99.9
97.8
98.7
98.7
99.6
100.4
102.6
105.6
109.0
114.7
112.6
114.1

Veal.

98.8
99.6
100.0
100.0
98.7
98.5
99.5
99.9
101.2
103.7
104.9
108.8
115.2
114.9
115.5

Coffee.

105.4
105.2
103.8
104.8
103.3
101.7
99.6
94.6
91.1
90.5
91.1
90.7
89.6
89.3
91.8
Pork,
fresh.
97.0
98.7
100.5
107.0
101.8
99.7
97.4
97.6
98.6
101.7
107.7
117.9
128.3
127.0
124.0

Vinegar.

102.9
105.5
102.7
99.5
99.8
98.9
97.2
97.4
97.9
98.3
98.5
98.9
99.5
99.1
98.9

From this table it is seen that the price of fresh roasting and stew­
ing beef in 1890 was 99.5 per cent of the average price during the 10year period from 1890 to 1899. In 1891 the price was exactly the
same as the average price for the 10-year period—that is, 100.0. The
lowest point reached was in 1894, when it was 98.3 per cent of the
average price for the 10-year period. The highest point reached was
in 1902, when it stood at 118.6. In 1904 it stood at 112.8, or 12.8 per



156

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

cent higher than the average price for the period from 1890 to 1899.
In the use of these tables showing the relative figures it should be
borne in mind that the difference between the relative prices in any
two years is not the per cent of difference in the cost. For example:
The relative price of fresh roasting and stewing beef was 98.3 in 1894
and 112.8 in 1904. The difference between these relative prices is
14.5; and this figure being 14.8 per cent of 98.3, the per cent of
increase in 1904 over 1894 is 14.8 per cent.
Eggs show a marked increase in price during the last few years. In
1900 the price was 99.9 per cent of the average price for the 10-year
period, 1890 to 1899; in 1901 the price rose to 105.7, in 1902 to 119.1;
in 1903 to 125.3, and in 1904 to 130.9. The price in 1904 was 31.0
per cent above the price four years previous.
From the preceding table is drawn the one which follows. It shows
for the United States the lowest and highest yearly relative price of
each of the 30 articles of food for the 15 years, 1890 to 1904; also the
year in which the lowest and highest yearly prices were reached.
LOWEST AND HIGHEST YEARLY RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL
ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED STATES, 1890 TO 1904.
[Average price for 1890-1899 = 100.0.]
Lowest.
Article.

Year.

1897
Apples, evaporated....................................................................
Beans, dry..................................................................................
1897
Beef, fresh, roasts and stew s....................................................
1894
Beef, fresh, steaks......................................................................
1894
Beef, sa lt....................................................................................
1890
Bread, w heat............................................................................. 1901,1902
B u tter.........................................................................................
1896
Cheese.........................................................................................
1898
Chickens.....................................................................................
1897
Coffee..........................................................................................
1903
Corn m eal...................................................................................
1897
E ggs............................................................................................
1897
Fish, fresh..................................................................................
1890
Fish, sa lt....................................................................................
1897
Flour, w heat..............................................................................
1894
Lard............................................................................................
1897
Milk, fresh..................................................................................
1899
Molasses.....................................................................................
1897
1894
Mutton and lamb.......................................................................
Pork, fresh.................................................................................
1890
Pork, salt, bacon.......................................................................
1890
Pork, salt, dry or pickled..........................................................
1890
Pork, salt, ham ..........................................................................
1898
Potatoes, Irish...........................................................................
1896
Prunes........................................................................................
1904
R ice.............................................................................................
1896
Sugar..........................................................................................
1895
Tea.............................................................................................. 1895,1897
Veal............................................................................................
1895
Vinegar.......................................................................................
1896

Highest.

Relative
price.

Year.

Relative
price.

87.8
91.5
98.3
98.2
97.5
99.4
92.7
97.5
94.0
89.3
93.7
91.4
99.3
95.2
88.7
89.8
98.9
97.7
97.8
97.0
95.8
95.3
95.1
77.0
79.6
96.7
91.8
98.5
98.5
97.2

1891
1903
1902
1902
1902
1904
1902
1903
1904
1890
1904
1904
1904
1904
1904
1902
1904
1890
1902
1902
1903
1902
1903
1904
1890
1903
1890
1902
1904
1891

110.3
118.1
118.6
118.5
116.0
103.9
111.5
109.4
120.7
105.4
121.5
130.9
107.9
111.7
119.9
134.3
106.3
104.7
114.7
128.3
139.8
132.5
121.3
121.3
116.8
103.9
118.6
107.2
115.5
105.5

Of the 30 articles, the lowest yearly relative price was reached by 5
in 1890, 4 in 1894, 2 in 1895, 1 in 1895 and 1897, the price being the
same for the two years; 4 in 1896, 8 in 1897, 2 in 1898, 1 in 1899, 1 in
1901 and 1902, 1 in 1903, and 1 in 1904. The highest yearly relative
price was reached by 4 in 1890. 2 in 1891, 9 in 1902, 5 in 1903, and 10



157

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

in 1904. Thus the highest yearly price of the 15-year period was
reached by four-fifths of the 30 articles during the last 3 years.
In addition to the relative prices which are shown for each of the
articles, this report also shows relative prices for the 30 articles of food
considered as a whole. The relative prices for the food group were
computed and are presented in two ways—the one being simple aver­
ages, which were found by adding the relative prices for all of the 30
articles and dividing by 30, the number of articles; the other being
weighted averages, in which the relative prices were found by giving
to the various articles their weight or relative importance, as measured
by the value of the article consumed in a year by representative work­
ingmen’s families as shown by the family budgets secured in connec­
tion with the Eighteenth Annual Report of this Bureau. This
weighted average will be further discussed in connection with other
tables.
The following table presents the simple averages of the relative
prices of the 30 articles of food for each year from 1890 to 1904 in
each of the five geographical divisions and in the United States con­
sidered as a whole. In the North Atlantic States, 2,664 schedules
were obtained for 1890 to 1902, 2,659 for 1903, and 2,625 for 1904;
in the South Atlantic States, 588 schedules were obtained for 1890
to 1902, 587 for 1903, and 872 for 1904; in the North Central States,
1,444 schedules were obtained for 1890 to 1902, 1,443 for 1903, and
1,865 for 1904; in the South Central States, 325 schedules were
obtained for 1890 to 1903, and 680 for 1904; and in the Western
States, 281 schedules were obtained for 1890 to 1902, 279 for 1903,
and 718 for 1904, making a total for the United States of 5,302 sched­
ules for 1890 to 1902, 5,293 for 1903, and 6,760 for 1904.
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, SIMPLE AVERAGES BY GEOGRAPHICAL
DIVISIONS, 1890 TO 1904.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Year.
1890............................................................
1891............................................................
1892............................................................
1893............................................................
1894............................................................
1895............................................................
1896............................................................
1897............................................................
1898............................................................
1899.........'..................................................
1900............................................................
1901............................................................
1902............................................................
1903............................................................
1904............................................................

South
North
Atlantic Atlantic
States.
States.

North
Central
States.

South
Central
States.

Western
States.

100.7
101.5
100.6
102.1
100.3
99.5
97.5
97.8
99.4
100.6
102.2
106.6
110.8
110.1
110.2

102.3
104.1
101.7
105.0
100.9
98.3
94.9
95.3
98.1
99.4
101.7
106.7
112.1
112.0
112.6

101.1
102.9
100.6
102.9
99.9
98.2
96.2
97.2
99.9
101.0
103.3
108.1
114.1
114.0
115.0

105.4
106.2
104.4
102.7
99.4
97.3
93.9
94.2
96.7
99.8
100.1
102.0
106.9
108.1
109.4

101.9
102.9
102.0
104.3
99.9
98.2
96.2
96.9
98.3
99.3
101.3
104.4
110.0
110.4
111.2

United
States.
102.1
103.4
101.8
104.1
100.3
98.2
95.8
96.3
98.5
99.6
101.5
105.5
110.9
110.9
111.6

This table of simple averages shows that the lowest relative price
was reached in each of the five divisions and in the United States in
17098— N o. 59— 05------11




158

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

1896. The highest relative price was reached in 1902 in the South
Atlantic States, and in 1904 in the North Atlantic States, North Cen­
tral States, South Central States, Western States, and in the United
States as a whole. In the North Atlantic States the relative price
ranged from 96.2 to 111.2; in the South Atlantic States, from 97.5
to 110.8; in the North Central States, from 94.9 to 112.6; in the
South Central States, from 96.2 to 115.0; in the Western States,
from 93.9 to 109.4, and in the total for the United States, from 95.8
to 111.6. As indicated by this table of simple averages, the price
of food in the United States in 1904, compared with each of the other
years of the period, was 9.3 per cent higher than in 1890, 7.9 per cent
higher than in 1891, 9.6 per cent higher than in 1892, 7.2 per cent
higher than in 1893, 11.3 per cent higher than in 1894, 13.6 per cent
higher than in 1895, 16.5 per cent higher than in 1896 (the year of
lowest prices for food), 15.9 per cent higher than in 1897, 13.3 per
cent higher than in 1898, 12.0 per cent higher than in 1899, 10.0 per
cent higher than in 1900, 5.8 per cent higher than in 1901, 0.6 per
cent higher than in 1902, and 0.6 per cent higher than in 1903.
The price of many articles of food was high in 1904, and the table
which follows shows the articles whose price in 1904 was higher than
the average price for the 10-year period, 1890 to 1899, and also the
articles whose price in 1904 was lower than the average price for 1890
to 1899. The table follows:
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED
STATES, 1904, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Articles for which the price in 1904 was Relative
price,
higher than the average for 1890-1899.
1904.
Rice.........................................................
Sugar.......................................................
Bread, wheat..........................................
Molasses..................................................
Tea...........................................................
Milk, fresh...............................................
Cheese......................................................
Fish, fresh...............................................
Beef, sa lt.................................................
B utter......................................................
Fish, sa lt.................................................
Beef, fresh, roasts and stew s.................
Beef, fresh, steaks...................................
Mutton and lamb....................................
Veal.........................................................
Beans, d r y ..............................................
L a rd ........................................................
Pork, salt, h a m ......................................
Flour, w h ea t..........................................
Chickens..................................................
Potatoes, Ir ish .......................................
Com m ea l...............................................
Pork, fresh..............................................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.......................
E g g s ........................................................
Pork, salt, b acon ....................................




101.6
101.9
103.9
104.0
105.8
106.3
107.4
107.9
108.3
109.0
111.7
112.8
113.4
114.1
115.5
116.8
117.3
118.4
119.9
120.7
121.3
121.5
124.0
125.8
130.9
137.9

Articles for which the price in 1904 was Relative
price,
lower than the average for 1890-1899.
1904.
Apples, evaporated................................
Vinegar.................................................
Coffee......................................................
Prunes....................................................

99.2
98.9
91.8
79.6

1

159

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

This table shows that the price of all the more important articles
was higher in 1904 than the average for the 10-year period, 1890
to 1899. Bacon was 37.9 per cent higher, eggs 30.9 per cent higher,
dry or pickled pork 25.8 per cent higher, fresh pork 24.0 per cent
higher, com meal 21.5 per cent higher, potatoes 21.3 per cent higher,
chickens 20.7 per cent higher, flour 19.9 per cent higher, salt ham
18.4 per cent higher, etc.
The price of prunes was 20.4 per cent lower in 1904 than for the
10-year period, 1890 to 1899, coffee 8.2 per cent lower, vinegar 1.1
per cent lower, and evaporated apples 0.8 per cent lower.
The preceding table is summarized in the short table which follows:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD, CLASSIFIED BY
PER CENT, WHICH THE 1904 RETAIL PRICE IS ABOVE OR BELOW THE AVERAGE
PRICE FOR 1890-1899
Price higher.

Number Per cent
of
of
articles. articles.

Price lower.

Number Per cent
of
of
articles. articles.

25 to 40 per cent......................
10 to 25 per cent......................
Less than 10 per cent..............

3
13
10

10.0
43.4
33.3

Less than 10 per cent...........
10 to 25 per cent....................

3
1

10.0
3.3

Total..............................

26

86.7

Total...............................

4

13.3

From this table it is seen that in 1904 the price of 3 of the 30
articles of food, or 10.0 per cent, was from 25 to 40 per cent higher
than the average price for the 10-year period, 1890 to 1899; the price
of 13 articles, or 43.4 per cent of the total, was from 10 to 25 per cent
higher than the average price for the 10-year period; and the price
of 10 articles, or 33.3 per cent of the total, was less than 10 per cent
higher than the average price for the 10-year period. On the other
hand, the price of 3 articles, or 10.0 per cent of the whole number,
was less than 10 per cent lower than the average price for the 10-year
period, and the price of 1 article, or 3.3 per cent of the whole num­
ber, was from 10 to 25 per cent (20.4 per cent) lower than the average
price for the 10-year period.
To render easy a comparison of the prices of the last year of the
15-year period included in this investigation with those of each of
the other years, the following table has been prepared, showing the
per cent of increase or decrease in the prices of 1904, compared with
the prices of each previous year of the period.




160

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

PER CENT OF INCREASE (+ ) OR DECREASE ( - ) IN RETAIL PRICES OF PRINCIPAL
ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1904 COMPARED W ITH PREVIOUS YEARS.

Article.

Per cent of increase or decrease in 1904 compared
w ith 1890.

Apples, evaporated........................................
Beans, dry......................................................
Beef, fresh, roasts and stew s........................
Beef, fresh, steaks..........................................
Beef, sa lt........................................................
Bread, w heat.................................................
B u tter............................................................
Cheese.............................................................
Chickens........................................................
Coffee..............................................................
Com meal.......................................................

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

- 9.0
+13.1
+ 13.4
+ 14.8
+11.1
+ 3.6
+ 9.9
+ 8.7
+19.2
- 1 2 .9
+ 21.5
+30.1
+ 8.7
+ 10.9
+ 9.3
+ 19.5
+ 5.8
- .7
+13.3
+ 27.8
+ 43.9
+32.0
+ 20.0
+11.0
- 3 1 .8
+ .3
-14.1
+ 5.8
+16.9
- 3.9
+ 9.3

- 1 0 .1
+ 10.0
+12.8
+14.1
+10.2
+ 3.6
+ 2.4
+ 7.1
+16.1
-1 2 .7
+10.8
+22.5
+ 8.3
+ 9.8
+ 6.6
+17.5
+ 5.8
+ 2.3
+ 13.4
+25.6
+ 42.8
+27.2
+19.2
+ 4.0
- 3 1 .7
- .9
- .8
+ 5.4
+ 16.0
- 6.3
+ 7.9

- 0.1
+ 14.1
+13.3
+14.2
+ 8.8
+ 3.6
+ 2.1
+ 5.8
+16.3
- 1 1 .6
+ 15.5
+22.6
+ 7.8
+ 9.3
+14.1
+ 13.2
+ 5.7
+ 2.8
+13.0
+ 23.4
+39.2
+25.2
+16.2
+ 26.8
- 2 9 .9
+ .3
+ 5.9
+ 5.6
+15.5
- 3.7
+ 9.6

- 7.3
+ 11.2
+13.9
+13.9
+ 8.0
+ 3.8
- .8
+ 5.5
+15.8
- 1 2 .4
+17.8
+21.1
+ 7.8
+ 8.0
+ 24.8
- .5
+ 5.9
+ 3.4
+ 14.2
+ 15.9
+ 26.5
+15.7
+ 8.3
+ 8.0
- 3 1 .1
+ 3.3
+ .4
+ 5.7
+15.5
- .6
+ 7.2

- 6.2
+ 13.6
+14.8
+15.5
+ 9.5
+ 4.0
+ 7.2
+ 5.7
+ 22.4
- 1 1 .1
+ 18.9
+35.9
+ 7.5
+10.0
+35.2
+ 9.7
+ 6.1
+ 3.7
+16.7
+ 21.8
+33.1
+ 21.7
+16.2
+18.2
- 21.1
+ 2.6
+ 8.6
+ 7.2
+17.0
- .9
+11.3

+ 1.8
+ 16.2
+14.4
+ 14.4
+ 8.7
+ 4.2
+ 12.4
+ 8.3
+22.7
- 9.7
+ 20.5
+ 31.8
+ 8.1
+12.9
+ 34.7
+17.2
+ 6.3
+ 5.1
+15.6
+ 24.4
+ 38.7
+ 26.8
+ 19.8
+32.1
- 1 5 .5
+ 2.8
+11.0
+ 7.4
+ 17.3
+13.6

+ 12.0
+ 26.0
+ 13.8
+ 14.0
+ 8.5
+ 4.0
+17.6
+ 9.7
+ 24.3
- 7.8
+ 27.9
+41.1
+ 7.7
+ 14.6
+ 29.3
+ 26.8
+ 6.4
+ 5.4
+ 15.6
+ 27.3
+42.6
+31.7
+ 21.3
+ 57.5
- 8.3
+ 5.1
+ 5.5
+ 7.1
+ 16.1
+ 1.7
+ 16.5

+ 7.6

+ 9.6

+ 7.0

+12.0

+14.2

+ 17.0

ifif/fresiv;:;;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
Fish, sa lt........................................................
Flour, wheat..................................................
Lard...............................................................
Milk, fresh......................................................
Molasses.........................................................
Mutton and lamb...........................................
Pork, fresh................................ <...................
Pork, salt, bacon...........................................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled..............................
Pork, salt, ham ..............................................
Potatoes, Irish...............................................
P m nes............................................................
Rice.................................................................
Sugar..............................................................
Tea..................................................................
Veal................................................................
Vinegar...........................................................
All food, simple averages..........................
All food, weighted according to family con­
sumption .............................................. + 9.1

Article.

Per cent of increase or decrease in 1904 compared
with—
1897.

Apples, evaporated ..................................
Beans, d ry ...... .........................................
Beef, fresh, roasts and stew s .....................
Beef, fresh, steaks ....................................
Beef, sa lt .................................................
Bread, w heat ...........................................

B utter.............................................................
Cheese.............................................................
Chickens..................................................
Coffee..................................... ................
Com meal................................................

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

+ 13.0
+27.7
+ 12.5
+13.2
+ 7.3
+ 3.9
+17.1
+ 8.5
+ 28.4
- 3.0
+ 29.7
+ 43.2
+ 8.1
+17.3
+ 15.0
+ 30.6
+ 6.6
+ 6.4
+ 14.6
+ 27.0
+ 41.6
+29.3
+ 20.6
+ 30.4
- 5.6
+ 3.8
+ 6.5
+ 7.4
+ 15.6
+ 1.5
+ 15.9

+ 4.0
+ 21.8
+ 10.9
+ 11.2
+ 6.1
+ 4.1
+ 14.6
+ 10.2
+ 24.7
+ .8
+ 27.9
+36.1
+ 7.4
+13.1
+ 11.6
+24.9
+ 6.9
+ 6.2
+ 13.6
+ 25.8
+ 37.6
+ 26.9
+ 24.5
+15.1
- 7.8
- .1
+ .6
+ 5.1
+14.1
+ 1.0
+ 13.3

- 0.3
+ 17.2
+ 8.8
+ 9.1
+ 4.9
+ 4.3
+ 11.6
+ 4.9
+18.6
+ 1.4
+ 27.8
+ 29.5
+ 7.7
+11.5
+ 26.7
+ 20.8
+ 7.5
+ 5.9
+ 11.2
+ 21.9
+ 34.0
+23.6
+ 19.4
+ 26.2
- 6.5
- .8
+ .2
+ 1.3
+ 11.4
+ .6
+ 12.0

+ 4.2
+ 6.2
+ 5.9
+ 6.6
+ 4.4
+ 4.2
+ 7.5
+ 3.4
+19.7
+ .8
+ 24.7
+31.0
+ 7.5
+12.7
+27.1
+ 12.4
+ 6.4
+ 1.8
+ 8.0
+15.1
+ 25.7
+ 16.8
+ 12.4
+ 29.7
- 4.1
- .8
- 2.9
+ .3
+10.1
+ .4
+ 10.0

+ 2.5
+ 2.5
+ 1.9
+ 2.2
+ 2.1
+ 4.5
+ 5.6
+ 4.0
+17.2
+ 1.2
+13.4
+23.8
+ 6.4
+10.7
+27.0
- .7
+ 5.1
+ 2.7
+ 4.7
+ 5.2
+ 14.0
+ 7.1
+ 7.4
+ 3.9
- 3.6
- 1.8
- 1.1
- .8
+ 6.2

+13.2

+12.3

+10.5

fresh ...............................................
Fish, sa lt ................................................
Flour, w heat..................................................
Lard................................................................
Milk, fresh......................................................
Molasses.........................................................
Mutton and lamb...........................................
Pork, fresh.....................................................
Pork, salt, bacon...........................................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled..............................
Pork, salt, ham ..............................................
Potatoes, Irish...............................................
Prunes............................................................
Rice.................................................................
Sugar..............................................................
Tea..................................................................
Veal.................................................................
Vinegar...........................................................
All food, simple averages...............................
All food, weighted according to family con­
sumption..................................................... +16.0
f6I,




1896.

1902.

1903.

-

5.0

+ 5.8

4.9
4.3
6.6
+ 4.5
- 2.2
+ •1
+ 6.6
+ 2.5
+ 2.3
+ 9.9
+ 2.8
+ 8.7
+26.3
- 1 2 .7
+ 2.9
+ 1.9
- .5
- 3.4
+ 1.7
- 5.1
- .8
+ 3.7
- 4.6
- 1.8
+ 6.1
- 1.3
+ .3
- .6
+ .6

- 1.6
— 1.1
- .3
+ .4
- .5

+ 3.7
- 1.6
- 1.8
+ 1.9
+ 2.8
+ .7
+ 4.5
+ .6
+ 3.0
+18.5
- 7.4
+ .5
+ •2
+ 1.3
- 2.4
- 1.4
- 2.5
- 2.4
+ 5.7
- .7
- 2.2
+ 6.0
- .2
+ .5
- .2
+ .6

+ 6.2

+

.7

+ 1.3

161

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

The first line of this table shows that the 1904 price of evaporated
apples was 9.0 per cent lower than the price in 1890, 10.1 per cent
lower than the price in 1891, etc. The average prices of wheat
bread, chickens, corn meal, eggs, fresh fish, salt fish, wheat flour,
milk, potatoes, and veal were higher in 1904 than in any other year
during the 15-year period.
The average price of eggs in 1904 was 30.1 per cent higher than
the price in 1890, 22.5 per cent higher than in 1891, 22.6 per cent
higher than in 1892, 21.1 per cent higher than in1893, 35.9 per cent
higher than in 1894, 31.8 per cent higher than in1895, 41.1 per cent
higher than in 1896, 43.2 per cent higher than in1897, 36.1 per cent
higher than in 1898, etc.
The simple average of the 30 articles of food and also the average
for food weighted according to family consumption was higher in
1904 than in any other year during the period covered by this inves­
tigation. The average for food weighted according to family con­
sumption was, in 1904, 9.1 per cent higher than in 1890, 7.6 per cent
higher than in 1891, 9.6 per cent higher than in 1892, 7.0 per cent
higher than in 1893, 12.0 per cent higher than in1894, 14.2 per cent
higher than in 1895, 17.0 per cent higher than in1896, 16.0 per cent
higher than in 1897, 13.2 per cent higher than in1898, 12.3 per cent
higher than in 1899, 10.5 per cent higher than in 1900, 6.2 per cent
higher than in 1901, 0.7 per cent higher than in 1902, and 1.3 per cent
higher than in 1903.
Certain of the articles included in this investigation are related to
each other in such a way as to make a comparison of the course of
prices of such articles very interesting. These groups of related
articles are shown in the table which follows:
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
[Average price for 1890-1899 = 100.0.]
Cattle products.
Year.

1890............................................................
1891............................................................
1892............................................................
1893............................................................
1894............................................................
1895............................................................
1896............................................................
1897............................................................
1898............................................................
1899............................................................
1900............................................................
1901............................................................
1902............................................................
1903............................................................,
1904............................................................




Beef,
fresh,
roasts
and
stews.
99.5
100.0
99.6
99.0
98.3
98.6
99.1
100.3
101.7
103.7
106.5
110.7
118.6
113.1
112.8

Beef,
fresh,
steaks.
98.8
99.4
99.3
99.6
98.2
99.1
99.5
100.2
102.0
103.9
106.4
111.0
118.5
112.9
113.4

Dairy products.

Beef,
salt.

97.5
98.3
99.5
100.3
98.9
99.6
99.8
100.9
102.1
103.2
103.7
106.1
116.0
108.8
108.3

Milk,
fresh.

100.5
100.5
100.6
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.4
98.9
99.9
101.1
103.3
105.8
Mfc.3

Butter.

99.2
106.4
106.8
109.9
101.7
97.0
92.7
93.1
95.1
97.7
101.4
103.2
111.5
110.8
109.0

Cheese.

98.8
100.3
101.5
101.8
101.6
99.2
97.9
99.0
97.5
102.4
103.9
103.3
107.3
109.4
107.4

162

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904—Concluded.
[Average price for 1890-1899 = 100.0.]
Flour and bread.

Hog products.
Year

1890...........................................
1891...........................................
1892...........................................
1893...........................................
1894...........................................
1895...........................................
1896...........................................
1897...........................................
1898...........................................
1899...........................................
1900...........................................
1901...........................................
1902...........................................
1903...........................................
1904...........................................

Pork,
fresh.
97.0
98.7
100.5
107.0
101.8
99.7
97.4
97.6
98.6
101.7
107.7
117.9
128.3
127.0
124.0

Pork,
Pork,
Pork,
salt, ba­ salt, dry salt, ham.
or
con.
pickled.
95.8
96.6
99.1
109.0
103.6
99.4
96.7
97.4
100.2
102.9
109.7
121.0
135.6
139.8
137.9

95.3
98.9
100.5
108.7
103.4
99.2
95.5
97.3
99.1
101.8
107.7
117.5
132.5
129.0
125.8

98.7
99.3
101.9
109.3
101.9
98.8
97.6
98.2
95.1
99.2
105.3
110.2
119.4
121.3
118.4

Lard.

98.2
99.8
103.6
117.9
106.9
100.1
92.5
89.8
93.9
97.1
104.4
118.1
134.3
126.7
117.3

Flour,
wheat.
109.7
112.5
105.1
96.1
88.7
89.0
92.7
104.3
107.4
94.6
94.3
94.4
94.9
101.2
119.9

Bread,
wheat.
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.7
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.4
99.4
100.2
103.9

Under cattle products are shown the three articles, beef, fresh,
roasts and stews; beef, fresh, steaks, and beef, salt. The price of
each of these three articles was higher in 1891 than in 1890; that of
the two descriptions of fresh beef was lower, and that of salt beef was
higher in 1892 than in 1891; prices of roasts and stews were lower
and of steaks and salt beef higher in 1893 than in 1892; all three of
the articles show lower prices in 1894 than in 1893; in each year from
1895 to 1902, inclusive, the price of each of the three articles increased;
all were lower in 1903 than in 1902; prices of roasts and stews and
salt beef were lower and steaks higher in 1904 than in 1903.
In the group hog products, all of the 5 articles take the same course
in each of the 6 years, 1891 to 1896; in 1897 all except lard were
higher than in 1896; in 1898 all except salt ham were higher than in
1897; in each of the 4 years, 1899 to 1902, all of the 5 articles were
higher than in the year immediately preceding; in 1903 fresh pork,
dry or pickled pork, and lard were lower, while bacon and ham were
higher than in 1902; in 1904 all were lower than in 1903.
In connection with this report on retail prices it is interesting to
verify the truth of the statement which has often been made, that
retail prices usually follow the wholesale but do not always vary in
the same proportion. The table which follows shows the relative
wholesale prices of food (simple averages of 53 articles from 1890 to
1892 and 1904, and of 54 articles from 1893 to 1903) and the relative
retail prices of food (simple averages of 30 articles). The figures for
wholesale prices are from Bulletin 57 of this Bureau.
The table follows:




R elative W holesale and r etail prices of f o o d
in th e U n it e d S t a t e s , 1890 to 1904.
[AVERAG E P R IC E FO R 1890 T O 1 89 9= 100.1

•WHOLESALE PRICES.




0 W U average of m articles;

m

■ ■ •■ R E T A IL PRICES,

( simple average of *> article* )

RETAIL PRICES OE FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

1631

RELATIVE WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED STATES, 1890
TO 1904.
[The wholesale prices are from Bulletin 57 of the Bureau of Labor and are simple averages of 53 articles
from 1890 to 1892 and 1904, and of 54 articles from 1893 to 1903. The retail prices are simple averages
of 30 articles. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Year.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................

Relative
wholesale
prices of
food.

Relative
retail
prices of
food.

112.4
115.7
103.6
110.2
99.8
94.6
83.8
87.7

102.1
103.4
101.8
104.1
100.3
98.2
95.8
96.3

Year.

1898..................................
1899...............................
1900...................................
1901..................................
1902..................................
1903..................................
1904..................................

Relative
wholesale
prices of
food.
94.4
98.3
104.2
105.9
111.3
107.1
107.2

Relative
retail
prices of
food.
98.5
99.6
101.5
105.5
110.9
110.9
111.6

The facts presented in this table are clearly shown in the accom­
panying graphic table.
From this table it is seen that both wholesale and retail prices of
food were higher in 1891 than in 1890, the wholesale, however, show­
ing a much greater advance; both wholesale and retail prices were
lower in 1892 than in 1891, the decline being much greater in whole­
sale than in retail; both were higher in 1893 than in 1892; both lower
in 1894 than in 1893; both lower in 1895 than in 1894; both lower in
1896 than in 1895, the decline in wholesale being much greater than
in retail; both were higher in each of the years from 1897 to 1902
than in the year immediately preceding; wholesale prices were lower
in 1903 than in 1902, while retail prices remained on the same level;
wholesale prices were slightly higher in 1904 than in 1903, while
retail prices made a more marked advance.
No decided difference in the comparison is shown when articles
for which prices not quoted in both the wholesale and retail price
compilations are eliminated and the average prices of the 25 articles
or groups of articles of food common to both the wholesale and retail
price investigations made by this Bureau are used.
I t will now be interesting to consider retail prices in connection
with certain information secured from the detailed schedules of cost
of living furnished by 2,567 families and published in the Eighteenth
Annual Report of this Bureau. The total number of persons in
the 2,567 families was 13,643. The table which follows shows, by
geographical divisions, the total number of families reporting expend­
itures in detail, average size of family and average income, average




Ifi4

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

expenditure for all purposes, and average expenditure for food per
family for the year 1901:
NUMBER OF FAMILIES, AVERAGE SIZE OF FAMILY, AVERAGE INCOME PER FAMILY,
AVERAGE EX PEN D ITU R E PER FAMILY FOR ALL PURPOSES, AND AVERAGE
EXPEND ITU RE PER FAMILY FOR FOOD, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1901.

Geographical division.

Average
Average Average expendi­
income ture per
Families. size of
per
family
family.
family.
for ail
purposes.

Average
expendi­
ture per
family
for food.

North Atlantic States...............................................
South Atlantic States...............................................
North Central States................................................
South Central States................................................
Western States..........................................................

1,415
219
721
122
90

5.25
5.30
5.46
5.65
4.69

1834.83
762.78
842.60
715.46
891.82

$778.04
700.62
785.95
690.11
751.46

$338.10
298.64
321.60
292.68
308.53

United States..................................................

2,567

5.31

827.19

768.54

326.90

A marked difference in conditions is seen by comparing the geo­
graphical divisions. The average family income varied from $715.46
in the South Central States to $891.82 in the Western States. The
average family expenditure for all purposes was $690.11 in the South
Central States and $785.95 in the North Central States. The average
family expenditure for food was $292.68 in the South Central States
and $338.10 in the North Atlantic States.
The average expenditure for food, when compared with the average
expenditure for all purposes, does not vary materially in the five
divisions. In the North Atlantic States the average expenditure for
food was 43.46 per cent of the average expenditure for all purposes;
in the South Atlantic States, 42.63 per cent; in the North Central
States, 40.92 per cent; in the South Central States, 42.41 per cent; in
the Western States, 41.06 per cent, and in the United States, con­
sidered as a whole, 42.54 per cent.
The table which follows shows, for the 2,567 families reporting
expenditures in detail, the average amount expended per family for
each of the principal items entering into the cost of living, and also
the per cent which the amount expended for each item is of the total
family expenditure:
AVERAGE EXPEND ITU RE OF 2,667 FAMILIES FOR EACH OF THE PRINCIPAL ITEMS
ENTERING INTO COST OF LIVING, AND PER CENT OF AVERAGE TOTAL EX PEN D I­
TURE, 1901.
Expenditure based
on all families.
Expenditure for—

Food.............................................................................................................................
R en t.............................................................................................................................
Mortgage:
Principal........................................................................ .......................................
Interest..................................................................................................................

Per cent
of total
Average. expendi­
ture.
$326.90
99.49

42.54
12.95

a 8.15
63.98
32.23
8.15

1.06
.52
4.19
1.06

Lighting.......................................................................................................................
a Including interest paid by 13 families.
6 N ot including interest paid by 13 families, included in principal.




165

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904,

AVERAGE EXPEND ITU RE OF 2,567 FAMILIES FOR EACH OF THE PRINCIPAL ITEMS
ENTERING INTO COST OF LIVING, AND PER CENT OF AVERAGE TOTAL E X P E N D I­
TURE, 1901—Concluded.
Expenditure based
on all families.
Per cent
of total
Average. expendi­
ture.

Expenditure for—

Clothing:
Husband...............................................................................................................
Wife.......................................................................................................................
Children.................................................................................................................
Taxes...........................................................................................................................
Insurance:
Property...............................................................................................................
LifeV......................................................................................................................
Organizations:
Labor.............................................................................•.......................................
Other............................................................. .......................................................
Religious purposes......................................................................................................
Charity........................................................................................................................
Furniture and utensils...............................................................................................
Books and newspapers...............................................................................................
Amusements ana yacation.........................................................................................
Intoxicating liquors...................................................................................................
Tobacco.......................................................................................................................
Sickness and death.....................................................................................................
Other purposes...........................................................................................................
Total..................................................................................................................

$33.73
26.03
48.08
5.79

4.39
3.39
6.26
.75

1.53
19.44

.20
2.53

3.87
5.18
7.62
2.39
26.31
8.35
12.28
12.44
10.93
20.54
45.13

.50
.67
.99
.31
3.42
1.09
1.60
1.62
1.42
2.67
5.87

768.54

100.00

The following table shows for each of the geographical divisions
and for the United States the average quantity per family of certain
principal articles of food consumed in one year. These averages are
based on all families from which detailed statements were secured in
each geographical division.
AVERAGE QUANTITY PER FAMILY OF CERTAIN PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD CON­
SUMED IN 1901, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.

Article.

Unit.

Fresh beef................................
Salt beef...................................
Fresh hog products.................
Salt hog products....................
Other m eat...............................
Poultry....................................
Fish..........................................

lb..........
lb..........
lb..........
lb..........
lb..........
lb ..........
lb..........
doz.......
a t.........
ib
lb..........
lb..........
lb..........
lb..........
lb..........

Butter......................................
Cheese.......................................
Lard.........................................
Tea...........................................
Coffee........................................
Sugar........................................
Molasses...................................

Flour and meal.>
...........
fb : : :
Bread....................................... loaf.......
Rice.......................................... lb..........
Potatoes................................... bu .........

North
South
North
South
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
States,
States,
States,
States, States,
States,
90
2,567
721
122
1,415
219
families. families.
families. families. families. families.
352.2
75.3
103.4
95.2
98.1
67.2
98.9
85.8
396.3
118.9
15.9
73.8
12.9
38.5
282.8
3.2
624.0
310.2
22.2
13.8

306.8
9.4
85.3
222.0
28.1
73.6
66.1
90.6
191.9
102.1
15.2
119.5
8.2
60.7
240.4
4.6
851.8
197.0
49.1
11.1

363.5
21.3
152.6
87.3
68.8
71.3
56.5
88.3
348.2
124.0
17.4
89.1
8.5
57.5
253.1
3.4
718.2
165.6
21.8
18.3

317.4
3.5
128.1
248.7
11.2
53.0
39.5
85.0
220.8
88.9
18.9
143.3
4.9
71.4
245.8
6.2
979.5
199.8
47.2
13.3

348.4
3.8
28.4
76.6
37.8
53.5
57.5
39.8
324.4
108.9
3.8
48.5
5.6
25.2
267.2
4.0
452.3
255.2
10.3
10.3

349.7
48.6
114.2
110.5
77.7
67.7
79.9
85.2
354.5
117.1
16.0
84.4
10.6
46.8
268.5
3.6
680.8
252.7
25.1
14.7

From this table it is seen that 349.7 pounds was the average quan­
tity per family of fresh beef consumed in the 2,567 families investi­
gated. In the North Atlantic States the average quantity was 352.2



166

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOE.

pounds; in the South Atlantic States, 306.8 pounds; in the North
Central States, 363.5 pounds; in the South Central States, 317.4
pounds, and in the Western States, 348.4 pounds.
In the 5 divisions a great difference is seen in the consumption of
salt beef. The average quantity consumed per family in the North
Atlantic States was 75.3 pounds; in the South Atlantic States, 9.4
pounds; in the North Central States, 21.3 pounds; in the South Cen­
tral States, 3.5 pounds, and in the Western States, 3.8 pounds. The
average for the United States was 48.6 pounds.
Of the more important articles salt hog products show the greatest
variation in quantity consumed per family. The average consump­
tion of these products in the North Atlantic States was 95.2 pounds; in
the South Atlantic States, 222 pounds; in the North Central States,
87.3 pounds; in the South Central States, 248.7 pounds, and in the
Western States, 76.6 pounds. The average for the 2,567 families
investigated was 110.5 pounds.
The average quantity of sugar consumed per family varied but little
in the different localities. In the North Atlantic States it was 282.8
pounds; in the South Atlantic States, 240.4 pounds; in the North
Central States, 253.1 pounds; in the South Central States, 245.8
pounds, and in the Western States, 267.2 pounds. The average for
the 2,567 families was 268.5 pounds.
Another table shows the average cost per family of the principal
articles of food consumed in one year. These averages are based on
all families from which detailed statements were secured in each of
the geographical divisions.
AVERAGE COST PER FAMILY OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD CONSUMED IN
1901, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.

Article.

North
North
South
South
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
States,
States,
States,
States,
States,
States,
90
2,567
1,415
219
721
122
families. families.
families. families. families. families.

Fresh beef.................................................
Salt beef....................................................
Fresh hog products..................................
Salt hog products.....................................
Other m eat...............................................
Poultry.....................................................
F ish...........................................................
E ggs..........................................................
Mlfc...........................................................
Butter.......................................................
Cheese.......................................................
Lard..........................................................
Tea............................................................
Coffee........................................................
Sugar.........................................................
Molasses....................................................
Flour and meal.........................................
Bread........................................................
Rice...........................................................
Potatoes...................................................
Other vegetables......................................
F ruit.........................................................
Vinegar, pickles, £nd condiments...........
Other food................................................

$54.27
8.18
12.83
12.19
12.26
10.18
10.06
18.44
24.29
29.77
2.55
8.15
6.33
9.70
16.67
1.51
16.24
15.41
1.94
13.77
16.08
15.31
4.06
17.91

$41.08
1.13
10.48
26.79
3.86
8.44
5.21
15.55
13.02
25.76
2.65
12.72
4.40
10.58
14.15
2.01
21.10
9.34
2.77
9.29
20.75
15.22
3.21
19.13

$46.06
2.20
18.39
11.25
8.68
9.34
5.67
15.24
19.67
28.48
2.87
10.34
4.22
12.91
14.63
1.53
16.47
8.11
1.92
13.01
22.03
17.15
4.80
26.63

$37.84
.33
15.60
28.09
1.40
5.93
3.95
13.20
12.25
21.74
3.36
14.31
2.69
12.22
15.70
2.93
22.68
9.55
3.70
11.54
16.62
11.52
4.41
21.12

$54.13
.66
4.04
11.06
5.35
7.15
6.90
11.01
20.46
31.81
.69
5.44
3.43
8.06
* 14.49
3.28
8.85
11.93
.91
9.84
35.41
40.53
1.49
11.61

$50,05
5.26
14.02
13.89
9.78
9.49
8.01
16.79
21.32
28.76
2.62
9.35
5.30
10.74
15.76
1.69
16.76
12.44
2.05
12.93
18.85
16.52
4.12
20.40

Total................................................

338.10

298.64

321.60

292.68

308.53

326.90




167

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

From this table it is seen that the average cost per family of the
fresh beef consumed was $54.27 in the North Atlantic States, $41.08
in the South Atlantic States, $46.06 in the North Central States,
$37.84 in the South Central States, and $54.13 in the Western States.
The average cost for the 2,567 families investigated was $50.05.
The average cost per family of salt hog products consumed was
$12.19 in the North Atlantic States, $26.79 in the South Atlantic
States, $11.25 in the North Central States, $28.09 in the South
Central States, and $11.06 in the Western States. The average for
all families investigated was $13.89.
The average cost of all food consumed during the year was $338.10
in the North Atlantic States, $298.64 in the South Atlantic States,
$321.60 in the North Central States, $292.68 in the South Central
States, and $308.53 in the Western States.
The average expenditure for food in the families investigated in
the North Atlantic States was 15.52 per cent above the average
expenditure in the families investigated in the South Central States.
The average expenditure for the 2,567 families in the United States
was $326.90.
From the table just shown another table has been computed,
showing the relative importance, as measured by the average family
expenditure, of the principal articles of food consumed in one year.
For the purpose of computing the relative importance of the various
articles, the total value of food consumed is considered equal to
10,000. The table follows:
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD CONSUMED IN
1901, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.
[Total value of food consumed=10,000.]

Article.

South
North
North
South
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
States,
States,
States,
States, States,
States,
2,567
90
1,415
219
721
122
families. families. families. families. families. families.

Fresh beef.................................................
Salt beef....................................................
Fresh hog products..................................
Salt hog products.....................................
Other m eat...............................................
Poultry.....................................................
F ish ...........................................................
E ggs..........................................................
M i& ...........................................................
B u tter.......................................................
Cheese.......................................................
Lard............................. ............................
Tea............................................................
Coffee.........................................................
Sugar.........................................................
Molasses....................................................
Flour and meal.........................................
Bread........................................................
Rice...........................................................
Potatoes...................................................
Other vegetables......................................
F ru it.........................................................
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments...........
Other food................................................

1,605
242
379
361
363
301
298
545
718
881
75
241
187
287
493
45
480
456
57
407
476
453
120
530

1,375
38
351
897
129
283
174
521
436
863
89
426
147
354
474
67
706
313
93
311
695
510
107
641

1,432
68
572
350
270
290
176
474
612
886
89
322
131
401
455
48
512
252
60
405
685
533
149
828

1,293
11
533
960
48
203
135
451
418
743
115
489
92
417
536
100
775
326
126
394
568
394
151
722

1,754
21
131
359
173
232
224
357
663
1,031
22
176
111
261
470
106
287
387
30
319
1,148
1,314
48
376

1,531
161
429
425
299
290
245
514
652
880
80
286
162
328
482
52
513
381
63
395
577
505
126
624

Total................................................

10,000

10,000

10,000

10,000

10,000

10,000




168

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

This table shows that upon the basis of the reported expenditures
for food in the 2,567 families, the total value of food being represented
by 10,000, fresh beef has a value of 1,531; salt beef, 161; fresh hog
products, 429; salt hog products, 425; other meat, 299; poultry, 290;
fish, 245; eggs, 514; milk, 652; butter, 880; cheese, 80; lard, 286;
tea, 162; coffee, 328; sugar, 482; molasses, 52; flour and meal, 513;
bread, 381; rice, 63; potatoes, 395; other vegetables, 577; fruit, 505;
vinegar, pickles, and condiments, 126, and other food, 624. It
should be understood that these figures of relative importance are
based on the cost of the various articles; that is, for every $100
spent for food, $15.31 was spent for fresh beef, $1.61 for salt beef, etc.
It is interesting to note that in the 2,567 families fresh hog products
and salt hog products have almost equal importance, and that the
two combined have almost exactly one-half the importance of fresh
beef and salt beef combined. Eggs are practically equal in impor­
tance to flour and meal. Tea has one-half the importance of coffee,
and sugar is almost equal in importance to the sum of tea and coffee.
Butter is almost equal in importance to the sum of flour and meal
and bread.
Marked differences in importance of the various articles are shown
in the 5 groups of States. In the North Atlantic States fresh beef has
a relative importance of 1,605; in the South Atlantic States, 1,375;
in the North Central States, 1,432; in the South Central States, 1,293,
and in the Western States, 1,754. The relative importance of salt
beef is 11 in the South Central States, while in the North Atlantic
States it is 242, or 22 times its importance in the South Central States.
The importance of salt hog products is 361 in the North Atlantic
States, 897 in the South Atlantic States, 350 in the North Central
States, 960 in the South Central States, and 359 in the Western States.
The importance of sugar does not show a great difference; it is 493
in the North Atlantic States, 474 in the South Atlantic States, 455 in
the North Central States, 536 in the South Central States, and 470 in
the Western States.
By the use of this table a series of index numbers, or relative prices,
has been computed in which the principal articles of food have been
given the weight or importance shown in the preceding table, thus
showing the course of retail prices from year to year when the vari­
ous articles are weighted according to average family consumption.
Certain groupings of the articles for which retail prices were
secured are necessary in order to bring them within the classification
reported in the family budgets.
Fresh beef is represented by the two articles—one, roasts and stews,
and the other, steaks; salt hog products by the three articles—salt
bacon, dry or pickled pork, and salt ham; other meat by the two
articles—mutton and lamb, and veal; poultry by the single article—



RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

169

chickens; fish by fresh fish and salt fish; flour and meal by wheat
flour and corn meal. However, in obtaining an average index
number to be used in weighting by relative importance, wheat flour
is given twice the importance of corn meal. It would be necessary
to give wheat flour even a greater weight as compared with corn
meal but for the fact that bread is considered separately from flour
and meal. Fruit is represented by two articles only—evaporated
apples and primes—as it was impossible to secure complete series of
prices of other descriptions of fruits. Vinegar, pickles, and condi­
ments are represented by the single article—vinegar, retail prices not
being obtainable for other articles of this class.
This list includes all articles for which retail prices were secured
except beans. The groupings are as follows:
Cheese.
Fresh beef:
Lard.
Roasts and stews.
Tea.
Steaks.
Coffee.
Salt beef.
Sugar.
Fresh hog products:
Pork, fresh.
Molasses.
Flour and meal:
Salt hog products:
Flour, wheat (2).
Pork, salt, bacon.
Corn meal (1).
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.
Pork, salt, ham.
Bread.
Rice.
Other meat:
Mutton and lamb.
Potatoes.
Fruit:
Veal.
Apples, evaporated.
Poultry:
Prunes.
Chickens.
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments:
Fish:
Vinegar.
Fresh.
Other food:
Salt.
The same index as for total
Eggs.
food, except meat.
Milk.
Butter.
The figures showing the relative importance of the various articles
of food are based on the family consumption for 1901. There is no
doubt that the relative importance of articles varied slightly from
year to year, but no figures are available covering the 15 years,
therefore the relative consumption of the various articles of food is
considered the same for each of the years.
The method of computing the series of relative prices weighted
according to family consumption, for each of the geographical divi­
sions and for the United States considered as a whole, can best be
explained by illustrating the process.



170

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The following table is for the United States for the year 1904:
TABLE ILLUSTRATING THE METHOD OF COMPUTING THE RELATIVE RETAIL
PRICE OF FOOD IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1904, THE VARIOUS ARTICLES BEING
WEIGHTED ACCORDING TO AVERAGE CONSUMPTION IN 2,567 FAMILIES.
Article.

Relative
impor­
tance.

Relative
price.

Result.

Salt hog products............................................................................
Other meat......................................................................................

1,531
161
429
425
299

113.1
108.3
124.0
127.4
114.8

173,156.1
17,436.3
53.196.0
54.145.0
34,325.2

Total m eat.............................................................................

2,845

116.8

332,258.6

Poultry............................................................................................
F ish..................................................................................................

290
245
514
652
880
80
286
162
328
482
52
513
381
63
395
505
126

120.7
109.8
130.9
106.3
109.0
107.4
117.3
105.8
91.8
101.9
104.0
120.4
103.9
101.6
121.3
89.4
98.9

35.003.0
26.901.0
67.282.6
69.307.6
95.920.0
8.592.0
33.547.8
17.139.6
30.110.4
49.115.8
5.408.0
61,765.2
39.585.9
6,400.8
47.913.5
45.147.0
12,461.4

Total, except m eat................................................................
Other food.......................................................................................

5,954
624
2,845

109.4
109.4
116.8

651.601.6
68,265.6
332.258.6

Grand to ta l............................................................................

9,423

111.7

1,052,125.8

Fresh beef........................................................................................
Salt beef...........................................................................................

Butter..............................................................................................
Cheese..............................................................................................
Lard.................................................................................................
Coffee...............................................................................................
Sugar...............................................................................................
Molasses...........................................................................................
Flour and meal................................................................................
Bread............................................................... ...............................
Rice..................................................................................................
Potatoes..........................................................................................
Fruit................................................................................................
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments...................................................

The sum of the numbers indicating the relative importance of the
various kinds of meat is 2,845, the relative importance in family con­
sumption of all meat. The sum of the results which were obtained
by multiplying the relative price of each of the kinds of meat by the
number indicating its relative importance is 332,258.6. Therefore,
to obtain the relative price of the group, meat, for the United States
in 1904, the sum of the results is divided by 2,845, the relative impor­
tance of the meat group. The quotient, 116.8, shows the relative
price of the meat group in 1904 when weighted according to family
consumption.
Each of the remaining 17 articles or classes of articles is taken up
in the same way as were the several kinds of meat, the relative price
for the United States in 1904 as shown in Table II being multiplied
by the relative importance of the article, as shown in the table on
page 167. For the group of 17 articles, comprised in “ total, except
meat,” the relative price, 109.4, was found in the same way as was the
relative price for all meat, the sum of the results, 651,601.6, being
divided by 5,954, the sum of the numbers indicating relative impor­
tance. One other group, designated “ other food,” remains to be
considered. As the various descriptions of meat most generally used
and also a class, “ other meat,” were included in the total meat, it is



RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

171

presumed that all meat was included in that total and that the food
which in the family budgets was classed as “ other food” must be
more nearly related to the various articles considered in the group
“ total food, except meat,” and therefore “ other food” was given the
same relative price as “ total food, except meat.”
The grand total of the numbers indicating relative importance was
9,423, and the sum of the results obtained by multiplying the relative
price of each of the various articles considered by its relative impor­
tance was 1,052,125.8. The sum of the results divided by 9,423 is
111.7, the relative price of food for the United States in 1904 when
the various articles are weighted according to the reported consump­
tion in 2,‘567 families. The class “ other vegetables” has a relative
importance of 577, but it was impossible to collect retail prices of
articles to represent properly this class for the 15 years, hence it was
not practicable to include that class in this table, and therefore the
grand total of relative importance, 9,423, lacks 577 of making the
10,000 total importance of food indicated in the table on page 167.
That is, 94.23 per cent of the total food consumption per family is
represented in this table.
It is interesting to see that the relative price for 1904, weighted
according to family consumption and including 94.23 per cent of the
total food consumption, differed but little from the simple average
of the 30 articles of food shown on page 157, the weighted price being
111.7 and the simple average 111.6. It should not be understood
that the 30 articles for which retail prices were secured and which
are enumerated on page 149 comprise 94.23 per cent of the food
consumed, but these articles represent groups or classes which do,
according to the 2,567 family budgets, comprise 94.23 per cent of
the food consumed.
The weighted relative price for the United States for each of the
years from 1890 to 1903 was found in the same way as has been
explained for 1904.
The same method was employed in computing the weighted rela­
tive prices for each of the 5 geographical divisions as for the United
States. The relative importance of the various articles, or classes of
articles, in the different divisions is shown in the table on page 167.
The table which follows shows for each of the 5 geographical divi­
sions and for the United States the relative price of food for each year
from 1890 to 1904. In the first column under each division is shown
the simple average of the relative prices of the 30 articles, and in
the second column under each division is shown the relative prices
weighted according to the average consumption of the various articles
of food in the families investigated in the States included in the divi­
sion. The relative prices obtained by the two methods are presented
17098— N o. 59— 05----- 12




172

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

so that the reader can make such use or comparison of them as he
desires. The table follows:
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, SIMPLE AND WEIGHTED AVERAGES, BY
GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1890 TO 1904.
[Average price for 1890-1899 = 100.0.]
North Atlantic South Atlantic North Central South Central 1
States.
States.
States.
States.
Year.

1890.......
1891.......
1892.......
1893.......
1894.......
1895.......
1896.......
1897.......
1898.......
1899.......
1900.......
1901.......
1902.......
1903.......
1904.......

Western
States.

United States.

Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weight­ Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weight­ Sim­ Weight­
ple.
ed.
ple.
ed.
ple.
ple.
ple.
ed.
ple.
101.9
102.9
102.0
104.3
99.9
98.2
96.2
96.9
98.3
99.3
101.3
104.4
110.0
110.4
111.2

102.3
103.2
102.1
104.4
99.2
97.7
97.0
96.9
98.8
99.5
101.2
104.7
110.5
110.1
111.7

100.7
101.5
100.6
102.1
100.3
99.5
97.5
97.8
99.4
100.6
102.2
106.6
110.8
110.1
110.2

101.2
102.1
101.1
103.2
100.0
98.7
96.8
97.1
99.3
100.5
102.4
106.9
111.8
111.2
111.9

102.3
104.1
101.7
105.0
100.9
98.3
94.9
95.3
98.1
99.4
101.7
106.7
112.1
112.0
112.6

102.3
104.5
101.8
105.4
100.6
98.0
94.6
95.6
98.4
98.9
100.8
106.1
111.7

101.1
102.9
100.6
102.9
99.9
98.2
96.2
97.2
99.9
101.0
103.3
108.1
114.1
111.0 114.0
112.1 115.0

102.1
103.6
100.7
103.5
100.0
98.1
96.1
97.3
98.8
99.9
101.1
106.9
113.5
113.5
115.0

105.4
106.2
104.4
102.7
99.4
97.3
93.9
94.2
96.7
99.8
100.1
102.0
106.9
108.1
109.4

107.7 102.1
*108.7 103.4
105.2 101.8
102.9 104.1
99.3 *100.3
96.7
98.2
93.2
95.8
92.7
96.3
95.2
98.5
98.5
99.6
98.1 101.5
99.9 105.5
104.4 110.9
103.7 110.9
104.9 111.6

102.4
103.8
101.9
104.4
99.7
97.8
95.5
96.3
98.7
99.5
101.1
105.2
110.9
110.3
111.7

It is extremely interesting to compare the results under the two
methods. In the North Atlantic States there is a difference of 0.4 in
1890, 0.3 in 1891, 0.1 in 1892, 0.1 in 1893, 0.7 in 1894, 0.5 in 1895, 0.8
in 1896, nothing in 1897, 0.5 in 1898, 0.2 in 1899, 0.1 in 1900, 0.3 in
1901, 0.5 in 1902, 0.3 in 1903, and 0.5 in 1904. The greatest differ­
ence in results obtained under the two methods is found in the West­
ern States. In the United States, considered as a whole, there is a
difference under the two methods of 0.3 in 1890, 0.4 in 1891, 0.1 in
1892, 0.3 in 1893, 0.6 in 1894, 0.4 in 1895, 0.3 in 1896, nothing in 1897,
0.2 in 1898, 0.1 in 1899, 0.4 in 1900, 0.3 in 1901, nothing in 1902, 0.6
in 1903, and 0.1 in 1904. This shows a difference of 0.6 in two years,
of 0.4 in three years, of 0.3 in four years, of 0.2 in one year, of 0.1 in
three years, and of nothing in two years.
The following table shows the average price per pound, dozen,
quart, etc., in 1901, of various articles of food. One column shows
the average price paid by the 2,567 families investigated in the United
States, as reported by the housewife or other member of the family—
that is, the average amount paid per family for each article was
divided by the average quantity of the article consumed. Another
column shows the average price computed from the reports obtained
from the retail merchants. The average price shown for fresh beef
in the last column, for instance, is the simple average of the prices
quoted on the 614 schedules for fresh beef; the average for salt beef




173

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

is the simple average of the prices quoted on the 121 schedules for
that article, etc. The table follows:
AVERAGE

PRICE

PER

POUND, DOZEN, QUART, ETC., OF CERTAIN
ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1901.

PRINCIPAL

Article.

Unit.

Com­
puted
from
2,557
family
budgets.

Fresh beef...................................................................................................
Salt beef......................................................................................................
Fresh hog products....................................................................................
Salt hog products.......................................................................................
Other m eat..................................................................................................
P oultry.......................................................................................................
F ish.............................................................................................................
E ggs............................................................................................................
Milk.............................................................................................................
Butter..........................................................................................................
Cheese..........................................................................................................
Lard............................................................................................................
Tea..............................................................................................................
Coffee...........................................................................................................
Sugar...........................................................................................................
Molasses......................................................................................................
Flour and meal...........................................................................................
Bread..........................................................................................................
Rice.............................................................................................................
Potatoes......................................................................................................

Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Dozen...
Quart...
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Gallon..
Pound..
Loaf___
Pound..
Bushel..

$0.1431
. 1082
.1228
.1257
.1259
. 1402
.1003
.1971
.0601
.2456
.1638
.1108
.5000
.2295
. 0587
.4694
.0246
.0492
.0817
.8796

Com­
puted
from
retailprice
sched­
ules.
$0.1470
.0931
.1300
. 1457
.1430
.1529
.1166
.2194
.0617
. 2644
.1634
.1190
.5455
.2445
.0587
.5136
(a)

.0545
.0837
.9908

a Flour, $0.0250; corn meal, $0.0230.

The average price per pound for fresh beef reported paid by the
2,567 families was $0.1431; the simple average price from the 614
schedules for fresh beef secured from the retail merchants was $0.1470.
The average price per pound for salt beef reported in the family bud­
gets was $0.1082; the average from the 121 schedules for salt beef
secured from the retail merchants was $0.0931. In the family budget
salt beef included dried beef, while the prices from retail merchants
are for corned beef. The prices for the other articles can be com­
pared by referring to the table.
It will be noticed that for all articles except four—salt beef,
cheese, sugar, and flour and meal—the average price computed from
the family budgets is less than the reports of retail merchants. In
explanation of this difference, two suggestions may be offered. The
first is, that when the price of any article of food advances there is a
tendency on the part of the consumers to use some substitute for
that article. Therefore, if an article is low for six months of the year
and high for the remaining six months the greater quantity con­
sumed by the family may have been purchased during the months
when the price was low, thus producing a lower average for the
year than would the simple average of 12 monthly quotations. A
second suggestion is that prices secured from retail merchants were
usually for some standard grade or brand of article, while in some
families investigated it is no doubt true that articles of a lower grade
were purchased at times.



174

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

The table which follows shows for 20 articles of food the amount
which could have been bought for one dollar in each of the years 1890
to 1904.
The table is based on the average price reported paid by the 2,567
families in 1901, the quantities for the other years being calculated
from the relative retail prices for each of the articles. Flour and
meal were combined on the family budgets; therefore the average
price reported for these two articles by the retail merchants was used
in computing the number of pounds of each which could have been
bought for one dollar.
No detailed description of the various articles can be given except
that they were of the grade reported used by the 2,567 families
reporting expenditures in detail.
The table follows:
AMOUNT OF VARIOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD OF THE GRADE USED BY THE 2,567 FAMI­
LIES REPORTING EXPENDITURES IN DETAIL, WHICH COULD HAVE BEEN BOUGHT
FOR ONE DOLLAR IN EACH YEAR FROM 1890 TO 1904.
[Based on the average price paid by the 2,567 families in 1901, and the course of retail prices.]

Year.

1890.........................
1891.........................
1892.........................
1893.........................
1894.........................
1895.........................
1896.........................
1897.........................
1898.........................
1899.........................
1900.........................
1901.........................
1902.........................
1903.........................
1904.........................
Year.

1890.........................
1891.........................
1892.........................
1893.........................
1894.........................
1895.........................
1896.........................
1897.........................
1898.........................
1899.........................
1900.........................
1901.........................
1902.........................
1903.........................
1904.........................

Fresh
Fresh
Salt
Salt Poultry Fish, Eggs, Milk, Butter,
beef, 1 pork, pork, [chick­ pounds. dozens. quarts. pounds. Cheese,
beef,
ens],
pounds
pounds. pounds. pounds. pounds. pounds.
7.81
7.78
7.79
7.81
7.89
7.84
7.81
7.73
7.61
7.47
7.28
6.99
6.54
6.86
6.85

10.06
9.97
9.85
9.77
9.91
9.84
9.82
9.72
9.60
9.50
9.45
9.24
8.45
9.01
9.05

9.89
9.72
9.55
8.97
9.43
9.63
9.84
9.83
9.73
9.44
8.91
8.14
7.48
7.56
7.74

9.58
9.41
9.20
8.49
8.98
9.33
9.58
9.48
9.43
9.13
8.60
7.96
7.16
7.12
7.26

7.25
7.06
7.08
7.05
7.45
7.46
7.56
7.81
7.59
7.21
7.29
7.13
6.49
6.20
6.08

10.09
5.33
10.02
5.01
9.97
5.02
9.91
4.96
9.99
5.56
10.15
5.40
5.77
10.20
10.35
5.86
10.12
5.57
10.07
5.30
10.11
5.36
9.97
5.07
9.71 ' 4.50
9.35
4.28
9.19
4.09

16.74
16.74
16.72
16.76
16.79
16.82
16.84
16.87
16.92
17.01
16.84
16.64
16.29
15.90
15.83

4.23
3.95
3.93
3.82
4.13
4.33
4.53
4.51
4.42
4.30
4.14
4.07
3.77
3.79
3.85

6.39
6.29
6.22
6.20
6.21
6.36
6.45
6.38
6.47
6.16
6.07
6.11
5.88
5.77
5.88

Flour, Corn Bread, Rice, Pota­
Lard,
Tea, Coffee, Sugar, Molas­ wheat, meal,
oneses,
toes,
pounds. pounds. pounds. gallons. pounds. pounds. pound pounds. bushels*
pounds.
loaves.
i
10.86
10.69
10.29
9.05
9.98
10.65
11.53
11.88
11.36
10.98
10.21
9.03
7.94
8.42
9.09

2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.16
2.17
2.16
2.17
2.12
2.04
2.02
2.00
1.99
2.01
2.02

3.75
3.76
3.81
3.77
3.83
3.89
3.97
4.18
4.34
4.37
4.34
4.36
4.41
4.43
4.31

14.80
17.09
18.24
17.29
18.71
19.12
18.17
18.34
17.33
17.26
16.73
17.04
18.28
18.26
17.22

2.06
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.18
2.19
2.21
2.20
2.20
2.11
2.13
2.11
2.08
2.07

34.42
33.56
35.93
39.29
42.57
42.43
40.73
36.20
35.16
39.92
40.04
40.00
39.79
37.31
31.49

46.57
42.45
44.27
45.17
45.56
46.20
49.02
49.70
49.02
48.97
47.81
43.48
39.20
38.58
38.33

20.15
20.15
20.15
20.19
20.23
20.27
20.23
20.21
20.25
20.29
20.27
20.33
20.33
20.17
19.45

12.51
12.36
12.51
12.87
12.80
12.82
13.10
12.94
12.46
12.37
12.37
12.24
12.24
12.19
12.47

1.22
1.14
1.39
1.19
1.30
1.45
1.73
1.43
1.26
1.39
1.42
1.14
1.14
1.16
1.10

From this table it is seen that for one dollar 7.81 pounds of fresh
beef (of the grade consumed by the 2,567 families investigated) could
have been bought in 1890, 7.78 pounds in 1891, 7.79 pounds in 1892,
7.81 pounds in 1893, 7.89 pounds in 1894, 7.84 pounds in 1895, 7.81



175

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

pounds in 1896, 7.73 pounds in 1897, 7.61 pounds in 1898, 7.47 pounds
in 1899, 7.28 pounds in 1900, 6.99 pounds in 1901, 6.54 pounds in
1902, 6.86 pounds in 1903, and 6.85 pounds in 1904.
The table which follows shows by geographical divisions the average
food cost per family each year from 1890 to 1904. This table is based
on the average food cost per family in 1901 as reported by the families
investigated in each geographical division, and the course of retail
prices of food as indicated by the relative prices weighted according
to family consumption in that division.
In each of the divisions of States and in the United States as a
whole it is considered in this table that the expenditure for each of
the various articles bore the same relation to the total expenditure
for food in each of the other years of the 15-year period covered
by this investigation as in 1901.
The table follows:
AVERAGE FOOD COST PER FAMILY, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, FOR EACH
YEAR, 1890 TO 1904.
[Based on the average cost per family in 1901 and the course of retail prices of food as indicated by the
relative prices weighted according to family consumption.]

Year.

1890............................................................
1891............................................................
1892............................................................
1893............................................................
1894............................................................
1895............................................................
1896............................................................
1897............................................................
1898............................................................
1899.................................:.........................
1900............................................................
1901............................................................
1902............................................................
1903............................................................
1904............................................................

South
North
North
South
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
States,
States,
States,
States,
States,
States,
90
2,567
219
721
122
1,415
families. families.
families. families. families. families.
$330.35
333.26
329.70
337.13
320.34
315.50
313.23
312.91
319.05
321.31
326.80
338.10
356.83
355.54
360.70

$282.72
285.23
282.44
288.30
279.36
275.73
270.42
271.26
277.41
280.76
286.07
298.64
312.33
310.65
312.61

$310.08
316.75
308.57
319.48
304.93
297.05
286.74
289.77
298.26
299.78
305.54
321.60
338.57
336.45
339.79

$279.54
283.64
275.71
283.37
273.79
268.59
263.11
266.40
270.50
273.51
276.80
292.68
310.75
310.75
314.86

$332.61
335.72
324.90
317.80
306.68
298.65
287.84
286.29
294.01
304.21
302.97
308.53
322.43
320.27
323.97

$318.20
322.55
316.65
324.41
309.81
303.91
296.76
299.24
306.70
309.19
314.16
326.90
344.61
342.75
347.10

From this table it is seen that in the North Atlantic States the
average food cost per family (assuming that food was purchased in
the same quantity each year, and that the expenditure for each of
the various articles bore the same relation to the total expenditure
for food in each of the years) was $330.35 in 1890, $333.26 in 1891,
etc. The lowest cost was $312.91 in 1897, and the highest was
$360.70 in 1904, a difference of $47.79.
For the United States, considered as a whole, the average cost of
food per family in 1890 was $318.20. In 1896, the year of lowest
prices, it fell to $296.76; in 1904 it reached the highest point of the
period, being $347.10, a difference between 1896 and 1904 of $50.34,
or 17.0 per cent. The changes in the cost of living, as shown by this
table, relate to food alone, representing 42.54 per cent of all family
expenditures in the 2,567 families furnishing information.



176

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR

For a comparison of the relative advance of retail prices of food
and wages in the manufacturing and mechanical industries the
reader is referred to the article on “ Wages and hours of labor,”
pages 1 to 147 of this Bulletin. The increase in wages in many
industries has exceeded the advance in food, but the increased cost
of food has been felt by everyone and perhaps more keenly by
those on salaries, as the general tendency is to advance employees
on fixed salaries less rapidly than those employed by the day or
week and whose services are contracted for at frequent intervals.
T able I . — R E T A IL P R IC E S O F FO O D , 1903 A N D 1904.
APPLES) EVAPORATED, PER POUND.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1903.

1904.

ALABAM A.

Birmingham.........................................

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples' evaporated...................................
Montgomery......................................... Apples, evaporated...................................

$0.1250
.1250
.1250

$0.1250
.1250
.1000

.1000
.1250

.1000
.1250

evaporated..... ..............................
evaporated...................................
evaporated, b est..........................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated..... .............................
evaporated...................................

.0967
.0800
.0983
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.0800
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated, b est..........................

.1000
.1250

.0833
.1250

New Haven........................................... Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.1500
.1200

.1500
.1200

.0800
.0833

.0800
.0833

.0800
.0800
.1000

.0800
.0800
.1000

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.1250
.1000
.1500

.1250
.1000
.1500

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.1000
.1000 !
.1146 .

.1000
.1000
.1000

. 1250
.0983 i
.0975
. 0933
.1000

.1125
.1000
.1000
.0933
.1000

.1000
.0800

.1000
.0800

evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................

.1250
.0833
.1000
.1000

.1250
.0833
.1000
.1000

Topeka.................................................. Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.0875
.0931

.0861
.0875

A R K A N SA S.

Little Rock........................................... Apples, evaporated..... ..............................
Apples, evaporated.................................
CALIFO RNIA.

Los Angeles................ .......................... Apples,
Apples'
Sacramento........................................... Apples,
San Francisco....................................... Apples,
Apples,
Apples,
Apples,
COLORADO.

Denver..................................................
CO NNECTICUT.

DELAW ARE.

Wilmington.................................... ...... Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
D ISTR ICT OF COLUMBIA.

Washington.......................................... Apples, evaporated..................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated, irn dium ....................
FLORIDA.

Jacksonville..........................................
GEORGIA.

Atlanta.................................................
ILLINO IS.

Chicago.................................................. Apples,
Apples,
Apples,
Peoria.................................................... Apples,
Apples,

evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................

IN D IA N A .

Indianapolis.........................................

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

IOW A.

Des Moines........................................... Apples,
Apples,
Apples,
Apples,

Dubuque...............................................
K A N SA S.




177

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1994.
T able I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 A N D 1904—Continued.
APPLES, EVAPORATED, 1*15U POUNIA—Continued.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1903.

1904.

KEN TU CK Y.

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples^ evaporated...................................

$0.0888
.1000

$0.0781
.1000

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.0840
.1000

.0917
.1000

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated, best..........................

.1200
.1300

.1300
.1500

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.1133
.1000

.1000
.1000

Apples,
Apples,
Apples,
Apples,

evaporated, good.........................
evaporated, good.........................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................

.1233
.1125
.1017
.1200

.1200
.1000
. 1033
.1183

Detroit.................................................. Apples, evaporated...................................

.0975

.0900

evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated, Michigan..................

.1250
.0817
.1150
.0658

.1000
.0883
.0933
.0717

Kansas City.......................................... Apples, evaporated...................................
St. Louis....... ....................................... Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.0958
.1033
.1050
.1100

.0931
.1000
.1000
.1083

..................... Apples, evaporated................................„.
Apples, evaporated...................................

. 1250
.1250

. 1250
. 1250

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.1000
.1250

.1000
. 1250

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.1200
.0767

.1117
.0817

evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................

.1000
.1000
.1200
.1200
.1200

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1200

Albany.................................................. Apples, evaporated...................................
Brooklyn............................................... Apples, evaporated...................................
Buffalo.................................................. Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
New York............................................. Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated, extra........................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.1000
.1200
. 1150
.0900
.1200
.1000
.1200
.1200

.1000
.1200
.1000
.0700
.1200
.1000
.1200
.1200

.0900

.1000

evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................

.1000
.1067
.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1154
.0883
.1000
.1000

Portland................................................ Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.0833
.0833

.0833
.0833

LOU ISIA N A .

M A INE.

M ARYLAND.

M A SSACH USE TT S.

B oston..................................................

M ICHIGAN.

M IN NESO TA.

Apples,
Applesj
St. Paul................................................. Apples,
Apples,

Duluth..................................................

M ISSO U RI.

M ONTANA.

B u tte........................
N E B R A SK A .

Omaha..................................................
N E W H AM PSH IRE.

Manchester...........................................
N E W JE R SE Y .

Jersey City............................................ Apples,
Apples,
Trenton................................................ Apples,
Apples,
Apples,
N E W YORK.

NO RTH CAROLINA.

Winston-Salem..................................... Apples, evaporated...................................
OHIO.

Cincinnati.............................................

Apples,
Apples,
Apples,
Cleveland............................................... Apples,
Apples,
OREGON.




178

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
APPLES, EVAPORATED, PER P© E N D - Concluded.

Description.

State and locality.

Average price.
1903.

1904.

PE N N SY L V A N IA .

Philadelphia.........................................

Apples,
Apples^
Pittsburg.............................................. Apples,
Apples^
Scranton............................................... Apples,
Apples,

evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated, bes"..........................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................

$0.1200
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1250

$0.1200
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200
. 1250

Natick................................................... Apples, evaporated...................................
Providence............................................ Apples j evaporated...................................
Apples^ evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.1200
.1200
.1500
.1117

.1200
.1200
.1292
.1183

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.1000
.1000

.0903
.1000

evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................

.1204
.1000
.1000
.0833

.1167
.1000
.1000
.0833

evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................
evaporated...................................

.1250
.1250
.1000
.1000

.1250
.1250
.1000
.1000

Salt Lake City...................................... Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................

.1250
.1250

. 1250
.1250

.1167
.1000

.0933
.1000

.1000
.1250

.1000
.1250

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

$0.1250
.1250

$0.1250
.1250

Navy, sold by the pound
Navy, sold by the pound

.1172
.1172

.1172
.1172

Navy, sold by the pound..........
Pink, sold by the pound...........
White, best, sold by the pound
Navy, sold by the pound..........
Pea.............................................
Pea, sold by the pound.............
Pink..................... ......................

.0750
.0688
.0750
.0750
.1172
.0938
.0716

.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.1172
.0938
.0781

Navy, sold by the poutfd............
Navy, sold in 5 and 6 pound lots

.0938
.0912

.0938
.0781

Pea,
Pea,

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

N avy .......
Pea, small

.1000
.0800

.1000
.0800

RHODE ISLA N D .

SOUTH CAROLINA.

Charleston............................................
SOUTH DAKOTA.

Sioux Falls...........................................
TEN N ESSEE.

Memphis............................................... Apples,
Apples,
Nashville............................................... Apples,
Apples,
T EX A S.

Dallas.................................................... Apples,
Apples,
San Antonio......................................... Apples,
Apples,
UTAH .

VIRG INIA.

Richmond............................................. Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
W ASH ING TO N.

Seattle................................................... Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
W ISC O N SIN .

Milwaukee............................................. Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
BEANS, DRV, PER QUART.
ALABAMA.

Birmingham......................

Navy,
Navy

ARKANSAS.

Little Rock........................
CALIFORNIA.

Los Angeles.......................
Sacramento.......................
San Francisco...................

COLORADO.

Denver...............................
CONNECTICUT.

New H aven....................
DELAWARE.

Wilmington




RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

179

T able I . — R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904—Continued.
B E A N S , D R V , P E R Q U A R T —Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

DISTRICT O C LU B
F O M IA.
Washington....................................... Navy......................................................
Pea.".......................................................
Pea........................................................
FLORIDA.
Jacksonville....................................... Navy.....................................................
Navy or white........................................
Navy or white........................................
GOG .
E R IA
Atlanta.............................................. Boston...................................................
Boston...................................................
Navy.....................................................
ILLINOIS.
Chicago.............................................. Hand picked..........................................
Hand picked...........................................
Hand picked..........................................
Peoria................................................ Navy, sold by the pound........................
NavyJ sold by the pound........................
IN
DIANA.
Indianapolis...................................... Navy......................................................
Navy......................................................
IOW
A.
Des Moines........................................ Navy, sold by the pound........................
Navyj sold by the pound........................
Dubuque............................................ Navy......................................................
Navy, sold by the pound........................
K SAS.
AN
Topeka.............................................. Navy, sold by the pound........................
Navy, sold by the pound........................
KEN CKY.
TU
Covington.......................................... Navy......................................................
Louisville.......................................... Navy, sold in 6-pound lots.....................

$0.1000
.1000
.1150

$0.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.0833

.1000
.1000
.0833

.0800
.1000
.1000
.0742
.0938

.0800
.1000
.1000
.0938
.0938

.0833
.1000

.0833
.1000

.0938
.0750
.1000
.0938

.0938
.0750
.0833
.0938

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.1000
.0938

.1000
.0797

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.1000
.1067

.0917
.0967

LOU
ISIAN
A.
New Orleans...................................... Navy, sold by the pound......................
Navy, sold by the pound.......................
M E.
AIN
Portland............................................ Pea........................................................
Pea........................................................
M
ARYLAN .
D
Baltimore.......................................... New York State, hand picked...............
New York State, hand picked................
M SSA U
A CH SETTS.
Boston.................................... .
Pea........................................................
Pea........................................................
Fall River.......................................... Pea........................................................
Pea........................................................
Lowell................................................ White, New York State.......................

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

.1200
.1200
.1000
.0800
.0900

.1067
.1100
.0917
.0800
.0858

M H A.
IC IG N
Detroit.............................................. Navy...................................................

.0900

.0883

M N TA.
IN ESO
Duluth............................................... Navy or pea, sold by the pound
Navy or pea, sold by the pound..............
Minneapolis....................................... Navy......................................................
St. Paul............................................. Pea, Minnesota....................................

.0938
.0938
.0850
.1083

.0938
.0938
.0792
.1000

.0938
.0938
. 1188
.1266

.0813
.0938
.1125
.1125
.1203

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

M
ISSO RI.
U
Kansas City....................................... Navy, sold by the pound........................
Navy, sold by the pound........................
St Louis............................................ Hand picked, sold by the pound__
Sold by the pound..................................
Sold by the pound..................................

.1 0 0 0

M ONTANA.

Butte................................................. Navy, sold by the pound.
Navy, sold by the pound........................
NEBRASKA .

Omaha..................................................... Navy, sold by the pound.....................




Navy, sold by the pound........................

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

180

T able I . —

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904—Continued.
B E A N S , D R Y , P E R Q U A R T -Concluded.

Average price.
Rescript! 3n.

State and locality.

1903.

1904.

Navy
Pea..

$0.0900
.0975

$0.0875
.0883

Navy,
Pea..
Navy.
Pea..
Pea..

.1000
.0800
.1200
.1200
.1000

.1000
.0800
.1000
.1000
.1000

N avy..^.
Navy, sold by the pound.............
Medium.........................................
Pea, sold by the pound................
White, marrow, New York State
White, medium.............................
White, New York State...............
White, New York State...............
Pea, New York S tate...................

.1000
.1000
.1000
.0750
. 1067
.0938
.1200
.1200
.1142
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
‘.1000
.0750
.0892
.0938
.1200
.1200
.1150
.1000
.1000

Beans, dry.
N avy ..........
N avy..........
N avy ..........
N avy ..........

.1067
.1000
.0875
.1000
.1000

.1133
.1000
.0742
.1000
.1000

Navy, sold by the pound
Navy, sold by the pound

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

N avy............................
White, marrow...........
Pea, sold by the pound.
Pea, sold by the pound.
N avy.............................
N avy.............................
N avy............................
N avy............................

.1000
.1000
.0938
.0938
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1117
.0938
.0938
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

Pea, New York State

.1000
.1000
.1000
.0817

.1000
.1000
.1000
.0917

N avy...............................
N avy...............................

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

Navy, sold by the pound
Navy, sold by the pound

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

N avy ..................................
Navy, sold by the pound..
N avy ..................................
Navy, sold in 6-pound lots

.1000
.0938
.1000
.0938

.1000
.0938
.1000
.0938

Navy,
Navy,
Navy,
Navy,

the pound..
the pound..
the pound..
the pound..

.1172
.1172
.0938
.0938

.1172
.1172
.0938
.0938

Navy, sold by the pound..
Navy, sold by the pound..

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

N avy..................................
N a v y ..................................

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

N avy..................................
N a v y ..................................

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

Navy, sold by the pound...
Navy, sold by the pound..

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

NEW HAMPSHIRE.

Manchester...........................
NEW JERSEY.

Jersey City............................
Trenton.................................
NEW YORK.

A lbany...
Brooklyn.
Buffalo. . .
Jam aica..
New York

West New Brighton..
OHIO.

Cincinnati..................
Cleveland.............................
OREGON.

Portland..............................
PE N N S Y L V A N IA .

Allegheny............................
Harrisburg..........................
Philadelphia........................
Pittsburg............................
Scranton..............................
RHODE ISLA N D .

East Greenwich..................
N atick.................................
Providence..........................
SOUTH CAROLINA.

Charleston...........................
SOU TH DAKOTA.

Sioux F alls..........................
T EN N ESSEE.

Memphis..............................
Nashville.............................
T E X A S.

B alias..................................
San Antonio........................

sold by
sold by
sold by
sold by

UTAH.

Salt Lake City....................
V IR G IN IA .

Richmond............................
WASHINGTON.

Seattle..............................
WISCONSIN.

Milwaukee........................




RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

181

T able I . — R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FOOD, 1903 A N D 1904— Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , B O A STS AND S T E W S , F E B POUND.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

ALABAM A.

Birmingham.........................................

Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast....................................................
Rib roast....................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Montgomery......................................... Plate or brisket, stew ................................
Plate or brisket^ stew................................
Rib roast....................................................
Rib roast...................................................

$0.1000
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1750
.1800
.1500
.0533
.0608
.1354
.1483

$0.1000
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1750
.1800
.1500
. 0500
.0600
.1250
.1500

.1000
.1000
.0800
.1500
.1250
.1000

.1000
.1000
.0800
. 1500
.1250
.1000

.1000
.0800
.1000
.1500
.1700
.1800
.1250
.1500
.1800
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1000
.1500
.1500
.1933
.2000

.1000
.0800
.1000
.1500
.1700
.1800
. 1250
.1500
.1800
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1000
.1500
.1500
.1800
.2000

.0800
.0675
.0700
.2000
.2117
. 1467
.0858

.0800
.0675
.0758
.2000
.2117
.1500
.0858

.1142
.0583
.1692
.1425
.2275
.1800
.1183
.1433
.1767
.2225
.1250
.1900
.1283
.0800
.2050
.1400
.1483

.1100
.0558
.1800
.1200
.2200
.1800
.1167
.1400
.1917
.2500
.1267
.1967
.1333
.0800
.2100
. 1433
. 1608

.1300
.1633

. 1258
.1750

. 1250
.1250
.1000
.1500
.1833
.1500

. 1250
.1250
.1042
.1500
.1833
.1500

A R K A N SA S.

Little Rock........................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast, home dressed.......................
Rib roast................................................... 1
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast, home dressed...........................
CALIFORNIA.

Los Angeles..........................................

Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast....................................................
Rib roast, prime.......................................
Oakland................................................ Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast, prime........................................
Rib roast, prime, best...............................
San Francisco....................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast....................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast, prime.......................................
Rib roast, prime.......................................
COLORADO.

Denver.................................................. Chuck roast.............................

Chuck roast...............................................
Plate, boiling.............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast, prime.......................................
Leadville............................................... Rib roast, prime.......................................
Shoulder, boiling.......................................
CO NNECTICUT.

Bridgeport............................................ Chuck roast, prime...................................
Plate, stew .................................................
Rib roast, prime, first cu t........................
Rib roast, prime, second cu t....................
Hartford............................................... Rib roast................................
Middletown........................................... Rib roast......................
New Haven........................................... Chuck roast.........................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast, first c u t....................................
Rib roast, first c u t....................................
New London......................................... Chuck roast, best...........
Rib roast...................................................
Stamford............................................... Chuck roast, prime, short cut
Plate, prime, stew .....................................
Rib roast, prime, first cu t........................
Rib roast, prime, second cu t....................
Willim antic........................................... Chuck roast, best.........
DELAW ARE.

Wilmington.......................................... Chuck roast......................................
Rib roast, best cu t....................................
D ISTR ICT OF COLUM BIA.

Washington.......................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast............ ..................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast, prime.......................................




182

BULLETIN OB’ THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I . — R E T A IL PR IC E S OF FOOD, 1903 AN D 1904—Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , R O A S T S A N O S T E W S , P E R PO U N D —Continued.

State and locality.

Average price.
Description.

1903.

1904.

FLO RIDA.

Jacksonville.......................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Cuck roast, home dressed.........................
Chuck roast, Western...............................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast, home dressed...........................
Rib roast, W estern..................................

$0.1250
.0933
.1000
.1000
.1000
.2000
.1808
.2000
.1250
.1500

$0.1250
.0925
.1000
.1000
.1000
.2000
.1800
.2000
. 1250
.1500

.1000
.1250
.1000
.1250
.1967
.1771
.0633
.0608
.1250

.1000
.1250
.1000
.1250
.1867
.1604
.0633
.0542
.1250

.0750
.1017
.1000
.1058
.1200
.1300
.1200
.1250
.0883
.0975
.0625
.1100
.1067
.1067

.0633
.1025
.1000
.0917
.0992
.1333
.1000
.1313
.0800
.0817
.0604
.1000
•0900
.1167

.1250
.1067
.1000
.1500
.1067
.1250
.1000
.1125
.1125
.1250
.1500

• 1250
.1083
.1000
.1500
.1083
.1250
• 1146
.1133
.1133
.1396
.1500

.0817
.1000
.0725
.1525
.1833
.1146
.0933
.1042
.1500
.1250

.0817
.1000
.0725
.1525
.1900
.1146
.0933
.1000
.1500
.1250

Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................

.0903
.0958
.0931
.1375
.1417
.1354

.0889
.0958
.0917
.1375
.1417
.1375

Covington............................................. Neck or plate, stew....................................
Rib roast...................................................
Louisville.............................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast........................................... .—
Rib roast....................................................
R oast.........................................................
R oast.........................................................

.0642
.1250
.0900
.0892
.1288
.1325
.1400
.1200

.0575
.1250
.0800
.0892
.1183
.1325
.1350
.1200

GEORGIA.

Atlanta................................................. Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Stew...........................................................
Stew...........................................................
Columbus.............................................. Rib roast...................................................
IL LIN O IS.

Chicago.................................................

Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Peoria.................................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
IN D IA N A .

Indianapolis................................

Terre Ilau te................................

Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast........................ ..........................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rump r o a s t.,................ ..........................
Short rib roast............... ..........................
Short rib roast..........................................

IOWA.
Des Moines............................................ Chuck roast..................... .........................
Chuck roast..................... .........................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Dubuque.......................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
K A N SA S.

Toueka........................................

K EN TU C K Y .




RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

183

T able I . — R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , B O A S T S A N D S T E W S , P E R P O U N D —Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.
1903.

1904.

LOUISIANA.

New Orleans......................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................

$0.0900
.0900
.0900
.1500
.1800
.1500

$0.0900
.0900
.0900
.1500
.1800
.1 5 0 0

.0700
.0975
.0983
.1533
.1583

.0700
.0983
.1050
.1583
.1617

.0500
.1325
.0900
.1000
.0700
.1683
.1050
.1525
.1750

.0500
.1325
.0900
.1000
.0700
.1642
.1067
.1300
.1800

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1950
.2067
.2067
.1933
.0833
.0867
.1300
.2067
.2667
.1808
.1833

.1117
.1167
.0933
.1950
.2108
.2033
.1950
.0925
.0867
.1300
.2000
.2767
.1950
.1800

.0767
.0900
.0900
.1142
.1100
.1213
. 1325
.1467
.0900

.0700
.0896
.0900
.1133
.1100
.1300
.1125
.1400
.0850

.1129
.1000
.1363
.1500
.0500
.0883
.0800
.1354
.1700
.0500
.0883
.1325

.1121
.1 000
.1375
.1500
.0500
.0883
.0 800
.1500
.1438
.0517
.1 025
.1658

.0918
.1000
.1458
.1500
.1083
.0917
.1250
.1263
.1263
.1233
.1500
.1500
.1396

.0931
.0875
.1550
.1567
.0903
.0 9 0 0
.1338
.1288
.1333
.1229
.1583
.1567
.1396

MAINE.

Lewiston............................................... Soup m eat.................................................
Portland............................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
MARYLAND.

Baltimore.............................................. Brisket roast.............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Plate or top rib, roast...............................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast, back cu t...................................
Rib roast, first cu t....................................
Rib roast, prime, first cu t........................
MASSACHUSETTS.

Boston.................................................. Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib roast, W estern..................................
Chelsea.................................................. Rib roast, first c u t ...................................
Fall River............................................. Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast, medium................................
Rib r o a st..................................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Sirloin roast...............................................
Malden.................................................. Rump roast...............................................
Standing, rib roast...................................
MICHIGAN.

D etroit.................................................. Boiling.......................................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Grand Rapids....................................... Rib r o a st..................................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib roast, first grade...............................
W yandotte........................................... Boiling.......................................................
MINNESOTA.

Duluth.................................................. Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib roast, b e s t ..........................................
Minneapolis.......................................... Boiling.......................................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib roast, choice, best c u t .......................
St. Paul................................................. Boiling.......................................................
Chuck roast.............................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
MISSOURI.

Kansas City.......................................... Chuck roast___.........................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib r o a st..................................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
St. Louis............................................... Boiling.......................................................
Boiling.......................................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast, medium...............................
Rib roast ..................................................
Rib r o a st..................................................
Rib roast, prim e.......................................
Rib roast, prim e.......................................




.1583

.1600

184

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I . — R E T A IL PR IC E S OF FO O D , 1903 A N D 1904—Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , R O A S T S A N D S T E W S , P E R PO U N SK - Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.
MONTANA.
B u tte....................................................

Description.

Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib r o a s t.................................... *.............
Rib r o a st..................................................

NEBRASKA.
Omaha.................................................. Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
NEW HAMPSHIRE.
Concord................................................. Chuck roast, best cu t................................
Rib roast, best, first c u t ..........................
Rib roast, best, second c u t ......................
Sirloin roast, b est.....................................
Dover.................................................... Rib roast, prime, first c u t .......................
Rib roast', prime, second c u t ...................
Sirloin roast, prime, best..........................
Manchester........................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib roast, prime, first c u t .......................
Rib roast, prime, second c u t...................
NEW JERSEY.
Bayonne............................................... Blade roast................................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast, best c u t ...................................
Bridgeton............................................. Rib roast, prim e.......................................
Camden................................................. Chuck roast, home dressed.......................
Rib roast, prime, best cut, home dressed .
Elizabeth.............................................. Blade roast................................................
Chuck roast..................... .........................
Rib roast, prim e......................................
Jersey City............................................ Chuck roast..................... .........................
Chuck roast..................... .........................
Rib roast......................... .........................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Newark................................................. Chuck, b est................................................
Paterson............................................... Rib roast, b e s t .........................................
Trenton................................................. Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast..............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib roast, best c u t ...................................
N E W YORK.

Albany.................................................. Chuck roast..................... ............
Rib r o a s t....................... ..........................
Brooklyn.............................................. Rib r o a s t....................... ..........................
Rib roast, prim e......................................
Buffalo.................................................. Chuck roast......................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast, b est......................................
Cftiuck roast, b est......................................
Chuck roast, medium...............................
Chuck roast, first grade............................
Chuck roast, second grade........................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib roast, prim e.......................................
Rib roast, first grad e...............................
Rib roast, first grad e...............................
Rib roast, first grad e...............................
Rib roast, second grade...........................
Rib roast, second grade...........................
College P oint........................................ Chuck roast...............................................
Flushing................................................ Rib r o a s t...................................................
New York............................................. Chuck roast...............................................
Pot roast....................................................
Rib r o a s t...................................................
Rib roast, p rim e.......................................
Rib roast, prim e.......................................
Rump roast...............................................
Soup m eat..................................................
Soup m eat.................................................




1903.

|

1904.

$0.0731
.0742
. 1121
.1125

$0.0708
.0717
.1333
.1333

.0819
.0800
.0875
. 1354
.1146
.1313

.0814
.0800
.0875
.1458
.1125
.1375

.0900
.1692
.1408
.2500
.1567
.1300
.2317
.1400
.1000
.2000
.1400
.1200

.0800
.1608
.1342
.2500
.1508
.1150
.2033
.1400
.1017
.2000
.1400
.1217

.1400
.1200
.1600
.1667
.1200
.1650
.1600
.1200
.2200
.1000
.1250
.1200
.1800
.1100
.1883
.1250
.1200
.1200
.1600
.1600
.1600

.1417
. 1233
.1650
.1600
.1233
.1817
.1675
.1292
.2217
.1017
.1325
.1217
.1917
.1258
.1917
.1313
.1275
.1250
.1700
.1700
.1700

.1400
.1667
.1867
.2117
.1067
.1000
.1058
.1133
.0975
.0775
.1067
.0867
1258
.1500
.1517
.1533
.1467
.1317
.1183
.1200
.1850
.1200
.1200
.1400
.1950
.1758
.1600
.1150
.0950

.1400
.1800
.1817
.2000
.1000
.0883
.1092
.1133
.0950
.0750
.1067
.0867
.1200
.1533
.1517
.1533
.1575
.1317
.1288
.1150
.1925
.1200
.1200
.1480
.2033
.1883
.1603
.1142
.1033

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

185

T able I . — R E T A IL PR IC E S OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , ROASTS AND S T E W S , P E R

P O U N D —Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

new york—concluded.

Rochester.............................................. Chuck roast...............................................
P late..........................................................
Rib roast, prime.......................................
Syracuse.............................................. Chuck roast, prime...................................
Rib roast, prime, best c u t .......................
Rib roast, prime, second c u t ...................
Tompkinsville...................................... Chuck roast, choice, best cut, W estern...
Chuck roast, choice, W estern..................
Rib roast, choice, W estern ......................

$0.0867
.0433
.1288
.1400
.2200
.1917
.1200
.1000
.1600

$0.0800
.0433
.1400
.1400
.2150
.1950
.1400
.1117
.1600

.1250
.1500
.1500
.15C0

.1250
.1500
.1500
.1354

.0942
.0800
.0800
.1288
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1400
.1500
.0800
.0800
.1250
.1142
.1200
.0800
.0758
.0567
.0800
.1250
.1200
.1600
.1500
.1600
.1542
.1800
.0700
.1000
.0600
.1800
.0800
.1100
.0917
.1146

.0842
.0800
.0800
.1250
.1375
.1500
.1363
.1400
.1375
.0700
.0825
.1250
.1142
.1183
.0750
.0758
.0600
.0800
.1250
.1200
.1600
.1475
.1600
.1542
.1800
.0700
.1100
.0600
.1800
.0800
.1117
.0875
.1083

Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib ro a st..................................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................

.0900
.0900
.0800
.1500
.1500
.1250

.0900
.0900
.0800
.1500
.1500
.1250

Chuck......................................................
Chuck roast, first cu t................................
Chuck roast, first cu t................................
Brisket roast.............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast, first cu t................................
Rib r o a s t...................................................
Harrisburg........................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Plate stew ..................................................
Rib r o a s t...................................................
Lancaster.............................................. Brisket roast.............................................
Chuck roast, b e st......................................
Chuck roast, neck......................................
Rib roast, first c u t ...................................
Rib roast, second c u t ...............................
Philadelphia.................. ...................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast............ ..................................

.1250
.1267
.1300
.0500
.1175
.1250
.1700
.1200
.1000
.1900
.0800
.1233
.1083
.1683
.1442
.1217
.1283
.1200
.1200

.1250
.1067
.1200
.0500
.1200
.1325
.1700
.1100
.0833
.1800
.0800
.1233
.1000
.1650
.1400
.1200
.1150
.1300
.1117

NO RTH CAROLINA.

Durham................................................

Chuck roast...............................................
Loin roast..................................................
Winston-Salem..................................... Loin roast, choice.....................................
Rib roast, p rim e.......................................
OHIO.

Cincinnati............................................. Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck, boiling...........................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib r o a s t..................................................
Rib roast, b e s t..........................................
Rib roast, m edium ....................................
Rib roast, medium....................................
Rib roast, prim e.......................................
Stew...........................................................
Cleveland............................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast.......................... ....................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast, prime...................................
Neck, boiling.............................................
Neck boiling.............................................
Plate, prim e..............................................
Plate, s te w ................................................
Rib r o a st..................................................
Rib roast, not trim m ed...........................
Rib roast, prim e.......................................
Rib roast, prim e.......................................
Rib roast, prim e.......................................
Rib roast, prim e.......................................
Sirloin roast, prime...................................
Columbus.............................................. Chuck, boiling...........................................
Chuck roast...............................................
P late..........................................................
Rib r o a st...................................................
Hamilton.............................................. Brisket or neck, boiling............................
Chuck roast...............................................
Springfield............................................ Neck, flank, or soft rib, boiling...............
Rib r o a st..................................................
OREGON.

Portland...............................................

PE N N SY L V A N IA .

Allegheny..............................................
Allentown.............................................
Bethlehem.............................................
Chester..................................................




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

186

T a b le I . —

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904—Continued.

B E E F , F R E S H , R O A S T S A N D S T E W S , P E E P O U N D - Continued.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1903.

1904.

PEN N s y l v a n ia — c o n c lu d e d .

Rib r o a st..................
Rib r o a st..................
Rib r o a st..................
Rib r o a st...................
Rib roast, choice___
Rump roast...............
Chuck roast...............
Chuck roast...............
Rib r o a st..................
Rib roast, medium ...
Chuck roast, b e s t_
_
Rib roast, p rim e.......
Rib roast, second cut
Stew...........................
Chuck roast...............
Chuck roast, first cut.
Rib ro a st..................
Rib r o a st..................
Chuck roast, first cut.
Chuck roast...............
Plate or brisket, stew.
Rib roast, second cut

Reading.
Scranton
Wilkesbarre..
Williamsport
RHODE ISLA N D .

Natick................................
Providence........................

$0.1717
.1350
.2167
.1783
.1983
.1050
.1250
.1250
.1700
.1800
.1117
.1400
.1483
.0833
.1250
.1288
.1850
.2000
.1000
.1000
.0800
.1400

Rib roast...................
Chuck roast...............
Rib roast...................
Rib roast...................

.1600
.1375
.2200
.1800

.1767
.1442
.2200
.1817

Brisket...............................
Chuck roast, home dressed
Chuck roast, Western.......
Chuck roast, Western.......
Rib roast, home dressed...
Rib roast, W estern..........
Rib roast, W estern..........

.0858
.1000
.1000
.0800
.1300
.1500
.1250

.0850
.1000
.1000
.0800
.1300
.1500
.1250

.0833
.0942
.0833
.1250
.1375
.1250

.0833
.0925
.0833
.1250
.1333
.1288

Brisket........................
Brisket........................
Brisket, best cu t.........
Brisket roast...............
Chuck roast.................
Chuck roast, b est.......
Rib roast.....................
Rib roast.....................
Rib roast, medium cut
Brisket roast...............
Chuck roast.................
Chuck roast, best c u t..
Rib roast.....................
Rib roast, best cu t___

Pittsburg.

$0.1600
.1533
.2000
.1800
.1867
.1050
.1250
.1250
.1700
.1800
.1200
.1367
.1450
.0833
.1179
.1283
.1800
.1933
.1229
.1250
.0800
.1400

Chuck roast.
Chuck roast
Chuck roast.
Rib roast...
Rib roast...
Rib roast...

Philadelphia.

.0600
.0750
.0800
.0800
.1042
.1000
.1429
.1300
.1250
.0633
.0800
.0975
.1375
.1208

.0575
.0850
.0800
.0750
.1000
.1000
.1429
.1250
.1250
.0667
.0800
.0975
.1250
.1208

Chuck roast.................
Chuck roast.................
Chuck roast.................
Rib roast.....................
Rib roast.....................
Rib roast, prime.........
Chuck roast.................
Chuck roast.................
Chuck roast.................
Rib roast.....................
Rib roast.....................
Rib roast.....................

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1250
.1250
.0500
.0600
.0700
.1250
.1250
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1250
.1250
.0500
.0800
.0700
.1250
.1250
.1000

Chuck roast.................
Chuck roast.................
Chuck roast.................
Rib roast.....................
Rib roast, medium___
Rib roast, prime.........

.1083
.1000
.1083
.1500
.1250
.1708

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1500
.1250
.1750

SOUTH CAROLINA.

Charleston............................

SOUTH DAKOTA.

Sioux Falls

T EN N ESSEE.

Chattanooga.
Memphis___

Nashville

Dallas

T E X A S.

San Antonio

U T AH .

Salt Lake City........... .




RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

187

T able I . — R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , R O A S T S A N D S T E W S , P E R F O UNO—Concluded.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

VIR G IN IA .

Norfolk................................................. Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast, prime.......................................
Petersburg............................................ Rib roast, choice.......................................
Richmond"............................................ Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast, choice.......................................
Rib roast, choice.......................................
Rib roast, medium....................................
Rib roast, medium....................................

$0.1000
.1500
.1528
.1000
.1000
.1500
.1500
.1250
.1250

$0.1000
.1500
.1500
.1000
.1000
.1500
.1500
.1250
.1250

.0750
.1000
.0800
.0700
.1375
.1500
.1500
.0733
.1438

.0750
.1000
.0800
.0625
.1375
.1500
.1500
.0733
.1500

.1000
.0800
.1250

.0950
.0750
.1125

.1000
.1375
.0958
.1450
.1900
.1100
.1200
.1133
.0667
.0933
.0775
.1392
.1433
.1400
.1000

.1000
.1396
.0933
.1400
.1800
.1100
.1200
.1108
.0642
.0800
.0800
.1404
.1417
.1388
.1000

$0.1500
.1500
.1604
.1750
.1800
.1750
.1250
.1250

$0.1500
.1500
.1500
.1750
.1800
.1750
.1250
.1250

.1250
.1500
.1000
.1750
.1750
.1000

.1250
.1500
.1000
.1750
.1750
.1000

.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1600
.1500
.1250
.1500
.1800
.1250
.1250
.1250

.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1600
.1500
.1250
.1500
.1575
.1250
.1250
.1250

W ASH ING TO N.

Seattle................................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Plate, boiling.............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Tacoma................................................. Rib, boiling...............................................
Rib roast, prime.......................................
W E ST V IRG INIA

Wheeling............................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Plate..........................................................
Rib roast...................................................
W ISC O N SIN .

Milwaukee............................................. Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Racine................................................... Chuck roast...............................................
Chuck roast...............................................
Neck, boiling.............................................
Neck or plate, boiling...............................
Neck or plate, boiling...............................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Rib roast...................................................
Shoulder, boiling......................................
R E E F , F R E S H , S T E A K S , P E R POUND.
ALABAMA.

Birmingham......................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Montgomery......................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
ARKANSAS.

Little Rock........................................... Round........................................................
Round, best cu t........................................
Round, home dressed...............................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, hom$ dressed................................
CALIFORNIA.

Los Angeles.......................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, bottom .........................................
Round, top................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
Oakland................................................ Round, bottom .........................................
Round, top................................................
Sacramento........................................... Sirloin........................................................
San Francisco....................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
17098— N o. 59— 05----- 13




188

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
Table I .— R E T A IL PR IC E S OF FO O D , 1903 A N D 1904— Continued.
BEEF, FRESH, STEAKS, FEB POUNO-Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

CALIFORNIA—
concluded.
San Francisco.................................... Round....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin, first cut......................................
Sirloin, first cut......................................
CLRD.
OOA O
Denver............................................... Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Leadville............................................ Chuck.....................................................
Round....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
C N ET U.
O N C IC T
Bridgeport......................................... Chuck, prime..........................................
Round,‘prime.........................................
Hartford............................................ Sirloin....................................................
Middletown....................................... Round....................................................
New Haven........................................ Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
New London...................................... Round....................................................
Stamford........................................... Chuck, prime..........................................
Round ‘best inside cut............................
Round, prime, lower cut.........................
Sirloin, prime, best.................................
Torrington........................................ Round, prime.........................................
Sirloin, prime, best cut...........................
Willimantic....................................... Round....................................................
DELAW
ARE.
Wilmington....................................... Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Sirloin, best cut......................................
DISTRICT O C LU B
F O M IA.
Washington....................................... Chuck.....................................................
Chuck.....................................................
Chuck.....................................................
Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
FLORIDA.
Jacksonville....................................... Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin................................ ; .................
Sirloin, home dressed..............................
Sirloin, Western....................................
G RG
EO IA.
Atlanta.............................................. Round.................................................
Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Columbus.......................................... Round....................................................
ILLINOIS.
Chicago.............................................. Chuck.....................................................
Chuck.....................................................
Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Round....................................................




10.1250
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1250
.1250

$0.1250
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1250
.1250

.1500
.1133
.2000
.1458
.0917
.1188
.1750

.1500
.1271
.2000
.1521
.1013
.1321
.1713

.1208
.1383
.2500
.1600
.1850
.1900
.2083
.2100
.1533
.1300
.2000
.1600
.2000
.1533
.1917
.1767

.1100
.1400
.2500
.1600
.1900
.2200
.2200
.2417
.1517
.1325
.2050
.1683
.2133
.1550.1983
.1767

.1800
.1800
.2500

.1850
.1700
.2500

.1258
.1250
.1000
.1533
.1500
.1500
.2000
.1833
.1800

.1250
.1250
.1042
.1500
.1500
.1396
.1800
.1833
.1800

.1800
.1333
.1500
.1500
.2000
.1900
.2000
.1500
.1800

.1800
.1354
.1500
.1500
.2000
.1892
.2000
.1500
.1800

.1250
.1500
.1250
.1500
.2000
.1750
.1250

.1250
.1500
.1250
.1500
.2042
.1604
.1250

.0700
.0900
.1000
.1050
.1000
.1250
.1067

.0800
.0917
.1000
.1100
.0975
.1250
.1083

189

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
T ab le I . — R E T A IL PR IC E S OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , S T E A K S , P E R P O U N D —Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.
I l l i n o i s — concluded.
Chicago..................................

jjescripuon.

1903.

1904.

$0.1500
.1392
.1517
.1250
.1000
.1333
.1200
.1250
.1500
.1575
.1500

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1250
.1292
.1500
.1367
.1250
.1800
.1567
.1500
.1550
.1000
.1050
.1250
.1250
.1417
.1250
.1500
.1417

.1250
.1267
.1500
.1383
.1250
.1800
.1583
.1500
.1354
.1146
.1000
.1396
.1250
.1167
.1396
.1500
.1167

.1375
.1292
.1125
.1500
.1550
.1167
.1421
.1417
.1708
.1667

.1375
.1292
.1125
.1500
.1550
.1167
.1271
.1417
.1708

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin................. ......................................

.1050
.1067
.1067
.1500
.1500
.1500

.1225
.1275
.1188
.1500
.1550
.1525

Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1500
.1067
.1250
.1500
.1500

.1500
.1033
.1250
.1500
.1500

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

Springfield...................

$0.1500
.1342
.1500
.1333
.1175
.1333
.1150
.1358
.1500
.1558
.1354

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

East St Louis.........................
Peoria.....................................

Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin............................................. '..........
Round........................................................

.1000
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1800
.1600

.1000
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1800
.1700

Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Rump.........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Rump.........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.2500
.1500
.2783
.2800
.1413
.1417
.2500
.2517
.2575

.2867
.1458
.2592
.2833
.1404
.1413
.2625
.2625
.2667

INDIANA,

Evansville....................
Fort Wayne................
Indianapolis................

South Bend..
Terre Haute.

Des Moines.

Dubuque.

Topeka.

.1667

K EN TU CK Y.

Covington.
Louisville..

LO U ISIA N A .

New Orleans.

M AINE,

Bangor.......................
Biddeford...................
Lewiston....................
Portland....................




190

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
Table I .— R E T A IL PR IC E S OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
BEEFy FRESH., STEAKS, PER POIJND- Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

M ARYLAND.

Baltimore.............................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Mount Washington.............................. Round........................................................
Sparrow Point 7 .................................... Round........................................................

«0.1417
.1408
.1350
.1400
.1475
.1758
.1525
.1417
.1363

10.1517
.1417
.1433
.1442
.1567
.1767
.1567
.1442
.1400

Round, bottom .........................................
Round, bottom .........................................
Roundj bottom, Western.........................
Round' top ..... ..........................................
Round' top................................................
Round^ top, W estern...............................
Sirloin....*.................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, W estern.......................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round, top ................................................
Round, bottom .........................................
Round' top ................................................
Round. . . ! .................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, top ................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1500
.1500
.1500
.2392
.2333
.2333
.2600
.2608
.2867
.3000
.2000
.1450
.2517
.1342
.1567
.1917
.2558
.2692
.1650
.1967
. 1925
.2658
.2167
.1850
.2133
.2783

.1517
.1508
.1500
.2292
.2342
.2392
.2608
.2767
.3042
.3000
.2092
.1400
.2500
.1483
.1533
.2200
.2525
.2908
.1850
.2158
.1917
.2750
.1983
.1750
.2150
.2767

Bay City............................................... Sirloin........................................................
D etroit.................................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Grand Rapids....................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, best cu t........................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, middle cu t.....................................
Saginaw................................................ Round........................................................
Round, best cu t........................................
Round, second cu t....................................
W yandotte........................................... Round........................................................

.1650
.1292
.1175
.1517
.1400
.1300
.1250
.1171
.1442
.1450
.1667
.1100
.1250
.1250
.1200

.1633
.1250
.1100
.1525
.1400
.1250
.1146
.1308
.1467
.1313
.1600
.1100
.1250
.1000
.1200

.1354
.1250
.1625
.1658
.1250
.1125
.1500
.1375
.0900
.1650
.1325
.1575

.1353
.1250
.1625
.1700
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1025
.2233
.1413
.1858

.1250
.1219
.1500
.1500
.1000
.1200
.1167

.1275
.1146
.1525
.1550
.1083
.1113
.1163

M A SSACH USETTS.

Boston..................................................

Brockton.............................................
Cambridge.............................................
Chelsea .7 ...............................................
Fall River.............................................
Hydepark..............................................
Lawrence...............................................
Lynn.....................................................
Malden..................................................
Quincy...................................................
Salem....................................................
Somerville.............................................
Springfield............................................
"Worcester.............................................
M ICHIGAN.

M IN NESO T A.

Duluth................................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Minneapolis........................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
St. Paul................................................. Chuck.........................................................
Porterhouse, first cu t...............................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
M ISSO U RI.

Kansas City.......................................... Round........................*..............................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
St. Louis............................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................




191

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
Table I ___R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
BEEP, P R E Sy, STEAKS, PER POUND— Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

M
issouri —concluded.
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

10.1500
.1525
.1583

10.1600
.1550
.1633

B u tte..................................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.0944
.0944
.1125
.1125

.1007
.1007
.1313
.1313

.1000
.1167
.1063
.1375
.1500
.1417

.1000
.1188
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1396

.1200
.1800
.2500
.1479
.2317
.1842
.1800
.2000
.1600
.2800
.2800

.1100
.1758
.2500
.1500
.2258
.1967
.1833
.2083
.1633
.2833
.2917

.1600
.2000
.1275
.1717
.2133
.1650
.2367
.1600
.2300
.2000
.1400
.1800
.1800
.2000
.1700
.1800
.1600
.1600
.1600
.1250
.1800
.2000
.2000

.1633
.2067
.1250
.1600
.2000
.1817
.2483
.1667
.2275
.2050
.1417
.1883
.1833
.2108
.1850
.1850
.1650
.1700
.1700
.1288
.1850
.2117
.2125

.1467
.2500
.1267
.1883
.1850
.2067
.2200
.1271
.1250
.1333
.1400
.1500
.1363
.1300
.1175
.1075
.1525
.1450
.1483
.1600
.1900
.1750
.1550
.1550

.1667
.2500
.1217
.1900
.1817
.2017
.2000
.1225
.1267
.1350
.1250
.1500
.1363
.1300
.1175
.1067
.1533
.1483
.1483
.1600
.1900
.1750
.1550
.1550

St. L o u is..............................................
M ONTANA.

N E B R A SK A .

Omaha.................................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
N E W H AM PSH IRE .

Concord................................................. Chuck, b est................................................
Round, best cu t........................................
Sirloin, best...............................................
r
Dover.................................................... Round, prime............... .... T ....................
Sirloin, prime, best c u t ............................
Sirloin, prime, second c u t ........................
Manchester........................................... Round........................................................
Round, prime, best c u t ............................
Round, prime, second cu t.........................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, prime......................................... ;.
N E W JE R S E Y .

Bayonne................................................ Round, b est...............................................
Sirloin, first cu t.........................................
Bridgeton............................................. Chuck, best................................................
Round, best...............................................
Sirloin, b est...............................................
Camden................................................. Round, best, home dressed.......................
Sirloin, first cut, home dressed................
Elizabeth.............................................. Round, bone in..........................................
Sirloin, flat bone.......................................
Sirloin, round bone...................................
Jersey City............................................ Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Newark................................................. Round........................................................
Paterson............................................... Round, boneless........................................
Trenton................................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, best cu t........................................
Round, second cu t....................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, best cu t.........................................
N E W YORK.

Albany.................................................. Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Brooklyn............................................... Chuck.........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, prime............................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Buffalo.................................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, b est...............................................
Round, first grade....................................
Round, first grade....................................
Round, second grade................................
Round, second grade................................
Rump........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, best...............................................
Sirloin, first grade.....................................
Sirloin, choice, first grade.........................
Sirloin, second grade.................................
Sirloin, second grade.................................




192

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I . — R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904-C on tin u ed .
B E E F , F R E S H , S T E A K S , P E R P O U N D —Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, b est................................................
Chuck) New York State............................
Chuck) prime.............................................
Round........................................................
Round.......................................................
Round, good. . . . . . . . . . . . ___ __________
Round, New York State..........................
Round) prime............................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, best, flat bone...............................
Sirloin) good..............................................
Sirloin) prime............................................
Round........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round, prime............................................
Sirloin, prime, first cu t.............................
Sirloin) prime, second cu t.........................
Chuck, choice, W estern............................
Round, cboinA, W estern______________
Sirloin, choice, W estern...........................
Sirloin........................................................

10.2000
.1600
.1600
.1200
.1100
.1333
.1400
.1600
.1758
.1583
.1900
.2033
.1700
.1867
.2158
.2217
.1767
.0900
.1125
.1288
.1500
.2000
.1800
.1000
.1600
.1800
.1967

$0.1800
.1750
.1667
.1267
.1200
.1350
.1425
.1600
.1883
.1500
.1917
.1908
.1700
.1717
.2142
.2142
.1833
.0800
.1100
.1267
.1475
.2000.
.1800
.1100
.1600
.1900
.1800

Wins ton-Salem..................................... Sirloin........................................................

.1500

.1500

.1133
.1525
.1408
.1517
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1483
.1500
.1600
.1000
.1200
.1483
.1500
.1600
.1200
.1233
.1250
.1867
.1867
.1600
.1800
.1800
.1000
.1438
.1833
.1517
.0992

.1050
.1458
.1267
.1467
.1063
.1250
.1125
.1417
.1438
.1600
.0925
.1233
.1450
.1517
.1550
.1200
.1308
.1250
.1833
.1750
.1450
.1867
.1800
.1100
.1375
.1800
.1367
.1008

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1250
.1500

.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1250
.1500

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round......................................................
Round........................................................
Rump.........................................................

.1467
.1400
.1400
.1700
.1600
.1917

.1467
.1400
.1367
.1667
.1567
.1883

new york—concluded.
Cohoes...................................................
Flushing................................................
Jamaica'................................................
New York.............................................

Poughkeepsie........................................
Rochester.............................................
Syracuse................................................
Tompkins vi lie......................................
Troy......................................................
NORTH CAROLINA.

OHIO.

Canton.................................................. Chuck.........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Cincinnati............................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round.......................................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
Chuck, prime.............................................
Cleveland...............................................
Chuck, prime.............................................
Round........................................................
Round, best...............................................
Round, best, lower c u t.............................
Round, prime............................................
Round, prime............................................
Round, upper cu t.....................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, best...............................................
Sirloin, first cu t.........................................
Sirloin, prime............................................
Sirloin, second cu t....................................
Columbus.............................................. Chuck.........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Springfield............................................ Round.......................................................
Toledo................................................... Round........................................................
OREGON.

Portland...............................................

P E N N SY L V A N IA .

Allentown.............................................
Altoona.................................................
Bethlehem.............................................
Chester..................................................




193

RETAIL PRICES OE FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
T able I . — R E T A IL PR IC E S OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
BEEF, FRE$H , STEAKS, PER POUND— Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

$0.2342
.1325
.2000
.1400
.1600
.2000
.1567
.1667
.1600
.1600
.1817
.1800
.2000
.2200
.2242
.2067
.2375
.2500
.1500
.1500
.2000
.2000
.1425
.1250
.1433
.1404
.1750
.1533
.2200
.2250
.1400
.1250
.1500
.2000

$0.2333
.1288
.2000
.1400
.1600
.2000
.1583
.1700
.1600
.1733
.1833
.1800
.2167
.2000
.2317
'. 2117
.2000
.2667
.1500
.1500
.1867
.2000
.1325
.1200
.1308
.1425
.1800
.1650
.2200
.2300
.1450
.1250
.1500
.2000

.1483
.1950
.2933
.1800
.1883
.1600
.3300
.3192

.1500
.1983
.3042
.1817
.1950
.1558
.3300
.3308

Charleston......................................... Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Round, Western....................................
Sirloin, first choice.................................
Sirloin, Western....................................
Sirloin, Western....................................
SO T D O
U H AK TA.

.1063
.1250
.1250
.1575
.1500
.1300

.1083
.1250
.1250
.1333
.1500
.1300

Sioux Falls........................................ Round...................................................
Round...................................................
Round...................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
TEN ESSEE.
N

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1354
.1417
.1500

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1417
.1500

Chattanooga...................................... Chuck....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Memphis............................................ Chuck....................................................
Chuck....................................................
Chuck, best cut......................................
Round...................................................
Round....................................................
Round, medium cut...............................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin, good cut.....................................
Nashville........................................... Chuck, best cut......................................
Round...................................................
Round...................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin, best cut......................................

.1125
.1542
.1083
.1000
.1000
.1333
.1300
.1000
.1563
.1800
.1000
.1396
.1125
.1250
.1354

.1104
.1500
.1083
.1000
.1000
.1313
.1250
.1000
.1500
.1800
.1000
.1250
.1146
.1250
.1354

PENN
SYLVAN
IA—concluded.
Chester.............................................. Sirloin....................................................
Harrisburg........................................ Round....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Lancaster.......................................... Round....................................................
Rump....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Norristown........................................ Round....................................................
Philadelphia...................................... Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Round, best...........................................
Rump....................................................
Rump....................................................
Rump....................................................
Rump, first-class....................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin, best............................................
Pittsburg........................................... Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
............................ ...... Rftimdj first eut.....................................
P«uHng
Round' second cut..................................
Scranton............................................ Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Wilkesbarre....................................... Round....................................................
Williamsport..................................... Chuck.....................................................
Round, best...........................................
Sirloin, first, cut......................................
R O E ISLAN
HD
D.
Natick............................................... Chuck.....................................................
Round....................................................
Sirloin....................................................
Providence......................................... Round....................................................
Round....................................................
Rump....................................................
Sirloin, trimmed.....................................
Sirloin, trimmed.....................................
SO T C LIN
U H ARO A.




194

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
Table I .— R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904—Continued.
BEEF, FRESH , STEAKS, PER POtJNB— Concluded.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

T EX A S.

Dallas.................................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
San Antonio.......................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

10.1000
.1354
.1000
.1500
.1650
.1250
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1250
.1250

10.1000
.1354
.1000
.1500
.1500
.1250
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1250
.1250

.1500
.1188
.1354
.1750
.1729
.1500

.1500
.1250
.1250
.1750
.1750
.1500

.1000
.1597
.1250
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1250
.1250

.1000
.1597
.1250
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1250
.1250

.1175
.1250
.1250
.1600
.1550
.1500
.1000
.1250
.1500

.1100
.1250
.1250
.1550
.1542
.1500
.1000
.1250
.1500

.1250
.1575

.1175
.1375

.1229
.1533
.1158
.1625
.1867
.1467
.1167
.1250
.1175
.1171
.1350
.1250
.1525
.1550

.1200
.1475
.1108
.1600
.1800
.1333
.1125
.1250
. 1201)
. 1158
.1325
. 1250
. 1501
.1450

$0.1250
.1250
.1250

$0.1250
.1250
.1250

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

UT AH .

Salt Lake City...................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
VIRG INIA.

Norfolk................................................. Round........................................................
Petersburg............................................ Sirloin........................................................
Richmond............................................. Round, choice............................................
Round, medium........................................
Round, medium........................................
Round, medium........................................
Round, prime............................................
Round, prime............................................
Sirloin, choice............................................
Sirloin, choice............................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
W ASH ING TO N.

Seattle................................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin..................:....................................
Tacoma................................................. Chuck.........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
W E ST V IRG INIA.

Wheeling............................................... Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
W ISC O N SIN .

Milwaukee............................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Oshkosh................................................ Round........................................................
Racine................................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
BEEF, SALT, PER POUND.
ALABAM A.

Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................
Montgomery......................................... Corned, shoulder, round, or brisket..........

Birmingham.........................................

AR K A N SA S.

Little Roc.k........... ............................... Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................




195

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
Table I .— R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FO O D , 1903 A N D 1904— Continued.
REEF, SALT* PER POUND— Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

CALIFORN
IA.
Los Angeles....................................... Corned, medium.....................................
San Francisco.................................... Corned, brisket, first quality..................
Corned) medium........* _ .\...................
_
Corned, medium.....................................
Corned, medium.....................................
CLRD.
OOA O
Denver............................................... Corned, medium.....................................
Corned', medium.....................................
Corned, rump, medium...........................
CO N C U
N E TIC T.
Hartford............................................ Corned, plate or rib................................
Middletown........................................ Corned, plate or rib......................... ____
New Haven........................................ Corned) neck or fla-nlr..............................
Corned) plate..........................................
Corned, plate, medium...........................
DELAW
ARE.
Wilmington....................................... Corned, chuck.........................................
Corned) medium.....................................
DISTRICT O C LU B
F O M IA.
Washington....................................... Corned, plate, best cut...........................
Corned) plate) best cut...........................
Corned, plate, best cut...........................
FLO A.
RID
Jacksonville....................................... Corned, medium.....................................
Corned) medium.....................................
Corned, medium.....................................
GOG .
E R IA
Atlanta.............................................. Corned, medium, sold in 2-lb. cans..........
Corned, medium, sold in 2-lb. cans..........
ILLINOIS.
Chicago.............................................. Corned...................................................
Corned...................................................
Corned...................................................
Corned, rump.........................................
■R St. Louis................................... Corned...................................................
fl,st
Peoria................................................ Corned, medium....................................
Springfield......................................... Corned...................................................
INDIANA.
Indianapolis...................................... Corned, medium.....................................
Corned, medium.....................................
IOW
A.
Des Moines........................................ Corned, medium.....................................
Corned, medium.....................................
Dubuque............................................ Corned, medium.....................................
Corned, medium.....................................
KAN
SAS.
Topeka.............................................. Corned, medium.....................................
Corned, medium.....................................
KEN CKY.
TU
Louisville........................................... Corned, brisket.......................................
LOU
ISIAN
A.
New Orleans...................................... Corned, medium.....................................
Corned, medium.....................................
M E.
AIN
Portland............................................ Corned, brisket.......................................
Corned, medium.....................................
M
ARYLAN
D.
Baltimore.......................................... Corned...................................................
Corned...................................................
Corned...................................................
Corned, medium.....................................
Mount Washington............................ Corned...................................................

1903.

1904.

10.1000
.1000
.0600
.0800
.0700

$0.1000
.1000
.0600
.0800
.0700

.0642
.0500
.1250

.0642
.0500
.1250

.0675
.0600
.1000
.0500
.0600

.0700
.0600
.1000
.C
600
.0600

.1000
.1250

.1000
.1279

.1000
.0800
.1000

.1000
.0800
.0800

.1500
.0800
.1000

.1500
.0800
.1000

.1250
1250

.1250
.1250

.0600
.0800
.0700
.0800
.0667
.0800
.1000

.0567
.0800
.0633
.0800
.0542
.0800
.1000

.1000
.0600

.1000
.0600

.0833
.0600
.0875
.0800

.0833
.0600
.0875
.0800

.0833
.0767

.0833
.0875

.0600

.0600

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

.1233
.0800

.1225
.0800

.1000
.1000
.0917
.1000
.1000

.1200
.1000
.0733
.1000
.1000

.1133
.1308
.0650
.0633
.0742

.1300
.1346
.0542
.0542
.0842

M A SSACH USE TT S.

Boston..............................................




Corned, brisket......................................
Corned, brisket.......................................
Corned, flank.........................................
Corned, flank.........................................
Corned, middle plate..............................

196

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
Table I .— R E T A IL PRJCES OF FO O D , 1903 A N D 1904— Continued.
BEEF, SALT, PER POUND— Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

M
ASSACH SETTS—concluded.
U
Brockton........................................... Corned....................................................
Cambridge......................................... Corned, medium.....................................
Fall River.......................................... Corned................................................ „ .
Corned, medium.....................................
Hydepark.......................................... Corned, brisket.......................................
Lawrence........................................... Corned) choice........................................
Lynn................................................. Corned...................................................
Quincy............................................... Corned...................................................
Salem"................................................ Corned, best...........................................
Somerville.......................................... Corned) best...........................................
Springfield......................................... Corned) rump.........................................
Worcester.......................................... Corned) thinrib......................................

$0.1150
.0792
.1200
.0667
.1325
.1300
.1217
.1033
.1150
.1217
.1600
.0979

10.1150
.0883
.1200
.0600
.1379
.1183
.1300
.0967
.1083
.1250
.1600
.0967

M IG .
ICH AN
Bay City............................................ Corned, plate..........................................
Detroit."............................................. Corned, t ................................................
Grand Rapids.................................... Corned, rump.........................................
Corned, rump.........................................
Corned, rump.........................................
Saginaw............................................. Comedyshoulder....................................
Corned) shoulder, lower round, or neck...
Wyandotte........................................ Corned...................................................

.0800
.1017
.1250
.1250
.1075
.1000
.0800
.0917

.0750
.0800
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1000
.0800
.0800

.1050
.1000
.1000
.1083
.0883

.1042
.1000
.1000
.1083
.1008

.0775
.0778
.0667
.0700
.0742

.0750
.0778
.0700
.0650
.0758

.0700
.0700

.0700
.0700

.0600
.0600

.0600
.0600

.0767
.0800

.0800
.0800

.0800
.0800
.1000
.1000

.0800
.0900
.1050
.1000

.1600
.0800
.1283
.0642
.1042
.0942
.1533
.0783
.0617
.1100
.1158
.1575
.0667
.0442
.0442
.0742
.0600
.0500
.1200
.0867

.1600
.0800
.1200
.0567
.0967
.0900
.1467
.0842
.0717
.1108
.1252
.1558
.0650
.0475
.0425
.0700
.0800
.0500
.1200
.0733

M N
IN ESOTA.
Duluth..............................................

Corned, shoulder, medium......................
Corned) shoulder, medium......................
Corned, shoulder, medium......................
Minneapolis....................................... Corned...................................................
St. Paul............................................. Corned, rump.........................................
M
ISSOU
RI.
T ftnaflH City....................................... Corned, medium.....................................
T
Corned, medium.....................................
St. Louis............................................ Corned...................................................
Corned...................................................
Corned.......'...........................................
M N A.
O TAN
Butte................................................. Corned, medium.....................................
Corned, medium.....................................
NEBRASKA.
Omaha............................................... Corned, medium.....................................
Corned, medium.....................................
N H PSH
EW AM IRE.
Manchester........................................ Corned, medium.....................................
Corned, medium.....................................
N JERSEY.
EW
Corned, medium.....................................
Jersey City........................................
Corned, medium.....................................
Trenton............................................. Corned, medium.....................................
Corned, medium.....................................
N YORK.
EW
Albany.............................................. Corned, rump or shoulder......................
Brooklyn........................................... Corned, medium.....................................
Corned, rump.........................................
Buffalo............................................... Corned, brisket.......................................
Corned choice cu ts................................
Corned, plate, boned..............................
Cohoes............................................... Corned, w im p.................................................
New York.......................................... Corned, brisket..............................
Corned, New York State........................
Corned, prime........................................
Corned, rump.........................................
Corned, rump, New York State..............
Poughkeepsie..................................... Corned, plate..........................................
Rochester.......................................... Corned, brisket.......................................
Corned, plate..........................................
Corned, rump.........................................
Tompkinsville.................................... Corned, brisket.......................................
Corned, plate..........................................
Corned, rump.........................................
Troy.................................................. Corned, plate..........................................




197

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
T ab le I . — RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904-Oontinued.

BEEF, SALT, FEB POUND— Concluded.
Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1903.

1904.

OHIO.

Cincinnati.......................... .
Cleveland........................... .
Toledo.................................

Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........ ;..............................
Corned, navel............................................
Corned, rump............................................
Corned, rib................................................

10.0867
.0800,
.0658
.1250
.0667

$0.0842
.0800
.0658
.1250
.0471

Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................

.0700
.0800

.0700
.0800

Corned.......................................................
Corned, rump............................................
Corned, plate.............................................
Corned.......................................................
Corned.......................................................
Corned, brisket, bone in ...........................
Corned, brisket, boneless..........................
Corned, plate or brisket............................
Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................
Corned, rump, boneless....... .....................
Corned, chucx............................................
Corned, plate.............................................

.1033
.1333
.0900
.1000
.1200 .0600
.0800
.0600
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1800
.1250
.1000

.1083
.1233
.0767
.1000
.1200
.0600
.0800
.0600
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1800
.1000
.0800

Corned, plate.............................................
Corned, plate.............................................
Corned, plate.............................................

.0525
.1025
.1133

.0550
.1025
.1200

Corned, round...........................................
Corned, round...........................................

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................

.0800
.0750

.0800
.0750

Corned.......................................................
Corned.......................................................
Corned.......................................................
Corned, brisket..........................................
Corned, rump............................................

.0900
.1000
.1000
.0800
.1000

.0900
.1000
.1000
.0800
.1000

Corned,
Corned,
Corned,
Corned,

medium........................................
medium........................................
medium........................................
medium........................................

.1500
.1500
.1000
.1000

.1500
.1500
.1000
.1000

Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................

.1250

.1250

.1000

.1000

OREGON.

Portland............................ .
PE N N SY L V A N IA .

Allegheny............................
Bethlehem......................... .
Norristown.........................
Philadelphia...................... .

Pittsburg..............................
Scranton...............................
Williamsport........................
RHODE ISL A N D .

Natick...................................
Providence............................
SOUTH CAROLINA.

Charleston............................
SOUTH DAKOTA.

Sioux Falls...........................
TEN N ESSEE.

Memphis...............................
Nashville...............................
T E X A S.

Dallas...................................
San Antonio.........................
U T AH .

Salt Lake City......................
VIR G IN IA .

Richmond.............................

Corned,
Corned,
Corned,
Corned,

.0800

.0800
.0800
.1000

.0800

brisket, medium..........................
brisket, medium..........................
chuck, round or rump,medium..
chuck, round or rump,medium..

.1000

.0800
.1000
.1000

Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................
Corned.......................................................

.0500
.0800
.0600
.0750

.0500
.0800
.0600
.0742

Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................

.0600
.1050

.0600
.1050

W ASH ING TO N.

Seattle
Tacoma

.0800

W ISC O N SIN .

Milwaukee.




198

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR*
T able I . — R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
BREAD, W HEAT.

Averag;e price
per 1oaf.

Average price
per pound.

1903.

1904.

1903.

.
12-ounce loaf...................................... SO 0500
.0500
12-ounce loaf......................................
.0500
12ounce loaf........................
13ounce loaf, 32 tickets sold for .0313
SI..
14ounce loaf, 28 tickets sold for .0357
SI..

SO 0500
.
.0500
.0500
.0313
.0357

SO.0667
.0667
.0667
.0385
.0408

State and locality.

Description.

1904.

ALABAM A.

Birmingham
Montgomery...

SO 0667
.
.0667
.0667
.0385
.0408

A R K A N SA S.

Little Rock

.0333

.0333

.0444

.0444

.0417

.0417

.0476

.0476

.0333

.0333

.0380

.0388

1-pound loaf......................................
1-pound loaf......................................
1-pound loaf......................................
12-ounce loaf, Jan. to Mar. 1903; 1pound loaf, Apr. to July 1903 and
1904; 20-ounce loaf, Aug. to Dec.
1903.
1-pound loaf......................................
1-pound loaf......................................
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Sept. 1904;
15^-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Sept. 1904;
15£-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904.
18-ounce loaf......................................

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0382

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0361

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0504

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0504

.0500

.0500

.0444

.0444

1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf
1-pound loaf

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

14-ounce loaf, Jan. to Oct. 1903; 135.0400
ounce loaf, Nov. 1903 to Mar. 1904;
13-ounce loaf, Apr. to July 1904;
125-ounce loaf, Aug. 1904; 12-ounce
loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. to Oct. 1903; 155.0500
ounce loaf, Nov. 1903 to Feb. 1904;
15-ounce loaf, Mar. to May 1904;
145-ounce loaf, June and July 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Aug. and Sept. 1904;
135-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904.
1pound loaf, Jan. to June 1903; 15.0500
ounce loaf, July to Dec. 1903; 14ounce loaf, Jan. and Feb. 1904; 13ounce loaf, Mar. to Dec. 1904.
2-pound loaf, Jan. to Mar. 1903 ; 31.1000
ounce loaf, Apr. to June 1903; 30ounce loaf, July to Sept. 1903 ; 29ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1903; 28ounce loaf, Jan. to June 1904; 27ounce loaf, July 1904; 26-ounce loaf,
Aug. to Nov. 1904 ; 25-ounce loaf,
Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. to June 1903; 15.0500
ounce loaf, July to Dec. 1903; 14ounce loaf, Jan. 1904; 13-ounce loaf,
Feb. to Dec. 1904.
2-pound loaf, Jan. to Apr. 1903; 31.1000
ounce loaf, May to July 1903; 30ounce loaf, Aug. to Oct. 1903; 29ounce loaf, Nov. and Dec. 1903; 28ounce loaf, Jan. to May 1904; 27ounce loaf, June and July 1904; 26ounce loaf, Aug. to Nov. 1904; 25ounce loaf, Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. to July 1903; 155.0500
ounce loaf, Aug. 1903; 15-ounce loaf,
Sept. 1903 to Apr. 1904; 145-ounce
loaf, >May to July 1904; 14-ounce
loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.

.0400

.0460

.0503

.0500

.0503

.0555

.0500

.0517

.0608

.1000

.0525

.0593

.0500

.0517

.0611

.1000

.0521

.0595

.0500

.0512

.0554

12-ounce loaf, 3 tickets sold for 10
cents.
14-ounce loaf, 6 tickets sold for 25
cents.
14-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Sept. 1904;
13-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904; 3
tickets sold for 10 cents.

CALIFORNIA.

Los Angeles.........
Oakland..............
San Francisco___

COLORADO.

Denver..................
Leadvillc...............
CO NNECTICUT.

Bridgeport............

Hartford

New Haven




199

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
T able I . — R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
BREA D, W HEAT —Continued.

Description.

State and locality.

Averaj|e
per

rice

Average price
per pound.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1904.

$0.0500

$0.0500

$0.0522

$0.0547

.0500
.1000
.0500

.0500
.1000
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0571

.0500
.0500
.0589

.1000

.1000

.0549

.0580

.0500
.0700

.0500
.0700

.0500
.0535

.0500
.0560

.0500
.0800

.0500
.0800

.0471
.0376

.0500
.0400

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0508
.0508
.0508

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0508
.0508
.0508

Jacksonville................. 14-ounce loaf, 6 tickets sold for 25
cents.
14-ounce loaf, 6 tickets sold for 25

.0417

.0417

.0476

.0476

.0417

.0417

.0476

.0476

14-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Sept. 1904;
12-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904; 25
tickets sold for $1.
14-ounce loaf, 25 tickets sold for $1,
Jan. 1903 to Nov. 1904; 5 cents
straight Dec. 1904.

.0400

.0400

.0457

.0476

.0400

.0408

.0457

.0467

12-ounce loaf....................................
1-pound loaf.....................................
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0667
.0500
.0500

.0667
.0500
.0524

Co n n e c t i c u t — concP d.

15£-ounce loaf, Jan. to Aug. 1903; 15ounce loaf, Sept. 1903 to June 1904;
14i-ounce loaf, July to Sept. 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904.
New London......... =... 1- pound loaf...................................
2- pound loaf...................................
Stamford..................... 14-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to July 1904;
13-ounce loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.
30rounce loaf, Jan. to July 1903; 28ounce loaf, Aug. 1903 to July 1904;
27-ounce loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.
Torrington.................. 1-pound loaf......................................
22-ounce loaf, Jan. to June 1903; 21ounce loaf, July and Aug. 1903; 19ounce loaf, Sept, and Nov. 1903; 20ounce loaf, Oct. 1903 and Dec. 1903
to Dec 19Q ,
1
Willimantic................. 17-ounce loaf, i903; 1-pound loaf, 1904
34-ounce loaf, 1903; 2-pound loaf, 1904
New H a v en ................

DEL A W A R E .

Wilmington................. 1-pound loaf.............
Square, 1-pound loaf.
DISTR ICT O F COLUM BIA.

Washington................

1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.

FLO RIDA.

GEORGIA.

Atlanta.............

IL LIN O IS.

Chicago.............

East St.L ouis..
Peoria...............
Rock Island___
Springfield.......

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0519

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0519

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0519

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0400
.0400
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0400
.0400
.0500

.0519
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0544

.0333

.0389

.0333

.0389

20-ounce loaf, 1903; 17-ounce loaf, 1904.
20-ounce loaf, 1903; 17-ounce loaf, 1904.
20-ounce loaf, 1903; 17-ounce loaf, 1904.

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0400
.0400
.0400

.0471
.0471
.0471

18-ounce loaf.
18-ounce loaf,
18-ounce loaf.
13-ounce loaf
13-ounce loaf

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0444
.0444
.0444
.0615
.0615

.0444
.0444
.0444
.0615
.0615

1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Oct. 1904;
13-ouhce loaf, Nov. and Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Oct. 1904;
13-ounce loaf, Nov. and Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Oct. 1904;
13-ounce loaf, Nov. and Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Oct. 1904;
13- ounce loaf, Nov. and Dec. 1904..
1-pound loaf......................................
1-pound loaf......................................
1-pound loaf......................................
1-pound loaf......................................
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to July 1904;
14- ounce loaf, Aug. 1904; 13-ounce
loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf......................................

IN D IA N A .

Indianapolis--IO W A.

Des Moines.......
Dubuque..........




200

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able I . — R E T A IL PRIC ES O F FO O D , 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
B R E A D , W H E A T —Continued.

State and locality.

Description.

Avera|;e price
per loaf.

Average price
per pound.

1903.

1904.

1903.

10.0500
.0500
.0500

10.0500
.0500
.0500

$0.0500
.0500
.0500

$0.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500

.0500

.0376

.0430

.0500

.0500

.0376

.0430

.0500

.0500

.0343

.0391

.0500

.0500

.0333

.0383

.0500

.0500

.0333

.0383

1-pound loaf.......................................
14-ounce loaf......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
15-ounce loaf......................................

.0500
.0400
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0400
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0457
.0500
.0500
.0533

.0500
.0457
.0500
.0500
.0533

Baltimore.................... 1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, 1903; 14 ounce loaf, 1904.
Mount Washington___ 1-pound loaf.......................................
Sparrow Point............ 1-pound loaf.......................................

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0509
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0524

.0500
.0500
.0400

.0500
.0500
.0417

.0500
.0500
.0400

.0571
.0500
.0417

Boston......................... 1-pound loaf.......................................
.0500
1-pound loaf.......................................
.0500
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug 1904;
.0500
14-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
Brockton..................... 12-ounce loaf......................................
.0500
.0500
Cambridge................... 1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to July 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.
Chelsea......................... 1-pound loaf.......................................
.0500
Fall River.................... 1-pound loaf.......................................
.0500
Homemade, 1-pound loaf..................
.0500
13-ounce loaf......................................
.0500
Holyoke....................... 1-pound loaf.......................................
.0500
Hydepark.................... 1-pound loaf.......................................
.0500
Lawrence..................... 1-pound loaf.......................................
.0500
Lynn............................ 1-pound loaf.......................................
.0500
Malden......................... 1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
.0500
14-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
2pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
.1000
28-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
Salem........................... 1-pound loaf.......................................
.0500
.0500
Somerville.................... 1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to July 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.
.0500
Springfield................... 1-pound loaf.......................................
Worcester.................... lj-pound loaf.....................................
.1000

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0524

.0500
.0500

.0667
.0500

.0667
.0530

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0615
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0615
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0524

.1000

.0500

.0524

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0530

.0500
.1000

.0500
.0667

.0500
.0667

.0433
.0525
.0525

.0400
.0500
.0500

.0433
.0525
.0525

1904.

K A N SA S.

Topeka........................

1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf............. .........................
1-pound loaf.......................................

K EN TU CK Y.

Louisville..................... 22-ounce loaf, Jan. to Aug. 1903 and
Jan. to May 1904; 20-ounce loaf,
Sept, to Dec. 1903 and June 1904;
18-ounce loaf, July 1904; 1-pound
loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.
22-ounce loaf, Jan. to Aug. 1903 and
Jan. to May 1904; 20-ounce loaf,
Sept, to Dec. 1903 and June 1904;
18-ounce loaf, July 1904; 1-pound
loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.
L O U ISIA N A .

New Orleans................ 24-ounce loaf, Jan. to Aug. 1903; 22ounce loaf, Sept. 1903 to Mar. 1904;
20-ounce loaf, Apr. to Dec. 1904.
24-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Mar. 1904;
20-ounce loaf, Apr. to Dec. 1904.
24-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Mar. 1904;
20-ounce loaf, Apr. to Dec. 1904.
M A IN E.

Bangor........................
Bidaeford....................
Lewiston......................
Portland......................
M ARYLAND.

M A SSACH USETTS.

M ICHIGAN.

Detroit......................... 1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
W yandotte.................. 1-pound loaf.......................................




.0400
.0500
.0500

201

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
Table I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904—Continued.
BREAD, WHEAT—Continued.

Description.

State and locality.

Averajge jirice
per

Average price
per pound.

1903.

1904.

1903.

1-pound loaf,
1-pound loaf,
1-pound loaf,
1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.

10.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

$0.0533
.0525
.0500
.0500
.0500

$0.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

$0.0533
.0525
.0500
.0500
.0500

1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

1-pound loaf, 4 tickets sold for 25
cents.
1-pound loaf, 4 tickets sold for 25
cents.

.0625

.0625

.0625

.0625

.0625

.0625

.0625

.0625

1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.

.0431
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0431
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

14-ounce loaf,
28-ounce loaf.
1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.

.0500
.1000
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.1000
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0571
.0571
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0571
.0571
.0500
.0500
.0500

1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf..................................... .
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
14ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Sept. 1904;
15ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904.
18-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Apr. 1904;
17-ounce loaf, May and June 1904;
1-pound loaf, July 1904; 15-ounce
loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.
18-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Apr. 1904;
17-ounce loaf, May 1904; 1-pound
loaf, June to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
15-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf..................................... .
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0524

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0524

1904.

M IN NESO TA.

Duluth................
Minneapolis....... .
St. P a u l............
M ISSO U RI.

Kansas City........
St. Joseph.......... .
St. Loufs............ .
M O NTANA.

B u tte...................

N E B R A SK A .

Omaha....................
N E W H A M PSH IR E .

Concord.................. .
Dover......................
Manchester.............
N E W JE R S E Y .

Bayonne................. .
Camden...................
Elizabeth................
Jersey City.............
New Brunswick___
Paterson................. .

Trenton,

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0524

.0400

.0400

.0400

.0419

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0508

.0500

.0500

.0444

.0490

.0500

.0500

.0444

.0479

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0511

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0524

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0514

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0900

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0800

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0450

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0424

N E W YORK.

Albany...............
Brooklyn...........
Buffalo...............
Cohoes................
College P oin t___
Flushing.............
Jamaica..............

1-pound loaf...................................
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to July 1904
15-ounce loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf...................................
1-pound loaf...................................
1-pound loaf...................................
1- pound loaf................................
2- pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to July 1904
28-ounce loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904
14-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
Vienna, 1-pound loaf......................
18-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Nov. 1904
17-ounce loaf, Dec. 1904.
28-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Nov. 1904
26-ounce loaf, Dec. 1904.




.0500

.0500

.0500

.0524

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0444

.0500
.0447

.0900

.0900

.0514

.0517

202

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB.
Table I.—RETAIL PRICES. OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904—Continued.
BREAD, W HEAT—Continued.

Description.

State and locality.

Averaj
per foaf"06

Average price
per pound.

1903.
new

yobk

1904.

1903.

10.0500
.0500
.0500

10.0500
.0500
.0500

10.0500
.0500
.0471

10.0500
.0500
.0491

.0500

.0500

.0471

.0491

.0500

.0500

.0471

.0491

.0500

.0500

.0471

.0491

.0500
.0500
.0600
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0600
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0600
.0500
.0533

.0500
.0500
.0600
.0500
.0546

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0536

1904.

— c o n c lu d e d .

1-pound loaf..................................... .
1-pound loaf..................................... .
17-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to July 1904;
1-pound loaf, Aug. to Sept. 1904;
15-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904.
17-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to July 1904;
1-pound loaf, Aug. to Sept. 1904;
15-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904.
17-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to July 1904;
1-pound loaf, Aug. to Sept. 1904;
15-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904.
17-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to July 1904;
1-pound loaf, Aug. to Sept. 1904;
15-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf.....................................
Rochester.
1-pound loaf.....................................
1-pound loaf.....................................
Troy........................
1-pound loaf.....................................
Utica.......................
West New Brighton... 15-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec; 1904.

Mariner Harbor
Newburgh........
New York........

NORTH CAROLINA.

Durham....................... 1-pound loaf.
Winston-Salem............ 1-pound loaf
OHIO.

C anton...
Cincinnati

1-pound loaf...................................
1-pound loaf...................................
1-pound loaf...................................

Cleveland.

1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to June 1904
14-ounce loaf, July to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan.4903 to May 1904
14-ounce loaf, June to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to June 1904
14-ounce loaf, July to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf....................................
1-pound loaf...................................
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to June 1904
14-ounce loaf, July to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf.....................................

Hamilton.........
Springfield.......
Toledo..............
Youngstown:..

l - p o u n d l o a f ..................................................

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0541

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0536

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0536

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0500

1-pound loaf
1-pound loaf
1-pound loaf

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
14-ounce loaf, 1903; 1-pound loaf, 1904.
12-ounce loaf......................................
1-pound loaf, 1903; 14-ounce loaf, 1904.
17-ounce loaf, 1903; 1-pound loaf, 1904.
1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
Vienna, 1-pound loaf.........................
1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf,1903; 14J-ounce loaf,1904.
1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................
1-pound loaf.......................................

.0500
.0500
.0433
.0400
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.Q500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0433
.0457
.0667
.0500
.0471
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0667
.0571
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0552
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

15-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to June 1904;
14-ounce loaf, July 1904; 13$-ounce
loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.
15-ounce loaf, Jan. to Aug. 1903; 14ounce loaf, Sept. 1903 to Feb. 1904;
13£-ounce loaf. Mar. to Oct. 1904;
13-ounce loaf, Nov. and Dec. 1904.

.0500

.0500

.0533

.0561

.0500

.0500

.0546

.0593

OREGON.

Portland..........
PE N N SY L V A N IA .

Allegheny..............
Altoona.................
Bethlehem.............
Chester..................
Lancaster..............
Norristown...........
Philadelphia......... .
Pittsburg................
Reading..................
Scranton.................
Wilkesbarre............
Williamsport..........
RHODE ISL A N D .

Natick.....................
Providence




203

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
T able I . — RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904—Continued.
BREAD, W HEAT—Concluded.

State and locality.

Description.

Average price
per loaf.

Average price
per pound.

1903.

1904.

1903.

$0.0500

$0.0500

$0.0530

$0.0590

.0500

.0500

.0528

.0588

12-ounce loaf
1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.

.0400
.0500
.0300

.0400
.0500
.0375

.0533
.0500
.0300

.0533
.0500
.0375

13-ounce loaf
13-ounce loaf.
13-ounce loaf.

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0615
.0615
.0615

.0615
.0615
.0615

1904.

RHODE ISL A N D —

concluded.
Providence.................. 16-ounce loaf, Jan. Apr. May 1903;
15|-ounce loaf, Feb. and Mar. 1903;
15-ounce loaf, June and July 1903;
14i-ounee loaf, Aug. 1903 to Jan.
1904; 14-ounce loaf, Feb. to May
1904; 13i-ounce loaf, June to Aug.
1904; 13-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec.
1904.
15£-ounce loaf, Jan. to June 1903; 15ounce loaf, July to Nov. 1903; 14ounce loaf, Dec. 1903 to Mar. 1904;
13J-ounce loaf, Apr. to Dec. 1904.
SOUTH CAROLINA.

Charleston
SOUTH DAKOTA.

Sioux Falls
' TEN N ESSEE.

Memphis.........

Nashville........

15-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Aug. 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Sept, to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf,1903; 15-ounce loaf, Jan.
to May 1904; 13-ounce loaf, June to
Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Sept. 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904.
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Sept. 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Oct. to Dec. 1904.

.0500

.0500

.0533

.0546

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0581

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0518

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0518

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0639

.0500

.0500

.0516

.0593

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0571
.0500

.0571
.0530

.0500

0500

.0444

.0506

.0500

.0500

.0400

.0494

.0500

.0500

.0444

.0477

1-pound loaf.
1-pound loaf.

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

1-pound loaf, 1903; 14-ounce loaf, 1904.
1-pound loaf, 1903; 14-ounce loaf, 1904.

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500

.0571
.0571

1-pound loaf.....................................
1-pound loaf.....................................
1-pound loaf.....................................
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Nov. 1904;
15-ounce loaf, Dec. 1904.

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0503

1-pound loaf.

.0500

.0500

.0500

.0500

1-pound loaf
1-pound loaf,
1-pound loaf.

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.0500
.0500

.0500
.a m
.0500

T E X A S.

D allas.............

H ouston.........
San A ntonio...

1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to Feb. 1904;
12-ounce loaf. Mar. to Dec. 1904.
15pounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Feb. 1904;
13£-ounce loaf, Mar. to Dec. 1904.
14-ounce loaf......................................
1-pound loaf, Jan. 1903 to July 1904;
14-ounce loaf, Aug. to Dec. 1904.
18-ounce loaf, J an. 1903 to Mar. 1904;
17-ounce loaf, Apr. 1904; 15-ounce
loaf, May to Dec. 1904.
20-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to Feb. 1904;
19-ounce loaf, Mar. 1904; 18-ounce
loaf, Apr. 1904; 15-ounce loaf, May
to Dec. 1904.
18-ounce loaf, Jan. 1903 to May 1904;
1-pound loaf, June to Dec. 1904.

UTAH.

Salt Lake City..
VIRG INIA.

N orfolk...
Richmond
W ASH ING TO N.

Seattle
Tacoma..................
W E ST VIR G IN IA .

Wheeling............
W ISC O N SIN .

Milwaukee.

17098— No. 59— 05----- 14




204

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I . — R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FOOD, 1903 A N D 1904— Continued.
B U T T E R , P E R POUND.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

ALABAM A.

Birmingham.........................................

Creamery....................................................
Creamery, medium....................................
Dairy, Jersey, b est....................................
Montgomery......................................... Creamery....................................................

$0.3500
.3333
.3333
.3167

$0.3500
.3333
.3375
.3083

.3292
.3192
.3250

.3167
.2975
.3292

.2667
.3375
.3383
.3048
.3205

.2625
.3313
.3125
.2786
.3000

.3417
.2563
.3167
.3006
.2750

.3146
.2417
.3292
.2714
.2583

A R K A N SA S.

ittle Rock........................................... Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery', medium....................................
Creamery, medium....................................
CALIFORNIA.

Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery', medium, sold by the roll........
Dairy, b est................................................
Oakland................................................ Creamery, sold by the square..................
Creamery^ California, best, sold by the
roll.
Sacramento........................................... Creamery, fancy, sold by the square.......
Dairy, good, sold by the roll, . t ...............
San Francisco....................................... Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery' medium, sold by the square...
Creamery, medium (cold storage during
the winter months).
Creamery, medium (cold storage during
the winter m onths), sold by the square.
Creamery, medium (cold storage during
the winter months), sold by the square.

Los Angeles..........................................

.2733

.2583

.2733

.2583

.3083
.3086

.2717
.3107

Creamery, b est..........................................
Creamery, fresh.........................................
Creamery, extra........................................
Creamery, Connecticut..............................
Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery, local..........................................
Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery, b est..........................................
Creamery, fresh ........................................

.2892
.2825
.2983
.3292
.3150
.3175
.3317
.3183
.3258

.2833
.2833
.3267
.3183
.3333
.3283
.3000
.3083
.3133

Country, fresh...........................................
Creamery, best..........................................

.3275
.3633

.3408
.3708

Washington.......................................... Creamery....................................................
Creamery...................................................
Creamery, Elgin, b est...............................

.3167
.3242
.3250

.3208
.3125
.3375

Creamery...................................................
Creamery...................................................
Creamery...................................................

.3417
.3200
.3208

.3417
.3158
.3058

Creamery...................................................
Creamery, Georgia....................................
Creamery, medium....................................
Columbus.............................................. Creamery, b est..........................................

.3000
.3083
.2792
.3000

.3000
.3042
.2792
.3000

.2483
.2475
.2475
.2433
.2375
.2875
.3092
.2833
.2750
.2333
.2208
.2667

.2558
.2292
.2208
.2450
.2275
.2933
.3092
.2817
.2792
.2500
.2208
.2625

COLORADO.

Denver.................................................. Creamery....................................................
Leadville............................................... Creamery...................................................
CONNECTICUT.

B ridgeport............................................
Hartford...............................................
Middletown...........................................
New H aven...........................................
New London.........................................
Stamford...............................................
Torrington............................................
Willimantic...........................................
DE L AW ARE .

Wilmington..........................................
DISTRICT OF COLUM BIA.

FLO RIDA.

Jacksonville..........................................
GEORGIA.

A tlanta.................................................

IL LINO IS.

Chicago.................................................. Dairy.........................................................
Dairy.........................................................
Dairy..........................................................
Dairy..........................................................
Dairy..........................................................
East St. Louis...................................... Dairy.............................................. ..........
Peoria.................................................... Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery, medium....................................
Medium......................................................
Quincy................................................... Dairy, standard.........................................
Rock Island.......................................... Dairy, country..........................................
Springfield............................................. Dairy, fresh...............................................




R E T A IL

P R IC E S

205

OF FO O D , 1890 TO 1904.

Table I .— RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904—Continued.
BU TTE R , P E R POUND—Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.'

1904.

IN D IA N A .

Evansville...
Fort Wayne.
Indianapolis

Creamery...................................................
Creamery...................................................
Country"........................................ .'.........
Country.....................................................
Dairy, country..........................................
Creamery, best..........................................
Dairy, country..........................................

$0.3125
.2925
.2508
.2500
.3000
.2667
.2583

Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery^ medium....................................
Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery, medium....................................
D airy.. T...................................................

.3283
.2783
.3083
.2792
.2292

.3283
.2783
.3042
.2792
.2250

Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery' medium....................................

.2308
.2283
.2417

.2258
.2250
.2350

Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery^ medium....................................
Creamery' pure..........................................

.2867
.2583
.3208

.2833
.2583
.3083

Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery' medium....................................
Dairy, pure................................................

.2958
.2063
.2517

.2958
.2100
.2700

Dairy.........................................................
Dairy.........................................................
Dairy.........................................................
Creamery...................................................
Creamery, medium....................................

.2100
.2425
.2350
.3000
.2717

.2158
.2475
.2383
.2867
.2675

Creamery, fresh.........................................
Creamery, medium....................................
Dairy, fresh...............................................
Dairy, fresh...............................................
Dairy, fresh...............................................
Dairy, fresh...............................................
Dairy, fresh...............................................
Dairy, fresh...............................................

.3192
.2875
.2933
.3067
.2867
.2575
.3442
.3133

.3125
.3025
.2892
.3033
.2867
.2700
.3083
.3258

Creamery...................................................
Creamery, medium....................................
Dairy, good...............................................
Creamery, fresh.........................................
Dairy, fresh...............................................
Creamery, fresh.........................................
Creamery...................................................
Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery, fresh.........................................
Creamery, fresh.........................................
Dairy.........................................................
Creamery...................................................
Dairy.........................................................
Creamery, fresh.........................................
Dairy.........................................................
Creamery, fresh.........................................
Dairy, fresh.................................. ............
Creamery, best..........................................
Dairy, b est................................................

South. Bend.
Terre Haute

$0.3167
.2867
.2350
.2500
.2992
.2825
.2500

.2775
.2833
.2692
.3200
.2883
.3033
.2767
.2392
.2800
.2767
.2608
.2700
.2783
.3167
.2883
.2750
.3125
.3000
.2992

.2592
.2825
.2517
.2950
.2775
.2933
.2508
.2492
.2883
.2642
.2808
.2808
.2875
.3000
.2667
.2750
.3092
.2983
.3008

Dairy.........................................................
Dairy, best................................................
Dairy, best................................................
Dairy.........................................................
Dairy, b est................................................
Dairy......... ...............................................
Dairy.........................................................
Dairy, best................................ ' .............

.2292
.2433
.2483
.2300
.2242
.2275
.2208
.2375

.2258
.2333
.2467
.2192
.2308
.2133
.2100
.2317

IO W A.

Des Moines
Dubuque.
K A N SA S.

Topeka
K EN TU CK Y.

Covington
Louisville.
L O U ISIA N A .

New Orleans
M A IN E.

Bangor...
Biddeford
Lewiston.
Portland.
M ARYLAND.

Baltimore.

Mount Washington............
Sparrow P oint....................
M A SSACH USE TT S.

Boston
Brockton..
Cambridge.
Chelsea___
Fall River.
H olyoke...
Hydepark.
Lawrence..
Lowell.......
Lynn.........
Quincy___
Salem.......
Somerville.
Springfield.
Worcester.
M ICHIGAN.

Bay City.........................
Detroit............................
Grand Rapids................
Saginaw..........................
W yandotte.....................




206

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
Table I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904—Continued.
BUTTE R) P E R POUND—Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.

1903.

1904.

M IN NESO T A.

St. Paul............................

$0.2775
.2775
.2567
.3050
.2367
.2200
.2808

SO.2642
.2567
.2433
.2800
.2233
.2133
.2650

Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery' choice.......................................
Creamery...................................................
Creamery...................................................
Creamery, medium....................................
D airy.. I . ..................................................

.2208
.2433
.2875
.2867
.2575
.2633
.2200

.2233
.2383
.2842
.2733
.2583
.2675
.2242

.2833
.2833

.2875
.2875

Creamery...................................................
Creamery...................................................
Creamery...................................................

Minneapolis.....................

Creamery, b est..........................................
Creamery' medium....................................
Creamery, fancy........................................
Creamery, first-grade................................
Dairy, fancy.. .T.......................................
Dairy, fresh...............................................
Creamery, best..........................................

Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery' medium....................................

Duluth.............................

.2517
.2550
.2517

.2558
.2583
.2517

Creamery, best..........................................
Dairy, best................................................
Creamery........ ... rT T
_. ........ . . T
r.., T T
..,
Creamery, b est..........................................
Dairy, b est................................................

.3100
.2425
.2900
.2900
.2383

.2850
.2433
.2833
.2550
.2250

Creamery, best print.................................
Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery, b est..........................................
Dairy, b est................................................
Creamery, Elgin........................ '...............
Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery, Elgin, b est...............................
Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery, Elgin, b est...............................
Creamery, Elgin, prime............................
Creamery, medium....................................
Creamery, print.........................................
Dairy, b est................................................

.3433
.3008
.3067
.2833
.2908
.2750
.2767
.2700
.2775
.2783
.2817
.3000
.3675
.3175

.3075
.2733
.2842
.2883
.2792
.2642
.2800
.2425
.2450
.2683
.2750
.2717
.3550
.2983

Creamery...................................................
Creamery...................................................
Creamery...................................................
Creamery...................................................
Creamery...................................................
Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery, Elgin, b est...............................
Creamery, New York State......................
Creamery, Vermont..................................
Dairy, good...............................................
Dairy, good...............................................
Dairy, good...............................................
Creamery, b est..........................................
Dairy.........................................................
Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery, extra........................................
Creamery, extra........................................
Country, fresh...........................................
Dairy, medium..........................................
Dairy, State...............................................
Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery, New York State......................
Dairy..........................................................
Dairy, fresh...............................................
Dairy, New York S tate............................
Creamery....................................................
Creamery, Elgin........................................
Creamery, fresh.........................................
Dairy, tub..............................................

.2883
.2650
.2683
.2783
.2775
.2800
.2800
.2742
.3033
.2817
.3050
.2433
.2675
.2900
.2758
.2933
.2817
.3008
.2667
.2583
.2850
.2742
.2692
.2392
.2517
.2308
.2917
.3017
.2933
.2425

.2700
.2758
.2575
.2717
.2642
.2675
.2833
.2600
.2892
.2775
.2492
.2508
.2933
.2825
.2642
.2800
.2683
.3042
.2625
.2750
.2708
.2883
.52692
.2308
.2558
.2417
.2708
.2763
.2842

M ISSO U RI.

Kansas City.....................
St. Joseph........................
St. Louis..........................

M O NTANA.

B u tte..
N E B R A SK A .

Omaha
“N E W H AM PSH IRE.

Concord............................... .
Manchester...........................
N E W JE R SE Y .

Bayonne...........
Camden............
Elizabeth.........
Jersey City.......
Newark.............
New Brunswick.
Paterson...........
Trenton.
N E W YORK.

A lbany...
Brooklyn
Buffalo...

Cohoes..............
College P o in t...
Flushing...........
Jamaica............
Mariner Harbor
Newburgh........
New York........

Rochester.

Stapleton
Syracuse.




.2267

207

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
Table I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904-€ontinued.
BUTTER, P E R POUND —Continued.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.
y o r k —c o n

new

1903.

1904.

c lu d e d .

$0.2733
.2950
.2917
.2575
.2800

.2500
.3083
.2292
.3000

.2375
.3083
.2292
.3000

Creamery.............
Creamery, Illinois
Dairy, good.........
Creamery.............
Creamery.............
Creamery, Elgin..
Creamery, Elgin..
Creamery, Elgin..
Dairy, country...
Country...............
Country, fresh___
Country, fresh___

.3008
.2675
.2200
.2825
.2733
.3017
.2858
.3142
.2233
.2517
.2200
.2625

.2942
.2783
.2250
.2708
.2675
.2900
.2800
.3117
.2242
.2358
.2058
.2425

Creamery, medium.
Creamery, medium.
Creamery, medium.

.3125
.3438
.3417

.3146
.3208
.3271

Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery, Coopersburg.
Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery, second grade.
Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery, Pennsylvania.
Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery........................
Creamery, Arlington--Creamery, fresh..............
Creamery, local, b est___
Creamery, Pennsylvania
Dairy, fresh....................

.3125
.2858
.2850
.3292
.3150
.3167
.3050
.3333
.3058
.3392
.3092
.3150
.3158
.3300
.3325
.3033
.3167
.3075
.2683
.2800
.2950
.3517
.2725
.2517

.3142
.2983
.2850
.3175
.3050
.3200
.2817
.2992
.3225
.3375
.3175
.3100
.2992
.3083
.3142
.3042
.3017
.3367
.2575
.2725
.2883
.3383
.2767
.2358

Creamery, t e s t ___
Creamery, best
Creamery, b e st....

.2892
.2817
.3167

.2842
.2792
.3217

Creamery, t e s t ....................
Creamery, medium.............
Creamery, storage, medium

.2975
.2392
.2758

.2892
.2192
.2642

Creamery.
Creamery.
Creamery.

West New Brighton.

$0.2900
.2950
.2808
.2575
.2808

Country, good..........
Creamery, standard.
Country, homemade.
Creamery, Elgin......

Tompkins ville
Troy..............
Utica.............

.2333
.2350
.2217

.2442
.2333
.2317

Creamery.
Creamery.
Creamery.

.3068
.3000
.3000

.3119
.3250
.2917

Dairy.................
Creamery, b est..
Creamery, Elgin.
Dairy, tub, best.
Creamery, extra.

NO RTH CAROLINA.

Durham.......... .
Winston-Salem.
OHIO.

Cincinnati..................
Cleveland.
Columbus...
_
Hamilton_
Springfield..
Toledo.........
Youngstown
OREGON.

Portland
P E N N SY L V A N IA .

Allegheny...
Allentown...
Altoona.......
Bethlehem..
Chester........
Lancaster. . .
Norristown.
Philadelphia,

Pittsburg___
Reading.......
Scranton___
Wilkesbarre..
Williamsport,
York............ .
RHODE ISL A N D .

Providence,
SOUTH CAROLINA.

Charleston
SOUTH DAKOTA.

Sioux Falls
TEN N E SSEE .

Memphis




208

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
Table I .— R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 A N D 1904—Continued.
BUTTER) PER POUND—Concluded.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1903.

1904.

TEN ESSEE—concluded.
N
S . 2579
O
.2500
.2542

S . 2708
O
.3000
.2708

Country, fresh........................................
Creamery, medium.................................
Creamery, medium.................................
Creamery, medium.................................
Creamery^ medium.................................
Creamery, medium.................................

TEXAS.

Creamery, best.......................................
Dairy, test.............................................
Dairy, Jersey..........................................

.1908
.2750
.2875
.2917
.2500
.3000-

.1904
.2750
.2958
.2750
.2500
.3000

.2917
.2208
.2917

.2750
.2208
.2667

.2283
.2992
.3008
.3167
.2792

.2508
.3250
.2875
.2825
.2900

.2938
.2667
.2750
.3125

.2708
.2688
.2688
.3125

.2825

.2708

.2958
.2650 *
.2442
.2367
.2775
.2633

.2833
.2475
.2433
.2567
.2817
.2608

U .
TAH
Salt, Lake City.................................. Creamery, medium.................................
Creamery, medium.................................
Creamery, medium.................................
VIRGINIA.
Norfolk
_ _
_
Country.................................................
Creamery, Elgin.....................................
Richmond.......................................... Creamery, best.......................................
Creamery, Elgin.....................................
Creamery, Elgin.....................................
W SH G N
A IN TO .
Seattle...................................... _....... Creamery................................................
Creamery, medium.................................
Creamery, medium............ ....................
Tacoma............................................. Dairy, good............................................
W
EST VIRGINIA.
Wheeling.............................. _ .......... Country, fresh........................................
W ISC O N SIN .

Milwaukee.............................. ........ Creamery, fancy.....................................
Oshkosh_______ ________ ___

Racine............................. %
.........

Creamery, first grade..............................
Dairy, Wisconsin....................................
Dairy, best.............................................
Creamery................................................
Creamery................................................

CHEESE, PER POUND.
ALABAM A.

Montgomery....................

Full cream
Full cream
Full cream.

S . 2000
O
.2000
.1854

S . 2000
O
.2000
.1917

Full cream
Full cream

.2000
.1875

.2000
.1875

Full cream........................................
Full cream, California.....................
Full cream, New York State..........
Full cream, California.....................
Full cream, fancy, New York State
Full cream........................................
Full cream, California.....................
Full cream, California.....................
Full cream, California.....................
Full cream, Eastern........................

.2000
.2000
.2000
.1625
.2100
.1500
.1500
.2167
.1542
.2000

.2000
.2000
.2000
.1633
.2100
.1500
.1500
.2000
.1767
.2000

Full cream, E astern ............
Full cream, New York State
Cream, New York State.......

Birmingham.....................

.2000
.1500
.2208

.2000
.1500
.2208

Full cream............................
Full cream, New York State
Full cream, factory..............
Full cream.............................
Full cream.............................

.1767
.1733
.1600
.1817
.1600

.1800
.1767
.1633
.1833
.1600

A R K A N SA S.

Little Rock......................
CALIFO RNIA.

Los Angeles......................
Oakland...........................
Sacramento......................
San Francisco..................

COLORADO.

D enver..
Leadvillc
CONNECTICUT.

Bridgeport.
Hartford. . .
Middletown.
New Haven.




BET AIL BRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

209

T able I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
CHEESE!, P E R PO U ND—Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

Connecticut—concluded.
New London.........................................
Stamford...............................................
Torrington............................................
Willimantic...........................................

Cream, New York State...........................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream, New York State....................

$0.1700
.1883
.1633
.1633

$0.1667
.1717
.1650
.1800

Full cream, New York State....................
Full cream' New York S tate....................

.1950
.1767

.2000
.1600

W ashington.......................................... Full cream.........................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................

.2000
.2000
.2000

.2000
.2000
.2000

.2000
.2000
.2000

.2000
2292
,2000

.1500
.1750
.1833
.1800

.1500
.1500
.1792
.1800

.1583
.1617
.1683
.1658
.1658
.1583
.1525
.1900
.1500
.2000

.1333
.1692
.1667
.1600
.1267
.1592
.1525
.1900
.1458
.2000

.1638
.1533
.1767
.1675
.1867
.1700
.2000

.1550
.1438
.1692
.1600
.1883
.1700
.2000

Full cream........................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................
Full cream, New York State....................

.2000
.1625
.1563
.1533

.2000
.1625
.1542
.1567

Topeka.................................................. Full cream.................................
Full cream.................................................

.2000
.2000

.1850
.2000

.1500
.2000
.2083

.1500
.2000
.2050

Full cream.......................................
Full cream, New York State....................

.1742
.2000

.1792
.2000

Cream..................................................
Cream, extra.............................
Cream, dairy.................................
Cream, extra....................
Full cream.................................................

.1508
.1525
.1542
.1633
. 1725

.1550
.1550
.1617
.1708
.1733

Full cream...........................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Sparrow P o in t..................................... Full cream.................................................

.1950
.1700
.1800
.1450

.1950
.1575
.1800
.1483

DELAW ARE.

Wilmington..........................................
DISTR ICT OF COLUMBIA.

FLO RIDA.

Jacksonville.......................................... Full cream.......................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
GEORGIA.

Atlanta.................................................

Full cream.......................................
Fuji cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Columbus.............................................. Full cream...............................................
IL LIN O IS.

Chicago.................................................

Full cream........................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
East St. Louis...................................... Full cream.......................................
Peoria................................................... Full cream...................
Full cream.................................................
Rock Island.......................................... Full cream, New York State
Springfield............................................ Full cream...........................................
IN D IA N A .

Evansville............................................. Full cream...........................................
Full cream, Wisconsin..............................
Indianapolis......................................... Cream..................................................
Cream........................................................
Cream, New York State...........................
South Bend........................................... Full cream..............................................
Terre H aute.......................................... Full cream....................................
IO W A.

Des Moines........................................
Dubuque.............................................
K A N SA S.

K EN TU C K Y .

Covington............................................. Creamery, New York State.........
Louisville.............................................. Full cream....................................
Full cream, New York State....................
L O U ISIA N A .

New Orleans.........................................
M A IN E.

Bangor..................................................
Biddeford..............................................
Lewiston...............................................
Portland...............................................
M ARYLAND.

Baltimore.............................................




210

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
Table I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904—Continued.
CHEESE, P E R POUND—Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

MASSACHUSETTS

Boston.................................
Brockton.............................
Cambridge...........................
Chelsea................................
Fall River............................
Holyoke...............................
Hy depark............................
Lawrence.............................
Lowell..................................
Lynn....................................
Malden.................................
Quincy.................................
Salem...................................
Somerville...........................
Springfield...........................
Worcester............................

Full cream, American...............................
Full cream, American...............................
Full cream, American, plain.....................
Full cream, dairy......................................
Full cream.................................................
Cream, New York State...........................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream, dairy......................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Cream, New York State...........................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................

$0.1600
.1617
.1675
.1783
.1600
.1650
.1525
'. 1617
.1600
.1633
.1500
.1567
.1767
.1575
.1667
.1542
.1633
.2000
.1667
.1600

$0.1650
.1533
.1458
.1750
.1525
.1800
.1342
.1483
.1600
.1600
.1467
.•1550
.1733
.1600
.1583
.1533
.1542
.1917
.1667
.1600

Full cream.................................................
Full cream, Michigan................................
Full cream, Michigan................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream, New York State....................
Full cream.................................................

.1583
.1508
.1650
.1633
.1800
.1458

.1575
.1508
.1800
.1683
.1800
.1492

Full
Full
Full
Full
Full
Full

cream.................................................
cream.................................................
cream.................................................
cream.................................................
cream.................................................
cream.................................................

.1633
. 1550
.1617
.1733
.1583
.1463

.1625
.1450
.1467
.1800
.1567
.1496

Full cream .................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream, creamery................................
Full cream, creamery................................

.1550
.1592
.1583
.1642
.1475
.1508

.1500
.1500
.1550
.1600
.1567
.1500

Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................

.2000
.2000

.2000
.2000

Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................

.1792
.2000

.1792
.2000

Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................

.1542
.1533
.1567

.1317
.1517
.1600

! Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream, New York State....................
Full cream, New York S tate....................
Full cream.................................................
Cream, first grade, New York S ta te .......
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................

.1600
.1717
.1600
.1600
.1500
.1683
.1500
.1600
.1717

.1600
.1558
.1600
.1600
.1533
.1600
.1500
.1600
.1733

Full cream.................................................
Full cream............ *...................................
Full cream, creamery................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
Full cream, New York S tate....................
Full cream, New York State....................
Full cream, New York S tate....................
Full cream, extra......................................
Full cream, good................................ . . ..
Full cream, good.......... ............................

.1667
.1567
.1808
.1567
.1642
.1608
.1467
.1683
.1800
.1700
.1633

.1600
.1567
.1800
.1508
.1600
.1458
.1383
.1600
.1800
.1750
.1417

MICHIGAN.

Bay City..............................
Detroit................................
Grand Rapids.....................
W yandotte..........................
MINNESOTA.

Duluth.................................
Minneapolis..........................
St. Paul...............................
MISSOURI.

Kansas City........................ .
St. Louis...............................

M O NTANA.

B u tte...................................
NEBRASKA .

Omaha.................................
N E W H AM PSH IRE,

Concord...............................
Manchester..........................
N E W JE R S E Y .

Bayonne..............................
Camden...............................
Elizabeth............................
Jersey City..........................
New Brunswick..................
Paterson..............................
Trenton...............................
N E W YORK.

Alban v ................................
Brooklyn.............................
Buffalo................................

Cohoes.................................
College P oint.......................
Flushing..............................
Jamaica...............................




RETAIL PRICES

211

OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

T ab le 1.—
RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904-Continued.
CHEESE, P E R POUND—
Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.
new

Description.

1903.

1904.

Y o r k — c o n c lu d e d .

Mariner Harbor.
Newburgh........
New York........

Rochester
Syracuse.................
Troy........................
U tica.......................
West New Brighton

Full cream, creamery......................
Full cream, factory.........................
Factory, New York State...............
Full cream........................................
Full cream, New York State............
Full cream, X X X , New York State
Skim m ilk........................................
Double cream, New York S ta te ---Full cream........................................
Full cream....................................... .
Full cream, American.......................
Full cream, dairy, best.....................
Full cream.........................................
Full cream, X X X , New York State.

$0.1717
.1800
.1800
.1917
.1667
.1575
.1433
.1633
.1600
.1567
.1600
.1600
.1600
.1667

$0.1800
.1800
.1700
.1883
.1617
.1408
.1467
.1575
.1575
.1442
.1600
.1550
.1500
.1600

NORTH CAROLINA.

1750

.1833

Full cream, American..........
Full cream, New York State.

2000

Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Full cream, New York State.
Full cream, Vermont...........
Full cream............................
Full cream, Ohio..................
Full cream............................
Full cream, domestic............

.1900
.1500
.1525
.1617
.1642
.1533
.1833
.1600
.1617
.1408
.1508

.2000
.1558
.1525
.1558
.1517
.1533
.1867
.1458
.1600
.1558
.1458

Full cream
Full cream

.1750
. 1875

.1750
.1875

Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Cream, New York State.......
Full cream............................
Cream, New York State.......
Full cream............................
Full cream, New York State
Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Full cream, New York State,
Full cream, New York State.
Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Full cream............................
Full cream.............................
Full cream............................
Cream, New York State.......
Full cream, New York State.
Full cream............................

.1708
.1583
.1683
.1667
.1667
.1683
.1683
.1658
.1733
.1667
.1883
.1800
.1633
.1717
.1725
.1850
.1717
.1575
.1575
.1558
.1550
.1692

.1533
.1550
.1467
.1800
.1492
.1492
.1625
.1550
.1625
.1800
.1575
.1625
.1600
.1675
.1700
.1767
.1558
.1600
.1558
.1550
.1567

Full cream...........
Full cream...........
Full cream...........
Full cream...........
Full cream, fancy

.1642
.1583
.1617
.1650
.1658

1567
1567
1600
1650
1508

Full cream, American
Full cream, American

Durham...........
Winston-Salem,

1800
1600

.1750
.1575

Full cream
Full cream

1700
1800

.1700
.1800

. 2000

OHIO.

Cincinnati
Cleveland,
Columbus...
Hamilton—
Toledo.........
Youngstown,
OREGON.

Portland
PENNSYLVANIA.

Allegheny...
A llentown...
Altoona.......
Bethlehem..
Chester........
Lancaster...
Norristown.
Philadelphia

Pittsburg--Reading.......
Scranton___
Wilkesbarre..
Williamsport,
York............ .

.2000

. xuw

RHODE ISLAND.

East Greenwich
Natick..............
Providence.......
SOUTH CAROLINA.

Charleston
SOUTH DAKOTA.

Sioux Falls




212

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 A N D 1904— Continued.
CHEESE, PER POUND- Concluded.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1903.

1904.

TEN N ESSEE.

Memphis...............................................

Cream.......................................................
Full cream, creamery................................
Full cream, creamery................................
Nashville............................................... Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................

$0.1750
.2000
.2000
.1625
.2000

$0.1750
.2000
.2000
.1625
.2000

.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000
.2000

.2000
.1833
.2000
.2000
.2000

.1588
.1500

.1588
.1500

.1767
.1750
.1667
.2000

.1700
.1633
.1667
.2000

.1800
.2000
.2000

.1800
.1875
.1833

.1750

.1600

.1542
.1500
.1492
.1800
.1450
.1500

.1417
.1500
.1433
.1800
.1492
.1400

. Dressed,, fowls, o ld ...................................
Live hens...................................................
Dressed, fowls, old -.................................

$0.2000
.1500
.1375

$0.2000

. Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................
Dressed) fowls) o ld ...................................

.1567
.1500

.1567
.1500

. Dressed, fowls,
Dressed) fowls)
, Dressed, fowls,
Dressed) fowls)
Dressed, fowls

o ld ...................................
o ld ...................................
o ld ...................................
o ld ...................................
o ld ....................................

.2375
.2375
.1758
.1950
.1950

.2375
.2375
.1758
.1950
.1950

. Dressed, fowls, old *..................................
Dressed) fowls) o ld ...................................
Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................

.1442
.1325
.1200

.1483
.1300

. Dressed, 1-year o ld ...................................
. Dressed, fow ls..........................................
Dressed) young..........................................
. Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................
Dressed) fowls) o ld ...................................
. Full grown.................... r ..........................
. Full grown....................7 ..........................
.

.1733
.1883
.2367
.1667
.1717
.1750
.1883

.1833

. Dressed......................................................
Dressed, stewers, 1 to 2 years old............
Home dressed............................................

.1700
.1650
.1442

.1900
.1633
.1513

T E X A S.

Dallas.................................................... Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
H ouston................................................ Full cream.................................................
San Antonio......................................... Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
UTAH .

Salt Lake City...................................... Full cream.................................................
Full cream.................................................
VIRG INIA.

Norfolk................................................. Full cream.................................................
Richmond............................................. Full cream.................................................
Full cream, American...............................
Full cream, b est........................................
W ASH ING TO N.

Seattle................................................... Full cream......... .......................................
Full cream.................................................
Tacoma................................................. Full cream.................................................
W E ST V IRG INIA.

Wheeling............................................... Full cream.................................................
W ISC O N SIN .

Milwaukee............................................. Full cream, Wisconsin;............................
Full cream, Wisconsin.............................
Full cream, Wisconsin..............................
Oshkosh................................................ Full cream, New York State....................
Racine................................................... Full cream.................................................
Full cream, Wisconsin..............................
CHICKENS, PER POUND.
ALABAM A.

Birmingham......................
Montgomery......................

.1500
.1375

A R K A N SA S.

Little Rock........................
CALIFO RNIA.

Los Angeles.......................
San Francisico...................
COLORADO.

Denver...............................

.1200

CO NNECTICUT.

Hartford............................
Middletown.......................
New H aven.......................
New London......................
Willimantic.......................

.2000
.2583
.1733
.1867
.1900
.1817

DEL A W A R E .

Wilmington.......................




213

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
Table I ___R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
CHICKENS, PER POENB—Continued.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1903.

1904.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

Washington.......................................... Dressed, fow ls..........................................
Dressed^ fowls, o ld ...................................
Dressed, old...............................................

$0.1800
. 1733
.1500

$0.1800
.1742
.1667

.2000
.1650
.2000

.2000
.1642
.2000

.1625
.1583
.1683

.1604
.1583
.1688

.1363
.1633
.1642
.1146
.1308
.1396
.1625
.1483

.1538
.1538
.1542
.1242
.1283
.1483
.1625
.1492

.1833
.1600
.1750

.1833
.1600
.1750

o ld ...................................
o ld ...................................
old ...................................
o ld ...................................

.1558
.1396
.1313
.1396

.1558
.1396
.1313
.1396

Topeka.................................................. Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................
Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................

.1142
.1113

.1108
.1067

.1333

.1431

.1700
.1800

.1700
.1800

Fowls.........................................................
Fowls.........................................................
Dressed, fo w ls..........................................
Dressed......................................................
Dressed, fowls, old....................................

.1592
.1567
.1633
.1800
.1683

.1675
.1658
.1700
.1817
.1725

Dressed,
Dressed,
Dressed,
Dressed,

hens............................................
old..............................................
old................................... ...........
young..........................................

.1308
.1575
.1600
.2533

.1475
. 1596
.1567
.2283

Dressed......................................................
Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................
Brockton.............................................. Dressed, fresh.......................................
Cambridge............................................ Dressed......................................................
Fall River............................................. Dressed, fowls...........................................
Dressed, fresh............................................
Hydepark............................................. Dressed......................................................
Lawrence............................................... Dressed, fresh, fo w ls................................
Lynn..................................................... Dressed, fresh.......................................
Quincy.................................................. Dressed, fresh, drawn...............................
Salem.................................................... Dressed, fowls...........................................
Somerville............................................. Dressed, fresh, fowls.................................
Springfield............................................ Dressed, fresh, fowls............................
Worcester............................................. Dressed......................................................

.2992
.1900
.2825
.1800
.2192
.2492
.2242
.1900
.2067
.2275
.2167
.2100
.1933
.2317

.2925
.1800
.2883
.1917
.1917
.2475
.2250
.2058
.1933
.2283
.2242
.2200
.2133
.2242

.1325
.1350
.2342
.1617

.1450
.1388
.2325
.1621

FLO RIDA.

Jacksonville.......................................... Dressed, fo w ls..........................................
Dressed' fow ls..........................................
Dressed, fo w ls..........................................
GEORGIA.

Atlanta................................................. Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................
Fowls, full grown......................................
Hens, roasters...........................................
IL LIN O IS.

Chicago.................................................

Hens..........................................................
Hens..........................................................
Hens..........................................................
Peoria................................................... Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................
Dressed^ fowlsi o ld ...................................
Dressed, h en s............................................
Quincy.................................................. Dressed, young...................................*___
Springfield............................................ Dressed^ old. .7..........................................
IN D IA N A .

Indianapolis......................................... Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................
Dressed' fowls^ o ld ...................................
Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................
IO W A.

Des Moines...........................................

Dressed,
Dressed,
Dubuque............................................... Dressed,
Dressed,

fowls,
fowls,
fowls,
fowls,

K A N SA S.

K EN TU CK Y.

Louisville.............................................. Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................
LO U ISIA N A .

New Orleans......................................... Dressed, fowls, o ld ...................................
Dressed, fowls, old ...................................
M A IN E.

Bangor..................................................
B iddeford............................................
Lewiston...............................................
Portland...............................................
M ARYLAND.

Baltimore.............................................

M A SSACH USETTS.

Boston..................................................

M ICHIGAN.

Detroit.................................................. H ens....................... ..................................
Dressed, hens............................................
Grand Rapids....................................... Dressed, broilers.......................................
Dressed, fowls...........................................




214

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I . — RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904—Continued.
CHICKENS, PER POUND—Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

Mi c h i g a n — c o n c l u d e d .

Grand Rapids.

Dressed,
Dressed,
Dressed,
Dressed,

10.1408
.1533
.1608
.1392

10.1444
.1692
.1608
.1375

Dressed, fowls old
Dressed, hens, old.
Dressed.................
Dressed, hens.......

.1254
.1446
.1308
.1083

.1279
.1442
.1300
.1017

_
Dressed, fowls, o ld _
Dressed, fowls, o ld _
_
Not dressed, hens, old
N ot dressed, hens, old
N ot dressed, hens, old

.1296
.1308
.1250
.1250
.1233

.1225
.1221
.1300
.1275
.1217

Dressed, fowls, old
Dressed, fowls, old

.1575
.1575

.1600
.1600

Dressed, fowls, old

.1208

.1104

Dressed, fowls.
Dressed, fowls

.1900
.2100

.1883
.2100

Broilers or fryers .
Fowls, roasters___
Full grown............
Dressed, fow ls___
Dressed, fowls, old.
Fowls, old.............
Dressed, fowls.......
Dressed, fowls, old

.2067
.1783
.1467
.1783
.1583
.1492
.1800
.1717

.2117
.1950
.1575
.1800
. 1517
.1458
.2108
.1750

Dressed, full grown...................................
Dressed, roasters.......................................
Dressed...................................................
Dressed......................................................
Dressed......................................................
Dressed, fowls...........................................
Dressed, fowls...........................................
Dressed......................................................
Dressed......................................................
Dressed, fowls...........................................
Pressed, fowls, best..................................
Dressed, fowls, New Jersey or New Y ork..
Dressed, young, New York State............
Dressed, fowls...........................................
Dressed, fowls, Maryland or New York
State.
Dressed, young, New York State............
Dressed, young..........................................

.1500
.1883
.1333
.1525
.1558
.1408
.1875
.1833
.1275
.1800
.1750
.1992
.2050
.1800
.1600

.1700
.1908
.1592
.1633
.1683
.1175
.1817
.1775
.1325
.1800
.1650
.2042
.2300
.1867
.1558

.1833
2317

.2000
.2500

Dressed..............................
Dressed..............................
Dressed..............................
Dressed..............................
Dressed, young..................
Dressed, young..................
Dressed, fowls...................
Dressed, fresh, full grown.
Fow ls.................................

.1767
.1367
.1450
.1625
.1917
.1870
.1542
.1458
.1592

.1900
.1467
.1850
.1567
.2142
.1900
.1500
.1371
.1617

Dressed, fowls, old.
Dressed, fowls, old.

Wyandotte

fowls..........
young........
young, best.
hens...........

.1500
.1500

.1500
.1500

Dressed, full grown
1-year-old...............

.1417
.1775

.1533
.1783

M IN NESO TA.

Duluth.......
Minneapolis
St. Paul___
M ISSOU RI.

Kansas City
St. Louis. . .
MONTANA.

B u tte ..
N E B R A SK A .

Omaha
N E W H AM PSH IRE.

Manchester.
N E W JE R SE Y .

Bayonne
_
Camden_
Jersey City
Trenton...
N E W YORK.

Albany..
Brooklyn
Buffalo..
Cohoes___
Flushing..
New York.

Poughkeepsie.............
Tompkinsville...........
Troy...........................
OHIO.

Cincinnati..................
Cleveland...................
Columbus...
Toledo.........
Youngstown
OREGON.

Portland
PE N N SY L V A N IA .

Allentown
Chester__




215

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
T a b le I . — RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 AND 1904—Continued.
CHICKENS, P E R POUND—Concluded.

Average price.

Description.

State and locality.

1903.

1904.

$0.1683
.1533
.1571
.1792
.1733
.1892
.1783
.1608
.1650
.1742
.1842
.1900

$0.1758
.1667
.1575
.1717
.1842
.1742
.1883
.1550
.1642
.1750
.1867
.1900

Dressed..................................................
Dressed..................................................

.1950
.2300

.1908
.2250

Charleston........................................ Dressed, fowls, old.................................
Dressed, fowls, old.................................
SO T D K TA
UH A O
Sioux Falls........................................ Dressed, fowls, old.................................
Dressed, fowls, old .................................
TEN ESSEE.
N
Memphis............................................ Dressed, fowls, old.................................
Dressed, fowls, old.................................
Nashville........................................... Dressed, fowls, full grown......................
Dressed, fowls, old.................................
TEXAS.
Dallas................................................ Dressed, fowls, old.................................
Dressed, fowls, old.................................
San Antonio...................................... Dressed, fowls, old.................................
Dressed, fowls, old.................................

.2167
.1675

.2050
.1692

.1079
.1104

.1088
.1146

.1800
.1500
.1258
.1171

.1800
.1500
.1342
.1171

.1250
.1325
.1250
.1250

.1350
.1325
.1250
.1250

.1558
.1450

. 1633
.1450

.1942

.2058

.1742
.1800
.1550
.1617

.1750
.1800
. 1550
.1625

.1233
.1421

.1267
.1667

$0.1375
.2500
.3350

$0.1542
.2500
.3500

Arbuckle’s, medium, roasted
Rio, roasted..........................

.1500
.2500

.1500
.2500

Costa Rica.................................................
Costa Rica, extra, roasted.......................
Rio, golden, roasted...................................
Costa Rica, green......................................
Costa Rica, fancy, roasted.......................
Java, Old Government, fancy, roasted...
Rio, Arbuckle’s, roasted...........................
Arbuckle’s Ariosa, roasted.......................
Costa Rica.................................................

.2500
.2750
.2500
.2000
.2592
.3500
.1550
.1500
.2500

.2500
.2750
.2500
.2000
.2967
.3500
.1700
.1500
.2500

penn sylvania—concluded.

Chester.............................................. Dressed, fresh........................................
Norristown........................................ Dressed.................................................
Philadelphia...................................... Dressed, fowls........................................
Dressed^ fowls........................................
Dressed, fowls, fair to good....................
Dressed, fowls, fair to good....................
Dressed, fowls, old.................................
Pittsburg........................................... Dressed, fowls, old.................................
Dressed^ fowls', old.................................
Scranton............................................ Dressed, fowls, old.................................
Dressed, full grown................................
Wilkesbarre....................................... Full grown.............................................
R O E ISLAN
HD
D.
Providence........................................
SO T CARO A.
UH
LIN

UTAH.

Salt Lake City................................... Dressed, fowls, old .................................
Dressed, fowls, old.................................
V IRG INIA.

Richmond.......................................... Dressed, fowls, old .................................
W A SH ING TO N.

Seattle............................................... Dressed, fowls, old .................................
Dressed, fowls, old.................................
Dressed, hens........................................
Tacoma............................................. Dressed, hens........................................
W ISC O N SIN .

Milwaukee.......................................... Dressed, fowls.......................................
Not dressed, fowls..................................
COFFEE, PER POUND.
ALABAM A.

Birmingham.

Arbuckle’s ..................
Mocha and Java..........
Mocha and Java, good

Montgomery,
A R K A N SA S.

Little Rock.....................
CALIFO RNIA.

Los Angeles,
Oakland___
Sacramento
San Francisco




216

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
Table I . — R E T A IL PRICES O F FOOD, 1903 AN D 1904— Continued.
COFFEE, PER POUN®—Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

$0.2500
.2500
.2800
.3500
.2000

$0,2500
.2500
.2800
.3500
.2000

.1238
.3500
.2500
.1500
.3500

. 1333
.3500
.2500
.1604
.3500

.2500
.3000
.1500
.1800
.2200

.2500
.3250
.2000
.1800
.2200

.3500
.3500
.2500
.2500
.3800
.2500
.2500
.2000
.3000
.2500
.3500

.3500
.3500
.2500
.2500
.3800
.2500
.2500
.2000
.3000
.2500
.3500

.3000
.4000

.3000
.4000

.2500
.2500
.1500
.1367
.2000
.2800

.2500
.2500
.1500
.1400
.2000
.2800

. 1250
.2500
.2500

.1650
.2500
.2500

.3500
.2500
.1108
.1500
.1500

.3550
.2500
.1333
. 1567
.1500

Rio, golden, choice, green.........................
Rio and Santos..........................................
Rio and Santos..........................................
Rio and Santos..........................................
Santos........................................................
Rio, standard............................................
R io.............................................................
Santos, old.................................................
Rio, standard............................................
Mocha and Java........................................
Java, standard...........................................

.1592
.1617
.1542
.1642
.1575
.1500
.1500
.2500
.1313
.2833
.4000

.1600
.1700
.1600
.1525
.1600
.1500
.1558
.2500
.1375
.3000
.4000

Evansville............................................. Arbuckle’s Ariosa........................., ...........
Fort W ayne......................................... Mocha and Java.........................................
Indianapolis.......................................... Arbuekle's.................................................
Arbuckle’s ..................................................
South Bend........................................... Arbuckle’s .................................................
Mocha and Java, medium........................
Rio, prime..................................................
Terre H aute.......................................... Maracaibo..................................................

.1125
.3000
.1250
.1229
.1229
.3000
. 1550
.3000

.1450
.3000
.1304
.1500
.1550
.3000
.1900
.3000

CALIFO RNIA— c o n c l u d e d .

San Francisco....................................... Costa Rica.................................................
Costa Rica.................................................
Costa Rica, No. 1, roasted.......................
Java, Old Government, roasted...............
Rio, choice, roasted...................................
COLORADO.

Denver..................................................

Arbuckle's.................................................
Mocha and Java........................................
Mocha and Java, medium.........................
Leadville............................................... Arbuckle’s .................................................
Mocha and Java, roasted..........................
CO NNECTICUT.

Bridgeport............................................ Maracaibo, No. 1........................................
Mocha and Java, second grade.................
Santos, No. 3...........................................
Hartford............................................... Rio, roasted...............................................
Middletown........................................... Santos and Maracaibo, roasted and
ground.
New Haven........................................... Mocha and Java........................................
Mocha and Java, b est...............................
Santos and Maracaibo..............................
Santos and Maracaibo..............................
New London......................................... Java, Old Government.............................
Rio, roasted...............................................
Stamford............................................... Maracaibo, No. 1.......................................
Rio and Santos..........................................
Torrington............................................ Mocha and J ava, second grade.................
Rio, b est.......... 1............ 7 .........................
Willim antic........................................... Mocha and Java........................................
D ELAW ARE.

W ilmington.................................. ........ Maracaibo, roasted and ground...............
Mocha and Java, best, roasted ................
DISTRICT OF COLUM BIA.

Washington.......................................... Mocha and Java, medium.........................
Mocha and Java, medium.........................
Rio, cheap grade.......................................
Rio, cheap grade.......................................
Rio, medium, or similar grade.................
Santos, Brazilian, Maracaibo,.and Java,
blended.
FLO RIDA.

Jacksonville........................................... Arbuckle’s ..................................................
Java and Maracaibo..................................
Rio and Maracaibo....................................
GEORGIA.

Atlanta.................................................. Mocha, b est...............................................
Mocha and Java........................................
Rio, fair.....................................................
Columbus.............................................. Arbuckle’s .................................................
Rio, fair.....................................................
IL LIN O IS.

Chicago................................................

East St. Louis......................................
Peoria....................................................
Quincy...................................................
Rock Island..........................................
Springfield.............................................
IN D IA N A .




217

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.
T ab le I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 A N D 1904—Continued.
COFFEE, PER POUND—Continued.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1903.

1904.

$0.3000
.2000
.1313
.2000

$0.3000
.2000
. 1563
.2000

.1.500
.1500

. 1500
.1500

.1367
.1533

.1475
.2017

.1000
.1567

.1271
.1500

.2500
.2292
.2500
.1500
.1800

.2500
.2033
.2500
.1500
.1800

best....................................................
standard............................................
standard............................................
standard..................................... 1...
standard............................................
standard............................................
standard............................................
standard............................................

.1650
.1800
.1500
.1400
.1517
.1500
.1275
.1108

.1742
.1800
.1558
.1400
.1633
.1600
.1500
.1400

B oston.................................................. Central or South American, good,
roasted.
Mocha and Java........................................
Rio, b est....................................................
Brockton............................................... Java...........................................................
Cambridge........... ................................ Mocha and Java........................................
Chelsea.................................................. Mocha and Java........................................
Rio and Santos..........................................
Fall River............................................. Bogota and Mexican.................................
Mocha and Java........................................
Holyoke................................................ Mocha and Java........................................
Hyde park............................................. Java...........................................................
Lawrence.............................................. Mocha and Java........................................
Lynn..................................................... Mocha and Java, b est...............................
Malden.................................................. Java, Old Government.............................
Mocha and Java........................................
Quincy................................................... Mocha and Java........................................
Salem.................................................... Mocha and Java........................................
Somerville............................................. Mocha and Java........................................
Springfield............................................ Java, Old Government.............................
Worcester............................................. Mocha and Java........................................
Mocha and Java, b est...............................

.2500

.2500

.3400
.1800
.3800
.3500
.3500
.2500
.2000
.3000
.3000
.3500
.3000
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3350
.2900
.3300
.3300
.3800

.3400
.2000
.3800
.3500
.3325
.2500
.2000
.3000
.3000
.3500
.3000
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.2700
.3300
.3300
.3800

.2000
.2500
.2500
.2500
.3200
.1483
.2000
.1500
.3000

.2000
. 2592
.2500
.2500
.3200
.1600
.2000
.1500
.3000

IO W A.

Des Moines........................................... Mocha and Java, medium.........................
Rio and Santos, medium..........................
Dubuque............................................... Arbuckle’s .................................................
Blended, medium......................................
K A N SA S.

Topeka.................................................. R io.............................................................
R io.............................................................
K EN TU CK Y.

Covington............................................. Rio, medium, green...................................
Louisville.............................................. Rio, good__...............................................
LO U ISIA N A .

New Orleans......................................... Rio and Cordova, green............................
Rio and Cordova^ green............................
M A IN E.

Bangor..................................................
Biddeford..............................................
Lewiston...............................................
Portland...............................................

Rio, golden, No. 3.....................................
Rio, golden^ No. 3................•....................
R io| golden^ No. 3.....................................
Rio. 7........ ................................................
Rio, golden, No. 3.....................................

M ARYLAND.

Baltimore.............................................. Rio,
R io|
Rio,
Rio,
Rio,
Rio,
Mount W ashington.............................. Rio,
Sparrow P oint...................................... Rio,
M A SSA C H U SE TT S.

M ICHIGAN.

Bay City............................................... Gona..........................................................
D etroit.................................................. Bogota.......................................................
Java and Maracaibo.................................
Grand Rapids....................................... Holland blend...........................................
Merique blend............................................
Saginaw................................................ Rio, golden................................................
Rio, golden, b est.......................................
Rio, golden, cheap grade...........................
W yandotte........................................... Mocha and Java........................................
M IN NESO TA.

Duluth..................................................

Arbuckle’s Ariosa or similar grade, roasted
Brazil, medium.........................................
Arbuckle’s Ariosa, roasted.......................
Arbuckle’s Ariosa, roasted.......................
Mocha and Java, No. 1.............................
St. Paul................................................. Arbuckle’s Ariosa.....................................

Minneapolis..........................................




.1500
.2000

. 1438
. 1438

.4000
.1292

.1800
.2000

. 1575
. 1575

.4000
.1625

218

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able 1 . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOO D , 1903 A N D 1904— Continued.
COFFEE, PER POUND—Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

MISSOURI.
Kansas City.......................................... R io............................................................. $0.1500
Santos.......................................................
.2000
St. Joseph............................................. Maracaibo, medium..................................
.2000
Rio, medium..............................................
.1250
St. Louis............................................... Java...........................................................
.2500
.Java, Maracaibo........................................
.2000
Java, medium, roasted.............................
.2000
.2950
Mocha........................................................
Mocha, roasted..........................................
.2500
MONTANA.
B u tte..................................................... Brazil....................................... .................
.1750
Brazil.........................................................
.1750
NEBRASKA.
Omaha.................................................. Rio.............................................................
.1500
Santos........................................................
.2000
NEW HAMPSHIRE.
Concord................................................. Mocha and Java, b est...............................
.3500
Rio, b est...........1.......................................
.2000
Rio, broken, second grade........................
.1500
Manchester........................................... Maracaibo, No. 1.......................................
.3000
R io.......... 1.................................................
.2500
Rio, best....................................................
.2500
Santos, No. 1 .............................................
.1800
NEW JERSEY.
Bayonne................................................ Maracaibo, No. 1 .......................................
.2800
Mocha and Java........................................
.3200
Camden................................................. Mocha and Java, roasted.........................
.3500
Rio, best, roasted......................................
.2500
Santos, roasted.........................................
.1800
Elizabeth.............................................. Santos and Maracaibo..............................
.1900
Santos, medium........................................
.1500
Jersey City............................................ Maracaibo................................ .................
.2500
Mocha and Java........................................
.2500
New Brunswick.................................... Maracaibo, good........................................
.2500
Santos, best...............................................
.2000
Santos, low grade......................................
.1500
Paterson............................................... Rio, best....................................................
.2500
Trenton................................................. Java and No. 1 Maracaibo......... 1............
.3000
Rio, best....................................................
.2000
NEW YORK.
Albany.................................................. Mocha and Java........................................
.3000
Brooklyn............................................... Java and Maracaibo..................................
.3200
Java and Maracaibo, roasted...................
.3000
Buffalo.................................................. Mocha and Java, roasted.........................
.3500
Cohoes................................................... Mocha and Java........................................
.3500
College P oint......................................... Mocha and Java........................................
.3000
Flushing................................................ Rio, golden, No. 3 .....................................
.1600
Jamaica................................................. Rio, golden, No. 3 .....................................
.1500
Mariner Harbor.................................... Maracaibo, medium..................................
.2500
Mocha and Java........................................
.2800
Newburgh.......................................
Java, best...............................................
.3500
New York............................................. Java, good.................................................
.2500
Java, good, ground...................................
.2500
Rio, golden, No. 3 .....................................
.1850
Rio, golden, No. 6, roasted.......................
.1500
Rio or Maracaibo, good............................
.1700
Rochester.............................................. Maracaibo, roasted...................................
.2050
Rio, golden, roasted..................................
.1850
Rio, low grade...........................................
.1500
Rio, roasted...............................................
.1800
Stapleton.............................................. Mocha and Java, roasted and ground___
.3400
Syracuse................................................ Rio, low grade...........................................
.1250
Santos, b est........ I....................................
.2500
Troy...................................................... Mocha and Java........................................
3500
U tica..................................................... Mocha and Java........................................
.3500
Rio and Maracaibo....................................
.2800
Rio, b est....................................................
.2000
West New Brighton............................. Java, good, roasted and ground...............
.2500
Maracaibo, roasted and ground.............
.2300
NORTH CAROLINA.
Durham................................................. Mocha and Java, best, roasted................
.3500
Mocha and Java, second grade, roasted..
.3000
Rio, roasted.................................. 1 1 . . .
.1500
W inston-Salem___________________ Mocha and Java, best . __..
.3500
1 Rio, roasted..... .........................................
.1500




1904.

$0.1500
.2000
.2000
.1250
.2500
.2000
.2000
.3000
.2500
.1750
.1750
.1500
.2000
.3300
.1833
.1442
.3000
.2500
.2500
.1800
.2800
.3200
.3500
.2500
.2000
.1900
.1500
.2500
.2500
.2500
.2000
.1500
.2750
.3000
.2000
.3000
.3200
.3000
.3500
.3500
.3000
.1600
.1500
.2500
.2800
.3500
.2500
.2500
.1800
.1650
.1700
.2200
.2000
.1500
.1800
.3400
.1500
.2500
.3500
.3500
.2800
.2000
.2775
.2300
.3500
.3000
.1500
.3500
.1500

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

219

T a b l e I ___R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 A N D 1904— Continued.
C O F FE E !, P E R P O E M !*—Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

OHIO.

Canton.................................................. Santos........................................................
Cincinnati............................................. Java, roasted............................................
Mocha and Java, No. 2 .............................
Rio, No. 2, roasted....................................
Santos, No. 1 .............................................
Santos, No. 1, roasted...............................
Cleveland............................................... Arbuckle’s .................................................
R io.............................................................
Rio, b est....................................................
Rio, roasted...............................................
Rio, roasted...............................................
Rio, second grade......................................
Santos, second grade................................
Columbus.............................................. Rio, golden, roasted..................................
Hamilton.............................................. JavaT........................................................
Mocha and Java, No. 1 .............................
Mocha and Java, No. 2 .............................
Springfield............................................ Mocha and Java........................................
Toledo................................................... Mocha and Java........................................

10.1500
.3000
.2000
.1567
.2000
.2100
.1308
.2000
.2000
.1400
.1400
.1500
.1800
.1317
.2500
.3000
.2000
.2500
.3500

$0.1517
.3000
.2000
.1500
.2000
.2000
.1342
.2000
.2000
.1400
.1400
.1500
.1800
.1267
.2567
.3050
.2058
.2500
.3500

.2000
.2500

.2000
.2500

.1208
.1317
.2500
.1250
.2150
.1325
.3200
.1400
.3500
.3500
.3200
.2500
.2000
.1500
.3500
.3000
.1800
.1800
.2000
.1258
.1325
.2500
.1317
.2000
.2500
.2500
.2500
.2800
.2400
.1333
.1158

.1500
.1417
.2500
.1438
.2317
.1375
.3200
.1458
.3500
.3500
.3200
.2500
.2000
.1500
.3500
.3000
.1800
.1800
.2000
.1500
.1433
.2500
.1408
.2000
.2500
.2500
.2500
.2800
.2500
.1500
.1400

.2800
.3500
.3500
.3000
.3000

.2800
.3500
.3500
.3000
.3000

.1500
.3000
.1250
.1500

.1500
.3000
.1250
.1500

.2000
.2000

.2000
.2000

.2000
.2500

.2000
.2500

OREGON.

Portland............................................... Columbia, roasted.....................................
Mocha and Java........................................
P E N N SY L V A N IA .

Allegheny.............................................. Arbuckle’s .................................................
Arbuckle’s .................................................
Allentown............................................. Maracaibo..................................................
Altoona................................................. Arbuckle’s .................................................
Bethlehem............................................ Brazil.........................................................
Chester.................................................. Arbuckle’s .................................................
Mocha and Java........................................
R io.............................................................
Java...........................................................
Harrisburg...........................................
Mocha........................................................
Lancaster........., .................................. Java, second grade....................................
Rio, b est....................................................
Rio, second grade......................................
Norristown.......................................... Rio, second grade.....................................
Philadelphia......................................... Java, roasted............................................
Java, roasted............................................
R io.............................................................
Rio, roasted..............................................
Rio, roasted..............................................
Pittsburg.............................................. Arbuckle’s .................................................
Arbuckle’s .................................................
Heading................................................. Maracaibo..................................................
Rio, common.............................................
Rio, golden................................................
Scranton............................................... Mocha and Java........................................
R io.............................................................
Wilkesbarre.......................................... Rio, choice, No. 1 ......................................
Williamsport........................................ Java, Maracaibo, and Santos, roasted. . .
Maracaibo, roasted...................................
Rio, roasted...............................................
York...................................................... Rio, whole grain........................................
RHODE ISL A N D .

East Greenwich.................................... Java, good, roasted and ground...............
Natick................................................... Java, good.................................................
Providence............................................ Java, fair...................................................
Java, medium............................................
Java, Padang............................................
SOUTH CAROLINA.

Charleston............................................. Maracaibo, green.......................................
Mocha, green.............................................
Rio, choice, green......................................
Santos, roasted and ground.....................
SOUTH DAKOTA.

Sioux F alls............................................ Santos........................................................
Santos........................................................
T EN N ESSEE.

Memphis...............................................
17098— N o. 59— 05------15




Rio, best, and African Java.....................
Rio and Java, roasted..............................

220

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T a b le 1 .— R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FOOD, 1903 A N D 1904— Continued.
COFFEE, PER PO UNO—
Concluded.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1903.

1904.

TENNESSEE—concluded.
Memphis ......................................... Rio, Santos, and Maracaibo..................
Rioj Nos. 6 and 7, roasted .....................
Santos and Maracaibo, roasted .............

$0.2000
.1250
.2500

$0.2000
.1333
.2500

.1500
.1500
.1500
.1250
.2000

.1500
.1500
.1500
.1438
.2000

.1521
.2500

.1813
.2500

.3500
.1150
.2500
.1142
.3600
.1117
.1217
.2000
.3500
.2500
.1167

.3500
.1217
.2500
.1383
.3800
.1400
.1363
.2000
.3500
.2500
.1275

.3000
.2500
.1500
.3500
.3500

.2500
.2500
.1738
.3500
.3500

.1096

.1325

.2000
.1500
.1408
.3800
.1242
.2500

.2000
.1600
.1408
.3800
.1358
.2500

Sold bv the n eck .......................................
White, sold in 10-pound lo ts.....................
White, sold in 10-pound lo ts.....................
Montgomery......................................... White, sold in 10-pound lo ts....................
White, sold by the bushel.........................

$0.0208
.0250
.0250
.0200
.0127

$0.0177
.0208
.0250
.0200
.0153

Little Rock........................................... White, sold in 10-pound lo ts.....................
White, sold in 10-pound lo ts....................
White, sold in 10-pound lo ts....................

.0180
.0210
.0180

.0180
.0210
.0180

.0250
.0300
.0350
.0300
.0300
.0375
.0338

.0250
.0300
.0350
.0300
.0300
.0400
.0300

.0200
.0140
.0300

.0250
.0160
.0300

.0250
.0350
.0250

.0250
.0350
.0250

T E X A S.

Arbuckle’s, roasted...................................
Arbuckle% roasted...................................
H ouston................................................ Arbuckle’s, roasted...................................
Arbuckle’s’ roasted...................................
Mexican Cordova, roasted........................
UTAH .

Salt Lake City..................... ........ ...... Arbuckle's.................................................
Mocha and Java........................................
VIR G IN IA .

Mocha and Java, roasted ......................
Rio, low grade .....................................
Santos, best, roasted ...........................
Petersburg ................._................ Arbuckle’s, roasted ..............................
Mocha and Java, Old Government..........
Rio, cheap grade ..................................
Richmond T _................T ______, __ Arbuckle’s ...........................................
T
La Guayra, choice ................................
Mocha and Java ...................................
Rio, best, roasted ................................
Rio, low grade, roasted ........................

Norfolk.................................................

W ASH ING TO N.

Seattle ............................................ Costa Rica, medium.......... .......................
Pea berry or Caracola...............................
Tacoma.................................... .... ....... Arbuckle’s, roasted...................... ............
Java, Old Government, roasted ..............
Mocha and Java, roasted..........................
W E ST V IRG INIA.

Wheeling........................................ Rio, Arbuckle’s ....................................
W ISC O N SIN .

Rio, golden, medium, roasted ................
Santos, cheap grade, roasted .................
Oshkosh.......................................... Arbuckle’s ...........................................
Java, Old Government.............................
Racine................................................... Arbuckle’s .................................................
Rio, roasted...............................................

Milwaukee........................................ .

CORN MEAL, PER POUND.
ALABAMA.

Birmingham.........................................

ARKANSAS.

CALIFORNIA.

Sold in 10-pound l o t s ................................
White, sola in 10-pound lo ts....................
Sacramento........................................... White, extra cream, sold in 10-pound lots.
San Francisco....................................... Sold in 10-pound lo ts................................
Sold in 10-pound lo ts................................
White, sold in 10-pound lo ts....................
White, sold in 10-pound lo ts....................

Los Angeles..........................................

COLORADO.

Denver................................................... White, sold in 10-pound lo ts....................
White, sold in 25-pound lo ts....................
Leadville............................................... White, sold in 5-pound lo ts......................
CONNECTICUT.

Middletown........................................... White or yellow, sold in 10-pound l o t s . ..
New Haven........................................... Yellow, granulated, sold in 10-pound lots.
Yellow, granulated, sold in 10-pound lots.




BET AIL PBICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1904.

221

T ab le I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1903 A N D 1904— Continued.
CORN MEAL, PER POUND—Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1903.

1904.

D E L AW ARE .

Wilmington.......................................... White, sold in 2-pound packages.............
White, sold in Impound1lo ts.7 .................
White, sold in 10-pound lo ts....................

$0.0250
.0250
.0200

$0.0250
.0250
.0200

.0167
.0208
.0233

.0167
.0183
.0211

.0250
.0250
.0200

.0300
.0250
.0200

White, sold by the bushel.........................
White) sold by the peck............................
White, sold in 10-pound lo ts....................

.0163
.0178
.0175

.0188
.0167
.0175

Chicago................................................. Cream........................................................
Cream........................................................
Cream........................................................
White, sold by the pound.........................
East St. Louis...................................... Sold by the peck........................................
Peoria................................................... S o ld i n 1 0 - p o i i n d l o t s ..............................................
Sold in 10-pound lo ts................................

.0250
.0250
.0200
.0250
.0158
.0150
.0180

.0250
.0250
.0200
.0250
.0136
.0196
.0200

.0200
.0200
.0200

.0200
.0200
.0200

10-pound lo ts...................
10-pound lo ts...................
10-pound lo ts...................
10-pound lo ts...................

.0167
.0125
.0200
.0200

.0167
.0125
.0200
.0200

Topeka.................................................. Sold in 10-pound lo ts................................
Sold in 10-pound lo ts................................

.0150
.0150

.0150
.0150

White, kiln-dried.....................
White, sold in 10-pound lots...........

.0200
.0150

.0200
.0150

Corn meal.....................................
Kiln-dried..................................................

.0175
".0250

.0219
.0250

Yellow........................................................
" ellow......................................
Y
"Yellow.........................................
Yellow........................................
Yellow, sold in 10-pound lo ts...................

.0250
.0250
.0300
.0300
.0250

.0288
.0250
.0300
.0300
.0250

Baltimore'.............................................. Sold in 10-pound lo t s ......... .
Soid in 10-pound lo t s ................................

.0200
.0245

.0200
.0250

.0300
.0300
.0342
.0300
.0320
.0300
.0400
.0300
.0200
.0300
.0300
.0300
.0292
.0292
.0250
.0250

.0300
.0300
.0300
.0300
.0363
.0300
.0300
.0250
.0200
.0300
.0300
.0300
.0300
.0300
.0250
.0250

DISTR ICT OF COLUM BIA.

W ashington.......................................... White, sold by the peck ..........................
White) sold by the peck............................
White, sold in 3-pound lo ts......................
FLO RIDA.

Jacksonville.......................................... White, sold in 10-pound lo ts....................
White) sold in 10-pound lo ts....................
White or yellow, sold in 10-pound lo t s .. .
GEORGIA.

Atlanta.................................................
IL LIN O IS.

IN D IA N A .

Indianapolis.........................................
Terre H aute........................................

Corn meal..................................................
Corn meal..................................................
Corn m eal..................................................

IO W A.

Des Moines..........................................

Yellow,
Yellow,
Dubuque............................................... Yellow,
Yellow,

sold
sold
sold
sold

in
in
in
in

K A N SA S.

K EN TU C K Y .

Covington.....................................
Louisville......................................
L O U ISIA N A .

New Orleans......................................
M A IN E.

Bangor..........................................
Biddeford..............................................
Lewiston.......................................
Portland...............................................
M ARYLAND.

M A SSACH USE TT S.

Boston..........................................
Granulated.............................
Granulated................................................
Brockton............................................... Corn meal............................................
Cambridge............................................ Corn meal..................................................
Fall River............................................ Rhode Island, best, sold by the peck
W lnte.........................................................
Holyoke................................................ Corn meal..................................................
Hydepark.............................................. Corn meal..................................................
Lawrence.............................................. Corn meal..................................................
Lowell................................................... Y eilow, kiln-dried....................................
Lynn..................................................
Corn meal....................................
Salem.................................................... Corn meal..................................................
Somerville.