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58th C o n g r e s s , ! HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. (Doc. No. 843,
£d Session. )
\ Part 4.

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR.

BULLETIN
OF THE

BUREAU OF LABOR.

NO. 53—JULY, 1904.
ISSUED EVERY OTHER MONTH.

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.




1904.

EDITOR,

CARROXL D. WRIGHT,
COMMISSIONER.

ASSOCIATE EDITORS,

G. W. W. HANGER,
CHAS. H. VERRILL, G. A. WEBER.
n




CONTENTS.
Page.

Wages and cost of living........................................................................................... 703-932
Agreements between employers and employees.................................................. 933-936
Digest of recent reports of State bureaus of labor statistics:
New Jersey.......................................................................................................... 937-940
Digest of recent foreign statistical publications.................................................... 941-949
Decisions of courts affecting labor........................................................................... 950-963
Laws of various States relating to labor enacted since January 1, 1896___964-968




in




B U L L E T IN
OF THE

B U R E A U OF L A B O R .
No. 53.

WASHINGTON.

July,

1904.

WAGES AND COST 0E LIVING.

INTRODUCTION.
To meet the constant and growing demand on the part of the public
for regular and adequate statistical information relating to wages and
cost of living an extensive investigation was inaugurated in the win­
ter of 1900-1901 by the Bureau of Labor. A number of investigations
having for their purpose the collection and publication of statistics of
wages and prices had been previously undertaken. These, perhaps,
supplied the immediate need, but it was felt that the constant demand
for current data could be met only by a very painstaking and com­
plete investigation which would result in thoroughly representative
figures for a period of years, and which would serve as the basis for the
regular annual collection and presentation of data from the establish­
ments covered. The investigation as originally planned contemplated
the collection of data relating to the following subjects:
1. Cost of living, 1901.
2. Retail prices of food, 1890 to 1901.
3. Wages and hours of labor, 1890 to 1901.
The great labor involved in the collection and compilation of the
data and the comparatively small force available for the work, how­
ever, protracted its completion to such an extent that the Bureau was
enabled to include data for the years 1902 and 1903. The large quantity
of data secured and the considerable space required for its adequate
presentation rendered it necessary to devote two separate reports to
the subjects covered, the results of the investigation into cost of living
and retail prices forming the basis of the Eighteenth Annual Report
of the Bureau, now in press, and those relating to wages and hours of




703

704

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

labor appearing in the forthcoming Nineteenth Annual Report*.
Owing to considerable delay in the completion of the work and the
further delay in the publication of the reports, which will present thd
facts ascertained in great detail, it has been deemed desirable, as with
former reports, to show briefly in the Bulletin of the Bureau the most
salient and interesting results of the investigations.
The issue for November, 1908, contained a summary of the results
as to cost of living and retail prices of food, the subject of the
Eighteenth Annual Report, down to the end of 1902. After the close
of 1903 the figures for that year became available and are included in
the report. Therefore, that the results for the entire period may be
available, they are reproduced here, with the results of the investiga­
tion as to wages and hours of labor. An explanation is given of the
scope of the investigations and of the methods employed, and the
results are here presented in the order of the publication of the
reports.
COST OF LIVIN G AND RE TA IL PRICES.
The Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor, the report
for the year 1903, which is now in the hands of the printer, presents
the results of an extended investigation into the cost of living of
workingmen’s families and the retail prices of the principal staple
articles of food used by such families. The object of the investi­
gation into cost of living was to determine the cost of housing,
fuel, lighting, food, clothing, etc., in the ordinary family in the
United States. The object of the investigation into retail prices was
to determine the changes in the prices of the staple articles of food
for a period of years, and thereby to determine as nearly as possible
the changes in the cost of living in the several years covered.
The figures o f income and expenditure furnished in detail by 2,567
families in 33 States, representing the leading industrial centers of
the country, comprise the material for the detailed study of the cost
of living. Certain data, which do not enter so much into detail, were
collected in regard to the cost of living in 25,440 families, and the
results are extensively summarized in the full report. The informa­
tion relating to each family was secured directly from the husband or
wife, or both, by the personal visit of a special agent of the Bureau,
and the most important inquiries propounded were those relating to
the earnings of the husband, the wife, and the children, and the
expenditure of the family for housing, fuel, lighting, food, clothing,
and other purposes during the year.
The following table shows for five geographical divisions and for the
United States as a whole, the number of families investigated in detail,
the average size of family, the average income per family, the average




WAGES

705

AND COST OF LIVING.

expenditure per family for all purposes, and the average expenditure
per family for food, the figures being for the year 1901:
NUMBER OF FAMILIES, AVERAGE SIZE OF FAMILY, AVERAGE INCOME PER FAMILY,
AVERAGE EXPENDITURE PER FAM ILY FOR ALL PURPOSES, AND AVERAGE EXPENDI­
TURE PER FAM ILY FOR FOOD, DURING THE YEAR 1901.

Geographical division.

Average
Families. size of
family.

Average
Average
Average expendi­ expendi­
income ture per
ture per
per
family
family
family.
for all
for food.
purposes.

North Atlantic States......................................................
North Central States.......................................................
South Atlantic States.....................................................
South Central States.......................................................
Western States..................................................................

1,415
721
219
122
90

5.25
5.46
5.30
5.65
4.69

$834.83
842.60
762.78
715.46
891.82

$778.04
785.95
700.62
690.11
751.46

$338.10
321.60
298.64
292.68
308.53

United States...........................................................

2,567

5.31

827.19

768.54

326.90

This table shows that the 2,567 families consisted on an average of
5.31 persons, 0.7 person above the average of private families in the
whole country as shown by the census of 1900. This larger size of
family was not due to any intentional selection of larger families, for
the only basis of selection was that the head of the family must be a
wage worker or a salaried man earning not over $1,200 during the
year, and must be able to give information in regard to his expendi­
tures in detail. The average income for the year of these 2,567 fami­
lies from all sources was $827.19. The average expenditure for all
purposes was $768.54 and the average expenditure for food was
$326.90 per family, or 42.54 per cent of the average expenditure for
all purposes.
The two summaries which immediately follow are also based on the
facts ascertained by the special inquiry covering 2,567 families. From
these it was found possible to secure accurate data not only as to the
total expenditures for food, but also as to the quantify and cost of
each of the several articles consumed during the year. Data in
minute detail were also secured from these families as to their expen­
ditures for other purposes. The summary showing the average quan­
tity and cost of the food consumed in the 2,567 families during the
year follows:
AVERAGE QUANTITY AND COST PER FAMILY OF THE VARIOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD
CONSUMED.
Article.
Fresh b eef.......................................................... .......... ................................................
Salt be e f.............................................................................................................................
Fresh hog products........................................................................................................
Salt hog products. . .........................................................................................................
Other m e a t........................................................................................ ..............................
Poultry...............................................................................................................................
F is h ................. .............................................. ..................................................................

Quantity.

349.7 pounds. .
48.6 pounds. . .
114.2 pounds..
110.5 pounds..
77.7 pounds. . .
67.7 p ou n d s...
79.9 p ou n d s...
85.2dozen . . . .
M ilk ..................................................................................................................................... 354.5 quarts...




Cost.
$50.05
5.26
14.02
13.89
9.78
9.49
8.01
16.79
21.32

706

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

AVERAGE QUANTITY AND COST PER FAMILY OF THE VARIOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD
CONSUMED— Concluded.
Article.

Quantity.

Bu tter.................................................................................................................................. 117.1 pounds..
Cheese................................................................................................................................. 16.0 p ou nd s...
84.4 p ou n d s...
10.6 p ou n d s...
Coffee................................................................................................................................... 46.8 p ou nd s...
Sugar............................................................. ..................................................................... 268.5 pounds..
Molasses............................................................................................................................. 3.6 gallons_
_
Flour and m e a l................................................................................................................. 680.8 pounds..
B read................................................................................................................................... 252.7 lo a v e s...
Rice....................................................................................................................................... 25.1 pou nd s...
Potatoes............................................................................................................................... 14.7 bushels.. .
Other vegetables...............................................................................................................
Fruit.....................................................................................................................................
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments................................................................................
Other food..........................................................................................................................
Total fo o d ...............................................................................................................

Cost.
$28.70
2.62
9.35
5.30
10.74
15.76
1.60
16.76
12.44
2.05
12.93
18.85
16.52
4.12
20.40
326.90

From the above table it is seen that the average family consumed
349.7 pounds of fresh beef during the year, and that the cost was
$50.05; the average quantity of salt beef consumed was 48.6 pounds,
costing $5.26, etc. As practically all of the family schedules were
secured in s
the year 1901, this may be considered as showing the
cost in that year. The quantity of some articles could not be given.
These articles include vegetables other than potatoes, fruit, vinegar,
pickles, and condiments, and other food. The average cost of all food
for the 2,567 families during the year was $326.90. The average total
expenditure of these 2,567 families for all purposes as shown in the
previous summary was $768.54. The next summary shows the per
cent of the total expenditure that was disbursed for the principal
items entering into the cost of living:
PER CENT OF THE AVERAGE TOTAL EXPENDITURE OF 2,567 FAMILIES DISBURSED FOR
THE PRINCIPAL ITEMS ENTERING INTO THE COST OF LIVING.
Item.
Food.................................................................
R ent.................................................................
Principal and interest on mortgage on
h o m e ...........................................................
F u e l.................................................................
Lighting................................... .....................
Clothing.........................................................
Taxes...............................................................
Insurance.......................................................
Labor and other organization fe e s ........
Religious purposes.......................................

Per cent.
42.54
12.95
1.58
4.19
1.06
14.04
. 75
2.73
1.17
.99

Item.
Charity...........................................................
Furniture and utensils..............................
Books and newspapers..............................
Amusements ana vacation.......................
Intoxicating liquors..................................
Tobacco.........................................................
Sickness and death.....................................
Other purposes............................................

Percent.
0.31
3.42
1.09
1.60
1.62
1.42
2.67
5.87
100.00

From this table it is seen that the expenditure for food constituted
42.54 per cent of the cost of living; that for housing, including rent
and principal and interest paid on homes which were being acquired,
constituted 14.53 per cent; that for clothing, 14.04 per cent, etc.
That part of the investigation which relates to retail prices is, it
should be stated, the first extended investigation into retail prices cov­
ering a long series o f years that has been made in this country. All
previous price studies covering a period of years have dealt solely



707

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.

With wholesale prices which, of course, do not represent accurately
jthe cost to the small consumer. In their general trend retail prices
jfollow the wholesale prices, but their fluctuations are smaller and less
rapid, and this is clearly brought out in the full report.
In order to ascertain the course of retail prices of food for a series
of years and the consequent changes in the cost of living as regards
food, the Bureau through its agents secured from the books of 814
retail merchants, in the same localities from which data relating to
family expenditures were obtained, the retail prices of the principal
staple articles of food. These figures in all cases represent the
actual sales to consumers and may, therefore, be considered entirely
trustworthy; and covering as they do all parts of the country they
may also be considered thoroughly representative. Prices were taken
for each month during the fourteen years of 1890 to 1903, inclusive,
which was as far back as it was practicable to go. These covered
30 distinct articles, and, under each article, various grades and descrip­
tions of that article. From the monthly prices average yearly prices
were computed, and these will be shown in detail in the forthcoming
report for each locality covered.
In order to show the changes
from year to year relative prices or index numbers were computed.
These relative prices consist of a series of percentages showing the
per cent the price in each year was of the average price for the tenyear period from 1890 to 1899. This average price for the ten-year
period was selected as the base because it represented the average
conditions more nearly than the price in any one year which might be
selected as a base for all articles. With each article represented by a
percentage or index number it is possible to combine the several per­
centages and compute the percentage showing the relative price from
year to year of all food. Several very interesting summaries from
the report are here presented. The first shows the relative prices for
each year from 1890 to 1903 of the staple articles of food for which
the retail prices were secured:
.RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1903.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.]

Year.

1890.........
1891..........
1892..........
1893..........
1894..........
1895..........
1896..........
1897..........
1898..........
1899..........
1900..........
1901..........
1902..........
1903..........

Apples,
evapo­
rated.

Beans,
dry.

Beef,
fresh,
roasts
and
stews.

Beef,
fresh,
steaks.

109.0
110.3
99.3
107.0
105.8
97.4
88.6
87.8
95.4
99.5
95.2
96.8
104.4
100.8

103.3
106.2
102.4
105.0
102.8
100.5
92.7
91.5
95.9
99.7
110.0
113.9
116.8
118.1

99.5
100.0
99.6
99.0
98. a
98.6
99.1
100.3
101.7
103.7
106.5
110.7
118.6
113.1

98.8
99.4
99.3
99.6
98.2
99.1
99.5
100.2
102.0
103.9
106.4
111.0
118.5
112.9




Beef,
salt.

97.5
98.3
99.5
100.3
98.9
99.6
99.8
100.9
102.1
103.2
103.7
106.1
116.0
108,8

Bread,
wheat.

Butter.

Cheese.

Chick­
ens.

100.3
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.7
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.4
99.4
100.2

99.2
106.4
106.8
109.9
101.7
97.0
92.7
93.1
95.1
97.7
101.4
103.2
111.5
110.8

98.8
100.3
101.5
101.8
101.6
99.2
97.9
99.0
97.5
102.4
103.9
103.3
107.3
109.4

101.3
104.0
103.8
104.2
98.6
98.4
97.1
94.0
96.8
101.8
100.8
103.0
113.2
118.5

Coffee.

105.4
105.2
103.8
104.8
103.3
101.7
99.6
94.6
91.1
90.5
91.1
90.7
89.6
89.3

708

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1903—Concluded.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.]

Year.

1890..........
1891..........
1892..........
1893..........
1894..........
1895..........
1896..........
1897..........
1 8 9 8 ......
1899..........
1900..........
1901..........
1902..........
1908..........

Year.

1890..........
1891..........
1892..........
1893..........
1894..........
1895..........
1896..........
1897..........
1898..........
1899..........
1900..........
1901..........
1902..........
1903..........

Corn
meal.
100.0
109.7
105.2
103.1
102.2
100.8
95.0
93.7
95.0
95.1
97.4
107.1
118.8
120.7

Pork,
salt,
bacon.
95.8
96.6
99.1
109.0
103.6
99.4
96.7
97.4
100.2
102.9
109.7
121.0
135.6
139.8

Eggs.

100.6
106.9
106.8
108.1
96.3
99.3
92.8
91.4
96.2
101.1
99.9
105.7
119.1
125.3
Pork,
salt, dry
or
pickled.
95.3
98.9
100.5
108.7
103.4
99.2
95.5
97.3
99.1
101.8
107.7
117.5
132.5
129.0

Fish,
fresh.
99.3
99.6
100.1
100.1
100.4
99.8
100.2
99.8
100.5
100.2
100.4
101.4
105.0
107.3

Pork,
salt,
ham.
98.7
99.3
101.9
109.3
101.9
98.8
97.6
98.2
95.1
99.2
105.3
110.2
119.4
121.3

Fish,
salt.
100.7
101.7
102.2
103.4
101.5
98.9
97.5
95.2
98.8
100.2
99.1
100.9
102.8
108.4

Pota­
toes,
Irish.
109.3
116.6
95.7
112.3
102.6
91.8
77.0
93.0
105.4
96.1
93.5
116.8
117.0
114.8

Flour,
wheat.
109.7
112.5
105.1
96.1
88.7
89.0
92.7
104.3
107.4
94.6
94.3
94.4
94.9
101.2

Prunes.

116.8
116.5
113.5
115.8
100.9
94.2
86.8
84.3
86.3
85.1
83.0
82.6
83.4
80.2

Lard.

98.2
99.8
103.6
117.9
106.9
100.1
92.5
89.8
93.9
97.1
104.4
118.1
134.3
126.7

Rice.

101.3
102.5
101.3
98.4
99.0
98.8
96.7
97.9
101.7
102.4
102.4
103.5
103.5
103.9

Milk,
fresh.
100.5
100.5
100.6
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.4
98.9
99.9
101.1
103.3
105.8

Sugar.

118.6
102.7
96.2
101.5
93.8
91.8
96.6
95.7
101.3
101.7
104.9
103.0
96.0
96.1

Molas­
ses.

Mutton
and
lamb.

104.7
101.7
101.2
100.6
100.3
99.0
98.7
97.7
97.9
98.2
102.2
101.3
102.1
103.8

100.7
100.6
101.0
99.9
97.8
98.7
98.7
99.6
100.4
102.6
105.6
109.0
114.7
112.6

Tea.

100.0
100.4
100.2
100.1
98.7
98.5
98.8
98.5
100.7
104.4
105.5
106.7
107.2
106.0

Veal.

98.8
99.6
100.0
100.0
98.7
98.5
99.5
99.9
101.2
103.7
104.9
108.8
115.2
114.9

Pork,
fresh.
97.0
98.7
100.5
107.0
101.8
99.7
97.4
97.6
98.6
101.7
107.7
117.9
128.3
127.0

Vinegar.

102.9
105.5
102.7
99.5
99.8
98.9
97.2
97.4
97.9
98.3
98.5
98.9
99.5
99.1

From this table it is seen that the price of fresh roasting and stew­
ing beef in 1890 was 99.5 per cent o f the average price during the tenyear period from 1890 to 1899. In 1891 the price was exactty the
average price for the ten-year period—that is, 100.0. The lowest
point reached was in 1894, when it was 98.3 per cent of the average price
for the ten-year period. The highest point reached was in 1902, when
it stood at 118.6. In 1903 it stood at 113.1, or 13.1 per cent higher
than the average price for the period from 1890 to 1899. In the use
of these tables showing the relative figures it should be borne in mind
that the difference in the relative prices in any two years is not the
per cent of difference in the cost. For example: The relative price o f
fresh roasting and stewing beef was 98.3 in 1894 and 113.1 in 1903.
The difference in the relative prices is 14.8; and this figure being 15.1
per cent of 98.3, the per cent of increase in 1903 over 1894 is 15.1 per
cent.
The next summary shows the relative prices of food, considered as
a whole, for each year. The importance of the various articles or
groups of articles of food in the family consumption having been deter­
mined from the expenditures of the 2,567 families referred to above,
the relative prices o f the several articles o f food were weighted accord­
ing to this importance. The result, shown in the following table,
gives for 5 geographical divisions and the United States for the period



709

WAGES AND GOST OF LIVING.

;1890 to 1903 the relative retail price of the food consumed in one year
Iby a workingman’s family, compared with the average price for the
ten-year period 1890 to 1899:
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICE OF FOOD, WEIGHTED ACCORDING TO THE AVERAGE FAM ILY
CONSUMPTION, 1890 TO 1903,
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.]

Year.

1890....................................................................
1891....................................................................
1892....................................................................
1893....................................................................
1894....................................................................
1896....................................................................
1896....................................................................
1897....................................................................
1898....................................................................
1899....................................................................
1900....................................................................
1901....................................................................
1902...................................................................
1903........................................................... ........

North
Atlantic
States,
1,415
families.
102.3
103.2
102.1
104.4
99.2
97.7
97.0
96.9
98.8
99.5
101.2
104.7
110.5
110.1

South
North
Central Atlantic
States,
States,
721 fam­ 219 fam­
ilies.
ilies.

South
Central
States,
122 fam­
ilies.

Western
States,
90 fam­
ilies.

United
States,
2,567
families.

101.2
102.1
101.1
103.2
100.0
98.7
96.8
97.1
99.3
100.5
102.4
106.9
111.8
111.2

102.1
103.6
100.7
103.5
100.0
98.1
96.1
97.3
98.8
99.9
101.1
106.9
113.5
113.5

107.7
108.7
105.2
102.9
99.3
96.7
93.2
92.7
95.2
98.5
98.1
99.9
104.4
103.7

102.4
103.8
101.9
104.4
99.7
97.8
95.5
96.3
98.7
99.5
100.1
105.2
110.9
110.3

102.3
104.5
101.8
105.4
100.6
98.0
94.6
95.6
98.4
98.9
100.8
106.1
111.7
111.0

The table shows that the lowest price of food during the period
covered was in 1896, when according to the weighted relative prices
it was 95.5 per cent of the average price from 1890 to 1899; and that
the highest price was in 1902, when it was 110.9 per cent of the average
price for the base period, or 10.9 per cent above the average price for
ten years from 1890 to 1899. As stated above, these figures represent
the relative prices of food when the various articles are weighted accord­
ing to their importance in the family consumption, as shown by the
summary on pages 705 and 706. A computation of the simple average
of the relative prices of the 30 articles, however, discloses the fact that
the simple unweighted average, giving to each of the articles equal
importance, follows very closely the average weighted by famity con­
sumption. These simple averages are as follows: 1890, 102.1; 1891,
103.4; 1892, 101.8;* 1893, 104.1; 1894, 100.3; 1895, 98.2; 1896, 95.8;
1897, 96.3; 1898, 98.5; 1899, 99.6; 1900, 101.5; 1901, 105.5; 1902,
110.9; and 1903, 110.9.
To render easy a comparison of the prices of the last year of the
period, 1903, with those of each of the other years, the following
table has been prepared, showing the per cent of increase or decrease
in the prices of 1903 compared with the prices of each previous year
of the period.




710

BULLETIN OK THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

PER CENT OF INCREASE ( + ) OR DECREASE ( —) IN RETAIL PRICES OF VARIOUS ARTI*’
CLES OF FOOD, 1903 COMPARED WITH PREVIOUS YEARS.
Per cent of increase or decrease in 1903 compared with­
1890. 1891. 1892.
Apples, evaporated.
Beans, dry.................
Beef, fresh, roasts
and stew s.............
Beef, fresh, steaks..
Beef, salt...................
Bread, wheat............
Butter........................
Cheese.......................
C h ic k e n s................
Coffee........................
Com m ea l.................
Eggs............................
Fish, fresh.................
Fish, salt...................
Flour, w heat............
Lard............................
Milk, fresh ...............
Molasses.....................
Mutton and lamb . .
Pork, fresh...............
Pork, salt, bacon. . .
Pork, salt, dry or
pickled...................
Pork, salt h a m ........
Potatoes, Irish..........
Prunes.......................
R ice............................
Sugar..........................
Tea..............................
V e al............................
Vin egar.....................
A ll food weighted
according to fam­
ily consumption..

1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897. 1898.|1899. 1900. 1901. 1902.

- 7.5 - 8.6 + 1.5 - 5.8 - 4.7 + 3.5 +13.8 +14.8 + 5.7!+ I . 3 I+ 5.9 + 4.1
3.4
+14.3 +11.2 +15.3 +12.5 +14.9 +17.5 +27.4 +29.1 + 2 3 .1 + 1 8 .5 + 7.4 + 3.7 + 1.1
+13.7
+14.3
+11.6
.1
+11.7
+10.7
+17.0
-1 5 .3
+20.7
+24.6
+ 8.1
+ 7.6
- 7.7
+29.0
+ 5.3
.9
+11.8
+30.9
+45.9

+13.1
+13.6
+10.7
.1
+ 4.1
+ 9.1
+13.9
-1 5 .1
+10.0
+17.2
+ 7.7
+ 6.6
-1 0 .0
+27.0
+ 5.3
+ 2.1
+11.9
+28.7
+44.7

+13.6
+13.7
+ 9.3
.1
+ 3.7
+ 7.8
+14.2
-1 4 .0
+14.7
+17.3
+ 7.2
+ 6.1
- 3.7
+22.3
+ 5.2
+ 2.6
+11.5
+26.4
+41.1

+14.2
+13.4
+ 8.5
+ .1
+ .8
+ 7.5
+13.7
-1 4 .8
+17.1
+15.9
+ 7.2
+ 4.8
+ 5.3
+ 7.5
+ 5.4
+ 3.2
+12.7
+18.7
+28.3

+15.1
+15.0
+10.0
+ .3
+ 8.9
+ 7.7
+20.2
-1 3 .6
+18.1
+30.1
+ 6.9
+ 6.8
+14.1
+18.5
+ 5.6
+ 3.5
+15.1
+24.8
+34.9

+35.4
+22.9
+ 5.0
-3 1 .3
+ 2.6
-1 9 .0
+ 6.0
+16.3
- 3.7

+30.4
+22.2
- 1.5
-3 1 .2
+ 1.4
- 6.4
+ 5.6
+15.4
- 6.1

+28.4
+19.0
+20.0
-2 9 .3
+ 2.6
.1
+ 5.8
+14.9
-3 .5

+18.7
+11.0
+ 2.2
-3 0 .6
+ 5.6
- 5.3
+ 5.9
+14.9
.4

+24.8 +30.0
+19.0 +22.8
+11.9 +25.1
-2 0 .5 -1 4 .9
+ 4.9 + 5.2
+ 2.5 + 4.7
+ 7.4 + 7.6
+16.4 +16.6
— . 7 + .2

+14.7 +14.1
+13.9 +13.5
+ 9.2 + 9.0
+ . 5 + .3
+14.2 +19.5
+10.3 +11.7
+20.4 +22.0
-1 2 .2 -1 0 .3
+19.7 +27.1
+26.2 +35.0
+ 7.5 + 7.1
+ 9.6 +11.2
+13.7 + 9.2
+26.6 +37.0
+ 5.8 + 5.9
+ 4.8 + 5.2
+14.1 +14.1
+27.4 +30.4
+40.6 +44.6

+12.8 + 1 1 .2 + 9.1 !+ 6.2
+12.7 + 1 0 .7 ;+ 8 .7 + 6.1
+ 7.8 + 6.6 + 5.4 + 4.9
+ . 2 + .4 + .6 ,+ .5
+19.0 +16.5 +13.4 + 9.3
+10.5 +12.2 + 6 .8 '+ 5.3
+26.1 +22.4 + 1 6 .4 + 1 7 .6
- 5.6 - 2.0 - 1.3 - 2.0
+28.8 +27.1 +26.9 +23.9
+37.1 +30.2 +23.9 +25.4
+ 7.5 + 6.8 + 7.1 + 6.9
+13.9 + 9.7 + 8.2 + 9.4
- 3.0 - 5.8 + 7.0 + 7.3
+41.1 +34.9 +30.5 +21.4
+ 6.1 + 6.4 + 7.0 + 5.9
+ 6.2 + 6.0 + 5.7 + 1.6
+13.1 +12.2 + 9.7 + 6.6
+30.1 +28.8 +24.9 +17.9
+43.5 +39.5 +35.9 +27.4

+35.1 +32.6
+24.3 +23.5
+49.1 +23.4
- 7.6 - 4 . 9
+ 7.4 + 6.1
.5 l+ .4
+ 7.3 + 7.6
+15.5 +15.0
+ 2.0 + 1.7

+30.2
+27.5
+ 8.9
- 7.1
+ 2.2
-5 .1
+ 5.3
+13.5
+ 1.2

+26.7 +19.8
+22.3 +15.2
+ 1 9 .5 + 2 2 .8
- 5.8 - 3.4
+ 1.5 + 1.5
- 5.5 - 8.4
+ 1 .5 + .5
+10.8 + 9.5
+ .8 + .6

+ 2.2 _
+ 1.7 __
+ 2.5 —
+ .8 +
+ 7.4
+ 5.9 +
+15.0 +
- 1.5
+12.7 +
+18.5 +
+ 5.8 +
+ 7.4 +
+ 7.2 +
+ 7.3
+ 4.6 +
+ 2.5 +
+ 3.3
+ 7.7 —
+15.5 +
+ 9.8
+10.1
-1 .7
-2 .9
+ .4
- 6.7
.7
+ 5.6
+ .2

+ 7.7 + 6.3 + 8.2 + 5.7 +10.6 +12.8 +15.5 +14.5 +11.8 +10.9 + 9.1 + 4.8

4.6
4.7
6.2
.8
.6
2.0
4.7
.3
1.6
5.2
2.2
5.4
6.6
5.7
2.4
1.7
1.8
1.0
3.1

_ 2.6
+ 1.6
1.9
— 3.8
+ .4
+ .1
1.1
— .3
— .4
—

.5

in this table ( + ) and (—) are used to show whether the price in
1903 was higher or lower than in the year indicated at the head of the
column. Thus, on the first line it is seen that evaporated apples were
7.5 per cent lower in 1903 than in 1890; on the second line, that dry
beans were 14.3 per cent higher in 1903 than in 1890; on the third
line, that fresh roasting and stewing beef was 13.7 per cent higher in
1903 than in 1890, etc. The last line of the table shows the per cent
of increase or decrease for all food in 1903 as compared with preced­
ing years. Giving each article a weight in proportion to its cost in
family consumption, food in 1903 was 7.7 per cent higher than in 1890,
6.3 per cent higher than in 1891, etc., and 15.5 per cent higher than in
1896, the year of lowest prices of food.
If the relative prices of food given above be taken in connection
with the average actual expenditure for food in 1901 of the 2,567 fam­
ilies investigated by the Bureau, the amount of the average expenditure
for food in each year may be calculated. This has been done and the
results showing for 5 geographical groups and for the United States
the average cost of food per family in each year from 1890 to 1903,
inclusive, are given in the following table.




711

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.

AVERAGE COST OF FOOD PER FAMILY, 1890 TO 1903, BASED ON AVERAGE COST PER
JFAMILY IN 1901 AND THE RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES QF FOOD WEIGHTED ACCORDING
(TO FAMILY CONSUMPTION.

Year.

1890....................................................................
1891....................................................................
1892....................................................................
1893 ....................................................................
1894....................................................................
1895....................................................................
1896....................................................................
1897....................................................................
1898....................................................................
1899....................................................................
1900....................................................................
1901....................................................................
1902....................................................................
1903....................................................................

North
North
South
South
Atlantic Central Atlantic Central Western United
States,
States,
States,
States,
States, States, 90 2,567 fam­
1,415 fam­ 721 fam­ 219 fam­ 122 fam­ families.
ilies.
ilies.
ilies.
ilies.
ilies.
$330.35
333.26
329.70
337.13
320.34
315.50
313.23
312.91
319.05
321.31
326.80
338.10
356.83
355.54

$310.08
316.75
308.57
319.48
304.93
297.05
286.74
289.77
298.26
299.78
305.54
321.60
338.57
336.45

$282.72
285.23
282.44
288.30
279.36
275.73
270.42
271.26
277.41
280.76
286.07
298.64
312.33
310.65

$279.54
283.64
275.71
283.37
273.79
268.59
263.11
266.40
270.50
273.51
276.80
292.68
310.75
310.75

$332.61
335.72
324.90
317.80
306.68
298.65
287.84
286.29
294.01
304.21
302.97
308.53
322.43
320.27

$318.20
322.55
316.65
324.41
309.81
303.91
296.76
299.24
306.70
309.19
314.16
326.90
344.61
342.75

From this table it will be seen that the average cost of food per
family in 1890 was $318.20. In 1896, the year of lowest prices, it fell
to $296.76; in 1902 it reached the highest point of the period, being
$344.61; while in 1903 it fell slightly, to $342.75. The changes in the
cost of living, as shown by the results of this investigation, relate to
food alone, representing 42.54 per cent of all family expenditures in
the 2,567 families furnishing information.
Of the remaining articles, constituting 57.46 per cent of the family
expenditure, certain ones are, from their nature, affected only indi­
rectly and in very slight degree by any rise or fall in prices. Such
are payments on account of principal and interest of mortgage, taxes,
property and life insurance, labor and other organization fees, reli­
gion, charity, books and newspapers, amusements and vacation,
intoxicating liquors, and sickness and death. These together consti­
tuted 14.51 per cent of the family expenditure in 1901 of the 2,567
families investigated. Miscellaneous purposes, not reported, for
which, from their very character, no prices are obtainable, made up
5.87 per cent, and rent, for which also no prices for the several years
are available, made up 12.95 per cent.
The remaining classes of family expenditure, 24.13 per cent of all,
consist of clothing 14.04 per cent, fuel and lighting 5.25 per cent, fur­
niture and utensils 3.42 per cent, and tobacco 1.42 per cent. For these
no retail prices covering a series of years are available, but it is prob­
able that the advance of the retail prices was considerably less than the
advance in wholesale prices, as the advance in the wholesale prices of
25 articles of food in 1903, as compared with 1896, was 27.9 per cent,
while the advance in the retail prices of 25 similar articles or groups
of articles, as shown by the results of this investigation, was but 15.3
per cent. An examination of the relative wholesale prices of these




712

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

classes of articles in Bulletin No. 51, giving them their proper weight
according to family consumption, leads to the conclusion that the
advance in the retail prices of these articles as a whole, comparing
1903 with the year of lowest prices, could have been but little, if at
all, greater than the advance in the retail price of food.
I f all classes o f family expenditures as above be taken into consid­
eration, it is apparently a safe and conservative conclusion, therefore,
that the increase in the cost of living, as a whole, in 1903, when com­
pared with the year of lowest prices, was less than 15.5 per cent, the
figure given above as the increase in the cost of food as shown by this
investigation. This assumes, o f course, always the purchase o f the
same articles and the same quantities in years o f low prices, low wages,
and more or less irregular employment, and in years of higher prices,
higher wages, and steady employment.
W A G E S AND HOURS OF LABOR.
The Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor, the report
for the year 1904, will present the results of an extensive investigation
into the wages and hours o f labor in the leading manufacturing and
mechanical industries of the United States during the period from
1890 to 1903, inclusive. The investigation was designed to cover
thoroughly the principal distinctive occupations in the leading indus­
tries belonging to this large industrial group in all sections of the
country, with a view to securing data which should be entirely repre­
sentative o f conditions and show the trend of wages and hours of labor
during the period covered. It is to be regretted that the force avail­
able for the prosecution of the work did not permit of the extension
of the investigation to cover transportation, mining, agriculture, (a) and
the other great industrial groups. It is believed, however, that the data

«The ‘‘Wages of Farm Labor in the United States” is the title of a recent bulletin
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. From this the following table showing
wages of farm laborers is drawn:
AVERAGE WAGES OF FARM LABORERS IN THE UNITED STATES IN CERTAIN YEARS
FROM 1890 TO 1902.
[From, bulletin of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, “ Wages of Farm Labor in the United States.” ]
Per month.

Per day of ordi­
nary labor.

Per day in harvest.

Year.
Without
board.
189(1....................................................................
1892....................................................................
1893....................................................................
1894.....................................................................
1895.....................................................................
1898.....................................................................
1899.....................................................................
1902....................................................................




$18.33
18.60
19.10
17.74
17.69
19.38
20.23
22.14

W ith
board.
$12.45
12.54
13.29
12.16
12.02
13.43
14.07
16.40

Without
board.
$0.92
.92
.89
.81
.81
.96
1.01
1.13

With
board.
$0.68
.67
.69
.63
.62
.72
.77
.89

Without
board.
$1.30
1.30
1.24
1.13
1.14
1.30
1.37
1.53

With
board.
$1.02
1.02
1.03
.93
.92
1.05
1.12
1.34

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.

713

presented are more comprehensive and representative, so far as the
manufacturing and mechanical industries are concerned, than any that
have been heretofore published. It is believed also that the figures
forming the basis of the report are in all particulars thoroughly accu­
rate and trustworthy, inasmuch as they have been secured in all cases
by personal visits of the special agents of the Bureau to the several
establishments represented and have been drawn directly from the pay
rolls and other records in existence and available for reference. The
preservation of records of this character for any considerable period
of-years is not usual, and great difficulty was experienced in finding
establishments in some industries which had been in existence since
1890 and had preserved their pay rolls and other records of transac­
tions with their employees. In a few cases, indeed, the agents of the
Bureau were compelled to accept data for less than the full period
covered by the investigation in order to avoid the exclusion of some
important occupation or industry from the report—data for the full
period not being available—while in other cases the Bureau was com­
pelled to accept data for less than the full period in order to secure
the adequate representation of some important section of the country
in certain industries in the report. An examination of the table
by industries and occupations (Table I) shows that all occupations
usually pertaining to the various industries are not covered. As has
been previously mentioned, this is in accordance with the plan adopted
to secure data for only the important and distinctive occupations which
are considered representative of each industry. This plan resulted in
a great saving of time in the collection of the data without materially
affecting its representative character. Quite often it was not possible
to secure data for all of the important and distinctive occupations in
a particular establishment owing to imperfect records, and for this
reason, also, data from the same number of establishments are not
reported for each of the occupations. In all such cases the data avail­
able were taken. Finally, it should be stated that the data in all cases
were taken from that portion of each year’s pay rolls most nearly rep­
resenting the average conditions in the establishment during each
year.




714

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB,

The following table shows the industries covered by the report, ttue
number of establishments in each industry from which data were
secured, and the number of different occupations covered in each
industry:
INDUSTRIES, NUMBER OF OCCUPATIONS, AND NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS FROM
WHICH REPORTS WERE SECURED.

Industry.

Agricultural implements..
Bakery, bread......................
Blacksmithing and horseshoeing................................
Boots and shoes...................
Boots and shoes, rubber. . .
Boxes, paper..........................
Brick.......................................
Building trades.....................
Butter and cheese...............
Candv .....................................
Carpets...................................
Carriages and wagons........
Cars, steam railroad...........
Clothing, factory product.
Clothing, men’s, custom
■work.....................................
Cooperage..............................
Cotton goods..........................
Dyeing, finishing, and
printing textiles...............
Electrical apparatus and
supplies.......................... .
Flour.......................................
Foundry and machine
shop.....................................
Fruits and vegetables, can­
ning and preserving........
Furniture................................
G a s ...........................................
Glass, bottle and window .
Glass, plate............................
Harness.................................
Hats, f u r ................................
Hosiery and knit goods . . .
Iron and steel, bar iron . . .
Iron and steel, Bessemer
converting........................
Iron and steel, blast fur­
nace.....................................
Iron and steel, blooming
m ill.....................................
Iron and steel, muck b ar..
Iron and steel, open-hearth
steel.....................................

Number
of occu­
pations.
.

Number of
establish­
ments.

8
4

18
124

5
10
6
11
6
19
2
2
8
8
16
7

193
46
2
6
28
1,199
29
7
8
104
49
14

4
11
6

46
17
26

6

14

4
5

4
34

10

342

2
9
4
14
9
6
14
7
6

2
59
7
12
2
30
8
8
16

6

9

5

19

7
6

8
15

5

Industry.

Number Number of
of occu­ establish­
pations.
ments.

Iron and steel, rails............
Leather .................................
Liquors, distilled.................
Liquors, m a lt ......................
Lithographing....................
L um ber..................................
Marble and stone work . . .
Musical instruments, or­
gans .....................................
Musical instruments, pi­
anos .....................................
Oil, cotton se e d ...................
Oil, linseed............................
Paints.....................................
Paper and wood p u lp ........
Petroleum refining.............
Planing m i l l ........................
Pottery...................................
Printing and publishing,
book and jo b ....................
Printing and publishing,
newspaper........................
Rope and tw ine...................
Shipbuilding........................
Silk goods..............................
Slaughtering and meat
packing..............................
Soap.........................................
Stoves.....................................
Streets and sewers, con­
tract work..........................
Streets and sewers, munic­
ipal work............................
Sugar refining......................
Tin plate...............................
Tobacco, cigarettes...........
Tobacco, cigars....................
Tobacco, plug, fine cut,
and granulated smoking.
Woolen and worsted goods.

7
10
10
8
3
12
12

55
5
40
182

8

$

12
5
6
3
16
8
9
8

5
2
2
4
20
3
94
6

T o ta l............................

6
38
4

10

103

4
7
17
12

132
2
38
13

15
6
3

7
3
8

1

36

1
9
7
4
7

48
2

12
9

16
16

519

3,429

1
3
17

10

This table shows that practically all of the leading manufacturing
and mechanical industries are represented in the report. The number
of industries is seen to be 67, while data were secured from a total of
519 distinctive occupations in 3,429 establishments.
Table I is a summary of the full report in which the data will be pre­
sented in great detail. In it are combined for each occupation all the
data that were secured for that occupation. To illustrate the method
o f presentation the reader is referred to the table (page 731.) The
first industry shown is that of agricultural implements, and the first
occupation in that industry is blacksmiths. All of these blacksmiths
are males. The prefatory note states that the data secured from 15
establishments are here combined. Passing the first line of the table



WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.

715

&or the present, the second line shows that a total of 114 men were
Ordinarily employed in 1890 in this occupation in the establishments
covered. In the year 1891 there were 115 men employed at the repre­
sentative time of the year for which the schedules were taken; the
numbers employed in each of the other years are likewise shown. To
make the study of the table easier a relative number has been com­
puted to accompany each actual number. All comparisons might be
made with 1890 or any other year, but owing to the fact that the con­
ditions in any one year might be abnormal it was determined, as in
the case of retail prices, to take as a base for comparison, or 100.0, not
any one year, but the average for the ten years from 1890 to 1899. On
the first line, therefore, appears the number 126, which is the average
number employed during the ten-year period from 1890 to 1899. In
the second column is the relative number 100.0, indicating that the
number 126 is taken as the base, or 100.0. In the second line, showing
the number of employees in 1890, is given the relative number 90.5,
indicating that in 1890 the number of employees in the several estab­
lishments was 90.5 per cent of the average number employed during
the ten-year period from 1890 to 1899.
The next two columns show conditions in 1903 (the last year of the
period), as compared with the average condition for the ten-year
period and the condition in each of the thirteen years preceding 1903.
The sign ( + ) or (—) indicates whether the number employed in 1903
was greater or less than the number employed in the year with which
the comparison is made. Thus the number of blacksmiths in these
15 establishments covered was 16 more in 1903 than the average num­
ber employed during the ten-year base period, which, according to the
next column, was 12.7 per cent more. When 1903 is compared with
1890, it is seen that there were 28 more employees in 1903 than in
1890, or, as the next column shows, 24.6 per cent more. With this
explanation that part of the table referring to employees will be
readily understood. It may be well in this connection, however, to
repeat the caution previously given as to the use of relative figures.
The difference between the relative numbers in any two years is not
the per cent of difference between those relative numbers. For
example, the relative number of blacksmiths in the agriculturalimplement industry in 1895 was 96.0, the relative number in 1901
was 114.3, and the difference in the relative numbers is 18.3. The
per cent of increase in the number of employees, however, from 1895
to 1901 is found by computation to be 19.1 per cent.
The next section of the table relates to hours of labor per week.
The average number of hours shown is the true average for all
employees. Taking, for example, the year 1890, a total was made of
the hours worked per week by the 114 men, and this total divided by

10092—No. 53—04-----2




716

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

114, the number of men, gives an average per week of 59.69 hours.
Relative hours of work per week have also been computed for the
assistance of the reader. The third column of this section shows the
increase or decrease of hours in 1903 as compared with the preceding
years, and the next column the per cent of increase or decrease in
hours in 1903 as compared with the preceding years.
The third section of the table relates to rates of wages per hour.
Employees are either time workers or piece workers. Time workers
are paid by the hour, day, week, month, or year. The piece rate of
piece workers would convey little information to the general reader.
For this reason the time worked to secure the earnings shown on the
pay roll has been secured in the case of all piece workers and the
hourly earnings computed. All wages are here shown by the hour
in order that the data may be thoroughly and fairly comparable.
The working day is an uncertain unit, as the time actually worked
may have been long or short, and the week, month, or the year is still
more indefinite. Hence all wages, however shown on the pay rolls,
have been reduced to the one definite standard—the rate per hour.
The true average has been computed for the wages in the same man­
ner as has been explained concerning hours per week. The relative
hourly rate of wages in each year, the actual increase or decrease in
wages in 1903 compared with preceding years, and the per cent of
increase or decrease in wages in 1903 compared with preceding years,
are shown in the columns following the actual wages per hour.
In studying Table I the reader will observe that for a compara­
tively small number of occupations no figures are shown for the
early years of the period, as has been previously mentioned. It is
because no data could be obtained for those years, and the occupa­
tion was deemed so important that it was believed the obtainable data,
though incomplete, should be shown. No relative numbers have been
computed for such occupations because the facts for a part of the base
period are not known. It will be observed also that data have been
included for a number of establishments for which figures could not
be secured for the whole period. This course was pursued only in
cases where the inclusion of such establishments did not materially
affect the averages shown for the establishments for which data cover­
ing the entire period were obtained. It should be stated, also, that
such data were included mainly to secure the representation of an
industry from a section of the country not already represented by
data for the entire period. Though these short-period establishments
included did not affect the average hours and wages, their employees
could not be combined with the employees in the other establishments
without destroying the ratio of the number employed in the several
years. For this reason the number of employees shown is always the




WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.

717

number employed in the establishments that were in operation during
each year of the period.
The relative figures* shown in Table I have been summarized so as to
show conditions in each industry as a whole, and are presented in this
Bulletin as Table II. This summary table shows the relative condi­
tions in each year compared with the ten-year period 1890-1899.
Like the general table, it embraces three divisions, the first relating
to the number of employees in the several years, the second to the
hours of work per week, and the third to the wages per hour. Each
of these divisions is subdivided into two columns, one showing
the relative number and the other the per cent of increase or decrease
in 1903, the last year of the period, compared with each of the
preceding years. The base on which the relative number is com­
puted is the average for the ten-year period, 1890-1899. Referring,
now, to the table it is seen that in 1890 the number of employees
engaged in the agricultural-implement industry was 86.2 per cent of
the average number employed during the ten-year period. In each of
the years thereafter a greater number was employed than in 1890, the
highest being in 1900, when 30.7 per cent more persons were employed
in the occupations and establishments covered than during the base
period. In 1903 the number employed was 24.8 per cent more than
the average number employed in the ten-year base period. The next
column shows that the number of persons employed in 1903 was 44.8
per cent more than the number employed in 1890, 41.5 per cent more
than in 1891, etc. With this explanation the other divisions of the
table relating to hours per week and wages per hour will be readily
understood.
In Table II the facts relating to the several occupations in each
industry have been consolidated so as to form an index for each
industry as a whole. In the short table immediately following the
facts relating to the several industries have been combined to form a
general index of all industries.




718

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

COURSE OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1903, W HEN WEIGHTED ACCORDING
TO AGGREGATE WAGES PAID IN EACH INDUSTRY AS REPORTED BY THE CENSUS
OF 1900.
[Relative numbers computed onbasis of average for ^90-1899=100.]
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of
Per cent of
Per cent of
increase ( + ) or
increase ( + ) or
increase ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( —) Relative decrease (—) Relative decrease ( —)
dumber. in 1903 as com­ number. in 1903 as com­ number. in 1903 as com­
pared with
pared with
pared with
year specified.
year specified.
year specified.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

94.9
97.4
99.1
99.2
94.1
96.3
98.3
100.9
106.3
110.8
115.5
119.1
123.6
126.4

+33.2
+29.8
+27.5
+27.4
+34.3
+31.3
+28.6
+25.3
+18.9
+14.1
+ 9.4
+ 6.1
+ 2.3
(a)

100.7
100.5
100.5
100.3
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.2
98.7
98.1
97.3
96.6

- 4 .1
- 3 .9
- 3 .9
-3 .7
-3 .2
- 3 .5
- 3 .2
-3 .0
- 3 .1
- 2 .6
- 2 .1
-1 .5
- .7
(«)

100.3
100.2
100.8
100.9
97.9
98.3
99.7
99.6
100.3
102.0
105.5
108.0
112.3
116.3

+16.0
+16.1
+ 15.4
+15.3
+ 18.8
+18.3
+ 16.6
+16.8
+16.0
+ 14.0
+ 10.2
+ 7.7
+ 3.6
(«)

a The figures in this column give opposite each year the per cent of increase or decrease (indicated
by + or —) which the 1903 figures show as compared with the year specified. Thus, opposite the
year 1890, under employees, appears +33.2; this snows that the per cent of increase in the number of
employees in 1903 as compared with 1890 was 33.2; opposite 1890, under hours per week, appears —4.1;
this shows that the per cent of decrease in the hours of labor per week in 1903 as compared with 1890
was 4.1; in like manner, under wages per hour, appears +16.0; this shows that the per cent of
increase in the wages per hour in 1903 as compared with 1890 was 16.0. The figures opposite each
year should be read in like manner. Opposite the year 1903, of course, no figures can be placed.

The first column of the table shows the relative number of persons
employed in all of the establishments investigated that were in opera­
tion during each year of the period. This column probably does not
show the full extent of the changes that have taken place in the indus­
tries of the United States during the period covered; as just stated, it
measures only the changes that have taken place in those establish­
ments that were in operation each year of the period. No figures are
known to exist showing the decrease in the number of employees
caused by the shutting down of establishments for one or more years
of the period, or by the permanent closing of establishments. Neither
are there any figures showing the increase in the number of wage­
workers caused by the opening of new establishments during these
years. - The figures in this table relating to employees are of great
value, however, for they show the changes that have taken place in a
large number o f establishments, and undoubtedly indicate to some
extent the changes that have taken place in the number of persons
employed in all industries throughout the country. The table shows
that the lowest number employed was in the year 1894, when 94.1
per cent as many persons were employed as during the average period
from 1890 to 1899. The highest point reached in the period covered
was in 1903, when 26.4 per cent more persons were employed than
the average for the ten-year base period: The next column shows the
per cent of increase or decrease in the number of persons employed




WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.

719

tn 1903 as compared with preceding years. Thus in 1903 there were
employed 33.2 per cent more persons than in 1890,34.3 per cent more
than in 1894, and 2.3 per cent more than in 1902, etc. So far as these
establishments are concerned it is seen that the number of employees
engaged therein have gradually increased since the year 1894. It is
seen that in the last year of the period, 1903, a greater number of
workmen were employed than in any previous year, and in this last
year the number employed was 34.3 per cent greater than in 1894, or
more than one-third more.
The next section of the table relates to the hours of labor. The
relative number shown is a comparison of the hours of work per week
in each year with the average hours worked per week during the tenyear period from 1890 to 1899. In 1890 the hours of work per week
were 0.7 per cent more than the average hours worked during the
ten-year base period, while in 1903 the hours of work were but 96.6
per cent of the average for the base period; that is, 3.4 per cent less
than the average hours worked during the period from 1890 to 1899.
The next column shows the per cent of increase or decrease of hours
per week in 1903 when compared with previous years; thus in 1903
the hours of work were 4.1 per cent less than in 1890, and 0.7 per
cent less than in 1902. The tendency toward a gradual reduction of
the hours of labor of the workman is clearly shown here.
The third section of the table relates to the wages per hour paid in
all of the industries covered by the report. In 1890 wages were 0.3
per cent higher than the average wages paid during the ten years
from 1890 to 1899. In 1891 they were 0.2 per cent higher. The
lowest point reached was in 1894, when wages were 97.9 per cent of
the average wages for the ten-year period; or, in other words, 2.1
per cent lower than the average for the ten-year period. From 1894
the movement has been gradually upward to 1903, when the average
wages per hour were 116.3 per cent of the average for the base period;
or, in other words, 16.3 per cent higher than the average wages
per hour during the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899. The caution
before given is here repeated. The per cent of change between one
year and another is not the result of the subtraction of the two rela­
tive numbers. For example: The relative wages in all industries was
97.9 in 1894 and 116.3 in 1903; the difference between these relative
numbers is 18.4. The per cent of increase in wages, however, from
1894 to 1903 was not 18.4. This difference, 18.4, is 18.8 per cent of
97.9, the number with which the comparison was made, making wages
per hour in 1903 18.8 per cent higher than wages per hour in 1894.
The column following the relative wages shows the^per cent of increase
or decrease in the average wages per hour in 1903 as compared with
the preceding years. In this column it is seen that wages per hour in




720

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

1903 were 16.0 per cent higher than in 1890, 15.1 per cent higher than
in 1892,18.8 per cent higher than in 1891, 3.6 per cent higher than in
1902, etc.
In computing the figures for the table on page 718, each industry
has been given a weight in proportion to the amount of wages paid
therein, as shown by the United States Census of 1900. This was
deemed to be the most equitable method of making allowance for the
greater or less importance of the several industries. The agriculturalimplement industry is an important industry, but by no means as great
as the building industry of the country, therefore allowance for the
importance was deemed necessary, and the most satisfactory method
of weighting is believed to be the weighting in proportion to the
wages paid in the several industries. In order to see what difference,
if any, there would be in the results obtained by the method adopted
for the computation of the relative number or index for all industries
and by other methods, the relative numbers for wages were computed
by three other methods. By giving all occupations an equal weight
the relative number was found to be 100.2 in 1890, 100.3 in 1891,
100.6 in 1892, 100.5 in 1893, 97.9 in 1891, 98.8 in 1895, 99.6 in 1896,
99.5 in 1897, 100.1 in 1898, 101.9 in 1899, 101.9 in 1900,107.2 in 1901,
111.2 in 1902, and 111.9 in 1903. By giving each industry an equal
weight the relative number was 100.5 in 1890, 100.1 in 1891, 100.7 in
1892, 100.1 in 1893, 98.0 in 1891, 98.7 in 1895, 99.6 in 1896, 99.3 in
1897.100.2 in 1898,102.1 in 1899,105.1 in 1900, 107.7 in 1901,111.6
in 1902, and 111.7 in 1903. The third method was by giving each
industry a weight in proportion to the number of employees engaged
in the industry, as shown by the Census of 1900. Computed by this
method the relative number was 100.1 in 1890, 100.2 in 1891,100.7 in
1892, 100.9 in 1893, 97.9 in 1891, 98.1 in 1895, 99.9 in 1896, 99.6 in
1897, 100.3 in 1898, 101.8 in 1899, 105.1 in 1900, 107.9 in 1901, 111.9
in 1902, and 116.0 in 1903. In several of the industries, however,
the number of employees varies considerably during the year in accord­
ance with seasonal trade conditions. For this and other reasons it is
believed that the number of employees does not measure the impor­
tance of the industry as fairly as do the wages paid. A comparison of
the figures obtained by the three methods just described with the fig­
ures by weighting each industry in proportion to the wages paid in it
shows how nearly the different methods produce the same results.
Any one of the three other methods might very safely and properly
be used, were no method more satisfactory available.
In studying the several tables thus far presented, the reader should
bear in mind that the wages shown are the average rates of wages per
hour and the hours shown the average number o f hours worked per
week. A reduction in hours in any year, therefore, implies a reduction
o f weekly earnings, unless accompanied by a corresponding increase




721

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.

in the rates of wages per hour. In order to show the changes in weekly
earnings that have taken place from year to year during the period, in
all industries as a whole, the following table has been prepared:
RELATIVE W EEKLY EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE AND FOR ALL EMPLOYEES, 1890 TO 1903.
[Relative numbers computed on basis of average for 1890-1899=100.]
Weekly earnings per
employee.
Year.

1890...................................................................................
1893...................................................................................
1895...................................................................................
1896...................................................................................
1897...................................................................................
1898...................................................................................
1899...................................................................................
1900...................................................................................
1901...................................................................................
1902...................................................................................
1903...................................................................................

Weekly earnings of all
employees.

Per cent of
Per cent of
increase ( + ) or
increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) Relative. decrease ( —)
Relative. in 1903 as com­
in 1903 as com­
pared with
pared with
year specified.
year specified.
101.0
100.7
101.3
101.2
97.7
98.4
99.5
99.2
100.0
101.2
104.1
105.9
109.3
112.3

+11.2
+11.5
+10.9
+11.0
+14.9
+14.1
+ 12.9
+13.2
+12.3
+11.0
+ 7.9
+ 6.0
+ 2.7

95.8
98.1
100.4
100.4
91.9
94.8
97.8
100.1
106.3
112.1
120.2
126.1
135.1
141.9

+48.1
+44.6
+41.8
+ 41.3
+ 54.4
+ 49.7
+ 45.1
+41.8
+ 33.5
+26.6
+ 18.1
+12.5
+ 5.0

The first section of the table relates to the weekly earnings of the
individual employee. From this table it is seen that the weekly earn­
ings per employee in 1890 were 1.0 per cent higher than the average
weekly earnings for the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899. In 1891 the
average weekly earnings were 2.3 per cent lower than the average
for the ten-year period, and in 1903 they were 12.3 per cent higher.
The next column shows that the weekly earnings per employee in 1903
were 11.2 per cent higher than in 1890, 11.5 per cent higher than in
1891, 11.9 per cent higher than in 1891, and 2.7 per cent higher than
in 1902, etc.
The second section of the table, relating to the aggregate weekly
earnings of all employees engaged in the occupations covered in the
establishments included in the report, which were in operation during
each year of the period, is of great interest as indicating to some
extent the considerable and steady increase during the years from 1891
to 1903 in the amount paid out in wages by the manufacturing and
mechanical establishments of the country. While the figures given
show that this increase has been very great it is believed that they
do not mark the extreme increase that would be shown were figures
available for the entire number of employees in all industries, for rea­
sons previously stated on page 718. Bearing this fact in mind the table
shows that the weekly earnings of the employees engaged in the occu­
pations covered in the establishments running during each j^ear of the
period were, in 1890, 95.8 per cent of the average for the ten-year
period from 1890 to 1899; in the year 1891 they were 98.1 per cent; in
1891 they were 91.9 per cent; in 1902 the relative figure was 135.1*




722

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

while in 1903 it was 141.9, or 41.9 per cent more than the average fo r
the ten-year period. The next column of the table, comparing the
last year of the period with each of the other years, indicates that in
1903 the aggregate weekly earnings of all employees were 48.1 per
cent more than in the year 1890, 54.4 per cent more than in 1894,
and 5,0 per cent more than in 1902, etc.
Thus it is seen that, considering the employees covered by this report,
the average weekly earnings per employee in 1903 were 12.3 per cent
higher than the average for the ten-year period 1890 to 1899, and
that the aggregate weekly wages paid out to all employees in 1903
were 41.9 per cent more than the average weekly wages for the same
ten-year period.
An examination of the figures of the two reports shows that the
price of food in 1903 was 15.5 per cent above its lowest price in 1896,
the year of lowest prices; that cost of living as a whole advanced
probably somewhat less; that rates of wages per hour in 1903 had
increased 18.8 per cent as compared with 1894, the year of lowest
wages; that hours of labor in 1903 had decreased 4.1 per cent as com­
pared with 1890; that weekly earnings had advanced 14.9 per cent in
1903 above the weekly earnings of 1894; that 34.3 per cent more per­
sons were employed in 1903 than in 1894, and that 54.4 per cent more
money was paid out in wages per week in 1903 than in 1894.
In the discussion of the several tables of this Bulletin references
have been made to the extent of change from the lowest figures shown
in the several tables to the figures of 1903. This brings out the full
extent of the changes that have taken place in the several years of the
period, but in studying the tables for cost of living and rates of wages
together, however, comparisons should always be made for the same
year; that is, the relative figures for any year in one table should be
compared with the relative figures for the same year in another table.
The following table shows for each of the principal features cov­
ered by the triple investigation the relative figures for each year as
compared with the average for the ten-year period from 1890 to 1899,
and there has been added the purchasing power of the hourly wages
and of the weekly earnings per employee, measured by retail prices of
food. In regard to the purchasing power of hourly wages a word of
explanation should be added. According to the table, relative average
wages per hour for the base period 1890-1899 were 100, and in 1890
were 100.3; relative average retail prices of food, which for the period
1890-1899 were 100, in 1890 were 102.4. As with the slight advance
in wages there was a greater advance in retail prices of food (compared
with the base period 1890-1899), it is evident that the purchasing
power of the hourly wage was less in 1890 than for the average of
1890-1899, and this the table shows, the figures being 97.9, a decline of
2.1 per cent. Again, taking 1903, it is seen that hourly wages were




723

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,

16.3 per cent above the average of 1890-1899, while retail prices of
food were 10.3, making the increase in purchasing power of the hourly
wage 5.4 per cent. The purchasing power of weekly earnings per
employee may be read in the same way.
RELATIVE EMPLOYEES, HOURS PER WEEK, WAGES PER HOUR, W EEKLY EARNINGS PER
EMPLOYEE AND OF ALL EMPLOYEES, RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, AND PURCHASING
POWER OF HOURLY WAGES AND OF W EEK LY EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE, MEASURED
BY RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1903.
[Average of 1890-1899=100.]

Y'ear.

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897 ......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................

Employ­
ees.

94.9
97.4
99.1
99.2
94.1
96.3
98.3
100.9
106.3
110.8
115.5
119.1
123.6
126.4

Hours
per
week.

100.7
100.5
100.5
100.3
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.2
98.7
98.1
97.3
96.6

Wages
per
hour.

100.3
100.2
100.8
100.9
97.9
98.3
99.7
99.6
100.3
102.0
105.5
108.0
112.3
116.3

Weekly Weekly
Retail
earnings earnings prices of
per em­ of all em­
food.
ployee. ployees.

101.0
100.7
101.3
101.2
97.7
98.4
99.5
99.2
100.0
101.2
104.1
105.9
109.3
112.3

95.8
98.1
100.4
100.4
91.9
94.8
97.8
100.1
106.3
112.1
120.2
126.1
135.1
141.9

102.4
103.8
101.9
104.4
99.7
97.8
95.5
96.3
98.7
99.5
101.1
105.2
110.9
110.3

Purchasingr
power,
measure<i by retail
prices of food, of—
Hourly
wages

97.9
96.5
98.9
96.6
98.2
100.5
104.4
103.4
101.6
102.5
104.4
102.7
101.3
105.4

Weekly
earnings
per em­
ployee.
98.6
97.0
99.4
96.9
98.0
100.6
104.2
103.0
101.3
101.7
103.0
100.7
98.6
101.8

The per cent of increase or decrease in 1903, the last year of the
period, as compared with the base period 1890-1899, and with each of
the other years covered, is shown in the following table:
PER CENT OF INCREASE ( + ) OR DECREASE ( - ) IN 1903, AS COMPARED WITH PREVIOUS
YEARS, IN EMPLOYEES, HOURS PER WEEK, WAGES PER HOUR, W EEKLY EARNINGS
PER EMPLOYEE AND OF ALL EMPLOYEES, RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, AND PURCHAS­
ING POWER OF HOURLY WAGES AND OF WEEKLY EARNINGS PEIt EMPLOYEE, MEAS­
URED BY RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1903.
Per cent of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years.

Year.

Average 1890-99.
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................

Employ­
ees.

+26.4
+33.2
+29.8
+27.5
+27.4
+34.3
+31.3
+28.6
+25.3
+18.9
+14.1
+ 9.4
+ 6.1
+ 2.3




Hours
per
week.

- 3 .4
- 4 .1
-3 .9
-3 .9
- 3 .7
-3 .2
-3 .5
- 3 .2
-3 .0
-3 .1
-2 .6
-2 .1
-1 .5
- .7

Wages
per
hour.

+16.3
+16.0
+16.1
+15.4
+15.3
+18.8
+18.3
+16.6
+16.8
+ 16.0
+ 14.0
+10.2
+ 7.7
+ 3.6

Weekly Weekly
Retail
earnings earnings prices of
per em­ of all em­
food.
ployee. ployees.

+12.3
+11.2
+11.5
+10.9
+11.0
+14.9
+14.1
+12.9
+13.2
+12.3
+11.0
+ 7.9
+ 6.0
+ 2.7

+41.9
+48.1
+44.6
+41.3
+41.3
+54.4
+49.7
+45.1
+41.8
+33.5
+26.6
+18.1
+12.5
+ 5.0

+10.3
+ 7.7
+ 6.3
+ 8.2
+ 5.7
+10.6
+12.8
+15.5
+14.5
+11.8
+10.9
+ 9.1
+ 4.8
.5

Purchasing
power,
measured by retail
prices of food, of—
Hourly
wages.

+ 5 .4
+ 7.7
+ 9 .2
+ 6 .6
+ 9 .1
+ 7 .3
+ 4 .9
+ 1 .0
+1 .9
+ 3 .7
+ 2 .8
+ 1 .0
+ 2 .6
+ 4 .0

Weekly
earnings
per em­
ployee.
+ 1 .8
+ 3 .2
+ 4 .9
+ 2 .4
+ 5 .1
+ 3 .9
+ 1 .2
-2 .3
-1 .2
+ .5
+ .1
-1 .2
+ 1 .1
+ 3 .2

724

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

RATES OF W A G E S AND HOURS OF LABO R IN THE
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE.
In order that figures might be available, in connection with the
report on wages, for a fair comparison between wages and hours o f
labor in the United States and the important foreign manufacturing
countries, the Bureau, in the fall of 1903, made an investigation o f
wages and hours of labor in a few important and clearly defined occu­
pations in Great Britain, Germany, France, and Belgium. According
to the usual practice of the Bureau, the data were secured by its own
agents from the pay rolls of representative establishments.
Only
thirteen occupations were covered, but these are enough, it is believed,
to show the difference generally between rates of wages and hours of
labor in the United States and in Europe. The wages and hours of
labor in the thirteen occupations are given in the following table;

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE, 1890 TO 1903.
BLACKSMITHS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Year.

1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903

United
Great
States. Britain.
(«)

Ger­
many.

France.

$0.1652
.1650
.1671
.1654
.1674
.1695
.1716
.1740
.1747
.1770
.1724
.1722
.1742
.1740

$0.1175
.1099
.1129
.1101
.1020
.1069
.1136
.1209
.1129
.1173
.1300
.1235
.1228
.1237

$0.1474
.1474
.1474
.1474
.1573
.1573
.1573
.1608
.1617
.1617
.1617
.1617
.1617
.1629

$0.2677
.2681
.2672
.2677
.2611
.2602
.2643
.2604
.2587
.2637
.2685
.2757
.2844
.2962

Bel­
gium.

.........

United
Great
States. Britain.
(a)
59.41
59.20
59.37
59.03
58.68
59.18
58.93
58.96
59.20
58.98
58.87
57.78
57.17
56.65

54.00
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67

Ger­
many.

France.

62.00
67.50
61.94
61.95
61.88
61.38
61.38
59.88
62.50
59.99
60.00
60.00
58.49
59.90

60.34
60.34
60.34
60.34
60.34
60.34
60.34
60.34
60.34
60.34
60.34
60.34
60.34
60.19

BOILER MAKERS.
Wages per hour.
Year.

United
States.

1890.......... $0.2594
.2577
1891..........
1892 .........
.2585
1893..........
.2583
1894..........
.2614
1895..........
.2629
1896..........
.2626
1897..........
.2607
1898..........
.2617
.2654
1899..........
1900..........
.2773
.2794
1901..........
1902..........
.2800
.2848
1903..........

Hours per week.

Ger­
many
Great
Britain. (Berlin
only).

France.

Bel­
gium.

$0.1595
.1603
.1711
.1646
.1636
.1645
.1683
.1677
.1727
.1744
.1736
.1735
.1737
.1719

$0.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1417
.1455
.1455
.1455

$0.0742
.0735
.0735
.0749
.0745
.0746
.0749
.0749
.0749
.0749
.0746
.0751
.0751
.0753

$0.0986
.0881
.0931
.0912
.0892
.0955
.0961
.0937
.1024
.1059
.1091
.1088
.1055
.1123

United
States.

Great
Britain.

59.25
59.23
58.88
58.39
58.83
58.47
58.02
58.11
58.30
58.06
57.36
56.82
56.33
56.24

54.00
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67

Ger­
many France.
(Berlin
only).
64.00
75.00
64.00
64.00
64.00
63.00
63.00
68.00
68.00
64.00
60.00
60.00
57.00
60.00

63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
61.50
61.50
61.50

Bel­
gium.

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

a The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for blacksmiths in the foundry and
machine shop industry.




725

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE, 1890 TO 1903—Continued.
BRICKLAYERS.
Wages per hour.
Year.

Hours per week.

United
States.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France.

Bel­
gium.

1890.......... $0.4316
1891..........
.4365
1892..........
.4431
1893..........
.4436
1894..........
.4325
1895..........;
.4367
.4337
' S ..........
1897..........
.4361
1898..........
.4331
1899..........
.4597
.4672
1900.........
.4912
1901..........
1902..........
.5313
1903..........
.5471

$0.1757
.1791
.1859
.1859
.1892
.1892
.1960
.1994
.1994
.2028
.2028
.1994
.2062
.2062

$0.1103
.1096
.1092
.1094
.1098
.1062
. 1155
.1166
.1236
.1247
.1274
.1303
.1299
.1328

$0.1277
.1277
.1277
.1277
.1277
.1277
.1277
.1325
.1325
.1325
.1325
.1325
.1325
.1325

$0.0700
.0693
.0686
.0687
.0681
.0683
.0670
.0677
.0729
.0731
.0782
.0821
.0820
.0845

United
States.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France.

53.22
52.80
52.19
51.63
51.96
51.56
51.50
51.11
50.47
49.24
49.32
48.62
48.27
47.83

52.67
52.67
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83

59.75
59.75
59.75
69.75
59.75
59.75
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50

63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00

Bel­
gium.
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.-0O
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00

CARPENTERS.
Wages per hour.
Year.

United
States.
(«)

L890......... $0.2713
1891..........
.2730
1892..........
.2825
.2744
1893..........
1894..........
.2693
.2692
1895..........
1896.........
.2740
.2748
1897..........
1898..........
.2790
.2839
1899.........
1900.........
.3049
1901..........
.3190
1902..........
.3403
1903..........
.3594

Hours per week.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France.

Bel­
gium.

$0.1690
.1757
.1791
.1791
.1791
.1825
.1893
.1926
.1926
.1994
.2028
.2028
.2028
.2028

$0.1025
.1042
.1010
.1015
.0998
.1043
.1085
. 1090
.1105
.1188
. 1215
.1250
.1263
.1301

$0.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544
.1544

$0.0713
.0711
.0714
.0722
.0730
.0719
.0737
.0723
.0727
.0728
.0728
.0729
.0728
.0712

United
States.
(a)
55.94
55.56
55.12
55.22
55.27
55.05
54.67
54.20
54.02
63.42
51.86
50.74
49.70
49.41

Great
Britain.
52.67
51.83
51.00
51.00
51.00
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17

Ger­
many.

France.

59.41
59.49
59.28
59.36
59.45
59.26
59.05
56.17
55.89
55.79
55.47
55.37
55.48
55.30

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

Bel­
gium.
64.87
64.93
64.51
64.61
64.54
64.78
64.60
64.68
64.67
64.77
64.65
64.71
64.77
64.73

COMPOSITORS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Year.

Ger­
United
many
Great
States. Britain. (Nurem­ France.
berg
(*)
only).

1890.......... $0.3980
1891..........
.3997
1892..........
.4013
1893..........
.3933
1894..........
.3796
1895..........
.3827
1896.........
.3897
1897.........
.3925
.3934
1898.........
1899.........
.4086
1900.........
.4071
1901..........
.4252
1902..........
.4352
1903..........
.4467

$0.1572
.1651
.1689
.1692
.1693
.1689
.1695
.1697
.1697
.1699
.1699
.1730
.1768
.1795

$0.1065
.1048
.1109
.1141
.1153
.1238
.1215
.1295
.1282
.1294
.1299
.1364
.1369
.1411

$0.1207
.1207
.1207
.1207
.1207
.1207
.1207
.1207
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1303

Bel­
gium.

$0.0788
.0756
.0772
.0762
.0790
.0794
.0796
.0825
.0820
.0825
.0833
.0820
.0907
.0955

Ger­
many
United
Great
States. Britain. (Nurem­ France.
berg
(*>)
only).
53.15
52.62
52.58
53.13
52.75
52.73
52.58
52.47
52.06
51.26
51.09
50.37
49.96
49.81

54.33
52.67
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
52.17
51.67
50.83
50.00

57.40
57.78
57.32
57.10
56.36
53.41
53.60
51.16
51.13
51.47
50.80
50.47
51.21
51.08

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

Bel­
gium.

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00

a The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for carpenters in the building
industry.
ftThe wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for compositors, newspaper.




726

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE, 1890 TO 1903—Continued.
HOD CARRIERS.
Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

United
States.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

Bel­
gium.

1890.......... $0.2259
.2248
1891..........
.2314
1892..........
.2325
1893..........
1894..........
.2303
1895..........
.2320
.2335
1896..........
.2322
1897..........
.2343
1898..........
.2518
1899..........
.2498
1900..........
.2546
1901..........
1902..........
.2676
.2863
1903..........

$0.1217
.1217
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1318
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250

$0.0675
.0689
.0680
.0691
.0680
.0684
.0714
.0712
.0742
.0758
.0807
.0805
.0811
.0849

$0.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965

$0.0471
.0472
.0476
.0479
.0413
.0493
.0460
.0472
.0527
.0532
.0559
.0566
.0431
(a)

Year.

United
States.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

52.78
52.54
51.81
51.64
52.03
51.53
51.45
51.42
51.01
49.79
49.79
49.35
48.56
47.98

62.67
52.67
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83

59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50

66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
63.57
63.71
63.83
64.04
64.46
64.42
63.91

Bel­
gium.
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
(a)

IRON HOLDERS.
Wages per hour.
Year.

United
States.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

1890......... $0.2540
1891..........
.2565
1892..........
.2548
1893..........
.2557
1894..........
.2472
1895..........
.2476
1896..........
.2507
1897..........
.2525
1898..........
.2503
1899..........
.2568
1900..........
.2694
1901..........
.2739
.2894
1902..........
.3036
1903..........

$0.1678
.1678
.1677
.1683
.1680
.1700
.1698
.1756
.1764
.1790
.1790
.1766
.1765
.1787

$0.1009
.1051
.1059
.1024
.0939
.1008
.1072
.1017
.1028
.1102
.1140

$0.1119
.1158
.1079
.1158
.1181
.1204
.1245
.1253
.1239
.1256
.1245
.1255
.1282
.1310

(6)

(a)
(«)
(«)

Hours per week.
Bel­
gium.

(«)
M
M

(a)
(a)
(a)
(aj

$0.0611
.0619
.0608
.0640
.0646
.0659
.0692

United
Great
States. Britain.

Ger­
many.

59.51
59.60
59.49
59.18
59.10
59.29
59.24
59.17
59.34
59.14
59.07
58.47
57.65
56.80

54.00
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
63.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
63.67
63.67

France
(Paris
only).

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
(a)

(*)

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

W

Bel­
gium.

(«)

(a)
(a\

(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

LABORERS, GENERAL.
Wages per hour.
Year.

United
Great
States. Britain.
(«)

1890.......... $0.1507
.1511
1891..........
1892..........
.1519
1893..........
.1493
1894..........
.1419
1895..........
.1440
1896..........
.1415
1897.........
.1445
1898..........
.1466
1899..........
.1457
1900..........
.1461
1901..........
.1585
1902..........
.1644
1903.........
.1676

$0.0948
.0984
.0950
.0954
.0955
.0950
.0958
.0975
.0997
.1015
.1022
.1028
.1052
.1019

Hours per week.

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

Bel­
gium.

$0.0641
.0632
.0629
.0630
.0634
.0640
.0643
.0645
.0676
.0704
.0711
.0763
.0768
.0797

$0.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965
.0965

$0.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0524
.0549
.0549
.0549
.0549

United
Great
States. Britain.
(*)
59.02
59.02
69.02
58.80
58.76
58.88
58.92
58.80
58.44
58.71
58.27
57.98
56.66
56.13

Ger­
many.

54.17
53.33
63.33
53.33
53.33
53.33
53.33
53.33
52.50
52.50
62.50
52.50
52.50
52.50 *

59.98
60.01
60.07
60.06
59.96
60.06
60.29
59.80
59.74
59.62
56.70
56.62
56.68
56.36

France
(Paris
only).
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

Bel­
gium.
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00

a No data obtained.
6 The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for iron molders in the foundry and
machine shop industry.
c The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for laborers in the building industry.




727

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE, 1890 TO 1903-Continued.
MACHINISTS*
Wages per hour.
Year.

1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903

Hours per week.

United
States.
(«)

Ger­
many
Great
Britain. (Berlin France.
only).

50.2413
.2435
.2459
.2450
.2347
.2347
.2397
.2397
.2377
.2417
.2485
.2555
.2646
.2709

50.1534
.1594
.1590
.1585
.1588
.1590
.1607
.1663
.1654
.1685
.1684
.1677
.1691
.1677

50.0973
.1040
.1046
.1027
.1107
.1090
.1057
.1115
.1129

.1110
.1211

.1155
.1141
. 1310

Bel­
gium.

United
States.
(a)
59.52
59.47
69.24
59.03
59.07
59.08
59.01
58.96
59.11
68.72
58.56
57.37
56.56
56.12

50.1256
.1256
.1257
.1270
.1272
.1278
.1279
.1312
.1335
.1325
.1325
.1331
.1310
.1326

Ger­
many
Great
Britain. (Berlin France.
only).
54.00
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67
53.67

64.00
65.00
60.00

68.00

64.00
63.00
63.00
64.00
70.00
64.00
64.00
60.00
57.00
60.00

Bel­
gium.

61.90
61.89
61.89
61.89
61.89
61.88
61.88
61.82
61.83
64.18
64.18
61.50
61.50
61.50

PAINTERS, HOUSE*
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Year.

United
States.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France.

Bel­
gium.

.
1890.......... SO 2680
.2712
1891..........
1892..........
.2747
1893..........
.2795
1894..........
.2737
1895..........
.2720
.2742
1896..........
1897..........
.2778
1898..........
.2827
.2892
1899..........
.3054
1900..........
1901..........
.3170
1902..........
.3303
.3450
1903..........

SO 1554
.
.1605
.1639
.1639
.1639
.1656
.1656
.1689
.1723
.1757
.1757
.1757
.1774
.1774

SO.0934
.0938
.0956
.0965
.0992
.1004

SO.1231
.1231
.1231
.1255
.1313
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255
.1255

Great
United
States. Britain.

Ger­
many.

France.

54.33
54.33
52.67
52.67
52.67
52.67
51.00
51.00
51.00
51.00
51.00
51.00
51.00
51.00

56.50
56.50
56.50
66.50
56.50
56.50
56.25
56.25
56.25
56.25
56.25
56.25
56.25
56.25

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

$0.0603
.0602
.0602
.0604
.0604
.0604
.0583
.0649
.0652
.0653
.0685
.0676
.0652
.0667

.1021

.1041
.1053
.1094
.1147
.1143
.1170
.1194

55.23
54.86
54.43
53.86
54.01
53.87
53.61
53.28
52.79
52.27
50.91
49.85
49.27
48.89

Bel­
gium.

66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00

PLUMBERS.
Hours per week.

Wages per hour.
Year.

United
States.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

1890.......... SO.3464
1891..........
.3488
1892..........
.3511
.3552
1893..........
.3515
1894..........
.3546
1895..........
1896..........
.3505
1897..........
.3598
1898..........
.3638
1899..........
.3684
1900..........
.3811
1901..........
.3935
.4122
1902..........
.4371
1903..........

SO 1757
.
.1757
.1825
.1825
.1825
.1892
.1926
.1960
.1960
.2027
.2027
.2027
.2029
.2027

SO.0946
.0953
.0955
.0955
.0925
.0926
.0908
.0938
.0965
.1004
.1008
.1091
.1083
.1148

SO.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501
.1501

Bel­
gium.
SO.0793
.0779
.0786
.0724
.0738
.0736
.0772
.0772
.0772
.0784
.0800
.0724
.0772
.0784

United
Great
States. Britain.
54.33
54.09
53.86
53.36
53.28
53.08
52.86
52.67
52.53
52.28
51.40
50.77
49.52
48.97

50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
50.00
49.17
49.17
49.17
49.17
49.17
49.17
49.17
49.17

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.70
59.70
56.70
56.70
56.70
56.68

63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63.00
63/00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

Bel­
gium.
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

a The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for machinists in the foundry and
machine shop industry.




728

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN LEADING OCCUPATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES AND IN EUROPE, 1890 TO 1903—Concluded.
STONECUTTERS.
Wages per hour.
Year.

Ger­
United
many
Great
States. Britain. (Nurem­ France.
berg
,(«)
only).

1890.......... $0.3730
1891..........
.3803
1892..........
.3750
1893.........
.3618
1894.........
.3593
1895.........
.3611
1896..........
.3590
.3524
1897..........
1898..........
.3467
.3594
1899..........
1900..........
.3923
1901..........
.3868
1902..........
.3938
.4225
1903..........

$0.1689
.1723
.1791
.1859
.1859
.1859
.1893
.1893
.1960
.1960
.1960
.1960
.1994
.1994

$0.0985
.0978
.1042
.1052
.0992
.1027
.1116
.1129
.1164
.1166
.1104
.1188
.1126
.1177

$0.1400
.1424
.1424
.1424
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448

Hours per week.

Bel­
gium.

$0.0698
.0690
.0662
.0655
.0681
.0724
.0653
.0676
.0668
.0646
.0668
.0674
.0677
.0685

Ger­
United
many
Great (Nurem­
States.
France.
Britain.
(a)
berg
only).
52.73
52.54
52.70
53.12
52.84
62.67
52.77
52.99
53.04
51.70
50.20
49.96
49.67
48.67

51.00
51.00
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17

60.00
60.00
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
54.00

Bel­
gium.

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00
65.00

STONE MASONS.
Wages per hour.
Year.

United
Great
States. Britain.

1890.......... $0.3722
1891.........
.3732
1892..........
.3673
1893..........
.3644
3894.........
.3440
1895..........
.3485
1896..........
.3547
1897.........
.3628
1898..........
.3581
1899..........
.3719
1900.........
.3788
1901..........
.4007
1902..........
.4304
1903..........
.4486

$0.1774
.1808
.1842
.1910
.1910
.1943
.1977
.1977
.2045
.2045
.2045
.2045
.2078
.2078

Hours per week.

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

Bel­
gium.

United
States.

Great
Britain.

Ger­
many.

France
(Paris
only).

$0.1103
.1096
.1092
.1094
.1098
.1062
.1155
.1166
.1236
.1247
.1274
.1303
.1299
.1328

$0.1404
.1404
.1404
.1404
.1404
.1404
.1404
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448
.1448

$0.0700
.0693
.0686
.0687
.0681
.0683
.0670
.0677
.0729
.0731
.0782
.0821
.0820
.0845

54.54
54.51
54.49
54.17
54.34
- 54.05
53.97
53.05
52.43
52.73
51.89
51.23
50.19
49.54

51.00
51.00
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17
50.17

59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
59.75
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50
56.50

66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00

Bel­
gium.

a The wages and hours of labor shown for the United States are for stonecutters, granite.




62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00
62.00

GENERAL TABLES.
WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR.




729




731

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOUES OF LABOE, 1890-1903.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages *715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS.
BLACKSMITHS, Male.
[Data from 15 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ x1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
Num­ tive
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
126 100.0
114 90.5
115 91.3
131 104.0
132 104.8
124 98.4
121 96.0
127 100.8
123 97.6
139 110.3
135 107.1
143 113.5
144 114.3
134 106.3
142 112.7

+16
+28
+27

+12.7
+24.6
+23.5
+ 8.4
+ 7.6
+14.5
+17.4
+ 11.8
+15.4
+ 2.2
+ 5.2
.7
- 1.4
+ 6.0

+11
+ 10

+18

+21

+15
+19
+ 3
+ 7
- 1
- 2
+ 8

59.21
69.69
59.70
59.69
59.67
57.08
59.69
69.69
57.72
59.69
59.46
59.50
69.46
59.45
58.74

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—Jin
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.

100.0
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8
96.4

100.8
100.8

97.5

100.8

100.4
100.5
100.4
100.4
99.2

-0 .4 7
- .95
- .96
- .95
- .93
+ 1.66
- .95
- .95
+ 1.02
- .95
- .72
- .76
- .72
- .71

- 0.8 $0.2257 100.0 +$0.0107
- 1.6 .2222 98.4 + .0142
- 1.6 .2287 101.3 + .0077
.0020
- 1.6 .2384 105.6 .0241
- 1.6 .2605 115.4 + 2 .9 .2257 100.0 + .0107
- 1.6 .2051 90.9 + .0313
- 1.6 .2154 95.4 + .0210
+ 1.8 .2163 95.8 f .0201
- 1.6 .2296 101.7 + .0068
- 1.2 .2149 95.2 + .0215
- 1 . 3 .2177 96.5 + .0187
- 1.2 .2150 95.3 + .0214
- 1.2 .2262 100.2 + .0102
.2364 104.7

+ 4.7
+ 6.4
+ 3.4
.8
- 9.3
+ 4.7
+15.3
+ 9.7
+ 9.3
+ 3.0
+ 10.0
+ 8.6
+ 10.0
+ 4.6

FITTERS, PLOW, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

111.1

88.9
88.9
88.9
77.8

54.00 100.0
- 10.0 54.00 100.0
+12.5 54.00 100.0
+ 1 2.5 54.00 100.0
54.00 100.0
54.00
+12.5 54.00 100.0
+28.6 54.00 100.0
54.00 100.0
-1 8 .2 54.00 100.0
- 10.0 54.00 100.0
- 10.0 54.00
-1 8 .2 54.00 100.0
- 10.0 54.00 100.0
54.00 100.0

-1
+1
+1
+1
+2

100.0
122.2
111.1
111.1
122.2
111.1
100.0

100.0

-2
-1
-1
-2
-1

100.0

$0.1820
+$0.0633
.1688
+ .0765
.1644
+ .0809
.1794
+ .0659
.1820
+ .0633
.1832 100.7 + .0621
.1870 102.7 + .0583
+ .0241
.1700
+ .0753
.1754 96.4 + .0699
.1890 103.8 + .0563
.1859 102.1 + .0594
.2358 129.6 + .0095
.0010
.2463 135.3
.2453 134.8

+34.8
+45.3
+49.2
+36.7
+34.8
+ 33.9
+31.2
+10.9
+44.3
+39.9
+29.8
+32.0
+ 4.0
.4

100.0 +$0.0410

+23.0
+45.0
+23.8
+44.9
+54.9

.2212

GRINDERS, PLOW, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
+ 1

Av. 1890-99
100.0
1890
..................... .....................
47.1
1891
..................... .....................
70.6
1892
.....................
82.4
- 2
1893
.....................
105.9
- 6
1894
.....................
94.1
- 4
1895
..................... .....................
105.9
- 6
1896
..................... .....................
94.1
- 4
1897
..................... .
94.1
— 4
1898
..................... .....................
-1 6
164.7
1899
..................... .....................
158.8
-1 5
1900
..................... .....................
176.5
-1 8
1901
..................... .....................
147.1
-1 3
1902
..................... .....................
70.6
1903
..................... .....................
70.6

- 2 9 .4 54.00
+ 50.0 54.00
54.00
-1 4 .3 54.00
-3 3 .3 54.00
-2 5 .0 54.00
-3 3 .3 64.00
-2 5 .0 64.00
-2 5 .0 54.00
-5 7 .1 54.00
-5 5 .6 54.00
-6 0 .0 54.00
-5 2 .0 54.00
54.00
54.00

10092—No. 53—04---- 3



100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

$0.1780
.1510
.1769
.1511
.1414
.1794
.1765
.1920
.2151
.2012
.1950
.2038
.1879
.1930
.2190

84.8
99.4
84.9
79.4

100.8
99.2
107.9

120.8

113.0
109.6
114.5
105.6
108.4
123.0

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

.0680
.0421
.0679
.0776
.0396
.0425
.0270
.0039
.0178
.0240
.0152
.0311
.0260

+ 22.1

+24.1
+14.1
+ 1.8
+ 8.8
+12.3
+ 7.5
+16.6
+13.5

732

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able 1 .—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=160.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

AGRIOUX iT UHA 3 j IM P L E M E N T S—Continued.
MACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male.
[Data from 11 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1-897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) In
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
age. tive.
num­ number.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
128 100.0
119 93.0
115 89.8
122 95.3
142 110.9
111 86.7
126 98.4
116 90.6
117 91.4
144 112.5
165 128.9
164 128.1
162 126.6
167 130.5
194 151.6

+66

+75
+79
+72
+52
+83

+68

+78
+77
+50
+29
+30
+32
+27

+51.6
+63.0
+68.7
+59.0
+36.6
+74.8
+54.0
+67.2
+65.8
+34.7
+17.6
+18.3
+19.8
+16.2

59.47
59.67
59.57
59.57
59.61
59.54
59.60
59.56
58.44
59.62
59.50
59.55
59.54
59.60
59.31

100.0

100.3

100.2
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.2

98.3
100.3

100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2

- 0 . 3 10.1852 100.0 +30.0165
- .6 .1880 101.5 + .0137
- .4 .1904 102.8 + .0113
- .4 .1886 101.8 + .0131
- .5 .1942 104.9 + .0075
- .4 .1837 99.2 + .0180
- .5 .1781 96.2 + .0236
- .4 .1786 96.4 + .0231
+ 1 .5 .1835 99.1 + .0182
- .5 .1846 99.7 + .0171
- .3 .1820 98.3 + .0197
- .4 .1927 104.0 + .0090
- .4 .1923 103.8 + .0094
.0035
- .5 .2052 110.8 .2017 108.9

-0 .1 6
- .36
- .26
- .26
— .30
- .23
- .29
- .25
+ .87
- .31
— .19
— .24
- .23
- .29

99.7

+ 8.9
+ 7.3
+ 5.9
+ 6.9
+ 3.9
+ 9.8
+13.3
+12.9
+ 9.9
+ 9.3
+ 10.8
+ 4.7
+ 4.9
- 1.7

MACHINISTS, Male.
[Data from 15 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892..............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

339
332
335
334
363
318
319
339
311
358
383
420
436
422
497

100.0

97.9
98.8
98.5
107.1
93.8
94.1

100.0

91.7 '
105.6
113.0
123.9
128.6
124.5
146.6

+158
+165
+162
+163
+134
+179
+178
+158
+186
+139
+114
+ 77
+ 61
+ 75

+46.6
+49.7
+48.4
+48.8
+36.9
+56.3
+55.8
+46.6
+59.8
+38.8
+29.8
+18.3
+14.0
+17.8

59.55
59.83
59.81
59.80
59.81
58.22
69.82
59.79
59.03
59.80
59.63
59.59
59.61
59.56
58.25

100.0

100.5
100.4
100.4
100.4
97.8
100.5
100.4
99.1
100.4

100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0

-1 .3 0
—1.58
-1 .5 6
-1 .5 5
-1 .5 6
+ .03
-1 .5 7
-1 .5 4
- .78
-1 .5 5
-1 .3 8
-1 .3 4
-1 .3 6
-1 .3 1

97.8

- 2.2 SO 2305
.
- 2.6 .2313
- 2.6 .2354
- 2.6 .2397
- 2.6 .2458
+ .1 .2179
- 2.6 .2159
- 2.6 .2222
- 1 .3
.2226
- 2.6 .2334
.2412
-2 .3
' - 2.2 .2448
- 2 .3
.2416
- 2.2 .2483
.2580

100.0 +S0.0275
100.3 + .0267
102.1 + .0226
104.0 + .0183
106.6 + .0122
94.5 + .0401
93.7 + .0421
96.4 + .0358
96.6 + .0354
101.3 + .0246
104.6 + .0168
106.2 + .0132
104.8 + .0164
107.7 + .0097
111.9

+11.9
+11.5
+ 9.6
+ 7.6
+ 5.0
+18.4
+19.5
+16.1
+15.9
+10.5
+ 7.0
+ 5.4
+ 6.8
+ 3.9

HOLDERS, IRON, Male.
[Data from 9 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896_______
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900..............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

198
171
176
206
216
173
189
180
182
532
253
263
251
241
280

100.0

86.4
88.9
104.0
109.1
87.4
95.5
90.9
91.9
117.2
127.8
132.8
126.8
121.7
141.4




4- 82
+109
+104
+ 74
+ 64
+107
+ 91
+100

+
+
+
+
+
+

98
48
27
17
29
39

+41.4
+63.7
+59.1
+35.9
+29.6
+61.8
+48.1
+55.6
+53.8
+20.7
+10.7
+ 6.5
+ 11.6
+16.2

59.11
59.66
69.67
59.70
59.65
58.55
59.53
58.09
57.35
59.34
59.54
59.62
59.61
69.56
59.16

100.0
100.9
300.9

101.0

100.9
99.1
100.7
98.3
97.0
100.4
100.7
100.9

100.8
100.8
100.1

+0.05
- .50
— .51
- .54
- .49
+ .61
- .37
+1.07
+1.81
- .18
- .38
- .46
- .45
- .40

.
+ 0.1 SO 2615 100.0
- .8 .2676 102.3
.2709 103.6
- .9
- .9 .2779 106.3
- .8 .2822 107.9
+ 1.0 .2510 • 96.0
- .6 .2441 93.3
+ 1.8 .2566 98.1
+ 3 .2 .2457 94.0
- .3 .2530 96.7
- .6 .2658 101.6
- .8 .2856 109.2
— .8 .2839 108.6
- .7 .3132 119.8
.3149 120.4

+S0.0534
+ .0473
+ .0440
+ .0370
+ .0327
+ .0639
+ .0708
+ .0583
+ .0692
+ .0619
+ .0491
+ .0293
+ .0310
+ .0017

+20.4
+17.7
+16.2
+13.3
+ 11.6
+25.5
+29.0
+22.7
+28.2
+24.5
+18.5
+10.3
+10.9
+ .6

733

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS--Concluded.
PAINTERS, Male*
[Data for employees from 12 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 12
establishments, 1890-1894; 13 establishments, 1895-1903.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898..........
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) i n
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
119 100.0
104 87.4
109 91.6
107 89.9
111 93.3
135 113.4

120 100.8
121 101.7
117
140
123
116
151
150
144

98.3
117.6
103.4
97.5
126.9
126.1

121.0

+25
+40
+35
+37
+33
+ 9
+24
+23
+27
+ 4

+ 21

+28
- 7
- 6

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+ 21.0
+38.5
+32.1
+34.6
+29.7
+ 6.7
+ 20.0
+19.0
+23.1
+ 2.9
+17.1
+24.1
- 4.0
- 4.0

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Amount cent.
ber.
cent.
59.55
59.50
59.49
59.58
59.63
59.64
59.54
59.43
59.44
59.62
59.58
59.57
59.63
59.64
59.56

100.0

99.9
09.9

100.1
100.1
100.2
100.0

99.8
99.8

100.1
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.2
100.0

+ 0.01
+ .06
+ .07
- .02
— .07
- .08
+ .02
+ .13
+ .12
— .06
— .02
- .01
- .07
- .08

+ 0.02 $0.1893
.1848
+ .1
.2060
+ »1
- .03 .2016
.1980
- .1
.1737
- .1
+ .03 .1838
.1882
+ .2
.1852
+ .2
.1823
- .1
- .03 .1891
- .02 .2074
.2034
- .1
.2086
- .1
.2287

100.0 +80.0394
97.6
108.8
106.5
104.6
91.8
97.1
99.4
97.8
96.3

120.8

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

.0439
.0227
.0271
.0307
.0550
.0449
.0405
.0435
.0464
.0396
.0213
.0253

.0201

+ 20.8
+23.8

+ 11.0

+13.4
+15.5
+31.7
+24.4
+21.5
+23.5
+ 25.5
+20.9
+10.3
+12.4
+ 9.6

PATTERN IHLAKEBS, Male.
[Data from 13 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1-901.............
1902.............
1903.............

42
32
36
41
46
39
44
42
41
49
48
08
05
57
65

100 0
76.2
85.7
97.6
109.5
92.9
104.8

100.0

97.6
116.7
114.3
161.9
154.8
135.7
154.8

+23
+33
+29
+24
+19
+26

+ 21

+23
+24

+10
+17
- 3
+ 8

59.70
69.78
59.78
59.71
59.72
59.77
59.70
69.62
59.68
59.61
59.65
59.66
59.63
+ 14.0 59.70
58.88

+ 54.8
+103.1
+ 80.0
+ 58.5
+ 41.3
+ 66.7
+ 47.7
+ 54.8
+ 68.5
+ 32.7
+ 35.4
4.4

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0

99.9

100.0

99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9

100.0

—0.82
- .90
- .90
- .83
- .84
- .89
- .82
- .74
- .80
- .73
- .77
- .78
- .75
- .82

98.6

- 1 . 4 $0.2378
- 1 . 5 .2363
- 1 .5
.2340
.2490
-1 .4
.2411
- 1 .4
.2270
-1 .5
.2333
- 1 .4
- 1.2 .2404
- 1 . 3 .2316
- 1.2 .2454
.2401
- 1 .3
.2473
- 1 .3
.2512
-1 .3
-1 .4
.2609
.2682

100.0 +$0.0304
09.4 +
98.4 +
104.7 +
101.4 +
95.5 +
98.1 +
101.1 +
97.4 +
103.2 +
101.0 +
104.0 +
105.6 +
109.7 +

112.8

.0319
.0342
.0192
.0271
.0412
.0349
.0278
.0366
.0228
.0281
.0209
.0170
.0073

+ 12.8
+13.5
+14.6
+ 7.7
+ 11.2
+18.1
+15.0
+ 11.6
+15.7
+ 9.3
+ K .7
+ 8.5
+ 6.8
+ 2.8

r_ ^
_

BAKERY, BREAD.
BAKERS, FIRST RANDS. Male.
[Data from 103 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902
.
1903 . . . .

182
173
172
176
177
181
183
185
186
191
196
197
208
214
217

100.0

95.1
94.5
96.7
97.3
99.5
100.5

101.6
102.2

104.9
107.7
108.2
114.3
117.6
119.2




+35
+44
+45
+41
+40
+36
+34
+32
+31
+26

+ 21
+20

+ 9
+ 3

+ 1 9 .2
+25.4
+26.2
+23.3
+ 22.6
+19.9
+18.6
+17.3
+16.7
+13.6
+10.7
+ 10.2
+ 4.3
+ 1.4

65.73
66.18
66.25
66.24
66.16
65.81
65.68
65.66
65.56
65.22
64.55
63.61
63.24
62.94
62.02

100.0
100.7

100.8
100.8

100.7

100.1

99.9
99.9
99.7
99.2
98.2
96.8
96.2
95.8
94.4

-3 .7 1
-4 .1 6
-4 .2 3
-4 .2 2
-4 .1 4
-3 .7 9
-3 .6 6
-3 .6 4
-3 .5 4
-3 .2 0
-2 .5 3
-1 .5 9
- 1.22
- .92

- 5 . 0 $0.2418
—6.3 .2397
.2402
- 6 .4
- 6 .4
.2408
.2440
-6 .3
.2372
-5 .8
.2388
-5 .6
.2395
-5 .5
.2414
-5 .4
.2447
-4 .9
.2515
- 3 .9
.2591
-2 .5
.2650
-1 .9
.2721
-1 .5
.2808

100.0 +$0.0390
99.1
99.3
99.6
100.9
98.1
98.8
09.0
99.8

101.2

104.0
107.2
109.0
112.5
116.1

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

.0411
.0406
.0400
.0368
.0436
.0420
.0413
.0394
.0361
.0293
.0217
.0158
.0087

+16.1
+17.1
+16.9
+16.6
+15.1
+18.4
+17.6
+17.2
+16.3
+14.8
+11.7
+ 8.4
+ 6.0
+ 3.2

734

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BAKERY, BREAD—Concluded.
BAKERS, SECOND HANDS, Male.
[Data from 103 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—)in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num- num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Num­
Per
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
329
305
308
309
313
322
326
333
338
361
374
391
401
445
424

100.0
92.7
93.6
93.9
95.1
97.9
99.1

101.2

102.7
109.7
113.7
118.8
121.9
135.3
128.9

+ 95
+119
+116
+115

+ 111
+102

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-

98
91

86

63
50
33
23

21

+28.9
+39.0
+37.7
+37.2
+35.5
+31.7
+30.1
+27.3
+25.4
+ 17.5
+13.4
+ 8.4
+ 5.7
- 4.7

67.00 100.0
66.84 99.8
66.87 99.8
67.00 100.0
66.93 99.9
66.55 99.3
66.65 99.5
66.62 99.4
68.58 102.4

68.21 101.8
65.78
64.79
64.96
64.56
62.92

98.2
96.7
97.0
96.4
93.9

-4 .0 8
-3 .9 2
-3 .9 5
-4 .0 8
-4 .0 1
-3 .6 3
-3 .7 3
- 3 .7 0
-5 .6 6
-5 .2 9
- 2.86
-1 .8 7
-2 .0 4
-1 .6 4

- 6.1 30.1846 100.0 +30.0332
- 5 . 9 .1823 98.8 + .0355
-5 .9
.1829 99.1 + ,0349
- 6.1 .1839 99.6 + .0339
- 6.0 .1820 98.6 + .0358
-5 .5
.1823 98.8 + .0355
- 5 . 6 .1821 98.6 + .0357
.1842 99.8 + .0336
-5 .6
.1850 100.2 + .0328
-8 .3
.1913 103.6 + .0265
-7 .8
-4 .3
.1899 102.9 + .0279
-2 .9
.1966 106.5 + .0212
-3 .1
.2010 108.9 + .0168
-2 .5
.2101 113.8 + .0077
.2178 118.0

+18.0
+19.5
+19.1
+18.4
+ 19.7
+ 19.5
+19.6
+18.2
+17.7
+13.9
+14.7
+ 10.8
+ 8.4
+ 3.7

BAKERS, THIRD HANDS, Male.
[Data from 63 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

188
176
181
182
178
184
193
196
193
196

201

214
240
260
297

100.0

93.6
96.3
96.8
94.7
97.9
102.7
104.3
102.7
104.3
10C. 9
113.8
127.7
138.3
158.0

+109

+121

+116
+115
+119
+113
+104

+101

+104

+ 101
+
+
+
+

96
83
57
37

+58.0
+ 68.8
+64.1
+63.2
+66.9
+61.4
+53.9
+51.5
+53.9
+51.5
+47.8
+38.8
+23.8
+14.2

65.00
65.26
65.64
05.95
G5.22
65.56
64.66
64.58
64.93
64.77
63.38
62.80
61.83
61.51
59.67

100.0

100.4

101.0

101.5
100.3
100.9
99.5
99.4
99.9
99.6
97.5
96.6
95.1
94.6
91.8

-5 .3 3
-5 .5 9
-5 .9 7
-6 .2 8
- 5 .5 5
-5 .8 9
-4 .9 9
-4 .9 1
-5 .2 6
-5 .1 0
-3 .7 1
-3 .1 3
-2 .1 6
-1 .8 4

-8.230.1592
- 8.6 .1585
- 9 .1
.1595
.1593
-9 .5
.1607
-8 .5
- 9 .0
.1567
.1578
- 7 .7
- 7 .6
.1586
-8 .3
.1573
- 7 . 9 .1592
-5 .9
.1639
-5 .0
.1760
- 3 .5
.1797
- 3 . 0 .1915
.2089

100.0 +80.0497

.0504
.0494
.0496
.0482
.0522
.0511
.0503
.0516
.0497
.0450
.0329
.0292
.0174

+31.2
+31.8
+31.0
+31.1
+30.0
+33.3
+32.4
+31.7
+32.8
+31.2
+27.5
+18.7
+16.2
+ 9.1

100.0 +80.0223
99.3 + .0239
100.3 + .0217
101.3 + .0193
102.1 + .0175
97.9 4- .0270
97.8 + .0273
99.4 + .0236
100.0 + .0222
100.0 + .0224
102.0 + .0177
101.7 + .0184
103.2 + .0150
108.5 + .0030
109.9

+ 9.9
+ 10.6
+ 9.6
+ 8.4
+ 7.6
+ 12.2
+ 12.3
+10.5
+ 9.8
+ 9.9
+ 7.7
+ 8.0
+ 6.4
+ 1.2

99.6 +

100.2 +
100.1 +

100.9
98.4
99.1
99.6
98.8

100.0

103.0

110.6

112.9
120.3
131.2

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

BAKERS, N. S., Male.
[Data from 20 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

477
440
450
463
464
448
471
485
492
525
531
550
574
624
616

100.0

92.2
94.3
97.1
97.3
93.9
98.7
101.7
103.1

110.1
111.8

115.3
120.3
130.8
129.1




+140
+176
+166
+153
+152
+168
+145
+131
+124
+ 91
+ 85
+ 66
+ 42
8

+29.1
+40.0
+36.9
+33.0
+ 32.8
+37.5
+30.8
+27.0
+25.2
+17.3
+16.0
+ 12.0
+ 7.3
- 1.8

63.23
64.62
63.92
63.92
63.80
63.91
63.50
62.77
62.39
62.18
61.27
61.35
61.00
60.81
60.25

100.0
102.2
101.1
101.1

100.9

101.1

100.4
99.3
98.7
98.3
96.9
97.0
96.5
96.2
95.3

-2 .9 8
-4 .3 7
-3 .6 7
-3 .6 7
-3 .5 5
-3 .6 6
-3 .2 5
-2 .5 2
-2 .1 4
-1 .9 3
- 1.02
- 1.10
- .75
- .56

-4.780.2261
- 6.8 .2245
.2267
- 5 .7
.2291
- 5 .7
- 5 . 6 .2309
.2214
- 5 .7
.2211
-5 .1
- 4 . 0 ,2248
.2262
-3 .4
.2260
-3 .1
.2307
- 1 .7
- 1.8 .2300
- 1.2 ,2334
- .9 .2454
.2484

735

WAGES AND COST OF H YIN G ,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

BEACKSMITHING A N D HORSESHOEING.
BLACKSMITHS, male.
[Data from 59 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
142
142
146
146
147
134
135
144
138
146
145
150
155
153
153

100.0
100.0
102.8
102.8

+11
+11

+ 7
+ 7
+ 6
+19
+18
+ 9
+15
+ 7
+ 8
+ 8
- 2

103.5
94.4
95.1
101.4
97.2

102.8
102.1

105.6
109.2
107.7
107.7

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+ 7.7
+ 7.7
+ 4.8
+ 4.8
+ 4.1
+14.2
+13.3
+ 6.3
+10.9
+ 4.8
+ 5.5
+ 2.0
- 1.3

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

59.24
59.35
59.34
59.24
59.20
59.21
59.23
59.17
59.22
59.18
59.28
58.89
58.83
58.21
57.98

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.9

100.0

99.9

100.0

99.9

100.1

99.4
99.3
98.3
97.9

-1 .2 6
-1 .3 7
-1 .3 6
-1 .2 6
- 1.22
-1 .2 3
-1 .2 5
-1 .1 9
—1.24
- 1.20
-1 .3 0
— .91
- .85
- .23

- 2.1 $0.2474 100.0 +$0.0244
.2477 100.1 + .0241
-2 .3
.2481 100.3 + .0237
- 2 .3
- 2.1 .2499 101.0 + .0219
- 2.1 .2491 100.7 + .0227
- 2.1 .2439 98.6 + .0279
- 2.1 .2430 98.2 + .0288
- 2.0 .2438 98.5 + .0280
- 2.1 .2472 99.9 + .0246
- 2.0 .2500 101.1 + .0218
- 2.2 .2511 101.5 + .0207
.2537 102.5 + .0181
-1 .5
- 1 .4
.2576 104.1 + .0142
— .4 .2663 107.6 + .0055
.2718 109.9,

+ 9.7
+ 9.7
+ 9.6
+ 8.8
+ 9.1
+ 11.4
+11.9
+11.5
+ 10.0
+ 8.7
+ 8.2
+ 7.1
+ 5.5
+ 2 .1

HOilSESHOERS, FITTERS, Male.
[Data from 33 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901
___
1902.............
1903
___

70 100.0
97.1
94.3
70 100.0
70 100.0
72 102.9
70 100.0
71 101.4
71 101.4
72 102.9
71 101.4
71 101.4
75 107.1
71 101.4
75 107.1

+5
+7
+9
+5
+5
+3
+5
+4
+4
+3
+4
+4

68
66

+4

57.61
58.81
58.95
58.84
57.31
57.14
57.06
57.00
56.93
56.97
57.04
56.77
56.51
+ 5.6 56.37
56.07
+ 7.1
+10.3
+13.6
+ 7.1
+ 7.1
+ 4.2
+ 7.1
+ 5.6
+ 5.6
+ 4.2
+ 5.6
+ 5.6

100.0
102.1

102.3

102.1

99.5
99.2
99.0
98.9
98.8
98.9
99.0
98.5
98.1
97.8
97.3

-1 .5 4
-2 .7 4
- 2.88
-2 .7 7
-1 .2 4
-1 .0 7
- .99
- .93
- .86
- .90
- .97
- .70
- .44
- .30

- 2 . 7 $0.3035 100.0 + $ 0.0200
.2944 97.0 + .0291
- 4 .7
.2934 96.7 + .0301
- 4 .9
- 4 .7
.2956 97.4 + .0279
- 2.2 .3029 99.8 + .0206
.3040 100.2 + .0195
- 1 .9
.3041 100.2 + .0194
- 1 .7
- 1.6 .3083 101.6 + .0152
.3115 102.6 + .0120
- 1 .5
- 1.6 .3114 102.6 + .0121
- 1 .7
.3089 101.8 + .0146
- 1.2 .3129 103.1 + .0106
- .8 .3184 104.9 + .0051
- .5 .3161 104.2 + .0074
.3235 106.6

+ 6.6
+ 9.9
+ 1 0 .3
+ 9.4
+ 6.8
+ 6.4
+ 6.4
+ 4.9
+ 3.9
+ 3.9
+ 4.7
+ 3.4
+ 1.6
+ 2.3

HORSESHOERS, FLOOR MEN, Male.
[Data from 109 establishments.]
Av. 1890*99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902
.
1903
.

264
279
269
273
267
265
255
258
252
261
263
268
270
265
264

100.0

105.7
101.9
103.4

101.1

100.4
96.6
97.7
95.5
98.9
99.6
101.5
102.3
100.4

100.0




-1 5
- 5
- 9
- 3
- 1
+ 9
+ 6

+12
+
+
—
-

3

1

4

6
1

- 5 .4
-1 .9
-3 .3
- 1.1
- .4
+ 3 .5
+ 2 .3
+ 4 .8
+ 1.1
+ .4
-1 .5
- 2.2
- .4

57.97
59.11
59.10
59.09
58.43
57.59
57.53
57.48
57.33
57.13
56.91
56.61
56.08
55.68
55.42

100.0
102.0

101.9
101.9

100.8

99.3
99.2
99.2
98.9
98.6
98.2
97.7
96.7
96.0
95.6

-2 .5 5
-3 .6 9
-3 .6 8
-3 .6 7
-3 .0 1
-2 .1 7
- 2.11
-2 .0 6
-1 .9 1
-1 .7 1
-1 .4 9
-1 .1 9
- .66
- .26

- 4 . 4 $0.2491 100.0
- 6.2 .2443 98.1 +
- 6.2 .2430 97.6 +
- 6.2 .2436 97.8 +
- 5 .2
.2452 98.4 +
.2519 101.1 +
-3 .8
.2488 99.9 +
-3 .7
.2504 100.5 +
- 3 .6
.2519 101.1 +
- 3 .3
.2549 102.3 +
-3 .0
- 2.6 .2569 103.1 +
- 2.1 .2612 104.9 +
- 1.2 .2655 106.6 +
- .5 .2686 107.8 +
.2825 113.4

0334
.0381
.0394
.0388
.0372
.0305
.0336
.0320
.0305
.0275
.0255

.0212

.0169
.0138

+13.4
+15.6
+16.2
+15.9
+15.2
+ 12.1
+13.5
+ 12.8
+ 12.1
+ 10.8
+ 9.9
+ 8.1
+ 6.4
+ 5.1

736

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

Table I .— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BBACKSMITHING A N D HORSESHOEING—Concluded.
HORSESHOERS, E4>RGEIIEN, Male.
[Data from 69 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890..............
1891.............
1892.............
1893..............
1894..............
1 8 9 5 ... ... ..
1896.............
1897..............
1898..............
1899..............
1900.............
1901..............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + )or
Increase ( + ) o r
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.
140
144
144
143
141
139
137
138
136
140
139
136
139
137
135

100.0

-5
-9
-9

102.9
102.9

102.1

-8
-6

100.7
99.3
97.9
98.6
97.1

-4

-2
-3

-1

100.0

-5
-4

99.3
97.1
99.3
37.0
96.4

-1

-4

—2

-3 .6
- 6.2
- 6.2
-5 .6
-4 .3
-2 .9
-1 .5
- 2.2
- .7
-3 .6
-2 .9
- .7
-2 .9
- 1 .5

58.61
59.35
59.27
59.27
59.15
58.63
58.49
58.41
58.20
57.94
57.35
56.82
56.60
55.96
55.61

100.0

101.3

101.1
101.1

100.9

100.0

99.8
99.7
99.3
98.9
97.9
96.9
96.6
95.5
94.9

-3 .0 0
-3 .7 4
-3 .6 6
-3 .6 6
-3 .5 4
-3 .0 2
- 2.88
-2 .8 0
-2 .5 9
-2 .3 3
-1 .7 4
- 1.21
- .99
- .35

- 5 . 1 $0.2853 100.0 +$0.0423
.2814 98.6 + .0462
-6 .3
- 6.2 .2811 98.5 + .0465
- 6.2 .2811 98.5 + .0465
- 6.0 .2793 97.9 + .0483
- 5 .2
.2805 98.3 + .0471
.2819 98.8 + .0457
-4 .9
.2856 100.1 + .0420
-4 .8
-4 .5
.2886 101.2 + .0390
- 4 .0
.2940 103.0 + .0336
-3 .0
.2991 104.8 + .0285
- 2.1 .3078 107.9 + .0198
- 1 .7
.3133 109.8 + .0143
- .6 .3185 111.6 + .0091
.3276 114.8

+14.8
+ 16.4
+16.5
+ 16.5
+17.3
+ 16.8
+ 1 6.2
+ 1 4 .7
+13.5
+ 1 1 .4
+ 9.5
+ 6 .4
+ 4.6
+ 2.9

HOR8ESHOERS, N. S., Male.
[Data from 62 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894..............
1895..............
1896___ . . . .
1897.............
1898..............
1899.............
1900..............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

122 100.0

126 103.3
125 102.5
127 104.1

122 100.0

118
114
115

120

123
127
130
131

96.7
93.4
94.3
98.4

100.8

104.1
106.6
107.4

122 100.0
120 98.4

—
+
+
+
-

2
6

5
7

2
2
6

5
3
7

-10
-1 1
- 2

- 1.6
-4 .8
-4 .0
-5 .5
- 1.6
+ 1 .7
+ 5 .3
+ 4 .3
-2 .4
- 5 .5
-7 .7
- 8 .4
- 1.6

59.33
59.35
59.36
59.37
59.34
59.32
59.30
59.30
69.33
59.38
59.28
58.92
57.97
57.82
57.21

100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9

100 0
100.1
99.9
99.3
97.7
97.5
96.4

- 2.12
-2 .1 4
-2 .1 5
-2 .1 6
-2 .1 3
- 2.11
-2 .0 9
-2 .0 9
—2.12
- 2 ! 17
-2 .0 7
-1 .7 1
- .76
- .61

- 3 . 6 $0.2541
- 3 .6
.2563
.2554
- 3 .6
- 3 .6
.2528
- 3 .6
.2521
- 3 .6
.2475
-3 .5
.2500
-3 .5
.2515
—3 6 .2534
- 3 ] 7 !2595
- 3 .5
.2624
-2 .9
.2640
-1 .3
.2734
- 1.1 .2846
.2953

100.0 + $ 0 .0412
100.9 + .0390
100.5 + .0399
99.5 + .0425
99.2 + .0432
97.4 + .0478
98.4 + .0453
99.0 + .0438
99.7 r .0419
102! 1 + 10358
103.3 + .0329
103.9 + .0313
107.6 + .0219
112.0 + .0107
116.2

+16.2
+15.2
+15.-6
+16.8
+17.1
+19.8
+18.1
+17.4
+ 16.5
+13! 8
+ 12.5
+11.9
+ 8.0
+ 3.8

BOOTS A N D SHOES.
CLOSERS-ON, Fem ale.
[Data for employees from 15 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 15
establishments, 1890; 17 establishments, 1891,1892; 18 establishments, 1893; 20 establishments, 1894;
24 establishments, 1895; 25 establishments, 1896; 26 establishments, 1897; 28 establishments, 1898; 32
establishments, 1899; 33 establishments, 1900,1901; 34 establishments, 1902,1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895 .............
1896............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

71
62
59
62
64
77
71
79
81
76
83
79
83
81
92

100.0

87.3
83.1
87.3
90.1
108.5

100.0

111.3
114.1
107.0
116.9
111.3
116.9
114.4
129.6




+21

+30
+33
+30
+28
+15

+21

+13

+11

+16
+ 9
+13
+ 9

+ 11

+29.6
+48.4
+55.9
+48.4
+43.8
+19.5
+29.6
+16.5
+13.6
+ 21.1
+ 10.8
+16.5
+ 10.8
+13.6

57.23
57.42
57.51
57.19
57.28
57.31
57.01
57.04
57.05
57.45
57.03
56.95
56.83
56.90
56.57

100.0
100.3
1C3.5
99.9

100.1
100.1

99.6
99.7
99.7
100.4
99.7
99.5
99.3
99.4
98.8

- 0.66
- .85
- .94
- .62
- .71
- .74
- .44
- .47
- .48
- .88
- .46
- .38
- .26
- .33

- 1.2 $0.1644
- 1 .5
.1491
- 1.6 .1592
- 1.1
.1616
- 1.2 .1650
.1704
-1 .3
- .8 .1618
- .8 .1699
- .8 .1729
-1 .5
.1646
- .8 .1692
- .7 .1683
- .5 .1734
- .6 .1700
.1782

100.0 +$0.0138
90.7
96.8
98.3
100.4
103.6
98.4
103.3
105.2

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
100.1 +
102.9 +
102.4 +
105.5 +
103.4 +
108.4

.0291
.0190
.0166
.0132
.0078
.0164
.0083
.0053
.0136
.0090
.0099
.0048
.0082

+ 8.4
+19.5
+ 11.9
+10.3
+ 8.0
+ 4.6
+ 10.1
+ 4.9
+ 3.1
+ 8.3
+ 5.3
+ 5.9
+ 2.8
+ 4.8

737

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BOOTS A N D SHOES—Continued.
CUTTERS, OUTSOLG, Male.
[Data for employees from 26 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 26
establishments, 1890; 27 establishments,*1891; 28 establishments, 1892; 29 establishments, 1893,1894;
30 establishments, 1895,1896; 31 establishments, 1897; 32 establishments, 1898,1899; 33 establishments,
1900-1903.]

Y
rear.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase (+ )o r
decrease(-)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
Num­ tive
specified.
ber. numnum­
oer.
ber.
Num.
Per
ber.
cent.
115 100.0
102 88.7
109 94.8
112 97.4
113 98.3
101 87.8
108 93.9
120 104.3
135 117.4
124 107.8
130 113.0
132 114.8
140 121.7
144 125.2
161 140.0

+46
+59
+52
+49
+48
+60
+53
+41
+26
+37
+31
+29

+21

+17

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+40.0
+57.8
+47.7
+43.8
+42.5
+59.4
+49.1
+34.2
+19.3
+29.8
+23.8
+ 22.0
+15.0
+ 11.8

58.92
59.03
59.95
59.04
58.79
58.73
58.77
58.73
58.71
58.72
58.74
58.78
58.70
58.68
57.86

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) o r
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
A
+ Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.

100.0
100.2
101.7

100.2

99.8
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.6
99.6
98.2

-1 .0 6
-1 .1 7
-2 .0 9
-1 .1 8
- .93
- .87
- .91
- .87
- .85
- .86
- .88
- .92
- .84
- .82

- 1.8 $0.2204
- 2.0 .2247
.2194
- 3 .6
- 2.0 .2184
- 1.6 .2207
.2134
-1 .5
.2209
-1 .5
- 1 . 5 .2178
.2231
-1 .5
.2235
-1 .5
.2218
- 1 .5
- 1.6 .2252
.2214
- 1 .4
.2282
- 1 .4
.2336

100.0 +$0.0132
102.0 + .0089

99.5 +
99.1 +
100.1 +
96.8 +
100.2 +
98.8 +
101.2 +
101.4 +
100.6 +
102.2 +
100.5 +
103.5 +
106.0

.0142
.0152
.0129

.0202

.0127
.0158
.0105

.0101

.0118
.0084

.0122

.0054

+ 6.0
+ 4 .0
+ 6 .5
+ 7 .0
+ 5 .8
+ 9 .5
+ 5 .7
+ 7 .3
+ 4 .7
+ 4 .5
+ 5 .3
+ 3 .7
+ 5 .5
+ 2 .4

CUTTERS, UPPER, Male.
[Data for employees from 22 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 22
establishments, 1890; 23 establishments, 1891; 25 establishments, 1892: 27 establishments, 1893; 28
establishments, 1894; 31 establishments, 1895,1896; 32 establishments, 1897; 33 establishments, 1898; 37
establishments, 1899; 39 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1 8 9 2 ... ... ..
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

433
329
355
410
412
417
432
457
492
511
518
559
616
591
625

100.0

76.0
82.0
94.7
95.2
96.3
99.8
105.5
113.6
118.0
119.6
129.1
142.3
136.5
144.3

+192
+296
+270
+215
+213
+208
+193
+168
+133
+114
+107
+ 66
+ 9
+ 34

+44.3
+90.0
+76.1
+52.4
+51.7
+ 49.9
+44.7
+ 36.8
+27.0
+22.3
+20.7
+ 11.8
+ 1.5
+ 5.8

58.99
59.04
59.11
59.11
59.11
58.97
58.89
58.97
58.92
58.99
68.82
58.82
58.85
58.07
56.99

100.0
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0

99.8

100.0

99.9

100.0
99.7
99.7
99.8
98.4
96.6

- 2.00
-2 .0 5
- 2.12
- 2.12
- 2.12
-1 .9 8
-1 .9 0
-1 .9 8
-1 .9 3
- 2.00
-1 .8 3
—1.83
- 1.86
-1 .0 8

- 3 .4 $0.2454 100.0 +$0.0264
.2451 99.9 + .0267
- 3 .5
- 3 .6
.2439 99.4 + .0279
- 3 .6
.2448 99.8 + .0270
.2465 100.4 + .0253
- 3 .6
- 3 .4
.2406 98.0 + .0312
-3 .2
.2454 100.0 + .0264
-3 .4
.2431 99.1 + .0287
.2471 101.0 + .0239
-3 .3
- 3 .4
.2446 99.7 + .0272
- 3 .1
.2523 102.8 + .0195
.2535 103.3 + .0183
- 3 .1
-3 .2
.2518 102.6 + .0200
.2635 107.4 + .0083
-1 .9
.2718 110.8

+ 10.8
+ 10.9
+11.4
+ 11.0
+10.3
+13.0
+ 10.8
+ 11.8
+ 9.6
+ 11.1
+ 7.7
+ 7.2
+ 7.9
+ 3.1

ERGE TRIMMERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 18 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 18
establishments, 1890; 20 establishments, 1891; 21 establishments, 1892; 23 establishments, 1893: 24
establishments, 1894; 27 establishments, 1895,1896; 28 establishments, 1897; 30 establishments, 1898; 33
establishments, 1899; 34 establishments, 1900; 35 establishments, 1901-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

89 100.0
66 74.2
68 76.4
77 86.5
86 96.6
91 102.2
89 100.0
100 112.4
102 114.6
99 111.2
107 120.2
110 123.6
123 138.2
120 134.8
125 140.4




+36
+59
+57
+48
+39
+34
+36
+25
+23
+26
+18
+15
+ 2
+ 5

+40.4
+89.4
+83.8
+62.3
+45.3
+37.4
+40.4
+25.0
+22.5
+26.3
+16.8
+13.6
+ 1.6
+ 4.2

56.95
57.41
57.41
57.51
57.43
56.86
56.64
56.79
56.88
56.12
56.48
55.90
56.50
55.42
54.58

100.0
100.8
100.8
101.0
100.8

99.8
99.5
99.7
99.9
98.5
99.2
98.2
99.2
97.3
95.8

-2 .3 7
-2 .8 3
-2 .8 3
-2 .9 3
-2 .8 5
-2 .2 8
-2 .0 6
- 2.21
-2 .3 0
-1 .5 4
-1 .9 0
-1 .3 2
-1 .9 2
- .81

—4. 2W
- 4 .9
- 4 .9
-5 .1
- 5 .0
-4 .0
-3 .6
-3 .9
-4 .0
- 2 .7
-3 .4
-2 .4
-3 .4
- 1 .5

3052
.2982
.2966
. 30°7
.320*7
.3028
.3146
.3029
.3065
.3049
. 3023
.3215
.3206
.3359
.3501

lOO.o!+$0.0449
97.7 + .0519
97.2 + .0535
99.2 -j- .0474
105.1 + .0294
99.2 +
103.1 + .0355
99.2 + .0472
100.4 + .0436
99.9 + .0452
99.0 + .0478
105.3 + . 0286
105.0 + .0295
110.1 + .0142
114.7

+14.7
+17.4
+18.0
+15.7
+ 9.2
+15.6
+11.3
+15.6
+14.2
+14.8
+15.8
+ 8.9
+ 9.2
+ 4.2

738

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BOOTS A N D SHOES—Continued.
GOODYEAR STITCHERS, Male*

[Data for employees from 10 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 10
establishments, 1890; 12 establishments, 1891; 13 establishments, 1892; 14 establishments, 1893; 15
establishments, 1894; 19 establishments, 1895,1896; 21 establishments, 1897; 22 establishments, 1898; 25
establishments, 1899; 27 establishments, 1900,1901; 29 establishments, 1902; 30 establishments, 1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - jin
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - j i n
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Num­
Num­
Per
Per
Amonnt. Per
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
36
33
31
31
35
33
34
38
39
38
47
54

100.0
91.7

86.1
86.1

97.2
91.7
94.4
105.6
108.3
105.6
130.6
150.0
66 155.6
57 158.3
58 161.1

+22
+25
+27
+27
+23
+25
+24

+20

+19

+ 20
+11

+ 4
+ 2
+ 1

+61.1
+75.8
+87.1
+87.1
+65.7
+75.8
+70.6
+52.6
+48.7
+52.6
+23.4
+ 7.4
+ 3.6
+ 1.8

57.94
58.67
58.26
58.25
58.32
57.67
57.85
57.69
57.74
57.65
57.30
67.23
57.20
55.08
54.70

100.0
101.3

100.6

100.5
100.7
99.5
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.5
98.9
98.8
98.7
95.1
94.4

-3 .2 4
-3 .9 7
-3 .5 6
-3 .5 5
-3 .6 2
-2 .9 7
-3 .1 5
-2 .9 9
-3 .0 4
-2 .9 5
-2 .6 0
-2 .5 3
-2 .5 0
- .38

- 5 . 6 $0.2939 100.0 + $ 0 .0905
- 6.8 .2605 88.6 + .1239
- 6.1 .2761 93.9 + .1083
- 6.1 .2835 96.5 + .1009
- 6.2 .2834 96.4 + .1010
.2926 99.6 + .0918
- 5 .1
.2964 100.9 + .0880
- 5 .4
- 5 .2
.2899 93.6 + .0945
.3185 108.4 + .0659
- 5 .3
.3134 106.6 + .0710
- 5 .1
-4 .5
.3246 110.4 + .0598
- 4 .4
.3397 115.6 -f* .0447
- 4 .4
.3447 117.3 + .0397
- .7 .3572 121.5 + .0272
.3844 130.8

+30.8
+47.6
+ 39.2
+35.6
+ 35.6
+ 3 1 .4
+ 2 9 .7
+ 3 2 .6
+ 2 0 .7
+ 2 2 .7
+ 1 8 .4
+ 13.2
+11.5
+ 7.6

HEEL TRIMMERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 15 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 15
establishments, 1890; 17 establishments, 1891; 18 establishments, 1892; 20establishments, 1893; 21 estab­
lishments, 1894; 25 establishments, 1895-1897; 26 establishments, 1898; 28 establishments, 1899, 29
establishments, 1900; 30 establishments, 1901-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

35
27
30
33
35
35
38
38
39
37
34
36
35
31
30

100.0

77.1
85. 7
94.3

100.0
100.0

-5
+3
-3
-5
-5

108.6
108.6
111 .4
105.7
97.1
102.9

-8
-8

100.0
88.6

-5

85.7

-9
-7
-4

-6
-1

-1 4 .3 57.31 100.0
+ 11.1 58.22 101.6
57.71 100.7
- 9.1 57.72 100.7
-1 4 .3 57.54 100.4
-1 4 .3 57.13 99.7
- 21.1 56.96 99.4
- 21.1 56.98 99.4
-2 3 .1 56.93 99.3
-1 8 .9 57.09 99.6
- 11.8 56.80 99.1
-1 6 .7 56.00 97.7
-1 4 .3 55.96 97.6
- 3.2 55.44 96.7
55.15 96.2

-2 .1 6
-3 .0 7
—2.56
-2 .5 7
-2 .3 9
-1 .9 8
-1 .8 1
-1 .8 3
-1 .7 8
-1 .9 4
-1 .6 5
- .85
- .81
- .29

- 3 .8 $0.3030 100.0 +$0.0477
.2785 91.9 + .0722
- 5 .3
—4.4 .2750 90.8 + . 0757
.2938 97.0 + .0569
- 4 .5
-4 .2
.3173 104.7 + .0334
- 3 .5
.3101 102.3 + .0406
- 3 . 2 .3138 103.6 + .0369
- 3 . 2 .3061 101.0 + .0446
- 3 .1
.3101 102.3 + .0406
- 3 .4
.3181 105.0 + .0326
.3075 101.5 + .0432
- 2 .9
.3174 104.8 + .0333
- 1 .5
- 1 .4
.3198 105.5 + .0309
- .5 .3238 106.9 + .0269
.3507 115.7

+15.7
+25.9
+27.5
+ 19.4
+10.5
+ 13.1
+ 11.8
+ 14.6
+13.1
+ 10.2
+ 14.0
+10.5
+ 9.7
+ 8.3

MASTERS, MACHINE, Male.
[Data for employees from 10 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from
10 establishments, 1890,1891; 12 establishments, 1892; 14establishments, 1893; 15 establishments, 1894;
16 establishments, 1895; 20 establishments, 1896; 23 establishments, 1897; 2o establishments, 1898; 30
establishments, 1899; 31 establishments, 1900; 32 establishments, 1901; 33 establishments, 1902,1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
3891 .............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

127 100.0
76 59.8
86 67.7
98 77.2

110

130
149
160
153
127
176
189
171
161
189

86.6

102.4
117.3
126.0
120.5

100.0

138.6
148.8
134.6
126.8
148.8




+ 62
+113
+103
+ 91
+ 79
+ 59
+ 40
+ 29
+ 36
+ 62
+ 13

+ 48.8
+148.7
+119.8
+ 92.9
+ 71.8
+ 45.4
+ 26.8
+ 18.1
+ 23.5
+ 48.8
+ 7.4

56.63
56.34
56.74
56.62
56.50
56.98
56.92
56.93
56.62
55.83
56.78
55.93
+ 18 + 10.5 56.55
+ 28 + 17.4 55.77
55.37

100.0

99.5

100.2
100.0

99.8

100.6

100.5
100.5

100.0

98.6
100.3
98.8
99.9
98.5
97.8

-1 .2 6
- .97
-1 .3 7
-1 .2 5
-1 .1 3
-1 .6 1
-1 .5 5
-1 .5 6
-1 .2 5
- .46
-1 .4 1
— .56
-1 .1 8
- .40

- 2.2 $0.2329
.2267
- 1 .7
- 2 .4
.2284
- 2.2 .2357
- 2.0 .2238
- 2.8 .2359
.2332
- 2 .7
.2419
- 2 .7
- 2.2 .2273
- .8 .2419
.2343
- 2 .5
—1.0 .2398
- 2.1 .2482
- .7 .2665
.2797

100.0 +$0.0468

97.3 +
98.1 +
101.2 +
96.1 +
101.3 +
101.1 +
103.9 +
97.6 +
103.9 +
100.6 +
103.0 +
106.6 +
114.4 +

120.1

.0530
.0513
.0440
.0559
.0438
.0465
.0378
.0524
.0378
.0454
.0399
.0315
.0132

+ 20.1
+23.4
+22.5
+18.7
+25.0
+18.6
+19.9
+15.6
+23.1
+15.6
+19.4
+16.6
+12.7
+ 5.0

739

WAGES AND COST OE LIVING,
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

BOOTS A N D SHOES—Continued.
McKAY STITCHERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 14 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from
14 establishments, 1890; 16 establishments, 1891; 17 establishments, 1892; 19 establishments, 1893;
20 establishments, 1894-1896; 21 establishments, 1897; 23 establishments, 1898; 24 establishments,
1899; 25 establishments, 1900; 26 establishments, 1901-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase (+ )o r
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —jin
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. num­
num­ number.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
45
35
36
47
47
46
50
63
47
46
45
44
48
44
39

100.0

77.8
80.0
104.4
104.4

102.2
111.1

117.8
104.4

102.2
100.0

97.8
106.7
97.8
86.7

+
+
-

6
4
3

8
8

7

-11

-1 4
- 8
- 7
- 6
- 5
- 9
- 5

-1 3 .3
+11.4
+ 8.3
-1 7 .0
-1 7 .0
-1 5 .2
- 22.0
-2 6 .4
-1 7 .0
-1 5 .2
-1 3 .3
-1 1 .4
-1 8 .8
-1 1 .4

67.17 100.0
68.11 101.6

68.05
67.38
57.41
57.05
57.31
57.08
56.64
56.29
56.35
55.12
56.00
55.31
65.20

101.5
100.4
100.4
99.8

100.2

99.8
99.1
98.5
98.6
96.4
98.0
96.7
96.6

-1 .9 7
-2 .9 1
-2 .8 5
-2 .1 8
- 2.21
-1 .8 5
- 2.11
- 1.88
-1 .4 4
-1 .0 9
-1 .1 5
+ .08
- .80
- .11

- 3 .4 30.3042
- 5 . 0 .2889
.2862
- 4 .9
.3022
-3 .8
.3175
- 3 .8
-3 .2
.3061
.3174
- 3 .7
.3009
-3 .3
- 2 . 5 .3079
- 1 . 9 .3121
- 2.0 .3029
+ .1 .3040
-1 .4
.3015
- .2 .3062
.3150

100.0 + 30.0108

95.0 +
94.1 +
99.3 +
104.4
100.6 +
104.3 —
98.9 +
101.2 +
102.6 +
99.6 +
99.9 +
99.1 +
100.7 +
103.6

.0261
.0288
.0128
.0025
.0089
.0024
.0141
.0071
.0029

.0121
.0110

.0135
.0088

+ 3.6
+ 9.0
+ 10.1
+ 4.2
.8
+ 2.9
.8
+ 4.7
+ 2.3
+ .9
+ 4.0
+ 3.6
+ 4.5
+ 2.9

TREERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 13 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from
13 establishments, 1890, 1891; 14 establishments, 1892; 15 establishments, 1893, 1894; 16 establish­
ments, 1895,1896; 17 establishments, 1897-1899; 19 establishments, 1900-1903.]
A v . 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
190 3 .............

137 100.0
88 64.2
114 83.2
108 78.8
148 108.0
141 102.9
147 107.3
167 121.9
157 114.6
155 113.1
141 102.9
144 105.1
149 108.8
125 91.2
129 94.2

- 8
+41
+15

+ 21

-1 9

-1 2

-1 8
-3 8
-2 8
-2 6

-1 2

-1 5

-2 0
+ 4

- 5.8
+46.6
+13.2
+19.4
- 12.8
- 8.5
- 12.2
- 22.8
-1 7 .8
-1 6 .8
- 8.5
-1 0 .4
-1 3 .4
+ 3.2

57.52
67.60
57.92
57.19
56.95
67.35
58.02
57.71
57.46
57.67
57.32
57.31
57.43
56.48
55.20

100.0
100.1

100.7
99.4
99.0
99.7
100.9
100.3
99.9
100.3
99.7
99.6
99.8
98.2
96.0

-2 .3 2
-2 .4 0
-2 .7 2
-1 .9 9
-1 .7 5
-2 .1 5
-2 .8 2
-2 .5 1
-2 .2 6
-2 .4 7
- 2.12
- 2.11
-2 .2 3
-1 .2 8

- 4 . 0 30.2144 100.0 +30.0502
- 4 . 2 .2174 101.4 + .0472
-4 .7
.2088 97.4 + .0558
- 3 .5
.2118 98.8 + .0528
.2152 100.4 + .0494
-3 .1
- 3 . 7 .1174 101.4 + .0472
- 4 . 9 .2163 100.9 + .0483
-4 .3
.2179 101.6 + .0467
-3 .9
.2099 97.9 + .0547
.2094 97.7 + .0552
-4 .3
- 3 .7
.2200 102.6 + .0446
- 3 . 7 .2314 107.9 + .0332
- 3 . 9 .2261 105.5 + .0385
- 2 .3 .2359 110.0 + .0287
. 2646 123.4

+23.4
+21.7
+26.7
+24.9
+23.0
+21.7
+22.3
+21.4
+26.1
+ 2 6.4
+ 20.3
+ 1 4 .3
+17.0
+ 12.2

VAMPERS, Male.
IData for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 1
establishment, 1890; 2 establishments, 1891,1892; 4 establishments, 1893; 5 establishments, 1894,1895;
4 establishments, 1806; 5 establishments, 1897, 1898; 7 establishments, 1899, 1900; 9 establishments,
1901; 11 establishments, 1902; 10 establishments, 1903.]
A v. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3
3

100.0

50.0
50.0
50.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0




+1
+2
+2
+2
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1

+ 50.0
+ 200.0
+ 200.0
+ 200.0
+ 50.0
+ 50.0
+ 50.0
+ 50.0
+ 50.0

56.36
54.00
57.43
57.73
56.50
56.21
56.24
56.37
56.50
5C.52
56.06
56.62
56.40
66.05
52.93

100.0

95.8
101.9
102.4

100.2

99.7
99.8

100.0
100.2

100.3
99.5
100.5

100.1

99.4
93.9

-3 .4 3
-1 .0 7
—4.50
-4 .8 0
-3 .5 7
-3 .2 8
-3 .3 1
-3 .4 4
-3 .5 7
-3 .6 9
-3 .1 3
—3.69
-3 .4 7
-3 .1 2

- 6.1 30.2473 100.0*+30.0671
- 2.0 .2778 112.3 + .0366
- 7 .8
.2405 97.3 + .0739
- 8 .3
.2284 92.4 + .0860
- 6 . 3 .2364 95.6 + .0780
- 5 .8 .2210 89.4 + .0934
.2242 90.7 + .0902
- 5 .9
- 6.1 .2511 101.5 + .0633
-6 .3
.2756 111.4 + .0388
-6 .4
.2546 103.0 + .0598
-5 .6
.2638 106.7 + .0506
-6 .5
.2736 110.6 4- .0408
- 6.2 .2621 106.0 + .0523
- 5 .6
.2837 114.7 + .0307
.3144 127.1

+27.1
+13.2
+30.7
+ 37.7
+33.0
+ 42.3
+40.2
+ 25.2
+14.1
+23.5
+ 19.2
+14.9
+ 20.0
+ 10.8

740

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table I .— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

BOOTS A N D SHOES—Concluded.
VAMPERS, Fem ale.

[Data for employees from 16 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 16
establishments, 1890; IB establishments, 1891; 19 establishments, 1892; 20 establishments, 1893; 22
establishments, 1894; 26 establishments, 1895,1696; 27 establishments, 1897; 29 establishments, 1898;
33 establishments, 1899; 34 establishments, 1900,1901; 35 establishments, 1902; 33 establishments, 1903.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99 .
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898..............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
116 100.0
119 102.6
106 91.4
109 94.0
107 92.2
110 94.8
119 102.6
118 101.7
122 105.2
120 103.4
132 113.8
141 121.6
151 130.2
163 140.5
178 153.4

+62
+59
+72
+69
+71

+68

+59
+60
+56
+58
+46
+37
+27
+15

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. ber.
N.umPer
ber.
cent.

+53.4
+49. (
+67. ‘
+63.1
+ 66. <
+61. t
+49. C
+50.8
+45.9
+48.3
+34.8
+26.2
+17.9
+ 9.2

57.28
57.49
57.42
57.51
57.33
57.24
57.25
57.07
57.02
57.31
57.17
57.11
57.06
56.82
56.41

100.0

-0 .8 7
-1 .0 8
- 1.01
- 1.10
- .92
- .83
- .84
- .66
- .61
- .90
- . 76
- .70
- .65
- .41

100.4

100.2

100.4

100.1

99.9
99.9
99.6
09.5

100.1

99.8
99.7
99.6
99.2
98.5

i...............

- 1 . 5 $0.1910
- 1 .9
.1909
- 1.8 .1789
.1878
-1 .9
- 1.6 .1941
.1954
- 1 .5
.1972
- 1 .5
- 1.2 .1948
- 1.1 .1925
- 1.6 .1898
.1881
- 1 .3
- 1.2 .1968
- 1.1 .1984
- .7 .1996

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

100.0 + $ 0.0200
99.9 + .0201

93.7 +
98.3 +
101.6 +
102.3 +
103.2 +
102.0 +
100.8 +
99.4 +
98.5 +
103.0 +
103.9 +
104.5 +
.2110 110.5

.0321
.0232
.0169
.0156
.0138
.0162
.0185

.0212

.0229
.0142
.0126
.0114

Per
cent.
+10.5
+10.5
+17.9
+ 12.4
+ 8.7
+ 8.0
+ 7.0
+ 8.3
+ 9.6
+ 11.2
+ 12.2
+ 7.2
+ 6.4
+ 5.7

BOOTS A N D SHOES, RUBBER,
BOOTMAKERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]

A v . 1890- 99 .
1 8 9 0 ..............
1 8 9 1 ..............
1 8 9 2 ..............
1 8 9 3 ..............
1 8 9 4 ..............
1 8 9 5 ..............
1 8 9 6 ..............
1897 ..............
1 8 9 8 ..............
1899 ..............
1 9 0 0 ..............
1 9 0 1 ..............
1 9 0 2 ..............
1903 ..............

30
32
30
31
34
31
31
25
31
29
29
29
25
23
33

100.0
106.7
100.0
103.3
113.3
103.3
103.3
83.3
103.3
96.7
96.7
96.7
83.3
76.7
110.0

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

3
1
3
2
1
2
2
8
2
4
4
4
8
+10

+ 10.0
+ 3.1
+ 10.0
+ 6 .5
- 2 .9
+ 6.5
+ 6 .5
+ 32.0
+ 6 .5
+ 13.8
+ 13.8
+ 13.8
+ 32.0
+ 43.5

5n 3
$ .2 9 100.0 + ? .ftfi8
0 87
.3 5 1 5
0 3 0 .4+ .0 2
57
.2 4 10
9 0 1.5+ .0 4
60
.3 5 105.5 + .0 2
06
54
.2 7 10 -t- .0 0
9 6 2.7
64
.2 3 101.4 -f- .0 4
98
62
.2 4 101.5+ .0 4
90
60
.2 3 90.8 + .0 4
61
99
.3 8 1Q0+ .0 9
16 1.
34
.2 5 98.6+ .0 2
85
75
.2 9 82.7 -j- .1 8
37
13
- 71
.2 4 98.3 4 .0 3
89
.2 6 1 2.3 + .0 1
93 0 . 67
.3 8 11
1 6 0.0+ .0 9
34
.3 8 12
5 0 3.6

+23.6
+17.3
+21.8
+17.1
+.20.3
+21.9
+21.8
+36.1
+12.4
+25.4
+49.4
+25.7
+20.8
+12.4

1
60.00 10 !
0.0
$0.1394 1 0 -$0.0052
0 .0
60.00 10 .0
0
.1405 1 0 _ .0063
0 .8
60.00 10 .0
0
.1482 106.3
.0140
60.00 1 0 ............. .. ............... . 1662 119.2 _ .0320
0 .0
60.00 1 0
0 .0
.1192 85.5 + .0150
60.00 10
0.0
.1354 97.1
.0 1
02
60.00 100.0
.1385 99.4
.0043
..............
60.00 .100.0
.1071 76.8 + .0271
60.00 100.0
.1403 1 0
0 .6 .0061
60.00 10ft. ft
.1535 1 0
1 .1 .0193
60.00 Iftft ft!
.0113
.1455 104.4
60.00 100.0
.1 1 79.6 .0232
10
60.00 1 0
0 .0
. 1284 92.1
.0058
60.00 1 0
0 .0
.1600 114.8
.0258
60.00 10 ............... !..............
0.0
.1342 96.3
1
1
i

- 3.7
— 4.5
— 9.4
-1 9 .3
+12.6
— .9
— 3.1
+25.3
— 4.3
—12.6
— 7.8
+20.9
+ 4.5
-1 6 .1

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
1 0.0
0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1 0.0
0
10
0.0
10
0.0
10
0.0
10
0.0
100.0

CEMENTER3, Female.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893............*
.
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898..............
1899.............
1900 ...............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

2 10
1 0 .0
8 38.1

14
18
18

2
2
23
15
28
28
38

66.7
85.7
85.7
104.8
109.5
71.4
133.3
133.3
181.0

2 100.0
1
33 157.1
36 171.4
35 166.7




+14 + 66.7
+27 +337.5
+150.0
+17 + 94.4
+17 + 94.4
+13 + 59.1
+12 + 52.2
+20 +133.3
+ 7 + 25.0
+ 7 + 25,0
- 3 7.9
+14 + 66.7
+ 2 + 6.1
- 1 2.8

+21

741

WAGES AND COST OF LIV IN G
T able

X.— WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899—100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BOOTS A jST SHOES, EUBBEE-Continued.
3>
CUTTERS, Male*
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890...........
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899..............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + i or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Num­
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
31
30
30
30
30
30
31
30
29
33
38
34
32
34
35

100.0

96.8
96.8
96.8
96.8
96.8

100.0

96.8
93.5
106.5
106.5
109.7
103.2
109.7
112.9

+4
+5
+5
+5
+5
+5
+4
+5

+6
+2
+2
+1

+3

+1

+12.9
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+12.9
+16.7
+20.7
+ 6.1
+ 6.1
+ 2.9
+ 9.4
+ 2.9

59.52
69.53
59.53
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.52
59.50
59.52
59.55
59.55
59.56
59.59
59.53
59.60

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.1

+0.08
+ .07
+ .07
+ .10
+ .10
+ .10 ;
+ .08
+ .10
+ .08
+ .05
+ .05
+ .04
+ .01
+ .07

+ 0.1 80.2771
.2702
+ .1
.2686
+ •1
+ .2
.2633
.2713
+ .2
.2734
+ .2
.2887
+ .1
.2641
+ .2
.2915
+ .1
.2712
+ .1
.3083
+ .1
.2869
+ *1
+ .02 .3074
.2833
+ .1
.3027

100. 0!8+0.0256
97.5
96.9
95.0
97.9
98.7
104.2
95.3
105.2
97.9
111.3
103.5
110.9

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
102.2 +
109.2

.0325
.0341
.0394
.0314
.0293
.0140
.0386

.0112

.0315
.0056
.0158
.0047
.0194

+ 9 .2
+ 12.0
+ 1 2 .7
+ 15.0
+ 11.6
+ 1 0 .7
+ 4.8
+ 1 4 .6
+ 3.8
+ 11 .6
- 1 .8
+ 5.5
- 1.5
+ 3 .8

i

GRINDERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891
.
1892
.
1 8 9 3 ... ... ..
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

31
25
30
33
28
35
30
30
33
34
30
35
33
30
33

100.0
80.6
96.8
106.5
90.3
112.9
96.8
96.8
106.5
109.7
96.8
112.9
106.5
96.8
106.5

+ 2
+ 8
+ 3
+
+
+

5

2

3
3

- 1
+ 3
- 2
+ 3

+ 6.5 59.00 100.0
+32.0 59.00 100.0
+ 10.0 59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
+17.9 59.00 100.0
- 5.7 59.00 100.0
+ 10.0 59.00 100.0
+ 10.0 59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
- 2.9 50.00 100.0
+ 10.0 59.00 100.0
- 5.7 59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
+ 10.0 59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0

80.1525
.1525
.1525
. 1525
.1525
.1525
.1525
.1525
.1525
.1525
.1525
. 1525
.1525
.1525
.1525

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1VIIXERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]

Av.

- .
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

1890 99
1 890
1 891
1892
1 893
1 894
1895
1 896
1897
1 89 8
1899
1 900
1 901
1 902
1903

14
15
13
16
16
13
13
14
12
15
15
15
15
16
15

100.0
107.1
92.9
114.3
114.3
92.9
92.9
100.0
85.7
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
114.3
107.1




+3

+ 7.1
+ 15.4
- 6 .3
- 6.3
+ 15.4
+ 15.4
+ 7.1
+ 25.0

-

- 6.3

+
+

+
+
+

1
2
1
1
2
2
1

1

59.07
59.07
59.08
59.06
59.06
59.08
59.08
59.07
59.08
59.07
59.07
59.07
59.07
59.06
59.07

1

. O'

100
100.0
100.0
100.0

mo

100.0
100.0
00.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

'

- 0.01
+ .01
+ .01
- .01
- .01
- .01

80. 161ll uO.O 4 -80.0031
. 1600! 99.3 4- .0042
- 0.02 . 1602! 99.4 + .0040
+ .02 .1603 99.5 + .0039
+ .02 .1595 99.0 + .0047
- .02 .1602 99.4 + .0040
- .02 .1609 99.9 + .0033 •
1 .1613 100.1 + .0029
- .02 . 1616 100.3 + .0026

+ .01 + .02

.1633
.1633
.1642
.1633
.1627
.1642

101.4
101.4
101.9
101.4
101.0
101.9

+
+
+
+

.0009
.0009

.0009
.0015

+ 1.9
+ 2.6
+ 2.5
+ 2.4
+ 2.9
+ 2 .5
+ 2 .1
+ 1.8
+ 1.6

+ .6
+ .6
+ .6
+ .9

742

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 189U-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BOOTS AISTO SHOES, RUBBER—Concluded.
SHOEMAKERS, Fem ale.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
NumPer
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.

100.0

120
121 100.8
109

111

90.8
92.5

132 110.0

120 100.0

130
93
130
142
114
179
164
181
185

108.3
77.5
108.3
118.3
95.0
149.2
136.7
150.8
154.2

+65
+64
+76
+74
+53
+65
+55
+92
+55
+43
+71
+ 6

+21

+ 4

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
+ 12.8 60.00
+ 2.2 60.00
60.00

+54.
+52.9
+69.7
+66.7
+40.2
+54.2
+42.3
+ 98.9
+42.3
+30.3
+62.3
+ 3.4

100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (
100. (

$0.1245
.1231
.1221
.1242
.1258
.1198
.1283
.1260
.1252
.1277
.1231
.1261
.1207
.1244
.1334

+80.0089
98.9 + .0103
98.1 + .0113
99.8 + .0092
+ .0076
96.2 + .0136
103.1 + .0051
101.2 + .0074
100.6 + .0082
102; 6 + .0057
98.9 + .0103
101.3 + .0073
96.9 + .0127
99.9 + .0090
107.1

101.0

+
+
+
+

7.1
8.4
9.3
7.4

+ 6.0

+ 11.4
+ 4.0
+ M
+ 6.5
+ 4.5
+ 8.4
+ 5.8
+ 1 0.5
+ 7.2

BOXES, PA PER .
BOX MAKERS, MACHINE, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

100.0

76.9
76.9
84.6
92.3

100.0
100.0

107.7
123.1
123.1
123.1
138.5
130.8
123.1
123.1

+3

+6
+6

+5
+4
+3
+3

+2

-2
-1

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
- 11.1 60.00
- 5.9 60.00
60.00
60.00

+23.1
+60.0
+60.0
+45.5
+33.3
+23.1
+23.1
+14.3

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

SO 0731
.
.0750
.0717
.0712
.0736
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0688
.0688
.0771
.0843
.0853
.0958
.0979

100.0 +$0.0248

102.6 +

98.1 +
97.4 +
100.7 +
102.6 +
102.6 +
102. +
94.1 +
94.1 +
105.5 +
115.3 +
116.7 +
131.1 +
133.9

CLAMPERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893..1........
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

100.0
50.0
50.0
50.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0




+1
+1
+1

59.00 100.0
+ 100.0 59.00 100.0
+ 100.0 59.00 100.0
+ 100.0 59.00 100.0
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

10.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034
.2034

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

.0229
.0262
.0267
.0243
.0229
.0229
.0229
.0291
.0291
.0208
.0136
.0126

.0021

+ 33.9
+ 30.5
+36.5
+ 37.5
+33.0
+ 30.5
+ 30.5
+ 30.5
+42.3
+ 42.3
+ 27.0
+16.1
+ 14.8

+ 2.2

743

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BOXES, PA PER —Continued.
CLAMPERS, Female*
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

+i
+i

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

+i
+i
+i

100.0

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

59.00 100.0
+100.0 59.00 100.0
+100.0 59.00 100.0
+100.0 59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
+100.0 59.00 100.0
69.00 100.0
+100.0 59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0

$0.1356
-1356
,1356
.1356
.1356
.1356
.1356
.1356
.1356
.1356
.1356
.1356
.1356
.1356
.1356

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

Per
cent.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

CORNER CUTTERS, Male*
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

7
5
5
6
6
6
7
7
8
7
8
9
9
9
9

100.0
71.4
71.4
85.7
85.7
85.7
100.0
100.0
114.3
100.0
114.3
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6

+2
+4
+4
+3
+3
+3
+2
+•2
+1
+2
+1

+28.6
+80.0
+80.0
+50.0
+50.0
+ 50.0
+28.6
+28.6
+12.5
+28.6
+12.5

59.40
59.40
59.40
59.33
59.33
59.50
59.43
59.43
59.38
59.43
59.38
59.44
59.44
59.44
56.78

100.0
-2 .6 2
-2 .6 2
100.0
-2 .6 2
100.0
-2 .5 5
99.9
-2 .5 5
99.9
100.2
-2 .7 2
100.1
-2 .6 5
100.1
-2 .6 5
100.0
-2 .6 0
100.1
-2 .6 5
100.0
-2 .6 0
100.1
—2.66
100.1
—2.66
100.1
—2.66
95.6 * '( ..........

-4.4*80.1650
-4 .4
.1649
-4 .4
.1683
.1769
-4 .3
.1769
-4 .3
-4 .6
.1626
.1684
-4 .5
.1650
- 4 .5
-4 .4
.1497
.1492
-4 .5
.1685
-4 .4
—4.5 .1571
—4.5 .1739
—4.5 .1664
.1840

100. o!+$ 0 .0180
99.9 + .0191
102.0 + .0157
107.2 + .0071
107.2 + .0071
98.5 + .0214
102.1 + .0156
100.0 + .0180
90.7 + .0343
90.4 + ,0348
102.1 + ,0155
95.2 + .0269
105.4
.0101
100.8
.0176
111.5

+10.8
+11.6
+ 9.3
+ 4.0
+ 4.0
+ 1 3.2
+ 9.3
+ 1 0.8
+ 22.9
+ 23.3
+ 9.2
+ 1 7.1

100.0 +$0.0005
95.9 + .0056
95.9 + .0056
102.7
.0028
109.5 — .0113
95.9 + .0056
82.1 + .0226
89.0 + .0141
109.5
.0113
109.5
.0113
109.5 — .0113
123.2 — .0282
123.2 — .0282
109.5 — .0113
100.4

+ 0.4
+ 4.7
+ 4.7

44-

4-5.8

+ 10.6

CORNER STATERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

2
2
2
2
1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
50.0

2 100.0

1 50.0
2 100.0
2 100.0
1 50.0

2 100.0
1 50.0
1 50.0
3 1 5 0 .0 ...
3 1 5 0 ,0 ...




+ 50.0
+ 50.0
+ 50.0
+ 50.0
+200.0
+ 50.0
+200.0
+ 50.0
+ 50.0
+200.0
4 - i + 50.0
+ 2 +200.0
+ 2 +200.0
H-l
+1
+1
+1
+2
+1
+2
+1
+1
+2

59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
69.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
69.00
59.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

$0.1238
.1187
.1187
.1271
.1356
.1187
.1017
.1102
.1356
.1356
.1356
.1525
.1525
.1356
.1243

-

2.2

- 8.3
+ 4.7
+22.2

+12.8

- 8.3
- 8.3
- 8.3
- 1 8 .5
- 1 8 .5
- 8.3

744

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table * — WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

{Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BOXES, P A P E B —Continued.
FINISHERS, Female.
[Data from 3 establishments. ]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1 9 0 2 ... ... ..
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
-specified.
ber. num ­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
eent.
71
77
78
76
71
71
70
71
72
73
46
45
45
61
56

100.0
108.5
109.9
107.0
100.0
100.0
98.6
100.0
101.4
102.8
64.8
63.4
63.4
85.9
78.9

—15
-2 1
-2 2
-2 0
-1 5
-1 5
-1 4
-1 5
-1 6
-1 7
+10 ,
+11
+11
- 5

-2 1 .1
-2 7 .3
-2 8 .2
-2 6 .3
-2 1 .1
-2 1 .1
-2 0 .0
-2 1 .1
-2 2 .2
-2 3 .3
+21.7
+24.4
+24.4
- 8.2

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
59.65
59.69
59.64
59.72
59.63
59.68
59.69
59.68
69.63
59.59
59.50
59.56
59.51
59.41
59.09

100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.6
99.1

-0 .5 6
- .60
- .55
- .63
- .54
- .59
- .60
- .59
- .54
— .50
- .41
- .47
— .42
- .32

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount

Per
cent.

- 0 . 9 $0.0775 100.0 +$0.0224
- 1 .0
.0766 98.8 + .0233
- .9 .0781 100.8 + .0218
.0774 99.9 + .0225
-1 .1
- .9 .0779 100.5 + .0220
-1 .0
.0770 99.4 + .0229
.0754 97.3 + .0245
-1 .0
-1 .0
.0754 97.3 + .0245
- .9 .0762 98.3 + .0237
— .8 .0765 98.7 + .0234
- .7 .0848 109.4 + .0151
- .8 .0871 112.4 + .0128
- .7 .0942 121.5 + .0057
- .5 .0928 139.7 + .0071
.0999 128.9

+28.9
+30.4
+ 27.9
+29.1
+28.2
+29.7
+32.5
+32.5
+31.1
+30.6
+ 17.8
+14.7
+ 6.1
+ 7.7

100.0 + $ 0 .0012
105.4 — .0069
105.8 — .0074
106.5 — .0085
109.2 — .0125
95.5 + .0079
106.9 — . 0090
96.7 + .0061
94.1 + .0100
92.5 + .0123
87.6 + . 0197
97.2 + .0053
99.1 + .0026
96.0 + .0072

+ 0.8
— 4.4
— 4.7
— 5.4
— 7.7
+ 5.6
— 5.7
+ 4 .2
+ 7.1
+ 8.9
+15.1
+ 3.7
+ 1.8
+ 5.0

- 0 . 1 $0.1678 100.0 +$0.0131
- 1 .2
.1551 92.4 + .0258
.1688 100.6 + .0121
-1 .1
.1632 97.3 + .0177
-1 .1
.1665 99.2 + .0144
-1 .1
.1714 102.1 + .0095
-1 .1
.1641 97.8 + .0168
- 1 .1
.1627 97.0 + .0182
- 1 .1
.1690 100.7 + .0119
- 1 .1
.1712 102.0 + .0097
-1 .1
.0050
- 1 .1
.1859 110.8
.1641 97.8 + .0168
- 1 .1
—1.0 .1555 92.7 + .0254
.0058
—1.0 .1751 104.4
.1809 107.8

+ 7.8
+16.6
+ 7 .2
+ 10.8
+ 8.6
+ 5.5
+ 10.2
+11.2
+ 7.0
+ 5.7
- 2.7
+10.2
+16.3
+ 3.3

€LUER«, Fem ale.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
2891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

2 100.0
2 100.0
2 100.0
2 100.0
1 50.0
2 100.0
2 100.0
2 100.0
2 100.0
2 100.0
2 100.0
2 100.0
2 100.0
2 100.0
2 100.0

+1

59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
+ 100.0 59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
69.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.1487
.1568
.1573
.1584
.1624
.1420
.1589
.1438
.1399
.1376
.3302
.1446
.1473
.1427
.1499

100.8

JOINERS, Hlale.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891..............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

7
5
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
7
10
10
10

100.0
71.4
85.7
85.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
100.0
142.9
142.9
142.9




+3
+5
+4
+4
+3
+3
+3
+2
+2
+2
+2
+3

+ 42.9
+100.0
+ 66.7
+ •66.7
+ 42.9
+ 42.9
+ 42.9
+ 25.0
+ 25.0
+ 25.0
+ 25.0
+ 42.9

59.15
59.20
59.17
59.17
59.14
59.14
59.14
59.13
59.13
59.13
59.13
59.14
59.10
59.10
58.50

100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
98.9

-0 .6 5
- .70
- .67
- .67
- .64
- .64
- .64
- .63
- .63
- .63
- .63
- .64
— .60
— .60

745

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BOXES, PA PER —Continued.
L1MER8, MACHINE, Male,
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. number.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

100.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

+i

+i
+i

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.

59.00 100.0
+100.0 59.00 100.0
+100.0 59.00 100.0
+100.0 59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0

50.1313
.1186
.1356
.1525
.1271
.1271
.1356
.1356
.1271
.1271
.1271
.1271
.1271
.1356
.1356

100.0
90.3
103.3
116.1
96.8
96.8
103.3
103.3
96.8
96.8
96.8
96.8
96.8
103.3
103.3

+50.0043
+ .0170

+ 3.3
+14.3

+
+

.0169
.0085
.0085

-1 1 .
+ 6.7
+ 6.7

+
+
+

.0085
.0085
.0085
.0085
.0085

+ 6.7
+ 6.7
+ 6.7
+ 6.7
+ 6.7

+
+

i

PAPER CUTTERS, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

13
14
14
12
12
13
13
13
12
11
12
11
12
12
13

100.0
107.7
107.7
92.3
92.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
92.3
84.6
92.3
84.6
92.3
92.3
100.0

-1
-1
+1J
+1

+
+

+1
+2
+1
+2
+1
+1

+ 8.3
+18.2
+ 8.3
+18.2
+ 8.3
+ 8.3

7.1
7.1
8.3
8.3

56.20
56.79
56.79
55.92
56.00
55.85
56.23
66.23
66.00
56.18
56.00
56.18
56.42
56.42
55.69

100.0
101.0
101.0
99.6
99.6
99.4
100.1
100.1
99.6
100.0
99.6
100.0
100.4
100.4
99.1

—0.51
-1 .1 0
-1 .1 0
- .23
- .31
— .16
— .54
— .54
- .31
- .49
- .'31
- .49
- .73
- .73

- 0 . 9 $0.2727 100.0 -4*0.0172
.2616 95.9
.0061
-1 .9
-1 .9
.2616 95.9
.0061
- .4 .2724 99.9 — .0169
.0253
- .6 .2808 103.0
— .3 .2748 100.8
.0193
—1.0 .2690 98.6
.0135
—1.0 .2727 100.0 _ .0172
- .6 .2711 99.4 _ .0156
- .9 .2821 103.4 — .0266
- .6 .2804 102.8 — .0249
- .9 .2791 102.3 — .0236
-1 .3
.2678 98.2
.0123
- 1 .3
.2706 99.2 — .0151
.2555 93.7

—6.3
-2 .3
-2 .3
-6 .2
-9 .0
—7.0
-5 .0
—6.3
-5 .8
-9 .4
-8 .9
-8 .5
-4 .6
- 5 .6

- 4 . 6 $0.2390 100.0 +S0.0209
-4 .6
.2571 107.6 + .0028
-4 .7
.2429 101.6 + .0170
-4 .8
.2320 97.1 + .0279
-4 .8
.2370 99.2 + .0229
.2370 99.2 + .0229
- 4 .6
.2357 98.6 + .0242
-4 .6
.2384 99.7 + .0215
- 4 .6
-4 .6
.2386 99.8 + .0213
- 4 .6
.2374 99.3 + .0225
—4.5 .2343 98.0 + .0256
-4 .5
.2481 103.8 + .0118
- 4 .6
.2548 106.6 + .0051
—4.7 .2511 105.1 + .0088
.2599 108.7

+ 8.7
+ 1.1
+ 7.0
+12.0
+ 9.7
+ 9.7
+10.3
+ 9.0
+ 8.9
+ 9.5
+10.9
+ 4.8
+ 2.0
+ 8,5

—

_
_

—

SCORERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

11
7
9
10
10
12
12
12
12
10
11
11
14
15
15

100.0
63.6
81.8
90:9
90.9
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
90.9
100.0
100.0
127.3
136.4
136.4




+4
+8
+6
+5
+5
+3
+3
+3
+3
+5
+4
+4
+1

+ 36.4
+114.3
+ 66.7
+ 50.0
+ 50.0
+ 25.0
+ 25.0
+ 25.0
+ 25.0
+ 50.0
+ 36.4
+ 36.4
+ 7.1

59.43
59.43
59.44
59.50
59.50
59.42
59.42
59.42
59.42
59.40
59.36
59.36
59.43
59.47
56.67

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.1
95.4

-2 .7 6
-2 .7 6
-2 .7 7
-2 .8 3
-2 .8 3
-2 .7 5
-2 .7 5
-2 .7 5
-2 .7 5
-2 .7 3
-2 .6 9
-2 .6 9
-2 .7 6
—2.80

746

BULLETIN OP THE BUEEAU OP LABOB,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

B O X E S , P A P E R —Concluded.
TRIMMERS, Fem ale.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver- Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
num­ num­
ber.
tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
NumPer
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.
5
5
5
5
5
4
3
3
5
5
5
4
4
4
5

100.0
+1
+2
+2

+25.0
+66.7
+66.7

+1
+1
+1

+25.0
+25.0
+25.0

59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
69.00
59.00
59.00

100.0

$0.0852
.0911
.0879
.0938
.0653
.0823
.0979
.0853
.0790
.0819
.0879
.0809
.0774
.0927
.0943

100.0
106.9
103.2
110.1
76.6
96,6
114.9
100.1
92.7
96.1
103.2
95.0
90.8
108.8
110.7

+$0.0091
+ .0032
+ .0064
+ .0005
+ .0290
+ .0120
.0036
+ .0090
+ .0153
+ .0124
+ .0064
+ .0134
+ .0169
+ .0016

+10.7
+ 3.5
+ 7.3
+ .5
+44.4
+14.6
- 3.7
+ 10.6
+ 19.4
+ 1 5.1
+ 7.3
+16.6
+ 21.8
+ 1.7

- 0 . 5 $0.1736 100. o!+$0.0224
- .5 .1735 99.9 + .0225
|
- .3 .1729 99.6 + .0231
- .3 .1788 103.0 + .0172
- .4 .1766 101.7 + .0194
- .5 .1708 98.4 + .0252
- .5 .1697 97.8 + .0263
- .5 .1712 98.6 + .0248
- .5 .1689 97.3 + .0271
- .6 .1746 100.6 + .0214
- .6 .1791 103.2 + .0169
- .6 .1815 104.6 + .0145
- .8 .1850 106.6 + .0110
- .6 .1932 111.3 + .0028
.1960 112.9

+ 12.9
+13.0
+13.4
+ 9.6
+ 11.0
+ 14.8
+15.5
+14.5
+16.0
+12.3
+ 9.4
+ 8.0
+ 6.0
+ 1.4

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

BRICK.
BRICK-MACHINE TENDERS, Male.
[Data from 20 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

126
125
127
126
124
125
125
125
125
127
129
130
128
131
138

100.0
99.2
100.8
100.0
98.4
99.2
99.2
99.2
99.2
100.8
102.4
103.2
101.6
104.0
109.5

+12
+13
+11
+12
+14
+13
+13
+13
+13
+11
+ 9
+ 8
+10
+ 7

+ 9.5
+10.4
+ 8.7
+ 9.5
+11.3
+10.4
+10.4
+10.4
+10.4
+ 8.7
+ 7.0
+ 6.2
+ 7.8
+ 5.3

58.71
58.70
58.63
58.62
58.69
58.70
58.70
58.75
58.75
58.77
58.79
58.80
58.88
58.81
58.43

100.0
10G.0
99.9
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.2
99.5

-0 .2 8
- .27
- .20
- .19
- .26
- .27
- .27
- .32
- .32
- .34
- .36
- .37
- .45
- .38

1

KILN BURNERS, Male.
[Data from 22 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
3900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903............

100
100
100
99
101
96
100
98
102
102
98
103
106
108
109

100.0
100.0
100.0
99.0
101.0
96.0
100.0
98.0
102.0
102.0
98.0
103.0
106.0
108.0
109.0




+ 9
+ 9
+ 9
+10
+ 3
+13
+ 9
+11
+ 7
+ 7
+11
+ 6
+ 3
+ 1

+ 9.0
+ 9.0
+ 9.0
+10.1
+ 7.9
+13.5
+ 9.0
+11.2
+ 6.9
+ 6.9
+11.2
+ 5.8
+ 2.8
+ .9

74.68
74.81
74.81
74.96
74.66
74.93
74.33
74.62
74.05
74.52
75.11
74.38
73.97
74.16
73.64

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.4
100.0
100.3
99.5
99.9
99.2
99.8
100.6
99.6
99.0
99.3
98.6

-1 .0 4
-1 .1 7
-1 .1 7
-1 .3 2
-1 .0 2
-1 .2 9
- .69
- .98
- .41
- .88
-1 .4 7
- .74
- .33
- .52

- 1 . 4 W 2033
- 1 . 6 .2046
.2057
-1 .6
.2044
-1 .8
.2035
-1 .4
.1935
-1 .7
- .9 .2014
.1955
-1 .3
- .6 .2074
- 1 .2
.2118
- 2 . 0 .2056
.2130
-1 .0
- .4 .2235
- .7 .2313
.2357

lOO.o!+$0.0324
100.6 + .0311
101.2 + .0300
100.5 + .0313
100.1 + .0322
95.2 + .0422
99.1 + .0343
96.2 + .0402
102.0 + .0283
104.2 + .0239
101.1 + .0301
104.8 + .0227
109.9 + .0122
113.8 + .0044
115.9

+ 15.9
+ 15.2
+ 14.6
+ 15.3
+ 15.8
+ 21.8
+17.0
+20.6
+13.6
+11.3
+14.6
+10.7
+ 5.5
+ 1.9

747

WAGES AND COST OP H Y IN G
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 3890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for.explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared -with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BR IC K —Continued.
KILN SETTERS, Male.
[Data from 24 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
^ona

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
Rela­ pared with year age
Num­
specified.
ber. tive
numnum­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
cent.
ber.
101
98
91
96
103
99
99
103
104
103
110
107
108
110
115

100.0
97.0
90.1
95.0
102.0
98.0
98.0
102.0
103.0
102.0
308.9
105.9
106.9
108.9
113.9

+14
4-17
4-24
4-19
4-12
4-16
4-16
4-12
4-11
4-12
+ 5
4- 8
+ 7
4- 5

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

4-13.9
4-17.3
4-26.4
4-19.8
4-11.7
4-16.2
4-16.2
4-11.7
4-10.6
4-11.7
4- 4.5
4- 7.5
4 -6 .5
4- 4.5

58.19
57.99
58.10
68.07
58.09
58.25
58.37
58.15
58.22
58.32
58.32
58.38
58.51
58.43
57.97

Increase ( + ) or
Increase (4-) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Amount
cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.1
100.3
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.5
100.4
99.6

-0 .2 2 - 0 . 4 10.1935
- .02 - .03 .1920
.1929
- .13 - .2
- .10 - .2
.2029
.1932
— .12 - .2
.1926
- .28 - .5
.1892
- .40 - .7
.1895
- .18 - .3
.1867
- .25 - .4
.1972
- .35 - .6
- .35 - .6
.1987
— .41 - — .7
.1991
.1958
- .54 - .9
.2069
- .46 - .8
.2078

100.0 +$0.0143
99.2 + .0158
99.7 + .0149
104.9 + .0049
99.8 + .0146
99.5 + .0152
97.8 + .0186
97.9 + .0183
96.5 + .0211
101.9 + .0106
102.7 + .0091
102.9 + .0087
101.2 + .0120
106.9 + .0009
107.4

+ 7.4
+ 8.2
+ 7.7
+ 2.4
+ 7.6
+ 7.9
+ 9.8
+ 9.7
+ 1 1 .3
+ 5.4
+ 4.6
+ 4.4
+ 6.1
+ .4

- 1 . 5 $0.1210 100.0 +$0.0155
- .8 .1258 104.0 + .0107
.1237 102.2 + .0128
-1 .3
.1237 102.2 + .0128
- 1 .3
.1220 100.8 + .0145
-1 .8
.1203 99.4 + .0162
-1 .8
.1175 97.1 + .0190
-1 .8
.1196 98.8 + .0169
-1 .3
.1196 98.8 + .0169
-1 .3
.1174 97.0 + .0191
-1 .9
.1202 99.3 + .0163
- 1 .6
.1234 102.0 + .0131
-1 .1
.1248 103.1 + .0117
-1 .1
- .7 .1321 109.2 + .0044
.1365 112.9

+12.9
+ 8.5
+10.3
+10.3
+11.8
+ 13.5
+16.2
+14.1
+14.1
+16.3
+13.6
+10.6
+ 9.4
+ 3.3

LABORERS, Male.
[Data from 11 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
lQ(ft

305
286
297
302
311
314
310
299
299
305
327
318
322
367
363

100.0
93.8
97.4
99.0
102.0
103.0
101.6
98.0
98.0
100.0
107.2
104.3
105.6
120.3
119.0

+58
+77
+66
+61
+52
+49
+53
+64
+64
+58
+36
+45
+41
- 4

+19.0
+26.9
+22.2
+20.2
+16.7
+15.6
+17.1
+21.4
+21.4
+19.0
+11.0
+14.2
+12.7
- 1.1

62.10
61.66
62.00
61.97
62.30
62.28
62.31
61.99
61.99
62.34
62.19
61.87
61.85
61.62
61.18

100.0
99.3
99.8
99.8
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.8
99.8
100.4
100.1
99.6
99.6
99.2
98.5

-0 .9 2
- .48
- .82
- .79
-1 .1 2
-1 .1 0
-1 .1 3
- .81
- .81
-1 .1 6
-1 .0 1
- .69
- .67
- .44

IHOLDERS, HAND, Male.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
3892.............
3893.............
3894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900...........
1001
1009!
1003

19
19
19
19
19
19
17
20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
89.5
105.3
105.3
105.3
105.3
105.3
110.5
110 5
110.5

+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
-t-4
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1

+10.5
+10.5
+10.5
+10.5
+10.5
+10.5
+23.5
+ 5.0
+ 5.0
+ 5.0
+ 5.0
+ 5.0

10092—No. 53—04-----4



68.90
68.89
58.89
58.89
58.89
58.89
58.76
58.95
58.95
58.95
58.95
58.95
69.00
59.00
59.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2

+0.10
+ .11
+ .11
+ .11
+ .H
+ .11
+ .24
+ .05
+ .05
+ .05
+ .05
+ .05

+ 0 .2 $0.2089
+ .2 .2106
+ .2 .2106
+ .2 .2106
+ .2 .2119
+ •? .2106
+ .4 .2103
+ .1 .1995
+ .1 .1995
+ .1 .2111
+ .1 .2143
+ .1 .2143
.2154
.2267
.2291

100.0 +$0.0202
100.8 + .0185
100.8 + .0185
100.8 + .0185
101.4 + .0172
100.8 + .0185
100.7 + .0188
95.5 + .0296
95.5 + .0296
101.1 + .0180
102.6 + .0148
102.6 + .0148
103.1 + .0137
108.5 + .0024
109.7

+ 9.7
+ 8.8
+ 8.8
+ 8.8
+ 8.1
+ 8.8
+ 8.9
+ 14.8
+14.8
+ 8.5
+ 6.9
+ 6.9
+ 6.4
+ 1.1

748

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR.
T able

I ___ WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with, previous years, see note on page 718.]

BR IC K —Concluded.
OFF B E A R E R ^ Male.
[Data from 19 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age, tive.
ber. num­
num­ num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
151
153
147
159
*148
145
150
151
148
149
155
143
146
150
147

100.0
101.3
97.4
105.3
98.0
96.0
99.3
100.0
98.0
98.7
102.6
94.7
96.7
99.3
97.4

-

2.6 57.92 100.0
3.9 57.93 100.0
57.77 99.7
- 7.5 57.90 100.0
.7 57.82 99.8
+ 1.4 57.90 100.0
- 2. o 57.93 100.0
j
- 2.6 57.99 100.1
.7 57.95 100.1
- 1.3 57.96 100.1
- 5.2 58.04 100.2
+ 2.8 57.83 99.8
+ *7 58.00 100.1
- 2.0 57.81 99.8
57.65 99.5

-

4
6

-1 2
- 1
+ 2
- 3
- 4
— 1
- 2
- 8
+ 4
+ 1
- 3

b u iid iM

- 0 . 5 $0.1572 100.0 +$0.0226
- .5 .1596 101.5 + .0202
- .2 .1639 104.3 + .0159
- .4 .1649 104.9 + .0149
- .3 .1678 106.7 + .0120
- .4 .1588 101.0 + .0210
- .5 .1545 98.3 + .0253
- .6 .1505 95.7 + .0293
- .5 .1470 94.1 + .0319
- .5 .1502 95.5 + .0296
- .7 .1534 97.6 + .0264
- .3 .1598 101.6 + .0200
- .6 .1674 106.5 + .0124
- .3 .1747 111.1 + .0051
.1798 114.4

-0 .2 7
- .28
— .12
- .25
- .17
- .25
— .28
- .34
- .30
- .31
- .39
- .18
- .35
- .16

+14.4
+12.7
+ 9.7
+ 9.0
+ 7.2
+13.2
+16.4
+19.5
+21.6
+19.7
+17.2
+12.5
+ 7.4
+ 2.9

trades.

BR1CKM YEKS, male.
[Data from 212 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1898.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

4,355
4,422
4,892
4,967
4,535
4,055
3,841
3,998
4,010
4,150
4,675
4,576
5,142
4,781
5,064

100.0
101.5
112.3
114.1
104.1
93.1
88.2
91.8
92.1
95.3
107.3
105.1
118.1
109.8
116.3

+ 709
+ 642
+ 172
+
97
+ 529
+1,009
+1,223
+1,066
+1,054
+ 914
+ 389
+ 488
78
+ 283 '

+16.3
+14.5
+ 3.5
+ 2.0
+ 11.7
+24.9
+31.8
+26.7
+26.3
+22.0
+ 8.3
+10.7
- 1.5
+ 5.9

51.57
53.22
52.80
52.19
51.63
51.96
51.56
51.50
51.11
50.47
49.24
49.32
48.62
48.27
47.83

100.0
103.2
102.4
101.2
100.1
100.8
100.0
99.9
99.1
97.9
95.5
95.6
94.3
93.6
92.7

-3 .7 4
-5 .3 9
-4 .9 7
-4 .3 6
- 3 .8 0
-4 .1 3
-3 .7 3
-3 .6 7
-3 .2 8
-2 .6 4
-1 .4 1
-1 .4 9
- .79
- .44

7.3 $0.4387
-1 0 .1 .4316
9.4 .4365
— 8.4 .4431
— 7.4 .4436
— 7.9 .4325
— 7.2 .4367
— 7.1 .4337
— 6.4 .4361
— 5.2
.4331
— 2.9
.4597
— 3.0
.4672
— 1.6 .4912
—
.9 .5313
.5471
—

100.0 + $ 0 .1084
98.4 + .1155
99.5 + .1106
101.0 + .1040
101.1 + .1035
98.6 + .1146
99.5 + .1104
98.9 + .1134
99.4 + .1110
98.7 + .1140
104.8 + .0874
106.5 + .0799
112.0 + .0559
121.1 + .0158
124.7

+24.7
+26.8
+25.3
+ 23.5
+23.3
+26.5
+25.3
+26.1
+25.5
+ 26.3
+ 1 9.0
+17.1
+11.4
+ 3.0

100.0 +$0.0843
98.6 + .0881
99.2 + .0864
102.7 + .0769
99.7 + .0850
97.9 + .0901
97.9 + .0902
99.6 + .0854
99.9 + .0846
101.4 + .0804
103.2 + ;U755
110.8 + .0545
116.0 + .0404
123.7 + .0191
130.6

+30.6
+32.5
+31.6
+27.2
+31.0
+33.5
+33.5
+31.2
+30.8
+28.8
+ 26.6
+ 17.9
+12.7
+ 5.6

CARPENTERS, Male*
[Data from 227 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903..........

5,655
5,923
6,231
6,461
5,528
5,049
5,021
5,413
5,403
5,402
6,120
6,336
6,660
6,906
6,580

100.0
104.7
110.2
114.3
97.8
89.3
88.8
95.7
95.5
95.5
108.2
112.0
117.8
122.1
116.4

+ 925
+ 657
+ 349
+ 119
+1,052
+1,531
+1,559
+1,167
+1,177
+1,178
+ 460
+ 244
80
326




+16.4
+11.1
+ 5.6
+ 1.8
+19.0
+30.3
+31.0
+21.6
+21.8
+21.8
+ 7.5
+ 3.9
- 1.2
- 4.7

54.85
55.94
55.56
55.12
55.22
55.27
55.05
54.67
54.20
54.02
53.42
51.86
50.74
49.70
49.41

100.0
m o
101.3
100.5
100.7
100.8
100.4
99.7
98.8
98.5
97.4
94.5
92.5
90.6
90.1

-5 .4 4
-6 .5 3
-6 .1 5
-5 .7 1
-5 .8 1
-5 .8 6
-5 .6 4
-5 .2 6
-4 .7 9
-4 .6 1
-4 .0 1
-2 .4 5
-1 .3 3
- .29

- 9.9 $0.2751
-1 1 .7 .2713
-1 1 .1
.2730
-1 0 .4 .2825
-1 0 .5 .2744
-1 0 .6 .2693
-1 0 .2 .2692
- 9.6 .2740
- 8.8 .2748
- 8.5 .2790
- 7.5 .2839
- 4.7 .3049
- 2.6 .3190
.6 .3403
.3594

749

WAGES AND COST O F DIVING.
T able I . —

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figuTes, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BD L L D IN G T R A D E S—Continued.
COBNKH fflAK ER S, M ale.
[Data from 40 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
Num­ tive
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
517
549
545
690
516
416
441
484
466
501
562
535
538
593
606

100.0
106.2
105.4
133.5
99.8
80.5
85.3
93.6
90.1
96.9
108.7
103.5
104.1
114.7
117.2

+ 89
+ 57
+ 61
- 84
+ 90
+190
+165
+122
+140
+105
+ 44
+ 71
+ 68
+ 13

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

+17.2
+10.4
+11.2
-1 2 .2
+17.4
+45.7
+37.4
+25.2
+30.0
+21.0
+ 7.8
+13.3
+12.6
+ 2.2

52.44
54.74
53.11
51.60
52.75
52.61
52.47
52.16
51.92
51.69
51.36
50.42
49.55
48.49
48.07

Increase ( + ) or
Increase (+ ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
104.4
101.3
98.4
100.6
100.3
100.1
99.5
99.0
98.6
97.9
96.1
94.5
.92.5
91.7

-4 .3 7
-6 .6 7
- 5 .0 4
-3 .5 3
-4 .6 8
-4 .5 4
-4 .4 0
-4 .0 9
-3 .8 5
-3 .6 2
-3 .2 9
-2 .3 5
-1 .4 8
- .42

- 8.3 $0.3015
-1 2 .2 .2867
- 9.5 .2928
- 6.8 .2993
- 8.9 .2982
- 8.6 .2944
- 8.4 .2974
- 7.8 .3060
- 7.4 .3082
- 7.0 .3107
- 6.4 .3210
- 4.7 .3424
- 3.0 .3489
.9 .3774
.4052

100.0
95.1
97.1
99.3
98.9
97.6
98.6
101.5
102.2
103.1
106.5
113.6
112.4
125.2
134.4

+$0.1037
+ .1185
+ .1124
+ .1059
+ .1070
+ .1108
+ .1078
+ .0992
+ .0970
+ .0945
+ .0842
+ .0628
+ .0563
+ .0278

+34.4
+41.3
+ 38.4
+35.4
+35.9
+37.6
+36.2
+ 32.4
+31.5
+ 30.4
+ 26.2
+18.3
+16.1
+ 7.4

- 9.1 $0.3180 100.0 +$0.0970
-1 2 .2 .3037 95.5 + .1113
-1 1 .4 .3062 96.3 + .1088
- 9.7 .3144 98.9 + .1006
- 9.0 .3170 99.7 + .0980
- 8.9 .3150 99.1 + .1000
- 8.9 .3159 99.3 + .0991
- 8.6 .3181 100.0 + .0969
- 7.7 .3231 101.6 + .0919
- 8.3 .3299 103.7 + .0851
- 6.6 .3363 105.8 + .0787
- 5.7 .3499 110.0 + .0651
- 4.8 .3629 114.1 + .0521
— 1.8 .3922 123.3 + .0228
.4150 130.5

+30.5
+36.6
+35.5
+32.0
+30.9
+31.7
+31.4
+30.5
+28.4
+25.8
+23.4
+18.6
+14.4
+ 5.8

GAS FITTERS, Male.
[Data from 64 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

162
161
162
171
151
156
146
163
162
173
179
175
177
186
186

+24
+25
+24
+15
+35
+30
+40
+23
+24
+13
+ 7
+11
+ 9

100.0
99.4
100.0
105.6
93.2
96.3
90.1
100.6
100.0
106.8
110.5
108.0
109.3
114.8
114.8

+14.8
+15.5
+14.8
+ 8.8
+23.2
+19.2
+27.4
+14.1
+14.8
+ 7.5
+ 3.9
+ 6.3
+ 5.1

54.14
56.03
55.53
54.47
54.05
53.97
53.97
53.79
53.29
53.64
52.69
52.17
51.67
50.11
49.19

100.0
103.5
102.6
100.6
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.4
98.4
99.1
97.3
96.4
95.4
92.6
90.9

-4 .9 5
-6 .8 4
-6 .3 4
-5 .2 8
-4 .8 6
-4 .7 8
-4 .7 8
-4 .6 0
-4 .1 0
-4 .4 5
-3 .5 0
-2 .9 8
-2 .4 8
- .92

HOD CARRIERS, Male.
[Data from 250 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

4,242
4,327
4,644
4,894
4,455
3,698
3,844
3,959
3,996
3,920
4,685
4,417
5,097
5,062
5,242

100.0
102.0
109.5
115.4
105.0
87.2
90.6
93.3
94.2
92.4
110.4
104.1
120.2
119.3
123.6

+1,000
+ 915
+ 598
+ 348
+ 787
+1,544
+1,398
+1,283
+1,246
+1,322
+ 557
+ 825
+ 145
+ 180




+23.6
+21.1
+12.9
+ 7.1
+17.7
+41.8
+36.4
+32.4
+31.2
+33.7
+11.9
+18.7
+ 2.8
+ 3.6

51.60
52.78
52.54
61.81
51.64
52.03
51.53
51.45
51.42
51.01
49.79
49.79
49.35
48.56
47.98

100.0
102.3
101.8
100.4
100.1
100.8
99.9
99.7
99.7
98.9
96.5
96.5
95.6
94.1
93.0

-3 .6 2
-4 .8 0
-4 .5 6
-3 .8 3
-3 .6 6
-4 .0 5
-3 .5 5
-3 .4 7
-3 .4 4
-3 .0 3
-1 .8 1
-1 .8 1
-1 .3 7
- .58

- 7 . 0 $0.2329 100.0 + $ 0 .0534
- 9 .1
.2259 97.0 + .0604
.2248 96.5 + .0615
-8 .7
-7 .4
.2314 99.4 + .0549
.2325 99.8 + .0538
- 7 .1
.2303 98.9 + .0560
- 7 .8
.2320 99.6 + .0543
-6 .9
.2335 100.3 + .0528
-6 .7
.2322 99.7 + .0541
-6 .7
.2343 100.6 + .0520
-5 .9
.2518 108.1 + .0345
-3 .6
- 3 .6
.2498 107.3 + .0365
.2546 109.3 + .0317
- 2 .8
-1 .2
.2676 114.9 + .0187
.2863 122.9

+22.9
+26.7
+ 27.4
+23.7
+23.1
+24.3
+23.4
+22.6
+23.3
+22.2
+13.7
+14.6
+12.5
+ 7.0

750

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I . —

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BU ILDIN G TRADES—Continued.
INSIDE WlREIilEN, Male.
[Data from 40 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
Num­ tive
specified.
num­
ber. num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
415
308
324
392
378
389
387
426
541
508
497
609
620
733
764

100.0
74.2
78.1
94.5
91.1
93.7
93.3
102.7
130.4
122.4
119.8
146.7
149.4
176.6
184.1

4-349
4-456
4-440
4-372
4-386
4-375
4-377
4-338
4-223
4-256
4-267
4-155
4-144
4- 31

4- 84.1
4-148.1
4-135.8
4- 94.9
4-102.1
4- 96.4
4- 97.4
4- 79.3
4- 41.2
4- 60.4
4- 53.7
4- 25.5
4- 23.2
4- 4.2

54.47
55.97
55.88
53.79
55.13
55.29
55.15
54.07
53.10
52.96
63.37
51.58
51.46
50.57
48.79

Wages per hour.

Increase (4-) or
Increase (4-) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
age.
tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
102.8
102.6
98.8
101.2
101.5
101.2
99.3
97.5
97.2
98.0
94.7
94.5
92.8
89.6

-5 .6 8
-7 .1 8
-7 .0 9
-5 .0 0
-6 .3 4
-6 .5 0
-6 .3 6
-5 .2 8
-4 .3 1
-4 .1 7
-4 .5 8
-2 .7 9
-2 .6 7
-1 .7 8

-1 0 .4 $0.2896
-1 2 .8 .2594
-1 2 .7
.2579
- 9.3
.2652
- 1 1 .5 .2835
-1 1 .8
.2782
-1 1 .5 .2895
- 9.8 ,3026
- 8.1 .3117
- 7.9 .3245
- 8.6 .3234
- 5.4 .3495
- 5.2 .3465
- 3.5 .3757
.4073

100.0
89.6
89.1
91.6
97.9
96.1
100.0
104.5
107.6
112.1
111.7
120.7
119.6
129.7
140.6

+ $ 0 .1177
4- .1479
4- .1494
4- .1421
4- .1238
4- .1291
+ .1178
4- .1047
+ .0956
4- .0828
4- .0839
4- .0578
4- .0608
4- .0316

4-40.6
4-57.0
4-57.9
4-53.6
4-43.7
4-46.4
4-40.7
4-34.6
4-30.7
4-25.5
4-25.9
4-16.5
4-17.5
4- 8.4

- 4 . 6 $0.1467 100.0 +80.0209
- 4 .9
.1507 102.7 + .0169
.1511 103.0 + .0165
- 4 .9
—4.9 .1519 103.5 -j- .0157
.1493 101.8 + .0183
- 4 .5
.1419 96.7 + .0257
- 4 .5
.1440 98.2 + .0236
-4 .7
- 4 .7
.1415 96.5 + .0261
.1445 98.5 + .0231
- 4 .5
- 4 .0
.1466 99.9 + .0210
-4 .4
.1457 99.3 + .0219
- 3 .7
.1461 99.6 + .0215
- 3 .2
.1585 108.0 + .0091
- .9 .1644 112.1 + .0032
.1676 114.2

+14.2
+11.2
+10.9
+10.3
+12.3
+18.1
+ 16.4
+18.4
+16.0
+14.3
+15.0
+14.7
+ 5.7
+ 1.9

LABORERS, iHale.
[Data from 146 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

4,460
5,118
4,861
4,812
4,516
4,128
3,796
4,018
4,000
4,524
4,822
5,275
4,648
5,317
5,082

100.0 4- 622
114.8 36
109.0 4- 221
107 9 4- 270
101.3 4- 666
92.6 4- 954
85.1 4- 1,286
90.1 4- 1,064
89.7 4- 1,082
101.4 4- 558
108.1 4- 260
118.3 - 193
104.2 4- 434
119.2 - 235
113.9

4-13.9
.7
4 -4 .5
4 -5 .6
4-12.5
4-23.1
4-33.9
4-26.5
4-27.1
4-12.3
4- 6.4
- 3.7
4 -9 .3
- 4.4

58.84
59.02
59.02
69.02
58.80
68.76
58.88
58.92
58.80
58.44
58.71
58.27
57.98
56.66
56.13

100.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.3
99.8
99.0
98.5
96.3
95.4

-2 .7 1
-2 .8 9
-2 .8 9
—2.89
-2 .6 7
-2 .6 3
-2 .7 5
-2 .7 9
-2 .6 7
-2 .3 1
-2 .5 8
-2 .1 4
-1 .8 5
- .53

LATHERS, Hale.
[Data from 10 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

108
92
88
117
99
98
119
114
107
129
118
131
131
146
124

100.0
85.2
81.5
108.3
91.7
90.7
110.2
105.6
99.1
119.4
109.3
121.3
121.3
135.2
114.8




+16
+32
+36
+ 7
+25
+26
+ 5
+10
+17
- 5
+ 6
- 7
- 7
-2 2

+14.8
+34.8
+40.9
+ 6.0
+25.2
+26.5
+ 4.2
+ 8.8
+15.9
- 3.9
+ 5.1
- 5.3
- 5.3
-1 5 .1

51.78
54.58
54.60
54.30
64.29
54.23
53.70
48.25
48.24
47.78
47.78
45.18
45.50
45.40
45.58

100.0
105.4
105.4
104.9
104.8
104.7
103.7
93.2
93.2
92.3
92.3
87.3
87.9
87.7
88.0

-6 .2 0
-9 .0 0
-9 .0 2
-8 .7 2
-8 .7 1
-8 .6 5
-8 .1 2
-2 .6 7
-2 .6 6
-2 .2 0
-2 .2 0
+ .40
+ .08
+ .18

-1 2 .0 $0.3375 100.0 +$0.0384
-1 6 .5 .3174 94.0 + .0585
-1 6 .5 .3165 93.8 + .0594
.3237 95.9 + .0522
-1 6 .1
-1 6 .0 .3167 93.8 + .0592
-1 6 .0 .3166 93.8 + .0593
.3304 97.9 + .0455
-1 5 .1
- 5.5 .3588 106.3 + .0171
- 5.5 .3584 106.2 + .0175
- 4.6 .3695 109.5 + .0064
- 4.6 .3668 108.7 + .0091
+ .9 .3738 110.8 + .0021
+ .2 .3753 111.2 + .0006
.0124
+ .4 .3883 115.1
.3759 111.4

+11.4
+18.4
+18.8
+16.1
+18.7
+18.7
+13.8
+ 4.8
+ 4.9
+ 1.7
+ 2.5
+ .6
+ .2
- 3.2

751

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING,
T able

I*— WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BUIRDINTG TRADES—Continued.
PAINTERS, Male.
[Data from 203 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
190a

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
3,676
3,541
3,708
3,877
3,666
3,450
3,460
3,648
3,737
3,723
3,953
4,089
4,284
4,254
4,023

100.0

96.3
100.9
105.5
99.7
93.9
94.1
99.2
101.7
101.3
107.5

111.2

116.5
115.7
109.4

+345
+480
+313
+144
+355
+571
+561
+373
+284
+298
+ 68
- 68
-2 6 3
-2 3 3

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+ 9.4
+13.6
+ 8.4
+ 3.7
+ 9.7
+16.6
+16.2
+ 10.2
+ 7.6
+ 8.0
+ 1.7
- 1.7
- 6.1
- 5.5

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

53.82
55.23
54.86
54.43
53.86
54.01
53.87
53.61
53.28
52.79
52.27
50.91
49.85
49.27
48.89

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Amount. cent.
cent.
ber.

100.0
102.6

101.9

101.1
100.1

100.4

100.1

99.6
99.0
98.1
97.1
94.6
92.6
91.5
90.8

-4 .9 3
-6 .3 4
-5 .9 7
-5 .5 4
-4 .9 7
-5 .1 2
-4 .9 8
-4 .7 2
-4 .3 9
-3 .9 0
-3 .3 8
- 2.02
- .96
- .38

- 9.2 #0.2763 100.0 +$0.0687
-1 1 .5 .2680 97.0 + .0770
-1 0 .9 .2712 98.2 + .0738
- 10.2 .2747 99.4 + .0703
- 9.2 .2795 101.2 + .0655
- 9.5 .2737 99.1 + .0713
- 9.2 .2720 98.4 + .0730
- 8.8 .2742 99.2 + .0708
- 8.2 .2778 100.5 + .0672
- 7.4 .2827 102.3 + .0623
- 6.5 .2892 104.7 + ,.0558
- 4.0 .3054 110.5 + .0396
- 1.9 .3170 114.7 + .0280
.8 .3303 119.5 + .0147
.3450 124.9

+24.9
+28.7
+27.2
+25.6
+23.4
+26.1
+26.8
+25.8
+24.2
+ 22.0
+19.3
+13.0
+ 8.8
+ 4.5

PAPER HANGERS, Male.
[Data from 93 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1Q03

505
475
479
508
472
465
472
504
534
548
595
602
646
627
608

100.0
94.1
94.9
100.6
93.5
92.1
93.5
99.8
105.7
108.5
117.8
119.2
127.9
124.2
120.4

+103
+133
+129
+100
+136
+143
+136
+104
+ 74
+ 60
+ 13
+ 6
- 38
- 19

+20.4
+28.0
+26.9
+19.7
+28.8
+30.8
+28.8
+20.6
+13.9
+10.9
+ 2.2
+ 1.0
- 5.9
- 3.0

55.50
56.27
56.00
56.04
65.95
55.72
55.75
55.41
54.94
64.62
54.31
53.31
51.52
50.72
50.04

100.0
-5 .4 6
101.4
-6 .2 3
100.9 „ -5 .9 6
101.0
-6 .0 0
-5 .9 1
100.8
-5 .6 8
100.4
100.5
-5 .7 1
-5 .3 7
99.8
99.0
-4 .9 0
98.4
-4 .5 8
97.9
-4 .2 7
-3 .2 7
96.1
92.8
-1 .4 8
91.4
- .68
90.2

- 9.8 $0.2874 100.0 +$0.0739
.2830 98.5 + .0783
-1 1 .1
—10.6 .2853 99.3 + .0760
.2856 99.4 + .0757
-1 0 .7
.2842 98.9 + .0771
-1 0 .6
-1 0 .2 .2827 98.4 + .0786
.2830 98.5 + .0783
-1 0 .2
- 9.7 .2861 99.5 + .0752
- 8.9 .2906 101.1 + .0707
- 8.4 .2956 102.9 ~r .0657
- 7.9 .2980 103.7 + .0633
- 6.1 .3114 108.4 + .0499
- 2.9 .3259 113.4 + .0354
- 1.3 .3415 118.8 + .0198
.3613 125.7

+25.7
+27.7
+26.6
+26.5
+27.1
+27.8
+27.7
+26.3
+24.3
+22.2
+21.2
+16.0
+10.9
+ 5.8

PLASTERERS, Male.
[Data from 146 establishments.]
1,681
1,684
1,782
1,857
1,721
1,547
1,547
1,642
1,587
1,630
1,817
1,875
1,769
2,061
1 9 0 .3 ................. 1,895

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............

100.0
100.2
106.0
110.5
102.4
92.0
92.0
97.7
94.4
97.0
108.1
111.5
105.2
122.6
112.7




+214
+211
+113
+ 38
+174
+348
+348
+253
+308
+265
+ 78
+ 20
+126
-1 6 6

+12.7
+12.5
+ 6.3
+ 2.0
+10.1
+22.5
+22.5
+15.4
+19.4
+16.3
+ 4.3
+ 1.1
+ 7.1
- 8.1

51.83
53.50
52.67
52.09
51.97
52.01
51.63
51.50
51.96
51.11
49.82
48.75
48.27
47.29
47.04

100.0
103.2
101.6
100.5
100.3
100.3
99.6
99.4
100.3
98.6
96.1
94.1
93.1
91.2
90.8

-4 .7 9
-6 .4 6
-5 .6 3
-5 .0 5
-4 .9 3
-4 .9 7
-4 .5 9
-4 .4 6
-4 .9 2
-4 .0 7
-2 .7 8
-1 .7 1
-1 .2 3
- .25

- 9.2 $0.3969
-1 2 .1 .3648
-1 0 .7 .3966
- 9.7 .4100
- 9.5 .4019
- 9.6 .3915
- 8.9 .3924
- 8.7 .3985
- 9.5 .3903
- 8.0 .3974
- 5.6 .4254
- 3.5 .4378
- 2.5 .4570
.5 .4946
.5268

100.0 +$0.1299
91.9 + .1620
99.9 + .1302
103.3 + .1168
101.3 + .1249
98.6 + .1353
98.9 + .1344
100.4 + .1283
98.3 + .1365
100.1 + .1294
107.2 + .1014
110.3 + .0890
115.1 + .0698
124.6 + .0322
132.7

+32.7
+44.4
+32.8
+28.5
+ 31.1
+34.6
+34.3
+32.2
+ 35.0
+ 32.6
+ 23.8
+ 20.3
+15.3
+ '6.5

752

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I .—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years,-see note on page 718.]

BU IIiBIK O TRADES—Continued.
PLUMBERS', Male.
[Data from 221 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
189$.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

Increase ( + } or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
pared with year
Num­ tive
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
1,380
1,368
1,384
1,427
1,377
1,303
1,301
1,365
1,367
1,443
1,466
1,523
1,633
1,627
1,595

100.0
99.1
100.3
103.4
99.8
94.4
94.3
98.9
99.1
104.6
106.2
110.4
118.3
117.9
115.6

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

+215
+227
+211
+168
+218
+292
+294
+230
+228
+152
+129
+ 72
- 38
- 32

+15.6
+16.6
+15.2
+11.8
+15.8
+22.4
+22.6
+16.8
+16.7
+10.5
+ 8.8
+ 4.7
- 2.3
2.0

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

53.23
54.33
54.09
53.86
53.36
53.28
53.08
52.86
52.67
52.53
52.28
51.40
50.77
49.52
48.97

Increase f + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
102.1
101.6
101.2
100.2
100.1
99.7
99.3
98.9
98.7
98.2
96.6
95.4
93.0
92.0

-4 .2 6
-5 .3 6
-5 .1 2
- 4 89
-4 .3 9
-4 .3 1
-4 .1 1
-3 .8 9
-3 .7 0
-3 .5 6
-3 .3 1
-2 .4 3
-1 .8 0
- .55

- 8 . 0 $0.3550 100.0 +$0.0821
.3464 97.6 + .0907
-9 .9
-9 .5
.3488 98.3 + .0883
- 9 .1
.3511 98.9 + .0860
-8 .2
.3552 100.1 + .0819
- 8 .1
.3515 99.0 + .0856
.3546 99.9 + .0825
- 7 .7
- 7 .4
.3505 98.7 + .0866
.3598 101.4 + .0773
- 7 .0
.3638 102.5 + .0733
- 6 .8
.3684 103.8 + .0687
-6 .3
-4 .7
.3811 107.4 + .0560
- 3 .5
.3935 110.8 + .0436
.4122 116.1 + .0249
-1 .1
.4371 123.1

+23.1
+26.2
+25.3
+24.5
+23.1
+24.4
+23.3
+24.7
+21.5
+20.1
+18.6
+14.7
+11.1
+ 6.0

1

ROOFERS, GRAVEL AND TAR, Male.
[Data from 9 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

76
63
68
70
104
58
69
77
76
84
93
80
83
72
74

100.0
82.9
89.5
92.1
136.8
76.3
90.8
101.3
100.0
110.5
122.4
105.3
109.2
94.7
97.4

- 2
+11
+ 6
+ 4
-3 0
+16
+ 5
- 3
- 2
-1 0
-1 9
- 6
- 9
+ 2

- 2.6
+17.5
+ 8.8
+ 5.7
-2 8 .8
+27.6
+ 7.2
- 4.0
- 2.6
-1 1 .9
-2 0 .4
- 7.5
-1 0 .8
+ 2.8

57.39
57.62
57.53
58.11
56.31
57.41
58.00
57.35
57.24
57.14
57.16
55.05
55.23
55.00
56.59

100.0
100.4
100.2
101.3
98.1
100.0
101.1
99.9
99.7
99.6
99.6
95.9
96.2
95.8
98.6

-0 .8 0
-1 .0 3
- .94
-1 .5 2
+ .28
- .82
-1 .4 1

-

.76
.65
.55
.57

+1.54
+1.36
+1.59

! ...............
I

1

- 1 . 4 $0.2310 100.0 +$0.0303
.2242 97.1 + .0371
-1 .8
.2334 101.0 + .0279
- 1 .6
- 2 .6
.2394 103.6 + .0219
+ .5 .2485 107.6 + .0128
- 1 .4
.2263 98.0 + .0350
- 2 .4
.2136 92.5 + .0477
-1 .3
.2230 96.5 + .0383
-1 .1
.2331 100.9 + .0282
- 1.0
.2313 100.1 + .0300
- 1 .0
.2376 102.9 + .0237
+ 2 .8 .2645 114.5
.0032
+ 2 .5 .2677 115.9 — .0064
+ 2 .9 .2643 114.4 — .0030
.2613 113.1

+13.1
+16.5
+12.0
+ 9.1
+ 5.2
+15.5
+ 22.3
+17.2
+12.1
+13.0
+10.0
- 1.2
- 2.4
- 1.1

ROOFERS, SLATE AND TILE, Male.
[Data from 40 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

271
299
292
287
273
245
248
265
272
260
273
266
259
272
258

100.0
110.3
107.7
105.9
100.7
90.4
91.5
97.8
100.4
95.9
100.7
98.2
95.6
100.4
95.2




-1 3
-4 1
-3 4
-2 9
-1 5
+13
+10
- 7
-1 4
- 2
-1 5
- 8
- 1
-1 4

- 4.8
-1 3 .7
-1 1 .6
-1 0 .1
- 5.5
+ 5.3
+ 4.0
- 2.6
- 5.1
.8
- 5.5
- 3.0
.4
- 5.1

53.44
53.85
53.91
53.95
53.73
53.80
53.82
53.38
52.85
52.92
52.21
50.89
50.68
48.99
48.62

100.0
100.8
100.9
101.0
100.5
100.7
100.7
99.9
98.9
99.0
97.7
95.2
94.8
91.7
91.0

-4 .8 2
-5 .2 3
-5 .2 9
-5 .3 3
-5 .1 1
-5 .1 8
-5 .2 0
-4 .7 6
-4 .2 3
-4 .3 0
-3 .5 9
-2 .2 7
-2 .0 6
- .37

- 9 . 0 $0.3265 100.0 +$0.0923
-9 .7
.3304 101.2 + .0884
-9 .8
.3259 99.8 + .0929
.3293 100.9 + .0895
-9 .9
.3276 100.3 + .0912
-9 .5
-9 .6
.3183 97.5 + .1005
-9 .7
.3203 98.1 + .0985
.3213 98.4 + .0975
-8 .9
-8 .0
.3220 98.6 + .0968
.3309 101.3 + .0879
-8 .1
.3388 103.8 + .0800
-6 .9
-4 .5
.3576 109.5 + .0612
-4 .1
.3657 112.0 + .0531
- .8 .3869 118.5 + .0319
.4188 128.3

+ 28.3
+26.8
+ 28.5
+27.2
+27.8
+31.6
+30.8
+30.3
+30.1
+ 26.6
+23.6
+17.1
+14.5
+ 8.2

753

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T ablk

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BU IJ jDINTG TRADES—Continued.
ROOFJERS, TIN, Male.
[Data from 94 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902
.
1903
.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. numnum­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
842
813
863
843
886
799
789
850
814
861
906
888
919
968
929

100.0
96.6
102.5
100.1
105.2
94.9
93.7
101.0
96.7
102.3
107.6
105.5
109.1
115.0
110.3

+ 87
+116
+ 66
+ 86
+ 43
+130
+140
+ 79
+115
+ 68
+ 23
+ 41
+ 10
- 39

+
+
+
+
+
+
-jr

+
+
+
+
+
+
-

10.3
14.3
7.6
10.2
4.9
16.3
17.7
9.3
14.1
7.9
2.5
4.6
1.1
4.0

54.47
55.57
55.10
55.05
54.69
54.86
54.64
54.24
53.94
53.53
53.05
52.07
51.08
49.79
49.80

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
NumPer
ber.
cent.
100.0
102.0
101.2
101.1
100.4
100.7
100.3
99.6
99.0
98.3
97.4
95.6
93.8
91.4
91.4

-4 .6 7
-5 .7 7
-5 .3 0
-5 .2 5
-4 .8 9
-5 .0 6
-4 .8 4
-4 .4 4
-4 .1 4
-3 .7 3
-3 .2 5
-2 .2 7
-1 .2 8
+ .01

- 8.6 $0.2838
-1 0 .4
.2753
.2813
- 9.6
- 9.5
.2813
- 8.9
.2837
- 9.2
.2775
- 8.9
.2803
- 8.2
.2841
- 7.7 • .2850
.2908
- 7.0
.2985
- 6.1
- 4.4
.3086
- 2.5
.3176
+ .02 .3398
.3467

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—)in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount

Per
cent.

100.0
97.0
99.1
99.1
100.0
97.8
98.8
100.1
100.4
102.5
105.2
108.7
111.9
119.7
122.2

+ $ 0 .0629
+ .0714
+ .0654
+ .0654
+ .0630
+ .0692
+ .0664
+ .0626
+ .0617
+ .0559
-L .0482
+ .0381
+ .0291
+ .0069

+22.2
+25.9
+23.2
+23.2
+22.2
+24.9
+23.7
+22.0
+21.6
+19.2
+16.1
+12.3
+ 9.2
+ 2.0

100.0
95.9
96.2
99.4
97.4
99.2
98.2
100.5
101.5
104.3
107.4
108.1
115.1
120.2
127.3

+$0.0913
+ .1050
4- .1040
+ .0934
+ .1000
+ .0940
+ .0974
.0896
+ .0863
+ .0770
+ .0666
+ .0643
+ .0407
+ .0238

+27.3
+32.8
+32,3
+28.1
+30.7
+28.3
+29.7
+26.7
+25.4
+22.1
+18.6
+17.8
+ 10.6
+ 5.9

- 8 . 0 $0.3617 100.0 + $ 0 .0869
- 9 .2
.3722 102.9 + .0764
.3732 103.2 + . 0754
-9 .1
-9 .1
.3673 101.5 + .0813
.3644 100.7 + .0842
- 8 .5
- 8 .8
.3440 95.1 + .1046
.3485 96.4 + .1001
-8 .3
- 8 .2
.3547 98.1 + .0939
.3628 100.3 + .0858
- 6 .6
.3581 99.0 + .0905
- 5 .5
.3719 102.8 + .0767
- 6 .0
.3788 104.7 + .0698
- 4 .5
- 3 .3
.4007 110.8 + .0479
.4304 119.0
.0182
-1 .3
.4486 124.0

+24.0
+20.5
+20.2
+22.1
+23.1
+30.4
+28.7
+26.5
+23.6
+25.3
+20.6
+18.4
+12.0
+ 4.2

STEAM FITTERS, Male.
[Data from 73 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

617
574
561
614
666
596
588
616
653
628
669
659
711
798
796

100.0
93.0
90.9
99.5
107.9
96.6
95.3
99.8
105.8
101.8
108.4
106.8
115.2
129.3
129.0

+179
+222
+235
+182
+130
+200
+208
+180
+143
+168
+127
+137
+ 85
2

+29.0
+38.7
+41.9
+29.6
+19.5
+33.6
+35.4
+29.2
+21.9
+26.8
+19.0
+20.8
+12.0
.3

53.87
55.25
54.92
54.55
54.71
53.57
53.75
53.44
53.16
53.13
52.19
51.71
50.66
49.77
47.92

100.0
102.6
101.9
101.3
101.6
99.4
99.8
99.2
98.7
98.6
96.9
96.0
94.0
92.4
89.0

-5 .9 5
-7 .3 3
-7 .0 0
-6 .6 3
-6 .7 9
-5 .6 5
-5 .8 3
-5 .5 2
-5 .2 4
-5 .2 1
-4 .2 7
-3 .7 9
-2 .7 4
-1 .8 5

-1 1 .0 $0.3343
-1 3 .3 .3206
.3216
-1 2 .7
-1 2 .2
.3322
-1 2 .4 .3256
-1 0 .5 .3316
-1 0 .8 .3282
-1 0 .3
.3360
- 9.9 .3393
- 9.8 .3486
- 8.2 .3590
- 7.3 .3613
- 5.4 .3849
- 3.7 .4018
.4256

i

STONJE MASONS, Male.
[Data from 115 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

886
947
1021
984
898
799
798
828
796
932
860
935
927
954
1073

100.0
106.9
115.2
111.1
101.4
90.2
90.1
93.5
89.8
105.2
97.1
105.5
104.6
107.7
121.1




+187
+126
+ 52
+ 89
+175
+274
+275
+245
+277
+141
+213
+138
+146
+119

+21.1
+13.3
+ 5.1
+ 9.0
+19.5
+34.3
+34.5
+29.6
+34.8
+15.1
+24.8
+14.8
+15.7
+12.5

53.83
54.54
54.51
54.49
54.17
54.34
54.05
53.97
53.05
52.43
52.73
51.89
51.23
50.19
49.54
«

100.0
101.3
301.8
101.2
100.6
100.9
100.4
100.3
98.6
97.4
98.0
96.4
95.2
93.2
92.0

-4 .2 9
-5 .0 0
-4 .9 7
-4 .9 5
-4 .6 3
-4 .8 0
-4 .5 1
-4 .4 3
-3 .5 1
-2 .8 9
-3 .1 9
-2 .3 5
-1 .6 9
- .65
1
...............

754

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OE LABOR,

Table I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BUIXiDESTG TRADES—Concluded.
STONE SETTERS, male.
[Data from 27 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
109
96
96
108
111
105
118
116
107
108
122
134
146
142
134

100.0
88.1
88.1
99.1
101.8
96.3
108.3
106.4
98.2
99.1
111.9
122.9
133.9
130.3
122.9

+25
+38
+38
+26
+23
+29
+16
+18
+27
+26
+12

+22.9
+39.6
+39.6
+24.1
+20.7
+27.6
+13.6
+15.5
+25.2
+24.1
+ 9.8

—12
- 8

-

51.51
53.53
53.25
51.53
51.36
51.12
50.91
51.19
50.92
50.70
50.59
49.60
8.2 49.12
5.6 49.13
48.84

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
103.9
103.4
100.1
99.7
99.2
98.8
99.4
98.9
98.4
98.2
96.3
95.4
95.4
94.8

-2 .6 7
- 4 .6 9
-4 .4 1
-2 .6 9
- 2 .5 2
-2 .2 8
-2 .0 7
-2 .3 5
-2 .0 8
-1 .8 6
-1 .7 5
- .76
- .28
- .29

.
- 5 . 2 SO 4297
.3964
-8 .8
.3990
- 8 .3
.4306
-5 .2
.4291
-4 .9
.4332
-4 .5
.4384
-4 .1
.4331
-4 .6
.4424
-4 .1
-3 .7
.4480
.4464
- 3 .5
- 1 .5
.4620
- .6 .4859
- *6 .4765
.4995

100.0
92.3
92.9
100.2
99.9
100.8
102.0
100.8
103.0
104.3
103.9
107.5
113.1
110.9
116.2

+S0.0698
+ .1031
+ .1005
+ .0689
+ .0704
+ .0663
+ .0611
+ .0664
+ .0571
+ .0515
+ .0531
+ .0375
+ .0136
+ .0230

+16.2
+26.0
+ 25.2
+ 16.0
+ 16.4
+15.3
+ 13.9
4-15.3
+12.9
+11.5
+ 11.9
+ 8.1
+ 2.8
+ 4.8

STRUCTURAL IRON WORKERS, male.
[Data for employees from 19 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 19
establishments, 1890-1892; 20 establishments, 1893-1903.]
561 100.0
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
436 77.7
1891.............
551 98.2
602 107.3
1892.............
554 98.8
1893.............
1894.............
416 74.2
446 79.5
1895.............
1896.............
648 115.5
1897.............
628 111.9
1898.............
685 122.1
1899.............
648 115.5
1900.............
798 142.2
1901............. 1,097 195.5
1902............. 1,280 228.2
1903............. 1,159 206.6

+598
+723
+608
+557
+605
+743
+713
+511
+531
+474
+511
+361
+ 62
-1 2 1

+106.6
+165.8
+110.3
+ 92.5
+109.2
+178.6
+159.9
+ 78.9
+ 84.6
+ 69.2
+ 78.9
+ 45.2
+ 5.7
9.5

55.14
56.73
56.15
54.77
55.18
56.20
55.22
54.32
53.47
53.90
55.44
64.03
53.30
50.52
50.85

100.0
102.9
101.8
99.3
100.1
101.9
100.1
98.5
97.0
97.8
100.5
98.0
96.7
91.6
92.2

-4 .2 9
-5 .8 8
-5 .3 0
-3 .9 2
-4 .3 3
- 5 .3 5
-4 .3 7
-3 .4 7
-2 .6 2
-3 .0 5
-4 .5 9
- 3 .1 8
-2 .4 5
+ .33

.
- 7.8 SO 2643
-1 0 .4 .2475
- 9.4 .2591
- 7.2 .2658
- 7.8 .2666
- 9.5 .2470
- 7.9 .2581
- 6.4 .2576
- 4.9 .2751
- 5.7 .2784
- 8.3 .2876
- 5.9 .3183
- 4.6 .3659
+ .7 .4121
.4115

100.0
93.6
98.0
100.6
100.9
93.5
97.7
97.5
104.1
105.3
108.8
120.4
138.4
155.9
155.7

+S0.1472
+ .1640
+ .1524
+ .1457
+ .1449
+ .1645
+ .1534
+ .1539
+ .1364
+ .1331
+ .1239
+ .0932
+ .0456
.0006

+55.7
+ 66.3
+58.8
+ 54.8
+54.4
+66.6
+ 59.4
+ 59.7
+ 49.6
+47.8
+43.1
+29.3
+ 12.5
.1

100.0 +60.0087
100.5 + .0079
100.4 + .0081
98.5 + .0109
98.6 + .0108
97.1 + .0129
98.2 _j_ .0114
101.8 + .0061
100.1 + .0085
102.5 _i_ .0051
102.5 + .0051
102.5 + .0051
103.9 _j- .0030
104.8 + .0017
106.0

+ 6 .0
+ 5 .4
+ 5 .5
+ 7 .6
+ 7 .5
+ 9 .1
+7 9
+ 4 .'l
+ 5 .8
+3 4
+ 3 .4
+ 3 .4
+2 0
+ 1 .1

BUTTER A N D CHEESE.
BETTER MAKERS, male.
[Data from 21 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

97
91
92
95
95
97
99
100
101
99
100
100
99
100
99

100.0
93.8
94.8
97.9
97.9
100.0
102.1
103.1
104.1
102.1
103.1
103.1
102.1
103.1
102.1




+2
+8
+7
+4
+4
+2

+ 2 .1
+ 8 .8
+ 7 .6
+ 4 .2
+ 4 .2
+ 2 .1

-1
-2

-1 .0
-2 .0

-1
-1

-1 .0
- 1 .0

-1

-1 .0

74.95
74.96
74.90
75.04
75.04
75.08
74 82
74.91
75.00
74.82
74.91
74.91
74.82
75.56
75.47

100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.2
99.8
99.9
100.1
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.8
100.8
100.7

+0.52
+ .51
+ .57
+ .43
+ .43
+ .39
+ .65
+ .56
+ .47
+ .65
+ .56
+ .56
+ .65
— <09

+ 0 .7 SO.1462
+ .7 .1470
+ .8 .1468
+ .6 .1440
+ .6 .1441
+ .5 .1420
+ .9 .1435
+ .7 .1488
+ .6 .1464
+ .9 .1498
+ .7 .1498
+ .7 .1498
+ .9 .1519
.1 .1532
.1549

755

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BUTTER A N D CHEESE—Concluded.
CHEESE MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 13 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
34
32
33
34
34
34
34
34
34
35
35
35
37
37
37

100.0
94.1
97.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
102.9
102.9
102.9
108.8
108.8
108.8

+3
+5
+4
+3
+3
+3
+3
+8
+8
+2
+2
+2

+ 8.8
+15.6
+12.1
+ 8.8
+ 8.8
+ 8.8
+ 8.8
+ 8.8
+ 8.8
+ 5.7
+ 5.7
+ 5.7

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

69.37
69.75
69.55
69.35
69.35
69.35
69.35
69.35
69.35
69.17
69.17
68.31
69.16
69.16
69.16

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.5
100.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.7
99.7
98.5
99.7
99.7
99.7

-0 .2 1
- .59
- .39
- .19
- .19
- .19
- .19
- .19
- .19
- .01
- .01
+ .85

- 0 . 3 $0.1643 100.0 +S0.0107
. 1635 99.5 + .0115
- .8
.1619 98.5 + .0131
- .6
.1629 99.1 + .0121
- .3
.1629 99.1 + .0121
- .3
.1629 99.1 + .0121
- .3
.1629 99.1 + .0121
- .3
.1629 99.1 + .0121
- .3
.1637 99.6 + .0113
- .3
- .01 .1675 101.9 + .0075
- .01 .1715 104.4 + .0035
.1761 107.2
+ 1 .2
.0011
. 1742 106.0
.0008
.1751 106.6
.0001
.1750 106.5

+ 6 .5
+ 7 .0
+ 8 .1
+ 7 .4
+ 7 .4
+ 7 .4
+ 7 .4
+ 7 .4
+ 6 .9
+4.5
+ 2 .0
- .6
+ .5
- .1

CANDY.
CANDY MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 7 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

61
66
64
63
62
58
61
58
63
55
56
55
48
50
51

100.0
108.2
104.9
103.3
101.6
95.1
100.0
95.1
103.3
90.2
91.8
90.2
78.7
82,0
83.6

-1 0
-1 5
-1 3
-1 2
-1 1
- 7
-1 0
- 7
-1 2
- 4
- 5
- 4
+ 3
+ 1

-1 6 .4
-2 2 .7
-2 0 .3
-1 9 .0
-1 7 .7
-1 2 .1
-1 6 .4
-1 2 .1
-1 9 .0
- 7.3
- 8.9
- 7.3
+ 6.3
+ 2.0

59.69
59.67
59.64
69.75
59.73
59.71
59.69
59.69
59.71
59.67
59.64
59.64
59.58
59.60
59.63

100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.9

-0 .0 6
— .04
_ .01
_ .12
— .10
.08
— .06
— .06
.08
.04
.01
.01
+ .05
+ .03

_

—
—
—
—

- 0 . 1 SO 2299
.
.2257
- .1
- .02 .2255
.2272
- .2
.2199
- .2
.2211
- .1
.2317
- .1
.2384
- .1
.2284
- .1
.2404
- .1
- .02 .2409
- .02 .2270
.2411
+ .1
.2378
+ .1
.2377

100.0
98.2
98.1
98.8
95.7
96.2
100.8
103.7
99.3
104.6
104.8
98.7
104.9
103.4
103.4

+S0.0078
+ .0120
+ .0122
+ .0105
+ .0178
+ .0166
+ .0060
.0007
+ .0093
.0027
.0032
+ .0107
.0034
.0001

—

+ 3 .4
+ 5 .3
+ 5 .4
+ 4 .6
+ 8 .1
+ 7 .5
+ 2 .6
- .3
+ 4 .1
- 1 .1
-1 .3
+ 4 .7
-1 .4
- .04

100.0
106.3
108.5
100.8
100.7
101.3
97.0
96.2
96.8
96.4
96.6
99.2
114.0
113.5
115.2

+S0.0115
+ .0067
+ .0051
+ .0109
+ .0110
+ .0105
+ .0138
+ .0144
+ .0139
+ .0142
+ .0141
+ .0121
+ .0009
+ .0018

+15.2
+ 8.3
+ 6.2
+14.3
+14.4
+13.7
+18.8
+19.8
+19.0
+ 19.5
+19.3
+16.1
+ 1.0
+ 1.6

—

DIPPERS, Female.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

164
192
185
169
175
158
150
155
156
146
154
169
170
167
201

100.0
117.1
112.8
103.0
106.7
96.3
91.5
94.5
95.1
89.0
93.9
103.0
103.7
101.8
122.6




+37
+ 9
+16
+32
+26
+43
+51
+46
+45
+55
+47
+32
+31
+34

+22.6
+ 4.7
+ 8.6
+18.9
+14.9
+27.2
+34.0
+29.7
+28.8
+37.7
+30.5
+18.9
+18.2
+20.4

58.89
58.09
58.04
58.78
58.80
58.77
59.18
59.25
59.26
5 .33
59.36
59.39
59.36
59.35
59.14

100.0
98.6
98.6
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.7
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.4

+0.25
+1.05
+1.10
+ .36
+ .34
+ .37
- .04
- .11
- .12
- .19
- .22
- .25
- .22
- .21

+ 0 .4 SO 0757
.
+ 1 .8 .0805
+ 1 .9 .0821
+ .6 .0763
+ .6 .0762
+ .6 .0767
- .1 .0734
- .2 .0728
- .2 .0733
- .3 .0730
- .4 .0731
- .4 .0751
- .4 .0863
- .4 .0859
.0872

756

BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF LABOE.

Table I __WAGES

AND HOUES OF LABOE, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

CARP'ETS.
BUKLER8, Female*
[Data from 6 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1 8 9 7 .........
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase (+ ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —)in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Per
Num­
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
ber.
cent.
97
95
93
88
108
73
100
109
93
102
104
109
114
116
120

100.0
97.9
95.9
90.7
111.3
75.3
103.1
112.4
95.9
105.2
107.2
112.4
117.5
119.6
123.7

+23
+25
+27
+32
+12
+47
+20
+11
+27
+18
+16
+11
+ 6
+ 4

+23.7
+26.3
+29.0
+36.4
+11.1
+64.4
+20.0
+10.1
+29.0
+17.6
+15.4
+10.1
+ 5.3
+ 3.4

59.59
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.15
59.78
59.30
59.28
59.55
59.41
59.46
59.41
59.40
59.43
59.32

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.7
99.3
100.3
99.5
99.5
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.5

-0 .2 7
- .68
- .68
- .68
+ .17
- .46
+ .02
+ .04
- .23
- .09
- .14
- .09
- .08
- .11

+$0.0302
+ .0336
+ .0305
+ .0248
+ .0282
+ .0379
+ .0341
+ .0267
+ . 0336
+ .0192
+ .0337
+ .0233
+ .0159
+ .0136

+23.4
+26.8
+23.7
+18.5
+21.5
+31.3
+27.3
+20.2
+26.8
+13.7
+26.9
+17.2
+11.1
+ 9.3

- 0 . 7 $0.1474 100.0 +$0.0071
-2 .1
.1451 98.4 + .0094
-2 .1
.1463 99.3 + .0082
- 1 .6
.1503 102.0 + .0042
.1493 101.3 + .0052
- .1
.1413 95.9 + .0132
- .6
- .1
.1413 95.9 + .0132
. 1485 100.7 + .0060
- .1
- .3 .1522 103.3 + .0023
.1496 101.5 + .0049
- .2
- .1
.1496 101.5 + .0049
- .1
.1487 100.9 + .0058
- .1
.1487 100.9 + .0058
+ .03 .1477 100.2 + .0068
.1545 104.8

+ 4 .8
+ 6 .5
+ 5 .6
+ 2 .8
+ 3 .5
+ 9 .3
+ 9 .3
+ 4 .0
+ 1 .5

- 0 . 5 ?0.1289
.1255
-1 .1
. 1286
-1 .1
.1343
- 1 .1
.1309
+ .3
.1212
- .8
+ .03 .1250
.1324
+ .1
.1255
- .4
.1399
- .2
.1254
- .2
.1358
- .2
.1432
- .1
.1455
- .2
.1591

100.0
97.4
99.8
104.2
101.6
94.0
97.0
102.7
97.4
108.5
97.3
105.4
111.1
112.9
123.4

BYERS, Male.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

186
224
204
176
196
168
187
183
165
173
179
181
180
206
215

100.0
120.4
109.7
94.6
105.4
90.3
100.5
98.4
88.7
93.0
96.2
97.3
96.8
110.8
115.6

+29
- 9
+11
+39
+19
+47
+28
+32
+50
+42
+36
+34
+35
+ 9

+15.6
- 4.0
+ 5.4
+22.2
+ 9.7
+28.0
+15.0
+17.5

+ 30.3

+24.3
+20.1
+18.8
+19.4
+ 4.4

59.19
60.00
60.00
59.72
58.82
59.11
58.83
58.78
58.93
58.85
58.83
58.80
58.82
58.73
58.75

100.0
101.4
101.4
100.9
99.4
99.9
99.4
99.3
99.6
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.4
99.2
99.3

-0 .4 4
-1 .2 5
-1 .2 5
- .97
- .07
- .36
- .08
- .03
- .18
- .10
- .08
- .05
- .07
+ .02

+ 3.3
+ 3.3
+ 3 .9
+ 3 .9
+ 4 .6

LOOM FIXERS, Male.
[Data from 9 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99 .
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

77
70
74
77
78
75
78
76
77
82
78
79
81
82
86

100.0
90.9
96.1
100.0
101.3
97.4
101.3
98.7
100.0
106.5
101.3
102.6
105.2
106.5
111.7




+ 9
+16
+12
+ 9
+ 8
+11
+ 8
+10
+ 9
+ 4
+ 8
+ 7
+ 5
+ 4

+11.7
+22.9
+16.2
+11.7
+10.3
+14.7
+10.3
+13.2
+11.7
+ 4.9
+10.3
+ 8.9
+ 6.2
+ 4.9

59.34 100.0
59.99 101.1
59.97 101.1
59.27 99.9
58.97 99.4
59.01 99.4
59.03 99.5
59.03 99.5
59.01 99.4
59.02 99.5
59.13 99.6
59.16 99.7
59.14 99.7
59.10 99.6
58.90 99.3

-0 .4 4
-1 .0 9
-1 .0 7
- .37
- .07
- .11
- .13
- .13
- .11
- .12
- .23
- .26
- .24
- .20

- 0 . 7 $0.2494 100.0 + $ 0 .0156
-1 .8
.2533 101.6 + .0117
- 1 .8
.2443 98.0 + .0207
- .6 .2500 100.2 + .0150
- .1 .2512 100.7 + .0138
- .2 .2485 99.6 + .0165
- .2 .2455 98.4 + .0195
- .2 .2453 98.4 + .0197
- .2 .2562 102.7 + .0088
- .2 .2479 99.4 + .0171
- .4 .2514 100.8 + .0136
- .4 .2520 101.0 + .0130
- .4 .2515 100.8 + .0135
- .3 .2555 102.4 + .0095
.2650 106.3

+ 6 .3
+ 4 .6
+ 8 .5
+ 6 .0
+ 5 .5
+ 6 .6
+ 7 .9
+ 8 .0
+ 3 .4
+ 6 .9
+ 5 .4
+ 5 .2
+ 5 .4
+ 3 .7

757

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

C A R PE T S—Continued.
SPOOLERS^ Female.
[Data from 6 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 .............

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase f-f) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
A
a
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
138
144
144
148
157
142
153
138
118
113
126
139
141
137
136

100.0
104.3
104.3
107.2
113.8
102.9
110.9
100.0
85.5
81.9
91.3
100.7
102.2
99.3
98.6

- 2
- 8
- 8
-1 2
-2 1
- 6
-1 7
- 2
+18
+23
+10
- 3
- 5
- 1

- 1.4
- 5. 6
- 5.6
- 8.1
-1 3 .4
- 4.2
-1 1 .1
- 1.4
+15.3
+20.4
+ 7.9
- 2.2
- 3.5
— .7

59.16 100.0
60.00 101.4
60.00 101.4
59.07 99.8
58.76 99.3
58.90 99.6
58.89 99.5
58.88 99.5
59.00 99.7
59.12 99.9
59.00 99.7
58.95 99.6
58.95 99.6
58.98 99.7
58.97 99.7

100.0 +80.0070
100.4 + .0065
95.7 + .0119
98.0 + .0092
101.5 + .0053
103.6 + .0029
99.3 + .0078
100.3 + .0067
101.2 + .0057
99.8 -f- .0072
100.5 + .0064
99.6 + .0075
101.2 + .0057
104.6 + .0018
106.2

+ 6.2
+ 5.7
+11.0
+ 8.3
+ 4.0
+ 2.5
+ 7.0
+ 5.9
+ 5.0
+ 6.4
+ 5.6
+ 6.7
+ 5.0
+ 1.5

- 0 . 3 $0.0979 100.0 +$0.0070
- 1 .5
.1011 103.3 + .0038
-1 .5
.1022 104.4 + .0027
- 1 .5
.1024 104.6 + .0025
.1012 103.4 + .0037
+ .1
.0880 89.9 + .0169
+ .1
.0898 91.7 + .0151
+ .6
.0978 99.9 + .0071
+ .3
.0974 99.5 + .0075
+ •!
- .03 .1001 102.2 + .0048
.0988 100.9 + .0061
+ .4
.1013 103.5 + .0036
+ .2
.1011 103.3 + .0038
+ .5
.1013 103.5 + .0036
+ .2
.1049 107.2

+ 7.2
+ 3.8
+ 2.6
+ 2 .4
+ 3.7
+19.2
+16.8
+ 7.3
+ 7.7
+ 4.8
+ 6.2
+ 3.6
+ 3.8
+ 3.6

-0 .1 9
- 0 . 3 10.1127
-1 .0 3 - 1 . 7
.1132
-1 .0 3 - 1 . 7
.1078
- .10 - .2
.1105
+ .21 + .4
.1144
+ .07 + .1
.1168
+ .08 + .1
.1119
+ .09 ■ + .2
.1130
- .03 - .1
.1140
- .15 - .3
.1125
- .03 - .1
.1133
+ .02 + .03 .1122
+ .02 + .03 .1140
- .01 - .02 .1179
.1197

TWISTERS, Female.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891..............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895 .............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

62
72
68
68
63
53
64

67
53
45
68
82
75
82
90

100.0
116.1
109.7
109.7
101.6
85.5
103.2
108.1
85.5
72.6
109.7
132.3
121.0
132.3
145.2

+28
+18
+22
+22
+27
+37
+26
+23
+37
+45
+22
+ 8
+15
+ 8

+ 45.2
+ 25.0
+ 32.4
+ 82.4
+ 42.9
+ 69.8
+ 40.6
+ 34.3
+ 69.8
+100.0
+ 32.4
+ 9.8
+ 20.0
+ 9.8

59.27
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.02
59.02
58.72
58.90
59.06
59.11
58.88
58.95
58.80
59.00
59.09

100.0
101.2
101.2
101.2
99.6
99.6
99.1
99.4
99.6
99.7
99.3
99.5
99.2
99.5
99.7

-0 .1 8
- .91
- .91
- .91
+ .07
+ .07
+ .37
+ .19
+ .03
- .02
+ .21
+ .14
+ .29
+ .09

WEAVERS, BRUSSELS AN© WILTON, male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

421
411
391
427
399
399
450
441
448
396
448
464
501
537
604

100.0
97.6
92.9
101.4
94.8
94.8
106.9
104.8
106.4
94.1
106.4
110.2
119.0
127.6
143.5




+183
+193
+213
+177
+205
+205
+154
+163
+156
+208
+156
+140
+103
+ 67

+43.5
+47.0
+54.5
+41.5
+51.4
+51.4
+34.2
+37.0
+34.8
+52.5
+34.8
+30.2
+20.6
+12.5

59.38
60.00
60.00
59.17
59.37
59.15
59.21
59.22
59.21
59.20
59.24
59.44
59.30
59.32
59.31

100.0
101.0
101.0
99.6
100.0
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9

-0 .0 7
- .69
- .69
+ .14
- .06
+ .16
+ .10
+ .09
+ .10
+ .11
+ .07
- .13
+ .01
- .01

- 0 .1 $0.2049 100.0 + $ 0 .0470
- 1 .2
.2044 99.8 + .0475
-1 .2
.1989 97.1 + .0530
.2026 98.9 + .0493
+ .2
- .1
.1990 97.1 + .0529
.1915 93.5 + .0604
+ .3
.2094 102.2 + .0425
+ .2
.2095 102.2 + .0424
+ .2
.2105 102.7 + .0414
+ .2
.2089 102.0 + .0430
+ .2
.2145 104.7 + .0374
+ .1
.2191 106.9 + .0328
- .2
+ .02 .2220 108.3 + .0299
- .02 .2396 116.9 + .0123
.2519 122.9

+22.9
+23.2
+26.6
+24.3
+26.6
+31.5
+20.3
+20.2
+19.7
+20.6
+ 17.4
+15.0
+13.5
+ 5.1

758

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OB LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, a3 compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

C A R PETS—Continued.
WEAVERS, BRUSSELS AND WILTON, Female,
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
74
80
74
73
96
24
71
82
51
84
105
114
131
131
127

100.0
108.1
100.0
98.6
129.7
32.4
95.9
110.8
68.9
113.5
141.9
154.1
177.0
177.0
171.6

+ 53
+ 47
+ 53
+ 54
-f 31
+103
+ 56
+ 45
+ 76
+ 43
+ 22
+ 13
4
4

+ 71.6
+ 58.8
+ 71.6
+ 74.0
+ 32.3
+429.2
+ 78.9
+ 54.9
+149.0
+ 51.2
+ 21.0
+ 11.4
3.1
3.1

58.60
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —jin
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0

-0 .6 0
-2 .0 0
-2 .0 0
-2 .0 0

100.0 +$0.0228
98.7 + .0246
91.2 + .0346
91.6 + .0341
95.9 + .0283
86.8 + .0405
92.4 + .0330
106.7 + .0138
107.1 + .0132
110.3 + .0089
119.2 .0030
112.4 + .0061
140.7 .0319
108.6 + .0113
117.0

+17.0
+18.5
+28.2
+27.7
+21.9
+34.7
+26.5
+ 9.6
+ 9.2
+ 6.0
- 1.9
+ 4.0
- 1 6 .9
+ 7.7

100.0
96.3
93.0
94.7
98.5
100.4
100.8
101.6
107.2
100.3
106.8
103.4
106.1
93.4
107.4

+$0.0097
+ .0145
+ .0189
+ .0166
+ .0117
+ .0092
+ .0086
+ .0076
+ .0003
+ .0093
+ .0008
+ .0053
+ .0017
+ .0184

+ 7.4
+11.5
+15.5
+13.4
+ 9.1
+ 7.0
+ 6.5
+ 5.7
+ .2
+ 7.1
+ .6
+ 3.9
+ 1.2
+15.0

- 1 . 9 $0.1653 100.0 +$0.0187
-1 .9
.1643 99.4 + .0197
.1717 103.9 + .0123
-1 .9
.1735 105.0 + .0105
- 1 .9
.1618 97.9 + .0222
- 1 .9
.1514 91.6 + .0326
- 1 .9
. 1585 95.9 + .0255
-1 .9
.1741 105.3 + .0099
-1 .9
.1621 98.1 + .0219
-1 .9
.1711 103.5 + .0129
-1 .9
.1648 99.7 + .0192
- 1 .9
.1668 100.9 + .0172
-1 .9
.1740 105.3 + .0100
- 1 .9
.1780 107.7 + .0060
- 1 .9
.1840 111.3

+11.3
+12.0
+ 7.2
+ 6.1
+13.7
+21.5
+16.1
+ 5.7
+13.5
+ 7.5
+11.7
+10.3
+ 5.7
+ 3.4

- 1 . 0 $0.1345
.1327
-3 .3
- 3 .3
.1227
.1232
- 3 .3
.1290
.1168
.1243
.1435
.1441
.1484
.1603
.1512
.1892
.1460
.1573

WEAVERS, INGRAIN, Female,
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

419
406
431
437
388
444
375
399
419
435
453
441
420
434
416

100.0
96.9
102.9
104.3
92.6
106.0
89.5
95.2
100.0
103.8
108.1
105.3
100.2
103.6
99.3

- 3
+10
-1 5
-2 1
+28
-2 8
+41
+17
- 3
-1 9
-3 7
-2 5
— 4
-1 8

- 0.7
+ 2.5
- 3.5
- 4.8
+ 7.2
- 6.3
+10.9
+ 4.3
.7
- 4.4
- 8.2
- 5.7
— 1.0
- 4.1

58.90 100.0
59.95 101.8
59.93 101.7
58.56 99.4
58.56 99.4
58.54 99.4
58.47 99.3
58.68 99.6
58.72 99.7
58.80 99.8
58.77 99.8
58.86 99.9
58.87 99.9
58.86 99.9
58.87 99.9

-0 .0 3
-1 .0 8
-1 .0 6
+ .31
+ .31
+ .33
+ .40
+ .19
+ .15
+ .07
+ .10
+ .01
+ .oi

- 0 . 1 $0.1310
.1262
-1 .8
- 1 .8
.1218
.1241
+ .5
.1290
+ .5
.1315
+ .6
.1321
+ .7
.1331
+ .3
+ .3
.1404
.1314
+ •1
.1399
+ .2
+ .02 .1354
.1390
+ .02 .1223
.1407

WEAVERS, INGRAIN. («)
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

435
521
452
465
438
421
426
400
422
407
397
378
414
404
381

100.0
119.8
103.9
106.9
100.7
96.8
97.9
92.0
97.0
93.6
91.3
86.9
95.2
92.9
87.6




54
-1 4 0
— 71
— 84
_ 57
— 40
— 45
— 19
— 41
— 26
— 16
+ 3
33
— 23

-1 2 .4
-2 6 .9
-1 5 .7
-1 8 .1
-1 3 .0
- 9.5
-1 0 .6
- 4.8
- 9.7
- 6.4
- 4.0
+ .8
- 8.0
- 5.7

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.86

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.1

-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4
-1 .1 4

a Sex not reported,

759

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

CARPETS—Concluded.
WINDERS, Fem ale.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. num­
num­ num­
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Per
Num­
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
ber.
cent.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

236
212
211
219
246
209
257
250
244
247
262
268
278
294
303

100.0
89.8
89.4
92.8
104.2
88.6
108.9
105.9
103.4
104.7
111.0
113.6
117.8
124.6
128.4

+67
+91
+92
+84
+57
+94
+46
+53
+59
+56
+41
+35
+25
+ 9

+28.4
+42.9
+43.6
+38.4
+23.2
+45.0
+17.9
+21.2
+24.2
+22.7
+15.6
+13.1
+ 9.0
+ 3.1

59.15 100.0
60.00 101.4
60.00 101.4
59.10 99.9
68.82 99.4
58.93 99.6
58.91 99.6
58.89 99.6
58.95 99.7
58.94 99.6
58.93 99.6
58.96 99.7
58.88 99.5
58.89 99.6
58.49 98.9

- 1 . 1 30.1106 100.0 +$0.0072
.1112 100.5 + .0066
-2 .5
.1072 96.9 + .0106
- 2 .5
.1110 100.4 + .0068
- 1.0
- .6 .1102 99.6 + .0076
- .7 .1083 97.9 + . 0095
- .7 .1083 97.9 + .0095
- .7 .1119 101.2 + .0059
- .8 .1088 98.4 + .0090
- .8 .1130 102.2 + .0048
- .7 .1162 105.1 + .0016
- .8 .1183 107.0 — .0005
- .7 .1147 103.7 + .0031
- .7 .1152 104.2 + .0026
.1178 106.5

-0 .6 6
-1 .5 1
-1 .5 1
- .61
- .33
- .44
- .42
- .40
- .46
- .45
- .44
- .47
- .39
- .40

+ 6 .5
+ 5 .9
+ 9 .9
+ 6 .1
+ 6 .9
+ 8 .8
+ 8 .8
+ 5 .3
+ 8 .3
+ 4 .2
+ 1 .4
- .4
+ 2 .7
+ 2 .3

CARRIAGES A N D WAGONS.
BLACKSMITHS, Male.
[Data from 98 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

583
590
590
610
673
579
608
497
514
585
587
600
648
627
653

100.0
101.2
101.2
104.6
115.4
99.3
104.3
85.2
88.2
100.3
100.7
102.9
111.1
107.5
112.0

+ 70
+ 63
+ 63
+ 43
- 20
+ 74
+ 45
+156
+139
+ 68
+ 66
+ 53
+ 5
+ 26

+12.0
+10.7
+10.7
+ 7.0
- 3.0
+12.8
+ 7.4
+31.4
+27.0
+11.6
+11.2
+ 8.8
+ .8
+ 4.1

58.75
59.17
59.20
59.14
59.08
58.00
58.42
58.38
58.75
58.87
58.52
58.48
58.60
68.27
57.78

100.0
100.7
100.8
100.7
100.6
98.7
99.4
99.4
100.0
100.2
99.6
99.5
99.7
99.2
98.3

- 1 .7 $0.2300 100.0 +$0.0149
.2356 102.4 + .0093
-2 .3
-2 .4
.2342 101.8 + .0107
.2343 101.9 + .0106
-2 .3
-2 .2
.2169 94.3 + .0280
- .4 .2222 96.6 + .0227
.2186 95.0 + .0263
- 1 .1
.2340 101.7 + .0109
- 1 .0
-1 .7
.2356 102.4 + .0093
.2321 100.9 + .0128
-1 .9
-1 .3
.2366 102.9 + .0083
-1 .2
.2342 101.8 + .0107
- 1 .4
.2356 102.4 + .0093
- .8 .2410 104.8 + .0039
.2449 106.5

-0 .9 7
-1 .3 9
-1 .4 2
—1.'36
-1 .3 0
- .22
- .64
- .60
- .97
-1 .0 9
- .74
- .70
- .82
- .49

+ 6.5
+ 3.9
+ 4.6
+ 4.5
+12.9
+10.2
+12.0
+ 4.7
+ 3.9
+ 5.5
+ 3.5
+ 4.6
+ 3.9
+ 1.6

BODY MAKERS, CARRIAGE, Male.
[Data from 26 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892............. 1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

195
168
187
187
190
228
183
178
197
196
231
227
269
271
271

100.0
86.2
95.9
95.9
97.4
116.9
93.8
91.3
101.0
100.5
118.5
116.4
137.9
139.0
139.0




+ 76
+103
+ 84
+ 84
+ 81
+ 43
+ 88
+ 93
+ 74
+ 75
+ 40
+ 44
+ 2

+39.0
+61.3
+44.9
+44.9
+42.6
+18.9
4-48.1
+52.2
+37.6
+38.3
+17.3
+19.4
+ .7

59.10
59.31
59.36
69.29
59.15
59.31
59.19
69.09
59.00
58.98
58.29
58.81
58.94
58.90
58.31

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.3
100.1
300.4
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.8
98.6
99.5
99.7
99.7
98.7

-0 .7 9
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 5
- .98
- .84
-1 .0 0
- .88
- .78
- .69
- .67
+ .02
- .50
- .63
— .59

- 1 . 3 $0.2395
-1 .7
.2398
- 1 .8
.2388
.2424
-1 .7
.2399
-1 .4
.2362
- 1 .7
.2344
- 1 .5
.2361
-1 .3
.2361
- 1 .2
.2421
-1 .1
+ .03 .2487
.2407
- .9
- 1 .1
.2357
.2458
—1.0
.2501

100.0
100.1
99.7
101.2
100.2
98.6
97.9
98.6
98.6
101.1
103.8
100.5
98.4
102.6
104.4

+$0.0106
+ .0103
+ .0113
+ .0077
+ .0102
+ .0139
+ .0157
+ .0140
+ .0140
+ .0080
+ .0014
+ .0094
+ .0144
+ .0043

+ 4 .4
+ 4 .3
+ 4 .7
+ 3 .2
+ 4 .3
+ 5 .9
+ 6 .7
+ 5 .9
+ 5 .9
+ 3 .3
+ .6
+ 3 .9
+ 6 .1
+ 1 .7

760

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR,
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. Far explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

CARRIAGES AK D WAGOKS—Continued.
BODY MAKERS, NOT SPECIFIED, Male.
[Data from 19 ectablishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Yeai.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase (+ ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
120
120
125
126
142
112
112
109
119
116
117
117
124
98
102

100.0
100.0
104.2
105.0
118.3
.93.3
.93.3
90.8
99.2
.96.7
.97.5
.97.5
103.3
81.7
85.0

-1 8
-1 8
-2 3
-2 4
-4 0
-1 0
-1 0
- 7
-1 7
-1 4
-1 5
-1 5
-2 2
+ 4

-1 5 .0
-1 5 .0
-1 8 .4
-1 9 .0
-2 8 .2
- 8.9
- 8.9
- 6.4
-1 4 .3
-1 2 .1
-1 2 .8
-1 2 .8
-1 7 .7
+ 4.1

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

59.34
59.42
59.56
59.40
59.14
59.29
59.33
59.32
59.13
59.38
59.43
59.42
59.44
59.50
59.22

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.1
100.4
100.1
99.7
09.9
100.0
100.0
99.6
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.3
99.8

-0 .1 2
- .20
- .34
- .18
+ .08
- .07
- .11
- .10
+ .09
- .16
- .21
- .20
- .22
- .28

- 0 . 2 10.2253 100.0 +80.0168
- .3 .2251 99.9 + .0170
- .6 .2255 100.1 + .0166
- .3 .2270 100.8 + .0151
+ .1 .2295 101.9 + .0126
- .1 .2204 97.8 + .0217
- .2 .2154 95.6 + .0267
- .2 .2252 m o + .0169
+ .2 .2269 100.7 + .0152
- .3 .2265 100.5 + .0156
- .4 .2316 102.8 + .0105
— .3 .2296 101.9 + .0125
- .4 .2299 102.0 + .0122
- .5 .2299 102.0 + .0122
.2421 107.5

+ 7.5
+ 7.6
+ 7.4
+ 6.7
+ 5.5
+ 9.8
+ 12.4
+ 7.5
+ 6.7
+ 6.9
+ 4.5
+ 5.4
+ 5.3
+ 5.3

1RONERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 7 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments, 1890-1896,1898-1903; 7 establishments, 1897.]
AV. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

97
97
101
111
103
87
93
77
90
101
108
121
117
114
125

100.0
100.0
104.1
114.4
106.2
89.7
95.9
79.4
92.8
104.1
111.3
124.7
120.6
117.5
128.9

+28
+28
+24
+14
+22
+38
+32
+48
+35
+24
+17
+ 4
+ 8
+11

+28.9
+28.9
+23.8
+12.6
+21.4
+43.7
+34.4
+62.3
+38.9
+23.8
+15.7
+ 3.3
+ 6.8
+ 9.6

55.79
56.28
56.48
56.45
55.55
55.43
55.79
55.71
55.39
56.29
54.53
54.36
55.40
56.32
53.78

100.0
100.9
101.2
101.2
99.6
99.4
100.0
99.9
99.3
100.1
.97.7
97.4
99.3
100.9
96.4

-2 .0 1
-2 .5 0
-2 .7 0
-2 .6 7
-1 .7 7
-1 .6 5
-2 .0 1
-1 .9 3
-1 .6 1
-2 .5 1
- .75
- .58
-1 .6 2
-2 .5 4

- 3 . 6 $0.2135 100.0 +$0.0254
- 4 .4
.2097 98.2 + .0292
- 4 .8
.2059 96.4 + .0330
-4 .7
.2048 95.9 + .0341
- 3 .2
.2133 99.9 + .0256
.2172 101.7 + .0217
- 3 .0
-3 .6
.2119 99.3 + .0270
-3 .5
.2219 103.9 + .0170
-2 .9
.2183 102.2 + .0206
-4 .5
.2110 98.8 + .0279
- 1 .4
.2212 103.6 + .0177
-1 .1
.2207 103.4 + .0182
-2 .9
.2140 100.2 + .0249
- 4 .5
.2129 99.7 + .0260
.2389 111.9

+11.9
+13.9
+ 16.0
+16.7
+12.0
+ 10.0
+12.7
+ 7.7
+ 9.4
+13.2
+ 8.0
+ 8 .2
+ 11.6
+ 12.2

MACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male.
[Data from 18 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

227
215
223
221
209
190
232
212
228
266
277
270
306
310
305

100.0
94.7
98.2
97.4
92.1
83.7
102.2
93.4
100.4
117.2
122.0
118.9
134.8
136.6
134.4




+ 78
+ 90
+ 82
+ 84
+ 96
+115
+ 73
+ 93
+ 77
+ 39
+ 28
+ 35
1
5

+34.4
+41.9
+36.8
+38.0
+45.9
+60.5
+31.5
+43.9
+33.8
+14.7
+10.1
+13.0
.3
- 1.6

59.01
59.4C
59.52
59.51
59.41
57.55
59.07
58.23
68.83
59.51
59.04
58.93
59.01
58.92
58.80

100.0
100.8
100.9
100.8
100,7
97.5
100.1
98.7
99.7
100.8
100.1
99. 0
100.0
99.8
99.6

-0 .2 1
- .66
- .72
- .71
- .61
+1.25
- .27
+ .57
- .03
- .71
- .24
- .13
- .21
- .12

- 0 .4 $0.1774
- 1 .1
.1756
- 1 .2
.1733
-1 .2
.1793
- 1 .0
.1761
+ 2 .2 .1787
- .6 .1710
+ 1 .0 .1820
- .1 .1776
-1 .2
.1787
- .4 .1813
- .2 .1864
- .4 .1833
- .2 .1936
.19G4

100.0
99.0
97.7
101.1
99.3
100.7
96.4
102.6
100.1
100.7
102.2
105.1
103.3
109.1
110.7

+$0.0190
+ .0208
+ .0231
+ .0171
+ .0203
+ .0177
+ .0254
+ .0144
+ .0188
+ .0177
+ .0151
+ .0100
+ .0131
+ . .0028

+ 10.7
+ 11.8
+13.3
+ 9.5
+11.5
+ 9.9
+14.9
+ 7.-9
+10.6
+ 9.9
+ 8.3
+ 5.4
+ 7.1
+ 1.4

761

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

CARRIAGES A N D WAGONS—Concluded.
PAINTERS, Male.
[Data from 76 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902 .............
1908

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

747
716
738
761
752
684
719
738
719
783
857
878
915
900
868

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

100.0
95.9
98.8
101.9
100.7
91.6
96.3
98.8
96.3
104.8
114.7
117.5
122.5
120.5
116.2

+121
+152
+130
+107
+116
+184
+149
+130
+149
+ 85
+ 11
— 10
- 47
- 32

+16.2
+21.2
+17.6
+14.1
+15.4
+26.9
+20.7
+17.6
+20.7
+10.9
+ 1.3
- 1.1
- 5.1
- 3.6

58.73
’ 58.76
58.88
58.79
58.72
58.93
58.76
58.73
58.65
58.72
58.36
58.19
58.45
58.56
57.84

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.0
100.3
100.1
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.4
99.1
99.5
99.7
98.5

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

- 1 . 5 $0.2114 100.0 +30.0175
- 1 .6
.2086 98.7 + .0203
.2082 98.5 + .0207
- 1 .8
.2134 100.9 + .0155
- 1 .6
.2121 100.3 + .0168
-1 .5
- 1 .8
.2108 99.7 + .0181
.2121 100.3 + .0168
- 1 .6
- 1 .5
.2109 99.8 + .0180
- 1 .4
.2103 99.5 + .0186
.2132 100.9 + .0157
- 1 .5
- .9 .2144 101.4 + .0145
— .6 .2167 102.5 + .0122
- 1.0
.2190 103.6 + .0099
- 1 .2
.2190 103.6 + .0099
.2289 108.3

-0 .8 9
- .92
-1 .0 4
- .95
- .88
-1 .0 9
- .92
- .89
- .81
- .88
- .52
- .35
- .61
- .72

Per
cent.
+ 8 .3
+ 9 .7
+ 9 .9
+ 7 .3
+ 7 .9
+ 8 .6
+ 7 .9
+ 8 .5
+ 8 .8
+ 7 .4
+ 6 .8
+ 5 .6
+ 4 .5
+ 4 .5

TRIMMERS, CARRIAGE, Male.
[Data from 46 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 .

211
195
196
211
197
203
204
210
215
232
247
245
272
246
249

100.0
92.4
92.9
100.0
93.4
96.2
96.7
99.5
101.9
110.0
117.1
116.1
128.9
116.6
118.0

+38
+54
+53
+38
+52
+46
+45
+39
+34
+17
+ 2
+ 4
-2 3
+ 3

+18.0
+27.7
+ 27.0
+ 18.0
+26.4
+ 22.7
+22.1
+ 1 8 .6
+15.8
+ 7.3
+ *3
+ 1.6
- 8.5
+ 1.2

58.62
58.87
58.90
58.76
58.55
58.68
58.73
58.59
68.68
58.59
57.80
57.85
57.86
58.24
57.51

100.0
100.4
100.5
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.1
99.9
98.6
98.7
98.7
99.4
98.1
i

-1 .1 1
-1 .3 6
-1 .3 9
-1 .2 5
-1 .0 4
-1 .1 7
-1 .2 2
-1 .0 8
-1 .1 7
-1 .0 8
- .29
- .34
- .35
- .73

- 1 . 9 $0.2284 100.0 +$0.0150
-2 .3
.2313 101.3 + .0121
.2305 100.9 + .0129
-2 .4
.2299 100.7 + .0135
- 2 .1
.2326 101.8 + .0108
-1 .8
.2254 98.7 + .0180
-2 .0
- 2 .1
.2263 99.1 + .0171
.2250 98.5 + .0184
-1 .8
.2259 98.9 + .0175
-2 .0
-1 .8
.2258 98.9 + .0176
- .5 .2314 101.3 + .0120
- .6 .2306 101.0 + .0128
- .6 .2321 101.6 + .0113
-1 .3
.2348 102.8 + .0086
.2434 106.6

+ 6 .6
+ 5 .2
+ 5 .6
+ 5 .9
+ 4 .6
+ 8 .0
+ 7 .6
+ 8 .2
+ 7 .7
+ 7 .8
+ 5 .2
+ 5 .6
+ 4 .9
+ 3 .7

WOODWORKERS, Male.
[Data from 29 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902
.
1903
.

109
102
102
113
113
103
104
113
112
112
116
117
122
111
105

100.0
93.6
93.6
103.7
103.7
94.5
95.4
103.7
102.8
102.8
106.4
107.3
111.9
101.8
96.3




- 4
+ 3
+ 3
- 8
- 8
+ 2
+ 1
- 8
- 7
- 7
-1 1
-1 2
-1 7
- 6

- 3.7
+ 2.9
+ 2.9
- 7.1
- 7.1
+ 1.9
+ 1.0
- 7.1
- 6.3
- 6.3
- 9.5
-1 0 .3
-1 3 .9
- 5.4

57.75
57.82
57.88
57.75
57.89
57.65
57.79
57.38
57.93
58.00
57.41
57.42
57.07
57.04
56.26

100.0
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.2
99.8
100.1
99.4
100.3
100.4
99.4
99.4
98.8
98.8
97.4

-1 .4 9
-1 .5 6
-1 .6 2
-1 .4 9
-1 .6 3
-1 .3 9
-1 .5 3
-1 .1 2
-1 .6 7
-1 .7 4
-1 .1 5
-1 .1 6
- .81
- .78

- 2 . 6 $0.2390 100.0 +$0.0113
.2402 100.5 + .0101
- 2 .7
-2 .8
.2399 100.4 + .0104
.2396 100.3 + .0107
- 2 .6
-2 .8
.2371 99.2 + .0132
- 2 .4
.2375 99.4 + .0128
.2419 101.2 + .0084
-2 .6
- 2 .0
.2401 100.5 + .0102
.2376 99.4 + .0127
- 2 .9
- 3 .0
.2366 99.0 + .0137
.2394 100.2 + .0109
- 2 .0
.2429 101.6 + .0074
- 2 .0
-1 .4
.2418 101.2 + .0085
.2444 102.3 + .0059
-1 .4
.2508 104.7

+ 4 .7
+ 4 .2
+ 4 .3
+ 4 .5
+ 5 .6
+ 5 .4
+ 3 .5
+ 4 .2
+ 5 .3
+ 5 .8
+ 4 .6
+ 3 .0
+ 3 .5
+ 2 .4

762

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

CARS, STEAM RAILROAD.
BLACKSMITHS, Male.
[Data for employees from 44 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 44
establishments, 1890-1898; 45 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
number.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
989
1,103
1,035
1,067
1,056
812
805
995
903
1,034
1,084
1,200
1,220
1,282
1,360

100.0
111.5
104.7
107.9
106.8
82.1
81.4
100.6
91.3
104.6
109.6
121.3
123.4
129.6
137.5

+371
+257
+325
+293
+304
+548
+555
+365
+457
+326
+276
+160
+140
+ 78

+37.5
+23.3
+31.4
+27.5
+28.8
+67.5
+68.9
+36.7
+50.6
+31.5
+25.5
+13.3
+11.5
+ 6.1

57.57
58.69
68.05
58.44
58.22
55.60
56.45
56.90
56.50
58.19
58.63
58.68
58.07
58.00
57.51

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.9
100.8
101.5
101.1
96.6
98.1
98.8
98.1
101.1
101.8
101.9
100.9
100.7
99.9

-0 .0 6
-1 .1 8
- .54
- .93
- .71
+1.91
+1.06
+ .61
+1.01
- .68
-1 .1 2
-1 .1 7
- .'56
- .49

- 0 . 1 10.2669 100.0 +80.0117
.2730 102.3; + .0056
-2 .0
- .9 .2697 101.0 + .0089
.2711 101.6 + .0075
-1 .6
-1 .2
.2716 101.8 + .0070
+ 3 .4 .2699 101.1 + .0087
+ 1 .9 .2727 102.2 + .0059
+1*1 .2565 96.1 + .0221
+ 1 .8 .2652 99.4 + .0134
-1 .2
.2589 97.0 + .0197
- 1 .9
.2603 97.5 + .0183
.2614 97.9 + .0172
-2 .0
-1 .0
.2648 99.2 + .0138
- .8 .2679 100.4 + .0107
.2786 104.4

+ 4 .4
+ 2 .1
+ 3 .3
+ 2 .8
+ 2 .6
+ 3 .2
+ 2 .2
+ 8 .6
+ 5 .1
+ 7 .6
+ 7 .0
+ 6 .6
+ 5 .2
+ 4 .0

BOILER MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 34 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1805.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

562
614
518
567
671
528
532
563
679
611
640
665
758
785
944

100.0
91.5
92.2
100.9
101.6
94.0
94.7
100.2
103.0
108.7
113.9
118.3
134.9
139.7
168.0

+382
+430
+426
+377
+373
+416
+412
+381
+365
+333
+304
+279
+186
+159

+68.0
+83.7
+82.2
+66.5
+65.3
+78.8
+77.4
+67.7
+63.0
+54.5
+47.5
+42.0
+24.5
+20.3

57.20
69.34
57.69
69.10
68.68
54.23
55.59
55.62
55.74
58.04
57.98
58.22
57.34
57.09
56.35

100.0
103.7
100.9
103.3
102.6
94.8
97.2
97.2
97.4
101.5
101.4
101.8
100.2
99.8
98.5

-0 .8 5
-2 .9 9
-1 .3 4
-2 .7 5
-2 .3 3
+2.12
+ .76
+ .73
+ .61
-1 .6 9
-1 .6 3
-1 .8 7
- .99
- .74

- 1 . 5 30.2673 100.0 +80.0357
-5 .0
.2685 100.4 + .0345
.2721 101.8 + .0309
- 2 .3
.2695 100.8 + .0335
-4 .7
-4 .0
.2709 101.3 + .0321
+ 3 .9 .2650 99.1 + .0380
+ 1 .4 .2637 98.7 + .0393
+ 1 .3 .2648 99.1 + .0382
4-1.1 .2639 98.7 + .0391
.2658 99.4 + .0372
-2 .9
-2 .8
.2687 100.5 + .0343
-3 .2
.2723 101.9 + .0307
-1 .7
.2745 102.7 + .0285
.2820 105.5 + .0210
- 1 .3
.3030 113.4

+13.4
+ 12.8
+ 11.4
+ 12.4
+ 11.8
+ 14.3
+ 14.9
+ 14.4
+14.8
+14.0
+12.8
+11.3
+ 10.4
4- 7.4

BRASS FINISHERS, Male.
[Data from 7 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902............. *
1903.............

72
63
61
68
77
60
63
90
71
100
66
74
73
79
145

100.0
87.5
84.7
94.4
106.9
83.3
87.5
125.0
98.6
138.9
91.7
102.8
101.4
109.7
201.4




+73
+82
+84
+77
+68
+85
+82
+55
+74
+45
+79
+71
+72
+66

+101.4
+130.2
+137.7
+113.2
+ 88.3
+141.7
+130.2
+ 61.1
+104.2
+ 45.0
+119.7
+ 95.9
+ 98.6
+ 83.5

59.55
59.67
59.08
59.72
59.78
59.42
59.32
59.43
59.31
59.87
59.85
59.82
59.75
59.78
55.95

100.0
100.2
99.2
100.3
100.4
99.8
99.6
99.8
99.6
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.3
100.4
94.0

-3 .6 0
-3 .7 2
-3 .1 3
-3 .7 7
-3 .8 3
-3 .4 7
-3 .3 7
-3 .4 8
-3 .3 6
-3 .9 2
-3 .9 0
-3 .8 7
-3 .8 0
-3 .8 3

- 6 . 0 $0.2627 100.0 +$0.0542
- 6 .2
.2780 105.8 + .0389
.2761 105.1 + .0408
- 5 .3
.2738 104.2 + .0431
- 6 .3
- 6 .4
.2811 107.0 + .0358
.2309 87.9 + .0860
-5 .8
.2463 93.8 + .0706
- 5 .7
.2588 98.5 + .0581
- 5 .9
-5 .7
.2603 99.1 + .0566
.2581 98.2 + .0588
- 6 .5
.0534
.2635 100.3
-6 .5
.2772 105.5 + .0397
-6 .5
.2654 101.0 + .0515
-6 .4
.2942 112.0 + .0227
- 6 .4
. 3169 120.6

+ 20.6
+14.0
+ 14.8
+ 15.7
+12.7
+37.2
+28.7
+22.4
+21.7
+22.8
+20.3
+14.3
+ 19.4
+ 7.7

763

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page.718.]

CARS, STEAM R A IL R O A D —Continued.
CABINETMAKERS, Male,
[Data from 15 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

Av. 1890-99.
727 100.0
713 98.1
1890
.
1891
.
703 96.7
1892
.
538 74.0
642 88.3
1893
.
614 84.5
1894
.
782 107.6
1895
.
1896
.
699 96.1
848 116.6
1897
.
727 100.0
1898
.
1899
. 1,001 137.7
906 124.6
1900
.
917 126.1
1901
.
975 134.1
1902
.
1903
.
749 103.0

+ 22
+ 36
+ 46
+211
+107
+135
- 33
+ 50
- 99
+ 22
-2 5 2
-1 5 7
-1 6 8
-2 2 6

+ 3.0
+ 5.0
+ 6.5
+39.2
+16.7
+22.0
- 4.2
+ 7.2
-1 1 .7
+ 3.0
—25.2
-1 7 .3
-1 8 .3
-2 3 .2

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

59.63
59.71
59.54
59.57
59.82
59.55
59.70
59.64
59.55
59.57
59.61
59.72
59.30
59.41
55.69

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.1
99.8
99.9
100.3
99.9
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.2
99.4
99.6
93.4

-3 .9 4
-4 .0 2
-3 .8 5
-3 .8 8
-4 .1 3
-3 .8 6
-4 .0 1
-3 .9 5
-3 .8 6
-3 .8 8
—3.92
-4 .0 3
-3 .6 1
-3 .7 2

.
- 6 . 6 SO 2354
.2533
- 6 .7
.2526
-6 .5
-6 .5
.2408
-6 .9
.2481
-6 .5
.2036
- 6 .7
.2160
.2304
- 6 .6
- 6 .5
.2288
-6 .5
.2338
.2464
-6 .6
-6 .7
.2516
.2652
-6 .1
- 6 .3
.2884
.3069

100.0 +$0.0715 +30.4
107.6 + .0536 +21.2
107.3 + .0543 +21.5
102.3 + .0661 , +27.5
105.4 + .0588 +23.7
86.5 + .1033 +50.7
91.8 + .0909 +42.1
97.9 + .0765 +33.2
97.2 + .0781 +34.1
99.3 + .0731 +31.3
104.7 + .0605 +24.6
106.9 + .0553 +22.0
112.7 + .0417 +15.7
122.5 + .0185 + 6.4
130.4

CARPENTERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 40 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 40
establishments, 1890-189S; 41 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

4,094
4,129
4,157
4,320
4,285
3,695
3,667
3,903
3,925
4,307
4,556
4,964
5,003
5,396
5,473

100.0
100.9
101.5
105.5
104.7
90.3
89.6
95.3
95.9
105.2
111.3
121.3
122.2
131.8
133.7

+1,379
+1,344
+1,316
+1,153
+1,188
+1,778
+1,806
+1,570
+1,548
+1,166
+ 917
+ 509
+ 470
+
77

+33.7
+32.6
+31.7
+26.7
+27.7
+48.1
+49.3
+ 40.2
+39.4
+27.1
+20.1
+10.3
+ 9.4
+ 1.4

57.53
58.24
57.78
58.29
57.79
56.33
56.97
56.88
56.75
58.20
58.11
58.27
57.87
57.92
56.93

100.0
101.2
100.4
101.3
100.5
97.9
99.0
98.9
98.6
101.2
101.0
101.3
100.6
100.7
99.0

-0 .6 0
-1 .3 1
- .85
-1 .3 6
- .86
+ .60
- .04
+ .05
+ .18
-1 .2 7
-1 .1 8
-1 .3 4
- .94
- .99

- 1 . 0 $0.2185
-2 .2
.2219
-1 .5
.2216
-2 .3
.2249
-1 .5
.2286
.2117
+1.1
- .1 .2149
+ *1 .2130
+ .3 .2146
-2 .2
.2138
.2202
-2 .0
- 2 .3
.2199
-1 .6
.2236
.2314
- 1 .7
.2398

100.0
101.6
101.4
102.9
104.6
96.9
98.4
97.5
98.2
97.8
100.8
100.6
102.3
105.9
109.7

+$0.0213
+ .0179
+ .0182
+ .0149
+ .0112
+ .0281
+ .0249
+ .0268
+ .0252
+ .0260
+ .0196
+ .0199
+ .0162
+ .0084

+ 9.7
+ 8.1
+ 8.2
+ 6.6
+ 4.9
+13.3
+11.6
+12.6
+11.7
+12.2
+ 8.9
+ 9.0
+ 7.2
+ 3.6

+ 2 .3 $0.2817
- 3 .1
.2856
- 1 .8
.2855
-1 .4
.2834
+ . 6 .2900
+ 9 .5 .2812
+ 5 .9 .2857
+ 7 .0 .2795
+ 6 .9 .2744
+ .2 .2710
+ .5 .2803
- .7 .2801
+ .7 .2789
- .5 .2827
. 2887

100.0
101.4
101.3
100.6
102.9
99.8
101.4
99.2
97.4
96.2
99.5
99.4
99.0
100.4
102.5

+$0.0070
+ .0031
+ .0032
+ .0053
.0013
+ .0075
+ .0030
+ .0092
+ .0143
+ .0177
+ .0084
+ .0086
+ .0098
+ .0060

+ 2 .5
+ 1 .1
+ 1 .1
+ 1 .9
— .4
+ 2 .7
+ 1 .1
+ 3 .3
+ 5 .2
+ 6 .5
+ 3 .0
+ 3 .1
+ 3 .5
+ 2 .1

COPPERSMITHS, Male
[Data from 14 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

33
30
28
29
29
31
28
34
38
41
41
44
45
54
48

100.0
90.9
84.8
87.9
87.9
93.9
84.8
103.0
115.2
124.2
124.2
133.3
136.4
163.6
145.5

+15
+18
+20
+19
+19
+17
+20
+14
+10
+ 7
+ 7
+ 4
+ 3
- 6

+45.5
+60.0
+71.4
+65.5
+65.5
+54.8
+71.4
+41.2
+26.3
+17.1
+17.1
+ 9.1
+ 6.7
-1 1 .1

10092—No. 53—04---- 5



55.41
58.50
57.68
57.45
56.34
51.77
53.50
52.94
53.00
56.56
56.37
57.07
56.27
56.96
56.67

100.0
105.6
104.1
103.7
101.7
93.4
96.6
95.5
95.7
102.1
101.7
103.0
101.6
102.8
102.3

+1.26
-1 .8 3
-1 .0 1
- .78
+ .33
+4.90
+3.17
+3.73
+3.67
+ .11
+ .30
- .40
+ .40
- .29

764

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

CARS, STEAM RAIEROAD—Continued.
LABORERS, Male.
[Data from 11 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Increase f-f) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent

751 100.0
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
793 105.6
834 111.1
1891.............
1892.............
805 107.2
1893.............
790 105.2
1894.............
527 70.2
1895.............
610 81.2
1896.............
779 103.7
1897.............
620 82.6
1898.............
823 109.6
1899.............
930 123.8
1900............. 1,119 149.0
1901............. 1,095 145.8
1902.............
905 120.5
1903............. 1,058 140.9

+307
+265
+224
+253
+268
+531
+448
+279
+438
+235
+128
- 61
- 37
+153

+ 40.9
+ 33.4
+ 26.9
+ 31.4
+ 33.9
+100.8
+ 73.4
+ 35.8
+ 70.6
+ 28.6
+ 13.8
5.5
3.4
+ 16.9

58.17
68.85
58.94
58.77
58.33
56.69
58.04
57.93
57.63
58.31
58.16
58.28
58.54
58.37
59.59

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) o r
decrease ( —)in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.2
101.3
101.0
100.3
97.5
£9.8
99.6
99.1
100.2
100.0
100.2
100.6
100.3
102.4

+1.42
+ .74
+ .65
+ .82
+1.26
+2.90
+1.55
+1.66
+1.96
+1.28
+1.43
+1.31
+1.05
+1.22

+ 2 .4 $0.1304
+ 1 .3 .1300
+ 1 .1 .1294
+ 1 .4 .1313
+ 2 .2 .1464
+ 5.1 .1303
+ 2 .7 .1268
+ 2 .9 .1279
+ 3 .4 .1284
+ 2 .2 .1268
+ 2 .5 .1271
+ 2 .2 .1311
+ 1 .8 .1308
+2 .1 .1344
.1362

Increase (+ )o r
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

100.0 +$0.0058
99.7 + .0062
99.2 + .0068
100.7 + .0049
112.3 .0102
99.9 + .0059
97.2 + .0094
98.1 + .0083
98.5 + .0078
97.2 + .0094
97.5 + .0091
100.5 + .0051
100.3 + .0054
103.1 + .0018
104.4

Per
cent.
+ 4 .4
+ 4 .8
+ 5 .3
+ 3 .7
- 7 .0
+ 4 .5
+ 7 .4
+ 6 .5
+ 6 .1
+ 7 .4
+ 7 .2
+ 3 .9
+ 4 .1
+ 1 .3

JUACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 21 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 21
establishments, 1890-1898; 22 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894%............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

389
436
464
525
557
288
289
308
290
345
387
428
466
497
543

100.0
112.1
119.3
135.0
143.2
74.0
74.3
79.2
74.6
88.7
99.5
110.0
119.8
127.8
139.6

+154
+107
+ 79
+ 18
- 14
+255
+254
+235
+253
+198
+156
+115
+ 77
+ 46

+39.6
+24.5
+17.0
+ 3.4
- 2.5
+88.5
+87.9
+76.3
+87.2
+57.4
+40.3
+26.9
+16.5
+ 9.3

58.83
59.33
59.22
59.52
59.51
58.19
58.39
58.42
58.14
58.72
58.88
59.21
58.60
58.68
56.54

100.0
100.8
100.7
101.2
101.2
98.9
99.3
99.3
98.8
99.8
100.1
100.6
99.6
99.7
96.1

-2 .2 9
-2 .7 9
-2 .6 8
-2 .9 8
-2 .9 7
-1 .6 5
-1 .8 5
-1 .8 8
-1 .6 0
-2 .1 8
-2 .3 4
-2 .6 7
-2 .0 6
-2 .1 4

- 3 . 9 $0.2159 100.0 +$0.0296
.2222 102.9 + .0233
-4 .7
- 4 .5
.2288 106.0 + .0167
.2167 100.4 + .0288
- 5 .0
-5 .0
.2213 102.5 + .0242
.2101 97.3 + .0354
- 2 .8
- 3 .2
.2081 96.4 + .0374
-3 .2
.2140 99.1 + .0315
-2 .8
.2059 95.4 + .0396
-3 .7
.2140 99.1 + .0315
-4 .0
.2178 100.9 + .0277
.2195 101.7 + .0260
-4 .5
- 3 .5
.2177 100.8 + .0278
.2288 106.0 + .0167
- 3 .6
. 2455 113.7

+13.7
+10.5
+ 7.3
+13.3
+10.9
+ 16.8
+ 18.0
+14.7
+19.2
+14.7
+12.7
+11.8
+12.8
+ 7.3

MACHINISTS, Male.
[Data for employees from 44 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 44
establishments, 1890-1898; 45 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

3,201
3,035
3,031
3,189
3,204
2,909
3,038
3,262
3,171
3,472
3,702
3,794
3,787
3,978
4,281

100.0
94.8
94.7
99.6
100.1
90.9
94.9
101.9
99.1
108.5
115.7
118.5
118.3
124.3
133.7




+1,080
+1,246
+1,250
+1,092
+1,077
+1,372
+1,243
+1,019
+1,110
+ 809
+ 579
+ 487
+ 494
+ 303

+33.7
+41.1
+41.2
+34.2
+33.6
+47.2
+40.9
+31.2
+35.0
+23.3
+15.6
+12.8
+13.0
+ 7.6

57.17
58.32
57.56
58.44
57.93
54.85
56.81
56.42
56.28
57.34
57.74
58.12
57.95
67.94
56.75

100.0
102.0
100.7
102.2
101.3
95.9
99.4
98.7
98.4
100.3
101.0
101.7
101.4
101.3
99.3

-0 .4 2
-1 .5 7
- .81
-1 .6 9
-1 .1 8
+1.90
- .06
+ .33
+ .47
- .59
- .99
-1 .3 7
-1 .2 0
-1 .1 9

- 0 . 7 $0.2623 100.0 +$0.0281
- 2 .7 .2636 100.5 + .0268
- 1 .4
. 2625 100.1 + .0279
-2 .9
.2630 100.3 + .0274
- 2 .0
.2643 100.8 + .0261
+ 3 .5 .2641 100.7 + .0263
- .1 .2620 99.9 + .0284
+ .6 .2609 99.5 + .0295
+ .8 .2607 99.4 + .0297
- 1 .0
. 2593 98.9 + .0311
-1 .7
.2627 100.2 + .0277
-2 .4
.2639 100.6 + .0265
-2 .1
.2677 102.1 + .0227
- 2 .1
.2749 104.8 + .0155
.2904 110.7

+10.7
+10.2
+ 10.6
+10.4
+ 9.9
+10.0
+10.8
+11.3
+ 11.4
+12.0
+ 10.5
+10.0
+ 8.5
+ 5.6

765

WAGES A N D COST OP LIVING
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with, previous years, see note on page 718.]

CARS, STEAM RAIEROAH—Continued.
MOLDEB8, B it ASS, Male.
[Data from 11 establishments. ]
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase (+ ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —) in
1908 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Amount cent.
ber.
cent.
i

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

68
66
70
73
70
54
56
59
68
78
81
90
100
106
108

100.0
97.1
102.9
107.4
102.9
79.4
82.4
86.8
100.0
114.7
119.1
132.4
147.1
155.9
158.8

+40
+42
+38
+35
+38
+54
+52
+49
+40
+30
+27
+18
+ 8
+ 2

+ 58.8
+ 63.6
+ 54.3
+ 47.9
+ 54.3
+100.0
+ 92.9
+ 83.1
+ 58.8
+ 38.5
+ 33.3
+ 20.0
+ 8.0
+ 1.9

58.82
59.42
59.67
59.63
59.44
55.56
59.52
59.37
56.62
59.49
59.52
59.69
59.76
59.86
56.19

100.0
101.0
101.4
101.4
101.1
94.5
101.2
100.9
96.3
101.1
101.2
101.5
101.6
101.8
95.5

-2 .6 3
-3 .2 3
-3 .4 8
-3 .4 4
-3 .2 5
+ .63
-3 .3 3
-3 .1 8
- .43
-3 .3 0
-3 .3 3
-3 .5 0
-3 .5 7
-3 .6 7
1

- 4 . 5 $0.2722 100.0 +80.0177
.2877 105.6 + .0322
-5 .4
- 5 .8
.2909 106.9 + .0290
.2693 98.9 + .0506
- 5 .8
-5 .5
.2750 101.0 + .0449
.2843 104.4 + .0356
+1 .1
.2554 93.8 + .0645
-5 .6
.2564 94.2 + .0635
-5 .4
- .8 .2625 96.4 + .0574
- 5 .5
.2639 97.0 + .0560
.2766 101.6 + .0433
- 5 .6
-5 .9
.2714 99.7 + .0485
- 6 .0 .2780 102.1 + .0419
- 6 .1
.2973 109.2 + .0226
.3199 117.5
i1 *

+17.5
+11.2
+10.0
+18.8
+16.3
+ 1 2.5
+25.3
+24.8
+21.9
+21.2
+15.7
+17.9
+15.1
+ 7.6

MOLDERS, IRON, Male.
[Data for employees from 13 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 13
establishments, 1890-1898; 14 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898 .............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

571
645
607
637
558
491
475
580
487
571
658
712
648
717
699

100.0
113.0
106.3
111.6
97.7
86.0
83.2
101.6
85.3
100.0
115.2
124.7
113.5
125.6
122.4

+128
+ 54
+ 92
+ 62
+141
+208
+224
+119
+212
+ 128
+ 41
- 13
+ 51
- 18

+22.4
+ 8.4
+15.2
+ 9.7
+25.3
+42.4
+47.2
+20.5
+43.5
+22.4
+ 6.2
- 1.8
+ 7.9
- 2.5

58.29 100.0
58.55 100.4
58.73, 100.8
58.75 100.8
58.69 100.7
56.19; 96.4
58.671 100.7
58.97, 101.2
56.511 96.9
58.88, 101.0
58.92 101.1
58.92 101.1
58.42, 100.2
58.41' 100.2
57.89j 99.3

-0 .4 0
- .66
- .84
- .86
- .80
+1.70
- .78
-1 .0 8
+1.38
- .99
-1 .0 8
-1 .0 3
- .53
- .52

-0.710.2572
.2704
- 1 .1
-1 .4
.2666
-1 .5
.2687
- 1 .4
.2791
+ 3 .0 .2551
- 1 .3
.2548
.2382
- 1 .8
+ 2 .4 .2473
.2457
- 1 .7
.2462
- 1 .7
-1 .7
.2518
- .9 .2542
- .9 .2608
.2727

100.0
105.1
103.7
104.5
108.5
99.2
99.1
92.6
96.2
95.5
95.7
97.9
98.8
101.2
106.0

+$0.0155
+ .0023
+ .0061
+ .0040
- .0064
+ .0176
+ .0179
+ .0345
+ .0254
+ .0270
+ .0265
+ .0209
+ .0185
+ .0124

+ 6.0
+ .9
+ 2.3
+ 1.5
- 2.3
+ 6.9
+ 7.0
+14.5
+10.3
+11.0
+10.8
+ 8.3
+ 7.3
+ 4.8

PAINTERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 35 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 35
establishments, 1890-1898, 36 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

1,222
1,391
1,521
1,382
1,576
975
1,072
1,046
945
1,079
1,236
1,198
1,265
1,278
1,139

100.0
113.8
124.5
113.1
129.0
79.8
87.7
85.6
77.3
88.3
101.1
98.0
103.5
104.6
93.2




- 83
-2 5 2
-382
-2 4 3
-437
+164
+ 67
+ 93
+194
+ 60
- 97
- 59
-1 2 6
-139

- 6.8
-1 8 .1
-2 5 .1
-1 7 .6
-2 7 .7
+16.8
+ 6.3
+ 8.9
+20.5
+ 5.6
- 7.8
- 4.9
-1 0 .0
-1 0 .9

57.92
58.69
58.53
58.65
58.70
56.88
57.41
57.33
56.81
58.06
58.18
58.38
57.78
57.73
57.26

100.0
101.3
101.1
201.3
101.4
98.2
99.1
99.0
98.1
100.2
100.4
100.8
99.8
99.7
98.9

-0 .6 6
-1 .4 3
-1 .2 7
-1 .3 9
-1 .4 4
+ .38
- .15
- .07
+ .45
- .80
- .92
-1 .1 2
- .52
- .47

1
.
- 1 .1 SO 2297 m o +80.0125
- 2 .4
. 2354 102.5 + .0068
.2351 102.4 + .0071
- 2 .2
-2 .4
.2334 101.6 + .0088
- 2 .5
.2369 103.1 + .0053
+ .7 .2247 97.8 + .0175
- .3 .2216 96.5 + .0206
- .1 . 2266 98.7 + .0156
+ .8 . 2315 100.8 + .0107
- 1 .4
.2258 98.3 + .0164
-1 .6
.2264 98.6 + .0158
- 1 .9
.2236 97.3 + .0186
- .9 .2284 99.4 + .0138
- .8 .2331 101.5 + .0091
.2422 105.4

+ 5 .4
+ 2 .9
+ 3 .0
+ 3 .8
+ 2 .2
+ 7 .8
+ 9 .3
+ 6 .9
+ 4 .6
+ 7 .3
+ 7 .0
+ 8 .3
+ 6 .0
+ 3 .9

766

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease#( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

CARS, STEAM RAILROAD—Continued.
PATTERN MAKERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 24 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 24 estab­
lishments, 1890-1898; 25 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase f+ ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
cent.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
Ill
113
110
117
108
98
103
110
102
125
127
130
141
139
140

100.0
101.8
99.1
105.4
97.3
88.3
92.8
99.1
91.9
112.6
114.4
117.1
127.0
125.2
126.1

+29
+27
+30
+23
+32
+42
+37
+30
+38
+15
+13
+10
- 1
+ 1

+26.1
+23.9
+27.3
+19.7
+29.6
+42.9
+35.9
+27.3
+37.3
+12.0
+10.2
+ 7.7
.7
+ .7

57.15
58.04
57.64
58.09
58.15
56.50
55.92
55.84
55.47
57.73
58.16
58.12
57.74
58.01
56.17

100.0
101.6
100.9
101.6
101.7
98.9
97.8
97.7
97.1
101.0
101.8
101.7
101.0
101.5
98.3

-0 .9 8
-1 .8 7
-1 .4 7
-1 .9 2
-1 .9 8
- .33
+ .25
+ .33
+ .70
-1 .5 6
-1 .9 9
-1 .9 5
-1 .5 7
-1 .8 4

- 1 . 7 $0.2737 100.0 +$0.0234
-3 .2
.2785 101.8 + .0186
-2 .6
.2805 102.5 + .0166
-3 .3
.2769 101.2 + .0202
-3 .4
.2829 103.4 + .0142
- .6 .2761 100.9 + .0210
+ .4 .2709 99.0 + .0262
+ .6 .2622 95.8 + .0349
+ 1 .3 .2655 97.0 + .0316
-2 .7
.2738 100.0 + .0233
-3 .4
.2701 98.7 + .0270
-3 .4
.2741 100.1 + .0230
.2794 102.1 + .0177
- 2 .7
- 3 .2
.2806 102.5 + .0165
.2971 108.5

+ 8.5
+ 6.7
+ 5.9
+ 7.3
+ 5.0
+ 7.6
+ 9.7
+ 13.3
+ 11.9
+ 8.5
+10.0
+ 8.4
+ 6.3
+ 5.9

PIPE FITTERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments, 1890-1898; 7 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

54
55
51
61
67
50
51
47
51
52
52
51
69
73
78

100.0
101.9
94.4
113.0
124.1
92.6
94.4
87.0
94.4
96.3
96.3
94.4
127.8
135.2
144.4

+24
+23
+27
+17
+11
+28
+27
+31
+27
+26
+26
+27
+ 9
+ 5

+44.4
+ 41.8
+52.9
+27.9
+16.4
+56.0
+52.9
+66.0
+52.9
+50.0
+50.0
+52.9
+13.0
+ 6.8

56.85 100.0
58.25 102.5
58.37 102.7
58.72 103.3
58.25 . 102.5
53.70 94.5
54.98 96.7
54.77 96.3
54.82 96.4
58.06 102.1
58.55 103.0
58.51 102.9
57.65 101.4
57.64 101.4
67.12 100.5

+0.27
-1 .1 3
-1 .2 5
-1 .6 0
-1 .1 3
+3.42
+2.14
+2.35
+2.30
- .94
-1 .4 3
-1 .3 9
- .53
- .52

+ 0 .5 $0.2398 100.0 +$0.0155
.2484 103.6 + .0069
- 1 .9
-2 .1
.2325 97.0 + .0228
-2 .7
.2294 95.7 + .0259
-1 .9
.2439 101.7 + .0114
+6 .4 .2457 102.5 + .0096
+ 3 .9 .2386 99.5 + .0167
+ 4 .3 .2380 99.2 + .0173
+ 4 .2 .2388 99.6 + .0165
- 1 .6
.2432 101.4 + .0121
-2 .4
.2396 99.9 + .0157
-2 .4
.2376 99.1 + .0177
- .9 .2426 101.2 + .0127
- .9 .2401 100.1 + .0152
.2553 106.5

+ 6.5
+ 2.8
+ 9.8
+11.3
+ 4.7
+ 3.9
+ 7.0
+ 7.3
+ 6.9
+ 5.0
+ 6.6
+ 7.4
+ 5.2
+ 6.3

TINSMITHS, Male.
[Data for employees from 34 establishments for entire period Data for hours and wages from 34 estab­
lishments, 1890-1898; 35 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1 8 9 5 ... ;.. ..
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

375
355
384
352
374
362
346
356
357
440
425
435
477
485
478

100.0
94.7
102.4
93.9
99.7
96.5
92.3
94.9
95.2
117.3
113.3
116.0
127.2
129.3
127.5




+103
+123
+ 94
+126
+104
+116
+132
+122
+121
+ 38
+ 53
+ 43
+ 1
7

+27.6
+34.6
+24.5
+35.8
+27.8
+32.0
+38.1
+34.3
+33.9
+ 8.6
+12.5
+ 9.9
+ .2
- 1.4

57.90
59.14
58.52
58.56
58.23
56.32
57.07
57.09
56.87
58.63
58.61
59.04
58.30
58.05
56.49

100.0
102.1
101.1
101.1
100.6
97.3
98.6
98.6
98.2
101.3
101.2
102.0
100.7
100.3
97.6

-1 .4 1
-2 .6 5
-2 .0 3
-2 .0 7
-1 .7 4
+ .17
- .58
- .60
- .38
-2 .1 4
-2 .1 2
-2 .5 5
-1 .8 1
-1 .5 6

- 2 . 4 $0.2348
-4 .5
.2305
- 3 .5
.2279
- 3 .5
.2415
.2382
- 3 .0
.2296
+ .3
-1 .0
.2331
- 1 .1
.2391
- .7 .2402
-3 .7
.2268
.2410
- 3 .6
- 4 .3
.2427
-3 .1
.2428
.2635
-2 .7
.2796

100.0
98.2
97.1
102.9
101.4
97.8
99.3
101.8
102.3
96.6
102.6
103.4
103.4
112.2
119.1

+$0.0448
+ .0491
+ .0517
+ .0381
+ .0414
+ .0500
+ .0465
+ .0405
+ .0394
+ .0528
+ .0386
+ .0369
+ .0368
+ .0161

+19.1
+21.3
+22.7
+15.8
+17.4
+21.8
+19.9
+16.9
+ 16.4
+ 2 3.3
+ 16.0
+15.2
+ 15.2
+ 6.1

767

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) cr decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

CARS, STEAM RAILROAD—Concluded.
UPHOLSTERERS, male.
[Data from 25 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903

Increase ( + ) or
decrease^—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber,
cent.
174
175
202
185
210
152
154
148
159
172
179
204
185
183
188

100.0
100.6
116.1
106.3
120.7
87.4
88.5
85.1
91.4
98.9
102.9
117.2
106.3
105.2
108.0

+14
+13
-1 4
+ 3
-2 2
+36
+34
+40
+29
+16
+ 9
-1 6
+ 3
+ 5

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+ 8.0
+ 7.4
- 6.9
+ 1.6
-1 0 .5
+23.7
+22.1
+27.0
+18.2
+ 9.3
+ 5.0
- 7.8
+ 1.6
+ 2.7

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Amount. cent.
cent.
ber.

58.16
58.57
58.69
58.66
58.78
57.28
57.38
57.89
57.58
58.25
58.48
58.75
58.46
58.18
55.18

100.0
100.7
100.9
100.9
101.1
98.5
98.7
99.5
99.0
100.2
100.6
101.0
100.5
100.0
94.9

-2 .9 8
-3 .3 9
-3 .5 1
-3 .4 8
-3 .6 0
-2 .1 0
-2 .2 0
-2 .7 1
-2 .4 0
-3 .0 7
-3 .3 0
-3 .5 7
-3 .2 8
-3 .0 0

- 5 . 1 $0.2602
.2809
-5 .8
.2740
-6 .0
.2736
-5 .9
.2783
-6 .1
.2417
- 3 .7
.2523
-3 .8
- 4 .7
.2469
.2504
-4 .2
.2504
-5 .3
—5.6 .2530
.2553
- 6 .1
.2601
-5 .6
-5 .2
.2703
.2908

100.0
108.0
105.3
105.1
107.0
92.9
97.0
94.9
96.2
96.2
97.2
98.1
100.0
103.9
111.8

+$0.0306
+ .0099
+ .0168
+ .0172
+ .0125
+ .0491
+ .0385
+ .0439
+ .0404
+ .0404
+ .0378
+ .0355
+ .0307
+ .0205

+11.8
+ 3.5
+ 6.1
+ 6.3
+ 4.5
+20.3
+15.3
+17.8
+16.1
+16.1
+14.9
+13,9
+11.8
+ 7.6

- 9 . 4 $0.0569 100.0 +$0.0185
.0600 105.4 + .0154
-9 .5
.0600 105.4 + .0154
-9 .5
.0600 105.4 + .0154
-9 .5
.0575 101.1 + .0179
- 9 .4
.0521 91.6 + .0233
- 9 .1
.0521 91.6 + .0233
- 9 .1
- 9 .4
.0551 96.8 + .0203
.0575 101.1 + .0179
- 9 .4
.0575 1 1 + .0179
0 .1
-9 .4
-9 .4
.0575 101.1 + .0179
-9 .4
.0575 101.1 + .0179
.0614 107.9 + .0140
-6 .9
.0664 116.7 + .0090
.0754 132.5

+32.5
+25.7
+25.7
+25.7
+31.1
+44.7
+44.7
+36.8
+31.1
+31.1
+31.1
+31.1
+22.8
+13.6

CLOTHING, FACTORY PRODUCT.
BUTTONHOLE RAKERS, MACHINE, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902
1903

6
6
6
6
7
5
5
7
7
7
7
7
6
o
7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
83.3
83.3
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
100.0
100
0
116.7

+1
+1
+1
+1

+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7

+2
+2

+40.0
+40.0

+1
+1

+16.7
+16.7

59.57
59.67
59.67
59.67
59.57
59.40
59.40
59.57
59.57
59.57
59.57
59.57
58.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
99.7
99.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.4
90.6
90.6

-5 .5 7
-5 .6 7
-5 .6 7
-5 .6 7
-5 .5 7
-5 .4 0
-5 .4 0
-5 .5 7
-5 .5 7
-5 .5 7
-5 .5 7
-5 .5 7
-4 .0 0

BUTTONHOLE MAKERS, MACHINE, Female.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
11
11
11
12
12
12
13
14

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.7
91.7
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
108.3
116.7




+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+3
+3
+3
+2
+2
+2
+1

+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+27.3
+27.3
+27.3
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+ 7.7

56.54
67.07
57.07
57.67
56.17
56.17
56.17
55.91
55.91
55.91
56.17
56.17
56.17
56.00
56.93

100.0
102.0
102.0
102.0 »
99.3
99.3
99.3
98.9
98.9
98.9
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.0
100.7

+0.39
- .74
- .74
- .74
+ .76
+ .76
+ .76
+1.02
+1.02
+1.02
+ .76
+ .76
+ .76
+ .93

+ 0 .7 $0.1062 100.0 + $ 0 .0001
.1016 95.7 + .0047
- 1 .3
.1016 95.7 + .0047
-1 .3
-1 .3
.1023 96.3 + .0040
+ 1 .4 .1019 96.0 + .0044
+ 1 .4 .1019 96.0 + .0044
.1019 96.0 + .0044
+ 1 .4
+ 1 .8 .1120 105.5 — .0057
+ 1 .8 .1120 105.5 — .0057
+ 1 .8 .1170 110.2 — .0107
+ 1 .4 .1096 103.2 — .0033
+ 1 .4 .1052 99.1 + .0011
+ 1 .4 .1056 99.4 + .0007
+ 1 .7 .1028 96.8 + .0035
.1063 100.1

+ 0 .1
+ 4 .6
+ 4 .6
+ 3 .9
+ 4 .3
+ 4 .3
+ 4 .3
-5 .1
-5 .1
- 9 .1
-3 .0
+ 1 .0
+ .7
+ 3 .4

768

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

FAverage 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

CLOTHING, FACTORY PRODUCT—Continued.
CUTTERS, KANO, Male.
[Data from 8 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
189-1.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified..
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
21
19
19
21
20
21
21
21
22
23
24
23
25
27
26

100.0
90.5
90.5
100.0
95.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
104.8
109.5
114.3
109.5
119.0
128.6
123.8

+5
+7
+7
+5
+6
+5
+5
+5
+4
+3
+2
+3
+1
-1

+23.8
+36.8
+36.8
+23.8
+30.0
+23.8
+23.8
+23.8
+18.2
+13.0
+ 8.3
+13.0
+ 4.0
- 3.7

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

59.07
59.21
59.21
59.14
59.10
59.14
59.00
59.00
58.91
58.96
59.00
58.96
58.92
59.00
59.12

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver- Rela- pared with year
specified.
specified.
tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per *
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.9
100.1

+0.05
- .09
- .09
- .02
+ .02
- .02
+ .12
+ .12
+ .21
+ .16
+ .12
+ .16
+ .20
+ .12

+ 0 .1 SO 3901
.
.4043
- .2
.4043
- .2
- .03 .3863
+ .03 .3981
- .03
+ .2
.3893
+ .2
.3897
+ .4
.3814
+ .3
.3745
+ .2
.4019
+ .3
.3924
+ .3
.3788
+ .2

I

100. O + $ 0 .0082
'
103.61- .0060|
1 0 8 .6 - .0060
99.0 + . 0120 '

102. 1 !+ . 0002 !
8.4

9.8
99.8
99.9
97.8
96.0
103.8

100.6
97.1

102.1

.0144'
.00901
.0090
.0086
.0169
.0238
.0066
.0059
.0195

+2.1

- 1 .5
-1 .5
+ 3 .1

+ .1

+ 3 .8
+ 2 .3
+ 2 .3

+2.2
+ 4 .4
+ 6 .4
-

1.6

+ 1 .5
+5 .1

CUTTERS, MACHINE, Male.
[Data from 7 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894 ...........
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

17
18
18
19
18
17
16
16
16
16
16
18
19
19
19

100.0
105.9
105.9
111.8
105.9
100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
105.9
111.8
111.8
111.8

+2
+1
+1
+1
+2
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+1

+11.8 57.95 100.0
+ 5.6 58.00 100.1
+ 5.6 58.00 100.1
58.11 100.3
+ 5.6 58.00 100.1
+11.8 58.00 100.1
+18.8 57.88 99.9
+18.8 57.88 99.9
+18.8 57.88 99.9
+18.8 57.88 99.9
+18.8 57.88 99.9
+ 5.6 58.00 100.1
57.89 99.9
57.37 99.0
57.16 98.6

-0 .7 9
- .84
- .84
- .95
- .84
- .84
- .72
- .72
- .72
- .72
- .72
- .84
- .73
- .21

- 1 . 4 $0.2440 100.0 +$0.0176
-1 .4
.2459 100.8 + .0157
- 1 .4
.2459 100.8 + .0157
- 1 .6
.2435 99.8 + .0181
- 1 .4
.2459 100.8 + .0157
-1 .4
.2359 96.7
.0257
- 1 .2
.2433 99.7 t
+ .0183
- 1 .2
.2433 90.7 + .0183
- 1 .2
.2401 98.4 + .0215
- 1 .2
.2438 99.9 + .0178
- 1 .2
.2523 103.4 + .0093
-1 .4
.2529 103.6 + .0087
-1 .3
.2530 103.7 + .0086
- .4 .2589 106.1 + .0027
.2616 107.2

+ 7.2
+ 6.4
+ 6.4
+ 7.4
+ 6.4
+10.9
+ 7.5
+ 7.5
+ 9.0
+ 7.3
+ 3.7
+ 3.4
+ 3.4
+ 1.0

- 3 . 0 $0.1325 100.0 -$0.0177
.0151
- 2 .9
.1299 98.0 .1299 98.0 .0151
-2 .9
- 3 .1
.1255 94.7 .0107
.1299 98.0 -2 .9
.0151
-3 .4
.1324 99.9 .0176
-3 .4
.0182
.1330 100.4 .1334 100.7 - 3 .0
.0186
.13C2 102.8 .0214
- 2 .6
.0203
-2 .6
.1351 102.0 .0245
- 2 .8
.1393 105.1 .0225
-3 .0
.1373 103.6 .0273
- 2 .5
.1421 107.2 .0012
.1160 87.5 - 1 .8
.1148 86.6
*

- 1 3 .4
- 1 1 .6
- 1 1 .6
- 8.5
- 1 1 .6
- 1 3 .3
- 1 3 .7
-1 3 .9
-1 5 .7
- 1 5 .0
- 1 7 .6
- 1 6 .4
- 1 9 .2
- 1.0

EXAMINERS, Female.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

17
17
17
18
17
15
15
19
15
15
19
21
24
31
36

100.0
100.0
100.0
105.9
100.0
88.2
88.2
111.8
88.2
88.2
111.8
123.5
141.2
182.4
211.8




+19
+19
+19
+18
+19
+21
+21
+17
+21
+21
+17
+15
+12
+ 5

+111.8
+111.8
+111.8
+100.0
+111.8
+140.0
+140.0
+ 89.5
+140.0
+140.0
+ 89.5
+ 71.4
+ 50.0
+ 16.1

58.09 100.0
58.06 99.9
58.06 99.9
58.17 100.1
58.06 99.9
58.33 •100.4
58.33 100.4
58.11 100.0
.87 99.6
57.87 99.6
58.00 99.8
58.10 100.0
57.83 99.6
57.39 98.8
56.36 97.0

-1 .7 3
-1 .7 0
-1 .7 0
-1 .8 1
-1 .7 0
-1 .9 7
-1 .9 7
-1 .7 5
-1 .5 1
-1 .5 1
-1 .6 4
-1 .7 4
-1 .4 7
-1 .0 3

769

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase { + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

CLOTHESTG, FACTORY PRODUCT—Continued.
FINISHERS, Fem ale.
[Data from 7 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1908

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber. num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
cent.
ber.
i
63 100.0
57 90.5
57 90.5
62 98.4
61 96.8
56 88.9
57 90.5
59 93.7
65 103.2
73 115.9
78 123.8
87 138.1
841 133.3
931! 147.6
90! 142.9

+27
+33
+33
+28
+29
+34
+33
+31
+25
+17
+12
+ 3
+ 6
- 3

+42.9
+57.9
+57.9
+45.2
+47.5
+60.7
+57.9
+52.5
+38.5
+23.3
+15.4
+ 3.4
+ 7.1
- 3.2

56.48
56.93i
56.93
56.69
56.66i
56.89,
56.51
56.12
56.11
56.00
55.91
55.91
55.63
55.60
55.59

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + } or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.8
100.8
100.4
100.3
100.7
100.1
99.4
99.3
99.2
99.0
99.0
98.5
98.4
98.4

-0 .8 9
-1 .3 4
-1 .3 4
-1 .1 0
-1 .0 7
-1 .3 0
- .92
- .53
- .52 i
- .41
- .32
- .32
- .04
- .01

- 1 . 6 $0.0874
.0875
- 2 .4
- 2 .4
. C875
-1 .9
.0858
-1 .9
.0856
- 2 .3
.0856
- 1 .6
.0885
- .9
.0885
.0885
“ *°
.0894
“ *7
- .6
.0867
.0876
- .6
.0903
- .1
- .02 .0885
.0884

100.0
100.1
100.1
98.2
97.9
97.9
101.3
101.3
101.3
102.3
99.2
100.2
103.3
101.3
101.1

+1 .1
+ 1 .0
+ 1 .0
+3 .0
+ 3.3
+ 3 .3
- .1
- .1
- .1
-1 .1
+ 2 .0
+ .9
-2 .1
- .1

+$0.0010
+ .0009
+ .0009
+ .0026
+ .0028
+ .0028
.0001
.0001
.0001
.0010
+ .0017
+ .0008
.0019
— .0001

_
—

PRESSERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 7 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 8
establishments, 1890-1899; 7 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99 .
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903 .

. .

26
28
28
29
26
29
30
23
23
24
23
27
30
28
27

100.0
107.7
107.7
111.5
100.0
111.5
115.4
88.5
88.5
92.3
88.5
103.8
115.4
107.7
103,8

+1
-1
-1
-2
+1
-2
-8
+4
+4
+3
+4
-3
-1

+ 3.8
- 3.6
- 3.6
- 6.9
+ 3.8
- 6.9
-1 0 .0
+17.4
+17.4
+12.5
+17.4

58.19
58.31
58.31
58.371
58.19
58.37
58.32
57.96
58.00
58.08
58.00
58.07
-1 0 .0 58.13
- 3.6 58.11
57.22

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.0
i
100.3
100.2
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9
98.3

- 1 . 7 $0.1722 100.0 + $ 0 .0232
.1729 100.4 + .0225
-1 .9
.1729 100.4 + .0225
-1 .9
.1727 100.3 + .0227
-2 .0
.1789 103.9 + .0165
-1 .7
.1727 100.3 + .0227
-2 .0
.1723 100.1 + .0231
-1 .9
.1667 96.8 + .0287
-1 .3
.1636 95.0 + .0318
- 1 .3
-1 .5
.1679 97.5 + .0275
.1812 105.2 + .0142
-1 .3
.1807 104.9
.0147
-1 .5
.1884 109.4 + .0070
-1 .6
.1912 111.0 + .0042
-1 .5
.1954 113.5

-0 .9 7
-1 .0 9
-1 .0 9
-1 .1 5
- .97
-1 .1 5
-1 .1 0
- .74
- .78
- .86
- .78
- .85
- .91
- .89

+13.5
+13.0
+13.0
+13.1
+ 9.2
+13: i
+13.4
+17.2
+19.4
+16.4
+ 7.8
+ 8.1
+ 3.7
+ 2.2

PRESSERS, Female.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895 .............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900 .
1901.............
1902.............
1903...........

39
40
40
41
41
32
34
40
41
41
44
47
54
59
64

100.0
102.6
102.6
105.1
105.1
82.1
87.2
102.6
105.1
105.1
112.8
120.5
138! 5
151.3
164.1




+25
+24
+24
+23
+23
+32
+30
+24
+23
+23
+20
+17
+10
+ 5

+ 64.1
+ 60.0
+ 60.0
+ 56.1
+ 56.1
+100.0
+ 88.2
+ 60.0
+ 56.1
+ 56.1
+ 45.5
+ 36.2
+ 18.5
+ 8.5

55.69
55.75
55.75
55.71
55.71
55.69
55.71
55.68
55.63
55.63
55.61
55. 62
55.67
55.65
55.67

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0

-0 .0 2
- .08
- .08
- .04
- .04
- .02
- .04
- .01
+ .04
+ .04
+ .06
+ .05
+ .02

-0 .0 4 $0.0736
.0753
- .1
.0753
- .1
.0759
- .1
- .1
.0759
- .04 .0636
.0669
- .1
- .02 .0738
.0760
+ .1
.0760
+ .1
.0775
+ .1
+ .1
.0796
.0809
+ .04 .0778
.0766

100.0
102.3
102.3
103.1
103.1
86.4
90.9
100.3
203.3
103.3
105.3
108.2
109.9
105.7
104.1

+ $ 0 .0030
+ .0013
+ .0013
+ .0007
+ .0007
+ .0130
+ .0097
+ .0028
+ .0006
+ .0006
—
.0009
.0030
.0043
—
. 0012'

_

1

i

+ 4.1
+ 1.7
+ 1.7
+ .9
+ .9
+20.4
+14.5
+ 3.8
+ .8
+ .8
- 1.2
— 3.8
— 5.3
- 1 .5

770

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1830-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with.previous years, see note on page 718.]

CDOTHING, FACTORY PRODUCT—Concluded.
SEWING-MACHINE OPERATORS, Male*
[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment, 1890-1901; 2 establishments, 1902, 1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( — / in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as comAver­ Rela­
tive
Num­ num­ pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. ber.
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892 .............
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899 .............
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903 .............

12 100.0
10 83.3
10

11
11

13
13

10

13
13

12

13
13
13
13

83.3
91.7
91.7
108.3
108.3
3.3
108.3
108.3

100.0
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3

+1
+3
+3
+2
+2
+3
+1

+ 8.3
+30.0
+30.0
+18.2
+18.2

59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
+30.0 59.00
59.00
59.00
+ 8.3 59.00
54.00
54.00
54.28
54.07

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.5
91.5
92.0
91.6

-4 .9 3
-4 .9 3
-4 .9 3
-4 .9 3
-4 .9 3
-4 .9 3
-4 .9 3
-4 .9 3
-4 .9 3
-4 .9 3
-4 .9 3
+ .07
+ .07
- .21

- 8 . 4 $0.2646 100.0 +$0.0221
- 8 .4
.2627 99.3 + .0240
-8 .4
.2627 99.3 + .0240
.0171
-8 .4
.2696 101.9
.0171
-8 .4
.2696 101.9
- 8 .4
.2608 98.6
.0259
-8 .4
.2608 98.6 + .0259
-8 .4
.2627 99.3 + .0240
- 8 .4
.2608 98.6 + .0259
-8 .4
.2608 98.6 + .0259
- 8 .4
.2754 104.1 + .0113
+ .1 .2738 103.5 + .0129
.0124
+ .1 .2991 113.0
- .4 .2522 95.3 + .0345
.2867 108.4

+
+
+

+ 8.4
+ 9.1
+ 9.1
+ 6.3
+ 6.3
+ 9.9
+ 9.9
+ 9.1
+ 9.9
+ 9.9
+ 4.1
+ 4.7
- 4.1
+13.7

SEWING-MACHINE OPERATORS, Female.
[Data from 9 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891............. *
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

830
781
846
818
738
812
829
803
860
923
891
879
898
826
901

100.0
94.1
101.9
98.6
88.9
97.8
99.9
96.7
103.6
111.2
107.3
105.9
108.2
99.5
108.6

+ 71
+120
+ 55
+ 83
+163
+ 89
+ 72
+ 98
+ 41
- 22
+ 10
+ 22
+ 3
+ 75

+ 8.6
+15.4
+ 6.5
+10.1
+22.1
+11.0
+ 8.7
+12.2
+ 4.8
- 2.4
+ 1.1
+ 2.5
+ .3
+ 9.1

57.46
57.56
57.41
57.45
57.72
57.53
57.57
57.44
57.29
57.22
57.37
57.46
57.44
57.20
57.03

100.0
100.2
99.9
100.0
100.5
100.1
100.2
100.0
99.7
99.6
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.5
99.3

-0 .4 3
— .53
— .38
— .42
— .69
— .50
— .54
— .41
— .26
— .19
— .34
— .43
— .41
— .17

- 0 . 7 $0.0828
- .9 .0807
— ,7 .0823
- .7 .0837
- 1 .2
.0818
- .9 .0800
- .9 .0806
- .7 .0825
- .5 .0820
- .3 .0875
- .6 .0873
- .7 .0853
— .7 .0863
- .3 .0899
.0923

100.0
97.5
99.4
101.1
98.8
96.6
97.3
99.6
99.0
105.7
105.4
103.0
104.2
108.6
111.5

+$0.0095
+ .0116
+ .0100
+ .0086
+ .0105
+ .0123
+ .0117
+ .0098
+ .0103
+ .0048
+ .0050
+ .0070
+ .0060
+ .0024

+11.5
+14.4
+12.2
+10.3
+12.8
+15.4
+14.5
+11.9
+12.6
+ 5.5
+ 5.7
+ 8.2
+ 7.0
+ 2.7

- 2 . 2 $0.2413 100.0 +$0.0140
-2 .0
.2431 100.7 + .0122
-2 .0
.2455 101.7 + .0098
- 2 .0
.2427 100.6 + .0126
.2415 100.1 + .0138
- 2 .0
-3 .0
.2363 97.9 + .0190
.2374 98,4 + .0179
-2 .9
- 2 .0
.2350 97.4 + .0203
-2 .8
.2401 99.5 + .0152
-1 .9
.2437 101.0 + .0116
-1 .6
.2481 102.8 + .0072
- .9 .2504 103.8 + .0049
- .9 .2515 104.2 + .0038
- .8 .2526 104.7 + .0027
.2553 105.8

+ 5 .8
+ 5 .0
+ 4 .0
+ 5 .2
+ 5 .7
+ 8 .0
+ 7 .5
+ 8 .6
+ 6 .3
+ 4 .8
+ 2 .9
+ 2 .0
+ 1 .5
+ 1 .1

CDOTHING, MEN’S, CUSTOM WORK.
BUSHELMEN, Male.

[Data from 43 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Ill
103
102
106
107
105
109
116
116
124
121
120
122
127
130

100.0
92.8
91.9
95.5
96.4
94.6
98.2
104.5
104.5
111.7
109.0
108.1
109.9
114.4
117.1




+19
+27
+28
+24
+23
+25
+21
+14
+14
+ 6
+ 9
+10
+ 8
+ 3

+17.1
+26.2
+27.5
+22.6
+21.5
+23.8
+19.3
+12.1
+12.1
+ 4.8
+ 7.4
+ 8.3
+ 6.6
+ 2.4

60.09
59.95
59.95
59.94
59.94
60.57
60.50
59.95
60.47
59.90
59.70
59.30
59.31
59.20
58.75

100.0
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.8
100.7
99.8
100.6
99.7
99.4
98.7
98.7
98.5
97.8

-1 .3 4
-1 .2 0
-1 .2 0
-1 .1 9
-1 .1 9
-1 .8 2
-1 .7 5
-1 .2 0
-1 .7 2
-1 .1 5
- .95
- .55
- .56
- .45

771

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING,
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903— Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718,]

C LO TH IN G , M E N ’S, CUSTOM W ORK-Continued.
BUSHELMEN, Female.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment, 1890-1895; 2 establishments, 1896,1897; 3 establishments, 1898-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890......... ...
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
3902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. number.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
3
4
4
4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.0
150.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
200.0
200.0

+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+1
+1
+2
+1

+100.0
+100.0
+100.0
+100.0
+100.0
+100.0
+100.0
+100.0
+ 33.3
+ 33.3
+ 100.0
+ 33.3

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.50

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Amount. cent.
cent.
ber.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.5

-1 .5 0
- 1:50
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0

- 2 . 5 $0.1211 100.0 +$0.0060
- 2 .5
.1250 103.2 + .0021
.1250 103.2 + .0021
- 2 .5
.1250 103.2 + .0021
- 2 .5
-2 .5
.1250 103.2 + .0021
.1250 103.2 + .0021
- 2 .5
-2 .5
.1250 103.2 + .0021
- 2 .5
.1167 96.4 + .0104
- 2 .5
.1188 98.1 + .0083
-2 .5
.1125 92.9 + .0146
-2 .5
.1133 93.6 + .0138
- 2 .5
.1167 96.4 + .0104
.1214 100.2 + .0057
- 2 .5
.1229 101.5 + .0042
- 2 .5
.1271 105.0

+ 5.0
+ 1.7
+ 1.7
+ 1.7
+ 1.7
+ 1.7
+ 1.7
+ 8.9
+ 7.0
+13.0
+12.2
+ 8.9
+ 4.7
+ 3.4

- 4 .1 $0.3157 100.0 +$0.0371
-5 .8
.3000 95.0 + .0528
-.4 .2 .3023 95.7 + .0505
- 4 .1
.3003 95.1 + .0525
- 4 .2
.3108 98.4 + .0420
- 4 .3
.3383 107.2 + .0145
.3372 106.8 + .0156
- 4 .3
.3155 99.9 + .0373
- 4 .3
- 4 .1
.3140 99.5 + .0388
- 2 .6
.3233 102.4 + .0295
.3153 99.9 + .0375
- 2 .7
.3357 106.3 + .0171
-1 .3
.3373 106.8 + ,0155
-1 .3
- 1 .4
.3447 109.2 + .0081
.3528 111.8

+11.8
+ 17.6
+ 16.7
+ 17.5
+13.5
+ 4.3
+ 4.6
+11.8
+ 12.4
+ 9.1
+11.9
+ 5.1
+ 4.6
+ 2.4

- 2 . 9 $0.5286 100.0 +$0.0307
-2 .9
.5280 99.9 + .0313
.5320 100.6 + .0273
- 2 .8
.5330 100.8 + .0263
- 2 .8
.5362 101.4 + .0231
- 3 .1
.5281 99.9 + .0312
- 2 .9
.5324 100.7 + .0269
-2 .9
.5171 97.8 + .0422
- 3 .1
.5223 98.8 + .0370
-3 .0
-2 .5
.5264 99.6 + .0329
-2 .4
.5302 100.3 + .0291
-2 .2
.5371 101.6 + .0222
- 1 .7
.5446 103.0 + .0147
- 1 .3
.5515 104.3 + .0078
.5593 105.8

+ 5 .8
+ 5 .9
+5 .1
+ 4 .9
+ 4 .3
+ 5 .9
+ 5 .1
+ 8 .2
+ 7 .1
+ 6 .3
+ 5 .5
+ 4 .1
+ 2 .7
+ 1 .4

COAT MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 14 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

104
95
94
104
109
100
102
103
108
106
116
122
122
126
130

100.0
91.3
90.4
100.0
104.8
96.2
98.1
99.0
103.8
101.9
111.6
117.3
117.3
121.2
125.0

+26
+35
+36
+26
+21
+30
+28
+27
+22
+24
+14
+ 8
+ 8
+ 4

+25.0
+36.8
+38.3
+25.0
+19.3
+30.0
+27.5
+26.2
+20.4
+22.6
+12.1
+ 6.6
+ 6.6
+ 3.2

68.98
60.06
69.04
59.02
59.06
59.10
59.12
59.13
59.00
58.08
58.14
57.34
57.34
57.38
56.58

100.0
101.8
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.0
98.5
98.6
97.2
97.2
97.3
95.9

-2 .4 0
-3 .4 8
- 2 46
-2 .4 4
-2 .4 8
-2 .5 2
-2 .5 4
-2 .5 5
-2 .4 2
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 6
- .76
- .76
- .80

CUTTERS, Male.
[Data from 34 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 . . _

75
77
75
75
76
71
71
76
75
77
78
77
80
82
84

100.0
102.7
100.0
100.0
101.3
94.7
94.7
101.3
100.0
102.7
104.0
102.7
106.7
109.3
112.0




+ 9
+ 7
+ 9
+- 9
+ 8
+13
+13
+ 8
+ 9
+ 7
+ 6
+ 7
+ 4
+ 2

+12.0
+ 9.1
+12.0
+12.0
+10.5
+18.3
+18.3
+10.5
+12.0
+ 9.1
+ 7.7
+ 9.1
+ 5.0
+ 2.4

58.14
58.17
58.12
58.12
58.30
58.18
58.18
58.30
58.20
57.94
57.85
57.74
57.45
57.22
56.48

100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.1
99.7
99.5
99.3
98.8
98.4
97.1

-1 .6 6
-1 .6 9
-1 .6 4
-1 .6 4
-1 .8 2
-1 .7 0
-1 .7 0
-1 .8 2
-1 .7 2
-1 .4 6
-1 .3 7 '
-1 .2 6
- .97
- .74

772

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I ___ WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

C E O T H IN G , M E N ’S, CUSTOM W ORK—Concluded.
PANTS MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 13 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
pared with year
Num­ tive
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
41
40
39
40
40
38
39
42
39
40
55
43
45
45
46

100.0
97.6
95.1
97.6
97.6
92.7
95.1
102.4
95.1
97.6
134.1
104.9
109.8
109.8
112.2

+5
+6
+7
+6
+6
+8
+7
+4
+7
+6
-9
+3
+1
+1

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

+12.2
+15.0
+17.9
+15.0
+15.0
+21.1
+17.9
+ 9.5
+17.9
+15.0
-1 6 .4
+ 7.0
+ 2.2
+ 2.2

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

59.03
59.25
59.23
59.25
59.25
59.21
59.23
59.14
59.23
58.05
58.47
57.21
57.33
57.33
56.61

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared witiryear
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.4
100.3
100.4
100.4
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.3
98.3
99.1
96.9
97.1
97.1
95.9

-2 .4 2
-2 .6 4
-2 .6 2
-2 .6 4
-2 .6 4
-2 .6 0
-2 .6 2
-2 .5 3
-2 .6 2
-1 .4 4
-1 .8 6
- .60
- .72
- .72

- 4 .1 $0.2490 100.0 +$0.0551
- 4 .5
.2479 99.6 + .0562
.2489 100.0 + ,0552
-4 .4
.2476 99.4 + .0565
- 4 .5
.2490 100.0 + .0551
-4 .5
- 4 .4
.2487 99.9 + .0554
- 4 .4
.2483 S9.7 + .0558
.2478 99.5 + .0563
-4 .3
.2526 101.4 + .0515
- 4 .4
- 2 .5
.2616 105.1 + .0425
-3 .2
.2376 95.4 + .0665
.2865 115.1 + .0176
- 1.0
.2899 116.4 + .0142
- 1 .3
.2911 116.9 + .0130
-1 .3
.3041 122.1

+22.1
+22.7
+22.2
+22.8
+22.1
+22.3
+22.5
+22.7
+20.4
+16.2
+28.0
+ 6.1
+ 4.9
+ 4.5

PANTS MAKERS, Female.
[Data for employees from 3 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishm ents, 1890-1898, 1 establishment, 1899; 2 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

17
16
16
16
16
16
16
18
20
20
20
20
19
20
20

100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
105.9
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
111.8
117.6
117.6

+3
+4
+4
+4
+4
+4
+4
+2

+1

56.02
56.31
56.16
56.31
56.57
56.31
56.16
56.14
56.25
56.00
54.00
56.67
+ 5.3 57.08
57.00
55.05

+ 17.6
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+11.1

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.5
101.0
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.4
100.0
96.4
101.2
101.9
101.7
98.3

-0 .9 7
-1 .2 6
-1 .1 1
-1 .2 6
-1 .5 2
-1 .2 6
-1 .1 1
-1 .0 9
-1 .2 0
- .95
+1.05
-1 .6 2
-2 .0 3
-1 .9 5

- 1 .7 $0.1104 100.0 +$0.0176
-2 .2
.1141 103.4 + .0139
- 2 .0
.1120 101.4 + .0160
-2 .2
.1141 103.4 + .0139
-2 .7
.1167 105.7 + .0113
-2 .2
.1077 97.6 + .0203
-2 .0
.1066 96.6 + .0214
- 1 .9
.1099 99.5 f .0181
- 2 .1
.1144 103.6 + .0136
- 1 .7
.1117 101.2 + .0163
+ 1.9 .0967 87.6 + .0313
.1194 108.2 + .0086
- 2 .9
-3 .6
.1205 109.1 + .0075
- 3 .4
.1208 109.4 + .0072
.1280 115.9

+15.9
+12.2
+14.3
+12.2
+ 9.7
+18.8
+20.1
+16.5
+11.9
+14.6
+32.4
+ 7.2
+ 6.2
+ 6.0

C O O PERAG E.
COOPERS, SLACK BARRELS, Male.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895 .............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

144
145
162
150
143
143
138
140
138
140
142
140
156
165
174

100.0
300.7
112.5
104.2
99.3
99.3
95.8
97.2
95.8
97.2
98.6
97.2
108.3
314.6
120.8

i




+30
+29
+12
+24
+31
+31
+36
+34
+36
+34
+32
+34
+18
+ 9

+20.8
+20.0
+ 7.4
+16.0
+21.7
+21.7
+26.1
+24.3
+26.1
+24.3
+22.5
+24.3
+11.5
+ 5.5

58.98
59.22
59.31
59.21
59.22
59.23
59.23
59.23
59.22
58.00
57.94
58.49
58.58
58.88
58.64

100.0
100.4
100.6
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.3
98.2
99.2
99.3
99.8
99.4

-0 .3 4
— .58
— .67
_ .57
— .58
— .59
— .59
— .59
— .58
+ .64
+ .70
+ .15
+ .06
— .24

- 0 . 6 $0.2303 100.0 +$0.0306
.2319 100.7 + .0290
-1 .0
.2332 101.3 + .0277
- 1 .1
-1 .0
.2187 95.0 + . 0422
.2232 96.9 + .0377
- 1 .0
- 1 .0
. 2436 105.8 + .0173
.2434 105.7 + .0175
- 1 .0
.2357 102.3 + .0252
- 1 .0
.2259 98.1 + .0350
- 1 .0
+ 1.1 .2216 96.2 + .0393
+ 1 .2 .2260 98.1 + .0349
+ .3 . 2421 105.1 + .0188
+ .1 .2371 103.0 + .0238
- .4 .2501 108.6 + .0108
.2609 113.3

+13.3
+12.5
+11.9
+19.3
+16.9
+ 7.1
+ 7.2
+10.7
+15.5
+17.7
+15.4
+ 7.8
+10.0
+ 4.3

773

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

C O O PER A G E—Continued.
COOPERS, TIGHT BARRELS, Male.
[Data from 13 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
cent.
ber.
197
168
189
195
162
209
190
199
208
212
235
227
225
213
216

100.0
85.3
95.9
99.0
82.2
106.1
98.4
101.0
105.6
107.6
119.3
115.2
114.2
108.1
109.6

+19
+48
+27
+21
+54
+ 7
+26
+17
+ 8
+ 4
-1 9
-1 1
- 9
+ 3

+ 9.6
+28.6
+14.3
+10.8
+33.3
+ 3.3
+13.7
+ 8.5
+ 3.8
+ 1.9
- 8.1
- 4.8
- 4.0
+ 1.4

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

59.49
59.56
59.54
59.56
59.44
59.59
59.50
59.49
59.49
59.32
59.38
59.03
58.48
58.60
57.50

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
100.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.7
99.8
99.2
98.3
98.5
96.7

- 3 . 3 $0.2122 100.0 +$0.0222
.2169 102.2 + .0175
-3 .5
-3 .4
.2155 101.6 + .0189
-3 .5
.2130 100.4 + .0214
.2086 98.3 + .0258
-3 .3
-3 .5
.2081 98.1 + . 0263
- 3 .4
.2087 98.4 + .0257
.2155 101.6 + .0189
- 3 .3
.2113 99.6 + .0231
- 3 .3
.2115 99.7 + .0229
- 3 .1
- 3 .2
.2131 100.4 + .0213
.2158 101.7 + .0186
-2 .6
.2247 105.9 + .0097
- 1 .7
-1 .9
.2265 106.7 + .0079
.2344 110.5

-1 .9 9
-2 .0 6
-2 .0 4
-2 .0 6
-1 .9 4
-2 .0 9
-2 .0 0
-1 .9 9
-1 .9 9
-1 .8 2
-1 .8 8
-1 .5 3
- .98
-1 .1 0

+10.5
+ 8.1
+ 8.8
+10.0
+12.4
+12.6
+12.3
+ 8.8
+10.9
+10.8
+10.0
+ 8.6
+ 4.3
+ 3.5

CROZERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898 .............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

6
6
5
5
5
5
6
7
6
8
7
6
7
5
5

100.0
100.0
83.3
83.3
83.3
83.3
100.0
116.7
100.0
133.3
116.7
100.0
116.7
83.3
83.3

-1
-1
-1
-2
-1
-3
-2
-1
-2

-1G .7 58.33 100.0
-1 6 .7 60.00 102.9
60.00 102.9
60.00 102.9
60.00 102.9
60.00 102.9
-1 6 .7 57.00 97.7
-2 8 .6 56.57 97.0
-1 6 .7 57.00 97.7
-3 7 .5 57.00 97.7
-2 8 .6 55.71 95.5
-1 6 .7 54.00 92.6
-2 8 .6 54.00 92.6
54.00 92.6
54.00 92.6

-4 .3 3
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
—6.00
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-3 .0 0
-2 .5 7
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 0
-1 .7 1

- 7.4 $0.1968
-1 0 .0 .1718
-1 0 .0 .1737
—10.0 .1955
-1 0 .0 .1954
-1 0 .0 .2040
- 5.3 . 2312
- 4.5 .2049
- 5.3 .2009
- 5.3 .2098
- 3.1 .1804
.1868
.1933
. 2291
. 2683

100.0
87.3
88.3
99.3
99.3
103.7
117.5
104.1
102.1
106.6
91.7
94.9
98.2
116.4
136.3

+ $ 0 .0715
+ .0965
+ .0946
+ . 0728
+ . 0729
+ . 0643
+ .0371
+ .0634
+ .0674
+ .0585
+ .0879
+ . 0815
+ .0750
+ .0392

+36.3
+56.2
+54.5
+37.2
+37.3
+31.5
+16.0
+30.9
+33.5
+27.9
+48.7
+43.6
+38.8
+17.1

- 9.1 $0.2064 100.0 f $0.0245
-1 0 .0 .1880 91.1 + .0429
-1 0 .0 .1848 89.5 + .0461
-1 0 .0 . 2054 99.5 + . 0255
-1 0 .0 .2155 104.4 + .0154
-1 0 .0 .2188 106.0 + .0121
- 9.1 .2166 104.9 + .0143
- 9.3 .2195 106.3 + .0114
- 8.9 .2156 104.5 + .0153
— 7.8 .2048 99.2 + .0261
- 6.1 .1947 94.3 + .0362
.1965 95.2 + .0344
.1859 90.1 + .0450
. 2176 105.4 + .0133
.2309 111.9

+11.9
+22.8
+24.9
+12.4
+ 7.1
+ 5.5
+ 6.6
+ 5.2
+ 7.1
+12.7
+18.6
+17.5
+24.2
+ 6.1

HEADERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895 .............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

26
9
8
23
20
47
29
41
32
21
29
27
20
22
21

100.0
34.-6
30.8
88.5
76.9
180.8
111.5
157.7
123.1
80.8
111.5
103.8
76.9
84.6
80.8




- 5
+12
+13
- 2
+ 1
-2 6
- 8
-2 0
-1 1

- 19.2
+133.3
+162.5
8.7
+ 5.0
- 55.3
- 27.6
- 48.8
- 34.4

—
+
—

+
—

8
6
1
1

27.6
22.2
5.0
4.5

59.43
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.38
59.56
59.25
58.57
57.52
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
101.0
101.0
101.0
101.0
101.0
99.9
100.2
99.7
98.6
96.8
90.9
90.9
90.9
90.9

-5 .4 3
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-5 .3 8
-5 .5 6
-5 .2 5
—4.57
-3 .5 2

774

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR,
T able

I — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase (4-) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

C O O PER A G E—Continued.
HEATERS, Hale.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
3893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
8
11
8
9
9
7
6
8
6
8
8
7
9
9

1
1

100.0
137.5
100.0
112.5
112.5
87.5
75.0
100.0
75.0
100.0
100.0
87.5
112.5
112.5
137.5

+3
+3
+2
+2
+4
+5
+3
+5
+3
+3
+4
+2
+2

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

+37.5 58.85
60.00
+37.5 60.00
+22.2 60.00
+22.2 60.00
+57.1 60.00
+83.3 58.00
+37.5 58.50
+83.3 58.00
+37.5 57.00
+37.5 57.00
+57.1 64.00
+22.2 54.00
+22.2 54.00
54.00

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) c r
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
102.0
102.0
102.0
102.0
102.0
98.6
99.4
98.6
96.9
96.9
91.8
91.8
91.8
91.8

-4 .8 5
—6.00
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .5 0
-4 .0 0
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 0

- 8.2 $0.1849
—10.0 .1673
-1 0 .0 .1714
-1 0 .0 .1647
-1 0 .0 .1589
-1 0 .0 .1715
- 6.9 .2244
- 7.7 .2065
- 6.9 .2126
- 5.3 .1976
- 5.3 .1739
.1782
.1700
.1775
.1942

100.0
90.5
92.7
89.1
85.9
92.8
121.4
111.7
115.0
106.9
94.1
96.4
91.9
96.0
105.0

+$0.0093
+ .0269
+ .0228
+ .0295
+ .0353
+ .0227
.0302
—
.0123
— .0184
—
.0034
+ .0203
+ .0160
4- .0242
+ .0167

+ 5.0
+16.1
+13.3
+17.9
+22.2
+13.2
-1 3 .5
- 6.0
- 8.7
- 1.7
+11.7
+ 9.0
+ 14.2
+ 9.4

- 9.0 $0.2149 100.0 +$0.0580
-1 0 .0
.2150 100.0 + .0579
-1 0 .0 .2188 101.8 + .0541
-1 0 .0
.2001 93.1 + .0728
-1 0 .0 .2110 98.2 + .0619
-1 0 .0 .1928 89.7 + .0801
- 8.9 .2293 106.7 + .0436
- 8.7 .2214 103.0 + .0515
- 7.4 .2158 100.4 + .0571
- 7.4 .2201 102.4 + .0528
— 7.4 .2246 104.5 + .0483
.2584 120.2 + .0145
.2386 111.0 + .0343
.2327 108.3 + . 0102
. 2729 127.0

+27.0
+26.9
+24.7
+36.4
+29.3
+41.5
+19.0
+23.3
+26.5
+24.0
+21.5
+ 5.6
+14.4
+17.3

HOOPERS, H ale.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1891.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901........... .
1902.............
1903 .............

6
4
4
6
6
6
8
7
7
7
7
5
4
8
3

100.0
66.7
66.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
133.3
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
83.3
66.7
133.3
50.0

-3
-1
-1
-3
-3
-3
-5
-4
-4
-4
-4
—2
—1
-5

-5 0 .0
-2 5 .0
-2 5 .0
-5 0 .0
-5 0 .0
-5 0 .0
-6 2 .5
-5 7 .1
-5 7 .1
-5 7 .1
-5 7 .1
—40.0
-2 5 .0
-6 2 .5

59.33
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.25
59.14
58.29
58.29
58.29
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
99.9
99.7
98.2
98.2
98.2
91.0
91.0
91.0
91.0

-5 .3 3
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-5 .2 5
-5 .1 4
-4 .2 9
-4 .2 9
-4 .2 9

JOINTERS, Hale.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

7
4
5
10
7
11
8
10
7
5
7
8
6
10
9

100.0
67.1
71.4
142.9
100.0
157.1
114.3
142.9
100.0
71.4
100.0
114.3
85.7
142.9
128.6




+2
+5
+4
-1
+2
-2
+1
-1
+2
+4
+2
+1
+3
-1

+ 28.6
+125.0
+ 80.0
- 10.0
+ 28.6
- 18.2
+ 12.5
- 10.0
+ 28.6
+ 80.0
+ 28.6
+ 12.5
+ 50.0
— 10.0

59.35
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.50
58.80
59.14
58.80
58.29
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
98.6
99.1
99.6
99.1
98.2
91.0
91.0
91.0
91.0

-5 .3 5
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-4 .5 0
-4 .8 0
-5 .1 4
-4 .8 0
-4 .2 9

- 9.0 $0.1791 100.0 +$0.1268
-1 0 .0 .1815 101.3 + .1244
-1 0 .0 .1945 108.6 + .1114
-1 0 .0 .1856 103.6 + .1203
-1 0 .0 .1616 90.2 + .1443
-1 0 .0 .1718 95.9 + .1341
- 7.7 .1669 93.2 + .1390
- 8.2 .1653 92.3 + .1406
- 8.7 .1767 98.7 + .1292
- 8.2 .1996 111.4 + .1063
- 7.4 .1871 104.5 + .1188
.1807 100.9 + .1252
. 2802 156.4 + . 0257
.0289
.3348 186.9
.3059 170.8

+70.8
+68.5
+57.3
+64.8
+89.3
+78.1
+83.3
+85.1
+73.1
+53.3
+63.5
+69.3
+ 9.2
- 8.6

775

WAGES AND COST OF H Y IN G .
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

CO O PER A G E—Continued.
LEYELERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]

Year.

A v. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900
___
1901.............
19021903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber. num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
7
7
7
5
4
6
9
9
8
11
6
6
9
8
8

100.0
100.0
100.0
71.4
57.1
85.7
128.6
128.6
114.3
157.1
85.7
85.7
128.6
114.3
114.3

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+1
+1
+1
+3
+4
+2
-1
-1

+ 14.3
+ 14.3
+ 14.3
+ 60.0
+100.0
+ 33.3
- 11.1
— 11.1

—3
+2
+2
—1

+
+
-

27.3
33.3
33.3
11.1

59.28
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.67
58.67
58.50
58.91
58.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
Amount. Per
cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.2
101.2
101.2
101.2
101.2
99.0
99.0
98.7
99.4
97.8
91.1
91.1
91.1
91.1

-5 .2 8
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
- 6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-4 .6 7
-4 .6 7
—4.60
-4 .9 1
-4 .0 0

- 8.9 $0.2538
-1 0 .0 .2317
-1 0 .0 .2286
-1 0 .0 .2290
-1 0 .0 .2143
-1 0 .0 .2172
- 8.0 .2916
- 8.0 .2953
— 7.7 .2962
- 8.3 .2672
- 6.9 .2669
.2651
.2373
.2275
.2568

100.0 +80.0030
9 1 .3 + .0251
9 0 .1 + .0282
9 0 .2 + .0278
84.4 + .0425
85.6 + .0396
114.9 .0348
116.4 .0385
116.7 — .0394
105.3 .0104
105.2 .0101
104.5 — .0083
93.5 + .0195
89.6 + .0293
101.2

+ 1.2
+10.8
+12.3
+12.1
+19.8
+18.2
-1 1 .9
-1 3 .0
—13.3
- 3.9
- 3.8
— 3.1
+ 8.2
+12.9

100.0 —$0.0072
97.0 + .0002
95.8 + .0034
81.6 f .0388
98.6 .0038
86.5 + .0265
119.4 .0556
104.4 .0181
109.9 .0319
109.8 - .0317
97.1 + .0001
123.3 — .0654
98.4 .0033
109.7 — .0314
97.1

— 2.9
+ .1
+ 1.4
+19.1
- 1.5
+12.3
-1 8 .7
- 6.9
- 1 1 .6
-1 1 .6
+ .04
—21.2
— 1.3
-1 1 .5

100.0 +$0.1483
88.3 + .1717
84.5 + .1793
84.0 + .1803
94.1 + .1601
90.1 + .1680
125.1 + .0982
108.8 + .1308
121.3 + .1059
109.9 + .1285
93.8 + .1607
121.4 + .1057
97.0 + .1543
134.5 + .0795
174.3

+ 74.3
+ 97.5
+106.4
+107.6
+ 85.3
+ 93.4
+ 39.3
+ 60.3
+ 43.8
+ 58.6
+ 85.9
+ 43.7
+ 79.7
+ 29.6

RAISERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

6
3
4
3
4
5
8
7
8
7
8
5
5
6
6

100.0
50.0
66.7
50.0
66.7
83.3
133.3
116.7
133.3
116.7
133.3
83.3
83.3
100.0
100.0

+3
+2
+3
+2
+1
—2
-1
-2
-1
-2
+1
+1

+100.0
+ 50.0
+100.0
+ 50.0
+ 20.0
- 25.0
- 14.3
- 25.0
- 14.3
- 25.0
+ 20.0
+ 20.0

59.60
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.25
59.14
59.25
59.14
59.25
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
99.4
99.2
99.4
99.2
99.4
90.6
90.6
90.6
90.6

—5.60
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
- 6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-5 .2 5
- 5 .1 4
- 5 .2 5
-5 .1 4
-5 .2 5

— 9.4 $0.2496
-1 0 .0 .2422
-1 0 .0
.2390
-1 0 .0 .2036
-1 0 .0 .2462
-1 0 .0 .2159
- 8.9 .2980
- 8.7 .2605
- 8.9 .2743
- 8.7 .2741
- 8.9 .2423
.3078
.2457
.2738
.2424

TRESSERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900 . . . .
1901.............
1902.............
1903 .

9
9
9
7
12
5
12
12
9
9
9
10
11
15
8

100.0
100.0
100.0
77.8
133.3
55.6
133.3
133.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
111.1
122.2
166.7
88.9




-1
-1
-1
+1
—4
+3
-4
—4
—1
-1
-1
—2
—3
—7

-1 1 .1
-1 1 .1
-1 1 .1
+14.3
-3 3 .3
+60.0
-3 3 .3
—33.3
—11.1
-1 1 .1
-1 1 .1
—20.0
—27.3
—46.7

58.68
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.00
57.50
58.00
57.33
56.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
102.2
102.2
102.2
102.2
102.2
98.8
98.0
98.8
97.7
95.4
92.0
92.0
92.0
92.0

-4 .6 8
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-4 .0 0
- 3 .5 0
—4.00
-3 .3 3
-2 .0 0

- 8.0 $0.1995
-1 0 .0 .1761
.1685
-1 0 .0
-1 0 .0 .1675
-1 0 .0 .1877
-1 0 .0 .1798
- 6.9 .2496
- 6.1 .2170
- 6.9 .2419
- 5.8 .2193
- 3.6 .1871
.2421
.1935
.2683
.3478

776

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I ___ WAGES. AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

COOPERAGE—Concluded.
TURNERS) Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
Num­ tive
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
numage. tive.
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.

num-

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

7
5
7
5
6
3
10
9
9
10
8
7
6
7
7

58.68
+2 + 40.0 60.00
60.00
+ 2 + 40.0 60.00
+1 + 16.7 60.00
+ 4 +133.3 60.00
- 3 - 30.0 57.60
- 2 - 22.2 58.00
- 2 - 22.2 57.33
- 3 - 30.0 57.60
- 1 - 12.5 56.25
54.00
+1 + 16.7 54.00
64.00
54.00

100.0
71.4
100.0
71.4
85.7
42.9
142.9
128.6
128.6
142.9
114.3
100.0
85.7
100.0
100.0

100.0
102.2
102.2
102.2
102.2
102.2
98.2
98.8
97.7
98.2
95.9
92.0
92.0
92.0
92.0

-4 .6 8
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-3 .6 0
-4 .0 0
-3 .3 3
-3 .6 0
-2 .2 5

- 8.0 80.1800
-1 0 .0 .1682
-1 0 .0 .1693
-1 0 .0 .1844
-1 0 .0 .1776
-1 0 .0
.1627
- 6.3 .'1884
.1854
- 6.9
- 5.8 .1840
- 6.3 .1977
- 4.0 .1819
.1992
.2007
.2399
.2343

100.0
93.4
94.1
102.4
98.7
90.4
104.7
103.0
102.2
109.8
101.1
110.7
111.5
133.3
130.2

+80.0543
+ .0661
+ .0650
+ .0499
+ .0567
+ .0716
+ .0459
+ .0489
+ .0503
+ .0366
+ .0524
+ .0351
+ .0336
.0056

+30.2
+39.3
+ 38.4
+27.1
+31.9
+44.0
+ 24.4
+ 26.4
+27.3
+18.5
+28.8
+17.6
+16.7
- 2.3

COTTON GOODS.
OARDING-MACHINE TENDERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 21 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 21
establishments, 1890; 22 establishments, 1891; 23 establishments, 1892-1903.] •
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

215
186
204
219
216
218
213
221
215
222
232
239
237
237
246

100.0
86.5
94.9
101.9
100.5
101.4
99.1
102.8
100.0
103.3
107.9
111.2
110.2
110.2
114.4

+31
+60
+42
+27
+30
+28
+33
+25
+31
+24
+14
+ 7
+ 9
+ 9

+14.4
+32.3
+20.6
+12.3
+13.9
+12.8
+15.5
+11.3
+14.4
+10.8
+ 6.0
+ 2.9
+ 3.8
+ 3.8

61.34
61.77
62.01
62.08
61.09
60.02
61.17
61.31
60.68
61.67
61.62
61.63
61.83
61.45
61.49

100.0
100.7
101.1
101.2
99.6
97.8
99.7
100.0
98.9
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.8
100.2
100.2

+0.15
- .28
- .52
- .59
+ .40
+1.47
+ .32
+ .18
+ .81
- .18
- .13
- .14
- .34
+ .04

+ 0 .2 $0.0911
- .5 .0893
- .8 .0909
- 1 .0
.0906
+ .7 .0924
+ 2 .4 .0930
+ .5 .0924
+ .3 .0928
+ 1 .3 .0918
- .3 .0891
- .2 .0884
- .2 .0952
- .6 .0940
+ .1 .0987
.0992

100.0 +$0.0081
98.0 + .0099
99.8 + .0083
99.5 + .0086
101.4 + .0068
102.1 + .0062
101.4 + .0068
101.9 + .0064
100.8 + .0074
97.8 + .0101
97.0 + .0108
104.5 + .0040
103.2 + .0052
108.3 + .0005
108.9

+ 8.9
+11.1
+ 9.1
+ 9.5
+ 7.4
+ 6.7
+ 7.4
+ 6.9
+ 8.1
+11.3
+12.2
+ 4.2
+ 5.5
+ .5

DYERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments, 1890,1891; 7 establishments, 1892-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

54
63
64
61
54
49
48
52
47
49
50
55
56
65
64

100.0
116.7
118.5
113.0
100.0
90.7
88.9
96.3
87.0
90.7
92.6
101.9
103.7
120.4
118.5




+10
+ 1
+ 3
+10
+15
+16
+12
+17
+15
+14
+ 9
+ 8
- 1

+18.5 63.02
+ 1.6 62.48
62.34
+ 4.9 62.81
+18.5 62.79
+30.6 63.18
+33.3 63.48
+23.1 63.14
+36.2 63.37
+30.6 63.21
+28.0 63.44
+16.4 63.36
+14.3 63.03
- 1.5 62.12
62.24

100.0
99.1
98.9
99.7
99.6
100.3
100.7
100.2
100.6
100.3
100.7
100.5
100.0
98.6
98.8

-0 .7 8
- .24
— .10
- .57
- .55
~ .94
-1 .2 4
- .90
-1 .1 3
- .97
-1 .2 0
-1 .1 2
- .79
+ .12

- 1 .2 $0.1097
- .4 .1166
— .2 .1176
- .9 .1153
- .9 .1142
- 1 .5
.1049
—2.C .1012
- 1 .4
.1044
-1 .8
.1063
.1090
-1 .5
-1 .9
.1073
.1107
-1 .8
.1122
- 1 .3
+ .2 .1175
.1181

100.0(+ $ 0 .0084
106.3 + .0015
107.2 + .0005
105.1 + .0028
104.1 + .0039
95.6 + .0132
92.3 + .0169
95.2 + .0137
96.9 + .0118
99.4 + .0091
97.8 + .0108
100.9 + .0074
102.3 + .0059
107.1 + .0006
107.7

+ 7.7
+ 1.3
+ .4
+ 2.4
+ 3.4
+12.6
+16.7
+13.1
+11.1
+ 8.3
+10.1
+ 6.7
+ 5.3
+ .5

777

WAGES ANB GOST OF U Y IH G .
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation, of relative figures* see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

COTTON GOODS—Continued.
LOOM FIXERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 22 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 22
establishments, 1890; 23 establishments, 1891; 24 establishments, 1892-1903.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber. num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
318
285
294
310
303
314
325
317
345
353
336
358
372
397
412

100.0
89.6
92.5
97.5
95.3
98.7
102.2
99.7
108.5
111.0
105.7
112.6
117.0
124.8
129.6

4- 94
+127
+118
+102
+109
+ 98
+ 87
+ 95
+ 67
+ 59
+ 76
+ 54
+ 40
+ 15

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+29.6
+44.6
+40.1
+32.9
+36.0
+31.2
+26.8
+30.0
+19.4
+16.7
+22.6
+15.1
+30.8
+ 3.8

60.99
61.26
61.58
61.50
60.91
59.41
60.77
60.90
60.54
61.42
61.56
61.38
61.31
60.83
60.85

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.4
101.0
100.8
99.9
97.4
99.6
99.9
99.3
100.7
100.9
100.6
100.5
99.7
99.8

-0 .1 4
- .41
- .73
- .65
- .06
+1.44
+ .08
- .05
+ .31
- .57
- .71
- .53
- .46
+ .02

- 0 .2 80.1646
.1689
- .7
- 1 .2
.1653
.1665
- 1 .1
- .1
.1710
+ 2 .4
.1633
.1613
+ .1
.1655
- .1
.1645
+ .5
.1606
- .9
- 1 .2
.1587
.1740
- .9
.1741
- .8
+ .03 .1815
.1833

100.0 +80.0187
102.6 + .0144
100.4 + .0180
101.2 + .0168
103.9 + .0123
99.2 + .0200
98.0 + .0220
100.5 + .0178
99.9 +
.0188
97.6 + .0227
96.4 4- .0246
105.7 4- .0093
106.8 4- .0092
110.3 4- .0018
111.4

+11.4
+ 8.5
+10.9
+10.1
+ 7.2
+12.2
+13.6
+10.8
+ 1 1 .4
+14.1
+15.5
+ 5.3
+ 5.3
+ 1.0

SPINNERS, FRAME, Male.
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 8
establishments, 1890,1897; 9 establishments, 1891,1893,1898,1901; 10 establishments, 1894,1896,1899,
1903; 11 establishments, 1892, 1895, 1900, 1902.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1 9 0 0 ... ... ..
1901.............
1902.............
1003

72
26
73
60
73
52
51
69
87
113
116
125
86
121
62

100.0
36.1
101.4
83.3
101.4
72.2
70.8
95.8
120.8
156.9
161.1
173.6
119.4
168.1
86.1

-1 0
+36
-1 1
+ 2
-1 1
+10
+11
— 7
-2 5
-51
-5 4
-6 3
-2 4
-5 9

- 13.9
+138.5
- 15.1
+ 3.3
- 15.1
+ 19.2
+ 21.6
- 10.1
- 28.7
- 45.1
- 46.6
- 50.4
- 27.9
- 48.8

62.53
60.84
62.83
64.00
62.68
62.76
63.07
61.48
62.05
62.83
62.71
62.56
61.93
61.29
60.31

100.0
97.3
100.5
102.4
100.2
100.4
100.9
98.3
99.2
100.5
100.3
100.0
99.0
98.0
96.4

-2 .2 2
- .53
-2 .5 2
-3 .6 9
-2 .3 7
-2 .4 5
-2 .7 6
-1 .1 7
-1 .7 4
-2 .5 2
-2 .4 0
-2 .2 5
-1 .6 2
- .98

- 3 . 6 80.0467 100.0 +80.0401
- .9 .0521 111.6 + .0347
- 4 .0
.0419 89.7 + ..0449
.0428 91.6 + .0440
- 5 .8
- 3 .8
.0420 89.9 + .0448
.0400 85.7 + .0468
- 3 .9
-4 .4
.0426 91.2 + .0442
-1 .9
.0593 127.0 + .0275
- 2 .8
.0510 109.2 + .0358
- 4 .0
.0462 98.9 + .0406
.0494 105.8 + .0374
-3 .8
.0600 128.5 + .0268
-3 .6
-2 .6
.0634 135.8 + .0234
-1 .6
.0688 147.3 + .0180
.0868 185.9

+ 85.9
+ 66.6
+107.2
+102.8
+106.7
+117.0
+103.8
+ 46.4
+ 70.2
+ 87.9
+ 75.7
+ 44.7
+ 36.9
+ 26.2

SPINNERS, FRAME, Fem ale.
[Data for employees from 20 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 20
establishments, 1890; 21 establishments, 1891; 22 establishments, 1892-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1SW5.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
iona

1,338
1,188
1,187
1,236
1,257
1*276
1,263
1,298
1,484
1,604
1,584
1,442
1,541
1,479
1 605

100.0
88.8
88.7
92.4
93.9
95.4
94.4
|
97.0
110.9
119.9
118.4
107.8
115.2
110.5
120.0




+267
+417
+418
+369
•+348
+329
+342
+307
+121
+ 1
+ 21
+163
+ 64
+126

+20.0
+35.1
+35.2
+29.9
+27.7
+25.8
+27.1
+23.7
+ 8.2
+ .1
+ 1.3
+11.3
+ 4.2J
+ 8.5

61.60
61.71
62.20
62.55
61.81
60.44
61.57
61.37
60.87
61.69
61.75
61.66
61.32
61.13
60.93

100.0
100.2
101.0
101.5
100.3
98.1
100.0
99.6
98.8
100.1
100.2
100.1
99.5
99.2
98.9

-0 .6 7
- .78
-1 .2 7
-1 .6 2
- .88
+ .49
- .64
- .44
+ .06
- .76
- .82
- .73
- .39
- .20

•
1
- 1 .1 $0.0656
- 1 .3
.0653
.0650
- 2 .0
- 2 .6
.0623
.0668
- 1 .4
.0640
+ .8
- 1 .0
.0651
- .7 .0708
+ .1 .0681
-1 .2
.06138
-1 .3
.0649
-1 .2
.0711
- .6 .0731
- .3 .0766
.G809

100.0 + $ 0 .0153
99.5 + .0156
99.1 + .0159
95.0 + .0-186
101.8 + .0141
97.6 + .0169
99.2 + .0158
107.9 + .0101
103.8 + .0128
97.3 + .0171
98.9 + .0160
108.4 + .0098
111.4 + .0078
116.8 + .0043
123.3

+23.3
+23.9
+24.5
+29.9
+21.1
+ 26.4
+24.3
+14.3
+18.8
+ 2 6.8
+24.7
+13.8
+10.7
+ 5.6

778

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=10Q.0. For explanation of relative fib res, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( — ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

COTTON GOODS—Concluded.
SPINNERS, MULE, Male.
[Data from 11 establisliments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1 8 9 6 ..:........
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—jin
Rela­ 1908 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
210
220
223
194
199
286
216
207
200
209
191
201
207
187
177

100.0
104.8
106.2
92.4
94.8
112.4
102.9
98.6
95.2
99.5
91.0
95.7
98.6
89.0
84.3

—33
-4 3
-4 6
-1 7
-2 2
-5 9
-3 9
-3 0
-2 3
-3 2
-1 4
-2 4
-3 0
-1 0

-1 5 .7
-1 9 .5
-2 0 .6
- 8.8
-1 1 .1
-2 5 .0
-1 8 .1
-1 4 .5
-1 1 .5
-1 5 .3
- 7.3
-1 1 .9
-1 4 .5
- 5.3

59.43
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.23
59.06
59.27
58.95
59.24
59.28
59.23
59.28
59.26
58.79
58.85

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
RK)3 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.0
101.0
101.0
99.7
99.4
99.7
99.2
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
98.9
99.0

-0 .5 8
- 1 .1 5
-1 .1 5
—1.15
- .38
- .21
- .42
- .10
- .39
- .43
- .38
- .43
- .41
+ .06

Increase (+ ) o r
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
age. tive.
Amount.

- 1 . 0 80.1856 100.0 +80.0283
- 1 .9
.1696 91.4; + .0443
-1 .9
.1730 93.2 + .0409
- 1 .9
.2055 110.7,+ .0084
- .6 .2119 114.2 + .0020
- .4 .1786 96.2 + .0353
- .7 .1815 97.8,+ .0324
- .2 .1847 99.5 + .0292
- .7 .1898 102.3 + .0241
- .7 .1822 98.2 + .0317
- .6 .1789 96.4 + .0350
- .7 .2042 110.0 + .0097
- .7 .2042 110.0 + .0097
+ .1 .2163 116.5 — .0024
.2139 115.2 |...
1

Per
cent.
+15.2
+26.1
+23.6
+ 4.1
+ .9
+19.8
+17.9
+15.8
+12.7
+ 17.4
+19.6
+ 4.8
+ 4.8
- 1.1

WEAVERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 16 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 17
establishments, 1890; 19 establishments, 1891-1893, 1897, 1903; 20 establishments, 1892, 1894-1896,
1898-1902.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

1,333
1,070
1,072
1,127
1,309
1,266
1,307
1,336
1,561
1,609
1,672
1,657
1,550
1,617
1,562

100.0
80.3
80.4
84.5
98.2
95.0
98.0
100.2
117.1
120.7
125.4
124.3
116.3
121.3
117.2

+229
+492
+490
+435
+253
+296
+255
+226
+ 1
- 47
-1 1 0
- 95
+ 12
- 55

+17.2
+46.0
+45.7
+38.6
+19.3
+23.4
+19.5
+16.9
+ .1
- 2.9
- 6.6
- 5.7
+ .8
- 3.4

61.61
61.11
62.00
62.56
61.29
61.02
61.44
61.15
61.70
61.89
61.89
61.64
61.76
61.28
60.91

100.0
99.2
100.6
101.5
99.5
99k 0
99.7
99.3
100.1
100.5
100.5
100.0
100.2
99.5
98.9

-0 .7 0
- .20
-1 .0 9
-1 .6 5
- .38
- .11
- .53
- .24
- .79
- .98
- .98
- .73
- .85
- .37

- 1 . 1 $0.1145 100.0 +$0.0209
- .3 .1300 113.5 + .0054
-1 .8
.1180 103.1 + .0174
-2 .6
.1133 99.0 + .0221
- .6 .1232 107.6 + .0122
- .2 .1129 98.6 + .0225
- .9 .1106 96.6 + .0248
- .4 .1178 102.9 + .0176
-1 .3
.1091 95.3 + .0263
-1 .6
.1048 91.5 + .0306
-1 .6
.1055 92.1 + .0299
-1 .2
.1203 105.1 + .0151
-1 .4
.1193 104.2 + .0161
- .6 .1267 110.7 + .0087
.1354 118.3

+18.3
+ 4.2
+14.7
+19.5
+ 9.9
+19.9
+22.4
+14.9
+24.1
+29.2
+28.3
+12.6
+13.5
+ 6.9

WEAVERS, Female.
[Data for employees from 19 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 19
establishments, 1890; 20 establishments, 1891; 21 establishments, 1892-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

3,504
3,459
3,635
3,560
3,555
3,598
3,587
3,491
3,407
3,421
3,325
3,401
3,213
3,259
3,067

100.0
98.7
103.7
101.6
101.5
102.7
102.4
99.6
97.2
97.6
9419
97.1
91.7
93.0
87.5




-4 3 7
-3 9 2
-5 6 8
-4 9 3
-4 8 8
-531
-5 2 0
-4 2 4
-3 4 0
-3 5 4
-2 5 8
-3 3 4
-1 4 6
-1 9 2

-1 2 .5
-1 1 .3
-1 5 .6
-1 3 .8
-1 3 .7
-1 4 .8
-1 4 .5
-1 2 .1
-1 0 .0
-1 0 .3
- 7.8
- 9.8
- 4.5
- 5.9

60.27
60.96
61.20
61.34
60.42
58.24
60.14
60.04
59.41
60.46
60.46
60.33
60.18
60.00
60.01

100.0
101.1
101.5
101.8
100.2
96.6
99.8
99.6
98.6
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.6
99.6

-0 .2 6
- .95
-1 .1 9
- 1 .3 3
- .41
+1.77
- .13
- .03
+ .60
- .45
- .45
- .32
- .17
+ .01

- 0 . 4 $0.1106
-1 .6
.1096
-1 .9
.1090
-2 .2
.1103
- .7
.1163
+ 3 .0
.1102
- .2
.1090
- .05 .1145
+ 1 .0
.1115
- .7
.1088
.1071
- .7
.1214
- .5
.1212
- .3
+ .02 .1241
.1264

100.0
99.1
98.6
99.7
105.2
99.6
98.6
103.5
100.8
98.4
96.8
109.8
109.6
112.2
114.3

+$0.0158
+ .0168
+ .0174
+ .0161
+ .0101
+ .0162
+ .0174
+ .0119
f .0149
+ •.0176
+ .0193
+ .0050
+ .0052
+ .0023

+14.3
+15.3
+16.0
+14.6
+ 8.7
+14.7
+16.0
+10.4
+13.4
+16.2
+18.0
+ 4.1
+ 4.3
+ 1.9

779

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

DY EING , FIN ISH IN G , A N D PRIN TING TEXTILES.
BLEACHERS, Male.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893 .............
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897 .............
1898
.
1899
.
1900 .............
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

108
86
88
104
116
103
114
108
122
110
125
132
150
172
200

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

100.0
79.6
81.5
96.3
107.4
95.4
105.6
100.0
113.0
101.9
115.7
122.2
138.9
159.3
185.2

+ 92
+114
+112
+ 96
+ 84
+ 97
+ 86
+ 92
+ 78
+ 90
+ 75
+ 68
+ 50
+ 28

+ 85.2
+132.6
+127.3
+ 92.3
+ 72.4
+ 94.2
+ 75.4
+ 85.2
+ 63.9
+ 81.8
+ 60.0
+ 51.5
+ 33.3
+ 16.3

59.19
60.00
60.00
59.60
58.98
58.76
58.98
58.94
58.61
59.00
59.06
59.08
58.89
58.91
59.06

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.4
101.4
100.7
99.6
99.3
99.6
99.6
99.0
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.5
99.5
99.8

-0 .1 3
- .94
- .94
- .54
+ .08
+ .30
+ .08
+ .12
+ .45
+ .06
- .02
+ .17
+ .15

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount

- 0 . 2 $0.1155 100.0 +$0.0048
-1 .6
.1153 99.8 + .0050
.1093 94.6 + .0110
- 1 .6
.1129 97.7 + .0074
- .9
.1151 99.7 + .0052
+ .1
.1146 99.2 + .0057
+ .5
.1157 100.2 + .0046
+ *1
.1184 102.5 + .0019
+ .2
.1174 101.6 + .0029
+ .8
.1186 102.7 + .0017
+ .1
.1175 101.7 + .0028
- .03 .1189 102.9 + .0014
.1180 102.2 + .0023
+ .3
.1193 103.3 + .0010
+ .3
.1203 104.2

Per
cent.
+ 4.2
+ 4.3
+10.1
+ 6.6
+ 4.5
+ 5.0
+ 4.0
+ 1.6
+ 2.5
+ 1.4
+ 2.4
+ 1.2
+ 1.9
+ .8

CALENDRERS, Male.
[Data from 8 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

82
77
81
84
82
<6
78
76
84
87
96
101
104
109
121

100.0
93.9
98.8
102.4
100.0
92.7
95.1
92.7
102.4
106.1
117.1
123.2
126.8
132.9
147.6

+39
+44
+40
+37
+39
+45
+43
+45
+37
+34
+25
+20
+ 17
+12

+47.6
+57.1
+49.4
+44.0
+47.6
+ 59.2
+55.1
+59.2
+44.0
+39.1
+26.0
+19.8
+16.3
+11.0

59.51
60.08
60.07
59.80
59.41
58.79
69.41
59.45
59.02
59.51
59. 51
59.54
59.59
59.61
69.61

100.0
101.0
100.9
100.5
99.8
98.8
99.8
99.9
99.2
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.2

+0.10
- .47
- ,46
- .19
+ .20
+ .82
+ .20
+ .16
+ .59
+ .10
+ .10
+ .07
+ .02

+ 0 .2 $0.1318
. 1302
- .8
.1309
- .8
.1319
- .3
.1336
+ .3
+ 1.4
.1312
.1302
+ .3
. 1322
+ .3
.1330
+ 1 .0
+ .2 ..1332
. 1318
+ *2
.1358
+ •1
+ .03 .1372
.1390
.1397

100.0
98.8
99.3
100.1
101.4
99.5
98.8
100.3
100.9
101.1
100.0
103.0
104.1
105.5
106.0

+$0.0079
+ .0095
+ .0088
+ .0078
+ .0061
+ .0085
+ .0095
+ .0075
+ .0067
+ .0065
+ .0079
+ .0039
+ .0025
+ .0007

+ 6 .0
+ 7 .3
+ 6 .7
+ 5 .9
+ 4 .6
+6 .5
+7 .3
+ 5 .7
+ 5 .0
+ 4.9
+ 6 .0
+ 2.9
+ 1 .8
+ .5

COLOR MIXERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages, from 3
establishments, 1890, 1891; 4 establishments, 1892-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
3893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

71
75
71
68
69
66
72
75
77
•S7

74
67
75
82
80

100.0
105.6
100.0
95.8
97.2
93.0
101.4
105.6
108.5
94.4
104.2
94.4
105.6
115.5
112.7

+ 9
+ 5
+ 9
+12
+11
+14
+ 8
+ 5
+ 3
+13
+ 6
+13
+ 5
— 2

+12.7
+ 6.7
+12.7
+17.6
+ 15.9
+21.2
+ 11.1
+ 6.7
+ 3.9
+19.4
+ 8.1
+19.4
+ 6.7
- 2.4

10092—No. 53—04----- 6



68.55
60.00
60.00
59.46
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00

100.0
102.5
102.5
101.6
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1

-0 .5 5
-.2.00
-2 .0 0
-1 .4 6

- 0 .9 $0.1213 100.0
- 3 .3
.1180 97.3
- 3 .3
.1198 98.8
- 2 .5
.1215 100.2
.1232 101.6
.1182 97.4
.1217 100.3
.1225 101.0
.1220 100.6
.1237 102.0
.1220 100.6
.1275 105.1
. 1258 103.7
.1263 104.1
.1285 105.9

+$0.0072
+ .0105
+ .0087
+ .0070
+ .0053
+ .0103
+ .0068
+ . 0060
+ .0065
+ .0048
+ . 0065
+ .0010
+ .0027
+ .0022

+ 5 .9
+ 8 .9
+ 7.3
+ 5 .8
+ 4 .3
+ 8 .7
+ 5.6
+ 4 .9
+ 5.3
+ 3 .9
+ 5.3
+ .8
+ 2.1
+ 1-7

780

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=200.0. For explanation of relative figures, sec pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

DYEING , FIN ISH IN G , A N D PR IN TIN G TEXTILES—Concluded.
D¥EK S, male.
[Data from 11 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

AV. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894 .............
1895 .............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
595
567
684
632
623
586
567
580
587
562
564
557
639
590
634

100.0
95.3
115.0
106.2
104.7
98.5
95.3
97.5
98.7
94.5
94.8
93.6
107.4
99.2
106.6

+39
+67
-5 0
+ 2
+ 11
+48
+67
+54
+47
+ 72
+70
+77
- 5
+44

+ 6.6
+11.8
- 7.3
+ .3
+ 1.8
+ 8.2
+11.8
+ 9.3
+ 8.0
+12.8
+12.4
+13.8
.8
+ 7.4

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
58.85
60.00
60.00
59.59
58.76
57.25
58.78
58.82
57.44
58.91
58.97
58.96
58.90
58.92
58.91

100.0
102.0
102.0
101.3
99.8
97.3
99.9
99.9
97.6
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.1

+0.06
-1 .0 9
-1 .0 9
- .68
+ .15
+1.66
+ .13
+ .09
+1.47
+
-

.06
.05
.01
.01

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

+0 .1 SO.1359 100.0 +$0.0103
-1 .8
.1351 99.4 + .0111
-1 .8
.1311 96.5 + .0151
- 1 .1
.1338 98.5 + .0124
.1383 101.8 + .0079
+ .3
+ 2 .9
.1341 98.7 + .0121
.1344 98.9 + .0118
+ .2
. 1383 101.8 + .0079
+ •2
+ 2 .6
.1378 101.4 + .0084
.1377 101.3 + .0085
- .1
. 1381 101.6) + .0081
- .1
. 1426 104.9.+ .0036
+ .02 . 1410 103.8' + .0052
- .02 .1440 106.0 + .0022
. 1462 in7. a
1

Per
cent.
+ 7.6
+ 8.2
+11.5
+ 9.3
+ 5.7
+ 9.0
+ 8.8
+ 5.7
+ 6.1
+ 62
+ 5! 9
+ 2.5
+ 3.7
+ 1.5

ENGRAVERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 4 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 4
establishments, 1890,1891; 5 establishments, 1892-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895 .............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898 .............
1899 .............
1900 .............
1901.............
1902 ...........
1903.............

57
58
56
58
54
52
45
57
58
62
70
79
66
71
59

100.0
101.8
98.2
101.8
94.7
91.2
78.9
100.0
101.8
108.8
122.8
138.6
115,8
124.6
103.5

+ 2
+ 1
+ 3
+ 1
+ 5
+ 7
+14
+ 2
+ 1
- 3
-1 1
-2 0
- 7
-1 2

+ 3.5
+ 1.7
+ 5.4
+ 1.7
+ 9.3
+13.5
+31.1
+ 3.5
+ 1.7
- 4.8
-1 5 .7
-2 5 .3
-1 0 .6
-1 6 .9

58.92
60.00
60.00
59.67
58.48
58.46
58.41
58.51
58.52
58.58
58.54
58.49
58.57
58.51
58.31

100.0
101.8
101.8
101.3
99.3
99.2
99.1
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.4
99.3
99.0

-0 .6 1
-1 .6 9
-1 .6 9
-1 .3 6
- .17
- .15
- .10
- .20
- .21
- .27
— . 23
- .18
- .26
- .20

-

1.0 $0.4056 100.0 + $ 0 .0241

-2 .8
-2 .8
- 2 .3
- .3
- .3
.2
- .3
- .4
- .5
- .4
- .3
- .4
- .3

.4027
.3981
.4018
.3924
.3999
.4053
.4071
.4106
. 4208
.4170
.4203
.4319
.4293
.4297

99.3
98.2
99.1
96.7
98.6
99.9
100.4
101.2
103.7
102.8
103.6
106.5
105.8
105.9

+ .0270
+ .0316
+ .0279
+ . 0373
+ .0298
+ .0244
+' .0226
+ .0191
+ .0089
+ .0127
+ .0094
.0022
+ .0004

+ 5 .9
+ 6 .7
+ 7 .9
+ 6 .9
+ 9 .5
+ 7 .5
+ 6 .0
+ 5 .6
+ 4 .7
+ 2 .1
+ 3 .0
+ 2 .2
- .5
+ .1

PRINTERS, male.
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5
establishments, 1890, 1891; 6 establishments, 1892-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1 8 % .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900 .............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

55
59
55
52
54
47
53
53
56
59
61
57
61
69
62

100.0
107.3
100.0
94.5
98.2
85.5
96.4
96.4
101.8
107.3
110.9
103.6
110.9
125.5
112.7




+ 7
+ 3
+ 7
+10
+ 8
+15
+ 9
+ 9
+ 6
+ 3
+ 1
+ 5
+ 1
- 7

+12.7
+ 5.1
+12.7
+19.2
+14.8
+31.9
+17.0
+17.0
+10.7
+ 5.1
+ 1.6
+ 8.8
+ 1.6
-1 0 .1

58.99
60.00
60.00
69.63
68.61
58.62
58.63
58.59
58.57
58.62
58.60
58.55
58.64
58.63
58.58

100.0
101.7
101.7
101.1
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.4
99.3

-0 .4 1
-1 .4 2
-1 .4 2
-1 .0 5
— .03
- .04
- .05
- .01
+ .01
- .04
- .02
+ .03
- .06
- .05

- 0 . 7 $0.4600
.4461
- 2 .4
-2 .4
.4500
-1 .8
.4637
_ .x
.4726
- .1
.*4746
- .1
.4581
- .02 .4612
+ .02 .4614
- .1
.4512
- .03 . 4615
.4625
+ .1
- .1
.4630
- .1
.4635
.4614

100.0 +$0.0014
97.0 + .0153
97.8 + .0114
100.8
.0023
102 7
. 0112
m 2
! 0132
99.6 + .0033
100.3 + .0002
100.3
98.1 + .0102
100.3
.0001
100.5
.0011
100.7
.0016
100.8
. 0021
100.3

_

_
_
_

+ 0 .3
+ 3 .4
+ 2 .5
- .5
—2.4
—2^8
+ .7
+ .04
+ 2 .3
- .02
- .2
- .3
- .5

781

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,

Table I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

ELECTRICAL APPARATUS A N D SUPPLIES.
ARMATURE WINDERS, JTIale.
[Data from 4 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897 .............
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
K O I.............
1902.............
1008
. .

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
41
28
23
26
26
40
47
56
53
53
56
72
72
77
91

100.0
68.3
56.1
63.4
63.4
97.6
114.6
136.6
129.3
129.3
136.6
175.6
175.6
187.8
222.0

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+122.0
+225.0
+295.7
+250.0
+250.0
+127.5
+ 93.6
+ 62.5
+ 71.7
+ 71.7
+ 62.5
+ 26.4
+ 26.4
+ 18.2

+50
+63
+68
+65
+65
+51
+44
+35
+38
+38
+35
+19
+19
+14

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
bercent.
57.75
58.29
58.13
58.23
58.23
58.50
58.57
56.79
57.04
56.66
57.02
57.38
54.67
54.69
54.63

100.0
100.9
100.7
100.8
100.8
101.3
101.4
98.3
98.8
98.1
98.7
99.4
94.7
94.7
94.6

- 5 . 4 30.2152
.2116
- 6 .3
.2169
-6 .0
.2138
-6 .2
.2111
- 6 .2
.2022
-6 .6
.2059
-6 .7
.2330
- 3 .8
—4.'2 .2194
.2192
- 3 .6
-4 .2
.2186
.2145
-4 .8
- .1 .2403
- .1 .2360
.2427

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

Per
cent.

+60.02^5
+ .0311
+ .0258
+ .0289
+ .0316
+ .0405
+ .0368
+ .0097
+ .0233
+ .0235
+ .0241
+ .0282
+ .0024
+ .0007

+12.8
+14.7
+11.9
+13.5
+15.0
+20.0
+17.9
+ 4.2
+10.6
+10.7
+11.0
+13.1
+ 1.0
+ 2.8

- 6 . 8 60.2534 100.0 +60.0133
.2563 101.1 + .0104
-6 .8
.2533 100.0 + .0134
- 6 .8
.2533 100.0 + .0134
-6 .8
.2510 99.1 + .0157
-6 .8
.2500 98.7 + .0167
-6 .8
.2467 97.4 + .0200
-6 .8
.2496 98.5 + .0171
- 6 .8
.2560 101.0 4- .0107
-6 .8
.2632 103.9 + .0035
- 6 .8
.2550 100.6 + .0117
- 6 .8
- 6 .8
.2659 104.9 + .0008
. 2630 103.8 + .0037
. 2659 104.9 + .0008
. 2667 105.2

-3 .1 2
-3 .6 6
-3 .5 0
-3 .6 0
-3 .6 0
-3 .8 7
-3 .9 4
-2 .1 6
-2 .4 1
-2 .0 3
-2 .3 9
-2 .7 5
- .04
- .06

+ 5 .2
4-.4.1
+ 5 .3
+ 5 .3
+ 6 .3
+ 6 .7
+ 8 .1
+ 6 .9
+ 4 .2
+ 1 .3
+ 4 .6
4- .3
+ 1 .4
+ .3

100.0
98.3
100.8
99.3
98.1
94.0
95.7
108.3
102.0
101.9
101.6
99.7
111.7
109.7
112.8

BRASS FINISHERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1001
1902
1903

...........
...

16
8
9
9
10
10
12
23
25
19
32
29
33
41
42

100.0
50.0
56.3
56.3
62.5
62.5
75.0
143.8
156.3
118.8
200.0
181.3
206.3
256.3
262.5

+26
+34
+33
+33
+32
+32
+30
+19
4-17
+23
4-10
+13
+ 9
+ 1

+162.5
+425.0
+366.7
+366.7
+320.0
+320.0
+250.0
+ 82.6
+ 68.0
+121.1
+ 31.3
+ 44.8
+ 27.3
+ 2.4

59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
55.00
55.00
55.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.2
93.2
93.2

-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0

MACHINISTS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901:...........
1902.............
1903.............

135
68
78
79
83
111
152
155
186
212
224
279
298
349
357

100.0
50.4
57.8
58.5
61.5
82.2
112.6
114.8
137.8
157.0
165.9
206.7
220.7
258.5
264.4




+222
+289
+279
+278
+274
+246
+205
+202
+171
+145
+133
+ 78
+ 59
+ 8

+164.4
+425.0
+357.7
+351.9
+330.1
+221.6
+134.9
+130.3
+ 91.9
+ 68.4
+ 59.4
+ 28.0
+ 19.8
+ 2.3

57.93
57.37
57.58
57.59
57.66
58.00
58.09
57.99
58.30
58.35
58.33
58.49
55.19
55.17
65.15

100.0
99.0
99.4
99.4
99.5
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.6
100.7
100.7
101.0
95.3
95.2
95.2

-2 .7 8
-2 .2 2
-2 .4 3
-2 .4 4
-2 .5 1
-2 .8 5
-2 .9 4
-2 .8 4
-3 .1 5
-3 .2 0
-3 .1 8
-3 .3 4
- .04
- .02

- 4 .8 60.2473
- 3 .9
.2499
-4 .2
.2476
- 4 .2
. 2457
- 4 .4
.2457
.2378
- 4 .9
. 2522
- 5 .1
.2422
-4 .9
-5 .4
.2158
-5 .5
.2508
.2554
—5.5
-5 .7
. 2632
.2739
- .1
- .04 .2656
. 2689

100.0
101.1
100.1
99.4
99.4
96.2
102.0
97.9
99.4
101.4
103.3
106.4
110.8
107.4
108.7

+60.0216
+ .0190
+ .0213
+ .0232
+ . 0232
+ .0311
+ .0167
+ .0267
+ .0231
+ .0181
+ .0135
+ .0057
—
.0050
+ .0033

+ 8.7
+ 7.6
+ 8.6
+ 9.4
+ 9.4
+13.1
+ 6.6
+11.0
+ 9.4
+ 7.2
+ 5.3
+ 2.2
- 1.8
+ 1.2

782

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

E L E C T R IC A L A P P A R A T U S A N D S U P P L IE S —Concluded.
PATTERN MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase (+ 1 or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase (+ )o r
decrease (—)in
decrease ( —)in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num- num­
age.
tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
4
2
2
2
3
3
4
5
5
5
7
10
10
9
10

100.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
75.0
75.0
100.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
175.0
250.0
250.0
225.0
250.0

+ 6 +150.0 69.00 100.0
+ 8 +400.0 59.00 100.0
+ 8 +400.0 59.00 100.0
+ 8 +400.0 59.00 100.0
+ 7 +233.3 59.00 100.0
+ 7 +233.3 59.00 100.0
+ 6 +150.0 59.00 100.0
+6 +100.0 59.00 100.0
+ 5 +100.0 59.00 100.0
+ 5 +100.0 59.00 100.0
+ 3 + 42.9 59.00 100.0
59.00 100.0
55.00 93.2
+1 + 11.1 55.00 93.2
55.00 93.2

-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
—4.00

- 6 . 8 $0.3191
- 6 .8
.3000
- 6 .8
.3000
.3000
- 6 .8
-6 .8
.3000
-6 .8
.3000
-6 .8
.3000
- 6 .8
.3000
.3500
- 6 .8
.3700
-6 .8
.3714
-6 .8
—6.8 .3170
.3350
.3422
.3710

100.0 +$0.0519
94.0 + .0710
94.0 + .0710
94.0 + .0710
94.0 + .0710
94.0 + .0710
94.0 + .0710
94.0 + .0710
109.7 + .0210
116.0 + .0010
116.4
.0004
99.3 + .0540
105.0 + .0360
107.2 4- .0288
116.3

+16.3
+23.7
+23.7
+23.7
+23.7
+23.7
+23.7
+23.7
+ 6.0
+ .3
.1
+17.0
+10.7
+ 8.4

+ 0 .2 $0.1657 100.0 +$0.0107
+ .3 .1672 100.9 + .0092
+ .3 .1672 100.9 + '.0092
+ .3 .1680 101.4 + .0084
+ .3 .1680 101.4 + .0084
+ .3 .1651 99.6 + .0113
+ .3 .1663 100.4 + .0101
+ .1 .1637 98.8 + .0127
.1635 98.7 + .0129
.1641 99.0 + . 0123
.1641 99.0 + .0123
.1670 100.8 + .0094
.1718 103.7 + .0046
.1766 106.6
.0002
.1764 106.5

+ 6 .5
+ 5 .5
+ 5 .5
+ 5 .0
+ 5 .0
+ 6 .8
+ 6 .1
+ 7 .8
+ 7 .9
+ 7 .5
+ 7 .5
+ 5 .6
+ 2 .7
- .1

_

FLOUR.
BOLTERS, Male.
[Data from 11 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

23
22
22
22
22
22
22
24
25
25
25
25
25
25
25

100.0
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
104.3
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7

+2
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+1

+ 8.7
+13.6
+13.6
+13.6
+13.6
+13.6
+13.6
+ 4.2

70.18
70.09
70.09
70.09
70.09
70.09
70.09
70.25
70.32
70.32
70.32
70.32
70.32
70.32
70.32

100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2

+0.14
+ .23
+ .23
+ .23
+ .23
+ .23
+ .23
+ .07

LABORERS, Male.
[Data from 7 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .........
1891 .........
1892 ........
1893 .........
1894 .........
1895 .........
1896 .........
1897 .........
1898 .........
1899 .........
1900 .........
1901 .........
1902 .........
1903 .........

176
143
145
146
149
148
155
209
210
227
224
225
236
236
231

100.0
81.3
82.4
83.0
84.7
84.1
88.1
118.8
119.3
129.0
127.3
127.8
134.1
134.1
131.3




+55
+88
+86
+85
+82
+83
+76
+22
+21
+ 4
+ 7
+ 6
- 5
- 5

+31.3
+61.5
+59.3
+58.2
+55.0
+56.1
+49.0
+10.5
+10.0
+ 1.8
+ 3.1
+ 2.7
- 2.1
- 2.1

62.11
62.43
62.40
62.38
62.34
62.35
62.25
61.78
61.77
61.69
61.71
61.71
61.12
60.20
60.21

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.2
99.5
99.5
99.3
99.4
99.4
98.4
96.9
96.9

-1 .9 0
-2 .2 2
-2 .1 9
-2 .1 7
-2 .1 3
-2 .1 4
-2 .0 4
-1 .5 7
-1 .5 6
-1 .4 8
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
- .91
+ .01

- 3 . 1 $0.1512
-3 .6
.1467
-3 .5
.1471
.1472
-3 .5
- 3 .4
.1479
- 3 .4
.1479
.1499
-3 .3
- 2 .5
.1559
.1558
- 2 .5
- 2 .4
.1570
-2 .4
.1565
- 2 .4
.1571
.1741
-1 .5
+ .02 .1778
.1784

100.0
97.0
97.3
97.4
97.8
97.8
99.1
103.1
103.0
103.8
103.5
103.9
115.1
117.6
118.0

+$0.0272
+ .0317
+ .0313
+ .0312
+ .0305
+ .0305
+ .0285
+ .0225
+ .0226
+ .0214
+ .0219
+ .0213
+ .0043
+ .000$

+18.0
+21.6
+21.3
+21.2
+20.6
+20.6
+19.0
+14.4
+ 14.5
+13.6
+14.0
+ 13.6
+ 2.5
+ .3

783

WAGES AND COST OE LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) m 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

FX.OUR—Concluded.
m LIiERS, Male*
[Data from 33 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—Jin
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Per
Num­
Amount. cent.
cent.
ber.
ber.
cent.
173
160
160
164
164
167
167
184
184
189
192
194
193
201
206

100.0
92.5
92.5
94.8
94.8
96.5
96.5
106.4
106.4
109.2
111.0
112.1
111.6
116.2
119.1

+33
+46
+46
+42
+42
+39
+39
+22
+22
+17
+14
+12
+13
+ 5

+19.1
+28.8
+28.8
+25.6
+25.6
+ 23.4
+23.4
+12.0
+12.0
+ 9.0
+ 7.3
+ 6.2
+ 6.7
+ 2.5

65.90
65.70
65.70
65.85
65.82
65.93
65.93
66.07
66.20
66.03
65.78
65.78
65.75
62.84
61.31

100.0
99.7
99.7
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.3
100.5
100.2
99.8
99.8
99.8
95.4
93.0

-4 .5 9
-4 .3 9
-4 .3 9
-4 .5 4
-4 .5 1
-4 .6 2
-4 .6 2
-4 .7 6
- 4 .8 9
—4.72
-4 .4 7
-4 .4 7
-4 .4 4
-1 .5 3

- 7 . 0 30.2506 100.0 +30.0268
- 6 .7
.2517 100.4 + .0257
.2521 100.6 + .0253
- 6 .7
.2514 100.3 + .0260
-6 .9
.2516 100.4 + .0258
- 6 .9
-7 .0
.2503 99.9 + .0271
- 7 .0
.2510 100.2 + .0264
- 7 .2
.2490 99.4 + .0284
- 7 .4
.2474 98.7 + .0300
- 7 .1
.2505 100.0 + .0269
-6 .8
.2511 100.2 + .0263
.2544 101.5 + .0230
-6 .8
-6 .8
.2559 102.1 + .0215
-2 .4
.2701 107.8 + .0073
.2774 110.7

+10.7
+10.2
+10.0
+10.3
+10.3
+10.8
+10.5
+11.4
+12.1
+10.7
+10.5
+ 9.0
+ 8.4
+ 2.7

+ 0 .3 $0.2583 100.0 +$0.0160
+ .3 .2588 100.2 + .0155
- .1 .2576 99.7 + .0167
+ .3 .2601 100.7 + .0142
+ 1 .2 .2633 101.9 + .0110
+ .4 .2579 99.8 + .0164
+ .1 .2545 98.5 + .0198
+ .6 .2539 98.3 + .0204
- .6 .2547 98.6 + .0196
+ .7 .2618 101.4 + .0125
+ .5 .2605 100.9 + .0138
+ .3 .2657 102.9 + .0086
- .1 .2675 103.6 + .0068
+ .1 .2722 105.4 + .0021
.2743 106.2

+ 6 .2
+ 6 .0
+ 6 .5
+ 5 .5
+ 4 .2
+ 6 .4
+ 7 .8
+ 8 .0
+ 7 .7
+ 4 .8
+ 5 .3
+ 3 .2
+ 2 .5
+ .8

- 2 . 0 $0.2107 100.0 +$0.0307
.2075 98.5 + .0339
-3 .0
.2168 102.9 + .0246
-1 .8
- 2 .4
.2141 101.6 + .0273
.2039 96.8 + .0375
-3 .0
.2031 96.4 + .0383
- 3 .2
.1982 94.1 + .0432
- 3 .0
.2096 99.5 + .0318
-2 .0
.2140 101.6 + .0274
- 1 .3
- .4 .2181 103.5 + .0233
+ .3 .2219 105.3 + .0195
+ .9 .2264 107.5 + .0150
+ .5 .2395 113.7 + .0019
+ .4 .2413 114.5 + .0001
.2414 114.6

+14.6
+16.3
+11.3
+12.8
+18.4
+18.9
+21.8
+15.2
+12.8
+10.7
+ 8.8
+ 6.6
+ .8
+ .04

MILLWRIGHTS, Male*
[Data from 18 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1003

48
45
42
45
55
46
44
48
45
58
65
53
49
51
50

100.0
93.8
87.5
93.8
114.6
95.8
91.7
100.0
93.8
120.8
114.6
110.4
102.1
106.3
104.2

+2
+5
+8
+5
-5
+4
+6
+2
+5
-8

-5
-3
+1
-1

+ 4.2
+11.1
+19.0
+11.1
- 9.1
+ 8.7
+ *3 .6
+ 4.2
+11.1
-1 3 .8
- 9.1
- 5.7
+ 2 .0
- 2.0

63.15
63.20
63.43
63.20
62.62
63.13
63.27
6?. 00
63.73
62.90
63.05
63.17
63.43
63.29
63.36

100.0
100.1
100.4
100.1
99.2
100.0
100.2
99.8
100.9
99.6
99.8
100.0
100.4
100.2
100.3

+0.21
+ .16
- .07
+ .16
+ .74
+ .23
+ .09
+ .36
- .37
+ .46
+ .31
+ .19
- .07
+ •07

PACKERS, Male.
[Data from 15 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
ions

108
95
96
98
98
99
97
111
116
128
137
145
158
164
169

100.0
88.0
88.9
90.7
90.7
91.7
89.8
102.8
107.4
118.5
126.9
134.3
146.3
151.9
156.5




+61
+74
+73
+71
+71
+70
+72
+58
+53
+41
+32
+24
+11
+ 5

+56.5
+77.9
+76.0
+72.4
+72.4
+70.7
+74.2
+52.3
+45.7
+32.0
+23.4
+16.6
+ 7.0
+ 3.0

60.17
60.82
60.06
60.43
60.80
60.91
60.80
60.16
59.74
59.20
68.82
58.47
58.67
58.72
68.97

100.0
101.1
99.8
100.4
101.0
101.2
101.0
100.0
99.3
98.4
97.8
97.2
97.5
97.6
98.0

-1 .2 0
-1 .8 5
-1 .0 9
-1 .4 6
-1 .8 3
-1 .9 4
-1 .8 3
-1 .1 9
- .77
- .23
+ .15
+ .50
+ .30
+ .25

784

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

FO U N D R Y A N D MACHINE SHOP.
BLACKSMITHS, Male.
[Data from 166 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1880-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

576
573
579
583
586
510
541
548
541
635
665
695
753
802
818

100.0
99.5
100.5
101.2
101.7
88.5
93.9
95.1
93.9
110.2
115.5
120.7
130.7
139.2
142.0

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
number.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
+242
+245
+239
+235
+232
+308
+277
+270
+277
+183
+153
+123
+ 65
+ 16

+42.0
+42.8
+41.3
+40.3
+39.6
+60.4
+51.2
+49.3
+51.2
+28.8
+23.0
+17.7
+ 8.6
+ 2.0

59.09
59.41
59.20
59.37
59.03
58.68
59.18
58.93
58.96
59.20
58.98
58.87
57.78
67.17
56.65

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.5
100.2
100.5
99.9
99.3
100.2
99.7
99.8
100.2
99.8
99.6
97.8
96.8
95.9

-2 .4 4
-2 .7 6
-2 .5 5
-2 .7 2
-2 .3 8
-2 .0 3
-2 .5 3
-2 .2 8
-2 .3 1
-2 .5 5
-2 .3 3
-2 .2 2
-1 .1 3
- .52

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

- 4 . 1 $0.2639 100.0 +$0.0323
- 4 .6
.2677 101.4 + .0285
.2681 101.6 + .0281
- 4 .3
-4 .6
.2672 101.3 + .0290
- 4 .0
.2677 101.4 + .0285
- 3 .5
.2611 98.9 + .0351
-4 .3
.2602 98.6 + . 0360
- 3 .9
.2643 100.2 + .0319
-3 .9
.2604 98.7 + .0358
- 4 .3
.2587 98.0 + .0375
-4 .0
.2637 99.9 + .0325
- 3 .8
.2685 101.7 + .0277
-2 .0
.2757 104.5 + .0205
- .9 .2844 107.8 + .0118
. 2962 112.2

Per
cent.
+12.2
+10.6
+10.5
+10.9
+10.6
+13.4
+13.8
+12.1
+13.7
+14.5
+12.3
+10.3
+ 7.4
+ 4.1

BOILER MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 97 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

1,263
1,336
1,291
1,327
1,280
1,105
1,136
1,236
1,197
1,354
1,369
1,477
1,585
1,624
1,700

100.0
105.8
102.2
105.1
101.3
87.5
89.9
97.9
94.8
107.2
108.4
116.9
125.5
128.6
134.6

+563
+364
+409
+373
+420
+595
+564
+464
+503
+346
+331
+223
+115
+ 76

+34.6
+27.2
+31.7
+28.1
+32.8
+53.8
+49.6
+37.5
+42.0
+25.6
+24.2
+15.1
+ 7.3
+ 4.7

58.55
59.25
59.23
58.88
58.39
58.83
58.47
58.02
58.11
58.30
58.06
57.36
56.82
56.33
56.24

100.0
101.2
101.2
100.6
99.7
100.5
99.9
99.1
99.2
99.6
99.2
98.0
97.0
96.2
96.1

-2 .3 1
-3 .0 1
-2 .9 9
-2 .6 4
-2 .1 5
-2 .5 9
-2 .2 3
-1 .7 8
-1 .8 7
-2 .0 6
-1 .8 2
-1 .1 2
- .58
- .09

- 3 . 9 $0.2609 100.0 +$0.0239
- 5 .1
.2594 99.4 + .0254
-5 .0
.2577 98.8 + .0271
-4 .5
.2585 99.1 + .0263
- 3 .7
.2583 99.0 + .0265
- 4 .4
.2614 100.2 + .0234
- 3 .8
.2629 100.8 + .0219
-3 .1
.2626 100.7 + .0222
- 3 .2
.2607 99.9 + .0241
-3 .5
.2617 100.3 + .0231
-3 .1
.2654 101.7 + .0194
- 2 .0
.2773 106.3 + .0075
- 1.0
.2794 107.1 + .0054
- .2 .2800 107.3
.0048
.2848 109.2

+ 9.2
+ 9.8
+10.5
+10.2
+10.3
+ 9.0
+ 8.3
+ 8.5
+ 9.2
+ 8.8
+ 7.3
+ 2.7
+ 1.9
+ 1.7

BOILER RIVETERS, Male.
[Data from 8 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

79
67
104
49
93
78
75
79
61
71
112
105
133
81
118

100.0
84.8
131.6
62.0
117.7
98.7
94.9
100.0
77.2
89.9
141.8
132.9
168.4
102.5
149.4




+39
+51
+14
+69
+25
+40
+43
+39
+57
+47
+ 6
+13
-1 5
+37

+ 49.4
+ 76.1
+ 13.5
+140.8
+ 26.9
+ 51.3
+ 57.3
+ 49.4
+ 93.4
+ 66.2
+ 5.4
+ 12.4
- 11.3
+ 45.7

58.08
59.13
59.08
58.04
58.54
58.60
58.52
57.87
57.62
57.75
55.63
56.96
56.43
54.35
53.91

100.0
101.8
101.7
99.9
100.8
100.9
100.8
99.6
99.2
99.4
95.8
98.1
97.2
93.6
92.8

-4 .1 7
-5 .2 2
—5.17
-4 .1 3
-4 .6 3
-4 .6 9
-4 .6 1
-3 .9 6
-3 .7 1
-3 .8 4
-1 .7 2
-3 .0 5
-2 .5 2
- .44

- 7 . 2 $0.2268
-8 .8
.2427
- 8 .8
.2108
- 7 .1
.2461
-7 .9
.2116
- 8 .0
.2139
- 7 .9
.2245
- 6 .8
.2195
-6 .4
.2328
- 6 .6
.2180
- 3 .1
.2485
- 5 .4
.2151
- 4 .5
.2303
- .8 .2616
. 2564

100.0 +$0.0296
107.0 + .0137
92.9 + .0456
108.5 + .0103
93.3 + .0448
94.3 + .0425
99.0 + .0319
96.8 f .0369
102.6 + .0236
96.1 O .0384
109.6 + .0079
94.8 + .0413
101.5 + .0261
.0052
115.3
113.1

+13.1
+ 5.6
+21.6
+ 4.2
+21.2
+19.9
+14.2
+16.8
+10.1
+17.6
+ 3.2
+19.2
+11.3
- 2.0

785

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I*— WAGES AND HOURS

OF

LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

FO UNDRY A N D MACHINH3 SHOP—Continued.
BRASS FINISHERS, Hale.
[Data from 20 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902
.
1903
.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber. num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
356
387
373
365
367
308
336
319
843
•364
397
386
430
454
507

m o
108.7
104.8
102.5
103.1
86.5
94.4
89.6
96.3
102.2
111.5
108.4
120.8
127.5
142.4

+151
+120
+134
+142
+140
+199
+171
+188
+164
+143
+110
+121
+ 77
+ 53

+42.4
+31.0
+35.9
+38.9
+38.1
+64.6
+50.9
+58.9
+47.8
+39.3
+27.7
+31.3
+17.9
+11.7

59.07
59.03
59.02
59.14
59.18
58.92
58.92
59.03
59.06
59.19
59.16
58.21
58.24
56.18
54.89

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Ter
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.2
99.7
99.7
99.9
100.0
100.2
100.2
98.5
98.6
95.1
92.9

- 7 .1 10.2419 100.0 +$0.0289
-7 .0
.2437 100.7 + .0271
-7 .0
.2473 102.2 + .0235
- 7 .2
.2452 101.4 + .0256
-7 .2
.2417 99.9 + .0291
- 6 .8
.2446 101.1 + .0262
- 6 .8
.2441 100.9 + .0267
-7 .0
.2419 100.0 + .0289
-7 .1
.2371 98.0 + .0337
- 7 .3
.2358 97.5 + .0350
-7 .2
.2376 98.2 + .0332
- 5 .7
.2467 102.0 + .0241
- 5 .8
.2518 104.1 + .0190
-2 .3
.2652 109.6 + .0056
.2708 111.9

-4 .1 8
-4 .1 4
-4 .1 3
-4 .2 5
-4 .2 9
-4 .0 3
-4 .0 3
-4 .1 4
-4 .1 7
-4 .3 0
-4 .2 7
-3 .3 2
-3 .3 5
-1 .2 9

+ 11.9
+11.1
+ 9.5
+10.4
+12.0
+10.7
+10.9
+11.9
+14.2
+14.8
+14.0
+ 9.8
+ 7.5
+ 2.1

CORE MAKERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 40 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 40
establishments, 1890-1901; 41 establishments, 1902, 1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899..............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

164
157
159
159
168
157
157
157
152
176
200
220
220
254
254

100.0
95.7
97.0
97.0
102.4
95.7
95.7
95.7
92.7
107.3
122.0
134.1
134.1
154.9
154.9

+ 90
+ 97
+ 95
+ 95
+ 86
+ 97
+ 97
+ 97
+102
+ 78
+ 54
+ 34
+ 34

+54.9 59.73
+61.8 69.87
+59.7 59.82
+59.7 59.83
+51.2 59.87
+61.8 59.65
+61.8 59.87
+61.8 •59.79
+67.1 59.40
+44.3 59.59
+27.0 59.56
+15.5 59.43
+15.5 58.78
58.25
57.17

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
99.9
100.2
100.1
99.4
99.8
99.7
99.5
98.4
97.5
95.7

-4 .3 $0.2072
- 4 .5 .2077
- 4 .4
.2078
- 4 .4
.2091
.2052
-4 .5
-4 .2
.2015
.2032
- 4 .5
- 4 .4
.2078
- 3 .8
.2096
- 4 .1
.2096
- 4 .0
.2100
-3 .8 .2133
-2 .7
.2217
—1.9 .2202
.2342

-2 .5 6
-2 .7 0
-2 .6 5
-2 .6 6
-2 .7 0
-2 .4 8
-2 .7 0
-2 .6 2
-2 .2 3
-2 .4 2
-2 .3 9
-2 .2 6
-1 .6 1
—1.08

100.0 +$0.0270
100.2 + .0265
100.3 + .0264
100.9 + .0251
99.0 + .0290
97.2 + .0327
98.1 + .0310
100.3 + .0264
101.2 + .0246
101.2 + .0246
101.4 + .0242
102.9 + .0209
107.0 + .0125
106.3 + .0140
113.0

+ 1 3 .0
+12.8
+12.7
+12.0
+14.1
+16.2
+15.3
+12.7
+11.7
+11.7
+11.5
+ 9.8
+ 5.6
+ 6.4

100.0 -$0.0027
83.3 + .0125
102.3
.0048
109.6 — .0115
116.6 — .0178
105.0 — .0073
105.5 — .0077
107.9 — .0099
97.5 — .0004
96.6 + .0004
75.4 + .0197
88.7 + .0076
93.9 + .0029
86.5' + .0096
ov ol__
1

- 3.0
+16.4
- 5.1
- 1 1 .5
-1 6 .7
- 7.6
- 8.0
-1 0 .1
.4
+ .5
+28.6
+ 9.4
+ 3.4
+12.2

CORE MAKERS, Fem ale.
[Data from £ establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1 9 0 2 ............
1903 .............

7
10
6
5
4
6
6
5
7
8
12
11
8
13
13

100.0
142.9
85.7
71.4
57.1
85.7
85.7
71.4
m o
114.3
171.4
157.1
114.3
185.7
185.7




+6
+3
+7
+8
+9
+7
+7
+8
+6
+5
+1
+2
+5

+ 85.7
+ 30.0
+116.7
+160.0
+225.0
+116.7
+116.7
+160.0
+ 85.7
+ 62.5
+ 8.3
+ 18.2
+ 62.5

59.66
59.80
59.67
59.60
59.50
59.67
59.67
59.60
59.71
59.75
59.67
59.82
59.75
59.77
59.77

100.0
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.7
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.2

+0.11
— .03
+ .10
+ .17
+ .27
+ .10
+ .10
+ .17
+ .06
+ .02
+ .10
.05
+ .02

+ 0 .2 $0.0912
— .1
.0760
.0933
+ .2
.1000
+ .3
.1063
+ .5
.0958
+ .2
. 0962
+ .2
.0984
+ .3
.0889
+ .1
+ .03 .0881
.0688
+ .2
.1
.0809
+ .03 .0856
.0789
.0885

786

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715and 716; for explanation,
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E SH O P—Continued.
LABORERS, Male.
[Data from 128 establishments.]

3,558
3,651
3,564
3,672
3,502
2,887
3,335
3,480
3,343
3,881
4,263
4,513
4,825
5,106
5,489

100.0
102.6
100.2
103.2
98.4
81.1
93.7
97.8
94.0
109.1
119.8
126.8
135.6
143.5
154.3

+1,931
+1,838
+1,925
+1,817
+1,987
+2,602
+2,154
+2,009
+2,146
+1,608
+1,226
+ 976
+ 664
+ 383

+54.3
+50.3
+54.0
+49.5
+56.7
+90.1
+ 64.6
+57.7
+64.2
+41.4
+28.8
+21.6
+13.8
+ 7.5

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

59.45
59.63
59.59
59.56
59.50
59.10
59.53
59.42
59.16
59.40
69.60
59.27
58.10
67.71
67.09

Increase (+ ) or
Increase ( f ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.1
99.4
100.1
99.9
99.5
99.9
100.3
99.7
97.7
97.1
96.0

S S S S S S S tS S S E S S S
c-i ci <' ( c4
n n
c
4
ci t
h
1 1 1 1 1 i I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Increase ( + ) o r
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

Wages per hour.

1 1 If 1 I 1 |

Year.

Hours per week.

1 1 1 1 M

Employees.

80.1419
.1413
.1442
.1450
.1443
.1393
.1395
.1414
.1417
.1407
.1418
.1458
.1486
.1519
.1585

100.0 +80.0166
99.6 + .0172
101.6 + .0143
102.2 + .0135
101.7 + .0142
98.2 + .0192
98.3 + .0190
99.6 + .0171
99.9 + .0168
99.2 + .0178
99.9 + .0167
102.7 + .0127
104.7 + . C099
107.0 + .0066
111.7
1

+11.7
+12.2
+ .99
+ 9.3
+ 9.8
+13.8
+13.6
+12.1
+11.9
+12.7
+11.8
+ 8.7
+ 6.7
+ 4.3
* *

MACHINISTS, Male.
[Data from 218 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1898.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

5,414
5,302
5,414
5,409
5,677
4,339
4,917
5,176
5,059
6,058
6,793
7,088
7,646
8,221
8,576

100.0
97.9
100.0
99.9
104.9
80.1
90.8
95.6
93.4
111.9
125.5
130.9
141.2
151.8
158.4

+3,162
+3,274
+3,162
+3,167
+2,899
+4,237
+3,659
+3,400
+3,517
+2,518
+1,783
+1,488
+ 930
+ 355

+58.4
+61.8
+58.4
+58.6
+51.1
+97.6
+74.4
+65.7
+69.5
+41.6
+26.2
+21.0
+12.2
+ 4.3

59.12
59.52
59.47
59.24
69.03
59.07
59.08
59.01
58.96
59.11
58.72
58.56
57.37
56.56
56.12

100.0
100.7
100.6
100.2
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.7
100.0
99.3
99.1
97.0
95.7
94.9

-3 .0 0
-3 .4 0
-3 .3 5
-3 .1 2
-2 .9 1
-2 .9 5
-2 .9 6
-2 .8 9
-2 .8 4
-2 .9 9
-2 .6 0
-2 .4 4
-1 .2 5
- .44

- 5 . 1 $0.2404 100.0 +80.0305
-5 .7
.2413 100.4 + .0296
- 5 .6
.2435 101.3 + .0274
- 5 .3
.2459 102.3 + .0250
- 4 .9
.2450 101.9 + .0259
-5 .0
.2347 97.6 + .0362
- 5 .0
.2347 97.6 + .0362
-4 .9
.2397 99.7 + .0312
-4 .8
.2397 99.7 + .0312
.2377 98.9 + .0332
- 5 .1
- 4 .4
.2417 100.5 + .0292
-4 .2
.2485 103.4 + .0224
-2 .2
.2555 106.3 + .0154
- .8 .2646 110.1 + .0063
.2709 112.7

+12.7
+12.3
+11.3
+10.2
+10.6
+15.4
+15.4
+13.0
+13.0
+14.0
+12.1
+ 9.0
+ 6.0
+ 2.4

MOLDERS, BRASS, Male.
[Data from 38 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

220
199
213
222
222
200
206
203
215
251
270
255
293
302
314

100.0
90.5
96.8
100.9
100.9
90.9
93.6
92.3
97.7
114.1
122.7
115.9
133.2
137.3
142.7




+ 94
+115
+101
+ 92
+ 92
+114
+108
+111
+ 99
+ 63
+ 44
+ 59
+ 21
+ 12

+42.7
+57.8
+47.4
+41.4
+41.4
+57.0
+52.4
+54.7
+46.0
+25.1
+16.3
+23.1
+ 7.2
+ 4.0

58.71
58.69
58.58
58.76
68.69
58.70
58.78
58.71
58.75
58.64
58.79
58.40
58.18
56.83
55.68

100.0
100.0
99.8
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
99.9
100.1
99.5
99.1
96.8
94.8

-3 .0 3
-3 .0 1
-2 .9 0
-3 .0 8
-3 .0 1
-3 .0 2
-3 .1 0
-3 .0 3
-3 .0 7
-2 .9 6
-3 .1 1
-2 .7 2
-2 .5 0
-1 .1 5

- 5 . 2 $0.2577 100.0 +$0.0439
-5 .1
.2536 98.4 + .0480
-5 .0
.2571 99.8 + .0445
-5 .2
.2635 102.3 + .0381
- 5 .1
.2616 101.5 + .0400
- 5 .1
.2539 98.5 + .0477
-5 .3
.2479 96.2 + .0537
-5 .2
.2605 101.1 + .0411
-5 .2
.2584 100.3 + .0432
-5 .0
.2599 100.9 + .0417
-5 .3
.2606 101.1 + .0410
-4 .7
.2651 102.9 + .0365
- 4 .3
.2769 107.5 + .0247
-2 .0
.2937 114.0 + .0079
.3016 117.0

+17.0
+18.9
+17.3
+14.5
+15.3
+18.8
+21.7
+15.8
+16.7
+16.0
+15.7
+13.8
+ 8.9
+ 2.7

787

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

FO UNDRY A N D MACHINE SHOP—Concluded.
MOLDERS, IRON, Male.
[Data from 183 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

Av. 1890-99. 2,974 100.0
. 2,962 99.6
1890
1891
. 2,952 99.3
1892
. 3,032 102.0
1893
. 3,181 107.0
1894
. 2,519 84.7
1895
. 2,781 93.5
1896
. 2,909 97.8
1897 ............. 2,732 91.9
1898
. 3,234 108.7
1899
. 3,439 115.6
1900
. 3,790 127.4
1901
. 3,793 127.5
1902
. 3,968 133.4
1903
.....................
4,218 141.8

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
number.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
+1,244
+1,256
+1,266
+1,186
+1,037
+1,699
+1,437
+1,309
+1,486
+ 984
+ 779
+ 428
+ 425
+ 250

+41.8
+42.4
+42.9
+39.1
+32.6
+67.4
+51.7
+45.0
+54.4
+30.4
+22.7
+11.3
+11.2
+ 6.3

59.31
59.51
59.60
59.49
59.18
59.10
59.29
59.24
59.17
69.34
59.14
59.07
58.47
57.65
56.80

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.3
100.5
100.3
99.8
99.6
100.0
99.9
99.8
100.1
99.7
99.6
98.6
97.2
95.8

-2 .5 1
-2 .7 1
-2 .8 0
-2 .6 9
-2 .3 8
-2 .3 0
-2 .4 9
-2 .4 4
-2 .3 7
-2 .5 4
-2 .3 4
-2 .2 7
-1 .6 7
- .85

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Per
Amount. cent.

- 4 . 2 $0.2526 100.0 +$0.0510
-4 .6
.2540 100.6 + .0496
-4 .7
.2565 101.5 + .0471
-4 .5
.2548 100.9 + .0488
.2557 101.2 + .0479
-4 .0
-3 .9
.2472 97.9 + .0564
-4 .2
.2476 98.0 + .0560
-4 .1
.2507 99.2 + .0529
-4 .0
.2525 100.0 + .0511
-4 .3
.2503 99.1 + .0533
-4 .0
.2568 101.7 + .0468
-3 .8
.2694 106.7 + .0342
— 2.0
.2739 108.4 + .0297
.2894 114.6 + .0142
- 1 .5
.3036 120.2

+20.2
+ 19.5
+ 18.4
+ 19.2
+18.7
+ 22.8
+ 22.6
+ 21.1
+20.2
+21.3
+ 18.2
+12.7
+10.8
+ 4.9

PATTERN MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 161 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

727
670
684
686
737
624
718
728
701
829
889
902
874
921
966

100.0
92.2
94.1
94.4
101.4
85.8
98.8
100.1
96.4
114.0
122.3
124.1
120.2
126.7
132.9

+239
+296
+282
+280
+229
+342
+248
+238
+265
+137
+ 77
+ 64
+ 92
+ 45

+32.9
+44.2
+41.2
+40.8
+31.1
+54.8
+34.5
+32.7
+37.8
+16.5
+ 8.7
+ 7.1
+10.5
+ 4.9

59.07
59.43
59.40
59.35
58.96
59.06
59.04
58.89
68.79
59.10
58.64
58.44
67.69
56.90
56.00

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.5
99.8
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.5
100.1
99.3
98.9
97.7
96.3
94.8

-3 .0 7
-3 .4 3
-3 .4 0
-3 .3 5
-2 .9 6
-3 .0 6
-3 .0 4
-2 .8 9
-2 .7 9
-3 .1 0
-2 .6 4
-2 .4 4
-1 .6 9
- .90

- 5 . 2 $0.2775 100.0 +$0.0450
.2784 100.3 + .0441
- 5 .8
-5 .7
.2802 101.0 + .0423
.2804 101.0 + .0421
-5 .6
- 5 .0
.2834 102.1 + .0391
-5 .2
.2683 96.7 + . 0542
.2711 97.7 + .0514
- 5 .1
.2771 99.9 + .0454
-4 .9
- 4 .7
.2760 99.5 + .0465
- 5 .2
.2805 101.1 + . 0420
-4 .5
.2799 100.9 + .0426
- 4 .2
.2895 104.3 + .0330
- 2 .9
.2964 106.8 + .0261
- 1 .6
.3091 111.4 + .0134
. 3225 116.2

+16.2
+15.8
+15.1
+15.0
+13.8
+20.2
+19.0
+16.4
+16.8
+15.0
+15.2
+11.4
+ 8.8
+ 4.3

FRUITS A N D VEGETABLES, CANNING A N D PRESERVING.
CANNERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .........
1891 .........
1892 .........
1893 .........
1894 .........
1895 .........
1896 .........
1897 .........
1898 .........
1899 .........
1900 .........
1901 .........
1902 .........
1903 .........

8
10
10
10
10
8
8
6
6
6
6
8
8
10
10

100.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
100.0
100.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
100.0
100.0
125.0
125.0




+2

+2
+2
+4
+4
+4
+4
+2
+2

+25.0 70.00
70.00
70.00
70.00
70.00
+25.0 70.00
+25.0 70.00
+66.7 70.00
+66.7 70.00
+66.7 70.00
+66.7 70.00
+25.0 70.00
+25.0 70.00
70.00
70.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.1700
.1750
.1750
.1750
.1750
.1750
.1750
.1750
.1500
.1500
.1750
.1750
.1750
. j .750
.1750

100.0 +$0.0050
102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9
•
102.9

102.9

102.9
102.9
102.9
102.9

102.9

+
+

.0250
.0250

+ 2.9

+16.7
+16.7

788

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase (+ ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

FRUITS A N D VEGETABLES, CANNING A N D PRESERVES'G—
Concluded.

CANNERS, Fem ale.
[Bata from 2 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
61
60
60
60
60
60
60
62
62
62
62
62
62
60
60

100.0
98.4
98.4
98.4
98.4
98.4
98.4
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
98.4
98.4

-1

-2
-2
-2
-2
_2
-2

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

- 1 . 6 81.52
81.67
81.67
81.67
81.67
81.67
81.67
- 3 . 2 81.29
- 3 .2 81.29
- 3 . 2 81.29
- 3 . 2 81.29
- 3 . 2 81.29
- 3 . 2 81.29
81.67
81.67

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
100.2
100.2

+ 0 .2 $0.1164
. 1163
. 1163
.1103
.1163
.1163
.1163
+ .38 * + .5 .1166
+ .38
+ .5 .1166
+ .38
+ .5 .1166
+ .38
+ .5 .1166
+ .38
. 1166
+
+ .38
+ .5 .1166
.1163
. 1185

+0.15

1C0.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
99.9
101.8

+ $ 0 .0021
+ .0022
+ .0022
+ .0022
+ .0022
+ .0022
+ .0022
+ .0019
+ .0019
+ .0019
+ .0019
+ .0019
+ .0019
+ . 0022

+ 1 .8
+ 1 .9
+ 1 .9
+ 1 .9
+ 1 .9
+ 1 .9
+ 1 .9
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .9

- 0 . 2 $0.1578 100.0 +$0.0209
+ .3 .1565 99.2 + .0222
-1 .0
.1600 101.4 + .0187
- 1 .0
.1600 101.4 + .0187
- 1 .0
.1600 101.4 + .0187
+ .3 .1565 99.2 + .0222
.1573 99.7 + .0214
. 1573 99.7 + .0214
.1573 99.7 + .0214
+ .4 .1563 99.1 + .0224
+ .3 .1565 99.2 + .0222
+ .3 .1565 99.2 + .0222
.1787 113.2
.1787 113.2
.1787 113.2

+ 13.2
+ 14.2
+ 11.7
+11.7
+11.7
+14.2
+13.6
+13.6
+13.6
+14.3
+14.2
+14.2

COOKERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

45
46
50
50
50
46
41
41
41
40
46
46
41
41
41

100.0
102.2
111.1
111.1
111.1
102.2
91.1
91.1
91.1
88.9
102.2
102.2
91.1
91.1
91.1

-4
-5
-9
-9
-9
-5

+1
-5
-5

- 8.9
-1 0 .9
-1 8 .0
-1 8 .0
-1 8 .0
-1 0 .9

72.18
71.83
72.80
72.80
72.80
71.83
72.05
72.05
72.05
+ 2.5 71.75
-1 0 .9 71.83
-1 0 .9 71.83
72.05
72.05
72.05

100.0
99.5
100.9
100.9
100.9
99.5
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.4
99.5
99.5
99.8
99.8
99.8

-0 .1 3
+ .22
- .75
- .75
- .75
+ .22

+ .30
+ .22
+ .22

FURNITURE.
CABINETMAKERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 50 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 50
establishments, 1890-1892; 51 establishments, 1893-1903.]
797
Av. 1890-99.
733
1890.............
730
1891.............
814
1892.............
807
1893.............
764
1894.............
740
1895........•...
772
1896.............
840
1897.............
823
1898.............
943
1899.............
899
1900.............
864
1901.............
1902.............
953
1903............. 1,002

100.0
92.0
91.6
102.1
101.3
95.9
92.8
96.9
105.4
103.3
118.3
112.8
108.4
119.6
125.7




+205
+269
+272
+188
+195
+238
+262
+230
+162
+179
+ 59
+103
+138
+ 49

+25.7
+36.7
+37.3
+23.1
+24.2
+31.2
+35.4
+29.8
+19.3
+21.7
+ 6.3
+11.5
+16.0
+ 5.1

57.92
58.62
58.22
57.73
57.58
57.02
57.83
57.82
57.82
58.34
58.18
57.89
56.93
56.05
56.02

100.0
101.2
100.5
99.7
99.4
98.4
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.7
100.4
99.9
98.3
96.8
96.7

-1 .9 0
-2 .6 0
-2 .2 0
-1 .7 1
-1 .5 6
-1 .0 0
-1 .8 1
-1 .8 0
-1 .8 0
-2 .3 2
-2 .1 6
-1 .8 7
- .91
- .03

- 3 . 3 $0.2076 100.0 +$0.0350
.2114 101.8 + .0312
- 4 .4
-3 .8
.2123 102.3 + .0303
-3 .0
.2170 104.5 + .0256
-2 .7
.2150 103.6 + .0276
-1 .8
.2078 100.1 + .0348
- 3 .1
.2039 98.2 + .0387
- 3 .1
.2018 97.2 + .0408
- 3 .1
.2036 98.1 + .0390
. 1982 95.7 + .0439
-4 .0
-3 .7
.2047 98.6 + .0379
.2084 100.4 + .0342
- 3 .2
- 1 .6
.2225 107.2 + .0201
- .1 .2390 115.1 + .0036
.2426 116.9

+16.9
+14.7
+14.3
+11.8
+12.8
+16.7
+19.0
+20.2
+19.2
+22.1
+18.5
+16.4
+ 9.0
+ 1.5

789

WAGES AND COST OF H YIN G ,
T able I . —

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718. j

FURNITURE—Continued.
CARVERS, HAND, Male.
[Data from 20 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900 .............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903 .............

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

78
65
74
95
74
71
77
71
78
80
99
74
79
97
94

Increase (+ ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

100.0
83.3
94.9
121.8
94.9
91.0
98.7
91.0
100.0
102.6
126.9
94.9
101.3
124.4
120.5

+16
+29
+20
- 1
+20
+23
+17
+23
+16
+14
- 5
+20
+15
- 3

+20.5
+44.6
+27.0
- 1.1
+27.0
+32.4
+22.1
+32.4
+20.5
+17.5
- 5.1
+27.0
+19.0
- 3.1

56.95
58.74
56.84
54.65
58.41
56.49
58.18
57.87
56.65
56.81
54.90
57.66
56.61
55.37
56.82

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
103.1
99.8
96.0
102.6
99.2
102.2
101.6
99.5
99.8
96.4
101.2
99.4
97.2
99.8

- 0 . 2 SO.2476
.2402
-3 .3
- .04 .2554
.2814
+ 4 .0
.2419
-2 .7
.2366
+ .6
-2 .3
.2095
-1 .8
.2358
.2500
+ •3
+ .02 .2469
+ 3 .5
.2780
-1 .5
.2531
.2781
+ *4
+ 2 .6
.2947
.2791

-0 .1 3
-1 .9 2
- .02
+2.17
-1 .5 9
+ .33
-1 .3 6
-1 .0 5
+ .17
+ .01
+1.92
- .84
+ .21
+1.45

100.0
97.0
103.2
113.7
97.7
95.6
84.6
95.2
101.0
99.7
112.3
102.2
112.3
119.0
112.7

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

Per
cent.

+$0.0315
+ .0389
+ .0237
— .0023
+ .0372
+ .0425
+ .0696
+ .0433
+ .0291
+ .0322
+ .0011
+ .0260
+ .0010
.0156

+12.7
+16.2
+ 9.3
.8
+15.4
+18.0
+33.2
+18.4
+11.6
+13.0
+ •4
+10.3
+ .4
- 5.3

- 5 . 9 $0.1863 100.0 +$0.0769
-6 .7
.1819 97.6 + .0813
-6 .4
.1949 104.6 + .0683
-5 .4
.1880 100.9 + .0752
.1902 102.1 + .0730
-4 .8
.1851 99.4 + .0781
- 4 .3
-4 .5
.1803 96.8 + .0829
-6 .6
.1864 100.1 + .0768
-6 .4
.1868 100.3 + .0764
.1832 98.3 + .0800
- 6 .6
.1861 99.9 + .0771
- 7 .5
.1906 102.3 + .0726
- 6 .1
.2157 115.8 + .0475
- 4 .0
-1 .3
.2379 127.7 + .0253
.2632 141.3

+41.3
+44.7
+35.0
+40.0
+38.4
+42.2
+46.0
+41.2
+40.9
+43.7
+41.4
+38.1
+22.0
+10.6

FINISHERS, Male.
[Data from 8 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

78
75
76
82
86
83
76
75
73
72
81
74
84
90
69

100.0
96.2
97.4
105.1
110.3
106.4
97.4
96.2
93.6
92.3
103.8
94.9
107.7
115.4
88.5

- 9
- 6
- 7
-1 3
-1 7
-1 4
- 7
- 6
- 4
- 3
-1 2
- 5
-1 5
-2 1

-1 1 .5
- 8.0
- 9.2
-1 5 .9
-1 9 .8
-1 6 .9
- 9.2
- 8.0
- 5.5
- 4.2
-1 4 .8
- 6.8
-1 7 .9
-2 3 .3

57.54
58.00
57.82
57.22
56.87
56.55
56.70
57.95
57.82
57.94
58.52
57.64
56.39
54.87
54.14

100.0
100.8
100.5
99.4
98.8
98.3
98.5
100.7
100.5
100.7
101.7
100.2
98.0
95.4
94.1

-3 .4 0
-3 .8 6
-3 .6 8
-3 .0 8
-2 .7 3
-2 .4 1
-2 .5 6
-3 .8 1
-3 .6 8
-3 .8 0
-4 .3 8
-3 .5 0
-2 .2 5
- .73
I

MACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 41 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 41
establishments, 1890-1892; 42 establishments, 1893-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898 .............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903

794
789
790
780
765
745
771
817
829
811
838
889
943
916
919

100.0
99.4
99.5
98.2
96.3
93.8
97.1
102.9
104.4
102.1
105.5
112.0
118.8
115.4
115.7




+125
+130
+129
+139
+154
+174
+148
+102
+ 90
+108
+ 81
+ 30
+ 24
+ 3

+15.7
+16.5
+16.3
+17.8
+20.1
+23.4
+19.2
+12.5
+10.9
+13.3
+ 9.7
+ 3.4
+ 2.5
+ .03

58.50
59.29
59.06
58.50
58.49
57.32
58.17
58.47
58.10
58.63
58.98
58.97
59.12
58.86
58.69

100.0
101.4
101.0
100.0
100.0
98.0
99.4
99.9
99.3
100.2
100.8
100.8
101.1
100.6
100.3

+0.16
- .60
- .37
+ .19
+ .20
+1.37
+ .52
+ .22
+ .59
+ .06
- .29
- .28
- .43
- .17

+0 .3 $0.1681 100.0 +$0.0205
.1692 100.7 + .0194
-1 .0
- .6 .1699 101.1 + .0187
+ .3 .1704 101.4 + .0182
+ .3 .1678 99.8 + .0208
+ 2.4 .1657 98.6 + . 0229
+ .9 .1658 98.6 + .0228
+ .4 .1667 99.2 + .0219
+ 1 .0 .1687 100.4 + .0199
+ .1 .1673 99.5 + .0213
- .5 .1699 101.1 + .0187
- .5 .1717 102.1 + .0169
— .7 .1731 103.0 + .0155
- .3 . 1828 108.7 + .0058
.1886 112.2

+12.2
+11.5
+11.0
+10.7
+12.4
+13.8
+13.8
+13.1
+11.8
+12.7
+11.0
+ 9.8
+ 8.9
+ 3.2

790

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

FURNITURE—Continued.
SAWYERS, RAND, Male.
[Data for employees from 25 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 25
establishments, 1890-1892; 26 establishments, 1893-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
54
51
51
50
53
49
52
55
55
61
64
67
70
74
73

100.0
94.4
94.4
92.6
98.1
90.7
96.3
101.9
101.9
118.0
118.5
124.1
129.6
137.0
135.2

+19
+22
+22
+23
+20
+24
+21
+18
+18
+12
+ 9
+ 6
+ 3
- 1

+35.2
+43.1
+43.1
+46.0
+37.7
+49.0
+40.4
+32.7
+32.7
+19.7
+14.1
+ 9.0
+ 4.3
- 1.4

58.33
59.12
58.53
58.02
58.61
56.20
67.92
58.79
58.34
58.31
69.42
59.10
58.81
58.80
58.73

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.4
100.3
99.5
100.5
96.3
99.3
100.8
100.0
100.0
101.9
101.3
100.8
100.8
100.7

+0.40
- .39
+ .20
+ .71
+ .12
+1.53
+ .81
- .06
+ .39
+ .42
- .69
- .37
- .08
- .07

+0 .7 30.1899
— .7 .1997
+ *3 .1948
+ 1 .2 .1951
+ .2 .1921
+ 2 .7 .1881
+1 .4 .1876
- .1 .1855
+ .7 .1869
+ .7 .1843
-1 .2
.1851
- .6 .1908
- .1 .1970
- .1 .1982
.2009

100.0
105.2
102.6
102.7
101.2
99.1
98.8
97.7
98.4
97.1
97.5
100.5
103.7
104.4
105.8

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount
+80.0110
+ .0012
+ .0061
+ .0058
+ .0088
+ .0128
+ .0133
+ .0154
+ .0140
+ .0166
+ .0158
+ .0101
+ .0039
+ .0027

Per
cent.
+ 5 .8
+ .6
+ 3 .1
+ 3 .0
+ 4 .6
+ 6 .8
+ 7 .1
+ 8 .3
+ 7 .5
+ 9 .0
+ 8 .5
+ 5 .3
+ 2 .0
+ 1 .4

SAWYERS, CIRCULAR, Male.
[Data for employees from 25 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 25
establishments, 1890-1892; 26 establishments, 1893-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
.1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

110
100
100
101
102
102
109
120
117
121
125
126
119
121
132

100.0
93.9
90.9
91.8
92.7
92.7
99.1
109.1
106.4
110.0
113.6
114.5
108.2
110.0
120.0

+22
+32
+32
+31
+30
+30
+23
+12
+15
+11
+ 7
+ 6
+13
+11

+20.0
+32.0
+32.0
+30.7
+29.4
+29.4
+21.1
+10.0
+12.8
+ 9.1
+ 6.6
+ 4.8
+10.9
+ 9.1

59.08
59.39
59.30
59.25
59.28
56.86
59.32
59.24
59.37
59.24
59.55
59.00
58.64
58.41
58.54

100.0
100.5
100.4
100.3
100.3
96.2
100.4
100.3
100.5
100.3
100.8
99.9
99.3
98.9
99.1

-0 .5 4
- .85
- .76
- .71
- .74
+1.68
- .78
- .70
- .83
- .70
-1 .0 1
- .46
- .10
+ .13

- 0 . 9 $0.1792
-1 .4
.1822
.1832
-1 .3
-1 .2
.1838
-1 .2
.1827
+ 3 .0 .1754
-1 .3
.1768
- 1 .2
.1756
- 1 .4
.1781
-1 .2
.1764
-1 .7
.1778
- .8 .1844
- .2 .1920
+ .2 .1997
. 2032

+80.0240
+ .0210
+ .0200
+ .0194
+ .0205
+ .0278
+ .0264
+ .0276
+ .0251
+ .0268
+ .0254
+ .0188
+ .0112
+ .0035

+13.4
+11.5
+10.9
+10.6
+11.2
+15.8
+14.9
+15.7
+14.1
+15.2
+14.3
+10.2
+ 5.8
+ 1.8

- 6 . 9 $0.2218 100.0 +80.0535
- 7 .2
.2061 92.9 + .0692
* -6 .9 .2228 100.5 + .0525
- 6 .9
.2186 98.6 + .0567
- 6 .9
.2239 100.9 + .0514
- 6 .9
.2239 100.9 + .0514
.2224 100.3 + .0529
-6 .9
- 6 .9
.2180 98.6 + .0567
-6 .9
.2261 101.9 + .0492
- 6 .9
.2239 100.9 + .0514
-5 .8
.2316 104.4 + .0437
- 2 .7
.2386 107.6 + .0367
-1 .5
.2523 113.8 + .0230
.2753 124.1
.2753 124.1

+24.1
+33.6
+23.6
+25.9
+23.0
+23.0
+23.8
+25.9
+21.8
+23.0
+18.9
+15.4
+ 9.1

100.0
101.7
102.2
102.6
102.0
97.9
98.7
98.0
99.4
98.4
99.2
102.9
107.1
111.4
113.4

SAWYERS, JIG, Male.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .........
1891 .........
1892 .........
1893 .........
1894 .........
2895.............
1896 .........
1897 .........
1898 .........
1899 .........
1900 .........
1901 .........
1902 .........
1903 .........

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

mo

100.0
100.0

100.0
6 100.0




57.62
57.83
57.67
57.67
57.67
57; 67
57.67
57.67
57.67
57.67
57.00
55.17
54.50
53.67
53.67

100.0
100.4
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
98.9
95.7
94.6
93.1
93.1

-3 .9 5
-4 .1 6
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-3 .3 3
-1 .5 0
- .83

791

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOUES OF LABOE, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

F U R N IT U R E —Concluded.
UPHOLSTERERS^ Male.
[Data from 11 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894;...........
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Increase f + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
cent.
ber.
149
150
148
160
149
147
139
146
146
150
158
159
169
169
167

100.0
100.7
99.3
107.4
100.0
98.7
93.3
98.0
98.0
100.7
106.0
106.7
113.4
113.4
112.1

+18
+17
+19
+ 7
+18
+20
+28
+21
+21
+17
+ 9
+ 8
- 2
- 2

+12.1
+11.3
+12.8
+ 4.4
+12.1
+13.6
+20.1
+14.4
+14.4
+11.3
+ 5.7
+ 5.0
- 1.2
- 1.2

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

58.81
59.09
59.01
58.76
58.99
58.92
68.85
58.61
58.64
58.61
58.60
67.79
55.50
55.82
54.19

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase (+ ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.5
100.3
99.9
100.3
100.2
100.1
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.6
98.3
94.4
94.9
92.1

-4 .6 2
-4 .9 0
-4 .8 2
-4 .5 7
-4 .8 0
-4 .7 3
-4 .6 6
-4 .4 2
-4 .4 5
-4 .4 2
-4 .4 1
-3 .6 0
-1 .3 1
-1 .6 3

- 7 . 9 $0.2359 100.0 +$0.0596
- 8 .3
.2346 99.4 + .0609
-8 .2
.2392 101.4 + .0563
.2364 100.2 + .0591
-7 .8
.2317 98.2 + .0638
- 8 .1
.2372 100.6 + .0583
- 8 .0
-7 .9
.2356 99.9 + .0599
.2313 98.1 + .0642
- 7 .5
.2302 97.6 + .0653
-7 .6
.2372 100.6 + .0583
-7 .5
.2454 104.0 + .0501
-7 .5
-6 .2
.2501 106.0 + .0454
-2 .4
.2857 121.1 + .0098
- 2 .9
.2953 125.2 + .0002
.2955 125.3

+25.3
+26.0
+23.5
+2o. 0
+27.5
+24.6
+25.4
+27.8
+28.4
+24.6
+20.4
+18.2
+ 3.4
+ M

VARNISHERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 35 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 35 estab­
lishments, 1890-1892; 36 establishments, 1893-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
18,94.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1003.............

329
283
296
321
305
287
297
313
380
382
421
429
441
471
452

100.0
86.0
90.0
97.6
92.7
87.2
90.3
95.1
115.5
116.1
128.0
130.4
134.0
143.2
137.4

+123
+169
+156
+131
+147
+165
+155
+139
+ 72
+ 70
+ 31
+ 23
+ H
- 19

+37.4
+59.7
+52.7
+40.8
+48.2
+57.5
+52.2
+44.4
+18.9
+18.3
+ 7.4
+ 5.4
+ 2.5
- 4.0

58.42
59.28
58.90
58.57
58.33
57.04
58.52
58.57
58.01
58.74
58.27
58.39
58.15
57.45
57.59

100.0
101.5
100.8
100.3
99.8
97.6
100.2
100.3
99.3
100.5
99.7
99.9
99.5
98.3
98.6

-0 .8 3
-1 .6 9
-1 .3 1
- .98
- .74
+ .55
- .93
- .98
- .42
-1 .1 5
- .68
- .80
- .56
+ .14

- 1 . 4 $0.1740 100.0 +$0.0208
-2 .9
.1712 98.4 + .0236
-2 .2
.1734 99.7 + .0214
.1712 98.4 + .0236
-1 .7
.1730 99.4 + .0218
-1 .3
+ 1 .0 .1751 100.6 + .0197
.1701 97.8 + .0247
-1 .6
- 1 .7
.1652 94.9 + .0296
- .7 .1823 104.8 + .0125
-2 .0
.1698 97.6 + .0250
- 1 .2
.1891 108.7 + .0057
- 1 .4
.1830 105.2 + .0118
-1 .0
.1886 108.4 + .0062
.0059
+ .2 .2007 115.3
.1948 112.0

+12.0
+13.8
+12.3
+13.8
+12.6
+11.3
+ 14.5
+ 17.9
+ 6.9
+14.7
+ 3.0
+ 6.4
+ 3.3
- 2.9

- 5 . 7 $0.2461 100.0 + $ 0 .0068
.2434 98.9 •f .0095
-5 .8
.2422 98.4 + .0107
-5 .9
-6 .8
.2448 99.6 + .0081
-7 .4
.2460 100.0 + .0069
-7 .5
.2465 100.2 + .0064
-7 .2
.2473 100.5 + .0056
- 7 .2
.2475 100.6 + .0054
- 6 .8
.2467 100.2 + .0062
-3 .6
.2480 100.8 + .0049
+ 2 .5 .2483 100.9 + .0046
+ 2 .2 .2557 103.9 — .0028
+ .2 .2251 91.5 + .0278
+ 2 .4 .2416 98.2 + .0113
.2529 102.8

+ 2.8
+ 3.9
+ 4.4
+ 3.3
+ 2.8
+ 2.6
+ 2.3
+ 2.2
+ 2.5
+ 2.0
+ 1.9
- 1.1
+ 12.4
+ 4.7

GAS.
CHARGERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

106
154
140
117
95
91
90
99
97
82
93
95
109
94
88

100.0
145.3
132.1
110.4
89.6
85.8
84.9
93.4
91.5
77.4
87.7
89.6
102.8
88.7
83.0




-1 8
-6 6
-5 2
-2 9
- 7
- 3
- 2
-1 1
- 9
+ 6
- 5
- 7
-2 1
- 6

-1 7 .0
-4 2 .9
-3 7 .1
-2 4 .8
- 7.4
- 3.3
- 2.2
-1 1 .1
- 9.3
+ 7.3
- 6.4
- 7.4
-1 9 .3
- 6.4

79.34
79.42
79.54
80.34
80.85
80.92
80.70
80.64
80.30
77.68
73.01
73.24
74.69
73.13
74.85

100.0
100.1
100.3
101.3
101.9
102.0
101.7
101.6
101.2
97.9
92.0
92.3
94.1
92.2
94.3

-4 .4 9
-4 .5 7
-4 .6 9
-5 .4 9
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 7
- 6 .8 5
-5 .7 9
-5 .4 5
-2 .8 3
+1.84
+1.61
+ .16
+1.72

792

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR.

—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

T a b l e 7L

[Average 1890-1899—100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

GAS—Concluded.
LABORERS, Male.
[Bata from 3 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 .............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as comRela­ 1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.
70
73
48
46
40
84
58
47
115
122
71
97
78
95
128

100.0
104.3
68.6
65.7
57.1
120.0
82.9
67.1
164.3
174.3
101.4
138.6
111.4
135,7
182.9

+58
+55
+80
+82
+88
+44
+70
+81
+13
+ 6
+57
+31
+50
+33

+ 82.9
+ 75.3
+166.7
+178.3
+220.0
+ 52.4
+120.7
+172.3
+ 11.3
+ 4.9
+ 80.3
+ 32.0
+ 64.1
+ 34.7

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60. G
O
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

............... ............. $0.1558
.1537
.1529
.1466
.1555
.1619
.1528
.1610
.1613
.1538
.1585
.1505
.1644
.1553
.1544

100.0 —$0.0014
98.7 + .0007
98.1 + .0015
94.1 + .0078
99.8
.0011
103.9 — .0075
98.1 + .0016
103.3
.0066
103.5 — .0069
98.7 + .0006
.0041
101.7
96.6 + .0039
105.5
.0100
99.7 — .0009
99.1

-0 .9
+ 0 .5
+ 1 .0
+ 5 .3
- .7
-4 .6
+ 1 .0
- 4 .1
-4 .3
+ •4
- 2 .6
+ 2 .6
- 6 .1
- .6

- 2 . 5 $0.2447 100.0 +$0.0073
.2504 102.3 + .0016
- 2 .5
-2 .5
.2505 102.4 + .0015
.2488 101.7 + .0032
- 2 .5
.2509 102.5 + .0011
-2 .5
- 2 .5
.2487 101.6 + .0033
-2 .5
.2489 101.7 + .0031
.2480 101.3 + .0040
- 2 .5
- 2 .5
.2436 99.6 + .0084
.2240 91.5 + .0280
- 2 .5
- 2 .5
.2335 95.4 + .0185
-2 .5
.2450 100.1 + .0070
- 2 .5
.2319 94.8 + .0201
-2 .5
.2406 98.3 + .0114
.2520 103.0

+ 3.0
+ .6
+ .6
+ 1.3
+ .4
+ 1.3
+ 1.2
+ 1.6
+ 3.4
+12.5
+ 7.9
+ 2.9
+ 8.7
+ 4.7

- 6 .8 $0.2353 100.0 + $ 0 .0002
.2310 98.2 + .0045
- 8 .8
.2287 97.2 + .0068
-8 .9
.2421 102.9 .0066
- 9 .1
-8 .9
.2335 99.2 + .0020
- 8 .5
.2335 99.2 + .0020
-7 .9
.2317 98.5 + .0038
-8 .6
.2328 98.9 + .0027
.2336 99.3 + .0019
- 8 .6
+ 2 .3 .2433 103.4 .0078
.0070
+ ,1 .2425 103.1 .0104
+7.1
.2459 104.5 - 2 .6
.2217 94.2 + .0138
.0547
+ 4 .6 .2902 123.3 .2355 100.1

+ 0.1
+ 1.9
+ 3.0
- 2.7
+ .9
+ .9
+ 1.6
+ 1.2
+ ,8
- 3.2
- 2.9
- 4.2
+ 6.2
- 1 8 .8

PIPE FITTERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

61
42
37
44
53
58
68
64
56
122
70
67
67
115
81

100.0
68.9
60.7
72.1
86.9
95.1
111.5
104.9
91.8
200.0
114.8
109.8
109.8
188.5
132.8

+20
+39
+44
+37
+28
+23
+13
+17
+25
-4 1
+11
+14
+14
-3 4

+ 32.8
+ 92.9
+118.9
+ 84.1
+ 52.8
+ 39.7
+ 19.1
+ 26.6
+ 44.6
- 33.6
+ 15.7
+ 20.9
+ 20.9
- 29.6

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.52

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.5

-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 8

RETORT MEN, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

218
266
262
255
224
220
225
234
210
147
136
170
157
156
172

100.0
122.0
120.2
117.0
102.8
100.9
103.2
107.3
96.3
67.4
62.4
78.0
72.0
71.6
78.9




-4 6
-9 4
-9 0
-8 3
-5 2
-4 8
-5 3
-6 2
-3 8
+25
+36
+ 2
+15
+16

-2 1 .1
-3 5 .3
-3 4 .4
-3 2 .5
-2 3 .2
-2 1 .8
-2 3 .6
-2 6 .5
-1 8 .1
+17.0
+26.5
+ 1.2
+ 9.6
+10.3

74.96
76.55
76.70
76.80
76.64
76.29
75.80
76.38
76.37
68.29
69.76
65.20
71.67
66.74
69.84

100.0
102.1
102.3
102.5
102.2
101.8
101.1
101.9
101.9
91.1
93.1
87.0
95.6
89.0
93.2

-5 .1 2
-6 .7 1
-6 .8 6
-6 .9 6
-6 .8 0
-6 .4 5
-5 .9 6
-6 .5 4
-6 .5 3
+1.55
+ .08
+4.64
-1 .8 3
+3.10

793

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I ,—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

leverage 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

GXjASS.
BATCH MAKJERS* Male.
[Data from 8 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1Q02

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - ) m
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. num­
ber, ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Num­
Amount. Per
cent.
cent.
ber.
ber.
cent.
29
26
30
30
30
26
26
26
30
30
32
30
30
31
29

100.0
89.7
103.4
103.4
103.4
89.7
89.7
89.7
103.4
103.4
110.3
103.4
103.4
106.9
100.0

+3
-1
-1
-1
+3
+3
+3
-1
-1
-3
-1
-1
-2

+11.5
- 3.3
- 3.3
- 3.3
+11.5
+11.5
+11.5
- 3.3
- 3.3
- 9.4
- 3.3
- 3.3
-6 .5

54.03
54.77
54.27
54.27
54.27
53.38
53.38
53.38
54.27
54.27
54.06
54.27
54.27
53.87
54.07

100.0
101.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.8
98.8
98.8
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.4
100.4
99.7
100.1

+0.04
- .70
- .20
- .20
- .20
+ .69
+ .69
+ .69
- .20
- .20
+ .01
- .20
- .20
+ .20

+0 .1 $0.1904
-1 .3
.1878
.1877
- .4
.1877
- .4
.1892
- .4
.1940
+ 1 .3
+ 1 .3
.1936
.1940
+ 1 .3
. 1892
- .4
.1902
- .4
+ .02 .1907
.1913
- .4
.1908
- .4
.1915
+ .4
.1962

+$0.0058
+ .0084
+ .0085
+ .0085
+ .0070
+ .0022
. 0026
+ .0022
+ .0070
+ .0060
+ .0055
+ .0049
+ .0054
+ .0047

+ 3 .0
+ 4 .5
+ 4 .5
+ 4 .5
+ 3 .7
+ 1 .1
+1 .3
+ 1 .1
+ 3 .7
+ 3 .2
+ 2 .9
+ 2 .6
+ 2 .8
+ 2 .5

- 0 . 5 $0.5401 100.0 + $ 0 .0367
- .3 .5248 97.2 + .0520
- .3 .5317 98.4 + .0451
- .4 .5235 96.9 + .0533
- .7 .5323 98.6 + .0445
- .6 .5702 105.6 + .0066
- .6 .5340 98.9 + .0428
- .5 .5523 102.3 + .0245
- .7 .5586 103.4 + .0182
- .6 . 5210 96.5 + .0558
- .6 .5527 102.3 + .0241
- .6 .5475 101.4 + .0293
- .2 .5728 106.1 + .0040
- .2 .5700 105.5 + .0068
.5768 106.8

+ 6.8
+ 9.9
+ 8.5
+10.2
+ 8.4
+ 1.2
+ 8.0
+ 4.4
+ 3.3
+10.7
+ 4.4
+ 5.4
+ *7
+ 1.2

100.0
98.6
98.6
98.6
99.4
101.9
101.7
101.9
99.4
99.9
100.2
100.5
100.2
100.6
103.0

BLOWERS, FLINT GLASS, Male,
[Data from 5 establishments.]

Av. 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895 .............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1Q
ftt

225
241
278
219
155
226
213
242
212
218
246
227
317
333
361

100.0
107.1
123.6
97.3
68.9
100.4
94.7
107.6
94.2
96.9
109.3
100.9
140.9
148.0
160.4

+136
+120
+ 83
+142
+206
+135
+148
+119
+149
+143
+115
+134
+ 44
+ 28

+ 60.4
+ 49.8
+ 29.9
+ 64.8
+132.9
+ 69.7
+ 69.5
+ 49.2
+ 70.3
+ 65.6
+ 46.7
+ 59.0
+ 13.9
+ 8.4

50.39
60.29
60.25
50.34
60.47
60.43
50.44
50.39
50.45
60.41
50.42
50.40
50.23
50.20
50.12

100.0
99.8
99.7
99.9
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.7
99.6
99.5

-0.27
- .17
- .13
- .22
- .35
- .31
- .32
- .27
- .33
- .29
- .30
- .28
- .11
- .08

BLOWERS, GREEN GLASS, Male,
[Data from 4 establishments.]

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903
___

222
136
243
162
133
145
170
256
299
301
375
435
389
384
425

100.0
61.3
109.5
73.0
59.9
65.3
76.6
115.3
134.7
135.6
168.9
195.9
175.2
173.0
191.4




+203
+289
+182
+263
+292
+280
+255
+169
+126
+124
+ 50
- 10
+ 36
+ 41

+ 91.4
+212.5
+ 74.9
+162.3
+219.5
+193.1
+150.0
+ 66.0
+ 42.1
+ 41.2
+ 13.3
2.3
+ 9.3
+ 10.7

51.98
52.65
51.71
52.07
52.92
51.81
51.64
51.65
51.84
52.74
50.77
51.00
51.00
51.00
51.00

100.0
101.3
99.5
100.2
101.8
99.7
99.3
99.4
99.7
101.5
97.7
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1

- 0.98
- 1.65
- .71
- 1.07
- 1.92
- .81
- .64
- .65
- .84
- 1.74
+ .23

- 1.9 $0.5056
- 3.1 .5110
- 1.4 .4990
- 2.1 .5382
- 3 .6 .5025
- 1.6 . 5065
- 1.2 .4950
- 1.3 .5021
- 1.6 .4856
- 3.3 . 4787
+ .5 .5378

................ ..............

.5933
.6330
.5969
.6078

100.0
101.1
98.7
106.4
99.4
100.2
97.9
99.3
96.0
94.7
106.4
117.3
125.2
118.1
120.2

+$ 0.1022
+ .0968
+ .1088
+ .0696
+ .1053
+ .1013
+ .1128
+ .1057
+ .1222
+ .1291
+ .0700
+ .0145
.0252
+ .0109

+ 20.2
+ 18.9
+ 21.8
+ 12.9
+ 21.0
+ 20.0
+ 22.8
+ 21.1
+ 25.2
+ 27.0
+ 13.0
+ 2 .4
- 4 .0
+ 1.8

794

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

GXiA S S—Continued.
BLOWERS, WINDOW GLASS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Employees.

rear.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 . . . . ___

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase { + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease!—jin
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
Num­
Per
Per
Amount
cent.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
24
24
29
26
25
25
23
21
20
25
25
24
25
26
23

100.0
100.0
120.8
108.3
104.2
104.2
95.8
87.5
83.3
104.2
104.2
100.0
104.2
108.3
95.8

-1
-1
-6
-3
-2
-2

- 4.2
- 4.2
-2 0 .7
-1 1 .5
- 8.0
- 8.0

+2
+3
-2
-2
-1
-2
-3

+ 9.5
+15.0
- 8.0
- 8.0
- 4.2
- 8.0
-1 1 .5

36.66
36.63
36.66
36.65
36.68
36.64
36.70
36.67
36.70
36.64
36.64
36.63
36.64
36.69
36.78

100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.1
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.3

+0.12
+ .15
+ .12
+ .13
+ .10
+ .14
+ .08
+ .11
+ .08
+ .14
+ .14
+ .15
+ .14
+ .09

+ 0 .3 80.7404 100.0 +80.4334
+ .4 .8202 110.8 + .3536
+ .3 .7740 104.5 + .3998
+ .4 .8133 109.8 + .3605
+ .3 .7701 104.0 + .4037
+ .4 .7002 94.6 + .4736
+ .2 .5560 75.1 + .6178
+ .3 .6536 88.3 + .5202
+ .2 .6948 93.8 + .4790
+ .4 .8149 110.1 + .3589
+ .4 .8067 109.0 + .3671
+ .4 .9731 131.4 + .2007
+ .4 .8260 111.6 + .3478
+ .2 1.0728 144.9 + .1010
1.1738 158.5

+ 58.5
+ 43.1
+ 51.7
+ 44.3
+ 52.4
+ 67.6
+111.1
+ 79.6
+ 68.9
+ 44.0
+ 45.5
+ 20.6
+ 42.1
+ 9.4

—

CUTTERS, WINDOW GLASS, Male.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments, 1890-1869; 1 establishment, 1900; 2 establishments, 1901-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
112.5
112.5
100.0

-1
-1

58.68
58.00
58.36
58.36
58.00
58.80
59.33
59.33
59.33
58.00
59.33
60.00
-1 1 .1 58.91
-1 1 .1 58.91
58.00

100.0
98.8
99.5
99.5
98.8
100.2
101.1
101.1
101.1
98.8
101.1
102.2
100.4
100.4
98.8

—0.68
— .36
— .36
— .80
—1.33
-1 .3 3
—1.33
-1 .3 3
—2.00
- .91
- .91

- 1 . 2 $0.3899
.4321
— .6 .4153
— .6 .4197
.3971
—1.4 .4027
-2 .2
.3119
—2.2 .3568
- 2 .2
.3556
.3910
- 2 .2
.4165
.3935
-3 .3
- 1 .5
.4448
- 1 .5
.4653
.4832

100.0
110.8
106.5
107.6
101.8
103.3
80.0
91.5
91.2
100.3
106.8
100.9
114.1
119.3
123.9

+ $ 0 .0933
+ .0511
+ .0679
+ .0635
+ .0861
+ .0805
+ .1713
+ .1264
+ .1276
+ .0922
+ .0667
+ . 0897
+ .0384
+ .0179

+23.9
+11.8
+16.3
+15.1
+21.7
+20.0
+54.9
+35.4
+35.9
+23.6
+16.0
+22.8
+ 8.6
+ 3.8

100.0 + $ 0 .1791
108.1 + .1459
106.4 + .1531
105.4 + . 1571
106.8 + . 1515
97.1 + . 1911
74.2 + .2843
85.9 + .2367
95.9 + .1959
108.3 + . 1453
111.9 + .1305
125.0 + .0772
116.4 + .1123
141.9 + .0083
143.9

+43.9
+33.1
+35.3
+36.6
+34.8
+48.3
+94.0
+67.6
+50.1
+32.9
+28.6
+15.1
+23.7
+ 1.4

FUATTENERS, WINDOW GLASS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

6
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
6
6
5
6
6
6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
83.3
83.3
83.3
100.0
100.0
83.3
100.0
100.0
100.0




+1
+1
+1

+20.0
+20.0
+20.0

+1

+20.0

68.48
68! 00
68.00
68.00
68.00
68.00
69.60
69.60
69.60
68.00
68.00
69.60
68.00
68.00
68.00

100.0
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
101.6
101.6
101.6
99.3
99.3
101.6
99.3
99.3
99.3

-0 .4 8

-1 .6 0
-1 .6 0
-1 .6 0
-1 .6 0

- 0 . 7 $0.4077
.4409
.4337
.4297
.4353
.3957
.3025
-2 .3
.3501
-2 .3
.3909
-2 .3
.4415
.4563
.5096
- 2 .3
.4745
.5785
.5868

795

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

G LA SS—Continued.
GAFFERS, FLINT GLASS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Houre per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1893.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1908

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
39
44
43
45
46
37
36
35
35
36
35
36
39
43
44

100.0
112.8
110.3
115.4
118.0
94.9
92.3
89.7
89.7
92.3
89.7
92.3
100.0
110.3
112.8

+5
+1
-1
-2
+7
+8
+9
+9
+8
+9
+8
+5
+1

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

+12.8 49.40
49.43
49.40
49.40
49.39
49.41
49.39
49.40
49.40
49.39
49.40
49.39
49.38
49.42
49.41

+ 2.3
- 2.2
- 4.3
+18.9
+22.2
+25.7
+25.7
+22.2
+25.7
+22.2
+12.8
+ 2.3

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

+0.01
- .02
+ .01
+ .01
+ .02
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-

.02
. 01
.01
.02
.01
.02
.03
.01

+0.02 $0.5483
- .04 .5340
+ .02 .5468
+ .02 .5374
+ .04 .5402
.5478
+ .04 .5540
+ .02 .5571
+ .02 .5574
+ .04 .5540
+ .02 .5538
+ .04 .5586
.5671
+ .1
- .02 .5774
.5790

100.0
97.4
99.7
98.0
98.5
99.9
101.0
101.6
101.7
101.0
101.0
101.9
103.4
105.3
105.6

+$0.0307
+ .0450
+ .0322
+ .0416
+ .0388
+ .0312
+ .0250
+ .0219
+ .0216
+ .0250
+ .0252
+ .0204
+ .0119
+ .0016

+ 5 .6
+ 8 .4
+ 5 .9
+ 7 .7
+ 7 .2
+ 5 .7
+ 4 .5
+ 3 .9
+ 3 .9
+ 4 .5
+ 4 .6
+ 3 .7
+ 2 .1
+ .3

100.0
96.3
97.1
97.7
98.4
101.0
99.8
100.4
102.8
102.5
103.9
104.1
105.3
109.7
114.4

+$0.0402
+ .0505
+ .0482
+ .0466
+ .0447
+ .0374
+ .0408
+ .0390
+ .0323
+ .0333
+ .0294
+ .0286
+ .0253
-f .0131

+14.4
+18.7
+17.7
+17.0
+16.2
+13.2
+14.6
+13.9
+11.2
+11.6
+10.1
+ 9.8
+ 8.6
+ 4.3

100.0
104.9
98.3
103.3
100.6
92.7
76.8
92.0
100.7
115.3
115.4
134.0
122.5
165.1
179.0

+$0.3764
+ . 3531
+ .3843
+ .3607
+ .3735
+ .4111
+ .4869
+ .4143
+ .3733
+ .3034
+ . 3032
+ .2142
+ .2692
+ .0664

+ 79.0
+ 70.6
+ 82.0
+ 73.3
+ 77.9
+ 93.1
+133.0
+ 94.5
+ 77.8
+ 55.2
+ 5o. 2
+ 33.5
+ 46.1
+ 8.4

GATHERERS, FLINT GLASS, Male.
[Data from 8 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1800 .........
1891 —..........
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1002
1003.............

112
141
140
108
103
94
103
103
103
112
116
151
164
181
234

+122
+ 93
+ 94
+126
+131
+140
+131
+131
+131
+122
+118
+ 83
+ 70
+ 53

100.0
125.9
125.0
96.4
92.0
83.9
92.0
92.0
92.0
100.0
103.6
134.8
146.4
161.6
208.9

+108.9
+ 66.0
+ 67.1
+116.7
+127.2
+148.9
+127.2
+127.2
+127.2
+108.9
+101.7
+ 55.0
+ 42.7
+ 29.3

49.46
49.48
49.46
49.45
49.45
49.46
49.47
49.47
49.47
49.46
49.47
49.47
49.47
49.48
49.48

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

+0.02
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

.02
.03
.03
.02
.01
.01
.01
.02
.01
.01
.01

+0.04 $0.2799
.2696
+ .04 .2719
.2735
+ .1
.2754
+ .1
+ .04 .2827
+ .02 .2793
+ .02 .2811
+ .02 .2878
+ .04 .2868
+ .02 .2907
+ .02 .2915
+ .02 .2948
.3070
.3201

GATHERERS, WINDOW GLASS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

25
24
29
27
26
26
24
22
21
27
27
22
25
26
24

100.0
96.0
116.0
108.0
104.0
104.0
96.0
88.0
84.0
108.0
108.0
88.0
100.0
104.0
96.0

4.0 86.68
36.67
36.69
36.67
36.69
36.69
36.67
+ 9 .i 36.68
+14.3 36.67
-1 1 .1 36.67
-1 1 .1 36.67
+ 9.1 36.68
- 4.0 36.68
- 7.7 36.69
36.67

-1

-

-5
-3
-2
-2

—17.2
-1 1 .1
- 7.7
- 7.7

+2
+3
-3
-3
+2
-1
-2

10092—No. 53—04----- 7



100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

-0 .0 1
-

.02

-

.02
.02

-

.01

-

.01
.01
.02

-0 .0 3 $0.4765
.4998
.4686
- .1
. 4922
.4794
- .1
.4418
- .1
.3660
- .03 .4386
.4796
.5495
.5497
- .03 .6387
- .03 .5837
.7865
- .1
. 8529

796

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able f . —

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

G LA SS—Continued.
GATHERING BOYS (BIT), Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + )or
decrease ( — ) i n
Rela­ 1903 as com­
pared with year
Num­ tive
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
41
41
41
43
44
44
51
49
34
33
29
29
29
29
29

100.0
100.0
100.0
104.9
107.3
107.3
124.4
119.5
82.9
80.5
70.7
70.7
70.7
70.7
70.7

-1 2
-1 2
-1 2
-1 4
-1 5
-1 5
-2 2
-2 0
- 5
- 4

-2 9 .3
-2 9 .3
-2 9 .3
-3 2 .6
-3 4 .1
-3 4 .1
-4 3 .1
-4 0 .8
-1 4 .7
-1 2 .1

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) m
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
age tive
specified.
specified.
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
cent.
ber.
51.26
51.27
51.27
51.21
51.18
51.18
51.06
51.10
51.47
51.52
51.38
51.83
51.83
51.83
51.83

100.0
+0.57
.+1.1 10.1284
100.0
+ .56
+1.1 .1280
100.0
+ .56
+ 1 .1 .1280
+ 1 .2 .1276
99.9
+ .62
99.8
+ 1 .3 . 1274
+ .65
+ .65 + 1 .3 .1274
99.8
99.6
+ .77 + 1 .5 . 1263
99.7
+ .73 + 1 .4 .1266
100.4
+ .36
+ .7 .1298
100.5
+ .31 + .6 .1301
‘100.2
+ .45 ! + .9 .1323
. 1312
101.1
1
101.1
.1312
.1312
101.1 ............... j..............
101.1
.1317
i

100.0
99.7
99.7
99.4
99.2
99.2
98.4
98.6
101.1
101.3
103.0
102.2
102.2
102.2
102.6

+80.0033
+ .0037
+ .0037
+ .0041
+ .0043
+ .0043
+ .0054
+ .0051
+ .0019
+ .0016
.0006
+ .0005
4 - .0005
+ .0005

+ 2 .6
+ 2 .9
+ 2 .9
+ 3 .2
+ 3 .4
+ 3 .4
+ 4 .3
+ 4 .0
+ 1 .5
+ 1 .2
- .5
+ .4
+ .4
+ .4

1
SO 14351 100.0
.
.1338 ! 93.2
.1338 93.2
.1338' 93.2
. 13381I 93.2
.1321 92.1
.1289 89.8
.1293 90.1
.1340 93.4
.1332 92.8
.1332 92.8
. 1343 93.6
.1402 97.7
.1406 98.0
. 1566 109.1

+S0.0131
+ .0228
+ .0228
+ .0228
+ . 0228
+ .0245
+ .0277
+ .0273
+ .0226
+ .0234
+ .0234
+ .0223
+ . 0164
+ .0160

+ 9.1
+17.0
+17.0
+17.0
+17.0
+18.5
+21.5
+21.1
+16.9
+17.6
+17.6
+16.6
+11.7
+11.4

100.0 +50.0055
100.4 + .0048
100.4 + .0048
100.4 + .0048
99.8 + .0059
99.9 + .0056
100.1 + .0054
99.8 + . 0058
99.4 + .0065
99.9 + .0057
99.8 + .0058
98.2 + .0088
99.9 + .0057
101.1 + .0036
103.1

+ 3 .1
+ 2 .7
+ 2 .7
+ 2 .7
+ 3 .3
+ 3 .1
+ 3 .0
+ 3 .2
+ 3 .7
+ 3 .2
+ 3 .2
+ 5 .0
+ 3 .2
+ 2 .0

LABORERS, JTEale*
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 . . . . ___

49
42
42
42
42
35
38
45
50
79
79
86
56
53
53

100.0
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
71.4
77.6
91.8
102.0
161.2
161.2
175.5
114.3
108.2
108.2

+ 4
+11
+11
+11
+11
+18
+15
+ 8
+ 3
-2 6
-2 6
-3 3
- 3

+ 8.2
+26.2
+26.2
+26.2
+26.2
+51.4
+39.5
+17.8
+ 6.0
-3 2 .9
-3 2 .9
-3 8 .4
- 5.4

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1

IiEER SM JEN, M ale*
[Data from 10 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1893.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 .............

57
62
62
65
62
50
53
53
54
55
51
57
63
61
59

100.0
108.8
108.8
114.0
108.8
87.7
93.0
93.0
94.7
96.5
89.5
100.0
110.5
107.0
103.5




+2
-3
-3
-6
-3
+9
+6
+6
+5
+4
+8
+2
-4
-2

+ 3.5
- 4.8
- 4.8
- 9.2
- 4.8
+18.0
+11.3
+11.3
+ 9.3
+ 7.3
+15.7
+ 3.5
- 6.3
- 3.3

59.15
59.23
59.23
59.26
59.23
59.04
59.09
59.09
59.11
59.13
59.06
59.16
59.24
58.89
58.85

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.1
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.8
100.0
100.2
99.6
99.5

-0.30!
- .381i
- .38
- .41
- .38
- .19
- .24
- .24
- .261
- .28
- .21
- .31
- .39
- .04
1

- 0 . 5 SO 1790
.
- .6 .1797
- .6 .1797
- .7 .1797
- .6 .1786
- .3 . 1789
- .4 .1791
- .4 .1787
- .4 .1780
— .5 .1788
- .4 .1787
- .5 . 1757
— , 7 .1788
- .1 .1809
.1845

797

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

GLASS—Concluded.
PACKERS,

Male.

[Data from 5 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1S00.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase t + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. numnum­ num­
ber. ber.
her.
Num­
Per
Per
Per
Num­
Amount.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
100
102
103
107
108
98
85
88
102
100
106
103
102
100
91

100.0
102.0
103.0
107.0
108.0
98.0
85.0
88.0
102.0
100.0
106.0
103.0
102.0
100.0
91.0

- 9
-1 1
-1 2
-1 6
-1 7
- 7
+ 6
+ 3
-1 1
- 9
-1 5
-1 2
-1 1
- 9

- 9.0
-1 0 .8
-1 1 .7
-1 5 .0
-1 5 .7
- 7.1
+ 7.1
+ 3.4
-1 0 .8
- 9.0
-1 4 .2
-1 1 .7
- 10.8
- 9.0

55.45
56.01
55.47
55.50
55.44
55.63
54.53
55.03
55.70
55.54
65.69
55.85
55.77
55.79
55.19

100.0
101.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.3
98.3
99.2
100.5
100.2
100.4
100.7
100.6
100.6
99.5

-0 .2 6
- .82
- .28
- .31
- .25
- .44
+ .66
+ .16
- .51
- .35
- .50
— .66
- .58
- .60

- 0 . 5 $0.1857 100.0 +80.0117
-1 .4
.1854 99.8 + .0120
- .5 .1850 99.6 + .0124
- .6 .1865 100.4 + .0109
- .5 .1870 100.7 + .0104
- .8 .1851 99.7 + .0123
+ 1 .2 .1906 102.6 + .0068
+ .3 .1871 100.8 + .0103
- .9 .1829 98.5 + .0145
- .6 .1841 99.1 + .0133
- .9 .1829 98.5 + .0145
- 1 .2
.1823 98.2 + .0151
- 1.0
.1875 101.0 + .0099
.1864 100.4, + .0110
-1 .1
.1974 106.3

+ 6 .3
+ 6 .5
+ 6 .7
+ 5 .8
+ 5 .6
+ 6 .6
+ 3 .6
+ 5 .5
+ 7 .9
+ 7 .2
+ 7 .9
+ 8 .3
+ 5 .3
+ 5 .9

- 0 .3 $0.1648 100.0 +$0.0054
- .4 . 1703 103.3 .0001
- .8 .1673 101.6 + .0029
- .8 .1673 10x.6 + .0029
- .7 .1686 102.3 + .0016
- .1 .1653 100.3 + .0049
- .2 .1649 100.1 + •0053
.1635 99.2 + .0067
- .1 .1626 98.7 + .0076
+ .4 .1570 95.3 + .0132
- .3 .1609 97.6 + .0093
- .1 .1636 99.3 + .0066
- .1 .1636 99.3 + «0066
- .3 .1624 98.5 + .0078
. 1702 103.3

+ 3 .3
- .1
+ 1 .7
+ 1 .7
+ *9
+ 3 .0
+ 3 .2
+ 4 .1
+ 4 .7
+ 8 .4
+ 5 .8
+ 4 .0
+ 4 .0
+ 4 .8

TEASERS, Male.
[Data from 9 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

59
60
64
64
63
57
58
56
57
53
59
57
57
59
56

100.0
101.7
108.5
108.5
106.8
96.6
98.3
94.9
96.6
89.8
100.0
96.6
96.6
100.0
94.9

-3
-4
-8
-8
-7
-1
-2

- 5.1
- 6.7
- 1 2 .5
-1 2 .5
-1 1 .1
- 1.8
- 3.4

-1
+3
-3
-1
-1
-3

+
-

1.8
5.7
5.1
1.8
1.8
5.1

79.13
79.22
79.52
79.52
79.44
78.96
79.05
78.88
78.96
78.58
79.14
78.96
78.96
79.14
78.88

100.0
100.1
100.5
100.5
100.4
99.8
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.3
100.0
99.8
99.8
100.0
99.7

-0 .2 5
- .34
- .64
- .64
- .56
- .08
- .17
+
-

.08
.30
.26
.08
.08
.26

GLASS, PLATE.
CASTERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1897; data from 1 establishment, 1898-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

(«)
(°)
50 («)
50 (a)
46
46
44
44

(0f)—6
-6
-2
-2

«)
-1 2 .0
-1 2 .0
- 4.3
- 4.3

48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

$
(a)
'a)

(«)

la)

[a)
[a)

(«)

(«)
+$ 0.0264
+ .0264
+ .0131
+ .0131

(«)
$0.2250
.2250
.2383
.2383
.2514
.2514

(«)
+ 11.7
+ 11.7
+ 5 .5
+ 5 .5

(«)
—#0.0169
+ .0028
- .0083
+ . 0026
- .0022

(«)7.9
+ 1 .4
- 4.1
+ 1 .3
- 1.1

CUTTERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1897; data from 1 establishment, 1898-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

(?)

6
9
9
10
9
9

(«)
(a)
fa)
(a)
(a)
(a)

(«) «
+3
-1

(«)
(a )
+50.0 64.00
64.00
64.00
-1 0 .0 64.20
64.00
64.67

(«)
(«)
«)
(«)
(a)
(«)
(a)

(a)

+ 0.67
+ .67
+ .67
+ .47
+ .67

a
(«)
+ 1 .0 #0.2131
+ 1.0 .1934
+ 1.0 . 2045
+ .7 .1936
+ 1.0 .1984
. 1962

(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(a)
(«)

a Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.



798

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

GXiASS, PIRATE—Continued.
DRAWERS) Male.
[No data, 1890-1897; data from 1 establishment, 1898-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.

(3

<a\&
15 (a)
21 (a)
30 ?a)
28 (a)
22 (a)

(a)+ 7
*
+7
+1
-8
-6

(«)
+46.7
+46.7
+ 4.8
-2 6 .7
-2 1 .4

(«)
C . 00
O
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

(«)

$

(«)

(«)

(a)
(a)

(a)
(a)

(3
13
8

$0.(1610
.1787
.1862
.1788
.1825
.1750

+8&0140
.0037
.0112
.0038
.0075

+ 8 .7
-2 .1
- 6 .0
-2 .1
- 4 .1

+80?0172
+ .0176
+ .0114
+ .0131
+ .0080

(«)
+ 9 .0
+ 9 .2
+ 5 .8
+ 6 .7
+ 4 .0

GRINDERS) Male.
[No data, 1890-1897; data from 2 establishments, 1898-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1898 .........
1899 .........
1900 .........
1901 .........
1902 .........
1903 .........

95
94
113
123
107

(«)
(«)

a

(«)
+20
+12
+13
- 6
-1 6

(°)
+23.0
+ 12.6
+13.8
- 5.3
-1 3 .0

«)

(a)

62.59
63.13
63.26
64.22
70.71
70.96

(«
(a)
(«)
(«)
<«j

13

(«)
+8.37
+7.83
+7.70
+6.74
+ .25

«)
(«)
+13.4 80.1910
+12.4 .1906
+12.2 .1968
+10.5 .1951
+ .4 .2002
.2082

C«)
(a)

(«)
(«}
(«)

(3

LA1TERS) POLISHING ROOM) Male.
[No data 1890-1897; data from 1 establishment, 1898-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1898 .........
1899 .........
1900 .........
1901 .........
1902 .........
1903 .........

(«)
20
33
37
32
40
41

(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)

(a)
+21
+ 8
+ 4
+ 9
+ 1

«)
+105.0
+ 24.2
+ 10.8
+ 28.1
+ 2.5

(«)
80.1922
.2067
.1968
.2043
.2049
.2058

(«)
69.00
69.00
69.00
69.00
69.00
69.00

(a)
(aj
(a)

(«)

(a)

(a)
+80.0136
_
.0009
+ .0090
+ .0015
+ .0009

(«) „
+ 7 .1
+ 4 .6
+ .7
+ .4

(n)

MELTERS) Male.
[No data, 1890-1897; data from 1 establishment, 1898-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

(«)

(«)
(«)
+ 33.3 70.00
+ 2 +100.0 70.00
+ 2 +100.0 70.00
70.00
70.00
70.00

(«)

()
0+1

3
2
2
4
4
4

(a)

(a)
80.2137
.2137
.2137
.2137
.2137
.2137

(»)

(«)

POLISHERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1897; data from 2 establishments, 1898-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

<«)
36
39
36
34
36
37

(«)
(«)
(aj
(a)
(a)
(aj
(a)

(«)
+1
-2
+1
+3
+1

«
+ 2 .8
-5 .1
+ 2 .8
+ 8 .8
+ 2 .8

(«)
61.00
61.62
61.50
61.06
71.67
71.43

(«)

(a)
la)

?a)
\a)

(«j
(a)

a
+10.43
+ 9.81
+ 9.93
+10.37
.24

(a)
(«)
+17.1 80.1959
+15.9 .1908
+16.1 .1841
+17.0 .1872
.3 .1697
.1681

(«)
(a)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)

a Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.



(a)
-80.0278
.0227
.0160
.0191
.0016

(«)
-1 4 .2
-1 1 .9
- 8.7
-1 0 .2
.9

799

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOUES OF LABOE, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

GLASS, PLATE—Concluded.
TABLEMEN, Male.

[No data, 1890-1897; data from 1 establishment, 1898-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —Jin
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

Av. 1890-99
(«)
(«) o
.....................
1898
+ 8
1899
.....................
+11
1900
.....................
-1 6
1901
..................... .....................
- 6
1902
..................... .....................
+10
1903
.....................

(«)
+36.4
+57.9
-3 4 .8
-1 6 .7
+50.0

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

Wages per hour.

Increase (-1-1 or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
(«)

(«)
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

(«)

a
$0.1627
.1871
.1878
.1863
.1873
.1843

H6
0028
.0035
.0020
.0030

(«) n

+ 1.0

- 1 .5
- 1 .9
-

1.1
1.6

WAGON MEN, Male.
[No data, 1890-1897; data from 1 establishment 1898-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

(a)
24
20
23
36
18
22

(1 2
+ 2
- 1
-1 4
+ 4

(a)
- 8.3
+10.0
- 4.3
-3 8 .9
+22.2

a
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

(«)

(a)

(“j
a)
a)
a)

a)

<«)
$0.1671
.1895
.1889
.1853
.1886
.1948

(a)
(a)
(a )
(a)
\
a)
(a)
(a)

(«)
+$0.0277
+ .0053
+ .0059
+ .0095
+ .0062

+16.6
+ 2.8
+ 3.1
+ 5.1
+ 3.3

HARNESS.

COLLAR MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 17 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

144
133
131
133
138
135
147
158
156
157
149
166
160
166
161

100.0
92.4
91.0
92.4
95.8
93.8
102.1
109.7
108.3
109.0
103.5
115.3
111.1
115.3
111.8

+17
+28
+30
+28
+23
+26
+14
+ 3
+ 5
+ 4
+12
- 5
+ 1
- 5

+11.8
+21.1
+22.9
+21.1
+16.7
+19.3
+ 9.5
+ 1.9
+ 3.2
+ 2.5
+ 8.1
- 3.0
+ .6
- 3.0

59.28
59.51
59.50
59.37
59.13
59.21
59.27
59.23
59.29
59.26
58.98
59.08
58.94
58.78
58.29

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.2
99.7
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.5
99.7
99.4
99.2
98.3

-0 .9 9
-1 .2 2
-1 .2 1
-1 .0 8
- .84
- .92
- .98
- .94
-1 .0 0
- .97
- .69
- .79
- .65
- .49

- 1 . 7 $0.2084 100.0 +$0.0318
-2 .1
.2100 100.8 + .0302
-2 .0
.2093 100.4 + .0309
- 1 .8
.2113 101.4 + .0289
-1 .4
.2099 100.7 + .0303
- 1 .6
.2085 100.0 + .0317
.2054 98.6 + .0348
- 1 .7
-1 .6
.2080 99.8 + .0322
.2067 99.2 + .0335
- 1 .7
- 1 .6
.2068 99.2 + .0334
-1 .2
.2083 100.0 + .0319
-1 .3
.2127 102.1 + .0275
- 1 .1
.2243 107.6 + .0159
- .8 .2277 109.3 + .0125
.2402 115.3

+15.3
+14.4
+14.8
+13.7
+14.4
+15.2
+16.9
+15.5
+16.2
+16.2
+15.3
+12.9
+ 7.1
+ 5.5

- 2 .2 $0.2574 100.0 +$0.0479
- 2 .4
.2598 100.9 + .0455
- 2 .5
.2585 100.4 + .0468
.2564 99.6 + .0489
-2 .5
-2 .2
.2583 100.3 + .0470
-2 .1
.2561 99.5 + .0492
- 2 .1
.2587 100.5 + .0466
- 2 .2
.2566 99.7 + .0487
-2 .2
.2546 98.9 + .0507
- 2 .1
.2577 100.1 + .0476
.2572 99.9 + .0481
-1 .9
- 2 .2
.2609 101.4 + .0444
.2685 104.3 + .0368
- 1 .9
- .9 .2728 106.0 + .0325
.3053 118.6

+18.6
+17.5
+18.1
+19.1
+18.2
+19.2
+18.0
+19.0
+19.9
+18.5
+18.7
+17.0
+13.7
+11.9

CUTTERS, Male.
[Data from 21 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

87
80
81
85
85
86
83
88
91
93
102
101
101
108
106

100.0
92.0
93.1
97.7
97.7
98.9
95.4
101.1
104.6
106.9
117.2
116.1
116.1
124.1
121.8

+19
+26
+25
+21
+21
+20
+23
+18
+15
+13
+ 4
+ 5
+ 5
- 2

+21.8
+32.5
+30.9
+24.7
+24.7
+23.3
+27.7
+20.5
+16.5
+14.0
+ 3.9
+ 5.0
+ 5.0
- 1.9

58.88
59.00
59.02
59.06
68.86
58.81
58.83
58.84
58.88
58.78
58.70
58.84
58.70
58.11
57.57

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.9
99.7
98.7
97.8

-1 .3 1
-1 .4 3
-1 .4 5
-1 .4 9
-1 .2 9
-1 .2 4
-1 .2 6
-1 .2 7
-1 .3 1
-1 .2 1
-1 .1 3
-1 .2 7
-1 .1 3
- .54

« Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.



800

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I —

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

H A R N E SS—Continued.
FITTERS AND FINISHERS, Hale.
[Data from 14 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
110 100.0
96 . 87.3
104 94.5
100 90.9
97 88.2
94 85.5
109 99.1
122 110.9
123 111.8
119 108.2
140 127.3
133 120.9
143 130.0
167 151.8
178 161.8

+68
+82
+74
+78
+81
+84
+69
+56
+55
+59
+38
+45
+ 35
+11

+61.8
+85.4
+71.2
+78.0
+83.5
+89.4
+63.3
+45.9
+44.7
+49.6
+27.1
+33.8
+24.5
+ 6.6

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
58.88
59.38
59.40
59.42
59.39
59.22
58.51
58.26
58.42
58.58
58.17
58.33
57.99
57.58
56.40

100.0
100.8
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.6
99.4
98.9
99.2
99.5
98.8
99.1
98.5
97.8
95.8

-2 .4 8
-2 .9 8
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 2
-2 .9 9
-2 .8 2
-2 .1 1
-1 .8 6
-2 .0 2
-2 .1 8
-1 .7 7
-1 .9 3
-1 .5 9
-1 .1 8

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

- 4 . 2 SO.2124 100.0 +S0.0520
.2122 99.9 + .0522
-5 .0
- 5 .1
.2164 101.9 + .0480
.2152 101.3 + .0492
- 5 .1
.2137 100.6 + . 0507
- 5 .0
.2088 98.3 + .0556
-4 .8
.2091 98.4 + .0553
-3 .6
- 3 .2
.2042 96.1 + .0602
-3 .5
.2068 97.4 + .0576
- 3 .7
.2168 102.1 + .0476
-3 .0
.2203 103.7 + .0441
-3 .3
.2209 104.0 + .0435
.2344 110.4 + .0300
- 2 .6
.2434 114.6 + .0210
-2 .0
.2644 124.5

Per
cent.
+24.5
+24.6
+22.2
+22.9
+23.7
+26.6
+26.4
+29.5
+27.9
+ 22.0
+20.0
+19.7
+12.8
+ 8.6

HARNESS MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 14 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

215
193
197
188
194
191
209
226
238
248
268
278
276
276
286

100.0
89.8
91.6
87.4
90.2
88.8
97.2
105.1
110.7
115.3
124.7
129.3
128.4
128.4
133.0

+71
+93
+89
+98
+92
+95
+77
+60
+48
+38
+18
+ 8
+10
+10

+33.0
+48.2
+45.2
+52.1
+47.4
+49.7
+36.8
+26.5
+20.2
+15.3
+ 6.7
+ 2.9
+ 3.6
+ 3.6

59.54
59.80
59.80
59.59
59.50
59.49
59.41
59.39
59.40
59.45
59.55
59.53
59.42
59.17
59.22

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.4
99.5

-0 .3 2
- .58
- .58
- .37
- .28
- .27
- .19
- .17
- .18
- .23
- .33
- .31
- .20
+ .05

- 0 . 5 SO 2116
.
- 1 .0
.2098
- 1 .0
.2108
- .6 .2112
- .5 .2130
- .5 .2099
— ? .2089
- *.3 .2106
- .3 .2114
- .4 .2160
- .6 .2145
- .5 .2156
- .3 .2162
+ .1 .2173
.2241

100.0
99.1
99.6
99.8
100.7
99.2
98.7
99.5
99.9
102.1
101.4
101.9
102.2
102.7
105.9

+S0.0125
+ .0143
+ .0133
+ .0129
+ .0111
+ .0142
+ .0152
+ .0135
+ .0127
+ .0081
+ .0096
+ .0085
+ .0079
+ .0068

+ 5 .9
+ 6 .8
+ 6 .3
+ 6 .1
+ 5 .2
+ 6 .8
+ 7 .3
+ 6 .4
+ 6 .0
+ 3 .8
+ 4 .5
+ 3 .9
+ 3 .7
+ 3 .1

100.0 +S0.0319
100.5 + .0309
100.5 + .0309
101.4 + .0292
101.7 + .0285
98.1 + .0356
97.4 + .0370
98.8 + .0342
101.8 + .0284
100.1 + .0317
99.4 + .0330
100.1 + .0317
101.3 + .0294
108.9 + .0143
116.1

+16.1
+15.5
+15.5
+14.6
+14.2
+18.3
+19.2
+17.5
+14.1
+16.0
+16.8
+16.0
+14.7
+ 6.6

STITCHERS, HAND, Male.
[Data from 9 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

32
29
29
31
33
33
32
30
31
36
40
43
49
52
51

100.0
90.6
90.6
96.9
103.1
103.1
100.0
93.8
96.9
112.5
125.0
134.4
153.1
162.5
159.4




+19
+22
+22
+20
+18
+18
+19
+21
+20
+15
+11
+ 8
+ 2
- 1

+59.4
+75.9
+75.9
+64.5
+54.5
+54.5
+59.4
+70.0
+64.5
+41.7
+27.5
+18.6
+ 4.1
- 1.9

59.80
59.79
59.79
59.81
59.82
59.64
59.81
59.80
59.81
59.83
59.85
59.86
59.84
59.85
59.33

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.2

-0 .4 7
— .46
— .46
— .48
— .49
— .31
— .48
— .47
— .48
— .50
— .52
— .53
— .51
— .52

- 0 . 8 SO 1978
.
— .8 .1988
— .8 .1988
— .8 .2005
— .8
.2012
— .5
.1941
— .8 .1927
— .8 .1955
— .8
.2013
— .8
.1980
— .9 .1967
— .9 .1980
— .9 .2003
— .9 .2154
.2297

801

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

HARNESS—Concluded.
STITCHERS, MACHINE, Male.
[Data from 20 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
3901 .............
1902 .............
1903

100
94
90
99
90
97
102
105
103
109
108
131
132
132
145

100.0
94.0
90.0
99.0
90.0
97.0
102.0
105.0
103.0
109.0
108.0
131.0
132.0
132.0
145.0

+45
+51
+55
+46
+55
+48
+43
+40
+42
+36
+37
+14
+13
+13

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) o r
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
+45.0
+54.3
+61.1
+46.5
+61.1
+49.5
+42.2
+38.1
+40.8
+ 33.0
+34.3
+10.7
+ 9.8
+ 9.8

59.17 100.0
59.47 100.5
59.43 100.4
59.12 99.9
59.04 99.8
59.05 99.8
59.07 99.8
59.14 99.9
59.08 99.8
59.12 99.9
59.13 99.9
59.11 99.9
58.85 99.5
58.45 98.8
57.74 97.6

-1 .4 3
-1 .7 3
-1 .6 9
-1 .3 8
-1 .3 0
-1 .3 1
-1 .3 3
-1 .4 0
-1 .3 4
-1 .3 8
-1 .3 9
-1 .3 7
-1 .1 1
- .71

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

Ter
cent.

- 2 . 4 $0.2269 100.0 +$0.0323
.2267 99.9 + .0325
- 2 .9
.2288 100.8 + .0304
- 2 .8
.2264 99.8 + .0328
- 2 .3
.2320 102.2 + .0272
- 2 .2
- 2 .2
.2249 99.1 + .0343
.2207 97.3 + .0385
-2 .3
- 2 .4
.2225 98.1 + .0367
.2259 99.6 + .0333
-2 .3
.2275 100.3 + .0317
- 2 .3
- 2 .4
.2335 102.9 + .0257
.2327 102.6 + .0265
-2 .3
-1 .9
.2449 107.9 + .0143
- 1 .2
.2506 110.4 + .0086
.2592 114.2

+14.2
+14.3
+13.3
+14.5
+11.7
+15.3
+17.4
+16.5
+14.7
+13.9
+11.0
+11.4
+ 5.8
+ 3.4

- 7 . 9 $0.3036 100.0 +$0.0340
-9 .6
.3229 106,4 + .0147
.2972 97.9 + .0404
- 9 .4
.3045 100.3 + .0331
-8 .6
.2820 92.9 + .0556
-9 .3
- 8 .8
.3001 98.8 + .0375
- 8 .8
.2791 91.9 + .0585
.2836 93.4 + .0540
-9 .3
.2900 95.5 + .0476
-9 .3
-2 .6
.3340 110.0 + .0036
-3 .0
.3426 112.8 — .0050
-2 .8
.3450 113.6 — .0074
-2 .7
.3246 106.9 + .0130
-1 .2
.3437 113.2 — .0061
.3376 111.2

+11.2
+ 4.6
+13.6
+10.9
+19.7
+12.5
+21.0
+19.0
+16.4
+ 1.1
- 1.5
- 2.1
+ 4.0
- 1.8

-

+ 12.1
+ 9.2
+ 14.2
+ 17.0
+ 16.3
+ 13.3
+ 11.4
+ 5 .4
+ 10.6
+ 11.2
+ 13.3
+ 11.7
+ 11.5
+ 2.3

HATS, FUR.
BLOCKERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1 8 9 1 ... ... ..
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898 .............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903

52
39
42
45
48
59
51
50
53
G
O
70
58
63
61
62

100.0
75.0
80.8
86.5
92.3
113.5
98.1
96.2
101.9
115.4
134.6
111.5
121.2
117.3
119.2

+10
+23
+20
+17
+14
+ 8
+11
+12
+ 9
+ 2
- 8
+ 4
- 1
+ 1

+19.2
+59.0
+47.6
+87.8
+29.2
+ 5.1
+21. C
+24.0
+17.0
+ 3.3
-1 1 .4
+ 6.9
- 1.6
+ 1.6

58.40
59.46
69.36
58.82
59.29
58.93
58.96
59.30
59.28
55.20
55.40
55.33
55.24
54.44
53.76

100.0
101.8
101.6
100.7
101.5
100.9
101.0
101.5
101.5
94.5
94.9
94.7
94.6
93.2
92.1

—4.64
-5 .7 0
- 5 .6 0
-5 .0 6
-5 .5 3
-5 .1 7
-5 .2 0
-5 .5 4
-5 .5 2
-1 .4 4
-1 .6 4
-1 .5 7
-1 .4 8
- .68
1

COLORERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]

A v.

- .
..............
..............
..............
.............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

1890 99
189 0
189 1
1892
1893
1894
1 895
1 896
1 897
1 89 8
1899
1 900
1 90 1
1 902
1908

24
24
27
23
31
32
19
19
19
21
25
21
27
28
31

100.0
100.0
112.5
95.8
129.2
133.3
79.2
79.2
79.2
87.5
104.2
87.5
112.5
116.7
129.2




+
+
+
+
-

7
7
4
8

1
+ 12
+ 12
+12
+ 10
6
+10
4
3

-j+
+

+ 29.2
+ 29.2
+ 14.8
+ 34.8
- 3.1
+ 63.2
+ 63.2
+ 63.2
+ 47.6
+ 24.0
+ 47.6
+ 14.8
+ 10.7

59.04
59.04
59.26
59.26
59.10
58.66
58.84
59.05
59.05
59.10
59.04
58.86
58.74
54.46
53.48

100.0
100.0
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.4
99.7
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.7
99.5
92.2
90.6

- 5.56
- 5.56
- 5.78
- 5.78
—5.62
- 5.18
- 5.36
- 5.57
- 5.57
- 5.62
- 5.56
- 5.38
- 5.26
- .98

$

+$ 0 .0212
+ .0165
+ .0245
+ .0286
+ .0275
+ .0231
+ . 0201
+ .0101
+ .0188
+ .0198
+ .0230
+ . 0205
+ . 0202
+ .0044
. !................
!1

9 .4 0.1752 100.0
9.4
.1799 102.7
9.8 .1719 98.1
9.8
.1678 95.8
9 .5
.1689 96.4
8.8
.1733 98.9
9.1
.1763 100.6
9.4
.1863 106.3
9 .4
.1776 101.4
1766 100.8
9.5
9.4
.1734 99.0
.1759 100.4
9.1
1762 300.6
9.0
1.8
1920 309.6
.1964 112 1

.

.
.

802

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

H A T S, F U R —Continued.
CONERS, m ale.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-90.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1 8 9 7 ..!........
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) m
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
Num­ tive
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber.
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
22
19
22
22
24
23
19
19
22
23
26
30
34
31
31

100.0
86.4
100.0
100.0
109.1
104.5
86.4
86.4
100.0
104.5
118.2
136.4
154.5
140.9
140.9

+40.9
+63.2
+40.9
+40.9
+29.2
+34.8
+63.2
+63.2
+40.9
+34.8
+19.2
+ 3.3
- 8.8

+ 9
+12
+ 9
+ 9
+ 7
+ 8
+12
+12
+ 9
+ 8
+ 5
+ 1
- 3

59.09
59.42
59.50
59.50
59.33
59.30
59.16
59.42
58.86
58.91
57.50
57.37
57.53
54.74
53.68

100.0
100.6
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.6
99.6
99.7
97.3
97.1
97.4
92.6
90.8

—5.41
-5 .7 4
-5 .8 2
-5 .8 2
-5 .6 5
-5 .6 2
-5 .4 8
-5 .7 4
-5 .1 8
-5 .2 3
-3 .8 2
-3 .6 9
-3 .8 5
—1.06

- 9 . 2 §0.2045
.2039
-9 .7
.2034
-9 .8
.2034
-9 .8
- 9 .5
.2063
-9 .5
.2029
.2036
- 9 .3
.1929
-9 .7
— 8.8 .2172
-8 .9
.2043
- 6 .6
.2072
-6 .4
.2100
- 6 .7
.2108
—1.9 .2456
.2665

100.0 +$0.0620
99.7 + .0626
99.5 + .0631
99.6 + .0631
100.9 + .0602
99.2 + .0636
99.6 + .0629
94.3 + .0736
106.2 + .0493
99.9 + .0622
101.3 + .0593
102.7 + .0565
103.1 + .0557
120.1
.0209
130 3

+30.3
+30.7
+31.0
+31.0
+29.2
+31.3
+30.9
+38.2
+22.7
+30.4
+28.6
+26.9
+26.4
+ 8.5

- 0 . 6 $0.3805
— .7 .4220
— .9
.4446
— .7 .4300
— .8 .3861
— .5 .3746
— .5 .3545
— .6 .3517
— .5
.3442
— .7
.3506
— .1 .3438
— .2
.3430
— .5 .3875
+ .1 .4052
.4082

100.0
110.9
116.8
113.0
101.5
98.4
93.2
93.2
90.5
92.1
90.4
90.1
101.8
106.5
107.3

+$0.0277
.0138
.0364
— .0218
+ .0221
+ .0336
+ .0537
+ .0535
+ .0640
+ .0576
+ .0644
+ .0652
+ .0207
+ .0030

+ 7.3
- 3.3
- 8.2
- 5.1
+ 5.7
+ 9.0
+15.1
+15.1
+18.6
+16.4
+18.7
+19.0
+ 5.3
+ .7

-3.OSO.OS57
-3 .9
.0788
.0828
-3 .1
.0774
-3 .1
.0792
-3 .1
.0856
-2 .8
.0882
-3 .1
.0833
-3 .9
.1070
- 2 .2
.0864
- 3 .1
.0880
-1 .3
.0870
-1 .6
- 1 .9
.0860
.1027
.1025

100.0 +$0.0168
91.9 + .0237
96.6 + .0197
90.3 + .0251
92.4 + .0238
99.9 + .0169
102.9 + .0143
97.2 + .0192
.0045
124.9
100.8 + .0161
102.7 + .0145
101.5 + .0155
100.4 + .0165
.0002
119.8
119.6

+ 19.6
+ 30.0
+23.8
+32.4
+29.4
+19.7
+16.2
+23.0
- 4.2
+18.6
+16.5
+17.8
+19.2
.2

CURLERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

21
16
16
17
18
23
20
22
24
23
30
26
26
21
28

100.0
76.2
76.2
81.0
85.7
109.5
95.2
104.8
114.3
109.5
142.9
123.8
123.8
100.0
133.3

+33.3
+75.0
+75.0
+64.7
+55.6
+21.7
+40.0
+27.3
+16.7
+21.7
- 6.7
+ 7.7
+ 7.7
+33.3

+ 7
+12
+12
+11
+10
+ 5
+ 8
+ 6
+ 4
+ 5
- 2
+ 2
+ 2
+ 7

55.12
55.19
55.31
55.18
55.22
55.09
65.05
55.14
55.04
55.17
54.83
54.88
55.04
54.76
54.79

100.0
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.2
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.1
99.5
99.6
99.9
99.3
99.4

-0 .3 3
- .40
- .52
- .39
- .43
- .30
- .26
- .35
- .25
- .38
- .04
- .09
- .25
+ .03

—
—

FEERERS, Male*
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

6
4
5
6
5
6
5
4
8
5
11
12
13
12
12

100.0
66.7
83.3
83.3
83.3
100.0
83.3
66.7
133.3
83.3
183.3
200.0
216.7
200.0
200.0




+6
+8
+7
+7
+7
+6
+7
+8
+4
+7
+1

+100.0
+200.0
+140.0
+140.0
+140.0
+100.0
+140.0
+200.0
+ 50.0
+140.0
+ 9.1

56.93
57.50
57.00
57.00
57.00
56.83
57.00
57.50
56.50
57.00
56.00
56.17
7.7 56.31
55.25
55.25

-1

-

100.0
101.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.8
100.1
101.0
99.2
100.1
98.4
98.7
98.9
97.0
97.0

-1 .6 8
-2 .2 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .5 8
-1 .7 5
-2 .2 5
-1 .2 5
-1 .7 5
- .75
- .92
-1 .0 6

_

803

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

FIATS, FUR—Continued.
FEEDERS, Female.
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 3
establishments, 1890-1892,1894,1897-1903; 4 establishments, 1893, 1895,1896.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive’ pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber. num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber. ' cent.
19
17
20
20
20
21
16
17
17
20
18
17
20
23
22

100.0
89.5
105.3
105.3
105.3
110.5
84.2
89.5
89.5
105.3
94.7
89.5
105.3
121.1
115.8

+3
+5
+2
+2
+2
+i
+6
+5
+5
+2
+4
+5
+2
-1

+15.8
+29.4
+10.0
+10.0
+10.0
+ 4.8
+37.5
+29.4
+29.4
+10.0
+22.2
+29.4
+10.0
- 4.3

59.65
59.88
59.90
59.90
59.71
59.90
59.65
59.67
59.88
59.85
58.17
58.35
58.60
54.39
53.23

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.4
100.0
100.0
100.4
100.3
97.5
97.8
98.2
91.2
89.2

-6 .4 2
-6 .6 5
-6 .6 7
-6 .6 7
-6 .4 8
-6 .6 7
-6 .4 2
-6 .4 4
-6 .6 5
-6 .6 2
-4 .9 4
-5 .1 2
-5 .3 7
-1 .1 6

-1 0 .8 $0.0926 100.0 +$0.0144
-1 1 .1 .0933 100.8 + .0137
-1 1 .1
.0918 99.1 + .0152
-1 1 .1 .0918 99.1 + .0152
-1 0 .9 .0918 99.1 + .0152
.0914 98.7 + .0156
-1 1 .1
-1 0 .8 .0933 100.8 + .0137
-1 0 .8 .0922 99.6 + .0148
-1 1 .1 .0928 100.2 + .0142
-1 1 .1
.0928 100.2 + .0142
- 8.5 .0950 102.6 + .0120
- 8.8 .0942 101.7 + .0128
- 9.2 .0925 99.9 + .0145
- 2.1 .1047 113.1 + .0023
.1070 115.6

+15.6
+14.7
+16.6
+16.6
+16. G
+17.1
+14.7
+16.1
+15.3
+15.3
+12.6
+13.6
-1-15.7
+ 2.2

FINISHERS, Male.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

277
293
265
261
254
236
238
257
289
303
373
392
414
471
508

100.0
105.8
95.7
94.2
91.7
85.2
85.9
92.8
104.3
109.4
134.7
141.5
149.5
170.0
183.4

+231
+215
+243
+247
+254
+272
+270
+251
+219
+205
+135
+116
+ 94
+ 37

+ 83.4
+ 73.4
+ 91.7
+ 94.6
+100.0
+115.3
+113.4
+ 97.7
+ 75.8
+ 67.7
+ 36.2
+ 29.6
+ 22.7
+ 7.9

56.50
56.73
66.08
56.36
56.36
56.72
56.52
56.54
56.27
56.63
56.77
56.64
56.80
55.63
54.06

100.0
100.4
99.3
99.8
99.8
100.4
100.0
100.1
99.6
100.2
100.5
100.2
100.5
98.5
95.7

2.44
2.67
— 2.02
— 2.30
— 2.30
— 2.66
— 2.46
— 2.48
— 2.21
— 2.57
— 2.71
— 2.58
— 2.74
— 1.57
—

- 2 . 1 $0.2535 100.0 +$0.04*27
-4 .7
.2617 103.2 + .0345
-3 .6
.2473 97.6 + .0489
- 4 .1
.2513 99.1 + .0449
- 4 .1
.2495 98.4 + .0467
—4.7 .2552 100.7 + .0410
-4 .4
.2567 101.3 + .0395
- 4 .4
.2529 99.8 + .0433
- 3 .9
.2485 98.0 + .0477
.2502 98.7 + .0460
-4 .5
.2620 103.4 + .0342
-4 .8
- 4 .6
.2609 102.9 + .0353
.2698 106.4 + .0264
-4 .8
-2 .8
.2905 114.6 + .0057
.2962 116.8

+16.8
+13.2
+19.8
+17.9
+18.7
+16.1
+15.4
+17.1
+19.2
+18.4
+13.1
+13.5
4 9.8
+ 2.0

- 7 . 6 $0.3326 100.0 -$0.0156
.4125 124.0 — .0955
-8 .3
- 7 .9
.3386 101.8 — .0216
-7 .9
.3641 109.5 — .0471
-7 .0
.3053 91.8 + .0117
- 7 .1
.3781 113.7
.0611
- 7 .2
.2935 88.2 + .0235
.3244 97.5 — .0074
- 7 .5
.3077 92.5 + .0093
-7 .9
- 7 .8
.2973 89.4 + .0197
-6 .9
.3048 91.6 + .0122
.3012 90.6 + .0158
- 7 .5
.3058 91.9 + .0112
- 6 .3
-3 .5
.3621 108.9
.0451
.3170 95.3

- 4.7
-2 3 .2
- 6.4
-1 2 .9
+ 3.8
- 1 6 .2
+ 8.0
- 2.3
+ 3.0
+ 6.6
+ 4.0
+ 5.2
+ 3.7
-1 2 .5

FEANOERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

14
13
11
11
10
13
11
12
11
20
25
35
42
35
34

100.0
92.9
78.6
78.6
71.4
92.9
78.6
85.7
78.6
142.9
178.6
250.0
300.0
250.0
242.9




+20
+21
+23
+23
+24
+21
+23
+22
+23
+14
+ 9
- 1
- 8
- 1

+142.9
+161.5
+209.1
+209.1
+240.0
+161.5
+209.1
+183.3
+209.1
+ 70.0
+ 36.0
2.9
- 19.0
2.9

57.14
57.62
57.36
57.36
56.80
56.85
56.91
57.08
57.36
57.30
56.76
57.11
56.36
54.71
52.82

100.0
100.8
100.4
100.4
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.9
100.4
100.3
99.3
99.9
98.6
95.7
92.4

-4 .3 2
-4 .8 0
-4 .5 4
-4 .5 4
-3 .9 8
-4 .0 3
-4 .0 9
-4 .2 6
-4 .5 4
-4 .4 8
-3 .9 4
-4 .2 9
-3 .5 4
-1 .8 9

804

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

H A T S, F U R —Continued.
FUR BLOWERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 3890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase (4 -)or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
num­ num­
ber. numage. tive.
ber. ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Amount cent.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
10
9
10
12
10
8
9
9
8
9
13
19
20
19
20

100.0
90.0
100.0
120.0
100.0
80.0
90.0
90.0
80.0
90.0
130.0
190.0
200.0
190.0
200.0

+10
+11
+10
+ 8
+10
+12
+11
+11
+12
+11
+ 7
+ 1

+100.0
+122.2
+100.0
+ 66.7
+100.0
+150.0
+122.2
+122.2
+150.0
+122.2
+ 53.8
+ 5.3

+ 1 +

59.67
59.78
59.80
59.83
59.80
59.75
59.78
59.78
59.75
59.78
58.69
58.84
58.90
5.3 54.42
53.40
1

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
98.4
98.6
98.7
91.2
89.5

-6 .2 7
-6 .3 8
-6 .4 0
-6 .4 3
-6 .4 0
-6 .3 5
-6 .3 8
-6 .3 8
- 6 .3 5
-6 .3 8
-5 .2 9
-5 .4 4
—5.50
-1 .0 2

-1 0 .5 $0.1288 100.0 +80.0401
-1 0 .7 .1338 103.9 + .0351
-1 0 .7 .1238 96.1 + .0451
-1 0 .7 .1241 96.4 + .0448
-1 0 .7 .1288 100.0 + .0401
-1 0 .6 .1235 95.9 + .0454
-1 0 .7 .1301 101.0 + .0388
-1 0 .7 .1301 101.0 + .0388
-1 0 .6 .1297 100.7 + .0392
-1 0 .7 .1246 96.7 + .0443
- 9.0 .1396 108.4 + .0293
- 9.2 .1381 107.2 + .0308
— 9.3 .1371 106.4 -f- .0318 - 1.9 .1540 119.6 + .0149
.1689 131.1

+31.1
+26.2
+36.4
+36.1
+31.1
+36.8
+29.8
+29.8
+30.2
+35.6
+21.0
+22.3
+23.2
+ 9.7

1

HARDENERS, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

21
19
22
22
22
22
18
21
22
23
23
23
26
25
25

100.0
90.5
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
85.7
100.0
104.8
109.5
109.5
109.5
123.8
119.0
119.0

+4
+6
+3
+3
+3
+3
+7
+4
+3
+2
+2
+2
-1

+19.0
+31.6
+13.6
+13.6
+13.6
+13.6
+38.9
+19.0
+13.6
+ 8.7
+ 8.7
+ 8.7
- 3.8

59.14
59.42
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.50
59.39
59.24
58.86
58.91
57.61
67.52
57.88
54.56
54.56

100.0
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.4
100.2
99.5
99.6
97.4
97.3
97.9
92.3
92.3

-4 .5 8
-4 .8 6
-4 .9 4
-4 .9 4
-4 .9 4
-4 .9 4
-4 .8 3
-4 .6 8
-4 .3 0
-4 .3 5
-3 .0 5
-2 .9 6
-3 .3 2

- 7 . 7 $0.2484 100.0 +$0.0249
-8 .2
.2659 107.0 + .0074
.2499 100.6 + .0234
- 8 .3
-8 .3
.2549 102.6 + .0184
- 8 .3
.2492 100.3 + .0241
-8 .3
.2485 100.0 + .0248
- 8 .1
.2561 103.1 + .0172
-7 .9
.2420 97.4 + .0313
-7 .3
.2481 99.9 + .0252
-7 .4
.2368 95.3 + .0365
.2327 93.7 + .0406
-5 .3
-5 .1
.2348 94.5 + .0385
.2402 96.7 + . .0331
-5 .7
.2708 109.0 + .0025
.2733 110.0

+10.0
+ 2.8
+ 9.4
+ 7.2
+ 9.7
+10.0
+ 6.7
+12.9
+10.2
+15.4
+17.4
+16.4
+13.8
+ .9

POENCERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1825.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

24
25
24
22
27
27
22
20
17
26
33
51
66
92
91

100.0
104.2
100.0
91.7
112.5
112.5
91.7
83.3
70.8
108.3
137.5
212.5
275.0
383.3
379.2




+67
+66
+67
+69
+64
+64
+69
+71
+74
+65
+58
+40
+25
- 1

+279.2
+264.0
+279.2
+313.6
+237.0
+237.0
+313.6
+355.0
+435.3
+250.0
+175.8
+ 78.4
+ 37.9
1.1

59.33
59.44
59.38
59.59
59.48
59.48
59.41
59.20
59.18
59.04
59.12
59.43
59.48
54.23
53.30

100.0
100.2
100.1
100.4
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.8
99.7
99.5
99.6
100.2
100.3
91.4
89.8

-6 .0 3 -1 0 .2 $0.2338
-6 .1 4 -1 0 .3 .2445
-1 0 .2 .2484
-6 .0 8
-6 .2 9 -1 0 .6 .2024
-6 .1 8 ' -1 0 .4 .2236
-6 .1 8 -1 0 .4 .2153
-6 .1 1 -1 0 .3 .2194
.2500
-5 .9 0 -1 0 .0
- 9.9 .2469
-5 .8 8
-5 .7 4 - 9.7 .2595
-5 .8 2
- 9.8 .2277
-6 .1 3 -1 0 .3 .2339
-6 .1 8 -1 0 .4 .2119
- .93 - 1.7 .2074
.2253

100.0
104.6
106.2
86.6
95.6
92.1
93.8
106.9
105.6
111.0
97.4
100.0
90.6
88.7
96.4

-$0.0085
.0192
.0231
+ .0229
+ .0017
+ .0100
+ .0059
.0247
.0216
.0342
.0024
.0086
+ .0134
+ .0179

- 3.6
- 7.9
- 9.3
+11.3
+ .8
+ 4.6
+ 2.7
- 9.9
- 8.7
-1 3 .2
- 1.1
- 3.7
+ 6.3
+ 8.6

805

WAGES AND COST OF H Y IN G
T able

I,—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716;* for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

H A T S, F U R —Continued.
SIZERS, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 . . .

Increase (+1 or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

+ 52.5
+ 71.1
+ 56.1
+113.9
+ 72.4
+ 43.0
+ 52.5
+ 46.2
+ 48.6
+ 30.5
+ 22.5
+ 1.8
1.9
+ 7.4

58.04
59.15
58.85
58.77
58.65
58.28
58.23
58.63
58.60
55.68
55.60
56.07
56.23
54.58
53.43

303
270
296
216
268
323
303
316
311
354
377
4§6
471
430
462

+159
+192
+166
+246
+194
+139
+159
+146
+151
+108
+ 85
+ 6
9
+ 32

100.0
89.1
97.7
71.3
88.4
106.6
100.0
104.3
102.6
116.8
124.4
150.5
155.4
141.9
152.5

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
101.9
101.4
101.3
101.1
100.4
100.3
101.0
101.0
95.9
95.8
96.6
96.9
94.0
92.1

-4 .6 1
- 5 .7|
21
- 5 . 42!i
-5.34!1
-5 .2 2
-4 .8 5
-4 .8 0
-5 .2 0
-5 .1 7
-2 .2 5
-2 .1 7
-2 .6 4
-2 .8 0
-1 .1 5

- 7 . 9 $0.2144
- 9 .7
.2351
—9.2 .2252
- 9 .1
.2378
-8 .9
.2066
- 8 .3
.2197
-8 .2
.2116
-8 .9
.1914
.1958
-8 .8
-4 .0
.2070
-3 .9
.2142
- 4 .7
.2323
-5 .0
.2381
- 2 .1
.2446
.2746

100.0
109.7
105.0
110.9
96.4
102.5
98.7
89.3
91.3
96.5
99.9
108.3
111.1
114.1
128.1

+$0.0G02
+ .0395
+ .0494
+ .0368
+ .0680
+ .0549
+ . 0630
+ .0832
+ .0788
+ .0676
+ .0604
+ .0423
+ .0365
+ .0300

+28.1
+16.8
+21.9
+15.4
+32.9
+25.0
+29.8
+43.5
+40.2
+32.7
+28.2
+18.2
+15.3
+12.3

STIFFENERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898 .............
1899.............
1900 .............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 .............

5!
4
4
4
6
4
5
7
7
6
6
6
3
5
5

100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
120.0
80.0
100.0
140.0
140.0
12X0
120.0
120.0
60.0
100.0
100.0

1
+1
+1
+1
-1
+1

+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
-1 6 .7
+25.0

-2
-2
-1
-1
-1
+2

-2 8 .6
-2 8 .6
-1 6 .7
-1 6 .7
-1 6 .7
+66.7

56.92
57.25
57.25
57.25
56.67
57.25
57.00
56.57
56.57
56.67
56.67
56.67
58.00
55.00
55.00

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
99.6
100.6
100.1
99.4
99.4
99.6
99.6
99.6
101.9
96.6
96.6

-1 .9 2
-3 .2 5
-3 .2 5
-3 .2 5
-2 .6 7
-3 .2 5
-3 .0 0
-2 .5 7
-2 .5 7
-2 .6 7
-2 .6 7
-2 .6 7
-4 .0 0
-1 .0 0

- 3 . 4 $0.2987 100.0 + $ 0 .0622
.2731 91.4 + .0878
- 5 .7
.2562 85.8 + .1047
-5 .7
.2773 92.8 + .0836
-5 .7
-4 .7
.2810 94.1 + .0799
.3038 101.7 + .0571
- 5 .7
.3104 103.9 + . 0505
- 5 .3
- 4 .5
.3229 108.1 + .0380
- 4 .5
.3187 106.7 + .0422
.3234 108.3 + .0375
-4 .7
-4 .7
.3205 107.3 + .0404
.3375 113.0 + .0234
- 4 .7
.3725 124.7
.0116
-6 .9
.3109 104.1
.0500
-1 .8
.3609 120.8
!
1

+20.8
+32.1
+40.9
+30.1
+28.4
+18.8
+16.3
+11.8
+13.2
+11.6
+12.6
+ 6.9
- 3.1
+16.1

- 6 . 2 $0.1413 100.0 -$0.0022!
.1526 108.0 — . 0135j
- 7 .3
.1484 105.0 — .0093- 7 .6
-7 .2
.1497 105.9 — .0106®
.1444 102.2 — .00531
-5 .8
.1375 97.3 + .0016;
- 5 .6
.1268 89.7 + . 01231
- 5 .8
.1378 97.5 + . 0013;
- 4 .9
.1377 97.5 + .0014
-5 .7
- 6 .1
.1376 97.4 + .0015!
— .0017!
.1408 99.6|
- 6 .0
. 1468 103.9
-6 .2
.00771
.1389 98.3; + . 0002!
-6 .3
— .00241
.1415 100.1:1
-2 .5
. 1391 9 8 .4 ... ...... L

- 1.6
-8 .8
- 6 .3
- 7 .1
-3 .7
+ 1 .2
+ 9 .7
+ *9
+ 1 .0
+ 1 .1
- 1 .2
- 5 .2
+ .1
-1 .7

TRIMMERS, Female.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890........... '.
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
18y5.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

155
99
122
110
140
177
145
153
180
191
235
256
257
235
227

100.0
63.9
78.7
71.0
90.3
114.2
93.5
98.7
116.1
123.2
151.6
165.2
165.8
151.6
146.5




+ 72
+128
+105
+117
+ 87
+ 50
+ 82
+ 74
+ 47
+ 36
8
* - 29
- 30
8

+ 46.5
+129.3
+ 86.1
+106.4
+ 62.1
+ 28.2
+ 56.6
+ 48.4
+ 26.1
+ 18.8
3.4
- 11.3
- 11.7
3.4

57.16
57.81
58.03
57.76
56.91
56.79
56.93
56.39
56.84
57.12
57.06
57.17
57.20
55.00
53.61

100.0
101.1
101.5
101.0
99.6
99.4
99.6
98.7
99.4
99.9
99.8
100.0
100.1
96.2
93.8

-3 .5 5
-4 .2 0
-4 .4 2
-4 .1 5
-3 .3 0
-3 .1 8
-3 .3 2
-2 .7 8
-3 .2 3
-3 .5 1
-3 .4 5
-3 .5 6
-3 .5 9
-1 .3 9

1

i

806

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

HATS, FUR—Concluded.
WEIGHERS, Female*
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
6
5
7
6
7
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
9
10
10

100.0
83.3
116.7
100.0
116.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
150.0
166.7
166.7

+4
+5
+3
+4
+3
+4
+4
+4
+4
+3
+3
+3
+1

+ 66.7
+100.0
+ 42.9
+ 66.7
+ 42.9
+ 66.7
+ 66.7
+ 66.7
+ 66.7
+ 42.9
+ 42.9
+ 42.9
+ 11.1

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num- numage. tive.
per* ber.
Num­
Per
A
Amount * Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
59.62
59.80
69.86
59.83
59.86
59.83
59.83
59.83
59.83
59.86
57.71
67.71
57.67
54.40
52.90

100.0
100.3
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
96.8
98.8
96.7
91.2
88.7

-6 .7 2
-6 .9 0
-6 .9 6
-6 .9 3
-6 .9 6
-6 .9 3
-6 .9 3
-6 .9 3
-6 .9 3
-6 .9 6
-4 .8 1
-4 .8 1
-4 .7 7
—1.50

-1 1 .3 $0.1G76 100.0 +$0.0156
-1 1 .5 .1103 102.5 + .0129
-1 1 .6 .1098 102.0 + .0134
-1 1 .6 .1058 98.3 + .0174
-1 1 .6 .1074 99.8 + .0158
-1 1 .6 .1031 95.8 + .0201
-1 1 .6 .1058 98.3 + .0174
-1 1 .6 .1086 100.9 + .0146
-1 1 .6 .1058 98.3 + .0174
-1 1 .6 .1074 99.8 + .0158
- 8.3 .1119 104.0 + .0113
- 8.3 .1143 106.2 + .0089
- 8.3 .1142 106.1 + .0090
— 2.8 .1213 112.7 + .0019
.1232 114.5

+14.5
+11.7
+12.2
+16.4
+ 14.7
+19.5
+16.4
+13.4
+ 16.4
+14.7
+10.1
+ 7.8
+ 7.9
+ 1.6

HOSIERY ANTE KNTT GOODS.
BOARDERS, Male*
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments, 1890-1901; 6 establishments, 1902,1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

76
75
79
80
91
58
82
71
64
83
81
85
80
90
78

100.0
98.7
103.9
105.3
119.7
76.3
107.9
93.4
84.2
109.2
106.6
111.8
105.3
118.4
102.6

+ 2
+ 3
- 1
- 2
-1 3
+20
- 4
+ 7
+14
- 5
- 3
- 7
- 2
-1 2

+ 2.6
+ 4.0
- 1.3
- 2.5
-1 4 .3
+34.5
- 4.9
+ 9.9
+21.9
- 6.0
- 3.7
- 8.2
- 2.5
-1 3 .3

59.16
59.92
59.92
59.93
58.99
58.09
58.78
58.96
59.00
58.96
59.06
58.94
58.70
58.67
58.09

100.0
101.3
101.3
101.3
99.7
98.2
99.4
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.6
99.2
99.2
98.2

-1 .0 7
-1 .8 3
-1 .8 3
-1 .8 4
- .90
-

.69
.87
.91
.87
.97
.85
.61
.58

- 1 . 8 $0.1197 100.0 +$0.0304
- 3 .1
.1291 107.9 + .0210
-3 .1
.1200 100.3 + .030L
-3 .1
.1081 90.3 + .0420
- 1 .5
.1278 106.8 + .0223
.1095 91.5 + .0406
-1 .2
.1326 110.8 + .0175
-1 .5
.1196 99.9 + .0305
-1 .5
.1185 99.0 + .0316
-1 .5
.1189 99.3 + .0312
-1 .6
.1127 94.2 + .0374
-1 .4
.1100 91.9 + .0401
-1 .0
.1391 116.2 + .0110
-1 .0
.1290 107.8 + .0211
.1501 125.4

+25.4
+16.3
+25.1
+38.9
+17.4
+37.1
+13.2
+25.5
+26.7
+26.2
+33.2
+36.5
+ 7.9
+16.4

FINISHERS, Female*
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments, 1890-1901; 6 establishments, 1902,1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1 90 3 ............

196
149
180
269
197
155
193
206
195
214
198
239
227
225
240

100.0
76.0
91.8
137.2
100.5
79.1
98.5
105.1
99.5
109.2
101.0
121.9
115.8
114.8
122.4




+44
+91
+60
-2 9
+43
+85
+47
+34
+45
+26
+42
+ 1
+13
+15

+22.4
+61.1
+33.3
-1 0 .8
+21.8
+54.8
+24.4
+16.5
+23.1
+12.1
+21.2
+ .4
+ 5.7
+ 6.7

59.14
59.88
59.90
59.93
59.72
53.97
59.79
59.63
59.61
59.51
59.48
57.99
57.84
58.01
56.75

100.0
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.0
91.3
101.1
100.8
100.8
100.6
100.6
98.1
97.8
98.1
96.0

-2 .3 9
-3 .1 3
-3 .1 5
-3 .1 8
-2 .9 7
+2.78
-3 .0 4
-2 .8 8
-2 .8 6
-2 .7 6
-2 .7 3
-1 .2 4
-1 .0 9
-1 .2 6

- 4 . 0 $0.0892 100.0 +$0.0190
-5 .2
.0951 106.6 + .0131
.1010 113.2 + .0072
-5 .3
-5 .3
.0938 105.2 + .0144
-5 .0
.0869 97.4 + .0213
+ 5 .2 .0824 92.4 + ,0258
- 5 .1
.0833 93.4 + .0249
.0900 100.9 + .0182
-4 .8
-4 .8
.0881 98.8 + .0201
.0894 100.7 + .0188
-4 .6
- 4 .6
.0823 92.3 + . 0259
- 2 .1
.0886 99.3 + .0196
.0922 103.4 + .0160
- 1 .9
-2 .2
.1059 118.7 + .0023
.1082 121.3

+21.3
+13.8
+ 7.1
+15.4
+24.5
+31.3
+29.9
+20.2
+22.8
+21.0
+31.5
+22.1
+17.4
+ 2 .2

807

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING,
T able

I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

HOSIERY A N D K NIT GOODS—Continued.
KNITTERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 3
establishments, 1890-1901; 4 establishments, 1902,1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. num­
num­ number.
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
44
21
26
37
33
25
36
51
61
78
73
80
97
89
85

100.0
47.7
69.1
84.1
75.0
56.8
81.8
115.9
138.6
177.3
165.9
181.8
220.5
202.3
193.2

+41
+64
+59
+48
+52
+60
+49
+31
+24
+ 7
+12
+ 5
—12
- 4

+ 93.2
+304.8
+226.9
+129.7
+157.6
+240.0
+136.1
+ 66.7
+ 39.3
+ 9.0
+ 16.4
+ 6.3
- 12.4
4.5

58.39
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.67
53.32
58.56
58.47
58.33
58.28
58.27
57.63
57.66
57.66
56.86

100.0
102.8
102.8
102.8
100.5
91.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.8
99.8
98.7
98.7
98.7
97.4

-1 .5 3
-3 .1 4
-3 .1 4
-3 .1 4
-1 .8 1
+3.54
-1 .7 0
-1 .6 1
-1 .4 7
-1 .4 2
-1 .4 1
- .77
- .80
- .80

- 2 . 6 $0.1628 100.0 +80.0389
- 5 .2
.1753 107.7 + .0264
- 5 . 2 .1931 118.6 + .0086
- 5 .2
.1625 99.8 + .0392
-3 .1
.1846 113.4 + .0171
+ 6 .6 .1790 110.0 + .0227
-2 .9
.1827 112.2 + .0190
-2 .8
.1471 90.4 + .0546
- 2 . 5 .1331 81.8 + .0686
-2 .4
.1390 85.4 + .0627
- 2 .4
.1314 80.7 + .0703
-1 .3
.1480 90.9 + .0537
-1 .4
.1503 92.3 + .0514
-1 .4
.1558 95.7 + .0459
.2017 123.9

+23.9
+ /5 .1
+ *4.5
+24.1
+ 9.3
+12.7
+10.4
+37.1
+51.5
+45.1
+53.5
+36.3
+34.2
+29.5

KNITTERS, Female.
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 7
establishments, 1890-1895; 6 establishments, 1896,1897,1902,1903; 5 establishments, 1898-1901.
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

290
238
318
312
362
261
284
280
251
285
306
308
291
318
352

100.0
82.1
109.7
107.6
124.8
90.0
97.9
96.6
86.6
98.3
105.5
106.2
100.3
109.7
121.4

+ 62
+114
+ 34
+ 40
- 10
+ 91
+ 68
+ 72
+101
+ 67
+ 46
+ 44
+ 61
+ 34

+21.4
+47.9
+10.7
+12.8
- 2.8
+34.9
+23.9
+25.',
+40.2
+23.5
+15.0
+14.3
+21.0
+10.7

59.51
59.81
59.84
59.84
59.78
56.96
59.74
59.79
59.78
59.78
59.79
59.07
59.26
59.09
58.69

100.0
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.5
95.7
100.4
100.5
100.5
100.6
100.5
99.3
99.6
99.3
98.6

-0 .8 2
-1 .1 2
-1 .1 5
-1 .1 5
-1 .0 9
-hi. 73
-1 .0 5
-1 .1 0
-1 .0 9
-1 .0 9
-1 .1 0
- .38
- .57
- .40

- 1 . 4 $0.0896 100.0 +$0.0149
.0940 104.9 + .0105
-1 .9
-1 .9
.0939 104.8 + .0106
.0887 99.0 + .0158
-1 .9
-1 .8
.0873 97.4 + .0172
+ 3 .0 .0906 101.1 + .0139
.0937 104.6 + .0108
- 1 .8
- 1 .8
.0883 98.5 + .0162
.0884 98.7 + .0161
- 1 .8
.0862 96.2 + .0183
- 1 :8
.0847 94.5 + .0198
-1 .8
- .6 .0820 91.5 + .0225
-1 .0
.0924 103.1 + .0121
- .7 .1007 112.4 + .0038
.1045 116.6

+16.6
+11.2
+11.3
+17.8
+19.7
+15.3
+11.5
+18.3
+18.2
+21.2
+23.4
+27.4
+13.1
+ 3.8

LOOPERS, Female.
[Data for employees from 4 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 4
establishments, 1890-1893; 5 establishments, 1894-1902; 6 establishments, 1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

58
55
81
83
77
41
44
40
48
51
56
67
61
48
56

100.0
94.8
139.7
143.1
132.8
70.7
75.9
69.0
82.8
87.9
96.6
115.5
87.9
82.8
96.6




- 2
+ 1
-2 5
-2 7
-2 1
+15
+12
+16
+ 8
+ 6
-1 1
+ 5
+ 8

58.71
59.84
59.89
59.89
59.65
53.72
59.50
58.63
58.63
58.64
58.68
-1 6 .4 57.70
+ 9.8 57.66
+16.7 57.63
57.63

- 3.4
+ 1.8
-3 0 .9
-3 2 .5
-2 7 .3
+36.6
+27.3
4 10.0
+16.7
+ 9.8

100.0
101.9
102.0
102.0
101.6
91.5
101.3
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
98.3
98.2
98.2
98.2

-1 .0 8
-2 .2 1
-2 .2 6
-2 .2 6
-2 .0 2
+3.91
-1 .8 7
-1 .0 0
- 1 .0 0
-1 .0 1
-1 .0 5
- .07
- .03

- 1 . 8 $0.1206
-3 .7
.1203
-3 .8 .1246
.1206
-3 .8
-3 .4
.1257
+ 7 .3 .1157
-3 .1
.1287
-1 .7
.1416
-1 .7
.1097
-1 .7
.1125
—1.8 .1067
- .1 .0973
- .1 .1137
.1120
. 1279

100.0
99.8
103.3
100.0
104.2
95.9
106.7
117.4
91.0
93.3
88.5
80.7
94.3
92.9
106.1

+$0.0073
+ .0076
+ .0033
+ .0073
+ .0022
+ .0122
.0008
.0137
+ .0182
+ .0154
+ . 0212
+ .0306
+ .0142
+ . 0159

+ 6.1
+ 6.3
+ 2.6
+ 6.1
+ 1.8
+10.5
.6
- 9.7
+16.6
+13.7
+19.9
+31.4
+12.5
+14.2

808

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase (+ ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

HOSIERY A N D K NIT GOODS—Continued.
1!KENDER89 Fem ale.
[Bata for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5
establishments, 1890-1901; 6 establishments, 1902,1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. *890-99.
1890 A .........
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 .............

Hours per week.

Increase f + lo r
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
pared with year
Num­ tive
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
83
71
79
138
91
92
74
62
57
100
70
88
97
100
92

100.0
8o 5
95.2
166 3
109 6
110.8
89 2
74 7
68.7
120 5
84 3
106.0
116.9
120.5
110.8

+ 9
+21
+ 13
-4 6
+ 1

+10.8
+29.6
+16.5
-3 3 3
+ 1.1

+ 18
+30
+35
- 8
+ 22
+ 4
- 5
- 8

+ 24.3
+48.4
+61.4
- 8.0
+ 31.4
+ 4.5
- 5.2
- 8.0

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

58.95
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.68
56.52
58.62
58.77
59.02
59 08
58,83
58.50
58.26
58.38
58.13

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase1( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
A
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
101.8
101.8
101.8
99.5
95.9
99.4
99.7
100.1
100.2
99.8
99.2
98.8
99.0
98.6

-0 .8 2
-1 .8 7
-1 .8 7
-1 .8 7
- .55
+1.61
- .49
- .64
- .89
- .95
- .70
- .37
- .13
- .25

- 1 . 4 |0.1086 100.0 +30.0114
.1183 108.9 + . 0*117
- 3 .1
.1146 105.5 + .0054
- 3 .1
.1082 99.6 + .0118
- 3 .1
- .9 .1095 100.8 + .0105
+ 2 .8 .1004 92.4 + .0196
.0032
- .8 .1232 113.4 .1062 97.8 + .0138
- 1 .1
.1000 92.1 + .0200
- 1 .5
.1040 95.8 + .0160
- 1 .6
-1 .2
.1019 93.8 + .0181
- .6 .1130 104. J + .0070
- .2 .1002 92.3 + .0198
- .4 .1218 112.2 .0018
.1200 110.5

+10.5
+ 1.4
+ 4.7
+10.9
+ 9.6
+19.5
- 2.6
+13.0
+20.0
+15.4
+17.8
+ 6.2
+19.8
- 1.5

PRESSERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 3
establishments, 1890, 1891, 1902,1903; 4 establishments, 1892-1901.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 .............

17
16
13
20
20
19
16
18
17
16
18
19
16
20
24

100.0
94,1
76.5
117.6
117.6
111,8
94 1
106 9
100.0
94.1
105.9
111.8
94.1
117.6
141.2

+ 7
+ 8
+11
+ 4
+ 4
+ 5
+ 8
+ 6
+ 7
+ 8
+ 6
+ 5
+ 8
+ 4

+41.2
+ 50 0
+84.6
+20.0
+ 20.0
+26.3
+50.0
+33.3
+41.2
+50.0
+33.3
+26.3
+ 50.0
+20.0

59.36
60.00
00.00
60.00
59.82
54.81
59.78
59.80
59.79
59.78
59.80
58.38
57.82
58.75
58.96

100.0
101.1
101.1
101.1
100.8
92.3
100.7
100,7
100.7
100.7
100.7
98.3
97.4
99.0
99.3

-0 .4 0
-1 .0 4
-1 .0 4
-1 .0 4
- .86
+4.15
- .82
- .84
- .83
- .82
- .84
+ .58
+1.14
+ .21

- 0 . 7 30.1584 100.0 +■30.0257
.1702 107.4 + .0139
-1 .7
- 1 .7
.1667 105.2 + .0174
.1467 92.6 + .0374
- 1 .7
.1567 98.9 + .0274
-1 .4
+ 7 .6 .1499 94.6 + .0342
-1 .4
.1495 94.4 + .0346
.1598 100.9 + .0243
-1 .4
.1596 100.8 + .0245
- 1 .4
- 1 .4
.1645 103.9 + .0196
.1606 101.4 + .0235
- 1 .4
+ 1 .0 .1688 106.6 + .0153
+ 2 .0 .1641 103.6 + .0200
+ .4 .1696 107.1 + .0145
.1841 116.2

+16.2
+ 8.2
+10.4
+25.5
+17.5
+22.8
+23.1
+15.2
+15.4
+11.9
+14.6
+ 9.1
+12.2
+ 8.5

-0 .1 $0.0815 100.0 + $ 0 .0007
. 0081
-3 .3
.0903 110.8 .0012
.0834 102.3 - 3 .3
. 0827 101.5 .0005
- 3 .3
.0813 99.8 4- .0009
.0071
.0893 109.6
.0745 91.4 + .0077
.0037
.0859 105.4
.0798 97.9 + .0024
. 0724 88.8 + .0098
.0757 92.9 + .0065
.0051
.0873 107.1
.0848 104.0 _ . 0026
.0077
.0899 110. 3
.0822 100.9

+ 0.9
- 9.0
- 3.4
.6
+ 1.1
- 8.0
+10.3
- 4.3
+ 3.0
+ 33.5
+ 8.6
- 5.8
- 3.1
- 8.6

PRESSERS, Female.
[Data from 2 establishments.]

A v. 1890- 99 .
1 89 0 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1894 ..............
1 895 ..............
1 89 6 ..............
1897 ..............
1 89 8 ..............
1 89 9 ..............
1900 . . . . ___
190 1 ..............
1902 ..............
1 903 ..............

20
9
5
26
32
11
31
17
16
23
25
27
50
27
27

100 0
45.0
25.0
130.0
160.0
55 0
155.0
85.0
80.0
115 0
125.0
135.0
250.0
135.0
135.0




+ 7
+ 18
+22
+ 1
- 5
+ 16
- 4
+ 10
+ 11
+ 4
+ 2
-2 3

+ 35.0
+ 200.0
+ 440.0
+ 3 .8
- 15.6
+ 145.5
- 12.9
+ 58.8
+ 68.8
+ 17.4
+ 8 .0
- 46.0

58.60
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00

100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99. 0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0

-0 .6 0
-2 .0 0
-2 .0 0
-2 .0 0

_

_

809

WAGES AND COST OF DIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

H O SIE R Y A N D K N IT GOODS—Concluded.
BIBBER S, Female.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Vv. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
L
897.............
898.............
1899
1900.............
904 . .
902.............
90S . .

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. num­
num­ num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
40
43
41
45
43
41
39
37
39
36
32
39
38
36
43

100.0
107.5
102.5
112.5
107.5
102.51
97.5
92.51
97.5
90.0
80.0
97.5
95.0
90.0
107.5
1

+ 3
+ 2
— 2
+ 2
4- 4
+ 6
+ 4
+ 7
+11
+ 4
+ 5
+ 7

+ 7.5 60.00
60.00
+ 4.9 60.00
— 4.4 60.00
60.00
+ 4.9 60.00
+10.3 60.00
+16.2 60.00
+10.3 60.00
+19.4 60.00
+34.4 60.00
+10.3 60.00
+13.2 60.00
+19.4 60.00
60.00

$0.1371
.1378
.1543
.1414
.1417
.1259
.1355
.1196
.1261
.1321
.1568
.1510
.1547
.1658
.1632

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0 + $ 0 .0261
100.5 + .0254
112.3 + .0089
103.1 + .0218
103.4 + .0215
91.8 + .0373
98.8 + .0277
87.2 + .0436
92.0 + . 0371
96.4 + .0311
114.4 + .0064
110.1 + .0122
112.8 + .0085
120.9 .0026
119.0

+19.0
+18.4
+ 5.8
+15.4
+15.2
+29.6
+20.4
+36.5
+29.4
+23.5
+ 4.1
+ 8.1
+ 6.5
— 1.6

IR O N A N D ST E E D , B A R IR O N .
CATCHERS, Male.
Data for employees from 12 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 13
‘ establishments, 1890, 1894, 1895; 14 establishments, 1891-1893, 1896-1898; 15 establishments, 1899; 16
establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
.890.............
.891.............
1892.............
t393 .............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903

32
30
30
31
36
33
35
28
31
32
33
33
33
36
38

100.0
93.8
93.8
96.9
112.5
103.1
109.4
87.5
96.9
100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
112.5
118.8

+ 6 +18.8 63.61
+ 8 +26.7 65.38
+ 8 +26.7 64.49
+ 7 +22.6 64.49
+ 2 + 5.6 64.09
+ 5 +15.2 64.41
+ 3 + 8.6 63.61
+10 +35.7 64.11
+ 7 +22.6 62.20
+ 6 +18.8 62.10
+ 5 +15.2 61..19
+ 5 +15.2 61.72
+ & +15.2 61.63
+ 2 + 5.6 62.59
62.54

100.0
102.8
101.4
101.4
100.8 "
101.3
100.0
100.8
97.8
97.6
96.2
97.0
96.9
98.4
98.3

-1 .0 7
-2 .8 4
-1 .9 5
-1 .9 5
-1 .5 5
-1 .8 7
-1 .0 7
-1 .5 7
+ .34
+ .44
+1.35
+ .82
+ .91
- .05

- 1 . 7 $0.2826
- 4 . 3 .3282
.2961
-3 .0
- 3 . 0 .2819
.2594
-2 .4
.2469
-2 .9
.2480
-1 .7
- 2 .4
.2873
+ .5 .2782
+ .7 .2657
+ 2 .2 .3345
+ 1 .3 .3426
+ 1 .5 .3412
- .1 .3883
.4088

100.0 +$0.1262
116.1 + .0806
104.8 4- .1127
99.8 + .1269
91.8 + .1494
87.4 + .1619
87.8 + .1608
101.7 + .1215
98.4 + .1306
94.0 + .1431
118.4 + .0743
121.2 + .0662
120.7 + .0676
137.4 + .0205
144.7

+44.7
+24.6
+38.1
+45.0
+57.6
+65.6
+64.8
+ 42.3
+46.9
+53.9
+22.2
+19.3
+19.8
+ 5.3

HEATERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 12 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 13
establishments, 1890, 1894, 1895; 14 establishments, 1891-1893, 1896-1898; 15 establishments, 1899; 16
establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
L890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
[894 .............
1895.............
1896 .............
L897 .............
L898..............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
L902.............
1903 .

49
47
49
48
49
45
51
46
52
49
50
54
46
47
53

100.0
95.9
100.0
98.0
100.0
91.8
104.1
93.9
106.1
100.0
102.0
110.2
93.9
95.9
108.2




+4
+6
+4
+5
+4
+8
+2
+7

+1
+4
+3

-1
+7
+6

+ 8.2
+12.8
+ 8.2
+10.4
+ 8.2
+17.8
+ 3.9
+15.2
+ 1.9
+ 8.2
+ 6.0
- 1.9
+15.2
+12.8

64.57
66.69
65.76
65.96
65.67
65.74
65.24
65.43
61.81
61.96
61.43
62.21
64.35
64.49
64.05

100.0
103.3
101.8
302.2
101.7
101.8
101.0
101.3
95.7
96.0
95.1
96.3
99.7
99.9
99.2

-0 .5 2
-2 .6 4
-1 .7 1
-1 .9 1
-1 .6 2
-1 .6 9
-1 .1 9
-1 .3 8
+2.24
+2.09
+2.62
+1.84
- .30
- .44

- 0 .8 $0.4700
.5492
- 4 .0
.5006
-2 .6
- 2 .9
.4608
.4330
- 2 .6
.4429
-2 .6
.4137
-1 .8
- 2 .1
.4486
+ 3 .6 .4589
+ 3 .4 .4628
+ 4.3 . 5293
+ 3 .0 . 5625
- .5 .5162
- .7 .5493
.5692

100.0 + $ 0 .0992
116.9 + .0200
106.5 + .0686
98.0 + .1084
92.1 + .1362
94.2 + .1263
88.0 + . 1555
95.4 + .1206
97.6 + .1103
98.5 + .1064
9
112.6 + .03Q
119.7 + .0067
109.8 + .0530
116.9 + .0199
121.1 1
r

+21.1
+ 3.6
+13.7
+23.5
+31.5
+28.5
+ 37.6
+26.9
+24.0
+23.0
+ 7.5
+ 1.2
+10.3
+ 3.6

810

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEEL, BAR IRON—Continued.
HEATERS’ HELPERS, Male,

[Data for employees from 11 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 12
establishments, 1890, 1894, 1895; 13 establishments, 1891-1893, 1896-1898; 14 establishments, 1899; 15
establishments, 1900-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
53
53
56
55
57
55
51
49
51
51
52
54
46
48
49

100.0
100.0
105.7
103.8
107.5
103.8
96.2
92.5
96.2
96.2
98.1
101.9
86.8
90.6
92.5

-4
-4
-7
-6
-8
-6
-2

- 7.5
- 7.5
-1 2 .5
-1 0 .9
-1 4 .0
-1 0 .9
- 3.9

-2
-2
-3
-5
+3
+1

+
+

3.9
3.9
5.8
9.3
6.5
2.1

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

64.93
67.44
66.48
66.59
66.56
65.10
65.50
65.00
62.39
62.35
61.86
63.85
65.64
65.55
65.39

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—Jin
decrease( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
103.9
102.4
102.6
102.5
100.3
100.9
100.1
96.1
96.0
95.3
98.3
101.1
101.0
100.7

+0.46
-2 .0 5
-1 .0 9
-1 .2 0
-1 .1 7
+ .29
- .11
+ .39
+3.00
+3.04
+3.53
+1.54
- .25
- .16

+ 0 .7 $0.2051
.2425
-3 .0
.2086
-1 .6
.2033
-1 .8
.1982
-1 .8
+ .4 .1865
- .2 .1917
+ .6 .1973
+ 4 .8 .1946
+ 4 .9 .1988
+5 .7 .2294
+ 2.4 .2441
- .4 .2392
- .2 .2622
.2786

100.0 +$0.0735
118.2 + .0361
101.7 + .0700
99.1 + .0753
96.6 + .0804
90.9 + .0921
93.5 + .0869
96.2 + .0813
94.9 + .0840
96.9 + .0798
111.8 + .0492
119.0 + .0345
116.6 + .0394
127.8 + .0164
135.8

+35.8
+14.9
+33.6
+37.0
+ 40.6
+49.4
+45.3
+41.2
+43^2
+40.1
+21.4
+14.1
+16.5
+ 6.3

HOT STRAIGHTENERS, Hale.
[Data for employees from 11 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 11
establishments, 1890; 12 establishments, 1891-1899; 13 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

67
68
68
68
68
65
67
67
64
66
69
75
75
76
77

100.0
101.5
101.5
101.5
101.5
97.0
100.0
100.0
95.5
98.5
103.0
111.9
111.9
113.4
114.9

+10
+ 9
+ 9
+ 9
+ 9
+12
+10
+10
+13
+11
+ 8
+ 2
+ 2
+ 1

+14.9
+13.2
+13.2
+13.2
+13.2
+18.5
+14.9
+14.9
+20.3
+16.7
+11.6
+ 2.7
+ 2.7
+ 1.3

64.78
66.59
65.67
65.74
65.74
65.97
65.40
65.55
63.56
61.81
61.77
62.26
62.29
62.57
61.85

100.0
102.8
101.4
101.5
101.5
101.8
101.0
101.2
98.1
95.4
95.4
96.1
96.2
96.6
95.5

-2 .9 3
-4 .7 4
-3 .8 2
-3 .8 9
-3 .8 9
-4 .1 2
-3 .5 5
-3 .7 0
-1 .7 1
+ .04
+ .08
- .41
- .44
- .72
i

- 4 . 5 $0.1566 100.0 +80.0565
-7 .1
.1598 102.0 + .0533
-5 .8
.1606 102.6 + .0525
- 5 .9
.1517 96.9 + .0614
.1549 98.9 + .0582
-5 .9
-6 .2
.1364 87.1 + .0767
.1624 103.7 + .0507
- 5 .4
.1694 108.2 + .0437
- 5 .6
-2 .7
.1436 91.7 + .0695
+ .1 .1507 96.2 + .0624
+ .1 .1768 112.9 + .0363
- .7 .1733 110.7 + .0398
- .7 .1879 120.0 + .0252
-1 .2
.2197 140.3
.0066
.2131 136.1

+36.1
+33.4
+32.7
+40.5
+37.6
+56.2
+31.2
+25.8
+48.4
+41.4
+20.5
+23.0
+13.4
- 3.0

ROLLERS, Hale.
[Data for employees from 12 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 13
establishments, 1890,1894,1895; 14 establishments, 1891-1893,1896-1899,15 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1891.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

29
30
27
28
34
30
30
27
28
28
29
33
30
32
33

100.0
103.4
93.1
96.6
117.2
103.4
103.4
93.1
96.6
96.6
100.0
113.8
103.4
110.3
113.8




+4
+3
+6
+5
-1
+3
+3
+6
+5
+5
+4
+3
+1

+13.8
+10.0
+22.2
+17.9
- 2.9
+10.0
+10.0
+22.2
+17.9
+17.9
+13.8

63.68
64.63
64.48
64.71
63.70
64.35
64.00
64.25
62.24
62.24
62.17
62.82
+10.0 63.02
+ 3.1 63.02
62.96

100.0
101.5
101.3
101.6
100.0
101.1
100.5
100.9
97.7
97.7
97.6
98.6
99.0
99.0
98.9

-0 .7 2
-1 .6 7
-1 .5 2
-1 .7 5
- .74
-1 .3 9
-1 .0 4
-1 .2 9
+ .72
+ .72
+ .79
+ .14
- .06
- .06

- 1 .1 10.6087
-2 .6
.6262
- 2 .4
.6401
- 2 .7
.6066
-1 .2
.5636
- 2 .2
.5418
.5434
-1 .6
- 2 .0
.6013
+ 1.2 .6456
+1.2 .6210
+ 1.3 .6970
+ .2 . 7277
- .1 .7606
- .1 .8161
.8331

100.0
102.9
105.2
99.7
92.6
89.0
•89.3
98.8
106.1
102.0
114.5
119.5
125.0
134.1
136.9

+S0.2244
+ .2069
+ .1930
+ .2265
+ .2695
+ . 2913
+ .2897
+ .2318
+ .1875
+ .2121
+ .1361
+ .1054
+ .0725
+ .0170

+36.9
+33.0
+30.2
+37.3
+47.8
+53.8
+53.3
+38.5
+29.0
+34.2
+19.5
+14.5
+ 9.5
+ 2.1

811

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
Table

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOE, 1890-1903—Continued.

Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEED, BAR IRON—Concluded.
ROUGHERS, Male.

Data for employees from 12 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 13
establishments, 1890, 1894,1895; 14 establishments, 1891-1893,1896-1898; 15 establishments, 1899; 16
establishments, 1900-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

v. 1890-99.
$90.............
$91.............
$92.............
$93.............
$94.............
$95.............
$96.............
$97.............
598.............
$99.............
WO.............
H)1.............
m .............
M)3.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
pared with year
Num­ tive
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
cent.
ber.
57
58
55
53
55
58
62
55
54
61
59
64
60
58
61

100.0
101.8
96.5
93.0
96.5
101.8
108.8
90.5
94.7
107.0
103.5
112.3
105.3
101.8
107.0

+4
+3
+6
+8
+6
+3
-1
+6
+7

+ 7.0
+ 5.2
+10.9
+15.1
+10.9
+ 5.2
- 1.6
+10.9
+13.0

+2
-3
+1
+3

+
+
+

3.4
4.7
1.7
5.2

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

62.85
64.06
63.66
63.82
63.83
63.65
63.44
63.77
61.13
60.86
60.26
61.13
61.36
61.46
61.30

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) o r
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Amount. Per
cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.9
101.3
101.5
101.6
101.3
100.9
101.5
97.3
96.8
95.9
97.3
97.6
97.8
97.5

-1 .5 5
-2 .7 6
-2 .3 6
-2 .5 2
-2 .5 3
-2 .3 5
-2 .1 4
-2 .4 7
+ .17
+ .44
+1.04
+ .17
- .06
- .16

- 2 . 5 30.3102 100.0 +30.1377
.3276 105.6 + .1203
-4 .3
.3379 108.9 + .1100
- 3 .7
.3304 106.5 + .1175
- 3 .9
-4 .0
.3170 102.2 + .1309
.2854 92.0 + . 1625
- 3 .7
- 3 .4
.2715 87.5 + .1764
.2964 95.6 + .1515
-3 .9
+ .3 .3085 99.5 + .1394
+ .7 .2792 90.0 + .1687
+ 1 .7 .3478 112.1 + .1001
+ .3 .3701 119.3 + .0778
- .1 .3913 126.1 + .0566
- .3 .4361 140.6 + .0118
.4479 144.4

+44.4
+36.7
+32.6
+35.6
+41.3
+56.9
+65.0
+51.1
+45.2
+60.4
+28.8
+21.0
+ 14.5
+ 2.7

IRON A N D STEED, BESSEMER CONVERTING.
BLOWERS) Male.

Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6
establishments, 1890; 7 establishments, 1891, 1894-1896; 8 establishments, 1892, 1893, 1897-1900; 9
establishments, 1901-1903.]
V. 1890-99.
$90.............
$91.............
$92.............
$93.............
$94.............
$95.............
$96.............
$97.............
$98.............
$99.............
KX>.............
K)1.............
K)2.............
K)3.............

12
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
14
14
14
15

100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
125.0

+3
+4
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+1
+1
+1

+25.0
+36.4
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+ 7.1
+ 7.1
+ 7.1

66.96 100.0
69.82 104.3
65.14 97.3
68.00 101.6
66.40 99.2
66.46 90.3
66.86 99.9
66.86 99.9
66.69 99.6
66.69 99.6
66.69 99.6
59.28 88.5
60.55 90.4
60.55 90.4
59.95 89.5

-7 .0 1
-9 .8 7
-5 .1 9
-8 .0 5
- 6 .4 5
-6 .5 1
-6 .9 1
-6 .9 1
-6 .7 4
-6 .7 4
-6 .7 4
+ .67
- .60
- .60

-1 0 .5 30.4218 100.0 +30.1871
-1 4 .1 .3600 85.3 + .2489
- 8.0 .4271 101.3 + .1818
-1 1 .8 .3897 92.4 + .2192
- 9.7 .4138 98.1 + .1951
- 9.8 .4122 97.7 + .1967
-1 0 .3 .4303 102.0 + .1786
-1 0 .3 .4568 108.3 + .1521
-1 0 .1 .4223 101.1 + .1866
-1 0 .1 .4387 104.0 + .1702
-1 0 .1 .4673 110.8 + .1416
+ 1.1 .5122 121.4 + .0967
- 1.0 .5465 129.6 + .0624
- 1.0 .5683 134.7 + .0406
.6089 144.4

+44.4
+69.1
+42.6
+56.2
+47.1
+47.7
+41.5
+33.3
+44.2
+38.8
+30.3
+18.9
+11.4
+ 7.1

BOTTOM MAKERS, Male.
Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5
establishments, 1890; 7 establishments, 1891-1893, 1897-1900; 6 establishments, 1894-1896; 8 estab­
lishments, 1901-1903.]
V. 1890-99.
&ft.............
$91.............
$92.............
$93.............
$94.............
$95.............
$96.............
$97.............
$98.............
$99.............
m .............
K)1.............
m .............
103 . . . .

12
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
11

100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.7

-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

10092—No. 53—04---- 8



- 8 . 3 67.33
69.82
- 8 . 3 67.20
- 8 . 3 68.40
- 8 . 3 67.80
- 8 . 3 66.86
- 8 . 3 66.86
- 8 . 3 66.86
- 8 . 3 66.45
- 8 . 3 66.56
- 8 .3 66.45
- 8 . 3 63.29
- 8 .3 63.90
- 8 . 3 63.90
67.10

100.0
103.7
99.8
101.6
100.7
99.3
99.3
99.3
98.7
98.9
98.7
94.0
94.9
94.9
99.7

-0 .2 3
—2.72
- .10
-1 .3 0
- .70
+ .24
+ .24
+ .24
+ .65
+ .54
+ .65
+3.81
+3.20
+3.20

- 0 . 3 SO 2730
.
—3.9 .3441
- .1 .3213
.3284
-1 .9
.2888
- 1 .0
+ .4 .2692
+ .4 .2742
+ .4 .2598
+ 1 .0 .2135
+ .8 .2178
+ 1 .0 .2129
+ 6 .0 .2462
+ 5.0 .2881
+ 5 .0 .3151
.3336

100.0
126.0
117.7
120.3
105.8
98.6
100.4
95.2
78.2
79.8
78.0
90.2
105.5
115.4
122.2

+$0.0G06
_ .0105
+ .0123
+ .0052
+ .0448
4- .0644
+ .0594
+ .0738
+ .1201
+ .1158
+ .1207
+ .0874
+ .0455
+ .0185

+22.2
— 3.1
+ 3.8
+ 1.6
+15.5
+23.9
+21.7
+28.4
+56.3
+53.2
+56.7
+35.5
+15.8
+ 5.9

812

BULLETIN" OP THE BURE A IT OP LABOR.
.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 710; for explanatioa
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEED, BESSEMER CONVERTING—Continued.
LADLE LINERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from
establishments, 1890; 7 establishments, 1891, 1894+L896; 8 establishments, 1892, 1893, 1897-1900;
establishments, 1901-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902 .............
1903
.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase f + ) or
Increase ( + ) oi
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) ir
1903 as com­
1003 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with yea
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent
cent.
15
16
15
15
16
15
15
15
16
15
16
17
17
17
18

100.0
106.7
100.0
100.0
106.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
106.7
100.0
106.7
113.3
113.3
113.3
120.0

+3
+2
+3
+3
+2
+3
+3
+3
+2
+3
4-2
+1
+1
+1

+20.0
+12.5
+20.0
+20.0
+12.5
+20.0
+20.0
+20.0
+12.5
+20.0
+12.5
+ 5.9
+ 5.9
+ 5.9

65.56
60.00
66.29
66.00
64.00
67.76
67.76
67.76
64.27
67.45
64.27
61.48
62.32
62.32
65.46

100.0
91.5
101.1
100.7
97.6
103.4
103.4
103.4
98.0
102.9
98.0
93.8
95.1
95.1
99.8

-0 .1 0
+5.46
- .83
- .54
+1.46
-2 .3 0
-2 .3 0
-2 .3 0
+1.19
-1 .9 9
+1.19
+ 3. "98
+3.14
+3.14

- 0 . 2 $0.3172 100.0 +$0.0877
+ 9.1 .3884 122.4 + .0165
.3534 111.4 + .0515
-1 .3
- .8 .3734 117.7 + .0315
+ 2 .3 .3606 113.7 + .0443
-3 .4
.2930 . 92.4 + .1119
- 3 .4
.3016 95.1 + .1033
- 3 .4
.2839 89.5 + .1210
+ 1 .9 .2741 86.4 + .1308
-3 .0
.2577 81.2 + .1472
+ 1 .0 .2855 90.0 + .1194
+ 6 .5 .3203 101.0 + .0846
+ 5 .0 .3440 108.4 + .0609
+ 5 .0 .3692 116.4 + .0357
.4049 127.6

+27.
+ 4.
+14.
+ 8.
+12.
+38.
+34.
+42.
+47.
+57.
+41.
+26.
+17.
+ 9.

MELTER8, Male.
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from
establishments, 1890; 6 establishments, 1891, 1894-1896; 7 establishments, 1892, 1893, 1897-1900;
establishments, 1901-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898 .............
1899.............
19C0.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

14
14
17
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
21
17
17
17

100.0
100.0
121.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.6
121.4
121.4
121.4

+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
-4

+21.4 58.44
+21.4 54.86
55.58
+21.4 61.33
+21.4 59.33
+21.4 58.50
+21.4 58.50
+21.4 58.50
+21.4 59.28
+21.4 59.28
+21.4 59.28
-1 9 .0 54.20
61.62
61.62
61.62

100.0
93.9
95.1
104.9
101.5
100.1
100.1
100.1
101.4
101.4
101.4
92.7
105.4
105.4
105.4

+3.18
+6.76
+6.04
+ .29
+2.2.9
+3.12
+3.12
+3.12
+2.34
+2.34
+2.34
+7.42

+ 5.4 $0.4659
+12.3 .5469
+10.9 .5664
+ .5 .5254
+ 3.9 .4774
+ 5.3 .4342
+ 5.3 .4385
+ 5.3 .3979
+ 3.9 .4053
+ 3.0 .4305
+ 3.9 .4369
+13.7 .4977
.4536
.5113
.5699

100.6
117.4
121.6
112.8
102.5
93.2
94.1
85.4
87.0
92.4
93.8
106.8
97.4
109.7
122.3

+S 0.1040
+ .0230
+ .0035
+ .0445
+ .0925
+ .1357
+ .1314
+ .1720
+ .1646
+ .1394
+ .1330
+ .0722
+ .1163
+ .0586

+22.
+ 4.
4+ 8.
+19.
+31.
+30.
+43.
+40.
+32.
+30.
+14.
+25
+11.

1

STEEL POUR lE R S , Male.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from
establishments, 1890 ; 7 establishments, 1891, 1894-1896; 8 establishments, 1892, 1893, 1897-1900;
establishments, 1901-1903.]

A v.

- .
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

1890 99
189 0
1 891
1892
1893
1 894
1895
1 89 6
1897
1 898
189 9
1 900
1901
1902
1 903

17
17
17
17
17
17
17
16
16
16
16

20
20
20

20

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6




+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+4
+4

+4
+4

+ 17.6 64.65
+ 17.6 62.12
+ 17.6 63.16
+ 17.6 65.40
+ 17.6 63.20
+ 17.6 63.16
+ 17.6 63.16
+ 25.0 G6.67
+ 25.0 66.55
+ 25.0 66.55
+ 25.0 66.55
55.46
56.73
56.73
56 73

.

100.0
96.1
97.7
101.2
97.8
97.7
97.7
103.1
102.9

102.9
102.9
85.8
87.7
87.7
87.7

- 7.92
- 5.39
- 6.43
- 8.67
- 6.47
- 6.43
- 6.43
- 9.94
- 9.82
- 9.82
- 9.82
+ 1.27

- 12.3 $0.3435
- 8.7 .3846
- 10.2 .4228
- 13.3 .4061
- 10.2 .3670
- 10.2 .3259
- 10.2 .3241
- 14.9 .2808
- 14.8 .2974
- 14.8 .3023
- 14.8 .3240
+ 2.3 .3745

+$
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ .
-j-

100.0
0.1298
112.0
.0887
.0505
123.1
118.2
.0672
106.8
.1063
.1474
94.9
94.4
.1492
.1925
81.7
86.6
.1759
.1710
88.0
94.3
.1493
109.0 -f- .0988
0536
.4197 122.2
.4589 183.6
.0144
.4733 137.8

+ 37.
+ 23.
+ 11.
+ 16.
+ 29.
+ 45.
+ 46.
+ 68.
+59.
+ 56.
+ 46.
+ 26.
+ 12.
+ 3.

813

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING,

T able I*— WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Contmued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative ilgures, gee pages 715 and 716, for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEEB, BESSEMER CONVERTING—Concluded.
VESSEL MEN) Male.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wage3 from 6
establishments, 1890; 7 establishments, 1891, 1894-1897; 8 establishments, 1892, 1893, 1897-1900; §
establishments, 1901-1903.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898............. *
1899.............
1$00.............
1991.............
1902.............
1903.............

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

14
15
15
15
15
14
14
14
14
14
14
16
16
16
16

Increase!+ ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

100.0
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
114.3
114.8
114.3
114.3

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+2
+1
+1
+1
+1
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2

+14.3
+ 6.7
+ 6.7
+ 6.7
+ 6.7
+14.3
+14.3
+14.3
+14.3
+14.3
+14.3

65.54
65.60
64.00
66.00
64.35
66.00
66.00
66.00
65.83
65.83
65.83
60.77
61.57
61.57
61.57

Increase ( + ) o r ;
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.1
97.7
100.7
98.2
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
92.7
93.9
93.9
93.9

-3 .9 7
-4 .0 3
-2 .4 3
-4 .4 3
-2 .7 8
-4 .4 3
-4 .4 3
-4 .4 3
-4 .2 6
-4 .2 6
-4 .2 6
+ .80

Increase f + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount

- 6 .1 60.4161 100.0 +60.1509
.4863 116.9 + .0807
- 6 .1
- 3 .8
.4997 120.1 + .0673
-6 .7
.4686 112.6 + .0984
- 4 . 3 .4424 106.3 + .1246
- 6 .7
.4163 100.0 + .1507
.4078 98.0 + .1592
- 6 .7
- 6 .7
.3946 94.8 + .1724
- 6 .5
.3258 78.3 + .2412
- 6 .5
.3465 83.3 + .2205
-6 .5
.3728 89.6 + .1942
+ 1 .3 .4524 108.7 + .1146
.4813 115.7 + .0857
.5244 126.0 + . 0426
.5670 136.3

Per
cent.
+36.3
+10.6
+13.5
+21.0
+28.2
+36.2
+39.0
+43.7
+74.0
+63.6
+52.1
+25.3
+17.8
+ 8.1

IRON A N D STEEL* BEAST FURNACE.
CINDER SNAPPERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 18 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 19
establishments, 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 18 establishments, 1894,1895.J
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .........
1891 ..........
1892 .........
1893 .........
1894 .............
1895 .........
1896 .........
1897 .........
1900
1901
1902
1903

159
165
159
163
155
154
160
158
156
158
160
162
171
155
156

100.0
103.8
100.0
102.5
97.5
96.9
100.6
99.4
98.1
99.4
100.6
101.9
107.5
97.5
98.1

—
—
—
+
+
—
—

3
9
3
7
1
2
4
2

- 2
— 4
- 6
-1 5
+ 1

— 1.9
— 5.5
— 1.9
- 4.3
+ .6
+ 1.3
- 2.5
- 1 .3
—
+

1.3
2.5
3.7
8.8
.6

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

60.1258
. 1291
.1292
.1330
.1295
.1142
.1236
.1289
.1175
.1199
.1335
.1383
.1420
.1421
.1470

100.0 +60.0212
102.6 + .0179
102.7 + .0178
105.7 + .0140
102.9 + .0175
90.8 + .0328
98.3 + .0234
102.5 + .0181
93.4 + .0295
95.3 + .0271
106.1 + .0135
109.9 + .0087
112.9 + .0050
113.0 + .0049
116.9

+ 1 6.9
+13.9
+13.8
+10.5
+13.5
+28.7
+18.9
+14.0
+25.1
+22.6
+10.1
+ 6.3
+ 3.5
+ 3.4

HOT BLAST MEN, Male.
[Data for employees from 17 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 18
establishments, 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 17 establishments, 1894, 1895.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895 .............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

66
64
65
69
67
65
64
67
65
67
67
69
70
74
75

100.0
97.0
98.5
104.5
101.5
98.5
97.0
101.5
98.5
101.5
101.5
104.5
106-1
112.1
113.6




+ 9
+11
+10
+ 6
+ 8
+10
+11
+ 8
+10
+ 8
+ 8
+ 6
+ 5
+ 1

+13.6
+17.2
+15.4
+ 8.7
+11.9
+15.4
+17.2
+11.9
+15.4
+11.9
+11.9
+ 8.7
+ 7.1
+ 1.4

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

60.1391
.1446
.1448
.1472
.1450
.1286
.1318
.1378
.1339
.1341
.1431
.1516
.1518
.1583
.1642

100.0
104.0
104.1
105.8
104.2
92.5
94.8
99.1
96.3
96.4
102.9
109.0
109.1
113.8
118.0

4-150.0251
+ .0196
+ .0194
+ .0170
+ .0192
+ .0356
+ .0324
+ .0264
+ .0303
+ .0301
+ . 0211
+ .0126
+ .0124
+ .0059

+18.0
+13.6
+13.4
+11.5
+13.2
+27.7
+24.6
+19.2
+22.6
+22.4
+ 14.7
+ 8.3
+ 8.2
+ 3.7

814

BULLETIN* OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEED, BEAST FURNACE—Concluded.
KEEPERS, m ale.
[Data for employees from 18 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 19
establishments, 1890-1893,1896-1903; 18 establishments, 1894,1895.]
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
NumPer
ber.
cent.

100.0

A v. 1890-99,
+11
..................... .....................
1890
92.7
+17
1891
.....................
95.1
+15
1892
.....................
106.1
+ 6
1893
.....................
98.8
1894
.....................
100.0
+11
1895
.....................
100.0
+11
1896
..................... .....................
96.3
+14
1897
..................... .....................
96.3
+14
1898
..................... .....................
104.9
+ 7
1899
..................... .....................
+ 6
106.1
1900
.....................
104.9
+ 7
1901
..................... .....................
109.8
+ 3
1902
.....................
- 1
114.6
113.4
1903
.....................

+12

+13.4
+22.4
+19.2
+ 6.9
+14.8
+13.4
+13.4
+17.7
+17.7

+ 8.1

+ 6.9
+ 8.1
+ 3.3
-

1.1

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.

100.0

84.00
84.00 100.0
84.00 100.0
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

100.0
____
______

$0.1735
.1844
.1882
.1888
.1847
.1605
.1689
.1717
.1583
.1580
.1712
.1798
.1807

100.0 +$0.0205
106.3 +
108.5 +
108.8 +
106.5 +
92.5 +
97.3 +
99.0 +
91.2 +
91.1 +
98.7 +
103.6 +
104.1 +
108.9 +

.0096
.0058
.0052
.0093
.0335
.0251
.0223
.0357
.0360
.0228
.0142
.0133
.0051

.1940 111.8

+11.8
+ 5.2
+ 3.1

+ 2.8
+ 5.0
+20.9
+14.9
+ 13.0

+22.6
+22.8
+13.3
+ 7.9
+ 7.4
+ 2.7

S lEEPER-S* HELPERS, Male*
[Data for employees from 18 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 19
establishments; 1890-1893,1896-1903; 18 establishments, 1894,1895.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

223
200
200
241
221
222
219
220
222
236
244
240
254
256
239

100.0
89.7
89.7
108.1
99.1
-99.6
98.2
98.7
99.6
105.8
109.4
107.6
113.9
114.8
107.2

+16
+39
+39
- 2
+18
+17
+20
+19
+17
+ 3
- 5
— 1
—15
-1 7

+ 7.2
+19.5
+19.5
.8
+ 8.1
+ 7.7
+ 9.1
+ 8.6
+ 7.7
+ 1.3
- 2.0
.4
- 5.9
- 6.6

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.1380
.1450
.1478
.1495
.1475
.1223
.1361
.1392
.1255
.1272
.1399
.1453
.1457
.1515
.1565

100.0
105.1
107.1
108.3
106.9
88.6
98.6
100.9
90.9
92.2
101.4
105.3
105.6
109.8
113.4

+$0.0185
+ .0115
+ .0087
+ .0070
+ .0090
+ .0342
+ .0204
+ .0173
+ .0310
+ .0293
+ .0166
+ .0112
+ .0108
+ .0050

+ 13.4
+ 7.9
+ 5.9
+ 4.7

+ 6.1

+28.0
+15.0
+ 12.4
+24.7
+23.0
+11.9
+ 7.7
+ 7.4
+ 3.3

TOP FILLERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 16 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 17
establishments, 1890-1893,1896-1903; 16 establishments, 1894,1895.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

168
147
155
184
171
175
177
166
166
170
173
171
160
138
128

100.0
87.5
92.3
109.5
101.8
104.2
105.4
98.8
98.8
101.2
1C3.0
101.8
95.2
82.1
76.2




-4 0
—19
-2 7
-5 6
—43
—47
-4 9
—38
—38
-4 2
—45
-4 3
—32
—10

—23.8
—12.9
—17.4
-3 0 .4
-2 5 .1
—26.9
—27.7
—22.9
—22.9
—24.7
—26.0
-2 5 .1
-2 0 .0
— 7.2

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.1419
.1473
.1474
.1515
.1495
.1312
.1330
.1406
.1349
.1344
.1491
.1542
.1541
.1565
.1589

100.0
103.8
103.9
106.8
105.4
92.5
93.7
99.1
95.1
94.7
105.1
108.7
108.6
110.3
112.0

-u#n 0170
+ .0116
+ .0115
+ .0074
+ .0094
4 - .0277
+ .0259
+ .0183
+ . 0240
+ .0245
+ .0098
+ .0047
+ .0048
+ .0024

+12.0
+ 7.9
+ 7.8
+ 4.9
+ 6.3
+21.1
+19.5
+13.0
+17.8
+18.2
+ 6.6
+ 3.0
+ 3.1
+ 1.5

815

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1S03—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEED, BEOOMING MIDL.
CATCHERS, H ale.
[Data from 1 establishment.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
L890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
L895.............
L896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899...........
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
num­ numage. tive.
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
Per
Per
Num­
Num­
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
ber.
cent.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0

+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1

+50.0
+50.0
+50.0
+50.0
+50.0
+50.0
+50.0
+50.0
+50.0
+50.0

69.60
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

100.0
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
103.4
69.0
69.0
69.0
69.0
69.0

-2 1 .6 0
-2 4 .0 0
-2 4 .0 0
-2 4 .0 0
-2 4 .0 0
-2 4 .0 0
-2 4 .0 0
-2 4 .0 0
-2 4 .0 0
-2 4 .0 0

-3 1 .0 80.3160 100.0 +80.1282
-3 3 .3 .2888 91.4 + .1554
-3 3 .3 .3045 96.4 + .1397
-3 3 .3 .3225 102.1 + .1217
-3 3 .3 .3377 106.9 + .1065
-3 3 .3 .2922 92.5 + .1520
-3 3 .3 .3128 99.0 + .1314
-3 3 .3 .3260 103.2 + . 1182
-3 3 .3 .3303 104.5 + .1139
-3 3 .3 .3117 98.6 + .1325
.3335 105.5 + .1107
.3536 111.9 + .0906
.4348 137.6 + .0094
.0455
.4897 155.0
.4442 140.6

+40.6
+53.8
+45.9
+37.7
+31.5
+52.0
+42.0
+36.3
+34.5
+42.5
+33.2
+25.6
+ 2.2
- 9.3

CHARGERS, Hale.
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5
establishments, 1890,1894-1896; 6 establishments, 1891-1893,1897-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
L890.............
1891.............
1892.............
L893.............
L894.............
L895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
L900.............
L901.............
1902.............
1903.............

38
39
42
45
46
38
35
34
35
35
33
31
37
32
32

100.0
102.6
110.5
118.4
121.1
100.0
92.1
89.5
92.1
92.1
86.8
81.6
97.4
84.2
84.2

- 6
- 7
-1 0
-1 3
-1 4
- 6
- 3
- 2
- 3
- 3
- 1
+ 1
- 5

-1 5 .8
-1 7 .9
-2 3 .8
-2 8 .9
-3 0 .4
-1 5 .8
- 8.6
- 5.9
- 8.6
- 8.6
- 3.0
+ 3.2
-1 3 .5

59.08
57.23
66.16
57.88
£8.42
60.63
59.66
59.29
60.64
60.64
60.20
64.02
59.18
58.76
58.05

100.0
96.9
95.1
98.0
98.9
102.6
101.0
100.4
102.6
102.6
101.9
108.4
100.2
99.5
98.3

- 1 . 7 80.2852 100.0 +80.0342
+ 1 .4 .2882 101.1 + .0312
+ 3 .4 .3048 106.9 + .0146
.0126
+ .3 .3320 116.4 - .6 .3184 111.6 + .0010
.2558 89.7 + .0636
-4 .3
- 2 .7
.2936 102.9 + .0258
-2 .1
.3090 108.3 + .0104
.2369 83.1 + .0825
- 4 .3
.2518 88.3 + .0676
-4 .3
.2617 91,8 + .0577
- 3 .6
.2999 105.2 + .0195
-9 .3
- 1 .9
.2710 95.0 + .0484
.2872 100.7 + .0322
-1 .2
.3194 112.0

+12.0
+10.8
+ 4.8
- 3.8
+ .3
+24.9
+ 8.8
+ 3.4
+34.8
+26.8
+22.0
+ 6.5
+17.9
+11.2

+14.1 $0.2670 100.0 +80.0276
+50.0 .3425 128.3 — .0479
+50.0 .2956 110.7 — .0010
+40.0 .3306 123.8 — .0360
+40.0 .3152 118.1 — .0206
.2154 80.7 + .0792
.2380 89.1 + .0566
.2624 98.3 + .0322
.2044 76.6 + .0902
.2067 77.4 + .0879
.2592 97.1 + .0354
.2939 110.1 + .0007
.2820 106.6 + .0126
.3279 122.8
.0333
.2946 110.3

+10.3
-1 4 .0
.3
- 1 0 .9
- 6.5
+ 36.8
+ 23.8
+12.3
+44.1
+ 42.5
+13.7
+ .2
+ 4.5
- 1 0 .2

-1 .0 3
+ .82
+1.89
+ .17
- .37
-2 .5 8
-1 .6 1
-1 .2 4
-2 .5 9
-2 .5 9
-2 .1 5
-5 .9 7
-1 .1 3
— .71

DRAWERS, Hale.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
L894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898 .............
L899.............
1900.............
1901...........
1902.............
1903.............

11
15
15
14
14
10
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

100.0
136.4
136.4
127.3
127.3
90.9
81.8
81.8
81.8
81.8
81.8
81.8
81.8
81.8
81.8




-2
-6
-6
-5
-5
_1

-1 8 .2
-4 0 .0
- 4 0 .0
-3 5 .7
-3 5 .7
—10.0

63.09
48.00
48.00
51.43
61.43
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00

100.0
76.1
76.1
81.5
81.5
114.1
114.1
114.1
114.1
114.1
114.1
114.1
114.1
114.1
114.1

+ 8.91
+24.00
+24.00
+20.57
+20.57

816

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1908, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEEL, BLOOMING M ILL—Continued.
HEATERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6
establishments, 1890,1894-1896; 7 establishments, 1891-1893,1897-1899; 8 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
3899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
d ecrease(-)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
tive pared with year age
Num­ num­
specified.
num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
27
33
33
32
28
22
24
22
22
23
27
26
27
26
26

100.0
122.2
122.2
118.5
103.7
81.5
88.9
81.5
81.5
85.2
100.0
96.3
100.0
96.3
96.3

-1
-7
-7
-6
-2
+4
+2
+4
+4
+3
-1

- 3.7
-2 1 .2
-2 1 .2
-1 8 .8
- 7.1
+18.2
+ 8.3
+18.2
+18.2
+13.0
- 3.7

-1

-

64.47
64.73
64.00
64.42
63.53
65.45
66.00
65.45
65.46
65.70
59.91
62.38
3.7 58.54
58.15
58.15

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( --) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.4
99.3
99.9
98.5
101.5
102.4
101.5
101.5
101.9
92.9
96.8
90.8
90.2
90.2

-6 .3 2
-6 .5 8
-5 .8 5
-6 .2 7
-5 .3 8
-7 .3 0
-7 .8 5
-7 .3 0
-7 .3 1
-7 .5 5
-1 .7 6
—4.23
- .39

- 9.8 $0.4257
-1 0 .2 .4192
- 9.1 .4384
- 9.7 .4485
- 8.5 .4747
-1 1 .2 .3883
-1 1 .9 .4291
-1 1 .2 .4347
-1 1 .2 .3772
-1 1 .5 .3972
- 2.9 .4497
— 6.8 .4924
.7 .5417
.5973
.6115

100.0
98.5
103.0
105.4
111.5
91.2
100.8
102.1
88.6
93.3
105.6
115.7
127.2
140.3
143.6

+$0.1858
+ .1923
+ .1731
+ .1630
+ .1368
+ .2232
+ .1824
+ .1768
+ .2343
+ .2143
+ .1618
+ .1191
+ .0698
+ .0142

+43. €
+45.9
+39. £
+36.3
+28.3
+57.5
+42.5
+40.7
+62.3
+54. (
+36. C
+24.9
+12.9
+ 2.4

HEATER’S HELPERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 4 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 4
establishments, 1890,1894-1896; 5 establishments, 1891-1893,1897-1899; 6 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

49
81
76
70
52
31
41
31
31
36
44
35
31
26
26

100.0
165.3
155.1
142.9
106.1
63.3
83.7
63.3
63.3
73.5
89.8
71.4
63.3
53.1
53.1

-2 3
-5 5
-5 0
-4 4
-2 6
- 5
-1 5
- 5
- 5
-1 0
-1 8
- 9
- 5

-4 6 .9
-6 7 .9
-6 5 .8
-6 2 .9
-5 0 .0
-1 6 .1
-3 6 .6
-1 6 .1
-1 6 .1
-2 7 .8
-4 0 .9
-2 5 .7
-1 6 .1

70.57
71.41
71.50
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
69.71
69.92
63.19
65.95
64.35
64.06
63.05

100.0
101.2
101.3
102.0
102.0
102.0
102.0
102.0
98.8
99.1
89.5
93.5
91.2
90.8
89.3

-7 .5 2
-8 .3 6
-8 .4 5
-8 .9 5
-8 .9 5
-8 .9 5
-8 .9 5
-8 .9 5
-6 .6 6
-6 .8 7
- .14
-2 .9 0
-1 .3 0
-1 .0 1

-1 0 .7 $0.1918
-1 1 .7 .1597
-1 1 .8 .1676
-1 2 .4 .1680
-1 2 .4 .2083
-1 2 .4 .1949
-1 2 .4
.1897
-1 2 .4 .1892
- 9.6 .1889
- 9.8 .1966
.2 .2555
- 4.4 .2462
- 2.0 .2658
- 1.6 .3197
.2978

100.0 + $ 0 .1060
83.3 + .1381
87.4 + .1302
87.6 + .1298
108.6 + .0895
101.6 + .1029
98.9 + .1081
98.6 + .1086
98.5 + .1089
102.5 + *.1012
133.2 + .0423
128.4 + .0516
138.6 + .0320
166.7 .0219
155! 3

+55.8
+86.5
+77.7
+77.3
+43.0
+52.8
+57.0
+57.4
+57.6
+51.5
+16.6
+21.0
+12.0
- 6.9

ROLLERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6
establishments, 1890,1894-1896; 7 establishments, 1891-1893,1897-1899; 8 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898 .............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

19
17
18
18
19
19
19
20
20
20
23
23
25
25
25

100.0
89.5
94.7
94.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
105.3
105.3
105.3
121.1
121.1
131.6
131.6
131.6

+31.6
+47.1
+38.9
+38.9
+31.6
+31.6
+31.6
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+ 8.7
8.7

+6
+8
+7
+7
+6
+6
+6
+5
+5
+5
+2
+2

............ ............




i

60.78
62.12
60.00
61.20
61.71
60.63
60.63
61.20
61.59
61.59
57.08
58.19
54.17
54.17
54.17

100.0
102.2
98.7
100.7
101.5
99.8
99.8
100.7
101.3
101.3
93.9
95.7
89.1
89.1
89.1

-6 .6 1
-7 .9 5
-5 .8 3
-7 .0 3
-7 .5 4
-6 .4 6
-6 .4 6
-7 .0 3
-7 .4 2
-7 .4 2
-2 .9 1
-4 .0 2

- 10.9 $0.4973
- 12.8 .4555
- 9.7 .5657
- 11.5 .6281
-1 2 .2 .5470
-1 0 .7 .4378
-1 0 .7 .4864
-1 1 .5 .5055
-1 2 .0 .4345
-1 2 .0 .4554
- 5.1 .4570
- 6.9 .5336
.5940
I.............
.6044
!_______
.6768
!

100.0 +$0.1795
91.6 + .2213
113.8 + .1111
126.3 + .0487
110.0 + .1298
88.0 + .2390
97.8 + .1904
101.6 + .1713
87.4 + .2423
91.6 + .2214
91.9 + .2198
107.3 + .1432
119.4 + .0828
121.5 + .0724
136.1

+36.1
+48.6
+19.6
+ 7.8
+23.7
+54.6
+39.1
+33.9
+55.8
+48.6
+48.1
+26.8
+13.9
+32. C

817

WAGES AND GOST OF LIVING

Table I .— WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEEL, BLOOMING MLLL—Concluded.
TABLEMEN, Male.

[Data for employees from 2 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 2
establishments, 1890-1899; 3 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Increase (4-) or
decrease (—)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

3 100.0
Av. 1890-99.
133.3
.....................
1890
133.3
1891
.....................
133.3
1892 ........
4 133.3
1893
.....................
3] 100.0
1 8 9 4 .,...
100.0
1895
.....................
1896
.....................
1897 ........
66.7
1898
.....................
LO
O
1899
..................... . 0
133.3
1900
.....................
133.3
1901
.....................
1902 ........
133.3
133.3
1903 ........

Wages per hour.

Increase (4-) or
Increase (4-) or
decrease ( - ) i n
decrease (—)in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.

4-1 4- 33.3 70.80
66.00
66.00
72.00
72.00
4- 33.3 72.00
4-1
4-1 4- 33.3 72.00
4-1 4- 33.3 72.00
4-1 4- 33.3 72.00
4-2 4-100.0 72.00
4-1 4- 33.3 72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00

93.2
93.2
101.7
101.7
101.7

4-1.20
4-6.00
4-6.00

101.7
101,7
101.7

4-1.7
4-9.1
4-9.1

1.1625
.1906
.1810
.1519
.1651
.1442
.1379
.1641
.1640
.1550
.1713
.1546
.1731
.1833
.1894

100.0 4-80.0269
.0012
117.3 111.4 493.5

.0084
.0375
.0243
101.6
.0452
88.7
84.
.0515
101.0
.0253
.0254
100.9
95.4
.0344
105.4
.0181
95.1
.0348
106.5
.0163
112.8 + .0061
116.6'

4-16.6
-

.6

4- 4.6
4-24.7
4-14.7
4-31.3
4-37.3
4-15.4
4-15.5

4- 22.2
4- 10.6
4-22.5
4- 9.4
4- 3.3

IRON A N D STEEL, MUCK BAR.
CATCHEHLS, Male.

[Data for employees from 9 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 9
establishments, 1890-1898; 10 establishments, 1899; 11 establishments, 1900; 12 establishments 19011903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903 .............

100.0
89.3
96.4
100.0
100.0
107.1
107.1
100.0
117.9
103.6
89.3
100.0
96.4
92.9
100.0

28
25
27
28
28
30
30
28
33
29
25
28
27
26
28

4-3
4-1
-2
-2
-5
-1
4-3
4*1
4-2

59.41 100.0
4-12.0 59.60 100.3
4- 3.7 59.63 100.4
59.64 100.4
59.64 100.4
- 6.7 59.67 100.4
- 6.7 59.67 100.4
58.21 98.0
-1 5 .2 59.09 99.5
- 3.4 59.66 100.4
4-12.0 59.30 99.8
61.47 108.5
+ 3.7 60.13 101.2
+ 7.7 59.97 100.9
59.98 101.0

+0.57
+ .38
+ .35
+ .34
+ .34
+ .31
+ .31
+1.77
+ .89
+ .32
+ .68
-1 .4 9
- .15
+ .01

+ 1 .0 $0.2190
.2420
+ .6
.2352
+ .6
.2256
+ .6
.2234
+ .6
.2084
+ .5
.1930
+ .5
+ 3 .0
.2078
+ 1 .5
.2095
.2119
+ .5
.2328
+ 1.1
- 2 .4
.2544
- .2
.2473
+ .02 .2657|
. 2926

100.0
110.5
107.4
103.0
102.0
95.2
88.1
94.9
95.7
96.8
106.3
116.2
112.9
121.3
133.6

-J-SO 0736
.
+ .0506
+ .0574
+ .0670
+ .0692
+ .0842
+ .0996
+ .0848
+ .0831
+ .0807
+ .0598
+ .0382
+ .0453
+ .0269

+33.6
+20.9
+24.4
+29.7
+31.0
+40.4
+51.6
-1-40.8
+39.7
+38.1
+25.7
+15.0
+18.3
+10.1

HOOKERS, M ale.
[Data for employees from 9 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 9
establishments, 1890-1898; 10 establishments, 1899; 11 establishments, 1900; 12 establishments, 19011903.]

A v.

231 100.0
- .
23 100.0
..............
24 104.3
..............
22 95.7
..............
23 i 100.0
..............
2s|i 121.7
..............
25 : 108.7
..............
..............
211 91.3
22 | 95.7
,
..............
.............. • 20,i 87.0
24 104.3
..............
24 ! 104.3
..............
'
23 1 100.0
..............
..............
26 113.0
........ .
28 , 100.0
!

1890 9 9
1 89 0
1 891
189 2
1893
1 894
1 895
1896
1 897
1898
1899
1 900
1 901
1902
1 903

1
1




- i - 4 .2
+1 + 4 .5
—5 - 17.9
-2
- 8 .0
+2
+ 9.5
+ 4 .5
+1
+ 15.0
+3
- 4 .2
-1
-1
- 4.2
- l i .5
-3

58.73
59.04
59.08
59.00
59.04
59.21
59.12
57.05
58.09
58.90
58.80
60.57
59.06
58.97
59.06

!

100.0
100.5
100.6
100.5
100.5
100.8
100.7
97.1
98.9
100.8
100.1
103.1
100.6
100.4
100.6

+ 0.33
+ .02
- .02
+ .06
+ .02
- .15
- .06
+ 2.01
+ .97
+ .16
+ .26
- 1.51
+ .09

+ 0.6 10.1534
+ .03 . 1462
- .03 .1468
+ . 1 .1474
+ .03 .1421
- .3 .1301
- .1 .1440
+ 3.5 .1619
+ 1.7 . 16C9
+ .3 .1714
+ . 4 . 1775
- 2.5 .2088
. 194:
+ .2 .1945
. 2255

-+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

100.0 4 80.0721
95.3
.0793
95.7
.0787
96.1
.0781
92.6
.0834
.0954
84.8
93.9
.0815
105.5
.0636
108.8
.0586
.0541
111.7
.0480
115.7
136.1
.0167
.0313
126.6
.0310
126.8
147.0

+ 47.0
+ 54.2
+ 53.6
+ 53.0
+ 58.7
+ 73.3
+ 56.6
+ 39.3
+ 35.1
+ 31.6
+ 27.0
+ 8 .0
+ 16.1
+ 15.9

818

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEED, MUCK BAR—Continued.
PDDDLER8) Male.
[Data for employees from 11 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 21
establishments, 1890-1899; 12 establishments, 1900; 13 establishments, 1901-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. number.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
425
461
461
517
417
397
372
424
403
390
410
434
437
442
503

100.0
108.5
108.5
121.6
98.1
93.4
87.5
99.8
94.8
91.8
96.5
102.1
102.8
104.0
118.4

+ 78
+ 42
+ 42
- 14
+ 86
+106
+131
+ 79
+100
+113
+ 93
+ 69
+ 66
+ 61

+18.4
+ 9.1
+ 9.1
- 2.7
+20.6
+26.7
+35.2
+18.6
+24.8
+29.0
+22.7
+15.9
+15.1
+13.8

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

57.76
57.66
57.54
57.13
57.28
58.83
58.51
55.77
58.03
58.66
58.20
60.98
59.61
59.63
59.63

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified*.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
99.8
99.6
98.9
99.2
101.9
101.3
96.6
100.5
101.6
100.8
105.6
103.2
103.2
103.2

+1.87
+1.97
+2.09
+2.50
+2.35
+ .80
+1.12
+3.86
+1.60
+ .97
+1.43
-1 .3 5
+ .02

+ 3 .2 $0.3515
+ 3 .4
.3758
+ 3 .6
.3692
+ 4 .4
.3603
+ 4 .1
.3970
+ 1 .4
.3298
+ 1 .9
.3439
+ 6 .9
.3417
+ 2 .8
.3309
+ 1 .7
.3304
.3362
+ 2 .5
- 2 .2
.3361
+ .03 .3415
.3633
.3679

100.0
106.9
105.0
102.5
112.9
93.8
97.8
97.2
94.1
94.0
95.6
95.6
97.2
103.4
104.7

+ $ 0 .0164
.0079
.0013
+ .0076
.0291
+ .0381
+ .0240
+ .0262
+ .0370
+ .0375
+ .0317
+ .0318
+ .0264
+ .0046

+ 4.7
- 2.1
.4
+ 2.1
- 7.3
+11. C
+ 7.0
+ 7.7
+11.2
+11.3
+ 9.4
+ 9.5
+ 7.7
+ 1.3

PUDDLERS’ HELPERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 11 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 11
establishments, 1890-1899; 12 establishments, 1900; 13 establishments, 1901-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

409
439
456
497
388
382
355
417
402
355
396
410
426
423
483

100.0
107.3
111.5
121.5
94.9
93.4
88.8
102.0
98.3
86.8
96.8
100.2
104.2
103.4
118.1

+ 74
+ 44
+ 27
— 14
+ 95
+101
+128
+ 66
+ 81
+128
+ 87
+ 73
+ 57
+ 60

+18.1
+10.0
+ 5.9
— 2.8
+24.5
+26.4
+36.1
+15.8
+20.1
+36.1
+22.0
+17.8
+13.4
+14.2

57.68
57.54
57.51
57.02
57.08
58.80
58.43
55.70
58.02
58.54
58.14
61.03
59.60
59.62
59.61

100.0
99.8
99.7
98.9
99.0
101.9
101.3
96.6
100.6
101.5
100.8
105.8
103.3
103.4
103.3

+1.93
+2.07
+2.10
+2.59
+2.53
+ .81
+1.18
+3.91
+1.59
+1.07
+1.47
- 1.42
+ .01
- .01

+ 3 .3 $0.2161
+ 3 .6
.2253
+ 3 .7
.2177
.2157
+4 5
+ 4 .4
.2481
+ 1 .4
.2044
+ 2 .0
.2168
.2114
+ 7 .0
+ 2 .7
.2020
.2142
+ 1 .8
+ 2 .5
.2052
-2 .3
.2375
+ .02 .2385
- .02 .2497
.2432

100.0 +S0.0271
m 3 + .0179
100.7 + .0255
99 8
.0275
114.'8
!0049
94.6 + .0388
100.3 + .0264
97.8 + .0318
93.5 + .0412
99.1 + .0290
95.0 + .0380
109.9 + .0057
110.4 + .0047
115.5
.0065
112.5

+ 12.5
+ 7.9
+ 11.7
+ 12.7
- 2. 0
+ 19.0
+ 12.2
+ 15.0
+ 20.4
+13.5
+18.5
+ 2.4
+ 2.0
- 2.6

ROLLERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 9 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 9
establishments, 1890-1899; 10 establishments, 1900; 11 establishments, 1901-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900 . . . 1___
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

22
23
22
21
22
24
22
21
22
22
•22
23
23
23
23

100.0
104.5
100.0
95.5
100.0
109.1
100.0
95.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
104.5
104.5
104.5
104.5




+1
+1
+2
+1
-1
+1
+2
+1
+1
+1

+ 4 .5 60.72 100.0
60.96 400.4
+ 4 .5 61.00 100.5
+ 9 .5 61.05 100.5
+ 4 .5 61.00 100.5
- 4 . 2 60.92 100.3
+ 4 .5 61.00 100.5
+ 9 .5 59.14 97.4
+ 4 .5 60.09 99.0
+ 4 .5 61.00 100.5
+ 4 .5 61.00 100.5
62.59 103.1
61.59 101.4
61.38 101.1
61.38 101.1

+0.66
+ .42
+ .38
+ .33
+ .38
+ .46
+ .38
+2.24
+1.29
+ .38
+ .38
—1.21
- .21

+1 .1 $0.3690 100.0 + $ 0 .1719
+ .7 .3775 102.3 + . 1634
+ .6 .3882 m 2 + .*1527
+ .5 .3714 100.7 + .1695
+ .6 .3933 106.6 + .1476
+ .8 .3538 95.9 + .1871
+ .6 .3414 92.5 + .1995
+ 3 .8 .3414 92.5 + .1995
+ 2 .1 .3543 96.0 + .1866
+ .6 .3783 102.5 + .1626
+ .6 .3906 105.9 + .1503
—1.9 .4813 130.4 + .0596
- i3 .4827 130*8 + .*0582
.4980 135.' 0 + .*0429
.5409 146*. 6

+46.6
+43.3
+39! 3
+45.6
+37.5
+52.9
+58.4
+58.4
+52.7
+43.0
+38.5
+12.4
+12* 1
+ 8.’ 6

819

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON ANTI) STEEL, MUCK BAR—Concluded.
RO CGHERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments, 1890-1898; 6 establishments, 1899; 7 establishments, 1900; 8 establishments, 1901-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
19ft9.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. number.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
12
13
13
14
14

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
92.3
100.0
100.0
107.7
107.7

+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+2
+1
+1

+ 7.7
+ 7.7
+ 7.7
+ 7.7
+ 7.7
+ 7.7
+ 7.7
+ 7.7
+ 7.7
+ 7.7
+16.7
+ 7.7
+ 7.7

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + )or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num- numage. tive.
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
58.23
58.31
58.31
58.31
58.31
58.31
58.31
58.31
58.31
68.31
57.50
61.39
61.32
61.00
61.00

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
1C0.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
98.7
105.4
105.3
104.8
104.8

+2.77
+2.69
+2.69
+2.69
+2.69
+2.69
+2.69
+2.69
+2.69
+2.69
+3.50
- .39
- .32

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

+ 4 .8 $0.3136 100.0 +80.0896
+ 4 .6 .3233 103.1 + .0799
+4 .6 .3202 102.1 + .0830
+ 4 .6 .3198 102.0 + .0834
+ 4 .6 .3128 99.7 + .0904
+ 4 .6 .3007 95.9 + .1025
+ 4 .6 .2792 89.0 + .1240
+ 4 .6 .2872 91.6 + .1160
+ 4 .6 .3027 96.5 + .1005
+ 4 .6 .3163 100.9 + .0869
+ 6 .1 .3740 119.3 + .0292
- .6 .3677 117.3 + .0355
- .5 .3643 116.2 + .0389
.3519 112.2 + .0513
.4032 128.6

Per
cent.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

28.6
24.7
25.9
26.1
28.9
34.1
44.4
40.4
33.2
2/. 5
7.8
9.7
10.7
14.6

IRON A N D STEEL, O PEN HEARTH STEEL.
LADLE LINERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 3
establishments, 1890-1893; 4 establishments, 1894-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1 89 8 ............

1899.............
1900.............

190 1 ............
1902
1 90 3 ............

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
5
5
5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
71.4
71.4
71.4
5 71.4

—2
—2
-2
-2
-2

-2
-2
-2
-2
—2

-2

-2 8 .6
-2 8 .6
-2 8 .6
-2 8 .6
-2 8 .6
-2 8 .6
-2 8 .6
-2 8 .6
-2 8 .6
—28.6
-2 8 .6

73.54
73.71
73.71
73.71
73.71
73.50
73.50
73.50
73.50
73.33
73.20
73.50
73.33
73.33
73.33

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.7
99.5
99.9
99.7
99.7
99.7

-0 .2 1
.38
.38
— .38
— .38
— .17
— .17
— .17
— .17
—
—

+ .13
.17

- 0 . 3 $0.1980 100.0 + $ 0 .0905
- .5 .1941 98.0 + .0944
- .5 .1941 98.0 + .0944
- .5 .1941 98.0 + .0944
- .5 .1941 98.0 + .0944
- .2 .1790 90.4 + .1095
- .2 .2081 105.1 + .0804
- .2 .2029 102.5 + .0856
- .2 .1975 94.7 + .0910
.2040 103.0 + .0845
+ .2 .2123 107.2 + .0762
- .2 .2548 128.7 + .0337
.2513 126.9 + .0372
.2558 129.2 + .0327
.2885 145.7

+45.7
+48.6
+48.6
+48.6
+48.6
+61.2
+38.6
+42.2
+46.1
+41.4
+35.9
+13.2
+ 14.8
+12.8

LADLE MEN, Male.
[Data for employees from 9 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 9
establishments, 1890-1899; 10 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

30
30
35
34
34
33
28
24
25
26
27
25
25
27
31

100.0
100.0
116.7
113.3
113.3
110.0
93.3
80.0
83.3
86.7
90.0
83.3
83.3
90.0
103.3




+1
+1
-4
-3
-3
-2
+3
+7
+6
+5
+4
+6
+6
+4

+ 3.3
+ 3.3
-1 1 .4
- 8.8
- 8.8
- 6.1
+10.7
+29.2
+24.0
+19.2
+14.8
+24.0
+24.0
+14.8

71.97
71.60
71.66
71.65
71.65
71.64
71.57
72.50
72.48
72.46
72.44
72.44
72.44
72.41
72.36

100.0
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.5
99.4
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.6
100.5

+0.39
+ .76
+ .70
+ .71
+ .71
+ .72
+ .79
- .14
- .12
- .10
- .08
- .08
- .08
- .05

+ 0 .5 $0.2045 100.0 +$0.0531
+ 1.1 .2321 113.5 + .0255
+ 1 .0 .2157 105.5 + .0419
+ 1 .0 .2058 100.6 + .0518
+ 1 .0 .1964 96.0 + .0612
+ 1 .0 .1845 90.2 + .0731
+ 1.1 .2022 98.9 + .0554
- .2 .2114 103.4 + .0462
- .2 .1982 96.9 + .0594
- .1 .1943 95.0 + .0633
- .1 .2043 99.9 + .0533
- .1 .2377 116.2 + .0199
- .1 .2475 121.0 + .0101
- .1 .2553 124.8 + .0023
.2576 126.0

+26.0
+11.0
+19.4
+25.2
+31.2
+39.6
+27.4
+21.9
+30.0
+32.6
+26.1
+ 8.4
+ 4.1
+ .9

820

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I*—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEEL, OPEN HEARTH STEEL—Concluded.
M E L T E R S , ifla-le*
[Data for employees from 9 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 9
establishments, 1890-1899; 10 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893 .............
1894
.
1895
.
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
48
51
56
54
56
56
40
42
39
40
43
42
42
41
39

100.0
106.3
116.7
112.5
116.7
116.7
83.3
87.5
81.3
83.3
89.6
87.5
87.5
85.4
81.3

- 9
-1 2
-1 7
-1 5
-1 7
-1 7
- 1
- 3

-1 8 .8
-2 3 .5
-3 0 .4
-2 7 .8
-3 0 .4
-3 0 .4
- 2.5
- 7.1

-

-

1
4
3
3
2

2.5
9.3
7.1
7.1
4.9

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
73.87
73.88
73.50
73.78
73.71
73.50
74.10
74.00
74.15
74.10
73.95
73.91
73.91
73.95
74.05

100.0
100.0
99.5
99.9
99.8
99.5
100.3
100.2
100.4
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2

+0.18
+ .17
+ .55
+ .27
+ .34
+ .55
- .05
+ .05
- .10
- .05
+ .10
+ .14
+ .14
+ .10

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

+ 0 .2 $0.3707 100.0 + $ 0 .0887
+ .2 .3811 102.8 + .0783
+ .7 .3915 105.6 + .0679
+ .4 .3492 94.2 + .1102
+ .5 .3478 93.8 + .1116
+ .7 .3366 90.8 + .1228
- .1 .3603 97.2 + .0991
+ .1 .3643 98.3 + .0951
- .1 .3770 101.7 + .0824
- .1 .3895 105.1 + .0699
+ .1 .4096 110.5 + .0498
+ .2 .4371 117.9 + .0223
+ .2 .4459 120.3 + .0135
+ .1 .4581 123.6 + .0013
.4594 123.9
!...............
1

Per
cent.
+23.9
+20.5
+17.3
+31.6
+32.1
+36.5
+27.5
+26.1
+21.9
+17.9
+12.2
+ 5.1
+ 3.0
+ .3

MELTERS’ HELPERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 9 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 9
establishments, 1890-1899; 10 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

124
97
no
108
112
no
122
137
133
141
166
168
170
170
165

100.0
78.2
88.7
87.1
90.3
88.7
98.4
110.5
107.3
113.7
133.9
135.5
137.1
137.1
133.1

+41
+68
+55
+57
+53
+55
+43
+28
+32
+24
- 1
- 3
- 5
- 5

+33.1
+70.1
+50.0
+52.8
+47.3
+50.0
+35.2
+20.4
+24.1
+17.0
.6
- 1.8
- 2.9
- 2.9

71.99
72.62
72.11
72.11
•
72.11
72.11
72.10
71.74
71.73
71.74
71.49
71.55
71.60
71.61
72.06

100.0
100.9
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
99.7
99.6
99.7
99.3
99.4
99.5
99.5
100.1

+0.07
- .56
- .05
- .05
- .05
- .05
- .04
+ .32
+ .33
+ .32
+ .57
+ .51
+ .46
+ .45

+ 0 .1 SO 2085
.
- .8 .2100
- .1 .2110
- .1 .2015
- .1 .2026
- .1 .1800
- .1 .1946
+ .4 .2160
+ .5 .2150
+ .4 .2111
+ .8 .2436
+ .7 .2621
+ .6 .2521
+ .6 .2816
.2972

100.0
100.7
101.2
96.6
97.2
86.3
93.3
103.6
103.1
101.2
116.8
125.7
120.9
135.1
142.5

1
+C0.0887
+ .0872
+ .0862
+ .0957
+ .0946
+ .1172
+ .1026
+ . 0812
+ .0822
+ .0861
+ .0536
+ .0351
+ .0451
+ .0156

+42.5
+41.5
+40.9
+47.5
+46.7
+65.1
+52.7
+37.6
+38.2
+40.8
+22.0
+13.4
+ 17.9
+ 5.5

1 .............

PITMEN, Male.
[Data for employees from 8 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 8
establishments, 1890-1899; 9 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895 .............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900 .............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

86
81
93
96
94
82
79
86
80
82
91
87
88
81
87

100.0
94.2
108.1
111.6
109.3
95.3
91.9
100.0
93.0
95.3
105.8
101.2
102.3
94.2
101.2




+1
.+ 6
-6
-9
-7
+5
+8
+1
+7
+5
-4
-1
+6

+ 1.2
+ 7.4
- 6.5
- 9.4
- 7.4
+ 6.1
+10.1
+ 1.2
+ 8.8
+ 6.1
- 4.4

72.66
73.33
73.16
72.88
72.64
73.02
72.46
72.42
72.15
72.44
72.13
72.13
- i . i 71.87
+ 7.4 71.86
73.48

+0.82
+ .15
+ .32
+ .60
+ .84
+ .46
+1.02
+1.06
+1.33
+1.04
+1.35
+1.35
+1.61
+1.62

100.0
100.9
100.7
100.3
100.0
100.5
99.7
99.7
99.3
99.7
99.3
99.3
98.9
98.9
101.1
i

+ i.i ' SO 1571
.
+ .2 .1717
+ *4 .1696
+ .8 .1584
+ 1 .2 .1570
+ .6 . 1432
+ 1 .4 .1479
+ 1 .5 .1561
+ 1 .8 .1512
+ 1 .4 . 1519
+ 1 .9 .1637
+ 1 .9 .1746
+ 2 .2 . 1728
+ 2 .3 .1814
. 1898

100.0 +S0.0327
109.3 + .0181
108.0 + .0202
100.8 + .0314
99.9 + .0328
91.2 + .0466
94.1 + . 0419
99.4 + . 0337
98.2 + .0386
96.7 + .0379
104.2 + .0261
111.1 -f- . 0152
110.0 + .0170
117.4 a_ .0054
120.8

+20.8
+10.5
+11.9
+19.8
+20.9
+32.5
+28.3
+21.6
+25.5
+25.0
+15.9
+ 8.7
+ 9.8
+ 2.9

821

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,

Table I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEED, RAIDS.
CATCHEJRS, -Male*
[Data from 1 establishment.]

Year.

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
NumPer
NumPer
Amount. Per
cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.

100 .
Ay. 1890-99.
100
.....................
1890
100
1891
.....................
1892
..................... .
100
100
1893
.....................
1894
.....................
100
100
1895
.....................
100
1896
..................... .
100
1897
..................... .
100
1898
.....................
100
1899 ........
1900
..................... .
100.
1901
.....................
1902
..................... .
100
100
1903
..................... .

72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00

..
..
.
..

100

100.0

$0.3391
.3526
.3718
.3846
.3141
.3333
.3526
.3526
.3333
.3077
.2885
.5513
.5256
.6026
.5897

100.0
104.0
109.6
113.4
92.6
98.3
104.0
104.0
98.3
90.7
85.1
162.6
155.0
177.7
173.9

+ 4.7 $0.2111
+28.6 .2428
+28.6 .2135
.3033
.2058
.1956
.1996
.2123
.1587
.1854
.1941
.2497
.2494
.2743
.2513

100.0
115.0
101.1
143.7
97.5
92.7
94.6
100.6
75.2
87.8
91.9
118.3
118.1
129.9
119.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

+$0.2506
+ .2371
+ .2179
+ .2051
+ .2756
+ .2564
+ .2371
+ .2371
+ .2564
+ .2820
+ .3012
+ .0384
+ .0641
.0129

+ 73.9
+ 67.2
+ 58.6
+ 53.3
+ 87.7
+ 76.9
+ 67.2
+ 67.2
+ 76.9
+ 91.6
+104.4
+ 7.0
+ 12.2
2.1

4-£0 0409

+19.0
+ 3.5
+17.7
—17.1
+22.1
+28.5
+25.9
+18.4
+58.3
+35.5
+29.5
+ .6
+ .8
— 8.4

CHARGERS, H ale.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

9
9
9
7
7
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

100.0
100.0
100.0
77.8
77.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

+2
+2

68.80
56.00
56.00
+28.6 72.00
+28.6 72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00

100.0
81.4
81.4
104.7
104.7
104.7
104.7
104.7
104.7
104.7
104.7
104.7
104.7
104.7
104.7

+ 3.20
+16.00
+16.00

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

.0085
.0378
.0520
.0455
.0557
.0517
.0390
.0926
.0659
.0572
.0016
.0019
.0230

HEATERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895 .............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

11 100.0

13 118.2
13 118.2
7 63.6
7 63.6

11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

109.1
109.1
109.1
12 109.1
12 109.1

I
I
!
1
|
1
i
+ 9.1 69.18 100. 0;
| -3.1 8 !
- 7.7 60.92 88.1 ! +5.08!
- 7.7 60.92 88.1
+5.08!
+ 5 +71.4 72.00 104.1
- 6. 00|
+ 5 +71.4 72.00 204.1
- 6. 00!
- 6.001
+ 1 + 9.1 72.00 104.1
- 6. O j
O
+ 1 + 9.1 72.00 104.1
- 6. O i
O
+ 1 1 + 9.1 72.00 104.1
- 6.00
+ 11 + 9.1 72.00 104.1
+ 1 + 9.1!j 72.00 104.1
- 6.001
1
..
66. O i 95.4:............... |
O
............. i.............. 66. 00i Q 41_______ !
n
1
66. O i 95. 4!............... !..
O
|
............. 1 ......... 66.00' 95.4
........... ! ............ 66.00| 95. 4'________
i
i
i
1




+1
-1
-1

- 4 . 6!$0.4130
+ 8 .3 .5388
+ 8 .3 .4572
- 8 .3
.4778
- 8 .3
.3853
-8 .3
.3668
-8 .3
.4230
-8 .3
.4410
- 8 .3
.3385
- 8 .3
.3552
.3468
.5199
.4948
.5828
.5394

100.0 + $ 0 .1264
130.5
110.7
115.7
93.3

+
+
+
+
88.8 +
102.4 +
106.8 +
82.0 +
86.0 +
84.0 +
125.9' +
119. 8 4 141.1130. cj

.0006
.0822
.0616
. 1541
.1726
.1164
.0984
.2009
. 1842!
. 19261
.0195
.0446
.0434

+30.6
+ .1
+18.0
+12.9
+40.0
+47.1
+27.5
+ 22.3
+59.4
+51.9
+55.5
+ 3.8
+ 9.0
— 7.4

822

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IR O N A N D STEED , R A ID S—Continued.
LEVER MEIN, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Rela­
Num­ tive
num­
ber.
ber.

7
8
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
9
9
9
9
9

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

100.0
114.3
114.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6

+2
+1
+1
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2

+28.6
+12.5
+12.5
+28.6
+28.6
+28.6
+28.6
+28.6
+28.6
+28.6

68.60
63.00
63.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
56.00
56.00
56.00
56.00
56.00

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
91.8
91.8
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
105.0
81.6
81.6
81.6
81.6
81.6

-1 2 .6 0
- 7.00
- 7.00
-1 6 .0 0
-1 6 .0 0
-1 6 .0 0
-1 6 .0 0
-1 6 .0 0
-1 6 .0 0
-1 6 .0 0

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—)in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

-1 8 .4 $0.2623 100.0 +$0.1077
-1 1 .1
.3055 116.5 + .0645
-1 1 .1 .2563 97.7 + .1137
-2 2 .2 .2948 112.4 + .0752
-2 2 .2 .2578 98.3 + .1122
-2 2 .2 .2503 95.4 + .1197
-2 2 .2 .2857 108.9 + .0843
-2 2 .2 .2686 102.4 + .1014
-2 2 .2 .2351 89.6 + .1349
-2 2 .2 .2367 90.2 + .1333
.2322 88.5 + . 1378
.3125 119.1 + . 0575
.3412 130.1 + .0288
.4088 155.9 — .0388
.3700 141.1

Per
cent.
+41.1
+21.1
+ 44.4
+25.5
+43.5
+47.8
+29.5
+37.8
+ 57.4
+56.3
+59.3
+18.4
+ 8.4
— 9.5

ROLLERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
120.0
120.0
120.0
120.0
120.0

+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1

+20.0
+20.0
+20.0
+20.0
+20.0
+20.0
+20.0
+20.0
+20.0
+20.0

70.80
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
84.7
84.7
84.7
84.7
84.7

-1 0 .8 0
-1 2 .0 0
-1 2 .0 0
-1 2 .0 0
-1 2 .0 0
-1 2 .0 0
-1 2 .0 0
-1 2 .0 0
-1 2 .0 0
-1 2 .0 0

-1 5 .3 $0.5184 100.0 +$0.2075
-1 6 .7 .6067 117.0 + .1192
- 1 6 .7 .5504 106.2 + .1755
-1 6 .7
.5378 103.7 + .1881
-1 6 .7 .5633 108.7 + .1626
-1 6 .7
.5084 98.1 + .2175
-1 6 .7 .4871 94.0 + .2388
-1 6 .7 .4971 95.9 + .2288
-1 6 .7
.4717 91.0 + .2542
-1 6 .7 .4661 89.9 + .2598
.4953 95.5 + .2306
* .6129 118.2 + .1130
.6722 129.7 + .0537
.0510
.7769 149.9
.7259 140.0

+40.0
+19.6
+31.9
+35.0
+28.9
+42.8
+49.0
+46.0
+53.9
+55.7
+46.6
+ 18.4
+ 8.0
— 6.6

ROUGHERS, Male.
3
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

100.
133.
133.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.




-1
-1

o o

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

1 1

[Data from 2 establishments.]
68.40
54.00
54.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00

100.0

78.9
78.9
105.3
105.3
105.3
105.3
105.3
105.3
105.3
105.3

+ 3.60
+18.00
+18.00

+ 5.3 $0.3744
+33.3 .4704
+33.3 .3494
.4015
.3769
.3799
.4260
.4487
.2759
.2899
.3254
.4636
.4404
.5042
.4038

100.0 +$0.0294
.0666
125.6 93.3 + .0544
107.2 + .0023
100.7 + .0269
101.5 + .0239
.0222
113.8 .0449
119.8 73.7 + .1279
77.4 + .1139
86.9 + . 0784
.0598
123.8 .0366
117.6 .1004
134.7 107.9

+ 7.9
- 1 4 .2
+15.6
+ .6
+ 7.1
+ 6.3
- 5.2
- 1 0 .0
+ 46.4
+39.3
+24.1
- 1 2 .9
- 8.3
-1 9 .9

823

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IROIST ANTE STEEL, RAILS—Concluded.
STRAIGHTENERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase (+ ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
29
26
26
26
26
26
28
31
31
31
38
39
39
39
39

100.0
89.7
89.7
89.7
89.7
89.7
96.6
106.9
106.9
106.9
131.0
134.5
134.5
134.5
134.5

+10
+13
+13
+13
+13
+13
+11
+ 8
+ 8
+ 8
+ 1

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

.Employees.

+34.5
+50.0
+50.0
+50.0
+50.0
+50.0
+39.3
+25.8
+25.8
+25.8
+ 2.6

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

63.01
56.31
56.31
64.62
64.62
64.62
65.14
61.26
64.26
64.26
65.68
65.23
65.23
65.23
65.23

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
tive.
age.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
89.4
89.4
102.6
102.6
102.6
103.4
102.0
102.0
102.0
104.2
103.5
103.5
103.5
103.5

+ 2.22
+ 8.92
+ 8.92
+ .61
+ .61
+ .61
+ .09
+ .97
+ .97
+ .97
.45

+ 3.5 $0.3778
+15.8 .4567
+15.8 .3951
+ .9 .4317
+ .9 .3988
+ .9 .3739
+ . 1 .3589
+ 1.5 .3657
+ 1.5 .3529
+ 1.5 .3306
.7 .3139
.3465
.3891
.4362
.4273

100.0
120.9
104.6
114.3
105.6
99.0
95.0
96.8
93.4
87.5
83.1
91.7
103.0
115.5
113.1

+$0.0495
— .0294
*
+ .0322
— .0044
+ .0285
+ .0534
+ .0684
+ .0616
+ .0744
+ .0967
+ .1134
+ .0808
+ .0382
.0089

+13.1
- 6.4
+ 8.1
- 1.0
+ 7.1
+14.3
+19.1
+16.8
+21.1
+29.2
+36.1
+23.3
+ 9.8
- 2.0

- 0 . 4 $0.1539 100.0 +$0.0163
— .5 .1468 95.4 + .0234
— .4
.1494 97.1 + .0208
— .1
.1511 98.2 + .0191
— .6
.1535 99.7 + .0167
— .4 .1515 98.4 + .0187
— .3 .1527 99.2 + .0175
— .5
.1584 102.9 + .0118
— .5 .1622 105.4 + .0080
— .5
.1576 102.4 + .0126
— .3 .1558 101.2 + .0144
— .4 .1595 103.6 + .0107
.1 .1625 105.6 + .0077
+ .1 .1677 109.0 + .0025
.1702 110.6

+10.6
+15.9
+13.9
+12.6
+10.9
+12.3
+11.5
+ 7.4
+ 4.9
+ 8.0
+ 9.2
+ 6.7
+ 4.7
+ 1.5

LEATHER.
COLORERS, Male.
[Data from 14 establishments.]
iv . 1890-99.
L890.............
1891.............
.892.............
'.893.............
.894.............
.895.............
.896.............
.897.............
.898.............
.899.............
.900.............
901.............
.902.............
903.............

106
100
97
118
79
126
117
86
94
108
134
127
111
101
111

100.0
94.3
91.5
111.3
74.5
118.9
110.4
81.1
88.7
101.9
126.4
119.8
101.7
95.3
104.7

+ 5
+11
+14
- 7
+32
-1 5
- 6
+25
+17
+ 3
-2 3
-1 6
+10

59.41
59.47
59.40
59.24
59.52
59.37
59.33
59.45
59.48
59.48
59.35
59.40
59.24
+ 9.9 59.13
59.16

+ 4.7
+11.0
+14.4
- 5.9
+40.5
-1 1 .9
- 5.1
+29.1
+18.1
+ 2.8
-1 7 .2
-1 2 .6

100.0
100.1
100.0
99.7
100.2
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
100.0
99.7
99.5
99.6

-0 .2 5
- .31
- .24
- .08
- .36
- .21
- .17
- .29
- .32
- .32
- .19
- .24
— .08
+ .03

_

FLESHERS, Male.
Data for employees from 31 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 31
establishments, 1890,1891; 32 establishments, 1892-1903.]
lv. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

182
189
180
193
180
179
188
172
170
172
200
194
191
203
222

100.0
103.8
98.9
106.0
98.9
98.4
103.3
94.5
93.4
94.5
109.9
106.6
104.9
111.5
122.0




+40
+33
+42
+29
+42
+43
+34
+50
+52
+50
+22
+28
+31
+19

+22.0
+17.5
+23.3
+15.0
+23.3
+24.0
+18.1
+29.1
+30.6
+29.1
+11.0
+14.4
+16.2
+ 9.4

59.37
59.39
59.33
59.33
59.38
59.35
59.41
59.40
59.43
59.43
59.29
59.34
59.36
59.37
59.77

100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.7

+0.40
+ .38
+ .44
+ .44
+ .39
+ •42
+ .36
+ .37
+ .34
+ .34
+ .48
+ .43
+ .41
+ ,40

+ 0 .7 $0.1720 100.0 +$0.0092
+ .6 .1819 105.8 — .0007
+ .7 .1799 104.6 + .0013
+ .7 .1795 104.4 + .0017
+ .7 .1786 103.8 + .0026
+ .7 .1672 97.2 + .0140
+ .6 .1646 95.7 + .0166
+ .6 .1689 98.2 + .0123
+ .6 .1653 96.1 + .0159
+ .6 .1672 97.2 + .0140
+ .8 .1673 97.3 + .0139
+ .7 .1738 101.0 + .0074
+ .7 .1761 102.4 + .0051
+ .7 .1779 103.4 + .0033
.1812 105.3

+ 5.3
.4
+ .7
+ .9
+ 1.5
+ 8.4
+10.1
+ 7.3
+ 9.6
+ 8.4
+ 8.3
+ 4.3
+ 2.9
+ 1.9

824

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
Ta b l e

I ___ WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued-

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of Increase ( + ) or decrease <—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

L E A T H E R —Continued.
GLAZER8, male.
[Data for employees from 9 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 10
establishments, 1890,1891; 9 establishments, 1892,1893; 10 establishments, 1894-1903.J
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1899-99.
1890...-........
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1893.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + )o r
decrease < - ) i n
I l l a ­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
189
m
147
164
141
195
191
243.
239
208
254
269
252
241
324

109.0
58.7
77.8
86.8
74.6
103.2
101.1
128.6
126.5]
110.1
134.4
142.3
133.3
127.5
171.4

+135
+213
+177
+160
+183
+129
+133
+ 81
+ 85
+116
+ 70
+ 55
+ 72
+ 83

+ 71.4
+191.9
+120.4
+ 97.6
+129.8
+ 66.2
+ 69.6
+ 33.3
+ 35.6
+ 55.8
+ 27.6
+ 20.4
+ 28.6
+ 34.4

Wages per hour.

Increase (+ )o r
decrease <—) in
Aver­ Rela­ 1903 as com­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
59.15
59.07
59.09
59.02
59.06
59.09
59.19
59.25
59.28
59.24
59.16
59.16
59.25
59.18
59.29

100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.1
100.2

+0.14
+ .22
+ .20
+ .27
+ .23
+ .20
+ .10
+ .04
+ .01
+ .05
+ .13
+ .13
+ .04
+ .11

+ 0 .2 60.1517
.1483
+ .4
.1463
+ .3
.1492
+ .5
+ .4 : .1385
.1456
+ .3
.1613
+ *2
.1530
+ •1
+ .02 .1534
.1602
+ .1
.1615
+ .2
.1594
+ .2
.1737
+ *1
.1783
+ .2
.1973

100.0
97.8
96.4
98.4
91.3
96.0
106.2
100.9
101.1
105.6
106.5
105.1
114.5
117.5
130.1

Increase (+ )o r
decrease ( - ) i n
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.
+60.0456
+ .0490
+ .0510
+ .0481
.0588
+ .0517
+ .0362
+ .0443
+ .0439
+ .0371
+ .0358
+ .0379
+ .0236
+ .0190

Per
cent.
+30.1
+33.0
+34.9
+32.2
+42.5
+35.5
+22.5
+29.0
+28.6
+23.2
+22.2
+23.8
+13.6
+10.7

GLAXEKS, Female.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 1
establishment 1890,1891; 2 establishments, 1892-1894; 3 establishments, 1895-1903.]
Av. 1890-991890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

41
7
19
20
5
10
35
28
45
149
95
107
87
69
99

100.0
17.1
46.3
48.8
12.2
24.4
85.4
68.3
109.8
363.4
231.7
261.0
212.2
168.3
241.5

+58 + 141.5
+92 +1314.3
+80 + 421.1
+79 + 395.0
+94 +1880.0
+89 + 890.0
+64 + 182.9
+71 + 253.6
+54 + 120.0
-5 0 33.6
4.2
+ 4+
- 87.5
+12 + 13.8
+30 + 43.5

59.97
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.92
59.93
59.94
59.96
59.94
59.96
59.97
59.95
59.97

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99-9
100.0
100.0
100-0
100.0

-0 .0 3
- .03
- .03
- .03
- .03
+ .05
+ .04
+ .03
+ .01
+ .03
+ .01
+ .02

60.0801
.0810
.0789
.0758
.0741
.0786
.0783
.0852
.0872
.0781
.0836
.0859
.0933
+ .03 .1014
.1002

- 0 .1
- .1
- .1
- .1
- .1
+ .1
+ .1
+ .1
+ .02
+ .1
+ .02

100.0
101.1
98.5
94.6
92.5
98.1
97.8
106.4
108.9
97.5
104.4
107.2
116.5
126.6
125.1

+60.0201
+ .0192
+ .0213
+ .0244
+ .0261
+ .0216
+ .0219
+ .0150
+ .0130
+ .0221
+ .0166
+ .0143
+ .0069
.0012

+25.1
+23.7
+27.0
+32.2
+35.2
+27.5
+28.0
+17.0
+14. £
+28.3
+19. S
+16.0
+ 7.4
- 1.2

MMEIiS, Male.
[Data for employees from 29 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 2£
establishments, 1890,1891; S establishments, 1892-1903.]
O
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894.............
3895.............
3896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

188
171
178
191
162
176
183
179
197
393
229
224
234
249
276

100.0
91.9
95.7
102.7
87.1
94.6
98.4
96.2
105.9
103.8
123.1
120.4
125.8
133.9
148.4




+ 90
+305
+ 98
+ 85
+114
+100
+ 93
+ 97
+ 79
+ 83
+ 47
+ 52
+ 42
+ 27

+48.4
+61.4
+55.1
+44.5
+70.4
+56.8
+50.8
+54.2
+40.1
+43.0
+20.5
+23.2
+17.9
+10.8

59.02
58.77
58.78
58.84
58.81
58.92
59.07
59.05
59.35
59.32
59.29
59.34
59.37
59.35
59.21

100.0
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.6
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.3

+0.19
+ .44
+ .43
+ .57
+ .40
+ .29
+ .14
+ .16
- .14
- .11
- .08
- .13
- .16
- .14

+ 0 .3 60.1587
+ .7 .1675
+ .7 .1643
+ .6 .1655
+ .7 .1631
+ .5 .1562
+ .2 .1554
+ .3 .1525
- .2 .1516
- .2 .1520
- .1 .1586
- .2 .1617
- .3 .1609
- .2 .1668
.1689

100.0 +60.0102
105.5 + .0014
103.5 + .0046
104.3 + .0034
102.8 + .0058
98.4 + .0127
97.9 + .0135
96.1 + .0164
95.5 + .0173
95.8 + .0169
99.9 + .0103
101.9 + .0072
101.4 + .0080
.0021
105.1
106.4

+

+ 6. l
+
+ 2. f
+ 2.1
+ 3. <
+ 8.:
+ 8/.
+ 1 0 .1
+11. ‘
+ n .:
+ 6.1
+ 4.1
+ 5.<

+ l-«‘

825

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-11903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages*715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

L E A T H E R —Continued.
ROLLERS, Male.
[Data from 6 establishments.]

i ear.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1 8 9 7 ...'.....
1898.............
1899.............
1900 .............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
number. num­
oer.
ber.
Per
Num­
cent.
ber.
19
19
19
19
19
19
20
19
19
19
20
21
23
23
23

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
105.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
105.3
110.5
121.1
121.1
121.1

+4
+4
+4
+4
+4
+4
+3
+4
+4
+4
+3
+2

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+15.0
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+15.0
+ 9.5

59.83
59.84
59.84
59.84
59.84
59.84
59.80
59.84
59.84
59.84
59.80
59.81
59.83
59.83
59.83

Increasei (+ ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
cent.
ber.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

-6 .0 1
- .01
- .01
- .01
- .01
+ .03
- .01
- .01
- .01
+ .03
+ .02

-0 .0 2
- .02
- .02
- .02
- .02
+ *1
- .02
- .02
- .02
+ *1
+ .03

$0.1415
.1415
.1415
.1415
.1409
.1409
.1430
.1409
.1409
.1409
.1430
.1418
.1465
.1501
.1501

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
A
1
Amount.

100.0 +$0.0086
100.0 + .0086
100.0 + .0086
100.0 + .0086
99.6 + .0092
99.6 + .0092
101.1 + .0071
99.6 + .0092
99.6 + .0092
99.6 + .0092
101.1 + .0071
100.2 + .0083
103.5 + .0036
106.1
106.1
|

Per
cent.
4-6. 1
+ 6 .1
+ 6 .1
+ 6 .1
+ 6 .5
+ 6 .5
+ 5 .0
+ 6 .5
+ 6 .5
+ 6 .5
+ 5 .0
+ 5 .9
+ 2 .5

SETTERS OUT, Male.
[Data from 15 establishments.].
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1 8 9 1 ... .:. ..
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

268
225
246
314
179
312
286
170
317
288
341
333
351
327
308

100.0
84.0
91.8
117.2
66.8
116.4
106.7
63.4
118.3
107.5
127.2
124.3
131.0
122.0
114.9

+ 40
+ 83
+ 62
6
+129
4
+ 22
+138
9
+ 20
- 33
- 25
- 43
— 19

+14.9
+36.9
+25.2
- 1.9
+72.1
- 1.3
+ 7.7
+81.2
- 2.8
+ 6.9
- 9.7
- 7.5
-1 2 .3
— 5.8

59.37
59.50
59.45
59.36
59.65
59.33
59.35
59.44
59.28
59.29
59.02
59.09
59.13
59.14
59.14

100.0
100.2
100.1
100.0
100.5
99.9
100.0
100.1
99.8
99.9
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.6

-0 .2 3 !
— .36 i
— .31 1
— .22
— .51
— .19
_ .21
— .30
— .14
— .15
+ .12
+ .05
+ .01

- 0 . 4 $0.1553
— .6
.1609
- .5
.1600
— .4
. 1532
— .9
.1674
_ .3
.1498
_ .4
.1499
— .5
.1552
— .2
.1505
— .3
.1482
.1583
+ .2
.1577
.1
+
+ .02 .1599
. 1595
.1639

SHAVERS, Male.
[Data from 16 establishments.]

A v.

- .
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

1890 9 9
189 0
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1 897
189 8
1 899
1900
1 90 1
1 90 2
1 90 3

90
86
104
103
87
88
85
71
79
100
94
101
102
•88
98

100.0
95.6
115.6
114.4
96.7
97.8
94.4
78.9
87.8
111.1
104.4
112.2
113.3
97.8
108.9




+ 8 + 8 .9 59.41
+ 14.0 §9.64
+12
- 6 - 5 .8 §9*70
—'5
►k e i
>.5 9.18
+11
• +2 1*4 59.14
+ l 3 > + 15.3 59.12
+ 27 • + 38.0 58.92
+19
•&9.i >7
- 2 2 2 .5 5?). 62
+ g + • 4 . '&
4
_
- 3 .0 59.59
- 4 - 3 .9 59.55
+ 10: + 11.4 59. 57

109.0
I9Q..4
100./ • «10(5.4
99.6
+
99.5
+
99.5
+
99.2
+
ISO.
190.4 ■
•
aoo.2
ICO 3
.
100.2j
+
100.3j
59.56 100. 3!

. 14f

.Ill
.38!
.42
.44
.64

-pc
.03
. 01!
.

01;

100.0
103.6
103.0
98.6
107.8
96.5
96.5
99.9
96.9
95.4
101.9
101.5
103.0
102.7
105.5

+$0.0086
+ .0030
+ .0039
+ .0107
.0035
+ .0141
+ .0140
+ .0087
+ .0134
+ .0157
+ .0056
+ .0062
+ .0040
+ .0044

+ 5.5
+ 1.9
+ 2.4
+ 7.0
- 2.1
+ 9.4
+ 9.3
+ 5.6
+ 8.9
+10.6
+ 3.5
+ 3.9
+ 2. o
+ 2.8

826

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, sec note on page 718.]

L E A T H E R —Concluded.
STAKERS, Male.
[Data from 8 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
167
116
149
188
178
174
186
150
161
179
191
144
206
130
140

100.0
69.5
89.2
112.6
106.6
104.2
111.4
89.8
96.4
107.2
114.4
86.2
123.4
77.8
83.8

-2 7
+24
- 9
-4 8
-3 8
-3 4
-4 6
-1 0
-2 1
-3 9
-5 1
- 4
-6 6
+10

-1 6 .2
+20.7
- 6.0
-2 5 .5
-2 1 .3
-1 9 .5
-2 4 .7
- 6.7
-1 3 .0
-2 1 .8
-2 6 .7
- 2.8
-3 2 .0
+ 7.7

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

59.20
59.24
59.17
59.12
59.14
59.19
59.18
59.19
59.26
59.30
59.18
59.26
59.26
59.33
59.36

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
numage. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.3

+ 0 .3 $0.2334 100.0 $0.0621 -2 6 .6
+ .2 .2150 92.1 _
.0437 -2 0 .3
+ .3 .2353 100.8 __ .0640 -2 7 .2
+ .4 .2458 105.3 __ .0745 -3 0 .3
+ .4 .2450 105.0 __ .0737 - 3 0 .1
.0669 -2 8 .1
+ .3 .2382 102.1 _
.0676 —28.3
+ .3 .2389 102.4 _
+ .3 .2335 100.0 — .0622 - - 2 6 .6
.0527 -2 3 .5
+ .2 .2240 96.0 _
+ .1 .2215 94.9 — .0502 -2 2 .7
+ .3 .2371 101.6 — .0658 -2 7 .8
+ .2 .1671 71.6 + .0042 + 2.5
.0071 - 4.0
+ .2 .1784 76.5
.9
+ .1 .1729 74.1 — .0016 .1713 73.4

+0.16
+ .12
+ .19
+ .24
+ .22
+ .17
+ .18
+ .17
+ .10
+ .06
+ .18
+ .10
+ .10
+ .03

TANNERS, Male.
[Data from 19 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

444
407
411
452
455
434
438
412
435
494
499
483
506
484
505

100.0
91.7
92.6
101.8
102.5
97.7
98.6
92.8
98.0
111* 3
112.4
108.8
114.0
109.0
113.7

+61
+98
+94
+53
+50
+71
+67
+93
+70
+11
+ 6
+22
- 1
+21

+13.7
+24.1
+22.9
+11.7
+11.0
+16.4
+15.3
+22.6
+16.1
+ 2.2
+ 1.2
+ 4.6
.2
+ 4.3

59.08
58.79
58.63
58.73
58.85
58.92
59.06
59.21
59.45
59.71
69.40
59.37
59.40
59.37
59.23

100.0
99.5
99.2
99.4
99.6
99.7
100.0
100.2
100.6
101.1
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.3

+0.15
+ .44
+ .60
+ .50
+ .38
+ .31
+ .17
+ .02
- .22
- .48
- .17
- .14
- .17
- .14

+ 0 .3 $0.1366
.1414
+ .7
+ 1 .0
.1436
+ .8
.1439
.1418
+ .6
.1342
+ .5
.1320
+ .3
+ .03 .1325
- .4
.1336
.1304
- .8
.1325
- .3
- .2
.1369
- .3
.1379
.1428
- .2
.1463

100.0
103.6
105.1
105.3
103.8
98.2
96.6
97.0
97.8
95.5
97.0
100.2
101.0
104.5
107.1

+$0.0097
+ .0049
+ .0027
+ .0024
+ .0045
+ .0121
+ .0143
+ .0138
+ .0127
+ .0159
+ .0138
+ .0094
+ .0084
+ .0035

+ 7.1
+ 3.5
+ 1.9
+ 1.7
+ 3.2
+ 9.0
+10.8
+10.4
+ 9.5
+12.2
+10.4
+ 6.9
+ 6.1
+ 2.5

100.0
105.6
104.4
104.4
102.0
95.6
96.6
98.4
90.7
97.2
96.0
99.1
101.2
105.6
105.8

+$0.0091
+ .0004
+ .0022
+ .0022
+ .0080
+ .0160
+ .0144
+ .0116
+ .0096
+ .0135
+ .0154
+ .0105
+ .0073
+ .0003

+ .2

UNHAIRERS, Male.
[Data from 11 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99. .179
1890............. .
1891..
^.
160
1892*.!.. t
Vm
185
170
169
183
«Tl91
1897*
18981*..-.%*
1 8 9 9 .;..,.!.:
1900..
205
1901..
222
1902..
231
1903..
227

J*o.o
•91.6
! 89*4

,••••

+48 *+•26*8 .*9*39
4-63 •*H88.«4 »5*).iQ
+67 +41.9 59.13 99?6
95.5
+56 +32.7 59.02 99.4
+42 +22.7 59.05 99.4
103.4
95.0
+57 +33.5 59.18 99.6
94.4
+58 +34.3 59.50 100.2
+64.0
! 99.?
• :+ 3S +1$.8' 59.87 IlOO.fc
•::+ 2S +12.9 *50.88
► *+82 +16.4 59.S6
«
+22 +10.7 59.83 100.7
114.5
124.0
+ 5 + 2.3 59.87 100.8
129.1
- 4 - 1.7 59.83 ICO 7
.
126.8
59.26 99.8

•« M i




m

I
-0.2 $0.1561
4*;i6 + »3 .1648
• + . 2 .1630
+ 224 ;.v \ 4 .1630
+ .21 •*;+1-4 * .1592
+ .08 W .1492
*- .24 —*4 .1508
-1 .1536
U6 4i.o .1556
\X
-0 .1 3

-

.60
.57
.61
.57

••*-1.0
-1 .0
-1 .0
-1 .0
-1 .0

.1517
.1498
.1547
.1579
.1649
.1652

+ 5.8

+ 1.3
+ 1.3
+ 3.8
+10.7
+ 9.5
+ 7.6

+ 6.2

+ 8.9
+10.3
+ 6.8
+ 4.6

+

.2

827

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903. as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

U Q U O R S, DISTILLED.
COOKER MEN, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

A 7. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895 .............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900 .............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( - ) m
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. num­
num­ num­
ber.
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Num­
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
66.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
66.7
4 133.3
4 133.3
4 133.3

+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+2
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+2

+ 33.3
+ 33.3
+ 33.3
+ 33.3
+ 33.3
+100.0;
+ 33.3'!
+ 33.3
+ 33.3
+ 33.3
+ 33.3
+100.0

64.20 100.0
64.00 99.7
64.00 99.7
64.00 99.7
64.00 99.7
G6.00 102.8
64.00 99.7
64.00 99.7
64.00 99.7
64.00 99.7
64.00 99.7
66.00 102.8
63.00 98.1
63.00 98.1
63.00 98.1

-1 .2 0
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
-3 .0 0
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
-3 .0 0

- 1 . 9 80.1804 100.0 +$0.0175
-1 .6
.1801 99.8 + .0178
-1 .6
.1801 99.8 + .0178
- 1 .6
.1801 99.8 + .0178
-1 .6
.1801 99.8 + .0178
- 4 .5
.1868 103.5 + .0111
.1801 99.8 + .0178
- 1 .6
.1847 102.4 + .0132
-1 .6
.1736 96.2 + .0243
- 1 .6
.1736 96.2 + .0243
-1 .6
-1 .6
.1847 102.4 + .0132
- 4 .5
.1938 107.4 + .0041
.1979 109.7
.1979 109.7
.1979 109.7

+ 9.7
+ 9.9
+ 9.9
+ 9.9
+ 9.9
+ 5.9
+ 9.9
+ 7.1
+14.0
+14.0
+ 7.1
+ 2.1

+ 0.1 $0.1370 100.0 + $ 0 .0130
- .5 .1364 99.6 + .0136
- .3 .1357 99.1 + .0143
- .3 . 1357 99.1 + .0143
- .7 .1367 99.8 + .0133
+ 1 .2 .1394 101.8 + .0106
+ .1 .1368 99.9 + .0132
.1360 99.3 + .0140
- A
+1 .0 .1375 100.4 + .0125
+ .4 .1387 101.2 + .0113
+ .4 .1369 99.9 + .0131
- .3 .1371 100.1 + .0129
.1500 109.5
— .7 .1500 109.5
.1500 109.5

+ 9.5
+10.0
+10.5
+10.5
+ 9.7
+ 7.6
+ 9.6
+10.3
+ 9.1
+ 8.1
+ 9.6
+ 9.4

- 7 . 3 $0.2038 100.0 + $ 0 .0240
—7.1 .1985 97.4 + .0293
- 7 .1
.1985 97.4 + .0293
—7.1 .1985 97.4 + .0293
.2046 100.4 + .0232
-7 .1
—7.1 .2046 100.4 + .0232
.2067 101.4 + .0211
- 7 .8
.2067 101.4 + .0211
- 7 .8
—7.1 .2046 100.4 + . 0232
—7.1 .2046 100.4 + .0232
-7 .1
.2108 103.4 + .0170
-7 .1
.2108 103.4 + .0170
-7 .1
.2108 103.4 + .0170
- 7 .1
.2108 103.4 + .0170
.2278 111.8

+11.8
+14.8
+14.8
+14.8
+11.3
+11.3
+10.2
+10.2
+11.3
+11.3
+ 8.1
+ 8.1
+ 8.1
+ 8.1

LABORERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901
1902 ........
1903 .............

39
33
35
35
32
52
38
34
50
42
42
35
56
48
56

100.0
84.6
89.7
89.7
82.1
133.3
97.4
87.2
128.2
107.7
107.7
89.7
143.6
123.1
143.6

+17
+23
+21
+21
+24
+ 4
+18
+22
+ 6
+14
+14
+21
+ 8

62.51
62.91
62.74
62.74
63.00
61.85
62.53
62.82
61.92
62.29
62.29
62.74
62.57
+16.7 63.00
62.57

+43.6
+69.7
+60.0
+60.0
+75.0
+ 7.7
+47.4
+64.7
+12.0
+33.3
+33.3
+60.0

100.0
100.6
100.4
100.4
100.8
98.9
100.0
100.5
99.1
99.6
99.6
100.4
100.1
100.8
100.1

+0.06
- .34
- .17
- .17
- .43
+ .72
+ .04
- .25
+ .65
+ .28
+ .28
- .17
— .43

MASH HANDS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .........
ism
___
1892 ___
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900

1901.............
1902.............
1908

6
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
83.3
83.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

+1
+1

56.08 100.0
56.00 99.9
56.00 99.9
56.00 99.9
56.00 99.9
56.00 99.9
+20.0 56.40 100.6
+20.0 56.40 100.6
56.00 99.9
56.00 99.9
56.00 99.9
56.00 99.9
56.00 99.9
56.00 99.9
52.00 92.7

10092—No. 53—04---- 9



—4.08
—4.00
—4.00
—4.00
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0
-4 .4 0
-4 .4 0
—4.00
—4.00
-4 .0 0
—4.00
-4 .0 0
-4 .0 0

828

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I*— WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

[LIQUORS, jDISTIUDJED—Continued.
MILLERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
8
7
7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
83.3
83.3
83.3
83.3
133.3
116.7
116.7

+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+2
+2
+2
+2
' -1

+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+16.7
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
-1 2 .5

58.94
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
58.80
58.80
58.80
58.80
59.25
59.14
58.29

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
numage. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.5
100.3
98.9

-0 .6 5
- .71
- .71
- .71
- .71
- .71
- .71
- .71
- .51
- .51
- .51
- .51
- .96
— .85

- 1 .1 30.2408
-1 .2
.2355
-1 .2
.2355
-1 .2
.2355
- 1 .2
.2355
-1 .2
.2355
- 1 .2
.2369
- 1 .2
.2327
- .9 .2559
- .9 .2559
- .9 .2493
- .9 .2526
- 1 .6
.2266
—1.4 .2352
.2409

100.0
97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
98.4
96.6
106.3
106.3
103.5
104.9
94.1
97.7
100.0

+30.0001
+ .0054
+ .0054
+ .0054
+ .0054
+ .0054
+ .0040
+ .0082
.0150
.0150
.0084
.0117
+ .0143
+ .0057

+0.04
+ 2 .3
+ 2 .3
+ 2 .3
+ 2 .3
+ 2 .3
+ 1 .7
+ 3 .5
- 5 .9
- 5 .9
- 3 .4
-4 .6
+ 6 .3
+ 2 .4

100.0
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4
97.4
103.9
103.9
103.9
103.9
103.9
110.5
118.0
118.0

+30.0476
+ .0545
+ .0546
+ .0545
+ .0545
+ .0545
+ .0545
+ .0372
+ .0372
+ .0372
+ .0372
+ .0372
+ .0198

+18. C
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+13.5
+13.5
+13.5
+13.5
+13.5
+ 6.8

100.0 +30.0366
98.8 + .0389
98.8 + .0389
98.8 + .0389
98.8 + .0389
98.8 + .0389
98.8 + .0389
98.8 + .0389
98.8 + .0389
105.0 + .0273
105.0 + .0273
105.0 + .0273
114.8 + .0092
114.8 + .0092
119.7

+19.7
+21.2
+21.2
+21.2
+21.2
+21.2
+21.2
+21.2
+21.2
+14. C
+14.0
+14. C
+ 4.3
+ 4.3

SPIRIT RUNNERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 ...........

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

78.00
78.00
78.00
78.00
78.00
78.00
78.00
78.00
78.00
78.00
78.00
78.00
78.00
72.00
72.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
92.3
92.3

-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0

- 7 . 7 30.2649
-7 .7
.2580
- 7 .7
.2580
-7 .7
.2580
-7 .7
.2580
- 7 .7
.2580
- 7 .7
.2580
- 7 .7
.2753
- 7 .7
.2753
- 7 .7
.2753
—7.7 .2753
- 7 .7
.2753
- 7 .7
.2927
.3125
.3125

STILL MEN, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0




59.80
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
98.7
98.7
98.7
90.3
90.3
90.3

-5 .8 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-5 .0 0
-5 .0 0
-5 .0 0

- 9.7 30.1856
-1 0 .0 .1833
-1 0 .0 .1833
-1 0 .0 .1833
-1 0 .0 .1833
-1 0 .0 .1833
-1 0 .0 .1833
-1 0 .0 .1833
-1 0 .0 .1833
- 8.5 .1949
- 8.5 .1949
— '8.5 .1949
.2130
.2130
.2222

829

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

U Q U O R S , D IS T H X E I)—Continued.

TBSHMEftS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Hours per week.

Emp. oyees.

Year.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
Num­ Rela­ pared with year
ber. tive
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

Av. 1890-99,
+2
..................... .....................
1890
+2
1891
.....................
+2
1892
..................... .....................
+2
1893
.....................
+2
1894
.
+2
1895
..................... .....................
+2
1896
.....................
+2
+2
1897.1.........
+2
1898
.....................
+2
1899
.....................
+2
1900
.....................
133.3
1901
.....................
1902
.....................
133.3
133.3
1903
.

+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
1903 as com­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
age. tive.
num­
specified.
specified.
ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

0.1800 100.0 +30.0450
.1750 97.2
.0500
.0500
.1750 97.2
.0500
.1750 97.2
.1750 97.2
.0500
.1750 97.2
.0500
.1750 97.2
.0500
.1750 97.2
.0500
.1750 97.2
.0500
111.1
.0250
.0250
.2000 111.1
.2000 111.1
.0250
.2250 125.0
.2250 125.0
.2250 125.0

+25.0
+28.6
+28.6
+28.6
+28.6
+28.6
+28.6
+28.6
+28.6
+12.5
+12.5
+12.5

- 1 .9 $0.1841 100.0 +80.0126
- 2 .0
.1824 99.1 + .0143
-2 .0
.1824 99.1 + .0143
-2 .0
.1833 99.6 + .0134
-2 .0
.1833 99.6 + .0134
-2 .0
.1833 99.6 + .0134
-2 .0
.1819 98.8 + .0148
-2 .0
.1819 98.8 + .0148
-2 .0
.1842 100.1 + .0125
.1891 102.7 + .0076
-1 .6
—1.7 .1891 102.7 + .0076
- 1 .5
.1987 107.9 .0020
- .2 .1879 102.1 + .0088
- .1 .2048 111.2 .0081
,1967 106.8

+ 6 .8
+ 7 .8
+ 7 .8
+ 7 .3
+ 7 .3
+ 7 .3
+ 8 .1
+ 8 .1
+ 6 .8
+ 4 .0
+ 4 .0
-1 .0
+ 4 .7
-4 .0

f
c
100.0 —S O0857
.0314
99.3
99.3 _ .0314
99.3 _ .0314
99.3 _ .0314
99.3 _ .0314
99.3 _ .0314
104.9
.0661
.0661
104.9
104.9
.0661
89.5 + .0298
74.1 4- .1256
94.31
94.3!
94.3
1

- 5.7
- 5.1
- 5.1
— 5.1
— 5.1
— 5.1
— 5.1
—10.1
—10.1
—10.1
+ 5.4
+27.2

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

.2000

100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0

WAREHOUSEMEN, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900 .............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

17
17
17
16
16
16
18
18
19
17
20
14
22
21
20

100.0
100.0
100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
105.9
105.9
111.8
100.0
117.6
82.4
129.4
123.5
117.6

+3
+3
+3
+4
+4
+4
+2
+2
+1
+3
+6
-2
-1

+17.6
+17.6
+17.6
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+11.1
+11.1
+ 5.3
+17.6

59.96
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.76
59.80
+42.9 59.71
- 9.1 58.91
- 4.8 58.86
58.80

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.7
99.7
99.6
98.2
98.2
98.1

-1 .1 6
-1 .2 0
-1 .2 0
-1 .2 0
-1 .2 0
-1 .2 0
-1 .2 0
-1 .2 0
-1 .2 0
- .96
-1 .0 0
- .91
- .11
- .06

YEAST MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891.............
1892
1893.............
1894
1895 .............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
19C3.............

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0




66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00
66.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.6225
.6182
.6182
.6182
.6182
.6182
.6182
.6529
.6529
.6529
.5570
.4612
.5868
.5868
.5868

_
_

_
_
_

830

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.j

LIQUORS, DISTIXiliED—Concluded.
YEAST MEN, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.0
150.0
100.0
100.0

-1
-1

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
-3 3 .3 60.00
-3 3 .3 60.00
60.00
60.00

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
numage. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

Per
cent.

30.2859
.2917
.2917
.2917
.2917
.2917
.2917
.2917
.2750
.2917
.2500
.2500
.2500
.2750
.2750

100.0
102.0
102.0
102.0
102.0
102.0
102.0
102.0
96.2
102.0
87.4
87.4
87.4
96.2
96.2

-30.0109
.0167
.0167
.0167
.0167
.0167
.0167
.0167

-

+
+
+

.0167
.0250
.0250
.0250

- 5.7
+10.0
+10.0
+10.0

- 8 . 4 30.1545
- 8 .5
.1519
-8 .5
.1587
- 8 .5
.1537
-8 .6
.1517
- 8 .6
.1554
-8 .5
.1570
- 8 .6
.1535
- 8 .5
.1542
- 7 .6
.3543
- 8 .5
.1544
- 1 .3
.1821
-1 .7
.1789
+ .4 .1922
.1967

100.0
98.3
102.7
99.5
98.2
100.6
101.6
99.4
99.8
99.9
99.9
117.9
115.8
124.4
127.3

+30.0422
+ .0448
+ .0380
+ .0430
+ .0450
+ .0413
+ .0397
+ .0432
+ .0425
+ .0424
+ .0423
+ .0146
+ .0178
+ .0045

+27.J
+29. J
+23.!
+28. <
+29.'
+26.1
+25.i
+28.!
+27.1
+27. J
+27.+ 8.1
+ 9.!
+ 2.:

100.0
96.5
97.9
98.2
99.7
100.3
100.5
101.3
101.3
101.9
102.4
104.7
107.6
113.6
137.0

+30.0453
+ .0546
+ .0509
+ .0501
+ .0462
+ .0445
+ .0441
+ .0418
+ .0419
+ .0403
+ .0389
+ .0329
+ .0251
+ .0090

+ 17.0
+21.3
+ 19.5
+19.2
+17.4
+16.7
+16.5
+15.5
+15.5
+14.9
+14.3
+11.8
+ 8.8
+ 3.0

3.8
6.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7

LIQUORS, MALT.
BOTTLERS, Male.
[Data from 23 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

596
566
539
572
595
600
520
599
615
628
725
1,914
1,119
1,243
1,452

100.0
95.0
90.4
96.0
99.8
100.7
87.2
100.5
103.2
105.4
121.6
321.1
187.8
208.6
243.6

+856
+886
+913
+880
+857
+852
+932
+853
+837
+824
+727
-4 6 2
+333
+209

+143.6
+156.5
+169.4
+153.8
+144.0
+142.0
+179.2
+142.4
+136.1
+131.2
+100.3
- 24.1
+ 29.8
+ 16.8

69.64
59.70
59.69
59.71
59.72
59.72
69.68
59.72
59.66
59.09
59.71
55.35
55.58
54.37
54.61

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.1
100.1
92.8
93.2
91.2
91.6

-5 .0 3
-5 .0 9
-5 .0 8
-5 .1 0
-5 .1 1
-5 .1 1
-5 .0 7
-5 .1 1
-5 .0 5
-4 .4 8
-5 .1 0
- .74
- .97
+ .24

CELLAR MEN, Male.
[Data from 47 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903...........

672
653
649
679
679
660
661
666
700
686
682
707
700
715
734

100.0
97.2
96.6
101.0
101.0
98.2
98.4
99.1
104.2
102.1
101.5
105.2
104.2
106.4
109.2




+62
+81
+85
+55
+55
+74
+73
+68
+34
+48
+62
+27
+34
+19

+ 9.2
+12.4
+13.1
+ 8.1
+ 8.1
+11.2
+11.0
+ 10.2
+ 4.9
+ 7.0
+ 7.6
+ 3.8
+ 4.9
+ 2.7

58.75
59.11
58.95
58.97
58.88
58.88
58.88
58.81
58.62
68.28
58.10
57.24
56.06
54.27
52.98

100.0
100.6
100.3
100.4
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.1
99.8
99.2
98.9
97.4
95.4
92.4
90.2

-5 .7 7
-6 .1 3
-5 .9 7
-5 .9 9
"—5.90
-5 .9 0
-5 .9 0
-5 .8 3
-5 .6 4
-6 .3 0
-5 .1 2
-4 .2 6
-3 .0 8
-1 .2 9

- 9.8 30.2661
-1 0 .4 .2568
-1 0 .1 .2605
-1 0 .2 .2613
-1 0 .0 .2652
-1 0 .0 .2669
-1 0 .0 .2673
- 9.9 .2696
- 9.6 .2695
- 9.1 .2711
- 8.8 .2725
- 7.4 .2785
- 5.5 .2863
- 2.4 .3024
.3114

831

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease t - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718. J

XiIQUORS, M AIiT—Continued.

COOPERS, Male.
[Data from 32 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1908.............

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. number.

303
211
214
230
334
348
354
328
361
313
336
287
309
312
323

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) i n
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

100.0
69.6
70.6
75.9
110.2
114.9
116.8
108.3
119.1
103.3
110.9
94.7
102.0
103.0
106.6

+ 20
+112
+109
+ 93
- 11
— 25
- 31
6
- 38
+ 10
- 13
+ 36
+ 14
+ H

+ 6.6
+63.1
+50.9
+40.4
- 3.3
- 7.2
- 8.8
- 1.5
-1 0 .5
+ 3.2
- 3.9
+12.5
+ 4.5
+ 3.5

58.65
59.29
58.99
59.22
59.53
59.52
69.44
57.01
59.32
56.99
57.21
67.60
63.87
50.37
50.27

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified..
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.1
100.6
101.0
101.5
101.5
101.3
97.2
101.1
97.2
97.6
98.2
91.8
85.9
85.7

-8 .3 8
-9 .0 2
-8 .7 2
-8 .9 5
-9 .2 6
-9 .2 5
-9 .1 7
-6 .7 4
-9 .0 5
-6 .7 2
-6 .9 4
-7 .3 3
-3 .6 0
- .10

-1 4 .3 $0.2411
- 15.2 .2387
-1 4 .8 .2416
-1 5 .1 .2378
-1 5 .6 .2366
-1 5 .5 .2397
-1 5 .4 .2416
-1 1 .8 .2414
-1 5 .3 .2405
-1 1 .8 .2477
-1 2 .1
.2450
-1 2 .7 .2589
- 6.7 .2774
.2 .3031
.3058

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Per
cent.

Amount.

100.0 + $ 0 .0647
99.0 + .0671
100.2 + .0642
98.6 + .0680
98.1 + .0692
99.4 + .0661
100.2 + .0642
100.1 + .0644
99.8 + .0653
102.7 + .0581
101.6 + .0608
107.4 + .0469
115.1 + .0284
125.7 + .0027
126.8

+26.8
+28.1
+26.6
+28.6
+29.2
+27.6
+26.6
+26.7
+27.2
+23.5
+24.8
+18.1
+10.2
+ .9

- 3 .1 $0.2579 100.0 +$0.0194
- 3 . 4 .2554 99.0 + .0219
- 3 . 2 .2577 99.9 + .0196
- 3 . 2 .2562 99.3 + .0211
.2579 100.0 + .0194
- 3 .1
- 3 .1
.2588 100.3 + .0185
- 3 .2
.2583 100.2 + .0190
.2584 100.2 + .0189
- 3 .2
- 2 . 8 .2588 100.3 + .0185
-2 .8
.2583 100.2 + .0190
.2592 100.5 + .0181
-2 .8
- 2 .3
.2638 102.3 + .0135
- 1 . 2 .2689 104.3 + .0084
- .3 .2759 107.0 4- .0014
.2773 107.5

+ 7 .5
+ 8 .6
-,-7.6
+ 8 .2
+ 7 .5
+7 .1
+ 7 .4
+ 7 .3
+ 7.1
+ 7 .4
+ 7 .0
+5.1
+3.1
+ .5

-1 1 .2 $0.2620 100.0 +$0.0515
-1 3 .1 .2566 97.9 + .0569
-1 1 .6 .2522 96.3 + .0613
-1 1 .6 .2572 98.2 + .0563
-1 1 .4 .2597 99.1 + .0538
-1 1 .5 .2604 99.4 + .0531
-1 1 .2 .2629 100.3 + .0506
-1 1 .2 .2633 100.5 + .0502
-1 0 .7 .2656 101.4 + .0479
- 9.9 .2708 103.4 + .0427
-1 0 .0 .2709 103.4 + .0426
- 7.8 .2798 106.8 + .0337
- 5.2 .2890 110.3 + .0245
- 1.6 .3045 116.2 + .0090
.3135 119.7

+19.7
+22.2
+24.3
+21.9
+20.7
+20.4
+19.2
+19.1
+18.0
+15.8
+15.7
+12.0
+ 8.5
+ 3.0

DRIVERS, Male.
[Data from 46 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1898 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

800
715
749
759
793
771
815
840
857
840
864
868
899
909
939

100.0
89.4
93.6
94.9
99.1
96.4
101.9
105.0
107.1
105.0
108.0
108.5
112.4
113.6
117.4

+139
+224
+190
+180
+146
+168
+124
+ 99
+ 82
+ 99
+ 75
+ 71
+ 40
+ 30

+17.4
+31.3
+25.4
+23.7
+18.4
+21.8
+15.2
+11.8
+ 9.6
+11.8
+ 8.7
+ 8.2
+ 4.4
+ 3.3

61.10
61.29
61.17
61.16
61.12
61.11
61.16
61.17
60.95
60.98
60.90
60.63
59.95
59.39
59.22

100.0
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.2
98.1
97.2
96.9

-1 .8 8
-2 .0 7
-1 .9 5
-1 .9 4
-1 .9 0
-1 .8 9
-1 .9 4
-1 .9 5
-1 .7 3
-1 .7 1
-1 .6 8
-1 .4 1
- .73
- .17

FERMENTERS, Male,
[Data from 32 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
3893 .............
1894 .............
1 8 9 5 ... ... ..
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

157
136
149
145
165
169
168
158
160
159
163
170
166
373
184

100.0
86.6
94.9
92.4
105.1
107.6
107.0
100.6
101.9
101.3
103.8
108.3
105.7
110.2
117.2




+27
+48
+35
+39
+19
+15
+16
+26
+24
+25
+21
+14
+18
+11

+17.2
+35.3
+23.5
+26.9
+11.5
+ 8.9
+ 9.5
+16.5
+15.0
+15.7
+12.9
+ 8.2
+10.8
+ 6.4

59.73
61.03
60.00
60.00
59.85
59.89
59.68
59.70
59.36
58.87
58.88
57.48
55.90
53.88
53.02

100.0
102.2
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.3
99.9
99.9
99.4
98.6
98.6
96.2
93.6
90.2
88.8

-6 .7 1
-8 .0 1
-6 .9 8
-6 .9 8
-6 .8 3
-6 .8 7
-6 .6 6
-6 .6 8
-6 .3 4
-5 .8 5
-5 .8 6
-4 .4 6
-2 .8 8
- .86

1

832

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase (+ ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

LIQUORS, MALT—Concluded.
KETTLE MEN, Male.
[Data from 43 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891..............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897..............
1893.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
pared with year
Num­ tive
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
174
168
168
175
175
180
177
173
173
179
175
184
182
189
200

100.0
96.6
96.6
100.6
100.6
103.4
101.7
99.*
99.4
102.9
100.6
105.7
104.6
108.6
114.9

+26
+32
+32
+25
+25
+20
+23
-1-27
+27
+21
+25
+16
+18
+11

+14.9
+19.0
+19.0
+14.3
+14.3
+11.1
+13.0
+15.6
+15.6
+11.7
+14.3
+ 8.7
+ 9.9
+ 5.8

Aver­
age
number.

59.52
60.24
59.83
59.81
59.67
59.74
59.57
59.53
59.12
58.85
58.86
68.13
56.95
54.02
52.91

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( — ) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as cc in1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
101.2
100.5
100.5
100.3
100.4
100.1
100.0
99.3
98.9
98.9
97.7
95.7
90.8
88.9

-6 .6 1
-7 .3 3
-6 .9 2
-6 .9 0
-6 .7 6
-6 .8 3
-6 .6 6
-6 .6 2
-6 .2 1
-5 .9 4
-5 .9 5
-5 .2 2
-4 .0 4
-1 .1 1

-1 1 .1 $0.2681
-1 2 .2 .2574
-1 1 .6 .2617
-1 1 .5 .2621
-1 1 .3 .2626
-1 1 .4 .2651
-1 1 .2 .2693
-1 1 .1 .2707
-1 0 .5 .2750
-1 0 .1
.2783
-1 0 .1 .2784
- 9.0 .2818
- 7.1 •.2911
- 2.1 .3095
.3197

100.0 +$0.0516
96.0 + .0623
97.6 + .0580
97.8 + . 057C
97.9 + .0571
98.9 + .0546
100.4 + .0504
101.0 + .0490
102.6 + .0447
103.8 + .0414
103.8 + .0413
105.1 + .0379
108.6 + .0286
115.4 + .0102
119.2

+19.2
+24.2
+22.2
+22.0
+21.7
+20.6
+18.7
+18.1
+16.3
+14.9
+ 14.8
+13.4
+ 9.8
+ 3.3

100.0 +$0.0521
98.0 + .0572
99.5 + .0534
96.6 + .0607
98.7 + .0553
58.2 + .0566
.7 + .0553
100.1 + .0519
101.8 + .0477
103.7 + .0429
104.7 + .0403
111.4 + .0235
114.3 + .0161
117.5 + .0081
120.7

+20.7
+23.2
+21.4
+25.0
+22.3
+22.9
+22.3
+20.6
+18.7
+16.5
+15.3
-t- 8.4
+ 5.6
+ 2.7

100.0 +$0.0561
96.5 + .0641
96.6 + .0640
98.1 + .0605
98.5 + .0596
98.7 + .0592
99.8 + .0565
101.1 + .0535
101.4 + .0529
104.1 + .0466
105.0 + .0446
108.0 + .0376
113.2 + .0258
120.5 + .0088
124.4

+24.4
+28.8
+28.8
+26.8
+26.3
+26.1
+24.6
+23.0
+22.7
+19.4
+18.4
+15.1
+ 9.9
+ 3.2

MALT MOUSE MEN, Male.
[Data from 21 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

303
327
300
289
295
325
302
310
296
285
300
314
318
279
290

100.0
107.9
99.0
95.4
97.4
107.3
99.7
102.3
97.7
94.1
99.0
103.6
105.0
92.1
95.7

-1 3
-3 7
-1 0
+ 1
- 5
-3 5
-1 2
-2 0
- 6
+ 5
-1 0
-2 4
-2 8
+11

- 4.3
-1 1 .3
- 3.3
+ .3
- 1.7
-1 0 .8
- 4.0
- 6.5
- 2.0
+ 1.8
- 3.3
— 7.6
- 8.8
+ 3.9

60.09
60.07
60.02
60.70
60.54
60.59
60.62
60.56
60.00
59.01
58.82
65.82
55.18
54.21
53.21

100.0
100.0
99.9
101.0
100.7
100.8
100.9
100.8
99.9
98.2
97.9
92.9
91.8
90.2
88.6

-6 .8 8
-6 .8 6
-6 .8 1
-7 .4 9
-7 .3 3
-7 .3 8
-7 .4 1
-7 .3 5
-6 .7 9
-5 .8 0
-5 .6 1
—2.61
-1 .9 7
-1 .0 0

-1 1 .4 $0.2513
-1 1 .4 .2462
-1 1 .3 .2500
-1 2 .3 .2427
-1 2 .1 .2481
-1 2 .2 .2468
-1 2 .2 .2481
-1 2 .1 .2515
-1 1 .3 .2557
- 9.8 .2605
- 9.5 .2631
— 4.7 .2799
3.6 .2873
- 1.8 .2953
.3034

WASHERS, Male.
[Data from 46 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

635
635
645
656
715
684
655
598
584
601
575
558
646
651
662

100.0
100.0
101.6
103.3
112.6
107.7
103.1
94.2
92.0
94.6
90.6
87.9
101.7
102.5
104.3




+ 27
+ 27
+ 17
+ 6
- 53
- 22
+ 7
+ 64
+ 78
+ 61
+ 87
+104
+ 16
+ H

+ 4.3
+ 4.3
+ 2.6
+ .9
- 7.4
- 3.2
+ 1.1
+10.7
+13.4
+10.1
+15.1
+18.6
+ 2.5
+ 1.7

59.00
59.27
59.20
59.31
59.39
59.33
59.20
59.09
58.90
58.26
58.05
56.98
55.30
53.25
52.25

100.0
100.5
100.3
100.5
100.7
100.6
100.3
100.2
99.8
98.7
98.4
96.6
93.7
90.3
88.6

-6 .7 5
-7 .0 2
-6 .9 5
-7 .0 6
-7 .1 4
-7 .0 8
-6 .9 5
-6 .8 4
-6 .6 5
-6 .0 1
-5 .8 0
-4 .7 3
-3 .0 5
-1 .0 0

-1 1 .4 $0.2303
-1 1 .8 .2223
-1 1 .7 .2224
-1 1 .9 .2259
-1 2 .0 .2268
-1 1 .9 .2272
-1 1 .7 .2299
-1 1 .6 .2329
-1 1 .3 .2335
-1 0 .3 .2398
-1 0 .0 .2418
- 8.3 .2488
- 5.5 .2606
- 1.9 .2776
.2864

833

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718,]

LITHOGRAPHING.
ENGRAVERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903...........

Increase ( + } or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
niimber. num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
26
27
27
31
28
27
26
22
25
23
26
27
29
32
32

100.0
103.8
103.8
119.2
107.7
103.8
100.0
84.6
96.2
88.5
100.0
103.8
111.5
123.1
123.1

+ 6
+ 5
+ 1
+ 4
+ 5
+ 6
+10
+ 7
+ 9
+ 6
+ 5
+ 3

+23.1
+18.5
+18.5
+ 3.2
+14.3
+18.5
+23.1
+45.5
+28.0
+39.1
+23.1
+18.5
+10.3

48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
SO 4084
.
.3958
.4144
.3905
.3996
.3912
.3942
.3992
.4182
.4357
.4447
.4421
.4389
.4476
.4362

100.0 +S0.0278
96.9 + .0404
101.5 + .0218
95.6 + .0457
97.8 + .0366
95.8 + .0450
96.5 + .0420
97.7 + .0370
102.4 + .0180
106.7 + .0005
.0085
108.9 .0059
108.3 .0027
107.5 .0114
109.6 106.8

+ 6.8
+10.2
+ 5.3
+11.7
+ 9.2
+11.5
+10.7
+ 9.3
+ 4.3
+ .1
- 1.9
- 1.3
.6
- 2.5

.
- 0 .8 SO 3548 100.0 +S0.0130
- .8 .3517 99.1 + .0161
.3599 101.4 + .0079
- 1 .0
- .9 .3474 : 97.9 + .0204
- .9 .3577]! 100.8 + .0101
- .7 .3567 i 100.5 + .0111
- .9 .3428 96.6 + .0250
- .9 .3463 97.6 + .0215
- .8 .3583 101.0 + .0095
- .7 .3616 101.9 + .0062
- .7 .3660 103.2 + .0018
-1 .0
.3665 103.3 + .0013
- .9 .3654 103.0 + .0024
.3589 101.2 + .0089
.3678 103.7

+ 3 .7
+ 4 .6
+ 2 .2
+ 5 .9
+ 2 .8
+ 3 .1
+ 7 .3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

PRESSMEN, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .
1903

___

22
22
20
22
21
23
21
21
22

23
25
26
27
25
25

100.0
100.0
90.9
100.0
95.5
104.5
95.5
95.5
100.0
104.5
113.6
118.2
122.7
113.6
113.6

54.57
54.55
54.65
54.59
54.62
54.52
54.62
54.62
54.55
54.52
64.48
3.8 54.69
7.4 54.63
64.12
54.12

+2

+13.6
+13.6
+25.0
+13.6
+19.0
+ 8.7
+19.0
+19.0
+13.6
+ 8.7

-1
-2

-

+3
+3
+5
+3
+4
+2
+4
+4
+3

100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.8
100.2
100.1
99.2
99.2

-0 .4 5
- .43
- .53
- .47
-- .50
- .40
- .50
- .50
- .43
- .40
- .36
- .57
- .51

+ 6.2

+ 2 .7
+ 1 .7
+ .5
+ .4
+ .7
+ 2 .5

TRANSFERRERS, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1003

34
31
32
31
33
28
32
32
38
38
42
43
46
44
47

100.0
91.2
94.1
91.2
97.1
82.4
94.1
94.1
111.8
111.8
123.5
126.5
135.3
129.4
138.2




+13
+16
+15
+16
+14
+19
+15
+15
+ 9
+ 9
+ 6
+ 4
+ 1
+ 3

+38.2
+51.6
+46.9
+51.6
+42.4
+67.9
+46.9
+46.9
+23.7
+23.7
+11.9
+ 9.3
+ 2.2
+ 6.8

56.38
56.10
56.19
55.94
56.12
56.36
56.50
56.84
56.50
56.68
56.52
56.44
56.50
55.91
54.89

100.0
99.5
99.7
99.2
99.5
100.0
100.2
100.8
100.2
100.5
100.2
100.1
100.2
99.2
97.4

- 2 . 6 SO 2983
.
-2 .2
.2895
-2 .3
.2946
.3024
-1 .9
-2 .2
.2984
.2936
-2 .6
• -2 .8 .3087
-3 .4
.2974
.2967
-2 .8
- 3 .2
.2991
- 2 .9
.3029
.3010
-2 .7
-2 .8
.3107
.3170
-1 .8
.3325

-1 .4 9
-1 .2 1
-1 .3 0
-1 .0 5
-1 .2 3
-1 .4 7
-1 .6 1
-1 .9 5
-1 .6 1
-1 .7 9
-1 .6 3
-1 .5 5
-1 .6 1
-1 .0 2
•

100. o!+SO. 0342
97.0
98.8
101.4
100.0
98.4
103.5
99.7
99.5
100.3
101.5
100.9
104.2
106.3
111.5

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

.0430
.0379
.0301
.0341
.0389
.0238
.0351
.0358
.0334
.0296
.0315
.0218
.0155

+11.5
+14.9
+12.9
+10.0
+11.4
+13.3
+ 7.7
+11.8
+12.1
+11.2
+ 9.8
+10.5
+ 7.0
+ 4.9

834

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

[LUMBER.
BAND SETTERS, Male.
[Data from 22 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.........
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
57
57
57
58
56
55
58
55
56
59
60
59
57
65
59

100.0
100.0
100.0
101.8
98.2
96.5
101.8
96.5
98.2
103.5
105.3
103.5
100.0
114.0
103.5

f2
+2
+2
+1
+8
+4
+1
+4
+3
-1
+2
-6

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

62.06
62.21
62.11
62.17
62.14
62.07
62.07
61.85
61.82
62.03
- 1 .7 62.10
62.03
+ 3 .5 61.05
- 9 . 2 61.48
61.73

+ 3 .5
+ 3 .5
+ 3 .5
+ 1 .7
+ 5 .4
+ 7 .3
+ 1 .7
+ 7 .3
+5 .4

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
numage. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.0
100.0
99.7
99.6
100.0
100.1
100.0
98.4
99.1
99.5

-0 .3 3
- .48
- .38
- .44
- .41
- .34
- .34
- .12
- .09
- .30
- .37
- .30
+ .68
+ .25

- 0 . 5 $0.2327 100.0 +$0.0360
- .8 .2386 102.5 + .0301
- .6 .2392 102.8 + .0295
- .7 .2413 103.7 + .0274
- .7 .2360 101.4 + .0327
- .5 .2238 96.2 + .0449
- .5 .2203 94.7 + .0484
- .2 .2249 96.6 + .0438
- .1 .2291 98.5 + .0396
- .5 .2321 99.7 + .0366
- .6 .2417 103.9 + .0270
- .5 .2431 104.5 + .0256
.2432 104.5 + .0255
+1.1
+ .4 .2650 113.9 1- .0037
.2687 115.5

+15.5
+12.6
+12.3
+ 11.4
+13.9
+20.1
+22.0
+19.5
+17.3
+15.8
+11.2
+10.5
+10.5
+ 1.4

CANT SETTERS, GANG, Male.
{Data from 10 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1 8 9 6 ..,........
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

31
31
31
81
31
31
31
32
32
28
28
28
28
28
27

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.2
103.2
90.3
90.3
90.3
90.3
90.3
87.1

-4
-4
-4
-4
-4
-4
-4
-5
-5
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

-1 2 .9
-1 2 .9
-1 2 .9
-1 2 .9
-1 2 .9
-1 2 .9
-1 2 .9
-1 5 .6
-1 5 .6
- 3.6
- 3.6
- 3.6
- 3.6
- 3.6

63.56
63.68
63.68
63.68
63.68
63.68
63.68
63.56
63.56
63.21
63.21
63.21
63.21
62.14
60.89

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
97.8
95.8

-2 .6 7
-2 .7 9
-2 .7 9
-2 .7 9
-2 .7 9
-2 .7 9
-2 .7 9
-2 .6 7
-2 .6 7
-2 .3 2
-2 .3 2
-2 .3 2
-2 .3 2
-1 .2 5

- 4 . 2 $0.1825 100.0 +$0.0239
- 4 .4
.1849 101.3 + .0215
- 4 .4
.1850 101.4 + .0214
-4 .4
.1854 101.6 + .0210
-4 .4
.1852 101.5 + .0212
-4 .4
.1851 101.4 + .0213
- 4 .4
.1817 99.6 + .0247
-4 .2
.1741 95.4 + .0323
-4 .2
.1741 95.4 + .0323
-3 .7
.1810 99.2 + .0254
- 3 .7
.1887 103.4 + .0177
- 3 .7
.1903 104.3 + .0161
-3 .7
.1911 104.7 + .0153
- 2 .0
.1947 106.7 + .0117
.2064 113.1

+13.1
+11.6
+11.6
+11.3
+11.4
+11.5
+13.6
+18.6
+18.6
+14.0
+ 9.4
+ 8.5
+ 8.0
+ 6.0

CARRIAGE MEN, Male.
[Data from 7 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

24 100.0
24
24 100.0
24 100.0
24
24
91.7
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24

100.0

22

100.0
100.0




+2

64.87
64.88
64.88
64.88
64.88
64.88
•+9.1 64.77
64.88
64.88
64.88
64.88
64.88
63.88
63.13
63.13

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.5
97.3
97.3

-1 .7 4
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .6 4
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
- .75

#

- 2 .7 $0.1389 100.0 +$0.0317
-2 .7
.1368 98.5 + .0338
- 2 .7
.1381 99.4 + .0325
- 2 .7
.1381 99.4 + .0325
-2 .7
.1381 99.4 + .0325
.1382 99.5 + .0324
- 2 .7
-2 .5
.1352 97.3 + .0354
.1372 98.8 + .0334
- 2 .7
- 2 .7
.1377 99.1 + .0329
-2 .7
.1395 100.4 + .0311
- 2 .7
.1498 107.8 + .0208
-2 .7
.1488 107.1 + .0218
-1 .2
.1560 112.3 + .0146
.1637 117.9 + .0069
.1706 122.8

+ 22.8

+24.7
+23.5
+23.5
+23.5
+23.4
+26.2
+24.3
+23.9
1-22.3
+13.9
+14.7
+ 9.4

835

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I*— WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

[LUMBER—Continued.
CHOPPERS AMR SAWYERS IN WOODS, Hale*
[Data from 16 establishments.]

Year.

4v. 1890-99.
1890.............
.891.............
1892.............
893.............
.894.............
895.............
.896.............
897.............
.898.............
.899.............
.900.............
L901.............
.902.............
i903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

+35.2
+37.7
+34.4
+34.2
+42.3
+41.1
+39.4
+38.6
+31.1
+30.9
+25.1
+17.8
+17.5
+11.4

61.51
61.78
61.74
61.54
61.44
61.43
61.37
61.48
61.37
61.29
61.64
61.54
61.42
61.53
61.37

1,181
1,160
1,188
1,190
1,122
1,132
1,146
1,152
1,218
1,220
1,277
1,356
1,359
1,434
1,597

100.0
98.2
100.6
100.8
95.0
95.9
97.0
97.5
103.1
103.3
108.1
114.8
115.1
121.4
135.2

+416
+437
+409
+407
+475
+465
+451
+445
+379
+377
+320
+241
+238
+163

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase(+) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease \—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.4
100.4
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
100.0
99.8
99.6
100.2
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.8

- 0 .2 80.1751
- .7 .1727
- .6 .1713
- .3 .1739
- .1 .1680
- .1 .1659
.1724
- .2 .1722
.1768
+ .1 .1865
- .4 .1916
- .3 .1918
- .1 .1982
- .3 .2026
.2037

-0 .1 4
- .41
- .37
- .17
- .07
- .06
-

+$0.0286
+ .0310
+ .0324
+ .0298
+ .0357
+ .0378
+ .0313
+ .0315
+ .0269
+ .0172
+ .0121
+ .0119
+ .0055
+ .0011

+16.3
+18.0
+18.9
+17.1
+21.3
+22.8
+18.2
+18.3
+15.2
+ 9.2
+ 6.3
+ 6.2
+ 2.8
+ *.5

- 2 . 0 $0.1815 100.0 + $ 0 .0121
- 2 .9
.1918 105.7 + .0018
- 2 .4
.1865 102.8 + .0071
- 2 .4
.1874 103.3 + .0062
- .6 .1860 102.5 + .0076
- .6 .1792 98.7 + .0144
-2 .4
.1775 97.8 + .0161
-2 .6
.1774 97.7 + .0162
-2 .2
.1739 95.8 + .0197
- 2 .0
.1783 98.2 + .0153
- 1 .7
.1769 97.5 + .0167
- .8 .1832 100.9 + .0104
- .7 .1842 101.6 + .0094
.1840 101.4 + .0096
.1936 106.7

+ 6.7
+ .9
+ 3.8
+ 3.3
+ 4.1
+ 8.0
+ 9.1
+ 9.1
+11.3
+ 8.6
+ 9.4
+ 5.7
+ 5.1
+ 5.2

.11

+
-

.08
.27
.17
.05
.16

100.0
98.6
97.8
99.3
95.9
94.7
98.5
98.3
101.0
106.5
109.4
109.5
113.2
115.7
116,3

CIRCULAR SETTERS, Hale.
[Data from 15 establishments.]
4v. 1890-99.
.890.............
.891.............
1892.............
.893.............
894.............
.895.............
.896.............
.897.............
.898.............
.899 .............
.900.............
901.............
902 .............
903.............

28
25
26
26
26
26
26
27
30
32
35
35
37
41
41

100.0
89.3
92.9
92.9
92.9
92.9
92.9
96.4
107.1
114.3
125.0
125.0
132.1
146.4
146.4

+13
+16
+15
+15
+15
+15
+15
+14
+11
+ 9
+ 6
+ 6
+ 4

+46.4
+64.0
+67.7
+57.7
+57.7
+57.7
+57.7
+51.9
+36.7
+28.1
+17.1
+17.1
+10.8

62.23
62.84
62.50
62.50
61.35
61.35
62.50
62.63
62.37
62.22
62.03
61.51
61.43
61.00
61.00

100.0
101.0
100.4
100.4
98.6
98.6
100.4
100.6
100.2
100.0
99.7
98.8
98.7
98.0
98.0

-2 .2 3
-1 .8 4
-1 .5 0
-1 .5 0
- .35
- .35
-1 .5 0
-1 .6 3
-1 .3 7
-1 .2 2
-1 .0 3
- .51
- .43

EDCrER MEN, Male.
[Data from 23 establishments.]
lv . 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897 .............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

52
49
50
50
52
48
49
61
55
56
58
62
65
67
69

100.0
94.2
96.2
96.2
100.0
92.3
94.2
98.1
105.8
107.7
111.5
119.2
125.0
128.8
132.7




+17
+20
+19
+19
+17
+21
+20
+18
+14
+13
+11
+ 7
+ 4
+ 2

+32.7
+40.8
+38.0
+38.0
+32.7
+43.8
+40.8
+35.3
+25.5
+23.2
+19.0
+11.3
+ 6.2
+ 3.0

61.90
62.39
62.10
62.10
61.44
61.44
62.14
62.06
61.91
61.77
61.60
61.40
61.20
60.90
61.10

100.0
100.8
100.3
100.3
99.3
99.3
100.4
100.3
100.0
99.8
99.5
99.2
98.9
98.4
98.7

-0 .8 0
-1 .2 9
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
- .34
- .34
-1 .0 4
- .96
- .81
- .67
- .50
- .30
- .10
+ .20

- 1 .3 $0.2314 100.0 +$0.0237
.2424 104.8 + .0127
-2 .1
- 1 .6
.2427 104.9 + .0124
.2454 106.1 + .0097
-1 .6
- .6 .2416 104.4 + .0135
- .6 .2261 97.7 + .0290
- 1 .7
.2190 94.6 + .0361
-1 .5
.2258 97.6 + .0293
.2210 95.5 + .0341
-1 .3
- 1 .1
.2227 96.2 + .0324
- .8 .2275 98.3 + .0276
- .5 .2381 102.9 + .0170
- .2 .2449 105.8 + .0102
+ .3 .2451 105.9 + .0100
.2551 110.2

+10.2
+ 5.2
+ 5.1
+ 4.0
+ 5.6
+12.8
+16.5
+ 13.0
+15.4
+14.5
+12.1
+ 7.1
+ 4.2
+ 4.1

836

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able 1 .^ -

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1900=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanatioi
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

LU M B E R —Continued.
FILERS, Male.
[Data from 36 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) oi
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) ir
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with yea]
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
Num­
Per
Per
Amount
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.
73
70
71
72
71
72
70
69
75
78
77
77
83
91
91

100.0
95.9
97.3
98.6
97.3
98.6
95.9
94.5
102.7
106.8
105.5
105.5
113.7
124.7
124.7

+18
+21
+20
+19
+20
+19
+21
+22
+16
+13
+14
+14
+ 8

+24.7
+30.0
+28.2
+26.4
+28.2
+26.4
+30.0
+31.9
+21.3
+16.7
+18.2
+18.2
+ 9.6

62.13
62.43
62.23
62.19
61.80
61.78
62.26
62.29
62.19
62.10
62.05
61.97
61.80
61.37
61.11

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.1
99.5
99.4
100.2
100.3
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.5
98.8
98.4

-1 .0 2
-1 .3 2
-1 .1 2
-1 .0 8
- .69
- .67
-1 .1 5
-1 .1 8
-1 .0 8
- .99
- .94
- .86
- .69
- .26

- 1 . 6 30.3910 100.0 +80.0501
- 2 .1
.3932 100.6 + .0479
- 1 .8
.3958 101.2 + .0453
-1 .7
.3913 100.1 + .0498
-1 .1
.3988 102.0 + .0423
- 1 .1
.3818 97.6 + .0593
-1 .8
.3768 96.4 + .0643
- 1 .9
.3866 98.9 + .0545
.3862 98.8 + .0549
- 1 .7
.3925 100.4 + .0486
-1 .6
-1 .5
.4069 104.1 + .0342
- 1 .4
.4184 107.0 + .0227
.4232 108.2 + .0179
- 1 .1
— .4 .4229 108.2
.0182
.4411 112.8

+12.
+12.
+11.
+12.
+10.
+15.
+17.
+14.
+14.
+12.
+ 8.
+ 5.
+ 4.
+ 4.

- 3 . 2 *0.1277 100.0 +*0.0167
-3 .5
.1338 104.8 + .0106
-3 .3
.1333 104.4 + .0111
-3 .5
.1319 103.3 + .0125
-3 .3
.1313 102.8 + .0131
-3 .4
.1253 98.1 + .0191
-3 .2
.1221 95.6 + .0223
.1235 96.7 + .0209
-3 .3
.1211 94.8 + .0233
-3 .2
.1250 97.9 + .0194
- 2 .6
.1292 101.2 + .0152
-2 .7
- 2 .3
.1306 102.3 + .0138
-2 .1
.1351 105.8 + .0093
- .8 .1413 110.6 + .0031
,1444 113.1

+13.
+ 7.
+ 8.
+ 9.
+10.
+15.
+18.
+16.
+19.
+15.
+11.
+10.
+ 6.
+ 2.

LABORERS, Male,
[Data from 17 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

1,204
1,123
1,186
1,143
1,150
1,220
1,216
1,171
1,212
1,305
1,314
1,446
1,560
1,646
1,694

100.0
93.3
98.5
94.9
95.5
101.3
101.0
97.3
100.7
108.4
109.1
120.1
129.6
136.7
140.7

+490
+571
+508
+551
+544
+474
+478
+523
+482
+389
+380
+248
+134
+ 48

+40.7
+50.8
+42.8
+48.2
+47.3
+38.9
+39.3
+44.7
+39.8
+29.8
+28.9
+17.2
+ 8.6
+ 2.9

63.55
63.74
63.64
63.76
63.63
63.68
63.57
63.62
63.52
63.16
63.22
62.95
62.81
61.99
61.52

100.0
100.3
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.4
99.5
99.1
98.8
97.5
96.8

-2 .0 3
-2 .2 2
-2 .1 2
-2 .2 4
-2 .1 1
-2 .1 6
-2 .0 5
-2 .1 0
-2 .0 0
-1 .6 4
-1 .7 0
-1 .4 3
-1 .2 9
- .47

SAWYERS, BAND, Male.
[Data from 24 establishments.]
A v . 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895 .............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

52
51
50
50
49
51
53
51
51
57
58
63
63
67
67

100.0
98.1
96.2
96.2
94.2
98.1
101.9
98.1
98.1
109.6
111.5
121.2
121.2
128.8
128.8




+15
+16
+17
+17
+18
+16
+14
+16
+16
+10
+ 9
+ 4
+ 4

+28.8
+31.4
+34.0
+34.0
+36.7
+31.4
+26.4
+31.4
+31.4
+17.5
+15.5
+ 6.3
+ 6.3

61.72
61.88
61.68
61.80
61.84
61.76
61.70
61.65
61.65
61.58
61.66
61.43
61.43
60.99
60.90

100.0
100.3
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.9
99.5
99.5
98.8
98.7

-10.82
.98
.78
.90
.94
.86
.80
—
.75
—
.75
—
.68
_
.76
—
.53
—
.53
,09|
I
I
—
—
—
—
—
—

- 1 . 3 *0.3975
-1 .6
.4013
.4050
- 1 .3
.4033
-1 .5
.4074
-1 .5
- 1 .4
.3887
.3887
- 1 .3
- 1 .2
.3919
- 1 .2
.3957
.3919
- 1 .1
- 1 .2
.4013
- *9 .4174
- -9 .4280
- .1 .4565
.4851

ldo.o
101.0
101.9
101.5
102.5
97.8
99.8
98.6
99.5
98.6
101.0
105.0
107.7
114.8
122.0

+*0.0876
+ .0838
+ .0801
+ .0818
+ .0777
+ .0964
+ .0964
+ .0962
+ .0894
+ .0932
+ .0838
+ .0677
+ .0571
-f- .0286

+22.
+20.
+19.
+20.
+19.
+24.
+24.
+23.
+22.
+23.
+20.
+16.
+13.
+ 6.

837

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899^=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

LUMBER—Concluded.
SAWYERS, CIRCULAR, Male*
[Data from 17 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

\v. 1890-99.
1890.............
L891.............
L892
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
;896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
.901.............
9(V
2
. ...
903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber. num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.'
25
23
23
22
22
22
23
25
27
29
31
33
33
35

35

100.0
92.0
92.0
88.0
88.0
88.0
92.0
100.0
108.0
116.0
124.0
132.0
132.0
140.0
140.0

+10
+12
+12
+13
+13
+13
+12
+10
+ 8
+ 6
+ 4
+ 2
+ 2

+40.0
4-52.2
+52.2
+59.1
+59.1
+59.1
+52.2
+40.0
+29.6
+20.7
+12.9
+ 6.1
+ 6.1

63.13
63.74
63.48
63.64
62.27
62.27
63.48
63.44
63.19
62.97
62.77
62.24
61.97
61.17
61.17

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver- Rela­
specified.
num­
* age. tive.
ber.
-Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.0
100.6
100.8
98.6
98.6
100.6
100.5
100.1
99.7
99.4
98.6
98.2
96.9
96.9

-1 .9 6
-2 .5 7
-2 .3 1
-2 .4 7
-1 .1 0
-1 .1 0
-2 .3 1
-2 .2 7
-2 .0 2
-1 .8 0
-1 .6 0
-1 .0 7
- .80

Increase ( + ) or
decrease( - ) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Per
Amount. cent.

- 3 .1 60.3381 100.0 +80.0244
- 4 .0
.3545 104.9 + .0080
.3562 105.4 + .0063
-3 .6
- 3 .9
.3474 102.8 + .0151
.3479 102.9 + .0146
- 1 .8
.3420 101.2 + .0205
-1 .8
.3382 100.0 + .0243
- 3 .6
.3364 99.5 + .0261
-3 .6
- 3 .2
.3213 95.0 + .0412
.3207 94.9 + .0418
-2 .9
-2 .5
.3168 93.7 + .0457
.3255 96.3 + .0370
- 1 .7
- 1 .3
.3366 99.6 + .0259
.3501 103.5 + .0124
,3625 107.2

+ 7.2
+ 2.3
+ 1.8
+ 4.3
+ 4.2
+ 6.0
+ 7.2
+ 7.8
+12.8
+13.0
+14.4
+11.4
+ 7.7
+ 3.5

SAWYERS, GANG, Male.
[Data from 17 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
L891.............
i892.............
1.893.............
.894.............
895.............
896.............
897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

27
26
26
26
27
27
29
29
27
27
27
27
27
27
28

100.0
96.3
96.3
96.3
100.0
100.0
.107.4
107.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.7

+1
+2
+2
+2
+1
+1
-1
-1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1

+ 3 .7
+ 7 .7
+ 7 .7
+ 7 .7
+ 3 .7
+ 3 .7
- 3 .4
- 3 .4
+ 3 .7
+ 3 .7
+ 3 .7
+ 3 .7
+ 3 .7
+ 3 .7

62.08
62.08
62.08
62.08
62.22
62.22
62.07
62.07
62.00
62.00
62.00
61.78
61.78
61.33
61.50

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.5
99.5
98.8
99.1

-0 .5 8
- .58
- .58
- .58
- .72
- .72
- .57
- .57
- .50
- .50
- .50
- .28
- .28
+ .17

- 0 . 9 $0.2202 100.0 +$0.0487
- .9 .2151 97.7 + .0538
- .9 .2150 97.6 + .0539
- .9 .2170 98.5 + .0519
- 1 .2
.2164 98.3 + .0525
- 1 .2
.2059 93.5 + .0630
- .9 .2096 95.2 + .0593
- .9 .2103 95.5 + .0586
- .8 .2356 107.0 + .0333
- .8 .2350 106.7 + .0339
- .8 .2422 110.0 + .0267
- .5 .2501 113.6 + .0188
- .5 .2542 115.4 + .0147
+ .3 .2626 119.3 + .0063
.2689 122.1

+22.1
+25.0
+25.1
+23.9
+24.3
+30.6
+28.3
+27.9
+14.1
+14.4
+11.0
+ 7.5
+ 6.8
+ 2.4

+ 0 .7 $0.1966
+ .3 .2235
+ .4 .2141
+ .5 .2086
+ .5 .2108
+ .6 .1911
+ .6 .1914
+ .8 .1780
+ 1 .0 .1747
+ 1 .0 .1857
+ .9 .1877
+ 1 .0 .1944
+ 1 .0 .1951
+ 1 .0 .1891
.1928

- 1.9
-1 3 .7
- 9.9
- 7.6
- 8.5
+ .9
+ .7
+ 8.3
+10.4
+ 3.8
+ 2.7
.8
- 1.2
+ 2.0

TRIMMERS, Male.
[Data from 7 establishments.]
SV. 1890-99.
l

890.............
891.............
892 .............
893 .............
894.............
895.............
896 .............
897 .............
898 .............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902 .............
903.............

64
47
50
56
55
51
51
64
85
84
93
99
106
97
100

100.0
73.4
78.1
87.5
85.9
79.7
79.7
100.0
132.8
131.3
145.3
154.7
165.6
151.6
156.3




+36
+53
+50
+44
+45
+49
+49
+36
+15
+16
+ 7
+ 1
- 6
+ 3

+ 56.3
+112.8
+100.0
+ 78.6
+ 81.8
+ 96.1
+ 96.1
+ 56.3
+ 17.6
+ 19.0
+ 7.5
+ 1.0
5.7
+ 3.1

60.55
60.77
60.72
60.64
60.65
60.59
60.59
60.47
60.35
60.36
60.39
60.36
60.34
60.37
60.96

100.0
100.4
100.3
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.7
99.7
‘ 99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
100.7

+0.41
+ .19
+ .24
+ .32
+ .31
+ .37
+ .3V
+ .49
+ .61
+ .60
+ .57
+ .60
+ .62
+ .59

100.0
113.7
108.9
106.1
107.2
97.2
97.4
90.5
88.9
94.5
95.5
98.9
99.2
96.2
98.1

-$0.0038
— .0307
— .0213
— .0158
— .0180
+ .0017
+ .0014
+ .0148
+ .0181
+ .0071
+ .0051
— .0016
— .0023
+ .0037

838

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
Table

I — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanatio
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MARBEE A N D STONE WORK.
BED RUBBERS^ Male.
[Data from 29 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Hours pjer week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) c
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —)i
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with yea
Num­ tive
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ numage. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Amount
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent
145
152
147
152
156
134
145
131
143
144
141
142
161
171
165

100.0
104.8
101.4
104.8
107.6
92.4
100.0
90.3
98.6
99.3
97.2
97.9
111.0
117.9
113.8

+20
+13
+18
+13
+ 9
+31
+20
+34
+22
+21
+24
+23
+ 4
- 6

+13.8
+ 8.6
+12.2
+ 8.6
+ 5.8
+23.1
+13.8
+26.0
+15.4
+14.6
+17.0
+16.2
+ 2.5
- 3.5

56.59
57.51
56.93
56.91
56.99
56.70
56.91
56.27
56.49
56.51
54.72
54.82
63.80
53.22
51.26

100.0
101.6
100.6
100.6
100.7
100.2
100.6
99.4
99.8
99.9
96.7
96.9
95.1
94.0
90.6

-5 .3 3
-6 .2 5
-5 .6 7
-5 .6 5
-5 .7 3
-5 .4 4
-5 .6 5
-5 .0 1
-5 .2 3
-5 .2 5
-3 .4 6
-3 .5 6
-2 .5 4
-1 .9 6

- 9.4 80.2398
-1 0 .9 .2322
- 1 0 .0 .2377
- 9.9 .2346
.2372
-1 0 .1
- 9.6 .2386
- 9.9 .2342
- 8.9 .2447
- 9.3 .2403
- 9.3 .2383
- 6.3 .2602
- 6.5 .2609
- 4.7 .2819
- 3.7 .2987
.3012

+80.0614
+ .0690
+ .0635
+ .0666
+ .0640
+ .0026
+ .0670
+ .0565
+ .0609
+ .0629
+ .0410
+ .0403
+ .0193
+ .0025

+25
+29
+26
+28
+27
+26
+28
+23
+25
+26

- 7 . 0 SO.4492 100.0 +$0.1115
-7 .2
.4454 99.2 + .1153
- 8 .1
.4285 95.4 + .1322
-5 .7
.4481 99.8 + .1126
-6 .3
.4455 99.2 + .1152
- 9 .6
.4324 96.3 + .1283
- 9 .5
.4179 93.0 + .1428
- 8 .2
.4663 103.8 + .0944
- 6 .6
.4658 103.7 + .0949
.4602 102.4 + .1005
-7 .0
- 1 .8
.4820 107.3 + .0787
-1 .2
.4851 108.0 + .0756
- .9 .6213 116.1 + .0394
.0009
+ .3 .5616 125.0
,6607 124.8

+24
+21

+2<
+3^
+2(
+2(

- 0 . 9 $0.1559
-3 .9
.1558
.1506
- 2 .9
-2 .5
.1566
- 2 .1
.1604
- .6 .1561
- .8 .1549
- .8 .1555
+ .2 .1592
- .1 .1591
+ 4 .7 .1505
-1 .4
.1550
- .5 .1638
+ .2 .1693
.1752

+ i:
+ i:
+n
+i
+ 1
+r
+1:
+1
+1<
+1'
+1'
+1
+
+

100.0
96.8
99.1
97.8
98.9
99.6
97.7
102.0
100.2
99.4
108.5
108.8
117.6
124.6
125.6

+K

+15
+ 6
+

CARVERS) Male.
[Data from 28 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

120
115
107
112
114
137
121
119
103
114
153
167
166
146
125

100.0
95.8
89.2
93.3
95.0
114.2
100.8
99.2
85.8
95.0
127.5
139.2
138.3
121.7
104.2

+ 5
+10
+18
+13
+11
-1 2
+ 4
+ 6

+22
+11
-2 8
-4 2
-4 1
-2 1

+ 4.2
+ 8.7
+16.8
+11.6
+ 9.6
- 8.8
+ 3.3
+ 5.0
+21.4
+ 9.6
-1 8 .3
-2 5 .1
-2 4 .7
-1 4 .4

51.47
51.54
52.09
50.72
51.07
52.91
52.85
52.10
51.21
51.47
48.73
48.42
48.28
47.71
47.85

-3 .6 2
-3 .6 9
-4 .2 4
-2 .8 7
-3 .2 2
-5 .0 6
-5 .0 0
-4 .2 5
-3 .3 6
-3 .6 2
- .88
— .57
- .43
+ .14

100.0
100.1
101.2
98.5
99.2
102.8
102.7
101.2
99.5
100.0
94.7
94.1
93.8
92.7
93.0

+3(
+21
+21

+1
2

+1<
+11

+ '

LABORERS) Male.
[Data from 18 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

202
214
208
221
211
190
190
196
201
199
190
173
216
218
192

100.0
105.9
103.0
109.4
104.5
94.1
94.1
97.0
99.5
98.5
94.1
85.6
106.9
107.9
95.0




-1 0
-2 2
-1 6
-2 9
-1 9
+ 2
+ 2
- 4
- 9
- 7
+ 2
+19
-2 4
-2 6

- 5.0
-1 0 .3
- 7.7
-1 3 .1
- 9.0
+ 1.1
+ 1.1
- 2.0
- 4.5
- 3.5
+ 1.1
+11.0
-1 1 .1
-1 1 .9

57.00
68.73
58.17
57.93
57.69
56.81
56.94
56.92
56.35
56.50
53.95
67.25
56.75
56.36
56.47

100.0
103.0
102.1
101.6
101.2
99.7
99.9
99.9
98.9
99.1
94.6
100.4
99.6
98.9
99.1

-0 .5 3
-2 .2 6
-1 .7 0
-1 .4 6
-1 .2 2
- .34
- .47
- .45
+ .12
- .03
+2.52
- .78
- .28
+ .11

i.

.

.

.

.

.

.

100.0
99.9
96.6
100.4
102.9
100.1
99.4
99.7
102.1
102.1
96.5
99.4
106.1
108.6
112.4

.

.

+$0.0193
+ .0194
+ .0246
+ .0186
+ .0148
+ .0191
+ .0203
+ .0197
+ .0160
+ .0161
+ .0247
+ .0202
+ .0114
+ .0059

839

“
WAGES AND COST OF LIVING
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MARBX.E A N D STONE WORK—Continued,
LETTERERS, Male.
[Data from 42 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

iv. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
B97.............
898.............
399.............
300.............
301.............
302.............
303.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num tive pared with year
specified.
ber. number.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
76
74
75
73
76
72
77
72
77
79
80
81
85
86
84

100.0
97.4
98.7
96.1
100.0
94.7
101.3
94.7
101.3
103.9
105.3
106.6
111.8
113.2
110.5

+ 8
+10
+ 9
+11
+ 8
+12
+ 7
+12
+ 7
+ 5
+ 4
+ 3
- 1
- 2

+10.5
+13.5
+12.0
+15.1
+10.5
+16.7
+ 9.1
+16.7
+ 9.1
+ 6.3
+ 5.0
+ 3.7
- 1.2
- 2.3

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

56.23
56.95
56.43
55.82
55.89
56.46
56.38
56.25
56.32
55.96
55.85
54.28
53.99
53.64
51.49

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.3
100.4
99.3
99.4
100,4
100.3
100.0
100.2
99.5
99.3
96.5
96.0
95.4
91.6

-4 .7 4
-5 .4 6
-4 .9 4
-4 .3 3
-4 .4 0
-4 .9 7
-4 .8 9
-4 .7 6
-4 .8 3
-4 .4 7
-4 .3 6
-2 .7 9
-2 .5 0
-2 .1 5

- 8 . 4 $0.2992 100.0 +80.0539
- 9 .6
.2921 97.6 + .0610
.2932 98.0 + .0599
-8 .8
- 7 .8
.2963 99.0 + .0568
.2927 97.8 + .0604
- 7 .9
.2964 99.1 + .0567
-8 .8
-8 .7
.2978 99.5 + .0553
- 8 .5
.3053 102.0 + .0478
.3048 101.9 + .0483
-8 .6
- 8 .0
.3060 102.3 + .0471
.3074 102.7 + .0457
- 7 .8
- 5 .1
.3175 106.1 + .0356
- 4 . 6 .3254 108.8 + .0277
-4 .0
.3376 112.8 + .0155
.3531 118.0

+18.0
+20.9
+20.4
+19.2
+20.6
+19.1
+18.6
+15.7
+15.8
+15.4
+14.9
+11.2
+ 8.5
+ 4.6

MARBLE CUTTERS, Male.
[Data from 58 establishments.]
V. 1890-99.
590.............
591.............
592.............
593.............
594.............
595 .............
596 .............
597 .............
598 .............
599.............
>00.............
m .............
K)2.............
K)3.............

411
437
449
406
397
363
368
383
392
403
613
534
535
527
549

100.0
106.3
109.2
98.8
96.6
88.3
89.5
93.2
95.4
98.1
124.8
129.9
130.2
128.2
133.6

+138
+112
+100
+143
+152
+186
+181
+166
+157
+146
+ 36
+ 15
+ 14
+ 22

+33.6
+25.6
+22.3
+35.2
+38.3
+51.2
+49.2
+43.3
+40.1
+36.2
+ 7.0
+ 2.8
+ 2.6
+ 4.2

52.89
54.33
62.93
52.70
52.74
53.39
53.23
63.09
62.83
52.84
50.82
50.48
50.36
50.22
49.18

100.0
102.7
100.1
99.6
99.7
100.9
100.6
100.4
99.9
99.9
96.1
95.4
95.2
95.0
93.0

-3 .7 1
-5 .1 5
-3 .7 5
-3 .5 2
-3 .5 6
-4 .2 1
-4 .0 5
-3 .9 1
-3 .6 5
-3 .6 6
-1 .6 4
-1 .3 0
-1 .1 8
-1 .0 4

- 7 . 0 $0.3518 100.0 +$0.1040
-9 .5
.3369 95.8 + .1189
.3684 101.9 + .0974
- 7 .1
- 6 .7
.3527 100.3 + .1031
- 6 .8
.3507 99.7 + .1051
-7 .9
.3372 95.8 + .1186
.3370 95.8 + .1188
- 7 .6
-7 .4
.3548 100.9 + .1010
-6 .9
.3580 101.8 + .0978
-6 .9
.3564 101.3 + .0994
- 3 .2
.3754 106.7 + .0804
-2 .6
.3826 108.8 + .0732
- 2 .3 .4065 115.5 + .0493
- 2 .1
.4338 123.3 + .0220
.4558 129.6

+29.6
+35.3
+27.2
+ 29.2
+ 30.0
+35.2
+35.3
+28.5
+27.3
+27.9
+21.4
+19.1
+12.1
+ 5.1

MARBLE POLISHERS, Hale.
[Data from 29 establishments.]
v. 1890-99.
.90.............
9 1 .............
■92.............
9 3 .............
9 4 .............
.96.............
9 6 .............
97 .............
9 8 .............
9 9 .............
CO.............
0 1 .............
0 2 .............
0 3 .............

263
261
278
285
262
273
267
225
235
245
294
308
314
316
317

100.0
99.2
105.7
108.4
99.6
103.8
101.5
85.6
89.4
93.2
111.8
117.1
119.4
120.2
120.5




+54
+56
+39
+32
+55
+44
+50
+92
+82
+72
+23
+ 9
+ 3
+ 1

+20.5
+21.5
+14.0
+11.2
+21.0
+16.1
+18.7
+40.9
+34.9
+29.4
+ 7.8
+ 2.9
+ 1.0
+ .3

55.41
56.68
56.22
55.66
55.71
55.78
55.88
55.02
54.92
55.12
53.10
53.31
63.07
63.46
51.97

100.0
102.3
101.5
100.5
100.5
100.7
100.8
99.3
99.1
99.5
95.8
96.2
95.8
96.5
93.8

-3 .4 4
-4 .7 1
-4 .2 5
-3 .6 9
-3 .7 4
-3 .8 1
-3*91
-3 .0 5
-2 .9 5
-3 .1 5
-1 .1 3
-1 .3 4
-1 .1 0
-1 .4 9

- 6 . 2 $0.2193 100.0 +$0.0619
-8 .3
.2139 97.5 + .0673
- 7 .6
.2120 96.7 + .0692
-6 .6
.2188 99.8 + .0624
-6 .7
.2193 100.0 + .0619
- 6 .8
.2056 93.8 + .0756
- 7 .0
.2042 93.1 + .0770
.2222 101.3 + .0590
-5 .5
-6 .4
.2237 102.0 + .0575
- 5 .7
.2259 103.0 + .0553
-2 .1
.2472 112.7 + .0340
- 2 .5
.2461 112.2 + .0351
- 2 .1
.2596 118.4 + .0216
- 2 .8
.2695 122.9 + .0117
.2812 128.2

+28.2
+31.5
+32.6
+28.5
+28.2
+36.8
+37.7
+26.6
+25.7
+24.5
+13.8
+14.3
+ 8.3
+ 4.3

840

BULLETIN OF 'THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903-Continued.
[Average 1890-1899*100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanatio]
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MARBLE A N D STONE WORK—Continued.
SAWYERS, male.
[Data from 35 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894‘. ...........
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

91
89
89
90
89
90
91
92
94
94
94
96
100
96
99

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( — ) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

100.0
97.8
97.8
98.9
97.8
98.9
100.0
101.1
103.3
103.3
103.3
105.5
109.9
105.5
108.8

+ 8
+10
+10
+ 9
+10
+ 9
+ 8
+ 7
+ 5
+ 5
+ 5
+ 3
- 1
+ 3

+ 8.8
+11.2
+11.2
+10.0
+11.2
+10.0
+ 8.8
+ 7.6
+ 5.3
+ 5.3
+ 5.3
+ 3.1
- 1.0
+ 3.1

56.67
57.65
57.58
57.61
57.11
57.08
57.31
55.95
55.67
55.52
55.22
54.86
54.01
54.28
54.15

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.7
101.6
101.7
100.8
100.7
101.1
98.7
98.2
98.0
97.4
96.8
95.3
95.8
95.6

-2 .5 2
-3 .5 0
-3 .4 3
-3 .4 6
-2 .9 6
-2 .9 3
-3 .1 6
-1 .8 0
-1 .5 2
-1 .3 7
-1 .0 7
- .71
+ .14
- .13

Increase ( + ) o]
decrease ( - ) ii
1903 as com­
pared with yea
specified.
Amount.

Per
cent.

- 4 .4 $0.2283 100.0 +$0.0355
.2182 95.6 + .0456
- 6 .1
- 6 .0
.2193 96.1 + .0445
- 6 .0
.2178 95.4 + .0460
- 5 .2
.2218 97.2 + .0420
- 5 .1
.2241 98.2 + .0397
- 5 .5
.2203 96.5 + .0435
—3.2 .2378 104.2 + .0260
.2396 104.9 + .0242
-2 .7
-2 .5
.2403 105.3 + .0235
.2440 106.9 + .0198
-1 .9
.2474 108.4 + .0164
-1 .3
+ .3 .2590 113.4 + .0048
- .2 .2544 111.4 + .0094
.2638 115.5

+15.
+20.
+20.
+21.
+18.
+17.
+19.
+10.
+10.
+ 9.
+ 8.
+ 6.
+ 1.
+ 3.

STONE CUTTERS, GRANITE, Male.
[Data from 72 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903..............

775
938
880
882
778
705
685
709
678
698
798
901
852
856
900

+125
- 38
+ 20
+ 18
+122
+195
+215
+191
+222
+202
+102
1
+ 48
+ 44

100.0
121.0
113.5
113.8
100.4
91.0
88.4
91.5
87.5
90.1
103.0
116.3
109.9
110.5
116.1

+16.1
- 4.1
+ 2.3
+ 2.0
+15.7
+27.7
+31.4
+26.9
+32.7
+28.9
+12.8
.1
+ 5.6
+ 5.1

52.71
52.73
52.54
52.70
53.12
52.84
52.67
52.77
52.99
53.04
51.70
50.20
49.96
49.67
48.67

100.0
100.0
99.7
100.0
100.8
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.5
100.6
98.1
95.2
94.8
94.2
92.3

-4 .0 4
-4 .0 6
-3 .8 7
-4 .0 3
-4 .4 5
-4 .1 7
-4 .0 0
-4 .1 0
-4 .3 2
-4 .3 7
-3 .0 3
-1 .5 3
-1 .2 9
-1 .0 0

+16
+13
+11
+12
+16
+17
+17
+17
+19
+21
+17
+ 7
+ 9
+ 7

- 7 . 7 $0.3628 100.0 +$0.0597
.3730 102.8 + .0495
-7 .7
- 7 .4
.3803 104.8 + .0422
.3750 103.4 + .0475
-7 .6
- 8 . 4 .3618 99.7 + .0607
.3593 99.0 + .0632
- 7 .9
-7 .6
.3611 99.5 + .0614
-7 .8
.3590 99.0 + .0635
-8 .2
.3524 97.1 + .0701
-8 .2
.3467 95.6 + .0758
.3594 99.1 + .0631
-5 .9
.3923 108.1 + .0302
- 3 .0
-2 .6
.3868 106.6 + .0357
.3938 108.5 + .0287
-2 .0
.4225 116.5

STONE: CUTTERS, SOFT STONE, Male.
[Data from 49 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
189 0 ...
189 1 ...
189 2 ...
1 8 9 3 ...
1 8 94...
1 8 9 5 ...
1896 . . .
1 8 9 7 ...
1 8 9 8 ...
1899 . . .
1 9 0 0...
190 1 ...
1902 . . .
1903 . . .

572
631
626
601
591
523
522
565
499
663
500
491
505
551
528

100.0
110.3
109.4
105.1
103.3
91.4
91.3
98.8
87.2
115.9
87.4
85.8
88.3
96.3
92.3




- 44
-1 0 3
- 98
- 73
- 63
+ 5
+ 6
- 37
+ 29
-1 3 5
+ 28
+ 37
+ 23
- 23

- 7.7
-1 6 .3
-1 5 .7
-1 2 .1
-1 0 .7
+ 1.0
+ 1.1
- 6.5
+ 5.8
-2 0 .4
+ 5.6
+ 7.5
+ 4.6
- 4.2

49.41
50.93
49.66
49.55
49.98
49.79
49.49
49.27
48.64
48.29
48.47
48.66
48.05
47.86
47.30

100.0
103.1
100.5
100.3
101.2
100.8
100.2
99.7
98.4
97.7
98.1
98.5
97.2
96.9
95.7

-2 .1 1
-3 .6 3
-2 .3 6
-2 .2 5
-2 .6 8
-2 .4 9
-2 .1 9
-1 .9 7
-1 .3 4
- .99
-1 .1 7
-1 .3 6
- .75
- .56

- 4 .3 $0.4242 100.0 +$0.0687
- 7 .1
.4263 100.6 + .0666
.4419 104.2 + .0510
- 4 .8
.4409 103.9 + .0520
- 4 .5
.4264 100.5 + .0665
-5 .4
- 5 . 0 .4124 97.2 + .0805
-4 .4
.4081 96.2 + .0848
-4 .0
.4116 97.0 + .0813
.4187 98.7 + .0742
-2 .8
- 2 .1
.4321 101.9 + .0608
-2 .4
.4237 99.9 + .0692
.4260 100.4 + .0669
-2 .8
.4347 102.5 + .0582
-1 .6
- 1 .2
.4607 108.6 + .0322
.4929 116.2

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

16
15
13
11
15
If

2C
If
r*
14

ie
if
if

841

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING,

Table I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.
Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MARBLE A N D STONE WORK—Concluded,
sto ne : CUTTERS, N. S., male.
[Data from 30 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

.v. 1890-99.
590.............
591.............
392.............
393 .............
394.............
395.............
396.............
397 .............
398.............
399.............
100.............
m .............
102.............
103.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( -t-) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. num­
num­ num­
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
ber.
cent.
429 100.0
+ 75
467 108.9
+ 37
430 100.2
+ 74
492 114.7
+ 12
470 109.6
+ 34
404 94.2
+100
396 92.3
+108
405 94.4
+ 99
390 90.9 * +114
359 ^ 83.7
+145
481 lf2.1
+ 23
428 99.8
+ 76
552 128.7
- 48
565 131.7
- 61
504 117.5

+17.5
+ 7.9
+17.2
+ 2.4
+ 7.2
+24.8
+27.3
+24.4
+29.2
+40.4
+ 4.8
+17.8
- 8.7
-1 0 .8

49.69
51.40
50.59
50.64
50.05
49.04
49.97
49.34
48.64
49.14
48.08
47.59
46.89
46.78
46.66

100.0
103.4
101.8
101.9
100.7
98.7
100.6
99.3
97.9
98.9
96.8
95.8
94.4
94.1
93.9

-3 .0 3
-4 .7 4
-3 .9 3
-3 .9 8
-3 .3 9
-2 .3 8
-3 .3 1
-2 .6 8
-1 .9 8
-2 .4 8
-1 .4 2
- .93
- .23
- .12

- 6 .1 $0.4359
-9 .2
.4344
.4421
-7 .8
.4436
-7 .9
-6 .8
.4467
.4467
- 4 .9
.4276
- 6 .6
- 5 .4
.4341
.4356
- 4 .1
.4215
- 5 .0
.4265
- 3 .0
- 2 .0
.4303
- .5 .4539
- .3 .4695
.4894

100.0
99.7
101.4
101.8
102.5
102.5
98.1
99.6
99.9
96.7
97.8
98.7
104.1
107.7
112.3

+$0.0535
+ .0550
+ .0473
+ .0458
+ .0427
+ .0427
+ .0618
+ .0553
+ .0538
+ .0679
+ .0629
+ .0591
+ .0355
+ .0199

+12.3
+12.7
+10.7
+10.3
+ 9.6
+ 9.6
+14.5
+12.7
+12.4
+16.1
+14.7
+13.7
+ 7.8
+ 4.2

- 6 . 7 $0.2091 100.0 +$0.0136
- 8 .1
.2098 100.3 + .0129
-6 .9
.2109 100.9 + .0118
- 6 .5
.2161 103.3 + .0066
- 7 .5
.2043 97.7 + .0184
.1962 93.8 + .0265
-7 .6
-7 .1
.1997 95.5 + .0230
.2105 100.7 + .0122
-4 .9
.2211 105.7 + .0016
-5 .5
- 6 .2
.2141 102.4 + .0086
-6 .4
.2080 99.5 + .0147
.2002 95.7 + .0225
- 4 .1
- 3 .8
.2028 97.0 + .0199
.2117 101.2 + .0110
- 1 .1
.2227 106.5

+ 6.5
+ .6 .1
+ 5.6
+ 3.1
+ 9.0
+13.5
+11.5
+ 5.8
+ •7
+ 4.0
+ 7.1
+11.2
+ 9.8
+ 5.2

STONE POLISHERS, Male.
[Data from 22 establishments.]
v. 1890-99.
*90.............
*91.............
*92.............
*93.............
*94.............
*95.............
*96.............
*97.............
*98.............
*99.............
KX).............
m .............
m .............
X)3.............

50
49
51
49
55
46
49
52
52
51
49
50
55
59
57

100.0
98.0
102.0
98.0
110.0
92.0
98.0
104.0
104.0
102.0
98.0
100.0
110.0
118.0
114.0

+ 7
+ 8
+ 6
+ 8
+ 2
+11
+ 8
+ 5
+ 5
+ 6
+ 8
+ 7
+ 2
- 2

+14.0
+16.3
+11.8
+16.3
+ 3.6
+23.9
+16.3
+ 9.6
+ 9.6
+11.8
+16.3
+14.0
+ 3.6
- 3.4

56.50
57.37
56.65
56.39
57.00
57. Q
7
56.76
55.44
55.79
56.18
56.35
55.00
54.80
53.32
52.72

100.0
101.5
100.3
99.8
100.9
101.0
100.5
98.1
98.7
99.4
99.7
97.3
97.0
94.4
93.3

-3 .7 8
-4 .6 5
-3 .9 3
-3 .6 7
-4 .2 8
-4 .3 5
-4 .0 4
-2 .7 2
-3 .0 7
-3 .4 6
-3 .6 3
-2 .2 8
-2 .0 8
- .60

TURNERS, Male.
[Data from 10 establishments.]
v. 1890-99.
590.............
591.............
9 2 .............
;93.............
594 .............
595 .............
596 .............
597 .............
598 .............
599 .............
•00.............
•01.............
•02.............
•03.............

19
19
19
19
19
19
19
17
20
19
21
19
24
23
23

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
89.5
105.3
100.0
110.5
100.0
126.3
121.1
121.1




+4
+4
+4
+4
+4
+4
+4
+6
+3
+4
+2
+4
-1

+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+21.1
+35.3
+15.0
+21.1
+ 9.5
+21.1
- 4.2

56.97
57.58
57.26
57.26
57.26
57.26
57.26
56.35
56.50
56.63
56.38
56.63
56.08
56.17
54.39

100.0
101.1
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
98.9
99.2
99.4
99.0
99.4
98.4
98.6
95.5

-2 .5 8
-3 .1 9
-2 .8 7
-2 .8 7
—2.87
-2 .8 7
-2 .8 7
-1 .9 6
-2 .1 1
-2 .2 4
-1 .9 9
-2 .2 4
-1 .6 9
-1 .7 8

- 4 . 5 $0.2331
.2249
-5 .5
- 5 . 0 .2291
. 2291
- 5 .0
—5.0 .2345
.2345
-5 .0
.2319
-5 .0
- 3 . 5 .2381
.2355
- 3 .7
.2376
-4 .0
.2353
-3 .5
-4 .0
.2426
-3 .0
.2398
- 3 .2
.2514
.2754

100.0 +$0.0423
96.5 + .0505
98.3 + .0463
98.3 + .0463
100.6 + .0409
100.6 + .0409
99.5 + .0435
102.1 + . 0373
101.0 + .0399
101.9 + .0378
100.9 + .0401
104.1 + .0328
102.9 + .0356
107.9 + .0240
118.1

+18.1
+22.5
+20.2
+20.2
+17.4
+17.4
+ 18.8
+15.7
+16.9
+15.9
+17.0
+13.5
+14.8
+ 9.5

842

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.
T able

I.-W AG ES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MUSICAI j INSTRUM ENTS, ORGANS.
ACTION MAKERS, Male*
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1 8 9 4 .:..........
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. number.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
39
45
38
41
43
35
36
39
38
36
43
42
43
43

6
6

100.0
115.4
97.4
105.1
110.3
89.7
92.3
100.0
97.4
92.3
110.3
107.7
110.3
110.3
169.2

+27
+21
+28
+25
+23
+31
+30
+27
+28
+30
+23
+24
+23
+23

+69.2
+46.7
+73.7
+61.0
+53.5
+88.6
+83.3
+69.2
+73.7
+83.3
+53.5
+57.1
+53.5
+53.5

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
59.53
59.56
59.55
59.54
59.58
59.46
59.50
59.51
59.50
69.50
59.56
57.69
57.67
67.84
56.88

100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.1
96.9
96.9
97.2
95.5

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

Per
cent.

- 4 . 5 $0.2337 100.0 -$0.0089
.2284 97.7 - 4 .5
.0036
-4 .5
.2375 101.6 .0127
.2385 102.1 - 4 .5
.0137
.2385 102.1 - 4 .5
.0137
.2264 96.9 -4 .3
.0016
-4 .4
.2327 99.6 .0079
- 4 .4
.2363 101.1 .0115
-4 .4
.2281 97.6 .0033
-4 .4
.2365 101*2 .0117
-4 .5
.2336 100.0 .0088
- 1 .4
.2622 112.2 .0374
- 1 .4
.2504 107.1 - .0256
- 1 .7
.2268 97.0 - .0020
.2248 96.2

- 3.8
- 1.6
- 5.3
- 5.7
- 5.7
.7
- 3.4
- 4.$
- 1.4
- 4+
- 3.f
- 1 4 .1
—10.5
_ j

- 8 . 9 $0.2022
—9.0 .1993
—9. W .2032
—9.0} .2235
—9. (w .2249
—8.9 .2059
—8.9] .1956
—8 .9 .2034
|
—8 .9 .1909
|
—8. $ .1857
—8 .9 .1897
|
—4 .0 .1985
|
-4.01 .2142
- 4 .7
.2137
1 .2091
7
1

—2.65
-2 .6 8
-2 .6 7
-2 .6 6
-2 .7 0
-2 .5 8
-2 .6 2
-2 .6 3
-2 .6 2
-2 .6 2
-2 .6 8
- .&
- .79
- .96

100.0 +$0.0075
98.6 + .0104
100.6 + .0065
.0138
110.5
111.2 — .0152
101.8 + .0038
96.7 + .0141
100.6 + .0063
94.4 + .0188
91.8 + .0240
93.8 + .0200
98.2 + .0112
105.9 — .0045
105.7 — .0040
103.7

+ 3.
+ 5.
+ 3.
- 6.
- 6.
+ 1.
+ 7.
+ 3.
+ 9.
+12.
+10.
+ 5.
- 2.
- 1.

100.0
89.6
102.6
102.4
114.4
94.4
104.4
98.7
98.7
102.7
91.9
104.0
100.1
107.1
109.3

+ 9.
+22.
+ 6.
+ 6.
- 4.
+15.
+ 4.
+10.
+10.
+ 6.
+18.
+ 5.
+ 9.
+ 2.

CASE MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

31
38
37
51
31
22
28
26
22
25
28
28
24
26
36

100.0
122.6
119.4
164.6
100.0
71.0
90.3
83.9
71.0
80.6
90.3
90.3
77.4
83.9
110.1

+ 5
- 2
- 1
-1 5
+ 5
+14
+ 8
+10
+14
+11
+ 8
+ 8
+12
+10

+16.1
- 5.3
- 2.7
-2 9 .4
+16.1
+63.6
+28.6
+38.6
+63.6
+44.0
+28.6
+28.6
+50.0
+38.5

69.89
69.92
69.92
59.94
59.90
59.86
59.89
59.88
59.86
59.88
59.89
66.79
56.83
57.19
54.53

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
94.8
94.9
95.5
91.1

-5 .3 6
-5 .3 9
-5 .3 9
-5 .4 1
-5 .3 7
-5 .3 3
-5 .3 6
-5 .3 5
-5 .3 3
-5 .3 5
-5 .3 6
-2 .2 6
-2 .3 0
-2 .6 6

FINISHERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

19
21
20
20
17
18
23
17
18
14
24
24
28
29
32

100.0
110.5
105.3
105.3
89.5
94.7
121.1
89.5
94.7
73.7
126.3
126.3
247.4
152.6
368.4




+13
+11
+12
+12
+15
+14
+ 9
+15
+14
+18
+ 8
+ 8
+ 4
+ 3

+ 68.4
+ 52.4
+ 60.0
+ 60.0
+ 88.2
+ 77.8
+ 39.1
+ 88.2
+ 77.8
+128.6
+ 33.3
+ 33.3
+ 14.3
+ 10.3

59.67
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.00
58.71
59.00
56.08
56.14
56.07
52.31

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
98.9
98.4
98.9
94.0
94.1
94.0
87.7

-7 .3 6
-7 .6 9
-7 .6 9
-7 .6 9
-7 .6 9
-7 .6 9
-7 .6 9
-7 .6 9
-6 .6 9
-6 .4 0
-6 .6 9
-3 .7 7
-3 .8 8
-3 .7 6

-1 2 .3 $0.2125
-1 2 .8 .1904
-1 2 .8 .2180
-1 2 .8 .2177
-1 2 .8 .2431
-1 2 .8 .2006
.2218
-1 2 .8
-1 2 .8 .2097
-1 1 .3 .2098
-1 0 .9 .2182
-1 1 .8 .1953
- 6.7 .2210
- 6.8 .2127
- 6.7 .2276
.2323

+$0.0198
+ .0419
+ .0143
+ .0146
.0108
+ .0317
+ .0105
+ .0226
+ .0225
+ .0141
+ .0370
+ .0113
+ .0196
+ .0047

843

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR/1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MUSICAL INSTRUM ENTS, ORGANS—Continued
MACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —)in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num num
ber. num­
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.

100.0

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

+6
+8
+8
+6
+5
+7
+4
+6
+7
+7
+7
+6
+4

80.0
80.0

100.0
110.0
90.0

120.0
100.0

90.0
90.0
90.0

100.0
120.0

+ 60.0
+100.0
+100.0
+ 60.0
+ 45.5
+ 77.8
+ 33.3
+ 60.0
+ 77.8
+ 77.8
+ 77.8
+ 60.0
.+ 33.8

160.0
160.0

58.20
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

100.1
103.:
103.
103.:
103.:
103.
103.
103.
92.:
92.:
92.
92. J
92.:
92. J
92.

-4 .2 0
—6.00
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0

- 7.2
-1 0 .0
-1 0 .0
-1 0 .0
-1 0 .0
-1 0 .0
-1 0 .0
-1 0 .0

100.0 +80.0229

.0254
.0254
.0244
.0189
.0164
.0233
.0219
.0284
.0284
.0164
.0006
.0045

+ 8.4
+ 9.4
+ 9.4
+ 9.0
+ 6.8
+ 5.8
+ 8.5
+ 8.0
+10.6
+10.6
+ 5.8
.2
+ 1.5

- 7.2 $0.2967 100.0 —$0.00o6
-1 0 .0 .2868 96.7 + .0043
.0044
-1 0 .0 .2955 99.6
-1 0 .0 .2904 97.9 + .0007
-1 0 .0 .2979 100.4 — .0068
-1 0 .0 .3075 103.6 - .0164
-1 0 .0 .2975 100.3 — .0064
-1 0 .0 .2972 100.2 — .0061
.2972 100.2
.0061
.0089
.3000 101.1
.2972 100.2 _ .0061
.3000 101.1 _ .0089
.2900 97.7 + .0011
.2859 96.4 + .0052
.2911 98.1

- 1 .9
+ 1 .5
- 1 .5
+ .2
- 2 .3
-5 .3
-2 .2
- 2 .1
—2.1
—3.0
—2.1
—3.0
+ .4
+ 1 .8

.2715
.2715
.2725
.2780
.2805
.2736
.2750
.2685
.2685
.2805
.2975
.2924
.2969
.2969

99.1
99.1
99.5
101.5
102.4
99.9
100.4
98.0
98.0
102.4
108.6
106.7
108.4
108.4

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

PIPE MAKERS, METAL, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

10
11
10
13
12
10
10
9
9
8
9
9
10
16
14

100.0
110.0
100.0
130.0
120.0
100.0
100.0
90.0
90.0
80.0
90.0
90.0
100.0
160.0
140.0

+4
+3
+4
+1
+2
+4
+4
+5
+5
+6
+5
+5
+4
-2

+40.0
+27.3
+40.0
+ 7.7
+16.7
+40.0
+40.0
+55.6
+55.6
+75.0
+55.6
+55.6
+40.0
—12.5

58.20
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8

-4 .2 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0

PIPE-ORGAN BUILDERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
189C.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

28
26
23
30
28
24
32
26
26
26
36
40
48
61
56

100.0
92.9
82.1
107.1
100.0
85.7
114.3
92.9
92.9
92.9
128.6
142.9
171.4
217.9
200.0

+28
+30
+33
+26
+28
+32
+24
+30
+30
+30
+20
+16

+100.0
+115.4
+143.5
+ 86.7
+100.0
+133.3
+ 75.0
+115.4
+115.4
+115.4
+ 55.6
+ 40.0
+ 16.7
8.2
5 -

+6
-

10092—No. 53—04---- 10



58.20
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
51.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8

-4 .2 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0

- 7.2 $0.3044 100.0 - $ 0 .0201
-1 0 .0 .3040 99.9
.0197
-1 0 .0 .3037 99.8 _ .0194
-1 0 .0 .3093 101.6 — .0250
-1 0 .0 .3038 99.8 — .0195
-1 0 .0 .2988 98.2
.0145
-1 0 .0 .3028 99.5 — .0185'
-1 0 .0 .3066 100.7 — .0223j!
. 0223;
.3066 100.7
.3066 100.7
.0223
.3013 99.0
.0170
.2989 98.2
.0146
.2928 96.2
.0085
.0029!
.2872 94.3
.2843 93.4

_

_
_

-6 .6
- 6 .5
- 6 .4
- 8 .1
-6 .4
-4 9
-6 .1
- 7 .3
—7.3
—7.3
- 5 .6
—4.9
—2.9
—1.0

844

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 716 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MUSICAIi INSTRUM ENTS, ORGANS—Concluded.
TUNERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1 9 0 0 ...........
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
14
17
18
17
17
9
15
13
11
11
13
13
10
12
10

100.0
121.4
128.6
121.4
121.4
64.3
107.1
92.9
78.6
78.6
92.9
92.9
71.4
85.7
71.4

—4
-7
-8
-7
-7
+1
—6
-3
-1
-1
-3
-3
-2

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

—28.6
-4 1 .2
-4 4 .4
-4 1 .2
-4 1 .2
+11.1
-3 3 .3
-2 3 .1
- 9.1
- 9.1
-2 3 .1
-2 3 .1

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
56.54
56.50
-1 6 .7 56.50
52.50

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.2
94.2
94.2
87.5

-7 .5 0
-7 .5 0
-7 .5 0
-7 .6 0
-7 .5 0
-7 .5 0
—7.50
-7 .5 0
-7 .5 0
-7 .5 0
-7 .5 0
-4 .0 4
—4.00
-4 .0 0

-1 2 .5 0.3177 100.0 $-0.0112
-1 2 .5 .3184 100.2 - .0119
-1 2 .5 .3314 104.3 - .0249
-1 2 .5 .3299 103.8 - .0234
-1 2 .5 .3673 115.6 - .0608
-1 2 .5 .3603 113.4 - .0538
-1 2 .5 .3077 96.9 - .0012
-1 2 .5 .3069 96.6 - .0004
-1 2 .5 .2799 88.1 + .0266
-1 2 .5 .2749 86.5 + .0316
-1 2 .5 .3004 94.6 + .0061
- 7.1 .3941 124.0 - .0876
— 7.1 .3379 106.4 — .0314
- 7.1 .3077 96.9 - .0012
.3065 96.5

- 3.5
- 3.7
- 7.5
- 7.1
-1 6 .6
-1 4 .9
.4
.1
+ 9.5
+11.5
+ 2.0
-2 2 .2
—9 3
.4

VOICERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
8
3
3
4
4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
133.3
133.3

+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1

+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3

58.20
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8

-4 .2 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0
-6 .0 0

- 7.2 $0.4180
-1 0 .0 .4128
-1 0 .0 .4128
-1 0 .0 .4194
-1 0 .0 .4194
-1 0 .0 .4194
-1 0 .0 .4194
-1 0 .0 .4183
.4194
.4194
.4194
.4194
.4194
.4146
.4146

100.0 -$0.0034
98.8 + .0018
98.8 + .0018
100.3
.0048
100.3
.0048
100.3
.0048
100.3
.0048
100.1
.0037
100.3
.0048
100.3
.0048
100.3
.0048
100.3
.0048
.0048
100.3
99.2
99.2

_
_
—
—
_
_

+
+
—
—
—
—
—
-

0.8
.4

+$0.0285
_ .0092
.0025
_ .0174
+ .0243
+ .0615
+ .0382
+ .0607
+ .0521
+ .0425
+ .0346
+ .0398
+ .0246
+ .0159

+11.5
- 3.]
— c
- 5!*
+ 9.'
+27 A
+15. (
+ 27.;
+22. (
+1 7 .'
+13. ‘
+16. ‘
+ 9.«r
+ 6.<

A

1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
.i
l‘l
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

MUSICAL INSTRUM ENTS, PIANOS.
ACTION MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

• 56
30
36
36
40
59
71
70
66
81
67
91
88
99
105

100.0
53.6
64.3
64.3
71.4
105.4
126.8
125.0
117.9
144.6
119.6
162.5
157.1
176.8
187.5




+49
+75
+69
+69
+65
+46
+34
+35
+39
+24
+38
+14
+17
+ 6

+ 87.5
+250.0
+191.7
+191.7
+162.5
+ 78.0
+ 47.9
+ 50.0
+ 59.1
+ 29.6
+ 56.7
+ 15.4
+ 19.3
+ 6.1

59.68
59.47
69.50
59.50
59.68
59.73
59.76
59.81
69.77
69.78
59.76
57.41
57.52
56.47
52.61

100.0
99.6
99.7
99.7
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.1
96.2
96.4
94.6
88.2

-7 .0 7
-6 .8 6
-6 .8 9
-6 .8 9
-7 .0 7
-7 .1 2
-7 .1 5
-7 .2 0
-7 .1 6
-7 .1 7
-7 .1 5
-4 .8 0
-4 .9 1
-3 .8 6

-1 1 .8 $0.2544
-1 1 .5 .2921
-1 1 .6 .2854
-1 1 .6 .3003
-1 1 .8 .2586
-1 1 .9 .2214
-1 2 .0 .2447
-1 2 .0 .2222
-1 2 .0 .2308
-1 2 .0 .2404
-1 2 .0 .2483
- 8.4 .2431
- 8.5 .2583
- 6.8 .2670
.2829

100.0
114.8
112.2
118.0
101.7
87.0
96.2
87.3
90.7
94.5
97.6
95.6
101.5
105.0
111.2

_

845

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease { - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MUSICAL INSTRUM ENTS, PIANOS—Continued.
ACTION REGULATORS, Male,
[Data from 3 establishments.]

Year.

Iv. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
895.............
896.............
897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
9 0 2 ....* ....
903

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
32
15
20
24
26
25
34
33
33
34
71
44
46
50
58

100.0
46.9
62.5
75.0
81.3
78.1
106.3
103.1
103.1
106.3
221.9
137.5
143.8
156.3
181.3

+26
+43
+38
+34
+32
+33
+24
+25
+25
+24
-1 3
+14
+12
+ 8

+ 81.3
+286.7
+190.0
+141.7
+123.1
+132.0
+ 70.6
+ 75.8
+ 75.8
+ 70.6
- 18.3
+ 31.8
+ 26.1
+ 16.0

59.40
59.20
59.40
59.25
59.31
59.28
59.47
59.45
59.45
59.47
59.75
57.20
57.17
57.12
52.48

100.0
99.7
100.0
99.7
99.8
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.6
96.3
96.2
96.2
88.4

-6 .9 2
-6 .7 2
-6 .9 2
-6 .7 7
-6 .8 3
-6 .8 0
-6 .9 9
-6 .9 7
-6 .9 7
-6 .9 9
-7 .2 7
-4 .7 2
-4 .6 9
-4 .6 4

-1 1 .6 30.2704
-1 1 .4 .2915
-1 1 .6 .2732
-1 1 .4 .2527
-1 1 .5 .2787
-1 1 .5 .2556
-1 1 .8 .2581
-1 1 .7 .2894
-1 1 .7 .2779
-1 1 .8 .2789
-1 2 .2 .2479
- 8.3 .2830
- 8.2 .2778
- 8.1 .2828
.2922

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

Per
cent.

100.0
107.8
101.0
93.5
103.1
94.5
95.5
107.0
102.8
103.1
91.7
104.7
102.7
104.6
108.1

+30.0218
+ .0007
+ .0190
+ .0395
+ .0135
+ .0366
+ .0341
+ .0028
+ .0143
+ .0133
+ .0443
+ .0092
+ .0144
+ .0094

+ 8.1
+ .2
+ 7.0
+15.6
+ 4.8
+14.3
+13.2
+ 1.0
+ 5.1
+ 4.8
+17.9
+ 3.3
+ 5.2
+ 3.3

100.0
102.7
103.4
112.8
93.3
96.0
98.1
92.5
99.2
95.7
106.3
100.6
105.4
111.1
121.8

+$0.0598
+ .0523
+ .0504
+ .0247
+ .0782
+ .0709
+ .0649
+ .0804
+ .0621
+ .0716
+ .0424
+ .0582
+ .0449
+ .0293

+21.8
+18.5
+17.8
+ 8.0
+30.5
+26.9
+24.1
+31.7
+22.8
+27.3
+14.5
+21.1
+15.5
+ 9.6

100.0 +$0.0269
.0148
118.3 109.1 + .0063
101.1 + .0244
103.9 + .0180
95.5 + .0371
96.3 + . 0353
91.7 + .0458
92.3 + .0445
96.5 + .0348
95.2 + .0379
98.8 + .0297
101.5 + .0234
102.9 + .0202
111.8

+11.8
— 5.5
+ 2.5
+10.6
+ 7.6
+17.1
+16.1
+22.0
+21.2
+15.8
+17.5
+13.2

BELLY MEN, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
lv. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
Qa
Q

66
56
64
64
69
53
70
61
70
78
86
89
97
100
108

100.0
84.8
97.0
97.0
89.4
80.3
106.1
92.4
106.1
118.2
130.3
134.8
147.0
151.5
163.6

+42
+52
+44
+44
+49
+55
+38
+47
+38
+30
+22
+19
+11
+ 8

+ 63.6
+ 92.9
+ 68.8
+ 68.8
+ 83.1
+103.8
+ 54.3
+ 77.0
+ 54.3
+ 38.5
+ 25.6
+ 21.3
+ 11.3
+ 8.0

59.59
59.11
59.11
69.11
69.19
60.28
60.09
60.31
60.16
59.27
59.30
58.02
57.97
65.95
53.41

100.0
99.2
99.2
99.2
99.3
101.2
100.8
101.2
101.0
99.5
99.5
97.4
97.3
93.9
89.6

-6 .1 8
-5 .7 0
-5 .7 0
-5 .7 0
-5 .7 8
-6 .8 7
-6 .6 8
-6 .9 0
-6 .7 5
-5 .8 6
-5 .8 9
-4 .6 1
-4 .5 6
-2 .5 4

-1 0 .4 $0.2745
- 9.6 .2820
- 9.6 .2839
- 9.6 .3096
- 9.8 .2561
-1 1 .4 .2634
-1 1 .1 .2694
-1 1 .4 .2539
-1 1 .2 .2722
- 9.9 .2627
- 9.9 .2919
- 7.9 .2761
- 7.9 .2894
- 4.5 .3050
.3343

CASE MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
iv. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
Q3
A

141
88
93
128
109
141
160
149
143
174
224
243
268
266
290

100.0
62.4
66.0
90.8
77.3
100.0
113.5
105.7
101.4
123.4
158.9
172.3
190.1
188.7
205.7




+149
+202
+197
+162
+181
+149
+130
+141
+147
+116
+ 66
+ 47
+ 22
+ 24

+105.7
+229.5
+211.8
+126.6
+166.1
+105.7
+ 81.3
+ 94.6
+102.8
+ 66.7
+ 29.5
+ 19.3
+ 8.2
+ 9.0

69.79
59.63
59.73
59.73
59.83
59.82
59.83
59.87
59.83
59.83
59.84
57.34
57.25
56.49
52.61

100.0
99.7
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
95.9
95.8
94.5
88.0

-7 .1 8
-7 .0 2
-7 .1 2
-7 .1 2
-7 .2 2
-7 .2 1
-7 .2 2
-7 .2 6
-7 .2 2
-7 .2 2
-7 .2 3
-4 .7 3
-4 .6 4
-3 .8 8

-1 2 .0 $0.2275
-1 1 .8 .2692
-1 1 .9 .2481
-1 1 .9 .2300
-1 2 .1 .2364
-1 2 .1 .2173
-1 2 .1 .2191
-1 2 .1 .2086
-1 2 .1 .2099
-1 2 .1 .2196
-1 2 .1 .2165
- 8.2 .2247
- 8.1 .2310
- 6.9 .2342
.2544

+1H
+ 8.6

846

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MUSICAL INSTRUM ENTS, PIANO S—Continued.
FINISHERS, Hale*
[Data from 5 establishments.].
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902
.
1903
.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ .Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
Num­
Per
Per
Amount
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
97
61
57
74
90
85
106
102
108
141
154
159
159
191
215

100.0
52.6
68.8
76.3
92.8
87.6
109.3
105.2
111.3
145.4
158.8
163.9
163.9
196.9
221.6

+118
+164
+158
+141
+125
+130
+109
+113
+107
+ 74
+ 61
+ 56
+ 66
+ 24

+121.6
+321.6
+277.2
+190.5
+138.9
+152.9
+102.8
+110.8
+ 99.1
+ 52.5
+ 39.6
+ 35.2
+ 35.2
+ 12.6

59.53
59.27
59.21
59.39
59.51
59.51
59.66
59.65
59.65
59.72
69.69
57.13
67.04
66.40
62.48

100.0
99.6
99.5
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.3
96.0
95.8
94.7
88.2

-7 .0 5
-6 .7 9
-6 .7 3
-6 .9 1
-7 .0 3
-7 .0 3
-7 .1 8
-7 .1 7
-7 .1 7
-7 .2 4
-7 .2 1
-4 .6 5
-4 .5 6
-3 .9 2

-1 1 .8 $0.2648 100.0 +$0.0199
-1 1 .6 .2777 104.9 + .0070
-1 1 .4 .3021 114.1
.0174
-1 1 .6 .2782 105.1 + .0065
-1 1 .8 .2751 103.9 + .0096
-1 1 .8 .2425 91.6 + .0422
-1 2 .0 .2581 97.5 + .0266
-1 2 .0 .2632 99.4 + .0215
-1 2 .0 .2585 97.6 + .0262
-1 2 .1 .2396 90.5 + .0451
-1 2 .1 .2532 95.6 + .0315
- 8.1 .2616 98.8 + .0231
- 8.0 .2671 100.9 + .0176
- 7.0 .2727 103.0 + .0120
.2847 107.5

+ 7.5
+ 2.6
- 5.8
+ 2.3
+ 3.5
+17<4
+10.3
+ 8.2
+10.1
+18.8
+12.4
+ 8.8
+ 6.6
+ 4.4

FLY FINISHERS, Hale.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

37
30
39
41
30
33
29
35
45
42
46
52
69
67
71

100.0
81.1
105.4
110.8
81.1
89.2
78.4
94.6
121.6
113.5
124.3
140.6
159.5
181.1
191.9

+34
+41
+32
+30
+41
+38
+42
+36
+26
+29
+25
+19
+12
+ 4

+ 91.9
+136.7
+ 82.1
+ 73.2
+136.7
+115.2
+144.8
+102.9
+ 57.8
+ 69.0
+ 54.3
+ 36.5
+ 20.3
+ 6.0

69.13
58.90
68.97
59.02
59.07
59.09
59.14
59.23
59.40
59.18
59.26
58.19
68.08
56.03
53.49

100.0
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.2
100.5
100.1
100.2
98.4
98.2
94.8
90.6

-5 .6 4
-5 .4 1
-6 .4 8
-5 .5 3
-5 .5 8
-5 .6 0
-5 .6 5
-5 .7 4
-5 .9 1
-5 .6 9
-5 .7 7
-4 .7 0
-4 .5 9
-2 .5 4

- 9 . 6 $0.2897 100.0 +$0.0285
- 9 .2
.2936 101,3 + .0246
- 9 .3
.3096 106.9 + .0086
- 9 .4
.3123 107.8 + .0059
- 9 .4
.2931 101.2 + .0251
.2897 100.0 + .0285
-9 .5
.2739 94.5 + .0443
-9 .6
.2696 93.1 + .0486
- 9 .7
-9 .9
.2967 102.4 + .0215
.2754 95.1 + .0428
- 9 .6
- 9 .7
.2833 97.8 + .0349
.2887 99.7 + .0295
- 8 .1
.2858 98.7 + .0324
- 7 .9
- 4 .5
.3357 115.9 .0175
.3182 109.8

+ 9.8
+ 8.4
+ 2.8
+ 1.9
+ 8.6
+ 9.8
+16.2
+18.0
+ 7.2
+15.5
+12.3
+10.2
+11.3
- 5.2

- 9 . 0 $0.2835
- 8 . 9 .2916
—8.8 .2938
-9 .2
.2893
- 9 . 1 .2935
—9.0 .2706
- 8 .9
.2965
-9 .1
.2464
-9 .1
.2620
-9 .0
.2950
- 9 .0
.2963
-9 .1
.3009
-9 .2
.3087
- 3 .9
.3475
.3667

+29.3
+25.8
+24.8
+26.8
+24.9
+35.5
+23.7
+48.8
+30.0
+24.3
+23.8
+21.9
+18.8
+ 5.5

KEY MAKERS, Hale.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

19
25
25
16
14
17
21
17
14
20
19
21
18
22
25

100.0
131.6
131.6
84.2
73.7
89.5
110.5
89.5
73.7
105.3
100.0
110.5
94.7
115.8
131.6




+ 6
+ 9
+11
+ 8
+ 4
+ 8
+11
+ 5
+ 6
+ 4
+ 7
+ 3

+31.6 59.36
59.28
59.24
+56.3 59.44
+78.6 59.43
+47.1 59.35
+19.0 59.29
+47.1 59.41
+78.6 59.43
+25.0 59.35
+31.6 59.37
+19.0 59.38
+38.9 59.44
+13.6 56.18
54.00

100.0
99.9
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
94.6
91.0

-5 .3 6
—5.28
—5.24
-5 .4 4
-5 .4 3
-5 .3 5
-5 .2 9
-5 .4 1
-5 .4 3
-5 .3 5
-5 .3 7
-5 .3 8
-5 .4 4
-2 .1 8

100.0 +$0.0832
102.9 + .0751
103.6 + .0729
102.0 + .0774
103.5 + .0732
95.4 + .0961
104.6 + .0702
86.9 + .1203
92.4 + .1047
104.1 + .0717
104.5 + .0704
106.1 + .0658
108.9 + .0580
122.6 + .0192
129.3

847

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 716 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MUSICAL INSTRUM ENTS, PIANOS—Continued.
P O L IS H E R S , H a le .
[Data from 4 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1896.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —)in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
paredwith year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
Num­ tive
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. numnum­ num­
ber.
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Num­
Amount. cent.
cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
36
27
S3
34
36
36
41
89
89
36
44
89
53
57
69

100.0
75.0
91.7
94.4
97.2
100.0
113.9
108.3
108.3
97.2
122.2
108.3
147.2
168.3
163.9

+23
+32
+26
+25
+24
+23
+18
+20
+20
+24
+15
+20
+ 6
+ 2

+ 63.9
+118.6
+ 78.8
+ 73.6
+ 68.6
+ 63.9
+ 43.9
+ 51.3
+ 51.3
+ 68.6
+ 34.1
+ 51.3
+ 11.3
+ 3.5

59.31
69.11
59.27
59.29
59.31
59.33
69.41
59.38
59.38
59.31
59.32
57.90
67.63
57.46
62.98

100.0
99.7
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
97.6
97.0
96.9
89.3

-6 .3 3
-6 .1 3
-6 .2 9
-6 .3 1
-6 .3 3
-6 .3 5
-6 .4 3
-6 .4 0
-6 .4 0
-6 .3 3
-6 .3 4
-4 .9 2
-4 .5 5
-4 .4 8

-1 0 .7 $0.2699
-1 0 .4 .2628
-1 0 .6 .2598
-1 0 .6 .2711
-1 0 .7 .2840
-1 0 .7 .2646
-1 0 .8 .2857
-1 0 .8 .2766
-1 0 .8 .2580
-1 0 .7 .2676
-1 0 .7 .2691
- 8.5 .2894
- 7.9 .2879
- 7.8 .2738
.2941

100.0 +$0.0242
97.4 + .0313
96.3 + .0343
100.4 + .0230
105.2 + .0101
98.0 + .0295
105.9 + .0084
102.5 + .0175
95.6 + .0361
99.1 + .0265
99.7 + .0250
107.2 + .0047
106.7 + .0062
101.4 + .0203
109.0

+ 9.0
+11.9
+13.2
+ 8.5
+ 3.6
+11.1
+ 2.9
+ 6.3
+14.0
+ 9.9
+ 9.3
+ 1.6
+ 2.2
+ 7.4

- 8 . 8 $0.2322 100.0 +$0.0230
- 8 .7
.2323 100.0 + .0229
- 8 .7
.2325 100.1 + .0227
- 8 .6
.2328 100.3 + .0224
-8 .6
.2328 100.3 + .0224
.2331 100.4 + .0221
-8 .6
-8 .6
.2328 100.3 + .0224
-9 .7
.2277 98.1 + .0275
.2304 99.2 + .0248
- 9 .0
-8 .4
.2338 100.7 + .0214
-8 .5
.2341 100.8 + .0211
- 8 .6
.2336 100.6 + .0216
-8 .6
.2336 100.6 + .0216
-8 .6
.2336 100.6 + .0216
.2552 109.9

+ 9.9
+ 9.9
+ 9.8
+ 9.6
+ 9.6
+ 9.5
+ 9.6
+12.1
+10.8
+ 9.2
+ 9.0
+ 9.2
+ 9.2
+ 9.2

RUBBERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

28
29
28
27
27
26
27
26
26
28
31
33
33
33
32

100.0
103.6
100.0
96.4
96.4
92.9
96.4
92.9
92.9
100.0
110.7
117.9
117.9
117.9
114.3

+4
+3
+4
+5
+6
+6
+5
+6
+6
+4
+1
-1
-1
-1

+14.3
+10.3
+14.3
+18.5
+18.5
+23.1
+18.5
+23.1
+23.1
+14.3
+ 3.2
- 3.0
- 3.0
- 3.0

69.18
59.17
69.14
59.11
59.11
59.08
59.11
59.77
59.31
58.93
59.03
59.09
59.09
59.09
54.00

100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.9
101.0
100.2
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.8
91.2

-5 .1 8
-5 .1 7
-5 .1 4
-5 .1 1
-5 .1 1
-5 .0 8
-5 .1 1
-5 .7 7
-5 .3 1
-4 .9 3
-5 .0 3
-5 .0 9
-5 .0 9
-5 .0 9

STRINGERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 2 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments, 1890,1891; 3 establishments, 1892-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

3
3
4
4

8

3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4

100.0
100.0
133.3
133.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3




+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1

+33.3 58.80
+33.3 58.00
58.50
59.00
+33.3 58.80
+33.3 58.80
+33.3 59.14
+33.3 58.80
+33.3 69.00
+33.3 69.00
59.00
67.30
57.44
57.30
52.73

100.0
98.6
99.5
100.3
100.0
100.0
100.6
100.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
97.4
97.7
97.4
89.7

-6 .0 7
-5 .2 7
—5.77
—6.27
-6 .0 7
-6 .0 7
-6 .4 1
-6 .0 7
-6 .2 7
-6 .2 7
—6.27
—4.57
—4.71
—4.57

-1 0 .3 $0.2501
- 9.1 .2988
- 9.9 .2991
-1 0 .6 .2460
-1 0 .3 .2505
-1 0 .3 .2379
-1 0 .8 .2082
-1 0 .3 .2501
-1 0 .6 .2246
-1 0 .6 .2260
—10.6 .2595
— 8.0 .2148
— 8.2 .2344
— 8 . 0 .2377
.2560

100.0 +$0.0059
119.5
.0428
119.6
.0431
98.4 +
.0100
100.2 +
.0055
95.1 + .0181
83.2 + .0478
100.0 + .0059
.0314
89.8 +
90.4 +
.0300
.0035
103.8
.0412
85.9 +
93.7 4 - .0216
95.0 -j- .0183
102.4

+ 2.4
- 1 4 .3
—14.4
+ 4.1
+ 2.2
+ 7.6
+23.0
+ 2.4
+14.0
+13.3
— 1.3
+19.2
+ 9.2
+ 7.7

848

BULLETIN OB' THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, PIANOS—Concluded.
TONE REGULATORS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as comRela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Amount
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
5
5
5
5
4
4
5
5
5
6
7
7
8
8
8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
80.0
80.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
120.0
140.0
140.0
160.0
160.0
160.0

+3
+3
+3
+3
+4
+4
+3
+3
+3
+2
+1
+1

+ 60.0
+ 60.0
+ 60.0
+ 60.0
+100.0
+100.0
+ 60.0
+ 60.0
+ 60.0
+ 33.3
+ 14.3
+ 14.3

57.40
57.60
57.60
57.60
57.00
57.00
57.60
57.60
57.60
57.00
57.43
67.43
57.75
57.75
54.00

100.0
100.3
100.8
100.3
99.3
99.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.3
100.1
100.1
100.6
100.6
94.1

—
—

3.40
3.60
3.60
3.60
3.00
3.00
3.60
3.60
3.60
3.00
3.43
3.43
3.75
3.75

5.9 $0.3340
— 6.3 .3359
— 6.3 .3359
e.a .3359
— 5.3 .3324
— 5.3 .3324
— 6.3 .3359
— 6.3 .3359
— 6.3 .3359
5.3 .3244
— 6.0 .3349
— 6.0 .3349
6.5 .3368
6.5 .3368
.3611

_

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
99.5
99.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
97.1
100.3
100.3
100.8
100.8
108.1

+$0.0271
+ .0252
+ .0252
+ .0252
+ .0287
+ .0287
+ .0252
+ .0252
+ .0252
+ .0367
+ .0262
+ .0262
+ .0243
+ .0243

+ 8.1
+ 7.5
+ 7.6
+ 7.5
+ 8.6
+ 8.6
+ 7.5
+ 7.5
+ 7.5
+11.3
+ 7.8
+ 7.8
+ 7.2
+ 7.2

100.0
117.6
108.7
93.4
95.1
92.3
98.2
100.4
100.2
102.1
92.2
110.7
122.0
125.5
133.6

+$0.0706
+ .0336
+ .0522
+ .0845
+ .0809
+ .0868
+ .0744
+ .0697
+ .0702
+ .0662
+ .0871
+ .0482
+ .0244
+ .0170

+33.6
+13.6
+22.8
+43.0
+40.5
+44.7
+36.0
+33.0
+33.3
+30.8
+44.9
+20.7
+ 9.5
+ 6.4

100.0
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
92.6
92.6
92.6
92.6
92.6
92.6
92.6
92.6
111.1
122.2

4

TUNERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

16
8
10
13
17
19
19
18
17
15
19
32
28
35
33

100.0
50.0
62.5
81.3
106.3
118.8
118.8
112.5
106.3
93.8
118.8
200.0
175.0
218.8
206.3

+17
+25
+23
+20
+16
+14
+14
+15
+16
+18
+14
+ 1
+ 6
- 2

+106.3
+312.5
+230.0
+153.8
+ 94.1
+ 73.7
+ 73.7
+ 83.3
+ 94.1
+120.0
+ 73.7
+ 3.1
+ 17.9
5.7

58.74
67.75
58.20
68.62
68.94
59.05
59.05
59.00
68.94
58.80
59.05
57.03
57.11
57.00
52.61

100.0
98.3
99.1
99.8
100.3
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.3
100.1
100.5
97.1
97.2
97.0
89.6

-6 .1 3
-5 .1 4
-5 .5 9
-6 .0 1
-6 .3 3
-6 .4 4
-6 .4 4
-6 .3 9
-6 .3 3
-6 .1 9
-6 .4 4
-4 .4 2
-4 .5 0
-4 .3 9

-1 0 .4 $0.2103
- 8.9 .2473
- 9.6 .2287
-1 0 .3 .1964
-1 0 .7 .2000
-1 0 .9 .1941
-1 0 .9 .2065
-1 0 .8 .2112
-1 0 .7
.2107
-1 0 .5 .2147
-1 0 .9 .1938
- 7.8 .2327
- 7.9 .2565
- 7.7 .2639
.2809

OIL, COTTON SEED.
CAKE STRIPPERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

12
14
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
15

100.0
116.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
125.0




+3
+1
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3

+25.0
+ 7.1
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+25.0

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.1125
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250
- .1042
.1042
.1042
.1042
.1042
.1042
.1042
.1042
.1250
.1375

-ftO. 0250

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

.0125
.0125
.0125
.0125
.0333
.0333
.0333
.0333
.0333
.0333
.0333
.0333
.0125

+

22.2

+10.0
+10.0
+10.0
+10.0
+32.0
+32.0
+32.0
+32.0
+32.0
+32.0
+32.0
+32.0

+10.0

849

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

O IL, COTTON S E E D —Continued.
GRINDERS, IRale.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Num­
ber.

A v. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896 .............
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903 .............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —jin
decrease ( —j in
decrease (—jin
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver- Rela­
pared with year
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
speci
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Num­
Per
Amount cent.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100
100
100
100

.
.
.
.

72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00

100.
100.
100.
100 .
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.

100. (

100.

30.0792
.0792
.0792
.0792
.0792
.0792
.0792
.0792
.0792
.0792
.0792
.0792
.0792
.0833
.0833

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
105.2
105.2

+30.0041
+ 5 .2
+ .0041
+ 5.2
+ .0041
+ 5 .2
+ .0041
+ 5 .2
+ .0041
+ 5 .2
+ .0041 • + 5 .2
+ 5 .2
+ .0041
+ 5 .2
+ .0041
+ 5 .2
+ .0041
+ 5 .2
+ .0041
+ 5 .2
+ .0041
+ .0041
+5.2>
+ .0041
+ 5 .2

HULLERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

5
5
5
5
5
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
120.0
140.0

+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+1

+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+40.0
+16.7

72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

30.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0653
.0626

LINTERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

16
14
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
21
15

100.0
87.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
131.3
93.8




-1
+1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-6

- 6.3
+ 7.1
- 6.3
- 6.3
- 6.3
- 6.3
- 6.3
- 6.3
- 6.3
- 6.3
- 6.3
- 6.3
- 6.3
-2 8 .6

80.90
80.00
81.00
81.00
81.00
81.00
81.00
81.00
81.00
81.00
81.00
81.00
81.00
78.86
78.40

100.0
ys.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
97.5
96.9

-2 .5 0
-1 .6 0
-2 .6 0
-2 .6 0
-2 .6 0
-2 .6 0
-2 .6 0
-2 .6 0
-2 .6 0
-2 .6 0
-2 .6 0
-2 .6 0
-2 .6 0
- .46

- 3 . 1 $0.1090 100.0 —$0.0012
.1202 110.3 -2 .0
.0124
-3 .2
.1182 108.4 .0104
-3 .2
.1182 108.4 .0104
.1182 108.4 -3 .2
.0104
- 3 .2
.1026 94.1 + .0052
-3 .2
.1026 94.1 + .0052
- 3 .2
.1026 94.1 + .0052
-3 .2
.1026 94.1 + .0052
- 3 .2
.1026 94.1 + .0052
- 3 .2
.1026 94.1 + .0052
- 3 .2
.1026 94.1 + .0052
- 3 .2
.1026 94.1 + .0052
- .6 .1075 98.6 + .0003
.1078 98.9

- 1.1
-1 0 .3
- 8.8
- 8.8
- 8.8
+ 5.1
+ 5.1
+ 5.1
+ 5.1
+ 5.1
+ 6.1
+ 5.1
+ 5.1
+ .3

850

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) m 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

OIL, COTTONT SEED—Concluded.
PBESSEBS, male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
pared with year
Num­ tive
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
33
28
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
38
38

100.0
84.8
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
115.2
115.2

+ 5
+10
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4

+15.2
+35.7
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

80.39
79.71
80.47
80.47
80.47
80.47
80.47
80.47
80.47
80.47
80.47
80.47
80.47
79.58
78.32

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
99.2
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.0
97.4

-2 .0 7
- 2 . 6 80.1341 100.0 -80.0058
-1 .3 9
.1384 103.2 .0101
- 1 .7
-2 .1 5
.1434 106.9 .0151
- 2 .7
- 2 .1 5
.1434 106.9 .0151
- 2 .7
-2 .1 5 . - 2 . 7
.0151
.1434 106.9 .0004
-2 .1 5
-2 .7
.1287 96.0 .0004
-2 .1 5
-2 .7
.1287 96.0 .0004
-2 .1 5
-2 .7
.1287 96.0 -2 .1 5
.0004
- 2 .7
.1287 96.0 .0004
-2 .1 5
- 2 .7
.1287 96.0 .0004
-2 .1 5
- 2 .7
.1287 96.0 .0004
-2 .1 5
- 2 .7
.1287 96.0 .0004
-2 .1 5
-2 .7
.1287 96.0 .0110
-1 .2 6
- 1 .6
.1393 103.9 .1283 95.7

- 4.3
- 7.3
-1 0 .5
-1 0 .5
- 1 0 .5
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
.3
- 7.9

OIL, LINTSEED.
XABOBEit s , male*
j
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1 9 0 0 ....___
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

10
30
10
14
11
10
5
8
5
4
6
4
6
5
2

100.0
300.0
100.0
140.0
110.0
100.0
50.0
80.0
50.0
40.0
60.0
40.0
60.0
50.0
20.0

- 8
—28
- 8
—12
- 9
— 8
- 3
— 6
- 3
— 2
- 4
— 2
- 4
— 3

—80.0
—93.0
—80.0
-8 5 .7
-8 1 .8
-8 0 .0
—60.0
-7 5 .0
—60.0
—50.0
—66.7
—50.0
—66.7
—60.0

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

HOLDERS ,

60.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1600
.1600
.1600

100.0 +60.0100
100.0 + .0100
100.0 + .0100
100.0 + .0100
100.0 + . 0100
100.0 + . 0100
100.0 + .0100
100.0 + .0100
100.0 + .0100
100.0 + .0100
100.0 + .0100
100.0 + .0100
106.7
106.7
106.7

+ 6 .7
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .7
+ 6 .7

+16.0 0.1700 100.0 +60.0257
+15.0 .1700 100.0 + .0257
.025*
+15.0 .1700 100.0
+15.0 .1700 100.0 + .0257
+15.0 .1700 100.0 + .0257
+15.0 .1700 100.0 + .0257
+15.0 .1700 100.0 + .0257
+15.0 .1700 100.0 + .0257
+15.0 .1700 100.0 + .0257
+15.0 .1700 100.0 + .0257
+15.0 .1700 100.0 + .0257
+16.0 .1700 100.0 + .0257
.1957 115.1
.1957 115.1
.1957 115.1

+15.1
+15.1
+15.1
+15.1
+15.1
+15.1
+15.1
+15.1
+15.1
+15.1
+15.1
+15.1

Male.

[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0




60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
69.00
69.00
69.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
115.0
115.0
115.0

+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00

851

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.] -

OEL, L IN S E E D —Continued.
PRESSMAN, Male*
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897 .............
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber. number.
: her.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
34
36
37
41
31
22
24
36
38
32
38
40
27
23
24

100.0
105.9
108.8
120.6
91.2
64.7
70.6
105.9
111.8
94.1
111.8
117.6
79.4
67.6
70.6

-1 0
-1 2
-1 3
-1 7
- 7
+ 2

-2 9 .4
-3 3 .3
-3 5 .1
-4 1 .5
-2 2 .6
+ 9.3

-1 2
-1 4
- 8
-1 4
-1 6
- 3
+ 1

-3 3 .3
-3 6 .8
-2 5 .0
-3 6 .8
-4 0 .0
-1 1 .1
+ 4.3

71.19
72.89
72.95
73.10
70.45
69.82
70.00
70.67
70.74
70.50
70.74
70.80
71.56
71.48
71.50

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
number.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
100.0
102.4
102.5
102.7
99.0
98.1
98.3
99.3
99.4
99.0
99.4
99.5
100.5
300.4
100.4

+0.31
-1 .3 9
-1 .4 5
-1 .6 0
+1.05
+1.68
+1.50
+ .83
+ .76
+1.00
+ .76
+ .70
- .06
+ .02

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (— ) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

Per
cent.

+ 0 .4 $0.1639 -100.0 +$0.0104
.1622 99.0 + .0121
- 1 .9
.1622 99.0 + .0121
- 2 .0
- 2 .2
.1649 100.6 + .0094
.1658 101.2 + .0085
+ 1 .5
+ 2 .4
.1673 102.1 + .0070
+ 2 .1
.1675 102.2 + .0068
.1622 99.0 + .0121
+ 1 .2
.1621 98.9 + .0122
+ 1 .1
.3625 99.1 + .0118
+ 1 .4
.1621 98.9 + .0122
+ 1 .1
.1620 98.8 + .0123
+ 1 .0
.1738 106.0 + .0005
- .1
.0002
+ .03 .1745 106.5 .1743 106.3

+ 6 .3
+ 7 .5
+ 7 .5
+ 5 .7
+ 5 .1
+ 4 .2
+ 4 .1
+ 7 .5
+ 7 .5
+ 7 .3
+ 7 .5
+ 7 .6
+ .3
- .1

100.0 4-m. 0022
110.8 __ .0222
110.8 __ .0222
110.8 __ .0222
.0222
110.8 _
99.7 + .0028
88.7 + .0278
88.7 + .0278
90.1 + .0245
95.6 + .0122
94.1 + .0156
98.5 + .0056
98.5 + .0056
101.0
101.0

+ 1.0
- 8.9
— 8.9
- 8.9
— 8.9
+ 1.2
+13.9
+13.9
+12.1
+ 5.7
+ 7.4
+ 2.5
+ 2.5

- 1 . 0 $0.2000 100.0 -$0.0200
- 3 .4
.1600 80.0 + .0200
- 3 . 4 .1600 80.0 + .0200
- 3 .4
.2200 110.0 .0400
.2200 110.0 .0400
.2200
.0400
.2200 110.0 .0400
.2200 110.0 .0400
.2000 100.0 .0200
.2000 100.0 .0200
.1800 90.0
.1800 90.0
.1800 90.0
.1800 90.0
.3800 90.0

-1 0 .0
+12.6
+12.5
- 1 8 .2
- 1 8 .2
- 1 8 .2
- 1 8 .2
-1 8 .2
- 1 0 .0
-1 0 .0

REFINERS, Male*
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903........

2
1
1
1
1
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
$

100.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0

+1
+2
+2
+2
+2
+1

+ 50.0
+200.0
+200.0
+200.0
+200.0
+ 50.0

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.2256
.2500
.2500
.2500
.2500
.2250
.2000
.2000
.2033
.2156
.2322
.2222
.2222
.2278
.2278

ROLLER MEN, Male.




72.75
74.50
74.50
74.50
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00

100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0

gggs

A v. 1890-99.
2 100.0 .
1890
..................... . 0 .
2 100 .....................
1891
..................... .0 .
2 100 .....................
1892
..................... .0 .
2 100 .....................
1893
..................... .0 .
2 100 .....................
1894
..................... .0 .
2 100
1895
..................... . 0 .
2 100 .....................
1896
..................... .0 .
2 100 .....................
1897
..................... .....................
2 100.0 .
1898
..................... .....................
2 100.0 .
1899
..................... .....................
2 100. 0 .
1900
..................... .....................
2 100.0 .
1901
..................... .....................
2 ioo. o :
1902
..................... .0 .
2 100 .....................
1903
..................... .0 .
2 100 .....................

1 II 1
to to to p

[Data from 1 establishment.]

110.0

852

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table I .— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

OUL, LINTS E E D —Concluded.
STRIPPERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

100.0
Av. 1890-99.
100.0
1890
.....................
1891
.....................
1892
.....................
1893
.....................
1894
.....................
1895
.....................
1896
.....................
1897
.....................
1898
.....................
1899
.....................
1900
.....................
1901
.....................
1902
.....................
1903
.....................

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
69.00
69.00
69.00

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
Amount cent.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
115.0
115.0
115.0

+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00
+9.00

+15.0 S0.1600
+15.0 .1600
+15.0 .1600
+15.0 .1600
+15.0 .1600
+15.0 .1600
+15.0 .1600
+15.0 .1600
+15.0 .1600
+15.0 .1600
+15.0 .1600
+15.0 .1600
.1957
.1957
.1957

100.01+60.0357
100.0
.0357

.

100
100.
100.
100.
100.0
100
100.
100.0 +
100.0
100.0

.

.0357
.0357
.0357
.0357
.0357
.0357
.0357
.0357
.0357
.0357

+22.3
+22.3
+22.3
+22.3
+22.3
+22.3
+22.3
+22.3
+22.3
+22.3
+22.3
+22.3

122.3
122.3
122.3

PAIN TS.
CANNERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

29
28
29
30
28
21
28
25
32
34
39
52
55
63
58

100.0
96.6
100.0
103.4
96.6
72.4
96.6
86.2
110.3
117.2
134.5
179.3
189.7
217.2
200.0

+29
+30
+29
+28
+30
+37
+30
+33
+26
+24
+19
+ 6
+ 3
- 5

+100.0
+107.1
+100.0
+ 93.3
+107.1
+176.2
+107.1
+132.0
+ 81.3
+ 70.6
+ 48.7
+ 11.5
+ 5.5
7.9

58.09
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
50.71
57.00
60.00
57.75
57.61
57.81
58.27
58.29
58.00
58.29

100.0
103.3
103.3
10?. 3
103.3
87.3
98.1
103.3
99.4
99.2
99.5
100.3
100.3
99.8
100.3

+0.20
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
+7.58
+1.29
-1 .7 1
+ .54
+ .68
+ .48
+ .02

+ 0.3 60.1457
- 2.9
.1463
- 2.9
.1455
- 2.9
.1460
.1450
- 2.9
.1632
+14.9
.1403
+ 2.3
- 2.9
.1340
.1436
+ .9
.1447
+ 1-2
.1484
+ .8
+ .03 .1496
.1523
.1619
+ . 29 + .5
.1686

100.0 +60.0229
100.4 + .0223
99.9 + .0231
100.2 + .0226
99.5 + .0236
112.0 + .0054
96.3 + .0283
92.0 + .0346
98.6 + .0250
99.3 + .0239
101.9 + .0202
102.7 + .0190
104.5 + .0163
111.1 + .0067
115.7

+15.7
+15.2
+15.9
+ 15.5
+16.3
+ 3.3
+20.2
+25.8
+17.4
+16.5
+13.6
+12.7
+10.7
+ 4.1

100.0 4-#0 0071
97.9 + .0086
98.4 + .0082
98.3 + .0083
102.3 + .0055
104.9 + .0037
98.9 + .0079
102.6 + .0053
99.9 + .0072
98.4 + .0082
99.1 + .0077
102.1 + .0056
102.4 + .0054
110.4
.0002
110.1

+10.3
+12. f
+11. £
+12. (
+ 7.1
+ 5.(
+11.4
+ 7.4
+10. i
+11. £
+11.1
+ 7A
+ 7.1

CANNERS, Female.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

49
43
43
44
50
40
56
48
49
58
59
67
46
46
38

100.0
87.8
87.8
89.8
102.0
81.6
114.3
98.0
100.0
118.4
120.4
136.7
93.9
93.9
77.6




—11
- 5
- 5
—6
-1 2
— 2
—18
—10
—11
—20
—21
—29
- 8
- 8

—22.4
—11.6
—11.6
—13.6
—24.0
— 5.0
—32.1
—20.8
-2 2 .4
—34.5
—35.6
—43.3
—17.4
—17.4

59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
69.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

60.0701
.0686
.0690
.0689
.on7
.0^35
.0693
.0719
.0700
.0690
.0695
.0716
.0718
.0774
.0772

853

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS

OF

LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) m 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

P A IN T S —Concluded.
GRINDERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

.V. 1890-99.
390.............
391.............
392.............
393.............
394.............
395.............
396 .............
397 .............
398.............
399 .............

wo.........

W1.............
W2.............
X)3.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
Num­ tive
specified.
number. num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
cent.
ber.
101
96
107
106
101
92
98
105
96
97
114
120
109
129
140

100.0
95.0
105.9
105.0
100.0
91.1
97.0
104.0
95.0
96.0
112.9
118.8
107.9
127.7
138.6

+39
+44
+33
+34
+39
+48
+42
+35
+44
+43
+26
+20
+31
+11

+38.6
+45.8
+30.8
+32.1
+38.6
+52.2
+42.9
+33.3
+45.8
+44.3
+22.8
+16.7
+28.4
+ 8.5

58.14
59.21
59.19
59.21
59.17
54.91
57.50
59.13
57.64
57.62
57.81
57.81
57.76
57.82
57.90

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
101.8
101.8
101.8
101.8
94.4
98.9
101.7
99.1
99.1
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.4
99.6

-0 .2 4
-1 .3 1
-1 .2 9
-1 .3 1
-1 .2 7
+2.99
+ .40
-1 .2 3
+ .26
+ .28
+ .09
+ .09
+ .14
+ .08

- 0 .4 $0.1841 100.0,+$0.0226
- 2 .2
.1794 9 7 .4 + .0273
- 2 .2 .1821 98.9 + .0246
- 2 .2
.1810 98.3 + .0257
- 2 .1
.1841 100.0 + .0226
+ 5 .4 .1934 105.1 + .0133
+ .7 .1821 98.9 + .0246
- 2 .1
.1836 99.7 + .0231
+ .5 .1811 98.4 + .0256
+ .5 .1874 101.8 + .0193
+ .2 .1863 101.2 + .0204
+ .2 .1869 101.5 + .0198
+ .2 .1949 105.9 + .0118
+ .1 .1941 105.4 + .0126
.2067 112.3

+12.3
+15.2
+13.5
+14.2
+12.3
+ 6.9
+13.5
+12.6
+14.1
+10.3
+11.0
+10.6
+ 6.1
+ 6.5

- 0 . 8 $0.1681 100.0 +$0.0122
.1637 97.4 + .0166
- 3 .1
.1642 97.7 + .0161
-3 .1
- 3 .1
.1660 98.8 + .0143
- 3 .0
.1686 100.3 + .0117
+ 6 .8 .1824 108.5 .0021
+ .9 .1701 101.2 + .0102
- 3 .1
.1611 95.8 + .0192
+ .2 .1682 100.1 + .0121
+ .1 .1687 100.4 + .0116
+ .1 .1680 99.9 + .0123
.1661 98.8 + . 0142
.0096
+ .2 .1899 112.9 + .2 .1728 102.8 + .0075
.1803 107.3

+ 7.3
+10.1
+ 9.8
+ 8.6
+ 6.9
- 1.2
+ 6.0
+11.9
+ 7.2
+ 6.9
+ 7.3
+ 8.5
- 5.1
+ 4.3

MIXERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
V. 1890-99.
*90.............
*91.............
*92.............
*93.............
*94.............
*95.............
*96.............
*97.............
*98.............
*99.............
XX).............
>01.............
K)2.............
K)3.............

47
42
45
47
50
44
45
42
47
56
56
58
58
64
68

100.0
89.4
95.7
100.0
106.4
93.6
95.7
89.4
100.0
119.1
119.1
123.4
123.4
136.2
144.7

4-21
+26
+23
+21
+18
+24
+23
+26
+21
+12
+12
+10
+10
+ 4

+44.7
+61.9
+51.1
+44.7
+36.0
+54.5
+51.1
+61.9
+44.7
+21.4
+21.4
+17.2
+17.2
+ 6.3

58.31
59.67
59.67
59.66
59.62
54.18
57.33
59.69
57.70
57.77
57.79
57.84
57.74
57.72
57.84

100.0
102.3
102.3
102.3
102.2
92.9
98.3
102.4
99.0
99.1
99.1
99.2
99.0
99.0
99.2

-0 .4 7
-1 .8 3
-1 .8 3
-1 .8 2
-1 .7 8
+3.66
+ .51
-1 .8 5
+ .14
+ .07
+ .05
+ .10
+ .12

PA PER A N D WOOD PUXP.
RACK TENDERS, Male.
[Data from 11 establishments.]
V. 1890-99.
.90.............
.91.............
;92.............
;93.............
.94.............
.95.............
9 6 .............
9 7 .............
9 8 .............
9 9 .............
0 0 .............
0 1 .............
0 2 .............
0 3 .............

96 100.0
82 85.4
91 94.8
88 91.7
96 100.0
90 93.8
97 101.0
98 102.1
102 106.3
113 117.7
104 108.3
115 119.8
113 117.7
116 120.8
117 121.9




+21
+35
+26
+29
+21
+27
+20
+19
+15
+ 4
+13
+ 2
+ 4
+ 1

+21.9
+42.7
+28.6
+33.0
+21.9
+30.0
+20.6
+19.4
+14.7
+ 3.5
+12.5
+ 1.7
+ 3.5
+ .9

68.53
68.78
68.70
68.73
68.75
68.53
68.78
68.82
69.06
69.35
65.77
65.11
64.78
63.43
63.71

100.0
100.4
100.2
100.3
100.3
100.0
100.4
100.4
100.8
101.2
-96.0
95.0
94.5
92.6
93.0

-4 .8 2
-5 .0 7
-4 .9 9
-5 .0 2
-5 .0 4
-4 .8 2
-5 .0 7
-5 .1 1
-5 .3 5
-5.64
-2 .0 6
-1 .4 0
-1 .0 7
•+ .28

- 7 . 0 $0.1365 100.0 +$0.0276
- 7 .4
.1325 97.1 + .0316
.1330 97.4 + .0311
- 7 .3
- 7 .3
.1339 98.1 + .0302
- 7 .3
.1331 97.5 + .0310
- 7 .0
.1350 98.9 + .0291
- 7 .4
.1363 99.9 + .0278
- 7 .4
.1345 98.5 + .0296
.1389 101.8 + .0252
-7 .7
-8.1
.1391 101.9 + .0250
- 3 .1
.1489 109.1 + .0152
- 2 .2
.1501 110.0 + .0140
.1504 110.2 + .0137
- 1 .7
+ .4 .1525 111.7 + .0116
.1641 120.2

+20.2
+23.8
+23.4
+22.6
+23.3
+21.6
+20.4
+22.0
+18.1
+ 18.0
+ 10.2
+ 9.3
+ 9.1
+ 7.6

854

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanati<
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PA PER A N D WOOD PU D P—Continued.
BEATERS, male*
[Data from 14 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —Jin
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. numnumber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
189
185
194
192
188
185
180
190
190
186
198
204
205
212
227

100.0
97.9
102.6
101.6
99.6
97.9
95.2
100.5
100.5
98.4
104.8
107.9
108.5
112.2
120.1

+38
+42
+33
+35
+39
+42
+47
+37
+37
+41
+29
+23
+22
+15

+20.1
+22.7
+17.0
+18.2
+20.7
+22.7
+26.1
+19.5
+19.5
+22.0
+14.6
+11.3
+10.7
+ 7.1

69.78
70.12
69.97
70.06
70.40
70.18
70.20
69.41
70.17
70.13
67.15
66.88
64.33
63.32
62.25

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­
tive
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.5
100.3
100.4
100.9
100.6
100.6
99.5
100.6
100.5
96.2
95.8
92.2
90.7
89.2

-7 .5 3
-7 .8 7
-7 .7 2
-7 .8 1
-8 .1 5
-7 .9 3
-7 .9 5
-7 .1 6
-7 .9 2
-7 .8 8
-4 .9 0
-4 .6 3
-2 .0 8
-1 .0 7

-1 0 .8 $0.1527
-1 1 .2 .1456
-1 1 .0 .1510
-1 1 .1 .1506
-1 1 .6 .1504
-1 1 .3 .1529
-1 1 .3 .1526
-1 0 .3 .1537
-1 1 .3 .1533
-1 1 .2 .1524
- 7.3 .1642
- 6.9 .1660
- 3.2 .1743
- 1.7 .1784
.1882

Increase ( + ) <
decrease ( —) i
1903 as com­
pared with ye
specified.
Amount.

100.0 +$0.0355
95.4 + .0426
98.9 + .0372
98.6 + .0376
98.5 + .0878
100.1 + .0353
99.9 + .0356
100.7 + .0345
100.4 + .0349
99.8 + .0358
107.5 + .0240
108.7 + .0222
114.1 + .0139
116.8 + .0098
123.2

Pei
cem
+Z

+2<
+-Z

+21
+21
+2,
+ 2:
+2‘
.
+2:
+21
+1‘

+ i:
+ J
+ I

BLACK ASH BURNERS, Male*
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

17
19
13
17
15
19
19
18
25
15
12
22
11
11
16

100.0
111.8
76.5
100.0
88.2
111.8
111.8
105.9
147.1
88.2
70.6
129.4
64.7
64.7
94.1

-1
-3
+3
-1
+1
-3
-3
-2
-9
+1
+4
-6
+5
+5

- 5.9
-1 5 .8
+23.1
- 5.9
+ 6.7
-1 5 .8
-1 5 .8
-1 1 .1
-3 6 .0
+ 6.7
+33.3
-2 7 .3
+45.5
+45.5

60.45
61.26
61.85
61.41
61.60
61.26
61.26
61.33
60.96
61.60
52.00
50.18
52.36
52.36
51.00

100.0
101.3
102.3
101.6
101.9
101.3
101.3
101.5
100.8
101.9
86.0
83.0
86.6
86.6
84.4

- 9.45
-1 0 .2 6
-1 0 .8 5
-1 0 .4 1
-1 0 .6 0
-1 0 .2 6
-1 0 .2 6
-1 0 .3 3
- 9.96
-1 0 .6 0
- 1.00
+ .82
- 1.36
- 1.36

-1 5 .6 $0.1732
-1 6 .7 .1569
-1 7 .5 .1726
-1 7 .0 .1650
-1 7 .2 .1654
-1 6 .7 .1682
-1 6 .7 .1632
-1 6 .8 .1766
-1 6 .3 .1775
-1 7 .2 .1734
- 1.9 .2129
+ 1.6 .1957
- 2.6 .2095
- 2.6 .2095
.2351

100.0 +$0.0619
90.6 + .0782
99.7 + .0625
95.3 + .0701
95.5 + .0697
97.1 + .0669
94.2 + .0719
102.0 + .0585
102.5 + .0576
100.1 + .0617
122.9 + .0222
113.0 + .0394
121.0 + .0256
121.0 + .0256
135.7

+31
+41
+3<
+4:
+4:
+3!
+4+3:
+3!
+a
+1'
+2i
+ l:
+ l'

100.0 +$0.0158
96.0 + .0218
96.9 + .0205
98.8 + .0177
98.6 + .0179
98.1 + .0187
101.1 + .0141
100.1 + .0156
100.5 + .0150
99.9 + .0160
109.9 + .0007
106.6 + .0058
106.4 + .0061
108.6 + .0027
110.4

+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+ '
+1
+
+1
+
+
+
+

BLEACHERS, Male,
[Data from 7 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

68
81
83
88
76
71
59
63
51
49
54
59
59
62
61

100.0
119.1
122.1
129.4
111.8
104.4
86.8
92.6
75.0
72.1
79.4
86.8
86.8
91.2
89.7




- 7
-2 0
-2 2
-2 7
-1 5
-1 0
+ 2
- 2
+10
+12
+ 7
+ 2
+ 2
- 1

-1 0 .3
-2 4 .7
-2 6 .5
-SO. 7
-1 9 .7
-1 4 .1
+ 3.4
- 3.2
+19.6
+24.5
+13.0
+ 3.4
+ 3.4
- 1.6

63.85
63.26
63.40
63.41
63.87
63.46
64.17
64.57
66.12
66.37
59.82
64.88
64.88
60.32
60.52

100.0
99.1
99.3
99.3
100.0
99.4
100.6
101.1
103.6
103.9
93.7
101.6
101.6
94.5
94.8

-3 .3 3
-2 .7 4
-2 .8 8
-2 .8 9
-3 .3 5
-2 .9 4
-3 .6 5
-4 .0 5
-5 .6 0
-5 .8 5
+ .70
-4 .3 6
-4 .3 6
+ .20

- 5 . 2 $0.1525
- 4 .3
.1464
- 4 . 5 .1478
- 4 .6
.1506
-5 .2
.1504
- 4 . 6 .1496
-5 .7
.1542
-6 .3
.1527
-8 .5
.1533
-8 .8
.1523
+ 1 .2 .1676
-6 .7
.1625
.1622
-6 .7
+ .3 .1656
.1683

855

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,

Table I .— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PA PER A N D WOOD PUXiP—Continued.
OALENDREES, Male.
[Data for employees from 4 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments, 1890-1892,1894-1903; 4 establishments, 1893 ]
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

55
Av. 1890-99.
44
1890.............
1891.............
51
1892............. ’ 55
61
1893.............
1894.............
55
1895.............
55
51
1896.............
49
1 8 9 /.............
66
1898.............
63
1899.............
77
1900.............
93
1901.............
1902
.
95
1903
.
105

100.0
80.0
92.7
100.0
110.9
100.0
100.0
92.7
89.1
120.0
114.5
140.0
169.1
172.7
190.9

+50
+61
+54
+50
+44
+50
+50
+54
+56
+39
+42
+28
+12
+10

+ 90.9
+138.6
+105.9
+ 90.9
+ 72.1
+ 90.9
+ 90.9
+105.9
+114.3
+ 69.1
+ 60.7
+ 36.4
+ 12.9
+ 10.5

62.24
63.75
63.27
63.05
62.16
63.05
63.05
63.27
63.62
62.74
64.45
54.22
53.20
52.61
52.95

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
numage. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
102.4
101.7
101.3
99.9
101.3
101.3
101.7
102.2
100.8
87.5
87.1
85.5
84.5
85.1

- 9.29
-1 0 .8 0
-1 0 .3 2
-1 0 .1 0
- 9.21
-1 0 .1 .
-1 0 . L
-10.32
-10 .6 7
- 9.79
- 1.50
- .27
.25
+ .34

-1 4 .9 SO.1595
-1 6 .9 .1502
-1 6 .3 .1486
—16.0 .1479
-1 4 .8 .1577
-1 6 .0 .1551
-1 6 .0 .1636
-1 6 .3 .1647
-1 6 .8 .1626
-1 5 .6 .1575
- 2.8 .1866
- 2.3 .1877
.5 .1954
+ .6 .1961
.2036

100.0 +80.0441
94.2 + .0534
93.2 + .0550
92.7 + .0557
98.9 + .0459
97.2 + .0485
102.6 + .0400
103.3 + .0389
101.9 + .0410
98.7 + .0461
117.0 + .0170
117.7 + .0159
122.5 + .0082
122.9 + .0075
127.6

+27.6
+35.6
+37.0
+37.7
+29.1
+31.3
+24.4
+23.6
+25.2
+29.3
+ 9.1
+ 8.5
+ 4.2
+ 3.8

100.0 —ftft. 0029
96.0 + .0022
.0122
107.3
102.3 — .0058
109.7 — .0153
93.6 + .0053
91.0 + .0086
108.4
.0136
95.9 + .0023
94.4 + .0043
101.1
.0043
105.9 — .0104
101.0 — .0042
99.3
.0020
97.7

— 2.3
+ 1.8
- 8.9
- 4.4
-1 0 .9
+ 4.4
+ 7.4
— 9.8
+ 1.9
+ 3.6
- 3.3
- 7.7
- 3.2
— 1.6

CALENDRER8, Female.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901........
1902.............
1903.............

19
20
20
24
24
16
20
19
18
18
13
15
15
16
19

100.0
105.3
105.3
126.3
126.3
84.2
105.3
100.0
94.7
94.7
68.4
78.9
78.9
84.2
100.0

-1
-1
-5
-5
+8
-1

- 5.0
- 6.0
-2 0 .8
-2 0 .8
+ 18.8
- 5.0

+1
+1
+6
+4
+4
+3

+ 5.6
+ 5.6
+46.2
+26.7
+26.7
+18.8

58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
68.00
58.00
55.00
55.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.8
94.8

- 5 . 2 80.1280
- 5 .2
.1229
- 5 .2
.1373
-5 .2
.1309
-5 .2
.1404
-5 .2
.1198
-5 .2
.1165
—5.2 .1387
-5 .2
.1228
-5 .2
.1208
-5 .2
.1294
- 5 .2
.1355
- 5 .2
.1293
.1271
.1251

—3.00
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 0
—3.00
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 0
-3 .0 0

COLOR MIXERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments, 1890-1892,1894-1903; 1 establishment, 1893.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
L892.............
L893.............
L894.............
L895.............
L896.............
1897.............
L898.............
L399.............
1900.............
L901.............
1902.............
L903.............

6
5
5
5
4
5
6
7
7
7
8
9
9
8
9

100.0
83.3
83.3
83.3
66.7
83.3
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
133.3
150.0
150.0
133.3
150.0




+3
+4
+4
+4
+5
+4
+3
+2
+2
+2
1-1
+1

61.75
63.43
63.43
63.43
60.00
63.43
63.00
62.67
62.67
62.67
52.80
52.36
52.36
+ 12.5 52.80
52.36

+ 50.0
+- 80.0
+ 80.0
+ 80.0
+125.0
+ 80.0
+ 50.0
+ 28.6
+ 28.6
+ 28.6
+ 12.5

100.0
102.7
102.7
102.7
97.2
102.7
102.0
101.5
101.5
101.5
85.5
84.8
84.8
83.5
84.8

- 9.39
-1 1 .0 7
-1 1 .0 7
-1 1 .0 7
- 7.04
-1 1 .0 7
-1 0 .6 4
-1 0 .3 1
-1 0 .3 1
-1 0 .3 1
.44
-

.44

-1 5 .2 SO 1969 100.0 +S0.0465
.
-1 7 .5 .1776 90.2 + .0658
-1 7 .5 .1780 90.4 + .0654
-1 7 .5 .1822 92.5 + .0612
-1 2 .7 .1906 96.8 + .0528
-1 7 .5 .1958 99.4 + .0476
-1 6 .9 . 3964 99.7 + .0470
-1 6 .5 .2068 105.0 + .0366
-1 6 .5 .2068 105.0 + .0366
-1 6 .5 .2068 105.0 + .0366
.8 .2280 115.8 + .0154
.2228 113.2 + .0206
.2261 114.8 + .0173
.8 .2238 113.7 + .0196
.2434 123.6

+23.6
+37.0
+36.7
+33.6
+27.7
+24.3
+23.9
+17.7
+17.7
+17.7
+ 6.8
+ 9.2
+ 7.7
+ 8.8

856

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I . — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) m 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PA PER A N D WOOD PUMP—Continued.
CUTTERS, male.
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6
establishments, 1890-1892,1894-1903; 5 establishments, 1893.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

59
44
46
50
57
67
67
65
64
66
67
69
77
78
91

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
number.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

100.0
74.6
78.0
84.7
96.6
113.6
113.6
110.2
108.5
111.9
113.6
116.9
130.5
132.2
154.2

+32
+47
+45
+41
+34
+24
+24
+26
+27
+25
+24
+22
+14
+13

+ 54.2
+106.8
+ 97.8
+ 82.0
+ 59.6
+ 35.8
+ 35.8
+ 40.0
+ 42.2
+ 37.9
+ 35.8
+ 31.9
+ 18.2
+ 16.7

58.92
59.87
59.88
59.88
59.82
59.83
59.91
59.91
59.91
59.91
50.32
50.11
50.03
50.04
49.75

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.5
101.5
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
85.4
85.0
84.9
84.9
84.4

- 9.17
-1 0 .1 2
-1 0 .1 3
-1 0 .1 3
-1 0 .0 7
-1 0 .0 8
-1 0 .1 6
-1 0 .1 6
-1 0 .1 6
-1 0 .1 6
.57
.36
.28
.29

-1 5 .6 $0.1801
-1 6 .9 .1797
-1 6 .9 .1816
-1 6 .9 .1808
-1 6 .8 .1732
-1 6 .8 .1766
-1 7 .0 .1743
-1 7 .0 .1740
-1 7 .0 .1754
-1 7 .0 .1758
- 1.1 .2096
.7 .2101
.6 .2071
.6 .2129
.2214

100,0 +30.0413
99.8 + .0417
100.8 + .0398
100.4 + .0406
96.2 + .0482
98.1 + .0448
96.8 + .0471
96.6 + .0474
97.4 + .0460
97.6 + .0456
116.4 + .0118
116.7 + .0113
115.0 + .0143
118.2 + .0085
122.9

+22.9
+23.2
+21.9
+22.5
+27.8
+25.4
+27.0
+27.2
+26.2
+25.9
+ 5.6
+ 5.4
+ 6.9
+ 4.0

100.0
99.2
99.0
99.2
101.9
98.8
99.2
99.1
99.4
99.6
105.0
104.2
105.0
102.0
109.0

+$0.0081
+ .0088
+ .0090
+ .0088
+ .0064
+ .0092
+ .0088
+ .0089
+ .0086
+ .0085
+ .0036
+ .0043
+ .0036
+ .0063

+ 9.0
+ 9.9
+10.1
+ 9.9
+ 7.0
+10.4
+ 9.9
+10.0
+ 9.7
+ 9.5
+ 3.8
+ 4.6
+ 3.8
+ 6.9

100.0 +$0.0686
95.2 + .0764
96.3 + .0746
95.6 + .0757
98.2 + .0715
96.4 + .0745
97.2 + .0731
97.2 + .0732
97.2 + .0732
100.1 + .0685
126.8 + .0249
128.9 + .0214
134.8 + .0118
135.3 + .0111
142.1

+42.]
+49.1
+47 .1
+48 A
+44 A
+4 7 .'
+46.:
+46.1
+46.1
+42. (
+12. (
+10.1
+ 5.'
+ 5.1

CUTTERS, Female.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1691.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

92
99
117
89
95
81
89
91
90
85
82
86
90
98
102

100.0
107.6
127.2
96.7
103.3
88.0
96.7
98.9
97.8
92.4
89.1
93.5
97.8
106.5
110.9

+10
+ 3
-1 5
+13
+ 7
+21
+13
+11
+12
+17
+20
+16
+12
+ 4

+10.9
+ 3.0
-1 2 .8
+14.6
+ 7.4
+25.9
+14.6
+12.1
+13.3
+20.0
+24.4
+18.6
+13.3
+ 4.1

63.20
64.91
64.26
64.31
62.69
63.36
62.97
62.90
62.93
63.11
60.59
60.21
59.73
59.78
59.37

100.0
102.7
101.7
101.8
99.2
100.3
99.6
99.5
99.6
99.9
95.9
95.3
94.5
94.6
93.9

-3 .8 3
-5 .5 4
-4 .8 9
-4 .9 4
-3 .3 2
-3 .9 9
-3 .6 0
-3 .5 3
-3 .5 6
-3 .7 4
-1 .2 2
- .84
- .36
- .41

- 6 .1 30.0896
-8 .5
.0889
- 7 .6
.0887
-7 .7 .0889
- 5 .3
.0913
.0885
- 6 .3
-5 .7
.0889
.0888
-5 .6
- 5 .7
.0891
-5 .9
.0892
- 2 .0
.0941
-1 .4
.0934
- .6 .0941
- .7 .0914
.0977

ENAJRELERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

36
20
28
29
42
44
38
44
41
38
32
31
34
50
55

100.0
55.6
77.8
80.6
116.7
122.2
105.6
122.2
113.9
105.6
88.9
86.1
94.4
138.9
152.8




+19
+35
+27
+26
+13
+11
+17
+11
+14
+17
+23
+24
+21
+ 5

+ 52.8
+175.0
+ 96.4
+ 89.7
+ 31.0
+ 25.0
+ 44.7
+ 25.0
+ 34.1
+ 44.7
+ 71.9
+ 77.4
+ 61.8
+ 10.0

58.88
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
48.75
48.77
48.71
48.48
48.44

100.0
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
82.8
82.8
82.7
82.3
82.3

-10 .4 1
-1 1 .5 6
-1 1 .5 6
-1 1 .5 6
-1 1 .5 6
-1 1 .5 6
-1 1 .5 6
-11 .5 6
-1 1 .5 6
-1 1 .5 6
.31
.33
.27
.04

-1 7 .7 $0.1631
-1 9 .3 .1553
-1 9 .3 .1571
-1 9 .3 .1560
-1 9 .3 .1602
-1 9 .3 .1572
-1 9 .3 .1586
-1 9 .3 .1585
-1 9 .3 .1585
-1 9 .3 .1632
.6 .2068
.7 .2103
.6 .2199
.1 .2206
.2317

857

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average ±890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PA PER A N D WOOD PU E P—Continued.
FINISHERS, Male.
[Data from 14 establishments.]

Year.

Iv. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897 .............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. num­
num­ num­
ber.
ber. ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Per
Num­
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
64
54
56
58
65
64
60
61
72
73
74
82
82
80
96

100.0
84.4
87.5
90.6
101.6
100.0
93.8
95.3
112.5
114.1
115.6
128.1
128.1
125.0
150.0

+32
+42
+40
+38
+31
+32
+36
+35
+24
+23
+22
+14
+14
+16

+50.0
+77.8
+71.4
+65.5
+47.7
+50.0
+60.0
+57.4
+33.3
+31.5
+29.7
+17.1
+17.1
+20.0

61.74
62.07
62.00
61.86
61.11
61.63
61.77
61.77
61.50
61.86
61.84
61.88
61.90
61.18
60.59

100.0
100.5
100.4
100.2
99.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.6
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.3
99.1
98.1

-1 .1 5
-1 .4 8
-1 .4 1
-1 .2 7
- .52
-1 .0 4
-1 .1 8
-1 .1 8
- .91
-1 .2 7
-1 .2 5
-1 .2 9
-1 .3 1
- .59

- 1 .9 30.1715 100.0 +30.0100
-2 .4
.1719 100.2 + .0096
.1747 101.9 + .0068
-2 .3
- 2 .1
.1723 100.5 + .0092
- .9 .1779 103.7 + .0036
.0072
.1743 101.6 +
-1 .7
.0084
-1 .9
.1731 100.9 +
.1712 99.8 + .0103
- 1 .9
- 1 .5
.1669 97.3 + .0146
.0157
- 2 .1
.1658 96.7 +
.1671 97.4 + .0144
- 2 .0
- 2 .1
.1684 98.2 +
.0131
.0121
- 2 .1
.1694 98.8 +
- 1 .0
.1739 101.4 + .0076
.1815 105.8

+5 .8
+ 5 .6
+ 3 .9
+ 5 .3
+ 2 .0
-t-4 .1

+ 4 .9
+ 6 .0
+ 8 .7
+ 9 .5
+ 8 .6
+ 7 .8
+ 7 .1

+ 4 .4

FINISHERS, Female.
Data for employees from 4 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments, 1890-1892,1894+1903; 4 establishments, 1893.]
l
V.

1890-99.
890.............
891.............
392.............
393.............
394.............
395.............
396.............
397.............
398.............
399.............
300.............
301.............
302 .............
303.............

40
35
45
52
49
31
37
38
37
39
36
43
42
36
43

100.0
87.5
112.5
130.0
122.5
77.5
92.5
95.0
92.5
97.5
90.0
107.5
105.0
90.0
107.5

+ 3
+ S
- 2
- 9
- 6
+12
+ 6
+ 5
+ 6
+ 4
+ 7
+ 1
+ 7

+ 7.5
+22.9
- 4.4
-1 7 .3
-1 2 .2
+38.7
+16.2
+13.2
+16.2
+10.3
-{-19.4

58.66
58.98
58.78
58.69
58.45
58.76
58.56
58.55
58.56
58.58
58.71
58.61
+ 2.4 58.67
+19.4 57.12
56.82

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.1
99.6
100.2
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
100.1
99.9
100.0
97.4
96.9

-1 .8 4
-2 .1 6
-1 .9 6
-1 .8 7
-1 .6 3
-1 .9 4
-1 .7 4
-1 .7 3
-1 .7 4
-1 .7 6
-1 .8 9
-1 .7 9
-1 .8 5
- .30

- 3 .1 30.1009 100.0 +80.0075
- 3 .7
.0947 93.9 + .0137
-3 .3
.1061 105.2 + .0023
- 3 .2
.1039 103.0 + .0045
-2 .8
.1059 105.0 + .0025
- 3 .3
.0957 94.8 + .0127
.1005 99.6 + .0079
- 3 .0
- 3 .0
.1048 103.9 + .0036
.0994 98.5 + .0090
- 3 .0
- 3 .0
.0954 94.5 + .0130
- 3 .2
.1021 101.2 + .0063
- 3 .1
.1043 103.4 + .0041
- 3 .2
.1015 100.6 + .0069
- .5 .1059 105.0 + .0025
.1084 107.4

+ 7.4
+14.5
+ 2.2
+ 4.3
+ 2.4
+13.3
+ 7.9
+ 3.4
+ 9.1
+13.6
+ 6.2
+ 3.9
+ 6.8
+ 2.4

- 3 .8 80.1346
- 2 .2
.1318
. 1328
- 2 .7
- 4 .2
.1330
.1313
- 4 .5
.1317
- 4 .1
.1339
- 5 .0
.1335
-5 .7
- 5 .2
.1345
.1328
- 6 .0
+2 .5 .1510
+ •1 .1494
+ 5 .0 .1554
- .4 .1468
.1595

+18.5
+21.0
+20.1
+19.9
+21.5
+21.1
+ 19.1
+ 19.5
+18.6
+20.1
+ 5.6
+ 6.8
+ 2.6
+ 8.7

LABORERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
v. 1890-99.
*90.............
*91.............
*92.............
*93.............
*94.............
*95.............
m .............
m .............
598.............
599.............
>00.............
>01.............
>02.............
K)3.............

177
201
193
175
177
171
183
160
166
150
192
181
238
209
225

100.0
113.6
109.0
98.9
100.0
96.6
103.4
90.4
93.8
84.7
108.5
102.3
134.5
118.1
127.1




+48
+24
+32
+50
+48
+54
+42
+65
+59
-+75
+33
+44
-1 3
+16

+27.1
+11.9
+16,6
+28.6
+27.1
+31.6
+23.0
+40.6
+35.5
+50.0
+17.2
+24.3
- 5.5
+ 7.7

65.67
64.60
64.97
65.97
66.17
65.89
66.56
67.05
66.65
67.20
61.63
63.12
60.20
63.44
63.20

100.0
98.4
98.9
100.5
100.8
100.3
101.4
102.1
101.5
102.3
93.8
96.1
91.7
96.6
96.2

-2 .4 7
-1 .4 0
-1 .7 7
-2 .7 7
-2 .9 7
-2 .6 9
-3 .3 6
-3 .8 5
-3 .4 5
-4 .0 0
+1.57
+ .08
+3.00
- .24

100.0 +80.0249
97.9 + .0277
98.7 + .0267
98.8 + .0265
97.5 + .0282
97.8 + .0278
99.5 + .0256
99.2 + .0260
99.9 + .0250
98.7 + .0267
112.2 + .0085
111.0 + .0101
115.5 + .0041
109.1 + .0127
318.5

858

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PA PER A N D WOOD PTJEP—Continued.
MACHINE TENDERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 15 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 16
establishments, 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 15 establishments, 1893.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. numnum­ numage. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
129
116
126
126
135
126
131
132
129
131
137
153
160
161
172

100.0
89.9
97.7
97.7
104.7
97.7
101.6
102.3
100.0
101.6
106.2
118.6
124.0
124.8
183.3

+43
+56
+46
+46
+37
+46
+41
+40
+43
+41
+35
+19
+12
+11

+33.3
+48.3
+36.5
+36.5
+27.4
+36.5
+31.3
+30.3
+33.3
+31.3
+25.5
+12.4
+ 7.5
+ 6.8

68.15
68.54
68.53
68.16
67.87
68.06
68.30
68.33
68.70
68.84
66.13
66.74
62.22
60.59
59.93

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.0
99.6
99.9
100.2
100.3
100.8
101.0
97.0
97.9
91.3
88.9
87.9

-8 .2 2
—8.61
-8 .6 0
-8 .2 3
-7 .9 4
-8 .1 3
-8 .3 7
-8 .4 0
-8 .7 7
-8 .9 1
-6 .2 0
-6 .8 1
-2 .2 9
- .66

-1 2 .1 10.2259
-1 2 .6 .2193
-1 2 .6 .2248
.2260
-1 2 .1
-1 1 .7 .2268
-1 1 .9 .2252
-1 2 .3 .2244
-1 2 .3 .2227
-1 2 .8 .2247
-1 2 .9 .225''
- 9.4 .2388
-1 0 .2 .2351
- 3.7 .2522
- 1.1 .2561
.2634

100.0 +80.0375
97.1 + .0441
99.5 + .0386
100.0 + .0374
r o .4 + .0366
99.7 + .0382
99.3 + .0390
98.6 + .0407
99.5 + .0387
100.0 + .0375
105.7 + .0246
104.1 + .0283
111.6 + .0112
113.4 + .0073
116.6

+16. (
+20.]
+17. ;
+16. f
+ 16.:
+17. (
+ 17.'
+18.;
+17.;
+16.1
+ io .;
+12.1
+ 4 .‘
+ 2.!

PRES1S TENDERS, Male*
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from
establishments, 1890-1893; 4 establishments, 1894-1903.]

12 100.0
14
14
14
12

116.7
116.7
116.7

NN(M
1 1 1

100.0

12 100.0

+1

+1
-1
-1
-3

i> i> ©

11 91.7
12 100.0
12 100.0
12 100.0
11 91.7
12 100.0
13 108.3
13 108.3
15 125.0

72.00 100.0
- 1 4 .3 72.00 100.0
-1 4 .3 72.00 100.0
-1 4 .3 72.00 100.0
72.00 100.0
+ 9.1 72.00 100.0
72.00 100.0
72.00 100.0
72.00 100.0
+ 9.1 72.00 100.0
72.00 100.0
72.00 100.0
72.00 100.0
72.00 100.0
72.00 100.0

1 1 1

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893 .............
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903 .............

.

80.1170
.1146
.1146
.1146
.1129
.1187
.1189
.1189
.1189
.1187
.1189
.1217
.1242
.1243
.1545

100.0
97.9
97.9
97.9
96.5
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.5
101.6
104.0
106.2
106.2
132.1

+80.0375
+ .0399
+ .0399
+ .0399
+ .0416
+ .0358
+ .0356
+ .0356
+ .0356
+ .0358
+ .0356
+ .0328
+ .0303
+ .0302

+32.
+34.
+34.
+34.
+36.
+30.
+29.
+29.
+29.
+30.
+29.
+27.
+24.
+24.

PULP GRINDERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from
establishments, 1890-1892,1894-1903; 3 establishments, 1893.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

31
29
29
29
32
32
80
32
30
30
32
32
82
32
29

100.0
93.5
93.6
93.5
103.2
103.2
96.8
103.2
96.8
96.8
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
93.5




- 2

—3
—3
—1
-3
—1
—1
—3
—3
—3
—3

- 6 . 6 72.00
72.00
72.00
72.00
—9.4 72.00
—9.4 72.00
—3.3 72.00
—9.4 72.00
—3.3 72.00
—3.3 72.00
—9.4 72.00
—9.4 72.00
—9.4 72.00
—9.4 72.00
72.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

80.1236
.1234
.1234
.1234
.1191
.1235
.1240
.1250
.1250
.1250
. 1245
.1245
.1255
.1255
.1426

100.0 +80.0190
99.8 + .0192
99.8 + . 0192
99.8 + .0192
96.4 + .0235
99.9 + . 0191
100.3 + . 0186
101.1 + .0176
101.1 + .0176
101.1 + . 0176
100.7 + .0181
100.7 + .0181
101.5 + .0171
101.5 + .0171
115.4

+15.
+15.
+15.
+15.
+19.
+15.
+15.
+14.
+14.
+14.
+14.
+14.
+13.
+13.

859

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PA PER A N D WOOD P U L P —Continued.
RAG SORTERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
50
51
45
55
52
46
49
52
59
49
44
57
44
55
67

100.0
102.0
90.0
110.0
104.0
92.0
98.0
104.0
118.0
98.0
88.0
114.0
88.0
110.0
134.0

+17
+16
+22
+12
+15
+21
+18
+15
+ 8
+18
+23
+10
+23
+12

+34.0
+31.4
+48.9
+21.8
+28.8
+45.7
+36.7
+28.8
+13.6
+36.7
+52.3
+17.5
+52.3
+21.8

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

52.26
51.53
52.00
51.27
51.69
52.17
62.16
52.38
61.46
53.98
54.00
53.47
50.27
54.11
53.91

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
98.6
99.5
‘ 98.1
98.9
99.8
99.8
100.2
98.5
103.3
103.3
102.3
96.2
103.6
103.2

+1.65
+2.38
+1.91
+2.64
+2.22
+1.74
+1.75
+1.53
+2.45
- .07
- .09
+ .44
+3.64
- .20

+ 3 .2 $0.1724
+ 4 .6 .1630
+ 3 .7 .1679
+ 5.1 .1721
+ 4 .3 .1743
+ 3 .3 .1777
+3 .4 .1766
+ 2 .9 .1711
+ 4.8 .1757
- .1 .1689
- .2 .1763
+ *8 .1744
+ 7 .2 .1778
—3.7 .1742
.1789

100.0
94.5
97.4
99.8
101.1
103.1
102.4
99.2
101.9
98.0
102.3
101.2
103.1
101.0
103.8

+80.0065
+ .0159
+ .0110
+ .0068
+ .0046
+ .0012
+ .0023
+ .0078
+ .0032
+ .0100
+ .0026
+ .0045
+ .0011
+ .0047

+ 3 .8
+ 9 .8
+ 6 .6
+ 4 .0
+ 2 .6
+ .7
+ 1 .3
+ 4 .6
+ 1 .8
+ 5 .9
+ 1 .5
+ 2 .6
+ .6
+ 2 .7

+ 1 .6 $0.0926 100.0 -$0.0022
+ .3 .0904 97.6
+ 1.7 .0928 100.2 _ .0024
+ .6 .0924 99.8 — .0020
+ 2.1 .0921 99.5 — .0017
+ 3 .0 .0947 102.3 — .0043
+2 .3 .0940 101.6 —
.0036
.0025
+ 2 .7 .0929 100.3 —
+ 1 .4 .0919 99.2 —
.0015
.0035
+ .6 .0939 101.4 —
+1 .0 .0904 97.6
.0020
+ 1 .0 .0924 99.8 _
.0927 100.1 —
- 1 .0
.0023
+ .5 .0895 96.7 + .0009
.0904 97.6

-2 .4

RAG SORTERS, Female*
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899

1900.............
1901.............
1902.............

1 90 3 ............

156
147
169
171
176
141
163
169
135
135
157
184
144
136
174

100.0
94.2
108.3
109.6
112.8
90.4
104.5
108.3
86.5
86.5
100.6
117.9
92.3
87.2
111.5

+18
+27
+ 5
+ 3
- 2
+33
+11
+ 5
+39
+39
+17
-1 0
+30
+38

+11.5
+18.4
+ 3.0
+ 1.8
- 1.1
+23.4
+ 6.7
+ 3.0
+28.9
+28.9
+10.8
- 5.4
+20.8
+27.9

53.54
54.20
53.49
54.05
53.27
52.78
53.17
52.95
53.61
64.05
53.83
53.83
54.95
54.13
54.38

100.0
101.2
99.9
101.0
99.6
98.6
99.3
98.9
100.1
101.0
100.6
100.5
102.6
101.1
101.6

+0.84
+ .18
+ .89
+ .33
+1.11
+1.60
+1.21
+1.43
+ .77
+ .33
+ .55
+ .55
- .57
+ .25

- 2 .6
-2 .2
-1 .8
-4 .5
- 3 .8
-2 .7
- 1 .6
-3 .7
-2 .2
-2 .5
+ 1 .0

WOOD COOKERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 1
establishment, 1890-1893; 2 establishments, 1894-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903

16
12
11
9
7
4
16
16
28
30
22
26
32
32
19

100.0
76.0
68.8
56.3
43.8
25.0
100.0
100.0
175.0
187.5
137.5
162.5
200.0
200.0
118.8

+ 3
+ 7
+ 8
+10
+12
+15
+ 3
+ 3
- 9
-1 1
- 3
- 7
-1 3
-1 3

+ 18.8
+ 58.3
+ 72.7
+111.1
+171.4
+375.0
+ 18.8
+ 18.8
- 32.1
- 36.7
- 13.6
- 26.9
- 40.6
- 40.6

10092—No. 53—04---- 11



61.56
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
68.00
64.00
64.00
62.67
62.53
54.40
53.65
62.80
52.80
53.76

100.0
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
110.5
104.0
104.0
101.8
101.6
88.4
87.2
85.8
85.8
87.3

- 7.80
- 6.24
- 6.24
- 6.24
- 6.24
-14.24
-1 0 .2 4
-1 0 .2 4
— 8.91
- 8.77
.64
+ •11
+ .96
+ .96

-1 2 .7 $0.1522
-1 0 .4 .1450
-1 0 .4 .1442
-1 0 .4 .1496
-1 0 .4 . 1519
-2 0 .9 .1487
-1 6 .0 .1517
-1 6 .0 .1516
-1 4 .2 .1464
-1 4 .0 .1510
- 1.2 .1816
+ •2 .1862
+ 1.8 .1847
+ 1.8 .1816
.1995

100.0
95.3
94.7
98.3
99.8
97.7
99.7
99.6
96.2
99.2
119.3
122.3
121.4
119.3
131.1

+$0.0473
+ .0545
+ .0553
+ .0499
+ .0476
+ .0508
+ .0478
+ .0479
+ .0531
+ .0485
+ .0179
+ .0133
+ .0148
+ .0179

+31.1
+37.6
+38.3
+33.4
+31.3
+34.2
+31.5
+31.6
+36.3
+32.1
+ 9.9
+ 7.1
+ 8.0
+ 9.9

860

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PA PE R A N D WOOD P U L P—Concluded.
WOOD PREPARERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments, 1890-1892,1901-1903; 3 establishments, 1893; 5 establishments, 1894-1900.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
ber. num­
specified.
specified.
specified.
num- num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.
19
12
12
14
19
18
20
25
23
26
25
24
24
24
21

100.0
63.2
63.2
73.7
100.0
94.7
105.3
131.6
121.1
136.8
131.6
126.3
126.3
126.3
110.5

+2
+9
+9
+7
+2
+3
+1
-4
-2
-5
-4
-3
-3
-3

*+10.5
+75.0
+75.0
+50.0
+10.5
+16.7
+ 5.0
-1 6 .0
- 8.7
-1 9 .2
-1 6 .0
-1 2 .5
-1 2 .5
-1 2 .5

66.45
66.00
66.00
66.67
66.95
66:82
66.62
66.68
66.55
66.74
65.45
65.23
64.29
64.29
63.36

100.0
99.3
99.3
100.3
100.8
100.6
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.4
98.5
98.2
96.7
96.7
95.3

-3 .0 9
-2 .6 4
-2 .6 4
-3 .3 1
-3 .5 9
-3 .4 6
-3 .2 6
-3 .3 2
-3 .1 9
-3 .3 8
-2 .0 9
-1 .8 7
- .93
- .93

- 4 .7 *0.1276 100.0 +*0.0429
.1294 101.4 + .0411
-4 .0
.1284 100.6 + .0421
-4 .0
.1281 100.4 + .0424
-5 .0
-5 .4
.1315 103.1 + .0390
-5 .2
.1247 97.7 + .0458
-4 .9
.1255 98.4 + .0450
-5 .0
.1260 98.7 + .0445
-4 .8
.1261 98.8 + .0444
- 5 .1
.1260 98.7 + .0445
-3 .2
.1302 102.0 + .0403
-2 .9
.1325 103.8 + .0380
-1 .4
. 1457 114.2 + .0248
- 1 .4
. 1507 118.1 + .0198
.1705 133.6

+33.6
+31.8
+32.8
+33.1
+29.7
+36.7
+35.9
+35.3
+35.2
+35.3
+31.0
+28.7
+17.0
+13.1

PETROLEUM, R EFIN ING .
BOILER MEN,.Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 3 establishments, 1894-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

(a )

(«)

(a)
{a)

v*)
fa)
fa)
(a)
fa)
a
fa)
(a)

(«)
+12
+ 8
+ 8

+ 4
+ 4
+ 2

(a)
+75.0 OV. AO
+40.0 81.00
+40.0 81.00
81.86
81.86
81.86
+16.7 81.50
+16.7 81.50
+ 7.7 81.69
81.86

(«)
+1.61
+ .86
+ .86

+ .36
+ .36
+ .17

(a)
+ 2 .0 30.1909
+ 1 .1 .1884
+ 1.1 .1884
.1856
.1856
.1856
+ .4 .2007
+ .4 .2030
+ .2 .2047
.2041

«)
«)
«)

[a)
l«)
(a)
(a)
fa)
[a)
fa)
fa)

(a)
+*0.0132
+ .0157
+ .0157
+ .0185
+ .0185
+ .0185
+ .0034
+ .0011
.0006

a
+ 6.9
+ 8.3
+ 8.3
+10.0
+10.0
+10.0
+ 1.7
+ .5
.3

CAN MAKERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 1 establishment, 1894-1903.]

112

107

110

101

i& o
-2 5 .2
-4 8 .6
-4 4 .3
-3 5 .9
-2 5 .9
-2 2 .4
-2 4 .5
-1 7 .8

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

(a)
-6
-6
-6
-6
-6
-6

00
00
00
00
00
00

a)
(a)
- 1 0 .0 *0.1723
-1 0 .0 .1741
- 1 0 0 .1727
- 1 0 .0 .1735
-1 0 .0 .1753
- 1 0 .0 .1751
.1929
.1922
.1929
.1924

« Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.




i

137
149
128

11 1 1 i 1 1 l

111

i

166

-1

A V. 1890-99.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

.0183
.0197
.0189
.0171
.0173
—
.0005
+ .0002
— .0005
+
+
+
+
+

+11.7
+10.5
+11.4
+10.9
+ 9.8
+ 9.9
.3
+ .1
.3

861

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PETROLEUM, R EFIN IN G —Continued.
COOPERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 2 establishments, 1894-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

.v. 1890-99.
394.............
395.............
396 .............
397 .............
398 .............
399 .............
400.............
101.............
102.............
103.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
Num­
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
num­
ber.
ber. ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Per
Num­
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
(«)
15
13
14
6
11
11
12
11
11
14

(«)

8

<>
*

(a)

(a) „ ( a )
6.7 59.20
7.7 59.08
59.14
+133.3 58.00
59.14
+ 27.3 58.91
+ 16.7 54.00
+ 27.3 54.00
+ 27.3 54.00
54.00

+ 1 +
+ 8
+
+
+
+

3
2
3
3

(«)

P

(a)
(a)
(a)

-1 .2 0
-5 .0 8
-5 .1 4
-4 .0 0
-5 .1 4
-4 .9 1

(a)
(a)

(a)

(«)

(«) 0 „ («)
- 8 . 8 $0.2563
.2573
-8 .6
.2567
-8 .7
.2657
-6 .9
.2567
- 8 .7
.2586
- 8 .3
.2801
.2803
.2803
.2818

(«)

(a)

(«)
(«)

M
(")

(a)

(a)
(«j
(a)

(«)

(«)
+$0.0255
+ .0245
+ .0251
+ .0161
+ .0251
+ .0232
+ .0017
+ .0015
+ .0015

(«)
+9 .9
+ 9 .5
+ 9.8
+ 6.1
+ 9.8
+ 9.0
+ .6
+ .5
+ .5

(a)
+$0.0075
+ .0118
+ .0105
+ .0113
+ .0097
+ .0162
.0020
.0015
.0033

(«)
+ 4.1
+ 6.6
+ 5.8
+ 6.3
+ 5.4
+ 9.3
- 1.0
.8
- 1.7

PACKERS AND LABORERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 1 establishment, 1894-1903.]

V. 1890-99.
*94.............
*95.............
*96.............
*97.............
*98.............
*99.............
>00.......

x>i.............
.............

m

K)3.......

(«)

214
209
187
194
145
156
226
260
230
240

(*)
(a )
(a)
(«)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
U)
(a)

(«)

+26
+31
+53
+46
+95
+84
+14
-2 0
+10

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+

«)

(a)

12.1
14.8
28.3
23.7
65.5
53.8

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
6.2 54.00
7.7 54.00
4.3 54.00
54.00

«)
«)
«)
«)
«)
(a)

(«)
-6.00
-6.00
-6.00
-6.00
-6.00
-6.00

(a)
(«)
-10.0 $0.1829
.1786
-1 0. 0
.1799
-1 0. 0
.1791
-1 0. 0
. 1807
-10.0
. 1742
-10.0

. 1924
.1919
.1937
.1904

a)

(«)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)

(a)

(a)
(a\

(a)

PIPE FITTERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 3 establishments, 1894-1903.]

v. 1890-99.
*94.............
*95.............
*96.............
*97.............
*98.............
*99.............
m

.......

H)1.............
>02.............
>03.............

(a)

22
22
21
22
25
22
20
54
62
79

(a )
(a j
(a )
(a)
(a)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(a)
(a)
(a)

+57
+57
+58
+57
+54
+57
+59
+25
+17

(«)

+259.1
+259.1
+276.2
+259.1
+216.0
+259.1
+295.0
+ 46.3
+ 27.4

(a)

59.73
59.73
59.71
59.73
59.76
59.73
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

(«)
(*
<)
(a)

h

(a)
(«)
(a)
(«)
(a)
(a)

(«)

(«)

—5.73
—5.73
—5.71
—5.73
—5.76
—5.73

....

«)

(«)

- 9 .6 $0.2263
-9 .6
.2263
- 9 .6
.2358
.2376
- 9 .6
.2381
- 9 .6
- 9 .6
.2331
.2514
. 2332
. 2431
.2378

(«
(a)
(a)
(a)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)

a Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.




(a)

+$0.0110
.0110
+
.0015
+
.0003
—
.0008
.0042
+
— .0141
+ .0041
.0061

_

(«)

+ 4.9
+ 4 .9

+ .6

-

.1
- .3
+ 1 .8
- 5 .6
+1 .8
-2 .5

862

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) m 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PETROLEUM, R E FIN IN G —Concluded.
PUMP MEN, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 2 establishments, 1894-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

(«)

9
11
11
16
16
16
16
16
16
IS
1
1

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
cent.
ber.

(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
h

(a)
(«)
w
(«)

(a\

(«)

+9
+7
+7
+2
+2
4*2
+2
+2
+2

(«)
+100.0
+ 63.6
+ 63.6
+ 12.5
+ 12.5
+ 12.5
+ 12.5
+ 12.5
+ 12.5

............
' ' 1

(«)
79.89
80.64
80.64
81.25
81.25
81.25
81.25
80.81
80.81
81.17
!
1

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)

(a)

(a)
(a)
(«)
(a)
(a)
(«)

(a)
+1.28
+ .53
+ .53
- .08
- .08
- .08
- .08
+ .36
+ .36

(«)
(«;
+ 1 .6 80.1869
+ .7 .1832
+ .7 .1886
- .1 .1849
- .1 .1849
- .1 .1849
- .1 .2036
+ .4 .2072
+ .4 .2091
.2141

(«)
(«)
(«)
(a)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(a)
(«)
(a)
(a)

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount

(a)

Per
cent.

+80.0272
+ .0309
+ .0255
+ .0292
+ .0292
+ .0292
+ .0105
+ .0069
+ .0050

(«)
+ 14.6
+ 16.9
+ 13.5
+ 15.8
+ 15.8
+ 15.8
+ 5.2
+ 3.3
+ 2.4

(«)
+80.0175
+ .0175
+ .0176
+ .0175
+ .0175
+ .0175

«)
+9.8
+9.8
+ 9.8
+9.8
+9.8
+9.8

+80?0327
+ .0327
+ .0327
+ .0265
+ .0265
+ .0265
+ .0032
+ .0032
+ .0032

+15. (
+15. €
+15. (
+12.?
+12.?
+12.?
+ 1.1
+ 1.?
+ 1.?

STILL FIREMEN, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 1 establishment, 1894-1903.]

Av. 1890-99.
1894 .............
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902 .............
1903
.

(«)

(«)

10

10
10
10
10
10
1
0
10
10

(«)
(a)

(«)

o*. w
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

(a)

(«)

(«)

$
©
©
©

(«)

.1783
.1783
.1783
.1783
.1783
.1783
.1958
.1958
.1958
.1958

8
i«j

©

(«)
(«>
(«>
(a)

STILL MEN, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 2 establishments, 1894-1903.]

Av. 1890-99.
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

20
20
20
26
26
26
24
24
24
26

(«)
+6
+6
+6

+2
+2
+2

«
+30.0 o*. uu
+30.0 84.00
+30.0 84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
+ 8.3 84.00
+ 8.3 84.00
+ 8.3 84.00
84.00 («)

(a)

(«)

(«)
80.2095
.2095
.2095
.2157
.2157
.2157
.2390
.2390
.2390
.2422

(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(a)
(«)
(«)

a Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.




863

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

PLANINTG MIIiLu

CARPENTERS, Male.
[Data from 65 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease!—) in
decrease!—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. numnum­ num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Num­
Amount.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.

Av. 1890-99.
769 100.0
1890.............
728 94.7
1891.............
725 94.3
1892.............
771 100.3
1893.............
759 98.7
1894 .............
708 92.1
1895.............
713 92.7
805 104.7
1896.............
782 101.7
1897 .............
795 103.4
1898.............
899 116.9
1899.............
942 122.5
1900.............
1901.............
999 129.9
1902............. 1,021 132.8
1903...........
1,045 135.9

+276
+317
+320
+274
+286
+337
+332
+240
+263
+250
+146
+103
+ 46
+ 24

+35.9
+43.5
+44.1
+35.6
+37.7
+47.6
+46.6
+29.8
+33.6
+31.4
+16.2
+10.9
+ 4.6
+ 2.4

57.15
68.26
57.77
57.92
57.27
67.23
57.03
56.03
56.63
56.82
56.57
56.23
56.10
65.44
55.17

100.0
101.9
101.1
101.3
100.2
100.1
99.8
98.0
99.1
99.4
99.0
98.4
98.2
97.0
96.5

-1 .9 8
-3 .0 9
-2 .6 0
-2 .7 5
-2 .1 0
-2 .0 6
-1 .8 6
- .86
-1 .4 6
-1 .6 5
-1 .4 0
-1 .0 6
- .93
- .27

- 3 .5 $0.2349 100.0 +$0.0453
.2318 98.7 + .0484
- 5 .3
-4 .5
.2348 100.0 + .0454
- 4 .7
.2330 99.2 + .0472
.2354 100.2 + .0448
-3 .7
.2272 96.7 + .0530
-3 .6
- 3 .3
.2303 98.0 + .0499
-1 .5
.2368 100.8 + .0434
- 2 .6
.2375 101.1 + .0427
.2404 102.3 + .0398
- 2 .9
.2414 102.8 + .0388
-2 .5
-1 .9
.2507 106.7 + .0295
- 1 .7
.2537 108.0 + .0265
- .5 .2669 113.6 + .0133
.2802 119.3

+19.3
+20.9
+19.3
+20.3
+19.0
+23.3
+21.7
+18.3
+18.0
+16.6
+16.1
+11.8
+10.4
+ 5.0

- 2 . 1 $0.2043 100.0 +$0.0291
-2 .7
.2049 100.3 + .0285
.2073 101.5 + .0261
- 2 .1
.2104 103.0 + .0230
- 2 .1
- 2 .0
.2091 102.3 + .0243
.2004 98.1 + .0330
- 2 .7
- 1 .9
.1981 97.0 + .0353
- 2 .4
.1959 95.9 + .0375
-2 .4
.1993 97.6 + .0341
- 2 .1
.2048 100.2 + .0286
- 1.0 .2125 104.0 + .0209
-1 .4
.2150 105.2 + .0184
- .7 .2218 108.6 + .0116
.2274 111.3 + .0060
.2334 114.2

+14.2
+13.9
+12.6
+10.9
+11.6
+16.5
+17.8
+19.1
+17.1
+14.0
+ 9.8
+ 8.6
+ 5.2
+ 2.6

- 0 .9 $0.1939 100.0 +$0.0135
- 1 .4
.1855 95.7 + .0219
- 1 .4
.1920 99.0 + .0154
- 1 .4
.1948 100.5 + .0126
- 1 .4
.2031 104.7 + .0043
- .6 .1993 102.8 + .0081
- .6 .1895 97.7 + .0179
- .6 .1876 96.8 + .0198
- .6 .1953 100.7 + .0121
- .6 .1935 99.8 + .0139
- .9 .1985 102.4 + .0089
+ .7 .2069 106.7 + .0005
+ .7 .2050 105.7 + .0024
+ .5 .1999 103.1 + .0075
.2074 107.0

+ 7.0
+11.8
+ 8.0
+ 6.5
+ 2.1
+ 4.1
+ 9.4
+10.6
+ 6.2
+ 7.2
+ 4.5
+ .2
+ 1.2
+ 3.8

FRAMERS, Male*
[Data from 26 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902
1903

188
164
171
181
179
169
199
193
.199
208
213
209
224
217
232

100.0
87.2
91.0
96.3
95.2
89.9
105.9
102.7
105.9
110.6
113.3
111.2
119.1
115.4
123.4

+44
+68
+61
+51
+53
+63
+33
+39
+33
+24
+19
+23
+
+15

s

+23.4
+41.5
+35.7
+28.2
+29.6
+37.3
+16.6
+20.2
+16.6
+11.5
+ 8.9
+11.0
+ 3.6
+ 6.9

68.91
59.23
58.91
58.90
58.82
59.22
58.77
59.05
69.05
58.90
68.26
58.45
58.06
57.65
57.65

100.0
100.5
100.0
100.0
99.8
100.5
99.8
100.2
100.2
100.0
98.9
99.2
98.6
97.9
97.9

-1 .2 6
-1 .5 8
-1 .2 6
-1 .2 5
-1 .1 7
-1 .5 7
-1 .1 2
-1 .4 0
-1 .4 0
-1 .2 5
- .61
- .80
- .41

GLAZIERS, Male*
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
|Q
03

11
9
9
9
9
10
11
11
11
11
15
* 16
20
22
28

100.0
81.8
81.8
81.8
81.8
90.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
136.4
145.5
181.8
200.0
254.5




+17
+10
+19
+19
+19
+18
+17
+17
+17
+17
+13
+12
+ 8
+ 6

+154.5
+211.1
+211.1
+211.1
+211.1
+180.0
+154.5
+154.5
+154.5
+154.5
+ 86.7
+ 75.0
+ 40.0
+ 27.3

59.49
59.78
69.78
69.78
59.78
59.20
59.27
59.27
59.27
59.27
59.47
58.50
58.50
58.64
58.93

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
100.0
98.3
98.3
98.6
99.1

-0 .5 6
— .85
— .85
— .85
— .85
— .27
— .34
— .34
— .34
— .34
— .54
+ .43
+ .43
+ .29

864

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

P L A N IK G M IL L —Continued.
LABORERS, Male.
[Data from 13 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892 .............
1893
.
1891.............
1895
.
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898
.
1899 .............
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase (+ ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
256
220
230
227
223
240
261
269
265
274
348
282
344
327
296

100.0
85.9
89.8
88.7
87.1
93.8
102.0
105.1
103.5
107.0
135.9
110.2
134.4
127.7
115.6

+40
+76
+66
+69
+73
+56
+35
+27
+31
+22
-5 2
+14
-4 8
-3 1

+15.6
+34.5
+28.7
+30.4
+32.7
+23.3
+13.4
+10.0
+11.7
+ 8.0
-1 4 .9
+ 5.0
-1 4 .0
- 9.5

59.61
59.66
59.67
59.65
59.54
53.59
59.61
59.49
59.55
59.63
59.73
59.54
59.61
59.60
59.56

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.9
100.0
100.2
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.9

-0 .0 5
- .10
- .11
- .09
+ .02
- .03
- .05
+ .07
+ .01
- .07
- .17
+ .02
- .05

-

.04

- 0 . 1 10.1103
- .2
.1129
.1162
- .2
- .2
.1120
+ .03 .1084
.1038
- .1
.1058
- .1
.1064
+ .1
+ .02 .1059
- .1
.1120
.1197
- .3
+ .03 .1134
* - .01 .1222
- .01 .1222
.1250

100.0
102.4
105.3
101.5
98.3
94.1
95.9
96.5
96.0
101.5
108.5
102.8
110.8
110.8
113.3

+80.0147
+ .0121
+ .0088
+ .0130
+ .0166
+ .0212
+ .0192
+ .0186
+ .0191
+ .0130
+ .0053
+ .0116
+ .0028
+ .0028

+13.3
+10.7
f 7.6
+11.6
+15.3
+20.4
+18.1
+17.5
+18.0
+11.6
+ 4.4
+10.2
+ 2.2
+ 2.2

100.0
98.4
99.2
99.7
99.6
97.4
98.8
99.7
101.0
102.0
104.0
106.6
108.7
113.0
116.4

+$0.0339
+ .0372
+ .0356
+ .0345
+ .0347
+ .0393
+ .0363
+ .0345
+ .0319
+ .0297
+ .0257
+ .0202
+ .0159
+ .0069

+16.4
+18.3
+17.3
+16.7
+16.8
+19.5
+17.7
+16.7
+15.3
+14.1
+11.9
+ 9.1
+ 7.1
+ 2.9

100.0 +$0.0223
100.7 + .0210
101.5 + .0190
100.9 + .0204
100.0 + .0224
97.6 + .0274
99.3 + .0239
98.6 + .0252
99.9 + .0226
100.6 + .0211
101.2 + .0197
102.1 + .0177
103.6 + .0145
106.6 + .0081
110.4

+10.4
+ 9.7
+ 8.7
+ 9.4
+10.5
+13.1
+11.2
+11.9
+10.6
+ 9.8
+ 9.1
+ 8.1
+ 6.5
+ 3.6

MACHINE WOODWORKERS, Male.
[Data from 92 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1 8 9 3 ..:........
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

965
939
940
950
945
926
944
963
983
1,021
1,035
1,075
1,097
1,166
1,179

+214 +22.2 58.82
100.0
97.3
+240 +25.6 59.53
97.4
+239 +25.4 59.20
98.4
+229 +24.1 59.16
+234 +24.8 58.90
97.9
+253 +27.3 59.05
96.0
+23 d . +24.9 58.59
97.8
+216 +22.4 58.44
99.8
+196 +19.9 58.66
101.9
105.8 • +158 +15.5 58.37
+144 +13.9 58.26
107.3
+104 + 9.7 58.19
111.4
113.7
+ 82 + 7.5 58.04
120.8
+ 13 + 1.1 57.24
122.2
56.87

100.0
101.2
100.6
100.6
100.1
100.4
99.6
99.4
99.7
99.2
99.0
98.9
98.7
97.3
96.7

-1 .9 5
-2 .6 6
-2 .3 3
-2 .2 9
-2 .0 3
-2 .1 8
-1 .7 2
-1 .5 7
-1 .7 9
-1 .5 0
-1 .3 9
-1 .3 2
-1 .1 7
- .37

- 3 . 3 SO 2071
.
- 4 .5
.2038
- 3 .9
.2054
- 3 .9
.2065
- 3 .4
.2063
- 3 .7
.2017
- 2 .9
.2047
- 2 .7
.2065
.2091
- 3 .1
- 2 .6
.2113
- 2 .4
.2153
- 2 .3
.2208
-2 .0
.2251
- .6 .2341
.2410

SAWYERS, BAND, Male.
[Data from 31 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

49
47
47
48
47
47
47
50
51
52
52
54
55
57
60

100.0
95.9
95.9
98.0
95.9
95.9
95.9
102.0
104.1
106.1
106.1
110.2
112.2
116.3
122.4




+11
+13
+13
+12
+13
+13
+13
+10
+ 9
+ 8
+ 8
+ 6
+ 5
+ 3

+22.4
+27.7
+27.7
+25.0
+27.7
+27.7
+27.7
+20.0
+17.6
+15.4
+15.4
+11.1
+ 9.1
+ 5.3

58.31
59.30
58.40
58.31
68.40
59.17
57.38
58.22
58.10
58.02
57.83
58.59
58.58
58.12
58.02

100.0
101.7
100.2
100.0
100.2
101.5
98.4
99.8
99.6
99.5
99.2
100.5
100.5
99.7
99.5

-0 .2 9
-1 .2 8
- .38
- .29
- .38
-1 .1 5
+ .64
- .20
- .08
+
-

.19
.57
.56
.10

- 0 .5 $0.2143
- 2 .2
.2156
- .7 .2176
- .5 .2162
- .7 .2142
.2092
- 1 .9
+1.1 .2127
- .3 .2114
- .1 .2140
.2155
+ .3 .2169
- 1.0
.2189
.2221
- 1.0
- .2 .2285
. 2366

865

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

P L A N IN G M IL L —Concluded.
SAW VERS, CIRCULAR, Male.
[Data from 45 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1008

Wages per hour.

Increase f + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —)in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. numnum­ num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Per
Num­
Amount cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
178
164
167
166
167
175
175
181
183
199
207
215
229
234
244

100.0
92.1
93.8
93.3
93.8
98.3
98.3
101.7
102.8
111.8
116.3
120.8
128.7
131.5
137.1

+66
+80
+77
+78
+77
+69
+69
+63
+61
+45
+37
+29
+15
+10

+37.1
+48.8
+46.1
+47.0
+46.1
+39.4
+39.4
+34.8
+33.3
+22.6
+17.9
+13.5
+ 6.6
+ 4.3

58.54
59.03
68.80
58.76
68.59
58.83
58.27
58.04
58.51
58.30
58.24
58.23
58.04
57.97
57.55

100.0
100.8
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.5
99.5
99.1
99.9
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.1
99.0
98.3

-0 .9 9
-1 .4 8
-1 .2 5
-1 .2 1
-1 .0 4
-1 .2 8
- .72
- .49
- .96
- .75
- .69
- .68
- .49
- .42

- 1 . 7 80.2015 100.0 +80.0284
-2 .5
.2020 100.2 + .0279
-2 .1
.2025 100.5 + .0274
- 2 .1
.2023 100.4 + .0276
.2040 101.2 + .0259
-1 .8
-2 .2
.1991 98.8 + .0308
- 1 .2
.1990 98.8 + .0309
- .8 .1976 98.1 + .0323
-1 .6
.1985 98.5 + .0314
-1 .3
.2009 99.7 + .0290
—1.2 .2087 103.6 + . 0212
- 1 .2
.2115 105.0 + .0184
- .8 .2186 108.5 + .0113
- .7 .2233 110.8 + .0066
.2299 114.1

+14.1
+13.8
+13.5
+13.6
+12.7
+15.5
+15.5
+16.3
+15.8
+14.4
+10.2
+ 8.7
+ 5.2
+ 3.0

- 0 . 2 $0.2044 100.0 +$0.0204
- 2 .8
.2008 98.2 + .0240
- .4 .2053 100.4 + .0195
- .4 .2047 100.1 + .0201
- .2 .2034 99.5 + .0214
-2 .4
.1988 97.3 + .0260
+ 3 .0 .2065 101.0 + .0183
- .1 .2009 98.3 + .0239
+ .3 .2037 99.7 + .0211
+ .3 .2063 100.9 + .0185
+ .9 .2135 104.5 + .0113
-1 .6
.2119 103.7 + .0129
- 1 .8
.2168 106.1 + .0080
- .6 .2205 107.9 + .0043
.2248 110.0

+10.0
+12.0
+ 9.5
+ 9.8
+10.5
+13.1
+ 8.9
+11.9
+10.4
+ 9.0
+ 5.3
+ 6.1
+ 3.7
+ 2.0

SAWYERS, JIG, Male.
[Data from 19 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900 .

1901.............
1902.............
1903

26
26
26
26
27
27
27
26
26
26
27
28
28
27
28

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.8
103.8
103.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.8
107.7
107.7
103.8
107.7

+2
+2
+2
+2
+1
+1
+1
+2
+2
+2
+1
+1

57.94
59.46
58.08
58.08
57.93
59.26
56.15
57.85
57.62
57.62
57.33
58.75
58.86
+ 3 .7 58.19
57.82

+ 7 .7
+ 7 .7
+ 7 .7
+ 7 .7
+ 3 .7
+3 .7
+3 .7
+7 .7
+ 7 .7
+ 7 .7
+ 3.7

100.0
102.6
100.2
100.2
100.0
102.3
96.9
99.8
99.4
99.4
98.9
101.4
101.6
100.4
99.8

-0 .1 2
-1 .6 4
- .26
- .26
- .11
-1 .4 4
+1.67
- .03
+ .20
+ .20
+ .49
- .93
-1 .0 4
- .37

SAWYERS, NOT SPECIFIER, Male.
[Data from 17 establishments.]

Av . 1890-99.
18 90.......
18 9 1 .......
1892........
1 8 9 3 .......
1 8 9 4 .......
1 8 9 5 .......
1 8 9 6 .......
1 8 9 7 .......
18 9 8 .......
18 9 9 .......
19 00.......
19 0 1 .......
19 0 2 .......

ions

30
29
29
31
30
28
29
29
30
29
31
30
30
31
30

100.0
96.7
+1
96.7
+1
-1
103.3
100.0
93.3
+2
96.7
+1
96.7
+1
100.0
96.7
+1
-1
103.3
100.0
100.0
103.3 ........- i '”
100.0




57.64 100.0
+3 . 4 58.38 101.3
+3 . 4 58.17 100.9
- 3 . 2 58.29 101.1
57.83 100.3
+7 .1 58.00 100.6
+3 .4 57.86 100.4
+3 .4 56.90 98.7
57.37 99.5
+3.4 56.86 98.6
- 3 . 2 56.74 98.4
56.23 97.6
55.50 96.3
-3 * 2 53.94 93.6
54.13 93.9

-3.51
-4.25
-4.04
-4.16
-3 .7 0
-3.87
-3 .7 3
-2.77
-3 .2 4
-2.73
-2.61
-2.10
-1.37
+ .19

- 6 . 1 $0.2052 100.0 -4-80.0367
.2032 99.0 + .0387
-7.3
.2042 99.5 + .0377
-6.9
-7 .1
.2082 101.5 + .0337
.0350
-6.4
.2069 100.8 +
.1973 96.2 + .0446
-6 . 7
.0420
.1999 97.4 +
-6.5
.0352
.2067 100.7 +
-4.9
.0350
-5.6
.2069 100.8 +
.2073 101.0 + .0346
-4.8
.2118 103.2 + .0301
-4 . 6
.2161 105.3 + .0258
- 3 .7
.2275 110.9 + .0144
-2.5
+ .4 .2467 120.2 — .0048
.2419 117.9

+17.9
+19.0
+18.5
+16.2
+16.9
+22.6
+21.0
+17.0
+16.9
+16.7
+14.2
+11.9
+ 6.3

-

1.9

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

866
T able

I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

POTTERY.
DIPPERS, male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
cent.
ber.
5 100.0
5 100.0
6 100.0
61 100.0
5 100.0
5 100.0
4 80.0
4 80.0
4 80.0
4 80.0
4 80.0
4 80.0
4 80.0
4 80.0
4 80.0

-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

-2 0 .0
-2 0 .0
-2 0 .0
-2 0 . C
—20
-2 0 .0

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­ numage. tive.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
44.88
43.80
43.80
43.80
43.80
43.80
44.75
44.75
46.75
46.75
46.75
44.75
45.75
45.75
45.75

100.0
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
99.7
99.7
104.2
104.2
104.2
99.7
101.9
101.9
101.9

+0.87
+1.95
+1.95
+1.95
+1.95
+1.95
+1.00
+1.00
—1.00
—1.00
—1.00
+1.00

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—)in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

Per
cent.

+ 1 .9 60.4666 100.0 +60.0632
+ 4 .5 .4435 95.1 + .0862
+ 4 .5 .4435 95.1 + .0862
+ 4 .5 .4492 96.3 + .0805
+ 4 .5 .4956 106.2 + .0341
+ 4 .5 .4841 103.7 + .0456
+ 2 .2 .4545 97.4 + .0752
+ 2 .2 .4146 88.9 -j- .1151
—2.1 .4893 104.9 -j- .0404
—2.1 .4893 104.9 + .0404
—2.1 .5010 107.4 4- .0287
+ 2 .2 .4717 101.1 + .0580
.5112 109.6 + .0185
.5112 109.6 + .0185
.5297 113.5

+ 13.5
+19.4
+ 1 9.4
+ 17.9
+ 6.9
+ 9.4
+ 1 6.5
+27.8
+ 8.3
+ 8.3
+ 5.7
+ 12.3
+ 3.6
+ 3.6

- 3 . 9 60.3531 100.0 +60.0465
—3.7 .3556 100.7 + .0420
- 3 .7
.3572 101.2 + . 0424
-4 .1
.3455 97.8 + .0541
-3 .4
.3696 104.7 + .0300
- 3 .5
.3496 99.0 + .0500
-4 .6
.3304 93.6 + .0692
.3427 97.1 + .0569
-3 .9
- 4 .3
.3257 92.2 + .0739
- 4 .1
.3605 102.1 + .0391
-4 .3
.3939 111.6 + .0057
- 5 .3
.&599 101.9 + .0397
-4 .3
.3843 108.8 + .0153
-4 .3
.3915 110.9 + .0081
.3996 113.2

+ 13.2
+11.8
+11.9
+15.7
+ 8.1
+ 14.3
+ 20.9
+16.6
+22.7
+ 10.8
+ 1.4
+ 11.0
+ 4.0
+ 2.1

4-fin nsna
+
.0556
+
.0556
+
.0278
+
.0278
+
.0278
+
.0444
+
.0444
.0111
.0111
+
.0444
+
.0444
+
.0444
+
.0167

+10.4

JIGGER MEN, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
19C1.............
1902.............
1903.............

14
15
15
13
17
16
11
14
12
13
12
12
12
12
15

100.0
107.1
107.1
92.9
121.4
114.3
78.6
100.0
85.7
92.9
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
107.1

+1
+2
-2
-1
+4
+1
+3
+2
+3
+3
+3
+3

+7.1 54.55
54.40
54.40
+15.4 54.62
-1 1 .8 54.24
- 6.3 54.31
+36.4 54.91
+ 7.1 54.50
+25.0 54.75
+15.4 54.62
+25.0 54.75
+25.0 55.33
+25.0 54.75
+25.0 54.75
52.40

100.0
99.7
99.7
100.1
99.4
99.6
100.7
99.9
100.4
100.1
100.4
101.4
100.4
100.4
96.1

-2 .1 5
-2 .0 0
—2.00
-2 .2 2
-1 .8 4
-1 .9 1
-2 .5 1
-2 .1 0
-2 .3 5
-2 .2 2
-2 .3 5
-2 .9 3
-2 .3 5
-2 .3 5

KILN FIREMEN, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890 .........
1891 .........
1892 .........
1893 .........
1894 .........
1895 .........
1896 .........
1897 .........
1898 ........
1899 ........
1900 ........
1901 .........
1902 .........
1903 .........

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0




60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

60.2944
.2694
.2694
.2972
.2972
.2972
.2806
.2806
.3361
.3361
.2806
.2806
.2806
.3083
.3250

100.0
91.6
91.5
101.0
101.0
101.0
95.3
95.3
114.2
114.2
95.3
95.3
95.3
104.7
110.4

_

+20.6
+20.6
+ 9.4
+ 15.8
+15.8
- 3.3
- 3.3
+ 15.8
+15.8
+15.8
+ 5.4

867

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

POTTERY—Continued.
KILN MEN, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99 .
1890 .............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894 .............
1895 .............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898 .............
1899 .............
1900 .............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903 .

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease (—) in
decrease (— )in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
Num­ tive
specified..
specified.
specified.
num- numage. tive.
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Per
Num­
Amount. cent.
cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
44
41
46
45
45
45
44
39
43
42
47
50
45
46
45

100.0
93.2
104.5
102.3
102.3
102.3
100.0
88.6
97.7
95.5
106.8
113.6
102.3
104.5
102.3

+1
+4
-1

+1
+6
+2
+3
—2
-5
-1

+ 2.3 49.89
+ 9.8 49.78
- 2.2 49.48
49.53
49.53
49.53
+ 2.3 49.59
+15.4 50.54
+ 4.7 50.21
+ 7.1 50.29
- 4.3 50.45
-1 0 .0 50.24
50.60
- 2.2 50.52
50.33

100.0
99.8
99.2
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.4
101.3
100.6
100.8
101.1
100.7
101.4
101.3
100.9

+0 .9 $0.2874 100.0 -$0.0045
.2912 101.3 — .0083
+1 .1
.2994 104.2 — .0165
+1 .7
.2984 103.8 — .0155
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .6
.2990 104.0 _ .0161
+1.6.
.2916 101.5 __ .0087
.2936 102.2 — .0107
+ 1 .5
- .4
.2701 94.0 + .0128
.2765 96.2 + .0064
+ .2
.2748 95.6 + .0081
+ .1
.2796 97.3 + .0033
- .2
.2837 98.7 — .0008
+ .2
.2750 95.7 + .0079
- .5
.0004
.2833 98.6
- .4
.2829 98.4

+0.44
+ .55
+ .85
+ .80
+ .80
+ .80
+ .74
- .21
+ .12
+ .04
- .12
+ .09
- .27
- .19

-1 .6
- 2 .9
- 5 .5
-5 .2
- 5 .4
- 3 .0
- 3 .6
+ 4 .7
+ 2 .3
+ 2 .9
+ 1 .2
- .3
+ 2 .9
- .1

MOLD MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900__
1901.............
1902.............
1903 . . .

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
8
8
8
8
8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3

+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+1
+1

+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+33.3
+14.3
+14.3

56.00
56.17
56.17
66.17
56.17
66.17
56.17
56.17
55.71
55.71
55.38
65.38
55.38
55.38
64.63

100.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.5
99.5
98.9
98.9
98.9
98.9
97.6

-1 .3 7
-1 .5 4
-1 .5 4
-1 .5 4
-1 .5 4
-1 .5 4
-1 .5 4
-1 .5 4
-1 .0 8
-1 .0 8
- .75
— . 75
- .75
- .75

- 2 . 4 $0.3023 100.0 +$0.0433
.3015 99.7 + .0441
- 2 .7
-2 .7
.3003 99.3 + .0453
-2 :7
.2997 99.1 + .0459
.2844 94.1 + .0612
-2 .7
.2955 97.8 + .0501
-2 .7
- 2 :7
.2946 97.5 + .0510
.2941 97.3 + .0515
-2 :7
.2902 96.0 + .0554
- 1 :9
.3449 114.1 + .0007
- 1 :9
-1 .4
.3175 105.0 + .0281
- 1 :4
.3060 101.2 + .0396
- 1 .4
.3150 104.2 + .0306
- 1 .4
.3189 105.5 + .0267
.3456 114.3

+14.3
+14.6
+15.1
+15.3
+21.5
+17.0
+17.3
+17.5
+19.1
+ .2
+ 8.9
+12.9
+ 9.7
+ 8.4

PRESSERS, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1 8 9 9 ... ... ..
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903

135
131
149
128
136
125
119
123
147
150
146
140
141
125
142

100.0
97.0
110.4
94.8
100.7
92.6
88.1
91.1
108.9
111.1
108.1
103.7
104.4
92.6
105.2




+ 7
+11
- 7
+14
+ 6
+17
+23
+19
- 5
- 8
- 4
+ 2
+ 1
+17

+ 5.2
+ 8.4
- 4.7
+10.9
+ 4.4
+13.6
+19.3
+15.4
- 3.4
- 5.3
- 2.7
+ 1.4
+ .7
+13.6

53.91
53.66
53.70
53.83
63.82
63.99
53.99
54.02
53.88
53.95
54.21
54.20
54.05
54.42
64.04

100.0
99.5
99.6
99.9
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.6
100.5
100.3
100.9
100.2

+0.13
+ .38
+ .34
+ .21
+ .22
+ .05
+ .05
+ .02
+ .16
+ .09
.17
_ .16
— .01
— .38

+0 .2 $0.3651
.3714
+ .7
.3857
+ .6
.3761
+ .4
.4043
+ .4
.3465
+ .1
.3208
+ .1
+ .04 .3385
.3647
+ .3
.3693
+ .2
.3737
- .3
.3448
- .3
- .02 .3726
.3633
- .7
.3781

100.0 +$0.0130
101.7 + .0067
105.6 — .0076
103.0 + .0020
110.7 — .0262
94.9 + .0316
87.9 + .0573
92.7 + .0396
99.9 + .0134
101.2 + .0088
102.4 + .0044
94.4 + .0333
102.1 + .0055
99.6 + .0148
103.6

+ 3.6
+ 1.8
- 2.0
+ .5
- 6.5
+ 9.1
+17.9
+11.7
+ 3.7
+ 2.4
+ 1.2
+ 9.7
+ 1.5
+ 4.1

868

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

POTTERY—Concluded.
SAGGER MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.
Increase f + ) or
decrease ( - ) m
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

6
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
4
5
6
6
6
6

100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
66.7
83.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

-1
-1
-1

+2
+1

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

50.67 100.0
- i 4 . 3 51.00 100.7
-1 4 .3 51.00 100.7
-1 4 .3 51.00 100.7
50.67 100.0
50.67 100.0
50.67 100.0
50.67 100.0
50.67 100.0
+50.0 50.50 99.7
+20.0 49.80 98.3
50.33 99.3
50.33 99.3
50.33 99.3
49.67 98.0

-1 .0 0
-1 .3 3
-1 .3 3
-1 .3 3
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 0
- .83
- .13
- .66
- .66
- .66

- 2 .0 30.3537
.3525
-2 .6
.3524
- 2 .6
- 2 .6
.3517
.3465
-2 .0
-2 .0
.3506
.3445
- 2 .0
.3451
- 2 .0
.3415
-2 .0
.3805
-1 .6
- .3 .3713
—1.3 .3720
.3661
- 1 .3
- 1 .3
.3767
.3805

100.0
99.7
99.6
99.4
98.0
99.1
97.4
97.6
96.6
107.6
105.0
105.2
103.5
106.5
107.6

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

Per
cent.

+30.0268
+ .0280
+ .0281
+ .0288
+ .0340
+ .0299
+ .0360
+ .0354
+ .0390
.. .
+ .0092
+ .0085
+ .0144
+ .0038
...
i

+ 7.6
+ 7.9
+ 8.0
+ 8.2
+ 9.8
+ 8.5
+10.4
+10.2
+11.4

- 1 .2 30.4181 100.0 +30.0029
- 1 .2
.4212 100.7 — .0002
- 1 .2
.4212 100.7 — .0002
- 1 .2
.4195 100.3 + .0015
- 1 .2
.0010
.4220 100.9
—1.2 .4161 99.5 + .0049
-1 .2
.4162 99.5 + .0048
-1 .2
.4143 99.1 + .0067
- 1 .2
.4161 99.5 + .0049
- 1 .2
.4156 99.4 + .0054
- 1 .2
.4186 100.1 + .0024
- 1 .2
.4199 100.4 + .0011
- 1 .2
.4188 100.2 + .0022
- 1 .2
.4236 101.3
.0026
.4210 100.7

+ 0 .7
- .05
- .05
+ .4
- .2
+ 1 .2
+ 1 .2
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .2
+ 1 .3
+ .6
+ .3
+ .5
— .6

+
+
+
+

2.5
2.3
3.9
1.0

SETTERS-OUT, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893 .............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

47.43
47.43
47.43
47.43
47.43
47.43
47.43
47.43
47.43
47.43
47.43
47.43
47.43
47.43
46.86

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.8

-0 .5 7
- .57
- .57
- .57
- .57
- .57
- .57
- .57
- .57
- .57
- .57
- .57
- .57
- .57

PR IN TIN G A N D PUBLISH IN G , BOOK A N D JOB.
BOOKBINDERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 32 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 32
establishments, 1890-1894; 33 establishments, 1895-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

258
226
230
238
246
240
236
257
289
304
314
333
340
346
353

100.0
87.6
89.1
92.2
95.3
93.0
91.5
99.6
112.0
117.8
121.7
129.1
131.8
134.1
136.8




+ 95
+127
+123
+115
+107
+113
+117
+ 96
+ 64
+ ’ 49
+ 39
+ 20
+ 13
+ 7

+36.8
+56.2
+53.5
+48.3
+43.5
+47.1
+49.6
+37.4
+22.1
+16.1
+12.4
+ 6.0
+ 3.8
+ 2.0

57.66
58.29
58.24
58.12
57.83
57.80
58.01
57.91
57.38
56.95
56.07
55.47
55.13
54.64
54.46

100.0
101.1
101.0
100.8
100.3
100.2
100.6
100.4
99.5
98.8
97.2
96.2
95.6
94.8
94.5

-3 .2 0
-3 .8 3
-3 .7 8
-3 .6 6
-3 .3 7
-3 .3 4
-3 .5 5
-3 .4 5
-2 .9 2
-2 .4 9
-1 .6 1
-1 .0 1
- .67
- .18

i
- 5 .5 $0.2792 100.0 +$0.0333
.2684 96.1 + .0441
-6 .6
- 6 .5
.2687 96.2 + .0438
- 6 .3
.2740 98.1 + .0385
.2793 100.0 + .0332
- 5 .8
.2773 99.3 + .0352
- 5 .8
- 6 .1
.2777 99.5 + .0348
-6 .0
.2797 100.2 + .0328
- 5 .1
.2861 102.5 + .0264
- 4 .4
.2883 103.3 + .0242
- 2 .9
.2926 104.8 + .0199
-1 .8
.2930 104.9 + .0195
- 1 .2
.3041 108.9 + .0084
- .3 .3103 111.1 + .0022
. 3125 111.9

+11.9
+16.4
+16.3
+14.1
+ 11.9
+12.7
+12.5
+11.7
+ 9.2
+ 8.4
+ 6.8
+ 6.7
+ 2.8
+ .7

869

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PRIN TING A N D PUBLISH IN G , BOOK A N D JOB—Continued.
COMPOSITORS, Male.
[Data from C establishments.]
'5
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

iv. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897 .............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903 .............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
ber. num­
specified.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
1,045
971
973
987
996
1,019
1,041
1,039
1,107
1,128
1,187
1,277
1,262
1,220
1,254

100.0
92.9
93.1
94.4
95.3
97.5
99.6
99.4
105.9
107.9
113.6
122.2
120.8
116.7
120.0

+209
+283
+281
+267
+258
+235
+213
+215
+147
+126
+ 67
- 23
8
+ 34

+20.0
+29.1
+28.9
+27.1
+25.9
+23.1
+20.5
+20.7
+13.3
+11.2
+ 5.6
- 1.8
.6
+ 2.8

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

58.67
59.28
59.27
59.17
58.91
58.85
58.76
58.66
58.63
58.37
56.84
55.50
54.99
54.24
64.20

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) cr
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
num­
age. tive.
specified.
specified.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
101.0
101.0
100.9
100.4
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.5
96.9
94.6
93.7
92.4
92.4

—4.47
-5 .0 8
-5 .0 7
-4 .9 7
-4 .7 1
-4 .6 5
-4 .5 6
-4 .4 6
-4 .4 3
-4 .1 7
-2 .6 4
-1 .3 0
- .79
- .04

- 7 .6 80.2734 100.0,+80.0428
.2672 97.7,+ .0490
- 8 .6
-8 .6
.2700 98.8! + .0162
-8 .4
.2704 98.9 ,+ .0458
.2722 99.6
.0440
-8 .0
.2741 100.3,' + .0421
-7 .9
.2731 99.9; + .0431
- 7 .8
-7 .6
.2718 99.4,' + .0444
- 7 .6
.2743 100.3 + .0419
|
- 7 .1
.2761 101.0 + .0401
.2852 104.3 + .0310
- 4 .6
.2934 107.8 + .0228
-2 .3
- 1 .4
.2997 109.6 + .0165
- .1 .3108 113.7 + .0054
.3162 115.7

+15.7
+18.3
+17.1
+16.9
+16.2
+15.4
+15.8
+16.3
+15.3
+14.5
+10.9
+ 7.8
+ 5.5
+ 1.7

COMPOSITORS, Female.
Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments, 1890,1891,1893-1896,1898,1899; 6 establishments, 1892,1897; 4 establishments, 1900; 3 estab­
lishments, 1901-1903.]
V. 1890-99.
590.............
m .............
*92.............
m .............
*94.............
*95.............
*96.............
*97.............
*98.............
*99.............

m........
K)1.............
m.............
>03.............

25
25
25
24
26
25
24
27
29
25
24
25
28
28
31

100.0
100.0
100.0
96.0
104.0
100.0
96.0
108.0
116.0
100.0
96.0
100.0
112.0
112.0
124.0

+6
+6
+6
+7
+5
+6
+7
+4
+2
+6
+7
+6
+3
+3

+24.0
+24.0
+24.0
+29.2
+19.2
+24.0
+29.2
+14.8
+ 6.9
+24.0
+29.2
+24.0
+10.7
+10.7

55.96
57.78
57.96
56.21
55.86
55.22
55.12
55.31
55.22
65.63
55.27
55.50
53.82
53.82
53.81

100.01
103.3!I
103.6!1
100.41i
99.8
98.7
98.5
98.8
98.7
99.4
98.8
99.2
96.2
96.2
96.2

-2 .1 5
-3 .9 7
-4 .1 5
-2 .4 0
-2 .0 5
-1 .4 1
-1 .3 1
-1 .5 0
-1 .4 1
-1 .8 2
-1 .4 6
-1 .6 9
- .01
- .01

—
—
—
—
—
_
—
—
_
—
—
—
—

3.8 80.2401
6.9
.2280
7.2
.2278
.2374
4.3
3.7
.2431
2.6
.2406
.2521
2.4
. 2435
2.7
.2466
2.6
.2382
3.3
2.6
.2436
.2589
3.0
.02 .2622
.02 .2622
.2785

100.0
95.0
94.9
98.9
101.2
100.2
105.0
101.4
102.7
99.2
101.5
107.8
109.2
109.2
116.0

+80.0384
+ .0505
+ .0507
+ .0411
+ .0354
+ .0379
+ .0264
+ .0350
+ .0319
+ .0403
+ .0349
+ .0196
+ .0163
+ .0163

+16.0
+22.1
+22.3
+17.3
+14.6
+15.8
+10.5
+14.4
+12.9
+16.9
+14.3
+ 7.6
+ 6.2
+ 6.2

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.6
101.4
100.2
98.8
99.1
99.0
99.8
99.7
100.1
106.4
105.1
.3383 105.2

+80.0166
+ .0145
+ .0145
+ .0148
+ .0120
+ .0159
+ .0204
+ .0195
+ .0197
+ .0172
+ .0175
+ .0162
.0041
+ .0001

+5 .2
+ 4.5
+4.5
+ 4 .6
+ 3 .7
+ 4 .9
+ 6 .4
+ 6 .1
+ 6 .2
+ 5 .4

ELECTROTYPERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
v. 1890-99.
.90.............
9 1 .............
9 2 .............
93 .............
9 4 .............
9 5 .............
9 6 .............
97.............
9 8 .............
9 9 .............
0 0 .............
0 1 .............
0 2 .............
0 3 .............

38
37
37
36
35
37
38
38
42
41
40
37
38
40
39

100.0
97.4
97.4
94.7
92.1
97.4
100.0
100.0
110.5
107.9
105.3
97.4
100.0
105.3
102.6




+1
+2
+2
+3
+4
+2
+1
+1
-3
-2
-1
+2
+1
—1

+ 2.6
+ 5.4
+ 5.4
+ 8.3
+11.4
+ 5.4
+ 2.6
+ 2.6
- 7.1
- 4.9
- 2.5
+ 5.4
+ 2.6
— 2.5

56.00
56.19
56.19
56.25
56.03
56.19
56.26
56.26
56.40
55.85
54.40
54.43
54.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
i
100.3
100.3
100.4
100.1
100.3
100.5
100.5
100.7
99.7
97.1
97.2
96.4
96.4
96.4

-2 .0 0
-2 .1 9
-2 .1 9
-2 .2 5
-2 .0 3
-2 .1 9
-2 .2 6
-2 .2 6
-2 .4 0
-1 .8 5
- .40
- .43

- 3 .6 $0.3217
-3 .9
.3238
-3 .9
.3238
.3235
-4 .0
.3263
- 3 .6
.3224
- 3 .9
.3179
-4 .0
.3188
-4 .0
-4 .3 !i .3186
- 3 . 3i| . 3211
- .7 .3208
- .8 .3221
.3424
.3382

r*

+ 5 .5

+ 5 .0
—1.2
+ .03

870

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I

__WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-190S—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanatio
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PRIN TING A N D PUBLISH IN G , BOOK A N D JOB—Continued.
LINOTYPE OPERATORS, Male.
[No data, 1890,1891; data from 1 establishment, 1892; 2 establishments, 1893; 3 establishments, 1896 establishments, 1895; 8 establishments, 1896; 9 establishments, 1897,1898; 11 establishments, 189!
12 establishments, 1900,1901; 15 establishments, 1902,1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) o
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) ii
decrease ( —)in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with yea
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
NumPer
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.

Av. 1890-99. («)
1892
.....................
1
6
1893
.....................
14
1894
.....................
1895
.....................
35
1896
.....................
31
47
1897
.....................
45
1898
.....................
68
1899 ........
73
1900
.....................
1901
.....................
77
1902
.....................
87
1903
.....................

(6)
(6)
(b)

(J)

II
<&
)
b)
b)
b)

59°
54.83
50.93
55.51
55.23
56.47
56.00
52.90
52.08
52.38
51.31
50.92

L1.08
-3 .9 1
- .01
-4 .5 9
-4 .3 1
-5 .5 5
-5 .0 8
-1 .9 8
-1 .1 6
-1 .4 6
- .39

(a)
(«)
-1 3 .7 80.3051
.3595
- 7.1
.02 .3907
- 8.3
.3597
- 7.8
.3820
- 9.8
.3696
- 9.1
.3985
- 3.7
.4123
- 2.2
.4338
- 2.8
.4259
.4312
.8
.4328

8

(«j
(“
(«
(a)
(«j
(«)
(«)
(a)

(«)
(a)

+$0al277
+ .0733
+ .0421
+ .0731
+ .0508
+ .0632
+ .0343
+ .0205
.0010
+ .0069 !
+ .0016

(«)
+41.
+20.
+10.
+20.
+13
+17
+ 8
+ 5
—

+ 1
+

P R E S S F E E D E R S , M a le .
[Data from 23 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

246
207
209
219
229
227
251
257
270
290
301
321
307
336
330

100.0
84.1
85.0
89.0
93.1
92.3
102.0
104.5
109.8
117.9
122.4
130.5
124.8
136.6
134.1

+ 84
+123
+121
+111
+101
+103
+ 79
+ 73
+ 60
+ 40
+ 29
+ 9
+ 23
6

+34.1
+59.4
+57.9
+50.7
+44.1
+45.4
+31.5
+28.4
+22.2
+13.8
+ 9.6
+ 2.8
+ 7.5
- 1.8

57.97
58.41
58.17
58.15
6». 02
57.93
58.15
58.18
58.21
57.36
67.13
65.27
55.34
54.68
54.47

100.0
100.8
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
100.3
100.4
100.4
98.9
98.6
95.3
95.5
94.2
94.0

-3 .5 0
-3 .9 4
-3 .7 0
-3 .6 8
-3 .5 5
-3 .4 6
-3 .6 8
-3 .7 1
-3 .7 4
-2 .8 9
-2 .6 6
- .80
- .87
- .11

- 6 .0 $0.1445
-6 .7
.1414
- 6 .4
.1445
-6 .3
.1430
-6 .1
.1423
.1447
- 6 .0
-6 .3
.1461
- 6 .4
.1433
- 6 .4
.1433
.1468
-5 .0
.1496
- 4 .7
-1 .4
.1731
-1 .6
.1736
- .2 .1756
.1804

100.0
97.9
100.0
99.0
98.5
100.1
101.1
99.2
99.2
101.6
103.5
119.8
120.1
121.5
124.8

+80.0359
+ .0390
+ .0359
+ . 0374
+ .0381
+ .0357
+ .0343
+ .0371
+ .0371
+ .0336
+ .0308
+ .0073
+ .0068
+ .0048

a Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.
&Not computed, as number of establishments varies for different years.




+24
+27
+24
+26
+26
+24
+23
+25
+25
+22
+20
+ 4
+ 3
+ 2

871

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PR IN TIN G A N D PUBLISH IN G , BOOK A N D JOB—Continued.
PRESS FEEDERS) Female*
[Data for employees from 4 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments, 1890-1897,1900, 1901; 6 establishments, 1898,1899,1902,1903.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 .

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. number.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
34
32
32
30
33
31
31
31
35
35
50
44
45
43
40

100.0
94.1
94.1
88.2
97.1
91.2
91.2
91.2
102.9
102.9
147.1
129.4
132.4
126.5
117.6

+ 6
+ s
+ 8
+10
+ 7
+ 9
+ 9
+ 9
+ 6
+ 5
-1 0
- 4
- 6
- 3

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+17.6
+25.0
+25.0
+33.3
+21.2
+29.0
+29.0
+29.0
+14.3
+14.3
-2 0 .0
- 9.1
-1 1 .1
- 7.0

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
58.82
59.18
59.18
59.18
59.18
59.16
59.13
59.18
59.19
58.02
56.80
54.22
54.21
64.15
54.00

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.5
100.6
100.6
98.6
96.6
92.2
92.2
92.1
91.8

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

- 8 .2 80.0918 100.0 +80.0155
.0912 99.3 + .0161
-8 .8
.0912 99.3 + .0161
-8 .8
.0918 100.0 + .0155
- 8 .8
.0904 98.6 + .0169
- 8 .8
.0902 98.3 + .0171
- 8 .7
.0895 97.5 + .0178
- 8 .7
.0917 99.9 + .0156
- 8 .8
.0914 99.6 + .0159
- 8 .8
.0941 102.5 + .0132
-6 .9
- 4 .9 .0967 105.3 + .0106
- .4 .1000 108.9 + .0073
- .4 .1024 111.5 + .0049
- .3 .1050 114.4 + .0023
.1073 116.9

-4 .8 2
-5 .1 8
-5 .1 8
-5 .1 8
-5 .1 8
-5 .1 6
-5 .1 3
-5 .1 8
-5 .1 9
-4 .0 2
-2 .8 0
- .22
- .21
- .15

Per
cent.
+16.9
+17.7
+17.7
+16.9
+18.7
+19.0
+19.9
+17.0
+17.4
+14.0
+11.0
+ 7.3
+ 4.8
+ 2.2i

PRESSMEN, Male.
[Data from 64 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1880.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1003

383
347
356
360
367
365
371
389
402
431
443
451
460
455
462

100.0
90.6
93.0
94.0
95.8
95.3
96.9
101.6
105.0
112.5
115.7
117.8
120.1
118.8
120.6

+ 79
+115
+106
+102
+ 95
+ 97
+ 91
+ 73
+ 60
+ 31
+ 19
+ 11
+ 2
+ 7

+20.6
+33.1
+29.8
+28.3
+25.9
+26.6
+24.5
+18.8
+14.9
+ 7.2
+ 4.3
+ 2.4
+ .4
+ 1.5

58.71
59.11
69.02
59.00
58.99
58.81
58.81
58.86
58.88
58.46
67.13
56.08
65.15
54.47
54.48

100.0
100.7
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.3
99.6
97.3
95.5
93.9
92.8
92.8

-4 .2 3
-4 .6 3
-4 .5 4
-4 .5 2
-4 .5 1
-4 .3 3
-4 .3 3
-4 .3 8
-4 .4 0
-3 .9 8
-2 .6 5
-1 .6 0
- .67
+ .01

.
- 7 . 2 SO 2765
.2705
- 7 .8
.2738
- 7 .7
.2749
- 7 .7
.2734
- 7 .6
.2747
-7 .4
.2754
- 7 .4
.2750
- 7 .4
.2787
- 7 .5
.2793
-6 .8
.2894
-4 .6
.2967
-2 .9
.3072
-1 .2
+ .02 .3111
.3172

100.0
97.8
99.0
99.4
98.9
99.3
99.6
99.5
100.8
101.0
104.7
107.3
111.1
112.5
114.7

+$0.0407
+ .0467
+ .0434
+ .0423
+ .0438
+ .0425
+ .0418
+ .0422
+ .0385
+ .0379
+ .0278
+ .0205
+ .0100
+ .0061

+14.7
+17.3
+15.9
+15.4
+16.0
+15.5
+15.2
+15.3
+13.8
+13.6
+ 9.6
+ 6.9
+ 3.3
+ -2.0

PROOF READERS, Male*
[Data for employees from 11 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments, 1890,1891; 12 establishments, 1892-1894, 1902,1903; 11 establishments, 1895-1901.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
19ns

28
29
29
29
29
27
26
28
28
28
30
32
34
35
37

100.0

103.6
103.6
103.6
103.6
96.4
92.9

100.0
100.0
100.0

.107.1
114.3
121.4
125.0
132.1




+
+
+
+
+

9

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

9
9
9
7
5
3
2

8
8
8
8
+ 10
+ 11

+32.1
+27.6
+27.6
+27.6
+27.6
+37.0
+42.3
+32.1
+32.1
+32.1
+23.3
+15.6
+ 8.8
+ 6.7

59.57
59.94
69.94
69.93
59.93
69.93
59.96
59.96
59.96
59.61
56.50
55.00
55.03
52.69
52.61

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6

100.7
100.7
100.7

100.1

94.8
92.3
92.4
88.5
88.3

-6 .9 6
-7 .3 3
-7 .3 3
-7 .3 2
-7 .3 2
-7 .3 2
-7.35
-7 .3 5
-7 .3 5
-7 .0 0
-3 .8 9
-2 .3 9
-2 .4 2
- .08

-1 1 .7 $0.3233
- 12.2 .3254
- 12.2 .3270
- 12.2 .3199
- 12.2 .3232
- 12.2 .3213
-1 2 .3 .3259
-1 2 .3 .3229
-1 2 .3 .3235
-1 1 .7 .3264
- 6.9 .3173
- 4.3 .3469
- 4.4 .3538
.2 .3853
.3923

100.0 +$0.0690
100.6 + .0669
101.1 + .0653
98.9 +

100.0 +

99.4 +
100.8 +
99.9 +
100.1 +
101.0 +
98.1 +
107.3 +
109.4 +
119.2 +
121.3

.0724
.0691
.0710
.0664
.0694
.0688
. 0659
.0750
.0454
.0385
.0070

+21.3
+ 20.6
+ 20.0
+ 22.6
+21.4
+ 22.1
+20.4
+21.5
+21.3
+20.2
+23.6
+13.1
+10.9
+ 1.8

872

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I .—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase (+ ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PRIN TING A N D PUBLISH IN G , BOOK A N D JOB—Continued.
PROOF REARERS, Fem ale.
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments, 1890,1891; 7 establishments, 1892-1894,1902,1903; 8 establishments, 1895-1901.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903'.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or'
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Amount
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
10
11
14
10
11
10
11
8
12
8
9
10
10
11
11

100.0
110.0
140.0
100.0
110.0
100.0
110.0
80.0
120.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
100.0
110.0
110.0

+1
-3
+1
+1
+3
-1
+3
+2
+1
+1

+10.0 57.10
57.92
-2 1 .4 58.33
+10.0 56.93
57.36
+10.0 56.93
57.25
+37.5 56.62
- 8.3 57.63
+37.5 56.58
+22.2 55.46
+10.0 53.93
+10.0 53.14
53.14
53.14

100.0
101.4
102.2
99.7
100.5
99.7
100.3
99.2
100.9
99.1
97.1
94.4
93.1
93.1
93.1

-3 .9 6
—4.78
-5 .1 9
-3 .7 9
—4.22
-3 .7 9
—4.11
-3 .4 8
-4 .4 9
-3 .4 4
-2 .3 2
- .79

- 6 .9 $0.2722
—8.3 .2745
- 8 .9
.2929
.2893
- 6 .7
—7.4 .2753
—6.7 .2710
—7.2 .2530
.2703
-6 .1
.2416
- 7 .8
- 6 .1
.2654
-4 .2
.2888
.3162
- 1 .5
.2936
.3148
.3148

100.0
100.8
107.6
106.3
101.1
99.6
92.9
99.3
88.8
97.5
106.1
116.2
107.9
115.7
115.7

+$0.0426
+ .0403
+ .0219
+ .0255
+ .0395
+ .0438
+ .0618
+ .0445
+ .0732
+ .0494
+ .0260
.0014
+ .0212

+15.7
+14.7
+ 7.5
+ 8.8
+14.3
+16.2
+24.4
+16.5
+30.3
+18.6
+ 9.0
.4
+ 7.2

100. o!-$0.0015
91.2] + .0076
9 9 . 2 - .0007
9 9 . 3 - .0008
1 0 2 .5 - .0041
i o i .o ;- .0025
1 0 0 .3 - .0018
1 0 4 .0 - .0056
1 0 1 .1 - .0026
1 0 2 .0 - .0036
9 9 . 5 - .0010
1 0 2 .5 - .0041
95 9 + .0027
m o ­
!0036
os. fil _

-1 .5
+8 .1
- .7
- .8
- 3 .9
- 2 .4
-1 .7
- 5 .2
-2 .5
-3 .4
- 1 .0
-3 .9
+2 7
-3 ! 4

- 9 .3 $0.3146 100.0 +$0.0447
-9 .8
.3126 99.4 + .0467
- 9 .8
.3137 99.7 + .0456
-9 .8
.3126 99.4 + .0467
-9 .8
.3126 99.4 + .0467
-9 .8
.3126 99.4 + .0467
.3126 99.4 + .0467
-9 .8
-9 .8
.3126 99.4 + .0467
-9 .8
.3126 99.4 + .0467
- 9 .8
.3126 99.4 + .0467
.3316 105.4 + .0277
-4 .3
-3 .6
.3308 105.1 + .0285
-3 .6
.3335 106.0 + .0258
.3543 112.6 + .0050
.3593 114.2

+14.2
+14.9
+14.5
+14.9
+14.9
+14.9
+14.9
+14.9
+14.9
+14.9
+ 8.4
+ 8.6
+ 7.7
+ 1.4

SEWERS, ROOK, Female.
[Data from 10 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

42
47
39
' 42
33
36
38
42
43
48
51
50
63
53
63

100.0
111.9
92.9
100.0
78.6
85.7
90.5
100.0
102.4
114.3
121.4
119.0
150.0
126.2
150.0

+21
+16
+24
+21
+30
+27
+25
+21
+20
+15
+12
+13
+10

+50.0
+34.0
+61.5
+50.0
+90.9
+75.0
+65.8
+50.0
+46.5
+31.3
+23.5
+26.0

58.68
59.11
58.92
59.10
58.85
58.78
58.68
58.57
58.60
58.15
58.02
56.78
56.83
+18.9 55.96
55.84

100.0
100.7
100.4
100.7
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.9
99.1
98.9
96.8
96 8
95.4
95.2

-2 .8 4
-3 .2 7
-3 .0 8
-3 .2 6
-3 .0 1
-2 .9 4
-2 .8 4
-2 .7 3
-2 .7 6
-2 .3 1
-2 .1 8
- .94
— 99
- .12

- 4 .8 $0.1030
-5 .5
.0939
-5 .2
.1022
- 5 .5
.1023
- 5 .1
.1056
.1040
- 5 .0
-4 .8
.1033
- 4 .7
.1071
- 4 .7 .1041
- 4 .0 .1051
- 3 .8
.1025
- 1 .7
.1056
—1.7 .0988
- .2 ’ 1051
.
.1015

STEREOTYPERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
15

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
107.1
107.1




+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1

+ 7 .1
+ 7 .1
+ 7 .1
+ 7 .1
+ 7 .1
+ 7 .1
+ 7 .1
+ 7 .1
+7 .1
+ 7 .1
+ 7 .1
+ 7 .1
+ 7 .1

59.52
59.86
59.86
59.86
59.86
59.86
59.86
59.86
59.86
59.86
56.43
56.00
56.00
54.00
54.00

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
94.8
94.1
94.1
90.7
90.7

-5 .5 2
-5 .8 6
-5 .8 6
-5 .8 6
-5 .8 6
-5 .8 6
-5 .8 6
-5 .8 6
-5 .8 6
-5 .8 6
-2 .4 3
—2.00
-2 .0 0

873

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

.verage 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) m 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PR IN TIN G A N D PUBLISH IN G , BOOK A N D JOB—Concluded.
STITCHERS, BOOK, Fem ale.
[Data from 10 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

'. 1890-99.
H).............
H .............
>2.............
13.............
>4.............
»5.............
16.............
>7.............
•8.............
>9.............
»0.............
•1.............
•2.............
<3.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
47
45
44
52
46
43
44
44
47
63
50
68
71
79
77

100.0
95.7
93.6
110.6
97.9
91.5
93.6
93.6
100.0
112.8
106.4
144.7
151.1
168.1
163.8

+30
+32
+33
+25
+31
+34
+33
+33
+30
+24
+27
+ 9
+ 6
- 2

+63.8
+71.1
+75.0
+48.1
+67.4
+79.1
+75.0
+75.0
+63.8
+45.3
+54.0
+13.2
+ 8.5
- 2.5

59.62
59.87
59.86
59.88
59.87
59.86
59.86
59.84
59.85
58.89
58.40
55.65
55.03
54.95
54.64

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.8
98.0
93.3
92.3
92.2
91.6

- 8 .4 $0.0827 100.0 +$0.0313
.0804 97.2 + .0336
- 8 .7
- 8 .7
.0813 98.3 + .0327
.0755 91.3 + .0385
-8 .8
.0834 100.8 + .0306
- 8 .7
- 8 .7
.0815 98.5 + .0325
-8 .7
.0817 98.8 + .0323
.0842 101.8 + .0298
- 8 .7
.0804 97.2 + .0336
- 8 .7
- 7 .2
.0873 105.6 + .0267
- 6 .4
.0912 110.3 + .0228
-1 .8
.1028 124.3 + .0112
- .7 .1091 131.9 + .0049
- .6 .1108 134.0 + .0032
.1140 137.8

-4 .9 8
-5 .2 3
-5 .2 2
-5 .2 4
-5 .2 3
-5 .2 2
-5 .2 2
-5 .2 0
-5 .2 1
-4 .2 5
-3 .7 6
-1 .0 1
- .39
- .31

+37.8
+41.8
+40.2
+51.0
+36.7
+39.9
+39.5
+35.4
+41.8
+30.6
+25.0
+10.9
+ 4.5
+ 2.9

PR IN TIN G A N D PUBLISH IN G , NEW SPAPER.
COMPOSITORS, Male.

ata for employees from 91 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 91
stablishments, 1890; 92 establishments, 1891, 1892; 93 establishments, 1893; 94 establishments,
894; 95 establishments, 1895-1903.]
. 1890-99.
0 .............
1 .............
2 .............
3 .............
4 .............
5 .............
6 .............
7 .............
8 .............
9 .............
0 .............
1 .............
2 .............
3
___

1,148
1,508
1,530
1,494
1,327
1,055
915
883
928
898
944
969
959
954
1,009

100.0
131.4
133.3
130.1
115.6
91.9
79.7
76.9
80.8
78.2
82.2
84.4
83.5
83.1
87.9

-1 3 9
-4 9 9
-521
-4 8 5
-3 1 8
- 46
+ 94
+126
+ 81
+111
+ 65
+ 40
+ 50
+ 55

-1 2 .1
-3 3 .1
-3 4 .1
-3 2 .5
-2 4 .0
- 4.4
+10.3
+14.3
+ 8.7
+12.4
+ 6.9
+ 4.1
+ 5.2
+ 5.8

52.53
53.15
62.62
62.58
53.13
52.75
52.73
52.58
52.47
52.06
61.26
51.09
50.37
49.96
49.81

100.0
101.2
100.2
100.1
101.1
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.9
99.1
97.6
97.3
95.9
95.1
94.8

-2 .7 2
-3 .3 4
-2 .8 1
-2 .7 7
-3 .3 2
-2 .9 4
-2 .9 2
-2 .7 7
-2 .6 6
-2 .2 5
-1 .4 5
-1 .2 8
- .56
- .15

- 5 .2 $0.3939 100.0 +$0.0528
-6 .3
.3980 101.0 + .0487
.3997 101.5 + .0470
- 5 .3
.4013 101.9 + .0454
-5 .3
-6 .2
.3933 99.8 + .0534
.3796 96.4 + .0671
- 5 .6
.3827 97.2 + .0640
- 5 .5
.3897 98.9 + .0570
- 5 .3
- 5 .1
.3925 99.6 + .0542
.3934 99.9 + .0533
-4 .3
- 2 .8
.4086 103.7 + .0381
- 2 .5
.4071 103.4 + .0396
.4252 107.9 + .0215
- 1 .1
- .3 .4352 110.5 + .0115
.4467 113.4

+13.4
+12.2
+11.8
+11.3
+13.6
+17.7
+16.7
+14.6
+13.8
+13.5
+ 9.3
+ 9.7
+ 5.1
+ 2.6

COMPOSITORS, Fem ale.
ita for employees from 4 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 7
stablishments, 1890,1891,1894, 1895; 8 establishments, 1892, 1893; 6 establishments, 1896-1898,1901,
903; 5 establishments, 1899,1900,1902.]
. 1890-99.
) .............
1 .............
>
,
- -3 .............
4 .............
5 .............
3 .............
7 .............
i .............
) .............
) .............
1 .............
1 .............

34
45
44
51
45
38
26
28
25
20
15
13
15
15
14

100.0
132.4
129.4
150.0
132.4
111.8
76.5
82.4
73.5
58.8
44.1
38.2
44.1
44.1
41.2




-2 0
-3 1
-3 0
-3 7
-3 1
-2 4
-1 2
-1 4
-1 1
- 6
- 1
+ 1
- 1
- 1

-5 8 .8
-6 8 .9
-6 8 .2
-7 2 .5
-6 8 .9
-6 3 .2
-4 6 .2
—50.0
-4 4 .0
-3 0 .0
- 6.7
+ 7.7
- 6.7
- 6.7

55.20
54.16
55.16
55.08
55.86
55.57
55.95
56.40
56.54
54.66
52.64
52.20
52.64
52.50
50.19

100.0
98.1
99.9
99.8
101.2
100.7
101.4
102.2
102.4
99.0
95.4
94.6
95.4
95.1
90.9

-5 .0 1
-3 .9 7
-4 .9 7
-4 .8 9
-5 .6 7
-5 .3 8
-5 .7 6
-6 .2 1
-6 .3 5
-4 .4 7
-2 .4 5
-2 .0 1
-2 .4 5
-2 .3 1

- 9.1 $0.2857 100.0 +$0.0811
- 7.3 .3146 110.1 + .0522
- 9.0 .2785 97.5 + .0883
- 8.9 .2991 104.7 + .0677
-1 0 .2 .2722 95.3 + .0946
- 9.7 .2668 93.4 + .1000
-1 0 .3 .2474 86.6 + .1194
-1 1 .0 .2613 91.5 + .1055
-1 1 .2 .2677 93.7 + .0991
- 8.2 .3096 108.4 + .0572
- 4.7 .3399 119.0 + .0269
- 3.9 .3388 118.6 + .0280
- 4.7 .3186 111.5 + .0482
- 4.4 .3383 118.4 + .0285
.3668 128.4

+28.4
+16.6
+31.7
+22.6
+34.8
+37.5
+48.3
+40.4
+37.0
+18.5
+ 7.9
+ 8.3
+15.1
+ 8.4

874

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR,
Table

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanatioi
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903 as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PR IN TIN G A N D PUBLISH IN G , NEW SPAPER—Continued.
LINOTYPE OPERATORS, male.

[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 1 estat
lishment, 1890; 5 establishments, 1891; 16 establishments, 1892; 32 establishments, 1893; 54 establish
ments.1894; 69 establishments, 1895; 80 establishments, 1896; 88 establishments, 1897 ; 94 establish
ments, 1898; 99 establishments, 1899; 100 establishments, 1900; 102 establishments, 1901; 103 estat
lishments, 1902; 104 establishments, 1903.]

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) o
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) ii
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with yea
age. tive.
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.
'39
36
39
46
38
30
36
43
43
37
39
33
30
39
34

100.0
92.3
100.0
117.9
97.4
76.9
92.3
110.3
110.3
94.9
100.0
84.6
76.9
100.0
87.2

- 5
- 2
- 5
-1 2
- 4
+ 4
- 2
- 9
- 9
- 3
- 5
+ 1
+ 4
- 5

-1 2 .8
- 6.6
-1 2 .8
-2 6 .1
-1 0 .5
+13.3
- 5.6
-2 0 .9
-2 0 .9
- 8.1
-1 2 .8
+ 3.0
+13.3
-1 2 .8

47.95
48.00
47.26
48.64
49.15
48.22
47.66
47.57
47.63
47.72
47.69
47.67
47.89
47.67
47.75

100.0
100.1
98.6
101.4
102.5
100.6
99.4
99.2
99.3
99.5
99.5
99.4
99.9
99.4
99.6

-0 .2 0
- .25
+ .49
- .89
-1 .4 0
- .47
+ .09
+ .18
+ .12
+ .03
+ .06
+ .08
- .14
+ .08

- 0 . 4 80.5076 100.0 +80.0201
- .6 .5625 110.8 — .0348
+ 1 .0 .5393 106.2 — .0116
-1 .8
.4666 91.9 + .0611
- 2 .8
.4949 97.5 + .0328
.5069 99.9 + .0208
- 1 .0
+ .2 .5047 99.4 + .0230
+ .4 .5030 99.1 + .0247
+ .3 .5010 98.7 + .0267
+ .1 .4987 98.2 + .0290
+ .1 .4983 98.2 + .0294
+ .2 .5054 99.6 + .0223
- .8 .5056 99.6 + .0221
+ .2 .5129 101.0 + .0148
.5277 104.0

+ 4.
- 6.
- 2.
+13.
+ 6.
+ 4.
+ 4.
+ 4.
+ 5.
+ 5.
+ 5.
+ 4.
+ 4.
+ 2.

LINOTYPE OPERATORS, Female.
[No data, 1890,1891; data from 1 establishment, 1892, 1893; 2 establishments, 1894; 4 establishment
1895; 5 establishments, 1896; 6 establishments, 1897: 7 establishments, 1898, 1901-1903; 8 establisi
ments* 1899, 1900.]
Av. 1890-99.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

(«)
49.50
49.50
51.00
61.50
50.71
51.13
51.67
61.83
51.83
51.52
53.14
53.06

0

(«]
4
4 («]
6 («
18 («
21 (a
24 (a\
27 ( a j
29 ia'
29 \a
<
29
28 ( V
32 (oj

(«)

(«)
(«)

+IJ.56
+3.56
+2.06
+1.56
+2.35
+1.93
+1.39
+1.23
+1.23
+1.54
- .08

<«)

(«)

(«)

+ 7 .2 80.1620
+ 7 .2 .1620
+ 4 .0 .2665
+3 .0 .3607
+4 .6 .3351
+ 3 .8 .3372
+ 2.7 .2998
+ 2.4 .2944
+2 .4 .2945
+ 3 .0 .2820
- .2 .2880
.2693

(a)

(a)
(a)
(a)
(«)
(a)
(a)
(«)
(«)
< S
(“

+ 8 0 .1C73
.1073
+
.0028
+
.0914
—
.0658
—
.0679
.0305
_
.0251
_
.0252
_
.0127
- .0187

+66.
+ 1.
-2 5 .
-1 9 .
-2 0 .
-10.
- 8.
- 8.
- 4
- 6

PRESSMEN, Male.
[Data for employees from 106 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages, from It
establishments, 1890; 107 establishments, 1891-1894; 108 establishments, 1895-1903.]
A v. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902
.
1903
.

358
310
317
331
339
342
341
379
384
410
426
441
458
479
496

100.0
86.6
88.5
92.5
94.7
95.5
95.3
105.9
107.3
114.5
119.0
123.2
127.9
133.8
138.6

+138
+186
+179
+165
+157
+154
+155
+117
+112
+ 86
+ 70
+ 55
+ 38
+ 17

+38.5
+60.0
+56.5
+49.8
+46.3
+45.0
+45.5
+30.9
+29.2
+21.0
+16.4
+12.5
+ 8.3
+ 3.5

51.26
51.81
51.78
61.73
51.76
51.52
51.33
51.06
50.66
50.57
50.36
50.12
50.00
49.90
49.78

100.0
101.1
101.0
100.9
101.0
100.5
100.1
99.6
98.8
98.7
98.2
97.8
97.5
97.3
97.1

-1 .4 8
-2 .0 3
-2 .0 0
-1 .9 5
-1 .9 8
-1 .7 4
-1 .5 5
-1 .2 8
- .88
- .79
- .58
- .34
- .22
- .12

- 2 . 9 SO. 3675
- 3 .9
.3596
.3590
-3 .9
.3586
-3 .8
-3 .8
.3613
-3 .4
.3633
.3655
- 3 .0
-2 .5
.3731
- 1 .7
.3740
-1 .6
.3781
-1 .2
.3828
- .7 .3856
- .4 .3898
- .2 .4008
.4137

100.0 +$0.0462
97.9 + .0541
97.7 + .0547
97.6 + .0551
98.3 + .0524
98.9 + .0504
99.5 + .0482
101.5 + .0406
101.8 + .0397
102.9 + .0356
104.2 + .0309
104.9 + .0281
106.1 + .0239
109.1 + .0129
112.6

aNot computed, as data do not cover entire base period.
5 Not computed, as number of establishments varies for different years.




+12
-t-15
+15
+15
+14
+13
+13
+10
+10
+ 9
+ 8
+ 7
+ 6
+ 3

875

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

PR IN TIN G A N D PUBLISH IN G , NEW SPAPER—Concluded.
STEREOTYPERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 76 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 76
establishments, 1890; 77 establishments, 1891-1893; 78 establishments, 1894,1895; 79 establishments,
1896-1903].
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

301
254
255
273
292
293
300
330
330
336
346
346
359
369
370

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

100.0
84.4
84.7
90.7
97.0
97.3
99.7
109.6
109.6
111.6
115.0
115.0
119.3
122.6
122.9

4- 69
+116
+115
+ 97
+ 78
+ 77
+ 70
+ 40
+ 40
+ 34
+ 24
+ 24
+ 11
+ 1

+22.9
+45.7
+45.1
+35.5
+26.7
+26.3
+23.3
+12.1
+12.1
+10.1
+ 6.9
+ 6.9
+ 3.1
+ .3

48.77
48.93
49.05
49.09
49.01
49.01
48.99
48.77
48.50
48.29
48.10
48.14
48.01
48.02
48.05

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase (+ ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.3
100.6
100.7
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.0
99.4
99.0
98.6
98.7
98.4
.98.5
98:5

-0 .7 2
- .88
-1 .0 0
-1 .0 4
- .96
- .96
- .94
- .72
- .45
- .24
- .05
- .09
+ .04
+ .03

- 1 . 5 $0.4445 100.0 +$0.0367
.4199 94.5 + .0613
-1 .8
-2 .0
.4205 94.6 + .0607
-2 .1
.4340 97.6 + .0472
- 2 .0
.4413 99.3 + .0399
-2 .0
.4380 98.5 + .0432
-1 .9
.4407 99.1 + .0405
- 1 .5
.4549 102.3 + .0263
- .9 .4573 102.9 + .0239
- .5 .4671 105.1 + . 0141
- .1 .4710 106.0 + .0102
- .2 .4675 105.2 + .0137
+ .1 .4749 106.8 + .0063
+ .1 .4773 107.4 + .0039
.4812 108.3

+ 8.3
+14.6
+14.4
+10.9
+ 9.0
+ 9.9
+ 9.2
+ 5.8
+ 5.2
+ 3.0
+ 2.2
+ 2.9
+ 1.3
+ .8

ROPE A N D TW INE.
FINISHERS, Fem ale.
[Data from 1 establishment.]

-2
-2

III

-2
-2
-2

5.3 60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

-

p oo
o o o

-1

1 1
op
oo

19 100.0
Av. 1890-99.
18 94.7
.
1890
18 94.7
1891
.
18 94.7
1892
.
20 105.3
1893
.
1894
.
20 105.3
20 105.3
1895
.
18 94.7
1896
.
18 94.7
1897
.
18 04
1898
.
20 m . 3
1899
.
20 105.3
1900
.
18 94.7
1901
.....................
1902
.
18 94.7
18 94.7
1903
.

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

60.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

HEMP PREPARERS, MACHINE, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
\V. 1890-99.
L890.............
1891.............
L892.............
1893.............
L894.............
.895.............
.896.............
.897.............
898.............
.899.............
.900.............
901.............
.902.............
903.............

12
11
10
11
12
10
12
10
14
16
15
13
14
24
21

100.0
91.7
83.3
91.7
100.0
83.3
100.0
83.3
116.7
133.3
125.0
108.3
116.7
200.0
175.0

+ 9
+10
+11
+10
+ 9
+11
+ 9
+11
+ 7
+ 5
+ 6
+ 8
+ 7
- 3

+ 75.0
+ 90.9
+110.0
+ 90.9
+ 75.0
+110.0
+ 75.0
+110.0
+ 50.0
+ 31.3
+ 40.0
+ 61.5
+ 50.0
- 12.5

10092—No. 53—04----12



60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

80.1674
.1636
.1650
.1636
.1667
.1642
.1701
.1733
.1708
.1677
.1694
.1692
.1685
.1649
.1671

100.0 -$0.0003
97.7 + .0035
98.6 + .0021
97.7 + .0035
99.6 + .0004
98.1 + .0029
101.6 .0030
.0062
103.5 102.0 .0037
100.2 .0006
101.2 .0023
.0021
101.1 .0014
100.7 98.6 + .0022
99.8

- 0 .2
+2..1
+ 1 .3
+ 2 .1
+ .2
+ 1 .8
- 1 .8
-3 .6
- 2 .2
- .4
-1 .4
- 1 .2
- .8
+ 1 .3

876

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

ROPE A N D TW INE—Continued.
LABORERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase (4 -lor
decrease!—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber. num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
63
51
48
79
80
53
76
79
64
50
53
49
53
61
57

100.0
81.0
76.2
125.4
127.0
84.1
120.6
125.4
101.6
79.4
84.1
77.8
84.1
96.8
90.5

- 6
+ 6
+ 9
-2 2
-2 3
+ 4
-1 9
-2 2
— 7
+ 7
+ 4
+ 8
+ 4
- 4

- 9.5
+11.8
+18.8
-2 7 .8
-2 8 .8
+ 7.5
-2 5 .0
-2 7 .8
—10.9
+14.0
+ 7.5
+16.3
+ 7.5
- 6.6

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
NumPer
Per
Amount.
her.
cent.
cent.

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

$0.1416
.1395
.1411
.1401
.1417
.1418
.1431
.1429
.1396
.1428
.1434
.1427
.1423
.1441
.1433

100.0 +$0.0017
98.5 + .0038
99.6 + .0022
98.9 + .0032
100.1 + .0016
100.1 + .0015
101.1 + .0002
100.9 + .0004
98.6 + .0037
100.8 + .0005
101.3 .0001
100.8 + .0006
100.5 + .0010
101.8 .0008
101.2

+1.S
+2.<
+ l.c
+2. £
+1.1
+1.1
+ .1
+
+ 2 .:
+
+
+ /
— .(

LAYERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

$0.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100,0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

ROPE QUAKERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903.............

46
49
42
46
50
43
49
53
44
40
42
40
47
46
48

100.0
106.5
91."3
100.0
108.7
93.5
106.5
115.2
95.7
87.0
91.3
87.0
102.2
100.0
104.3




+2
-1
+6
+2
-2
+5
-1
-5
+4
+8
+6
+8
+1
+2

+ 4.3
- 2.0
+14.3
+ 4.3
- 4.0
+11.6
- 2.0
- 9.4
+ 9.1
+20.0
+14.3
+20.0
+ 2.1
+ 4.3

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.1829
.1770
.1804
.1833
.1855
.1870
.1806
.1778
.1884
.1829
.1863
.1917
.1833
.1861
.1870

100.0
96.8
98.6
100.2
101.4
102.2
98.7
97.2
103.0
100.0
101.9
104.8
100.2
101.7
102.2

+$0.0041
+ .0100
+ .0066
+ .0037
+ .0015

+2.
+6.
+3.
+2.
+ .

+
+
+
+
+
+

+3.
+5.

.0064
.0092
.0014
.0041
.0007
.0047
.0037
.0009

+ 2]
+ .
-2 .
+2.
+ .

877

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,

Table I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

R O P E A N D T W IN E —Concluded,
SPINNERS, HEMP, Female.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892 .............
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Num­
Per
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
67
65
63
69
69
67 m o
70 104.5
68 101.5
98.5
98.5
66 98.5
64 95.5
64 95.5
67 100.0
103.0

66
66

+2
+4
+6
+2
-1
+1
+3
+3
+3
+5
+5
+2

+ 3 .0 60.00
+ 6 .2 60.00
+ 9 .5 60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
+ 3 .0 60.00 100.0
- 1 .4 60.00 100.0
+ 1 .5 60.00 100.0
+ 4 .5 60.00
+ 4 .5 60.00 100.0
+ 4 .5 60.00 100.0
+ 7 .8 60.00
+ 7 .8 60.00
+ 3 .0 60.00 100.0
60.00

$0.1235
.1277
.1232
.1271
.1182
.1200
.1369
.1191
.1201
.1196
.1232
. 1226
.1177
.1265
.1262

100.0
100.0

100.0 +$0.0027

103.4 +
95.7 +
97.2 +
110.9 96.4 +
97.2 +
96.8 +
99.8 +
99.3 +
95.3 +
102.4 102.2

.0015
.0030
.0009
.0080
.0062
.0107
.0071
.0061
.0066
.0030
.0036
.0085
.0003

+ 2 .2
- 1 .2
+ 2 .4
- .7
+ 6 .8
+5 .2
-7 .8
+ 6 .0
+ 5 .1
+ 5 .5
+ 2 .4
+ 2 .9
+ 7 .2
- .2

TWISTERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

11
10
10
12
12
10
10
12
12
10
10
10
10
10
10

100.0

90.9
90.9
109.1
109.1
90.9
90.9
109.1
109.1
90.
90.9
90.9
90.9
90.9
90.9

—1
—2
—2
—2
—2

— 9.1 60.00 100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
—16.7
—16.7 60.00 100.0
100.0
100.0
—16.7 60.00 100.0
—16*7 60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
60.00 loo.o
60.00 100.0

$0.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300
.1300

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

SH IPBUILDING .

BLACKSMITHS, Male.
[Data for employees from 11 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 11
establishments, 1890; 12 establishments, 1891-1895; 13 establishments, 1896-1898; 14 establishments,
1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902
.
1903
.

119
78
89
100
97
118
164
115
120
167
145
139
146
169
156

100.0
65.5
74.8
84.0
81.5
99.2
137.8
96.6
100.8
140.3
121.8
116.8
122.7
142.0
131.1




+37
+78
+67
+56
+59
+38
- 8
+41
+36
-1 1
+11
+17
+10
-1 3

+ 31.1
+100.0
+ 75.3
+ 56.0
+ 60.8
+ 32.2
4.9
+ 35.7
+ 30.0
6.6
+ 7.6
+ 12.2
+ 6.8
7.7

59.29
59.60
59.58
59.58
59.24
59.29
59.40
58.95
58.97
59.26
59.03
59.09
59.06
58.79
58.61

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.9
100.0
100.2
99.4
99.5
99.9
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.2
98.9

-0 .6 8
- .99
- .97
- .97
- .63
- .68
- .79
- .34
- .36
- .65
- .42
- .48
-T .45
- .18

-1 .1 $0.2696
.2614
-1 .7
.2702
- 1 .6
.2687
-1 .6
.2676
- 1 .1
.2610
- 1 .1
.2638
- 1 .3
- .6 .2824
- .6 .2805
.2680
- 1 .1
- .7 .2724
- .8 .2727
- .7 .2711
- .3 .2799
.2848

100.0
97.0
100.2
99.7
99.3
96.8
97.8
104.7
104.0
99.4
101.0
101.1
100.6
103.8
105.6

+$0.0152
+ .0234
+ .0146
+ .0161
+ .0172
+ .0238
+ .0210
+ .0024
+ .0043
+ .0168
+ .0124
+ .0121
+ .0138
+ .0049

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

5.6
9.0
5.4
6.0
6.4
9.1
8.0
.8
1.5
6.3
4.6
4.4
5.1
1.8

878

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I .— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 716 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

S H IP B U II/M N G —Continued.
BOILER MAKERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6
establishments, 1890,1894,1896; 7 establishments, 1891-1893,1896-1898; 8 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

141
78
63
88
127
135
151
127
124
296
217
292
248
262
243

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

100.0
55.3
44.7
62.4
90.1
95.7
107.1
90.1
87.9
209.9
153.9
207.1
175.9
185.8
172.3

+102
+165
+180
+155
+116
+108
+ 92
+116
+119
- 53
+ 26
- 49
5
- 19

+ 72.3
+211.5
+285.7
+176.1
+ 91.3
+ 80.0
+ 60.9
+ 91.3
+ 96.0
- 17.9
+ 12.0
- 16.8
2.0
7.3
*

59.63
59.56
69.66
59.72
59.78
59.76
59.61
59.47
59.46
59.69
59.59
59.65
59.62
59.43
59.23

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
numage. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.7
99.7
100.1
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.3

-0 .4 0
- .33
- .43
- .49
- .55
- .53
- .38
- .24
- .23
- .46
- .36
- .42
- .29
- .20

- 0 . 7 30.2522
- .6 .2477
- .7 .2486
- .8 .2536
- .9 .2503
- .9 .2404
- .6 .2523
- .4 .2633
- .4 .2567
- .8 .2535
- .6 .2560
- .7 .2511
- .5 .2559
- .3 .2587
.2568

100.0
98.2
98.6
100.6
99.2
95.3
100.0
104.4
101.8
100.5
101.6
99.6
101.5
102.6
101.8

+30.0046
+ .0091
+ .0082
+ .0032
+ .0065
+ .0164
+ .0045
.0065
+ .0001
+ .0033
+ .0008
+ .0057
+ .0009
.0019

+ 1 .8
+ 3 .7
+ 3 .3
+ 1 .3
+ 2 .6
+ 6 .8
+ 1 .8
- 2 .5
+ .04
+ 1 .3
+ *3
+ 2 .3
+ .4
- .7

CALKERS, IRON, Male.
[Data for employees from 4 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 4
establishments, 1890,1895; 5 establishments, 1891-1894,1896-1898; 6 establishments, 1899-1902; 7 estab­
lishments, 1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1 9 0 2 ...........
1903.............

34
29
61
26
19
18
17
40
34
43
52
41
62
68
53

100.0
85.3
179.4
76.5
55.9
52.9
50.0
117.6
100.0
126.5
152.9
120.6
182.4
200.0
155.9

+19
+24
- 8
+27
+34
+35
+36
+13
+19
+10
+ 1
+12
- 9
-1 5

+ 55.9
+ 82.8
- 13.1
+103.8
+178.9
+194.4
+211.8
+ 32.6
+ 55.9
+ 23.3
+ 1.9
+ 29.3
- 14.6
- 22.1

68.67
58.97
59.44
58.87
58.23
57.91
57.94
59.02
58.42
59.02
58.85
58.64
56.37
55.30
57.30

100.0
100.6
101.3
100.3
99.3
98.7
98.8
100.6
99.6
100.6
100.3
99.9
96.1
94.3
97.7

-1 .3 7
-1 .6 7
-2 .1 4
-1 .5 7
- .93
- .61
- .64
-1 .7 2
-1 .1 2
-1 .7 2
-1 .5 5
-1 .3 4
+ .93
+2.00

- 2 . 3 $0.2259 100.0 +$0.1080
- 2 .8
.2086 92.3 + .1253
-3 .6
.1913 84.7 + .1426
- 2 .7
.2117 93.7 + .1222
- 1 .6
.2327 103.0 + .1012
- 1 .1
.2265 100.3 + .1074
- 1 .1
.2338 103.5 + .1001
-2 .9
.2418 107.0 + .0921
-1 .9
.2329 103.1 + .1010
-2 .9
.2475 109.6 + .0864
- 2 .6
.2324 102.9 + .1015
- 2 .3
.2443 108.1 + .0896
+ 1 .6 .2471 109.4 + .0868
+ 3 .6 .2806 124.2 + .0533
.3339 147.8

+47.8
+60.1
+74.5
+57.7
+43.5
+47.4
+42.8
+38.1
+43.4
+34.9
+43.7
+36.7
+35.1
+19.0

CALKERS, WOOD, Male.
[Data from 9 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

143
132
132
128
159
119
132
131
145
179
174
176
222
223
236

100.0
92.3
92.3
89.5
111.2
83.2
92.3
91.6
101.4
125.2
121.7
123.1
155.2
155.9
165.0




+ 93
+104
+104
+108
+ 77
+117
+104
+105
+ 91
+ 57
+ 62
+ 60
+ 14
+ 13

+65.0
+78.8
+78.8
+84.4
+48.4
+98.3
+78.8
+80.2
+62.8
+31.8
+35.6
+34.1
+ 6.3
+ 5.8

54.17
54.41
54.50
54.28
54.15
54.10
53.95
54.18
54.00
64.00
54.14
64.03
54.05
53.95
60.77

100.0
100.4
100.6
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.6
100.0
99.7
99.7
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.6
93.7

-3 .4 0
-3 .6 4
-3 .7 3
-3 .5 1
-3 .3 8
-3 .3 3
-3 .1 8
-3 .4 1
-3 .2 3
-3 .2 3
-3 .3 7
-3 .2 6
-3 .2 8
-3 .1 8

- 6 . 3 $0.3463 100.0 +$0.0334
- 6 .7
.3443 99.4 + .0354
- 6 .8
.3435 99.2 + .0362
- 6 .6
.3422 98.8 + .0375
-6 .2
.3440 99.3 + .0357
- 6 .2
.3406 98.4 + .0391
- 5 .9
.3405 98.3 + .0392
- 6 .3
.3410 98.5 + .0387
-6 .0
.3473 100.3 + .0324
- 6 .0
.3596 103.8 + .0201
-6 .2
.3602 104.0 + .0195
-6 .0
.3657 105.6 + .0140
.0016
- 6 .1
.3813 110.1 - 5 .9
. 3755 108.4 + .0042
.3797 109.6

+ 9.6
+10.3
+10.5
+11.0
+10.4
+11.5
+11.5
+11.3
+ 9.3
+ 5.6
+ 5.4
+ 3.8
.4
+ 1.1

879

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SHIPBTJIIiDEN G—Continued.
CARPENTERS, R ale.

[Data for employees from 18 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 19
establishments, 1890-1892,1894,1895; 20 establishments, 1893,1896-1898; 21 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
3894 .............
1895.............
1896 .. ..........
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
ber. num­
specified.
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­
1903 as com­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
num­
specified.
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

742
' 619
697
634
625
614
740
724
788
884
1,093
1,070
1,078
1,039
1,138

100.0
101.1
100.4
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.5
100.0
99.8
98.5
97.8
96.9

100.0
83.4
93.9
85.4
84.2
82.7
99.7
97.6
106.2
119.1
147.3
144.2
145.3
140.0
153.4

+396
+619
+441
+504
+513
+524
+398
+414
+350
+254
+ 45
+ 68
+ 60
+ 99

+53.4
+83.8
+63.3
+79.5
+82.1
+85.3
+53.8
+57.2
+44.4
+28.7
+ 4.1
+ 6.4
+ 5.6
+ 9.5

57.57
58.19
57.79
57.51
57.45
57.37
57.48
57.64
57.46
57.27
67.56
57.47
66.70
56.32
55.81

-1 .7 6
-2 .3 8
-1 .9 8
-1 .7 0
-1 .6 4
-1 .5 6
-1 .6 7
-1 .8 3
-1 .6 5
-1 .4 6
-1 .7 5
-1 .6 6
- .89
- .51

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

- 3 .1 80.2887 100.0 +80.0292
- 4 .1
.2848 98.6 + .0331
- 3 .4
.2881 99.8 + .0298
.2855 98.9 + .0324
-3 .0
.2882 99.8 + .0297
-2 .9
.2904 100.6 + .0275
- 2 .7
.2896 100.3 + .0283
- 2 .9
- 3 .2
.2859 99.0 + .0320
.2900 100.5 + .0279
- 2 .9
- 2 .5
.2901 100.5 + .0278
.2947 102.1 + .0232
-3 .0
.3013 104.4 + .0166
-2 .9
.3058 105.9 + .0121
-1 .6
- .9 .3157 109.4 + .0022
.3179 110.1

•Per
cent.
+10.1
+11.6
+10.3
+11.3
+10.3
+ 9.5
+ 9.8
+11.2
+ 9.6
+ 9.6
+ 7.9
+ 5.5
+ 4.0
+ .7

DRILLERS, R ale.
[Data for employees from 2 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 2
establishments, 1890,1895; 3 establishments, 1891,1892,1894,1896-1898; 4 establishments, 1893,18991903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

15
17
10
15
13
8
10
12
23
14
27
20
21
22
26

100.0
113.3
66.7
100.0
86.7
53.3
66.7
80.0
153.3
93.3
180.0
133.3
140.0
146.7
173.3

+11
+ 9
+16
+11
+13
+18
+16
+14
+ 3
+12
- 1
+ 6
+ 6
+ 4

+ 73.3
+ 52.9
+160.0
+ 73.3
+100.0
+225.0
+160.0
+116.7
+ 13.0
+ 85.7
3.7
+ 30.0
+ 23.8
+ 18.2

59.44
60.00
59.00
58.87
68.87
58.23
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.39
58.69
56.61
56.20
54.63

100.0
100.9
99.3
99.0
99.0
98.0
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
99.9
98.6
95.1
94.6
91.9

-4 .8 1
-5 .3 7
-4 .3 7
-4 .2 4
-4 .2 4
-3 .6 0
-5 .3 7
-5 .3 7
-5 .3 7
-5 .3 7
-4 .7 6
-3 .9 6
-1 .8 8
-1 .5 7

- 8 .1 80.1725 100.0 +80.0381
- 9 . 0 .1667 96.6 + .0439
- 7 .4
.1593 92.3 + .0513
- 7 .2
.1636 94.8 + .0470
-7 .2
.1639 95.0 + .0467
- 6 .2
.1477 85.6 + .0629
- 9 .0
.1608 93.2 + .0498
- 9 .0
.1823 105.7 + .0283
.1847 107.1 + .0259
- 9 .0
-9 .0
.1978 114.7 + .0128
- 8 .0
.1978 114.7 + .0128
- 6 . 8 .1908 110.6 + .0198
-3 .3
.1912 110.8 + .0194
.2167 125.6
- 2 .8
.0061
.2106 122.1

+22.1
+26.3
+32.2
+28.7
+28.5
+42.6
+31.0
+15.5
+14.0
+ 6.5
+ 6.5
+10.4
+10.1
- 2.8

FITTERS, Rale.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages, from 6 estab­
lishments, 1890; 7 establishments, 1891-1895; 8 establishments, 1896, 1897; 9 establishments, 1898; 10
establishments, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

129
78
123
117
115
183
138
134
113
112
172
281
247
213
209

100.0
60.5
95.3
90.7
89.1
141.9
107.0
103.9
87.6
86.8
133.3
217.8
191.5
165.1
162.0




+ 80
+131
+ 86
+ 92
+ 94
+ 26
+ 71
+ 75
+ 96
+ 97
+ 37
- 72
- 38
4

+ 62.0
+167.9
+ 69.9
+ 78.6
+ 81.7
+ 14.2
+ 51.4
+ 56.0
+ 85.0
+ 86.6
+ 21.5
- 25.6
- 15.4
1.9

59.07
58.49
59.20
59.12
68.97
69.17
59.47
59.43
59.00
59.03
58.83
59.32
58.26
58.86
58.80

100.0
99.0
100.2
100.1
99.8
100.2
100.7
100.6
99.9
99.9
99.6
100.4
98.6
99.6
99.5

-0 .2 7
+ .31
- .40
- .32
- .17
- .37
- .67
- .63
- .20
- .23
- .03
- .52
+ .54
- .06

- 0 .6 80.2473 100.0 +80.0174
+ .5 .2392 96.7 + .0255
- .7 .2296 92.8 + .0351
- .6 .2432 98.3 + .0215
- .3 .2455 99.3 + .0192
- .6 .2285 92.4 + .0362
.2458 99.4 + .0189
- 1 .1
-1 .1
.2525 102.1 + .0122
- .3 .2610 105.5 + .0037
- .4 .2705 109.4
.0058
- .1 .2576 104.2 + .0071
- .9 .2484 100.4 + .0163
+ .9 .2560 103.5 + .0087
- .1 .2615 105.7 + .0032
.2647 107.0

+ 7.0
+10.7
+15.3
+ 8.8
+ 7.8
+15.8
+ 7.7
+ 4.8
+ 1.4
- 2.1
+ 2.8
+ 6.6
+ 3.4
+ 1.2

880

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I ___ WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SH IPB U ILD IN G —Continued.
JOINERS, Jflale*
[Data for employees from 11 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 12
establishments, 1890-1892,1894,1895; 13 establishments, 1893,1896-1898; 14 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1 8 9 6 ... :.. ..
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Increase (4-) or
decrease ( —)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

+ 35.4
+ 54.1
+ 97.5
+ 40.3
+ 47.8
+ 39.5
- 35.7
+ 42.4
+190.1
+ 45.1
+ 22.1
8.4
6.2
9.6

58.07
58.73
57.70
58.02
57.88
58.25
59.15
57.99
56.58
58.32
58.11
58.69
58.25
58.06
57.40

347
305
238
335
318
337
731
330
162
324
385
513
501
520
470

100.0
87.9
68.6
96.5
91.6
97.1
210.7 .
95.1
46.7
93.4
111.0
147.8
144.4
149.9
135.4

+123
+165
+232
+135
+152
+133
-2 6 1
+140
+308
+146
+ 85
- 43
- 31
- 50

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
101.1
99.4
99.9
99.7
100.3
101.9
99.9
97.4
100.4
100.1
101.1
100.3
100.0
98.8

-0 .6 7
-1 .3 3
- .30
- .62
- .48
- .85
-1 .7 5
- .59
+ .82
- .92
- .71
-1 .2 9
- .85
- .66

- 1 .2 JO.2777 100.0 +$0.0173
-2 .3
.2675 96.3 + .0275
- .5 .2763 99.5 + .0187
.2754 99.2 + .0196
-1 .1
- .8 .2802 100.9 + .0148
.2751 99.1 + .0199
-1 .5
- 3 .0
.2663 95.9 + .0287
-1 .0
.2799 100.8 + .0151
+ 1 .4 .2965 106.8 .0015
-1 .6
.2868 103.3 + .0082
-1 .2
.2731 98.3 + .0219
- 2 .2
.2809 101.2 + .0141
-1 .5
.2817 101.4 + .0133
.2852 102.7 + .0098
-1 .1
.2950 106.2

+ 6.2
+10.3
+ 6.8
+ 7.1
+ 5.3
+ 7.2
+10.8
+ 5.4
.5
+ 2.9
+ 8.0
+ 5.0
+ 4.7
+ 3.4

I j B O H IS .R S , M a le .
A
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments, 1890-1894; 4 establishments, 1895-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900..........#.
1901.............
1902.............
1903 .............

72
148
52
61
50
53
51
46
57
75
122
207
179
169
140

100.0
205.6
72.2
84.7
69.4
73.6
70.8
63.9
79.2
104.2
169.4
287.5
248.6
234.7
194.4

+68
- 8
+88
+79
+90
+87
+89
+94
+83
+65
+18
-6 7
-3 9
-2 9

+ 94.4
5.4
+169.2
+129.5
-+180.0
+164.2
+174.5
+204.3
+145.6
+ 86.7
+ 14.8
- 32.4
- 21.8
- 17.2

58.09
58.99
57.00
57.54
57.00
57.17
58.02
58.83
58.91
58.52
58.89
58.80
59.00
57.43
57.48

100.0
101.5
98.1
99.1
98.1
98.4
99.9
101.3
101.4
100.7
101.4
101.2
101.6
98.9
98.9

-0 .6 1
-1 .6 1
+ .48
- .06
+ .48
+ .31
- .54
-1 .3 5
-1 .4 3
-1 .0 4
-1 .4 1
-1 .3 2
-1 .5 2
+ .05

- 1 .1 JO 1677
.
.1421
-2 .6
+ .8 .1740
- .1 .1631
+ .8 .1710
+ .5 .1741
- .9 .1780
.1702
- 2 .3
-2 .4
.1683
.1683
- 1 .8
-2 .4
.1679
.1674
-2 .2
- 2 .6
.1685
+ .1 .1816
.1855

300.0 + JO. 0178
84.7 + .0434
103.8 + .0115
97.3 + .0224
102.0 + .0145
103.8 + .0114
106.1 + .0075
101.5 + .0153
100.4 + .0172
100.4 + .0172
100.1 + .0176
99.8 + .0181
100.5 + .0170
308.3 + .0039
110.6

+10.6
+30.5
+ 6.6
+13.7
+ 8.5
+ 6.5
+ 4.2
+ 9.0
+10.2
+10.2
+10.5
+10.8
+10.1
+ 2.1

MACHINISTS, Male.
[Data for employees from 8 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments, 1890; 9 establishments, 1891-1898; 10 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
497 100.0
1890.............
331 66.6
1891.............
333 67.0
1892.............
485 97.6
1893.............
451 90.7
1894.............
446 89.7
1895.............
517 104.0
1896 .............
518 104.2
1897.............
519 104.4
1898.............
546 109.9
1899.............
824 165.8
674 135.6
1900.............
1901.............
963 193.8
1902............. 1,144 230.2
1903.............
995 200.2




+498
+664
+662
+510
+544
+549
+478
+477
+476
+449
+171
+321
+ 32
-1 4 9

+100.2
+200.6
+198.8
+105.2
+120.6
+123.1
+ 92.5
+ 92.1
+ 91.7
+ 82.2
+ 20.8
+ 47.6
+ 3.3
- 13.0

59.50
59.58
59.58
59.68
69.67
59.63
59.48
59.39
59.26
59.22
59.51
59.43
69.29
68.81
58.51

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.5
100.0
99.9
99.6
98.8
98.3

-0 .9 9
-1 .0 7
-1 .0 7
-1 .1 7
-1 .1 6
-1 .1 2
- .97
- .88
- .75
- .71
-1 .0 0
- .92
- .78
- .30

.
- 1 .7 JO 2549
.2467
- 1 .8
.2491
- 1 .8
.2495
-2 .0
.2486
- 1 .9
-1 .9 .2451
.2552
- 1 .6
.2636
-1 .5
- 1 .3
.2635
- 1 .2
.2659
.2613
-1 .7
.2698
- 1 .5
.2680
- 1 .3
- .6 .2758
.2806

100.0 + JO.0257
96.8 + .0339
97.7 + .0315
97.9 + .0311
97.5 + .0320
96.2 + .0355
100.1 + .0254
103.4 + .0170
103.4 + .0171
104.3 + .0147
102.5 + .0193
105.8 + .0108
105.1 + .0126
108.2 + .0048
110.1

+10.1
+13.7
+12.6
+12.5
+12.9
+14.5
+10.0
+ 6.4
+ 6.5
+ 5.5
+ 7.4
+ 4.0
+ 4.7
+ 1.7

881

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SH IPBUILD ING —Continued.
MOLDERS, IRON, Wale.

1[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 3
establishments, 1890; 4 establishments, 1891-1898; 5 establishments, 1899-1901; 6 establishments,
1902,1903.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1002

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
pared with’ year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
cent.
ber.
52
50
51
51
44
38
49
58
51
60
64
57
61
66
63

100.0
96.2
98.1
98.1
84.6
73.1
94.2
111.5
98.1
115.4
123.1
109.6
117.3
126.9
121.2

+11
+13
+12
+12
+19
+25
+14
+ 5
+12
+ 3
- 1
+ 6
+ 2
- 3

+21.2
+26.0
+23.5
+23.5
+43.2
+66.8
+28.6
+ 8.6
+23.5
+ 5.0
- 1.6
+10.5
+ 3.3
- 4.5

59.01
59.10
59.58
59.34
59.28
58.84
58.88
58.87
58.58
58.87
58.79
58.82
58.76
57.97
57.90

100.0
100.2
101.0
100.6
100.5
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.3
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.6
98.2
98.1

-1 .1 1
-1 .2 0
-1 .6 8
-1 .4 4
-1 .3 8
- .94
- .98
- .97
- .68
- .97
- .89
- .92
- .86
- .07

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

- 1 . 9 $0.2570 100.0 +$0.0402
- 2 . 0 .2710 105.4 + .0262
.2447 95.2 + .0525
- 2 .8
.2494 97.0 + .0478
-2 .4
.2539 98.8 + .0433
- 2 .3
.2464 95.9 + .0508
-1 .6
- 1 .7
.2561 99.6 + .0411
-1 .6
.2499 97.2 + .0473
-1 .2
.2655 103.3 + .0317
-1 .6
.2629 102.3 + .0343
-1 .5
.2699 105.0 + .0273
- 1 .6
.2764 107.5 + .0208
-1 .5
.2831 110.2 + .0141
- .1 .2892 112.5 + .0080
.2972 115.6

Per
cent.
+15.6
+ 9.7
+21.5
+19.2
+17.1
+20.6
+16.0
+18.9
+11.9
+13.0
+ 10.1
+ 7.5
+ 5.0
+ 2.8

PAINTERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 9 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 9 estab­
lishments, 1890; 11 establishments, 1891-1894,1899-1903; 10 establishments, 1895-1898.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
IQ
ftM

208
163
163
177
234
213
322
202
174
210
226
275
272
279
274

100.0
78.4
78.4
85.1
112.5
102.4
154.8
97.1
83.7
101.0
108.7
132.2
130.8
134.1
131.7

+ 66
+111
+111
+ 97
+ 40
+ 61
- 48
+ 72
+100
+ 64
+ 48
1
+ 2
5

+31.7
+68.1
+68.1
+54.8
+17.1
+28.6
-1 4 .9
+35.6
+57.5
+30.5
+21.2
.4
+ .7
- 1.7

57.34
59.11
58.71
58.70
58.96
58.88
57.30
55.99
54.34
55.45
55.94
56.73
56.43
55.64
56.09

100.0
103.1
102.4
102.4
102.8
102.7
99.9
97.6
94.8
96.7
97.6
98.9
98.4
97.0
97.8

-1 .2 5
-3 .0 2
-2 .6 2
-2 .6 1
-2 .8 7
-2 .7 9
-1 .2 1
+ .10
+1.75
+ .64
+ .15
- .64
- .34
+ .45

- 2 .2 $0.2756 100.0 +$0.0073
.2621 95.1 + .0208
- 5 .1
.2584 93.8 + .0245
-4 .5
-4 .4
.2617 95.0 + .0212
-4 .9
.2738 99.3 + .0091
-4 .7
.2708 98.3 + .0121
.0082
.2911 105.6 - 2 .1
.0085
+ .2 .2914 105.7 + 3 .2 .2909 105.6 .0080
+ 1 .2 .2830 102.7 .0001
+ .3 .2728 99.0 + .0101
- 1 .1
.2797 101.5 + .0032
- .6 .2797 101.5 + .0032
.0017
+ .8 .2846 103.3 .2829 102.6

+ 2 .6
+ 7 .9
+ 9 .5
+ 8 .1
+ 3 .3
+ 4 .5
- 2 .8
- 2 .9
- 2 .8
- .04
+ 3 .7
+ 1 .1
+1 .1
- .6

PATTERN MAKERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 8 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments, 1890; 9 establishments, 1891-1898; 10 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896 .............
1897.............
1 8 9 8 ... ... ..
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
■jon
a

76
46
62
63
64
77
87
97
76
84
103
99
95
108
109

100.0
60.5
81.6
82.9
84.2
101.3
114.5
127.6
100.0
110.5
135.5
130.3
125.0
142.1
143.4




+33
+63
+47
+46
+45
+32
+22
+12
+33
+25
+ 6
+10
+14
+ 1

+ 43.4
+137.0
+ 75.8
+ 73.0
+ 70.3
+ 41.6
+ 25.3
+ 12.4
+ 43.4
+ 29.8
+ 5.8
+ 10.1
+ 14.7
+
.9

59.59
59.54
59.72
59.72
59.73
59.72
59.60
59.64
59.32
59.47
59.42
59.52
59.03
58.64

100.0
99.9
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.1
99.5
99.8
99.7
99.9
99.1
98.4

57.98

97.3

-1 .6 1
-1 .5 6
-1 .7 4
-1 .7 4
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 4
-1 .6 2
-1 .6 6
-1 .3 4
-1 .4 9
-1 .4 4
-1 .5 4
-1 .0 5
- .66

-2 .7 $0.2789 100.0 +$0.0398
- 2 .6
.2870 102.9 + .0317
- 2 .9
.2727 97.8 + .0460
.2724 97.7 + .0463
-2 .9
-2 .9
.2730 97.9 + .0457
-2 .9
.2658 95.3 + .0529
- 2 .7
.2807 100.6 + .0380
-2 .8
.2783 99.8 + .0404
.2864 102.7 + .0323
-2 .3
- 2 .5
.2810 100.8 + .0377
.2912 104.4 + .0275
- 2 .4
- 2.6 .2984 107.0 + .0203
- 1 .8
. 3057 109.6 + .0130
.3126 112.1 + .0061
- 1 .1
.3187 114.3

+14.3
+11.0
+17.0
+16.7
+19.9
+13.5
+14.5
+11.3
+ 13.4
+ 9.4
+ 6.8
+ 4.3
+ 2.0

882

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903-~-Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SH IPBU ILBIK G —Continued.
RIGGERS, JHale.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6
establishments, 1890; 8 establishments, 1891-1898; 9 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
18S2.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 .............

100
79
70
100
119
115
110
71
54
94
184
244
98
242
228

100.0
79.0
70.0
100.0
119.0
115.0
110.0
71.0
54.0
94.0
184.0
244.0
98.0
242.0
228.0

+128
+149
+158
+128
+109
+113
+118
+157
+174
+134
+ 44
- 16
+130
- 14

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. number.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
+128.0
+188.6
+225.7
+128.0
+ 91.6
+ 98.3
+107.3
+221.1
+322.2
+142.6
+ 23.9
6.6
+132.7
5.8

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
67.44
57.27
56.33
56.79
67.63
57.83
57.92
57.66
57.22
57.51
58.23
58.59
57.39
58.58
58.53

100.0
99.7
98.1
98.9
100.3
100.7
100.8
100.4
99.6
100.1
101.4
102.0
99.9
102.0
101.9

+ 1 .9 $0.2551 100.0 -$0.0018
+ 2 .2 .2859 112.1 — .0326
+ 3 .9 .2705 106.0 — .0172
+ 3.1 .2587 101.4 — .0054
+ 1 .6 .2423 95.0 + .0110
+ 1 .2 .2216 86.9 + .0317
+ 1 .1 .2369 92.9 + .0164
.0072
+ 1 .5 .2605 102.1
+ 2 .3 .2762 108.3 — .0229
+ 1 .8 .2658 104.2 __ .0125
+ .5 .2322 91.0 + .0211
- .1 .2275 89.2 + .0258
+ 2 .0 .2538 99.5 — .0005
- .1 .2421 94.9 + .0112
.2533 99.3

+1.09
+1.26
+2.20
+1.74
+ .90
+ .70
+ .61
+ .87
+1.31
+1.02
+ .30
- .06
+1.14
- .05

- 0.7
- 1 1 .4
- 6.4
- 2.1
+ 4.5
+14.3
+ 6.9
- 2.8
- 8.3
- 4.7
+ 9.1
+11.3
.2
+ 4.6

RIVETERS, male.
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 4
establishments, 1890,1894,1895; 6 establishments, 1891-1893,1896-1898; 6 establishments, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

69
40
95
107
11
10
8
16
19
171
208
146
229
194
218

100.0
58.0
137.7
155.1
15.9
14.5
11.6
23.2
27.5
247.8
301.4
211.6
331.9
281.2
315.9

+149 + 215.9
+178 + 445.0
+123 + 129.5
+111 + 103.7
+207 +1881.8
+208 +2080.0
+210 +2625.0
+202 +1262.5
+199 +1047.4
+ 47 + 27.5
4.8
+ 10 +
+ 72 + 49.3
- 11 4.8
+ 24 + 12.4

59.35
60.00
69.69
59.67
58.43
68.45
59.31
59.43
59.29
69.74
59.49
59.46
59.20
58.68
58.77

100.0
101.1
100.6
100.5
98.4
98.5
99.9
100.1
99.9
100.7
100.2
100.2
99.7
98.9
99.0

- 1 .0 $0.2364
- 2 .1
.1936
.1993
-1 .5
.2187
- 1 .5
+ .6 .2227
+ .5 .2014
- .9 .3029
.2534
- 1 .1
- .9 .2792
.2453
- 1 .6
.2476
- 1 .2
.2452
- 1 .2
- .7 .2229
+ .2 .2534
.2531

-0 .5 8
-1 .2 3
- .92
- .90
+ .34
+ .32
- .54
- .66
- .52
- .97
- .72
- .69
- .43
+ .09

+$0.0167
+ .0595
+ .0538
+ .0344
+ .0304
+ .0517
.0498
.0003
.0261
+ .0078
+ .0055
+ .0079
+ .0302
.0003

+ 7.1
+30.7
+27.0
+15.7
+13.7
+25.7
-1 6 .4
.1
- 9.3
+ 3.2
+ 2.2
+ 3.2
+13.5
.1

100.0 +$0.0208
93.6 + .0396
96.7 + .0304
96.0 + .0326
96.7 + .0304
103.1 + .0118
103.1 + .0118
101.7 + .0158
103.1 + .0118
103.1 + .0118
103.1 + .0118
101.7 + .0158
.0030
108.1
110.6 — .0102
107.1

+ 7.1
+14.5
+10.7
+11.6
+10.7
+ 3.9
+ 3.9
+ 5.3
+ 3.9
+ 3.9
+ 3.9
+ 5.3
.9
- 3.2

100.0
81.9
84.3
92.5
94.2
85.2
128.1
107.2
118.1
103.8
104.7
103.7
94.3
107.2
107.1

SAWYERS, CIRCULAR, male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

9
7
9
8
9
9
9
8
9
9
9
8
9
9
10

100.0
77.8
100.0
88.9
100.0
100 0
100.0
88.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
88.9
100.0
100.0
111.1




+1
+3
+1
+2
+1
+1
+1
+2
+1
+1
+1
+2
+1
+1

+11.1
+42.9
+11.1
+25.0
+11.1
+11.1
+11.1
+25.0
+11.1
+11.1
+11.1
+25.0
+11.1
+11.1

55.31
67.43
67.33
57.00
57.33
54.00
54.00
54.00
64.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
51.78
51.78
51.60

100.0
103.8
103.7
103.1
103.7
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
93.6
93.6
93 3

-3 .7 1
-5 .8 3
-6 .7 3
-5 .4 0
-5 .7 3
-2 .4 0
-2 .4 0
-2 .4 0
-2 .4 0
-2 .4 0
-2 .4 0
-2 .4 0
- .18
- .18

- 6.7 $0.2925
-1 0 .2 .2737
-1 0 .0 .2829
- 9.5 .2808
-1 0 .0 .2829
- 4.4 .3015
- 4.4 .3015
- 4.4 .2975
- 4.4 .3015
- 4.4 .3015
- 4.4 .3015
- 4.4 .29^6
.3 .3163
.3 .3235
.3133

883

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SHIPBUIXiDIN G—Concluded.
SPAR MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 =
,...........
1897.............
1898 .............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
23
25
24
24
26
20
21
21
20
23
23
24
25
24
21

100.0
108.7
104.3
104.3
113.0
87.0
91.3
91.3
87.0
100.0
100.0
104.3
108.7
104.3
91.3

-2
-4
-3
-3
-5
+1

+i

-2
-2
-3
-4
-3

- 8.7
-1 6 .0
-1 2 .5
-1 2 .5
-1 9 .2
+ 5.0
+ 5.0
- 8.7
- 8.7
-1 2 .5
-1 6 .0
-1 2 .5

57.21
57.60
56.50
57.00
57.23
57.60
57.43
57.43
57.30
56.87
57.13
57.25
57.12
57.00
54.00

SIJjK

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.7
98.8
99.6
100.0
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.2
99.4
99.9
100.1
99.8
99.6
94.4

-3 .2 1
-3 .6 0
-2 .5 0
-3 .0 0
-3 .2 3
-3 .6 0
—3.43
—3.43
-3 .3 0
-2 .8 7
-3 .1 3
-3 .2 5
-3 .1 2
-3 .0 0

- 5 . 6 60.3557 100.0 —60.0091
.3892 109.4 _ .0426
-6 .3
.3884 109.2 — .0418
- 4 .4
.3775 106.1 — .0309
-5 .3
-5 .6
.3610 101.5 — .0144
.3294 92.6 + .0172
- 6 .3
.3283 92.3 + .0183
-6 .0
—6.0 .3307 93.0 4- .0159
.3322 93.4 + .0144
-5 .8
- 5 . 0 .3614 101.6 — .0148
- 5 .5
.3589 100.9 — .0123
—5.7 .3461 97.3 + .0005
-5 .5
.3564 100.2
.0098
-5 .3
.3567 100.3
.0101
.3466 97.4

_

- 2. 6
- 1 0 .9
- 1 0 .8
- 8.2
- 4.0
+ 5.2
-I- 5.6
+ 4.8
+ 4.3
- 4.1
- 3.4
+ .1
- 2.7
- 2.8

g o o ds.

REAMERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 2 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 2
establishments, 1890-1896; 3 establishments, 1897-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 / . .........
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

4
4
4
3
3
3
4
3
4
3
9
3
6
4
5

100.0
100.0
100.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
100.0
75.0
100.0
75.0
225.0
75.0
150.0
100.0
125.0

+1
+1
+1
+2
+2
+2
+1
+2
+1
+2
-4
+2
-1
+1

+25.0
+25.0
+25.0
+66.7
+66.7
+66.7
+25.0
+66.7
+25.0
+66.7
-4 4 .4
+66.7
-1 6 .7
+25.0

57.68
60.00
60.00
60.00
56.67
56.67
56.25
56.67
56.80
57.60
56.18
57.60
56.63
57.17
56.86

100.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
98.2
98.2
97.5
98.2
98.5
99.9
97.4
99.9
98.2
99.1
98.6

-0 .8 2
-3 .1 4
-3 .1 4
-3 .1 4
+ .19
+ .19
+ .61
+ .19
+ .06
- .74
+ .68
- .74
+ .23
- .31

- 1 . 4 $0.1795 100.0 +$0.0024 + 1.3
- 5 .2
.1875 104.5 — .0056 - 3.0
.1792 99.8 + .0027 + 1.5
-5 .2
-5 .2
.1833 102.1
.0014 .8
+ .3 .1833 102.1 — .0014 * - .8
.8
+ .3 .1883 102.1 — .0014 +1 .1 .1792 99.8 + .0027 + 1.5
+ .3 .1833 102.1 — .0014 .8
+ .1 .1669 93.0 + .0150 + 9.0
- 1 .3
.1579 88.0 + .0240 +15.2
+ 1 .2 .1914 106.6
.0095 - 5.0
- 1 .3
.1673 93.2 + .0146 + 8.7
+ .4 .1805 100.6 + .0014 + .8
- .5 ,1799 100.2 + .0020 + 1.1
.1819 101.3

DOUBLERS, Female.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
L895.............
L896.............
L897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
L901.............
1902.............
L903.............

83
64
65
82
95
90
77
84
88
93
89
83
83
74
75

100.0
77.1
78.3
98.8
114.5
108.4
92.8
101.2
106.0
112.0
107.2
100.0
100.0
89.2
90.4




- 8
+11
+10
- 7
-2 0
-1 5
- 2
- 9
-1 3
-1 8
-1 4
- 8
- 8
+ 1

- 9.6
+17.2
+15.4
- 8.5
-2 1 .1
-1 6 .7
- 2.6
-1 0 .7
-1 4 .8
-1 9 .4
-1 5 .7
- 9.6
- 9.6
+ 1.4

58.36
60.00
60.00
59.63
57.60
57.38
57.60
57.58
57.97
57.81
58.02
57.96
67.71
57.80
57.21

100.0
102.8
102.8
102.2
98.7
98.3
98.7
98.7
99.3
99.1
99.4
99.3
98.9
99.0
98.0

-1 .1 5
-2 .7 9
-2 .7 9
-2 .4 2
- .39
- .17
- .39
- .37
- .76
- .60
- .81
- .75
- .50
- .59

- 2 .0 $0.0796 100.0 +$0.0186
- 4 .7
.0852 107.0 + .0130
-4 .7
.0785 98.6 + .0197
- 4 .1
.0793 99.6 + .0189
- .7 .0783 98.4 + .0199
- .3 .0810 101.8 + .0172
— .7 .0816 102.5 + .0166
- .6 .0812 102.0 + .0170
.0760 95.5 + .0222
-1 .3
-1 .0
.0779 97.9 + .0203
- 1 .4 • .0766 96.2 + .0216
-1 .3
.0772 97.0 + .0210
- .9 .0851 106.9 + .0131
-1 .0
.0910 114.3 + .0072
.0982 123.4

+23.4
+15.3
+25.1
+23.8
+25.4
+21.2
+20.3
+20.9
+29.2
+26.1
+28.2
+27.2
+15.4
+ 7.9

884

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SIIiK GOODS—Continued.
DYERS, JHale.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
104
76
96
106
91
89
101
102
137
124
122
114
143
400
366

100. (•
73.1
92.o
101.9
87.5
85.(1
97.:
98.3
131. V
119.2
117.3
109.6
137.3
384.6
351.0

+262
+290
+270
+260
+275
+277
+265
+264
+229
+242
+244
+252
+223
- 34

+251.9
+381.6
+281.3
+245.3
+302.2
+311.2
+262.4
+258.8
+167.2
+195.2
+200.0
+221.1
+155.9
8.5

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

58.17
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
57.42
57.13
56.96
56.39
56.94
56.89
57.06
56.64
55.15
55.15

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age.
tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
98.7
98.2
97.9
96.9
97.9
97.8
98.1
97.4
94.8
94.8

-3 .0 2
-4 .8 5
-4 .8 5
-4 .8 5
-4 .8 5
-2 .2 7
-1 .9 8
-1 .8 1
-1 .2 4
-1 .7 9
-1 .7 4
-1 .9 1
-1 .4 9

- 5 .2 80.2138 100.0 +80.0066
-8 .1
.2079 97.2 + .0125
.2054 96.1 + .0150
- 8 .1
- 8 .1
.2033 95.1 + .0171
.1980 92.6 + .0224
- 8 .1
-4 .0
.2158 100.9 + .0046
-3 .5
.2181 102.0 + .0023
.0001
-3 .2
.2205 103.1
- 2 .2
.2279 106.6 _
.0075
.2187 102.3 + .0017
- 3 .1
.2224 104.0
.0020
- 3 .1
.2220 103.8 —
.0016
- 3 .3
- 2 .6
.2250 105.2 —
.0046
.2184 102.2 -1 .0020
.2204 103.1

+ 3.1
+ 6.0
+ 7.3
+ 8.4
+11.3
+ 2.1
+ 1.1
.1
- 3.3
+ .8
— .9
— .7
- 2.C
+ .$

LOOM FIXERS, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
A v. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1 8 9 5 ............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

23
16
17
20
19
22
27
25
29
30
29
35
33
33
32

100. )
69.5
73. )
87.)
82.6
95.7
117.4
108.7
126.1
130.4
126.1
152.2
143.5
143.5
139.1

+ 9
+16
+15
+12
+13
+10
+ 5
+ 7
+ 3
+ 2
+ 3
- 3
- 1
- 1

+ 39.1
+100.0
+ 88.2
+ 60.0
+ 68.4
+ 45.5
+ 18.5
+ 28.0
+ 10.3
+ 6.7
+ 10.3
8.6
3.0
3.0

56.57
59.06
59.12
57.50
55.79
55.68
55.56
55.80
55.69
55.67
55.86
55.71
55.76
55.76
55.78

100.0
104.4
104.5
101.6
98.6
98.4
98.2
98.6
98.4
98.4
98.7
98.5
98.6
98.6
98.6

-0 .7 9
-3 .2 8
-3 .3 4
-1 .7 2
- .01
+ .10
+ .22
- .02
+ .09
+ .11
- .08
+ .07
+ .02
+ .02

- 1 .4 60.2875
.2724
-5 .6
-5 .6
.2696
- 3 .0
.2771
- .02 .2846
.2810
+ .2
.2980
+ .4
- .04 .2905
.2997
+ .2
.3023
+ .2
- .1
.3000
.3052
+ .1
+ .04 .3028
+ .04 .2962
.2970

100.0 +60.0095 + 3.!
94.7 + .0246 + 9. (
93.8 + .0274 +10.!
96.4 + .0199 + 7.!
99.0 + .0124 + 4.<
97.7 + .0160 + 5\
103.7
.0010
101.0 + .0065 • + 2 /
104.2
.0027
.0053 - 1.
105.1 _
104.3 _
.0030 - 1.
106.2 —
.0082 - 2.
105.3 —
.0058 - 1.
103.0 + .0008 + .
103.3

PICKERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901..........
1902.............
1903.............

3
2
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4

100.0
66.7
133.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3




+ 1 + 33.3 60.00 100.0
+ 2 +100.0 60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
+ 1 + 33.3 60.00 100.0
+ 1 + 33.3 60.00 100.0
+1 + 33.3 60.00 100.0
+1 + 33.3 60.00 100.0
+1 + 33.3 60.00 100.0
+1 + 33.3 60.00 100.0
60.00, 100.0
60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
1

60.2330
.2555
.2602
.2297
.1961
.2256
.2428
.1919
,2195
.2576
.2509
.2595
.2500
.2598
.2783

100.0 +60.0453
109.7 + .0228
111.7 + . 0181
98.6 + . 0486
84.2 + .0822
96.8 + . 0527
104.2 + .0355
82.3 + .0864
94.2 + .0588
110.6 + .0207
107.7 + .0274
111.4 + . 0188
107.3 + .0283
111.5 + .0185
119.4

+19.
+ 8.
+ 7.
+21.
+41.
+23.
+14.
+45.
+26.
+ 8.
+10.
+ 7.
+11.
+ 7

885

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

SIL.K GOODS—Continued.
PICKERS, Female.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898 .............
1899 .............
1900.............
1901.............
1902
.
1903
.

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

31
15
19
22
21
26
32
33
42
45
52
48
55
59
50

Increase ( 4-) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
cent.
ber.

100.0
48.4
61.3
71.0
67.7
• 83.9
103.2
106.5
135.5
145.2
167.7
154.8
177.4
190.3
161.3

4*19
+35
+31
+28
+29
+24
+18
+17
+ 8
+ 5
- 2
+ 2
- 5
- 9

+ 61.3
+233.3
+163.2
+127.3
+138.1
+ 92.3
+ 56.3
+ 51.5
+ 19.0
+ 11.1
3.8
+ 4.2
9.1
- 15.3

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
$0.1009
.0857
.1096
.1209
.1092
.0988
.1018
.0809
.0940
.1024
.1057
.1082
.1081
.1048
.1243

60.00 100.0
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0

100.0

60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
60.00 100.0
60.00

100.0

100.0
84.9
108.6
119.8
108.2
97.9
100.9
80.2
93.2
101.5
104.8
107.2
107.1
103.9
123.2

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.
+$0.0234
+ .0386
+ .0147
+ .0034
+ .0151
+ .0255
+ .0225
+ .0434
+ .0303
+ .0219
+ .0186
+ .0161
+ .0162
+ .0195

Per
cent.
+23.2
+45.0
+13.4
+ 2.8
+13.8
+25.8
+22.1
+53.6
+32.2
+21.4
+17.6
+14.9
+15.0
+18.6

QIJILLERS, Female*
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6
establishments, 1890-1896; 7 establishments, 1897-1903.]
A.V. 1890-99.
1890.............
L891.............
L892.............
1893.............
M i .............
895.............
.896.............
.897 .............
.898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903 .............

91
74
65
76
79
80
129
78
101
108
116
105
121
116
115

100.0
81.3
71.4
83.5
86.8
87.9
141.8
85.7
111.0
118.7
127.5
115.4
133.0
127.5
126.4

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
—

24
41
50
39
36
35
14
37
14
7
1
10
6
1

+26.4
+55.4
+76.9
+51.3
+45.6
+43.8
-1 0 .9
+47.4
+13.9
+ 6.5
.9
+ 9.5
- 5.0
.9

57.26
59.57
59.23
58.36
56.33
56.19
56.05
56.41
56.85
56.68
56.92
57.17
56.89
56.85
56.51

100.0
104.0
103.4
101.9
98.4
98.1
97.9
98.5
99.3
99.0
99.4
99.8
99.4
99.3
98.7

-0 .7 5
-3 .0 6
-2 .7 2
-1 .8 5
+ .18
+ .32
+ .46
+ .10
.34
- .17
- .41
- .66
- .38
- .34

- 1 . 3 $0.0917 100.0 +$0.0072
-5 .1
.0945 103.1 + .0044
- 4 . 6 .0912 99.5 + .0077
-3 .2
.0869 94.8 + .0120
+ .3 ..0960 104.7 + .0029
+ .6 .0883 96.3 + .0106
+ .8 .0893 97.4 + .0096
+ .2 .1007 109.8 — .0018
- .6 .0910 99.2 + .0079
- .3 .0910 99.2 + .0079
.7 .0877 95.6 + .0112
-1 .2
.0879 95.9 + .0110
- .7 .0884 96.4 + .0105
- .6 .0895 97.6 + .0094
.0989 107.9

+ 7.9
+ 4.7
+ 8.4
+13.8
+ 3.0
+12.0
+10.8
- 1.8
+ 8.7
+ 8.7
+12.8
+12.5
+11.9
+10.5

SPINNERS, Male*
[Data from 4 establishments.]
l
V.

1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897 .............
898.............
899.............
100.............
)01.............
)02.............
)03.............

85
45
60
79
104
76
96
80
90
110
105
129
122
156
166

100.0
52.9
70.6
92.9
122.4
89.4
112.9
94.1
105.9
129.4
123.5
151.8
143.5
183.5
195.3




+ 81
+121
+106
+ 87
+ 62
+ 90
+ 70
+ 86
+ 76
+ 56
+ 61
+ 37
+ 44
+ 10

+ 95.3
+268.9
+176.7
+110.1
+ 59.6
+118.4
+ 72.9
+107.5
+ 84.4
+ 50.9
+ 58.1
+ 28.7
+ 36.1
+ 6.4

58.44
60.00
60.00
58.48
57.97
58.17
57.79
57.89
57.86
58.05
58.23
58.34
68.39
58.31
58.32

100.0
102.7
102.7
100.1
99.2
99.5
98.9
99.1
99.0
99.3
99.6
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.8

-0 .1 2
-1 .6 8
-1 .6 8
- .16
+ .35
+ .15
+ .53
+ .43
+ .46
+ .27
+ .09
- .02
— .07
+ .01

- 0 .2 $0.0754
.0778
-2 .8
-2 .8
.0708
- .3
.0753
.0743
+ .6
.0723
+ .3
.0752
+ .9
.0780
+ .7
.0787
+ .8
.0752
+ .5
.0765
+ .2
- .03 .0733
— .1
.0794
+ .02 .0779
.0794

100.0
103.2
93.9
99.9
98.5
95.9
99.7
103.4
104.4
99.7
101.5
97.2
105.3
103.3
105.3

+$0.0040
+ .0016
+ .0086
+ .0041
+ .0051
+ .0071
+ .0042
+ .0014
+ .0007
+ .0042
+ .0029
+ .0061

+ 5.3
+ 2.1
+12.1
+ 5.4
+ 6.9
+ 9.8
+ 5.6
+ 1.8
+ .9
+ 5.6
+ 3.8
+ 8.3

.0015

+ 1.9

+

886

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanatior
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SIIiK GOODS—Continued.
TWISTERS-IN, IT!ale.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896 ...........
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (— )in
1903 as com­ Aver­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age
ber. num­
specified.
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
24
16
12
20
22
19
12
54
38
20
24
20
35
35
21

100.0
66.7
50.0
83.3
91.7
79.2
50.0
225.0
158.3
83.3
100.0
83.3
145.8
145.8
87.5

- 3
+ 5
+ 9
+ 1
— 1
+ 2
+ 9
—33
—17
+ 1
— 3
+ 1
—14
—14

-1 2 .5
+31.3
+75.0
+ 5.0
— 4.5
+10.5
+75.0
—61.1
—44.7
+ 6.0
—12.6
+ 6.0
—40.0
—40.0

56.50
60.00
60.00
60.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
65.00
55.00
55.00

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) oi
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with yeai
num­
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
106.2
106.2
106.2
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3

-1 .5 0
-5 .0 0
-5 .0 0
-5 .0 0

- 2 ,7 80.2529 100.0 +80.0085
-8 .3
.2484 98.2 + .0130
-8 .3
.2535 100.2 + .0079
-8 .3
.2542 100.5 + .0072
.2471 97.7 + .0143
.2634 104.2 — .0020
.2651 104.8 — .0037
.2501 98.9 + .0113
.2586 102.3 + .0028
.2407 95.2 + .0207
.2479 98.0 + .0135
.2594 102.6 + .0020
.2210 87.4 + .0404
.2533 100.2 + .0081
.2614 103.4

+
+
+
+
+

3.
6.
3.
2.
5.

— l!
+ 4.
+ 1
+ 8
+ 6
+
+18
+ 3

W ARPERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 . . . .
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1887.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

36
31
33
35
27
42
48
32
44
40
28
30
37
44
41

100.0
86.1
91.7
97.2
75.0
116.7
133.3
88.9
122.2

11
1 .1
77.8
83.3
102.8
122.2
113.9

+ 5
+10
+ 8
+ 6
+14
— 1
— 7
+ 9
— 3
+ 1
+13

+
11

+ 4
— 3

+13.9
+32.3
+24.2
+17.1
+51.9
— 2.4
-1 4 .6
+28.1
— 6.8
+ 2.5
+46.4
+36.7
+10.8
— 6.8

56.08
69.03
59.09
57.71
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
65.00
65.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
65.00

100.0
105.3
105.4
102.9
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1

-1 .0 8
-4 .0 3
-4 .0 9
-2 .7 1

- 1 . 9 80.2416
-6 .8
.2250
-6 .9
.2189
-4 .7
.2366
.2425
.2266
.2661
.2339
.2670
.2538
.2458
.2697
.2810
.2966
.2716

100.0
93.1
90.6
97.9
100.4
93.8
110.1
96.8
110.5
105.0
101.7
111.6
116.3
122.8
112.4

+80.0300
+ .0466
+ .0527
+ .0350
+ .0291
+ .0450
+ .0055
+ .0377
+ .0046
+ .0178
+ .0258
+ .0019
.0094
.0250

_

+12
+2C
+24
+14
+12
+12
+ 2
+ lf
+ 1
+ "
<
+1(
+
-

i

W ARPERS, Female.
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages fron
establishments, 1890-1896; 6 establishments, 1897-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1908

112
101
113
114
93
97
112
114
127
133
115
118
118
128
131

100.0
90.2
100.9
101.8
83.0
86.6
100.0
101.8
113.4
118.8
102.7
105.4
105.4
114.3
117.0




+19
+30
+18
+17
+38
+34
+19
+17
+ 4

- 2

+16
+13
+13
+ 3

+17.0
+29.7
+15.9
+14.9
+40.9
+35.1
+17.0
+14.9
+ 3.1
- 1.5
+13.9
+11.0
+11.0
+ 2.3

58.17
60.00
60.00
60.00
57.26
56.91
67.37
57.24
57.38
57.75
67.78
58.23
58.30
58.12
58.17

100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
98.4
97.8
98.6
98.4
98.6
99.3
99.3
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.0

-1 .8 3
-1 .8 3
-1 .8 3
+ .91
+1.26
+ .80
+ .93
+ .79
+ .42
+ .39
- .06
- .13
+ .05

$0.1726
.1658
.1529
.1685
.1791
.1800
.1823
.1916
.1825
.1567
.1666
.1553
- .2 .1524
+ .1 .1629
.1569

- 3 .1
- 3 .1
-3 .1
+ 1 .6
+ 2 .2
+ 1 .4
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .4
+ .7
+ .7
- .1

100.0
96.1
88.6
97.6
103.8
104.3
105.6
111.0
105.7
90.8
96.5
90.0
88.3
94.4
90.9

-80.0157
— .0089
+ .0040
.0116
— .0222
— .0231
— .0254
— .0347
— .0256
+ .0002
— .0097
+ .0016
+ .0045
—
.0060

—
+
—
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

+

—

+
+

—

887

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BILK GOODS—Continued.
WEAVERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 3
establishments, 1890; 4 establishments, 1891-1896; 5 establishments, 1897-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
212
296
172
207
180
197
218
164
214
234
235
185
177
162
130

100.0
139.6
81.1
97.6
84.9
92.9
102.8
77.4
100.9
110.4
110.8
87.3
83.5
76.4
61.3

- 82
-1 6 6
- 42
- 77
- 50
- 67
- 88
- 34
- 84
-104
-1 0 5
- 55
- 47
- 32

-3 8 .7
-5 6 .1
-2 4 .4
-3 7 .2
-2 7 .8
-3 4 .0
-4 0 .4
-2 0 .7
-3 9 .3
-4 4 .4
-4 4 .7
-2 9 .7
—26.6
-1 9 .8

56.41
58.03
58.47
57.03
55.42
55.39
55.47
55.34
56.01
56.45
56.51
56.54
66.74
56.90
56.59

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
number.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
100.0
102.9
103.7
101.1
98.2
98.2
98.3
98.1
99.3
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.6
100.9
100.3

+0.18
-1 .4 4
-1 .8 8
- .44
+1.17
+1.20
+1.12
+1.25
+ .68
+ .14
+ .08
+ .05
r- .15
- .31

+ 0 .3 30.1699
- 2 . 5 .1625
-3 .2
.1665
- .8 .1743
+2 .1 .1798
+ 2 .2 .3719
+ 2 .0 .1653
+ 2 .3 .1889
+ 1 .0 .1664
+ .2 .1623
+ .1 .1608
+ .1 .1680
- .3 .1542
.1654
- .6
.1602

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

100.0 30.0097
95.6 — .0023
98.0
.0063
.0141
102.6
105.8
.0196
101.2 — .0117
97.3
.0051
111.2 — .0287
97.9 — .0062
95.5 — .0021
94.6 — .0006
98.9 — .0078
90.8 + .0060
.0052
97.4
94.3

Per
cent.
- 5.7
- 1.4
- 3.8
- 8.1
-1 0 .9
- 6.8
- 3.1
-1 5 .2
- 3.7
- 1.3
.4
- 4.6
+ 3.9
- 3.1

WEAVERS, Female.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6
establishments, 189(1-1896; 7 establishments, 1897-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
L896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
L900.............
1901.............
L902.............
1903 .............

408
340
268
351
350
407
454
425
457
532
492
462
698
622
629

100.0
83.3
65.7
86.0
85.8
99.8
111.3
104.2
112.0
130.4
120.6
113.2
146.6
152.5
154.2

+221
+501
+573
+490
+491
+434
+387
+416
+319
+161
+217
+223
+ 89
+ 14

+ 54.2
+147.4
+213.8
+139.6
+140.3
+106.6
+ 85.2
+ 97.9
+ 61.1
+ 23.7
+ 34.8
+ 36.1
+ 11.8
+ 1.7

58.14
58.60
59.32
58.46
57.37
67.58
67.37
58.25
58.19
58.11
58.16
58.17
57.65
57.81
57.99

100.0
100.8
102.0
100.6
98.7
99.0
98.7
100.2
100.1
99.9
100.0
100.1
99.2
99.4
99.7

-0 .1 5
- .61
-1 .3 3
- .47
+ .62
+ .41
+ .62
- *26
- .20
- .12
- .17
- .18
+ .34
+ .18

- 0 . 3 $0.1550 100.0 -$0.0016
- 1 . 0 .1482 95.6 + .0052
-2 .2
.1393 89.9 + .0141
.0025
- .8 .1559 100.6
+ 1.1 .1631 105.2 — .0097
.0187
+ .7 .1721 111.0 —
+ 1 .1 .1565 101.0 — .0031
- .4 .1756 113.3 —
.0222
- .3 .1490 96.1 + .0044
- .2 .1465 94.5 + .0069
- .3 .1439 92.8 + .0095
- .3 .1489 96.1 + .0045
+ .6 .1457 94.0 + .0077
.0023
+ .3 .1557 100.5
.1534 99.0

- 1.0
+ 3.5
+10.1
- 1.6
- 5.9
- 1 0 .9
- 2.0
- 1 2 .6
+ 3.0
+ 4.7
+ C.6
+ 3.0
+ 5.3
- 1.5

WEAVERS, RIRBON, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
IV. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
89a ............

894.............
895.............
8 % .............
8 9 7 ............
8 9 8 ............
8 9 9 ............
9 9 0 ............
9 0 1 ............
9 0 2 ............
903 . . _ _

118
123
95
113
106
153
144
93
118
153
80
116
67
58
97

100.0
104.2
80.5
95.8
89.8
129.7
122.0
78.8
100.0
129.7
67.8
98.3
56.8
49.2
82.2




-2 1
-2 6
+ 2
-1 6
— 9
—56
—47
+ 4
—21
—56
+17
—19
+30
+39

-1 7 .8
-2 1 .1
+ 2.1
-1 4 .2
— 8.5
—36.6
—32.6
+ 4.3
—17.8
—36.6
+21.3
—16.4
+44.8
+67.2

56.15
58.98
58.42
59.12
55.00
55.00
55.00
56.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00

100.0
105.0
104.0
105.3
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0

-1 .1 5
-3 .9 8
-3 .4 2
-4 .1 2

- 2 . 0 $0.2374 100.0 -$0.0313
.0704
- 6 .7
.2765 116.5 -5 .9
.0274
.2335 98.4 - 7 .0
.0282
.2343 98.7 .2542 107.1 — .0481
.2141 90.2 — .0080
.2377 100.1 .0316
.2425 102.1 - .0364
.0044
.2105 88.7 .2352 99.1 .0291
.2350 99.0 — .0289
.0147
.2208 93.0 .1979 83.4 + .0082
.1965 82.8 + .0096
.2061 86.8

- 1 3 .2
- 2 5 .5
- 1 1 .7
-1 2 .0
—18.9
— 3.7
-1 3 .3
-1 5 .0
- 2.1
-1 2 .4
—12.3
- 6.7
+ 4.1
+ 4.9

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

888
T a b le 1 .—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899 =100.0. For explanation of relative figures see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) cr decrease ( —) m 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SIL K GOODS—Concluded.
WEAVERS, RIBBON, Female.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment, 1890-1899; 2 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903 _

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber. num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
59
80
60
60
45
45
55
70
50
55
65
70
40
95
72

100.0
135.6
101.7
101.7
76.3
76.3
93.2
118.6
84.7
93.2
110.2
118.6
67.8
161.0
122.0

+13
- 8
+12
+12
+27
+27
+17
+ 2
+22
+17
+ 7
+ 2
+32
-2 3

+22.0
-1 0 .0
+20.0
+20.0
+ 60.0
+60.0
+30.9
+ 2.9
+44.0
+30.9
+10.8
+ 2.9
+80.0
-2 4 .2

55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00
55.00

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as comRela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.

100.0
100.0

80.2329
.2312
.2375
.2333
.2361
:2333
.2227
.2321
.2275
.2423
.2330
.2218
.2221
.1971
.2089

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0 -80.0240
99.3 — .0223
102.0 — .0286
100.2 — .0244
101.4 — .0272
100.2 — .0244
95.6 — .0138
99.7 — .0232
97.7 — .0186
104.0 — .0334
100.0
.0241
95.2
.0129
95.4 — .0132
84.6 + .0118
89.7

- 1 0 .3
- 9.6
-1 2 .0
-1 0 .5
-1 1 .5
-1 0 .5
- 6.2
-1 0 .0
- 8.2
-1 3 .8
-1 0 .2
- 5.8
- 5.?
+ 6. C

+80.0149
+ .0189
+ .0302
+ .0219
+ .0165
+ .0083
+ .0089
+ .0118
+ .0135
+ .0077
+ .0117
+ .0097
+ .0061
+ .0040

+15.:
+20.:
+36.«
+24.:
+17.
+ 8 .1
+ 8.
+11.
+13.
+ 7.
+11.
+ 9.
+ 5.
+ 3.

WINDERS, Female.
[Data from 9 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892 .............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

256
244
212
248
263
238
271
245
264
293
278
276
280
283
290

100.0
95.3
82.8
96.9
102.7
93.0
105.9
95.7
103.1
114.5
108.6
107.8
109.4
110.5
113.3

+34
+46
+78
+42
+27
+52
+19
+45
+26
- 3
+12
+14
+10
+ 7

+13.3
+18.9
+36.8
+16.9
+10.3
+21.8
+ 7.0
+18.4
+ 9.8
- 1.0
+ 4.3
+ 5.1
+ 3.6
+ 2.5

58.06
59.79
59.88
59.33
57.13
57.32
57.28
57.47
57.48
57.38
57.53
57.63
57.55
57.57
57.67

100.0
103.0
103.1
102.2
98.4
98.7
98.7
99.0
99.0
98.8
99.1
99.3
99.1
99.2
99.3

-0 .3 9
-2 .1 2
-2 .2 1
-1 .6 6
+ .54
+ .35
+ .39
+ .20
+ .19
+ .29
+ .14
+ .04
+ .12
+ .10

—0.7 $0.0972
.0932
-3 .5
-3 .7
.0819
.0902
-2 .8
.0956
+ .9
+ .6 .1038
+ .7 .1032
+ .3 .1003
+ .3 .0986
+ .5 .1044
+ .2 .1004
+ .1 .1024
+ .2 .1060
+ .2 .1081
.1121

100.0
95.9
84.3
92.8
98.4
106.8
106.2
103.2
101.4
107.4
103.3
105.3
109.1
111.2
115.3

SLAUGHTERING A N D MEAT PACKING.
BACK SKINNERS, CATTLE, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

15
12
12
12
15
15
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
18
18

100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
100.0
100.0
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
120.0
120.0




+3
+6
+6
+6
+3
+3
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2

+20.0
+50.0
+50.0
+50.0
+20.0
+20.0
+12.5
+12.5
+12.5
+12.5
+12.5
+12.5
+12.5

51.95
50.92
50.92
50.92
52.73
52.73
52.25
52.25
52.25
52.25
52.25
52.25
52.25
50.50
50.50

100.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
101.5
101.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
97.2
97.2

-1 .4 5
- .42
- .42
- .42
-2 .2 3
-2 .2 3
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 6
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5
-1 .7 5

- 2 . 8 $0.3643
- .8 .3750
- .8 .3750
- .8 .3813
.3800
-4 .2
.3500
- 4 .2
.3500
-3 .3
-3.3 .3500
.3500
- 3 .3
-3 .3
.3563
.3750
- 3 .3
.4000
- 3 .3
- 3 .3
.4000
.4181
.4569

100.0 +$0.0926
102.9 + .0819
102.9 + .0819
104.7 + .0756
104.3 + .0769
96.1 + .1069
96.1 + .1069
96.1 + .1069
96.1 + .1069
97.8 + .1006
102.9 + .0819
109.8 + .0569
109.8 + .0569
114.8 + .0388
125.4

+25.
+21.
+21.
+19.
+20.
+30.
+30.
+30.
+30
+28
+21
+14
+14
+ 9

889

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
Table

I — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

SLAUGHTERING A N D MEAT PACKING—Continued.
DRY SALTERS, Male.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893 .............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
L899.............
L900.............
L901.............
L902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela: 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
172
114
114
118
127
156
186
206
241
253
201
222
216
223
249

100.0
+ 77 + 44.8
66.3
+135 +118.4
66.3
+135 +118.4
68.6
+131 +111.0
+122 + 96.1
73.8
90.7
+ 93 + 59.6
+ 63 + 33.9
108.1
119.8
+ 43 + 20.9
140.1
+ 8 + 3.3
4 147.1
1.6
116.9 • + 48 + 23.9
129.1
+ 27 + 12.2
125.6
+ 33 + 15.3
129.7
+ 26 + 11.7
144.8

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.98
59.98

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase (+ ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

-0 .0 2
- .02
- .02
- .02
- .02
- .02
- .02
- .02
- .02
- .02
- .02
- .02
- .02

+$0.0194
+ .0102
+ .0118
+ .0108
+ .0123
+ .0241
+ .0276
+ .0277
+ .0297
+ .0233
+ .0162
+ .0209
+ .0185
+ .0090

+11.5
+ 5.7
+ 6.7
+ 6.1
+ 7.0
+14.6
+17.1
+17.2
+18.7
+14.1
+ 9.4
+12.5
+10.9
+ 5.0

- 2 . 8 $0.2171 100.0 +$0.0433
-1 .2
.2231 102.8 + .0373
-1 .2
.2231 102.8 + .0373
- 1 .2
.2288 105.4 + .0316
-4 .1
.2281 105.1 + .0323
- 4 .1
.2031 93.6 + .0573
-3 .2
.2118 97.6 + .0486
-3 .2
.2118 97.6 + .0486
-3 .2
.2118 97.6 + .0486
-3 .2
.2147 98.9 + .0467
-3 .2
.2147 98.9 + .0457
- 3 .2
.2265 104.3 + .0339
-3 .2
.2324 107.0 + .0280
- .9 .2438 112.3 + .0166
.2604 119.9

+19.9
+16.7
+16.7
+13.8
+14.2
+28.2
+22.9
+22.9
+22.9
+21.3
+21.3
+15.0
+12.0
+ 6.8

+ 0.2 $0.3150 100.0 -$0.0022
+ .3 .3154 100.1 — .0026
+ .3 .3154 100.1 — .0026
+ .3 .3154 100.1 — .0026
+ .3 .3154 100.1 — .0026
+ .3 .3154 100.1 — .0026
+ .3 .3154 100.1 — .0026
+ .3 .3154 100.1 — .0026
+ .3 .3154 100.1 — .0026
- .2 .3107 98.6 + .0021
- .2 .3161 100.3
.0033
- .2 .3132 99.4 — .0004
- .6 .3090 98.1 + .0038
.3090 98.1 + .0038
.3128 99.3

- 0 .7
- .8
- .8
- .8
- .8
- .8
- .8
- .8
- .8
+ .7

-0 .0 3 $0.1693
- .03 .1785
- .03 .1769
- .03 .1779
- .03 .1764
- .03 .1646
- .03 .1611
- .03 .1610
- .03 .1590
- .03 .1654
- .03 .1725
- .03 .1678
- .03 .1702
.1797
.1887

100.0
105.4
104.5
105.1
104.2
97.2
95.2
95.1
93.9
97.7
101.9
99.1
100.5
106.1
111.5

GUTTERS) CATTLE, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
W . 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895 .............
896.............
897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

16
13
13
13
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
20
19

100.0
81.3
81.3
81.3
100.0
100.0
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
125.0
118.8

+3
+6
+6
+6
+3
+3
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
-1

+18.8
+46.2
+46.2
+46.2
+18.8
+18.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
- 5.0

52.48
51.62
51.62
51.62
53.19
53.19
52.71
52.71
52.71
52.71
52.71
52.71
52.71
51.45
51.00

100.0
98.4
98.4
98.4
101.4
101.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.0
97.2

-1 .4 8
- .62
- .62
- .62
-2 .1 9
-2 .1 9
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
- .45

GUTTERS, HOG, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
.v. 1890-99.

*90.............

m .............

*92.............
*93.............
*94.............
*95.............
*96.............
*97.............
*98.............
*99.............
XX).............
X)1.............
K)2.............
H)3.............

13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
15
15
15

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
107.7
107.7
107.7
115.4
115.4
115.4




+2|
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+1
+1
+1

+15.4
+15.4
+15.4
+15.4
+15.4
+15.4
+15.4
+15.4
+15.4
+ 7.1
+ 7.1
+ 7.1

56.14
56.08
56.08
56.08
56.08
56.08
56.08
56.08
56.08
56.36
56.36
56.36
56.60
56.27
56.27

100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.8
100.2
100.2

+0.13
+ .19
+ .19
+ .19
+ .19
+ .19
+ .19
+ .19
+ .19
- .09
- .09
- .09
- .33

-

1.0

- .1
+ 1.2
4-1.2

890

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I .— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 716 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SIiAUGHTERING A N D MEAT PACKING—Continued.
HEADERS, CATTLE, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896 . . . . . . . .
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­ 1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. num­
num- num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Per
Num­
Amount. cent.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
17
18
18
18
17
17
17
17
17
16
17
17
16
19
19

100.0
105.9
105.9
105.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.1
100.0
100.0
94.1
111.8
111.8

+2
+1
+1
H-l
+2
+2
+2
+2
+2
+3
+2
+2
+3

+11.8
+ 6.6
+ 5.6
+ 6.6
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+11.8
+18.8
+11.8
+11.8
+18.8

63.21
53.94
63.94
53.94
53.59
53.59
52.71
52.71
52.71
52.25
52.71
62.71
52.25
51.00
51.00

100.0
101.4
101.4
101.4
100.7
100.7
99.1
99.1
99.1
98.2
99.1
99.1
98.2
95.9
95.9

-2 .2 1
—2.94
-2 .9 4
-2 .9 4
-2 .5 9
-2 .5 9
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
-1 .2 5
-1 .7 1
-1 .7 1
-1 .2 5

- 4 . 2 80.2689 100.0 +80.0621
-5 .6
.2630 97.8 + .0680
-5 .5
.2630 97.8 + .0680
.2630 97.8 + .0680
-5 .5
.2744 102.0 + .0566
-4 .8
-4 .8
.2633 97.9 + .0677
-3 .2
.2717 101.0 + .0593
-3 .2
.2650 98.5 + .0660
-3 .2
.2733 101.6 + .0577
.2842 105.7 + .0468
-2 .4
- 3 .2
.2684 99.8 + .0626
- 3 .2
.2899 107.8 + .0411
-2 .4
.2885 107.3 + .0425
.3059 113.8 + .0251
.3310 123.1

+23.:
+25.1
+25.1
+25.1
+20. <
+25.'
+21.:
+24.'
+21.
+16.
+23.
+14.
+14.
+ 8.

HEADERS, HOG, Male.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

7
8
8
8
8
8
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

100.0
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7

-1
-2
-2
-2
-2
—2

-1 4 .3
-2 5 .0
-2 5 .0
-2 5 .0
-2 5 .0
—
25.0

52.69
51.00
61.00
61.00
51.00
51.00
54.17
54.17
54.17
54.17
54.17
54.17
54.17
63.33
53.33

100.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
101.4
101.4

+0.74
+2.33
+2.33
+2.33
+2.33
+ 2 .33
— .84
— .84
— .84
— .84
— .84
— .84
— .84

+ 1 .4 $0.2642
+ 4 .6 .2563
+ 4 .6 .2563
+ 4 .6 .2563
+ 4 .6 .2844
+ 4 .6 .2844
- 1 .6
.2625
—1.6 .2625
—1.6 .2625
—1.6 .2625
—1.6 .2542
—1.6 .2625
—1.6 .2625
.2583
.2817

100.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
107.6
107.6
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
96.2
99.4
99.4
97.8
106.6

+ $ 0 .0175
+ .0254
+ .0254
+ .0254
—
.0027
—
.0027
+ .0192
+ .0192
+ .0192
+ .0192
+ .0275
+ .0192
+ .0192
+ .0234

+
+
+
+
—
__

6.
9.
9.
9.

(
(

+ 7,
+ 7.
+ 7.
+ 7
+10
+ 7
+ 7
+ 9

LABORERS, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

100.0
85.1
87.3
90.7
88.9
99.7
101.3
101.3
108.3
111.6
125.7
130.4
6,110 137.4
6,420 144.3
6,360 143.0

4,448
3,785
3,885
4,035
3,955
4,435
4,605
4,505
4,815
4,965
5,590
5,800




+1,912
+2,575
+2,475
+2,325
+2,405
+1,925
+1,855
+1,855
+1,545
+1,395
+ 770
+ 560
• 2o0
j60

+43.0
+68.0
+63.7
+57.6
+60.8
+43.4
+41.2
+41.2
+32.1
+28.1
+13.8
+ 9.7
+ 4.1
.9

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
ioo. o

$0.1619
.1702
.1700
.1702
.1709
.1544
.1537
.1530
.1536
.1586
.1643
.1586
.3574
.3644
.3746

100.0 + $ 0 .0127
105.1 + .0044
105.0 + .0046
105.1 + .0044
105.6 + .0037
95.4 + .0202
94.9 + .0209
94.5 + .0216
94.9 + .0210
98.0 + .0160
101.5 + .0103
+ .0160
+ .0172
+ .0102

+ 1
+ 5
+ s
+ $
+ $
+ lt
+1J
+P
+1«
+1<
+ <
+H
+H
+ «

891

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SliAUGHTERING A N D MEAT PACKING—Continued,
P1CKLERS, Male,
[Data from 7 establishments. |

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

355
216
245
251
265
315
372
410
483
522
470
485
535
546
566

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
+211
+350
+321
+315
+301
+251
+194
+156
+ 83
+ 44
+ 96
+ 81
+ 31
+ 20

100.0
60.8
69.0
70.7
74.6
88.7
104.8
115.5
136.1
147.0
132.4
136.6
150.7
153.8
159.4

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+ 59.4
+162.0
+131.0
+125.5
+113.6
+ 79.7
+ 52.2
+ 38.0
+ 17.2
+ 8.4
+ 20.4
+ 16.7
+ 5.8
+ 3.7

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.99
59.99

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

-0 .0 1
- .01
- .01
- .01
- .01
- .01
- .01
- .01
- .01
- .01
- .01
- .01
- .01

-0 .0 2 $0.1642
- .02 .1708
- .02 .1696
- .02 .1698
- .02 .1698
- .02 .1580
- .02 .1561
- .02 .1568
- .02 .1590
- .02 .1639
- .02 .1678
- .02 .1650
- .02 .1655
.1772
. 1872

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) i n
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Per
Amount. cent.

100.0
104.0
103.3
103.4
103.4
96.2
95.1
95.5
96.8
99.8
102.2
100.5
100.8
107.9
114.0

+$0.0230
+ .0164
+ .0176
+ .0174
+ .0174
+ .0292
+ .0311
+ .0304
+ .0282
+ .0233
+ .0191
+ .0222
+ .0217
-1 .0100
-

+14.0
+ 9.6
+10.4
+10.2
+10.2
+18.5
+19.9
+19.4
+17.7
+14.2
+11.6
+13.5
+13.1
+ 5.6

100.0
102.9
102.9
102.9
100.3
95.0
95.0
95.0
95.0
100.3
110.8
110.8
110.8
118.7
.4083 129.3

4-S0.0925
.0833
.0833
+ .0833
.0916
.1083
+ .1083
-j" .1083
.1083
+ .0916
+ .0583
4- .0583
+ .0583
.0333

+ 29.3
+ 25.6
+ 25.6
+ 25.6
+ 28.9
+ 36.1
+ 36.1
+ 36.1
+ 36.1
+ 28.9
+ 16.7
+ 16.7
+ 16.7

- 0 .1 $0.2634 100.0 -$0.0111
- .6
.2750 104.4 _ .0227
.0227
- .6
.2750 104.4
- .6
.2750 104.4 _ .0227
- .6
.2750 104.4 — .0227
.2763 104.9 — .0240
- .6
- .6
.2763 104.9 — .0240
.0240
- .6
.2763 104.9
.0240
- .6
.2763 104.9
- .6
.2132 80.9 + .0391
+ 4 .0
.2156 81.9 + .0367
— .9
.2682 101.8
.0159
.0022
— .9
.2545 96.6
.0022
.2545 96.6
.2523 95.8

- 4.2
- 8.3
- 8.3
- 8.3
- 8.3
- 8.7
- 8.7
- 8.7
- 8.7
+18.3
+17.0
— 5.9
.9
.9

RUMP SKINNERS, CATTLE, Male,
[Data from 2 establishments.]
4 v . 1890- 99 .
L 9 0 ...........
8

.8 9 1 ...........
.8 9 2 ...........
i8 9 3 ...........
1894 ...........
.895 ...........
8 9 6 ...........
897 ...........
8 9 8 ...........
8 8 9 ...........
9 0 0 ...........
9 0 1 ...........
9 0 2 ...........
9 0 3 ...........

6 100.0
4 66.7
4 66.7
4 66.7
6 100.0
100.0
6 100.0
6 100.0
6 100.0
6 100.0
7 116.7
7 116.7
7 116.7
7 116.7

+2
+2
+2

+ 50.0
+ 50.0
+ 50.0

-1
-1
—1
—1

-

6

14.3
14.3
14.3
14.3

6 100.0

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

$0.3158

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

.3250
.3250
.3250
.3167
.3000
.3000
.3000
.3000
.3167
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3760

-j-

4444-

+ 8.9

SCRAPERS, HOG, Male,
[Data from 5 establishments.]
l v . 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
16
11
11
11
11

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
84.2
57.9
57.9
57.9
57.9

-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-8
-5

-4 2 .1
-4 2 .1
-4 2 .1
-4 2 .1
-4 2 .1
-4 2 .1
-4 2 .1
-4 2 .1
-4 2 .1
-4 2 .1
-3 1 .3

%

10092— N o . 53—04------- 13



48.42
48.63
48.63
48.63
48.63
48.63
48.63
48.63
48.63
48.63
46.50
48.82
48.82
48.36
48.36

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
96.0
100.8
100.8
99.9
99.9

-0 .0 6
- .27
- .27
- .27
- .27
- .27
- .27
- .27
- .27
- .27
+1.86
— .46
- .46

_
—
_
_

892

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

SLAUGHTERING A N D MEAT PACKING—Continued.
SIDS SKINNERS, CATTLE, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

41
36
36
36
42
42
43
43
43
43
44
44
45
49
47

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

100.0
87.8
87.8
87.8
102.4
102.4
104.9
104.9
104.9
104.9
107.3
107.3
109.8
119.5
114.6

+ 6
+11
+11
+11
+ 5
+ 5
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4
+ 3
+ 3
+ 2
- 2

+14.6
+30.6
+30.6
+30.6
+11.9
+11.9
+ 9.3
+ 9.3
+ 9.3
+ 9.3
+ 6.8
+ 6.8
+ 4.4
— 4.1

51.30
50.44
50.44
50.44
51.81
51.81
61.65
51.65
61.65
51.65
61.50
51.50
51.36
50.80
50.40

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
100.0
98.3
98.3
98.3
101.0
101.0
190.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.0
98.2

-0 .9 0
- .04
- .04
- .04
-1 .4 1
-1 .4 1
-1 .2 5
-1 .2 5
-1 .2 5
-1 .2 5
-1 .1 0
-1 .1 0
- .96
- .40

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

1
- 1 . 8 30.4208 100. o; +30.0691
.4389 104.3 + .0510
- .1
- .1
.4389 104.3 + .0510
.4500 106.9 + .0399
- .1
-2 .7
.4500 106.9 + .0399
-2 .7
.4000 95.1 + .0899
-2 .4
.4000 95.1 + .0899
-2 .4
.4000 95.1 + .0899
-2 .4
.4000 95.1 + .0899
- 2 .4
.4070 96.7 + .0829
- 2 .1
.4227 100.5 + .0672
-2 .1
.4500 106.9 + .0399
-1 .9
.4500 106.9 + .0399
.4684 111.3 + .0215
- .8
|
.4899 116.4

Per
cent.
+16.4
+11.<
+11. (
+ 8.<
+ 8.i
+22.1
+22.1
+22.1
+22.1
+20. <
+15.1
+ 8.1
+ 8.1
+ 4.1

SPLITTERS, CATTLE, Male.
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
3897.............
1 8 9 8 ............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

23
21
21
21
23
23
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
28
29

100.0
91.3
91.3
91.3
100.0
100.0
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
121.7
126.1

+6
+8
+8
+8
+6
+6
+4
+4
+4
+4
+4
+4
+4
+1

+26.1
+39.0
+39.0
+39.0
+26.1
+26.1
+16.0
+16.0
+16.0
+16.0
+16.0
+16.0
+16.0
+ 3.6

50.97
50.33
5X33
60.33
51.17
51.17
51.28
51.28
51.28
51.28
51.28
51.28
51.28
50.54
50.34

100.0
98.7
98.7
98.7
100.4
100.4
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
99.2
98.8

-0 .6 3
+ .01
+ .01
+ .01
- .83
- .83
- .94
- .94
- .94
- .94
- .94
- .94
- .94
- .20

- 1 .2 $0.4211
+ .02 .4405
+ .02 .4405
+ .02 .4500
.4500
- 1 .6
-1 .6
.4000
.4000
- 1 .8
.4000
-1 .8
-1 .8
.4000
.4080
- 1 .8
-1 .8
.4220
-.4500
- 1 .8
.4500
-1 .8
- .4
.4688
,4897

100.0 +80.0686
104.6 + .0492
104.6 + .0492
106.9 + .0397
106.9 + .0397
95.0 + .0897
95.0 + .0897
95.0 + .0897
95.0 + .0897
96.9 + .0817
100.2 + .0677
106.9 + .0397
106.9' + .0397
111.8 + .0209
116. S
j

+16.
+11.
+11.
+ 8..
+ 8.'
+22.
+22.
+22.
+22.
+20.
+16.
+ 8.
+ 8.
+ 4.

- 0 .4 80.2795 100.0 +80.0264
- .5
.2750 98.4 + .0309
.2750 98.4 + .0309
- .6
- .6
.2750 98.4 + .0309
.2768 99.0 + .0291
- .5
.2768 99.0 + .0291
- .5
.2821 100.9 + .0238
- .6
- .5
.2821 100.9 + .0238
.2821 100.9 + .0238
- .5
.2828 101.2 + .0231
+ .2
.2875 102.9 + .0184
+ .2
.2875 102.9 + .0184
+ .2
.2852 102.0 + .0207
— .6
.2852 102.0 + .0207
.3059 109.4

+ 9.
+11.
+11.
+11.
+10.
+10.
+ 8.
+ 8.
+ 8.
+ 8.
+ 6.
+ 6.
+ 7.
+ 7.

...
1

SPLITTERS, HOG, Male.
[Data from 6 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
16
16
16
17
17
17

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0:
100.0
100.0
100.0
114.3
114.3
114.3
121.4
121.4
121.4




+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+3
+1
+1
+1

+21.4
+21.4
+21.4
+21.4
+21.4
+21.4
+21.4
+21.4
+21.4
+ 6.3
+ 6.3
+ 6.3

53.56
53.64
53.64
53.64
53.64
53.64
53.64
63.64
53.64
53.25
53.25
53.25
53.65
53.35
53.35

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
m i
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.4
99.4
99.4
100.2
99.6
99.6

-0 .2 1
- .29
- .29
- .29
- .29
- .29
- .29
- .29
- .29
+ .10
+ .10
+ .10
— .30

893

WAGES AND OOST OF LIVING,
Ta b l e

I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899I 100.0. For explanation of relative figures; see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
I
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SLAUGHTERING A N D MEAT PACKING—Concluded,
STICKERS, CATTLE, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) i n
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
111.1

+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1

+11.1 54.78
+11.1 54.78
+11.1 1 54.78
+11.1 61.78
+11.1 54.78
+11.1 54.78
+11.1 54.78
+11.1 54.78
+11.1 54.78
+11.1 54.78
+11.1 54.78
+11.1 54.78
+11.1 54.78
+11.1 54.78
55.30

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.9

+0.52
+ .52
+ .62
+ .52
+ .52
+ .52
+ .52
+ .52
+ .52
+ .52
+ .52
+ .52
+ .52
+ .52

+ 0 .9 60.2718 100.0 +60.0415
+ .9 .2815 103.6 + .0318
+ .9 .2815 103.6 + .0318
+ .9 .2815 103.0 + .0318
+ .9 .2815 103.6 + .0318
+ .9 .2648 97.4 + .0485
+ .9 .2648 97.4 + .0485
+ .9 .2648 97.4 + .0485
+ .9 .2648 97.4 + .0485
+ .9 .2648 97.4 + .0485
+ .9 .2676 98.5 + .0457
+ .9 .2759 101.5 + .0374
+ .9 .2759 101.5 + .0374
+ .9 .2954 108.7 + .0179
.3133 115.3

+15.3
+11.3
+11.3
+11.3
+11.3
+18.3
+18.3
+18.3
+18.3
+18.3
+17.1
+13.6
+13.6
+ 6.1

STICKERS, HOG, Male.
[Data from 6 establishments.]

SOAP.
BOILERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
l .1890-99.
V

891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1CD.0
100.0
100.0
160.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0




60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

60.1923
.1750
.1750
.1861
.1945
.1945
.1945
.1972
.1945
.2056
.2056
.2083
.2250
.2278
.2444

100.0+60.0521
9 1 .0 + .0694 +39.7
9 1 .0 + .0694 +39.7
9 6 .8 + .0583 +31.3
101.1 + .0499 +25.7
101.1 + .0499 +25.7
101.1 + .0499 +25.7
1 0 2 .5 + .0472 +23.9
101.1 + .0499 +25.7
106.9,
+ .0388
+18.8
106.9, + .0388 +18.8
10 8 .3 + .0361 +17.3
1 1 7 .0 + .0194 + 8.6
1 1 8 .5 + .0166 + .7.3
127.1
....

894

BULLETIN OB’ THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SO A P—Continued.
CUTTERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.
19
19
19
19
17
19
19
17
19
19
19
17
19
19
20

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
89.5
100.0
100.0
89.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
89.5
100.0
100.0
105.3

+1
+1
+1
+1
+3
+1
+1
+3
+1
+1
+1
+3
+1
+1

+ 5.3
+ 5.3
+ 5.3
+ 5.3
+17.6
+ 5.3
+ 5.3
+17.6
+ 5.3
+ 5.3
+ 5.3
+17.6
+ 5.3
+ 5.3

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

59.37
58.11
58.11
58.11
60.00
59.37
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount cent.
ber.
cent.
100.0
97.9
97.9
97.9
101.1
100.0
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1

+ 1.1 $0.1633 100.0
+ 3 .3 .1627 99.6
+ 3 .3 .1632 99.9
+ 3 .3 .1636 100.2
.1622 99.3
+1 .1 .1640 100.4
.1632 99.9
.1637 100.2
.1623 99.4
.1645 100.7
.1636 100.2
.1668 102.1
.1681 102.9
.1681 102.9
.1750 107.2

n +0.63

+1.89
+1.89
+1.89
+ .63

+$0.0117
+ .0123
+ .0118
+ .0114
+ .0128
+ .0110
+ .0118
+ .0113
+ .0127
+ .0105
+ .0114
+ .0082
+ .0069
+ .0069

+ 7 .2
+ 7 .6
+ 7 .2
+ 7 .0
+ 7 .9
+ 6 .7
+ 7 .2
+ 6 .9
+ 7 .8
+ 6 .4
+ 7 .0
+4 .9
+ 4.1
+ 4.1

LABORERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
A v . 1890- 99 .

1890 ............
1 891 ............
1892 ............
1 893 ............
1 894 ...........
1895 ............
1896 ...........
1 897 ...........
1898 ...........
189 9 ...........
1900 ...........
1901 ............
1902 ...........
1 903 ...........

179
183
193
203
152
163
173
173
172
193
183
163
163
163
167

100.0
102.2
107.8
113.4
84.9
91.1
96.6
96.6
96.1
107.8
102.2
91.1
91.1
91.1
93.3

—12
-1 6
-2 6
-3 6
+15
+ 4
—6
- 6
—5
—26
—16
+ 4
+ 4
+ 4

- 6.7
- 8.7
- 13.5
- 17.7
+ 9 .9
+ 2 .5
— 3 .5
— 3 .5
— 2 .9
—13.5
— 8.7
+ 2 .5
+ 2 .5
+ 2 .5

58.21
54.10
54.09
54.09
60.00
59.78
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
92.9
92.9
92.9
103.1
102.7
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
108.1
103.1

+ 1.79
+ 5.90
+ 5.91
+ 5.91

+ 3.1 $0.1645
+ 10.9 .1825
+ 10.9 .1826
+ 10.9 .1826

+

+

.22

.4

.1497
.1546
.1546
.1597
.1597
.1597
.1597
.1646
.1647
.1647
,1751

100.0 +$0.0106
110.9 — .0074
111.0 — .0075
111.0 — .0075
91.0 + .0254
94.0 + .0205
94.0 + .0205
97.1 + .0154
97.1 -j- .0154
.0154
97.1
97.1 + .0154
100.1 + .0105
.0104
100.1
100.1
.0104
106.4

4-

44-

+

6.4

-

4.1

- 4.1
- 4.1
+ 17 . (
+ 13 . i
+ 13 . i
+ 9 .<
+ 9. (
+ 9 .<
+ 9 .<
+ 6 .'
+ 6 .:
+ 6 .:

MIXERS, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1 9 0 2 ....___
1903.............

13
13
13
13
11
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
84.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0




+ 2

58.61
55.38
55.38
55.38
+18.2 60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
94.5
94.5
94.5
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4

+1.39
+4.62
+4.62
+4.62

+ 2 .4 $0.1775 100.0 +80.0180
+ 8 .3 .1859 104.7 + .0096
+ 8 .3 .1853 104.4 + .0102
+ 8 .3 .1859 104.7 + .0096
.1706 96.1 + .0249
.1705 96.1 + .0250
.1705 96.1 + .0250
.1705 96.1 + .0250
.1782 100.4 + .0173
.1788 100.7 + .0167
.1788 100.7 + .0167
.1712 96.5 + .0243
.1795 101.1 + .0160
.1878 105.8 4 - .0077
.1955 110.1

+10.
+ 5.
+ 5.
+ 5.
+14.
+14.
+14.
+14.
+ 9.
+ 9.

+

9.

+
+

8.
4.

+14.

895

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

SO A P—Concluded.
HOLDERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
i.893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902 .............
L903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—jin
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. number.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —jin
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100. ol
100.01
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. oj

80.1686
.1667
.1688
.1667
.1688
.1688
.1688
.1688
; ; ..........i .1688
.1688
.1709
.1709
.1729
.1750
.1771

100.0
98.9
100.1
98.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
101.4
101.4
102.6
103.8
105.0

+80.0085
+ . 0104
+ .0083
+ .0104
+ .0083
+ .0083
+ .0083
+ .0083
+ .0083
+ .0083
+ .0062
+ .0062
+ .0042
+ .0021

+ 5 .0
+ 6 .2
+ 4 .9
+ 6 .2
+ 4 .9
+ 4 .9
+ 4 .9
+ 4 .9
+4.1
+ 4 .9
+ 3 .6
+ 3 .6
+ 2 .4
+ 1 .2

+ 2 .7 $0.1076 100.0 +$0.0521
.1134 105.4 + .0463
+ 9 .6
+ 9 .4
.1136 105.6 + .0461
.1139 105.8 + .0458
+ 9 .4
.1066 99.1 + .0531
.1052 97.8 + .0545
+ .4
.1048 97.4 + .0549
.1045 97.1 + .0552
.1043 96.9 + .0554
.1045 97.1 + .0552
.1050 97.6 + .0547
.1058 98.3 + .0539
.1468 136.4 + .0129
.1481 137.6 + .0116
,1597 148.4

+48.4
+40.8
+40.6
+40.2
+49.8
+51.8
+52.4
+ 52.8
+53.1
+52.8
+52.1
+50.9
+ 8.8
+ 7.8

PICISSSISK’Sj Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Vv. 1890-99.
.890.............
.891.............
.892.............
.893.............
.894.............
895.............
896.............
897........
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

55
63
58
68
38
48
58
58
58
58
53
53
26
26
26

100.0
114.5
105.5
105.5
69.1
87.3
105.5
105.5
105.6
105.5
96.4
96.4
47.3
47.3
47.3

-2 9
-3 7
-3 2
-3 2
-1 2
-2 2
-3 2
—32
—32
-3 2
—27
—27

-5 2 .7
-5 8 .7
-5 5 .2
-5 5 .2
-3 1 .6
-4 5 .8
-5 5 .2
-5 5 .2
—55.2
-5 5 .2
-5 0 .9
-5 0 .9

58.42
54.76
54.83
54.83
60.00
59.75
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60. C
O
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
93.7
93.9
93.9
102.7
102.3
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7
102.7

+1.58
+5.24
+5.17
+5.17
+ .25

STOVES.
MOLDER8, Male.
[Data from 7 establishments.]
iv. 1890-99.

890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

373
301
350
369
406
293
363
374
381
435
458
419
459
620
595

100.0
80.7
93.8
98.9
108.8
78.6
97.3
100.3
102.1
116.6
122.8
112.3
123.1
139.4
159.5




+222
+294
+245
+226
+189
+302
+232
+221
+214
+160
+137
+176
+336
+ 75

+ 59.5
+ 97.7
+ 70.0
+ 61.2
+ 46.6
+103.1
+ 63.9
+ 59.1
+ 56.2
+ 36.8
+ 29.9
+ 42.0
+ 29.6
+ 14.4

53.19
53.52
63.16
63.46
52.86
53.20
53.19
53.13
52.99
53.23
53.16
53.28
53.33
53.23
53.15

100.0
100.6
99.9
100.5
99.4
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.6
100.1
99.9
100.2
100.3
100.1
99.9

-0 .0 4
.37
.01
.31
+ .29
.05
_
.04
+ .02
+ .16
.08
_
.01
— .13
— .18
— .08
—
_
_

- 0 .1 $0.2788 100.0 +$0.1055
.2671 95.8 + .1172
- .7
- .02 .2658 95.3 + .1185
.2711 97.2 + .1132
- .6
.2844 102.0 + .0999
+ .5
.2688 96.4 + .1155
- .1
.2741 98.3 + .1102
- .1
+ .04 .2793 100.2 + .1050
.2821 101.2 + .1022
+ .3
.2836 101.7 + .1007
- .2
- .02 .3120 111.9 + .0723
- .2
.3213 115.2 + .0630
.3392 121.7 + .0451
- .3
.3592 128.8 + .0251
- .2
.3843 137.8

+37.8
+43.9
+44.6
+41.8
+35.1
+43.0
+40.2
+37.6
+36.2
+35.5
+23.2
+19.6
+13.3
+ 7.0

896

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able I*—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

STO VES—Concluded.
MOUNTERS, male.
[Data from 7 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( -f) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
147
147
146
157
177
114
137
156
345
137
150
157
168
171
157

300.0
100.0
99.3
106.8
120.4
77.6
93.2
106.1
98.6
93.2
102.0
106.8
114.3
116.3
106.8

+10
+10
+11
-2 0
+43
+20
+ 1
+12
+20
+ 7
-1 1
-1 4

+ 6.8 58.51
+ 6.8 58.52
+ 7.5 58.32
58.55
- i i . 8 58.29
+37.7 58.34
+14.6 58.36
+ .6 53.70
+ 8.3 58.66
+14.6 58.63
+ 4.7 58.68
68.78
- 6.5 58.83
- 8.2 58.82
58.91

100.0
100.0
99.7
100.1
99.6
99.7
99.7
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.3
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.7

+0.40
+ .39
+ .59
+ .36
+ .62
.+ .57
+ .55
+ .21
+ .25
+ .28
+ .23
+ .13
+ .08
+ .09

+0 .7 80.2149 100.0 +80.0870
.1866 86.8 + .1153
+ .7
.1989 92.6 + .1030
+ 1 .0
.2031 94.5 + .0988
+ *6
.2114 98.4 + .0905
+ 1.1
+ 1 .0
.1953 90.9 + .1066
.2172 101.1 + .0847
+ .9
.2002 93.2 + .1017
+ .4
.2195 102.1 + .0824
+ .4
.2379 110.7 + .0640
+ .5
.2784 129.5 + .0235
+ .4
.2571 119.6 + .0448
+ .2
.3077 143.2
.0058
+ •1
.2912 135.5 + .0107
+ .2
.3019 140.5

+40.5
+61.8
+51.8
+48.6
+42.8
+54.6
+39.0
+50.8
+37.5
+26.9
+ 8.4
+17.4
- 1.9
+ 3.7

PATTERN MAKERS, Male.
[Data from 5 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1 8 90...
189 1 ...
189 2 ...
1 8 9 3...
189 4 ...
1 8 9 5 ...
189 6 ...
1 8 97...
189 8 ...
1899...
1 9 0 0...
190 1 ...
190 2 ...
1903 . . .

37
31
54
47
34
32
44
36
22
33
41
42
46
54
33

100.0
83.8
145.9
127.0
91.9
86.5
118.9
97.3
59.5
89.2
110.8
113.5
124.3
145.9
89.2

- 4
+ 2
-2 1
-1 4
- 1
+ 1
-1 1
- 3
+11

-1 0 .8
+ 6.5
-3 8 .9
-2 9 .8
- 2.9
+ 3.1
-2 5 .0
- 8.3
+50.0

- 8
- 9
-1 3
-2 1

-1 9 .5
-2 1 .4
-2 8 .3
-3 8 .9

59.32
69.42
59.24
59.26
59.38
69.31
59.25
69.31
59.45
59.30
59.24
59.21
59.22
59.24
59.30

100.0
100.2
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.9
100.0

-0 .0 2
- .12
+ .06
+ .04
- .08
- .01
+ .05
- .01
- .15
+
+
+
+

.06
.09
.08
.06

-0 .0 3 80.2453
- .2
2393
.2407
+ .1
.2323
+ .1
- .1
.2381
- .02 .2461
.2337
+ .1
- .02 .2421
.2603
- .3
.2623
.2581
+ *1
+ .2
.2571
.2416
+ .1
.2464
+ .1
.2340

100.0
97.6
98.1
94.7
97.1
100.3
95.3
98.7
106.1
106.9
105.2
104.8
98.5
100.4
95.4

-80.0113
— .0053
_ .0067
+ .0017
.0041
— .0121
+ .0003
— .0081
— .0263
_ .0283
_ .0241
— .0231
— .0076
— .0124

- 4.6
- 2.2
- 2.8
+ .7
- 1.7
- 4.9
+ .1
- 3.3
-1 0 .1
-*10.8
- 9.3
- 9.0
- 3.1
- 5.0

STREETS ANT) SEW ERS, CONTRACT WORK.
LABORERS, Male.
[Data from 36 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

3,218
3,292
8,917
8,614
8,531
3,452
2,932
3,183
2,754
2,619
2,884
3,198
3,222
3,243
3,345

100.0
102.3
121.7
112.3
109.7
107.3
91.1
98.9
85.6
81.4
89.6
99.4
100.1
100.8
103.9




+127
+ 53
-572
-2 6 9
-1 8 6
-107
+413
+162
+591
+726
+461
+147
+123
+102

+ 3.9
+ 1.6
-1 4 .6
- 7.4
- 5.3
- 3.1
+14.1
+ 5.1
+21.5
+27.7
+16.0
+ 4.5
+ 3.8
+ 3.1

58.72
59.44
59.52
59.46
59.31
59.32
59.06
68.54
67.18
57.25
68.16
58.03
56.02
55.31
55.32

100.0
101.2
101.4
101.3
101.0
101.0
100 6
99.7
97.4
97.5
99.0
98.8
95.4
94.2
94.2

-3.4Q
-4 .1 2
-4 .2 0
-4 .1 4
-3 .9 9
-4 .0 0
-3 .7 4
-3 .2 2
-1 .8 6
-1 .9 3
-2 .8 4
-2 .7 1
- .70
+ .01

- 5 . 8 80.1534
- 6 .9
.1483
.1365
- 7 .1
.1522
- 7 .0
.1486
- 6 .7
.1503
- 6 .7
.1526
- 6 .3
.1595
-5 .5
.1607
- 3 .3
-3 .4
.1631
.1626
- 4 .9
-4 .7
.1660
-1 .2
.1821
+ .02 .1940
.2015

100.0 +80.0481
96.7 + .0532
89.0 + .0650
99.2 + .0493
96.9 + .0529
98.0 + .0512
99.5 + .0489
104.0 + .0420
104.8 + .0408
106.3 + .0384
106.0 + .0389
108.2 + .0355
118.7 + .0194
126.5 + .0075
131.4

+31.+35. <
+47.i
+32. +35.I
+34.
+32.i
+26.;
+25.+23.1
+23.
+21. +10.'
+ 8.1

897

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,

Table I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

STREETS A N D SEWERS, M UNICIPAL WORK.
LABORERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 47 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 47
establishments, 1890-1893; 48 establishments, 1894-1903.]

Year.

A v. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
10,816
9,701
9,483
10,644
11,266
12,523
11,325
11,095
11,003
10,098
11,021
10,903
11,434
10,179
9,454

100.0
89.7
87.7
98.4
104.2
115.8
104.7
102.6
101.7
93.4
101.9
100.8
105.7
94.1
87.4

-1 ,3 6 2
247
29
-1 ,1 9 0
-1 ,8 1 2
-3 ,0 6 9
-1,871
-1,641
-1 ,5 4 9
644
-1,567
-1 ,4 4 9
-1 ,9 8 0
725

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

-1 2 .6
- 2.5
.3
-1 1 .2
-1 6 .1
-2 4 .5
-1 6 .5
-1 4 .8
-1 4 .1
- 6.4
-1 4 .2
-1 3 .3
-1 7 .3
- 7.1

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
54.71
55.03
54.96
64.95
65.15
65.07
64.81
64.76
64.98
64.65
52.74
51.39
61.00
61.01
60.59

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.4
100.8
100.7
100.2
100.1
100.5
99.9
96.4
93.9
93.2
93.2
92.5

-4 .1 2
-4 .4 4
-4 .3 7
-4 .3 6
-4 .5 6
-4 .4 8
-4 .2 2
-4 .1 7
-4 .3 9
-4 .0 6
-2 .1 5
- .80
- .41
- .42

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

Per
cent.

- 7 . 5 80.1816 100.0 +80.0215 +11.8
.1814 99.9 + .0217 +12.0
- 8 .1
-8 .0
.1807 99.6 + .0224 +12.4
.1789 98.5 + .0242 +13.5
-7 .9
-8 .3
.1786 98.3 + .0245 +13.7
.1832 100.9 + .0199 +10.9
- 8 .1
.1809 99.6 + .0222 +12.3
-7 .7
.1787 98.4 + .0244 +13.7
- 7 .6
.1790 98.6 + .0241 +13.5
-8 .0
- 7 . 4 .1827 100.6 + .0204 +11.2
.1919 105.7 + .0112 + 5.8
- 4 .1
-1 .6
.2001 110.2 + .0030 + 1.5
- .8 .2009 110.6 + .0022 *+ 1.1
- .8 .2015 111.0 + .0016 + .8
.2031 111.8

SUGAR REFINING .
BOILERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 2 establishments, 1894-1903.]

(a)
fai
fai
fai
raj
fa)
fa)
faj
faj
raj
(a)

n n
+ 8
+10
+ 8
+ 9
+11
+10
+ 6
+ 7

«
+25.6
+17.4
+22.7
+17.4
+20.0
+25.6
+22.7
+12.5
+14.9

6^.12
66.35
64.27
63.91
64.71
62.51
63.00
65.33
65.53
67.93

(a)
fa)
?aj
faj
faj
faj
faj
?aj
faj
faj
(a)

11.81
+1.68
+3.66
+4.02
+3.22
+5.42
+4.93
+2.60
+2.40

(«) 0
+ 4 .3 80.2^84
+ 2 .4 .2471
+ 5 .7 .2534
+ 6 .3 .2533
+ 5 .0 .2542
+8 .7 .2516
+ 7 .8 .2520
+ 4 .0 .2501
+ 3.7 .2515
.2523

fa)
fa)
fa)
(a)
(a)
faj
fa)
fa)
fai
fai
(a)

CENTRIFUGAL TENDERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 1 establishment, 1894-1903.]

a Not computed, as data reporte,d do not cover entire base period.



+
+
+
+
+

3

46
44
46
45
43
44
48
47
54

+

%

S'®.

Av. 1890-99.
1894 .........
1895 .........
1896 .........
1897 .........
1898 .........
1899 .........
1900 .........
1901 .........
1902 .........
1903 .........

.0052
.0011
.0010
.0019
.0007
.0003
.0022
.0008

(°) 0
+ 5 .8
+2 .1
- .4
- .4
- .8
+ .3
+ .1
+ .9
+ .3

898

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase (4-) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.J

SUGAR R E FIN IN G —Continued.
C O O P E R S ) M ale*

[No data, 1890-1893; data from 1 establishment, 1894-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

(a)
A v. 1890-99
1894
.....................
1895
.....................
1896
.....................
1897
.....................
1898
.....................
1899
.....................
1900
.....................
1901
.....................
1902
.....................
1903
.....................

(«)
-7
-7
-4
-1
-1
+1
+3
+3
+4

(«) A
- 50.0
- 50.0
- 36.4
- 12.5
- 12.5
+ 16.7
+ 75.0
+ 75.0
+133.3

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. cent.
ber.
cent.

a
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

(a)

(a)

a)
$0.1262
.1119
.1144
.1167
.1167
.1125
.1125
.1126
.1139
.1179

.0060
.0035

^ 6 .6
+ 6 .4
+ 3 .1

.0054
.0054
.0054
.0040

+ 4 .8
+ 4 .8
+ 4 .8
+ 3 .6

50.0117
.0012
.0021
.0114
.0001
.0011
.0010
.0016
.0002

(«)
—9.2
+ 1 .0
+ 1 .8
—9.0
+ .1
+ 1 .0
— .9
—1.4
+ .2

(«)
+$0.0025
+ .0013
+ .0015
+ .0008
.0002
+ .0011
+ .0009
+ .0011
+ .0013

(a)
+ 1 .5
+ .8
+ .9
+ .6
- .1
+ .7
+ .5
+ .7
+ .8

.0012
.0012

+1.0
+1.0

FILTER MEN, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 1 establishment, 1894-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1894 ...
1895 ...
1896 ...
1897 ...
1898 ...
1899 ...
1900 ...
1901 ...
1902 ...
1903 ...

%

66
68

45
42
51
59
76
73
150

R
$

(a) 66
-r **
+ 84
+ 82
+105
+108
+ 99
+ 91
+ 74
+ 77

(a)
+ 78.6
+127.3
+120.6
+233.3
+257.1
+194.1
+154.2
+ 97.4
+105.5

(a)
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

(a)
(a)

(a)

(a)
(a)
la)
la)
V*)
la)
la)
la)

(a)

(«)

$0.1275
.1146
.1137
.1272
.1157
.1147
.1168
.1174
.1156
.1158

$
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)

(a)
(a)

+
+
+
+
_
+

FIREMEN, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 2 establishments, 1894-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

(a)
(a)
129 (a)
126 (a)
131 (a)
123 (°)
101 (a)
104 V*)
103 (a)
99 («)
153
128 (a)

14

(«)
- 1
+ 2
- 3
+ 5
+27
+24
+26
+29
-2 5

a)
- 0.8
+ 1.6
- 2.3
+ 4.1
+26.7
+23.1
+24.3
+29.3
-1 6 .3

(«
75.35
75.24
75.21
74.34
73.43
73.50
73.28
73.58
73.65
73.22

(a)
(a)
la)
la)
la)
(aj
(a)
V*)
i«j
(a)
(«)

-2 .1 3
-2 .0 2
-1 .9 9
-1 .1 2
- .21
- .28
- .06
- .36
- .43

(a)
a)
- 2 . 8 $0.1627
.1639
-2 .7
- 2 .6
.1637
-1 .5
.1644
- .3 .1654
- .4 .1641
- .1 .1643
- .5 .1641
- .6 .1639
.1652

(«)

\)
a
(a)

\la)
a)
la)

ia»

la
)
ia|
la
)

(a)

LABORERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 2 establishments, 1S94-1903.]




899

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.
T able I . —

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SUGAR REFIN ING —Concluded.
WATER TENDERS, Male.

[No data, 1890-1893; data from 2 establishments, 1894-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Vnoi*
x ear.

v. 1890-99.
m .............
595.............
596.............
597.............
598.............
599.............
XX).............
X)1.............
)02.............
X)3.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

(a)
+34.8
+29.2
+34.8
+40.9
+34.8
+34.8
+40.9
+14.8
+19.2

(a)
72.52
73.50
73.04
72.55
73.04
73.57
73.09
73.78
72.92
75.10

(«)
23
24
23
22
23
23
22
27
26
31

(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(a)
(«)
(°)
(a)
(«)

(«)
+8
+7
+8
+9
+8
+8
+9
+4
+5

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
A
4
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
(«)
(«)
(«)
M
(«)

(a)
(a\
\a )

(a)

(a)

(«)
+2.58
+1.60
+2.06
+2.55
+2.06
+1.53
+2.01
+1.32
+2.18

(a)
(«) c («)
+3 .6 $0.2025
+2 .2 .1970 («j
+ 2 .8 .1996 («)
+ 3 .5 .2024 («)
+ 2 .8 .1996 (a)
+ 2.1 .1991 ?a)
+ 2 .8 .2019 fa)
+ 1.8 .1957 (a)
+ 3 .0 .2018 (a)
.1863 (a)

-$0.0162
.0107
.0133
.0161
.0133
.0128
.0156
.0094
.0155

WEIGHERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 2 establishments, 1894-1903.]

WEIGHERS, SAMPLERS, AND TALLYMEN, RAW SUGAR, Male.
[No data, 1890-1893; data from 1 establishment, 1894-1903.]

TIN PLATE.

ASSORTERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1892; data from 1 establishment, 1893-1903.]




(«)
- 8 .0
-5 .4
-6 .7
- 8 .0
-6 .7
-6 .4
- 7 .7
-4 .8
-7 .7

900

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I .— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanatio
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

T IN P I jA T E —Continued.
C A T C H E R S , M a le .

[No data, 1890-1892; data from 1 establishment, 1893-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease(-)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
pared with year
Num­ tive
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

Av. 1890-99
<«)
1893
.....................
1894
.....................
1895
.....................
1896
.....................
1897 ...........
1898
.....................
1899 ...........
1900
.....................
1901
.....................
1902
.....................
1903
.....................

(«> a
+3
+4
+5
+3
+1
+1
-1

Aver­
age
num
ber.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + )o r
Increase ( + ) o
decrease ( —) in
decreased-)ii
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with yea
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
cent
cent.

(«)
56.83
66.80
55.75
66.83
56.75
56.75
56.78
56.78
10.0 56.80
56.78
56.78

(«)
+ 60.0
+ 80.0
+125.0
+ 60.0
+ 12.5
+ 12.5

+
+
+

.02
.03
.05
.03
.03

-

-

.02

(«)
i o ’ l 80.1167
- .04 .1167
.1167
+ .1
- .1
.1083
.1042
+ .1
.1042
+ .1
.1093
.1056
- .04 .1067
.1139
.1250

+$00083
+ .0083
+ .0083
+ .0167
+ .0208
+ .0208
+ .0157
+ .0194
+ .0183
+ .0111

(«)
+ 7
+ 7
+ 7
+15
+20
+20
+14
+18
+17
+ 9

DUSTERS, Female*
[No data, 1890-1892; data from 1 establishment, 1893-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

(a)
h !
17j
15,
9
12
J
16;
10
15
24
27
24

(«)
+10
+ 7
+ 9
+15
+12
+ 8
+14
+ 9
«)

k

-

(a)
+ 71.4
+ 41.2
+ 60.0
+166.7
+100.0
+ 60.0
+140.0
+ 60.0

3 -

<-1.04
- .01
+ .02
- .03

56.76
66.73
56.78
56.75
56.75
56.80
56.73
66.75
11.1 56.74
56.75

8

i l l 80.0833
- .02 .0833
+ .04 .0834
- .1
.0833

- .05
+ .02

UO. IV

- .1
+ .04

+ .01

+ .02

.0833
.0833
.0871
.0882

[a)
(a)
av

la )
fav

[ai
(a)
[av
[av
(av
[av
fa)

(«)
+$0.0049
+ .0049
+ .0048
+ .0049
+ .0049
+ .0049
+ .0049
+ .0049
+ .0049
+ .0011

(«)
+f

+t

+f
+f

+t

+E
+'
+f
+t
+1

LABORERS, Male*
[No data, 1890-1892; data from 1 establishment, 1893-1903.]
Av. 1890-99. <«)
.....................
1893
1894
.....................
5
1895
.....................
15
1896
.....................
6
1897
.....................
7
1898
.....................
6
1899
.....................
6
1900
.....................
11
1901
.....................
15
1902
.....................
14
14

12

(a)
+2
+9
-1
+8
+7
+8
+8
+3
-1

(«)
+ 16.7
+180.0
6.7
+133.3
+100.0
+133.3
+133.3
+ 27.3
6.7

a
56.75
56.80
56.73
56.83
56.71
56.83
56.83
66.73
56.73
56.79
56.79

VI. 04
- .01
+ .05
- .04
+ .08
- .04
- .04
+ .06
+ .06

(«)
+ 0.1 $0.1625
- .02 .1500
.1600
+ .1
.1584
- .1
.1524
+ .1
.1528
- .1
- .1
.1500
.1500
+ .1
.1500
+ .1
.1500
.1536

(a\

(av
(aj
(a)
(a)
(av
(av
(av
(av
(av
(av
(a)

TICKLERS, Male.
[No data, 1890-1892; data from 1 establishment, 1893-1903.]

a Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.




- $ 0 . 0089
+ .0036
.0064
.0048
+ .0012
+ .0008
+ .0036
+ .0036
+ .0036
+ .0036

(«)
+S
—<
+
+
+S
+'<
+‘
<
+‘
<

901

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able I* —

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

'Average 1890-1899*100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
* of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1908, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

P L A T E —Concluded.

T IN

TINMEN, Male.
[No data, 1890-1892; data from 1 establishment, 1893-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

X car.

.V. 1890-99.
*93.............
*94.............
*95.............
*96.............
*97.............
*98.............
*99.............
)00.............
)01.............
)02.............
X)3.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + )or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) i n
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
num­ num­
age. tive.
ber. num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Num- 1 Per
Per
Num­
Amount. Per
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
(«)
11
10
4
3
3
5
5
7
6
6
6

(a)
(ai
(a)

la)
la)
la)
la i
la)
la)
la)
(a)

(«)
—5
-4
+2
+3
+3
+1
+1
-1

(«)
- 45.5
- 40.0
+ 60.0
+100.0
+100.0
+ 20.0
+ 20.0
- 14.3

(a)

(«)
56.73
56.80
56.75
56.67
56.67
56.80
56.80
56.71
56.83
56.83
56.83

(a)
(«)
(«)
(«)
(a)
(a)

la)

(a)
(a)

la)
la)

(a)
+0.10
+ .03
+ .08
+ .16
+ .16
+ .03
+ .03
+ .12

W

(«)
(«)
+ 0 .2 $0.3291
+ .1 .3646
+ *1 .3802
+ .3 .2866
+ .3 .3684
+ .1 .3835
+ .1 .3450
+ .2 .3968
.3809
.3984
.3992

(a)
la)
la)
(a)
(a)
( aj
(«)
(«)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(«)

(«)
+$0.0701
+ .0346
+ .0190
+ .1126
+ .0308
+ .0157
+ .0542
+ .0024
+ .0183
+ .0008

(O
+21.3
+ 9.5
+ 5.0
+39.3
+ 8.4
+ 4.1
+15.7
+ .6
+ 4.8
+ .2

(«>
+$0.0644
+ .0609
— .0153
+ .0397
+ .0272
— .0198
+ .0306
_ .0245
— .0135
— .0234

(°> + 28.5
+26.5
- 5.0
+15.8
+10.3
- 6.4
+11.8
- 7.8
- 4.4
- 7.5

WASH MEN, Male.
[No data, 1890-1892; data from 1 establishment, 1893-1903.]
V. 1890-99.
*93.............
*94.............
*95.............
*96.............
*97.............
*98.............
599 .............
KX).............
K)1.............
>02.............
K)3.............

(«)

(a)
3
3 lai
3 la)
3 la)
4 (a)
4 la)
7 la)
6 la)
7 («)
7 (a)
6 (a)

(a)
66.67
56.67
66.67
56.67
56.75
56.75
66.71
56.83
14.3 56.71
14.3 56.71
56.83

+3
+3
+3
+3
+2
+2
-1

(a)
+100.0
+100.0
+100.0
+100.0
+ 50.0
+ 50.0
- 14.3

-1
-1

-

(a)
(a)
(a)
la)
la)
la)
la)
la)
(a)
(a)
(a)

(«)
+0.16
+ .16
+ .16
+ .16
+ .08
+ .08
+ .12
+ .12
+ .12

* W
+ 0 .3 $0.2262
+ .3 .2297
+ .3 .3059
+ .3 .2509
+ .1 .2634
+ .1 .3104
+ .2 .2600
.3151
+ .2 .3041
+ .2 .3140
.2906

(a)
la)
M
M
(aJ

la)
la)
la)
la)
la)

(a)
(o)

TOBACCO, CIGARETTES.
CIGARETTE MACHINE FEEDERS, Male.
)ata for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 1
establishment, 1890-1896; 2 establishments, 1897-1903.]
V. 1890-99.
9 0 .............
91.............
9 2 .............
9 3 '............
9 4 .............
9 5 .............
9 6 .............
9 7 .............
9 8 .............
9 9 .............
0 0 .............
0 1 .............
0 2 .............
0 3 .............

26
25
25
25
26
28
25
28
28
28
26
26
37
35
56

100.0
96.2
96.2
96.2
100.0
107.7
96.2
107.7
107.7
107.7
100.0
100.0
142.3
134.6
215.4

+30
+31
+31
+31
+30
+28
+31
+28
+28
+28
+30
+30
+19
+21

+115.4
+124.0
+124.0
+124.0
+115.4
+100.0
+124.0
+100.0
+100.0
+100.0
+115.4
+115.4
+ 51.4
+ 60.0

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.0745
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0735
.0739
.0723
.0733
.0766
.0780
.0747

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
98.7
99.2
97.0
98.4
102.8
104.7
100.3

« Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.



_
_
_
_
_
_
_
+
+

4-

+

_

0002
.0003
.0003
.0003
.0003
.0003
.0003
.0003
.0012
.0008
.0024
.0014
.0019
.0033

+ 0 .3
— .4
- .4
— .4
— .4
— .4
— .4
— .4
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .1
+ 3 .3
+ 1 .9
- 2 .5
- 4 .2

1902

BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF LABOR.

Table I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

’ [Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, CIGARETTES—Continued.
CIGARETTE: MACHINE FEEDERS, Female.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with yea
specified.
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
ber. num­
num­ num­
ber. ber.
ber.
Per
NumPer
Num­
Per
Amount.
cent.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

87.0
87.0
91.3
95.7
95.7
104.3
104.3
108.7
108.7
108.7
117.4
108.7
108.7
108.7

.

100
100.
100.
100.
.
100.
100.
100.
100
100.
100
100.
100.

57.25
57.25
57.25
57.24 100.
57.27
57.27 100
57.25
57.25
57.24
57.24 100.
57.24
.
7.4 57.26
.
57.24
57.24
57.21

+2
+5
+6
+4
+3
+3
+1
+1

+ 8.7
+25.0
+25.0
+19.0
+13.6
+13.6
+ 4.2
+ 4.2

-2

-

-

0.01
.01
.01
.03

-

.02

- 0 02 $0.0943
.0873
.0873
.0873
.0873
.0873
.0873
.1048
.1048
.1048
.1048
.1048
.1048
.1048
.1048

100.0 +$0.0105 +11

92.6
92.6
92.6
92.6
92.6
92.6
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1

+
+
+
+
+
+

.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175

+20
+20

+20
+20

+20
+20

CIGARETTE MACHINE OPERATORS, Male.
[Data for employees from 2 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from
establishments, 1890-1896: 3 establishments, 1897-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899 .............
1900 .............
1901.............
1902 .............
1903 .............

38
34
35
35
37
37
37
39
40
41
47
50
51
45
52

100.0
89.5
92.1
92.1
97.4
97.4
97.4
102.6
105.3
107.9
123.7
131.6
134.2
118.4
136.8

+14
+18
+17
+17
+15
+15
+15
+13
+12
+11
+ 6
+ 2
+ 1
+ 7

+36.8
+52.9
+48.6
+48.6
+40.5
+40.5
+40.5
+33.3
+30.0
+26.8
+10.6
+ 4.0
+ 2.0
+15.6

59.25
59.26
59.23
59.14
59.19
59.11
59.11
69.15
59.46
59.45
59.44
59.40
59.33
59.29
59.40

100.0
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.4
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.3

+0.15
+ .14
+ .17
+ .26
+ .21
+ .29
+ .29
+ .25
- .06
- .05
- .04
+ .07
+ .11

+ 0 .3 $0.1171 100.0 +$0.0262
.1029 87.9 + .0404
+ .2
.1044 89.2 + .0389
+ .3
.1066 91.0 + .0367
+ .4
.1053 89.9 + .0380
+ .4
.1186 101.3 + .0247
+ .5
.1186 101.3 + .0247
+ .5
.1168 99.7 + .0265
+ .4
.1302 111.2 + .0131
- .1
.1338 114.3 + .0095
- .1
- .1
.1334 113.9 + .0099
.1363 116.4 + .0070
.1401 119.6 + .0032
+ .1
.1484 126.7 .0051
+ .2
.1433 122.4

+22
+39
+37
+34
+36
+20
+20
+22
+10
+ 7
+ 7
+ 5
+ 2
- 3

CIGARETTE MACHINE OPERATORS, Female.
23
20
20
21
22
22
24
24
25
25
25
25
25
25
25

100.0
87.0
87.0
91.3
95.7
95.7
104.3
104.3
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7




+2
+5
+5
+4
+3
+3
+1
+1

+ 8.7
+25.0
+25.0
+19.0
+13.6
+13.6
+ 4.2
+ 4.2

57.25 100.0
57.25
57.25
57.24 100.0
57.27
57.27
'57.25
57.25
57.24
57.24 100.0
57.24
57.24
57.24
67.24
57.24

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

-

.03
.03
.01
.01

- 0 .0 2 $0.1362
- .02 .1223
- .02 .1223
.1223
.1223
.1397
.1397
.1397
.1397
.1572
.1572
.1572
.1572
. 1572
.1572
1 I 1 i

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892 .............
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

1 1 1*
©
ooo

[Data from 1 establishment.]
100.0 +$0.0210
89.8 + .0349
89.8 + .0349
89.8 + .0349
89.8 + .0349
102.6 + .0175
102.6 + .0175
102.6 + .0175
102.6 + .0175
115.4
115.4
115.4
115.4
115.4
115.4

+11

+2*
+21

+2*
+2*
+15
+15
+15
+15

903

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, CIGARETTES—Concluded.
P A C K IN G M A C H IN E F E E D E R S , F e m a le .

[No data, 1890-1898; data from 1 establishment, 1899-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Per
Num­
ber.
cent.

Av. 1890-99. («)
6
1899
.....................
5
1900
.....................
1901
.....................
13
1902
.....................
10
1903 ........
16

+10
+11
+ 3
+ 6

(«)
+166.7
+220.0
+ 23.1
+ 60.0

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
(«
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

(«)

(a)

a)
0.0667
.0667
.0731
.0717
.0724

+30.0057
+ .0057
.0007
+ .0007

«
+ 8.5
+ 8.5
- 10.0
+ 10.0

PACKING MACHINE OPERATORS, Female.
[No data, 1890-1898; data from 1 establishment, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.

(«)
+3
+3
-4
+2

(«),

(a)
+30.0
+30.0
-2 3 .5
+18.2

(a
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

(«)

(«)

(«)
30.0833
.0833
.0833

(«)

(a)

(a)

TOBACCO, CIGARS.

HUNCH MAKERS, HAND, Male.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments, 1890-1895; 1 establishment, 1896-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

43
32
35
28
35
44
37
38
52
55
69
12
39
44
58

100.0
74.4
81.4
65.1
81.4
102.3
86.0
88.4
120.9
127.9
160.5
27.9
90.7
102.3
134.9

+15
+26
+23
+30
+23
+14
+21
+20
+ 6
+ 3
—13
+4G
+19
+14

+ 34.9
+ 81.3
+ 65.7
+107.1
+ 65.7
+ 31.8
+ 56.8
+ 52.6
+ 11.5
+ 5.5
- 15.9
+383.3
+ 48.7
+ 31.8

57.23
56.93
56.24
53.42
55.12
65.23
55.40
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
1 60.00
i

100.0
99.5
98.3
93.3
96.3
96.5
96.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8

+2.77
+3.07
+3.76
+6.58
+4.88
+4.77
+4.60

+ 4.8 80.1676 100.0 +30.0287
+ 5.4
.1657 98.9 + .0306
.1551 92.5 + .0412
+ 6.7
+12.3
.1412 84.2 + .0551
.1881 112.2 + .0082
+ 8.9
+ 8.6
.1708 101.9 + .0255
+ 8.3
.1630 97.3 + .0333
.1685 100.5 + .0278
.1902 113.5 + .0061
.1682 100.4 + .0281
.1650 98.5 + .0313
.1677 100.1 + .0286
.1797 107.2 + .0166
.1705 101.7 + .0258
.1963 117.1

+17.1
+18.5
+26.6
+39.0
+ 4.4
+14.9
+20.4
+ 16.6
+ 3.2
+16.7
+ 19.0
+17.1
+ 9.2
+15.1

HUNCH MAKERS, HAND, Fem ale.
[Data for employees from 6 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments, 1890-1895; 7 establishments, 1896-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
L891.............
L892.............
1893.............
L894.............
L895.............
1896.............
1897.............
L898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
L903.............

249
223
225
210
227
252
236
231
292
271
321
151
225
242
274

100.0
89.6
90.4
84.3
91.2
101.2
94.8
92.8
117.3
108.8
128.9
60.6
90.4
97.2
110.0

+ 25
+ 51
+ 49
+ 64
+ 47
+ 22
+ 38
+ 43
- 18
+ 3
- 47
+123
+ 49
+ 32

+10.0
+22.9
+21.8
+30.5
+20.7
+ 8.7
+16.1
+18.6
- 6.2
+ 1.1
-1 4 .6
+81.5
+21.8
+13.2

55.59
55.59
55.72
65.28
56.10
56.34
56.25
55.08
54.94
55.06
55.53
51.86
53.93
55.21
55.70

100.0
300.0
100.2
99.4
100.9
101.3
101.2
99.1
98.8
99.0
99.9
93.3
97.0
99.3
100.2

+0.11
+ .11
- .02
+ .42
- .40
- .64
- .55
+ .62
+ .76
+ .64
+ .17
+3.84
+1.77
+ .49

+ 0 .2 $0.1457
.1415
+ .2
- .04 .1459
.1430
+ .8
.1448
- .7
.1455
-1 .1
- 1 .0
.1428
.1469
+1 .1
+ 1 .4
.1570
+ 1 .2
.1482
.1418
+ .3
+ 7 .4
.1339
+ 3 .3
.1520
.1474
+ .9
.1825

100.0 +30.0368
97.1 + .0410
100.1 + .0366
98.1 + .0395
99.4 + .0377
99.9 + .0370
98.0 + .0397
100.8 + .0356
107.8 + .0255
101.7 + .0343
97.3 + .0407
91.9 + .0486
104.3 + .0305
101.2 + .0351
125.3

a Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.




+25.3
+29.0
+25.1
+27.6
+26.0
+25.4
+27.8
+24.2
+16.2
+23.1
+28.7
+36.3
+20.1
+23.8

904

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR,

Table I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average-1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; lor explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1908, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, CIGARS—Continued.
BUNCH MAKERS, MACHINE, Female*
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase f + ) or
Increase ( + )or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —Jin
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified..
specified.
ber. num­
num­ num­
age.
tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Num­
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.
135
101
108
118
106
125
182
129
189
135
152
182
201
220
230

100.0
74.8
80.0
87.4
78.6
92.6
134.8
95.6
140.0
100.0
112.6
134.8
148.9
163.0
170.4

+ 95
+129
+122
+112
+124
+105
+ 48
+101
+ 41
+ 95
+ 78
+ 48
+ 29
+ 10

+ 70.4
+127.7
+113.0
+ 94.9
+117.0
+ 84.0
+ 26.4
+ 78.3
+ 21.7
+ 70.4
+ 51.3
+ 26.4
+ 14.4
+ 4.5

59.40
59.82
59.83
59.85
59.83
59.86
69.90
58.74
58.97
68.49
58.73
58.88
58.86
58.98
58.98

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.8
100.7
100.8
100.8
98.9
99.3
98.6
98.9
99.1
99.1
99.3
99.3

-0 .4 2
- .84
- .85
- .87
- .85
- .88
- .92
+ .24
+ .01
+ .49
+ .25
+ .10
+ .12

- 0 . 7 30.1090 100.0 +§0.0149
- 1 .4
.1110 101.8 + .0129
- 1 .4
.1112 102.0 + .0127
-1 .5
.1129 103.6 + .0110
.1102 101.1 + .0137
- 1 .4
-1 .5
.1036 95.0 + .0203
.1044 95.8 + .0195
-1 .5
.1055 96.8 + .0184
+ *4
+ .02 .1044 95.8 + .0195
+ .8
.1134 104.0 + .0105
+ .4
.1138 104.4 + .0101
+ .2
.1184 108.6 + .0055
.1147 105.2 + .0092
+ .2
.1236 113.4 + .0003
.1239 113.7

+13.7
+11.6
+11 A
+ 9.7
+12 A
+19.6
+18.7
+17.4

+18.7
+ 9A
+ 8.<
+ 4.6
+ 8.6
+ .S

CIGAR MAKERS,Male.
[Data from 9 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

432
861
439
457
628
521
478
390
301
305
443
590
753
543
550

100.0
83.6
101.6
105.8
145.4
120.6
110.6
90.3
69.7
70.6
102.5
136.6
174.3
125.7
127.3

+118
+189
+111
+ 93
- 78
+ 29
+ 72
+160
+249
+245
+107
- 40
-2 0 3
+ 7

+27.3
+52.4
+25.3
+20.4
-1 2 .4
+ 5.6
+15.1
+41.0
+82.7
+80.3
+24.2
- 6.8
-2 7 .0
+ 1.3

53.99
52.88
52.05
53.59
54.42
63.70
53.42
55.47
53.30
54.75
56.33
56.75
57.42
56.58
56.88

100.0
+2.89
+4.00
97.9
96.4
+4.83
+3.29
99.3
+2.46
100.8
+3.18
99.5
98.9
+3.46
102.7 . +1.41
+3.58
98.7
101.4
+2.13
+ .55
104.3
105.1
+ .13
- .54
106.4
+ .30
104.8
105.4

+ 5 .4 $0.2630 100.0 +$0.0209
.2703 102.8 + .0136
+ 7 .6
+ 9 .3
.2816 108.2
.0007
+ 6 .1
.2786 105.9 + .0053
.2661 101.2 + .0178
+ 4 .5
.2644 100.5 + .0195
+ 5 .9
.2605 99.0 + .0234
+ 6 .5
.2471 94.0 + .0368
+ 2 .5
+ 6 .7
.2545 96.8 + .0294
+ 3 .9
.2431 92.4 + .0408
+ 1 .0
.2610 99.2 + .0229
+ .2
.2622 99.7 + .0217
.2764 105.1 + .0075
- .9
+ .5
.2784 105.9 + .0055
.2839 107.9

+ 7.1
+ 5.J
+ l.\
+ 6.'
+ 7. <
+ 9.1
+14.!
+11. (
+16.1
+ 8.1
+ 8.:
+ 2.'
+ 2.(

CIGAR ROLLERS, HANJD, Hale*
[Data for employees from 4 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from '
establishments, 1890-1895; 5 establishments, 1896,1897; 4 establishments, 1898-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

199
185
189
177
388
192
197
190
222
221
233
143
173
181
182

100.0
93.0
95.0
88.9
94.5
96.5
99.0
95.5
111.6
111.1
117.1
71.9
86.9
91.0
91.5




-1 7
- 3
- 7
+ 5
- 6
-1 0
-1 5
- 8
-4 0
-3 9
-5 1
+39
+ 9
+ 1

- 8.5
- 1.6
- 3.7
+ 2.8
- 3.2
- 5.2
- 7.6
- 4.2
- 1 8 .0
- 1 7 .6
-2 1 .9
+27.3
+ 5.2
+ .6

53.61
53.15
63.04
52.17
52.97
53.45
53.21
53.97
54.70
54.56
54.83
51.69
53.06
53.30
63.52

100.0
99.1
98.9
97.3
98.8
99.7
99.3
100.7
102.0
101.8
102.3
96.4
99.0
99.4
99.8

-0 .0 9
+ .37
+ .48
+1.35
+ .55
+ .07
+ .31
- .45
-1 .1 8
-1 .0 4
-1 .3 1
+1.83
+ .46
+ .22

- 0 . 2 $0.1957 100.0 +$0.0260
.1980 101.2 + .0237
+ .7
.1925 98.4 + .0292
+ *9
+ 2 .6
.1897 96.9 + .0320
.2002 102.3 + .0215
+ 1 .0
.1942 99.2 + .0275
+ *1
+ .6
.1958 100.1 + .0259
- .8 . .1959 100.1 + .0258
- 2 .2
.1936 98.9 + .0281
-1 .9
.1967 100.5 + .0250
-2 .4
.2001 102.2 + .0216
+ 3 .5
.2014 102.9 + .0203
.2220 113.4
.0003
+ .9
.2298 117.4 — .0081
+ .4
.2217 113.3

+13.
+12.
+15.
+16.
+10.
+14.
+13.
+13.
+14.
+12.
+10.
+10.
-

3.‘

905

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899—100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of Increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, CIGARS—Continued.
CIGAR ROLLERS, HAND, Female*
Data for employees from 4 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 4
establishments, 1890-1895; 6 establishments, 1896,1897; 7 establishments, 1898-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Lv. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
8 % .............
897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902............
903.............

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
num- num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
Amount. Per
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
336
295
301
259
307
354
327
296
413
390
421
164
250
277
293

100.0
87.8
89.6
77.1
91.4
105.4
97.3
88.1
122.9
116.1
125.3
48.8
74.4
82.4
87.2

- 43
2
8
+ 34
- 14
- 61
— 34
3
-1 2 0
- 97
-1 2 8
+129
+ 43
+ 16

-1 2 .8
.7
- 2.7
+13.1
- 4.6
-1 7 .2
-1 0 .4
— 1.0
-2 9 .1
-2 4 .9
-3 0 .4
+78.7
+17.2
+ 5.8

58.22
58.83
58.82
58.60
58.70
58.93
58.92
66.94
57.41
57.47
57.59
54.52
65.76
56.47
56.85

100.0
101.0
101.0
100.7
100.8
101.2
101.2
97.8
98.6
98.7
98.9
93.6
95.8
97.0
97.6

-1 .3 7
-1 .9 8
-1 .9 7
-1 .7 5
-1 .8 5
-2 .0 8
-2 .0 7
- .09
- .56
- .62
- .74
+2.33
+1.09
+ .38

- 2 . 4 80.1650 100.0 +80.0275
- 3 .4
.1645 99.7 + .0280
.1645 99.7 + .0280
- 3 .3
- 3 . 0 .1672 101.3 + .0253
-3 .2
.1611 97.6 + .0314
.1633 99.0 + .0292
-3 .5
- 3 . 5 .1737 105.3 + .0188
- .2 .1610 97.6 + .0315
- 1 . 0 .1628 98.7 + .0297
.1627 98.6 + .0298
- 1 .1
- 1 . 3 .1696 102.8 + .0229
+ 4 .3 .1470 89.1 + .0455
+ 2 .0 .1746 105.8 + .0179
+ .7 .1841 111.6 + .0084
.1925 116.7

+16.7
+17.0
+17.0
+15.1
+19.5
+17.9
+10.8
+19.6
+18.2
+18.3
+13.5
+31.0
+10.3
+ 4.6

CIGAR ROLLERS, MACHINE, Female.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
tv. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
803.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897 .............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

329
178
178
259
213
307
455
424
411
465
402
498
545
672
674

100.0
54.1
54.1
78.7
64.7
93.3
138.3
128.9
124.9
141.3
122.2
151.4
165.7
204.8
204.9

+104.9
+278.7
+278.7
+160.2
+216.4
+119.5
+ 48.1
+ 59.0
+ 64.0
+ 44.9
+ 67.7
+ 35.3
+ 23.7
2 +
.3

+345
+496
+496
+415
+461
+367
+219
+250
+263
+209
+272
+176
+129

+

59.74
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.48
69.29
59.37
59.28
59.42
59.45
59.55
59.55

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
99.6
99.2
99.4
99.2
99.5
99.5
99.7
99.7

-0 .1 9
- .45
- .45
- .45
- .45
- .45
- .45
+ .07
+ .26
+ .18
+ .27
+ .13
+ .10

- 0 . 3 80.1181 100.0 +80.0345
- .8 .1234 104.5 + .0292
- .8 .1246 105.5 + .0280
- .8 .1232 104.3 + .0294
- .8 .1272 107.7 + .0254
- .8 .1290 109.2 + .0236
- .8 .1139 96.4 + .0387
+ .1 .1086 92.0 + .0440
+ .4 .1120 94.8 + .0406
+ .3 .1085 91.9 i+ .0441
+ .5 .1108 93.8 + .0418
+ .2 .1270 107.5 + .0256
+ .2 .1529 129.5 — .0003
.1453 123. O't4• .0073
.1526 129.2j|...

+29.2
+23.7
+22.5
+23.9
+20.0
+18.3
+34.0
+40.5
+36.3
+40.6
+37.7
+20.2
.2
+ 5.0

1

PACKERS, Male.
Data for employees from 11 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 11
establishments, 1890-1892; 12 establishments, 1893-1898; 11 establishments, 1899-1903.]
v. 1890-99.
*90.............
*91.............
*92.............
*93.............
*94.............
*95.............
*96.............
*97.............
*98.............
*99.............
)00.............
m .............
m .............
K)3.............

129
96
97
123
113
133
132
121
152
157
170
94
99
122
108

100.0
74.4
75.2
95.3
87.6
103.1
102.3
93.8
117.8
121.7
131.8
72.9
76.7
94.6
83.7




-2 1
+12
+11
-1 5
- 5
-2 5
-2 4
-1 3
-4 4
-4 9
-6 2
+14
+ 9
-1 4

-1 6 .3
+12.5
+11.3
-1 2 .2
- 4.4
-1 8 .8
-1 8 .2
-1 0 .7
-2 8 .9
-3 1 .2
-3 6 .5
+14.9
+ 9.1
-1 1 .5

51.12
54.27
54.21
54.46
54.39
54.32
54.41
53.67
53.93
53.76
63.80
53.88
53.63
54.06
54.57

100.0
100.3
100.2
100.6
100.5
100.4
100.5
99.2
99.6
99.3
99.4
99.6
98.9
99.9
100.8

+0.45
+ .30
+ .36
+ .11
+ .18
+ .25
+ .16
+ .90
+ .64
+ .81
+ .77
+ .69
+1.04
+ .51

+ 0 .8 80.3255 100.0 +80.0463
+ .6 .2989 91.8 + .0729
+ .7 .3285 100.9 + .0433
+ .2 .3232 99.3 + .0486
+ .3 .3203 98.4 + .0515
+ .5 .3213 98.7 + .0505
+ .3 .3258 100.1 + .0460
+ 1.7 .3355 103.1 + .0363
+ 1 .2 .3283 100.9 + .0435
+ 1 .5 .3326 102.2 + .0392
+ 1 .4 .3409 104.7 + .0309
+ 1 .3 .3405 104.6 + .0313
+ 1 .9 .3516 108.0 + .0202
+ .9 .3356 103.1 + .0362
.3718 114.2

+14.2
+24.4
+13.2
+15.0
+16.1
+15.7
+14.1
+10.8
+13.3
+11.8
+ 9.1
+ 9.2
+ 5.7
+10.8

906

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, CIGARS—Concluded.
PACKERS, Fem ale.
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab
lishments, 1890-1899; 4 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with yeai
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. numage. tive.
num­ num­
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Num­
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.
13
8
12
14
17
15
15
8
13
12
11
15
13
18
16

+3
+8
+4
+2
-1
+1
+1
+8
+3
+4
+5
+1
+3
-2

i o o . o;j

61.5
92.3
107.7
130.8
115.4
115.4
61.6
100.0
92.3
84.6
115.4
100.0
138.5
123.1
1

+ 23.1
+100.0
+ 33.3
+ 14.3
5.9
+ 6.7
+
6.7
+100.0
+ 23.1
+ 33.3
+ 45.5
+
6.7
+ 23.1
- 11.1

”

50.05
50.88
49.92
49.64
49.35
49.53
49.53
50.88
49.77
49.92
51.09
53.35
53.38
53.08
63.53

100.0
101.7
99.7
99.2
98.6
99.0
99.0
101.7
99.4
99.7
102.1
106.6
106.7
106.1
107.0

+3.48
+2.65
+3.61
+3.89
+4.18
+4.00
+4.00
+2.65
+3.76
+3.61
+2.44
+ .18
+ .15
+ .45

+ 7 .0 $0.1511 100.0 -$0.0212
.0350
+ 5 .2
.1649 109.1 .0329
+ 7 .2
.1628 107.7 .0350
+ 7 .8
.1649 109.1 .0160
.1459 96.6 + 8 .5
.0051
.1350 89.3 + 8 .1
.0034
+8 .1
.1333 88.2 .0243
.1542 102.1 + 5 .2
.0158
.1457 96.4 + 7 .6
.0242
+ 7 .2
.1541 102.0 .0206
+ 4 .8
.1505 99.6 .1211 80.1 +
.0088
+ .4
.0466
.1765 116.8 + .3
.1564 103.5 .0265
+ .8
.1299 86.0

-1 4 .
-2 1 .
-2 0 .
-2 1 .
-1 1 .
- 3.
- 2.
-1 5 .
-1 0 .
-1 5 .
-1 3 .
+ 7.
-2 6 .
-1 6 .

STEMMERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 4 estal
lishments, 1890-1897,1899; 3 establishments, 1898,1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896_______
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

94
49
71
103
136
98
117
113
53
86
114
108
57
68
69

100.0
52.1
75.5
109.6
144.7
104.3
124.5
120.2
56.4
91.5
121.3
114.9
60.6
72.3
73.4

-2 5
+20
- 2
-3 4
-6 7
-2 9
-4 8
-4 4
+16
-1 7
-4 5
—39
+12
+ 1

-2 6 .6
+40.8
- 2.8
-3 3 .0
-4 9 .3
-2 9 .6
-4 1 .0
-3 8 .9
+30.2
—19.8
-3 9 .5
—36.1
+21.1
+ 1.5

59.96
59.92
59.97
59.95
59.96
59.96
69.95
59.95
59.91
60.00
59.99
60.00
60.00
60.00
C . 00
O

100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1

+0.04
+ .08
+ .03
+ .05
+ .04
+ .04
+ .05
+ .05
+ .09
+ .oi

+0 .1 $0.0909 100.0 +$0.0380
.0969 106.6 + .0320
+ .1
.0936 103.0 + .0353
+ .1
.0868 95.5 + .0421
+ .1
,0813 89.4 + .0476
+ .1
.0871 95.8 + .0418
+ .1
.0835 91.9 + .0454
+ .1
.0856 94.2 + .0433
+ .1
.0994 109.4 + .0295
+ .2
.0990 108.9 + .0299
+ .02 .0962 105.8 + .0327
.1079 118.7 + .0210
.1107 121.8 + .0182
.1021 112.3 + .0268
.1289 141.8

+41.
+33.
+37.
+48.
+58.
+48.
+54.
+50.
+29,
+30
+34
+19
+16
+26

STEMMERS, Fem ale.
[Data for employees from 13 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from
establishments, 1890,1894-1896,1898-1903; 13 establishments, 1891-1893,1897.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

442
402
453
413
419
461
469
407
443
458
495
430
434
464
446

100.0
91.0
102.5
93.4
94.8
104.3
106.1
92.1
100.2
103.6
112.0
97.3
98.2
105.0
100.9




+ 4
+44
- 7
+33
+27
-1 5
-2 3
+39
+ 3
-1 2
-4 9
+16
+12
-1 8

+ 0.9
+10.9
- 1.5
+ 8.0
+ 6.4
- 3.3
- 4.9
+ 9.6
+ .7
- 2.6
- 9.9
+ 3.7
+ 2.8
- 3.9

65.89
56.40
55.78
56.00
55.05
55.83
55.50
55.85
55.76
56.27
56.47
55.76
55.52
65.90
56.44

100.0
100.9
99.8
100.2
98.5
99.9
99.3
99.9
99.8
100.7
101.0
99.8
99.3
100.0
101.0

+0.55
t .04
+ .66
+ .44
+1.39
+ .61
+ .94
+ .59
+ .68
+ .17
- .03
+ .68
+ .92
+ .54

+ 1 .0 $0.0711 100.0 +$0.0145
.0641 90.2 + .0215
+ .1
+ 1 .2
.0630 88.6 + .0226
.0692 97.3 + .0164
+ .8
+ 2 .5
.0671 94.4 + .0185
.0716 100.7 + .0140
+ 1 .1
+ 1 .7
.0691 97.2 + .0165
.0732 103.0 + .0124
+ 1 .1
+ 1 .2
.0803 112.9 T .0053
.0781 109.8 + .0075
+ .3
- .1
.0752 105.8 + .0104
+ 1 .2
.0750 105.5 + .0106
+ 1 .7
.0853 120.0 + .0003
.0832 117.0 + .0024
+ 1 .0
.0856 120.4

+2C
+33
+35
+23
+27
+1S
+23
+ie
+ f
+ s
+1<
+D
+
+ i

907

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able I«—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903— Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, PLUG, FIN E CUT, A N D GRANULATED SMOKING.
CASEBS, Male.
Data for employees from 4 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab' lishments, 1890, 1891; 6 establishments, 1892-1897; 7 establishments, 1898, 1899; 8 establishments,
1900-1903.]

Year.

Lv. 1890-99.
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —)in
1903 as com­
1903 as comRela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
num­ num­
ber. num­
age. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Num­
Per
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.
59.70
60.55
60.55
59.36
59.33
59.34
59.38
59.46
59.58
59.72
59.72
59.92
59.85
59.89
59.90

100.0
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
.....................
100.0
.....................
.....................
100.0
.....................
100.0
.....................
100.0
.....................
100.0
.....................
100.0
.....................

100.0

100.0

100.0

101.4
101.4
99.4

99.6
99.8
100.0

100.0

100.4
100.3
100.3
100.3

+0.20
- .65
- .65
+ .54
+ .57
+ .56
+ .52
+ .44
+ .32
+ .18
+ .18
- .02
+ .05
+ .01

+ 0 .3 30.1363
.1419
-1 .1
- 1 .1
.1419
.1335
+ .9
.1322
+ 1 .0
.1334
+ .9
.1423
+ .9
.1422
+ .7
.1373
+ .5
.1289
+ .3
.1290
+ .3
- .03 .1253
.1271
+ .1
+ .02 .1315
.1312

100.0 -30.0051
104.1 — .0107
104.1 — .0107
97.9 — .0023
97.0 — .0010
97.9 ~
.0022
104.4 — .0111
104.3 — .0110
100.7 — .0061
94.6 + .0023
94.6 + .0022
91.9 + .0059
93.3 + .0041
96.5 — .0003
96.3

-3 .7
- 7 .5
- 7 .5
- 1 .7
- .8
- 1 .6
- 7 .8
-7 .7
-4 .4
+ 1 .8
+ 1 .7
+ 4 .7
+ 3 .2
- .2

CASERS, Female.
Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment, 1890,1891,1902,1903; 2 establishments, 1892-1901.]
V. 1890-99.
590.............
591.............
592 .............
593 .............
594 .............
595 .............
596 .............
597 .............
598 .............
599 .............
K ).............
M
K)1.............
K)2.............
►
03.............

4
4
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
5
4
5
5
&

+25.0
100.0
+1
100.0
+1 +25.0
100.0
+1 +25.0
100.0
+1 +25.0
+25.0
100.0
+1
+25.0
100.0
+1
+2 +66.7
75.0
100.0
+1 +25.0
100.0
+1 +25.0
100.0
+1 +25.0
125.0
+25.0
100.0
+1
125.0
125.0
125.0 ............. .............

57.75
55.00
55.00
58.53
58.64
58.62
58.71
68.45
58.16
58.30
58.05
57.00
56.78
55.00
55.00

100.0
95.2
95.2
101.4
101.5
101.5
101.7
101.2
100.7
101.0
100.5
98.7
98.3
95.2
95.2

-2 .7 5
-3 .5 3
-3 .6 4
-3 .6 2
-3 .7 1
-3 .4 5
-3 .1 6
-3 .3 0
-3 .0 5
-2 .0 0
-1 .7 8

- 4 . 8 30.1039
.1364
.1364
- 6 .0
.0905
-6 .2
.0910
-6 .2
.0915
-6 .3
.0910
.0966
- 5 .9
.1030
- 5 .4
-5 .7
.0982
-5 .3
.1041
.1274
- 3 .5
- 3 .1
.1375
.1836
.1891

100.0
131.3
131.3
87.1
87.6
88.1
87.6
93.0
99.1
94.5
100.2
122.6
132.3
176.7
182.0

+30.0852
+ .0527
+ .0527
+ .0986
+ • .0981
+ .0976
+ .0981
+ .0925
+ .0861
+ .0909
+ .0850
+ .0617
+ .0516
+ .0055

+ 82.0
+ 38.6
+ 38.6
+109.0
+107.8
+106.7
+107.8
+ 95.8
+ 83.6
+ 92.6
+ 81.7
+ 48.4
+ 37.5
+ 3.0

100.0
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
84.7
84.7
90.4
94.1
94.1

-30.0052
— .0067
— .0067
— .0067
— .0067
— .0067
— .0067
— .0067
.0067
— .0067
+ .0083
+ .0083
+ .0033

— 5.9
— 7.4
— 7.4
— 7.4
— 7.4
— 7.4
— 7.4
— 7.4
- 7.4
- 7.4
+11.1
+11.1
+ 4.1

GRANULATORS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.!
v. 1890-99.
9 0 .........
9 1 .........
9 2 .........
9 3 .........
9 4 .........
9 5 .........
9 6 ........
9 7 .........
98 ........
99 ........

00....
01....
02....
03.............

23
26
24
25
24
24
22
23
20
21
20
20
19
10
40

100.0
113.0
104.3
108.7
104.3
104.3
95.7
100.0
87.0
91.3
87.0
87.0
82.6
43.5
173.9

+17
+14
+16
+15
+16
+16
+18
+17
+20
+19
+20
+20
+21
+30

+ 73.9
+ 53.8
+ 66.6
+ 60.0
+ 66.6
+ 66.6
+ 81.8
+ 73.9
+100.0
+ 90.5
+100.0
+100.0
+110.5
+300.0

10092—No. 53—04---- 14



58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

30.0885
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0750
.0750
.0800
.0833
.0833

908

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanatio
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, PLUG, FIN E CUT, A N D GRANULATED
SMOKING—Continued.
LUMP MAKERS, HAND, Male.
[Data from 2 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

-2 0 .4
-1 0 .4
-2 5 .2
-3 1 .2
-2 0 .4
-2 2 .5
-1 9 .6
-1 7 .3
-1 4 .9
-2 1 .8
-1 8 .9
-2 2 .5
-1 8 .1
-1 1 .8

55.17
55.31
55.10
55.01
55.17
55.14
55.18
55.21
55.25
55.15
65.19
55.14
55.20
55.30
53.74

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
.
1902
1903
.
1

108
96
115
125
108
111
107
104
101
110
106
111
105
97
86

100.0
88.9
106.5
115.7
100.0
102.8
99.1
96.3
93.5
101.9
98.1
102.8
97.2
89.8
79.6

-2 2
-1 0
-2 9
-3 9
-2 2
-2 5
-2 1
-1 8
-1 5
-2 4
-2 0
-2 6
-1 9
-1 1

Wages per hour.

Increase 6+)oi
Increase (+ ) o r
decrease ( —Jin
decrease ( - ) i i
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with yea
tive
specified.
specified.
numage.
tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount cent
ber.
cent.
100.0
100.3
99.9
99.7
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.2
97.4

-1 .4 3
-1 .5 7
-1 .3 6
-1 .2 7
-1 .4 3
-1 .4 0
-1 .4 4
-1 .4 7
-1 .6 1
-1 .4 1
- 1 .4 5
-1 .4 0
-1 .4 6
-1 .5 6

- 2 . 6 80.1411 100.0 +80.0047
.1617 114.6
- 2 .8
.0159
.3518 107.6
-2 .5
.0060
-2 .3
.1327 94.0 + .0131
- 2 .6
.1331 94.3 + .0127
.1390 98.5 + .0068
-2 .5
.1411 100.0 + .0047
- 2 .6
- 2 .7
.1318 93.4 + .0140
- 2 .7
.1310 92.8 + .0148
- 2 .6
.1435 101.7 + .0023
.1455 103.1 + .0003
-2 .6
- 2 . 5 .1603 113.6
.0145
- 2 .6
.1407 99.7 + .0051
-2 .8
.1535 108.8
.0077
.1458 103.3

—
_

+ 3
- 9
- 4
+ 9
+ 9
+ 4
+ 3
+10
+11
+ 1
+
- 9
+ 3
- 5

+$0.0488
+ .0657
+ .0615
+ .0657
+ .0516
+ .0512
+ .0519
+ .0486
+ .0368
+ .0289
+ .0261
+ .0342
+ .0229
+ .0039

+36
+5E
+5C
+56
+35
+36
+3?
+3f
+26
+16
+16
+25
+fc
+ 5

LUMP MAILERS, MACHINE, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

31
25
26
30
29
33
31
29
34
38
37
35
35
32
30

100.0
80.6
83.9
96.8
93.5
106.5
100.0
93.5
109.7
122.6
119.4
112.9
112.9
103.2
96.8

-1
+5
+4
+1
-3
-1
+1
-4
-8
-7
-5
-5
-2

- 3.2 55.42 100.0
+20.0 55.20 99.6
+15.4 55.38 99.9
55.67 100.6
+ 3.4 55.52 100.2
- 9.1 55.21 99.6
- 3.2 55.29 99.8
+ 3.4 55.38 99.9
-1 1 .8 55.59 100.3
-2 1 .1 55.47 100.1
-1 8 .9 55.51 100.2
-1 4 .3 55.71 |100.5
-1 4 .3 55.71! 100.5
- 6.3 54.38, 98.1
53.33 96.2
1

-2 .0 9
-1 .8 7
-2 .0 5
—2.34
-2 .1 9
-1 .8 8
-1 .9 6
-2 .0 5
-2 .2 6
-2 .1 4
-2 .1 8
-2 .3 8
-2 .3 8
-1 .0 5

- 3 . 8 $0.1352
- 3 .4
.1183
- 3 .7
.1225
—4.2 .1183
-3 .9
.1324
-3 .4
.1328
.1321
-3 .5
-3 .7
.1354
- 4 .1
.1472
-3 .9
.1551
-3 .9
.1579
-4 .3
.1498
-4 .3
.1611
- 1 .9
.1801
.1840

100.0
87.5
90.6
87.5
97.9
98.2
97.7
100.1
108.9
114.7
116.8
110.8
119.2
133.2

136,1

LUMP MAKERS, N. S., Female.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 1 este
lishment, 1890,1891; 2 establishments, 1892-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1 8 9 9 ... .:. ..
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

+1 +100.0
-1
-1

-1 0 0 .0
-1 0 0 .0

+1

+100.0

100.0
60.0

100.0




69.00
59.00
69.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.1278
.1060
.1060
.1462
.1196
.1330
.1393
.1321
.1178
.1342
.1441
.1568
.1358
.1244
.1599

100.0 +$0.0321
82.9 + .0539
82.9 + .0539
114.4 + .0137
93.6 + .0403
104.1 + .0269
109.0 + .0206
103.4 + .0278
92.2 + .0421
105.0 + .0257
112.8 + .0158
122.7 + .0031
106.3 + .0241
97.3 + .0355
125.1

+2,
+5(
+5<
+ 6
+3!
+2<
+P
+2.
+3i
+«
+r
+ *
+i*
+2 1

909

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1908, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, PLUG, F IN E CUT, A N D GRANULATED
SMOKING—Continued.
MIXERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 1
establishment, 1890, 1891; 3 establishments, 1892-1897; 4 establishments, 1898; 5 establishments,
1899-1903.]

Year.

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease (—)in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
1903 as com­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
ber. num­
age. tive.
num­ num­
ber.
ber. ber.
Num­
Per
NumPer
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
ber.
cent.
cent.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Av. 1890-99.
1890
.
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894 .............
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

58.
8.4
58.
98.4
58.
59.00| 100.1
59.
59.

100.1

100.1

100.0

100.1

100.0

100.0

100.1

100.0

100.1
101.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.3
101.5
101.5
101.5
101.5

+0.87
+1.81
+1.81
+ .81
+ .81
+ .81
+ .81
+ .81
+ .81
+ .17
+ .10
- .04
- .02
- .04

+ 1 .5 $0.1119 100.0 +£0.0361
.1000 89.4 + .0480
+ 3.1
.1000 89.4 + . 0480
+ 3.1
+ 1 .4
.1176 105.1 + .0304
+ 1 .4
.1015 90.7 + .0465
.1117 99.8 + .0363
+ 1 .4
+ 1 .4
.1161 103.8 + .0319
+ 1 .4
.1053 94.1 + .0427
.1305 116.6 + .0175
+ 1 .4
.1204 107.6 + .0276
+ .3
+ .2
.1159 103.6 + .0321
- .1
.1476 131.9 + .0004
- .03 .1496 133.7
.0016
- .1
.1483 132.5 — .0003
.1480 132.3

+32.3
+48.0
+48.0
+25.9
+45.8
+32.5
+27.5
+40.6
+13.4
+22.9
+27.7
+ .3
- 1.1
.2

100.0 -Lftn mrtt

+13.0
+ 7.1
—14.9
+ .4
+63.9
+45.4
+30.5
+ 9.0
+ 10.2
+19.7
+ 1.7
+ 20.8
+ 4.2
+ 3.0

PACKERS, Female*
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890........... !
1891.............
1892.
1893 ...........
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

9

6
11
8

100.0

14 155.6

11 122.2
12 133.3
9 100.0
10 111.1
11 122.2
7
7
4
5

6

4

4

3

77.8
77.8
44.4
55.6
66.7
44.4
44.4
33.3

9

6

_ 7

8

__ 4

4
_ 1
_2

__ 3

_

1
1

—66.7
-7 8 .6
—72.7
—75.0
- 66. 7
-7 0 .0
—72.7
-5 7 .1
-5 7 .1
—25.0
-4 0 .0
-5 0 .0
-2 5 .0
-2 5 .0

59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
69.00
59.00
59 00
59.00
59.00
59.00
58.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

£0.0791
.0835
.1050
.0890
.0581
.0615
.0685
.0820
.0811
.0747
.0879
.0740
.0858
.0868
.0894

105.6
132.7
112.5
73.5
77.7

86.6

103.7
102.5
94.4

111.1

93.6
108.5
109.7
113.0

+

4+
444+
+
+
+
+
+

.0059
.0156
.0004
.0313
.0279
.0209
.0074
.0083
.0147
.0015
.0154
.0036
.0026

PACKING MACHINE OPERATORS, GRANULATED SMOKING TORACCO,
Male*
[No data, 1890-1898; data from 1 establishment, 1899-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

20
14

21

26
29

(a) n
+ 9
+15
+ 8
+ 3

«
+ 45.0 OO. v u
+107.1 58.00
+ 38.1 58.00
+ 11.5 58.00
58.00

(a)

(«)

(«)
£0.0963
.0917
.0963
.1181
.1321

(a)
ion
(a)
(«)

8

a Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.




+£00358
+ .0404
+ .0358
+ .0140

(«)
+37.2
+44.1
+37.2
+11.9

910

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( ~ ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, PBUG, F IN E CUT, A N D GRANULATED
SMOKIN G—Continued.
PRESS HANDS, PLUG, Hale.
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5
establishments, 1890,1891; 7 establishments, 1892-1897; 8 establishments, 1898; 9 establishments, 1899;
10 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Hours per week.

Increase (+ ) o r
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
Ill
94
98
101
106
107
115
116
126
119
125
142
141
135
146

100.0
84.7
88.3
91.0
95.5
96.4
103.6
104.5
113.5
107.2
112.6
127.9
127.0
121.6
131.5

+35
+52
+48
+45
+40
+39
+31
+30
+20
+27
+21
+ 4
+ 5
+11

+31.5
+56.3
+49.0
+44.6
+37.7
+36.4
+27.0
+25.9
+15.9
+22.7
+16.8
+ 2.8
+ 3.5
+ 8.1

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

59.12
59.22
59.12
59.03
58.98
59.01
58.93
59.09
59.15
59.29
59.37
59.86
59.84
59.97
59.98

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.7
99.9
100.1
100.3
100.4
101.3
101.2
101.4
101.5

+0.86
+ .76
+ .86
+ .95
+1.00
+ .97
+1.05
+ .89
+ .83
+ .69
+ .61
+ .12
+ .14
+ .01
1
...............

+ 1 .5 30.1440
+ 1 .3
.1170
+ 1 .5
. 1275
+1 .6
.1506
+ 1 .7
.1507
+ 1 .6
.1593
.1572
+ 1 .8
+ 1 .5
.1463
+ 1 .4
.1390
+ 1 .2
.1456
.1464
+ 1 .0
.1526
+ .2
.1609
+ .2
+ .02 .1676
.1708

100.0
81.3
88.5
104.6
104.7
110.6
109.2
101.6
96.5
101.1
101.7
106.0
111.7
116.4
118.6

+80.0268
.0538
.0433
.0202
.0201
.0115
.0136
.0245
.0318
.0252
.0244
.0182
.0099
.0032

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+18.6
+46.0
+34.0
+13.4
+13.3
+ 7.2
+ 8.7
+16.7
+22.9
+17.3
+16.7
+ 11.9
+ 6.2
+ 1.9

SORTERS, Male*
[Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 3
establishments, 1890,1891; 4 establishments, 1892-1897; 5 establishments, 1898; 6 establishments, 18991903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

16
14
14
14
16
15
15
17
17
19
19
19
19
19
20

100.0
87.5
87.5
87.5
100.0
93.8
93.8
106.3
106.3
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
118.8
125.0

+4
+6
+6
+6
+4
+6
+5
+3
+3
+1
+1
+1
+1
+1

+25.0
+42.9
+42.9
+42.9
+25.0
+33.3
+33.3
+17.6
+17.6
+ 5.3
+ 5.3
+ 6.3
+ 5.3
+ 5.3

59.29
59.14
59.14
59.10
59.16
59.17
69.17
59.26
59.29
59.73
59.74
59.75
69.66
59.65
59.63

100.0
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
100.0
100.7
100.8
100.8
100.6
100.6
100.6

+0.34
+ .49
+ .49
+ .53
+ .47
+ .46
+ .46
+ .37
+ .34
- .10
- .11
- .12
- .03
- .02

+ 0.6 30.1530
.1641
+ .8
.1641
+ .8
.1586
+ .9
.1571
+ .8
.1552
+ .8
. 1524
+ .8
.1581
+ .6
.1587
+ .6
- .2
.1316
— .2
.1304
- '.2
.1532
- .1
.1489
- .03 .1492
.1516

100.0
107.3
107.3
103.7
102.7
101.4
99.6
103.3
103.7
86.0
85.2
100.1
97.3
97.5
99.1

-30.0014
— .0125
— .0125
— .0070
— .0055
— .0036
— .0008
— .0065
— .0071
+ .0200
+ .0212
— .0016
+ .0027
+ .0024

- 0.9
- 7.6
- 7.6
- 4.4
— 3.5
- 2.3
.5
- 4.1
- 4.5
+15.2
+16.3
- 1.0
+ 1.8
+ 1.6

SORTERS, Female.
[Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5
establishments, 1890,1891; 6 establishments, 1892-1896; 7 establishments, 1897,1898; 8 establishments,
1899; 9 establishments, 1900-1903.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

82
83
81
78
80
87
93
90
82
80
66
83
77
77
80

100.0
101.2
98.8
95.1
97.6
106.1
113.4
109.8
100.0
97.6
80.5
101.2
93.9
93.9
97.6




+

2
3
1
2

+

2.4
3.6
1.2
2.6

- 7
-1 3
-1 0
- 2

- 8.0
- 1 4 .0
-1 1 .1
- 2.4

+14
- 3
+ 3
+ 3

+ 2 i.2
- 3.6
+ 3.9
+ 3.9

59.98
59.41
59.60
59.45
59.24
59.15
59.22
59.16
61.61
60.97
62.00
61.12
61.23
61.37
61.64

100.0
99.0
99.4
99.1
98.8
98.6
98.7
98.6
102.7
101.7
103.4
101.9
102.1
102.3
102.8

+1.66
+2.23
+2.04
+2.19
+2.40
+2.49
+2.42
+2.48
+ .03
+ .67
- .36
+ .52
+ .41
+ .27

+ 2 .8 $0.0652
+ 3 .8
.0573
.0607
+ 3 .4
+ 3.7
.0712
+4 .1
.0717
+ 4 .2
0699
+4 .1
.0696
+ 4 .2
.0713
+ .05 .0606
.0639
+ 1.1
- .6
.0558
.0687
+ .9
.0689
+ .7
.0735
+ .4
.0727

100.0 +$0.0075
87.9 + .0154
93.1 + .0120
109.2 + .0015
110.0 + .0010
107.2 + .0028
106.7 + .0031
109.4 + .0014
92.9 + .0121
98.0 + .0088
85.6 + .0169
105.4 + .0040
105.7 + .0038
.0008
112.7 111.5

+11.5
+26.9
+19.8
+ 2.1
+ 1.4
+ 4.0
+ 4.5
+ 2.0
+20.0
+13.8
+30.3
+ 5.8
+ 5.5
- 1.1

911

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, PXjUG, FIN E CUT, A N D GRANULATED
SMOKING—Continued.
STEMMERS, Male.

[Data for employees from 2 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 2
establishments, 1890,1891; 3 establishments, 1892-1894; 4 establishmemts, 1895-1903.]

Year.

Lv. 1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892 .............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—jin
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber.* num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
83
81
83
79
80
69
77
82
89
89
105
90
100
87
89

100.0
97.6
100.0
95.2
96.4
83.1
92.8
98.8
107.2
107.2
126.5
108.4
120.5
104.8
107.2

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

+ 6
+ 8
+ 6
+10
+ 9
+20
+12
+ 7

+ 7.2
+ 9.9
+ 7.2
+12.7
+11.3
+29.0
+15.6
+ 8.5

-1 6
- 1
-1 1
+ 2

-1 6 .2
- 1.1
-1 1 .0
+ 2.3

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Aver­ Rela­
age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num- numage. tive.
ber. ber.
Per
Num­
Per
Amount cent.
ber.
cent.
60.36
63.73
63.61
63.55
63.22
63.57
57.40
57.47
57.45
56.85
56.74
56.81
56.59
56.91
56.33

100.0
105.6
105.4
105.3
104.7
105.3
95.1
95.2
95.2
94.2
94.0
94.1
93.8
94.3
93.3

-4 .0 3
-7 .4 0
-7 .2 8
-7 .2 2
-6 .8 9
-7 .2 4
-1 .0 7
-1 .1 4
—1.12
— .52
- .41
- .48
- .26
- .58

- 6.7 80.0542 100.0 +80.0198
.0397 73.2 + .0343
-1 1 .6
-1 1 .4
.0397 73.2 + .0343
-1 1 .4
.0460 84.9 + .0280
.0480 88.6 + .0260
-1 0 .9
.0470 86.7 + .0270
-1 1 .4
.0648 119.6 + .0092
- 1.9
.0645 119.0 + .0095
- 2.0
.0634 117.0 + .0106
— 1.9
.0645 119.0 + .0095
.9
.0648 119.6 + .0092
.7
.0665 122.7 + .0075
.8
.0700 129.2 + .0040
.5
.0678 125.1 + .0062
- 1.0
.0740 136.5

+36.5
+86.4
+86.4
+60.9
+54.2
+57.4
+14.2
+14.7
+16.7
+14.7
+14.2
+11.3
+ 5.7
+ 9.1

8TEMIHER8, Female.
Data for employees from 5 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 5
establishments, 1890,1891; 6 establishments, 1892-1894; 7 establishments, 1895-1900; 8 establishments,
1901-1903.]
.V. 1890-99.
390.............
391.............
392.............
393.............
394.............
395.............
396.............
397 .............
398.............
399.............
m .............
m .............
102.............
m .............

266
260
233
267
259
276
272
280
291
251
267
300
276
226
214

100.0
97.7
87.6
100.4
97.4
103.8
102.3
105.3
109.4
94.4
100.4
112.8
103.8
85.0
80.5

-5 2
-4 6
-1 9
-5 3
-4 5
-6 2
-5 8
-6 6
-7 7
-3 7
-5 3
-8 6
-6 2
-1 2

-1 9 .5
-1 7 .7
— ‘8.2
-1 9 .9
-1 7 .4
-2 2 .5
-2 1 .3
-2 3 .6
-2 6 .5
-1 4 .7
-1 9 .9
-2 8 .7
-2 2 .5
- 5.3

55.47
55.43
55.24
56.46
56.35
56.35
55.38
55.10
54.80
54.90
54.70
54.43
56.10
56.13
55.79

100.0
99.9
99.6
101.8
101.6
101.6
99.8
99.3
98.8
99.0
98.6
98.1
101.1
101.2
100.6

+0.32
+ .36
+ .55
- .67
- .56
- .56
+ .41
+ .69
+ .99
+ .89
+1.09
+1.36
- .31
- .34

+ 0 .6 80.0770 100.0 +80.0152
.0554 71.9 + .0368
+ .6
+ 1 .0
.0573 74.4 + .0349
-1 .2
.0852 110.6 + .0070
.0842 109.4 + .0080
-1 .0
-1 .0
.0836 108.6 + .0086
.0807 104.8 + .0115
+ .7
.0809 105.1 + .0113
+ 1 .3
.0812 105.5 + .0110
+ 1 .8
.0833 108.2 + .0089
+ 1 .6
+ 2 .0
.0781 101.4 + .0141
.0776 100.8 + .0146
+ 2 .5
.0775 100.6 + .0147
- .6
.0874 113.5 + .0048
- .6
.0922 119.7

+19.7
+66.4
+60.9
+ 8.2
+ 9.5
+10.3
+14.3
+14.0
+13.5
+10.7
+18.1
+18.8
+19.0
+ 5.5

WRAPPERS, Male.
Data for employees from 3 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 3
establishments, 1890-1898; 4 establishments, 1899,1900; 5 establishments, 1901-1903.]
v. 1890-99.
$90.............
$91.............
$92.............
$93.............
$94.............
$95.............
$96.............
$97.............

m1
K
)
m

K
)3

49
50
50
47
46
53
48
46
50
51
48
46
48
50
50

100.0
102.0
102.0
95.9
93.9
108.2
98.0
93.9
102.0
104.1
98.0
93.9
98.0
102.0
102.0




+1
+3
+4
-3
+2
+4
-1
+2
+4
+2

+ 2 .0 56.40
57.48
56.52
+ 6 .4 56.68
+ 8 .7 56.74
- 5 .7 56.38
+ 4 .2 56.63
+ 8 .7 56.74
56.52
- 2 . 0 56.47
+ 4 .2 53.79
+ 8 .7 51.69
+ 4 .2 55.99
56.75
56.72

100.0
101.9
100.2
100.5
100.6
100.0
100.4
100.6
100.2
100.1
95.4
91.6
99.3
100.6
100.6

+0.32
— .76
+ .20
+ .04
- .02
+ .34
+ .09
- .02
+ .20
+ .25
+2.93
+5.03
+ .73
— .03

+ 0 .6 80.1518
.1201
—1.3
.1293
+ .4
.1370
+ .1
- .04 .1432
.1471
+ .6
.1438
+ .2
- .04 .1460
.1672
+ .4
.1744
+ .4
+ 5 .4
.2101
.1754
+ 9 .7
+ 1 .3
.2266
— .1
.2318
.2403

100.0
79.1
85.2
90.3
94.3
96.9
94.7
96.2
110.1
114.9
138.4
115.5
149.3
152.7
158.3

+80.0885
+ .1202
.1110
+ .1033
+ .0971
+ .0932
+ .0965
+ .0943
.0731
+ .0659
+ .0302
+ .0649
+ .0137
.0085

4-

+ 58.3
+100.1
+ 85.8
+ 75.4
+ 67.8
+ 63.4
+ 67.1
+ 64.6
+ 43.7
+ 37.8
+ 14.4
+ 37.0
+ 6.0
+ 3.7

912

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able

I. — WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 716 and 716; for explanation
of increase (+$ or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, PLUG , FIN E CUT, A N D GRANULATED
SMOKING—Concluded.
W RAPPERS, Fem ale.

[No data, 1890,1891.

Data for employees from 1 establishment, 1892-1903. Data for hours and wages
from 1 establishment, 1892-1900; 2 establishments, 1901-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1896.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

Increase f + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pared with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
(«)
139
152
175
162
123
71
110
95
66
65
77
67

(a)

(a)

fen
a
(a)
fan
fen
(a)
(en
fan
fen
fen
(a)

(a)

— 72
— 85
—108
- 95
— 56
— 4
— 43
— 28
-1- 1
+ 2
- 10

i%.8

-5 5 .9
-6 1 .7
-5 8 .6
—45.5
— 5.6
—39.1
—29.5
+ 1.5
+ 3.1
-1 3 .0

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
tive
specified.
specified.
numage. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
Per
Amount.
ber.
cent.
cent.
(a)

59! 00 (a)
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.00
59.69
59.65
59.68

Wages per hour.

feu
fen
fen
la 1

(on
fen
fen
fen
fen
fen
(a)

(a)
+0.68
+ .68
+ .68
+ .68
+ .68
+ .68
+ .68
+ .68
+ .68
- .01
+ .03

(«)
(«)
+ 1 .2 30.1485
.1342
+ 1 .2
+ 1 .2
.1490
+ 1 .2
.1333
+ 1 .2
.1457
+ 1 .2
.1390
.1424
+ 1 .2
+ 1 .2
.1505
+ 1 .2
.1853
— .02 .1998
.1882
+ .1
.2114

$

(cn
fen
fen
fen
fen
(cn
fen
fen
fen
fen
(a)

+$(0.0629
+ .0772 ■
+ .0624
+ .0781
+ .0657
+ .0724
+ .0690
+ .0609
+ .0261
+ .0116
+ .0232

?L

+57. i
+41.'
+58.+45.
+52.
+48.
+40.
+14.
+ 5.
+12.

WOODEN A N D WORSTED GOODS.
RTJRLERS, Fem ale.

[Data from 10 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

187
187
200
202
195
147
176
167
188
202
210
226
291
307
328

100.0
100.0
107.0
108.0
104.3
78.6
94.1
89.3
100.5
108.0
112.3
120.9
155.6
164.2
175.4

+141
+141
+128
+126
+133
+181
+152
+161
+140
+126
+118
+102
+ 37
+ 21

+ 75.4
+ 75.4
+ 64.0
+ 62.4
+ 68.2
+123.1
+ 86.4
+ 96.4
+ 74.5
+ 62.4
+ 56.2
+ 45.1
+ 12.7
+ 6.8

58.69
60.52
60.52
60.34
58.42
54.46
69.68
59.60
54.24
59.69
59.40
59.53
59.58
58.76
58.45

100.0
103.1
103.1
102.8
99.5
92.8
101.7
101.6
92.4
101.7
101.2
101.4
101.5
100.1
99.6

-0 .2 4
-2 .0 7
-2 .0 7
-1 .8 9
+ .03
+3.99
-1 .2 3
-1 .1 6
+4.21
-1 .2 4
- .95
-1 .0 8
-1 .1 3
- .31

- 0 . 4 30.0840 100.0 +S0.0163
- 3 .4
.0784 93.3 + .0219
- 3 .4
.0787 93.7 + .0216
.0819 97.5 + .0184
-3 .1
.0844 100.5 + .0159
+ *1
+ 7 .3
.0833 99.2 + .0170
-2 .1
.0837 99.6 + .0166
.0906 107.9 + .0097
- 1 .9
.0843 100.4 + .0160
+ 7 .8
-2 .1
.0864 102.9 + .0139
-1 .6
.0886 105.5 + ..0117
-1 .8
.0935 111.3 + .0068
-1 .9
.0910 108.3 + .0093
.0952 113.3 + .0051
- .5
.1003 119.4

+19.
+27.
+27.
+22.
+18.
+20.
+19.
+10.
+19.
+16.
+13.
+ 7.
+10.
+ 5.

CARDERS, Male.
[Data from 13 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

195
190
201
216
186
193
207
201
199
184
172
193
226
225
265

100.0
97.4
103.1
110.8
95.4
99.0
106.2
103.1
102.1
94.4
88.2
99.0
115.9
115.4
135.9

+70
+75
+64
+49
+79
+72
+58
+64
+66
+81
+93
+72
+39
+40

+35.9
+39.5
+31.8
+22.7
+42.5
+37.3
+28.0
+31.8
+33.2
+44.0
+54.1
+37.3
+17.3
+17.8

59.25
60.35
60.33
60.34
69.56
59.55
59.49
59.55
54.38
59.49
59.45
59.39
59.45
59.19
58.98

100.0
101.9
101.8
101.8
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.5
91.8
100.4
100.3
100.2
100.3
99.9
99.5

-0 .2 7
-1 .3 7
-1 .3 5
-1 .3 6
- .58
- .57
- .51
- .57
+4.60
- .51
- .47
- .41
- .47
- .21

- 0 . 5 $0.1022 100.0 +$0.0086
- 2 .3
.1013 99.1 + .0105
-1 2
.1018 99.6 + .0100
.1039 101.7 + .0079
-2 .3
-1 .0
.1057 103.4 + .0061
.1007 98.5 + .0111
- 1 .0
.0999 97.7 + .0119
- .9
.1003 98.1 + .0115
-1 .0
.1039 101.7 + .0079
+ 8 .5
.1020 99.8 + .0098
- .9
.1022 100.0 + .0096
- .8
.0015
- .7
.1133 110.9
.1085 106.2 + .0033
- .8
.1090 106.7 + .0028
- .4
.1118 109.4

a Not computed, as data reported do not cover entire base period.



+ 9.
+10.
+ 9.
+ 7.
+ 5,
+11
+11
+11
+ 7
+ 9
+ 9
- 1
+ 3
+ 2

913

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716, for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

WOODEN A N D W ORSTED GOODS—Continued.
CARDERS, Fem ale.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 4
establishments, 1890,1901; 2 establishments, 1892,1895, 1897; 1 establishment, 1893; 3 establishments,
1891,1894,1896,1899,1900,1902,1903; 5 establishments, 1898.]

Year.

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­ Aver­
Num­ tive pare 1 with year age
specified.
ber. num­
num­
ber.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

Av. 1890-99
100.0
1890
.....................
100.0
1891
.....................
1892
.....................
100.0
1893
.....................
1894
..................... .....................
1895
.....................
100.0
1896
.....................
1897
.....................
100.0
1898
.....................
1899
.....................
100.0
1900
.....................
100.0
1901
.....................
1902
.....................
100.0
1903
.....................

59.69
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
57.50
60.00
59.78
60.00
59.64
60.00
60.00
69.92
60.00
60.00

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —)in
decrease (—)in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
age. tive.
num­
ber.
Per
Num­
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
+0.31

100.5
96.3
100.5

+2.50

100.2

+ .22

100.5
99.9
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.5
100.5

+ .36
+ .08

+ 0 .5 $0.0632
+$0.0075
.0658
+ .0049
.0661
+ .0046
.0639
+ .0068
+ .0207
.0500
+ .0090
+ 4 .3 .0617
.0654
+ .0053
+ .0073
+ .4 .0634
+ .0100
.0607
+ .6 .0683 108.1 + .0024
+ .0040
.0667
.0676
+ .0031
.0006
+ .1 .0713
+ .0019
.0688
.0707

+11.9
+ 7.4
+ 7.0
+10.6
+41.4
+14.6
+ 8.1
+11.5
+16.5
+ 3.5
+ 6.0
+ 4.6
.8
+ 2.8

CARD STRIPPERS, Male.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894 .............
1895.............
1896.............
1897 .............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

13
12
13
9
10
12
14
13
15
16
13
14
14
11
9

100.0
92.3
100.0
69.2
76.9
92.3
107.7
100.0
115.4
123.1
100.0
107.7
107.7
84.6
69.2

-4
-3
-4
-1
-3
-5
-4
-6
-7
-4
-5
-6
-2

-3 0 .8 60.00
-2 5 .0 60.00
-3 0 .8 60.00
60.00
-1 0 .0 60.00
-2 5 .0 60.00
-3 5 .7 60.00
-3 0 .8 60.00
-4 0 .0 60.00
-4 3 .8 60.00
-3 0 .8 60.00
-3 5 .7 60.00
-3 5 .7 60.00
-1 8 .2 60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.0959 100.0 +$0.0169
.0886 92.4 + .0242
.0952 99.3 + .0176
.0991 103.3 + .0137
99.5 + .0174
99.0 + .0179
.0925 96.5 + .0203
.0997 104.0 + .0131
.0961 100.2 + .0167
.0948 98.9 + .0180
.1023 106.7 + .0105
.1068 111.4 + .0060
.1076 112.2 + .0052
.1118 116.6 + .0010
.1128 117.6

+17.6
+27.3
+18.5
+13.8
+18.2
+18.9
+21.9
+13.1
+17.4
+19.0
+10.3
+ 5.6
+ 4.8
+ .9

1.0 80.1306 100.0 +80.0028

+ 2.1
+ 6 .7
+ 3 .3
+ 6 .7
+ 2 .6
- 4 .7
+ 8 .6
-2 .3
+ 7 .1
+ 6 .5
-9 .9
-4 .2
—5.3
-1 .6

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0

COiVBERS, Male.
[Data from 1 establishment.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899----- 4 ...
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

9
3
11
9
7
7
9
9
14
14
11
13
11
17
22

100.0
33.3
122.2
100.0
77.8
77.8
100.0
100.0
155.6
155.6
122.2
144.4
122.2
188.9
244.4




+13
+19
+11
+13
+15
+15
+ 13
+13
+ 8
+ 8
+11
+ 9
+ 11
+ 5

+144.4
+633.3
+ 100.0
+144.4
+214.3
+214.3
+144.4
+144.4
+ 57.1
+ 67.1
+100.0
+ 69.2
+100.0
+ 29.4

58.60
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
68.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00
58.00

1
100.0
-0 .6 0
102.4
-2 .0 0
102.4
-2 .0 0
102.4
-2 .0 0
99.0 1
...............
99.0 1
...............
99.0
99.0
99.0!i...............
99.0!!...............
...............
99.0 1
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0

-

- 3 .3
- 3 .3
-3 .3

.1250
.1291
.1250
.1300
.1400
.1228
.1366
.1246
.1252
.1480
.1392
.1409
.1356
.1334

95.7
98.9
95.7
99.5
107.2
94.0
104.6
95.4
95.9
113.3
106.6
107.9
103.8
102.1

+
+
+
+
+
—
+
+
-

.0084
.0043
.0084
.0034
.0066
.0106
.0032
.0088
.0082
.0146
.0058
.0075
.0022

914

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

Table I .— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

WOODEN A N D WORSTED GOODS—Continued.
COMBERS, Female*
[Data from 4 establishments.]
Employees.

Year.

Av. 1890-99.
.
1890
1891
.
1892
.
1893
.
1894
.
1895
.
1896
.
1897
.
1898
.
1899
.
1900
.
1901
.
1902
.
1903
.

Rela­
Num­ tive
ber. num­
ber.

55
42
53
64
71
47
49
54
56
60
55
60
64
61
64

100.0
76.4
96.4
116.4
129.1
85.5
89.1
98.2
101.8
109.1
100.0
109.1
116.4
110.9
116.4

Hours per week.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­ Aver­
pared with year age
specified.
num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
+ 9
+22
+11
- 7
+17
+15
+10
+ 8
+ 4
+ 9
+ 4
+ 3

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.

+16.4 69.73 100.0
+52.4 60.00 100.5
420.8 60.00 100.6
60.00 100.5
- 9.9 59.35 99.4
+36.2 59.70 99.9
+30.6 59.71 100.0
+18.5 59.70 99.9
+14.3 59.61 99.8
+ 6.7 59.63 99.8
+16.4 59.60 99.8
+ 6.7 59.67 99.9
59.59 99.8
+ 4.9 58.69 98.3
58.78 98.4

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
1903 as com­
pared with year
specified.
Amount.

- 1 . 6 $0.0992 100.0 +$0.0103
.0975 98.3 + .0120
- 2 .0
.0980 98.8 + .0115
- 2 .0
.0977 98.5 + .0118
- 2 .0
.1005 101.3 + .0090
-1 .0
.0927 93.4 + .0168
-1 .5
.0955 96.3 + .0140
- 1 .6
.1023 103.1 + .0072
-1 .5
.1021 102.9 + .0074
- 1 .4
.1032 104.0 + .0063
-1 .4
-1 .4
.1025 103.3 + .0070
.1094 110.3 + .0001
-1 .5
- 1 .4
.1102 111.1 .0007
.0022
+ .2 .1117 112.6 .1095 110.4

—0.95
-1 .2 2
-1 .2 2
-1 .2 2
- .57
- .92
- .93
- .92
- .83
- .85
- .82
- .89
- .81
+ .09

Per
cent.
+10.4
+12.3
+11.7
+12.1
+ 9.0
+18.1
+14.7
+ 7.0
+ 7.2
+ 6.1
+ 6.8
+ .1
.6
- 2.0

DYERS, Male.
[Data from 13 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

193
181
175
207
193
189
206
190
208
194
182
185
196
204
206

100.0
93.8
90.7
107.3
100.0
97.9
106.7
98.4
107.8
100.5
94.3
95.9
101.6
105.7
106.7

+13
+25
+31
- 1
+13
+17

+ 6.7
+13.8
+17.7
.5
+ 6.7
+ 9.0

+16
- 2
+12
+24
+21
+10
-1; 2

+ 8.4
- 1.0
+ 6.2
+13.2
+11.4
+ 5.1
+ 1.0

60.56
60.24
fi0.32
60.27
69.60
61.66
61.38
60.79
59.22
61.01
61.07
60.86
60.92
60.04
60.34

100.0
99.5
99.6
99.5
98.4
101.8
101.4
100.4
97.8
100.7
100.8
100.5
100.6
99.1
99.6

-0 .2 2
+ .10
f .02
+ .07
+ .74
— 1.32
-1 .0 4
- .45
+1.12
- .67
- .73
- .52
- .58
+ .30

- 0 . 4 $0.1234
.1237
+ .2
+ .03 .1253
.1243
+ .1
.1272
+ 1 .2
- 2 .1
.1179
-1 .7
.1191
.1216
- .7
.1227
+ 1 .9
-1 .1
.1251
- 1 .2
.1266
- .9
.1349
- 1 .0
.1318
.1338
+ .5
.1335

+$0.0101
+ .0098
+ .0082
+ .0092
+ .0063
+ .0156
+ .0144
+ .0119
+ .0108
+ .0084
+ .0069
.0014
+ .0017
.0003

+ 8.2
+ 7.9
+ 6.5
+ 7.4
+ 5.0
+13.2
+12.1
+ 9.8
+ 8.8
+ 6.7
+ 5.5
- 1.0
+ 1.3
.2

- 1 . 0 $0.2116 100.0 +$0.0336
- 1 .5
.2081 98.3 + .0371
-1 .4
.2077 98.2 + .0375
- 1 .3
.2120 100.2 + .0332
- .9 .2158 102.0 + .0294
+ 2 .0 .2039 96.4 + .0413
-1 .4
.2047 96.7 + .0405
- 1 .4
.2142 101.2 + .0310
- 1 .4
.2159 102.0 + .0293
- 1 .2
.2158 102.0 + .0294
- 1 .4
.2176 102.8 + .0276
- 1 .3
.2381 112.5 + .0071
-1 .3
.2374 112.2 + .0078
- .1 .2412 114. Oh- .0040
. 2452 115.9

+15.9
+17.8
+18.1
+15.7
+13.6
+20.3
+19.8
+14.5
+13.6
+18.6
+12.7
+ 3.0
+ 3.3
+ 1.7

100.0
100.2
101.5
100.7
103.1
95.5
96.5
98.5
99.4
101.4
102.6
109.3
106.8
108.4
108.2

LOOM FIXERS, Male.
[Data from 15 establishments.]
Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

152
152
147
154
146
137
142
150
157
169
162
179
170
175
174

100.0
100.0
96.7
101.3
96.1
90.1
93.4
98.7
103.3
111.2
106.6
117.8
111.8
115.1
114.5




+22
+22
+27
+20
+28
+37
+32
+24
+17
+ 5
+12
- 5
+ 4
- 1

+14.5
+14.5
+18.4
+13.0
+19.2
+27.0
+22.5
+16.0
+10.8
+ 3.0
+ 7.4
- 2.8
+ 2.4
.6

59.19
59.46
59.44
59.36
59.14
57.45
59.44
59.44
59.43
59.33
59.45
59.37
59.35
58.63
58.59

100.0
100.5
100.4
100.3
99.9
97.1
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.2
100.4
100.3
100.3
99.1
99.0

-0 .6 0
— .87
— .85
— .77
— .55
+1.14
— .85
— .85
— .84
— .74
— .86
— .78
— .76
— .04

.........
1

915

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING.
T able

I.—WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

WOOLEN A N D WORSTED GOODS-Continued.
SPINNERS, FRAME, Female.
[Data from 3 establishments.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Iv . 1890-99.
1890.............
L891.............
l
892.............
.893.............
.894.............
.895.............
.896.............
.897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

Increase ( + ) or
decrease (—) in
Rela­ 1903 as com­
Num­ tive pared with year
specified.
ber. num­
ber.
Num­
Per
ber.
cent.
209
154
171
248
209
223
221
197
224
248
198
231
249
307
363

100.0
73.7
81.8
118.7
100.0
106.7
105.7
94.3
107.2
118.7
94.7
110.5
119.1
146.9
173.7

+154
+209
+192
+115
+154
+140
+142
+166
+139
+115
+165
+132
+114
+ 56

+ 73.7
+135.7
+112.3
+ 46.4
+ 73.7
+ 62.8
+ 64.3
+ 84.3
+ 62.1
+ 46.4
+ 83.3
+ 57.1
+ 45.8
+ 18.2

Aver­
age
num­
ber.

59.47
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.22
59.35
59.37
59.30
59.21
59.19
69.08
58.98
59.10
58.12
58.31

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( - ) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
Rela­
tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with year
specified.
specified.
num­
age. tive.
ber.
Per
Num­
Amount. Per
ber.
cent.
cent.
100.0
100.9
100.9
100.9
99.6
99.8
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.3
99.2
99.4
97.7
98.0

-1 .1 6
-1 .6 9
-1 .6 9
-1 .6 9
- .91
-1 .0 4
-1 .0 6
- .99
- .90
- .88
- .77
- .67
- .79
+ .19

- 2 .0 80.0930 100.0 +80.0216
.0899 96.7 + .0247
- 2 .8
.0908 97.6 + .0238
- 2 .8
.0915 98.4 + .0231
- 2 .8
.0963 103.5 + .0183
-1 .5
.0876 94.2 + .0270
- 1 .8
.0884 95.1 + .0262
- 1 .8
.0940 101.1 + .0206
- 1 .7
.0953 102.5 + .0193
- 1 .5
.0971 104.4 + .0175
-1 .5
.0990 106.5 + .0156
- 1 .3
.1097 118.0 + .0049
- 1 .1
-1 .3 .1073 115.4 + .0073
+ .3 .1142 122.8 + .0004
.1146 123.2

+23.2
+27.5
+26.2
+25.2
+19.0
+30.8
+29.6
+21.9
+20.3
+18.0
+15.8
+ 4.5
+ 6.8
+ .4

SPINNERS, MULE, Male.
Data for employees from 9 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 9 estab­
lishments, 1890-1892; 10 establishments, 1893-1896; 11 establishments, 1897-1903.]
1890-99.
890.............
891.............
892.............
893.............
894.............
895.............
896.............
897.............
898.............
899.............
900.............
901.............
902.............
903.............

lv.

146
145
153
143
132
124
154
150
149
161
148
157
154
203
219

100.0
99.3
104.8
97.9
90.4
84.9
105.5
102.7
102.1
110.3
101.4
107.5
105.5
139.0
150.0

+73
+74
+66
+76
+87
+95
+65
+69
+70
+58
+71
+62
+65
+16

+50.0
+51.0
+43.1
+53.1
+65.9
+76.6
+42.2
+46.0
+47.0
+36.0
+48.0
+39.5
+42.2
+ 7.9

58.87
60.46
60.47
60.38
58.42
53.20
59.84
59.79
55.67
59.83
60.59
59.94
59.88
59.42
59.09

100.0
102.7
102.7
102.6
99.2
90.4
101.6
101.6
94.6
101.6
102.9
101.8
101.7
100.9
100.4

+0.22
-1 .3 7
-1 .3 8
-1 .2 9
+ .67
+5.89
- .75
- .70
+3.42
- .74
-1 .5 0
- .85
- .79
- .33

+
-

0.4 80.1301
2.3 .1257
2.3 .1243
2.1 .1222
+ 1.1 .1321
+11.1 .1276
- 1.3 .1252
- 1.2 .1349
+ 6.1
.1356
- 1.3 .1446
- 2.5 .1288
- 1.4 .1504
- 1.3 .1487
.1483
.6
.1624

100.0
96.6
95.5
93.9
101.5
98.1
96.2
103.7
104.2
111.1

99.0
115.6
114.3
114.0
124.8

+80.0323
+ .0367
+ .0381
.0402
+
+ .0303
+ .0348
+ .0372
+ .0275
+ .0268
+ .0178
+ .0336
+ .0120
.0137
+
+ .0141

+24.8
+29.2
+30.7
+32.9
+22.9
+27.3
+29.7
+20.4
+19.8
+12.3
+26.1
+ 8 .0
+ 9.2
+ 9.5

SPINNERS, MULE, Female.
Data for employees from 2 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments, 1890-1892,1894-1896,1901-1903; 2 establishments, 1893,1897-1900.]
V. 1890-99.
390.............
391.............
392.............
393 .............
394.............
395.............
396.............
397 .............
398.............
399 .............
m .............
m .............
102.............
p 3 .............
0

35
45
46
44
28
30
38
29
29
26
30
23
18
21
27

100.0
128.6
131.4
125.7
80.0
85.7
108.6
82.9
82.9
74.3
85.7
65.7
51.4
60.0
77.1




- 8
-1 8
-1 9
-1 7
- 1
- 3
-1 1
- 2
- 2
+ 1
- 3
+ 4
+ 9
+ 6

-2 2 .9
-4 0 .0
-4 1 .3
-3 8 .6
- 3.6
-1 0 .0
-2 8 .9
- 6.9
- 6.9
+ 3.8
-1 0 .0
+17.4
+50.0
+28.6

60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$0.0556
.0551
.0555
.0554
.0613
.0541
.0545
.0543
.0552
.0550
.0553
.0561
.0582
.0675
.0633

100.0
99.1
99.-8
99.6
110.3
97.3
98.0
97.7
99.3
98.9
99.5
100.9
104.7
121.4
113.8

+$0.0077
+ .0082
+ .0078
+ .0079
+ .0020
+ .0092
+ .0088
+ .0090
+ .0081
+ .0083
+ .0080
+ .0072
+ .0051
.0042
-

+13.8
+14.9
+14.1
+14.3
+ 3.3
+ 17.0
+16.1
+ 16.6
+14.7
+15.1
+14.5
+12.8
+ 8.8
- 6.2

916

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

Table I.— WAGES

AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903—Concluded.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1908, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

WOOLEN A N D WORSTED GOODS—Concluded.
^VEAVER'S, Iflctle*
[Data for employees from 9 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments, 1890-1900: 11 establishments, 1901-1903.]
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Wages per hour.

Increase ( + ) or
Increase ( + ) or
Increase (+ ) or
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ Aver­ Rela­
Rela­
Num­ tive pared with year age tive pared with year Aver­ Rela­ pared with yeai
specified.
specified.
specified.
num- number. numage. tive.
ber.
ber. ber.
Per
Per
Num­
Num­
Amoimt. Per
ber.
ber.
cent.
cent.
cent.

661
Av. 1890-99.
609
1890.............
652
1891.............
687
1892.............
619
1893.............
535
1894.............
639
1895.............
681
1896.............
751
1897.............
765
1898.............
668
1899.............
915
1900.............
944
1901.............
1902.............
920
1903............. 1,134

100.0
92.1
98.6
103.9
93.6
80.9
96.7
103.0
113.6
115.7
101.1
138.4
142.8
139.2
171.6

+473
+525
+482
+447
+515
+599
+495
+453
+383
+369
+466
+219
+190
+214

+ 71.6
+ 86.2
+ 73.9
+ 65.1
+ 83.2
+112.0
+ 77.5
+ 66.6
+ 51.0
+ 48.2
+ 69.8
+ 23.9
+ 20.1
+ 23.3

59.62
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.34
59.42
59.47
69.49
59.45
59.50
59.53
59.38
59.38
58.84
58.65

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.6
99.6
98.7
98.4

-0 .9 7
-1 .3 5
-1 .3 5
-1 .3 5
- .69
- .77
- .82
- .84
- .80
- .85
- .88
- .73
- .73
- .19

- 1 . 6 60.1481 100.0 +60.0368
.1505 101.6 + .0344
-2 .3
.1515 102.3 + .0334
- 2 .3
.1538 103.8 + .0311
- 2 .3
.1624 109.7 + .0225
-1 .2
- 1 .3
.1375 92.8 + .0474
- 1 .4
.1406 94.9 + .0443
- 1 .4
.1403 94.7 + .0446
- 1 .3
.1451 98.0 + .0398
- 1 .4
.1498 101.1 + .0351
-1 .5
.1495 100.9 + .0354
- 1 .2
.1655 111.7 + .0194
- 1 .2
.1683 113.6 + .0166
- .3 .1783 120.4 + .0066
.1849 124.8

+24.
+22.
+22.
+20.
+13.
+34.
+31.
+31.
+27.
+23.
+23.
+11.
+ 9.
+ 3.

WEAVERS, Female*
[Data for employees from 9 establishments for entire period. Data for hours and wages from 10 estal
lishments, 1890-1895,1901-1903; 9 establishments, 1896-1900.]

Av. 1890-99.
1890.............
1891.............
1892.............
1893.............
1894.............
1895.............
1896.............
1897.............
1898.............
1899.............
1900.............
1901.............
1902.............
1903.............

1,272
1,354
1,432
1,222
1,362
1,278
1,182
1,189
1,176
1,338
1,187
1,336
1,361
1,353
1,375

100.0
106.4
112.6
96.1
107.1
100.5
92.9
93.5
92.5
105.2
93.3
105.0
107.0
106.4
108.1




+103
+ 21
- 57
+153
+ 13
+ 97
+193
+186
+199
+ 37
+188
+ 39
+ 14
+ 22

+ 8.1
+ 1.6
- 4.0
+12.5
+ 1.0
+ 7.6
+16.3
+15.6
+16.9
+ 2.8
+15.8
+ 2.9
+ 1.0
+ 1.6

59.40
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.12
59.18
59.19
59.21
59.20
59.06
59.02
69.07
59.02
58.32
58.32

100.0
101.0
101.0
101.0
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
98.2
98.2

-1 .0 8
-1 .6 8
-1 .6 8
-1 .6 8
- .80
- .86
- .87
- .89
- .88
- .74
- .70
- .75
- .70

- 1 . 8 90.1349 100.0 +$0.0216
.1355 100.4 + .0210
-2 .8
.1338 98.4 + .0227
-2 .8
-2 .8
.1360 100.8 + .0205
- 1 .4
.1441 106.8 + .0124
. 1272 94.3 + .0293
-1 .5
.1265 93.8 + .0300
-1 .5
.1305 96.7 + .0260
-1 .5
-1 .5
.1359 100.7 + .0206
-1 .3
.1411 104.6 + .0154
-1 .2
.1383 102.5 + .0182
-1 .3
.1481 109.8 + .0084
-1 .2
.1617 112.5 + .0048
.1517 112.5 + .0048
.1565 116.0

+16
+15
+17
+15
+ 8
+23
+23
+19
+15
+10
+13
+ 5
+ 3
+ 3

917

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.

Table II .—SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 716 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS.
Hours per week.

Employees.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( —) in Relative decrease (—) in Relative. decrease (—) in
number. 1903 as com­ number. 1903 as com­
1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

Year.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1033...................................

86.2
88.2
95.1
105.1
95.8
98.1
94.5
95.3
120.9
120.6
130.7
105.9
115.8
124.8

+44.8
+41.5
+31.2
+18.7
+30.3
+27.2
+ 32.1
+31.0
+ 3.2
+ 3.5
- 4.5
+17.8
+ 7.8

100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.2
100.3
99.9
99.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
99.4

-0 .9
- .9
- .9
- .9
+ .2
- .9
- .5
+ .4
- .8
- .8
- .8
- .8
- .8

97.1
+20.7
100.8
+16.3
+15.4
101.6
102.5
+14.3
97.3
+20.5
96.4
+21.8
+14.9
102.0
99.4
+17.9
101.0
+16.0
+15.1
101.8
105.8
+10.8
+ 8.9
107.6
112.8 ,
+ 3.9
117.2
............................

- 6 .8
- 6 .8
- 6 .9
-6 .6
- 6 .5
-5 .9
-6 .6
-6 .3
-6 .8
-3 .9
-3 .0
- 2 .4
- 2 .0

99.2
99.7
100.2
100.6
98.3
98.6
99.5
99.7
101.2
103.0
106.5
108.7
113.8
118.8

BAKERY, BREAD.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902 ...................................
1903...................................

93.4
94.7
96.1
96.1
97.3
100.3
102.2
102.7
107.3
109.9
114.0
121.1
130.5
133.8

+43.2
+41.3
+39.2
+39.2
+37.5
+33.4
+30.9
+30.3
+24.7
+21.7
+17.4
+10.5
+ 2.5

100.8
100.7
100.9
100.5
100.4
99.8
99.5
100.2
99.7
97.7
96.8
96.2
95.8
93.9

+19.8
+19.2
+18.6
+18.1
+20.9
+20.6
+19.4
+19.2
+17.4
+15.3
+11.5
+ 9.3
+ 4.4

BLACKSMITHING A N D HORSESHOEING.
1 8 9 0 ....:..........................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897 ...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

101.8
100.9
102.5
101.1
98.7
96.6
'98 .7
97.9
101.1
101.3
102.4
105.1
101.6
101.9

+ 0.1
+ 1 .0
- .6
+ *8
+ 3 .2
+ 5 .5
+ 3.2
+ 4 .1
+ .8
+ .6
- .5
- 3 .0
+ .4

101.1
101.1
101.0
100.2
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.4
99.3
99.0
98.4
97.7
97.0
96.4

-4 .6
- 4 .6
- 4 .6
-3 .8
-3 .3
-3 .2
- 3 .1
-3 .0
-2 .9
-2 .6
-2 .0
-1 .3
- .6

98.9
98.7
98.8
99.2
99.1
99.1
99.9
100.9
102.2
102.9
104.5
106.6
108.6
112.2

+13.4
+13.7
+13.6
+13.1
+13.2
+13,2
+12.3
+11.2
+ 9.8
+ 9.0
+ 7.4
+ 5.3
+ 3.3

-3 .6
- 4 .2
- 3 .9
- 3 .5
- 3 .3
- 3 .3
- 3 .2
- 3 .1
- 3 .0
- 2 .9
- 2 .4
- 2 .6
- 1 .4

97.9
96.2
98.2
100.5
99.5
100.6
100.7
102.5
101.8
102.3
105.3
105.2
108.8
115.6

+18.1
+20.2
+17.7
+15.0
+16.2
+14.9
+ 14.8
+12.8
+13.6
+13.0
+ 9.8
+ 9.9
+ 6.3

BOOTS A N D SHOES.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893 ...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897 ...................................
1898...................................
1899 ...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................




77.2
80.0
86.4
97.1
99.0
103.2
110.6
111.3
111.3
118.4
123.2
127.7
124.0
130.4

+68.9
+63.0
+50.9
+34.3
+31.7
+26.4
+18.0
+17.2
+17.2
+10.1
+ 5.8
+ 2.1
+ 5.2

100.2
100.8
100.5
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.0
99.2
98.0
96.6

918
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

I I .—SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BOOTS A N D SHOES, RUBBER.
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Percent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( —) in Relative decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
Relative. 1903 as com­
number. 1903 as com­ number.
1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
.1895 ...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

88.4
90.7
99.9
101.7
101.8
101.8
87.6
105.1
111.9
113.9
112.6
115.7
120.0
126.2

+42.8
+39.1
+26.3
+24.1
+24.0
+24.0
+44.1
+20.1
+12.8
+10.8
+12.1
+ 9.1
+ 5.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.3
100.4
103.2
97.7
98.8
101.4
94.0
102.8
101.8
99.8
97.4
100.6
104.7
106.4

+ 6.1
+ 6.0
+ 3.1
+ 8.9
+ 7.7
+ 4.9
+13.2
+ 3.5
+ 4.5
+ 6.6
+ 9.2
+ 5.8
+ 1.6

- 1 .1
-1 .1
- 1 .0
- 1 .0
- 1 .0
-1 .0
-1 .0
-1 .0
-1 .0
- .9
- 1 .0
-1 .0
-1 .0

99.6
100.6
102.9
100.2
99.0
100.4
98.8
98.0
98.6
102.1
103.3
104.3
106.5
108.3

+ 8.7
+ 7.7
+ 5.2
+ 8.1
+ 9.4
+ 7.9
+ 9.6
+10.5
+ 9.8
+ 6.1
+ 4.8
+ 3.8
+ 1.7

—0.6
- .6
- .7
- .7
- .8
- .7
- .7
- .6
- .8
- .9
- .6
- .7
- .6

101.0
101.3
102.7
101.8
99.1
98.5
97.1
97.4
100.1
101.1
103.1
105.1
110.1
112.2

+11.1
+10.8
+ 9.3
+10.2
+13.2
+ 13.9
+15.6
+15.2
+12.1
+ 11.0
+ 8.8
+ 6.8
+ 1.9

- 1 0 .4
- 9.8
- 8.8
- 8.7
- 8.8
- 8.5
- 7.5
- 6.9
- 6.4
- 5.8
- 3.9
- 2.8
— .9

96.6
97.9
99.9
100.1
97.7
98.4
99.9
101.3
102.8
105.4
110.0
114.4
121.2
126.4

+30.8
+29.1
+26.5
+26.3
+29.4
+28.5
+26.5
+24.8
+23.0
+19.9
+14.9
+10.5
+ 4.3

BOXES, PAPER .
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

79.1
82.0
83.0
88.4
97.9
89.0
99.3
100.4
97.1
100.7
95.4
101.3
111.6
113.3

+43.2
+38.2
+36.5
+28.2
+15.7
+27.3
+14.1
+12.8
+16.7
+12.5
+18.8
+11.8
+ 1.5

100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.0

BRICK.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1887...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

98.6
97.6
99.7
100.2
98.7
97.9
100.4
100.9
101.5
104.1
102.7
104.6
108.5
109.9

+11.5
+12.6
+10.2
+ 9.7
+11.3
+12.3
+ 9.5
+ 8.9
+ 8.3
+ 5.6
+ 7.0
+ 5.1
+ 1.3

99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.0
99.9
99.3

BUTEHINO TRADES.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899 ...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903 ...................................




96.5
100.0
106.8
101.7
90.2
92.4
99.2
99.7
104.1
109.8
113.6
119.8
126.2
123.2

+27.7
+23.2
+15.4
+21.1
+36.6
+33.3
+24.2
+23.6
+18.3
+12.2
+ 8.5
+ 2.8
- 2.4

102.5
101.8
100.7
100.5
100.7
100.3
99.2
98.6
98.1
97.5
95.5
94.4
92.6
91.8

.

919

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.
T able I I . —

SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

BUTTER A N D CHEESE.
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( —) in Relative decrease ( —) in
decrease ( —) in
Relative.
number.
1903 as com­ number.
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

94.0
96.0
99.0
99.0
100.0
101.1
101.6
102.1
102.5
103.0
103.0
105.5
106.0
105.5

+12.2
+ 9.9
+ 6.6
+ 6.6
+ 5.5
+ 4.4
+ 3.8
+ 3.3
+ 2.9
+ 2.4
+ 2.4
-

.5
/

100.3
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
100.0
100.1
99.8
99.8
99.2
99.8
100.3
100.2

- 0 .1
+ .1
+ .1
+ .1
+ .1
+ .3
+ .2
+ .1
+ .4
+ .4
+ 1 .0
+ .4
- .1

100.0
99.5
98.8
98.9
98.1
98.7
100.5
99.9
102.2
103.5
104.9
105.0
105.7
106.3

+6 .3
+ 6 .8
+ 7 .6
+ 7 .5
+ 8 .4
+ 7 .7
+ 5 .8
+ 6 .4
+ 4 .0
+ 2 .7
+1 .3
+ 1 .2
+ .6

+ 0 .9
+ .9
+ .2
+ .2
+ .3
— .1
— .1
— .1
— .2
— .2
- .2
- .1
- .1

102.3
103.3
99.8
98.2
98.8
98.9
100.0
98.1
100.5
100.7
99.0
109.5
108.5
109.3

+ 6.8
+ 5.8
+ 9.5
+11.3
+10.6
+10.5
+ 9.3
+11.4
+ 8.8
+ 8.5
+10.4
.2
+ '.7

- 1 .9
- 1 .9
- 1 .1
— .2
- .3
- .2
- .2
- .3
- .3
- .3
- .4
- .3
- .3

99.6
97.9
100.0
99.8
95.3
97.2
101.9
101.8
103.0
103.7
104.1
108.1
105.4
111.3

+11.7
+13.7
+11.3
+11.5
+16.8
+14.5
+ 9.2
+ 9.3
+ 8.1
+ 7.3
+ 6.9
+ 3.0
+ 6.6

100.0
99.4
100.4
99.6
99.2
98.1
100.7
100.2
100.1
102.3
102.2
101.6
103.4
107.6

+ 7 .6
+ 8.2
+ 7 .2
+ 8 .0
+ 8 .5
+9 .7
+ 6 .9
+ 7 .4
+ 7 .5
+ 5 .2
+ 5 .3
+ 5 .9
+ 4.1

CANDY.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

112.7
108.9
103.2
104.2
95.7
95.8
94.8
99.2
89.6
92.9
96.6
91.2
91.9
103.1

- 8.5
- 5.3
.1
- 1.1
+ 7.7
+ 7.6
+ 8.8
+ 3.9
+15.1
+11.0
+ 6.7
+13.0
+12.2

99.3
99.3
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.3
100.3
100.2

CARPETS.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

104.2
100.5
100.6
105.5
87.0
101.8
102.6
93.1
96.9
106.4
111.5
115.2
119.4
122.5

+17.6
+21.9
+21.8
+16.1
+40.8
+20.3
+19.4
+31.6
+26.4
+15.1
+ 9.9
+ 6.3
+ 2.6

101.2
101.2
100.4
99.5
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.6
99.3

CARRIAGES A N D WAGON'S.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...............................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................




95.5
98.6
1Q2.9
103.4
95.7
97.2
92.8
97.8
104.6
111.0
112.7
121.4
115.2
116.2

+21.7
+17.8
+12.9
+12.4
+21.4
+19.5
+25.2
+18.8
+11.1
+ 4.7
+ 3.1
- 4.3
+ .9

100.4
100.6
100.4
100.1
99.5
100.0
99.7
99.8
100.3
99.2
99.2
99.5
99.7
98.4

-2 .0
- 2 .2
-2 .0
-1 .7
- 1 .1
- 1 .6
- 1 .3 *
-1 .4
- 1 .9
- .8
- .8
-1 .1
-1 .3

920

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I.—SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

CABS, STEAM RAILROAD.
Hours per week.

Employees.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( —) in
Relative decrease ( —) in Relative decrease (—) in
Relative. 1903 as com­
number.
1903 as com­ number.
1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

Year.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897 ...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

101.0
102.2
103.9
107.3
85.8
88.6
96.6
94.5
107.3
111.9
118.7
123.8
128.9
136.5

+35.1
+33.6
+31.4
+27.2
+59.1
+54.1
+41.3
+44.4
+27.2
+22.0
+15.0
+10.3
+ 5.9

101.6
101.1
101.6
101.2
97.1
98.9
98.8
98.0
100.8
101.1
101.4
100.6
100.6
98.1

- 3 .4
- 3 .0
- 3 .4
- 3 .1
+ 1 .0
- .8
- .7
+ •1
- 2 .7
-3 .0
-3 .3
- 2 .5
-2 .5

102.9
102.4
101.5
104.0
97.8
97.8
97.6
98.2
98.0
99.8
100.7
101.7
105.7
111.5

+ 8.4
+ 8.9
+ 9.9
+ 7.2
+14.0
+14.0
+14.2
+13.5
+13.8
+11.7
+10.7
+ 9.6
+ 5.5

100.3
100.6
100.0
100.4
96.2
97.6
100.0
100.5
101.8
102.8
103.1
105.9
102.6
106.7

+ 6.4
+ 6.2
+ 6.7
+ 6.3
+10.9
+ 9.3
+ 6.7
+ 6.2
+ 4.8
+ 3.8
+ 3.5
+ .8
+ 4.0

CLOTHING, FACTORY PRODUCT.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899................. *................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

97.5
98.2
102.3
100.0
96.0
96.7
97.9
100.4
103.3
106.9
113.2
117.6
124.6
130.9

+34.3
+33.3
+28.0
+30.9
+36.4
+35.4
+33.7
+30.4
+26.7
+22.5
+15.6
+11.3
+ 5.1

100.4
100.3
100.3
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.7
98.9
98.6
97.7
97.5

-2 .9
-2 .8
- 2 .8
-2 .5
-2 .6
-2 .5
- 2 .3
- 2 .2
- 2 .2
-2 .2
- 1 .4
- 1 .1
- .2

CLOTHING, M EN’S, CUSTOM WORK.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

96.4
95.3
97.9
99.0
95.4
96.7
102.2
111.8
113.6
112.7
116.8
125.9
128.7
130.6

+35.5
+37.0
+33.4
+31.9
+36.9
+35.1
+27.8
+16.8
+15.0
+15.9
+11.8
+ 3.7
+ 1.5

100.4
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.1
100.2
99.4
98.8
98.9
99.0
98.8
97.1

- 3 .3
-3 .0
- 3 .0
- 3 .2
-3 .2
-3 .2
-3 .0
- 3 .1
- 2 .3
- 1 .7
-1 .8
-1 .9
-1 .7

100.3
100.4
100.4
101.5
101.0
100.9
98.4
100.2
100.4
96.6
105.2
106.6
107.7
111.1

+ 10+
+10.7
+10.7
+ 9. £
+10. (
+10.1
+12. i
+10+

-8 .7
-8 .7
- 8 .7
-"8 .6
-8 .7
-6 .6
-6 .7
-6 .5
- 6 .0
- 5 .0
- .3
- .2
- .2

94.8
95.3
94.4
95.4
95.0
110.2
104.9
106.2
105.2
98.6
106.8
105.2
117.8
125.2

+32..
+31.'
+32. <
+31.!
+31..
+13.'
+19.
+17.
+19.
+27.
+17.
+19.
+ 6.

+ i o . •;

+15. (
+ 5.(
+ 4+
+ 3+

COOPERAGE.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896 ...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................




82.1
84.3
91.0
90.6
98.3
114.9
121.8
108.4
111.2
108.7
98.3
100.1
114.6
101.3

+23.4
+20.2
. +11.3
+11.8
+ 3.1
-1 1 .8
-1 6 .8
- 6.5
- 8.9
- 6.8
+ 3.1
+ 1.2
-1 1 .6

101.4
101.4
101.4
101.3
101.4
99.1
99.2
99.0
98.5
97.5
92.9
92.8
92.8
92.6

921

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.
T able I I .—

SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease (—) in 1908, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

COTTON GOODS.
Employees.

Year.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( —) in Relative decrease ( —) in
Relative. decrease ( —) in
number.
1903 as com­ number.
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
87.8
98.3
95.8
98.2
96.1
94.8
98.8
104.6
112.5
112.1
115.5
109.0
117.2
107.2

+22.1
+ 9.1
+11.9
+ 9.2
+11.6
+13.1
+ 8.5
+ 2.5
- 4.7
- 4.4
- 7.2
- 1.7
- 8.5

99.9
100.7
101.2
99.9
98.6
100.0
99.5
99.4
100.3
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.2
99.0

- 0 .9
- 1 .7
- 2 .2
- .9
+ .4
-1 .0
- .5
- .4
-1 .3
-1 .4
—1.2
-

-

1.0
.2

102.8
98.9
100.2
103.5
96.8
96.9
104.8
101.1
99.9
97.7
109.1
110.3
116.2
123.1

+19.7
+24.5
+22.9
+18.9
+27.2
+27.0
+17.5
+21.8
+23.2
+26.0
+12.8
+11.6
+ 5.9

D Y EIN G , FIN ISH IN G , A N D PR IN TIN G TEXTILES.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894 ...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899.......................... .
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

97.3
98.9
99.5
100.4
92.7
95.5
98.7
104.4
102.2
110.9
112.6
117.6
126.2
128.1

+31.7
+29.5
+28.7
+27.6
+38.2
+34.1
+29.8
+22.7
+25.3
+15.5
+13.8
+ 8.9
+ 1.5

101.7
101.7
101.1
99.5
98.9
99.5
99.5
98.9
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6

EDECTRICA jL a p p a r a t u s
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895 ...................................
1896 ...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

54.7
55.1
57.1
65.6
79.3
100.6
130.1
137.1
132.5
169.4
203.4
213.2
231.9
249.7

+356.5
+353.2
+337.3
+280.6
+214.9
+148.2
+ 91.9
+ 82.1
+ 88.5
+ 47.4
+ 22.8
+ 17.1
+ 7.7

100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.4
100.4
99.6
99.9
99.7
99.9
100.1
94.1
94.1
94.1

- 2 .1
- 2 .1
-1 .5
+ .1
+ .7
+ .1
+ .1
+ .7

98.6
97.5
99.4
100.7
99.4
99.6
101.1
101.0
101.5
101.2
103.3
103.5
104.3
105.0

+ 6 .5
+7 .7
+ 5 .6
+ 4 .3
+ 5 .6
+ 5 .4
+ 3 .9
+ 4 .0
+ 3 .4
+ 3 .8
+1 .6
+ 1 .4
+ .7

a n d s u p p l ie s .
- 5 .9
- 5 .9
-6 .0
-6 .0
- 6 .3
-6 .3
-5 .5
-5 .8
- 5 .6
- 5 .8
—6.0

98.6
98.7
98.2
97.7
95.7
97.3
99.7
103.0
105.8
105.5
“ 102.6
107.8
107.3
110.8

+12.4
+12.3
+12.8
+13.4
+15.8
+13.9
+11.1
+ 7.6
+ 4.7
+ 5.0
+ 8.0
+ 2.8
+ 3.3

- 2 .6
-2 .4
-2 .4
-2 .4
- 2 .6
-2 .6
-2 .2
- 2 .4
- 1 .8
-1 .7
- 1 .6
-1 .6
- .4

99.4
100.3
100.3
99.7
98.7
98.5
99.8
100.1
101.5
101.8
103.3
107.6
110.4
111.2

+11.8
+10.9
+10.9
+11.5
+12.7
+ 12.9
+11.4
+11.1
+ 9.6
+ 9.2
+ 7.6
+ 3.3
+ .7

FLOUR.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894 ...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897 ...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

90.3
89.4
91.6
96.1
92.8
92.4
106.5
107.1
117.2
117.7
118.7
120.6
123.4
124.0




+37.3
+38.7
+35.4
+29.0
+33.6
+34.2
+16.4
+15.8
+ 5.8
+ 6.4
+ 4.5
+ 2.8
+ .6

100.3
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.3
99.9
100.1
99.5
99.4
99.3
99.3
98.1
97.7

922
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB.

II.—

SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

FO UNDRY A N D MACHINE SHOP.
Year.

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( —) in Relative decrease (—) in Relative. decrease (—)in
number.
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ number.
1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

1890...................................
1891........; .........................
1892..................................
1893 ...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
189b...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

101.8
101.1
94.5
99.6
87.7
93.2
93.9
93.5
108.1
125.1
126.8
132.0
139.2
149.0

•J-46.4
,+47.4
+57.7
+49.6
+69.9
+59.9
+58.7
+59.4
+37.8
+19.1
+17.5
+12.9
+ 7.0

100.5
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.9
100.1
99.8
99.7
99.9
99.4
99.2
98.1
96.6
95.4

- 5 .1
—5.0
-4 .8
- 4 .6
- 4 .5
-4 .7
-4 .4
-4 .3
-4 .5
-4 .0
-3 .8
-2 .8
-1 .2

99.2
100.3
102.7
101.6
98.7
99.2
100.5
99.8
99.0
99.1
101.5
104.7
108.2
112.2

+13.1
+11.9
+ 9.3
+10.4
+13.7
+13.1
+11.6
+12.4
+ 13.3
+13.2
+10.5
+ 7.2
+ 3.7

FRUITS A N D VEGETABLES, CANNING A N D PRESERVING.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

108.5
111.5
111.5
111.5
100.2
96.5
89.2
89.2
88.5
92.9
101.3
97.6
104.8
104.8

- 3.4
- 6.0
- 6.0
- 6.0
+ 4.6
+ 8.6
+ 17.5
+17.5
+18.4
+12.8
+ 3.5
+ 7.4

99.9
100.4
100.4
100.4
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8
100.0
100.0

+ 0.1
- .4
- .4
- .4
+ .1

100.7
101.4
101.4
101.4
100.7
100.8
100.9
96.0
95.8
100.8
100.8
105.4
105.3
106.0

+ 5.3
+ 4.5
+ 4.5
+ 4.5
+ 5.3
+ 5.2
+ 5.1
+10.4
+ 10.6
+ 5.2
+ 5.2
+ .6
+ .7

- 4 .0
- 3 .2
-2 .3
- 3 .0
-1 .1
- 2 .8
-3 .2
—2.7
-3 .0
-2 .8
-2 .5
- 1 .2
- .1

99.4
102.0
102.6
100.5
99.2
97.1
97.7
100.2
98.6
102.9
103.2
110.3
116.8
118.2

+18.9
+15.9
+15.2
+ 17.6
+ 19.2
+ 21.7
+21.0
+ 1 8.0
+ 1 9 .9
+14.9
+14.5
+ 7.2
+ 1.2

-4 .3
- 4 .4
- 4 .7
-4 .7
-4 .7
-4 .4
-4 .6
- 4 .5
-1 .0

99.5
99.0
99.6
100.4
101.2
99.7
101.0
*00.7
98.6
100.3
101.3
96.5
104.9
101.3

+1 +
+2+
+ 1 .:
+
+ .]
+ 1 .(
+
+ .<
+2/
+i.<

+
+
+
+
+
+

.2
.2
.3
.3
.3
.2

FURNITURE.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

93.7
95.3
101.4
98.5
95.2
96.1
99.0
102.8
104.5
113.4
110.0
113.5
119.8
117.2

+25.1
+23.0
+15.5
+19.0
+23.1
+22.0
+18.4
+14.0
+12.2
+ 3.4
+ 6.5
+ 3.3
- 2.2

101.2
100.4
99.5
100.2
98.3
100.0
100.4
99.9
100.2
100.0
99.7
98.4
97.3
97.2

GAS.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................




110.1
95.4
91.3
84.1
100.5
95.6
93.2
111.0
129.8
91.6
104.0
99.0
121.1
119.4

+ 8.4
*+-25.2
+30.8
+42.0
+18.8
+24.9
+28.1
+ 7.6
- 8.0
+30.3
+14.8
+20.6
- 1.4

100.6
100.7
101.0
101.0
101.0
100.7
100.9
100.8
97.3
96.3
94.8
97.4
95.3
96.3

+ 1 .6
-1 .1
+ 1 .0

+5.(
—3. ‘

923

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING,
T able

II.-SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

GLASS.
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
decrease ( - ) in Relative decrease ( - ) in Relative. decrease ( —) in
Relative
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
number.
1903 as com­ number.
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

Year.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
3893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

..........

99.4
108.2
101.6
97.6
93.1
92.8
95.7
95.9
104.9
108.7
110.3
112.6
115.0
116.7

+17.4
+ 7.9
+14.9
+19.6
+25.3
+25.8
+21.9
+21.7
+11.2
+ 7.4
+ 5.8
+ 3.6
+ 1.5

100.1
99.9
100.0
100.1
99.8
99.9
100.0
100.3
100.0
99.9
100.3
100.0
99.9
99.7

- 0 .4
- .2
- .3
- .4
- .1
— 2
- *.3
- .6
- .3
- .2
- .6
- .3
- .2

101.5
100.2
101.3
100.2
99.1
92.6
96.6
98.3
101.2
103.5
107.7
107.5
115.0
120.0

+18.2
+19.8
+18.5
+19.8
+21.1
+29.6
+24.2
+22.1
+18.6
+15.9
+11.4
+11.6
+ 4.3

- 2 .4
- 2 .4
-2 .2
- 2 .1
-2 .0
- 1 .8
- 1 .7
-1 .8
-1 .9
-1 .7
- 1 .8
-1 .5

100.2
100.6
100.6
101.0
99.0
98.5
98.7
99.5
100.7
101.2
102.0
105.6
108.7
115.8

+15.6
+15.1
+15.1
+14.7
+17.0
+17.6
+17.3
+16.4
+15.0
+14.4
+13.5
+ 9.7
+ 6.5

,104.4
100.5
100.0
97.5
99.6
97.8
98.8
100.6
99.8
100.9
102.4
103.0
110.3
113.8

+ 9.0
+13.2
+13.8
+16.7
+14.3
+16.4
+15.2
+13.1
+14.0
+12.8
+11.1
+10.5
+ 3.2

106.1
107.3
99.0
102.5
97.7
102.9
99.8
94.7
95.5
94.7
98.0
102.4
108.7
115.5

+ 8.9
+ 7.6
+16.7
+12.7
+18.2
+12.2
+15.7
+22.0
+20.9
+22.0
+17.9
+12.8
+ 6.3

HARNESS.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1003

___

91.0
91.8
94.1
94.2
94.5
99.3
104.3
105.9
110.2
117.6
124.5
128.5
135.7
138.8

+52.5
+51.2
+47.5
+47.3
+46.9
+39.8
+33.1
+31.1
+26.0
+18.0
+11.5
+ 8.0
+ 2.3

100.4
100.4
100.2
100.1
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.5
99.0
98.0

-

1.0

HATS, FUR.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897 ...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1Q03
.............

86.2
94.0
90.9
100.0
103.2
90.1
94.5
101.0
109.5
132.1
147.0
160.9
164.6
168.6

+95.6
+79.4
+85.5
+68.6
+63.4
+87.1
+78.4
+66.9
+54.0
+27.6
+14.7
+ 4.8
+ 2.4

100.7
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.0
99.4
98.3
98.5
98.7
94.2
92.7

- 7 .9
-7 .8
-7 .8
- 7 .5
- 7 .5
- 7 .4
- 7 .5
- 7 .3
-6 .7
-5 .7
- 5 .9
- 6 .1
-1 .6

HOSIERY A N D KNIT GOODS.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903
- -

81.3
89.3
122.6
116.4
83.7
99.8
93.1
93.1
111.3
107.9
120.8
131.8
121.2
125.6

10092—No. 53—04-----15



+54.5
+40.6
+ 2.4
+ 7.9
+50.1
+25.9
+34.9
+34.9
+12.8
+16.4
+ 4.0
- 4.7
+ 3.6

101.5
101.5
101.5
100.3
95.0
100.2
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
98.9
98.7
98.9
98.4

- 3 .1
- 3 .1
-3 .1
- 1 .9
+ 3 .6
-1 .8
- 1 .6
-1 .7
-1 .6
- 1 .6
- .5
- .3
- .5

924
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

II.—

SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IRON A N D STEEL, BAR IRON.
Hours per week.

Employees.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
Percent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( - ) in Relative decrease ( - ) in
decrease ( - ) in
Relative.
number.
number.
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

Year.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894 ...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

99.4
98.4
98.3
105.9
100.2
103.7
93.9
97.7
99.7
101.6
108.9
100.7
104.1
109.2

+ 9.9
+11.0
+11.1
+ 3.1
+ 9.0
+ 5.3
+16.3
+11.8
+ 9.5
+ 7.5
+ .3
+ 8.4
+ 4.9

- 4 .2
- 3 .1
-3 .3
-3 .0
-2 .9
-2 .3
-2 .6
+ 1 .3
+ 1 .9
+ 2 .6
+ 1.1

102.7
101.6
101.8
101.4
101.3
100.7
101.0
97.1
96.6
95.9
97.3
98.4
98.8
98.4

-

.4

110.3
105.0
100.0
95.7
90.1
91.6
99.3
98.0
96.3
113.7
118.2
119.7
132.9
136.5

+23.8
+30.0
+36.5
+42.6
+ 51.5
+ 49.0
+ 37.5
+ 39.3
+41.7
+20.1
+ 15.6
+14.0
+ 2.7

IRON A N D STEEL, BESSEMER CONVERTING.
1-890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

99.5
104.8
101.2
102.3
100.0
100.0
99.0
100.1
99.0
100.1
118.7
113.9
113.9
115.0

+15.6
+ 9.7
+13.6
+12.4
+15.0
+15.0
+16.2
+14.9
+16.2
+14.9
- 3.1
+ 1.0
+ 1.0

98.3
98.1
101.8
99.2
100.1
100.2
101.1
100.2
101.0
100.2
91.3
94.6
94.6
96.0

- 2 .3
- 2 .1
-5 .7
-3 .2
-4 .1
- 4 .2
-5 .0
-4 .2
-5 .0
-4 .2
+ 5 .1
+ 1 .5
+ 1 .5

113.3
115.9
112.3
105.5
96.1
97.3
92.6
86.3
88.1
92.8
106.2
113.1
122.6
131.8

+16.3
+13.7
+17.4
+24.9
+37.1
+35.5
+42.5
+52.7
+49.6
+42.0
+24.1
+16.5
+ 7.5

IRON A N D STEEL, BLAST FURNACE.
1890...................................
1891...................... ............
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

94.1
95.1
106.1
99.7
99.8
100.2
98.9
98.3
102.6
104.1
104.1
106.5
104.2
101.7

+8 .1
+ 6 .9
-4 .1
+ 2 .0
+ 1 .9
+ 1 .5
+ 2 .8
+ 3 .5
- .9
-2 .3
-2 .3
- 4 .5
-2 .4

104.4
105.3
107.1
105.2
91.4
96.5
100.1
93.4
93.9
102.8
107.3
108.1
111.2
114.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

+ 9.6
+ 8.6
+ 6.8
+ 8.7
+25.2
+18.6
+14.3
+22.6
+21.6
+11.3
+ 6.6
+ 5.6
+ 2A

IRON A N D STEEL , BLOOMING MILL.
1890.....................................
1891.....................................
1892.....................................
1893.....................................
1894.....................................
1895.....................................
1896.....................................
1897
1898

........................................
........................................

1899.....................................
1900.....................................
1901.....................................
1902.....................................
1903.....................................




121.3
121.7
119.3
113.1
90.8
92.4
88.8
89.1
86.4
104.2
105.1
108.2
104.3
104.3

-1 4 .0
-1 4 .3
-1 2 .6
- 7.8
+14.9
+12.9
+17.5
+17.1
+20.7
+ .1
.8
- 3.6

96.2
95.3
98.2
98.2
103.6
103.5
103.4
103.3
103.4
94.7
97.0
93.7
93.5
93.1

- 3.2
- 2.3
- 5.2
- 5.2
-1 0 .1
-1 0 .0
-1 0 .0
- 9.9
-1 0 .0

-

1.7

4.0
.6
.4

101.6
104.2
107.9
109.8
90.3
96.2
101.9
91.4
92.4
104.4
110.5
118.6
131.4
130.6

+28.6
+25.:
+21. (
+18.1
+44. <
+35.I
+28.!
+42.1
+41.,'
+25.
+18..'
+10.

_ (

925

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.
T able I I . —

SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, seepages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

IR O N A N D STEEL, MUCK BAR.
Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
Percent of in­
Percent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( —) in Relative decrease ( .- ) in Relative. decrease ( —)in
number. 1903 as com­
number. 1903 as com­
1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

101.6
103.5
105.7
98.8
104.1
98.4
98.1
101.1
94.9
96.5
101.9
101.3
104.3
108.1

+ 6.4
+ 4.4
+ 2.3
+ 9.4
+ 3.8
+ 9.9
+10.2
+ 6.9
+13.9
+12.0
+ 6.1
+ 6.7
+ 3.6

100.2
100.2
99.9
100.0
100.9
100.7
97.6
99.8
100.7
100.1
104.4
102.5
102.3
102.3

+ 2.1
+2.1
+ 2.4
+ 2.3
+1 .4
+ 1 .6
+ 4 .8
+ 2 .5
+ 1 .6
+2 .2
-2 .0
- .2

103.7
102.7
100.7
104.8
93.4
93.6
96.6
97.4
100.8
106.3
117.6
115.7
119.0
128.8

+24.2
+25.4
+27.9
+22.9
+37.9
+37.6
+33.3
+32.2
+27.8
+21.2
+ 9.5
+11.3
+ 8.2

IR O N A N D STEEL, OPEN HEARTH STEEL.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894 ...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
[898...................................
1899...................................
900...................................
901...................................
.902...................................
.903...................................

95.7
106.0
104.9
105.9
102.1
93.4
95.6
93.0
95.8
103.9
95.8
96.3
95.6
98.1

+ 2 .5
-7 .5
- 6 .5
- 7 .4
-3 .9
+ 5 .0
+ 2 .6
+ 5 .5
+2 .4
-5 .6
+ 2 .4
+ 1 .9
+ 2 .6

100.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.8
100.3

+ 0 .3
+ .3
+ .3
+ .4
+ .4
+ .3
+ .3
+ .3
+ .5
+ .4
+ .5
+ .5

104.9
103.7
98.0
97.0
89.8
97.7
101.4
98.5
100.2
107.7
119.9
119.8
126.0
131.8

+25 6
+27.1
+34.5
+35.9
+46.8
+34.9
+30.0
+33.8
+31.5
+22.4
+ 9.9
+10.0
+ 4.6

118.5
103.3
115.8
99.5
96.3

+ 11.6
+28.0
+14.2
+32.9
+37.3
+30.0
+27.4
+53.4
+51.8
+50.4
+ 7.7
+ 5*9
- 7. 9

IRON A N D STEEL, RAILS.
890...................................
891...................................
892...................................
893..............................
894...................................
895...................................
896...................................
897...................................
898...................................
899...................................
900...................................
901...................................
902...................................
903...................................




107.9
107.9
90.2
90.2
98.5
99.5

101.0
101.0
101.0

112.7
113.2
113.2
113.2
113.2

+ 4.9
+ 4.9
+25.5
+25.5
+14.9
+13.8
+ 12.1
+ 12.1
+ 12.1
+ .4

90.2
90.2
103.3
103.3
103.3
103.5
103.3
103.3
103.3
96.6
96.5
96.5
96.5
96.5

LEATHER.

+ 7 .0
+ 7 .0
- 6.6
- 6.6
- 6.6
- 6.8
- 6.6
- 6.6
- 6.6
- .1

101.8

103.8

86.2

87.1
87.9

122 8
124.8
143.5
132.2

926
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB.

II.—SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

LIQUORS, DISTILLED.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( - ) in Relative decrease ( —) in Relative. decrease ( - ) in
number.
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ number.
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
93.5
99.0
98.4
97.6
99.4
98.7
97.6
102.3
99.1
100.9
97.2
122.3
113.0
114.5

1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903

+16.2
+15.7
+16.4
+17.3
+15.2
+16.0
+17.3
+11.9
+15.5
+13.5
+17.8
- 6.4
+ 1.3

100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.7
99.7
100.1
98.7
98.0
97.1

—3.0
- 3 .0
- 3 .0
- 3 .0
-3 .1
- 3 .0
-3 .0
- 2 .8
- 2 .6
- 2 .6
- 3 .0
- 1 .6
- .9

98.8
98.8
98.8
99.2
99.8
99.3
100.5
100.4
103.4
100.9
100.5
105.1
108.0
109.1

+10.4
+10.4
+10.4
+10.0
+ 9.3
+ 9.9
+ 8.6
+ 8.7
+ 5.5
+ 8.1
+ 8.6
+ 3.8
+ 1.0

LIQUORS, MALT.
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1886
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903

......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
......................................
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................
......................................
.....................................
......................................

92.8
92.9
94.9
103.2
104.5
102.0
101.2
103.1
101.1
104.5
104.4
115.4
118.1
126.1

+ 35.9
+ 35.7
+ 32.9
+ 22.2
+ 20.7
+ 23.6
+ 24.6
+ 22.3
+ 24.7
+ 20.7
+ 20.8
+ 9.3
+ 6 .8

100.8
100.3
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.4
99.8
99.9
98.7
98.8
96.4
94.2
91.0
89.9

- 10.8
- 10.4
- 10.5
- 10.5
- 10.5
- 10.5
- 9 .9
- 10.0
- 8 .9
- 9.0
- 6.7
- 4.6
- 1.2

97.7
98.8
98.3
98.8
99.5
100.2
100.5
101.1
102.5
102.7
108.0
111.2
117.5
120.3

+ 23.J
+ 21. t
+ 22.4
+ 21. f
+ 20. £
+ 20.]
+ 19.'
+ 19. (
+ 17. <
+ 17.
+ 11. ‘
+ 8 .;
+ 2 .*

LITHOGRAPHING
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

98.3
96.3
103.5
100.1
96.9
96.5
91.4
102.7
101.6
112.4
116.2
123.2
122.0
125 0

+27.2
+29.8
+20.8
+24.9
+29 0
+29.5
+36.8
+21.7
+23.0
+11.2
+ 7.6
+ 1.5
+ 2.5

99.8
99.9
99.7
99 9
100.0
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.1
99.5
98.9

-0 .9
-1 .0
- .8
-1 .0
- 1 .1
-1 .2
-1 .4
- 1 .2
-1 .2
- 1 .1
-1 2
-1 .2
- .6

97.7
100.6
98 3
99.5
98.2
98.9
98.3
101.0
103 0
104 5
104.2
104 9
105.7
107 3

+9.
+6.
+9.
+ 7.
+ 9.
+8.
+9.
+6
+4.
+2.
+3.
+2.
+1

- 2 .1
- 1 .9
- 1 .9
- 1 .4
- 1 .4
- 1 .8
- 1 .8
- 1 .6
- 1 .5
-1 .5
- 1 .2
- .8
- .1

102.8
102.4
102.1
101.7
97.8
97.2
97.0
97.4
99.4
102.2
104.4
106.5
109.5
113.3

+10.
+10.
+11.
+11.
+ 15.
+16.
+16.
+16.
+14.
+10.
+ 8.
+ 6.
+ 3.

LUMBER.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892 ...................................
1893 ...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897 ...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................




94.2
95.7
96.1
95.6
95.3
96.3
99.1
105.0
107.6
111.3
115.5
118.7
123.6
124.9

+32.6
-1-30.5
+30.0
+30.6
+31.1
+29.7
+26.0
+19.0
+16.1
+12.2
+ 8.1
+ 5.2
+ 1.1

100.4
100.2
100.2
99.7
99.7
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.5
99.1
98.4
98.3

927

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.

Table I I

__SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

MARBLE A N D STONE WORK.

Wages per hour.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( —) in Relative decrease ( —) in Relative. decrease ( —)in
number.
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ number.
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

Year.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

103.8
102.5
103.4
102.0
96.3
96.4
94.9
95.7
98.6
106.3
107.0
115.9
116.0
112.3

+ 8.2
+ 9.6
+ 8.6
+10.1
+16.6
+16.5
+18.3
+17.3
+13.9
+ 5.6
+ 5.0
- 3.1
- 3.2

101.8
100.9
100.4
100.5
100.6
100.6
99.6
99.2
99.3
97.2
96.9
96.1
95.5
94.0

-7 .7
-6 .8
-6 .4
-6 .5
-6 .6
-6 .6
-5 .6
- 5 .2
-5 .3
-3 .3
-3 .0
-2 .2
-1 .6

98.5
99.5
100.3
99.7
98.0
97.0
101.0
101.6
101.2
103.2
104.9
109.0
113.5
118.6

+20.4
+19.2
+18.2
+19.0
+21.0
+22.3
+17.4
+16.7
+17.2
+14.9
+13.1
+ 8.8
+ 4.5

MUSICAL INSTRUM ENTS, ORGANS,
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

106.6
101.6
116.7
106.4
86.9
105.6
93.7
89.3
86.0
103.6
106.3
112.2
138.0
144.8

+35.8
+42.5
+24.1
+36.1
+66.6
+37.1
+54.5
+62.2
+68.4
+39.8
+36.2
+29.1
+ 4.9

101.7
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
96.2
. 96.2
96.3
93.9
93.9
94.0
91.6

-9 .9
-9 .8
- 9 .8
-9 .8
-9 .8
-9 .8
-9 .8
—4.8
-4 .8
-4 .9
- 2 .4
- 2 .4
- 2 .6

97.6
100.8
102.3
105.7
101.4
99.7
99.8
97.3
97.8
97.8
105.8
102.6
100.6
100.6

+ 3 .1
— .2
-1 .7
— 4.8
— .8
+ .9
+ .8
+ 3 .4
+ 2 .9
+ 2 .9
-4 .9
- 1 .9

MUSICAL INSTRUM ENTS, PIANOS.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893................................:.
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

78.5
89.4
92.0
87.2
93.5
106.7
102.4
103.6
114.0
136.6
143.5
149.1
163.0
171.8

+118.9
+ 92.2
+ 86.7
+ 97.0
+ 83.7
+ 61.0
+ 67.8
+ 65.8
+ 50.7
+ 25.8
+ 19.7
+ 15.2
+ 5.4

99.5
99.7
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.3
100.0
100.1
97.7
97.7
96.3
89.8

- 9.7
- 9.9
-1 0 .1
-1 0 .1
-1 0 .3
-1 0 .4
-1 0 .5
-1 0 .5
-1 0 .2
-1 0 .3
- 8.1
- 8.1
- 6.7

107.3
106.3
102.8
100.9
95.4
97.6
.96.6
96.9
97.4
98.8
100.8
103.6
107.4
113.5

+ 5.8
+ 6.8
+10.4
+12.5
+19.0
+ 1 6 .3
+17.5
+ 17.1
+ 16.5
+14.9
+12.6
+ 9.6
+ 5.7

-0 .7
- 1 .1
- 1 .1
- 1 .1
-1 .1
- 1 .1
-1 .1
- 1 .1
- 1 .1
-1 .1
- 1 .1
-1 .1
- .4

104.9
105.3
105.3
105.3
96.5
96.5
96.,5
96.5
96.5
96.5
96.5
96.5
105.5
105.2

+ 0 .3
— .1
— .1
— .1
+ 9 .0
+ 9 .0
+ 9 .0
+ 9 .0
+ 9 .0
+ 9 .0
+ 9 .0
+ 9 .0
- .8

OIL, COTTON SEED.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................




97.8
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
113.3
114.8

+17.4
+14.1
+14.1
+14.1
+14.1
+14.1
+14.1
+14.1
+14.1
+14.1
+14.1
+14.1
+ 1.3
'

99.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.3
98.9

928

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table H .— SUMMARY

OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

OIL, LIN SEED.

Hours per week.

Employees.

Year.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
Percent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( - ) in Relative decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
Relative.
number.
1903 as com­ number.
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
189 6 .-................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

126.0
93.1
101.8
91.9
94.1
95.1
106.0
102.0
97.4
103.6
101.3
98.2
94.6
90.1

-2 8 .5
- 3.2
-1 1 .5
- 2.0
- 4.3
- 5.3
-1 5 .0
-1 1 .7
- 7.5
-1 3 .0
-1 1 .1
— 8.2
— 4.8

100.8
100.8
100.9
99.7
99.5
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8
104.9
104.9
104.9

+ 4 .1
+ 4 .1
+ 4 .0
+ 5 .2
+ 5 .4
+ 5 .3
+ 5 .2
+ 5 .2
+ 5 .2
+ 5 .2
+ 5 .1

98.3
98.3
103.6
103.7
102.0
100.2
99.6
98.2
99.1
97.2
97.9
106.4
106.9
106.9

+ 8.7
+ 8.7
+ 3.2
+ 3.1
+ 4.8
+ 6.7
+ 7.3
+ 8.9
+ 7.9
+10.0
+ 9.2
+ .5

- 2 .1
-2 .1
-2 .1
- 2 .0
+ 6 .5
+ 1 .0
- 2 .1
+ .4
+ A
+ .3
+ .1
+ .1
- 4 .1

98.3
98.7
98.9
100.5
107.6
98.8
97.5
99.3
100.0
100.5
101.3
106.4
112.3
111.4

+13.3
+12.9
+12.6
+10.8
+ 3.5
+12.8
+14.3
+12.2
+11.4
+10.8
+10.0
+ 4.7
.8

96.5
98.8
93.6
99.7
98.7
99.2
100.6
99.8
99.3
108.6
108.7

+23.0
+20.1
+26.8
+19.1
+20.3
+19.7
+18.0
+18.9
+19.5
+ 9.3
+ 9.2
+ 7.0
+ 6.8

PAIN TS.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1 8 % ...................................
1897 ...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

92.2
97.4
99.6
101.3
84.7
100.9
94.4
101.3
112.7
121.7
139.6
103.7
138.8
140.2

+52.1
+43.9
+40.8
+38.4
+65.5
+38.9
+48.5
+38.4
+24.4
+15.2
+ .4
+35.2
+ 1.0

101.9
101.9
101.9
101.8
93.7
98.8
101.9
99.4
99.4
99.5
99.7
99.7
104.1
99.8

PA PE R A N D WOOD PU L P.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...............................
1897 ...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

92.0
95.4
98.6
100.6
93.4
100.6
103.6
107.3
105.6
102.6
114.9
115.4
118.3
123.5

+34.2
+29.5
+25.3
+22.8
+32.2
+22.8
+19.2
+15.1
+17.0
+20.4
+ 7.5
+ 7.0
+ 4.4

100.5
100.4
100.4
99.9
100.9
100.7
100.7
100.8
101.2
99.5
99.6
98.6
93.0
92.7

-7 .8 '
- 7 .7
-7 .7
-7 .2
- 8 .1
- 7 .9
- 7 .9
- 8 .0
- 8 .4
- 6 .8
-6 .9
-6 .0
- .3

110.9

111.1
118.7

PL A N IN G MILL.
......................................
......................................
......................................
............ .........................
.....................................
.....................................
% .....................................
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................
.....................................

1890
1891
189 2
1893
1 89 4
1895
18
1897
189 8
1899
1900
1% 1
1902
1903




92.4
93.4
95.6
94.9
94.9
99.2
101.4
102.2
104.6
115.5
115.5
125.3
128.0
135.4

+ 46.5
+ 45.0
+ 41.6
+ 42.7
+ 42.7
+ 36.5
+ 33.5
+ 32.5
+ 29.4
+ 17.2
+ 17.2
+ 8.1
+ 6 .8

101.2
100.4
100.5
100.1
100.6
99.3
99.4
99.7
99.5
99.2
99.3
99.0
98.2
98.0

- 3.2
- 2.4
- 2.5
- 2.1
- 2.6
—1,3
- 1.4
- 1.7
- 1.5
- 1.2
- 1 .3
- 1.0
- .2

99.3
100.8
100.8
100.7
97.7
98.2
98.4
99.5
100.9
103.8
104.9
107.9
110.8
113.6

+ 14.4
+ 12.7
+ 12.7
+ 12.8
+ 16.2
+ 15.7
+ 15. 4
+ 14. 4
+ 12. (
+ 9.4
+ 8.2
+ 5.2
+ 2.1

929

WAGES AND COST OP LIVING,

rABLE ML—SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDU STRIES—Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

POTTERY.

Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease (— )in Relative decrease (—) in
decrease ( —) in
number.
1903 as com­ number.
1903 as com­ Relative. 1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.
i

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

101.8
104.8
100.8
103.1
101.2
93.3
95.0
98.6
95.4
99.7
102.0
100.7
99.5
103.5

+ 1.7
- 1.2
+ 2.7
+ .4
+ 2.3
+10.9
+ 8.9
+ 5.0
+ 8.5
+ 3.8
+ 1.5
+ 2.8
+ 4.0

99.7
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.6
100.0
100.2
100.6
100.6
100.4
100.1
100.3
100.3
99.2

-0 .6
- .4
- .5
- .4
- .4
- .8
-

1.0

- 1 .4
- 1 .4
- 1 .2
- .9
- 1 .1
- 1 .1

98.8
99.7
100.1
102.5
99.6
96.4
95.3
99.9
104.9
103.0
99.8
102.4
104.6
107.7

+ 9.0
+ 8.0
+ 7.6
+ 5.1
+ 8.1
+11.7
+13.0
+ 7.8
+ 2.7
+ 4.6
+ 7.9
+ 5.2
+ 3.0

PR IN TIN G A N D PU BLISH IN G , BOOK A N D JOB.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

97.3
98.5
96.9
96.9
95.0
97.0
98.2
107.0
106.2
112.2
117.0
122.0
123.9
126.6

+30.1
+28.5
+30.7
+30.7
+33.3
+30.5
+28.9
+18.3
+19.2
+12.8
+ 8.2
+ 3.8
+ 2.2

101.0
101.0
100.5
100.4
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.2
99.4
97.2
95.1
94.4
93.2
93.1

- 7 .8
- 7 .8
- 7 .4
-7 .3
- 7 .0
-7 .1
- 7 .0
- 7 .1
-6 .3
- 4 .2
- 2 .1
-1 .4
- .1

97.8
99.6
99.2
100.2
99.6
99.5
100.3
99.2
101.2
103.6
109.3
110.7
114.3
116.1

+18.7
+16.6
+17.0
+15.9
+16.6
+16.7
+15.8
+17.0
+14.7
+12.1
+ 6.2
+ 4.9
+ 1.6

PRIN TING A N D PU BLISH IN G , NEW SPAPER.
1890...................................
1891...................................
8 9 2 ...................................
8 9 3 ...................................
8 9 4 ...................................
895...................................
8 9 6 ...................................
897...................................
898...................................
899...................................
900...................................
901...................... : ..........
.902...................................
903...................................

«105.4
a 107.2
a 116.2
a 107.4
« 94.7
a 88.7
a 97.0
«96.3
a 91.6
a 92.1
a 89.1
<f90.3
a 96.7
a 95.5

a - 9.4
a—10.9
a—17.8
o -ll. 1
o + .8
o + 7.6
1.5
o - .8
a + 4.3
« + 3.7
a + 7.2
a + 5.8
a— 1.2

100.2
100.1
100.6
101.3
100.5
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.1
97.9
97.6
97.4
97.1
96.2

-4 .0
- 3 .9
- 4 .4
-5 .0
- 4 .3
- 4 .2
-4 .0
- 3 .8
- 2 .9
- 1 .7
-1 .4
- 1 .2
- .9

102.9
99.5
98.7
98.0
97.4
96.4
98.7
99.3
102.9
106.2
106.3
106.4
109.3
113.3

+10.1
+13.9
+14.8
+15.6
+16.3
+17.5
+14.8
+14.1
+10.1
+ 6.7
+ 6.6
+ 6.5
+ 3.7

99.5
99.5
100.0
99.5
99.7
101.8
99.7
100.1
99.7
100.6
100.9
99.5
100.6
100.8

+ 1 .3
+ 1 .3
+ .8
+ 1 .3
+1 .1
—1.0
+ 1 .1
+ .7
+ 1 .1
+ .2

ROPE A N D TW INE.
890...................................
891...................................
892...................................
893...................................
894...................................
895...................................
896...................................
897...................................
898...................................
899...................................
900...................................
901...................................
902...................................
903...................................

94.5
90.1
103.4
107.6
93.9
104.0
104.2
102.3
97.7
99.3
95.0
97.7
111.8
108.3

+14.6
+20.2
+ 4.7
+ .7
+15.3
+ 4.1
+ 3.9
+ 5.9
+10.8
+ 9.1
+14.0
+10.8
— 3.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

—

.1

+ 1 .3
+ .2

a These figures include linotype operators in the only establishment in operation the entire period.
t linotype operators in other establishments where they were employed beginning at a later date

^ere included the percentages in the later years would be largely increased.




930

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

T able I I . —

SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( —) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

SH IPBUILD ING .
Hours per week.

Employees.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( —) in Relative decrease (—) in Relative. decrease ( —) in
number.
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
1903 as com­ number.
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

Year.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

86.7
89.7
93.0
87.0
86.0
101.3
91.2
89.3
122.2
147.6
156.2
159.5
169.5
163.9

+89.0
+82.7
+76.2
+88.4
+90.6
+61.8
+79.7
+83.5
+34.1
+11.0
- f 4.9
+ 2.8
- 3.3

100.8
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.7
100.0
99.9
99.3
99.7
99.8
99.9
98.8
98.2
97.4

- 3 .4
- 2 .9
-2 .9
- 2 .7
- 2 .3
-2 .6
-2 .5
-1 .9
-2 .3
-2 .4
-2 .5
-1 .4
- .8

97.5
97.2
97.9
98.7
95.6
101.0
102.0
104.0
103.8
102.3
102.6
104.2
108.2
110.3

+13.1
+13.5
+12.7
+11.8
+15.4
+ 9.2
+ 8.1
+ 6.1
+ 6,3
+ 7.8
+ 7.5
+ 5.9
+ 1.9

SILK GOODS.

SLAUGHTERING A N D MEAT PACKING.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

89.3
90.0
90.5
96.9
99.7
101.8
103.3
106.5
108.9
107.5
107.2
109.1
114.9
115.3

+29.1
+28.1
+27.4
+19.0
+15.6
+13.8
+11.6
+ 8.3
+ 5.9
+ 7.3
+ 7.6
+ 5.7
+ .3

- 0 .3
- .3
- .3
-1 .0
-1 .0
-1 .1
-1 .1
- 1 .1
- 1 .0
- .8
- 1 .1
- 1 .1
- .1

102.2
102.1
102.7
103.4
97.9
97.8
97.6
98.0
98.0
100.2
103.6
103.3
107.1
113.6

+11.2
+11.3
+10.6
+ 9.9
+16.0
+16.2
+16.4
+15. £
+15. £
+13.4
+ 9.7
+10.C
+ 6.3

+5 .3
96.5
+ 5.3
96.5
+5 .3
96.5
101.6
101.2
+ .4
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6 i...........................
101.6
101.6 i...........................

101.8
102.0
102.9
97.8
98.3
98.1
98.9
99.2
100.4
100.7
101.1
110.0
111.5
117.4

+15. £
+15J
+14.1
+20. (
+19. ‘
+19/
+ 18.:
+18. <
+16. <
+16. <
+16.'
+ 6/
+ 5.J

99.5
99.5
99.5
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.0
100.3
100.3
99.3
99.2

SOAP.
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903




102.8
102.2
103.2
88.0
96.4
100.4
98.6
100.3
302.2
99.8
96.2
89.7
89.7
91.0

-1 1 .5
-1 1 .0
-1 1 .8
+ 3.4
- 5.6
- 9.4
- 7.7
- 9.3
-1 1 .0
- 8.8
- 5.4
+ 1.4
+ 1.4

931

WAGES AND COST OF LIVING.
T able

II.—

SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued.

[Average, 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

STOVES.
Hours per week.

Employees.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in*
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( - ) in Relative decrease ( —) in
Relative. decrease ( —) in
number.
1903 as com­ number.
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

Year.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896........................ ; .........
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

88.2
113.0
110.9
107.0
80.9
103.1
101.2
86.7
99.7
111.9
110.9
120.6
133.9
118.5

+34.4
+ 4.9
+ 6.9
+10.7
+46.5
+14.9
+17.1
+36.7
+18.9
+ 5.9
+ 6.9
— 1.7
—11.5

100.3
99.8
100.2
99.7
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2

- 0 .1
+ .4
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

.5
.3
.3
.1
.2
.1
.2

93.4
95.3
95.5
99.2
95.9
98.2
97.4
103.1
106.4
115.5
113.2
121.1
121.6
124.6

+33.4
+ 30.7
+30.5
+25.6
+ 29.9
+26.9
+27.9
+20.9
+17.1
+ 7.9
+10.1
+ 2.9
+ 2.5

STREETS A N D SEWERS, CONTRACT WORK.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903 ...................................

102.3
121.7
112.3
109.7
107.3
91.1
98.9
85.6
81.4
89.6
99.4
100.1
100.8
103.9

+ 1.6
-1 4 .6
- 7.5
- 5.3
- 3.2
+14.1
+ 5.1
+21.4
+27.6
+16.0
+ 4.5
+ 3.8
+ 3.1

101.2
101.4
101.3
101.0
101.0
100.6
99.7
97.4
97.5
99.0
98.8
95.4
94.2
94.2

-6 .9
- 7 .1
- 7 .0
- 6 .7
-6 .7
-6 .4
-5 .5
-3 .3
-3 .4
-4 .8
- 4 .7
- 1 .3

96.7
89.0
99.2
96.9
98.0
99.5
104.0
104.8
106.3
106.0
108.2
118.7
126.5
131.4

+35.9.
+47.6
+32.5
+35.6
+34.1
+32.1
+26.3
+ 25.4
+ 23.6
+ 24.0
+21.4
+10.7
+ 3.9

STREETS A N D SEWERS, M UNICIPAL WORK.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

89.7
87.7
98.4
104.2
115.8
104.7
102.6
101.7
93.4
101.9
100.8
105.7
94.1
87.4

- 2.6
.3
- 1 1 .2
-1 6 .1
—24.5
—16.5
—14.8
-1 4 .1
— 6.4
-1 4 .2
-1 3 .3
-1 7 .3
- 7.1

100.6
100.5
100.4
100.8
100.7
100.2
100.1
100.5
99.9
96.4
93.9
93.2
93.2
92.5

- 8 .1
- 8 .0
-7 .9
-8 .2
-8 .1
- 7 .7
-7 .6
-8 .0
-7 .4
- 4 .0
-1 .5
- .8
- .8

99.9
99.5
98.5
98.3
100.9
99.6
98.4
98.6
100.6
105.7
.110.2
110.6
111.0
111.8

+11.9
+12.4
+13.5
+13.7
+10.8
+12.2
+13.6
+13.4
+11.1
+ 5.8
+ 1.5
+ 1.1
+ .7

92.8
93.1
93.5
93.3
99.3
99.3
103.5
105.9
*110.0
109.4
110.3
112.2
114.5
112..3

+21.0
+20.6
+20.1
+20.4
+13.1
+13.1
+ 8.5
+ 6.0
+ 2.1
+ 2.7
+ 1.8
+ .1
- 1.9

TOBACCO, CIGARETTES.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................




89.9
90.6
92.7
97.2
99.1
100.6
104.7
107.6
108.3
110.3
114.4
123.5
117.6
142.4

+58.4
+57.2
+53.6
+46.5
+43.7
+41.6
+36.0
+32.3
+31.5
+29.1
+24.5
+15.3
+21.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1

+ 0.1
+ .1
+ .1
+ .1
+ .1
+ .1
+ .1

+ .1
+ .1

932

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I .—

SUMMARY OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890-1903, BY
INDUSTRIES—Concluded.

[Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see pages 715 and 716; for explanation
of increase ( + ) or decrease ( - ) in 1903, as compared with previous years, see note on page 718.]

TOBACCO, CIGARS.
Hours per week.

Employees.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
Per cent of in­
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
crease ( + ) or
Relative decrease ( - ) in Relative decrease ( —) in Relative. decrease ( —) in
number. 1903 as com­
number.
1903 as com­
1903 as com­
pared with year
pared with year
pared with year
specified.
specified.
specified.

Year.

1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896............... : ..................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

76.0
85.2
90.3
100.5
103.5
109.9
95.2
107.4
107.7
119.9
93.9
106.1
116.0
118.8

+56.3
+39.4
+31.6
+18.2
+14.8
+ 8.1
+24.8
+10.6
+10.3
.9
+26.5
+11.9
+ 2.4

100.1
99.6
99.2
99.7
99.9
99.8
100.4
100.0
100.3
101.0
99.8
100.6
100.9
101.4

+ 1 .3
+ 1 .8
+ 2 .2
+1 .7
+ 1 .5
+ 1 .6
+ 1 .0
+ 1 .4
+ 1.1
+ .4
+ 1 .6
+ .8
+ .5

100.3
100.6
99.6
100.0
99.0
97.2
98.6
102.4
101.1
101.3
100.8
112.5
110.0
116.9

+16.6
+16.2
+17.4
+16.9
+18.1
+20.3
+ 18.6
+ 14.2
+15.6
+15.4
+16.0
+ 3.9
+ 6.3

TOBACCO, PLU G , PIN E CUT, A N D GRANULATED SMOKING.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................

100.6
98.7
97.8
98.5
104.7
103.3
99.0
100.5
99.3
101.6
102.3
101.7
91.6
103.7

+ 3.1
+ 5.1
+ 6.0
+ 5.3
- 1.0
+ .4
+ 4.7
+ 3.2
+ 4.4
+ 2.1
+ 1.4
+ 2.0
+13.2

100.1
99.9
100.5
100.5
100.4
99.6
99.6
99.9
99.9
99.6
99.5
100.2
100.3
100.2

+ 0.1
+ .3
- .3
- .3
- .2
+ .6
+ .6
+ .3
+ .3
+ .6
+ .7
-

.1

94.1
97.2
100.2
96.1
98.3
101.8
102.0
102.8
102.9
104.7
106.9
111.0
116.6
120.4

+27.9
+23.9
+20.2
+25.3
+22.5
+18.3
+18.0
+17.1
+17.0
+ 15.0
+12.6
+ 8.5
+ 3.3

98.1
99.1
99.6
101.6
97.2
96.8
100.9
100.2
102.5
103.7
110.41
110.6
113.5
115.2

+ 17.4
+ 16.2
+ 15.7
+13.4
+ 1 8 .6
+ 1 9 .0
+ 1 4 .2
+ 1 5 .0
+ 1 2.4
+ 11.1
+ 4.3
+ 4.2
+ 1.5

WOOLEN A N D WORSTED GOODS.
1890...................................
1891...................................
1892...................................
1893...................................
1894...................................
1895...................................
1896...................................
1897...................................
1898...................................
1899...................................
1900...................................
1901...................................
1902...................................
1903...................................




91.8
103.5
104.3
96.2
90.8
100.5
97.2
106.5
109.7
100.0
109.4
112.1
121.3
134.1

+46.1
+29.6
+28.6
+39.4
+47.7
+33.4
+38.0
+25.9
+22.2
+34.1
+22.6
+19.6
+10.6

101.0
101.0
101.0
99.6
98.2
100.3
100.2
98.1
100.2
100.3
100.1
100.2
99.3
99.3

- 1 .7
-1 .7
- 1 .7
- .3
+1.1
- 1 .0
- .9
+ 1 .2
- .9
- 1 .0
- .8
- .9

AGREEMENTS BETWEEN EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES.

[It is the purpose of this Bureau to publish from time to time important agreements
made between large bodies of employers and employees with regard to wages, hours
of labor, etc. The Bureau would be pleased to receive copies of such agreements
whenever made.]
AGREEMENT BETWEEN MEAT PACKERS AND THEIR
WORKMEN.
This agreement