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A BUDGET FOR

FISCAL YEAR 2021

AMERICA S
FUTURE
’

BUDGET OF THE U.S. GOVERNMENT
OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET | OMB.GOV

THE BUDGET DOCUMENTS
Budget of the United States Government,
Fiscal Year 2021 contains the Budget Message of
the President, information on the President’s priorities, and summary tables.

provisions applicable to the appropriations of entire
agencies or group of agencies. Information is also
provided on certain activities whose transactions
are not part of the budget totals.

Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United
States Government, Fiscal Year 2021 contains
analyses that are designed to highlight specified
subject areas or provide other significant presentations of budget data that place the budget in perspective. This volume includes economic and accounting
analyses, information on Federal receipts and collections, analyses of Federal spending, information on
Federal borrowing and debt, baseline or current services estimates, and other technical presentations.

Major Savings and Reforms, Fiscal Year
2021, which accompanies the President’s Budget,
contains detailed information on major savings and
reform proposals. The volume describes both major
discretionary program eliminations and reductions
and mandatory savings proposals.

Supplemental tables and other materials
that are part of the Analytical Perspectives volume are available at https://whitehouse.gov/omb/
analytical-perspectives/.
Appendix, Budget of the United States
Government, Fiscal Year 2021 contains detailed
information on the various appropriations and funds
that constitute the budget and is designed primarily
for the use of the Appropriations Committees. The
Appendix contains more detailed financial information on individual programs and appropriation accounts than any of the other budget documents. It
includes for each agency: the proposed text of appropriations language; budget schedules for each
account; legislative proposals; narrative explanations of each budget account; and proposed general

6-095401-6

BUDGET INFORMATION AVAILABLE ONLINE

The President’s Budget and supporting materials
are available online at https://whitehouse.gov/omb/
budget/. This link includes electronic versions of all
the budget volumes, supplemental materials that are
part of the Analytical Perspectives volume, spreadsheets of many of the budget tables, and a public use
budget database. This link also includes Historical
Tables that provide data on budget receipts, outlays,
surpluses or deficits, Federal debt, and Federal employment over an extended time period, generally
from 1940 or earlier to 2021 or 2025. Also available
are links to documents and materials from budgets
of prior years.
For more information on access to electronic versions of the budget documents, call (202) 512-1530
in the D.C. area or toll-free (888) 293-6498. To purchase the printed documents call (202) 512-1800.

GENERAL NOTES
1. All years referenced for budget data are fiscal years unless otherwise noted. All years referenced for economic data are calendar
years unless otherwise noted.
2. At the time the Budget was prepared, the United States-MexicoCanada Agreement Implementation Act (Public Law 116-113) had
not yet been signed into law. As a result, the Budget includes a
Government-wide allowance to represent the discretionary appropriations included in this proposal, which the Administration
transmitted to the Congress on December 13, 2019, the House
passed on December 19, 2019, and the Senate passed on January
16, 2020.
3. Detail in this document may not add to the totals due to rounding.

U.S. GOVERNMENT PUBLISHING OFFICE, WASHINGTON 2020
90000

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Publishing Office
Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800
Fax: (202) 512-2104 Mail: Stop IDCC, Washington, DC 20402-0001
I S B N 978-0-16-095401-6

Table of Contents

Page

The Budget Message of the President ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������1
Building A Better Tomorrow ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5
Countering Emerging Threats �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������9
Stopping Wasteful and Unnecessary Spending �����������������������������������������������������������������������������13
Historic Red Tape Relief ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������19
Delivering a More Responsive, Agile, and Efficient Government ���������������������������������������������21
Department of Agriculture �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������25
Department of Commerce �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������29
Department of Defense ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33
Department of Education �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������39
Department of Energy �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������43
Department of Health and Human Services ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������49
Department of Homeland Security ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55
Department of Housing and Urban Development ������������������������������������������������������������������������59
Department of the Interior �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������63
Department of Justice �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������67
Department of Labor ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������71
Department of State and Other International Programs �����������������������������������������������������������75
Department of Transportation ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������81
Department of the Treasury ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������85
Department of Veterans Affairs ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������89
Corps of Engineers—Civil Works ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������93
Environmental Protection Agency ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������97
National Aeronautics and Space Administration �����������������������������������������������������������������������101
Small Business Administration �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������105
Summary Tables ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������107
OMB Contributors to the 2021 Budget �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������129

THE BUDGET MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT
To the Congress of the United States:
Over the past 3 years, my Administration has worked tirelessly to restore America’s economic
strength. We have ended the war on American workers and stopped the assault on American industry, launching an economic boom the likes of which we have never seen before.
While our incredible economic turnaround came as a shock to most career politicians in Washington,
it is no surprise to millions of hard-working families across the Nation. Their natural talent, ingenuity, and strength simply needed an opportunity to flourish, free from the massive regulations and
taxes heaped upon them by their Government.
As my Administration continues to remove these burdens, our economy continues to surpass expectations. We are growing faster than the experts thought possible. The unemployment rate is at
3.5 percent, the lowest it has been in 50 years. And more Americans are working today than at any
point in our history.
Today’s tremendous job market is leading employers to realize the vast potential of many individuals they previously overlooked. Over the past 3 years, the employment rate of our prime-age
workers has skyrocketed, and wages are growing the fastest for historically disadvantaged workers,
reversing trends under the previous administration.
With this 2021 Budget, my Administration is placing a special focus on these forgotten Americans,
because every individual deserves to experience the dignity that comes through work. The truth
is, jobs do not just provide paychecks: they give people purpose; allow them to engage with their
communities; and help them reach their true potential. As we have shown, the right policies offer
Americans paths to independence rather than trapping them in reliance on Government programs.
The era of putting American workers second and doubling down on the failed policies of the past
is over. While job creation during my Presidency has surpassed expectations, the credit belongs to
the job creators and workers who risk everything and devote themselves to building a better future
for themselves, their families, and their Nation. The Federal Government does not create jobs; hardworking Americans create jobs. My Administration’s role is to follow our foundational policy pillars
and allow our job creators and workers to do what they do best.
To ensure this economic strength continues, I have called on the Government to reduce wasteful,
unnecessary spending, and to fix mismanagement and redundancy across agencies. This includes
prioritizing spending for programs that are a core function of the United States Government.
As we enter the 2020’s, our Nation confronts new challenges and opportunities. The 21st century
requires us to focus on great power rivals; prioritize artificial intelligence, 5G, and industries of the
future; and to protect our research and environment from foreign government influence. To meet
these challenges and seize these opportunities, we must shift the Government out of its old and
outdated ways. This will require each and every Government agency to do more to prepare for the
demands of tomorrow.
1

2

The Budget Message of the President
The following are key priorities of my Administration:

Better Trade Deals. Renegotiated or new trade deals with Canada and Mexico, China, South
Korea, and Japan are modernizing international trade and creating freer, fairer, and more reciprocal trade between the United States and our largest economic partners. These deals will enable our
country’s manufacturing renaissance to continue. Trade deals are in development with the United
Kingdom and the European Union, as well as other countries that desire access to the coveted
American market. These deals will expand American markets abroad and keep businesses here in
America, which means keeping jobs here at home.
Preserving Peace through Strength. To sustain security at home and promote American
interests abroad, my Administration has rebuilt the military. A strong military, fully equipped and
integrated with our allies and all our instruments of power, enables our Nation to deter war, preserve peace, and, if necessary, defeat aggression against the United States and her people. To that
end, my Budget requests $740.5 billion for national defense.
Overcoming the Opioid Crisis. Because of my Administration’s aggressive tactics to fight
over-prescription of opioids, promote effective treatment for addiction, and secure the border, we
are turning the tide of the opioid crisis. Since my term began, we have seen a more than 30 percent
decrease in the total amount of opioids prescribed, and deaths from drug overdose fell for the first
time in nearly 30 years in 2018.
Failure is not an option when it comes to helping people avoid the pain, suffering, and death caused by
addiction. Work must play an integral role in any solution. Research shows that holding a job is a key
factor in helping people overcome drug addiction. For the duration of my Presidency, I will continue
to promote policies that will beat back this deadly crisis and promote job training and employment
opportunities for Americans who are rebuilding their lives after struggling with addiction.
Regulation Relief. Many pundits and Washington insiders laughed when I promised to cut
two regulations for every new regulation. They were correct that two-for-one was the wrong goal.
Instead, the Federal Government has cut more than seven regulations for every significant new
regulation. After only 3 years, my Administration has cut a historic number of regulations, and we
have put the brakes on an endless assault of new, costly actions by Federal agencies.
Our commitment to regulatory reform stems from the simple truth that the vast majority of business owners want to do the right thing, comply with the law, and treat their workers fairly. The
Federal Government ignored this reality for far too long and abused its authority to go after businesses, especially small businesses and entrepreneurs, in ways that can only be described as arbitrary
and abusive.
At the same time, we are maintaining America’s world-class standards of environmental protection. Emissions of all criteria pollutants dropped between 2016 and 2018. The United States environmental record is one of the strongest in the world and continues to have some of the cleanest air
and water in the world.
American Energy Independence. American energy powers our cities and towns, empowers
innovators, drives our economy, and protects our sovereignty. Energy companies across the world
are ready to build in our Nation, and permitting reform that cuts red tape shows that we welcome
their investments. My Administration continues to support growth in the energy sector by removing unnecessary regulations and unleashing America’s vast natural and human resources. Through
these actions, the United States is now on track to be a net exporter of crude oil and natural gas

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

3

for all of 2020, a major milestone not achieved in nearly 70 years. In addition to being the world’s
largest natural gas producer, we also became the world’s top crude oil producer in 2018.
The records of our energy boom are widespread. Energy production has created jobs in areas of
the United States where job opportunities were scarce. It also provides enormous benefits to families
across the Nation by lowering energy prices. And it further distances us from geopolitical foes who
wish to cause us harm. More jobs, lower costs, and American dominance—these are predictable results of our pro-energy policies.
******
Today, there is hope throughout America. There is optimism that was not here before 63 million
Americans asked me to work for them and drain the swamp. For decades, Washington elites told us
that Americans had no choice but to accept stagnation, decay, and decline.
We proved them wrong. Our economy is strong once more, and America’s role as leader of the Free
World has been restored.
America is the single greatest country in the world. We must never believe for one moment that
this great Nation is destined for a diminished future. When we take hold of our freedom, and take
our destiny in our hands, we choose to reject a future of American decline. My 2021 Budget sets the
course for a future of continued American dominance and prosperity.

DONALD J. TRUMP

The White House,
February 10, 2020.

BUILDING A BETTER TOMORROW
The Administration’s pro-growth policies
have ushered in one of the greatest economies
in American history. This did not happen by accident. The Trump Economy stands firm on the
proven pro-growth pillars of tax cuts, deregulation, energy independence, and better trade
deals.
Over the past three years, unemployment
rates have dropped to historic lows. The U.S. unemployment rate of 3.5 percent is a half-century
low and rates for African Americans, Hispanic
Americans, Asian Americans, Americans with
disabilities, and Americans without a high school
diploma are the lowest on record. Household
incomes are rising and wages are no longer
stagnant.
Under the previous administration, the recovery was so tepid that the prime-age labor
force shrank by roughly 1.5 million. Under this
Administration, it has expanded by 2.1 million
as previously-forgotten Americans have come
off the sidelines. For the first time on record,
job openings exceed the number of unemployed
workers. The current job market, and the economic confidence this has inspired in consumers,
is not a result of past trends during what was the
slowest economic expansion since World War II,
but the direct result of pro-growth policies put in
place over the past three years.
PREPARES FOR A CHANGING
LABOR MARKET

While today’s great job market is leading employers to realize the vast potential of many individuals who were previously overlooked, the
Administration is committed to doing even more
to support opportunities for all Americans to

experience the dignity and independence work
affords. This includes those facing long-term
unemployment, lacking necessary job skills,
overcoming substance abuse, returning from the
justice system, or caught in intergenerational
poverty. Reflecting this priority, the Budget creates additional pathways to the jobs of today and
the jobs of tomorrow.
Closes the Skills Gap. The Budget doubles
the American Competitiveness and Workforce
Improvement Act of 1998 fee for the H-1B visa
program to provide opportunities to prepare
American workers for jobs that are currently
being filled from overseas, especially in science,
technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.
Increases Vocational Training.
The
Budget provides resources to assist students too
often forgotten—those who would like to pursue good-paying trades without getting a fouryear degree. The Budget increases Career and
Technical Education by nearly $1 billion to help
ensure that every high school has a high-quality
vocational program.
Retools the American Workforce for Jobs
of the Future. The Administration has provided robust support for apprenticeships to teach
students the skills they need to obtain and retain high-wage jobs in a changing market. Since
the start of this Administration, nearly 700,000
people have enrolled in apprenticeships.
Combats Drug Abuse and Opioid
Epidemic. The Budget invests $5 billion in
HHS to combat the opioid epidemic, making critical investments in research, surveillance, prevention, treatment, access to overdose reversal
drugs, recovery support services, and research.

5

Building A Better Tomorrow

6

This funding includes $1.6 billion for State Opioid
Response grants, which supports prevention,
treatment, and recovery support services.
Promotes Criminal Justice Reform. At
least 95 percent of incarcerated persons will
eventually leave prison and return to their community. However, individuals released from
State prison have a five-year recidivism rate of
77 percent, and those released from Federal prison have a five-year recidivism rate of 42 percent.
The Administration is committed to breaking this
cycle by better preparing individuals to reenter
communities in meaningful and productive ways.
ENSURES SECURITY TO
PROMOTE PROSPERITY

While continuing to strengthen the economy,
the Administration also remains committed to
strengthening the Nation’s physical safety and
security to ensure all Americans can prosper.
Swift action at the border led to the apprehension
and arrest of approximately 5,000 gang members,
including nearly a thousand from the infamous
MS-13, in 2019 alone, as well as the seizure of
millions of pounds of narcotics, including cocaine,
heroin, methamphetamines, and fentanyl, which
were headed for our community streets and children’s schools.
Facing the humanitarian crisis at the border, the Administration has struck new agreements with Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, and
Honduras to stem the flood of illegal immigration
and to protect vulnerable populations from human smuggling networks that profit from their
misery. By the end of 2020, the Administration
expects approximately 400 miles of new border
wall to be completed on the southern border; an
additional 600 miles of new border wall will be
completed in the coming years with funding made
available from 2017 to 2020. In the meantime,
the Administration has released a plan for updating immigration and asylum laws to encourage
legal migration, promote application based on
merit, and support refugees in need of protection
from persecution.
The Budget provides funding sufficient to hire
an additional 4,636 Immigration and Customs

Enforcement staff including: law enforcement officers; immigration court prosecuting attorneys;
and critical support staff, to reach a total of 6,000
staff to carry out this vital security mission. In
addition, the Budget includes $1.6 billion to continue the important work of modernizing the U.S.
Coast Guard vessels and aircraft that patrol the
Nation’s coastal borders.
Abroad, the Budget promotes an America First
agenda by advancing the four pillars of national
power—economic competitiveness, national security strength, fair and free trade, and foreign
partnerships that match action and resources
with intent and rhetoric. The Administration
has rebuilt our great and powerful military
to deter aggression, counter adversaries, and
fight and win wars. Through bold action, the
Administration has lead and won efforts to rebalance our trade relationships, fight theft of
American intellectual property, open markets to
American goods, and bring jobs home to hardworking Americans.
STOPS AN UNSUSTAINABLE TRAJECTORY

Unsustainable Federal deficits and debt are
a serious threat to America’s prosperity. Gross
Federal debt is now more than $23 trillion. The
2019 deficit was $985 billion—the largest since
the Great Recession—and will climb above
$1 trillion this year and for years after.
Such high and rising debt will have serious
negative consequences for the budget and the
Nation. It slows economic growth, as the costs of
financing the debt crowds out more productive investments and could eventually limit the Federal
Government’s ability to respond to urgent national security needs, invest in key priorities such as
infrastructure, and enact other pro-growth policies. In fact, by 2021, the United States will be
spending more money on paying for the debt than
for the budgets of the Departments of Veterans
Affairs, Justice, Homeland Security, and the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
combined.
Federal borrowing also competes for funds in
the Nation’s capital markets, threatening higher
interest rates, and crowding out new investment

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
by the private sector that could create jobs and
raise wages.
If America’s spending and debt crisis are not
addressed and lower economic growth continues, American families will see a much lower
standard of living. Higher interest rates would
make it harder for families to buy homes, finance
car payments, or pay for college. Fewer education and training opportunities stemming from
lower investment would leave workers without
the skills to keep up with the demands of a more
technology-based, global economy. In addition,
continued growth of debt and deficits will constrain American families’ ability to improve their
lives and the lives of their children by claiming a
larger share of family income for taxes. It is the
children and grandchildren of today’s taxpayers
who will bear the burden for this recklessness.
The President has laid out a vision to drive
down deficits and debt through spending restraint in every Budget he has submitted to the
Congress. This Administration’s Budgets have
proposed more spending reductions than any other Administration in history. This year’s Budget
includes $4.4 trillion in savings—bringing deficits down each year, and putting the Federal
Government on a path to a balanced budget in
15 years. This spending restraint includes targeted reductions and eliminations of low-value
programs, and a number of policies to improve
payment accuracy and eliminate wasteful spending in mandatory programs. The Budget also
reflects restraint in non-defense discretionary
(NDD) spending, which the Budget proposes to
keep five percent below 2020 NDD spending levels, and reduce spending in future years. Such

7

spending restraint, coupled with the President’s
tax cuts and deregulatory policies, will keep the
U.S. economy thriving and America prosperous
for generations to come.
Unfortunately, the Congress continues to reject
any efforts to restrain spending. Instead, they
have greatly contributed to the continued ballooning of Federal debt and deficits, putting the
Nation’s fiscal future at risk.
The Administration cannot simply sit by
while the Congress continues to spend. In addition to providing a clear road map to a more
fiscally responsible future in the Budget, the
Administration is using all available tools and levers to restrain spending. This includes reinvigorating Administrative pay-as-you-go, otherwise
known as Administrative PAYGO—which imposes a budget-neutrality requirement for discretionary agency actions—to ensure that Executive
Branch agencies are also fiscally responsible, as
well as the revitalization of tools such as rescissions. The Budget also includes a number of regulatory actions that can be achieved with current
authorities to improve program efficiency and
eliminate wasteful spending.
Implementing the real spending restraint
proposed in the 2021 Budget, coupled with other
pro-growth policies, will keep the economy thriving and America prosperous for generations to
come. America can choose a new path that the
Administration offers with the Budget, or continue the path the Congress and Washington
have followed, which will ensure future generations are saddled with less prosperity, less financial control over their lives, and less freedom.

COUNTERING EMERGING THREATS
As the United States enters the 2020s, the
threats America faces as a Nation are rapidly
shifting and evolving. While the American people still face dangers posed by Islamist terrorists
and transnational criminals, America also faces
challenges by resurgent rival nation-states, including China and Russia. The Budget reflects
the need for a new American posture to match
the realities faced in this new era.
To sustain American security at home and promote U.S. interests abroad, the Administration has
rebuilt the military, invested in the well-being of
America’s servicemembers, expanded U.S. capabilities to fight in emerging theaters, and refocused
U.S. defense priorities on contemporary threats.

infrastructure—with little fear of attribution or
reciprocity.
To stay ahead of these threats, the U.S.
Government must shift out of the old, staid ways
in which it has historically operated, and focus
more on the challenges posed by great power rivals and emerging technology. Instead, a wholeof-Government approach to overcome these rising risks by preparing to meet the demands of
tomorrow is needed. Such an approach includes
prioritizing artificial intelligence (AI), 5G, and
other industries of the future.

It is not just U.S. troops and Government
agents on the front lines anymore. It is U.S. businesses, universities, and social groups. A rural
hospital, family-owned business, or private citizen is no match against a nation-state such as
China, Iran, North Korea, or Russia attempting
to hack their network. Threats to U.S. security
are coming in an ever-increasing variety of forms
against an ever-expanding variety of targets.

The 2021 Budget reflects the need to reposition American economic, military, and diplomatic postures to ensure that everything America
holds dear—individual liberty, the rule of law, a
democratic system of government, and opportunity for all—is protected. Preserving American
leadership and values requires an America First
agenda that must be promoted by advancing
four pillars of national power—economic competitiveness, national security strength, free and
fair trade, and foreign partnerships that match
action and resources with intent and rhetoric.

More than ever, each adversary has the ability to use modern technology to harm U.S. economic prosperity, limit freedom around the
globe, and undermine America’s superior military advantage. Attacks on America’s devices
and networks, which are critical to U.S. economic
well-being and security, are omnipresent. With
an estimated 75 billion devices connected to the
internet by 2025, it is clear these vulnerabilities
will only increase. It is all too easy for a rogue
nation-state or cyber-criminal to target a weak
link in a global supply chain that relies on the
internet in order to cripple America’s economy or

We have rebuilt America’s great and powerful military to deter aggression, win wars, and
inflict punishment on U.S. adversaries to defend
America and her people, values, and friends at
home and abroad. Through significant investments in emerging warfighting domains such
as space through the creation of the United
States Space Force, and advancement of modern technologies, including reinvigorating missile defense, hypersonics, cyber, and AI, this
Administration will put America in the driver’s
seat when negotiating with America’s adversaries from a position of strength.

9

Countering Emerging Threats

10
PROTECTING AMERICA’S ECONOMY

Protecting America’s vital economic interests
against those who would do America harm has
never been more important. Great power rivals,
such as China, have engaged in cyber-enabled
economic warfare against the United States and
its allies. These adversaries target key components of America’s economy. They seek to gain
an advantage against the United States by stealing U.S. intellectual property and personal data,
as well as interfering with America’s critical infrastructure. These actions threaten the foundations of the American way of life.
The Budget focuses on overcoming the many
challenges posed by great power rivals that target U.S. economic stability.
Better Trade Deals. For decades, unfair trade
practices have weakened the U.S. economy and
exported U.S. jobs overseas. The Administration
is advancing fair and reciprocal trade through
agreements with Mexico, Canada, South Korea,
and Japan, and through ongoing negotiations
with the United Kingdom, China, and European
countries. These agreements open new markets for American exports and create jobs while
protecting American intellectual property and
America’s domestic producers.
Industries of the Future. The Budget prioritizes accelerating AI solutions. Along with
quantum information sciences, advanced manufacturing, biotechnology, and 5G research and
development (R&D), these technologies will be at
the forefront of shaping future economies. The
Budget proposes large increases for key industries, including doubling AI and quantum information sciences R&D by 2022 as part of an allof-Government approach to ensure the United
States leads the world in these areas well into
the future.
Energy Independence. The Budget recognizes and supports the emergence of the United
States as a top producer of energy in the world,
becoming a net exporter of petroleum in late
2019 and projected to be one for the 2020 calendar year—a position of energy independence the
United States hasn’t been in since the 1940s.

Defending Government Networks and
Critical Infrastructure. The Department of
Homeland Security (DHS) continues to play a
major role in securing and building cybersecurity
resilience for the Nation’s most critical infrastructure, including Government networks. DHS, in
partnership with key stakeholders, identifies and
manages the most critical national cybersecurity
risks. The Budget includes more than $1.1 billion
for DHS’s cybersecurity efforts.
Addresses the Federal Cybersecurity
Workforce Shortage. To face today’s threats
and prepare for tomorrow’s, America must have a
workforce that is trained and skilled in cybersecurity. Today, there are simply not enough cyber professionals in Government service. The Delivering
Government Solutions in the 21st Century plan and
Executive Order 13870, “America’s Cybersecurity
Workforce” included several initiatives to solve
the Federal cybersecurity workforce shortage,
establishing unified cyber workforce capabilities across the civilian enterprise. The Budget
includes funding to support DHS’s Cyber Talent
Management System and for the Cybersecurity
and Infrastructure Security Agency, which would
lead a Government-wide cybersecurity workforce
program for all Federal cyber professionals.
REBUILDING AMERICA’S MILITARY

Sharpens
America’s
Advantage
in
an Increasingly Competitive Strategic
Landscape. The Budget prioritizes funding for
programs that would deliver warfighting advantages against China and Russia and sustains efforts over the last three years to focus defense
investments in modernization, lethality, and innovation that provide the Nation’s troops a competitive advantage over all adversaries.
Modernizes Key Capabilities to Build a
More Lethal Joint Force. The Budget prioritizes investments in U.S. air, sea, land, space, and
cyber capabilities that would support operations
to ensure military superiority. Critical investments include procuring next generation fighter
aircraft and new battle force ships, modernizing
Army armored brigade combat teams, and fully
funding recapitalization of the strategic ballistic missile submarine fleet. The Budget also

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
assesses modifications to existing missile defense
capabilities to defend the U.S. homeland, providing additional coverage on a faster timeline.
Grows and Reorganizes the U.S. Military
to Better Compete in Emerging Domains.
The Budget supports the growth of the recently established United States Space Force, the
sixth branch of the U.S. Armed Forces, to ensure
that the United States can protect and defend
America’s national interests in space.
Invests in the Nation’s Men and Women in
Uniform. The Administration understands that
America’s security and freedom is ensured by the
sacrifices of the men and women who wear the
uniform and is investing in their well-being and
that of their families. On the heels of growing
annual pay raises for America’s troops throughout this Administration, the pay raise effective
January 1, 2020, was the first over three percent
in a decade. The Budget proposes an additional
raise in the coming year.
Secures the Capability to Supply Vital
Military Resources in the Long Term. The
Administration has directed the first whole-ofGovernment assessment of U.S. manufacturing
and defense supply chains since the 1950s.
ENGAGING AMERICA’S ALLIES
TO ADVANCE FREEDOM

Realigns Burden-Sharing to Encourage
Greater Engagement from Allies. The Budget
recalibrates American contributions to international organizations to a more sustainable level,
engaging U.S. allies to similarly invest in peace
and stability. The United States will continue

11

to press its allies to give more in providing for
their own defense; frequent increases in North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ally funding has been a result. Further, the United States
will continue to emphasize and enforce a road to
self-reliance in foreign assistance to ensure that
there is a positive return on investment for each
American taxpayer dollar.
Expands Defense Financing for America’s
Allies. The Budget proposes Foreign Military
Financing (FMF) loan and loan guarantee programs for NATO and major non-NATO allies to
complement traditional FMF grant assistance.
These tools would bolster security, improve battlefield interoperability, and support American
domestic economic interests, and would increase
opportunities for allies and partners to build
their militaries around U.S. innovation and quality, while transitioning away from inferior equipment from foreign adversaries.
Frustrates Chinese Efforts to Shape the
Indo-Pacific in Its Image. The future of the
Indo-Pacific, which contains roughly half the
world’s population and many of the fastest growing economies, is critical to U.S. security and longterm economic interests. The Budget reflects a
strong Administration commitment to ensuring
that the region remains free, open, and independent of malign Chinese influence with funding
that supports democracy programs, strengthens
security cooperation, improves economic governance, and facilitates private sector-led economic
growth. The Budget also provides $30 million
for the Global Engagement Center to counter
Chinese propaganda and disinformation.

STOPPING WASTEFUL AND
UNNECESSARY SPENDING
The President’s pro-growth policies have set
in motion one of the strongest economies in
American history. The Budget ensures that the
U.S. economy can remain resilient and that the
United States maintains its global leadership by
prioritizing funding for the most vital functions
of Government. However, a bloated Federal
Government, with duplicative programs and
wasteful spending, remains a critical threat to
America’s future.
Each year, billions of taxpayer dollars are
wasted on programs that are duplicative, unnecessary, and ostensibly without priority. This has
reduced the ability of the Federal Government
to meet its constitutional responsibilities to the
American people.
As with the Administration’s past Budgets, the
2021 Budget continues to propose strategic reductions in spending. In fact, the Administration’s
Budgets have put forward more spending reductions than any other in history. This effort is the
foundation of a commitment to the American
people to restore trust in their Government.
While the Administration has prioritized the
core responsibility of national security by rebuilding its great military, securing America’s
borders, and advancing emerging technologies,
continued waste across the Government must be
addressed. The Budget looks to reduce wasteful
and unnecessary spending, and put in place procedures to keep a vigilant eye on fraud, abuse,
and negligence with taxpayer dollars.

RESIZING THE BUREAUCRACY
TO FIT THE CONSTITUTION

The Federal Government was envisioned by
the Founders to be one of limited powers, protecting the unalienable rights of individuals.
However, over the past century, the size and
scope of the Federal Government has overrun
these constitutional guardrails. Today, there are
more than two million Federal civilian employees with millions more who are paid entirely by
Government contracts and grants.
Taxpayers have repeatedly watched the
Federal Government respond to any problem
with the creation of new agencies, new programs,
and new spending initiatives, instead of reorganizing, or repurposing what is already available within the vast bureaucracy. As a result,
there are hundreds of programs in the Federal
Government that have outlived their mission,
duplicate efforts, or operate below peak efficiencies because of fragmented responsibilities between agencies. This wasteful spending has been
a contributing factor to the Government’s deteriorating fiscal health as reflected in the Financial
Report of the United States Government.
The Administration believes the American
people deserve better from their Government.
DEFINING THE PROBLEM

There are universal tenets on which broad
bipartisan action to reduce spending should be
based:

13

Stopping Wasteful and Unnecessary Spending

14

First, all Government programs should have a
direct, clear, and immediate purpose and not duplicate other programs.

would save $48 billion in 2021.

Second, all Federal spending should provide
a necessary public service and serve a clear national interest. American taxpayers deserve a
Government that is not spending taxpayer dollars to support a Muppet Retrospectacle in New
Zealand or millions to prepare religions for discovering extraterrestrial life (which are real, and
unfortunate, examples of wasteful spending).

In May 2019, the U.S. Government
Accountability Office released its ninth annual
report with recommendations to reduce overlap,
duplication, and fragmentation in Federal programs. This annual report identifies opportunities for cost savings, and a better customer experience for the American people, through three
types of common inefficiencies in Government:

Third, all spending should fund its intended
purpose and reach its intended recipient. That is,
there should not be improper payments that result in monetary loss to the Government, such as
when beneficiaries receive an incorrect amount,
or deceased individuals continue to receive
assistance.

Fragmentation: when more than one Federal
agency, or more than one component within an
agency, is involved in the same broad area of national need and there are opportunities for improving service delivery.

Fourth, the Government should be frugal and
strive to avoid overpaying for items.
Fifth, the Federal Government should spend
only the amount necessary to achieve intended
goals, and all expenditures should be assessed on
that basis.
Sixth, each dollar spent should be measured
by its effect on actual outcomes.
CATEGORIES OF WASTE REQUIRING ACTION

ELIMINATING DUPLICATIVE PROGRAMS

Overlap: when multiple agencies or programs
have similar goals, engage in similar activities or
strategies, or target similar beneficiaries.
Duplication: when two or more agencies are
engaged in the same activities or provide the
same services to the same beneficiaries.
The Budget addresses many of these inefficiencies by reforming, reducing funding for,
and in some cases eliminating these programs.
Examples include:
•

U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Programs that Provide Assistance to the
Private Sector, Do Not Require Matching
Funds, and Duplicate Other Federal
Assistance. For example, USDA has the authority to make crop loss payments under both
a disaster assistance program and the crop insurance program, masking market forces and
allowing some farmers to receive payments in
excess of 100 percent of their loss.

•

Overlapping Elementary and Secondary Programs. The Budget proposes to
consolidate 29 overlapping elementary and
secondary programs into a new block grant
to States and school districts. This consolidation would allow those closest to students to
meet the needs of their students and families.
While increasing flexibility, the new block
grant also saves taxpayers $4.7 billion.

Using these guidelines, the Budget attempts
to begin restraining and refocusing taxpayer resources in the following five ways:
•

Eliminating Duplicative Programs;

•

Eliminating Programs with No Proper
Federal Role;

•

Putting an End to Improper Payments;

•

Conducting Oversight
Categories; and

•

Stopping Improper End-of-Year Spending.

of

Spending

The Budget’s Major Savings and Reforms volume describes the major savings and reform proposals included in the Budget. In total, the discretionary proposals highlighted in the volume

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
•

•

•

Disjointed Workforce Programs.
The
Federal Government spends $19 billion per
year on more than 40 workforce development
programs across 15 agencies. The Budget begins the work of rationalizing this convoluted
system by eliminating ineffective, unproven,
or redundant job training programs.
Duplicative
Health
Professional
Training. The Budget eliminates funding
for 14 health professions training programs
in the Department of Health and Human
Services. There are 91 Federal programs that
support the training of healthcare professionals, across the Departments of Defense,
Education, Health and Human Services, and
Veterans Affairs.
Readily Available English Learning
Materials. Several U.S. institutes of higher
learning offer free or low-fee English learning materials online. The Budget proposes
to eliminate nearly $2 million for duplicative
Government-funded online English-language
learning programs and materials for foreign
audiences. The U.S. Agency for Global Media
spends $1.5 million on Voice of America’s
English Learning programming, which produces relatively low-quality educational
videos. Similarly, the State Department creates and runs Massive Open Online Courses
for English learning.

There are also Federal programs that duplicate
the efforts and expenditures of State and local
governments or the private sector. For example,
the Budget proposes to eliminate:
•

The
Department
of
Commerce’s
Economic Development Administration Grant Programs. The programs are
duplicative of other economic development
programs within the Federal Government, as
well as State and local efforts.

•

Power
Marketing
Administration
Electricity Transmission Assets. The vast
majority of the Nation’s electricity needs are
met through for-profit investor owned utilities.
Increasing the private sector’s role encourages a more efficient allocation of economic

15

resources and mitigates unnecessary risk to
taxpayers.
•

The Federal Emergency Management
Agency’s (FEMA) Continuing Training
Grants. The grants, which support partners
to develop and deliver training to prepare for
disasters, among other grant programs, are
proposed for elimination because they are duplicative of other Federal grant programs or
other State or local programs, and are primarily the responsibilities of States and localities.

•

USDA Rural Business Service Programs. These programs have spent over a
billion dollars during the last 10 years supporting already successful businesses that
could qualify for private sector capital. For
example, the Value-Added Producer Grant
program has provided over $3 million to wineries and vineyards in 2018, including grant
funding to promote wine slushies.

•

The Department of Housing and Urban
Development’s (HUD) HOME Investment
Partnerships Program. The Budget eliminates the HOME program, recognizing a
greater role for State and local governments
and the private sector in addressing affordable housing needs.
ELIMINATING PROGRAMS WITH
NO PROPER FEDERAL ROLE

There are also programs where the Federal
Government’s role is unclear and unnecessary.
For example:
•

Applied Energy Programs. Private sectorled research and development (R&D) tends
to focus on near-term cost and performance
improvements where the certainty of profit
generation or successful market entry are
greatest. The Federal role in energy R&D
is strongest at the earlier stages, where the
greatest motivation is the generation of new
knowledge and the proving of novel scientific or technical concepts. While progress
has been made over the past three years, the
Budget continues to refocus these programs
on earlier-stage R&D energy challenges.

16

•

•

Stopping Wasteful and Unnecessary Spending
Education
and
Research
Centers
(ERCs) within the National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health.
The ERCs were created in the 1970s to develop occupational health and safety training
programs in academic institutions. Almost
50 years later, the majority of public health
schools include this coursework, and many
academic institutions have developed specializations in these areas. The Budget would
stop directing Federal funding to support academic salaries, stipends, and tuition and fee
reimbursements for occupational health professionals at universities.
Department of the Interior (DOI)
Highlands Conservation Act Grants. The
Budget eliminates grant funding ($20 million
in 2019) under the Highlands Conservation
Act for non-Federal land acquisition projects
in highland States. These grants serve no
clear Federal purpose and divert limited DOI
funding from managing national parks, refuges, and public lands.

•

Funding for the National Park Service’s
Save America’s Treasures Grants. The
grants are used to support preservation of
non-Federal historic buildings, arts, and published works.

•

The National Endowment for the Arts
(NEA)/National Endowment for the
Humanities (NEH). Activities funded by
NEA/NEH are not considered core Federal
responsibilities, and make up only a small
fraction of the billions spent each year by arts
and humanities nonprofit organizations.

•

The Corporation for National and
Community Service (CNCS) (including
AmeriCorps). Funding paid volunteerism
and subsidizing the operation of nonprofit organizations is outside the proper role of the
Federal Government. To the extent these
activities have value, they should be supported by the nonprofit and private sectors and
not with Federal subsidies provided through
the complex Federal grant structure run by
CNCS.

PUTTING AN END TO IMPROPER PAYMENTS

Every year, the Federal Government makes improper payments. This is an obvious form of wasteful spending, and it costs taxpayers over $70 billion
per year. While the Government has spent years
working to eliminate this issue, more must be done
to increase appropriate and careful stewardship of
taxpayer funds.
Prior to this Administration, the Federal
Government failed to properly prioritize its efforts regarding eliminating improper payments.
For instance, Agencies spent more time complying with low-value compliance activities than researching the underlying causes of improper payments and building the capacity to help prevent
future improper payments. Although working to
reduce all improper payments is an important
goal, the Administration has prioritized efforts to
end the most egregious abuses, such as improper
benefits sent to deceased persons that cost taxpayers over $800 million per year.
The Getting Payments Right Cross-Agency
Priority Goal is a key part of the President’s
Management Agenda. This agenda is focused on
new strategies to reduce monetary loss because
protecting taxpayer money and making sure it is
serving its intended purpose is a fundamental responsibility of the Federal Government. Progress
toward this goal has paved the road for improved
prevention of improper payments by: improving the transparency of payment integrity data
on https://paymentaccuracy.gov; identifying 160
new data sets currently being used by Federal
programs for pre-check of payment eligibility;
identifying root causes of monetary losses across
57 programs; and identifying eight mitigation
strategies with potential for broad impact across
multiple programs.
The Budget provides many opportunities for
the Congress to achieve maximum savings to
the Government, while also considering and balancing costs, risks, and program performance.
Families and small businesses could not afford
to operate in the careless way that the Federal
Government has been operating. CEOs at large
companies have lost their jobs for similar carelessness, and rightfully so. The Administration

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
believes that Government can do better with
American’s hard-earned tax dollars.

eliminate 31,000 duplicate contracts, all while
the Administration continues to exceed annual
small business contracting goals.

CONDUCTING OVERSIGHT OF
SPENDING CATEGORIES

The Administration has begun identifying
spending categories that often become a catchall
for wasteful spending. These include:
•

Travel;

•

Workshops and Conferences;

•

Subscriptions;

•

Receptions and Refreshments;

•

Marketing; and

•

Entertainment.

Not every expenditure within these categories
is wasteful, but experience has demonstrated
that additional scrutiny is necessary. If an agency wants to spend taxpayer dollars on motivational speakers or grants to already successful
businesses, it should be prepared to substantiate
its request and verify that it is the best and most
efficient use of money.
Of the $550 billion spent annually through
Federal acquisition, over $350 billion is for common goods and services such as software, cellphones, and information technology. Federal
agencies have traditionally purchased goods and
services in a fragmented manner, depriving taxpayers of the benefits of the U. S. Government’s position as the largest buyer in the world. Category
management is a commercial best practice for
buying common goods and services that has been
adopted by the Administration. Organizing common purchases using category management principles provides agencies with the data and tools
they need to comparison shop, obtain volume
discounts, and negotiate better deals so taxpayer
dollars can be spent on caring for veterans and
families.
Applying such leading category management practices has allowed the Government to
save taxpayers over $27 billion since 2017 and

17

STOPPING IMPROPER ENDOF-YEAR SPENDING

September, the end of the Federal fiscal year, is
traditionally characterized by a surge in spending. Studies of Federal spending have shown that
one out of every nine dollars in Federal contracts
was spent in the last week of the fiscal year. On
average, the Federal Government spends $3.2 billion a day in contracts. In the last two days of
2018 alone 1, agencies spent $10 billion a day.
According to data from the nonprofit group,
Open the Books, of the $97 billion spent by 67
Federal agencies in a “Use It or Lose It” spending
spree in the final two days of 2018, expenditures
included:
•

china tableware ($53,004);

•

alcohol ($308,994);

•

golf carts ($673,471);

•

musical equipment, including pianos, tubas, and trombones ($1.7 million);

•

lobster tails and crab ($4.6 million); and

•

workout and recreation equipment ($9.8
million).

While there are many reasons that last-minute
improper spending occurs, there are currently
misaligned incentives in the budgeting process
which encourages this practice. Agencies recognize that if significant balances are left in their
accounts at the end of a fiscal year, the Congress
will likely reduce their topline budget in future
fiscal years.
While some end of year spending is legitimate,
the Administration is committed to closely scrutinizing how it spends money at the end of the fiscal year, and curtailing wasteful and questionable
purchases. Americans deserve a Government
that is meticulous at avoiding wasteful and unnecessary spending.
1

https://www.openthebooks.com/the-federal-governments-use-it-orlose-it-spending-spree--open-the-books-oversight-report/

HISTORIC RED TAPE RELIEF
Since taking office, the President has reinvigorated the economy through a historic regulatory
reform agenda. The President’s regulatory agenda is enabling American workers and businesses
to drive the economy to record-breaking heights.
The American people can feel the effects of economic freedom as the Administration eliminates
unduly burdensome regulations and pulls back
the long reach of Federal mandates.
In 2019, the Administration issued more than
four deregulatory actions for every one new
significant regulation and saved the American
people $13 billion in overall regulatory costs.
After three years in office, the deregulatory-toregulatory action ratio has been a remarkable
7.4-to-1, resulting in a total of $51 billion in net
regulatory cost savings for the American people. This is a stark contrast to the $420 billion
in net regulatory costs imposed by the Obama
Administration during the same amount of time.
The President’s regulatory reform agenda represents a fundamental change of direction for the
Federal Government. The strategy is simple: by
eliminating or amending costs that are duplicative, unnecessary, ineffective, or unduly burdensome, the Administration is unleashing the
ingenuity, determination, and know-how of the
private sector, which has always been the principal driver of American prosperity.
Comprehensive regulatory reform has provided relief to millions of Americans. Small
businesses are the job creators that drive economic growth. The Administration’s regulatory
reform agenda so far has been a great one for the
American small business owner. Over the past
year the Administration has:

•

Cleared the way for small businesses to
help their employees save, by making innovative retirement plans available for
small businesses to use;

•

Freed American farmers and builders
to use their land as they see fit, not as
Washington demands; and

•

Stopped the war on energy production
and brought American families cheaper,
more reliable power.

In addition, the Department of Health and
Human Services removed multiple healthcare
burdens, saving over $600 million in regulatory
costs.
The Administration plans even bolder efforts
during the remainder of 2020. Agencies plan deregulatory actions on Federal fleet mandates for
the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards,
Waters of the United States, and automated vehicles, resulting in even more benefits for the
American people. While continuing to protect
health and safety, the President’s regulatory reform allows individuals and small businesses to
produce and innovate. These bold actions will
support job creation, spur innovation, and yield
billions of dollars in benefits for American businesses and families.
However, deregulation is not only about dollars and cents. That is why the President
signed two important Executive Orders in 2019
to stop Government bullying of small businesses and families: Executive Order 13891,
“Promoting the Rule of Law Through Improved
Agency Guidance Documents;” and Executive
Order 13892, “Promoting the Rule of Law

19

20

Through Transparency and Fairness in Civil
Administrative Enforcement and Adjudication.”
These Executive Orders protect Americans
against secret or unlawful bureaucratic interpretations of rules and put in place safeguards
against unfair or unexpected penalties.
Getting Washington out of the way promotes
the American dream.
The Administration’s

Historic Red Tape Relief
commonsense regulatory policy has renewed confidence in the economy so the American people
can once again confidently invest in their families, businesses, and future. American families
and entrepreneurs are not the enemy, and it is
long past time the Federal Government stopped
treating them as such.

DELIVERING A MORE RESPONSIVE,
AGILE, AND EFFICIENT GOVERNMENT
The Budget continues to support the
Administration’s work to modernize Government
for the 21st Century. The President’s Management
Agenda (PMA), launched in March 2018, set out
a strategic vision for modernizing the Federal
Government to improve mission outcomes, service to the people, and stewardship of taxpayer
dollars.
Taxpayers expect their Federal Government
to deliver citizen services in an effective and
cost-efficient manner. Doing so requires a skilled
workforce with timely access to relevant market information, business intelligence, and related data. The PMA advances a number of key
drivers of change—including technology, data,
and the workforce—and promotes coordination
across agencies.
As the two-year anniversary of the PMA approaches, the Administration will continue to
build toward a long-term vision of a Government
that is responsive to the needs of the people it
serves, agile in delivering on its mission, and
responsible in its stewardship of taxpayer dollars. The next steps on the PMA will be released
this spring. This chapter highlights specific success stories achieved by different teams through
their PMA efforts, as well as some actions underway. Additional information on these initiatives
and regular progress updates are available on
https://Performance.gov.
IMPROVES EFFICIENCIES IN GOVERNMENT

Makes Government Leaner and More
Efficient. In the Budget, Federal agencies have
proposed elimination or modification of more than
500 plans and reports that are outdated or duplicative. Since the start of the Administration, the

largest 24 Federal agencies have implemented
more than 100 initiatives to reduce administrative burden and put more resources toward agency missions, driving billions of dollars in realized
and anticipated savings and shifting hundreds
of thousands of Full-Time Equivalent employee
hours to higher-value work. These initiatives include more than 50 initiatives focused on process
improvement and standardization; approximately 30 initiatives using robotic process automation, artificial intelligence, and/or other innovative software; and nearly 20 initiatives focused
on the digitization of agency processes.
Aligns Federal Compensation with the
Private Sector. The Congressional Budget
Office (CBO) concluded in a series of recent reports that Federal employees are, on average,
compensated with combined pay and benefits
higher than the private sector. Most recently, in
2017, CBO found a 17-percent disparity on average, in total compensation, between Federal
employees and their private sector peers. The
disparity—which varies significantly by education level—is overwhelmingly attributable to
benefits. CBO found that, in comparison to the
private sector, the Federal Government continues to offer a very generous package of retirement benefits, even when controlling for certain
characteristics of workers. To align Federal
compensation with leading private sector practices, the Budget continues to propose reforms
to Federal benefits including: 1) increasing employee contributions to the Federal Employees
Retirement System (FERS) such that the employee and employer would each pay half the
normal cost; 2) eliminating the FERS Cost-ofLiving Adjustment (COLA) and reducing the
Civil Service Retirement System COLA; 3)

21

eliminating the Special Retirement Supplement;
4) changing the retirement calculation from the
High-3 years to High-5 years; and 5) reducing the
Thrift Savings Plan G Fund interest rate.
Saves Money with Category Management.
The Federal Government spends over $350 billion on common goods and services every year.
Through the category management initiative,
the Administration has aggregated demand for
common goods and services, leveraged innovative procurement strategies, and improved data
analytics. As a result, the Administration has
reduced duplicative contracts by 26 percent, increased contract dollars to small businesses, created opportunities for new entrants, avoided costs
of $27 billion, and is on track to achieve $36 billion in savings by the end of 2020. The Budget includes resources to further support statutory and
regulatory changes to leverage procurement data
more strategically and reduce expensive friction
in acquisitions.
Streamlines Review and Permitting for
Major Infrastructure Projects. Major infrastructure projects are vital to American competitiveness and long-term economic growth, but the
environmental review and permitting process
has for too long been opaque, overly complex, and
unpredictable for businesses and State and local
partners. The Administration has instituted a
new integrated, cross-agency approach to increase
transparency, accountability, and efficiency for all
stakeholders, resulting in over $1 billion in cost
savings through avoided permitting delays.
Saves Taxpayer Time and Money with
Shared Support Services.
In 2019, the
Administration established a whole-of-Government framework for improving service quality,
eliminating duplicative efforts, leveraging the
Government’s buying power, and replacing antiquated technology. This new model delivers more
value to American taxpayers by identifying, planning, and operating Government-wide shared
services.
Manages Real Property Efficiently. The
Administration has prioritized optimizing the
Federal Real Property Portfolio to achieve the
mission while minimizing cost. The Analytical

Perspectives volume chapter 7, “Federal Real
Property,” describes recent accomplishments and
the vision to achieve this reform.
Reorganizes Government.
The Administration issued a bold reform and reorganization
plan in June 2018 to build productive, bipartisan dialogue around realigning the Federal Government
mission delivery model to better meet the needs
of the 21st Century. Positive progress on these
proposals includes the successful transfer of the
background investigation mission from the Office
of Personnel Management to the Department of
Defense in October 2019. Improvements to business processes and expanded capacity have already
reduced the investigation backlog by over 64 percent from 725,000 in April 2018 to under 261,000
in December 2019. The Budget builds on this success by proposing to transfer the United States
Secret Service from the Department of Homeland
Security to the Department of the Treasury, which
would result in enhancements to counterfeit and
cybercrime investigations.
Prevents Improper Payments. Preventing
improper payments that result in a monetary
loss is a high priority for the Administration.
Government-wide efforts leverage risk-based
approaches that improve payment accuracy and
increase access to data and mitigation strategies
for agencies, State governments, and the public to
help detect, prevent, and recover improper payments. The Administration has identified a suite
of proposals, detailed in the Budget, that would
save $182 billion over 10 years, if enacted. For
additional details, please refer to the Analytical
Perspectives volume chapter 6, “Payment
Integrity,” which includes Budget proposals
aimed at preventing these improper payments.
Improves Acquisitions in the Digital Age.
Modernizing the Federal acquisition system for
the digital age requires the development of tactical
strategies and practical tools that support improved
access to business intelligence, as well as the accelerated identification, testing, and adoption of meaningful changes to business practices. To accelerate
the pace of modernization, the Administration will
baseline the current state of acquisition innovation,
pilot a centralized information sharing knowledge

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
management resource, promote emerging technologies, and scale application of a proven model to
coach innovative practices.
DEVELOPS A MORE
RESPONSIVE GOVERNMENT

Improves Customer Experience.
The
Administration recognizes every interaction between the Federal Government and the public as
an opportunity to demonstrate that Government
is working to meet the public’s needs. The PMA
pushes Federal programs to view their work from
the perspective and experience of the customer
and align talent and resources accordingly. This
year, for the first time, Federal agencies have
shared their plans to improve the way they serve
their customers, putting their new High Impact
Service Providers’ Customer Experience profiles
online at https://performance.gov. By connecting
the people with these plans, the Administration
is increasing the transparency and accountability of 25 of the largest public-facing services in a
ground-breaking way.
Accelerates Government Modernization.
Since its launch in March 2019, the Technology
Modernization Fund Board has awarded approximately $90 million to nine initiatives to accelerate modernization across the Government
while demonstrating efficient management of
taxpayer resources. In 2020, two new modernization projects have been approved to leverage innovative commercial capabilities to enable digital transformations and enhance the
speed at which improved citizen services are
delivered.
Engages Government with Private
Sector. In September 2019, the Administration
awarded almost $1 million to three teams of diverse collaborators through the Government
Effectiveness Advanced Research Center challenge competition. These teams will demonstrate
how Government can catch up to private-sector
services and capabilities and will lay the groundwork for where operations and services need to be
in 5, 10, and even 20 years.
Moves Government Closer to the People
it Serves. The Administration successfully

23

relocated the headquarters of the Bureau of Land
Management (BLM) to Grand Junction, Colorado,
where leadership will be closer to the 245 million
acres of BLM-managed land in 11 western States
and Alaska.
Leverages Data as a Strategic Asset. The
world is creating data faster than ever before,
with 90 percent of the data on the Internet created
since 2016. Data from Federal programs should
be used as a strategic asset to grow the economy,
facilitate oversight, and promote transparency.
After a year and a half of work and input from
hundreds of stakeholders, the Administration
released the Federal Data Strategy 2020 Action
Plan, a significant milestone in the effort to create a coordinated approach to Federal data use
and management that serves the public.
Uses Evidence to Promote Better
Outcomes. The Administration continues to
implement evidence-building activities to improve policy, programs, and regulations, including through multiyear learning agendas, annual
evaluation plans, and capacity assessments.
INCREASES AGILITY FOR A MORE
MODERN GOVERNMENT

Improves Federal Hiring. The Admin­
istration is piloting a new way to assess qualifications for applicants to the competitive service,
with the goal of ensuring only qualified candidates
make it to hiring managers for review, particularly in positions of highly technical or specialized
knowledge. On the heels of the success of these
initial pilots, the Administration codified “Subject
Matter Expert Qualification Assessments,” and is
prototyping technology to engage subject matter
experts in new assessments for specialized human capital recruitments.
Addresses the Federal Cybersecurity
Shortage. A cyber reskilling pilot program offers
Federal employees the opportunity for hands-on
training in cybersecurity, one of the fastest growing fields in the Nation and critical to protecting
Government data from bad actors. These projects demonstrate a path forward for reskilling
Federal employees to achieve and sustain needed
skills inside the Federal workforce.

24

Delivering a More Responsive, Agile, and Efficient Government

Secures the National Supply Chain. In
2019, as part of the National Cyber Strategy and
the SECURE Technology Act, agencies were required to assess the risks to their respective information and communications technology supply chains. The Administration established the
Federal Acquisition Security Council to help
agencies safeguard information and communication technology from emerging threats and support the need to establish standards for the acquisition community with respect to supply chain
risk management.
Promotes
Results-Oriented
Account­
ability for Grants. The Federal Government
has over 1,400 grant programs and over 28
grant-making agencies. By centralizing the collection of grants data, the Administration is saving grantees over 150,000 work hours annually.
Less time on red tape means more time turning
grant dollars into results for the American taxpayer. The PMA supports new standard data elements that set the stage for future grants management shared solutions and policies to reduce
administrative burden, promote transparency,
and increase return on taxpayer investment. The
Analytical Perspectives volume chapter 14, “Aid to
State and Local Governments,” describes the vision to achieve this reform.
Improves Management of Acquisitions. In
2019, the Administration took steps to establish

an official career path for program managers to
ensure they are appropriately trained and certified to collaborate with contracting officials
in managing major acquisitions. Agencies also
created and strengthened structures to manage
similar investments in their portfolios and identified priority projects for heightened management
attention.
Strengthens Performance and Risk
Management. The Administration continues
to leverage best practices from across sectors to
drive organizational performance improvement
and better risk management. In quarterly performance reviews for the 85 Agency Priority Goals
(APGs) for 2018-2019, the overwhelming majority met or exceeded their performance targets.
With the release of the Budget, agencies have
set over 90 new APGs for the coming two years.
Agencies and the Office of Management and
Budget will continue to use Strategic Reviews in
2020 to assess programs and major risks to over
300 mission objectives. To further support the
maturity of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM),
the Administration established an Executive
Steering Committee that will identify and share
best practices, assess maturity of ERM programs,
promote ERM integration within mission and
mission support functions, and facilitate constructive coordination with oversight entities.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Funding Highlights:
•

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides leadership and direction on issues related to
food, agriculture, and natural resources based on sound policy, the best available science, and effective
management.

•

The Budget for USDA focuses on core Departmental activities such as agricultural research, rural lending,
and protecting the Nation’s forested and private agricultural lands, while also supporting the President’s
efforts to give American farmers and ranchers the tools they need to be competitive at home and abroad.

•

The Budget eliminates duplicative and wasteful programs within the Rural Business Service which gives
funds to businesses that could qualify for private sector capital, saving $91 million from the 2020 enacted
level.

•

The 2021 Budget requests $21.8 billion in discretionary resources for USDA, a $1.9 billion or 8-percent
decrease from the 2020 enacted level. The Budget proposes $240 billion in net mandatory savings over
10 years from USDA programs to reduce long-term deficits.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
USDA’s broad mission encompasses everything from domestic food assistance programs in rural
America, to farm loans, and the National Forest System. Throughout rural America, USDA’s programs provide financing for farm operations as well as improve rural utilities and infrastructure
needed to keep America’s commodities moving to market. The Department works to promote agricultural production while also safeguarding and protecting America’s food supply by reducing the
incidence of food-borne hazards through the inspection of meat, poultry, and egg products.
The Department’s programs also improve nutrition and health through food assistance and nutrition education. Under this Administration, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
has been streamlined to remove eligibility loopholes and improve program integrity, ensuring benefits are appropriately targeted to those most in need. USDA works to increase foreign market access for U.S. agricultural products and provides data and analysis of foreign market conditions. In
addition, USDA manages and protects America’s public and private lands by working cooperatively
across the Government and the private sector to preserve and conserve the Nation’s natural resources through restored forests, improved watersheds, and healthy private working lands.

25

Department of Agriculture

26

Stands with America’s Farmers. Farmers are experiencing high levels of financial stress due
to challenging market and growing conditions. To help farmers survive the market shocks, the
Administration has provided $28 billion in trade mitigation assistance and $5.7 billion in supplemental and ad hoc disaster assistance. This unprecedented level of support underscores the President’s
commitment to the Nation’s farmers and ranchers. In total, roughly one-third of farm income will
come from Government payments and crop insurance benefits this year. As a result, USDA is projecting that farm income will rise for the third year in a row, and if projections are realized, farm income
would be above the historical average of the 2000 to 2018 period.
In addition to funding the robust suite of farm safety
net programs, the Budget funds a variety of national,
State, and local initiatives to help farmers succeed. At
the national level, the Budget funds training for field
office staff to provide support to farmers participating
in USDA programs. The Budget also provides nearly
President Donald J. Trump
$7 million to help farmers and ranchers resolve financial disputes related to USDA farm loans, conservation
May 23, 2019
programs, and other issues. The Budget also proposes
$2 million in research funding for farm business management grants and $8 million to support the Farmer Stress Assistance Extension Network.

“[W]e will ensure that our farmers get the
relief they need and very, very quickly. It’s
a good time to be a farmer; we’re going to
make sure of that.”

Combats Opioid Crisis. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the rates of
drug overdose deaths are rising in rural communities, surpassing the rate in urban areas. Through the
President’s leadership and the role of the Secretary as Chairman of the Task Force on Agriculture and
Rural Prosperity, the Department is approaching the opioid crisis with a dedicated urgency by partnering with local communities to provide program resources for prevention, treatment, and recovery. The
Budget proposes $44 million in distance learning and telemedicine grants, of which 20 percent would
be dedicated to projects that combat the opioid crisis and keep rural communities safe.
Reforms Food Stamp Program to Promote Work. The Budget continues bold proposals to
reform work requirements for able-bodied adults participating in SNAP to promote self-sufficiency.
This proposal would streamline SNAP work requirements and apply them consistently to able-bodied
adults ages 18 to 65, unless they qualify for specific exemptions. Under the proposal, adults would
be required to work, participate in job training, or volunteer at least 20 hours a week in order to receive SNAP benefits. The Budget also combines the traditional SNAP Electronic Benefits Transfer
benefits with “Harvest Boxes” of 100 percent American-grown foods provided directly to households,
ensuring that Americans in need have access to a nutritious diet while significantly reducing the
cost to taxpayers. States would maintain the ability to provide choice to their participants, including by using innovative approaches for the inclusion of fresh products. To bolster State program integrity initiatives, the Budget provides for the nationwide implementation of the National Accuracy
Clearinghouse, an interstate data-matching system to prevent duplicate participation in SNAP. The
Budget also includes proposals to reserve benefits for those most in need, promote efficiency in State
operations, and strengthen program monitoring and oversight.
Prioritizes Health Outcomes for Pregnant Women, Infants, and Young Children. The
Budget requests $5.5 billion to serve all projected participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition
program for Women, Infants, and Children. This program provides nutritious supplemental food
packages, nutrition education, and health and immunization referrals to low-income and nutritionally at-risk pregnant and postpartum women, infants, and children.

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

27

Invests in Rural America. In today’s information-driven global economy, e-connectivity has become an essential component to attract and grow rural businesses. To that end, the Budget supports
continued implementation of the Rural e-Connectivity Pilot Program to foster thriving agricultural
economies. The Department also helps to maintain and modernize rural utilities by providing critical support for infrastructure, such as $614 million in funding for water and wastewater grants and
loans, supporting $1.9 billion in program level, $5.5 billion in electric loans, and $690 million in
telecommunications loans. Through USDA’s $24 billion portfolio of guaranteed housing loans, the
Department assists lenders in providing low- to moderate-income rural Americans with access to affordable housing. The Budget authorizes a $2.5 billion loan level for community facility direct loans
and $500 million for guaranteed loans, which assist communities in developing or improving essential
public services and facilities across rural America, such as health clinics or fire and rescue stations.
At the same time, the Budget reduces wasteful spending within the Rural Business Service by
eliminating ineffective programs and instead supporting a $1.5 billion loan level for business and
industry guaranteed loans, an increase of $500 million over the 2020 enacted level and offset through
increased lending fees.
Supports Comprehensive Farm Safety Net Reforms and Reduces Waste. Building on the
agricultural reforms proposed in the 2020 Budget, the Administration continues proposals to modify
and target crop insurance, conservation, and commodity programs in a way that maintains a strong
safety net, saving $36 billion over 10 years. The Budget also proposes to eliminate wasteful duplication and excessive subsidies between federally subsidized crop insurance and mandatory disaster
assistance. This addresses recent congressional changes that removed safeguards and would ensure
that taxpayer funded assistance is limited and that producers do not collect more than 100 percent
for the same loss.
Safeguards Agricultural Research. USDA funded research helps to protect, secure, and improve America’s food, agricultural, and natural resource systems. The Budget prioritizes competitive research through the Department’s flagship grant program, the Agriculture and Food Research
Initiative (AFRI). The Budget requests $600 million for AFRI, an increase of $175 million above the
2020 enacted level. Industries of the future are major Administration Research and Development
priorities in 2021, such as artificial intelligence (AI) that has significant potential to contribute to U.S.
scientific leadership and economic competitiveness in agriculture. That is why $100 million in AFRI
funding would be targeted toward basic and applied research in AI. The Budget maintains formulabased research and extension grants at the level requested in the 2020 Budget. The Budget supports
the Administration’s initiative to promote excellence and innovation at Historically Black Colleges
and Universities by including $10 million for scholarships for students studying agriculture at historically black land-grant institutions. The Budget proposes $1.3 billion for the Agricultural Research
Service, which conducts in-house basic and applied research. This includes funding for the National
Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility, currently near completion in Manhattan, Kansas. This state of the
art facility will provide the United States the ability to conduct comprehensive research, develop vaccines, and provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities to protect against emerging foreign animal and
zoonotic diseases that threaten the Nation’s food supply, agricultural economy, and public health.
Supports Active Forest Management to Reduce Wildfire Risk. The Administration remains
committed to accelerating active forest management activities. The Budget reflects this critical priority by requesting $510 million for hazardous fuel mitigation work and $385 million for forest products. Hazardous fuel removal is pivotal in ensuring Federal forests and watersheds are sustainable,
healthy, and productive, which would help make them safer and more resilient to the destructive
impacts of wildfire. Consistent with the objectives and targets under the President’s Executive Order
13855, “Promoting Active Management of America’s Forests, Rangelands, and other Federal Lands to

28

Department of Agriculture

Improve Conditions and Reduce Wildfire Risk,” the Forest Service will utilize the full range of available and appropriate forest management tools, including prescribed burns and mechanical thinning
to strategically mitigate the fuel load on national forest land. These programs also generate jobs in
rural forest communities.
In addition, the Budget fully funds base wildfire suppression operations pursuant to the Consolidated
Appropriations Act, 2018, which would be bolstered by $2.4 billion in additional suppression resources
under the wildfire cap adjustment. This funding aims to eliminate the need for disruptive “fire borrowing” from forest management programs to fund firefighting shortfalls during times of emergency.
Updates Customer Service. The Budget supports the continued modernization of USDA’s information technology with investments made to improve customer service and streamline rural and
farm program and service delivery. Through the https://Farmers.gov service portal, USDA is continuously working toward greater online service delivery with the goal of fewer in-person and paper-based
transactions. The Budget continues to support farm production and conservation assistance by improving the efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability in service delivery between the Farm Service
Agency, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and Risk Management Agency.

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

Funding Highlights:
•

The Department of Commerce (DOC) promotes job creation and economic growth. The Department
ensures fair and reciprocal trade, provides the data necessary to support commerce and constitutional
democracy, protects intellectual property, and fosters innovation by setting standards and conducting
foundational research and development.

•

The Budget request for DOC prioritizes and protects investments in core Government functions such as
completing the 2020 Decennial Census, providing the observational infrastructure to produce timely and
accurate weather forecasts, and enforcing laws that promote fair and secure trade.

•

The Budget eliminates the Economic Development Administration (EDA) which provides hundreds of
small grants for projects with limited measurable impacts, saving taxpayers $300 million per year. The
projects use taxpayer dollars on multiyear projects that frequently fail to deliver on promised jobs or private
investment.

•

The 2021 Budget requests $7.9 billion for DOC, a $7.3 billion or 48.0-percent decrease from the 2020
enacted level, including changes in mandatory programs.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
DOC has one overarching purpose, to help the American economy grow. Spurring innovation is a
key driver of economic advancement, and as such the Budget invests in industries of the future, such
as artificial intelligence (AI) and next generation communications technologies. The Budget also
helps keep American people and property safe by maintaining the capabilities necessary to provide
warnings for extreme weather and disruptive solar events. U.S. businesses deserve the most accurate statistical and scientific data to prosper in an increasingly competitive world, and look to DOC
to enforce trade laws to ensure that trade is free, fair, and reciprocal. The Budget invests in these
critical functions while cutting unnecessary programs that do not work for the American taxpayer.
Focuses on Industries of the Future. The Budget provides $718 million for the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to advance U.S. innovation and technological development, as part of an all-of-Government approach to ensure that the United States leads the world in
the areas of AI, quantum information science, advanced manufacturing, and next generation communications technologies such as 5G. The Budget doubles NIST’s AI funding, in order to accelerate the
development and adoption of AI technologies and help ensure AI-enabled systems are interoperable,

29

Department of Commerce

30

“Secure 5G networks will absolutely be a
vital link to America’s prosperity and national
security in the 21st Century. 5G will be as
much as 100 times faster than the current
4G cellular networks. It will transform the
way our citizens work, learn, communicate,
and travel. It will make American farms more
productive, American manufacturing more
competitive, and American healthcare better
and more accessible. Basically, it covers
almost everything, when you get right down
to it. Pretty amazing.”

secure, and reliable. The Budget also proposes the creation of a second NIST-funded advanced manufacturing
institute to collaborate with industry and ensure that
innovations developed in the United States are also
manufactured in the United States rather than in other countries. In addition, the Budget prepares for the
future by providing the National Telecommunications
and Information Administration with $25 million to
modernize spectrum management systems, enabling
the United States to more efficiently satisfy industry’s
need for additional spectrum, and preparing the Nation
to transition to 5G.

Prioritizes Free and Fair Trade. The Budget
includes an additional $10 million to support the
President’s robust trade agenda in order to protect critical elements of U.S economic security and level the playPresident Donald J. Trump
ing field for American workers, farmers, and manufacApril 12, 2019
turers. The Budget supports ongoing efforts to identify
and protect emerging and foundational technologies that
are essential to national security and economic prosperity. The Budget also provides additional resources to
ensure the timely review of exclusion requests from Section 232 tariffs. These efforts ensure that the
U.S. steel and aluminum industries are protected, but that U.S. industry can access materials that are
critical for U.S. national security.
Supports 2020 Census. In 2021, the Decennial Census will enter its final phase. Following a
decade of planning and execution, the Census Bureau will ramp down the massive coordination of
people and infrastructure that supported the 2020 Decennial Census. The Bureau will release data
used to redistrict congressional seats and make decisions about Federal funding.
Maintains Critical Weather Satellite Funding. Businesses, communities, governments, and
the general public rely on satellite data and products to provide reliable, accurate information on
which to make decisions regarding public safety and emergency preparedness. The Budget provides
$1.2 billion in funding to maintain satellites in polar and geostationary orbits for weather prediction,
and in deep space to provide data used to generate warnings for damaging solar events. Notably, the
Budget provides $108 million to continue development of the Space Weather Follow On (SWFO) mission. This funding would allow the SWFO satellite to stay on schedule and launch with a National
Aeronautics and Space Administration research mission, thereby eliminating the need for an additional launch which would lead to better stewardship of taxpayer dollars. The Budget also provides
nearly $50 million to create a more efficient and effective satellite architecture of the future, with
targeted investments in commercial satellite data and new capabilities to enable the next generation
of weather satellites.
Spurs Innovation through Ocean Mapping. The President signed the Memorandum on Ocean
Mapping of the United States Exclusive Economic Zone and the Shoreline and Nearshore of Alaska
on November 19, 2019. The U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is among the largest in the world
and is larger than the combined land area of all fifty States; the ocean economy produces more than
$300 billion in goods and services annually. However, because only about 40 percent of the U.S.
EEZ has been mapped, the United States lacks critical data that could support and inform economic
development and new scientific discoveries. In addition, Alaska and the Alaskan Arctic lack the

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

31

comprehensive shoreline and nearshore maps available to much of the Nation. In support of this
Memorandum, the Budget provides $188 million to continue efforts at the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to map and explore the U.S. EEZ and Alaska, as well as support
existing navigation and mapping programs. This additional mapping and research would improve
the Nation’s understanding of the vast resources in the oceans, and identify new sources of critical
minerals, biopharmaceuticals, and energy, and areas of significant ecological and conservation value.
Improves the Delivery of America’s Economic Statistics. The President and the Administration are improving a once-stagnant economy with pro-growth policies, and the Nation’s economic
data tells the story of this success. The Budget recognizes the importance of economic statistics for
businesses and everyday citizens to make informed decisions and confidently invest in America’s future. Further, as part of the Administration’s commitment to deploying Government resources to the
neediest communities more effectively, the Budget provides funding to improve poverty measurement
in America.
The Administration urges the Congress to favorably consider the Delivering Government Solutions
in the 21st Century plan’s recommendation to consolidate within DOC critical economic statistics programs at the Census Bureau, the Bureau of Economic Analysis, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
This consolidation would make agency operations more efficient, improve products, and reduce the
burden on respondents, while preserving the Agencies’ brand recognition and independence.
Eliminates Wasteful and Duplicative Programs. Increased spending is a threat to the Nation’s
future and accordingly, the Budget eliminates unnecessary programs in order to prioritize the essential functions of the U.S. Government. The Budget eliminates EDA, which has negligible measureable
impacts and duplicates other Federal programs. Many of EDA’s programs have not been authorized
by the Congress for decades and multiple administrations have called for their reform. Examples of
wasteful spending include spending on a National Comedy Center in Jamestown, New York, and a
cosmetology institute in Las Vegas, Nevada, an area that already has 17 similar schools. Eliminating
this program saves taxpayers $300 million per year.
The Budget also discontinues Federal funding for the Manufacturing Extension Partnership, recognizing that the program should transition to non-Federal funding as originally intended when the
program was established.
The Budget proposes elimination of funding for several lower priority NOAA programs, including
Sea Grant, Coastal Zone Management Grants, Education Grants, and the Pacific Coastal Salmon
Recovery Fund. These grant programs generally support State, local, and/or industry interests, and
often are not optimally targeted. For example, some of these grants have supported activities such as
local tourism efforts and rain garden education and installation, both of which are more appropriately
funded at the local level.

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

Funding Highlights:
•

The Department of Defense (DOD) provides the combat-credible military forces and capabilities needed to
deter aggression, fight and win wars, and protect the security of the United States.

•

The 2021 Budget delivers on the President’s promise to rebuild America’s military, strengthen readiness
for the future, and support the Nation’s warfighters. The Budget implements the 2018 National Defense
Strategy by prioritizing essential investments in modernization, lethality, and innovation that provide the
U.S military with the required capabilities to meet current and future challenges.

•

The Budget reflects the Administration’s commitment to streamline bureaucracy, ensure good stewardship
of taxpayer dollars, and prioritize the core functions of Government. As part of this effort, the Budget
supports DOD’s comprehensive review of defense-wide organizations, known as DOD’s Fourth Estate,
which identified over $5 billion in savings in 2021 and transferred an additional $2 billion in activities and
functions to the military departments for more effective and efficient operations. The effort reduces Office
of the Secretary of Defense programs and reinvests savings in innovation and lethality initiatives that would
strengthen the U.S. military’s competitive advantage in high-end warfare.

•

The Budget requests $705.4 billion for DOD, including $636.4 billion for the base budget and $69 billion
for Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO). The Budget reflects a $0.8 billion increase above the 2020
enacted level for base and OCO.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
The Budget provides the necessary resources for DOD to protect and defend the homeland,
maintain balances of power in key regions of strategic importance, and exert a sphere of influence that
supports U.S. security and prosperity. Ultimately, the Budget reflects the President’s commitment to
ensure America’s military remains second to none, both today and into the future.
Underpinned by the 2018 National Defense Strategy, the Budget sustains and builds on efforts
over the last three years to prioritize investments in modernization, lethality, and innovation that
provide the Nation’s warfighters a competitive advantage against growing threats from nearpeer adversaries, such as China and Russia; deter aggressive regional challengers; and maintain
pressure on terrorist groups throughout the world. The Budget continues the Administration’s work
to rebuild the military and improve readiness, while balancing the need for reform, efficiency, and
accountability at every level.

33

34

Department of Defense

The Budget supports U.S. military dominance in
all warfighting domains—air, land, sea, space, and
“Together, the men and women of America’s
cyberspace. Essential funding is provided to research,
Armed Forces are the most extraordinary
design, and procure advanced capabilities across each
warriors ever to walk the face of the Earth.
of the services, including 115 modern fighter aircraft,
You stand ready to vanquish any danger
modernization of one armored brigade combat team per
and deliver the full might of American justice
year, and a total of 10 battle force and unmanned ships.
whenever and wherever duty calls.”
The Budget supports U.S. technical superiority by
investing in innovative, crosscutting programs such as
President Donald J. Trump
artificial intelligence, microelectronics, and hypersonic
June 30, 2019
weapons. Further, the Budget supports a total military
end strength of 2,153,500 active duty and reserve
personnel, including personnel to grow America’s
newest military Service, the United States Space Force
(USSF). Most importantly, the Budget puts the needs of the warfighter and their families first with a
3.0-percent increase in military basic pay.

Invests in Modernization and Lethality
Ensures Maritime Superiority. The Budget sustains the Administration’s emphasis on growing
the world’s most advanced and lethal naval force by investing $19.3 billion to procure a total of 10
new battle force and unmanned ships, including funding the recapitalization of the strategic ballistic
missile submarine (SSBN) fleet with Columbia-class SSBNs. The Budget prioritizes funding for
programs that would deliver warfighting advantages against China and Russia, including high-end
extended range munitions, unmanned systems, hypersonic and advanced strike missiles, directed
energy, containerized weapons, and information warfare capabilities. In addition, the Budget balances
the need to maintain readiness with investments in future growth to ensure America’s naval forces
are prepared to protect and defend national interests anywhere in the world.
Grows the USSF. Building on its historic establishment in the previous budget, the Budget
supports the growth of the USSF to ensure it can advance America’s national interests in space. The
Budget provides $111 million to fund essential personnel growth for the USSF, including staff for
centers for development of doctrine, testing, and training for the new Service. The USSF is realigning
existing space forces and materiel from the Air Force in the near term and scaling up with other
components over the next several years in order to address increasing threats and maintain strategic
advantage. The Budget also grows the Space Development Agency, which was established in 2019
to foster innovation by leveraging the thriving domestic commercial space sector, and the U.S. Space
Command, which would employ the forces and capabilities of the USSF.
Strengthens U.S. Missile Defeat and Defense. The Budget provides $20.3 billion to strengthen
missile defeat and defense programs. To advance the 2019 Missile Defense Review’s policy of providing
effective and enduring protection against rogue state missile threats to the homeland, the Budget
proposes additional investments in more robust Homeland Missile Defense programs. Specifically, the
Budget proposes assessing the potential modification of existing regional missile defense programs
for layered homeland defense, some of which can be demonstrated as early as 2025.
Prioritizes Nuclear Deterrence. America’s nuclear deterrent is the backstop and foundation of
the Nation’s defense and that of America’s allies. To address the return of great power competition
and implement the Administration’s 2018 Nuclear Posture Review, the Budget continues investments
in modernizing critical nuclear delivery systems. The Budget also supports the critical ongoing
enhancement of the Nation’s Nuclear Command, Control, and Communications system.

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

35

Delivers Airpower for the Future Fight. The Budget prioritizes funding for programs that
would deliver the U.S. airpower needed to prevail in the highly contested fights of the future. The
Budget invests $15.1 billion in DOD’s tactical fighter programs, continuing the procurement of F-35A
stealth fighters and new, upgraded, F-15EX fighter aircraft for the Air Force, and the procurement of
the Navy’s and Marine Corps’ variants of the F-35. The Budget also modernizes the Navy’s current
F/A-18E/F fighters and accelerates the development of the next generation of advanced fighter aircraft.
Funding supports the development of the new stealth bomber and the procurement of the KC-46
aerial refueling tanker. These mission critical investments would ensure that DOD can successfully
counter the wide variety of threats that are expected in future air combat situations.
Improves Ground Combat Lethality. The Budget provides significant funding to improve the
lethality of ground combat capabilities, including nearly $11 billion to fund modernization of longrange precision artillery, combat vehicles and helicopters, command and control networks, air and
missile defense, and close combat training and equipment. The Budget also provides over $3 billion
to support the modernization of one armored brigade combat team per year. Further, the Budget
prioritizes the development of next generation combat systems over the sustainment of Cold War-era
legacy platforms to deliver greater firepower for high intensity combat.

Funds Leading Edge Innovation
Ensures Technological Superiority by Investing in Industries of the Future. The Budget
supports critical investments to regain and sustain U.S. technological superiority to counter and
overmatch emerging threats. The Budget invests over $14 billion in DOD science and technology
programs that support key investments in industries of the future, such as artificial intelligence,
quantum information science, and biotechnology, as well as core DOD modernization priorities such
as hypersonic weapons, directed energy, 5G, space, autonomy, microelectronics, cybersecurity, and
fully-networked command, control, and communications.
Accelerates Development of Offensive Hypersonic Weapons. DOD continues to accelerate
the development and demonstration of offensive hypersonic weapon capabilities. The Budget provides
$3.2 billion, $459 million more than the 2020 enacted level, to continue development of Army, Navy,
and Air Force weapons variants. In addition, the Budget supports increased operational flight testing
necessary to accelerate delivery of fully operational weapon systems that would provide unprecedented
offensive strike capability across multiple warfighting domains.
Ensures Access to Trusted and Assured Microelectronics. The Budget invests in necessary
enhancements to ensure that the United States can maintain trusted and reliable access to stateof-the-art microelectronics suppliers. The Budget enables secure design, development, fabrication,
and assembly of microelectronics without the need to invest in a costly Government-owned and
operated fabrication facility. These investments are essential for the development of next generation
capabilities in communications, computing, artificial intelligence, and autonomy.
Invests in Cyber Capability. The Budget builds on progress in recent years to develop the
military’s cyber capabilities by requesting nearly $10 billion in 2021. The cyber budget is aligned
to advance DOD’s three primary cyber missions: safeguarding DOD’s networks, information, and
systems; supporting military commander objectives; and defending the Nation. This investment
provides the resources necessary to grow the capacity of U.S. military cyber forces, including U.S.
Cyber Command, invest in the cyber workforce, and continue to maintain the highest cybersecurity
standards at DOD.

36

Department of Defense

Maximizes Readiness and Supports the Warfighter
Puts the Warfighter First. People are the Department’s most valuable asset. Providing a robust
pay and benefits package is imperative to ensure that DOD remains best positioned to compete with
the private sector for new recruits and that DOD can retain a well-trained volunteer force. The
Budget proposes a 3.0-percent increase in military basic pay and provides funding for a full range
of important compensation programs to support America’s servicemembers and their families. The
Budget also grows military end-strength by over 13,000 from 2020 authorized levels to enable the
services to continue to improve readiness, while addressing critical capability gaps.
Sustains and Builds on Readiness Gains. The Budget sustains and accelerates readiness gains
across each of the services in recent years as a result of the Administration’s focus on rebuilding the
military. The Budget provides an increase of $1.4 billion for the Navy’s ship and aircraft operations
and maintenance accounts to significantly reduce the surface ship and submarine maintenance
backlog, while ensuring that Navy and Marine Corps aircraft mission capable rates continue to
improve. For the Air Force, the Budget optimizes resources by redirecting funding for combat flying
hours, weapons sustainment, and training from aging, legacy aircraft to next generation platforms
and systems designed for the high-end fight, such as the F-35 joint strike fighter and KC-46 aerial
refueling tanker. In addition, for the Army, the Budget emphasizes readiness-generating activities
tied directly to the National Defense Strategy, such as large-scale training activities in Europe and
Asia as well as enhancing tactical proficiency within operational forces.
Divests Legacy Systems to Ensure Readiness Tomorrow. The Budget supports DOD’s effort
to divest $20 billion of legacy systems over the Future Years Defense Program (FYDP) in order to
reallocate resources in support of the National Defense Strategy. By shedding older and less capable
aircraft, surface ships, and ground systems, DOD can more effectively focus resources to modernized
platforms and systems that support both high-intensity conflict and operations in highly contested
environments.
Maintains Pressure on Terrorist Groups while Focusing on Great Power Competition.
The Budget maintains the funding necessary to continue DOD counterterrorism efforts to ensure
terrorists do not have the capacity to attack the U.S. homeland or America’s allies. Building on trends
from the previous budget, the Budget further implements the 2018 National Defense Strategy by
prioritizing programs and efforts that are necessary to prepare for the high-end fight. The Budget deemphasizes funding in areas that support operations in U.S. Central Command, while furthering the
shift in resources toward great power competition efforts in the European and Indo-Pacific Commands.

Promotes Reform, Efficiency, and Accountability
Achieves Savings across the Department. The Budget reflects the Administration’s
commitment to ensuring good stewardship of taxpayer dollars by prioritizing resources for lethality
and readiness initiatives. The Budget supports the Department’s comprehensive review of DOD’s
Fourth Estate to ensure alignment with the National Defense Strategy and free up time, money, and
manpower to reinvest in the Department’s highest priorities. As part of this effort, known as the
Defense-Wide Review, DOD identified over $5 billion in savings in 2021 to reallocate toward higher
strategic priorities. The review also transferred an additional $2 billion in activities and functions
to the military departments for more effective and efficient operations. The Budget reduces most
DOD offices outside the military departments by at least five percent in an effort to counter defensewide programs’ growing share of the total DOD budget. The effort seeks to restore the appropriate
balance between defense-wide organizations and the military departments, while promoting longterm structural reform of DOD’s defense-wide activities.

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37

Reforms Business Operations for Greater Performance and Accountability. DOD
continues to pursue management reforms to increase affordability and redirect savings to higher
priorities. For example, DOD will continue to modernize and eliminate legacy business systems
and processes to reduce duplication, which will yield significant savings. In 2019, the Department
achieved reform savings totaling $6 billion. In 2020 DOD is on track to achieve $7.7 billion in savings
and nearly $45 billion across the FYDP. DOD’s reform efforts include initiatives to sunset legacy data
systems, transfer personnel data infrastructure to cloud technology, and transition legacy information
technology infrastructure to emerging capabilities. DOD will continue to seek new ways to do business
by leveraging the results of the recently completed audit, and continuing annual audits to promote
transparency and accountability. DOD’s reforms will not only produce savings for the Department,
but also improve processes to ensure DOD prioritizes support for the warfighter.
Implements Successful Background Investigation Mission Transfer. DOD will continue its
mission of conducting background investigations for the Federal Government following the successful
transfer from the Office of Personnel Management in 2019, a key pillar of the President’s Management
Agenda. The transfer will dramatically improve the ability of agencies to deliver mission outcomes,
and will continue to provide economy of scale in addressing the Federal Government’s background
investigations workload. The Budget requests funding for critical technology protection associated
with this mission, while eliminating the need for additional resources since these activities are funded
via the Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency Working Capital Fund.
Reforms the Military Health System. DOD will continue rightsizing the military medical
force to meet the Department’s medical obligations in support of the National Defense Strategy. In
addition, the Department will complete the transition of management and operations of the military
treatment facilities from the services’ Surgeons General to the Defense Health Agency. These two
actions, coupled with the continued investments in trauma courses, medical simulation training,
the alignment of medical readiness funds to the services, and continued Electronic Health Record
modernization enable a renewed focus on readiness for uniformed servicemembers while ensuring
the delivery of safe, high-quality healthcare.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION

Funding Highlights:
•

The Department of Education’s mission is to support States and school districts in their efforts to provide
high-quality education to the Nation’s most vulnerable students, streamline and simplify funding for college,
and expand access to postsecondary options.

•

The Budget includes a substantial increase for Career and Technical Education of nearly $900 million to
strengthen America’s workforce by providing access to high-quality vocational programs in every high
school. The Budget also provides increased funding for Historically Black Colleges and Universities and
programs that serve disadvantaged populations.

•

The Budget consolidates 29 narrowly focused or duplicative elementary and secondary programs into
a new $19.4 billion block grant to States. The new program would give States and school districts the
flexibility to better meet the needs of their students and families, eliminating Federal intrusion into State
and local education systems. While providing a significant investment to U.S. schools, this approach saves
taxpayers nearly $4.7 billion.

•

The Budget requests $66.6 billion for the Department of Education, a $5.6 billion or 7.8-percent decrease
compared to the 2020 enacted level.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
The Department of Education’s top priority is to promote education freedom: freedom for students
and parents to choose the schools that best meet their needs; freedom for States and school districts
to decide how best to meet the needs of their students; and freedom to choose high-quality, affordable
postsecondary options and career pathways that lead to fulfilling lives. The Budget promotes these
goals while restoring fiscal discipline in discretionary spending. The Budget also reduces Federal
burdens on State and local education and places a particularly strong focus on providing a path to
good jobs. In addition, the Budget expands families’ ability to choose high-quality educational options for their children. The Budget would increase competition and transparency, reduce student
debt, and ensure that what students are learning matches the needs of emerging industries. By
increasing accountability for institutions of higher education and helping students only borrow as
much as they need, the Budget would help make higher education more affordable while protecting
both students and taxpayers.

39

Department of Education

40

K-12 Education
The Budget request for elementary and secondary education demonstrates the Administration’s
commitment to providing States and school districts with the funding and autonomy necessary to
enable all children to receive a high-quality education, while also acknowledging the powerful contributions that high-quality career and technical education can make to both individual attainment and
economic prosperity.
Creates a New Elementary and Secondary Education for the Disadvantaged Block
Grant. The Administration proposes to consolidate 29 formula and competitive grant programs into
a $19.4 billion formula grant that would allow States and school districts to decide how best to use the
Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) funds to address local educational needs
and improve outcomes for all students. This proposal builds on an important goal of the 2015 Every
Student Succeeds Act to restore greater State and local control over education while maintaining
key accountability and reporting requirements aimed at protecting students, supporting meaningful
school improvement efforts, and giving parents the information they need to choose a high-quality education for their children. The consolidation of most ESEA programs into a single block grant, which
would allocate funds through the same formulas used by the Title I Grants to Local Educational
Agencies program, would significantly reduce the Federal role in education and allow the Department
to reduce staffing and administrative costs over time.
Increases support for Career and Technical
Education (CTE). To support the Administration’s
“As States begin to think about their long-term
commitment to preparing students to succeed in today’s
career and technical education strategies,
competitive, rapidly changing economy, and answer the
I would encourage them to continue to act
ever increasing needs of a booming economy, the Budget
boldly and break down the silos that exist
includes $2 billion for CTE State Grants. This substanbetween education and industry so that all
tial increase over the 2020 enacted level builds on the
Strengthening Career and Technical Education for the
students are prepared for the in-demand,
21st Century Act, which would help ensure that all of
high-paying jobs of today’s economy and
the Nation’s high schools are able to offer high-qualitomorrow’s.”
ty CTE programs. The Budget also includes $90 milBetsy DeVos
lion for CTE National Programs to support high-quality science, technology, engineering, and mathematics
Secretary
and computer science CTE programs. In addition, the
July 1, 2019
Budget proposes to double the American Competiveness
and Workforce Improvement Act of 1998 fee for the H-1B
visa program and direct 15 percent of the revenues to
CTE State Grants, which is estimated to provide more than $100 million in additional funding for
this program.

“To help support working parents, the time
has come to pass school choice for America’s
children.”
President Donald J. Trump
February 5, 2019

Provides Education Freedom to Families and
Students. Families must have the freedom to choose
the best learning experience for their children. The
Administration’s Education Freedom Scholarships proposal would provide up to $5 billion annually in Statedesigned scholarship programs that could support a
range of educational activities such as CTE, special education services, and tuition for private school. This proposal would make tremendous strides toward the goal of
providing all students with the opportunity to receive a
high-quality education and achieve future success.

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

41

Invests Significant Resources for Students with Disabilities. The Administration believes
that all children, including children with disabilities, should have access to a high-quality education.
The Budget invests nearly $13 billion in Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part B
Grants to States, an increase of $100 million compared to the 2020 enacted level. This increase would
provide more resources for States to provide special education and related services for over seven
million students with disabilities. In addition, the Budget continues to fund all other IDEA grant
programs at the 2020 enacted levels.

Higher Education
The Budget addresses student debt and higher education costs while reducing the complexity of student financial aid. The Budget provides further protection to students and taxpayers by eliminating
unlimited loans and providing institutions with tools to help borrowers manage their debt.
Supports Improvements to Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The
Budget includes important investments to support improvements at HBCUs. In total, the Budget
proposes $749 million in discretionary funding to support HBCUs. The Budget also includes a proposal to consolidate six programs into a single formula grant to institutions serving low-income and
minority students, providing funds more institutions can count on, yielding program management efficiencies, and targeting funds to institutions that serve their students well. In addition, the Budget
proposes to target $150 million to support science, technology, engineering, and mathematics activities
at HBCUs and other institutions serving historically disadvantaged students located in Opportunity
Zones. Further, the Budget supports the recently passed FUTURE Act, which provides $85 million in
mandatory funding to HBCUs each year.
Protects Students and Taxpayers from Growing Student Loan Burden. The Budget protects students by eliminating default for impoverished borrowers and providing expedited loan forgiveness for undergraduate borrowers who make 15 years of responsible payments. In addition, the
Budget protects graduate and parent borrowers from racking up crushing debt, often never repaid
to taxpayers, by instituting sensible annual and lifetime loan limits. In addition, the Budget closes
loopholes currently allowing high-earning graduate-degree holding borrowers to avoid repaying their
student loans, leaving taxpayers holding the bag.
Expands Pell Grant Eligibility to Short-Term Programs and Incarcerated Students. The
Budget provides greater access to higher education opportunities by expanding eligibility for Pell
Grants, the foundation of financial aid for low- and moderate-income students, in two key ways: first,
students would be able to use Pell Grants at high-quality, short-term programs to gain the skills to
secure well-paying jobs in high-demand fields more quickly than traditional two-year or four-year
degree programs; second, the Budget makes Pell Grants available to certain incarcerated students
to improve employment outcomes, reduce recidivism, and facilitate their successful reentry to society.
Empowers States to Deliver Evidence-Based Postsecondary Preparation Programs.
Given fiscal constraints and the statutory prohibition limiting the Department’s ability to rigorously
evaluate program effectiveness, the Budget proposes to restructure and streamline the TRIO, GEAR
UP, and CAMP programs by consolidating them into a $950 million State formula grant. This innovative proposal would support evidence-based postsecondary preparation programs designed to help
low-income students progress through the pipeline from middle school to postsecondary opportunities.

Reduces Burden, Expands Options, and Protects Free Speech
Overly burdensome regulatory requirements can adversely affect the Nation’s ability to prepare
students for the opportunities and challenges of the 21st Century.

42

Department of Education

Protects Free Speech on College Campuses. The Department continues to support free and open
debate on college and university campuses. Colleges and universities that receive Federal research or
education grants must adhere to the requirements of the First Amendment to the Constitution and
all other requirements of Federal law.
Reforms Accreditation to Promote Innovation and Lower Costs. The accreditation process
is meant to ensure academic quality in higher education, but it had become a burdensome, costly exercise that forced schools to comply with a narrow vision of education. The Department’s regulations
streamline and reduce unnecessary costs associated with accreditation to open up paths for innovative programs and improve outcomes.
Safeguards Students from Fraudulent Institutions. The borrower defense rule establishes
a clear standard for discharging student loans of borrowers defrauded by their institutions, providing transparency to both students and institutions. The rule also fairly holds all institutions to clear
standards of accountability and allows the Department of Education to respond quickly and decisively to early signs of financial instability.
Rescinds Gainful Employment Regulations that Restricted Student Choice. On July 1,
2019, the Department rescinded the burdensome Gainful Employment regulations. The regulations
failed to equitably hold all institutions accountable for student outcomes.

Improves Services for Taxpayers
Reforms and Modernizes Federal Student Aid. The Budget supports the multiyear Next
Generation Financial Services Environment effort to build the technology and operational components that support the Federal student aid programs including the development and implementation
of a new loan servicing platform to improve service for all Federal student loan borrowers. The office
of Federal Student Aid is currently working to consolidate all of its customer-facing websites into a
single, user-friendly hub to complement a new mobile platform and give students, parents, and borrowers a seamless experience from application through repayment.
Prioritizes Evidence and Evaluation. The Department of Education has long been a leading
agency in building and using evidence. The Budget sets aside funds for higher education evaluation,
which would be integrated into the Department’s broader learning agenda development for the first
time.

Reduces Waste: Eliminates Ineffective or Redundant Programs.
The Budget eliminates wasteful funding for 11 programs and consolidates 29 elementary and
secondary programs into a new block grant. Eliminated programs include Federal Supplemental
Education Opportunity Grants, which duplicates Pell Grants but are less targeted on those who need
the most help. The Budget also eliminates International Education programs, given that a number of other Federal agencies offer programs that are similar and potentially duplicative. The new
elementary and secondary block grant removes Federal bureaucracy and gives States flexibility to
fund their own priorities. Consolidated programs include narrowly focused competitive grants and
programs that have not proven to improve student outcomes. Together these policies would decrease
taxpayer costs by $6.4 billion. In addition, the Budget saves $500 million by eliminating Account
Maintenance Fees, excessive payments to student loan guaranty agencies participating in the wasteful legacy Family Federal Education Loan Program as it winds down.

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

Funding Highlights:
•

The mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) is to advance U.S. national security and economic growth
through transformative science and technology innovations that promote affordable and reliable energy
through market solutions, and meet U.S. nuclear security and environmental clean-up challenges.

•

The 2021 Budget makes strategic investments to maintain global leadership in scientific and technological
innovation, including basic research in support of the Administration’s efforts to foster industries of the
future. The Budget also supports aggressively modernizing the nuclear security enterprise that underpins
the safety and security of Americans both at home and abroad.

•

The Budget proposes to sell federally-owned and operated electricity assets, which would save an
estimated $4.1 billion over 10 years. Selling these assets would encourage a more efficient allocation of
economic resources and mitigate unnecessary risks to taxpayers.

•

The 2021 Budget requests $35.4 billion for DOE, an 8.1-percent decrease from the 2020 enacted level of
$38.5 billion.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
The Budget for DOE reflects the critical role DOE has in promoting energy dominance and economic growth and in protecting the safety and security of the American people. The Budget enables
advancement of American leadership in science and technology, a cornerstone to achieving these
goals. American ingenuity combined with free-market capitalism can drive tremendous technological breakthroughs, leading to improvements in America’s economy and environment. The Budget
focuses resources on early-stage research and development (R&D) of energy technologies, where the
Federal role is strongest, while addressing the need to support later-stage R&D in targeted areas
where there are unique challenges. Emphasizing the appropriate role of the Federal Government
ensures that taxpayer dollars are being effectively used while implementing fiscal discipline.
The Budget also addresses the challenges associated with developing and maintaining the Nation’s
nuclear arsenal, another keystone to achieving the goals of security and prosperity. The Budget
ensures that the United States continues to secure nuclear and radiological materials worldwide
against theft by those seeking to harm this Nation or its allies. The Budget also funds the modernization of nuclear weapons and ensures that the U.S. nuclear force remains superior in the world.

43

44

Department of Energy

In addition, the Budget promotes continued progress on cleaning up sites contaminated from nuclear
weapons production and nuclear energy R&D.
The Budget further protects taxpayers by eliminating costly, wasteful, or duplicative programs.
The private sector has the primary role in taking risks to finance the deployment of commercially
viable projects and Government’s best use of taxpayer funding is in earlier stage R&D. As a result,
the Budget proposes to eliminate: the Title XVII Innovative Technology Loan Guarantee Program;
the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Loan Program; the Tribal Energy Loan Guarantee
Program; and the Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy.
The Budget again proposes to repeal the Western Area Power Administration’s borrowing authority that finances the construction of electricity transmission projects. Investments in transmission
assets are best carried out by the private sector with appropriate market and regulatory incentives
that support resiliency and reliability.
Advances the Industries of the Future. The Budget prioritizes accelerating artificial intelligence (AI) solutions as part of implementing the Administration’s efforts to foster industries of
the future. DOE’s new Artificial Intelligence and Technology Office will be responsible for providing
Department-wide guidance and oversight on AI and will perform a critical role in ensuring offices
across the Department are on the cutting-edge of AI technology development and application. The
Budget provides $5 million for this new office to enhance important AI R&D projects already underway. The office would also coordinate crosscutting, mission-relevant projects as part of DOE’s
broader support for AI investments. In addition, the office would align these investments with the
Administration’s industries of the future efforts and with the White House Office of Science and
Technology Policy’s AI strategic priorities.
Supports Cutting-Edge Basic Research. The Budget provides $5.8 billion for the Office of
Science to continue its mission to focus on early-stage research, operate national laboratories, and continue high priority construction projects. Within this amount: $475 million is requested for Exascale
computing to help secure the United States as a global leader in supercomputing; $237 million is requested for quantum information science; $125 million is requested for AI and machine learning; and
$45 million is requested to enhance materials and chemistry foundational research to support U.S.based leadership in microelectronics.
Maintains a Safe, Secure, and Effective Nuclear Weapons Stockpile. The Budget for DOE’s
National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) supports the Administration’s Nuclear Posture
Review (NPR) by maintaining and modernizing the nuclear deterrent. The Nation’s nuclear stockpile
must be robust and effective to protect the homeland, assure allies, and deter adversaries. Specifically,
the Budget continues investments to extend the life of warheads in the stockpile and modernize the
supporting infrastructure.
Strengthens Nuclear Security Science, Technology, and Engineering Capabilities. The
Budget maintains unique scientific capabilities at NNSA’s national security laboratories, which provide the backbone of the science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program and enable NNSA and the
Department of Defense to assess for the President that the Nation’s nuclear weapons stockpile remains safe, secure, and effective without the need for nuclear explosive testing.
Prevents, Counters, and Responds to Global Nuclear Threats. Nuclear threats are constantly evolving, and the Budget for NNSA addresses these threats through integrated, coordinated
efforts. The Budget increases funding for NNSA’s national technical nuclear forensics capabilities,
recognizing NNSA’s key role in the NPR-required mission, and continues efforts to prevent terrorists

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

45

from acquiring nuclear materials by removing materials from around the world and helping countries
protect remaining materials.
Provides Reliable and Secure Nuclear Propulsion Systems for the U.S. Navy. The Budget
continues DOE’s support of a strong U.S. Navy through NNSA’s Naval Reactors (NR) program. NR
works to provide the U.S. Navy with safe, reliable operation of nuclear propulsion plants for submarines and aircraft carriers, including through the development of reactor systems for the Columbiaclass ballistic missile submarine. The Budget also eliminates an unnecessary program to develop
low-enriched naval fuels that would result in a reactor design that is inherently less capable, more
expensive, and unlikely to support the significant cost savings associated with life-of-ship submarine
reactors.
Enhances Support for Cyber and Energy Security Initiatives. The Budget supports increased
funding for cyber and energy security initiatives, recognizing the seriousness of the threat against
critical infrastructure, in line with the 2019 Worldwide Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence
Community and the National Cyber Strategy. To support broad, interagency cybersecurity efforts, the
Budget provides funding in multiple programs, including $185 million for the Office of Cybersecurity,
Energy Security, and Emergency Response. This funding would support early-stage R&D activities,
in coordination with the energy sector, that improve cybersecurity and resilience throughout the supply chain, protecting critical infrastructure from both natural and man-made events.
Emphasizes American Energy Dominance. The United States has among the most abundant
and diverse energy resources in the world, including
oil, gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, and renewables. The
Budget supports an array of efforts that emphasize
“[I]nstead of relying on foreign oil and foreign
and strengthen that unique advantage, leveraging the
energy, we are now relying on American
Nation’s position as a global leader in energy producenergy and American workers like never
tion and technological innovation.
before.”
The Budget recognizes the emergence of the United
President Donald J. Trump
States as a top producer of energy in the world, becomMay 14, 2019
ing the world’s largest oil producer in 2018, transitioning to a net petroleum exporter in late 2019, and projected to become a net petroleum exporter for the 2020
calendar year. As a result, the commercial sector ably produces the energy needed to guard against
supply disruptions in the world market. The Budget proposes a slight reduction in Government ownership of petroleum products to fund higher priorities across the energy landscape, including AI and
quantum science. The Administration continues to seek strategic opportunities to utilize America’s
resources and innovative technology to strengthen America’s position as a world leader.
The Budget also makes strategic investments to accelerate the development of the next generation
of American energy technologies and solutions. This includes $2.8 billion across the Applied Energy
Office portfolio to support early-stage R&D and targeted later-stage R&D. This investment helps
enable the private sector to develop and deploy the next generation of solutions to usher in a more
secure, resilient, affordable, and integrated energy system.
To promote efficiency and maximize impact, the Budget maintains momentum on the Advanced
Energy Storage and Harsh Environment Materials Initiatives launched in fiscal year 2020 and establishes a new Critical Minerals Initiative to elevate and coordinate critical minerals activities through
a national laboratory-led team modeled after the Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium.

46

Department of Energy

The Budget also supports extracting critical minerals from coal and coal byproducts as one of many
non-thermal, non-power uses of coal. Research into advanced coal processing, and manufacturing
of coal-based materials and products would help to develop new markets for coal, ensuring that the
world’s largest coal reserves would be put to good use in next-generation coal-based products and
technologies. Meanwhile, robust investments in carbon capture, utilization, storage, and power generation efficiency would ensure that the existing coal power generation fleet is greener and more efficient than ever before, and ready to serve the Nation for decades to come.
Nuclear energy is also critical to the Nation’s energy mix and the Budget supports an array of programs to advance nuclear energy technologies. This portfolio promotes revitalization of the domestic
industry and the ability of domestic technologies to compete abroad. The Budget provides $1.2 billion for R&D and other important nuclear energy programs, including nearly $300 million for the
construction of the Versatile Test Reactor—a first of its kind fast reactor that would help the private
sector develop and demonstrate new technologies.
Supports Nuclear Fuel Cycle Capabilities. On July 12, 2019, the President determined that
“...the United States uranium industry faces significant challenges in producing uranium domestically and that this is an issue of national security.” The Budget establishes a Uranium Reserve for
the United States to provide additional assurances of availability of uranium in the event of a market
disruption.
Manages Nuclear Waste. One large hurdle that still faces the nuclear industry is the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The Administration believes the standstill has gone on too long. The
Administration is strongly committed to fulfilling its legal obligations to manage and dispose of the
Nation’s nuclear waste and will not stand idly by given the stalemate on Yucca Mountain. To create
momentum and ensure progress, the Administration is initiating processes to develop alternative
solutions and engaging States in developing an actionable path forward. In parallel, the Budget supports the implementation of a robust interim storage program and R&D on alternative technologies
for the storage, transportation, and disposal of the Nation’s nuclear waste, with a focus on systems
deployable where there is a willingness to host.
Maintains a Commitment to Clean Up. The Administration is committed to making progress
on cleaning up waste from nuclear weapons production. The Federal Government’s environmental
and disposal liabilities are $595 billion as of September 30, 2019. DOE is responsible for $505 billion
of these liabilities related to nuclear weapons production. The Budget includes $6.1 billion for 16 sites
remaining to be cleaned up to meet environmental regulatory requirements.
Aligns Infrastructure Priorities. It is long past time for the Federal Government to divest
infrastructure that can be more efficiently maintained by the private sector or local partnerships.
The Budget proposes to sell the transmission assets owned and operated by the Power Marketing
Administrations (PMAs), including those of the Southwestern Power Administration, Western Area
Power Administration, and Bonneville Power Administration. The Budget also proposes to authorize
the PMAs to charge rates comparable to those charged by for-profit, investor-owned utilities, rather
than being limited to cost-based rates, for electricity. This is a commonsense shift that lessens the
burden on the Federal taxpayer. The vast majority of the Nation’s electricity needs are met through
investor-owned utilities. Reducing or eliminating the Federal Government’s role in electricity transmission infrastructure ownership, thereby increasing the private sector’s role, and introducing more
market-based incentives, including rates, for power sales from Federal dams would encourage a more
efficient allocation of economic resources and mitigate risk to taxpayers.
Addresses Unnecessarily Burdensome Energy Efficiency Regulations. Through research
and reasonable regulatory actions, DOE will seek opportunities for further improvements in energy

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

47

efficiency, with an emphasis on solutions that promote consumer choice, the comfort of building occupants, and the performance of labor-saving products, devices, and equipment. Building on the recent
light bulb rule success, DOE will pursue improvements to other household appliances through its
standards program to improve product efficiency and meet the everyday needs of American households. In addition, DOE will demonstrate the benefits of the revamped Process Rule saving time
and money for stakeholders and taxpayers alike through more effective implementation of energy
efficiency standards program.

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

Funding Highlights:
•

The mission of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is to protect and strengthen the
health and well-being of Americans by fostering sustained advances in medicine, public health, and social
services.

•

The Budget continues to support the Administration’s commitment to reforming the healthcare system and
to reducing prescription drug prices. The Budget also invests in child care to support America’s working
families and promotes work among able-bodied adults receiving assistance.

•

The Budget prevents waste, fraud, and abuse, ensuring sound stewardship of taxpayer dollars. Consistent
with the President’s Executive Order 13890, “Protecting and Improving Medicare for Our Nation’s Seniors,”
the Budget aligns Medicare payments to providers with seniors’ clinical needs and the cost of care rather
than the site of care, and also includes other proposals to eliminate wasteful spending, preserve benefits
and access to care, and enhance choice and competition.

•

The 2021 Budget requests $94.5 billion for HHS, a 10-percent decrease from the 2020 enacted level. The
Budget proposes $1.6 trillion in net mandatory health savings, reducing longer-term deficits by eliminating
wasteful spending while preserving beneficiaries access to care, enhancing competition, and prioritizing
Federal resources for the most vulnerable.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
The Budget supports the mission of HHS while creating a streamlined Federal Government that
promotes the most efficient and effective use of taxpayer dollars. The Budget invests in: combatting the opioid epidemic; supporting services for serious mental illness; ending the HIV epidemic
in America; protecting and improving the Medicare program for seniors; and supporting pro-life
principles.
Combats the Drug Abuse and Opioid Epidemic. While real progress has been made in the
struggle against the drug abuse and opioid overdose epidemic, too many people are still suffering
from opioid addiction; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports 67,367 drug
overdose deaths in 2018. The Budget invests $5 billion in HHS to combat the opioid epidemic, making critical investments in research, surveillance, prevention, treatment, access to overdose reversal
drugs, and recovery support services. This funding includes $1.6 billion, an $85 million increase
from the 2020 enacted level, for State Opioid Response grants, which support prevention, treatment,

49

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Department of Health and Human Services

and recovery support services. States are also given flexibility to use these funds to address the
emerging drug issue, which is the increasing number of overdoses related to psychostimulants, including methamphetamines.
Helps Americans Suffering from Mental Illness. Americans with serious mental illness (SMI)
face significant challenges getting the care they need. In 2018, 47.6 million adults had a mental illness, of whom 11.3 million suffered from SMI, meaning their mental illness substantially interfered
with or limited major life activities. More than one out of every three individuals with SMI does not
receive mental healthcare and those that receive care encounter a fragmented mental health system
that is difficult to navigate. The Budget promotes methods of delivering care that improve outcomes
for individuals with SMI. The Budget includes $225 million for Certified Community Behavioral
Health Clinics (CCBHC) expansion grants, and extends, through 2021, the CCBHC Medicaid demonstration programs to improve community mental health services for the eight States currently in the
demonstration. These activities make it easier for individuals with mental illness and their families
to navigate the healthcare system and get services that they need. In addition, the Budget includes
$125 million to help schools, community organizations, first responders, and other entities identify
mental health issues and help affected youth and other individuals get the treatment they need.
Individuals with SMI are more likely to be homeless and have poorer health status than the general population. The Budget includes an additional $25 million in HHS to expand primary healthcare
services for the homeless in cities with high rates of unsheltered homelessness. In addition, some
individuals with SMI need hospitalization, yet there are not always enough inpatient beds to serve
them. Under current law, Medicaid cannot pay for certain inpatient stays at Institutions for Mental
Diseases (IMDs). The Budget modifies the Medicaid IMD exclusion to provide targeted flexibility to
States to provide inpatient mental health services to Medicaid beneficiaries with SMI, as part of a
comprehensive strategy that includes improvements to community-based treatment.
Continues the Initiative to End the HIV Epidemic in America. The 2021 Budget includes
$716 million for the second year of the multiyear initiative to eliminate new HIV infections in America.
Each year, there are approximately 40,000 new HIV infections in the United States, the majority clustered in a limited number of counties. The United States has the ability to end the epidemic, with
the availability of effective biomedical interventions such as antiretroviral therapy and pre-exposure
prophylaxis (PrEP). The Budget includes: $371 million for CDC to reduce new HIV infections; $302
million for Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to deliver HIV care through the
Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program and to supply testing, evaluation, prescription of PrEP, and associated medical costs through the Health Centers program; $27 million to the Indian Health Service
(IHS) to tackle the epidemic in American Indian and Alaska Native communities; and $16 million for
the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for evaluation activities to identify effective interventions to
treat and prevent HIV.
Improves Maternal Health in America. Women in the United States have higher rates of maternal mortality and morbidity than in any other developed nation—and the rates are rising. The
Budget provides $74 million in new resources to address this significant public health problem by
focusing on four strategic goals: 1) achieve healthy outcomes for all women of reproductive age by improving prevention and treatment; 2) achieve healthy pregnancies and births by prioritizing quality
improvement; 3) achieve healthy futures by optimizing postpartum health; and 4) improve data and
bolster research to inform future interventions.
Supports the President’s Health Reform Vision. The Budget includes an allowance for the
President’s health reform vision. While Americans have the best healthcare options in the world,
rising healthcare costs continue to be a top financial concern for many Americans. The President’s

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
great healthcare vision will ensure better care at lower
costs. Americans deserve affordable, personalized care
that puts them in control and provides peace of mind.
The President’s healthcare reforms will protect the
most vulnerable, especially those with pre-existing conditions, and provide the affordability, choice, and control Americans want, and the high-quality care that all
Americans deserve.

51

“[W]e’re creating a healthcare system
that protects vulnerable patients, makes
healthcare more affordable, gives you more
choice and control, and delivers the highquality care Americans deserve.”
President Donald J. Trump
October 3, 2019

The President’s vision would build on efforts outlined in the Executive Order 13877, “Improving Price
and Quality Transparency in American Healthcare To
Put Patients First,” to provide greater transparency of
healthcare costs and enshrine the right of a patient to know the cost of care before it is delivered.
It focuses on lowering the price of medicine, ending surprise medical bills, breaking down barriers
to choice and competition, and reducing unnecessary regulatory burdens. The President’s reforms
will ensure healthcare is affordable and accessible for all Americans. Reforms will give Americans
more control over healthcare choices and improve incentives for cost control. Reforms will also prioritize Federal resources for the most vulnerable and provide assistance for low-income individuals.
Medicaid reform will restore balance, flexibility, integrity, and accountability to the State-Federal
partnership. Medicaid spending will grow at a more sustainable rate by ending the financial bias that
currently favors able-bodied working-age adults over the truly vulnerable.
Ensures Federal Funds Protect Life and Conscience Rights. The Budget prioritizes the
value of human life by ensuring that Federal funding does not support abortions. The Budget proposes to prohibit Federal funding, such as in the Title X Family Planning and Medicaid programs, for
certain entities that provide abortion services. The Budget also protects conscience rights, prohibits
coercion in healthcare, and allows private parties to enforce such rights in Federal court. With these
protections, the Administration will continue to ensure robust protection of conscience rights and
religious liberty.
Protects and Improves the Medicare Program. The Budget includes proposals to eliminate
wasteful spending, preserve beneficiaries’ access to care, and enhance choice and competition, consistent with Executive Order 13890. The Budget prioritizes use of the trust funds to pay for seniors’
healthcare and incentivizes quality and efficiency in Medicare. The Budget proposes to align payments for post-acute care with patients’ needs and the most clinically appropriate site of care, while
expanding access to telehealth services. The Budget would extend the solvency of the Medicare program by at least 25 years for America’s seniors.
Supports Drug Pricing and Payment Reforms. The 2021 Budget includes an allowance for
bipartisan drug pricing proposals. The Administration supports legislative efforts to improve the
Medicare Part D benefit by establishing an out-of-pocket maximum, improving incentives to contain
costs, and reducing out-of-pocket expenses for seniors. The Administration also supports changes to
bring lower-cost generic and biosimilar drugs to patients. These efforts would increase competition,
reduce drug prices, and lower out-of-pocket costs for patients at the pharmacy counter.
Addresses Improper Payments in Medicare and Medicaid. In 2019, $1 out of every $15
spent in Medicare, and $1 out of every $7 spent in Medicaid, were considered an improper payment.
Improper payments include intentional fraud and abuse, as well as unintentional payment errors,
both of which are harmful to the integrity of the Federal Government and to taxpayers. The Budget
includes proposals to reduce the monetary loss from improper payments and strengthen the integrity

52

Department of Health and Human Services

and sustainability of the Medicare program. In addition, the Budget proposes reforms to improve
stewardship of taxpayer dollars by strengthening the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’
(CMS) ability to address weaknesses in provider screening, enrollment, and identification, as well as
beneficiary eligibility determinations in Medicaid. The Budget strengthens CMS’s ability to recover
overpayments due to incorrect eligibility determinations in the program. Combined with investments
in the Health Care Fraud and Abuse Control program, the Budget provides the resources and tools
necessary to combat waste, fraud, and abuse and to promote high-quality and efficient healthcare.
Advances American Kidney Health. The Budget includes proposals consistent with the goals
outlined in Executive Order 13879, “Advancing American Kidney Health,” to transform how kidney
disease is prevented, diagnosed, and treated. The Budget would allow individuals with Medicarecovered kidney transplants to retain lifetime coverage for immunosuppressive drugs, and improve
oversight of Organ Procurement Organizations, ensuring that deficiencies do not continue unexamined for an extended period of time. The Budget also encourages more living kidney donors by expanding reimbursement for travel and other donation-related costs.
Improves Access to Rural Healthcare. The Budget includes proposals to address the healthcare
needs of rural America. The Budget proposes to expand access to telemedicine services by offering
increased flexibility to providers who serve predominantly rural or vulnerable patient populations,
including IHS providers and providers participating in Medicare payment models requiring financial
risk. The Budget proposes to modify payments to Rural Health Clinics to ensure that Medicare beneficiaries continue to benefit from primary care services in their communities. To address the trend
of rural hospital closures, the Budget proposes to allow critical access hospitals to voluntarily convert
to rural standalone emergency hospitals and remove the requirement to maintain inpatient beds. In
addition, the Budget maintains funding for Rural Health Outreach grants in HRSA.
Strengthens IHS. IHS provides comprehensive clinical and public health services to over 2.6 million American Indians and Alaska Natives in 37 States, but the Agency faces longstanding challenges
that affect its ability to effectively provide quality healthcare and oversight. The Administration
has taken steps to address these challenges, most notably through the formation of a Presidential
Task Force on Protecting Native American Children in the IHS System in March 2019. The Budget
supports key reforms, including those that bolster recruitment and retention of quality healthcare
professionals and expand telehealth to IHS beneficiaries. The Budget maintains dedicated funding
to address accreditation challenges at IHS facilities, and continues the multiyear effort to modernize
its aging Electronic Health Record system.
Prioritizes Critical Health Research and Supports Innovation. The Budget provides
$38 billion for innovative research at NIH to improve public health, $4 billion above the level
requested in the 2020 Budget. NIH would continue to address the opioid epidemic and emerging stimulants, make progress on developing a universal flu vaccine, prioritize vector-borne
disease research, and support industries of the future. The Budget funds the second year of the
Childhood Cancer Data Initiative to further America’s understanding of the unique causes of,
and the best cures for, childhood cancer.
Advances Vector-Borne Disease Prevention and Control. The threat of mosquito and tickborne diseases continues to rise in the United States. Cases of tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme
disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, affected nearly 60,000 Americans in 2017. The Budget
includes $66 million for CDC’s vector-borne disease activities, a $14 million increase compared to the
2020 enacted level which focuses on tick-borne diseases. The Budget also invests in NIH research to
improve the Nation’s understanding of vector-borne diseases.

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

53

Enhances Influenza Vaccines and Health Security. The Budget supports Executive Order
13887, “Modernizing Influenza Vaccines in the United States to Promote National Security and Public
Health,” by providing a $95 million increase, compared to the 2020 enacted level, across HHS for influenza vaccine manufacturing infrastructure and innovation; advanced research and development
of improved vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics; international pandemic preparedness; improved
non-egg-based vaccines; and improved vaccine coverage nationwide. The Budget improves access to
non-egg-based influenza vaccines for Medicare beneficiaries by proposing a change in Medicare payment for influenza vaccines. The Budget also funds HHS biodefense and emergency preparedness
procurement through the BioShield program and the Strategic National Stockpile, and includes
$175 million to support CDC’s global health security activities, an increase of $50 million compared
to the 2020 enacted level.
Reforms Oversight of Tobacco Products. The Budget proposes to move the Center for Tobacco
Products out of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and create a new agency within HHS to
focus on tobacco regulation. This new agency would be led by a Senate-confirmed Director in order
to increase direct accountability and more effectively respond to this critical area of public health
concern. A new agency with the singular mission on tobacco and its impact on public health would
have greater capacity to respond strategically to the growing complexity of new tobacco products. In
addition, this reorganization would allow the FDA Commissioner to focus on its traditional mission of
ensuring the safety of the Nation’s food and medical products supply.
Strengthens Work Requirements to Promote Self-Sufficiency. The Budget improves consistency between work requirements in federally funded public assistance programs, including Medicaid
and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), by requiring that able-bodied, working-age
individuals, aged 18-65 years old, find employment or participate in individualized work activities for
a minimum of 20 hours per week, in order to receive welfare benefits, unless they fall into an exempt
category or have an individual or geographic hardship. This requirement would enhance service coordination for program participants, improve the financial well-being of those receiving assistance, and
ensure federally funded public assistance programs are reserved for the most vulnerable populations.
Supports Children and Families in Achieving
Their Potential. The Budget proposes a $1 billion
one-time investment for States to build the supply of
“At the heart of our reforms is democratizing
care and stimulate employer investment in child care,
choice and control—by giving it to parents.
and funds child care and early learning to help famiWe are focused on improving the quality
lies access and afford the care they need. The Budget
of care; expanding affordable options that
maintains funding for Head Start and the Child Care
meet the needs of each family; and removing
and Development Block Grant at HHS. The Budget
regulatory barriers that make it difficult to
also supports States in serving families and children in
start in-home or faith-based child education
the child welfare system by increasing State flexibiliservices.”
ties, reducing administrative burdens, and investing in
evidence-based resources. In addition, the Budget proIvanka Trump
motes evidence building and innovation to strengthen
Advisor to the President
America’s safety net, proposes improvements to the
December 12, 2019
TANF program, and supports efforts to get noncustodial parents to work. Together, these proposals reflect
the Administration’s commitment to help low-income
families end dependency on government benefits and promote the principle that gainful employment is the best pathway to financial self-sufficiency and family well-being.

54

Department of Health and Human Services

Addresses the Humanitarian Needs of Unaccompanied Alien Children. The Budget includes $2.0 billion in discretionary funding and a $2.0 billion mandatory contingency fund to ensure
that HHS is able to provide high-quality services to all unaccompanied alien children referred to its
care and that HHS has the capacity to manage the inherent uncertainty in this program.

DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY

Funding Highlights:
•

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) safeguards the American people and the homeland by
preventing terrorism; securing and managing U.S. borders; administering and enforcing U.S. immigration
laws; defending and securing Federal cyberspace; and ensuring disaster resilience, response, and recovery.

•

The 2021 Budget prioritizes funding to secure the Nation’s borders, including approximately $2 billion to
construct additional border wall along the U.S. Southwest border, strengthen and enforce U.S. immigration
laws, and respond to and recover from major disasters and large-scale emergencies.

•

The Budget proposes to eliminate $535 million in unnecessary Federal spending for Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA) grant and training programs that have failed to demonstrate results, supplant
State and local government responsibilities, and provide funding to maintain investments that are not
Federal responsibilities.

•

The 2021 Budget requests $49.7 billion for the Department of Homeland Security, excluding $2.4 billion
for the U.S. Secret Service, which the Budget proposes to transfer to the Department of the Treasury.
Including the U.S. Secret Service, the Budget request is $52.1 billion, a $1.6 billion or 3.2-percent increase
from the 2020 enacted level.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
DHS protects Americans from threats by land, sea, air, and cyberspace, on a constant and continuous basis year round. The Department prioritizes smart, innovative, and effective programs to
prevent terrorism, promote cybersecurity, secure America’s borders, enforce U.S. immigration laws,
and lead the Federal Government’s coordinated and comprehensive response to major disasters and
other large-scale emergencies. The men and women of DHS work tirelessly to ensure the safety,
preparedness, and resilience of the Nation. The Budget includes increased funding for border security, immigration enforcement, cybersecurity, disaster recovery, response and preparedness, critical
maritime and aviation assets, and front line personnel. The Budget would allow the Department
to adapt to new and evolving threats and challenges in order to protect the American people, the
homeland, and U.S. economy.
In addition to aggressively pursuing the resources necessary to support border security and immigration control, the Administration is calling upon the Congress to enact immigration reforms,
including ending chain migration, ending the visa lottery program, and moving from low-skilled

55

Department of Homeland Security

56

migration to a merit-based immigration system. These needed reforms would increase wages of U.S.
workers, shrink the deficit, and raise living standards for both U.S.-born and immigrant workers.
Secures the Borders of the United States. Each day, DHS works to protect the American
people and economy by preventing the illegal movement of people and contraband across U.S. borders
while facilitating legitimate trade and travel. As depicted in the chart below, the number of people
determined to be inadmissible at U.S. ports of entry, or apprehended for illegally crossing the border,
grew by over 87 percent from 2018 to 2019, with family units increasing by 227 percent.
Border security remains a top Administration priority, and the Budget continues to implement
the President’s direction to secure the U.S. Southwest border. Building on prior year investments,
the Budget requests $2 billion to construct
Increased Illegitimate Cross-Border Activity
approximately 82 miles of additional borOn the Southwest Border
der wall along the U.S. Southwest border.
600,000
With funding made available from 2017 to
527,112
2020, the Administration will build up to
500,000
approximately 1,000 miles of border wall
along the Southwest border. The addition400,000
al 82 miles of border wall provided in the
301,317
368,812
Budget would provide the U.S. Customs
300,000
and Border Protection (CBP) with impor261,513
tant cross-border impedance and denial
200,000
capability and contribute to CBP’s risk104,997
161,113
100,000
based plan to secure the entire border.
48,681

58,660

2017

2018

80,634

The Budget also: provides $182 million to hire 750 Border Patrol Agents, 300
Single Adults
Unaccompanied Children
Family Units
Border Patrol Processing Coordinators,
and support staff; includes $83 million
Source: Department of Homeland Security, 2017-2019.
for the 600 CBP Officers funded in 2019;
and invests $317 million in non-wall border and trade security investments, including $40 million
for a new Humanitarian Care Center. In addition, the Budget includes $1.6 billion to continue
to modernize U.S. Coast Guard vessels and aircraft that patrol and provide life-saving rescue
missions across the Nation’s coastal borders. The Budget includes funding for a second polar
icebreaker to ensure America is at the forefront of safeguarding uninterrupted, year round commercial activity, trade, and supply routes and confirming America’s leadership role in the Arctic
and Antarctic.
0

2019

Prioritizes Enforcement of Immigration Laws. The Budget provides discretionary and mandatory funding to promote the Administration’s immigration and border security priorities and to
ensure the safety and security of American communities. While the Budget provides a robust level
of immigration and border security activities, these resources alone would not address the need for
meaningful immigration reform, which can only be achieved through closing existing loopholes in
U.S. immigration laws. The Administration stands ready to work with the Congress to achieve these
important reforms.
Funds Additional U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Agents. The Budget
provides $544 million to hire an additional 4,636 ICE law enforcement officers, immigration court
prosecuting attorneys, and additional critical support staff to reach a total of 6,000 staff to carry
out this vital national security mission. This additional staff would ensure ICE is able to manage a
growing docket of non-detained aliens that: require additional resources to locate and arrest after

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

57

receiving a final order of removal; or are absconders from the Alternatives to Detention program. In
addition, the Budget includes $55 million to support improved personnel recruitment and retention
efforts, and facilitate more efficient hiring practices. Funding of $3.1 billion is provided for 60,000
detention beds to ensure ICE has the ability to detain criminal aliens and those ordered removed in
absentia, as well as aliens apprehended at the border.
Improves Border and Trade Infrastructure. The Administration proposes the creation of a
Border and Trade Security Modernization Fund to provide the additional mandatory funding resources necessary to support the President’s border and trade security initiatives and priorities. These
resources would be available to fund additional Administration investments for infrastructure, technology, systems, and processes related to trade and travel. The Administration plans to work with the
Congress to identify funding and offsets for these activities.
Maintains a Critical Employment Verification System. The employment of illegal aliens by
companies is a violation of the law, harms U.S. workers, and contributes to human smuggling, document fraud, identity theft, money laundering, and labor violations. The E-Verify system is an online
tool that allows businesses to easily and accurately determine the eligibility of their employees to
work in the United States. E-Verify is available at no cost to employers and 98 percent of employees are automatically confirmed as authorized to work either instantly or within 24 hours. The
Administration continues to require the use of E-Verify by Federal contractors to ensure the proper
utilization of Federal dollars.
Secures U.S. Transportation Systems. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) secures not just aviation, but also mass transit systems, passenger and freight railways, pipelines, highways, and ports. The Budget supports a pay raise to Transportation Security Officers and supports
the deployment of new technologies, including 30 Computed Tomography systems to the Nation’s
highest risk airports, and other new technologies to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of security operations for all modes of transportation. Approximately $8.2 billion is included in the Budget
to support TSA employees and technology that ensures the free movement of people and commerce.
Combats Violence and Terrorism. The Budget provides $80 million across various DHS components for a nationwide, community-based initiative to counter targeted violence and prevent terrorism. DHS will continue to partner with local community stakeholders and organizations that
provide support services to de-escalate individuals who may be vulnerable to radicalization before
those individuals cross a criminal threshold. Together with the Department of Justice’s expansion
of the Disruption and Early Engagement Program and in partnerships with the Offices of the U.S.
Attorneys, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, local law enforcement, and mental health professionals, the Administration is coordinating efforts to combat targeted violence and prevent terrorism
within the homeland.
Invests in Disaster Resilience. The Budget provides investments for the Disaster Relief Fund
to ensure communities are prepared for future disasters and to help affected communities that are
continuing to recover from past disasters. The Budget also supports reforms to disaster policies that
would make disaster response and recovery more effective and less costly for taxpayers.
The Budget proposes a $407 million competitive National Security and Resilience grant program
that would be rigorously evaluated to demonstrate how FEMA is supporting communities to make the
Nation safer and better prepared. This grant, combined with the Building Resilient Infrastructure
and Communities grant program, would help State and local communities build resilience and protect against both man-made and natural hazards. The Budget continues to prioritize funding grant
programs where results can be measured, instead of funding formula grants that supplant State and
local responsibilities.

58

Department of Homeland Security

Addresses the Cybersecurity Workforce Shortage. The Delivering Government Solutions
in the 21st Century plan and Executive Order 13870, “America’s Cybersecurity Workforce,” included
several initiatives to solve the Federal cybersecurity workforce shortage by establishing unified cyber workforce capabilities across the civilian enterprise. The Budget includes funding to support
DHS’s Cyber Talent Management System, which reflects the exemption of DHS’s cyber workforce
from many of the hiring and compensation requirements and restrictions in existing law under title
5 of the United States Code. The Budget also includes additional funding for the Cybersecurity and
Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) to lead a Government-wide cybersecurity workforce program
for all Federal cyber professionals, including an interagency cyber rotational program, a cybersecurity
training program for all Federal cyber professionals, and a cyber-reskilling academy. CISA will also
spearhead the President’s Cup Competition, as described in Executive Order 13870.
Supports Network and Critical Infrastructure Security. The Department continues to play
a major role in securing and building cybersecurity resilience for the Nation’s most critical infrastructure, including Government networks. In partnership with key stakeholders, DHS identifies and
manages the most critical national cybersecurity risks. The Budget includes more than $1.1 billion
for DHS’s cybersecurity efforts. These resources would increase the number of DHS-led network
risk assessments from 1,800 to more than 6,500—including assessments of State and local electoral
systems. The Budget also supports additional tools and services, such as the EINSTEIN and the
Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation programs, to reduce the cybersecurity risk to Federal information technology networks.
Strengthens the U.S. Secret Service. The Budget provides $2.4 billion for the U.S. Secret
Service, fully supporting the Agency’s dual missions of protecting the Nation’s leaders while securing
America’s financial systems. The Budget proposes to transfer the U.S. Secret Service from DHS to the
Department of the Treasury. As the Agency transitions to a new department, the Budget supports
an additional 119 U.S. Secret Service special agents, officers, and professional staff and continues efforts to rightsize the Agency in order to allow it to perform its important missions. The Budget also
proposes investments in protective equipment and technology, consistent with recommendations of
independent reviews of U.S. Secret Service operations.
Focuses on Sound Budgeting. The Budget proposes to shift $215 million in Overseas Contingency
Operations (OCO) funding for the U.S. Coast Guard into the Department’s base budget. This furthers
the Administration’s goal of ensuring that the OCO request funds only temporary overseas warfighting operations and does not fund enduring operations “off budget.”

DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND
URBAN DEVELOPMENT
Funding Highlights:
•

The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) supports safe, decent, and affordable housing
for Americans and provides access to homeownership opportunities.

•

The Budget reflects the President’s commitment to reforming programs to encourage work and selfsufficiency, and provides targeted but fiscally responsible investments that assist vulnerable low-income
households.

•

The Budget eliminates wasteful programs that have failed to demonstrate effectiveness, such as the
Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) and HOME Investment Partnerships Programs (HOME),
recognizing that State and local governments are better equipped to respond to local conditions. These
eliminations would save taxpayers $4.8 billion in 2021.

•

The 2021 Budget requests $47.9 billion in gross discretionary funding for HUD, an $8.6 billion or 15.2-percent
decrease from the 2020 enacted level.

•

Despite the overall reduction, the Budget maintains rental assistance for all 4.6 million low-income families
currently served by HUD.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
HUD supports affordable housing for low-income families and provides access to homeownership for traditionally underserved homebuyers. Affordable housing provides families with critical
stability that bolsters the economy, strengthens communities, and improves the quality of life for
the American people. HUD’s Federal Housing Administration (FHA) plays a critical role in helping
creditworthy, first-time homebuyers achieve sustainable homeownership. To further these goals, the
Budget eliminates programs that have failed to demonstrate effectiveness and strategically invests
$47.9 billion to support HUD’s core functions, ensuring HUD programs remain a vital resource to
the most vulnerable low-income families and first-time homeowners.
The Budget provides $41.3 billion for HUD’s rental assistance programs to maintain services
to all currently assisted low-income families, while re-proposing reforms in the Administration’s
Making Affordable Housing Work Act of 2018 and uniform work requirements for work-able households. These legislative reforms would empower families to achieve self-sufficiency and reduce program costs, placing these programs on a more fiscally sustainable path. In addition, the Budget

59

60

Department of Housing and Urban Development

makes a number of targeted investments for low-income families, such as increasing housing options
for the elderly and persons with disabilities, removing lead from housing, and protecting against
carbon monoxide poisoning. The Budget also provides sufficient funding for homeless assistance
grants, as the Administration continues to strengthen efforts to reduce the number of homeless persons living on the streets. To support assisted households to live independently and enhance their
quality of life, the Budget also expands key programs that promote self-sufficiency and increase earnings. Further, the Budget prioritizes accountability and efficiency by supporting HUD’s multiyear
Financial Transformation and information technology modernization efforts.
Eliminates Major Block Grants. The Administration continues to propose eliminating programs that lack measurable outcomes or are ineffective. The Budget eliminates CDBG, a program
that has expended more than $150 billion since its inception in 1974, but has not demonstrated sufficient impact. Studies have shown that the allocation formula, which has not been updated since
1978, is ineffective at targeting funds to the areas of greatest need, and many aspects of the program
have become outdated.
The Budget also eliminates HOME, which has not been authorized since 1994. State and local governments are better positioned to more comprehensively address the unique market challenges and
local policies that lead to affordable housing problems. To support State and local efforts, the White
House Council on Eliminating Regulatory Barriers to Affordable Housing is working to identify and
support successful practices for removing burdensome rules and regulations that raise the cost of
housing development.
Reforms Rental Assistance. The Budget continues providing rental assistance to 4.6 million
low-income families. To constrain cost growth, the Budget reproposes rent reforms that would require work-able individuals to shoulder more of their housing costs while providing an incentive to
increase their earnings. However, the Budget would mitigate the impact of the proposed reforms on
the elderly and persons with disabilities. The proposal would also reduce administrative burden and
provide communities with flexibility to adopt alternative rent structures aligned with local needs.
The Budget also continues to incorporate uniform work requirements for work-able individuals.
Enhances the Moving to Work Demonstration. The Budget reduces administrative burden
and increases transparency for Public Housing Authorities (PHAs) participating in the Moving to
Work Demonstration, which provides PHAs with flexibility in designing and testing policies to better
serve their residents and communities. As HUD expands the demonstration to additional PHAs, the
proposal would facilitate local PHA efforts to better focus on the demonstration’s goals of increasing
cost-effectiveness, encouraging resident self-sufficiency, and increasing housing choice.
Expands Housing Options for Low-Income Elderly and Persons with Disabilities. The
Budget requests $180 million to construct approximately 1,200 new units of housing for the elderly
and housing for persons with disabilities. By providing rental assistance and supportive services in
settings that prioritize universal design and accessibility, HUD can help residents delay or prevent
the need for more institutional settings.
Supports Communities in their Efforts to Reduce Homelessness. The Budget provides
$2.8 billion for the Homeless Assistance Grant (HAG) programs to continue supporting approximately 1.1 million individuals who experience homelessness each year. HAG primarily funds the
Continuum of Care program, which provides competitive funding to support coordinated and locally
driven community-based networks of programs to prevent and address homelessness across the
Nation. Within this total, the Budget requests $280 million for Emergency Solutions Grants to support emergency shelter, rapid re-housing, and homelessness prevention. The Administration will

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

61

also begin a new initiative to reduce unsheltered homelessness. Funding would support comprehensive and coordinated interventions to reduce street homelessness, and would be targeted to select cities that have experienced the largest increases in unsheltered homelessness in recent years.
Promotes Economic Mobility and Improves Quality of Life. Connecting HUD-assisted
households to supportive services and employment opportunities helps families reduce their reliance
on public assistance and boost their economic productivity. The Budget requests $190 million for selfsufficiency programs, including the Jobs-Plus Initiative. A rigorous evaluation has shown that the
Jobs-Plus Initiative produces lasting increases in tenant wages, where residents earned an average
of $1,141 more per year than they would have earned without the program. The Budget also includes
legislative proposals that would expand eligibility of self-sufficiency programs across HUD rental assistance programs to broaden assistance to households.
Leverages Capital for Housing Improvements. The Budget requests additional resources and
statutory authorities to convert more Public Housing
units to the Housing Vouchers and Project-Based Rental
Assistance (PBRA) funding platforms to help preserve
“RAD provides us the solution to preserve
the affordable housing stock. The Budget requests $100
this critically needed housing so it
million for the Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD)
remains permanently affordable for future
program to leverage public and private financing to regenerations.”
develop approximately 30,000 units of Public Housing
for low-income families. Recognizing that Federal,
Ben Carson
State, and local governments share the responsibility
Secretary
to provide affordable housing, the Budget does not reOctober 22, 2019
quest funding for the Public Housing Capital Fund and
eliminates the Choice Neighborhoods grant program,
but provides sufficient funding for Public Housing operations and maintenance. These eliminations would save $3 billion in 2021.
Reduces Lead and Carbon Monoxide Exposure for Low-Income Children. Lead-based
paint in housing presents one of the largest threats to the health, safety, and dreams of America’s
next generation, with more than 23 million homes having significant lead-based paint hazards. HUD
also estimates that 1.5 million HUD-assisted households need carbon monoxide detectors installed in
their homes. The Budget requests $425 million to promote healthy homes free of lead, carbon monoxide, and other hazards. Research has shown that lead-based paint hazard control is an efficient and
effective form of reducing and preventing exposure, generating high returns on investments due to
increased lifetime earnings and reduced medical costs. This funding level also includes resources for
enforcement, education, and research activities to further support this goal.
Supports Sustainable Homeownership Opportunities and Protects Taxpayers. The
Budget preserves access to sustainable homeownership opportunities for creditworthy borrowers
through FHA and Ginnie Mae credit guarantees. FHA provides a crucial source of mortgage financing for first-time homebuyers, who accounted for more than 80-percent of FHA-insured home
purchase loans in 2019. Consistent with HUD’s Housing Finance Reform Plan, the Budget requests
$20 million to continue modernizing FHA’s outdated single-family information technology systems
and includes legislative proposals that would strengthen the viability of reverse mortgages, improve
FHA’s lender enforcement program, and protect taxpayers.
Strengthens HUD’s Financial Management. The Budget includes $15 million for the
Department’s Financial Transformation initiative, a multiyear effort to continue strengthening HUD’s
financial reporting, accounting operations, and internal controls. This initiative has demonstrated

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Department of Housing and Urban Development

“We are committed to improving the lives of
all families, especially children, by creating
safer and healthier homes. One of HUD’s
priorities is protecting families from leadbased paint and other health hazards.”

results by resolving recurring audit issues, aligning accounting policies with Federal standards, and automating manual processes.

Seeks to Reform Federal Disaster Recovery
Assistance. The Administration seeks to work with the
Congress to comprehensively reform and redesign how
the Federal Government supports States, local communiBen Carson
ties, and disaster survivors after large-scale catastrophic
Secretary
disasters. The current status quo—a convoluted web of
programs across 17 departments and agencies—is broSeptember 30, 2019
ken, fiscally unsustainable, and does not result in expedient long-term recovery for communities. A notable
example is the HUD CDBG Disaster Recovery program,
which continues to be slow, unpredictable, and wasteful. Americans deserve a better system that helps
communities recover faster, is less confusing, improves outcomes, and protects taxpayer dollars.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Funding Highlights:
•

The Department of the Interior (DOI) conserves and manages natural resources and cultural heritage for the
benefit and enjoyment of the American people, provides scientific and evidence-based information about
America’s natural resources and hazards, supports safe and responsible development of Federal energy
resources, fosters rural prosperity, and honors the Nation’s trust responsibilities and special commitments
to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and U.S.-affiliated island communities to help them prosper.

•

The 2021 Budget request for DOI prioritizes wildland fire risk mitigation, energy development programs, and
infrastructure improvements on public lands. The Budget eliminates funding for unnecessary or duplicative
programs while reducing funds below the 2020 enacted level for lower priority activities, including land
acquisition and various grant programs.

•

The Budget proposes to eliminate line-item land acquisition projects funding, saving taxpayers $132 million
relative to the 2020 enacted level. Eliminating land acquisition projects funding would allow DOI to focus
resources on visitor services and facility repairs in existing national parks, refuges, and public lands, which
already encompass nearly 500 million acres.

•

The 2021 Budget requests $12.7 billion for DOI, a $2.5 billion or 16-percent decrease from the 2020
enacted level, including changes in mandatory programs.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
The Department of the Interior protects and manages the Nation’s natural resources and cultural heritage, oversees development of energy and mineral resources on Federal lands and waters,
provides scientific and other information about the Nation’s natural resources, supervises water
infrastructure, honors trust responsibilities to American Indians and Alaska Natives, and fulfills
commitments to Insular areas. The 2021 Budget reflects the Administration’s strong commitment
to promoting economic security and energy dominance by developing domestic energy resources.
These efforts invest in America’s future and prioritize the safety and security of all Americans by reducing U.S. dependency on foreign nations and increasing America’s position as an energy exporter.
Each year, hundreds of millions of Americans pursue recreational opportunities such as fishing, hunting, hiking, and wildlife viewing in U.S. national parks, wildlife refuges, and other public
lands. Visitors to public lands spend money locally that supports economic prosperity within these
local communities. Also, through the purchases of hunting and fishing licenses and equipment,

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Department of the Interior

sportsmen and women have generated billions of dollars that are invested back into wildlife and habitat conservation efforts. To better serve these visitors, the Budget supports expanded public access
to lands and waters administered by DOI. The Budget also invests in increased access to encourage
sporting enthusiasts, conservationists, veterans, minorities, and other underserved communities that
traditionally have low participation in outdoor recreation activities to partake in the great outdoors.
Strengthens America’s Energy Security. The
Budget prioritizes funding for DOI programs that support the safe and responsible development of energy
“The golden era of American energy is now
on public lands and offshore waters. Federal offshore
underway.”
oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico continues
to set records, averaging 1.8 million barrels per day in
President Donald J. Trump
2018. Onshore, the Administration is working aggresMay 14, 2019
sively to implement congressional direction to lease
land for oil and gas in the coastal plain of the Arctic
National Wildlife Refuge. The Department will continue to make new areas available for all forms of energy
development—both onshore and offshore—and will prioritize project permitting consistent with industry demand. The Budget also maintains funding for scientific research and data collection by the
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to inform responsible energy and mineral development and minimize
the environmental impacts of these activities. Combined with administrative reforms to streamline permitting processes, these efforts would provide industry with access to the energy resources
America needs, while ensuring that taxpayers receive a fair return from the development of these
public resources.
Supports Active Forest Management to Reduce Wildfire Risk. The Administration remains
unequivocal about the need to accelerate active forest management on Federal lands. The Budget
reflects this critical priority by requesting $228 million for DOI’s hazardous fuels mitigation work
and $177 million for DOI timber programs. Consistent with the objectives and targets under the
President’s Executive Order 13855, “Promoting Active Management of America’s Forests, Rangelands,
and other Federal Lands to Improve Conditions and Reduce Wildfire Risk,” to promote active forest
management, DOI will utilize the full range of available and appropriate forest management tools, including prescribed burns and mechanical thinning to mitigate fuel loads in order to lessen the risk of
fire and maintain air quality. Together, these efforts help ensure that Federal lands are healthy and
productive, and that rural communities are more resilient to the destructive impacts of wildfire. The
Budget responsibly funds wildfire suppression costs, including cap adjustment resources made available to DOI and the Forest Service for 2021.
Supports Law Enforcement Capacity on Public and Trust Lands. DOI serves as the steward of nearly 500 million acres of public lands and more than 56 million acres of tribal trust lands.
The Budget keeps visitors and natural resources safe on the Nation’s public lands, and promotes safe
tribal communities on trust lands by supporting 191 tribal law enforcement programs and special initiatives to confront the opioid crisis and violence in Indian Country. The Budget supports strong and
secure borders, with DOI law enforcement efforts focused on the roughly 12 million acres of DOI lands
along the United States-Mexico border. The Budget also invests in the United States Park Police, who
safeguard lives and protect America’s national treasures. In addition, the Budget invests in U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service (FWS) law enforcement efforts to combat illegal wildlife trafficking, including at
the U.S. border and ports of entry, in support of the President’s Executive Order 13773, “Enforcing
Federal Law with Respect to Transnational Criminal Organizations and Preventing International
Trafficking.”

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

65

Invests in Public Lands Infrastructure Fund. The buildings, trails, roads, water systems, and
Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) schools the departments manage are deteriorating, evidenced by a
deferred maintenance backlog that exceeds $18 billion. To address this backlog, the Budget proposes
a $6.5 billion Public Lands Infrastructure Fund to improve and repair BIE schools as well as facilities
in national parks and forests, in wildlife refuges, and on other public lands. The Fund would be supported by the deposit of 50 percent of the proceeds received from Federal offshore and onshore energy
leases over the 2021-2025 period, subject to an annual limit of $1.3 billion. These investments would
improve some of America’s most visited parks and public lands that support a multi-billion dollar
outdoor recreation economy.
Preserves National Park Service Assets for Future Generations. The National Park Service
(NPS) has a long history of preserving and protecting the natural and cultural sites that tell America’s
story. To continue this tradition and ensure preservation of national parks for generations to come,
the Budget provides $314 million to help address NPS’s deferred maintenance backlog. Along with
the mandatory funding provided by the Public Lands Infrastructure Fund, this funding would help
NPS maintain and preserve America’s highest priority assets.
Prioritizes Land Management Operations of the NPS, FWS, and Bureau of Land
Management (BLM). To protect and conserve America’s public lands, the Budget provides $5 billion for land management operations. These resources would ensure access to recreational activities
such as hunting, fishing, and camping, and provide safe experiences for visitors. The Budget also advances efforts to streamline operations and reduce unnecessary spending, and proposes substantial
resources to address the unsustainable growth rate and associated outyear costs of wild horse and
burro herds on Federal lands.
Invests in Essential Science Programs. The Budget invests in USGS science related to natural
hazards; water, energy, minerals, and other natural resources; and the health of America’s ecosystems and environment. The Budget supports development of the Landsat 9 ground system, as well
as research and data collection to inform sustainable energy and mineral development, responsible
resource management, and natural hazard risk reduction.
Supports Tribal Sovereignty and Self-Determination. In recognition of its trust responsibilities to American Indians and Alaska Natives, the Budget continues to prioritize funding for core
operations that foster tribal sovereignty, sustain tribal governments, and support the effective stewardship of trust resources. The Budget provides $2.9 billion to support programs serving Indian
Country, including social services, public safety, infrastructure maintenance and natural resource
management. The Budget also supports the BIE’s efforts to foster the success of the approximately
46,000 students it serves, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs’ (BIA) efforts to address violence in Indian
Country, including the disproportionately high numbers of missing and murdered American Indians
and Alaska Natives.
Streamlines Reviews and Permitting. DOI is responsible for administering foundational environmental and historic preservation laws nationwide and for managing more than 20 percent of the
Nation’s lands, which affects the American public and many private stakeholders. The Budget supports DOI in fulfilling these important permitting and review responsibilities in a timely and thorough manner. As an example, the Budget maintains core funding for FWS to conduct Endangered
Species Act of 1973 (ESA) consultations, which help facilitate development of infrastructure projects
while ensuring threatened and endangered species receive the protections intended by the ESA. The
Budget also maintains the BLM’s ability to efficiently facilitate and administer development of energy transmission projects.

Department of the Interior

66

Eliminates Unnecessary, Lower Priority, or Duplicative Programs. The Budget includes
elimination of discretionary Abandoned Mine Land economic development grants that overlap with
existing mandatory reclamation grants and National Heritage Areas that are more appropriately
funded locally. The Budget also eliminates the Indian Guaranteed Loan Program funding that largely duplicates other existing loan programs serving Indian Country, and National Wildlife Refuge
Fund payments to local governments that fail to take into account the economic benefits that refuges
provide to neighboring communities. The Budget also proposes to eliminate components of the BIA’s
Welfare Assistance Program, a supplementary program that largely duplicates other Federal and
State programs that serve Indian Country.

“Last year,...[Bureau of Indian Affairs,
Office of Justice Services] officers
successfully stopped thousands of pounds
of deadly narcotics from reaching our tribal
communities. I applaud the multi-department
effort that has led to these drug seizures
as it supports the Trump Administration’s
commitment to protecting its citizens and
getting these drugs off the streets.”

Reduces Funding for Land Acquisition. The
Budget continues to focus on using resources to manage
existing lands and assets managed by DOI. The Budget
provides $23 million (including balance cancellations)
to handle ongoing projects, along with small projects to
provide or expand access to hunting, fishing, and outdoor recreation. This proposed level is significantly
lower than the 2020 enacted level and would allow DOI
to focus resources on supporting activities in existing
national parks, refuges, and public lands, which encompass nearly 500 million acres.

Invests in Water Resources and Infrastructure.
The Budget invests in the safe, reliable, and efficient
management of water resources throughout the United
States. The Budget requests $1.1 billion for the Bureau
of Reclamation, with an emphasis on operating, maintaining, and rehabilitating existing water resources infrastructure throughout the western United States. Through the Bureau of Reclamation and BIA, the
Budget requests a total of $156 million in discretionary funding to implement enacted Indian water
rights settlements in support of Federal trust responsibilities to Tribes. The Budget also invests a
total of $200 million at the USGS and the Bureau of Reclamation for science to sustain and enhance
ground and surface water quality and quantity, and to develop new technologies to respond to the
water resources challenges facing the Nation.

David Bernhardt
Secretary
June 24, 2019

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

Funding Highlights:
•

The Department of Justice (DOJ) defends the interests of the United States and protects all Americans as
the chief enforcer of Federal laws.

•

The Budget prioritizes and protects investments in core Federal Government functions such as national
security, cybersecurity, violent crime and targeted violence reduction, immigration, drug enforcement, and
the opioid epidemic.

•

The Budget eliminates wasteful spending, including $505 million reserved for the construction of a new
prison that is unneeded due to the declining prison population, significantly delayed due to the site
selected, and very costly to taxpayers; and $244 million in annual funding for the elimination of the State
Criminal Alien Assistance Program, which is poorly targeted and an ineffective tool to support immigration
enforcement.

•

The 2021 Budget requests $31.7 billion for DOJ, a $730 million or 2.3-percent decrease from the 2020
enacted level. The Budget targets funding increases to support public safety and national security while
reducing or eliminating lower priority spending.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
DOJ enforces the laws and defends the interests of the United States; ensures public safety against
foreign and domestic threats; provides Federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; seeks
just punishment for those guilty of crimes; and ensures the fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. For the second year in a row, the estimated number of violent crimes in the
Nation decreased by 3.3 percent in 2018 when compared to 2017. The Department is committed to
building on this success by expanding efforts to dismantle criminal networks, disrupt and prosecute
human trafficking rings, halt the flow of illegal drugs, support criminal justice reform, and restore
law and order to communities. The 2021 Budget requests a total of $31.7 billion to expand the capacity of key law enforcement agencies and strengthen the Department’s ability to address the most
pressing public safety needs.
Supports Federal Law Enforcement and Strengthens National Security. DOJ is committed to restoring law and order by providing Federal resources where they are most needed and
most effective. The Budget provides $16 billion for Federal law enforcement, including the Federal
Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the United States

67

Department of Justice

68

Marshals Service (USMS), the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), and the
Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Forces. These resources support the Department’s
ability to respond to national security crises, including cybersecurity, counterintelligence, and transnational organized crime. Funding also supports investigations of violent and drug-related crime,
and apprehension and prosecution of offenders.
The Budget also transfers the entirety of the ATF alcohol and tobacco regulatory and enforcement
responsibilities to the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) in the Department of the
Treasury. This transfer would enable the ATF to hone its focus on activities that protect U.S. communities from violent criminals and criminal organizations, while consolidating duplicative alcohol and
tobacco enforcement mechanisms within the TTB. In addition, the operating capability of the DEA’s
Special Investigative Unit program would retain its critical role in enhancing the Federal Government’s
ability to pursue threat networks to their source, as prioritized in the National Security Strategy.
Combats Targeted Violence and Addresses Violent Crime. The Administration is committed
to furnishing law enforcement and the communities they serve with the tools to effectively protect
against targeted violence incidents and respond appropriately in the event of tragedy. The Budget
provides $639 million for the Department to surge law enforcement to address violent crime and targeted violence. Of this, $329 million is provided to support additional agents and personnel at DOJ’s
law enforcement components, and $310 million is devoted to DOJ grant programs supporting State
and local law enforcement, including $150 million for STOP School Violence programs, $33 million for
Mental Health Collaboration, and $13 million for active shooter trainings.
Enforces Immigration Laws. The Administration remains committed to robust enforcement
of the Nation’s immigration laws, and ensuring a safe homeland for all Americans. The Budget provides $883 million to support 100 immigration judge teams and to expand DOJ’s Executive Office for
Immigration Review (EOIR) electronic case management systems. Administration policies have increased immigration enforcement, driving a growing case backlog at EOIR. By the end of 2019, there
were more than 987,000 cases pending before the courts, after receiving nearly 444,000 cases during the
year, the highest level of initial cases received in EOIR’s history. EOIR continues to attack the backlog
by bolstering levels of Immigration Judge teams, who are responsible for adjudicating the cases, and
through gaining other efficiencies, including modernization of EOIR’s information technology systems.
The Budget also provides $2.1 billion to support USMS’ Federal Prisoner Detention, which is projected
to increase in population due to enhanced enforcement of gun, drug, and immigration crimes.

Combatting Human Trafficking
“My Administration is committed to leveraging
every resource we have to confront this
threat, to support the victims and survivors,
and to hold traffickers accountable for their
heinous crimes.”
President Donald J. Trump
October 11, 2018

Counters Human Trafficking. The Administration
is committed to ending the scourge of human trafficking
in the United States. The Budget provides $70 million
to support the investigative and prosecutorial capacity of
the Department, including $44 million for FBI investigations of child sex trafficking, $14 million for U.S. Attorneys
prosecution efforts, $6 million for the Criminal Division’s
Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section, $5 million for
the Human Trafficking Prosecution Unit, and $1 million
for USMS activities to recover missing children. An additional $123 million is provided to DOJ grant programs
supporting State and local efforts to address human trafficking, including $80 million to support victims of trafficking, $40 million to support multi-disciplinary efforts
to investigate and prosecute trafficking, and $3 million
for human trafficking research.

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
Promotes Criminal Justice Reform. In addition
to prosecuting crime and enforcing the Nation’s laws,
the Administration proposes to promote public safety
by helping prevent individuals who have reentered society from returning to prison. Approximately 95 percent
of incarcerated persons will eventually leave prison.
However, individuals released from State prison have
a five-year recidivism rate of 77 percent, and those released from Federal prison have a five-year recidivism
rate of 42 percent. The Administration is committed
to breaking this cycle of recidivism by better preparing
individuals to reenter communities and mitigating the
collateral consequences of incarceration.

69

Bipartisan Prison Reform
“Americans from across the political
spectrum can unite around prison reform
legislation that will reduce crime while giving
our fellow citizens a chance at redemption.”
President Donald J. Trump
November 14, 2018

To meet this challenge, the Budget provides $319 million in new funding for the Bureau of Prisons
(BOP) to support robust implementation of the historic FIRST STEP Act of 2018. Of this amount, the
Budget provides $244 million to increase residential reentry center capacity by 8,700 beds; $37 million to make medication-assisted drug treatment available at all eligible BOP facilities; $23 million
to meet the increasing demand for mental health, life skills, special needs, and educational and vocational programs; and $15 million to bolster other implementation activities. This investment would
expand inmate access to evidence-based, recidivism-reducing programs and incentivize participation
by allowing inmates to earn earlier transfers to residential reentry centers. In addition, through
State and local assistance programs, the Budget provides $88 million for the Second Chance Act grant
program to reduce recidivism and help returning citizens lead productive lives.
Tackles the Opioid Epidemic. Today, the United States faces the deadliest drug overdose crisis
in American history. More than 67,000 Americans lost their lives to drug overdoses in 2018. Evidence
shows that fentanyl, heroin, and prescription opioids are responsible for nearly 47,000 of these tragic
deaths. The Department recognizes its critical role in combating prescription opioid misuse and illicit
heroin and fentanyl use. The Budget provides $2.4 billion in discretionary resources for the DEA,
including an additional $67 million to enhance efforts to identify, investigate, disrupt, and dismantle
major drug trafficking organizations and online illicit drug marketplaces impacting the safety and
security of communities across the Nation. The Budget also provides $460 million in fee-funded resources for DEA’s Diversion Control Fee account to combat the diversion of licit prescription drugs
and precursor chemicals for manufacturing illicit synthetic drugs.
These efforts are bolstered by an additional $6 million to support 10 new attorneys and support staff
to ensure that the U.S. Attorney’s Office will continue to generate drug cases for prosecution. In addition, the Budget includes $361 million for opioid-related
State and local assistance including: $160 million for
the Comprehensive Opioid Abuse Program to support
Protecting Americans from Opioids
treatment and recovery, diversion, and alternatives to
incarceration programs; $132 million for Drug Courts,
“It is time to liberate our communities from
Mental Health Courts, and Veterans Treatment Courts;
$30 million for Residential Substance Abuse Treatment;
this scourge of drug addiction...We can be
$30 million for Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs;
the generation that ends the opioid epidemic.”
and $9 million for Opioid-Affected Youth.
Supports State and Local Law Enforcement.
While the Administration recognizes that both the role
and responsibility for funding policing is inherently

President Donald J. Trump
October 26, 2017

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Department of Justice

local, the Budget provides funding for key State and local assistance programs in order to help address the most pressing criminal justice issues impacting America’s communities, including $412 million for the Byrne Justice Assistance Grants Program, which provides State and local governments
with crucial Federal funding to prevent and control crime. Included in that amount, the Budget
provides $40 million for the Project Safe Neighborhoods program, which leverages Federal, State,
and local partnerships to address gang violence and gun crime. An additional $97 million is provided
for programs supporting research and innovation for law enforcement, including $44 million for the
National Institute of Justice, $43 million for the Bureau of Justice Statistics, and $10 million for Paul
Coverdell Forensic Science Improvement Grants. The Budget further reflects the Administration’s
commitment to support rural communities by providing $56 million to grant programs specifically
targeted to those communities.

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

Funding Highlights:
•

The Department of Labor (DOL) ensures that American workers, job seekers, and retirees are equipped to
succeed in the workforce and ever-changing economy.

•

The Budget focuses DOL on its highest priority functions and restores fiscal discipline by eliminating
programs that are duplicative, unnecessary, unproven, or ineffective. The Budget also takes steps to
reorganize and modernize DOL’s operations so taxpayer dollars are spent efficiently.

•

The Budget eliminates duplicative and unproven job training programs, saving more than $500 million in
taxpayer dollars.

•

The 2021 Budget requests $11.1 billion for DOL, a $1.3 billion or 10.5-percent decrease from the 2020
enacted level, including the program integrity cap adjustment.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
DOL supports American workers, job seekers, and retirees by providing resources and opportunities to improve their skills, find work, and enter or return to the workforce. The Department
also safeguards their working conditions, health and retirement benefits, and wages. The economy
is strong, and the unemployment rate is at its lowest recorded level in over 50 years. Workers
are the backbone of the strong American economy, and the Nation needs a skilled and productive
workforce to keep the economy growing. The Budget puts American workers and taxpayers first by
eliminating duplicative, wasteful, and non-essential job training programs and instead investing in
evidence-based approaches, such as apprenticeship, to help workers build their skills and remain
competitive in the dynamic 21st Century workforce.

Builds a Highly Skilled and Competitive Workforce
Expands Access to Apprenticeship. The Budget invests $200 million in apprenticeship, a
proven solution for employers looking for a skilled workforce and workers looking for an affordable
path to a secure future. As part of implementing the President’s Executive Order 13801, “Expanding
Apprenticeships in America,” the Department is establishing a new industry-recognized apprenticeship system to modernize and expand the Nation’s approach to apprenticeships. Since the start
of the Administration, businesses have begun training 626,134 new apprentices. DOL is working
to further expand apprenticeships by empowering third-party Standards Recognition Entities to
recognize new, industry-driven apprenticeship programs, focusing on those in high-growth sectors

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Department of Labor

72

where apprenticeships are underutilized, such as healthcare, information technology, and advanced
manufacturing.

“We live in an age of acceleration, and
the skills required for today’s jobs are
changing more rapidly with each passing
year. America needs to adapt its approach
to skills education and be more nimble and
responsive to the pace of change across all
industries.”
Ivanka Trump
Advisor to the President
June 24, 2019

Reforms Job Corps. Job Corps is among the most
expensive Federal training programs on a per-capita basis and is in need of reform. To that end, the Budget takes
aggressive steps to improve Job Corps for the youth it
serves by improving center safety, focusing the program
on older youth, and closing centers that inadequately
prepare students for jobs. In order to create a more effective, streamlined program, the Budget proposes new
legislative flexibilities that would enable DOL to more
expediently close low-performing centers, target the
program to youth who are more likely to benefit from it,
and make the necessary capital investments to ensure
successful pilot programs. These reforms would save
money and improve results by eliminating ineffective
centers and finding better ways to educate and provide
skill instruction to youth.

Combats Waste, Fraud, and Abuse in the Unemployment Insurance Program. The FederalState Unemployment Insurance (UI) program has continually had one of the highest rates of improper payments in the Federal Government. More than 10 percent of the program’s payments, representing $2.8 billion, are paid to individuals who do not meet the program’s eligibility requirements.
The Budget takes strong steps to address this problem by providing grants to States to combat the
top two root causes of improper payments and emphasize work in their programs, getting claimants
off of benefits and back on the job more quickly. The Budget also reduces waste, fraud, and abuse in
the UI program with a package of program integrity proposals. These proposals require States to use
the tools already at their disposal and allow States to spend certain UI program funds on activities
that reduce waste, fraud, and abuse. The Budget also supports the UI Integrity Center of Excellence,
which is developing a data hub to allow States to access a fraud analytics database to identify fraud
as effectively as possible.
Supports America’s Veterans. The Budget supports the transition of the Nation’s veterans,
servicemembers, and their spouses from active duty to civilian life. The Budget provides funding to
better support wounded warriors in the Transition Assistance Program and provides enhanced reemployment services to Gold Star spouses who are seeking to enter the workforce.
Closes the Skills Gap by Training American Workers. The Budget proposes to double the
American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act of 1998 fee for the H-1B visa program
to prepare American workers for jobs that are currently being filled by foreign workers, especially
in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. The increased revenue would support
DOL’s grants to expand apprenticeship and other high-growth training opportunities and provide additional support for technical-skills instruction at the K-12 and community-college levels through the
Department of Education’s Career and Technical Education formula grants.
Moves toward Reorganizing and Consolidating the Nation’s Workforce Development
Programs. The Federal Government has more than 40 workforce development programs spread
across 15 Agencies with a total annual cost of approximately $19 billion. The Administration has
proposed to streamline the system with a Government-wide restructuring and consolidation proposal
and looks forward to working with the Congress to enact it. The Budget takes steps in this direction

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
by eliminating programs that are ineffective, unproven,
or duplicative. As part of this long-overdue reorganization of workforce programs, the Budget also transfers
the Social Security Administration’s Ticket to Work program to DOL, where it would be simplified, streamlined,
and improved to better accomplish its goal of getting
individuals with disabilities back into the labor force.

73

“Every day, we are lifting our forgotten
Americans off the sidelines, out of the
margins, and back into the workforce.”
President Donald J. Trump
July 19, 2018

Improves the Delivery of America’s Economic
Statistics. The Budget recognizes the importance of
economic statistics to businesses and everyday citizens
as they make informed decisions and confidently invest
in America’s future. The Budget proposes investments in the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to better understand job-market changes in States and local areas and to improve poverty measurement,
including the development of a consumption-based poverty measure. The Budget also continues to
support moving the BLS to the Suitland Federal Center, which would save more than $300 million
over the lifetime of the new lease.

Supports American Workers and their Families
Supports United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) Enforcement. The historic
USMCA agreement will create a more level playing field for American workers, including improved
rules of origin for automobiles, which will support better jobs for workers and more business for U.S.
manufacturers. The Budget funds implementation and enforcement of the USMCA labor chapter,
which includes some of the strongest labor provisions of any U.S. free-trade agreement.
Makes Health Insurance More Affordable for Small Businesses. In Executive Order 13813,
“Promoting Healthcare Choice and Competition Across the United States,” the President directed the
Secretary of Labor to consider expanding access to affordable health coverage for small businesses.
The Budget continues to support this initiative by increasing funding for the Employee Benefits
Security Administration to develop policy, regulations, and enforcement capacity to enable more employers to adopt the Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangement model and expand access to health
insurance for American workers in ways that better fit the modern American workplace.
Rebuilds DOL’s Role in Overseeing Union Integrity. To help safeguard labor-union democracy
and financial integrity, the Budget takes steps to restore the Office of Labor-Management Standards’
investigative workforce, which has fallen by more than 30 percent in the past 10 years. The Budget
would strengthen protections for union members by supporting more audits and investigations to
uncover flawed officer elections, fraud, and embezzlement.
Protects Americans’ Pensions. The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation’s (PBGC) multiemployer program, which insures the pension benefits of 10 million workers, is at risk of insolvency
by 2025. As an important step to protect the pensions of these hardworking Americans, the Budget
proposes to add new premiums to the multiemployer program, raising approximately $26 billion in
premiums over the next 10 years. At this level of premium receipts, the program is projected to remain solvent over the next 20 years, helping to ensure that there is a safety net available to workers
and retirees whose multiemployer plans fail. The Administration looks forward to working with the
Congress on bipartisan, comprehensive reform to resolve the multiemployer crisis.
Reforms the Federal Employees’ Compensation Act. The Budget proposes to reform the
Federal Employees’ Compensation Act program, which provides workers’ compensation benefits to
Federal employees and their survivors. These reforms would save taxpayer dollars by modernizing

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Department of Labor

program administration, simplifying benefit rates, and adding controls to prevent waste, fraud, and
abuse.
Puts American Workers First. DOL administers the labor-certification component of foreign
temporary work visa programs, which ensure that American workers are not unfairly displaced or
disadvantaged by foreign workers. The certification programs lack a reliable workload-based source
of funding, which has created recurring seasonal backlogs for employers. The Budget proposes to establish fees to create a workload-based funding source and place responsibility for funding this work
on the program’s users rather than taxpayers.
Provides for Paid Leave for New Parents. The Budget invests in a better future for Americans
with a proposal to provide paid leave to new mothers and fathers, including adoptive parents, so all
families can afford to take time to recover from childbirth and bond with a new child. The proposal would
allow States to establish paid parental leave programs
“I am...proud to be the first President to
in a way that is most appropriate for their workforce
include in my budget a plan for nationwide
and economy. The Federal Government is leading by
paid family leave, so that every new parent
example. At the end of 2019, the Administration sehas the chance to bond with their newborn
cured paid parental leave for the Federal workforce.
child.”
The Administration looks forward to continuing to work
with the Congress to advance policies that would make
President Donald J. Trump
paid parental leave a reality for families across the
February 5, 2019
Nation.

Makes Government More Efficient
Tackles Duplication and Inefficiency at DOL. Many of DOL’s administrative activities, including information technology, procurement, human resources, financial management, and physical
security are separated across its subcomponents. DOL is centralizing these activities to eliminate
duplication, achieve economies of scale, and save money. For example, the Department has avoided
over $10 million in unnecessary spending by centralizing its laptop purchasing for DOL employees.
DOL will also save money by changing the way it procures goods and services across the Department.
By centralizing its procurement functions, DOL will be able to concentrate its contracting expertise,
achieve economies of scale, and make better purchasing decisions.

DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND OTHER
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS
Funding Highlights:
•

The Department of State, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and other international
programs promote and advance the national security and economic prosperity of the United States through
diplomacy, enhanced security, and fair economic competition.

•

The Budget for U. S. international programs advances the Nation’s strategic objectives outlined in the
2017 National Security Strategy. The Budget supports new tools to allow the United States to focus
on great power competition and respond flexibly to international challenges. The Budget also prioritizes
organizational reforms to increase agency effectiveness, prioritize the efficient use of taxpayer dollars, and
increase burden-sharing.

•

Across the international affairs budget, eliminations of various programs and accounts would save nearly
$170 million compared to the 2020 enacted level. These savings include the elimination of earmarked funding
to non-Federal and non-profit entities such as The Asia Foundation, which sustains outside fundraising and
should rely on private donations and competitive grants rather than taxpayer dollars. Further savings
come from reductions to embassy-based small grants for non-strategic events and programs, which have
included: $4,800 to send American artists to a poetry festival in Finland; $7,500 for a foreign student to
attend Space Camp; and $10,000 to support the Muppet Retrospectacle in New Zealand.

•

The 2021 Budget requests $40.8 billion for the Department of State and USAID, an $11.7 billion or
22-percent decrease from the 2020 enacted level. The Budget also requests $1.6 billion for Department of
Treasury international programs, a $0.1 billion or 8-percent decrease from the 2020 enacted level.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
The 2021 Budget provides the necessary resources for the United States to maintain and expand
U.S. influence while safeguarding U.S. economic interests. As great power competition becomes
more prevalent, the United States must confront new challenges and meet new realities. To achieve
this effectively, the Budget invests in new capabilities to defend American interests and values
across the security, trade, and information domains.
The Budget supports America’s allies, proposes new avenues to deepen existing relationships,
and contains a new approach toward countries that have taken unfair advantage of U. S. generosity.
The Budget increases fiscal restraint by eliminating ineffective programs and continuing to support

75

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Department of State and Other International Programs

wide-reaching agency reforms. This includes recalibrating American contributions to international
organizations; asking other nations to pay their fair share, while maintaining American leadership.

Prioritizes Great Power Competition
Ensures the Indo-Pacific Region Remains Free, Open, Independent, and Counters
Chinese Propaganda. The future of the Indo-Pacific, which contains roughly half the world’s population and many of the fastest-growing economies, is critical to U.S. security and long-term economic
interests. The Budget provides $1.5 billion for the Indo-Pacific, reflecting a strong Administration
commitment to ensuring that the region remains free, open, and independent of malign Chinese
influence. This funding supports democracy programs, strengthens security cooperation, improves
economic governance, and facilitates private sector-led economic growth. A total of $30 million is
included in the Budget for the Global Engagement Center dedicated to countering foreign state and
non-state propaganda and disinformation from China.
Counters Russian Influence by Strengthening U.S. Allies. The Budget provides $0.7 billion
for assistance to Europe, Eurasia, and Central Asia to advance shared security; safeguard the territorial integrity of U.S. allies; support partner countries’ efforts to transition away from Russian military
equipment; and address weaknesses in the macro-economic environment that the government of Russia
seeks to exploit, such as dependence on energy and trade. The Budget also provides $24 million for the
Global Engagement Center to counter Russian propaganda and disinformation.
Levels the Playing Field for U.S. Exporters. The Budget promotes the President’s trade agenda
by providing robust support for the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR). The Administration
is advancing fair and reciprocal trade through agreements with Mexico and Canada, South Korea,
Japan, and China, and through ongoing negotiations with the United Kingdom, China, and European
countries. These agreements are opening new markets for American exports and creating jobs while
protecting American intellectual property. The Budget also supports the Administration’s efforts to
enforce trade agreements and protect American businesses and workers from trade violations and
predatory business practices.
Expands the International Development Finance Corporation (DFC) for Private Sector
Development Internationally. The Budget provides $0.8 billion for the DFC to support privatesector growth in less developed countries and to provide a transparent, high-quality alternative to
predatory Chinese international lending in the Indo-Pacific and other strategic regions. The Budget
allows the DFC to make equity investments, increasing its ability to invest in critical private sector
projects. Using these tools, the DFC would complement and enhance U.S. strategic and foreign policy
objectives in the developing world.
Expands Defense Financing for America’s Allies. The Budget proposes an expanded set of
Foreign Military Financing (FMF) loan and loan guarantee programs for NATO and Major NonNATO Allies to complement traditional FMF grant assistance. With these tools, the United States
would increase opportunities for allies to build their militaries around U.S. innovation and quality
and transition away from inferior equipment from foreign adversaries. This would increase burden
sharing, while bolstering security and improving interoperability, and support the U.S. defense industrial base.

Bolsters Core Diplomatic Efforts
Supports America’s Strongest Allies in the Middle East. The Budget fully supports the U.S.Israel Memorandum of Understanding and includes $3.3 billion in FMF grant assistance to bolster
Israel’s capacity to defend itself against threats in the region and maintain its qualitative military

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
edge. The Budget also fully supports the U.S.-Jordan
Memorandum of Understanding at $1.3 billion and the
U.S. diplomatic and security partnership with Egypt, including $1.3 billion in FMF grant assistance.

77

“We resolve that the future of the Western
Hemisphere will not be written by socialists
and tyrants, but by liberty-loving patriots.
Our great destiny is to become the first fully
free hemisphere in human history.”

Empowers Women to Contribute to Global
Economic Growth and Political Stability. The
Budget promotes women’s economic empowerment
President Donald J. Trump
in developing countries by doubling support for the
September 25, 2019
Women’s Global Development and Prosperity (W-GDP)
Fund to $200 million. The W-GDP Initiative helps women advance in the workplace, succeed as entrepreneurs,
and fully and freely participate in the economy. Despite making up half of the world’s population,
women remain one of the greatest underutilized resources for growing economies. W-GDP applies rigorous metrics to track and assess progress as the initiative works to economically empower 50 million
women across the developing world by 2025. The Budget also supports the meaningful participation
of women in conflict prevention, resolution, and recovery as an evidence-based solution for promoting
lasting peace and stability through the implementation of the Women, Peace, and Security Act.
Promotes American Interests Abroad. The Budget requests $4.8 billion for Diplomatic
Programs supporting the Department of State’s core function of achieving U.S. foreign policy objectives and advancing American interests via 276 embassies, consulates, and diplomatic missions
around the world. This funding level sustains and invests in the State Department’s workforce,
while putting taxpayers first by promoting more efficient operations. The Budget would enable the
Department to continue modernizing its Information Technology platform to allow its workforce to
do their jobs efficiently, effectively, and securely. In addition, the Budget includes $4.1 billion for
consular and border security programs. This critical component of U.S. border security protects the
American people while facilitating legitimate travel. The Budget also requests $1.3 billion for USAID
Operating Expenses to support USAID personnel in 87 missions.
Prioritizes Embassy Security. The Budget requests $5.4 billion to protect overseas personnel
and facilities, including the Department’s share of the $2.2 billion requested Government-wide, for
new, secure embassy construction, as recommended by the Benghazi Accountability Review Board.
This security funding supports the protection of every U.S. diplomatic mission and the thousands of
employees who promote U.S. interests and values overseas in dangerous and challenging security
environments. In fact, through 2019, with sustained embassy security funding, the Department
successfully moved more than 41,000 personnel into safer overseas facilities. The Budget also includes $100 million to bolster maintenance of these facilities. With the proposed level of funding, the
Department of State would continue to protect American personnel representing more than 30 agencies, as well as provide services to Americans overseas, in a safe and secure environment.

Improves Stewardship of Taxpayer Dollars and Maintains U.S. Global Leadership
Focuses on U.S. Interests and Promotes Fairer Burden Sharing. The Budget supports
the aims of the United States to compete and lead in multilateral organizations, thereby protecting
American interests and principles around the world. To do so efficiently and effectively, this is accomplished by fully funding international organizations critical to U.S. national security, and reducing
or eliminating funding to other organizations and programs whose results are either unclear or do
not directly affect U.S. national security interests. The Budget also continues America’s commitment
to reevaluate the design and implementation of peacekeeping missions and increase accountability
and transparency in all international organizations. In addition, the United States will continue to

Department of State and Other International Programs

78

insist that financial burden sharing be more fair and equitable to the United States and its taxpayers,
including through negotiating lower assessment rates and proposing more appropriate contribution
levels in the Budget. One recent achievement to advance this objective was the reduction in the assessment rate for NATO, so that the United States is now in line with other major members.
Demands Necessary Reforms at the Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) while
Maintaining U.S. Leadership. The Budget requests $1.5 billion in funding for the MDBs, including
support for new pledges to the World Bank’s International Development Association and the African
Development Fund. The Administration continues to demand reforms that would better align the
MDBs with U.S. development and foreign policy goals. Recently negotiated reforms will improve
financial management and debt sustainability while increasing the MDB’s focus on infrastructure,
women’s economic empowerment, and assistance to fragile states, when implemented.
Reforms U.S. Humanitarian Assistance while Expecting Others to Do More. The Budget
continues the U. S. commitment to assist globally in the event of humanitarian crises, at a more targeted funding level. The Administration remains committed to fundamental restructuring needed to
most effectively address evolving conflict-driven crises and best meet the needs of those affected, including helping refugees remain close to their homes until they can safely return. This restructuring
is critical to delivering optimal results both for affected populations and for American taxpayers, and
is supported by several independent analyses. USAID’s new Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance
consolidates multiple organizations into a single office to streamline administration of all overseas
humanitarian assistance through a new flexible account that can respond to evolving needs. These
changes build on USAID’s and the State Department’s strengths, leveraging USAID’s expertise on effective program implementation and State’s overall authority over foreign policy, diplomacy, and refugee policy. Under the restructuring proposal, the State Department would maintain its existing staff
and continue to run U.S. refugee admissions via a separate account, with transfers from International
Humanitarian Assistance account if resettlement needs increase.
Streamlines Foreign Assistance and Concentrates Resources on the Highest Impact
Programs. The Budget again proposes to streamline economic and development assistance by
eliminating accounts with similar authorities and reducing the request for the consolidated account
by 21 percent compared to the 2020 enacted level. This account restructuring would improve flexibility and enable a more balanced consideration of how these programs support prosperity and
economic opportunities, and advance American interests and values around the world. In particular,
the Budget:
•

Re-aligns economic and development assistance to programs with proven impact for the benefit
of the American people. This includes efforts to counter Russia, China, and other adversaries;
graduate developing countries from foreign aid through self-reliance; and increase trade and
investment opportunities.

•

Protects investments in economic growth and trade facilitation including funding for Prosper
Africa and focuses limited resources on African countries with greater potential to increase
two-way trade and investment. This would increase opportunities for American businesses
consistent with the President’s Africa Strategy.

•

Includes the necessary funds to implement the comprehensive set of reforms outlined in the
Administration’s Delivering Government Solutions in the 21st Century plan, including a major
structural reorganization of USAID to strengthen core capabilities, increase efficiency, and
reduce costs.

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

79

Protects Freedom Worldwide. The Budget advances freedom worldwide for all people by supporting programs that counter trafficking in persons and support the freedom of religious and ethnic
minorities. The Budget provides $150 million to support persecuted religious and ethnic minorities around
the world and promote religious freedom, as well as
“America stands with believers in every
$60 million to end modern slavery abroad and provide
country who ask only for the freedom to live
resources for survivors. In order to accomplish these
according to the faith that is within their own
goals, the Budget supports programs that strengthen
hearts.”
the rule of law, combats transnational criminal operations, and partners with local and faith-based organiPresident Donald J. Trump
zations worldwide. The United States will continue to
September 23, 2019
challenge state and non-state entities that seek to infringe upon the fundamental right of living according to
one’s own principles.
Sustains U.S. Leadership in Fighting the HIV/AIDS Epidemic. The Budget provides
$658 million for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and offers to match $1 for
every $3 contributed by other donors. Coupled with appropriated funds, this request would keep the
United States on track to meet the Administration’s $3.3 billion pledge for the Global Fund’s sixth replenishment by 2022. The Budget also requests $3.2 billion for the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan
for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), $170 million less than the 2020 Budget. With these resources and 2020
appropriations, PEPFAR would continue to provide lifesaving treatment in over 50 countries, maintain all current patients on treatment, and help recipient countries achieve HIV epidemic control.
With these resources, the United States would continue to be the top HIV/AIDS donor in the world.
Protects the United States and the World from Infectious Disease Through the Global
Health Security Agenda (GHSA). The Budget sustains the U.S. international partnership with
GHSA to defend the Nation from infectious disease outbreaks by building the capacity of countries
to prevent, detect, and respond to these threats. The Budget also requests $290 million for Gavi, the
Vaccine Alliance, as part of a four year, $1.2 billion pledge for Gavi’s upcoming replenishment cycle beginning in 2021. Immunization programs avert an estimated annual 2 to 3 million child deaths globally and are one of the most cost-effective health interventions. The Budget requests $2.2 billion for
lifesaving programs addressing nutrition, neglected tropical diseases, tuberculosis, family planning,
and maternal and child health. The Budget focuses increased resources on the President’s Malaria
Initiative, with an emphasis on combatting drug-resistant malarial strains at time when there are
over 200 million new cases of malaria per year.

IT

E

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UN

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DEPAR
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TAT
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A T ES O F A

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Funding Highlights:
•

The mission of the Department of Transportation (DOT) is to ensure that the Nation has the safest, most
efficient, and modern transportation system in the world. The Department also ensures the system
improves the quality of life for all American people and communities, from rural to urban, and increases the
productivity and competitiveness of American workers and businesses.

•

The Budget proposes a historic 10-year, $810 billion reauthorization of surface transportation programs,
including highway, transit, rail, highway safety, and hazardous materials safety programs, including
important reforms to provide critical investments in the Nation’s transportation infrastructure. The Budget
includes an additional $190 billion for additional infrastructure investments, across a range of sectors, for
a total of $1 trillion in infrastructure investment.

•

The Budget eliminates a required set-aside for the Transportation Alternatives program that restricts States
from choosing the most meritorious projects. This elimination provides additional flexibility to use the
resources within the Surface Transportation Block Grant Program to support projects that rehabilitate or
expand highways in a manner that supports interstate or regional commerce.

•

The Budget requests $21.6 billion in discretionary budget authority for 2021, a $3.2 billion or 13-percent
decrease from the 2020 enacted level. The Budget also provides $66.2 billion in mandatory contract
authority and obligation limitations, a $5 billion or 8-percent increase from the 2020 enacted level.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
DOT is responsible for supporting and enabling a high functioning transportation system—to
move both people and goods safely and efficiently in order to support jobs and economic growth. The
Budget supports necessary investments that ensure the Nation’s air, surface, and maritime transportation systems are safe.
The Budget proposes a 10-year reauthorization of surface transportation programs, including
$755 billion in mandatory spending from the Highway Trust Fund, and $55 billion in authorizations
of discretionary budget authority from the General Fund. Combined with the Administration’s separate proposal on investing an additional $190 billion in infrastructure across multiple sectors, including transportation, the Budget provides $1 trillion in direct Federal investment in infrastructure.

81

Department of Transportation

82

New Initiative to Help Rural
Communities Access DOT Financial
Assistance
As part of its commitment to ensuring that
all communities can access and compete for
DOT financial assistance, the Administration announced the Rural Opportunities to
Use Transportation for Economic Success
(ROUTES) Initiative. Under this initiative, the
Build America Bureau and other modes will
offer rural stakeholders additional resources
and support to identify and apply for DOT financial assistance. The initiative was created
with the recognition that rural communities
have important infrastructure needs (e.g., a
disproportionate amount of highway fatalities
occur in rural areas), but often lack the capacity to develop competitive applications for
DOT financial assistance. The ROUTES Initiative builds on other DOT initiatives to address the unique needs of rural areas, such
as the Transportation Infrastructure Finance
and Innovation Act loan program’s rural project initiative and the Railroad Rehabilitation
and Improvement Financing Express loan
program initiative.

Invests in America’s Surface Transportation
Infrastructure. The FAST Act authorized contract authority and discretionary budget authority for highway,
transit, rail, and hazardous material programs through
2020. The Budget proposes to reauthorize all modes
included in the FAST Act, but also streamline and consolidate accounts and programs to improve efficiencies
and program effectiveness. The Budget also proposes to
end the recent practice of appropriating additional discretionary budget authority for the highway and transit formula programs, and instead reflect that funding
through higher contract authority levels provided from
the Highway Trust Fund. In total, the Budget proposes
an 8-percent increase in 2021 for highway and transit
formula programs from the level provided in the last year
of the FAST Act. The Budget also provides for a 3.8-percent increase to the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) and the Federal Motor Carrier
Safety Administration (FMCSA) from the level provided
in the last year of the FAST Act.

Reauthorizes Highway Programs. The Budget
provides $50.7 billion in 2021 and $602 billion over the
10-year reauthorization period for Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA) programs. The proposal would
provide States and other stakeholders the resources
and certainty to build a strong, modern, and world-class
highway infrastructure network that advances the
Nation’s safety, economy, mobility, and global competitiveness. The proposal responds to input from FHWA’s
partners and stakeholders, by continuing to expand program and funding flexibilities for States, and removing
red tape and other barriers to innovation and efficiency. The proposal also maintains safety as the
number one focus. These reforms are guided by the recognition that States and localities, not the
Federal Government, are best equipped to understand the infrastructure challenges and investments
needs of their communities.
Reauthorizes Transit Programs. The Budget provides $13 billion in 2021 and $155 billion over
the 10-year reauthorization period for Federal Transit Administration programs, to support mobility
and accessibility for American workers and improve their communities. The proposal would streamline grant programs to improve flexibility and reduce administrative burdens and would focus on
maintaining current transit assets to improve the state of good repair of the Nation’s transit systems.
The proposal would also bolster transit systems’ safety, support underserved areas, and leverage opportunities to utilize new and emerging technologies.
Reauthorizes Highway Safety Programs. The Budget provides a combined $1.7 billion in 2021
and $19.8 billion over the 10-year reauthorization period for NHTSA and FMCSA programs, to continue
the Department’s efforts to save lives, prevent injuries, and reduce economic costs incurred from traffic
accidents involving both passenger and commercial motor vehicles. In 2021 NHTSA and FMCSA will
begin conducting a crash causation study, the first such study in more than 15 years. The Budget also

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

83

builds on the existing work of the Department to reduce regulatory burdens while improving safety and
promoting innovation with emerging technologies such as automated driving systems.
Supports Competitive Grant Programs. The Budget continues to invest in competitive grant
programs that partner with communities to deliver surface transportation projects with significant
benefits. The Budget provides $1 billion to the Better Utilizing Investments to Leverage Development
(BUILD) program. The Administration proposes to authorize the BUILD program for the first time in
its surface transportation proposal. The Budget also provides $1 billion in discretionary resources to
the Infrastructure for Rebuilding America program. These programs use competitive processes to target resources efficiently and effectively, and DOT will focus on strengthening these processes in 2020.
Improves Aviation Safety. The Budget requests $14.2 billion for the Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA), including $37 million for targeted investments that would improve the FAA’s
ability to respond to industry innovation, safety, and accountability. This includes $30 million to improve aviation oversight, following recommendations from the Boeing 737 MAX investigations and
reviews, and to make investments in the systems that support the FAA’s ongoing safety oversight.
Reforms Amtrak to Provide Better Services. Amtrak’s network has not been significantly
modified since Amtrak’s inception 50 years ago, and
long distance routes continually underperform, suffering from low ridership and large operating losses
Advancing Use of Unmanned Aircraft
of roughly half a billion dollars annually. Simply put,
Systems into the National Airspace
Amtrak trains inadequately serve many rural markets
while not serving many growing metropolitan areas at
FAA is working to safely integrate unall. The Administration believes that restructuring the
manned aircraft systems (UAS) into the naAmtrak system can result in better service at a lower
tional airspace. The UAS Integration Pilot
cost, by focusing trains on better-performing routes,
Program (IPP) is a unique project that brings
while providing robust intercity bus service connectogether diverse stakeholders to further safe
tions. To accomplish this transformation, the Budget
integration and address community engageprovides $550 million in transitional grants for States
ment, including concerns of State, local, and
and Amtrak to begin the process to restructure the nettribal governments. The IPP brings State,
work. In addition, the Budget provides $936 million in
local, and tribal governments together with
direct grants to Amtrak, to support investment on the
private sector entities, such as UAS operaNortheast Corridor and existing State-supported lines,
tors or manufacturers, to test and evaluate
and to assist Amtrak in this transition.
Provides Reforms to the Essential Air Service
Program (EAS). Originally designed as a temporary
program over 40 years ago, EAS subsidizes commercial
air service to rural airports. EAS costs have more than
doubled in the past 10 years and many EAS flights are
left unfilled and have high per passenger subsidy costs.
In addition, several EAS-eligible communities are relatively close to major airports. There are more efficient
ways to target Federal funds to address the transportation needs of rural communities. The Budget proposes
to reduce the discretionary funding for EAS and reform
the program to target Federal funds for communities
most in need of their services. The Budget would continue the mandatory resources for EAS at approximately $154 million.

the integration of civil and public drone operations into the national airspace. There
are nine IPPs, which began in 2018, and
have resulted in new drone operations such
as night operations, flights over people and
beyond the pilot’s line of sight, package delivery, and development and testing of new
technologies for detect-and-avoid capabilities and data security. The FAA also recently
proposed new regulations that require remote identification of UAS in the national airspace, to address safety, national security,
and law enforcement concerns and enable
greater operational capabilities.

DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY

Funding Highlights:
•

The Department of the Treasury (Treasury) manages the U.S. Government’s finances, promotes conditions
that enable stable economic growth, protects the integrity of the financial system, and combats financial
crimes and terrorist financing.

•

The Budget proposes strategic reforms and investments to streamline Treasury’s operations, bolster
Treasury’s national security and law enforcement capacity, enhance the taxpayer experience, and lower
the deficit.

•

The Budget eliminates $248 million in unnecessary spending related to Community Development Financial
Institutions (CDFI) Fund awards that are no longer needed given the maturity of the CDFI industry.

•

The Budget requests $15.7 billion in base discretionary resources for Treasury’s domestic programs,
including $2.4 billion for the U.S. Secret Service, which the Budget proposes to transfer from the Department
of Homeland Security. Excluding the request for the U.S. Secret Service, the Budget request is $13.3 billion
or $291 million and 2.2-percent above the 2020 enacted level.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
The 2021 Budget would modernize and strengthen Treasury’s ability to efficiently manage the
Nation’s economy, protect U.S. financial systems from criminal and national security threats, and
serve as the fiscal steward of the Federal Government. The Budget proposes targeted investments
to disrupt terrorist financing, hold rogue states and human rights abusers accountable, and detect
and deter financial crimes. The Budget also supports Treasury’s role as chair of the Committee on
Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) to address current and future national security
risks. In addition, the Budget enhances the Department’s functions as the Federal Government’s
revenue collector, financial manager, and economic policymaker. By putting taxpayers first, demonstrating fiscal restraint, and eliminating wasteful and unnecessary spending, the Budget builds on
recent economic progress, spurs innovation, and helps create the economy of tomorrow.
Returns the U.S. Secret Service to Treasury. The U.S. Secret Service was established in 1865
within Treasury to combat then-widespread counterfeiting of U.S. currency, and remains the sole office charged with the protection of U.S. currency. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 transferred the
U.S. Secret Service and 21 other Federal agencies into the newly created Department of Homeland
Security to better protect the Nation from terrorism and other threats to U.S. safety and security.

85

Department of the Treasury

86

Technological advancements in recent decades, such as cryptocurrencies and the increasing interconnectedness of the international financial marketplace, have resulted in more complex criminal
organizations and revealed stronger links between financial and electronic crimes and the financing
of terrorists and rogue state actors. The Budget proposes legislation to return the U.S. Secret Service
to Treasury to create new efficiencies in the investigation of these crimes and prepare the Nation to
face the threats of tomorrow.
Invests in Economic Security. Treasury’s Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence (TFI) combats terrorists, rogue regimes, proliferators of weapons of mass destruction, human rights abusers, and
other illicit actors by denying their access to the financial system, disrupting their revenue streams, and
degrading their ability to cause harm. TFI plays an increasingly important role in countering the Nation’s
most critical national security and illicit finance threats, thereby reducing long-term risk, instability, and
potential economic losses. The Budget requests $173 million for TFI, a 40-percent increase relative to 2017
funding levels, to strengthen TFI’s data analytics, intelligence, sanctions, and enforcement capabilities.
Bolsters the Prevention, Detection, and Investigation of Financial Crimes. The Financial
Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) links law enforcement and intelligence agencies with financial institutions and regulators, leading to the discovery and prosecution of money-laundering
schemes and other crimes that cause lasting harm to Americans and the economy. The Budget requests $127 million for FinCEN to prevent and address financing of terrorism, money laundering, and
other crimes. These resources would enhance FinCEN’s protection of data collected under the Bank
Secrecy Act, which would increase its value to law enforcement agencies, and expand its efforts to
combat emerging virtual currency and cybercrime threats.
Strengthens Review of Foreign Investment. CFIUS determines national security risks from
certain foreign investment. In 2018, CFIUS was expanded and strengthened by the Foreign Investment
Risk Review Modernization Act of 2018 (FIRRMA). FIRRMA updates CFIUS to better address national
security concerns, including by broadening the authorities of the President and CFIUS regarding national security concerns arising from certain foreign noncontrolling investments and real estate transactions that
Bankrupting Terrorists
previously fell outside CFIUS’s jurisdiction. The Budget
requests $35 million for Treasury to continue the swift
and Rogue Regimes
implementation of FIRRMA.

TFI works around the clock to collect and
analyze intelligence and effectively deploy
its arsenal of sanctions and other financial
enforcement tools against criminals and national security threats. In the past two years
alone, TFI has cut off the flow of billions of
dollars to Iran, disrupted networks that provided the brutal Syrian regime with access
to oil and financing, and expanded sanctions
to punish Russian aggression and corrupt
Kremlin-linked oligarchs. The Budget continues the Administration’s investment in economic tools to advance foreign policy and
address emerging threats, such as the use
of cryptocurrencies in money laundering and
terrorist financing.

Improves Tax Administration and Modernizes
Taxpayer Systems. Filing taxes is the most significant interaction that many Americans have with the
Federal Government each year. The Internal Revenue
Service (IRS) collects approximately $3.6 trillion in tax
revenue annually and processes more than 255 million
tax returns and forms resulting in more than $300 billion in tax refunds. The Budget proposes $12.0 billion in
base funding to modernize the taxpayer experience and
ensure that the IRS can fulfill its core tax filing season
responsibilities. The Budget provides $300 million to
continue IRS efforts to modernize its information technology (IT) infrastructure and enhance taxpayers’ ability to interact with the IRS securely and electronically,
improving the time it takes for IRS to resolve concerns.

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

87

For example, the Budget includes funding to digitize more IRS communications to taxpayers so
they can respond quickly and accurately to IRS questions; create a call-back function for certain IRS
telephone lines so taxpayers do not need to wait on hold to speak with an IRS representative; and
make it easier for taxpayers to make and schedule payments online. In developing these tools, the
IRS conducts surveys and interviews with taxpayers to understand what taxpayers want and then
tests the new tools with taxpayers so that they are easy to use.
The Budget also proposes legislation enabling additional funding for new and continuing investments to expand and strengthen tax enforcement. These additional proposed investments are estimated to generate approximately $79 billion in additional revenue at a cost of $15 billion, yielding a
net savings of $64 billion over 10 years.
The Budget also includes several proposals to ensure that taxpayers comply with their obligations
and that tax refunds are only paid to those who are eligible, including: improving oversight of paid
tax preparers; giving IRS the authority to correct more errors on tax returns before refunds are issued; requiring a valid Social Security Number for work in order to claim certain tax credits; and
increasing wage and information reporting.
Manages the Nation’s Finances More Effectively. The Bureau of the Fiscal Service (BFS) manages the Nation’s debt and is the Federal Government’s primary accounting and financial service provider. In 2019, BFS issued approximately $11.7 trillion in marketable Treasury securities, processed
the collection of more than $4.26 trillion in Federal receipts, and distributed more than $3.7 trillion in
payments. The Budget provides funding to enhance the cybersecurity of the IT systems that support
these activities and touch the lives of every American taxpayer. The Budget also empowers everyday
Americans who have invested in their Nation by funding an online tool that would allow individuals
to verify ownership of unredeemed savings bonds dated after 1974.
Connects Communities with Development Capital while Protecting Taxpayers. The
Budget proposes to end funding for the CDFI Fund discretionary grant and direct loan programs.
More than two decades ago, the CDFI Fund was created to jumpstart an industry at a time when
CDFIs had limited access to private capital. The CDFI industry now has ready access to the capital
needed to extend credit and offer financial services to underserved communities, eliminating the need
for Federal grants. The Budget also proposes to eliminate the Bond Guarantee Program requirement
for a relending account, which adds unnecessary cost and complexity to the program.
Brings Accountability and Transparency to Treasury’s Regulatory Oversight Functions.
Consistent with recommendations made in Treasury’s June 2017 report to the President on banks
and credit unions, the Budget proposes that the Congress establish funding levels for the Office of
Financial Research (OFR) and the Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC) through annual appropriations bills. OFR and FSOC, established by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer
Protection Act, are currently able to set their own budgets, which circumvents congressional approval
and oversight. OFR has taken administrative steps to further the goals in the Treasury report, including an organizational realignment to significantly reduce staffing and operating expenses to better focus OFR on its core mission to support FSOC and the financial regulatory community.
Modernizes and Streamlines Oversight of Alcohol and Tobacco Industries. The Budget provides resources to enable the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) to continue modernizing
its tax and IT systems to better serve its customer base and the public. The Budget also proposes to transfer all alcohol and tobacco responsibilities from the Department of Justice’s (DOJ’s) Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) to TTB, which has extensive expertise relating to the alcohol and
tobacco industries. By allowing ATF to focus exclusively on its firearms and explosives mandates, this
transfer would enable Treasury and DOJ to more efficiently and effectively protect the Nation.

DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS

Funding Highlights:
•

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is committed to providing military veterans and their survivors with
the benefits, care, and support they have earned through sacrifice and service to the Nation.

•

The 2021 Budget continues to fulfill the President’s promise to veterans by making critical investments
in high priority initiatives that ensure veterans receive top quality care, benefits, and services—wherever
they work or live. The Budget supports key Administration priorities such as veteran suicide prevention
and opioid abuse prevention programs, and continues to integrate the changes enshrined in the VA
MISSION Act of 2018, providing veterans greater choice in and access to the medical care they deserve.
The Budget also supports other critical priorities, such as electronic health record modernization and
information technology (IT) enhancements, to strengthen efficiency, transparency, and accountability
within the Department.

•

The 2021 Budget eliminates waste and enhances efficiency by accelerating the planned deployment for
a modern medical care scheduling system. VA tested a modern scheduling system in Columbus, Ohio,
which demonstrated: a more than 50 percent productivity improvement in scheduling staff; a 38-percent
reduction in case manager overtime, resulting in a potential savings of $9.9 million per year for VA when
fully deployed; an expansion of same day appointment availability; and an increase in new and established
patient appointments by five and six percent, respectively. VA will expand these benefits to more veterans
in multiple medical centers in 2021 and to all veterans nationwide by 2025.

•

The Budget requests $105.0 billion for VA, a $12.9 billion, or 14.0-percent increase from the 2020 enacted
level, including changes in mandatory programs. In addition, the Budget requests $94.2 billion in advance
appropriations for VA medical care programs in 2022 to ensure the Department has sufficient resources to
continue providing the quality medical services veterans have earned.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
VA’s mission is to deliver benefits, care, and support to America’s military veterans and their
families; the Department also continues to implement reforms to improve care and benefits. The
Budget provides the necessary resources to meet the Nation’s commitment to veterans to help them
recover from illnesses, injuries, or wounds sustained due to their military service and to enable their
successful reintegration into civilian life.

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Department of Veterans Affairs

90

President Trump Is Committed to
Supporting Every Brave American Who
Has Served Our Nation
“We must strive to build communities that
truly serve, support, and protect our veterans
from the very first moment they return to
civilian life.”

The Budget fully funds the operation of veterans
healthcare, one of the largest integrated healthcare systems in the United States with over 9.2 million enrolled
veterans, provides disability compensation benefits to
nearly 5.7 million veterans and their survivors, and administers pension benefits for approximately 393,000
veterans and their survivors.

In addition, the Budget invests in a broad range of
veteran services and programs, including: educational
assistance for nearly one million students; rehabilitaPresident Donald J. Trump
tion and employment benefits for approximately 131,000
August 21, 2019
veterans; servicemember and veteran group life insurance plans for approximately six million enrollees; more
than three million active home mortgage loans; and memorial and burial benefits in more than 156 national cemeteries and thousands of other cemeteries
across the Nation.

Champions VA Programmatic Initiatives
Prioritizes Veterans Affairs Medical Care Funding. The Budget provides $90.0 billion, a
12.7-percent increase above the 2020 enacted level, including funding to continue the integration of
the expanded VA MISSION Act of 2018 requirements, providing greater choice for many veterans
regarding their healthcare decisions. The Budget also includes $1.2 billion for the expansion of the
Caregivers program, which provides stipend payments to eligible veterans.
Invests in Veteran Suicide Prevention. The Budget also provides $313 million, a 32-percent
increase over the 2020 enacted level, to support the Administration’s veteran suicide prevention initiatives, including the National Roadmap to Empower Veterans and End Suicide, a population-based,
public health model encouraging partnerships at the national, regional, and local levels. These efforts
support evidence-based approaches for suicide prevention that intersect with various sectors, including State and local governments, faith communities, employers, schools, and healthcare organizations.
Funds Opioid Abuse Prevention Programs. The Budget provides $504 million for opioid prevention and treatment, a 19-percent increase over the 2020 enacted level. This amount includes
$121 million for comprehensive programs for addiction treatment and recovery that expand and integrate implementation of evidence-based programs related to opioid and pain care for veterans.
Funding supports expansion of multidisciplinary efforts, including: providing naloxone kits to at-risk
VA patients and VA first responders; addressing staffing and resource deficiencies at pain management teams and pain clinics; expanding VA’s use of predictive analytics to target veterans at-risk for
overdose events; supporting recommendations from the President’s Commission on Combating Drug
Addiction and the Opioid Crisis; and establishing a “tele-hub” to provide opioid pain, addiction prevention, and treatment using telehealth capabilities.
Provides Funding for VA’s Electronic Health Record Modernization. The Budget also provides $2.6 billion, an 82-percent increase over the 2020 enacted level, to support a unified electronic
health record (EHR) between the Department of Defense (DOD) and VA. The funding enables VA to
double the number of sites that transition to the new EHR in 2021, consistent with DOD, and accelerates a new scheduling system throughout the VA enterprise five years sooner than originally planned.
This planned acceleration would enable VA to increase provider productivity and veteran access to
care.

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
Modernizes VA IT and Infrastructure. The
Budget provides $4.9 billion, a 12.4-percent increase
over the 2020 enacted level, to fund critical investments
in IT modernization, infrastructure, and customer service to enhance the veteran experience. Specifically,
this funding enables the Department to enhance mission critical IT systems supporting VA MISSION Act
of 2018 implementation, facilitating Blue Water Navy
claims processing, enhancing supply chain management, and implementing financial management business transformation.

91

President Trump Is Working Tirelessly
to Provide the Benefits and Services that
Our Brave Veterans Deserve
“My administration is committed to taking
care of every warrior that returns home as
a veteran.”
President Donald J. Trump
August 21, 2019

Blue Water Navy Claims Processing. The Budget
also provides $137 million for VA to support Blue Water
Navy claims processing, enabling the hire of new claims processors to augment staffing capacity and
complete scanning requirements not finished during 2020.
Increases Access to Burial and Memorial Benefits. The Budget includes $360 million, a
9.4-percent increase over the 2020 enacted level, to expand veteran access to memorial benefits,
deliver premier services to veterans’ families, and provide perpetual care for more than four million gravesites. The Budget also supports expanding and sustaining 156 cemeteries, which include
11 cemeteries transferred from the Department of the Army as part of the Delivering Government
Solutions in the 21st Century plan, and 33 soldiers’ lots and monument sites.

Promotes Efficiency, Transparency, and Accountability
Targets Investments to Create Efficiencies. The Budget prioritizes investments in areas that
create future savings and that improve the efficiency and effectiveness of VA programs. Targeted investments in IT systems, including more than $310 million for cloud migration and aging infrastructure replacement to support the new EHR system, would result in cost savings as VA consolidates
data centers and reallocates resources to higher priority needs. VA is also committed to modernizing
its disability compensation program and identifying innovative pilot programs aimed at providing
opportunities for disabled veterans seeking employment.
Streamlines Government. The Budget also promotes fiscal discipline by better aligning a unified EHR between DOD and VA. This would give doctors instant and seamless access to veterans’
full-service health records and history and enable faster, smarter connections between military and
veteran health information. VA will also continue to change the way it buys medicine and equipment
by tapping into DOD’s centralized acquisition system.
Reduces Waste, Fraud, and Abuse. The Budget fully funds the Offices of Enterprise Integration
and Accountability and Whistleblower Protection to ensure VA programs improve oversight, accountability, and performance within the Department. The Budget also provides $228 million, an $18 million
increase above the 2020 enacted level, for the Office of the Inspector General to strengthen accountability, promote transparency, and reduce waste, fraud, and abuse.

CORPS OF ENGINEERS—CIVIL WORKS

Funding Highlights:
•

The Army Corps of Engineers civil works program (Corps) develops, manages, restores, and protects
water resources primarily through the construction, operation and maintenance, and study of water-related
infrastructure projects. The Corps is also responsible for regulating the development of navigable waters
of the United States and works with other Federal agencies to help communities respond to, and recover
from floods and other natural disasters.

•

The Budget focuses Federal investment where it is most warranted within the three primary mission
areas of the Corps to address the most significant risks to public safety or to provide a high economic
or environmental return to the Nation. The Budget also targets accelerating the completion of ongoing
projects. The Budget continues to propose reforms to how the Nation invests in water resources projects,
by enabling greater local participation in Corps projects.

•

The Budget eliminates funding for projects that are better suited to be carried out by States and local
communities. The Budget proposes the Corps implement more robust tools and greater transparency to
control spending and ensure taxpayer funding isn’t being utilized for unnecessary or wasteful projects. The
Administration encourages the Congress to join it in supporting the approval of projects based on merit
and need.

•

The 2021 Budget requests $6 billion for the Corps, a $1.7 billion or 22-percent decrease from the 2020
enacted level.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
The Corps has three main missions: flood and storm damage reduction; commercial navigation;
and aquatic ecosystem restoration. The Corps also regulates development in navigable waters and
wetlands. While the Agency has had a significant impact on water resources development throughout its history, current approaches to funding, constructing, and maintaining projects often do not
deliver benefits in either a timely or cost-effective manner. The current paradigm for investing in
water resources development is not optimal; it can deter rather than enable States, local communities, and the private sector from making important investments on their own, even when they
are the primary beneficiaries. The Budget lays the foundation for accelerating the construction
of infrastructure and increasing competition in the delivery of projects, thereby resulting in faster
completion of projects and cost savings. The Budget focuses Federal resources where they are most
warranted, encourages more non-Federal leadership, and removes barriers that can impede the
93

Corps of Engineers—Civil Works

94

ability of non-Federal parties to move forward on their own with investments in water resources infrastructure they deem priorities.

Prepares for the Future Not the Past
Accelerates Completion of Ongoing Construction Projects. The Budget keeps the Federal
Government’s promise to complete ongoing construction projects that provide a high economic or environmental return to the Nation or address a significant risk to public safety more quickly and more
cost effectively. By proposing not to start any new construction projects, the Budget enables the Corps
to focus on completing these ongoing priority projects faster and at a reduced cost, allowing the affected communities to see their benefits sooner. The Budget also recognizes the need to change the way
future construction investments are funded, with less reliance on Federal appropriations. For example, the Budget provides $250 million for innovative partnerships between the Federal Government
and non-Federal sponsors to accelerate completion of projects.
Prioritizes Operating and Maintaining Existing Infrastructure. The Budget gives priority to operating and maintaining existing water resources infrastructure and improving its reliability. Maintenance of the key features of this infrastructure is funded; this includes navigation channels that serve the Nation’s largest coastal ports and
the inland waterways with the most commercial use,
such as the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers and the Illinois
Reaffirms the President’s Commitment
Waterway.
to Restoring the Everglades

“Congress needs to help us complete the
world’s largest intergovernmental watershed
restoration project ASAP! Good for Florida
and good for the environment.”
President Donald J. Trump
May 13, 2019

Increases Flexibility to Respond to Future
Natural Disasters. The Budget provides $50 million
in the Flood Control and Coastal Emergencies Account,
and $50 million in the Harbor Maintenance Trust
Fund for urgent emergency response work following
flood-related major disaster declarations, pursuant to
the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency
Assistance Act.

Empowers States and Local Communities to
Accelerate Water Resources Projects. The Budget
expands the Corps’ use of section 1043 of the Water
Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014, as
amended, by including $250 million for an innovative
program under which the Corps would transfer appropriated funds to non-Federal sponsors that decide to
construct a project on their own. Non-Federal implementation of projects, where appropriate, would
accelerate the construction of more infrastructure projects and create efficiencies in their delivery.
Under this program, the Corps would issue a solicitation for proposals from non-Federal sponsors to
construct their own projects using a combination of Federal and non-Federal funding. Other projects specifically funded in the Budget may also qualify for implementation under section 1043. The
Budget also proposes to extend section 1043, which expired in 2019.

The Budget includes $250 million for the
South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program.

Prioritizes Core Functions
Improves the Transportation of Goods on the Nation’s Inland Waterways. The Budget
proposes to reform the laws governing the Inland Waterways Trust Fund, including an annual pervessel fee for commercial users; to help finance future capital investments on these waterways and a

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
portion of the cost of their operation and maintenance.
The current diesel fuel tax is insufficient to support the
users’ share of these costs.
Divests the Washington Aqueduct. The Budget
proposes to sell the Washington Aqueduct, the wholesale supply system for Washington D.C.; Arlington
County, Virginia; the City of Falls Church, Virginia; and
parts of Fairfax County, Virginia. The Corps owns and
operates the Aqueduct, which is the only local water
supply system in the Nation owned and operated by the
Corps. Ownership of local water supply is best carried
out by a State or local government, or by the private sector where there are appropriate market and regulatory
incentives. Selling the Aqueduct to a public or private
utility would contribute to American prosperity through
a more efficient allocation of economic resources.

95

Accelerates Water Resources
Infrastructure Delivery
The Budget again calls on the Congress
to extend section 1043 of the Water
Resources Reform and Development Act of
2014, as amended to enable non-Federal
sponsors who believe they can construct
projects more efficiently to do so. The Budget
provides $250 million for construction of projects under this authority and $250 million for
Innovative Funding Partnerships accelerating completion of projects.

Promotes Good Stewardship of Taxpayer Dollars
Increases Accountability. The Budget establishes clear priorities based on objective criteria for
investment decisions. This approach ensures the best overall use of available funds and allows the
American taxpayer to understand how Federal resources are allocated. For example, the Budget funds
dam safety studies within the Investigations account, instead of the Operation and Maintenance account, where they appropriately belong. The Budget also makes clear to the American people when
major Federal investments, in some cases started years ago, will be completed.
Increases Fiscal Discipline and Transparency. The Budget reproposes revisions to the appropriations language for the Construction, Operation and Maintenance, and Mississippi River and
Tributaries accounts, and new appropriations language for the Harbor Maintenance and Inland
Waterways Trust Funds, to provide greater transparency in how these funds are spent. Establishing
separate appropriations accounts for the navigation trust funds would improve accountability, ensure
appropriations are used for the purpose and at the level which the Congress intended, and increase
transparency for the public, including the users that pay fees to finance some of these costs.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

Funding Highlights:
•

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) works to protect human health and the environment by
implementing and enforcing America’s environmental laws.

•

The 2021 Budget continues to support EPA’s core work to ensure clean air, water, land, and safer chemicals
and advances work on key priority areas, while reigning in unnecessary spending.

•

The Budget would eliminate almost 50 wasteful programs that are outside of EPA’s core mission or
duplicative of other efforts, saving taxpayers over $600 million. For example, EPA’s Beaches Program funds
State-run beach monitoring programs, which are now established and can continue to be implemented at
the local level.

•

The President’s 2021 Budget requests $6.7 billion for EPA, a $2.4 billion or 26-percent decrease from the
2020 enacted level.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
EPA supports a safe environment and a healthy Nation by helping to provide Americans with
clean air, land, and water, and ensuring chemical safety. The Budget prioritizes innovative action to
address priority environmental issues, such as contamination with lead and per- and polyfluoroalkyl
substances (PFAS).
Environmental protection must go hand-in-hand with a strong economy, as proven by America’s
continued improvements to air quality and public health while simultaneously growing the economy.
The Budget promotes stewardship of taxpayer resources by reducing wasteful spending on duplicative
programs and ensuring that grants are targeted effectively. Key deregulatory efforts, such as the
implementation of Waters of the United States definitional changes, will reduce burden and create
more certainty for American businesses. EPA’s water infrastructure and clean-up programs will
continue to spur investment and economic development while ensuring a safe environment for all
Americans.
Prioritizes Essential EPA Functions. The 2021 Budget takes an efficient, effective approach
to prioritize EPA’s key responsibilities under the Nation’s environmental statutes. Through
cooperation with States and Tribes, local governments, businesses, and the public, EPA will continue
to help provide safe drinking water, support attainment of national air quality standards, clean

97

Environmental Protection Agency

98

Addressing PFAS
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
(PFAS) are a group of synthetic substances
that have been widely used in industrial and
consumer uses, such as non-stick cookware, water-repellent clothing, stain resistant
fabrics and carpets, cosmetics, firefighting
foams, and products that resist oil. Because
these chemicals do not readily degrade, legacy contamination means that most people
have come in contact with these compounds
throughout their lifetime. EPA remains committed to supporting States, Tribes, and local
communities in addressing challenges with
remediating PFAS and understanding the effects to human health. The Budget provides
an additional $6 million to address actions
identified in EPA’s Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl
Substances (PFAS) Action Plan, such as
continuing research and development to
identify, test, and understand PFAS compounds, addressing current contamination
issues and preventing future PFAS contamination, and effectively communicating these
findings with the public.

up the Nation’s most complex hazardous waste sites,
ensure the safety of chemicals in the marketplace, and
conduct cutting-edge environmental research.
Establishes a Lead Exposure Reduction
Initiative. Millions of American families currently live
in residences that can expose children to hazardous levels
of lead through sources such as contaminated drinking
water, household lead paint, and lead-contaminated soil.
Children may also be exposed to lead in older schools.
The Administration’s Federal Lead Action Plan has set
the stage to combat the multiple sources of this threat
through commonsense solutions. The Budget would help
to implement this plan through $61 million in funding
to support lead testing in schools, replacement of lead
pipes, certification of lead paint professionals, and
development of improved lead sampling and treatment
methods.

Invests in Water Infrastructure for the Future.
Funding for water infrastructure remains a priority
in the Budget. EPA’s State Revolving Funds are
funded at nearly $2 billion, which would supplement
more than $80 billion currently revolving at the
State level. In addition, $25 million in funding for
the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act
of 2014 (WIFIA) credit program could support more
than $2 billion in direct loans, resulting in more than
$4 billion in total water infrastructure investment. To
date, the WIFIA program has issued 14 loans totaling
$3.5 billion in direct credit assistance. Further, the
Budget requests more than $116 million in grant
funding for programs authorized in both the America’s Water Infrastructure Act of 2018 and the
Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation Act. These grants would support a wide variety
of programs to address drinking water and wastewater issues including lead contamination and
sewer overflows.
Reduces Burden on Taxpayer Resources through User Fees. The 2021 Budget outlines
commonsense legislative proposals to authorize EPA to administer several programs through the
collection and expenditure of user fees. Administering select EPA programs using funds collected from
user fees would reduce the burden on taxpayer resources. Entities benefiting from those programs
would directly pay for the services and benefits that the programs provide. The Budget continues to
propose to fee-fund the ENERGY STAR program, along with an authorization to fee-fund compliance
assistance services related to risk management, spill prevention, and response planning at industrial
facilities.
Supports Revitalization of Opportunity Zones. The Budget would provide $80 million for grants
to support assessment and remediation of brownfields—sites where development is complicated by
prior contamination. A portion of this amount would be set aside specifically for projects in Qualified
Opportunity Zones, ensuring that these resources are targeted to the communities where they can
have the greatest impact. Cleaning up brownfields sites leverages other sources of investment in

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
these communities and promotes redevelopment and
economic revitalization. For example, in Detroit’s New
Center District, brownfields grants allowed the DetroitWayne County Port Authority to invest $915,000 to clean
up contaminated soils, remove underground storage
tanks, and eliminate vapor intrusion in a once-blighted
neighborhood located in an Opportunity Zone. This
investment leveraged tax credits and other incentives
from the State, city and county to redevelop the site into
a $28 million medical supply facility that now employs
140 workers.
Promotes Innovative Approaches to Counter
or Prevent Harmful Algal Blooms.
Nonpoint
nutrient pollution remains a significant challenge to
water quality and can trigger harmful algal blooms
that endanger human health and result in significant
economic impact, such as the bloom that endangered
drinking water supplies in Toledo, Ohio. In recognition
of this problem, the Budget includes EPA funding for
harmful algal bloom predictive tools, research, and
nutrient trading initiatives. In addition, the Budget
proposes $15 million for a new targeted grant program
to help prevent or respond to harmful algal blooms. For
example, the grant could fund water testing efforts and
water supply protection measures.

The Future of Detecting Airborne and
Radiological Environmental Threats
In the wake of the terrorist attacks on
September 11, 2001, the Federal Government developed the Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT). ASPECT is a single engine
turboprop aircraft equipped with a suite of
sensors and software that uses remote hazard detection to image, map, identify, and
quantify chemical vapors and deposited radioisotopes. This information is used by first
responders during natural disasters, environmental emergencies, emergency responses,
homeland security missions, and environmental surveys. As the technology becomes
obsolete, EPA must look to the future and
plan for a replacement. The 2021 Budget
includes $1 million for EPA to crowdsource
replacement ideas utilizing the https://challenge.gov website and framework.

99

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND
SPACE ADMINISTRATION
Funding Highlights:
•

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is responsible for leading an innovative
program of exploration that would return American astronauts to the Moon by 2024 and build a sustainable
presence on the lunar surface as the first steps on a journey that will take America to Mars.

•

The Budget increases funding for innovative programs that would land astronauts on the Moon and support
precursor missions and advanced technologies that would enable further exploration. The Budget also
supports a broad range of high-performing NASA programs that are not directly supporting the Moon to
Mars program, and includes reductions to some lower-performing programs.

•

The Budget eliminates the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) telescope, saving
taxpayers more than $80 million per year. SOFIA is an expensive telescope mounted on a 747 airplane
that is less scientifically productive than other missions with similar costs.

•

The Budget provides $25.2 billion for NASA, a 12-percent increase from the 2020 enacted level.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
NASA’s top-priority mission is to return American astronauts to the Moon by 2024 and build
a sustainable presence on the lunar surface as the first step on a journey that will take America
to Mars. The Budget provides robust funding for the programs that support this goal, including $3.4 billion for the development of lander systems, over $700 million to support lunar surface activities, and $233 million for robotic precursor missions to Mars that would also conduct
cutting-edge science. The Budget also funds a broad range of other NASA programs, including
supporting enhanced commercial activities in Earth orbit, exciting space science missions, and
research to improve air travel and remotely piloted aircraft. The Budget redirects funds from
lower priority programs to fulfill the President’s promise to get Americans back to the Moon.
Invests in the Systems that Would Send Astronauts to the Moon and Beyond. The Budget
funds key components of NASA’s Moon to Mars campaign, including: the Space Launch System
(SLS) and the Orion crew capsule to support a first uncrewed test launch and a steady crewed
launch cadence thereafter; the Lunar Gateway, a small way station around the Moon; commercial
launch capabilities to enable regular, low-cost access to the lunar vicinity and surface; and commercial lunar landers to enable cargo delivery and human access to the lunar surface. The Gateway
and landers would be launched on competitively procured vehicles, complementing crew transport

101

102

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

flights on the SLS and Orion. The Budget defers funding of upgrades—known as “Block 1B”—for the
SLS, and instead focuses the program on completing the initial version of the SLS and ensuring a reliable SLS and Orion annual flight cadence. While a potentially beneficial future capability, the costly
Block 1B upgrades are not needed to land astronauts on the Moon.
Funds the Development of Technologies and
Early Missions Needed to Make Exploration
Missions Sustainable. The Budget funds the Lunar
“This time, we will not only plant our flag
Surface Innovation Initiative to pioneer new approachand leave our footprint, we will establish a
es for sustainable human exploration, including techfoundation for an eventual mission to Mars.
nologies to generate power, excavate and construct
And perhaps, someday, to many worlds
structures on the Moon, and help astronauts live off
beyond.”
the land. In addition, the Budget supports an array of
new prizes and challenges, research grants, and publicPresident Donald J. Trump
private partnerships to develop new technologies that
December 11, 2017
would make future missions to Mars more affordable
and capable. The Budget also funds the robotic exploration of Mars, in cooperation with international partners,
as a precursor to human exploration. In addition to performing cutting-edge scientific investigations,
a new Mars Ice Mapper mission would provide data for potential landing sites, and a Mars Sample
Return mission would demonstrate the ability to launch from Mars’ surface.
Supports a Long-Term American Presence in Low Earth Orbit. The Budget continues support for operations in low Earth orbit, including for new space stations that would ensure America has
access to affordable space stations in the future. The
Budget also funds continued use of commercial services
to deliver cargo to space, American crew transportation
“[A]t the President’s direction...we’ve put an
services that would launch from American soil starting
end to decades of budget cuts and decline.
in 2020, and a range of launch, communications, rocket
And we’ve renewed America’s commitment
testing, and astronaut training capabilities that supto human space exploration, vowing to go
port human spaceflight.

further into space, farther and faster than
ever before.”

Funds Research to Make Air Travel Faster and
Cheaper and Safely Integrate Drones into the
Michael R. Pence
Nation’s Airspace. The Budget supports aeronautics
Vice President
research that contributes to the Nation’s technological
August
20, 2019
leadership and supports high-quality jobs. The Budget
funds the X-59 Quiet Supersonic Technology flight demonstrator, which would fly for the first time in 2022. The
Budget also increases funding for investments in ultra-fast hypersonic flight, hybrid-electric jet engine systems that could power future passenger airliners, and research on the safe integration of
remotely-piloted aircraft into U.S. airspace.
Redirects Funds from Lower Priority Science and Education Programs to Higher
Priorities. Consistent with prior budgets, the Budget provides no funding for the Wide Field Infrared
Survey Telescope, two Earth science missions, and the Office of Science, Technology, Engineering, and
Mathematics (STEM) Engagement. The Budget continues to support education activities such as
internships and fellowships funded outside of the Office of STEM Engagement. The Budget also
proposes to terminate the SOFIA telescope, which has not proven to be as scientifically productive as
other missions.

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

103

Improves NASA’s Mission Support Services. The Budget realigns budget authority and lines
of reporting to free up resources for reinvestment in facilities, information technology, and other key
mission support areas. The new structure supports a more efficient operating model by integrating
mission support functions across geographic locations to standardize services and eliminate duplicative capabilities among NASA Centers.

SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Funding Highlights:
•

The Small Business Administration (SBA) serves American entrepreneurs in their pursuit to start, grow,
recover, and expand their businesses. As the Nation’s leading advocate for small businesses, SBA
ensures that business owners have access to affordable capital, mentoring and counseling opportunities,
and immediate support in the wake of disaster.

•

The Budget recognizes the contributions small businesses play in fostering economic growth and spurring
innovation throughout the Nation. The Budget supports Boots to Business, a program that provides
entrepreneurial training courses to veterans, servicemembers transitioning from military to civilian life, and
military spouses through the Department of Defense’s Transition Assistance Program (TAP).

•

The Budget continues to demonstrate fiscal restraint by prioritizing the essential functions of the Federal
Government and cutting wasteful or duplicative programs. The Budget eliminates funding for the Program
for Investment in Micro-Entrepreneurs (PRIME). These services are already provided by SBA’s Microloan
Technical Assistance Program. Eliminating PRIME would save taxpayers $6 million a year based on the
2020 enacted level.

•

The Budget requests $739 million in new budget authority for 2021, a $243 million or 25-percent decrease
from the 2020 enacted level, which includes funds provided under the disaster relief cap. This request is
partially offset by a fiscally responsible proposal to allow SBA the flexibility to set an upfront fee across its
business loan programs, providing $80 million in offsetting collections.

The President’s 2021 Budget:
Small businesses are the engines of the American economy. They are the job creators and innovators that fuel American neighborhoods and preserve U.S. prosperity. The SBA was established
in 1953 to aid, counsel, assist, and protect the interests of small business concerns; preserve free
competitive enterprise; and maintain and strengthen the overall economy of the Nation. Today, SBA
continues to support the Nation’s 30 million small businesses through an array of tailored programs
and services. SBA’s lending programs complement credit markets by meeting demand when creditworthy small business borrowers cannot obtain financing on reasonable terms or conditions. Its
nationwide network of private-sector and non-profit partners educate, advise, and inspire a new generation of entrepreneurs. In 2021, SBA will be uniquely positioned to leverage the Administration’s
pro-growth policies to equip small business owners with the right resources to be competitive in
today’s market and promote economic security for their businesses and families. The Agency will

105

Small Business Administration

106

fulfill this mission while promoting fiscal discipline by proposing policies that level the playing field
with private sector support for small businesses.
Expands Opportunity for Small Business Owners. The Budget supports $43 billion in business lending to assist U.S. small business owners in accessing affordable capital to start, build, and
grow their businesses. These products serve a variety of business needs, from funding general business operations, such as working capital and capital expenses, to fixed-asset financing for machinery
and equipment, construction, and commercial real estate. They also provide the opportunity for small
businesses to refinance existing loans. To ensure that SBA can provide these services at the least cost
to taxpayers, the Budget proposes that SBA set an upfront administrative fee across its business loan
programs to levels necessary to offset a portion of the
costs of providing this assistance.

“America’s 30 million small businesses are
central to our economy and our communities.
Their courageous innovation makes our
cities and towns vibrant places to live, work,
and raise families.”
President Donald J. Trump
May 3, 2019

Promotes
Investment
Opportunities
for
Microborrowers. Through its 7(m) Direct Microloan
program, the SBA supports low-interest financing for
non-profit intermediaries that in turn provide loans of
up to $50,000 small businesses and startups. In addition to the $25 million in technical assistance grant
funds requested for the Microloan program, the Budget
requests $4 million to support $41 million in direct lending. These efforts would support more than 20,000 jobs
and spur economic growth throughout the Nation.

Supports Economic Recovery Efforts in the Wake of Disaster. SBA continues to be a vital
resource for American households and businesses that need to recover quickly following disasters. In
2019, SBA approved more than 42,000 disaster loans totaling over $2.2 billion in direct, low-interest
lending to business owners, homeowners, renters, and property owners. The Budget provides continued support for these efforts, and includes new information technology investments that would
improve customer service and reduce the burden on disaster survivors.
Promotes Effective and Accountable Grant Funding. SBA leverages its nationwide field personnel and diverse network of private sector and non-profit resource partners across each State and
Territory to provide counseling, mentoring, and training assistance to nearly one million small business owners each year. The Budget continues to propose changes to the Small Business Development
Center program to create a competitive set-aside to reward partners that most efficiently serve small
businesses and to grant the authority to collect limited grantee data for internal program evaluation
purposes. The Budget also proposes funding to support the implementation of additional Boots to
Business program training sessions through the Department of Defense’s TAP program.
Creates Opportunities in Federal Contracting.
The Federal Government is the largest producer of goods
and services in the world. SBA provides oversight in
Federal contracting to ensure the Government meets or
exceeds the minimum set-aside of 23 percent for small
businesses. Access to these funding opportunities enables small businesses to provide innovative solutions,
drive economic growth, and support their communities.
The Budget continues to invest in SBA’s 8(a) program to
establish a full certification program for SBA’s womenowned business certification programs.

“I am passionate about empowering
entrepreneurs of all backgrounds and
ethnicities with the guidance and the support
needed to achieve success.”
Jovita Carranza
Administrator (as Nominee)
December 11, 2019

Summary Tables

107

Totals
2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

Budget Totals in Billions of Dollars:
Receipts �������������������������������������������������������
Outlays ��������������������������������������������������������
Deficit �������������������������������������������������������

3,464
4,448
984

3,706
4,790
1,083

3,863
4,829
966

4,086
5,005
920

4,359
5,105
746

4,657
5,208
552

4,924
5,451
527

5,182
5,663
481

5,455
5,891
435

5,762
6,236
475

6,059
6,309
250

6,378
6,639
261

Debt held by the public �������������������������������

16,801

17,881

18,912

19,891

20,688

21,284

21,848

22,362

22,826

23,327

23,604

23,892

Gross domestic product (GDP) �����������������������

21,216

22,211

23,353

24,543

25,791

27,104

28,473

29,884

31,343

32,875

34,480

36,164

Budget Totals as a Percent of GDP:
Receipts �������������������������������������������������������
Outlays ��������������������������������������������������������
Deficit �������������������������������������������������������

16.3%
21.0%
4.6%

16.7%
21.6%
4.9%

16.5%
20.7%
4.1%

16.6%
20.4%
3.7%

16.9%
19.8%
2.9%

17.2%
19.2%
2.0%

17.3%
19.1%
1.8%

17.3%
19.0%
1.6%

17.4%
18.8%
1.4%

17.5%
19.0%
1.4%

17.6%
18.3%
0.7%

17.6%
18.4%
0.7%

Debt held by the public �������������������������������

79.2%

80.5%

81.0%

81.0%

80.2%

78.5%

76.7%

74.8%

72.8%

71.0%

68.5%

66.1%

2021–
2025

2021–
2030

21,889
25,599
3,711

50,725
56,338
5,613

16.9%
19.8%
2.9%

17.2%
19.3%
2.1%

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

Table S–1. Budget Totals
(In billions of dollars and as a percent of GDP)

109

110

Table S–2. Effect of Budget Proposals on Projected Deficits
(Deficit increases (+) or decreases (-) in billions of dollars)
Totals
2019

2020

2021

2022

Projected deficits in the baseline ���������������������������������������������������������������������
Percent of GDP ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

984 1,085 1,014 1,047
4.6% 4.9% 4.3% 4.3%

Proposals in the 2021 Budget:
Invest in critical national priorities:
Provide defense funding to support the National Defense Strategy 1 �������������
Support major investment in infrastructure ���������������������������������������������������
Reauthorize surface transportation programs 2 ���������������������������������������������
Establish a Federal Capital Revolving Fund ��������������������������������������������������
Establish Education Freedom Scholarships ����������������������������������������������������
Provide paid parental leave ������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Debt service �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........

.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........

3
5
1
*
1
1
*
10

Restrain spending to protect and respect American taxpayers:
Rightsize Government and apply two-penny plan to
non-defense discretionary spending 3 ����������������������������������������������������������
Reflect phase down of Overseas Contingency Operations funding 3 �������������
Advance the President’s health reform vision 4 ����������������������������������������������
Modernize Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) ����
Address wasteful spending, fraud, and abuse in healthcare ��������������������������
Enact comprehensive drug pricing reform�������������������������������������������������������
Reform welfare programs ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Reform Federal student loans ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
Reform Federal disability programs and improve payment integrity �����������
Modify retirement and health benefits for Federal employees �����������������������
Implement agricultural reforms ����������������������������������������������������������������������
Reform the Postal Service ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Other spending reductions, program reforms, and adjustments �������������������
Debt service and other interest effects ������������������������������������������������������������
Total ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........

*
.........
1
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
–2
–1
–*
–1

Total proposals in the 2021 Budget ������������������������������������������������������������������

.........

–1

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

958
3.7%

851
3.1%

922
3.2%

31
24
3
2
5
1
1
66

36
38
4
2
5
1
2
88

40
47
5
2
5
2
4
106

43
38
7
2
5
2
6
103

35
19
8
*
5
2
9
79

21
10
10
*
5
3
12
59

5
5
11
*
5
3
14
42

–3
–2
8
–8
–9
–1
–20
–6
–1
–2
–2
–7
–6
–1
–59

–37
–31
–2
–16
–25
–5
–27
–11
–2
–1
–5
–7
–21
–3
–193

–79
–47
–33
–17
–32
–6
–28
–15
–2
–4
–5
–8
–17
–7
–301

–113
–59
–39
–18
–39
–12
–29
–17
–2
–7
–6
–8
–41
–13
–405

–146
–65
–76
–19
–49
–12
–29
–18
–3
–9
–6
–9
–33
–24
–498

–176
–69
–80
–20
–60
–18
–30
–19
–6
–11
–6
–9
–52
–39
–595

–205
–71
–84
–21
–65
–18
–31
–20
–9
–12
–6
–10
–54
–58
–663

–234
–73
–105
–22
–71
–21
–31
–20
–13
–13
–7
–11
–48
–79
–748

–264
–75
–98
–25
–76
–21
–33
–21
–16
–14
–7
–11
–53
–101
–814

–48

–127

–212

–299

–395

–515

–604

–705

–788

2030

997 1,039 1,180 1,038 1,192
3.3% 3.3% 3.6% 3.0% 3.3%

2021–
2025

2021–
2030

4,793

10,239

153
152
20
8
21
7
13
374

166
190
75
9
45
21
78
585

–293
–76
–88
–26
–83
–21
–33
–21
–21
–15
–7
–11
–113
–125
–935

–378
–204
–141
–78
–154
–37
–134
–69
–10
–24
–24
–39
–117
–47
–1,456

–1,550
–567
–597
–193
–509
–135
–292
–170
–76
–89
–56
–91
–436
–450
–5,211

–931

–1,082

–4,626

–14
–34
5 .........
13
14
* .........
5
5
3
3
15
15
26
4

Summary Tables

Resulting deficits in the 2021 Budget ���������������������������������������������������������������
984 1,083
966
920
746
552
527
481
435
475
250
261
3,711
5,613
Percent of GDP ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4.6% 4.9% 4.1% 3.7% 2.9% 2.0% 1.8% 1.6% 1.4% 1.4% 0.7% 0.7%
* $500 million or less.
1
The 2021 Budget proposes to fund base defense programs for 2021 at the current law level, and provides an increase in defense funding of about two percent each year through
2025. After 2025, the Budget includes placeholder levels frozen at the 2025 level; these notional levels are compared to the statutorily required inflated baseline, which accounts for
the reductions in the outyears.
2
Represents the resources required to fund the policy proposal for the Highway Trust Fund above the inflated baseline. The full policy funds a 10-year, $810 billion reauthorization.
3
Net of spending in the inflated baseline.
4
Net of adjustments. See S-6 for more details.

(In billions of dollars)
Totals
2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2021– 2021–
2025 2030

Outlays:
Discretionary programs:
Defense �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Non-defense ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, discretionary programs �����������������������������������������������

676
661
1,338

713
724
1,438

753
733
1,486

769
748
1,516

782
758
1,541

797
774
1,571

812
784
1,596

829
801
1,630

850
816
1,665

870
835
1,705

891
853
1,744

913
873
1,786

Mandatory programs:
Social Security ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Medicare ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Medicaid ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Other mandatory programs ������������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, mandatory programs ��������������������������������������������������
Net interest �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total outlays ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

1,038
644
409
644
2,735
375
4,448

1,092
694
447
744
2,977
376
4,791

1,151
746
452
660
3,010
379
4,875

1,217
828
474
694
3,212
401
5,130

1,287
847
502
698
3,334
434
5,308

1,362
864
526
700
3,453
469
5,493

1,442
973
556
740
3,711
518
5,826

1,526
1,043
594
787
3,950
575
6,154

1,615
1,114
628
811
4,168
633
6,466

1,709
1,273
665
872
4,520
686
6,911

1,807
1,222
711
849
4,590
731
7,065

1,909 6,459 15,026
1,399 4,259 10,310
754 2,509 5,861
914 3,493 7,726
4,976 16,720 38,923
775 2,201 5,601
7,538 26,631 60,765

1,718
230

1,812
264

1,929
284

2,047
324

2,181
382

2,340
426

2,497
447

2,668
435

2,849
430

3,026
443

3,213
446

3,409 10,995 26,159
453 1,864 4,070

914
278
41
10
99
17
71
53
33
3,464

967
292
42
11
95
20
92
73
39
3,706

1,011
308
43
11
87
22
54
71
40
3,860

1,065
326
44
12
89
23
43
68
42
4,083

1,116
343
44
13
90
24
44
68
44
4,350

1,175
361
46
13
95
26
45
67
47
4,642

1,234
380
47
14
95
28
47
64
50
4,904

1,301
401
50
14
97
29
48
61
54
5,158

1,363
422
52
15
98
31
49
62
57
5,427

1,441
447
53
16
99
33
50
64
59
5,731

1,510
469
54
17
102
35
52
68
61
6,027

1,586 5,601 12,802
494 1,718 3,952
56
224
489
18
63
142
105
457
959
37
122
286
52
232
484
74
338
667
62
224
516
6,346 21,838 50,526

Deficit �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

984

1,085

1,014

1,047

958

851

922

997

1,039

1,180

1,038

1,192

Net interest �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Primary deficit ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

375
609

376
708

379
635

401
646

434
525

469
383

518
404

575
422

633
406

686
494

731
307

775
417

2,201
2,592

5,601
4,639

On-budget deficit ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Off-budget deficit/surplus (–) ��������������������������������������������������������������

992
–8

1,092
–7

1,006
8

1,025
22

919
39

799
53

852
69

922
74

949
90

1,082
99

917
121

1,052
140

4,601
192

9,524
715

Memorandum, budget authority for discretionary programs:
Defense �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
719
746
753
771
789
808
828
848
868
889
911
Non-defense ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
658
671
655
671
688
705
722
740
758
777
796
Total, discretionary budget authority ��������������������������������������������
1,377 1,417 1,408 1,442 1,477 1,513 1,550 1,587 1,626 1,666 1,707
1
Baseline estimates are on the basis of the economic assumptions shown in Table S–9, which incorporate the effects of the Administration’s fiscal policies.

933
815
1,748

3,949 8,398
3,442 7,326
7,390 15,724

Receipts:
Individual income taxes ����������������������������������������������������������������������
Corporation income taxes �������������������������������������������������������������������
Social insurance and retirement receipts:
Social Security payroll taxes ���������������������������������������������������������
Medicare payroll taxes �������������������������������������������������������������������
Unemployment insurance ��������������������������������������������������������������
Other retirement �����������������������������������������������������������������������������
Excise taxes �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Estate and gift taxes ���������������������������������������������������������������������������
Customs duties ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Deposits of earnings, Federal Reserve System ����������������������������������
Other miscellaneous receipts �������������������������������������������������������������
Total receipts �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������

3,913 8,267
3,797 7,975
7,710 16,242

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

Table S–3. Baseline by Category 1

4,793 10,239

111

112

Table S–4. Proposed Budget by Category
(In billions of dollars)
Totals
2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

20212025

20212030

Outlays:
Discretionary programs:
Defense ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Non-defense �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, discretionary programs �����������������������������������������������

676
661
1,338

713
725
1,438

754
732
1,485

769
708
1,477

771
678
1,449

778
659
1,437

790
638
1,428

796
626
1,421

800
612
1,412

802
603
1,406

803
595
1,397

803
587
1,391

Mandatory programs:
Social Security ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Medicare ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Medicaid ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Other mandatory programs ������������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, mandatory programs ��������������������������������������������������
Net interest �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total outlays ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

1,038
644
409
644
2,735
375
4,448

1,092
694
447
743
2,975
376
4,790

1,151
722
448
645
2,966
378
4,829

1,216
779
449
686
3,130
399
5,005

1,286
790
450
703
3,228
428
5,105

1,361
799
452
701
3,313
458
5,208

1,440
899
453
733
3,524
499
5,451

1,523
961
477
738
3,698
543
5,663

1,611
1,026
505
751
3,893
586
5,891

1,706
1,178
531
796
4,210
621
6,236

1,804
1,132
570
762
4,267
645
6,309

1,906 6,453 15,002
1,269 3,989 9,554
607 2,252 4,941
802 3,467 7,315
4,583 16,161 36,813
665 2,161 5,221
6,639 25,599 56,338

Receipts:
Individual income taxes ����������������������������������������������������������������������
Corporation income taxes �������������������������������������������������������������������

1,718
230

1,812
264

1,932
284

2,048
324

2,185
382

2,346
426

2,505
448

2,679
435

2,862
431

3,040
443

3,228
446

3,426 11,016 26,251
453 1,865 4,073

Social insurance and retirement receipts:
Social Security payroll taxes ���������������������������������������������������������
Medicare payroll taxes �������������������������������������������������������������������
Unemployment insurance ��������������������������������������������������������������
Other retirement �����������������������������������������������������������������������������
Excise taxes �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Estate and gift taxes ���������������������������������������������������������������������������
Customs duties ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Deposits of earnings, Federal Reserve System ����������������������������������
Other miscellaneous receipts �������������������������������������������������������������
Total receipts �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������

914
278
41
10
99
17
71
53
33
3,464

967
292
42
11
95
20
92
73
39
3,706

1,011
308
43
11
87
22
54
71
40
3,863

1,065
326
44
14
89
23
43
69
42
4,086

1,116
342
46
17
90
24
44
68
44
4,359

1,174
361
48
20
95
26
45
68
47
4,657

1,234
380
50
23
95
28
47
64
50
4,924

1,300
401
52
25
97
29
48
62
53
5,182

1,362
422
54
27
98
31
49
62
56
5,455

1,441
447
56
29
99
33
50
65
59
5,762

1,510
469
57
30
102
35
52
69
61
6,059

1,586 5,600 12,798
494 1,718 3,951
57
230
507
31
86
229
105
457
959
37
122
286
52
232
484
74
340
673
62
223
513
6,378 21,889 50,725

Deficit �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

984

1,083

966

920

746

552

527

481

435

475

250

261

3,711

5,613

Net interest �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Primary deficit/surplus (–) ������������������������������������������������������������������

375
609

376
707

378
588

399
521

428
319

458
94

499
27

543
–62

586
–150

621
–146

645
–395

665
–404

2,161
1,549

5,221
392

On-budget deficit ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Off-budget deficit/surplus (–) ��������������������������������������������������������������

992
–8

1,091
–7

959
7

900
20

708
38

501
51

460
67

411
71

350
86

381
94

134
116

127
134

3,527
183

4,929
684

Memorandum, budget authority for discretionary programs:
Defense ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Non-defense �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, discretionary budget authority ����������������������������������������

719
658
1,377

746
672
1,418

741
595
1,336

759
583
1,342

775
572
1,347

791
559
1,350

808
547
1,355

808
536
1,344

808
525
1,333

808
514
1,322

808
505
1,313

808
495
1,303

3,862 7,866
3,414 6,438
7,277 14,304

Summary Tables

3,874 7,914
2,855 5,430
6,729 13,344

(As a percent of GDP)
Averages
2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

20212025

20212030

Outlays:
Discretionary programs:
Defense ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Non-defense �������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, discretionary programs �����������������������������������������

3.2
3.1
6.3

3.2
3.3
6.5

3.2
3.1
6.4

3.1
2.9
6.0

3.0
2.6
5.6

2.9
2.4
5.3

2.8
2.2
5.0

2.7
2.1
4.8

2.6
2.0
4.5

2.4
1.8
4.3

2.3
1.7
4.1

2.2
1.6
3.8

3.0
2.7
5.7

2.7
2.3
5.0

Mandatory programs:
Social Security ���������������������������������������������������������������������������
Medicare ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Medicaid ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Other mandatory programs ������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, mandatory programs ��������������������������������������������
Net interest �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total outlays ������������������������������������������������������������������������������

4.9
3.0
1.9
3.0
12.9
1.8
21.0

4.9
3.1
2.0
3.3
13.4
1.7
21.6

4.9
3.1
1.9
2.8
12.7
1.6
20.7

5.0
3.2
1.8
2.8
12.8
1.6
20.4

5.0
3.1
1.7
2.7
12.5
1.7
19.8

5.0
2.9
1.7
2.6
12.2
1.7
19.2

5.1
3.2
1.6
2.6
12.4
1.8
19.1

5.1
3.2
1.6
2.5
12.4
1.8
19.0

5.1
3.3
1.6
2.4
12.4
1.9
18.8

5.2
3.6
1.6
2.4
12.8
1.9
19.0

5.2
3.3
1.7
2.2
12.4
1.9
18.3

5.3
3.5
1.7
2.2
12.7
1.8
18.4

5.0
3.1
1.8
2.7
12.5
1.7
19.8

5.1
3.2
1.7
2.5
12.5
1.8
19.3

Receipts:
Individual income taxes ����������������������������������������������������������������
Corporation income taxes �������������������������������������������������������������

8.1
1.1

8.2
1.2

8.3
1.2

8.3
1.3

8.5
1.5

8.7
1.6

8.8
1.6

9.0
1.5

9.1
1.4

9.2
1.3

9.4
1.3

9.5
1.3

8.5
1.4

8.9
1.4

Social insurance and retirement receipts:
Social Security payroll taxes ���������������������������������������������������
Medicare payroll taxes �������������������������������������������������������������
Unemployment insurance ��������������������������������������������������������
Other retirement �����������������������������������������������������������������������
Excise taxes �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Estate and gift taxes ���������������������������������������������������������������������
Customs duties ������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Deposits of earnings, Federal Reserve System ����������������������������
Other miscellaneous receipts �������������������������������������������������������
Total receipts �����������������������������������������������������������������������������

4.3
1.3
0.2
*
0.5
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.2
16.3

4.4
1.3
0.2
*
0.4
0.1
0.4
0.3
0.2
16.7

4.3
1.3
0.2
*
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
16.5

4.3
1.3
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
16.6

4.3
1.3
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
16.9

4.3
1.3
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
17.2

4.3
1.3
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
17.3

4.4
1.3
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
17.3

4.3
1.3
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
17.4

4.4
1.4
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
17.5

4.4
1.4
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
17.6

4.4
1.4
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
17.6

4.3
1.3
0.2
0.1
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
16.9

4.4
1.3
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
17.2

Deficit �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

4.6

4.9

4.1

3.7

2.9

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.4

0.7

0.7

2.9

2.1

Net interest �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Primary deficit/surplus (–) ������������������������������������������������������������

1.8
2.9

1.7
3.2

1.6
2.5

1.6
2.1

1.7
1.2

1.7
0.3

1.8
0.1

1.8
–0.2

1.9
–0.5

1.9
–0.4

1.9
–1.1

1.8
–1.1

1.7
1.3

1.8
0.3

On-budget deficit ���������������������������������������������������������������������������
Off-budget deficit/surplus (–) ��������������������������������������������������������

4.7
–*

4.9
–*

4.1
*

3.7
0.1

2.7
0.1

1.8
0.2

1.6
0.2

1.4
0.2

1.1
0.3

1.2
0.3

0.4
0.3

0.4
0.4

2.8
0.1

1.8
0.2

Memorandum, budget authority for discretionary programs:
Defense ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Non-defense �������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, discretionary budget authority ����������������������������������
*0.05 percent of GDP or less

3.4
3.1
6.5

3.4
3.0
6.4

3.2
2.5
5.7

3.1
2.4
5.5

3.0
2.2
5.2

2.9
2.1
5.0

2.8
1.9
4.8

2.7
1.8
4.5

2.6
1.7
4.3

2.5
1.6
4.0

2.3
1.5
3.8

2.2
1.4
3.6

3.0
2.2
5.2

2.7
1.9
4.6

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

Table S–5. Proposed Budget by Category as a Percent of GDP

113

114

Table S–6. Mandatory and Receipt Proposals
(Deficit increases (+) or decreases (–) in millions of dollars)
Totals
2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2021–2025 2021–2030

Mandatory Initiatives and Savings:
Agriculture:
Tighten farm payment eligibility rules ���������������������������������
Reduce Crop Insurance subsidies �����������������������������������������
Eliminate redundant Farm Bill programs ����������������������������
Streamline conservation programs ���������������������������������������
Eliminate in-kind international food aid ������������������������������
Establish new user fees for food inspection and mineral
extraction ����������������������������������������������������������������������������
Reform commodity purchases under Section 32 ������������������
Improve Child Nutrition program integrity �������������������������
Total, Agriculture ���������������������������������������������������������������

–212
–12
–583
–215
–166

–260
–2,151
–650
–427
–166

–273
–2,177
–665
–672
–166

–261
–2,806
–621
–892
–166

–249
–2,853
–632
–1,094
–166

–258
–2,903
–641
–1,131
–166

–284
–2,953
–648
–1,171
–166

–276
–2,998
–658
–1,181
–166

–291
–3,047
–660
–1,181
–166

–290
–3,085
–659
–1,181
–166

–1,255
–9,999
–3,151
–3,300
–830

–2,654
–24,985
–6,417
–9,145
–1,660

.........
.........
.........
.........

–30
–415
–20
–1,653

–675
–436
–125
–4,890

–660
–457
–155
–5,225

–660
–479
–187
–6,072

–660
–502
–192
–6,348

–660
–524
–197
–6,480

–660
–546
–202
–6,630

–660
–570
–207
–6,716

–660
–594
–212
–6,811

–660
–618
–217
–6,876

–2,685
–2,289
–679
–24,188

–5,985
–5,141
–1,714
–57,701

.........
.........

–936
–1,942

–3,647
–2,533

–5,780
–2,682

–6,845
–2,728

–6,951
–2,749

–6,956
–2,850

–7,178
–2,929

–7,151
–3,003

–7,105
–3,053

–7,216
–3,088

–24,159
–12,634

–59,765
–27,557

.........
.........
.........

–194
–377
–1,911

–321
–1,180
–3,348

–437
–1,663
–4,508

–507
–2,048
–5,265

–541
–2,216
–5,738

–554
–2,285
–5,945

–581
–2,229
–6,100

–588
–2,111
–6,198

–570
–2,136
–6,508

–607
–2,077
–6,651

–2,000
–7,484
–20,770

–4,900
–18,322
–52,172

.........
.........
.........
.........

–466
.........
–181
71

.........
.........
–895
467

.........
.........
–1,430
1,126

.........
.........
–1,894
1,804

.........
.........
–2,361
2,258

.........
.........
–2,919
2,559

.........
.........
–3,684
2,820

.........
.........
–4,282
3,039

.........
.........
–4,723
3,247

.........
.........
–5,212
3,454

–466
.........
–6,761
5,726

–466
.........
–27,581
20,845

.........
.........
.........

.........
12
10

.........
29
22

.........
35
23

.........
41
23

.........
46
23

.........
46
23

.........
48
23

.........
48
23

.........
49
24

.........
51
24

.........
163
101

.........
405
218

.........
.........
.........
.........

–22
–2
893
–5,045

–51
–58
–64
–69
–69
–71
–71
–73
–75
–4
–4
–4
–4
–4
–4
–4
–4
–4
4,847
4,928
5,006
4,974
5,036
4,916
4,934
4,960
4,994
–6,614 –10,450 –12,481 –13,328 –13,918 –14,969 –15,364 –15,892 –16,407

–264
–18
20,648
–47,918

–623
–38
45,488
–124,468

Energy:
Divest the Power Marketing Administrations’ (PMAs’)
transmission assets�������������������������������������������������������������
Pursue additional reforms of the PMAs �������������������������������
Restart Nuclear Waste Fund fee in 2023�������������������������������
Total, Energy�����������������������������������������������������������������������

.........
.........
.........
.........

.........
–1,297
.........
–1,297

–1,688
–1,201
.........
–2,889

–364
–693
–346
–1,403

–382
–875
–342
–1,599

–349
373
–334
–310

–246
–749
–325
–1,320

–254
–617
–325
–1,196

–263
–784
–325
–1,372

–271
–1,089
–325
–1,685

–271
–989
–325
–1,585

–2,783
–3,693
–1,022
–7,498

–4,088
–7,921
–2,647
–14,656

Health and Human Services (HHS):
Mitigate impact of Temporary Assistance for Needy
Families (TANF) and Social Services Block Grant
(SSBG) program changes on child care spending ������������
Expand access to the National Directory of New Hires��������

.........
.........

221
.........

235
.........

212
.........

218
.........

217
.........

216
.........

216
.........

216
.........

216
.........

216
.........

1,103
.........

2,183
.........

Education:
Create single income-driven student loan repayment plan 1 ����
Eliminate standard repayment cap���������������������������������������
Use combined Adjusted Gross Income to calculate loan
payments for married filing separately ����������������������������
Eliminate subsidized student loans���������������������������������������
Eliminate Public Service Loan Forgiveness��������������������������
Eliminate account maintenance fee payments to guaranty
agencies�������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Establish student loan risk sharing���������������������������������������
Limit graduate student loan borrowing���������������������������������
Limit parent student loan borrowing������������������������������������
Move Iraq-Afghanistan Service Grants into the Pell Grant
program 2 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������
Expand Pell Grants to short-term programs�������������������������
Make incarcerated students eligible for Pell Grants������������
Reallocate mandatory Pell Grant funding to support
expanded eligibility�������������������������������������������������������������
Reduce improper payments in Pell Grants����������������������������
Establish Education Freedom Scholarships 3 �����������������������
Total, Education������������������������������������������������������������������

Summary Tables

.........
.........
.........
.........
.........

(Deficit increases (+) or decreases (–) in millions of dollars)
Totals
2020

2021

2022

2023
.........
1
300

2024
.........
1
300

2025
.........
1
50

2026
.........
1
.........

2027
.........
1
.........

2028
.........
1
.........

2029

.........
.........
.........

.........
1
50

.........
1
300

.........
1
.........

.........
.........
.........
.........
.........

130
1
27
22
–1,400

60
1
55
136
–5,100

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........

–20

–60

–80

–110

–160

–200

.........
.........
.........

.........
.........
–20

.........
.........
–60

.........
.........
–80

.........
.........
–110

.........
.........
–160

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........
.........

615
.........

1,095
.........

1,311
.........

.........

.........

10

.........
.........

310
–150

.........

2030

2021–2025 2021–2030

.........
1
.........

.........
5
1,000

.........
10
1,000

6
2
1
1
.........
.........
.........
.........
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
90
139
179
199
223
262
288
273
193
130
84
80
75
70
70
70
–6,000 –12,000 –12,000 –17,500 –18,000 –21,000 –21,000 –21,000

199
8
490
565
–36,500

200
26
1,735
930
–135,000

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

–230

–290

–290

–350

–430

–1,790

.........
.........
–200

.........
.........
–230

.........
.........
–290

.........
.........
–290

.........
.........
–350

.........
.........
–430

.........
.........
–1,790

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

1,536
.........

1,665
.........

1,827
.........

1,958
.........

2,025
.........

2,089
.........

2,154
.........

6,222
.........

16,275
.........

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

70

170

370
–90

400
90

430
140

460
70

500
50

530
60

570
90

610
100

650
130

1,970
60

4,830
490

775

1,385

1,821

2,126

2,215

2,397

2,568

2,705

2,819

2,954

8,322

21,765

.........
.........
.........

530
.........
–410

–1,930
–5,760
–1,230

–2,860
–7,170
–2,590

–3,750
–7,990
–3,440

–4,720
–8,870
–3,730

–5,710 –6,730 –7,820 –8,990 –10,190
–9,750 –10,660 –11,590 –12,570 –13,570
–3,950 –4,180 –4,430 –4,690 –4,950

–12,730
–29,790
–11,400

–52,170
–87,930
–33,600

.........

–1,280

–3,120

–5,140

–7,710 –11,040 –12,520 –13,530 –15,070 –15,210 –16,830

–28,290

–101,450

115

Reauthorize Healthy Marriage and Responsible Fatherhood Grants�������������������������������������������������������������������������
Increase repatriation ceiling��������������������������������������������������
Build the supply of child care�������������������������������������������������
Establish an Unaccompanied Alien Children Contingency
Fund�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Fund States to provide parenting time services�������������������
Enhance and reform foster care and permanency programs ���
Expand promoting safe and stable families programs ��������
Enact comprehensive drug pricing reform����������������������������
Advance kidney care:
Extend immunosuppressive drug coverage for kidney
transplant patients 4 �����������������������������������������������������
Allow the Secretary to determine the appropriate recertification period for organ procurement organizations 4 �������
Allow the Secretary to determine the appropriate number of organ procurement organizations 4 ��������������������
Total, advance kidney care���������������������������������������������
Improve access to rural healthcare:
Modernize payment for Rural Health Clinics�������������������
Expand and enhance access to Medicare telehealth
services����������������������������������������������������������������������������
Preserve access to rural emergency hospitals 4 ����������������
Total, improve access to rural healthcare����������������������
Reduce Government-imposed burden in Medicare:
Allow beneficiaries to opt-out of Medicare Part A and
retain Social Security benefits ��������������������������������������
Give Medicare beneficiaries with high deductible health
plans the option to make tax deductible contributions to health savings accounts or medical savings
accounts 3 �����������������������������������������������������������������������
Reform Medicare practitioner opt out 4 ����������������������������
Modify reinsurance arrangements for Medicare
Advantage plans�������������������������������������������������������������
Eliminate beneficiary coinsurance for screening colonoscopies with polyp removal ���������������������������������������������
Other������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, reduce Government-imposed burden in
Medicare����������������������������������������������������������������������
Eliminate wasteful Federal spending in Medicare:
Reform graduate medical education payments 5 ��������������
Modify payments to hospitals for uncompensated care 6 ���
Reduce Medicare coverage of bad debts�����������������������������
Address excessive payment for post-acute care providers
by establishing a unified payment system based on
patients’ clinical needs rather than the site of care �����

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

Table S–6. Mandatory and Receipt Proposals—Continued

116

Table S–6. Mandatory and Receipt Proposals—Continued
(Deficit increases (+) or decreases (–) in millions of dollars)
Totals
2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2021–2025 2021–2030

.........

–310

–330

–360

–390

–420

–450

–490

–540

–590

–640

–1,810

–4,520

.........

–1,800

–3,290

–3,670

–4,060

–4,480

–4,940

–5,420

–5,940

–6,500

–7,140

–17,300

–47,240

.........
.........

–4,200
–635

–7,740
–815

–8,710
–935

–9,770 –10,900 –12,160 –13,550 –15,050 –16,700 –18,420
–1,630 –2,225 –2,450 –2,635 –2,870 –3,125 –3,390

–41,320
–6,240

–117,200
–20,710

.........
.........

–8,105 –24,215 –31,435 –38,740 –46,385 –51,930 –57,195 –63,310 –68,375 –75,130
–732
–872
–783
–793
–823 –1,653 –1,854 –1,964 –2,054 –2,164

–148,880
–4,003

–464,820
–13,692

.........

.........

–470

–500

–530

–560

–590

–630

–670

–710

–750

–2,060

–5,410

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

–6,520

–6,490

–6,470

–6,450

–6,430

.........

–32,360

.........

–75

–79

–85

–90

–95

–100

–106

–113

–119

–126

–424

–988

.........
.........

.........
–905

.........
–945

.........
–985

.........
–1,036

.........
–3,046

.........
–1,136

.........
–1,187

.........
–1,247

.........
–1,308

.........
–1,368

.........
–6,917

.........
–13,163

.........

–980

–1,494

–1,570

–1,656

–3,701

–8,346

–8,413

–8,500

–8,587

–8,674

–9,401

–51,921

–8,000 –12,600 –13,300 –14,200 –14,800 –15,600 –16,400 –17,300 –19,700 –20,500
.........
86
58
42
–12
–39
–48
–57
–59
–62
–320 –3,410 –3,710 –3,930 –4,160 –4,440 –4,690 –4,950 –5,480 –5,810
–8,320 –15,924 –16,952 –18,088 –18,972 –20,079 –21,138 –22,307 –25,239 –26,372

–62,900
174
–15,530
–78,256

–152,400
–91
–40,900
–193,391

.........
.........
.........
.........
.........

200

300

500

500

600

600

600

700

700

700

2,100

5,400

.........

5

15

20

30

40

50

60

75

95

110

110

500

.........

906

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

906

906

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

25

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

105

205

.........

1,136

335

540

550

660

670

680

795

815

830

3,221

7,011

Summary Tables

Modify payment for hospice care provided to beneficiaries in skilled nursing and nursing facilities ����������������
Pay all hospital-owned physician offices located off-campus at the physician office rate �������������������������������������
Pay on-campus hospital outpatient departments at the
physician office rate for certain services �����������������������
Other������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, eliminate wasteful Federal spending in
Medicare����������������������������������������������������������������������
Address fraud and abuse in Medicare�����������������������������������
Address wasteful spending, fraud, and abuse in Medicaid:
Strengthen the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ ability to recoup Medicaid improper payments���
Continue Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital
allotment reductions ������������������������������������������������������
Improve processes for recovering Federal and State
overpayments������������������������������������������������������������������
Strengthen and clarify State provider screening, enrollment, and termination requirements 4 �������������������������
Other������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, address wasteful spending, fraud, and abuse in
Medicaid����������������������������������������������������������������������
Modernize Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance
Program (CHIP):
Implement Medicaid community engagement
requirement���������������������������������������������������������������������
Create new Money Follows the Person State plan option���
Other������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, modernize Medicaid and CHIP����������������������������
Address opioids and mental health in Medicaid and CHIP:
Address Medicaid Institutions for Mental Diseases
(IMD) exclusion���������������������������������������������������������������
Exempt Qualified Residential Treatment Programs from
Medicaid IMD payment exclusion ���������������������������������
Extend Community Mental Health Services demonstration program��������������������������������������������������������������������
Prohibit States from terminating CHIP coverage for
inmates����������������������������������������������������������������������������
Prohibit States from terminating Medicaid coverage for
inmates for six months ��������������������������������������������������
Allow States to extend Medicaid coverage for pregnant
women with substance use disorder to one year
postpartum ���������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, address opioids and mental health in Medicaid and CHIP�����������������������������������������������������������

(Deficit increases (+) or decreases (–) in millions of dollars)
Totals
2020
Extend mandatory funding and provide authorities, including tax provisions, for select public health programs:
Extend Health Centers through 2021��������������������������������
Extend the National Health Service Corps through 2021�����
Extend Teaching Health Centers Graduate Medical
Education through 2021 ������������������������������������������������
Extend the Special Diabetes Programs for the National
Institutes of Health and the Indian Health Service
through 2021 ������������������������������������������������������������������
Other������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, extend mandatory funding and provide authorities, including tax provisions, for select public
health programs ���������������������������������������������������������
Reform the Indian Health Service�����������������������������������������
Additional health proposals:
Reform medical liability 3 ��������������������������������������������������
Enforce conscience and protections against coercion in
HHS programs 4 �������������������������������������������������������������
Protect the religious liberty of child welfare providers 4 ����
Other������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, additional health proposals����������������������������������
Medicare and Medicaid interactions��������������������������������������
Total, Health and Human Services������������������������������������
Homeland Security:
Adjust collection and use of customs and immigration user
fees 3 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Establish an immigration services surcharge 3 ��������������������
Increase worksite enforcement penalties 3 ���������������������������
Establish National Flood Insurance Program affordability
assistance����������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, Homeland Security�����������������������������������������������

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2021–2025 2021–2030

641
24

2,555
132

2,134
196

54
50

40
12

.........
6

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

.........
.........

4,783
396

4,783
396

24

84

51

13

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

148

148

54
5

169
42

51
53

47
35

36
31

27
31

15
29

5
29

1
29

1
30

.........
30

330
192

352
339

748
.........

2,982
.........

2,485
.........

199
.........

119
.........

64
.........

44
.........

34
.........

30
.........

31
.........

30
.........

5,849
.........

6,018
.........

.........

–160

–593

–1,541

–2,511

–3,562

–4,884

–6,021

–6,799

–6,806

–7,421

–8,367

–40,298

.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
12
150
38
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
–148
–443 –1,503 –2,511 –3,562 –4,884 –6,021 –6,799 –6,806 –7,421
6,515
8,844
8,850
8,981
8,798
8,751
8,853
9,107 10,591 11,064
–7,845 –34,271 –46,109 –61,330 –73,332 –92,230 –100,198 –110,980 –117,516 –125,669

.........
.........
200
–8,167
41,988
–222,887

.........
.........
200
–40,098
90,354
–769,480

.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
748

–340
–389
–13

–203
–398
–14

–225
–407
–15

–227
–416
–15

–252
–426
–15

–256
–436
–15

–286
–446
–15

–288
–456
–15

–309
–466
–15

–5,800
–477
–15

–1,247
–2,036
–72

–8,186
–4,317
–147

.........
.........

5
–737

93
–522

132
–515

168
–490

200
–493

228
–479

253
–494

271
–488

284
–506

292
–6,000

598
–2,757

1,926
–10,724

.........
.........

–83
–4

–69
–4

–78
–4

.........
–4

.........
–4

.........
–4

.........
–4

.........
–4

.........
–4

.........
–4

–230
–20

–230
–40

.........
.........
.........

.........
260
173

.........
715
642

.........
1,040
958

.........
1,300
1,296

.........
1,300
1,296

.........
1,040
1,036

.........
585
581

.........
260
256

.........
.........
–4

.........
.........
–4

.........
4,615
4,365

.........
6,500
6,230

Justice:
Reform the Crime Victims Fund to preserve long-term
solvency ������������������������������������������������������������������������������

.........

–1,962

–1,623

–1,334

–868

3

85

105

45

.........

.........

–5,784

–5,549

Labor:
Reform Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation premiums�����
Expand Foreign Labor Certification fees�������������������������������

.........
.........

15
.........

–4,109
.........

–3,079
.........

–2,749
.........

2,208
.........

–7,971
.........

–2,810
.........

–2,792
.........

–2,825
.........

–2,894
.........

–7,714
.........

–27,006
.........

Interior:
Cancel Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act
balances�������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Repeal enhanced geothermal payments to counties�������������
Reauthorize the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement
Act����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Establish a Public Lands Infrastructure Fund���������������������
Total, Interior����������������������������������������������������������������������

117

.........
.........
.........

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

Table S–6. Mandatory and Receipt Proposals—Continued

118

Table S–6. Mandatory and Receipt Proposals—Continued
(Deficit increases (+) or decreases (–) in millions of dollars)
Totals
2020
Reform the Federal Employees’ Compensation Act��������������
Reform the Trade Adjustment Assistance program��������������
Increase H–1B filing fee to fund training and education������
Provide paid parental leave benefits 3, 7, 8 �������������������������������
Improve Unemployment Insurance program solvency and
program integrity 3, 8 ���������������������������������������������������������
Total, Labor���������������������������������������������������������������������

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2021–2025 2021–2030

–31
–55
–328
750

–24
–119
–211
750

–28
–133
–112
1,338

–16
6
–18
1,999

–17
55
.........
2,209

–17
23
.........
2,408

–19
–2
.........
2,599

–19
–28
.........
2,773

–21
–50
.........
2,936

–20
–75
.........
3,083

–116
–246
–669
7,046

–212
–378
–669
20,845

.........
.........

–111
240

–234
–3,947

–805
–2,819

–1,213
–1,991

–1,730
2,725

–1,092
–6,649

–1,268
–1,500

–1,452
–1,518

–1,797
–1,757

–376
–282

–4,093
–5,792

–10,078
–17,498

Transportation:
Reauthorize surface transportation programs����������������������

.........

945

2,676

4,078

5,342

6,651

8,052

9,513

11,076

12,708

14,403

19,692

75,444

Treasury:
Increase and extend guarantee fee charged by Government-sponsored enterprises�����������������������������������������������
Subject Financial Research Fund to appropriations 3, 8 �������
Increase debt collection 3, 9 �����������������������������������������������������
Improve tax administration, including program integrity 3 �����
Repeal specific energy-related tax credits 3 ��������������������������
Total, Treasury��������������������������������������������������������������������

.........
.........
.........
.........
36
36

–202
.........
–86
–964
–1,165
–2,417

–1,053
41
–80
–1,359
–1,229
–3,680

–2,250 –3,588 –4,644 –5,291 –5,123 –4,587 –4,075 –3,625
–11
–18
–18
–18
–18
–18
–18
–18
–80
–80
–80
–80
–80
–80
–81
–81
–3,634 –5,399 –7,303 –9,550 –11,922 –12,956 –13,870 –14,643
–1,645 –1,798 –1,998 –2,046 –1,948 –1,739 –1,525 –1,370
–7,620 –10,883 –14,043 –16,985 –19,091 –19,380 –19,569 –19,737

–11,737
–6
–406
–18,659
–7,835
–38,643

–34,438
–96
–808
–81,600
–16,463
–133,405

.........
.........

2
–41

2
–78

6
–128

2
–188

3
–256

3
–282

11
–292

2
–316

5
–326

6
–345

15
–691

42
–2,252

.........

–752

–840

–930

–1,022

–1,116

–1,212

–1,310

–1,409

–1,665

–1,425

–4,660

–11,681

.........

108

91

77

65

56

47

40

35

14

11

397

544

.........
.........

.........
–683

.........
–825

.........
–975

.........
–1,143

.........
–1,313

.........
–1,444

.........
–1,551

.........
–1,688

.........
–1,972

.........
–1,753

.........
–4,939

.........
–13,347

Corps of Engineers:
Divest Washington Aqueduct�������������������������������������������������
Reform inland waterways financing 3 �����������������������������������
Total, Corps of Engineers���������������������������������������������������

.........
.........
.........

.........
–180
–180

.........
–180
–180

–118
–180
–298

.........
–180
–180

.........
–180
–180

.........
–180
–180

.........
–180
–180

.........
–180
–180

.........
–180
–180

.........
–180
–180

–118
–900
–1,018

–118
–1,800
–1,918

Environmental Protection Agency:
Expand use of pesticide licensing fees�����������������������������������

.........

5

4

4

4

4

3

2

1

1

1

21

29

.........

–2,087

–1,455

–4,272

–6,830

–8,775 –10,400 –11,593 –12,571 –13,569 –14,683

–23,419

–86,235

.........
.........
.........
.........

.........
.........
1
274

.........
.........
1
2,039

.........
–224
1
2,167

.........
–351
1
2,000

.........
–494
1
.........

.........
–946
5
8,313

.........
–3,159
10
8,980

.........

–1,812

585

–2,328

–5,180

–7,312 –10,526 –11,809 –12,878 –13,968 –15,176

–16,047

–80,404

Veterans Affairs (VA):
Enhance burial benefits for veterans�������������������������������������
Reinstate Cost of Living Adjustment round-down����������������
Standardize and enhance VA Compensation and Pension
benefit programs ����������������������������������������������������������������
Standardize and improve veteran vocational rehabilitation
and education benefit programs ����������������������������������������
Standardize and improve Specially Adapted Housing programs�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, Veterans Affairs����������������������������������������������������

General Services Administration (GSA, including Federal
retirement):
Reform Federal retirement 3 �������������������������������������������������
Reform administrative financing of Earned Benefits Trust
Fund�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Modify the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program����
Expand authority for GSA Disposal Fund�����������������������������
Establish a Federal Capital Revolving Fund������������������������
Total, General Services Administration (including
Federal retirement)���������������������������������������������������������

.........
–371
1
1,833

.........
–394
1
267

.........
–417
1
200

.........
–441
1
133

.........
–467
1
67

Summary Tables

.........
.........
.........
.........

(Deficit increases (+) or decreases (–) in millions of dollars)
Totals
2020
Other Defense - Civil Programs:
Consolidate authorities to order Reserve component members to perform duty ����������������������������������������������������������

.........

Other independent agencies:
Postal Service:
Reform the Postal Service���������������������������������������������������
Other����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, other independent agencies ����������������������������������

–2,209
.........
–2,209

Crosscutting reforms:
Authorize additional Afghan Special Immigrant Visas��������
Eliminate allocations to the Housing Trust Fund and Capital Magnet Fund 3 ��������������������������������������������������������������
Extend Joint Committee mandatory sequestration��������������
Lease Shared Secondary Licenses�����������������������������������������
Improve clarity in worker classification and information
reporting requirements 3 ���������������������������������������������������
Improving payment accuracy Government-wide �����������������
Advance the President’s health reform vision:
President’s health reform vision allowance ����������������������
Repeal health taxes (non-add) 10 ���������������������������������������
Subtotal, advance President’s health reform vision
(non-add)���������������������������������������������������������������������
Reform welfare programs:
Reform the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program�����
Reduce TANF block grant���������������������������������������������������
Strengthen TANF����������������������������������������������������������������
Eliminate the TANF Contingency Fund����������������������������
Get noncustodial parents to work��������������������������������������
Strengthen Child Support enforcement and
establishment������������������������������������������������������������������
Discontinue SSBG funding to States and Territories�������
Shift SSBG expenditures to Foster Care and
Permanency���������������������������������������������������������������������
Require social security number for Child Tax Credit, Earned Income Tax Credit, and credit for other
dependents 3 ��������������������������������������������������������������������
Promote Opportunity and Economic Mobility
Demonstrations���������������������������������������������������������������
Total, reform welfare programs �������������������������������������
Reform Federal disability programs and improve payment
integrity:
Promote greater labor force participation ��������������������
Reform Federal disability programs 3 ���������������������������

2021

.........

2022

2023

16

34

–7,007 –7,481
–222 –6,123
–7,229 –13,604

–7,801
–1,221
–9,022

2024

52

2025

71

2026

90

2027

111

2028

132

2029

156

2030

2021–2025 2021–2030

180

173

842

–8,261 –8,760 –9,275 –9,892 –10,535 –11,208 –11,200
–1,400 –1,470 –1,489 –1,509 –1,746 –1,771 –2,826
–9,661 –10,230 –10,764 –11,401 –12,281 –12,979 –14,026

–39,310
–10,436
–49,746

–91,420
–19,777
–111,197

41

249

462

–396
–402
10,518 –27,230
–80
–85

–957
.........
–285

–2,881
–16,712
–670

.........

34

55

57

54

49

48

44

40

40

.........
.........
.........

81
.........
–50

–352
.........
–55

–171
.........
–55

–219
.........
–60

–296
.........
–65

–359
.........
–70

–377
.........
–70

–390
.........
–80

.........
.........

29
–253

37
–295

10
–337

–3
–379

–8
–422

–6
–443

–4
–464

–8
–506

–28
–590

65
–1,686

9
–4,216

.........
1,385

......... –14,000 –42,000 –68,000 –98,000 –106,000 –113,000 –126,000 –135,000 –142,000
8,431 12,380
8,610 28,867 22,243 25,749 29,173 21,371 36,649 53,567

–222,000
80,530

–844,000
247,039

1,385

8,431

–1,620 –33,390 –39,133 –75,757 –80,251 –83,827 –104,629 –98,351 –88,433

–141,470

–596,961

......... –15,348 –16,108 –17,413 –17,599 –18,013 –18,771 –18,887 –19,311 –20,127 –20,282
......... –1,095 –1,442 –1,513 –1,547 –1,607 –1,603 –1,595 –1,615 –1,618 –1,594
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
–608
–608
–608
–608
–608
–608
–608
–608
–608
–608
.........
9
11
13
14
17
20
22
24
26
28

–84,481
–7,204
.........
–3,040
64

–181,859
–15,229
.........
–6,080
184

–10
–527

.........
.........

–14
–1,360

–25
–1,632

–39
–1,700

–44
–1,700

–50
–1,700

–51
–1,700

–53
–1,700

–54
–1,700

–56
–1,700

–57
–1,700

–172
–8,092

–443
–16,592

.........

18

23

24

24

25

25

25

25

25

25

114

239

.........

–1,927

–7,134

–7,250

–7,330

–7,488

–7,776

–8,027

–8,294

–8,631

–8,938

–31,129

–72,795

.........
22
41
60
79
98
78
59
40
21
2
......... –20,303 –26,874 –28,426 –28,711 –29,326 –30,386 –30,764 –31,493 –32,668 –33,124

300
–133,640

500
–292,075

635
–8,147

–43,161
–19,989

.........
.........

96
–1,044

74
–1,434

2
–1,709

162
–1,891

301
–2,069

–2,030
–2,184

–4,452
–2,280

–8,398 –12,105 –16,811
–2,433 –2,393 –2,552

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

Table S–6. Mandatory and Receipt Proposals—Continued

119

120

Table S–6. Mandatory and Receipt Proposals—Continued
(Deficit increases (+) or decreases (–) in millions of dollars)
Totals
2020
Improve Social Security Administration payment
integrity ����������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, reform Federal disability programs and improve payment integrity ����������������������������������������
Support major investment in infrastructure���������������������
Total, crosscutting reforms�������������������������������������������������
Total, Mandatory Initiatives and Savings�������������������������
Note:

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

–1,410

–2,021

–2,100

–2,047

–1,957

–1,812

–2,615

–12,552

.........
–947 –1,766 –1,836 –2,400 –3,178 –6,235 –8,832 –12,878 –16,455 –21,175
.........
4,750 23,749 37,998 47,498 37,998 18,999
9,500
4,749
4,749
.........
......... –16,659 –19,501 –34,760 –52,220 –93,248 –124,452 –143,967 –166,566 –169,829 –224,593

–10,127
151,993
–216,388

–75,702
189,990
–1,045,795

.........

2021

2022
1

–406

2023
–129

2024
–671

–1,425 –46,156 –88,623 –117,784 –157,404 –209,387 –276,161 –302,674 –337,901 –349,803 –417,704

2021–2025 2021–2030

–619,354 –2,303,597

A more detailed version of this table, including breakouts of other lines, is available at https://whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/.
For receipt effects, positive figures indicate lower receipts. For outlay effects, positive figures indicate higher outlays. For net costs, positive figures indicate higher deficits.
The single income-driven repayment plan proposal has interactive effects with the other student loan proposals. These effects are included in the single income-driven repayment
plan subtotal.
2
Savings are less than $500,000 in each year.
3
The estimates for this proposal include effects on receipts. The receipt effects are detailed in the extended table online (https://whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/).
4
Estimates were not available at the time of Budget publication.
5
Reflects net savings to the Government. The proposal is estimated to save Medicare $215.4 billion (2021–2030) and save Medicaid $22.4 billion (2021–2030). The proposal increases
spending from the General Fund by $185.7 billion (2021-2030).
6
Reflects net savings to the Government. The proposal would reduce Medicare spending by $174.2 billion (2021–2030), while increasing spending from the General Fund by
$86.3 billion (2021–2030).
7
The paid parental leave proposal consists of $28.1 billion in benefit and program administration costs, offset by $7.3 billion in savings associated with increased State revenues.
8
Net of income offsets.
9
This proposal is revenue neutral for Federal scoring purposes. Estimated recoveries of $140.8 million for State taxes over the 10-year budget window.
10
These amounts were enacted in Public Law 116–94 and are reflected in the baseline accordingly.
1

Summary Tables

(Net budget authority in billions of dollars)
Totals,
2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

2021-2030

Defense:
Current Law Funding Levels 1 ������������������������������������������
Proposed Base Changes 2 ������������������������������������������������

667
.........

672
.........

688
+51

705
+50

722
+59

740
+58

758
+40

776
+22

796
+2

815
–17

836
–38

7,506
+228

Defense Cap Adjustments: 3
Emergency Requirements �������������������������������������������
Overseas Contingency Operations �����������������������������

8
72

.........
69

.........
20

.........
20

.........
10

.........
10

.........
10

.........
10

.........
10

.........
10

.........
10

.........
179

Total, Defense ����������������������������������������������������������������������

746

741

759

775

791

808

808

808

808

808

808

7,914

Non-Defense:
Current Law Funding Levels 1 ������������������������������������������
Proposed Base Changes 2 ������������������������������������������������

622
.........

627
–37

642
–64

657
–90

674
–119

690
–146

707
–174

724
–201

742
–230

761
–259

780
–288

7,003
–1,607

Proposed Base Funding ����������������������������������������������������

622

590

578

567

555

544

533

523

512

502

492

5,396

Federal Employee Retirement Cost Share
Reduction Proposal: 4 ��������������������������������������������������

.........

.........

–6

–7

–9

–10

–10

–10

–10

–10

–10

–82

Non-Defense Cap Adjustments:
Overseas Contingency Operations 5 ����������������������������������
Emergency Requirements �������������������������������������������������
Program Integrity ��������������������������������������������������������������
Disaster Relief ��������������������������������������������������������������������
Wildfire Suppression ���������������������������������������������������������
2020 Census �����������������������������������������������������������������������

8
1
2
18
2
3

.........
.........
2
5
2
.........

.........
.........
3
5
2
.........

.........
.........
4
5
2
.........

.........
.........
4
5
2
.........

.........
.........
5
5
2
.........

.........
.........
5
5
2
.........

.........
.........
5
5
2
.........

.........
.........
5
5
2
.........

.........
.........
5
5
2
.........

.........
.........
5
5
2
.........

.........
.........
44
51
24
.........

Total, Non-Defense Cap Adjustments ����������������������������

33

10

10

11

12

12

12

13

13

13

13

118

Total, Non-Defense with all Adjustments ���������������������

655

600

582

571

558

547

535

525

514

505

495

5,432

Total, Discretionary Budget Authority �������������������������

1,401

1,340

1,341

1,346

1,349

1,355

1,343

1,333

1,322

1,313

1,303

13,346

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

Table S–7. Proposed Discretionary Funding Levels in 2021 Budget

Memorandum - Appropriations Counted Outside of Discretionary Caps:
21st Century Cures Appropriations 6 ���������������������������������
1
*
1
1
*
*
*
.........
.........
.........
.........
3
Non-BBEDCA Emergency Funding 7 ���������������������������������
–*
–5
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
–5
* $500 million or less.
1
The current law funding levels presented here are equal to the caps for 2020 and 2021 in the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (BBEDCA) for “defense”
(or Function 050) and “non-defense” (NDD) programs. For 2022 through 2030, programs are assumed to grow at current services growth rates.
2
The 2021 Budget proposes to fund base defense programs for 2021 at the existing BBEDCA cap and fund base NDD programs at a level that is five percent below the 2020 NDD
cap. After 2021, when the current caps expire, the Administration proposes to extend the BBEDCA caps through 2025 at the levels included in the 2021 Budget. This would
provide an increase in defense funding of about two percent each year, and decrease funding for NDD programs by two percent (or “2-penny”) each year. After 2025, the 2021
Budget sets placeholder levels that project current policies with defense programs frozen at the 2025 level while NDD programs continue the 2-penny reduction through the budget
window.

121

122

Table S–7. Proposed Discretionary Funding Levels in 2021 Budget—Continued
(Net budget authority in billions of dollars)
3

4

5
6

7

The 2021 Budget includes Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) funding for defense programs in 2021 at the $69 billion level included in the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2019.
After 2021, for the remaining years of the Future Years Defense Program (FYDP) and the Administration’s proposed caps, OCO amounts would be $20 billion for 2022 and 2023
and $10 billion for 2024 and 2025, consistent with a potential transition of certain OCO costs into the base budget while continuing to fund contingency operations. After 2025, the
2021 Budget continues a notional $10 billion placeholder for OCO. Note that outyear OCO amounts do not reflect any specific decisions or assumptions about OCO funding in any
particular year.
This adjustment reflects savings from a reform proposed in the 2021 Budget that would reduce Federal agency costs through changes to current civilian employee retirement plans.
After 2021, the Administration supports reductions to its proposed NDD caps and outyear levels for this reform.
The 2021 Budget continues the Administration’s policy to shift NDD OCO amounts into base discretionary funding. No NDD OCO amounts are proposed in 2021 or the outyears.
The 21st Century Cures Act permitted funds to be appropriated each year and not counted towards the discretionary caps so long as the appropriations were specifically provided
for the authorized purposes. These amounts are displayed outside of the discretionary totals for this reason and the levels included through the budget window reflect authorized
levels.
These are enacted rescissions or proposed permanent cancellations of balances of emergency funding that were not designated pursuant to BBEDCA. These amounts are not re-designated as emergency, therefore no savings are being achieved under the caps nor will the caps be adjusted for these amounts.

Summary Tables

(Net budget authority in billions of dollars)
2019
Actual 1
Base Discretionary Funding:
Cabinet Departments:
Agriculture 2 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Commerce 3 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Defense ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Education �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Energy �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
National Nuclear Security Administration ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Other Energy ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Health and Human Services (HHS): 4 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Homeland Security (DHS) 5 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Housing and Urban Development (HUD):
HUD gross total (excluding receipts) �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
HUD receipts ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Interior �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Justice ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Labor ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
State and Other International Programs (OIP) 2, 6 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
State and OIP, including OCO funding (non-add) ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Transportation ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Treasury 5 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Veterans Affairs ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Major Agencies:
Corps of Engineers ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Environmental Protection Agency ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
National Aeronautics and Space Administration ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
National Science Foundation ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Small Business Administration (SBA) ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Social Security Administration (SSA) 4 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Other Agencies ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Changes in mandatory programs 1 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, Base Discretionary Funding ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Defense Base Subtotal ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Non-Defense Base Subtotal �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

2020
Enacted 1

2021
Request

2021 Request less
2020 Enacted
Dollar

Percent

24.4
11.6
616.2
70.5
35.6
15.1
20.5
100.8
47.3

23.8
12.9
633.3
72.2
38.5
16.6
21.9
105.8
48.1

21.8
8.1
636.4
66.6
35.4
19.8
15.6
96.4
49.7

–1.9
–4.8
+3.1
–5.6
–3.1
+3.2
–6.3
–9.5
+1.6

–8.2%
–37.3%
+0.5%
–7.8%
–8.1%
+19.0%
–28.7%
–9.0%
+3.4%

53.8
–9.5
14.1
30.8
12.0
48.2
56.2
26.5
15.0
86.6

56.5
–6.6
14.7
32.4
12.4
47.7
55.7
24.8
15.5
92.7

47.9
–8.8
12.7
31.7
11.0
44.1
44.1
21.6
15.7
105.0

–8.6
–2.2
–2.0
–0.7
–1.3
–3.7
–11.7
–3.2
+0.2
+12.3

–15.2%
+33.8%
–13.4%
–2.3%
–10.7%
–7.7%
–20.9%
–12.9%
+1.5%
+13.3%

7.0
8.9
21.5
8.1
0.7
9.1
21.7
–15.7

7.7
9.1
22.6
8.3
0.8
9.2
22.0
–15.9

6.0
6.7
25.2
7.7
0.7
9.0
20.1
–9.1

–1.7
–2.4
+2.7
–0.5
–0.1
–0.2
–1.9
+6.8

–22.0%
–26.5%
+11.9%
–6.5%
–11.1%
–1.8%
–8.5%
–43.0%

1,244.8
647.0
597.8

1,288.2
666.5
621.7

1,261.5
671.5
590.0

–26.7
+5.0
–31.7

–2.1%
+0.8%
–5.1%

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

Table S–8. 2021 Discretionary Overview by Major Agency

123

124

Table S–8. 2021 Discretionary Overview by Major Agency—Continued
(Net budget authority in billions of dollars)
2019
Actual 1

2020
Enacted 1

2021
Request

2021 Request less
2020 Enacted
Dollar

Percent

Funding Above Base Discretionary Appropriations, including Cap Adjustments:
68.8
0.2
8.0
77.0

71.3
0.2
8.0
79.5

69.0
.........
.........
69.0

–2.3
–0.2
–8.0
–10.5

–3.2%
–100.0%
–100.0%
–13.2%

Emergency Requirements:
Agriculture ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Commerce ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Defense ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
HHS ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
DHS ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
HUD ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Interior �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Justice ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Transportation ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Corps of Engineers ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Environmental Protection Agency ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Other Agencies ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Allowance for USMCA Implementation 7 �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, Emergency Requirements ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

5.1
0.9
2.8
3.2
1.9
4.1
0.4
0.2
1.7
3.3
0.4
0.7
.........
24.3

.........
.........
8.0
0.5
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
0.8
9.4

.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........

.........
.........
–8.0
–0.5
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
–0.8
–9.4

.........
.........
–100.0%
–100.0%
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
.........
–100.0%
–100.0%

Program Integrity:
HHS ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Labor ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Treasury 8 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
SSA ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, Program Integrity ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

0.5
*
.........
1.4
1.9

0.5
0.1
.........
1.3
1.8

0.5
0.1
0.4
1.3
2.3

+0.0
+0.0
+0.4
–*
+0.4

+4.4%
+43.1%
N/A
–0.5%
+23.8%

Disaster Relief:
DHS ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
SBA ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, Disaster Relief �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

12.0
.........
12.0

17.4
0.2
17.5

5.1
.........
5.1

–12.3
–0.2
–12.4

–70.8%
–100.0%
–71.1%

Wildfire Suppression:
Agriculture ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Interior �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, Wildfire Suppression �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

.........
.........
.........

2.0
0.3
2.3

2.0
0.3
2.4

+0.1
+*
+0.1

+4.6%
+3.3%
+4.4%

2020 Census:
Commerce ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

.........

2.5

.........

–2.5

–100.0%

Summary Tables

Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO):
Defense ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
DHS ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
State and Other International Programs ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Subtotal, OCO ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

(Net budget authority in billions of dollars)
2019
Actual 1

2020
Enacted 1

2021
Request

2021 Request less
2020 Enacted
Dollar

Percent

Non-BBEDCA Emergency Appropriations:
HUD and Energy 9 �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

.........

–*

–4.8

–4.8

N/A

21st Century Cures Appropriations: 10
HHS ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

0.8

0.6

0.5

–0.1

–16.4%

Subtotal, Above Base Funding, including Cap Adjustments ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������

116.0

113.5

74.3

–39.2

–34.5%

Total, Discretionary Budget Authority ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
1,360.8
1,401.7
1,335.8
–65.9
–4.7%
Defense Total ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
718.8
746.0
740.5
–5.5
–0.7%
Non-Defense Total ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
641.9
655.7
595.3
–60.4
–9.2%
* $50 million or less.
1
The 2019 actual and 2020 enacted levels include changes that occur after appropriations are enacted that are part of budget execution such as transfers, reestimates, and the
rebasing as mandatory any changes in mandatory programs (CHIMPs) enacted in appropriations bills. The 2019 and 2020 levels are adjusted to include OMB’s scoring of CHIMPs
enacted in 2019 and 2020 appropriations Acts for base programs for a better illustrative comparison with the 2021 request.
2
Funding for Food for Peace Title II Grants is included in the State and Other International Programs total. Although the funds are appropriated to the Department of Agriculture,
the funds are administered by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).
3
The large decrease in 2021 for the Department of Commerce is mostly attributable to the ramp down of the 2020 Decennial Census.
4
Funding from the Hospital Insurance and Supplementary Medical Insurance trust funds for administrative expenses incurred by SSA that support the Medicare program are
included in the HHS total and not in the SSA total.
5
The funding totals for 2019 actual and 2020 enacted are comparatively adjusted to reflect the Administration’s 2021 Budget proposal to shift the U.S. Secret Service from DHS to
the Department of the Treasury.
6
The State and International Programs total includes funding for the Department of State, USAID, Treasury International, and 12 international agencies.
7
At the time the Budget was finalized, Public Law 116–113, the United States-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) Agreement Implementation Act had not been enacted. As a result, the Budget includes a Government-wide allowance to represent the discretionary appropriations included in this proposal.
8
The Budget proposes a new cap adjustment related to program integrity in the Internal Revenue Service. See the Budget Process chapter of the Analytical Perspectives volume of
the Budget for more information on this adjustment.
9
The final 2020 appropriations Act rescinded remaining balances of emergency funding in HUD that were not designated pursuant to BBEDCA. These rescissions were not re-designated as emergency, therefore no savings were scored under the caps and the caps were not adjusted for these rescissions. The 2021 Budget proposes similar permanent cancellations of non-BBEDCA emergency funds to eliminate the Title 17 Innovative Technology Loan Guarantee Program and the Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan
Program in the Department of Energy.
10
The 21st Century Cures Act permitted funds to be appropriated each year for certain activities and not counted toward the discretionary caps so long as the appropriations were
specifically provided for the authorized purposes.

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

Table S–8. 2021 Discretionary Overview by Major Agency—Continued

125

126

Table S–9. Economic Assumptions 1
(Calendar years)
Actual
2018

Projections
2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

Gross Domestic Product (GDP):
Nominal level, billions of dollars �����������������������������������
Percent change, nominal GDP, year/year ����������������������
Real GDP, percent change, year/year ����������������������������
Real GDP, percent change, Q4/Q4 ���������������������������������
GDP chained price index, percent change, year/year ����

20,580
5.4
2.9
2.5
2.4

21,437
4.2
2.4
2.5
1.8

22,494
4.9
2.8
3.1
2.0

23,645
5.1
3.1
3.0
2.0

24,849
5.1
3.0
3.0
2.0

26,113
5.1
3.0
3.0
2.0

27,442
5.1
3.0
3.0
2.0

28,822
5.0
3.0
2.9
2.0

30,242
4.9
2.9
2.8
2.0

31,719
4.9
2.8
2.8
2.0

33,269
4.9
2.8
2.8
2.0

34,893
4.9
2.8
2.8
2.0

36,598
4.9
2.8
2.8
2.0

Consumer Price Index, 2 percent change, year/year ���

2.4

1.8

2.2

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

2.3

Interest rates, percent: 3
91-day Treasury bills 4 ����������������������������������������������������
10-year Treasury notes ��������������������������������������������������

1.9
2.9

2.1
2.2

1.4
2.0

1.5
2.2

1.5
2.5

1.6
2.7

1.7
3.0

2.0
3.1

2.2
3.1

2.4
3.1

2.5
3.2

2.5
3.2

2.5
3.2

Unemployment rate, civilian, percent 3 ���������������������
3.9
3.7
3.5
3.6
3.8
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
Note: A more detailed table of economic assumptions appears in Chapter 2, “Economic Assumptions and Interactions with the Budget,” in the Analytical Perspectives volume of the
Budget.
1
Based on information available as of mid-November 2019.
2
Seasonally adjusted CPI for all urban consumers.
3
Annual average.
4
Average rate, secondary market (bank discount basis).

Summary Tables

(Dollar amounts in billions)
Actual
2019
Financing:
Unified budget deficit:
Primary deficit/surplus (–) ��������������������������������������������������������
Net interest �������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Unified budget deficit ������������������������������������������������������������
As a percent of GDP ����������������������������������������������������������

Estimate
2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

609
375
984
4.6%

707
376
1,083
4.9%

588
378
966
4.1%

521
399
920
3.7%

319
428
746
2.9%

94
458
552
2.0%

27
499
527
1.8%

–62
543
481
1.6%

–150
586
435
1.4%

–146
621
475
1.4%

–395
645
250
0.7%

–404
665
261
0.7%

–2

3

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

.........

43
28

–16
12

67
–1

63
–2

54
–2

46
–1

41
–1

35
–2

33
–3

31
–4

27
–*

27
1

–1
*
68
–1

–1
.........
–3
–*

–1
.........
65
–*

–1
.........
59
–*

–1
.........
52
–*

–1
.........
44
–*

–1
.........
38
–*

–1
.........
33
–*

–1
.........
29
–*

–1
.........
26
–*

–1
.........
27
–*

–*
.........
28
–*

Other transactions affecting borrowing from the public:
Changes in financial assets and liabilities: 1
Change in Treasury operating cash balance �����������������������
Net disbursements of credit financing accounts:
Direct loan and Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP)
equity purchase accounts ���������������������������������������������
Guaranteed loan accounts ������������������������������������������������
Net purchases of non-Federal securities by the National
Railroad Retirement Investment Trust (NRRIT) ������������
Net change in other financial assets and liabilities 2 ����������
Subtotal, changes in financial assets and liabilities �������
Seigniorage on coins ������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, other transactions affecting borrowing from the
public ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Total, requirement to borrow from the public (equals
change in debt held by the public) ���������������������������

67

–3

65

59

51

43

38

32

29

26

26

27

1,051

1,080

1,031

979

798

595

565

514

464

501

276

289

Changes in Debt Subject to Statutory Limitation:
Change in debt held by the public �������������������������������������������������
Change in debt held by Government accounts �����������������������������
Change in other factors �����������������������������������������������������������������
Total, change in debt subject to statutory limitation ��������������

1,051
156
5
1,212

1,080
150
3
1,233

1,031
146
2
1,179

979
103
2
1,084

798
123
2
922

595
164
2
761

565
103
1
668

514
101
1
615

464
–1
2
465

501
–87
1
415

276
92
1
369

289
–46
*
242

Debt Subject to Statutory Limitation, End of Year:
Debt issued by Treasury ����������������������������������������������������������������
Adjustment for discount, premium, and coverage 3 ����������������������
Total, debt subject to statutory limitation 4 �����������������������������

22,647
40
22,687

23,878
42
23,920

25,056
43
25,099

26,138
44
26,182

27,059
45
27,105

27,820
46
27,866

28,488
46
28,534

29,103
47
29,150

29,567
47
29,615

29,982
48
30,030

30,351
49
30,399

30,593
49
30,642

Debt Outstanding, End of Year:
Gross Federal debt: 5
Debt issued by Treasury �����������������������������������������������������������
Debt issued by other agencies ��������������������������������������������������
Total, gross Federal debt �������������������������������������������������������
As a percent of GDP ����������������������������������������������������������

22,647
23
22,669
106.9%

23,878
22
23,900
107.6%

25,056
21
25,077
107.4%

26,138
21
26,159
106.6%

27,059
20
27,080
105.0%

27,820
19
27,839
102.7%

28,488
18
28,506
100.1%

29,103
18
29,121
97.4%

29,567
17
29,584
94.4%

29,982
16
29,998
91.3%

30,351
16
30,366
88.1%

30,593
16
30,609
84.6%

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021

Table S–10. Federal Government Financing and Debt

127

128

Table S–10. Federal Government Financing and Debt—Continued
(Dollar amounts in billions)
Actual
2019

Estimate
2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2026

2027

2028

2029

2030

Held by:
Debt held by Government accounts �����������������������������������������
Debt held by the public 6 �����������������������������������������������������������
As a percent of GDP ��������������������������������������������������������������

5,869
16,801
79.2%

6,019
17,881
80.5%

6,165
18,912
81.0%

6,269
19,891
81.0%

6,391
20,688
80.2%

6,555
21,284
78.5%

6,658
21,848
76.7%

6,759
22,362
74.8%

6,758
22,826
72.8%

6,671
23,327
71.0%

6,763
23,604
68.5%

6,717
23,892
66.1%

Debt Held by the Public Net of Financial Assets:
Debt held by the public ������������������������������������������������������������������

16,801

17,881

18,912

19,891

20,688

21,284

21,848

22,362

22,826

23,327

23,604

23,892

Less financial assets net of liabilities:
Treasury operating cash balance ���������������������������������������������
382
385
385
385
385
385
385
385
385
385
385
385
Credit financing account balances:
Direct loan and TARP equity purchase accounts ����������������
1,415
1,399
1,466
1,529
1,584
1,630
1,671
1,706
1,739
1,770
1,797
1,824
Guaranteed loan accounts ����������������������������������������������������
32
44
43
41
39
38
37
35
33
29
29
29
Government-sponsored enterprise preferred stock �����������������
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
112
Non-Federal securities held by NRRIT ������������������������������������
24
23
22
20
19
18
17
16
15
15
14
14
Other assets net of liabilities ���������������������������������������������������
–60
–60
–60
–60
–60
–60
–60
–60
–60
–60
–60
–60
Total, financial assets net of liabilities ��������������������������������
1,906
1,904
1,969
2,028
2,080
2,123
2,162
2,195
2,224
2,251
2,277
2,305
Debt held by the public net of financial assets ����������������
14,894
15,977
16,943
17,863
18,609
19,160
19,686
20,167
20,602
21,077
21,327
21,587
As a percent of GDP ������������������������������������������������������
70.2%
71.9%
72.6%
72.8%
72.2%
70.7%
69.1%
67.5%
65.7%
64.1%
61.9%
59.7%
* $500 million or less.
1
A decrease in the Treasury operating cash balance (which is an asset) is a means of financing a deficit and therefore has a negative sign. An increase in checks outstanding (which is
a liability) is also a means of financing a deficit and therefore also has a negative sign.
2
Includes checks outstanding, accrued interest payable on Treasury debt, uninvested deposit fund balances, allocations of special drawing rights, and other liability accounts; and, as
an offset, cash and monetary assets (other than the Treasury operating cash balance), other asset accounts, and profit on sale of gold.
3
Consists mainly of debt issued by the Federal Financing Bank (which is not subject to limit), the unamortized discount (less premium) on public issues of Treasury notes and bonds
(other than zero-coupon bonds), and the unrealized discount on Government account series securities.
4
Legislation enacted August 2, 2019 (Public Law 116–37), temporarily suspends the debt limit through July 31, 2021.
5
Treasury securities held by the public and zero-coupon bonds held by Government accounts are almost all measured at sales price plus amortized discount or less amortized premium. Agency debt securities are almost all measured at face value. Treasury securities in the Government account series are otherwise measured at face value less unrealized
discount (if any).
6
At the end of 2019, the Federal Reserve Banks held $2,113.3 billion of Federal securities and the rest of the public held $14,687.4 billion. Debt held by the Federal Reserve Banks is
not estimated for future years.

Summary Tables

OMB CONTRIBUTORS TO THE 2021 BUDGET
The following personnel contributed to the preparation of this publication. Hundreds, perhaps
thousands, of others throughout the Government also deserve credit for their valuable contributions.

A
Lindsay Abate
Andrew Abrams
Chandana L. Achanta
Laurie Adams
Shagufta Ahmed
P. Joseph Ahn
Steve Aitken
Lina Al Sudani
Joseph Albanese
Jason Alleman
Victoria Allred
Aaron Alton
Vishal Amin
Nicholas Andersen
Rachel Arguello
Judith Arnold
William L. Arritt
Anna R. Arroyo
Emily Schultz Askew
Lisa L. August
Kristin B. Aveille

B
Drew Bailey
Jessie W. Bailey
Ally P. Bain
Paul W. Baker
Steven Bakovic
Carol A. Bales
Caroline Ball
Pratik S. Banjade
Avital Bar-Shalom
Carl Barrick
Jody Barringer
Amy Batchelor
Sarah Belford
Jennifer Wagner Bell
Anna M. Bellantoni
Sara Bencic
Sarah M. Bender
Nathaniel H.
Benjamin

Joseph J. Berger
Elizabeth A. Bernhard
William Bestani
Madison Biedermann
Mark Bigley
Samuel J. Black
Catherine Bloniarz
Mathew C. Blum
Sharon A. Boivin
Amira C. Boland
Cassie L. Boles
Melissa B. Bomberger
David Bottom
William J. Boyd
James Braid
Michael Branson
Alex M. Brant
Joseph F. Breighner
Andrea M. Brian
Candice M. Bronack
Katherine W. Broomell
Dustin S. Brown
Sheila Bruce
Michael T. Brunetto
Grace Bruno
Pearl Buenvenida
Tom D. Bullers
Scott H. Burgess
Ben Burnett
Jordan C. Burris
John C. Burton
Nicholas S. Burton
Justin Buschow
Mark Bussow
Dylan W. Byrd

C
Steven Cahill
Ariella Campana
Amy Canfield
Eric D. Cardoza
Kevin Carpenter
Curtis M. Carr Jr.

Christina S. Carrere
Matthew T. Carroll
William S. S. Carroll
Scott D. Carson
Mary I. Cassell
David E. Cerrato
Taylor Chaffetz
James Chase
Nida Chaudhary
Maria Cheeks
Erin Cheese
Anita Chellaraj
Michael Clark
Angela Colamaria
Victoria W. Collin
Debra M. Collins
Kelly T. Colyar
Ann Conant
Jose A. Conde
Alyson M. Conley
David Connolly
Jeannette Mandycz
Connor
Kyle Connors
Mary Rose Conroy
Shila Cooch
Aaron Cooke
LaTiesha B. Cooper
Matthew T. Cornelius
Patrick Corrigan
Drew W. Cramer
Catherine E. Crato
William Creedon
Rose Crow
Jefferson Crowder
James Crowe
Julie Crump
Craig Crutchfield
Justin Cruz
David M. CruzGlaudemans
Lily Cuk
Pennee Cumberlander
Laura Cunliffe

C. Tyler Curtis
William Curtis
Matthew Cutts

D
Gregory D’Angelo
D. Michael Daly
Rody Damis
Neil B. Danberg
Elisabeth C. Daniel
Kristy L. Daphnis
Alexander J. Daumit
Joanne Chow
Davenport
Kenneth L. Davis
Margaret B. DavisChristian
Tasha M. Demps
Paul J. Denaro
Laura Dennehy
Wesley Denton
Catherine A. Derbes
Antonio Diaz-Agosto
John H. Dick
Amie Didlo
Jean Diomi Kazadi
Angela M. Donatelli
Jessica Donlon
Paul S. Donohue
Vladik Dorjets
Michelle Dorsey
Tobias A. Dorsey
Anjelica B. Dortch
Megan Dreher
Lisa Cash Driskill
Julie Driver
Mark A. Dronfield
Michael P. Duffey
Vanessa Duguay

E
Matthew C. Eanes
129

OMB Contributors to the 2021 Budget

130

Jacqueline A. Easley
Calie Edmonds
Jeanette Edwards
Michelle Enger
Diana F. Epstein
Brede Eschliman
Gillian Evans
Patrick Evans
Troy L. Ezell

F
Farnoosh Faezi-Marian
Robert Fairweather
Edna Falk Curtin
Hunter Fang
Kara L. Farley-Cahill
Christine E.
Farquharson
Louis Feagans
Christopher M. Felix
Lesley A. Field
Michael Fierro
Hugh Fike
Leah R. Fine
Jonathan K. Finer
Sean C. Finnegan
Mary Fischietto
Brette Fishman
John J. Fitzpatrick
Mitchell L. Forbes
Daniel G. Fowlkes
Lindsay Fraser
Nicholas A. Fraser
Ashlea Frazier
Haley Friedman
Laurel Fuller

G
Abigail P. Gage
Scott D. Gaines
Christopher D.
Gamache
Mar Gamboa
Joseph Gammello
Joseph R. Ganahl
Kyle Gardiner
Alexandria N. Gardner
Mathias A. Gardner
Marc Garufi
Anthony R. Garza
Mariam Ghavalyan
Daniel Giamo

Brian Gillis
Vance Ginn
Jacob Glass
Joshua S. Glazer
Andrea L. Goel
Jeffrey D. Goldstein
Lauren Gomez
Anthony A. Gonzalez
Oscar Gonzalez
Taylor J. Good
Alex Goodenough
Harrison D. Grafos
Michael Graham
Margie Graves
Aron Greenberg
Brandon H. Greene
Robin J. Griffin
Justin Grimes
Hester C. Grippando
Stephanie Grosser
Andrea L. Grossman
Kerry Gutknecht

H
Michael B. Hagan
Tia Hall
William F. Hamele
Amy Hamilton
Christine E. Hammer
Brian Hanson
Jennifer L. Hanson
David T. Hardin
Dionne Hardy
Deidre A. Harrison
Edward Hartwig
Paul Harvey
Laurel Havas
Nichole M. Hayden
Bradley Hayes
Mark Hazelgren
Edie M. Heipel
Peter Hendrickson
Elizabeth Hennemuth
John David Henson
Juan Manuel Heredia
Kevin W. Herms
Rachel Hernández
Alex Hettinger
Michael J. Hickey
Michael Hildner
Amanda M. Hill
Jonathan Hill
Elke Hodson-Marten

Jennifer E. Hoef
Jason Hoffman
Stuart Hoffman
Troy Holland
Brandon T. Holt
Michele Holt
Clinton T. Hourigan
Peter Hoy
Grace Hu
Rhea A. Hubbard
Kathy M. Hudgins
Shristi Humagai
Sally J. Hunnicutt
Alexander T. Hunt
Lorraine D. Hunt
William Hunt
James C. Hurban
Veta Hurst
Nathan Hurwitz

I
Tae H. Im
Davis Ingle

J
Theodore R. Jackson
Manish Jain
Harrison M. Jarrett
Carol Jenkins
Chase Jennings
Connor Jennings
Carol Johnson
Michael D. Johnson
Miles Johnson
Danielle Y. Jones
Denise Bray Jones
Lauren H. Jones
Lisa M. Jones
Othni A. Jones
Colby Ryan Jordan
Hee Jun

K
Derek Kan
Daniel S. Kaneshiro
Jacob H. Kaplan
Regina L. Kearney
Michelle Kelley
Nancy B. Kenly
Moses I. Kennedy
Suzette Kent

Meshach E. Keye
Shubha Khot
Jeongsoo Kim
Jung H. Kim
Maria Kim
Rachael Y. Kim
Kelly C. King
Kelly A. Kinneen
Jessica Kirby
Robert T. Klein
Kenneth A. Klukowski
Nick Koo
Andrea G. Korovesis
Katelyn V. Koschewa
Summer Kostelnik
Faride Kraft
Lori A. Krauss
Steven B. Kuennen
Robert Kuhlman
Jennifer J. Kuk
Christine Kymn

L
Christopher D. LaBaw
Jonathan W. Ladyga
Leonard L. Lainhart
Chad A. Lallemand
Lawrence L. Lambert
Adrienne-Elaine
Lamptey
Michael Landry
Daniel LaPlaca
Anthony Larkins
Ashley P. Lau
Eric P. Lauer
Jessie L. LaVine
Christopher Leach
Jessica Lee
Susan E. Leetmaa
Bryan León
Kerrie Leslie
John Levock-Spindle
James A. Lewis
Sheila Lewis
Wendy L. Liberante
Richard Alan
Lichtenberger
Andrew Lieberman
Jennifer Liebschutz
Kristina E. Lilac
Erika Liliedahl
John E. Lindner
Adam Lipton

BUDGET OF THE U. S. GOVERNMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2021
Kim Lopez
Sara R. Lopez
Adrienne Lucas
Gideon F. Lukens

M
Deborah Macaulay
Ryan MacMaster
Claire A. Mahoney
Dominic J. Mancini
Noah S. Mann
Roman Manziyenko
Sharon Mar
Michelle Marston
Italy Martin
Rochelle Martinez
Kimie Matsuo
Salim Mawani
Jessica Rae McBean
Alexander J.
McClelland
Malcolm McConnell
Brian McCormack
Jeremy P. McCrary
Anthony W. McDonald
Christine A. McDonald
Katrina A. McDonald
Renford McDonald
Natalie McIntyre
Charlie E. McKiver
Michael McManus
William McNavage
Christopher McNeal
Barbara A. Menard
Flavio Menasce
Margaret Mergen
P. Thaddeus
Messenger
William L. Metzger
Lauren Michaels
Daniel J. MichelsonHorowitz
Julie L. Miller
Kimberly Miller
Sofie Miller
Susan M. Minson
Emily A. Mok
Kirsten J. Moncada
Claire Monteiro
Joseph Montoni
Julia C. Moore
Hallee Morgan
William Morrison

Robin McLaughry
Mullins
Mick Mulvaney
Jonathan Murphy
Christian G. Music
Hayley W. Myers
Kimberley L Myers

N
Jeptha E. Nafziger
Larry J. Nagl
Barry Napear
Robert Nassif
Kimberly P. Nelson
Melissa K. Neuman
Caitlyn Newhard
Joanie F. Newhart
Christine Nguy
Teresa O. Nguyen
Tim H. Nusraty
Joseph B. Nye

O
Erin O’Brien
Kerry Clinton O’Dell
Matthew J. O’Kane
Brendan J. O’Meara
Melanie Ofiesh
Matthew Oreska
Denis A. Ortega
Jared Ostermiller
Michon Oubichon

P
Heather C. Pajak
Rosario Palmieri
Mark R. Paoletta
Peggy A. Parker
John C. Pasquantino
Neal A. Patel
Brian Paxton
Casey Pearce
Liuyi Pei
Falisa L. Peoples-Tittle
Michael A. Perz
Whitney L. Peters
William C. Petersen
Andrea M. Petro
Amy E. Petz
Stacey Que-Chi Pham
Carolyn R. Phelps

Karen A. Pica
Brian Pickeral
Brian Pipa
Joseph Pipan
Jeffrey S. Pollack
Mark J. Pomponio
Ruxandra Pond
Julianne Poston
Nancy Potok
Larrimer S. Prestosa
Jamie M. Price
Alanna B. Pugliese
Robert B. Purdy

R
Lucas R. Radzinschi
Latonda Glass Raft
Joseph Ramallo
Houman Rasouli
Johnnie Ray
Alex Reed
Paul B. Rehmus
Thomas M. Reilly
Bryant D. Renaud
Taylor N. Riccard
Keri A. Rice
Natalie Rico
Kyle S. Riggs
Jamal Rittenberry
Beth Higa Roberts
Taylor C. Roberts
Donovan Robinson
Wandlyn Robinson
Claudia G. Roche
Marshall J. Rodgers
Christina M.
Rodriguez
Samantha Romero
Meredith B. Romley
Stephanie D. Rosch
Jeffrey R. Ross
Sean Rough
David J. Rowe
Amanda Roy
Danielle Royal
Tamia Russell
Erika H. Ryan

S
Adam N. Salazar
John Asa Saldivar
Mark S. Sandy

131

Nathan T. Sanfilippo
Ruth Saunders
Gregoire F. Sauter
Joel Savary
Jason Sawyer
Grant Schneider
Ansley Schoen
Daniel K. Schory
Nancy E. Schwartz
Mariarosaria
Sciannameo
Jasmeet K. Seehra
Kimberly Segura
Robert B. Seidner
Andrew Self
Rachel Semmel
Megan Shade
Shahid N. Shah
Shabnam
Sharbatoghlie
Amy K. Sharp
Dianne Shaughnessy
Paul Shawcross
David Shorkrai
Gary F. Shortencarrier
Leticia Sierra
Sara R. Sills
Celeste Simon
Daniel Liam Singer
Sarah Sisaye
Robert Sivinski
Benjamin J. Skidmore
Richard A. Skokowski
Curtina O. Smith
Sarah B. Smith
Stannis M. Smith
Silvana Solano
Roderic A. Solomon
Timothy F. Soltis
Amanda R.K. Sousane
Rebecca L. Spavins
Valeria Spinner
John H. Spittell
Sarah Whittle Spooner
Travis C. Stalcup
Scott R. Stambaugh
Nora Stein
David Stepp
Lamar R. Stewart
Ryan Stoffers
Gary R. Stofko
Terry W. Stratton
Thomas J. Suarez
Kevin J. Sullivan

OMB Contributors to the 2021 Budget

132

Jessica L. Sun
Katherine M. Sydor

T
Jamie R. Taber
Naomi S. Taransky
Emma K. Tessier
Satya Thallam
Rich Theroux
Amanda L. Thomas
Payton A. Thomas
Will Thomas
Parth Tikiwala
Thomas Tobasko
Gia Tonic
Gil M. Tran
Katherine Trout
Susanna Troxler
Austin Turner

U
Nicholas J. Ufier
Shraddha A.
Upadhyaya
Darrell J. Upshaw
Taylor J. Urbanski

V
Matthew J. Vaeth
Areletha L. Venson
Alexandra Ventura
Cesar Villanueva
Russ Vought
Megha Vyas

W
Dana Wade
James A. Wade
Brett Waite
Nicole Waldeck

Traci Walker
Heather V. Walsh
Tim Wang
Peter Warren
Gary Waxman
Bess M. Weaver
Jacqueline K. Webb
Margaret Weichert
Jeffrey A. Weinberg
David Weisshaar
Philip R. Wenger
Max West
Arnette C. White
Ashley M. White
Curtis C. White
Kim S. White
Sherron R. White
Brian Widuch
Rayna Wilkins
Debbie L. Williams
Rebecca Williams
Jamie S. Wilson
Paul A. Winters

James Wolff
Minzy Won
Raymond J.M. Wong
Jacob Wood
Bryn Woollacott
Michael Wooten
Sophia M. Wright
Bert Wyman

Y
Jason Yaworske
Melany N. Yeung
David Y. Yi
Christian T. Yonkeu
Rita Young
Janice Yun

Z
Eliana M. Zavala

Budget of the U.S. Government, FY 2021
Stock #: 041-001-00736-9
ISBN #: 978-0-16-095401-6
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Appendix-Budget of the U.S. Government, FY 2021
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Major Savings and Reforms, Budget of the U.S. Government, FY 2021
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Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the U.S. Government, FY 2021
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