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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
*1
ACC
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S /.....................llO e W O
M I S C E L L A N E O U S

S E R I E S

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF
AMERICAN TRADE-UNIONS




SEPTEMBER, 1928

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON
1928

Acknowledgment
This bulletin was prepared by Florence E. Parker, of the United
States Bureau of Labor Statistics.
ii




Contents
Page

Chapter I.— Introduction and summary______________________________ 1-11
General welfare activities________________________________________
2-5
Recreation and sports___________________________________________
5
Business enterprises-------------------------------------------------------------------5, 6
Housing_______________________________________________________
7
General industrial questions_____________________________________
7
Chapter II.— Trade-union benefits and insurance_______ _____________ 12-32
General trade-union benefits____________________________________ 12-20
Trade-union insurance for members______________________________ 20-24
Amounts paid in benefits and in insurance________________________ 25-28
Provision for dependents of deceased members____________________ 28, 29
Benefits of local unions__________________________________________29-31
Sick and death benefits by collective agreement___________________ 31, 32
Chapter III.— Old-age and disability pensions________________________ 33-44
Requirements for receipt of pension______________ _______________ 34, 35
Amount of annuity, and expenditure for pensions__________________ 35-37
Source of revenues of plans______________________________________ 37-40
Basis and status of trade-union pension plans_____________________ 41, 42
Payments to wife, widow, or other beneficiaries___________________ 42, 43
Discontinued or rejected plans___________________________________
43
Proposed pensions______________________________________________ 43, 44
Chapter IV.— Homes for aged, disabled, and tubercular members______ 45-73
Carpenters’ Home______________________________________________ 45, 46
Costello Home— Tuberculosis sanatorium of stereotypers___________46-49
Printing Pressmen’s Home______________________________________ 49-53
Home for Aged and Disabled Railroad Employees_________________53-59
Railway Conductors’ Home_____________________________________ 59-61
Union Printers’ Home____________ :----------------------------------------------61-71
Other trade-union provision for tuberculosis treatment------------------ 71-73
Chapter V.— General health work___________________________________ 74^-84
Efforts to improve shop conditions_______________________________ 75-79
Ladies’ garment industry------------------------------------------------------ 76-78
Pocketbook industry_______________________________________
78
Printing trades_____________________________________________78, 79
Efforts to safeguard members7health--------------------------------------------79-84
Ladies’ garment industry____________________________________79-82
Men’s clothing industry____________________________________ 82, 83
Health work of locomotive engineers_________________________
83
Printing trades_____________________________________________ 83, 84




in

IV

CONTENTS
Page

Chapter VI.— Recreational activities_______________________________ 85-114
86
Extent of activities_____________________________________________
Attitude of internationals toward recreational activities____________ 87, 88
General social events and indoor recreation_______________________ 88-90
Musical organizations___________________________________________
90
Sports and athletics_____________________________________________90-94
Summer outings________________________________________________ 94, 95
Summer camps and vacation homes_____________________________ 95-102
_
102
Vacation travel_______________________________ , _______________
Recreational and community features of labor buildings_________ 102-114
Chapter VII.— Housing activities of labor groups__________________ 115-137
Amalgamated Clothing Workers’ buildings_____________________ 115-128
United Workers’ buildings____________________________________ 128-132
Locomotive engineers’ project___________________________________
132
Home-finance companies of trade-unions_______________________ 132-137
133
Florida____________________________________________________
Illinois__________________________________________________ 133-135
Minnesota_________________________________________________
135
Ohio____________________________________________________ 135-137
Texas_____________________ ________________________________
137
Chapter VIII.— Measures relating to unemployment________________ 138-153
Measures for the prevention of unemployment__________________ 139-146
Restriction of membership________________________________ 139, 140
Indemnity for loss of job__________________________________ 140, 141
Regulation of number of apprentices________________________
141
Distribution of work available_____________________________ 141, 142
Limitation of overtime____________________________________ 142,143
Finding jobs for members_________________________________ 143-145
Opening new markets and increasing business_______________ 145, 146
Measures for the relief of unemployment_______________________ 146-148
Unemployment benefits___________________________________ 146, 147
Exemption from dues_____________________________________ 147, 148
Loans to members__________________________________________
148
Unemployment insurance plans________________________________ 148-152
153
Labor’s unemployment conferences______________________________
C hapter IX.— Cooperation of trade-unions with employers__________ 154r-176
Attitude of labor leaders______________________________________ 155-157
Improvement in operating efficiency------------------------------------------ 157-165
Shop sanitation and safety------------------------------------------------------- 165, 166
Production and quality of work------------------------------------------------ 166-168
Increasing workers5 trade knowledge and efficiency______________ 168,169
Increasing the sale of product----------------------------------------------------169
Handling of grievances and disputes___________________________ 169-175
Other instances of cooperation-------------------------------------------------- 175,176
Chapter X.—Inquiry into industrial problems______________________ 177-179
Research_____________________________________________________ 177, 178
Institutes on general economic subjects_________________________ 178, 179
Chapter X I.—Avenues of publicity used by labor organizations______180-186
Labor press._________________________________________________ 180,181
Labor movies___________________________________________________
181
Labor radios_________________________________________________ 181-185
Other means of publicity______________________________________ 185,186




CONTENTS

V

Page
C hapter X II.— Business enterprises of organized la b o r______________ 187-216
Financial enterprises______________________ '_____________________ 188-200
Labor banks________________________________________________ 188-194
194
Personal loan bank____________________________________________
Credit unions_______________________________________________ 194-196
Investment and holding companies---------------------------------------- 196-200
Insurance companies____________________________________________ 200, 201
Supply of goods and services____________________________________ 201-207
Union-label stores___________________________________________ 201-203
Cooperative purchase organizations__________________________ 203, 204
Bakeries______________________________________________________
205
Laundries____________________________________________ ________
206
Funeral associations_________________________________________ 206, 207
Productive enterprises of organized labor------------------------------------- 207-210
Other enterprises________________________________________________ 210-213
Abandoned projects_____________________________________________ 213-216
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig. 1.— Home for Aged of United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners,
Lakeland, Fla-----------------------------------------------------------Face__
Fig. 2.— Tuberculosis sanatorium at Denver, Colo., owned by locals of
International Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union_________
Fig. 3.— Tuberculosis sanatorium of International Printing Pressmen and
Assistants’ Union, Pressmen’s Home, Tennessee______________
Fig. 4.— Bedroom in tuberculosis sanatorium at Pressmen’s Home, Tenn_
Fig. 5.— Home for superannuated members of Pressmen’s Union, Press­
men’s Home, Tennessee__________________________ ___________
Fig. 6.— Home for Aged and Disabled, maintained by Brotherhoods of
Locomotive Engineers, Firemen, and Trainmen, Highland
Park, H I_____ _______________________________________________
Fig. 7.— Home for Aged and Disabled Members of Order of Railway Con­
ductors, Oatland Island, near Savannah, Ga_________________
Fig. 8.— Panoramic view of Union Printers’ Home, at Colorado Springs,
Colo., showing landscaped grounds__________________________
Fig. 9.— Flower beds and croquet grounds at Union Printers’ Home, Colo­
rado Springs, Colo__________________________________________
Fig. 10.— Main building at Union Printers’ Home, largest and best known
of the trade-union homes for aged members________________
Fig. 11.— Union Health Center, maintained by locals of International
Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, where workers may obtain
general and special medical attention_______________________
Fig. 12.— Grounds of Unity House, 750-acre vacation resort of Interna­
tional Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union------------------------------Fig. 13.— Open-air lecture group at Unity House________________________
Fig. 14.— Bathing pavilion at Unity House-------------------------------------------Fig. 15.— Buildings at Pioneer Youth Camp for children of trade-unionists
and others at Rifton, N. Y _________________________________
Fig. 16.— Recreation lodge of Brotherhood of Railway Clerks’ locals on
Southern Railway System__________________________________
Fig. 17.— Ivy-covered headquarters building of International Typographi­
cal Union at Indianapolis__________________________________




44
47
50
52
54

56
60
62
63
64

80
96
97
97
100
103
106

VI

CONTENTS

Fig. 18.— Headquarters of Order of Railroad Telegraphers at St. Louis. _
Fig. 19.— Auditorium in headquarters building of Chicago local of streetrailway employees (surface lines), seating 4,000 persons___
Fig. 20.— New building of Chicago locals of the Amalgamated Clothing
Workers___________________________________________________
Fig. 21.— Library in new Amalgamated Temple in Chicago____________
Fig. 22.— “ Little art theater” in Amalgamated Temple, Chicago_______
Fig. 23.— Gymnasium in Amalgamated Temple, Chicago_______________
Fig. 24.— Bowling alleys in Amalgamated Temple, Chicago_____________
Fig. 25.— Ground plan of apartment buildings of Amalgamated Clothing
Workers___________________________________________________
Fig. 26.— Interior garden of apartments erected by Amalgamated Clothing
Workers, in New York City________________________________
Fig. 27.— Typical living room in Amalgamated apartments, 12 by 17 feet.
Fig. 28.— Typical bedroom in Amalgamated apartments, 11 by 15 feet_
_
Fig. 29.— Kitchen in Amalgamated apartments, showing dining alcove___
Fig. 30.— Bathroom in Amalgamated apartments_______________________
Fig. 31.— One of the homes financed by a loan from the Illinois Federation
Corporation________________________________________________
Fig. 32.— Reception room at WCFL, radio broadcasting station sponsored
by Chicago Federation of Labor and supported by trade-union
and farm groups___________________________________________
Fig. 33.— The smaller of the two broadcasting studios at W C FL ________
Fig. 34.— Interior views of a miners’ cooperative store in Illinois______
Fig. 35.— Pressauna Tavern at Pressmen’s Home, Tennessee____________
Fig. 36.— Headquarters building of American Federation of Labor, at
Washington, D. C_________________________________________
Fig. 37.— Headquarters building of Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators,
and Paperhangers, at Lafayette,. Ind________________________
Fig. 38.— Memorial chapel of International Printing Pressmen and Assist­
ants’ Union, dedicated to members who served in the World
War-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------




Page
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116
118
120
121
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182
183
205
212
214
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216

BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON

n o . 465

S e p t e m b e r , 1928

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF AMERICAN
TRADE-UNIONS
Chapter I.— Introduction and Summary
T IS generally known that labor organizations have gradually
extended their scope, in many cases far beyond the original
rather restricted field of concern for wages, hours, and working
conditions. But it is believed that few persons, except students of the
labor movement, have a realization of the ramifications and extent
of trade-union activities. It has been the attempt of the present
study to bring together data on some of the less well-known ventures
of labor organizations, as well as to show what the unions are doing
for their members in various ways, apart from their strictly economic
struggle for the betterment of earnings, working hours, and general
working conditions. Workers' education was not covered in this sur­
vey, for the work of the labor movement in that field is so varied
and extensive as to form in itself a separate study.
After collective bargaining is gained by the organization the
provision of “ benefits” is usually the next step. Then may be
undertaken measures intended to improve the workers' economic
position, such as the establishment of labor banks, credit unions
from which members may obtain loans, building and loan associa­
tions, legal aid departments; construction of homes; supply of
services or goods by such means as mail-order buying, cooperative
stores, etc. Or unions may take social or protective measures,
such as the establishment of various kinds of insurance, of definite
health services, etc., or educational or recreational activities.
Finally, as conditions in the industry become more or less stabilized
and the union ceasfes to have to fight for its existence, union leaders
have greater leisure to consider broader problems, those of the indus­
try and even of society in general. # At the unemployment conference
sponsored by organized labor, which was held in the spring of 1927,
one labor representative expressed himself to the effect that “ the time
has passed when trade-unions could confine their efforts to strictly
organizational matters, and every union should now have its affairs
so arranged that its officers will have time to devote to the big
economic and industrial issues, such as unemployment/’
There are still a number of labor unions which regard all union
activities aside from collective bargaining for wages, hours, and con­
ditions, the payment of strike and lockout benefits, and possibly of

I




1

2

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

death benefits, as “ frills” quite secondary to the real purpose of
trade-unions and which they would do better to leave alone. In
general, ^however, it may be said that the more prosperous and
progressive the union the greater its endeavors to extend the field
of its service to the members. The advantages placed at the
service of the members redound to the benefit of the organization
as such as well as to the membership, for they serve as an added induce­
ment toward joining the organization besides increasing the solidar­
ity of the membership.
General Welfare Activities

TT IE great majority of labor organizations make provision to
*
assist their members in meeting the calamities of death, illness,
or accident. This may be done through the medium of either
insurance or what are generally known as trade-union “ benefits.”
The necessities arising from a strike or lockout are usually those
first provided for. After that the union may furnish relief in case of
death of the member or his wife or in case he becomes incapacitated
for work because of injury or sickness. Of these, death is the emer­
gency most often provided for, though sickness and disability also
frequently receive assistance. A few unions have even assumed the
responsibility of making some provision for the surviving family after
a member’s death. Some unions pay cash benefits to members
found to be suffering from tuberculosis, or pay for their treatment in
a sanatorium; others which do not pay benefits for this disease make
regular or occasional contributions to private sanatoriums, with the
understanding that their members shall be entitled to treatment if
needed. Others pay for certain disablements peculiar or common
to the trade. Even those labor organizations which have no regular
benefits often have a “ benevolent” or “ relief” fund from which, in
special cases, deserving members may receive assistance in times of
financial stress. These benefits paid by the international organiza­
tion are in a great many cases supplemented by similar benefits paid
by the locals.
A few organizations provide annuities for members who, by reason
of advancing age, illness, or disability, are unable to continue at the
trade, and several of the larger international unions also maintain
homes for their aged members, the superannuated unionist being
given a choice between the pension and residence at the home. Only
well-financed unions can afford to pay such benefits, however, for the
constantly mounting costs make the burden of a pension system
prohibitive for all but the largest and most prosperous organizations.
Since all of these services cost money and all of the revenues of labor
organizations must come from the members, it follows that the num­
ber and amount of benefits reflect in great measure the prosperity
of the trade and consequently of the organization. Everywhere the
tendency is toward the expansion and increase of benefits where the
funds of the union will warrant. Unions in declining trades or in those
suffering from depression, on the other hand, are generally decreasing'benefits or abolishing them altogether.
The amounts paid last year in benefits and insurance by 73 inter­
national organizations alone totaled nearly $25,000,000. If to this
be added the more than $3,000,000 paid in old-age pensions, some




INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY

3

half million dollars1 for maintenance of union homes for the aged,
the amounts (not known) paid in unemployment benefits, and the
sums paid in benefits by local unions, it is seen that labor organiza­
tions are providing a tremendous amount of assistance to their less
fortunate members.
The death benefits of individual international unions range in
amount from $20 to $1,500, and disability benefits from $50 to $800.
The weekly benefits payable in case of sickness range in amount
from $4 to $10, and in time from 7 to 16 weeks per year. Old-age
pensions paid range from $5 to $70 per month; in cases where the
old-age pension is really a lump-sum benefit, not a continuing
annuity, the amount ranges from $50 to $800.
Few of the trade-union benefit funds are on an actuarial basis.
In the majority of cases a certain amount, estimated as sufficient to
cover the expenditure for benefits, is added to the dues; if this proves
to be insufficient the assessment is increased. In actual practice
many organizations have accumulated in this way funds that will
undoubtedly be sufficient to cover any liabilities for benefits. Others
have not been so fortunate or have failed to take into account the
increasing need for money with the result that they find their funds
in a precarious situation as regards future payments. This uncertain
stability of benefit funds has led a number of labor organizations
either to drastic reorganization of their systems on an actuarial
basis or to the substitution of group or other kinds of insurance.^
No attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the financial
stability of the funds from which these trade-union benefits are
paid. The organs of some of the labor organizations which pay
benefits state frankly that the condition of their fund is bad and
that if benefits are to be continued the amounts must be decreased
or the rate of contribution raised. In a number of instances the
union has found the contributions insufficient to cover the increas­
ing cost and has either reduced the benefit or discontinued it
altogether. In some cases this was not due entirely to the basis of
the scheme itself but the situation was aggravated by conditions in
the industry causing a decrease in members or unemployment among
them.
A gradually evolving tendency appears to be the shifting of the
responsibility for certain conditions onto the employer. This is
especially apparent in connection with the problem of unemployment.
Although labor organizations do what they can to prevent loss of
employment by their members, exert themselves to find them other
positions, and in certain instances either pay cash benefits or excuse
payment oi dues during the period of enforced idleness, many feel
that this is a burden that the industry, not the employees nor their
organization, should bear. In some industries, especially the needle
trades and the cap industry, the union has been successful in shift­
ing the burden of unemployment either wholly or in part, to the
shoulders of the employer. A system of unemployment insurance,
the expense of which is borne entirely^by the employer has been
secured in the cap and felt-hat industries of New York City. For
the past five years a contributory system borne equally by employers
and workers has been in operation in the men’s clothing industry
1 Four homes only; two just started; one, data not available.




4

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

of Chicago.2 Its extension to the Rochester market has just been
incorporated into the new agreement between the clothing manu­
facturers of that city and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers,
while in New York City the provision incorporated into the
agreement several years ago now becomes effective and employers’
contributions begin September 1, 1928. Hereafter in Chicago twothirds, instead of half, of the expense will be borne by the employers.
There are now even a few cases in the street-railway industry in
which death or sick benefits, or both, are paid by the employer under
the terms of a collective agreement between union and employers.
Such benefits have been provided the employees on the elevated
railways of Chicago since 1926; they have recently been extended
to the surface lines. In other cases the company provides group
life insurance for the employees or contributes to the union benefit
funds. There are many instances in which employers provide for
such insurance for their workers,3 but the above are the only cases
which have come to the attention of this bureau in which such insur­
ance has been provided under collective agreement with the union.
Not only have labor organizations done their best to improve the
economic condition of their members; they have also been active in
trying to improve the physical welfare of trade-unionists. The latter
problem has been approached from two angles—the workshop and
the individual member. Since so large a part of the waking hours
of workers is spent in the work places where they are employed, the
conditions encountered therein have an important effect upon the
general health of the workers. Union insistence has done much
toward the improvement of workshop conditions, and toward raising
the general standard of sanitation, cleanliness, and safety there. It
is to-day a common practice to incorporate into collective agreements
clauses guaranteeing safe and sanitary conditions. The enforcement
of these provisions is usually left to the workers themselves, to a shop
chairman, or union representative, or to some agency set up within
the industry. A few industries, such as the ladies’ garment in­
dustry and the pocketbook industry, have made provision for a joint
board of sanitary control, composed of equal numbers of representa­
tives of workers and employers, to which is intrusted the duty of
insuring the best conditions in the workshops.
Unions in a number of industries, such as the printing trades,
garment trades, etc., have cooperated in the making of surveys of
the sanitary and safety conditions in the shops, and these surveys
have usually included physical examinations of varying numbers of
workers to determine what, if any, physical effects had resulted from
the working conditions.
Other unions have gone a step farther and are providing certain
health services for their members aside from their capacity as workers.
A number of unions carry in their monthly magazines articles on spe­
cific diseases or of general interest from a health standpoint, while
one or two have a regular health or medical section through which
questions are answered and medical advice given. The New York
locals of the International Ladies' Garment Workers’ Union have
since 1919 operated a health center and dental clinic where expert
medical and dental service can be obtained by the worker. This
2 Contributory plans have been in effect in the ladies’ garment and fur industries but have been lost, at
least for the tim e being.
3 See U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bui. N o. 458, p. 66.




INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY

5

example has recently been followed by the Chicago locals of the
Amalgamated Clothing Workers, which have opened a dental clinic
in their new building; and the Cincinnati locals of this organization
provide medical examination and treatment for their members.
The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, through study of the
data secured by its insurance department, discovered the special
liability of its members to diseases which could have been discovered
through a periodic urinalysis. It therefore inaugurated such a service
for its members.
Recognizing the value of information relating to causes of sickness
and death and being aware of the scarcity of such information, the
American Federation of Labor is urging its local unions to cooperate
in the collection of information concerning their membership, for
study by the United States Public Health Service.
Recreation and Sports

(^LOSELY allied to the question of health is that of the provision
^
of healthful recreation, sports, athletics, etc. The value of
such activities is quite generally recognized by labor leaders, both
because they bring the members together in a social way and so
promote the spirit of comradeship, and because of their bearing
upon the health of the members. The play spirit of the membership
is being encouraged by a great many unions and the result is notice­
able in a great variety of both social and recreational lines.
Dances, card parties, banquets, “ smokers,” entertainments, con­
certs, plays, and motion pictures are among the indoor social features
which bring the members together. Even more widespread and
numerous are the sport and athletic activities among trade-unionists.
Baseball, bowling, tennis, basket ball, golf, hockey, football, boxing,
hiking, and swimming are among the means by which the physical
exercise so desirable, especially for workers in confined trades, is
obtained. Automobile trips, steamboat and railroad excursions,
picnics, and other outings bring together not only the members, but
the members’ families, increasing the social spirit. A number of
labor unions have summer camps and one international even operates
an elaborate, year-round vacation resort, provided with facilities for
both water and land sports, to which its members as well as those of
other unions may go for their vacations at reasonable cost.
Most of the social activities take place within the local unions,
though interlocal or interunion events are also common, especially
in connection with such sports as baseball, bowling, golf, etc. The
advantage of a general gathering place for the various unions of a
locality has also been recognized, as attested by the innumerable
“ labor temples.” Many of these are strictly office buildings, bub
many also contain certain community features—club rooms, reading
rooms, auditoriums, billiard rooms, dining halls, etc.— designed to
furnish the setting for general social gatherings and for making the
labor temple a real center of trade-union life.
Business Enterprises

r
T*HE advisability of business ventures by
*
and still is a matter of considerable
union world. One group is of the opinion
confine their activities to their main field



organized labor has been
controversy in the tradethat trade-unions should
of collective bargaining.

6

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

This group takes the stand that labor leaders are not qualified as busi­
ness men, bankers, manufacturers, etc., and assert that the widening
of their field to include business enterprises means a division of energies
and a dissipation of strength which the labor movement can ill afford.
The other group asserts that there is no field which trade-unions
may not properly enter if by so doing they give additional advantages
to their members. They grant that no business should be under­
taken without previous study of the field and unless it will be of real
service either to the members of the individual union or to the labor
movement in general. Trained men should be engaged to manage
such operations, leaving the officers of the union free to attend to
their regular duties but with general oversight of the new business.
The United Mine W orked international is perhaps the leading
exponent of the first view as has been the Brotherhood of Locomo­
tive Engineers of the second.
The businesses engaged in by labor unions have been many and
various. This development has mainly taken place since 1920, the
year in which the best-known of the labor banks, the Engineers
National Bank of Cleveland, was started. The labor banks are
probably the best known of these enterprises, but some of the other
ventures are equally interesting. The businesses so undertaken in­
clude the extension of credit (both for building purposes and for per­
sonal uses), investment service, writing of life insurance, the estab­
lishment of stores where only union-label goods are for sale, of coop­
erative stores where the patrons benefit in direct proportion to their
patronage of the store, and of mail-order departments in the union
organization, the manufacture of bakery goods, washing the members’
clothes, and even providing funerals at cost. Others include the
manufacture of bricks, cigars, and millwork, mining of coal, farming,
running hotels, etc.
In most instances, when a labor organization goes into business this
is done through an entirely separate business organization. Usually
the enterprise is a capital-stock company whose shares are offered
for sale to members of the union, but the union itself purchases at
least 51 per cent of the stock in order to retain control over the
policies of the organization.
Some of these businesses were started frankly for profit, but in the
majority of cases there was some other motive than this. In some
instances, in trades difficult to organize, the union enterprise was
started as an entering wedge to unionism. In other cases the project
was relied upon to bring up the level of wages in the trade, to furnish
employment for unionists, to increase the bargaining power of the
union, to provide additional benefits for members, etc. The following
statement, made in connection with one of the industrial enterprises
of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, is descriptive of the purpose
of the majority of union business organizations:
None of [these] has set out simply to make money. They are all organizations
subordinated to the major tasks of our movement. They are all parts in the
general drive of organized labor to increase its share of power in organized society.
The success of such enterprises can not be measured by the yardstick of dividend
or increased stock value alone. For they are aiming beyond profits, and it is
the “ beyond” that really matters. If they are profitable, however, that will
be likely to strengthen the confidence of the people in labor’s ability to do things.
That confidence in itself is a source of strength and p ow er.4
4 The Advance, Apr. 22, 1927, p. 6.




INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY

7

Housing

A NOTEWORTHY field of labor-union activity and one deserving
of special mention, is that of the financing or actual construction
of homes for members. There are to-day eight trade-union homeloan organizations, making loans at reasonable rates to unionists to
enable them to purchase their own homes.
Actual housing work has thus far been done by only two labor
organizations and one group of unionists of various trades. The
Amalgamated Clothing Workers has constructed for its members
apartment buildings providing living quarters for 303 families, and
is planning the erection of others. This is done without profit, as
an attempt to alleviate to some extent the conditions under which its
members have lived. A group of union workers in the same city (New
York) has also entered the housing field and has erected two blocks
of apartment buildings. The tenants in both instances, having
acquired the buildings as the result of collective effort, have gone on
and are supplying many of their wants, also on the cooperative plan,
so that they have formed a cooperative community.
The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers has undertaken land
development and real-estate activities on a large scale, and is en­
gaged in building a small city in Florida.
General Industrial Questions

"MOT only are trade-unions endeavoring to improve the economic
^
and social well-being of their members; they are also beginning
to see that they must consider the industry in which their members
are employed, as well. This realization has led to various mani­
festations of what has come to be known as “ union-management
cooperation.”
Though the acceptance of this principle is by no means universal,
a few outstanding labor organizations are leading the way and unions
are now cooperating with employers to improve operating efficiency,
to raise the standard of shop sanitation and safety, to improve the
quality of output and to increase the amount produced, to increase
the sale of the product, to settle disputes and grievances, and to aid
in solving the general and particular problems of the industry.
This preoccupation and interest in the problems of a particular
industry has led to a greater interest on the part of labor in general
economic questions and the wider industrial problems. This interest
has found expression in a number of conferences, held under the
auspices of organized labor and participated in by employers,
economists, and others, on such subjects as the railroad industry,
unemployment, giant power, and the textile industry; and week-end
conferences for the discussion of industrial questions.
The table below shows for each labor organization for which the
Bureau of Labor Statistics has data, the various activities engaged
in by the international. In some cases, where the work was partic­
ularly significant, the local activities have also been noted. The
table does not cover strike or lockout benefits, nor the educational
work of the labor organizations, some of which has been very
extensive.




00

A C TIV IT IE S OF IN TERN ATION AL LABOR UNIONS IN VARIOUS FIELDS

U nion

Welfare benefits

Insurance

Group life and disability..

Em ploym ent office.
Group life..
Brickmaking plant..

Farms; 1 local has
credit union.
Group life—

Exemption from dues dur­
ing unemployment.

Death.....................................
H om e for aged;2 “ relief” . .

Part ownership in bank;
mail order department;
part ownership of hotel.

Farms.

O
F

Group life................................
Life and total disability;
accident.

Electrical w ork ers.. .
Flint-glass w orkers. .
Foundry em ployees..
Fur workers...............

Death; old-age pension..
D eath.................................
____ d o.................................
____d o.................................

Garment workers (U nited).
Glass-bottle blowers.............
Granite cutters.......................
Hatters.....................................

.d o..
.d o..
D isability; old-age pension .
D eath.......................................

Headgear workers.

Sickness; tuberculosis.

H od carriers.....................................
H osiery workers..............................
Hotel and restaurant employees .

D eath..
____do..
____do..

Exemption from dues dur­
ing unemployment.
Unemployment benefits___
Exem ption from dues dur­
ing unemployment.
____do......................................

Death; optical examination.

Insurance com pany.
B ank...........................
1 local has credit
union.

Group life (through coopera­
tive d u b ).

Em ploym ent office................
Guaranteed employment in
2 locals.
U nem ploym ent insurance in
8 centers.

Locals in 2 centers
have
c r e d it
unions.

TRADE-UNIONS

Life and disability.................

D iam ond workers..
Draftsmen...............

ACTIVITIES

Death........................................
Death; old-age p ension1.......
Death; disability; old-age
pension.
D eath........................................
____ d o........................................
Death; disability; home for
aged.2

Conductors, sleeping car..
C o o p e r s .............................




Exem ption from dues during
unemployment.
____d o........................................

D eath ......................................
D eath; disability; sickness.

Cigar m akers......................
Commercial telegraphers..
Conductors, dining car___
Conductors, railway..........

Other

BENEFICIAL

Broom and whisk makers..
Butcher w orkm en...............
Carpenters and joiners____

Business ventures

Labor “ m ovie.”

Bakery and confectionery w orkers-. Death; sickness..
Barbers..................................................... ____do....................
Blacksmiths and drop forgers............. Death....................
B oilerm akers........................................
Bookbinders...........................................
Boot and shoe workers........................
Brewery and soft-drink workers___
Brick and clay workers.......................
Bricklayers, masons, and plasterers.
Bridge and structural-iron w ork ers..

Measures to relieve or pre­
vent unemployment

Iron, steel, and tin workers _
Lace operatives........................
Ladies’ garment workers___

Death; disability; sickness.
Death...................................

Lathers..................
Leather workers..

D eath..................
Death; sickness.

Guaranteed em ploym ent in
1 center.

Group life...............................

Old-age pension; home for
aged; widows’ and moth­
ers’ pensions.

Life and loss o f lim b or eye;
accident;
sickness and
medical care.

Exem ption from dues dur­
ing unemployment.

Life; sickness and accident.

L ocom otive engineers..

Em ploym ent office................

Locom otive firemen and enginem en.. Death; disability; tubercu­ Life and loss of member;
losis; home for aged; old-,
accident.
age pension;
“ benevo­
lence” ; widows’ pension.
M achinists.
D eath........................................ Life and disability .

M etal polishers..

D eath......................................

M old ers............................
Oil-field w orkers.............
Painters and decorators..
Paper makers...................

Death; disability; sickness.
Death; disability..
Death.....................

Pattern makers..

Death; disability; sickness.

Pharmacists.......................................
Photo-engravers.....................................
Plasterers and cement finishers
(operative).

Death; sickness........
Death; tuberculosisD e a th ............. ...........




i M a y be continued to widow on death of member.

Exem ption from dues dur­
ing unemployment.
.do.
E m ploym ent offices; un­
em ploym ent insurance in
3 centers; indem nity for
loss o f job.

1 local has credit
union.
11 banks; part ownership of Health department
1 bank; holding company;
in m a g a z i n e ;
investment com pany(with
housing and land
5 subsidiaries, 1 o f which
d e v e lo p m e n t;
in turn has 7 subsidiaries);
urinalysis.
3 hotels; 7 demonstration
farms.
Part ownership of bank........

Bank..

1 local has credit
union.

2 banks; investment com­
pany; industrial corpora­
tion; securities corpora­
tion.

Housing; locals in 3
centers have cred­
it unions; locals
in 1 center have
dental clinic.

Exem ption from dues dur­
ing unemploym ent.
------ d o .......................................
------ do........................................
E m ploym ent office; exemp­
tion from dues during un­
employment.
Exem ption from dues during
unemployment.
Em ploym ent office..

2 W ives of members also admitted.

SUMMARY

Death; disability .

information

AN
D

Maintenance-of-way employees.........
M en ’s clothing workers (Amalga­
m ated).

Em ploym ent
service.

INTRODUCTION

Letter carriers (National Association)
Lithographers......................................... D eath.......................................

Joint board o f sani­
tary control; san­
itary label; med­
ical and dental
clinic;year-round
vacation resort.

A C TIV ITIE S OF IN TER N A TIO N A L LABOR UNIONS IN VARIOUS FIELDS—Continued

Union

Welfare benefits

Insurance

Stove mounters

______________

E m ploym ent
office.

information

Bank; hotel; patent and
manufacturing company;
newspaper e n g in e e r in g
service.

Memorial chapel.

Em ploym ent office.................
B ank. .......................................
Part ownership of ban k____ Labor “ m ovie.”

Group life_____ ____________
Nonoccupational accident

B ank___

41 locals have cred­
it unions.

Exemption from dues dur­
ing unemployment.
Life; accident; “ immediate
relief.”

Death........................................
........ d o — .........................
........ d o — ................................
........ d o — ...................................
........ d o — _..................................

Unemployment benefits____

Death; tuberculosis sanato­
rium.*
Death........... ...........................

Death; disability; old-age
pension.
Switchmen............................................... Death........................................

Em ploym ent office; exemp­
tion from dues during un­
employment.

Street-railway em ployees___________




Labor “ m ovie.”

Life............................................ Employment office_________
__do____________ ________
Life and disability____ ____

Death; disability_

R ailway mail clerks_________________
Railw ay workers (American Federa­
tion).
Retail clerks________________________
Roofers and waterproof workers_____
Sheet-metal workers________________
Shoe workers (U nited)______________
Siderographers
_ _______________
Stereotypers and electrotypers______

Em ploym ent office

Life and disability.................

2 locals have credit
unions.

TRADE-UNIONS

R ailw ay carmen____________________

E m ploym ent office; unem­
ploym ent benefits.

O
F

Quarry w ork ers____________________ Death; old-age pension_____
Railroad signalmen_________________ Death; disability___________
Railroad telegraphers__ _____________
Railroad trainmen
_
..
__ _ Death; tuberculosis; “ be­
nevolence” ; old-age and
. disability pension;1 home
for aged.
Railroad yar dm asters_______________
R ailw ay and steamship clerks______ Death___

Other

ACTIVITIES

Group life__ ____ __________
Post-office clerks (N ational F e d e r ­ Sickness. ___ __ _ _
ation).
........d o ._ _ .................................
Post-office clerks (U nited N ational) _.
Potters
Death; tuberculosis_ _
_
Printers_____________________________ D eath; old-age p e n s i o n ;
hom e for aged; tuberculo­
sis sanatorium.
Printing pressmen.. . . „ ^
. ........ d o .............. .........................

Business ventures

BENEFICIAL

Plate printers and die stampers_____ Death________________ _
Plumbers and st.p.am fitters ...
Death; sinkness
Pocketbook workers_________________ “ R elief” __________ ________

Measures to relieve or pre­
vent unemployment

O

o698S0t

Tailors.................................................. Death; disability; sickness.
Textile workers........ ........................... Death................................ .
T rain dispatchers.....................
Tunnel and subway workers.
Wall-paper crafts.......................
Window-glass cutters............................
W indow-glass cutters (Protective
Association).
W ire weavers..........................................

D ea th .

Investm ent com pany..
Employment office................
Guaranteed employment, b y
national agreement.

,.do_
.d o .

1 M a y be continued to w idow on death of member.




1 local has credit
union.

Exem ption from dues dur­
ing unemployment.

_do_.

Em ploym ent office..
8Supported b y locals.

Chapter II.—Trade-Union Benefits and Insurance
General Trade-Union Benefits

OST unions pay some kind of trade-union “ benefits.” The
first benefit usually provided is the strike and lockout
benefit, then generally are undertaken the “ welfare”
benefits—payment of varying amounts in case of the death of a
member, in case he becomes disabled for work from injury or illness,
or is temporarily debarred from working at his trade because of
sickness. The death benefit is the welfare benefit most generally
found; sickness and disability benefits are paid in about equal
numbers of cases, and a few unions pay for tuberculosis or for spe­
cial disablements common to the trade, as for instance, loss of sight,
by the granite cutters. Assistance to members in time of unemploy­
ment is another function often undertaken by labor organizations.
The present study has been confined to the national and inter­
national unions. Many local unions also pay benefits of various
kinds, but to attempt to collect data concerning all these would be a
prohibitive task. Inquiries were sent to each of the national and
international unions known to be making some provision for sick,
aged, or disabled members, personal visits also being made to a
number of organizations whose activities covered a large scope.
Of the 96 unions of nation-wide scope which were known to have or
to have had some form of welfare benefit, data were secured from 78.
Of these, 63 pay benefits for death, 14 for disability, 12 for sickness,
13 make some provision for aged members, and 20 have some form
of insurance. Eight unions pay tuberculosis benefits or provide for
treatment of the tubercular. Seven organizations maintain homes
for the aged and disabled, and two of these also maintain a tuberculosis
sanatorium in connection with the home. The increasing popularity
of group insurance is indicated by the fact that nine unions have
such insurance and three are known to have substituted it for the
death benefit formerly paid. The International Photo-Engravers’
Union of North America, at its 1927 convention, unanimously de­
cided to substitute for its $200 death benefit, group insurance of
$1,000; and this action was ratified by a referendum vote of the gen­
eral membership. The members of the Brotherhood of Railway Car­
men were circularized to obtain their views upon a suggested plan of
group insurance, but the proposal was defeated. The ladies’ auxiliary
of the Order of Railroad Telegraphers at the 1927 meeting also adopted
a group insurance plan. The Pattern Makers’ League submitted the
question to its membership, but there proved to be insufficient inter­
est in the organization for the establishment of compulsory insurance,
and the committee was convinced that to secure the voluntary applica­
tion of 75 per cent of the membership, necessary to secure group
insurance, would be impossible. The matter has therefore been
dropped for the time being, the union retaining its death-benefit
12

M




TRADE-UNION BENEFITS AND INSURANCE

13

system. A similar proposal was made in the Metal Polishers’ Union,
but failed to receive sufficient support to be submitted to referendum
vote of the membership.
The pharmacists discontinued their benefits December 1, 1927,
while those of the National Window Glass Workers were abolished
by action of their convention held in May, 1927. The benefits of the
Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin Workers, and the
disability benefits of the Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Em­
ployees were discontinued in 1926. In other unions, however, the
establishment of new benefits or an increase in the amount of the old
benefits is being advocated.
In the majority of cases all members in good standing are entitled
to benefits by virtue of their membership in the organization, the
cost being covered by the general trade-union dues. In some cases,
as for instance where insurance is provided by the union, the mem­
ber may be required to take this protection, paying an additional
amount to cover the cost. In certain other cases, participation in a
specified benefit is optional.
Kinds of Benefits Provided

Table 1 shows for each trade-union from which data were secured
the kind of benefits paid, the year when each kind of benefit was
established, the amount of the benefit, and in the case of weekly
benefits the number of weeks for which payable.
This table covers benefits paid for death, disability, sickness,
tuberculosis, old age, etc., and any special provision made for depend­
ents of deceased members. The measures taken by certain unions
to provide homes for their aged or disabled members or treatment in
a union or private sanatorium for those afflicted with tuberculosis are
treated in Chapter IV.




14

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OP TRADE-UNIONS
T

able

1 .—Y E A R OP E S T A B L IS H M E N T A N D A M O U N T O F E A C H K I N D
Death benefit

Union

W hen
estab­
lished

Bakery and confectionery workers____

1909
Barbers_______________________________
(8
)
THanksmifchs and drop forgers
1919
B ookbinders_______ ____ T____________ 4 1920
Bnnt and shoe workers . . . . _____ ___
_
1900
Brick and clay workers_______ ____
e 1915
Bricklayers, masons, and plasterers___
1910
Bridge and structural-iron workers___
1903
Broom and whislr makers
Butcher workm en____________________
Carpenters arid joiners
Commercial telegraphers______________

1893
(3
)
1882
1922

Disability benefit

Sick benefit

W hen
W hen
A m ount of estab­ Am ount of estab­
benefit
benefit
lished
lished
J i $50- $350
}
\ 2 27- 75 /
100- 500
50- 300
75
1906
100- 200
7 200
50- 300
1920
100- 400

/
\

75- 200
300
150- 300 1 1882
2 25- 75
75- 125

Rate of
payment

1895

$100 to $200

$10 per w e e k ..

(3
)

........ do...... .........

1900

$5 per week 5._

$25 p e r
month.

$50 to $400.

Conductors, railway__________________
1906
Diam ond workers____________________
1922
Electrical workers____________________
Flint-glass workers___________________
(3
)
Foundry employees
____
_______
(3
)
1913
Fur workers
____
____
____ __
1922
Garment workers (U nited)___________
Glass-bottle blowers__________________ 6 1891
Granite cutters_______________________
Hatters_______________________________

1907

Headgear workers ___________________
1903
H od carriers
_
__
_______
1922
Hosiery w ork ers __ _______ __________
1902
Hotel and restaurant employees______
Ji 1903
Iron, steel, and tin workers _________ \21909
1892
Lace operatives_______________________
L a t h e r s ____________________________
Leather workers______________________
Lithographers
_____________________

1902
(3)
1883

400- 750
300-1,000
300
100
100
50- 300
500
81909

$750 f la t
sum.

/ 9 100- 300
t 10100- 150 /
50-

f$7
__
1912 \$5 per week ®_
per week io__

100
1,000
75

} 100- 500 1 2 1916
/ i 200-1,000 }
\ 2 25- 50 J
50- 400
1 75- 200
3
100-1,000

(3)...............

1 2 1908

(3
)

$5 per w e e k ...

$7 per week i3_

Locom otive engineers_________________

Locom otive firemen and enginem en...

1914

225

Machinists
____ ________________
Maintenance-of-way employees_______
M etal polishers_______________________

(3
)
1920
1910

50- 300
50- 300
50- 200

Molders______________________________

1880

1 Members.
2 Wives.
3 N ot reported.
4 Present rate.
5 After first week of sickness.
6 N ow discontinued for group insurance.
7 $400 in Chicago district.
8 Pay only for disability* caused b y loss of sight.




600-

700

f$50 p e r
m on th
1926 < d u r in g
disabill ity.

1 2 1920

$50 to $300.

[$5.20
p e r
1 week.i*
1880 /$600 t o } 1896 1 7.60 p e r
\ $700.
I week.i®

TRADE-UNION BENEFITS AND INSURANCE

15

OF W E L F A R E B E N E F I T P A ID B Y S P E C IF IE D T R A D E -U N IO N S

Sick
benefit,
period
for
which
paid

Miscellaneous benefits

K ind of benefit

W hen
estab­
lished

Rate of
payment

16 weeks.
_do___
13 weeks.
Old-age pension..
____d o .................. .

1915
1920

Union

Period
for which
paid

$7 per w e e k ... L ife..
$25 per m onth. .. .d o ..

Bakery and confectionery workers.
Barbers.
Blacksmiths and drop forgers.
Bookbinders.
B oot and shoe workers.
Brick and clay workers.
Bricklayers, masons, and plasterers
Bridge and structural-iron workers.
Broom and whisk makers.
Butcher workmen.

Hom e for aged.
fHome for aged.

1927

L ife -

1928

Carpenters and joiners.
Commercial telegraphers.

Optical care_____
Old-age pension..

1910
1927

Old-age pension..

1905

Life........
(Lett to
I discre- •Conductors, railway.
I tion of
( board.
Diam ond workers.
LifeElectrical workers.
Flint-glass workers.
Foundry employees.
Fur workers.
Garment workers (United).
Glass-bottle blowers.
$60 per year... Life..
Granite cutters.

Tuberculosis.

1917

$ 5n.
7 _

“ Relief”

>7 weeks.

(3)

I

N ot to exceed
$50
p e r
month.
$3 every 2 years
$40 per m onth.

Hatters.
Headgear workers.
H od carriers.
Hosiery workers.
Hotel and restaurant employees.
Iron, steel, and tin workers.

13 weeks.

Lace operatives.
Lathers.
Leather workers.
Lithographers.

10 weeks.
H ome for a ged ...
Old-age pension..
H ome for a ged ...
Old-age pension..

1891
1913
1891
1920

Tuberculosis____

1920

‘ ‘ Benevolent’ ’ . . .

1900

• 3weeks.
1

L ife ..
r$25 to $65 per

L month.

—
do___

•Locomotive engineers.

— do____
$30 to $70 per . . . d o .......
month.
$75 m................. Disabil­
ity.
Locom otive firemen and enginemen.
$50 per m onth. Left to
discre­
tion of
board.
Machinists.
Maintenance-of-way employees.
M etal polishers.
Molders.

9 Men.
1 Women.
0
1 “ Once in a lifetime.”
1
u Discontinued, 1926.
u Benefit discontinued; only older members now receive it.
1 Per m onth if not in sanatorium; if in sanatorium not to exceed $100 per month plus $15 for personal
4
expenses.
15 “ Honorary ” members; i. e., in good standing but not working at the trade.
1 Regular members.
8




16

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS
T

able

1 .—y e a r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d a m o u n t o f e a c h k i n d
Death benefit

Union

W hen
estab­
lished

Painters, decorators, and paper hang­
ers.
Paper makers
Pattern makers
Pharmacists
Plate printers and die s ta m p e rs........
Plumbers and steam fitters
Pocket book w ork ers ____ _____________
Post-office clerks (National Federa­
tion).

Disability benefit

Sick benefit

W hen
W hen
Amount of estab­ Am ount of estab­
benefit
benefit
lished
lished

/ i $50-$400
«
\ 225- 50 } «
50- 300
1911
50- 400
1905
1905
100
1 1900
7
/
1 100 }
8
1903 \
1 200 J
9
1924
(3
)
150- 500
1902

Rate of
payment

$50 to $400.

1892

1906
(3
)
1923

50- 125
(28)...............

Railroad trainmen____________________

1912

$5 per w e e k ...
$10 per week

100- 700

Quarry workers_______________________
Railroad signalmen _________________

1902

75- 500

Printing p ressm en ___________________

$4 per w e e k ...
$7.50 per week.

50- 300

_________________

1905
171900

1913
1911

50 to 400—

2 300
6

P rin te rs ___

___

Railway and steamship clerks________
1922
Railway carmen______________________
1916
Railway workers (American Federa­
1905
tion).
Retail clerks
____ __________________ a» 1905
Roofers and waterproof workers_______
Sheet-metal workers__________ ______
Shoe workers_________________________
1901

8

100-1,500
50- 250
100

1923

(26).............

1916

(28)..............

2 25- 200
9
200
100- 500
100

Stereotypers and electrotypers________

1904

200- 300

Stove mounters_______________________
Street and electric railway employees. - Switchmen___________________________

(3
)
1892
(3
)

500
50- 800
300

Tailors_____ _____________ _________

1889

20-

Textile workers_______________________
Train dispatchers_____________________
Wall-paper crafts_____________________
Window-glass cutters and flatteners
Window-glass cutters and flatteners
(Protective Association).

1907
1925
1923
1919
(3
)

1892

100

25- 25
3 300-1,000
3
50- 300
100
500

1 Members.
2 Wives.
3 N ot reported.
4 After first week of sickness.
1 Discontinued, December, 1927.
7
is Apprentices.
i« Journeymen.
20 A nd $10 for medical examination.
2 Left to discretion of board.
1
22 Treatment in sanatorium at cost not to exceed $18 per week.
23 Treatment in union’s sanatorium,
w N ot yet in operation.




(3
)

50 to 800
($2.50
to
<
$4 per | 1907
1 week.si

$5 per week 32.

TRADE-UNION BENEFITS AND INSURANCE

17

O F W E L F A R E B E N E F I T P A H ) B Y S P E C IF IE D T R A D E -U N IO N S —Continued
Miscellaneous benefits

Sick
benefit,
period
for
which
paid

K ind of benefit

W hen
estab­
lished

13 weeks
10 weeks
1908
13 weeks

Tuberculosis_______
Home for aged_____
Old-age pension____
Tuberculosis sana. torium.
H ome for aged .......
Old-age pension____
Tuberculosis sana­
torium.
Old-age pension.......

1913
1891
1907
1891

Hom e for a g e d .........
Old-age and disab:
ity pension.

18&"
1925

Tuberculosis........
.“ Benevolent” ___

1923
1895

{

Old-age pension..

10 weeks

(“)
1925
1916

(8)

1903

so 1 9 1 2

Union

Period
for which
paid

f Painters, decorators, and paper hang\ ers.
Paper makers.
Pattern makers.
Pharmacists.
$15 per month2
0
Photo-engravers.
Plate printers and die stampers.
Plumbers and steam fitters.
Pocketbook workers.
Post-office clerks (National Federa­
tion).
6 months Potters.
Life____
$8 per week _
..d o ___
Disabil­ -Printers.
(2 )
3
ity.
Life____
$7 per w e e k .. . . . d o .......
Disabil­ ►Printing pressmen.
(2 )
3
ity.
Quarry workers.
$50, fiat sum .
Railroad signalmen.
Life____
/$35 to $70 per [..d o ___
\ month.
/D isabil- Railroad trainmen.

(2)1

‘ Relief”
13 weeks

Tuberculosis sana­
torium, supported
b y locals.

Rate of
payment

(2)1

(“>
-

..........

...........

<»)............ l ity.
(2
1
)............ («)-----

Railway and steamship clerks.
Railway carmen.
Railway workers (American Federa­
tion).
Retail clerks.
Roofers and waterproof workers.
Sheet-metal workers.
Shoe workers.

/D isabiljstereotypers and electrotypers.
l ity.
Stove mounters.
$800, lum p sum
Street and electric railway employees.
Switchmen.
Tailors.
Textile workers.
Train dispatchers.
Wall-paper crafts.
Window-glass cutters and flatteners.
Window-glass cutters and flatteners
(Protective Association).

2 Varies according to membership; 10 cents for every participating member.
5
2 Maximum.
6
2 All expenses of treatment in sanatorium.
7
3 Full amount of death benefit payable in case of total disability.
8
2 Prior to 1905 paid a flat sum of $100 after 1 year’s membership.
9
8 In present form.
0
8 Payable for 10 weeks each year for 3 years, after having received 2 years’ sick benefits; disability bene­
1
fits amount to $4 per week for first year, $3.50 per week for second year, and $2.50 per week for third year.
3 Subject to an all-time limit of $200.
2
8 Varies according to membership of benefit association; death benefit, $1 for each member at time of
8
death.




18

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

Death benefits.—As is seen, the benefits vary considerably as
between unions. Thus, death benefits 1 payable upon the demise of
members vary from $20 to $1,500, with $50 the most common mini­
mum and $200 and $300 the most common maximums. Benefits
payable upon the death of a member’s wife are much lower. Where
a range of benefits is shown, the amount payable is predicated upon
length of membership in the union. Thus, for example, the Inter­
national Brotherhood of Blacksmiths, Drop Forgers, and Helpers
pays $50 upon the death of a member who has belonged to the union
one year, gradually increasing the amount as the years of member­
ship increase, up to 10 years’ membership when the maximum amount,
$300, is payable. The unions for which the bureau has data usually
require one year’s membership before the member becomes eligible
for death benefits; others, like the Boot and Shoe Workers’ Union,
and Retail Clerks’ International Protective Association pay such
benefits after three months’ affiliation, while the United Hatters has
a nonbeneficiary period of two years. The photo-engravers stand
alone in permitting apprentices to receive the death benefit. Any­
where from 2 to 30 years’ membership is necessary to secure the maxi­
mum benefit of the various organizations. In the case of the Inter­
national Hod Carriers, Building and Common Laborers’ Union the
maximum benefit is attained after two years’ membership, but only
if the deceased had not passed his fiftieth birthday at the time of his
initiation into the union.
In the case of the death of a member who could not pass the medical
examination entitling to insurance, the Brotherhood of Railroad
Trainmen pays the expenses of the last illness and of the funeral, the
total so expended being limited to $300.
Disability benefits.—In most cases where disability benefits ai*e
maintained, a flat sum is paid to the incapacitated members, the
amount quite generally varying, like that of the death benefit, with
the length of time the beneficiary has been a member of the union.
Fifty dollars is the minimum paid and $800 the maximum. Only
three organizations make weekly or monthly payments for disability.
The International Association of Bridge, Structural and Ornamen­
tal Iron Workers pays disability benefit in cases of disablement by
injury due to the occupation, provided the man has been a member
of the union for 15 years; while loss of sight is the only disability for
which payment is made by the Granite Cutters’ International Asso­
ciation.
A member of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners
of America who has belonged to the union for one year and who
becomes permanently disabled by reason of an accidental injury,
and is thereafter prevented “ from ever again following the trade for
a livelihood,” becomes eligible to receive a “ disability donation”
varying, according to his length of membership, from $50 to $400.
Permanent disability is defined as total blindness, the loss of an arm
and/or leg, loss of use of a limb, loss of four fingers of one hand, “ or
being afflicted with any physical disability resulting from accidental
injuries.”
The boot and shoe workers provide that these benefits shall be
paid only after the member, by reason of sickness or disability, has
i Variously termed, also, funeral benefit, burial benefit, mortuary benefit, widows’ and orphans’ benefit.




TRADE-UNION BENEFITS AND INSURANCE

19

been incapacitated from work for two years and has drawn his sick
benefit of $5 per week for 13 weeks in each of these two years. In
case of continued disability after exhausting the sick benefit, the
union pays him the sum of $100 as a disability benefit, and this
relieves the union from any further claims for sick or death benefits.
The tailors also provide that disability benefits do not become payable
until after receiving two years’ sick benefits. This union, however,
continues the payment of benefit—calling it a “ disability benefit” —
for 10 weeks in each of the succeeding three years, gradually reducing
the amount per week from $4 to $2.50. At the end of the third
year of disability payments cease.
Any locomotive fireman or engineman in good standing in the
brotherhood who becomes totally incapacitated from performing
any manual labor is entitled to receive during such disability the
sum of $50 per month. Disability is here defined as Bright’s disease,
uncompensated valvular disease of the heart, progressive pernicious
anemia, permanent paralysis of either extremity, locomotor ataxia,
total deafness in both ears, arthritis deformans, diabetes, cancer, or
loss of a hand, foot, or both eyes.
The Brotherhood of Railway Carmen pays to a totally disabled
member the full amount of his death benefit.
Sick benefits.—Sick benefits vary from $4 to $10 per week, $5
being the most common amount. The benefit period ranges from 7
to 16 weeks, 13 weeks being the most general. The boot and shoe
workers and the National Federation of Post Office Clerks provide
for a waiting period of one week before sick benefits become payable.
Other benefits.—The “ other benefits” listed in the table include
tuberculosis benefit, homes for the aged, old-age pensions, and
“ benevolent” allowances.
“ Benevolent” allowances are those made in cases of claims for
benefits which have been disapproved because they were not payable
under the laws of the organization but which seem to be “ worthy
of charitable consideration.” In such cases the board of directors
of the relief department of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen
and Enginemen may at its discretion grant an allowance of not more
than $50 per month, to continue as long as the board determines.
Such cases are, in the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, left to
the discretion of the board as to both amount and period of payment.
The “ relief” granted by the Order of Railway Conductors is ex­
tended where needed to “ aged and disabled members and to the wife
or minor dependents of any member adjudged insane while said
member remains under such disability.”
Sources of Revenue

As already stated, generally all or some of the benefits are provided
out of the income from dues. A specific charge is made by certain
organizations, however. Thus, in the Bricklayers’, Masons’, and
Plasterers’ International Union, death benefits are provided from
the fund accumulated from a per capita tax of 25 cents per month;
in the United Hatters of North America from dues of 50 cents
a month for men and 25 cents for women; and those of the bridge
and structural-iron workers’ organization by a tax of 15 cents per
month, with the proviso that an additional assessment is to be




20

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

made whenever the fund falls below $50,000; and those of the rail­
road trainmen from a tax of 60 cents per month.
Death, sick, and disability benefits of the International Molders’
Union are all provided from the funds accumulated from a tax
of 75 cents per week for active and 35 cents for honorary members.
The dues of members of the Amalgamated Lace Operatives of Amer­
ica are 15 cents per week for the first year of membership, increas­
ing 1 cent per week with each succeeding year, until a maximum
of 20 cents is reached. From these general dues the death benefits
are paid. One-half cent per week, taken from the general per capita
tax of 10 cents, maintains the death benefit fund of the fur workers;
while that of the paper makers is supported by a per capita tax
of 10 cents per month, and that of the Brotherhood of Railway
and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station
Employees by a tax of 60 cents a month.
The assessment plan is used to provide funds for the payment
of death benefits in the Diamond Workers’ Protective Union and
in that of the American Federation of Full Fashioned Hosiery
Workers, the International Plate Printers, Die Stampers, and Engra­
vers’ Union, and the American Train Dispatchers’ Association. The
diamond workers assess each member $2 for every death, the hosiery
workers $1 (membership in the fund is voluntary, however), and
the plate printers 50 cents. The train dispatchers make an assessment
of $1 upon each member of the benefit association, and the benefits
vary with the number of members in the association. For example,
if the membership numbers 300 or more at the time of a member’s
death, his beneficiary receives $300, if 750 or more, $750, etc.; the
maximum benefit payable is $1,000.
Trade-Union Insurance for Members

IWIANY labor organizations, instead of or in addition to the regular
A
union benefits, have an insurance plan by which members
may take out insurance covering death, accident, or sickness,
or all of these. In the majority of unions from which data were
secured, the insurance is written by a special insurance department
of the union; in some cases, especially where group insurance is
carried, this is secured from one of the two general union insurance
companies—the Union Cooperative Life Insurance Co. of the elec­
trical workers or the Union Labor Life Insurance Co. Others obtain
the protection from some old-line insurance company.
In all cases the insurance is limited to members of the union
who are in good standing.
Table 2 following shows the kind of insurance offered to mem­
bers of specified unions, when the plan was established, the
range of benefits provided, and the premium cost:




TRADE-UNION BENEFITS AND INSURANCE
T

able

21

2 .—K IN D S OF IN S U R A N C E P R O V ID E D B Y T R A D E -U N IO N S A N D A M O U N T A N D
C O ST OF P O L IC Y

U nion

K ind of insur­ W hen
estab­
ance
lished

Am ount of in­
surance policy
offered
Am ount of premium
M ini­
mum

Boilermakers.................... . Group life and
disability.1
Brick and clay workers... Group life____
Cigar makers...................... ____do............. .
Conductors, dining car. _ _ .. . . d o . i......... .
Life and total
disability.
Conductors, railway.._

1925
1927
1927
1923
1868

$1,000

(3)

100

1,000

M axi­
m um

2

$3,000

1,000
« 1,000
3,000

Letter carriers (National
Association).

Locom otive engineers____

Locom otive firemen and
enginemen.
M achinists..........................

1919 «1,500

Life and disa­
bility.
Group life____
G roup life i ...

1919
1927
1923

600
250

1,000
500

Life................. .

Conductors, sleeping car.

1891

500

3.000

Sickness and
accident.
Life and loss
of lim b or
eye.
A ccident........ .

1911
1867

1,500

6.000

1906

»1,000

10 2,000

1918

ii 10

H30

1882

500

4.500

1917 121,000

1 2,000
3

Sickness and
medical care.
Life and loss
of member.
Accident..........
Life and dis­
ability.
G roup life 1_>.

7 2,500

1,000

8 500

1921

500

500

Post-office clerks (N a­
tional Federation).
Post-office clerks (United ____do. i...........
National Association).
Railroad telegraphers____ Life............. r_.

1923

500

1.500

1898

Railroad trainmen.............

Life and dis­
ability.
G roup life 1. . .
N on occu p a tional acci­
dent.
Life..................
. . . . d o ..............
A ccident.........

1884

Immediate re. lief.
Life and dis­
ability.

1924

Railroad yardmasters.......
Railway and steamship
clerks.

0
0

Assessment of 50 cents for each
$1,500 o f insurance.
$2.50 to $10 per quarter, according
to amount o f policy.
$2.75 to $15 per quarter, according
to amount of policy.
$13.20 per $1,000 per year.
$14.40 to $50.40 per year, according
to amount o f policy.
50 cents per m onth.
$1.82 to $11.65 per $1,000 per year,
according to age.

0.
0

1,000

700

5.000

$2.40 to $7.20 per year, according to
amount of policy.
$9.00 to $64.80 per year, according to
amount of policy.
$16.20 per year.
$2.50 per year.

1.000
500

(3)

2,000

1874
1924
1898

1,000
1*4,000

1,000
425

2,550

1 Through an old-line company.
2 W ith double indem nity in case of accidental death.
3 N o data.
* W ithout medical examination.
6 W ith medical examination.
6 A nd weekly indem nity of $15 for not to exceed 52 weeks.
7 A nd weekly indem nity of $25 for not to exceed 52 weeks.
8 Payable at rate of $10 per week.
9 A nd weekly indem nity of $10.
i° A nd weekly indem nity of $30.
1 W eekly indemnity.
1
1 And weekly indem nity of $7.
2
13 A nd weekly indem nity of $30.
i* A nd also payment for certain disabilities and accidental death.




$1 per m onth.
$4 to $8 per year, according to
amount o f policy.
$0.90 to $7.13 per $1,000 per month,
according to age at entrance.
65 cents per m onth.

300

1925

1901

$1.50 to $7.50 per m onth, according
to occupational risk and amount
of policy.
$2.25 to $3.75 per quarter, according
to amount of policy; for extra
hazardous occupations, $5.25 to
$10 per quarter.
Assessments as needed.

2,000

Railway mail clerks.

Switchmen.

C.
O

350
<500 j> per year.
$8

A ccident.........

Headgear workers.
Leather workers. __

$15 per $1,000 per year.

(3
).

Assessment o f $1.10 per member.
Office and terminal employees,
$9.50 per $1,000 per year; roadservice employees, $12.50 per
$1,000 per year.
$1.10 assessment for each death.
$1.40 to $4.50 per m onth, according
to size o f policy.

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

22

Table 3 shows the practice as regards the requirement of a physical
examination and as to making the taking out of insurance compul­
sory.
T

able

3 . — R E Q U IR E M E N T S

A S T O IN S U R A N C E A N D M E D I C A L E X A M I N A T I O N

Union and kind of insurance

Boiler makers........................ .
Brick and clay workers......... .
Conductors, dining car...........
Conductors, railway:
Life and total disability..
A ccid en t.......................
Conductors, sleeping car. _
Leather workers..................
Letter carriers:
Life.................................
Sickness and accident.
Locom otive engineers:
Life.................................
Accident........................
Locom otive firemen and enginemen:
Life and loss of m ember_________
A ccident.
M ach in ists...
Post-office clerks (National Federation)___
Post-office clerks (United National Associa­
tion).
Railroad telegraphers.......................................
Railroad trainmen............................................
Railroad yardmasters_____________________
Railway clerks (nonoccupational accident)
Railway mail clerks:
Life...............................................................
A c c id e n t....................................................
Immediate relief____ ____ ____________
Switchm en......................................... ................

M edical examination
required to secure
insurance

Insurance compulsory

N o.
For at least $1,000.
Yes.
/F o r $500, n o ..................
\For $1,000, yes_______ jJNo.
Y es.
Y es.
N oN o. .

Yes; to members under 50 years of
age.
N o.
Yes.
N o.

Y es.
N o_.

N o.
N o.

Y es.
Y es.
N o ..

N o.
No.
N o.

Y es.

Yes; for at least $500 if can pass
physical examination.
N o.
No.

N o ................... .............
No; but affidavit of fel­
low
workers re­
quired.
N o .............................. .
N o . . ....................... .

N o.
No.

In some instances..

Yes; upon those between 18 and 50
years at time of joining, if good

Y es.
Y es.
N o-

If physically fit.
Yes.
N o.

N o ..
N o ..
N o ..
Y es.

No.
No.
No.
Yes.

The International Brotherhood of Boiler Makers and Iron Ship
Builders compels each of its members to enter its group-insurance plan
covering disability and death, taking out a policy of at least $1,000.
Under the contract with the insurance company which carries the
risk, all members of the union between 18 and 90 years are eligible
for this minimum without physical examination. A voluntary plan
in connection with the above enables a member not over 60 years to
take out additional insurance for himself and also for members of his
family.
The Order of Railway Conductors offers life and disability insur­
ance in four amounts—$1,000, $1,500, $2,000, and $3,000. Members
not over 35 years of age at the time of taking out the insurance may
obtain any of the four series, those between 35 and 42 are eligible only
to the first three amounts, those between 42 and 45 only to the first two
amounts, and those who are between 45 and 50 may obtain only $1,000
in insurance. Members over 50 are not eligible for insurance. The
policy calls for full payment in case of loss of hand, foot, eyesight, or
the total loss of the sense of hearing. Heretofore, for permanent disa-




TRADE-UNION BENEFITS AND INSURANCE

23

bilities not covered by the policy the full amount could be paid, in
the discretion of the “ benevolence board,” composed of the president,
vice president, secretary, and treasurer of the mutual benefit depart­
ment; this provision was abolished by action of the 1928 convention.
The premium charged by the railway conductors on accident
insurance varies according to the occupational hazard. Three groups
are established, the first including conductors, baggagemen, flagmen
and brakemen in passenger service; the second those in freight serv­
ice; and the third yardmen and switchmen. Those in the first class
pay $2.25 per quarter for $15 per week indemnity and a principal sum
of $1,500 for accidental death or dismemberment, and $3.75 for a
policy calling for $25 per week and $2,500. Those in the second class
pay $5.25 and $9 respectively for the two policies, and those in the
third class $6 and $10 per quarter.
Various plans of insurance are offered by the United States Letter
Carriers’ Mutual Benefit Association. Members are offered a choice
of straight life protection; combination annuity and death, up to
70 years of age; death, up to 60 years; and 20-year paid-up policy.
Its rates are based upon the National Fraternal Congress Table of
Mortality and the American Experience Table, and vary with the
age at which insurance is taken out and, of course, with the amount
of the policy. As noted in Table 2, the letter carriers also offer
sickness insurance through a sick benefit association, 65 cents per
month entitling to payments of $10 per week, subject to a maximum
of $500.
As shown in Table 2, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers
offers three kinds of insurance covering (1) death or loss of a foot,
hand, or eye; (2) accidental death or injury; and (3) sickness. In
the life-insurance department, members under 35 years of age are
permitted to take out insurance up to $6,000; those under 40 years,
insurance up to $4,500; those under 45 years, insurance up to $3,000;
and those under 50 years, insurance of $1,500 only. Applicants
50 years of age or over are not eligible for life or disability insurance.
The department is operated on the assessment plan, an assessment
of 50 cents for each $1,500 of insurance carried being levied for every
death. Two types of policy are offered by the accident indemnity
department, one providing for weekly payments varying from $10
to $30 per week, and the other, these payments plus a sum of $1,000,
$1,500, or $2,000 in case of loss of hand, foot, or sight. Premiums
for the first type of policy vary from $1.25 to $7.50 per quarter,
according to the amount of the weekly payment desired. The rates
for the combination policy range from $2.50 per quarter for $5 per
week and $1,000, to $10 per quarter for $30 per week and $2,000.
Accident insurance is issued only to members between the ages of 21
and 70 years. Sick benefits offered vary from $10 to $30 per week for
a period of 26 weeks in any calendar year, the quarterly premiums
ranging from $2.75 to $8.25 for those from 21 to 45 years of age
at time of joining the fund, from $3.75 to $11.25 for those between
46 and 55 years, and from $5 to $15 for those between 56 and 60 years.
(Persons under 21 and over 60 years of age are not eligible for sickness
insurance.) In addition to the above benefits, in cases where the
illness necessitates removal to a hospital while the insured is receiving
sick benefits, an amount equal to full sick benefits for every day




24

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

during his stay in the hospital not exceeding 21 days is paid; in cases
where a surgical operation is required an additional 2 weeks’ full
benefits are paid. At the end of 1927 the brotherhood had policies
in force aggregating $181,606,500.
The life-insurance policies of the Brotherhood of Locomotive
Firemen and Enginemen and of the Brotherhood of Railroad Train­
men are payable in full upon the death of the member, loss of hand,
foot, or eye, or upon the member’s reaching the age of 70 years.
The former organization also operates an indemnity department
which offers two policies, one providing weekly payments of from
$7 to $30 per week at a cost of from 70 cents to $3 per month, and
the other the same weekly payments and a principal sum of $1,000
or $2,000 at a cost ranging from $1.20 to $4.20 per month. This
insurance is limited to members between 18 and 60 years of age. On
December 31, 1927, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen had
policies in force totaling $159,253,000.
On January 1, 1928, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen
and Enginemen established a new department through which members
may take out additional insurance. Heretofore, members over
40 years of age have been limited to $1,500 insurance with the union.
Through the new department, which will be operated independently
of the beneficiary department, the older members will be enabled,
upon passing a physical examination, to take out additional pro­
tection in the amounts of $1,000, $2,000, $3,000, $4,000, and $5,000.
The monthly premium will vary with the age at which insurance is
taken out, ranging from $2.12 per $1,000 at age 40 to $5.26 at age 60.
The International Association of Machinists offers life insurance
only in the amount of $500. The full amount of the certificate
becomes payable, however, upon the death of the member, or if he
loses both hands, both feet, or his eyesight, or if from bodily injuries
or disease he becomes totally and permanently disabled before
reaching the age of 60 years.
The Railway Mail Association through separate organizations
provides insurance for life, accident, and the “ immediate relief” of
the family of the deceased member. The beneficiary department
through which the accident insurance business is conducted offers
a policy paying $1,000 for the loss (through accident) of either arm
or of either eye, $2,000 for the loss of either leg, and $4,000 for the
loss of both arms or legs, or one arm and leg, or both eyes, or for
accidental death. Any insured person, temporarily disabled by
accidental means, while incapacitated for work receives benefits of
$22.50 per week for not to exceed 52 weeks; if permanently disabled
the payment is continued until the full $4,000 has been paid. As
the name indicates, the object of the immediate relief association is
to provide assistance immediately for the family of the deceased;
the secretary states that “ in 12 out of 13 claims the beneficiary has
had the money in hand within 24 hours after death notice was
received.” As the association is operated on the assessment plan,
the benefits vary with the number in membership. Since the inau­
guration of the plan in July, 1924, the “ amount of protection * * *
has ranged from $512 to $958.” The maximum payable is set
at $1,000.




TRADE-UNION BENEFITS AND INSURANCE

25

Amounts Paid in Benefits and in Insurance

T A B L E 4 shows the amounts paid to beneficiaries for each kind of
A benefit by specified labor organizations during the organization’s
last fiscal year and during the whole period since the benefit was
adopted.




T

able

4 .—A M O U N T S D IS B U R S E D B Y T R A D E -U N IO N S F O R B E N E F IT S OF V A R IO U S K IN D S D U R IN G U N IO N ’ S L A T E S T F IS C A L Y E A R A N D SIN CE
B E N E F IT W AS E S T A B L IS H E D

fcO

Amounts paid out for each type of benefit in—
Union

Latest fiscal year




12,

687,
254,
2,
3,
236,
1,
1,
24,
35,

$6,150

76,850
« $1,021,858
86,300

- - - - -

46,300

(3)

169, 261

7 5, 750

* 16, 335
8 22,060

•1,350

38,
(3
)

2 2,

4,575

25,815

3,
25,
44,
988, 519
* 73,855
io 292, 254
ii 73, 485
*

22,
131

89,300

(12)
13,925

1 141,
2 12,

Death

$123,625
300,858
12,075
35,600
120.900
1,333,895
136.900
800
734,125
* 423,428
2.300
3,250
236,661
1,800
1,625
24,200
35,500
22,085
36,360
23,410
38,400

i $149,417
2 35,800

(3)21.300

21,

1 25,

Total

57,175

200,754

58,365
3,600
25,716
44.300
988,519

(3
)

110,719
149,500

(3)
3,367,038
(3)
(3)
(2
)

7,088,215
9,950
33,450
1, 284,069

Disability

(3)
(3)

■ )(
7
(3)
(3)

Sick

L 116,959
,

(3
)
(3)

Other

I

(3
)
$7,160, 205

7 $101,500

*

642,453

241,044

~1 470
~0 ~5
~

(3)

110,719
149,500
2,483. 238
10, 527,243

16,425
86,600
« 1, 500,000
342,544
642,453
101,208

(3)

13,884
632,425

23,700

500,420

885,160

(3)

551,394

234,685
557,826
148,600
1 2,210,008
8

4 4,832,567
* 141,447
io 1,423,630
ii 73,485

89,300

131,278
9.300
504,034
211,090

190,416

(3)

(3)

(3)

86,600
« 1,500,000

(3)
200,966
(3)

$1,302,176

10,199,114
« 13, 307,064
9,950
33,450
1, 284,069

6, 218,849

(3)
16,425

13,884
632,425
i 310,690
2 50,350

Total

274,600

(3)

5,261,019

(3)

(3)

200,966

(3)
4,832,567

1,962,547
748, 242
148,600
r, 745,627

(3)

TRADE-UNIONS

Maintenance-of-way em ployees—_
M eta l polishers__________________
M olders______ ___________________
Painters, decorators, and paper
hangers........................................... .

$99,163
213,040

2 3,
87,

35,
37,
312,
.50,

Other

O
F

Lace operatives__________________
Lathers__________________________
Lithographers_______ ____________
Locom otive engineers.— ...............
Locom otive firemen and enginem en...................................................

1 $21,

Sick

ACTIVITIES

B ak ery workers........ ........................
Barbers_________________ ________
Blacksm iths_____________________
Bookbinders_____________________
B oot and shoe workers___________
Bricklayers________ _____________
Bridge and structural-iron workers.
Broom and whisk makers........ ......
Carpenters and joiners....................
Cigar makers____________________
C om m ercial telegraphers_________
Diam ond workers_____ __________
Electrical workers_______ ________
Foundry employees______________
Fur workers_____________________
Garment workers (U nited)_______
Glass-bottle blowers_ _____ _____
_
'Granite cutters.................... .............
Hatters.........................................
Headgear workers............... .............
H od carriers................................... .
Hosiery workers_________________
Hotel and restaurant em ployees—
Iron, steel, and tin workers............

Disability

BENEFICIAL

Death

W hole period of operation

6,025
9,625
950
11,200

14

( 15)

67,425
9,207
81,690

18,255

Railroad trainmen _.

89,173

754,223

(3)
6,225

0

io 546,195
<31,080
ii 1,154,850

(3)

2,100

(3)

975,097

5,432,823

63,787
4 8,740,939
( 18)
4 71,349
( 18)
4 6,850
10

717

0 6,225

421,800
«1,123,600
« 438,608
6 156,000
42,325

0

0

4 78,330
15,158,250

0

(3)

373,658
78,535
44,000
14,050

29,787,356

17,887,144
421,800
1,123,600
438,608
6 156,000
42,325

0

( 21)

4 384,000
14

6,977,767
750,984
78,535
44,000
- 14,050

40,567,937

104,023,365

377,326

2,000

2,000

10,979,262

851,380
43,764
9,101

0
0

(3
)

(3)

135,733
301,185
ifl 14,287,873

1 0 1,929,294

721,270
11

130,000

0
0
0

680,233

13,711,720

is Of this, $15,625 was paid in benefits for those who were killed in the W orld War.
14 Includes disability benefits also.
I8 Included with death benefits.
1 1921-1925 only; data for earlier years not available.
6
17 Relief benefits for sickness and unemployment.
18 Also give tuberculosis treatment in sanatorium maintained b y union, but no data as
to cost available.
1®N ot including cost of tuberculosis treatment, data for which are not available.
20 T o Dec. 31, 1926.
21 Included with sick benefit.
• Includes paym ent of death certificates made for total disability.

INSURANCE

247,066

(4
)

f
20

361,020
754,223

0

780,031
36,914
8,384

700

700
4,324,276

183,635
1.925
2,606
1,821,298

258,010

135, 733

1®1,414,023

3,300

3.300

10

AN
D

u 14,299

68, 546

i«4,956

237,398
5,546,934

741,169
23,598
5.925

23,650

( 2!)

0 16 7,956

(3)

(3
)

103,010

8 20,800
8 29,625
6,500
2,100

(3)

8 20,800
« 29,625
6,500
653,519
9.299
5,925

19,714
22,172

68,546

BENEFITS

130,000

241

1 Members.
2 Wives.
8 N ot reported.
4 Old-age benefits.
5 N ot including disability benefits, payments for which were not reported.
« Approximate.
7 Loss of sight only.
8 2-year period.
* 2-year period; tuberculosis benefit.
10 Tuberculosis benefit and cost of treatment.
11 Benevolence allowances.
1 Discontinued Jan. 1, 1926.
2




67,425
9,207
208,795
4,046

i° 3,917
4 990,360 }
( 18)
4 60,974 }
( 18)
4 500

423,663
122,661
1,425
2,365

Total .

(3)3,000
16

17 4,046

127,105

6,025
15,671
1,940
34,145

19,714

Printing pressm en..
Quarry workers........
Railroad signalmen.

Railway and steamship clerks___
R ailw ay carm en_________________
Retail clerks_____________________
Roofers and waterproof workers. _
Sheet-metal workers_____________
Shoe workers__________ __________
Stove m ounters..............................
Street and electric railway em ­
ployees............................................
Tailors................................................
Textile workers................................
Train dispatchers...........................
Wall-paper cra fts.......... ...............
Window-glass cutters and flatteners.................. ..........................

io 22,945

6,046
990

TRADE-UNION

102869°—28-

Paper makers. . .................................
Pattern makers__________________
P harm acists.. ------- --------------------Photo-engravers__________________
Plasterers and cement finishers
(operative)..___________________
Plate printers and die stam p ers...
Plumbers and steam fitters..........
Pocketbook workers_____________
Post-office clerks (National Fed­
eration) ______ _______________
Potters_______________ ___________
Printers_____ ____________________

fc
O

28

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

Table 5 shows the disbursements for insurance of the various kinds:
T

able

5 .—N U M B E R OF IN S U R E D P E R S O N S A N D A M O U N T O F D IS B U R S E M E N T S F O R
E A C H K IN D O F IN S U R A N C E , B Y S P E C IF IE D T R A D E -U N IO N S

Am ount paid in insurance
Union and kind of insurance

Num ber
insured

Boilermakers (group life and disability)._ ............. ...........
Brick and clay workers (group life)...... ...............................
Conductors, dining car (group life)......................................
Conductors, railway:

i 23,000
15,000
1800

Life and total disability. .......................... ......................

159,000

Latest fiscal
year

Accident...............................................................................

9,276

Conductors, sleeping car (life and disability)......................
Headgear workers (group life) _ .......................... ..................
Leather workers (grou p life)........................ .................... .
Letter carriers:
L i f e ............................................ ....................................
Sickness and accident-.......... ........................ .................
Locom otive engineers:
L i f e ................................................................ ......................
A c c id e n t -...........................................................................
Sickness and medical care__________________________
Locom otive firemen and enginemen:
Life— ......................................................................... .........

12,500
240
180

100,574

A c c id e n t---.........................................................- ..............

3,126

Machinists (life and disability)..............................................
Post-office clerks (National Federation) (group life)..............
Post-office clerks (United National Association) (group life).
Railroad telegraphers (life) - .......................................................
Railroad trainmen (life and disability)....................................
Railroad yardmasters (group life)_________________________
Railway and steamship clerks (nonoccupational accident)..
R ailw ay mail clerks:
L i f e .........................................................................................
Accident.......................................................- .........................
Immediate relief------ ---------- --------------------------------- --------

18,000
7,528

T ota l...................................................... ..............................

W hole period
o f operation
$329,900

$2,500
2 1,555,224
3 80,500
4 80,550
2 52,375
3 7,375
8 112,466
2,500

(6)

(7)

............. 6,"843
37,492,404
929,770

(6)

234,700

(7
)

147,162
116,464

4,246,048
1,550,991

3,168,383
232,035
67,668

63,605,423
3,708,633
350,932

50,067
183,622
500
17,000

1,321,650
2 5,005
34.000
* 51,277
51,500
25.000
1 82,000
0
236,760
4,336,482
4,000
130,000

9 32,441,833
2 77,060
3 44,121
5 295,443
374,500
76.000
82.000
3,636,693
74,686,741
7,000
421,800

12,964
760
19,206
958

4,900
127, 738
4,426

551,223

12,009,940

5,503
19,482

(8)

12,235
3,802

6,000

5,164,275

229,780,672

1 Approximate.
2 Death.
* Disability.
< “ Benevolence.”
« W eekly indemnity.
6 N o payments as yet.
7 N ever have had to pay a claim.
8 N o data.
• Includes also payment for certain disabilities.
i° Death; also have 3 total disability cases receiving $ ) per month for 5 years.

Provision for Dependents of Deceased Members

/^LOSELY related to the death or funeral benefits is the question
^
of provision of assistance to the widow and children, for
the death benefit, whether provision is made for a cash benefit or
for payment of the funeral expenses, is intended to be a measure
of immediate assistance to the family. If this benefit is to be enlarged
upon, the next step is logically a continuing provision for the depend­
ents of the deceased.
Responsibility in this matter has been definitely assumed by the
International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union. At the




TRADE-UNION BENEFITS AND INSURANCE

29

1926 convention of the union, proposal was made that the union
undertake the raising of a fund to provide for widows with dependent
children who have no other means of support. The proposal, it
is stated, was unanimously favored and some $50,000 was subscribed
to the fund in a few minutes. Further funds are being raised by
subscription and members are being asked to contribute $100 each
year for three years. Cottages are to be built, each with its own little
garden plot, at Pressmen’s Home, and it is proposed not only to
make the cottage rent free but also to provide free heat, light, water,
milk, ice, and facilities for canning; free medical and hospital at­
tention; and “ educational facilities both elementary and for technical
trade purposes.” An endowment fund of $1,000,000 is to be raised,
from the interest on which an allowance is to be paid amounting to
$1 per day for the widow and 50 cents for each child. It is hoped
that this can be accomplished within the next three years.
Widows of members of the Order of Railway Conductors and the
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners are provided for in
the homes for the superannuated members of these organizations.
Other unions, such as those of the bricklayers and the railroad
trainmen, provide that upon the death of a retired member in receipt
of the old-age pension paid by the union, payment may be extended
to his widow. The locomotive engineers and firemen provide widows’
pensions through a special pension department.
Benefits of LocaliUnions

ALREADY stated, no attempt was made to obtain data as
to benefits paid by locals of the various unions. In some cases,
however, the report of the international union contained data as
to the locals also.
Nearly all of the locals of the National Marine Engineers’ Bene­
ficial Association pay death benefits, the amounts varying from
$100 to $500; three locals, it is reported, are negotiating with union
insurance companies for group life insurance for their members.
About half of the locals pay sick benefits, averaging $6 per week.
The pattern makers’ local unions pay sick benefits.
The Philadelphia branch of the American Federation of Full
Fashioned Hosiery Workers, which has a local membership of some
5,000 workers, has a beneficial association through which sick bene­
fits are paid. From dues, which are $1 per month, benefits of $20
a week for a period of 25 consecutive weeks are paid. Any surplus
left in the treasury at the end of each year is divided equally among
those who drew no benefit during the year. The cost per member
of this benefit during the three years the plan has been in operation
has averaged $7 per year.
The amounts paid by the local unions of cigar makers, hotel and
restaurant employees, and street-railway employees during their
latest fiscal year and during the whole period that welfare benefits
have been paid are shown in Table 6.




30

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS
T

able

6 .—B E N E F IT S P A ID B Y L O C A L S OF T H R E E I N T E R N A T IO N A L U N IO N S
Amounts paid in each kind of benefit
Union and year
Death and
disability

Cigar makers:
1924-25____________ _____________________ _____ ___
1925-26............. .......... ................... ..................... ..............
Hotel and restaurant employees:
1926 ............... ............................................ .....................
1900-1926 ____________ ____________ _______________
Street-railway employees:
1925
............. .........................................................
1926
............. .....................................................
1892-1926
_________ _____ - ______________________

Dona­
tions 1

Sick

$242,915
254,167

47,539
1,317,473

3 187,491
3 187,906
(4
)

$417,732
423,428

$174,817
169,261

16,992
504,089

Total

174,028
157,400
(4
)

$16,814
2 393,723

81,345
2,215,285
361,519
345,306
4,026,278

1 Probably equivalent to “ benevolent” or “ relief” allowances.
2 1906-1926.
3 Including payments for old age also.
4 N ot reported.

Local No. 2 of the National Federation of Federal Employees, after
giving a good deal of consideration to the group insurance policies
offered by various old-line insurance companies, decided to carry the
insurance itself and has adopted an unusual plan. Under its plan
the cost remains unchanged but the benefit varies according to the
age of the member. Each member pays 50 cents per month, en­
titling him to benefits varying according to his age at the time of
accepting insurance, as follows:
Age

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
go__.

Benefit

$370
360
350
340
330
330
320
310
300
290
290

Age

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Benefit

$280
270
260
250
250
240
230
220
220
210

Age

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

Benefit

$200
190
190
180
170
160
160
150
140
140

Age

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

Benefit

Age

Benefit

$130
130
120
110
110
100
100
90
90
80

61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

$80
70
70
70
60
60
50
50
50
50

The women’s local union at the Federal Bureau of Engraving and
Printing looks after its sick members through a hospital guild. The
guild has an agreement with a local hospital by which the hospital
agrees to furnish guild members a bed in a two-bed room, board,
general nursing service, and ordinary medicines. In operative cases
an extra charge of $50 is made for each operation.
Each member pays into the guild dues of $5 per year, which entitles
her to hospital service for four weeks.2
New York Typographical Union No. 6, “ Big 6,” is an instance of
what certain local unions can do for their members. Although this
union is a member of an international union which provides death
2 A variation of this has been adopted b y the employees of the N ew Y ork C ity post office, who have a
plan of endowing hospital beds. This, however, is not a union activity, although m any of the contributing
employees belong to the Federal employees’ union. The plan originated as a memorial to a city postmaster
who died early in 1925. From donations from all classes of employees in the post office, sufficient funds were
obtained to endow four beds “ for the use of employees in perpetuity.” The demands upon the service
were so great that a permanent association was formed to which practically the entire force of some 18,000
persons belong, each donating 10 cents every semimonthly pay day, and four additional beds in another
hospital were secured. In addition approximately $8,000 has been expended for hospital care in nonen­
dowed beds and for various services in connection therewith. M ore than 2,000 cases have been taken care of
in this way.




TRADE-UNION BENEFITS AND INSURANCE

31

benefits and old-age pension, and maintains an old-age and tuber­
culosis home, this local adds to the international pension of $8 per
week a further allowance of $4, pays a death benefit of $100, and allows
(without limit as to time) $3 per day to members who are obliged
to have hospital treatment. It also maintains a “ relief” fund from
which needy members are assisted; the amount granted per member
varies according to the need and is discretional with the board admin­
istering the fund.
Sick and Death Benefits by Collective Agreement

A NEW departure and one which may be of significance for the
future has been made in the street-railway industry. The
clothing industry originated the idea of unemployment insurance for
the industry; the street-railway industry is the first as far as this
bureau is aware to inaugurate the establishment of death benefits and
life insurance by collective agreement.
In the fall of 1926, under the terms of a decision of an arbitration
board, provisions were inserted in the agreement between the Chicago
Rapid Transit Co. and the Amalgamated Association of Street and
Electric Railway Employees (elevated lines) by which the employer
agreed to bear the whole cost of group insurance for the employees.
The policies covered both sickness and death, one year’s service with
the company being required for eligibility to the insurance. The
policy provided for sick benefits of $20 per week for 26 weeks in any
year, and life insurance of $1,000.
Similar benefits were obtained for employees of the surface lines of
the same city by an arbitration award made January 21, 1928, and
an agreement was reached to incorporate the terms of this latter
award in the new collective contract for the elevated lines.
The terms of the award, in so far as it relates to the insurance and
benefit features, are given in full below:
* *

S e c . 2. Chicago surface lines shall pay to all members of Division 241 in the
service of Chicago surface lines on February 1, 1928:
(a) Thirty-five dollars to those who were in such service on June 1, 1927, in
lieu of life, sick, and accident insurance; and (6) $12 to those who entered such
service between June 1, 1927, and November 1, 1927, in lieu of life insurance.
This item of the award is made because of the practical impossibility of making
insurance retroactive. Therefore the arbitrators have computed the approxi­
mate amount of money it would have cost the Chicago surface lines in case such
insurance had been in effect since June 1, 1927.
Sec. 3. For the period beginning February 1, 1928, and thereafter until and
including May 31, 1930, the Chicago surface lines shall bear and pay the cost
and expense of group life insurance to the amount of $1,000 upon the life of each
employee covered by this agreement who has been in the employ of the Chicago
surface lines for three months, while continuing in the service of the Chicago
surface lines, subject to the acceptance by the insurance company writing such
insurance, of any new employee as a risk.
Chicago surface lines shall also, from February 1, 1928, and thereafter until
and including May 31, 1930, bear and pay the cost and expense of a group health
policy covering each employee covered by this agreement, who has been in the
service of the Chicago surface lines for more than one year, for $20 per week
against becoming, while insured under said policy, wholly and continuously
disabled and prevented from performing any and every duty of his or her occupa­
tion by sickness contracted or injuries sustained, provided that no indemnity
shall be payable for the first 7 days of incapacity nor for more than 26 weeks
thereafter. Such group health policy shall not cover the following:
(1)
Any period of incapacity for which the employee is not treated by a
licensed practicing physician.




32

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

(2) Any period of incapacity for which the employee is entitled to indemnity
or compensation under any workmen’s compensation act, except to the extent
of the difference between such compensation allowance and the $20 per week
provided by such health insurance.
(3) Sickness contracted or suffered or injury sustained outside of the continental
limits of the United States, in North America or Canada, or in any part of either,
north of the sixtieth degree of north latitude; nor sickness or injury caused
directly or indirectly by war or riot, or while participating in, or in consequence
of having participated in, areonautics; nor intentionally self-inflicted injury,
while sane or insane.
Said health insurance shall continue only while the employee remains in the
employ of the company.
Reasonable rules and regulations shall be promulgated by Chicago surface
lines to make effective the intent and purpose of the insurance provisions of this
award.
S e c . 4. During the first year in which the insurance hereby awarded is effec­
tive, the same shall be provided by policy or policies, written by reputable
insurance company or companies; but at the expiration of said first year, Chicago
surface lines shall have the right, if they so elect, to provide for the carrying
out and performance by their own insurance department of the obligations and
undertakings which will give to the employees the protection and benefits hereby
awarded.
Sec. 5. In conformity with paragraph (b), section 1, of the arbitration agree­
ment, dated July 18, 1927, which provides that cost of insurance benefits shall
be considered *as wages, this board of arbitration estimates the cost of health,
accident, and life insurance at $650,000 per annum, which is approximately
l }/2 cents per hour-wage rate per employee.

By an agreement signed July 25, 1927, between the Public Service
Co. of San Antonio, Tex., and Division No. 694 of the Amalgamated
Association of Street and Electric Railway Employees, the company
undertakes to pay $1,000 death benefit, besides making a contribu­
tion to the union sick benefit department amounting to 35 cents per
member per month.
The agreement, signed March 25, 1928 by the Amalgamated Asso­
ciation of Street and Electric Railway Employees and the Mitten
Management (Philadelphia) provides that on all street railways
taken over in the future by the Mitten Management, funeral, dis­
ability, old-age, and other benefits will be taken over by the union,
and toward these the company will pay $1 per month per man.




Chapter III.—Old-age and Disability Pensions
MATTER that is receiving more and more the attention of
organized labor is the question of what shall be done to care
for members who by reason of age or of mental or physical dis­
ability become unable to work at the trade. A number of unions
have expressed themselves as being in favor of old-age pensions pro­
vided by the State or Federal Government. Several States have
already adopted such measures, and the 1927 convention of the
American Federation of Labor authorized the executive committee
to have drafted a bill providing for old-age pensions, the passage
of which local trade-union bodies are to work for in States where
there is as yet no such legislation.
Pending the general acceptance of the principle, some labor organ­
izations are providing such care as they are able for their infirm mem­
bers, to prevent their becoming a public charge. To date 10 national
or international unions—those of the bridge and structural-iron
workers, bricklayers, electrical workers, granite cutters, printing
pressmen and assistants, street-railway employees, printers, loco­
motive firemen and enginemen, locomotive engineers, and railroad
trainmen—have adopted an old-age pension plan for those of their
members who fulfill certain requirements as to age, union member­
ship, and physical or financial condition.1 Of these, six also operate
a home for aged or disabled members, there being a choice between
receipt of the pension and residence at the home. The Order of
Railway Conductors has established a home but has discontinued its
pension. In addition to these unions, several others provide some
sort of old-age benefit. Thus the quarry workers pay, to their
members who reach the age of 60 and have had 10 years’ continuous
membership in the union, $50, which is deducted from the funeral
benefit. The oil field and gas well workers exempt aged members
from the payment of union dues, while in the paving cutters’ union
the dues of a superannuated member are reduced to 25 cents a
month. Federal employees—postal clerks, letter carriers, railway
mail clerks, and other Government employees— are covered by the
Federal retirement law, thus relieving their respective unions of the
task of providing old-age benefits.
Of the 10 unions which pay an old-age pension, the Granite Cutters’
International Association of America was the pioneer, establishing
its pension in 1905. The street-railway employees’ organization
had, prior to 1912, an old-age benefit of from $1 to $3 per week.
In 1912 the system was changed, the benefit being commuted to

A

1 Some local unions also pay old-age benefits, but as the present study was confined to the organizations
of national scope, no attempt was made to gather local data. It is reported that local N o. 2 o f the Interna­
tional Fur Workers’ Union has just adopted an old-age pension scheme under which members who reach
65 and retire from work in the fur or any other industry, will be entitled to receive benefits o f $8 per week.
A member 65 years and over who retired from work after Jan. 1,1926, m ay also apply for benefits, which will
be granted if, after investigation b y a special committee, he is found to be m need. M em bers w ho had retired
before Jan. 1,1926, are not entitled to the pension. The pension m ay also be paid in cases o f permanent
total disability.




33

34

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

a lump sum upon the member’s reaching 65 years of age. This
was done in order to enable a retired member to engage in some new
business. Payment of benefits under the new scheme began in
1915. The International Typographical Union inaugurated its
pension system in 1907 and began payment of such pensions in
1909, and the locomotive engineers followed suit in 1913 and the
bricklayers in 1915. The year 1920 saw the establishment of old-age
pensions by the bridge and structural-iron workers and the locomotive
firemen and enginemen. Two pension schemes were adopted in 1925—
those of the printing pressmen and of the railroad trainmen. The
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers in its 1927 convention adopted
an old-age pension plan.
Requirements for Receipt of Pension

HTHE age and membership requirements of the unions which have
A established old-age pensions have undergone modification from
time to time. At present, however, the age at which the member
becomes eligible to the pension is set at 60 by the bricklayers, the
bridge and structural-iron workers, the printing pressmen, and the
printers;2 at 62 by the granite cutters; and at 65 by the electrical
workers, the locomotive engineers, the street-railway employees, and
the locomotive firemen and enginemen. The last named also pays
pensions for disability (1) to active members disabled for engine
service, and (2) to retired members disabled for any occupation; in
these cases there is no age requirement.
Requirements as to membership in the union vary considerably.
One year’s membership in the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers
entitles, to the receipt of the old-age pension;3 membership of 2 years
is required by the locomotive firemen and enginemen and the railroad
trainmen, of 20 years by the bricklayers, the bridge and structuraliron workers, the electrical workers, the printing pressmen, and the
street-railway employees, and of 25 years by the granite cutters and
the printers. The bricklayers, the bridge and structural-iron workers,
the printing pressmen, and the street-railway employees require also
that the specified membership must have been continuous.
Applicants for the pension in the bricklayers’ and the bridge and
structural-iron workers’ unions must show that they are unable to
secure employment in any industry, because of bodily infirmity, and
that they are without other means of support. Members of the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen who have been
retired from active service by reason of age or who attain the age of
65 and retire voluntarily become eligible for the pension of the
brotherhood without fulfilling any requirement as to their physical
or financial condition. To receive the pension for disability, how­
ever, a member must show that he is permanently and totally dis­
abled—for engine service, if he is still in active service at the time of
becoming disabled;4 if he is not in active service, for any kind of
employment in which his earnings are sufficient to support him.
2 B y action of 1927 convention; formerly 65 years. In cases of incapacitated members with continuous
membership of 20 years whom the Union Printers’ H om e is unable to accommodate the age limit required
for the pension m ay be waived.
3 Except in the case of members who resign or lose their positions or are dismissed, in which case 12 years’
membership is required.
4 If he ever becomes able to resume engine service he ceases to receive the pension.




OLD-AGE AND DISABILITY PENSIONS

35

The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers makes practically the
same provision, but adds two other classes of pensioners—members
who resign or are dismissed or lose their positions and those who were
not in active service at the time of joining the brotherhood. In the
former case, the member becomes eligible for pension only after a
membership of 12 years and upon reaching the age of 60 years, except
in cases where it is shown that the member is “ physically and men­
tally unable to perform remunerative employment,” in which event
he becomes entitled to benefits on the same terms as active members.
In the latter case the member must reach 70 years before attaining a
pensionable status and must show inability, from physical, mental,
or other causes, to secure remunerative employment. Only members
incapacitated for employment in the trade are entitled to the old-age
pension paid by the printing pressmen’s and the printers’ unions,
while the railroad trainmen require proof of permanent total disquali­
fication for work from physical or mental causes or old age.
The bridge and structural-iron workers provide also that a disa­
bility pension is payable to any member in continuous good standing
for 15 years who is disabled by an injury sustained in the course of
his employment, provided (1) that the injury “ was not contributed
to or brought about by his own improper conduct,” (2) that the
member is unable to secure sustaining employment at any occupation,
and (3) that he has no other means of support.
The locomotive firemen and enginemen and the railroad trainmen
specifically provide that “ no member will be entitled to a pension on
account of disability caused while under the influence of intoxicants or
narcotics or while participating in war, riots, disreputable or unlawful
acts,” and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers bars pensions
for disability caused by the use of intoxicants or by unlawful acts.
Return to active work causes a forfeiture of the pension paid by
the railroad trainmen, while the bridge and structural-iron workers
provide that a pensioner loses his pension for any month in which
his income from other sources than the pension reaches $60, the
pensioner being “ deemed to have secured sustaining employment for
that month.” The locomotive engineers cease payment upon return
to active engine duty; the pensioner may, however, perform remu­
nerative labor other than that of his trade and still retain his pension;
this provision is made also by the firemen and enginemen. The
International Typographical Union formerly provided that any
annuitant who received pay for two days’ work in any week should
forfeit his pension for that week. The 1927 convention made a change
in this provision, taking the view that pensioners should be encouraged,
as an aid to preserving self-respect, to do whatever work they are
able to perform without being penalized by the loss of the pension.
Hereafter pensioners may perform not more than two days’ paid work
per week and still receive the pension. The Printing Pressmen and
Assistants’ Union has the same provision.
Amounts of Annuity, and Expenditure for Pensions

'T'ABLE 7, below, shows, for each of the unions which pay old-age
pensions, the number of annuitants, the size of the pension, and
the amounts paid in pensions during the union’s latest fiscal year and
during the whole period since the plan has been in operation. As the



36

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

table indicates, several of the unions continue payment of the pension
to the widow as long as she remains unmarried, or if she has reached
a specified age and has no means of support.
T

7 .—N U M B E R OF P E N S IO N E R S , A M O U N T OF P E N S IO N , A N D A M O U N T S D IS ­
B U R S E D T H E R E F O R IN L A S T F IS C A L Y E A R A N D W H O L E P E R IO D , B Y U N IO N S

able

N um ber
at pres­
ent in
receipt
of pen­
sion

U nion

Bricklayers. ........................................ .
Bridge and structural-iron workers..
Electrical workers...............................
Granite cutters......... ............................
Locom otive engineers....................... .
Locom otive firemen and enginemen
Printers................................................. .
Printing pressmen. .............................
Quarry workers................................... .
Railroad trainmen.............................. .
Street-railway em ployees................. .

i 2,954
331

T o t a l- -........................................

Am ount paid in
pensions in—
A mount o f pension
per member
Latest
fiscal year

11,269

(3)

405
*4,467
230
2,430
244
8 18

$1,021,858
86,300

$7,160,205

(2)
(3)
241,044

(3)

16,335
988,519
73,855
990,360
60,974
500
31,080
64,000

4,832,567
141,447
8,740,939
71,349
6,350
78,330
384,000

3,333,781

i°10
1
«80

$7 per week.................
$25 per m onth.............
$40 per m onth.............
$60 per year <
............... .
$25 to $65 per m onth «
$30 to $70 per m onth 7
$8 per week..................
$7 per w e e k ................
$50 ®
$35 to $70 per m o n th ..
$800 in lum p sum____

W hole
period of
operation

21,656,231

1 Includes 76 persons receiving “ disability relief” and 823 widows.
2 N o data.
3 N o payments being made as yet. System adopted in 1927.
* $10 per month for six months of each year.
8 Includes 1,533 widows.
6 From this, union dues of about $4 per month are deducted.
7 W idow s receive pensions of $35 per month.
8 Received the lum p sum in 1926.
9 Flat sum, deducted from death benefit.
1 Includes 13 widows.
0

The amount of pension paid by the three railroad brotherhoods
which pay pensions varies with the number of contributions made
by the member, as shown below:
T

able

8 .—A M O U N T OF O L D -A G E PE N S IO N S P A ID B Y T H R E E R A IL R O A D
BROTHERHOODS

Am ount of pension
receivable per month
N um ber of months’ assess­
ment paid

___________
1 2 ..
_ .
1 3 -2 4 ... ___________________
2 5 -3 6 ... ___________________
37-48.
____
________
49-60________________________
61-72
___________________
7 3 -8 4 ... ___________________
85-96________________________
97-108
___________________
___________________
109-120
121-132
__________________
133-144. ________ ____ _____
145-156
..............................
157-168
...................................
169-180. ...................................
181-192
_______ ___________
193-204
.................................
205-216______________________
217-228. ...................................
229-240................ .........................




Loco­
m otive
engi­
neers

$25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Fire­
men,
and
train­
men

$30

35

40

45

Am ount of pension
receivable per month
N um ber of m onths’ assess­
ment paid

241-252.........................................
253-264........................................
265-276_________ ____________
277-288____________ ________ _
289-300........ — ..........................
301-312.......... ................... ..........
313-324_______ 1.........................
325-336.......... .......... ..................
337-348.............................. ..........
349-360................................ .........
361-372_________ ___________
373-384_________________ _____
385-396.......... ..............................
397-408___________ _____- .........
409-420.........................„ ............
421-432______________________
433-444.........................................
445-456____________ __________
457-468___________ ___________
469-480........................................
481 and over_________________

Loco­
m otive
engi­
neers

$45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

Fire­
men,
and
train­
m en

$50

55

60

65
70

37

OLD-AGE AND DISABILITY PENSIONS

The amount disbursed in trade-union pensions varies with the size
of the pension, the number of annuitants, the size of the union, and the
time during which the plan has been in force; in some cases the total
amounts are quite impressive, especially in the case of those unions
whose plans have been in effect for some years. The Brotherhood of
Railroad Trainmen has been paying pensions only since 1925 and,
therefore, although it is a large organization with about 180,000 mem­
bers, its pension roll is small, the disbursements for 1926 amounting to
only $31,080. The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, an organi­
zation with some 88,000 members, has been paying pensions since
1914, its pension roll having passed the 4,000 mark and its expendi­
ture for this purpose amounting to nearly a million dollars in 1926
and to more than four and three-quarter millions in the 13 years’
operation of the pension department. The granite cutters, who were
the first to pay this type of benefit, have had a very modest outlay
for pensions, having paid slightly less than a quarter of a million
dollars during the 23 years’ life of the fund. Theirs, however, is a
small organization of some 8,500 members, and the pension amounts
to only $10 per month and is payable for only six months of each
year.
The International Typographical Union, which has a membership
of some 78,000, leads the list with an expenditure of nearly a million
dollars during the year ending May 31,1927, and a whole-time expend­
iture of $8,740,939. The growth of the outlay for pensions by five of
the unions is shown by the following figures:
T

able

9 .—G R O W T H OP P E N S IO N S Y S T E M OP F IV E U N IO N S

P rinters2

A m ount paid in pensions b y —

Year
B rick­
layers 1

1909_
1910.
1911 _
1912_
1913_
1914191519161917_
19181919_
19201921192219231924.
192519261927.

$217,
277,
371,
295,
414,
426,
443,
485,
608,
783,
858,
955,

1, 021,
1 Year ends Aug. 31.
2 Year ends M a y 31.

Loco­
m otive
engi­
neers

$18,250
45,386
93,010
154,895
204,965
248,618
293,420
358,981
445,087
519,036
633,795
828,606
988,518

Loco­
N um ­
m otive
ber of
firemen
pen­
and en- sioners
ginemen

A mount
paid in
pensions *

542
642
808
1,038
1,108
1,210
1,342
1,440
1.509
1,501
1,483
1.510
1,683
1,869
2,077
2,263
2,499
2,461
2,430

Street-railway

$69,550
115,398
128,043
176,320
248,582
270,396
302,652
358,369
356,692
359,720
346,114
376,730
529,777
729,870
823,435
876,610
923,744
1,010,730
990,360

$1,350
6,570
18,390
41,282
73,855

N um ­
ber of Am ount
paid in
pen­
sioners pensions

$1,600
4.000
4.000
4.000
6,400
7,200
16,800
56.000
42.400
50.400
61,600
65,600
64.000

8 Includes expenses o f administration also.
4 Year ends July 31.

Source of Revenues of Plans

CEYERAL of the unions make the old-age pension one of the bene^ fits to which all members are eligible upon reaching the age
designated. Others, however, make membership in the pension



38

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

department elective. In the former case a flat amount of dues is
collected for pension purposes from all members regardless of age,
making slight increases from time to time, if this becomes necessary.
In the latter case, pension assessments vary with the age of entrance
into the plan and with the number of contributions paid.
The Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ International Union
assesses each member 80 cents per month for pension purposes. The
International Association of Bridge, Structural, and Ornamental Iron
Workers maintains its pension fund by setting aside from the general
monthly dues 15 cents per member; in case the fund falls below
$50,000 an assessment of $1 per member becomes automatically
payable. Fifteen per cent of the general income from dues main­
tains the granite cutters’ pensions, and a per capita tax of 25 cents
per month those of the printing pressmen. The rules governing the
pressmen’s fund provide that—
For the establishment and maintenance of the old-age pension system the sum
of $3,500 per annum shall be drawn from the pension fund. This amount to
continue as a basic cost of operation until the number of pensioners shall be 200,
then immediately the cost of maintenance shall be based upon the expenditure
for the pensioners, and the amount to be thus appropriated shall not exceed
3 per cent.
The pension system shall not become operative for at least five years imme­
diately following May, 1917, or until the sum of $750,000 has accumulated in
the said pension fund, which fund shall be established through the 25 cents per
capita tax per month per member and interest upon said fund.

Members of the International Typographical Union pay as dues
65 cents per month, plus 1 per cent of their earnings. Of this 1 per
cent, one-fourth goes to the mortuary fund and three-fourths to the
pension fund.
In the pension departments of the railroad brotherhoods, member­
ship is voluntary. The locomotive firemen and enginemen admit to
membership in the pension department only members in good stand­
ing in the brotherhood who are under 40 years of age; the locomotive
engineers and the trainmen make the same provision but the former
place the age limit at 50, and the latter at 45 years. The applicant
must, in all three organizations, pass a physical examination.
The monthly assessments according to the age at which the mem­
bers enter are, in the firemen and enginemen’s organization, as
follows:
18-30
31-35
36-40
41-45

46-50 years___________________ $2. 50
years___________________ $0. 50
y e a r s ...________________
1. 00 51-55 years___________________
3. 00
years___________________
1. 50 56-60 years___________________
3. 50
years___________________
2. 00

Those in the trainmen’s fund are the same as the above, except
that the class of those 61 to 65 years of age at entrance is added, and
their dues set at $4.50 per month. The dues of the locomotive
engineers who elect to become members of the pension fund are set
at $1 per month for all who join before reaching the age of 31 years.
Dues increase 10 cents per month with each year above 31, reaching
the maximum of $4 per month levied upon all who become members
of the fund after reaching 60 years of age.
The firemen and enginemen and the trainmen reserve the right to
levy additional assessments in case the income from those set is
insufficient to meet the demands upon the fund, but in the firemen’s




39

OLD-AGE AND DISABILITY PENSIONS

organization the amount of assessment can be changed only by
action of the general convention.
The Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen has printed two interesting
statements showing the contrast between charges and possible bene­
fits under the pension plan. The first statement shows the amounts
that a member who had joined the pension plan at a specified age
would have paid by the time he reached 70 years, as follows:
Paym ents

Payments

into fund
Age of joining— Continued, into fund
Age of joining:
36 years___________________ $612
18 years___________________ $312
40 years___________________
540
240
30 years___________________
41 years___________________
696
31 years___________________
468
44 years___________________
624
35 years_ ________________
_
420

This is then compared with the followiag table showing the amount
of pension a member who had been in membership for a specified
time would receive in periods varying up to 50 years:
T

able

1 0 .— A M O U N T

OF P E N S IO N R E C E IV A B L E A F T E R M E M B E R S H IP OF S P E C IF IE D
T IM E

Am ount receivable in—
Length of member­ Rate
per
ship
month

2 y e a rs ......................
5 years, 1 m onth___
10 years, 1 m onth.
_
35 years, 1 m onth_
20 years, 1 m o n t h .. .
25 years, 1 m o n t h .. .
30 years, 1 m onth___
35 years, 1 m onth_
_
40 years, 1 m onth___

$30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70

20

1

15
10
5
year years years years years

420
480
540
600
660
720
780
840

$3,600 $5,400
4.200 6,300
4.800 7,200
5.400 8,100
6,000 9,000
6,600 9,900
7.200 10,800
7.800 11,700
8.400

$7,200
8,400
9,600
10,800
12,000
13,200
14,400

25

35
years

40
years

45
years

50
years

$9,000 $10,800 $12,600 $14,400 $16,200 $18,000
10.500 12,600 14,700 16,800 18,900
12,000 14,400 16,800 19,200
13.500 16,200 18,900
15,000 18,000
16.500

Examples are given of what this would mean in specific cases:
The rate of assessment of a member of the brotherhood who joined the pension
department at the age of 18 years is 50 cents per month, and if he remained in
continuous good standing until he reached the age of 70 years he would have
paid into the pension department a total of $312, whereas if the same member
should become totally and permanently disabled and placed on the pension roll,
after a two years' membership, he would have received at the same age of 70
years a total of $18,000.
Or,
The rate of assessment of a member of the brotherhood who joined the pension
department at the age of 39 years is $1.50 per month, and if he remained in
continuous good standing until he reached the age of 70 years he would have
paid into the pension department a total of $558, whereas if the same member
should become totally and permanently disabled and placed on the pension roll,
after a two years' membership, he would have received at the same age of 70
years a total of $10,440.

The original old-age pension plan of the International Typo­
graphical Union, as adopted in 1907, provided for a pension of $4 a
week. This was increased to $5 in 1911, to $6 in 1919, and to the
present rate of $8 in 1920. The revenues, however, continued until
1924 to be derived from a one-half of 1 per cent assessment upon mem­
bers’ earnings; in 1924 the assessment was raised to three-fourths of
1 per cent of earnings. The effect of the increased benefits upon




40

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

the condition of the pension fund is shown by the following table
which was submitted to the 1927 convention of the union:
T a b le

11.— C O N D IT IO N OF P E N S IO N F U N D OF I N T E R N A T IO N A L T Y P O G R A P H IC A L
U N IO N , 1909 T O 1927

Year ending M a y 31-

1909.
1910.
1911.
1912.
1913.
1914.
1915.
1916.
1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925
1926.
1927.

Receipts

$202,940
233,227
255.267
278,779
298,361
325,982
328,475
336,201
356.267
384,155
447,271
622,123
758,305
655,721
701,600
762,765
968,086
1,313,416
1,357,246

Benefits
and
expenses

$69,550
115,398
128,043
176,320
248,582
270,396
302,652
356,692
359,720
346,114
376,730
529,777
729,870
823,435
876,610
923,744
.,010,730
990,360

Excess of
receipts
over
expendi­
tures
$133,390
117,830
127,224
102,459
49,779
55,586
25,824
i 22,168
1425
24,434
101,157
245,393
228,528
i 74,148
1 121,834
1 113,845
44,343
302,687
366,974

Accum u­
lated
surplus

$159,767
277,597
404,821
507,280
557,059
612,645
638,469
616,301
615,876
640,310
741,466
1,215,387
1,141,239
1,019,405
905,559
949,902
1,252,589
1,619,475

i Deficit.

It is seen that with the $4 pension a generous surplus accumulated
in the treasury. From 1912, when the effects of the 1911 increase
began to be felt, the yearly surplus of receipts over expenditures
declined steadily until in 1916 a deficit of $22,000 for the year was
incurred. The condition of the fund began to improve thereafter,
even considering the increase of pension in 1919. The prosperity
of the fund during the years 1919, 1920, and 1921 was undoubtedly
the result of the increased employment and earnings among the
membership and the fact that older men—pensioners—were recalled
to industry to replace the younger men called to the colors. On
the strength of this prosperity a further increase in the annuity
was voted. Then came the years of deflation, the return of the
younger men from the war, decreased employment and earnings,
and the strike for the 44-hour week, and these combined factors
were at once reflected in the condition of the fund, which in 1923
was “ in the red” almost $122,000 for the year. The increased reve­
nues due to the raising of the proportionate share of the pension fund
in the 1 per cent assessment, from one-half to three-fourths, in
1924, operated to wipe out the yearly deficit and has gradually caused
the annual surplus to increase until in May, 1927, the surplus of
receipts over expenditures was $367,000.
The last column of the table shows that, although year by year
the excess of receipts over expenditures fluctuated considerably,
up to 1921 the accumulated surplus rose steadily. The conditions
in the industry and throughout the country reduced this accumulated
fund considerably in the period 1923 to 1925, but recovery is indicated
in the past two years, and the fund would appear now to be on a
safe basis, if the estimate of the actuary be accepted, that safety
would be assured with the maintenance of a fund of $1,250,000 at
a net interest of 3J^ per cent.



OLD-AGE AND DISABILITY PENSIONS

41

Basis and Status of Trade-Union Pension Plans

1V/IOST of the old-age pension plans of the unions are of the cashdisbursement type; i. e., pensions are paid from whatever
funds are at hand. At the same time, study of the proceedings
and reports of the unions discloses a quite general desire to insure
the accumulation of sufficient funds to place the pension depart­
ment on a sound financial basis. In a number of cases, actuarial
estimates of probable cost were secured and carefully studied before
the plan was put into effect. In some cases, however, the union
failed to see merit in the actuary’s recommendations and some plans
have come to grief or encountered difficulties because of this fact.
The pension plan of the bridge and structural-iron workers is
stated to be operated on an actuarial reserve basis.
In 1922 and again in 1925, the International Typographical
Union submitted its pension plan to the examination of actuaries.
Both reports declared that unless changes were made in the financial
basis of the plan, failure was certain.
Notwithstanding the serious condition of the fund at the time
of the first report, no action was taken until 1924, when the propor­
tionate share of the fund in the assessment on earnings was increased.
The actuary had recommended that the assessment on earnings
be abandoned in favor of a straight per capita tax. The union’s
committee on laws, however, was of the opinion that this was not
practicable for the organization. “ The present system distributes
the burden so that those best able to pay by reason of large earnings
pay for the less fortunate.”
In 1925 the age limit was raised so as to bring it to 65 by 1930.
The commission appointed to study the whole plan, which reported
to the 1927 convention, adduced data showing that no hardship
would be worked upon the fund by restoring the 60-year age limit,
inasmuch as the tendency was to remain in active service as long as
possible. The following figures were presented by the commission
showing the average age at retirement during the 19 years of operation
of th e fund:
Age at
retire­
m ent

1909___________
1910___________
1911_______ _
1912___________
1913
1914___________
1915___________

Age at
retire­
ment

69.
66.
66.
66.
65.

65.
65.
63.
64.
64.

6
4
7
5
8

1916_____________
1917_____________
1918_______
1919_____________
1920 _ __ ______
65. 7 1921_______

1922_______ ______
1923.____________
1924_______ ______
1925_______
_____
1926___
60. 1 1927_______
1
1
1
9
2

Age at
retire­
ment

64. 3
64. 3
64. 8
66. 2
66. 9
67.2

65. 6

It is seen that although, up to 1925, retirement with pension was
permitted at 60 years, in no year did the actual average of those who
retired fall that low, with the single exception of 1921, when it is
probable that retirement was due not so much to old age as to the
general economic conditions which made it impossible for the older
men to obtain work.
As the result of the commission’s report the age of eligibility was
again reduced to 60 years.
During the two years of operation of the railroad trainmen’s
pension plan receipts exceeded expenditures by $97,006 in 1925, and




42

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

by $151,573 in 1926. The condition of the fund December 31, 1926,
as shown by the report of the board of trustees for 1926, was as follows:
Balance Jan. 1, 1926_____________________________________________ $233, 518. 52
Cash receipts:
Application fees___________________ $4, 201. 00
Assessments_______ _______________ 190, 859. 15
Interest received__________________
12, 101. 68
------------------ $207, 161. 83
Bond discount realized_____________________________
312. 85
Accrued interest at Dec. 31, 1926:
On bonds_________________________
5, 194. 98
On certificates of deposit__________
212. 50
On bank balances_________________
443. 62
-----------------5, 851. 10
------------------ 213,325.78
446, 844. 30
Cash disbursements:
Pensions paid_________________________________
Commissions paid_____________________________
Accrued interest on bonds purchased____________
Expenses of pension department—
Salaries__________ ____________
7, 470. 46
Printing, stationery, and sup­
plies_______________________
1, 308. 60
Postage______________________
331. 61
Freight, express, and dray age.
19. 56
------------------

31, 080. 00
12, 662. 04
2, 716. 20

9, 130. 23
--------------------

55, 588. 47

Balance pension fund, including accrued interest Dec. 31, 1926____

391, 255. 83

Payments to Wife, Widow, or Other Beneficiaries

YJT/IFE.—The laws of the International Typographical Union pro^
vide that if a member “ is admitted to an eleemosynary insti­
tution, whether publicly or privately maintained, and such member
has a wife dependent on him, the secretary-treasurer is authorized
to make the pension payable to the wife.”
Widow.—The widow of a pensioner of the bricklayers’ union may
receive his pension provided she is 60 years of age and has no other
means of support. A railroad trainman’s widow is entitled to receive
his pension as long as she remains unmarried and keeps his union dues
paid.
The Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen and the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers both provide pensions for
widows of members, through a special department operated inde­
pendently of the members’ pension department. The Brotherhood
of Locomotive Engineers also operates a widows’ and mothers’
pension department. Men who are in good standing and have not
reached a specified age (40 for firemen, 50 for engineers) may make
provision for their widows through the widows’ pension department.
The medical examination taken for membership in the men’s pension
department suffices also for this. Upon the member’s death the
widow of a fireman is entitled to a pension of $35 per month during
her life or until she remarries. The engineers provide pensions of
$25 and $30 a month until remarriage for widows of engineers who
took out membership in the widows’ pension department, and of $30
per month for the mother if covered by the beneficiary certificate.




OLD-AGE AND DISABILITY PENSIONS

43

An engineer is permitted to take out two beneficiary certificates,
thus doubling the above benefits.
Assessments for the widows’ pension offered by the firemen’s
organization vary from $1 to $3.50 per month, according to the
husband’s age when he entered the scheme. The engineers require
monthly dues of $2 for each certificate in the widows’ pension and
dues ranging from $2 to $3 per month, according to the husband’s
age at entrance, for the “ widows’ and mothers’ pension.”
Other beneficiaries.—The bridge and structural-iron workers’ rules
governing old-age and disability pensions provide that any pensioner
who becomes an inmate of an institution which makes a charge for
residence there may direct that his pension be paid to the institution.
In such cases the officers of the local union “ must visit such member
and see that he is properly cared for.”
Discontinued or Rejected Plans

T H E Order of Railway Conductors inaugurated a pension plan but
later was forced to discontinue it. Membership in the pension
department was optional with the members, and it developed that
only the older men took advantage of it. The result was that the
income of the fund was not sufficient to offset the heavy drain upon
the fund due to the retirement of the older members.
Perkins and Woll in their study, “ Trade-union benefits,” state that
the Order of Railroad Telegraphers has at different times tried two
old-age pension schemes. Following the convention of 1921, a plan
based on actuarial experience was submitted to the membership. The
acceptance by 1,000 members was required before putting the plan
into practice. Since the interest among the membership proved insuf­
ficient to induce 1,000 to join the plan, it was finally abandoned.
The brewery workers had adopted the pension idea and were about
to put it into force, but the advent of prohibition prevented the con­
summation of the plan, while the bakery workers also made a start
and had accumulated some funds for pension purposes, but the mem­
bership was unwilling to wait until sufficient money was collected and
therefore voted to divert the funds already in hand to the erection
of a headquarters building for the union.
The flint-glass workers by referendum vote rejected the old-age
pension plan submitted to them, and similar action was taken by the
barbers in 1926. The Amalgamated Lithographers of America em­
ployed an actuary to study the feasibility of establishing an old-age
pension plan. His calculations showed that such a plan would not
be practicable for a union of the size of the lithographers’ organiza­
tion,5 except at a cost which would be prohibitive, and the idea was
therefore abandoned.
Proposed Pensions

T H E 1927 convention of the Sheet Metal Workers’ International
** Association by unanimous vote authorized its general executive
■
board to formulate a plan for caring for aged members. The board
is to report its findings to the next general convention, which will be
held in 1930.
5 A bout 5,700 members.

102869°—28------ 4




44

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

The executive board of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
America has been studying the subject of old-age pensions with a
view to establishing such a plan for the members; no action along
this line was taken at the 1928 convention of the organization, how­
ever.
The headgear workers at their 1927 convention directed the gen­
eral executive board to study the question of old age and report to
the next meeting definite plans for the introduction of an old-age
pension fund; similar action was taken by the 1925 convention of
the painters and decorators.




Chapter IV.— Homes for Aged, Disabled, and Tubercular
Members
HERE are five homes for the aged and disabled which are
owned and operated by labor organizations for the benefit
of the membership. One of these—the Home for Aged and
Disabled Railroad Employees of America—is owned and operated
jointly by three train-service brotherhoods. Two institutions,
those of the International Typographical Union and the Inter­
national Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union, also have a
tuberculosis sanatorium in connection with the home. The local
unions of the International Stereotypers and Electro typers’ Union
own a small bungalow where tubercular members live and receive
treatment.
These undertakings range from a very modest and unpretentious
plant to one which has become a model of its kind, entailing a very
large annual expense; but they are all doing, in a large or small
way, a most valuable work in caring for the sick and disabled members
of their crafts.
The question of providing a home for aged and disabled members
has frequently been before the conventions of the American Flint
Glass Workers' Union, and the matter was referred by the 1924
meeting to the national officers for further study. They reported
to the 1927 convention that, in their opinion, such a step was impracti­
cable, because of the expense, for a union of the size of the flintglass workers’ organization.1
The same question has been agitated in the Brotherhood of Main­
tenance of Way Employees but no action has been taken.

T

Carpenters’ Home

A FTER much debate, the United Brotherhood of Carpenters
* * and Joiners of America decided to provide a home for its
aged and infirm members and their wives. Some years ago the
brotherhood acquired a tract of 1,826 acres near Lakeland, Fla., at a
cost of $750,000. Of this, 600 acres were in orange, tangerine, and
grapefruit groves. It is expected that the income from the fruit will
render the home self-supporting to a great extent.
The contract for the home was let early in 1927 and the building
was finished early in January, 1928. The furnishings, the general
secretary states, will cost at least a quarter of a million dollars and
it is hoped the home will be ready for occupancy by the time of the
brotherhood’s convention in 1928.
The building, which stands on an incline facing the east and
overlooking Lake Gibson, is three stories in height. (See fig. 1.)
It cost $875,000 and will accommodate 400 persons. It is built in
the form of the letter E, and is 331 feet in length and 227 feet deep.
The home is provided with its own laundry, power plant, and water
16,564 members in 1927, of whom 5,264 are actually employed at the trade.




45

46

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

system. The north wing contains the sleeping rooms. The dining
rooms and service kitchens occupy the first floor of the south wing.
The main dining room is a cafeteria. The middle arm of the E is
the assembly hall.
Conditions of admission and residence.—The regulations adopted
require that the candidate for admission must be 65 years of age
and have had a continuous membership in the union of 30 years.
He must also show that he is unable to provide a livelihood for himself.
The general secretary states that it will be the practice to admit
not only superannuated members but their wives also. In this
respect the carpenters’ home will be unusual among labor homes for
the aged, as the usual practice is to restrict residence to members
only.2 Generally in those unions which have established old-age
pensions as well as a home, the member who is eligible for retirement
may choose whether he will enter the home or will remain with
his relatives or friends and receive the pension; married men who
elect to enter the home must leave their wives behind.
Medical care and material and recreational 'provision.—The institu­
tion will contain an auditorium or assembly hall seating nearly 1,000
persons and equipped with a pipe organ and stage, a library, parlors,
and lounging rooms. Recreation will be provided in the form of
lectures, motion pictures, radio, and fishing and boating.
It is said that “ the original plans call for the erection of a casino,
boathouse, and band shell on the lake, game courts, roque, croquet,
and bowling green.”
A hospital will occupy the third floor of the south wing.
Maintenance.— The construction of the building is being financed
by a per capita tax of 10 cents per month upon each of the nearly
400,000 members of the brotherhood.
Costello Home—Tuberculosis Sanatorium of Stereotypers

"THE first step toward the provision of treatment for stereotypers
*
and electro typers was taken in 1902 or 1903 when the Denver
local of the International Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union of
North America purchased a tent for the use of its tubercular members.
In October, 1924, a modem six-room bungalow on the outskirts of
Denver was purchased, as well as eight building lots 25 by 150 feet
each; the cost was $4,500. Since that time five 1-room cottages
have been built facing the north side of the main cottage. Figure 2
(p. 47) shows the bungalow and cottages comprising “ Costello
Home” ; since this picture was taken a sun porch has been built on
in front of and connecting all five cottages. The present value of
home and grounds is about $9,500.
Each little cottage is equipped with an adjustable hospital bed,
dresser, straight-backed chair, rocker, medicine table, rug, and fiattopped stove, also a reading lamp adjustable from the bed. The
matron can be summoned by an electric push button communicating
with the main cottage.
The main building contains the general living room, dining room
(where all the patients who are able assemble for meals), and kitchen,
as well as three bedrooms.
2 There are several women in residence at the Union Printers’ Home, but these are members of the Inter­
national Typographical Union in their own right. The new home of the Order pf Railway Conductors
Is, however, open to wives and widows of members,







FI G. 1.— H O M E FOR A G E D OF U N I T E D B R O T H E R H O O D OF C A R P E N T E R S A N D J O I N E R S , L A K E L A N D , FLA.

HOMES
FO
R
AGED
AN
D
DISABLED




F ig. 2.—Tuberculosis sanatorium at Denver, Colo., owned by locals of International Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union

48

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-TJNIONS
Conditions of Admission and Residence

The rules of the association provide that only cases which appear to
be capable of improvement shall be admitted to the home.
Candidates for admission to Costello Home must be members in
good standing of the International Stereo typers and Electro typers’
Union. No specified length of membership is required. The rules
require that the patient shall cease work at his trade upon entering
the home. All residents who are able are required to care for their
own rooms.
Medical Provision

There is no resident physician, but the home association has
engaged the services of a Denver physician, who visits the home
once a week, examines all the residents, and prescribes the necessary
treatment. He is also on call at any time for emergency treatment.
The general care of the patients is given by the resident matron,
under the direction of the physician.
The food for each patient is prescribed by the physician, as well as
any exercise that is to be permitted, and certain rest hours are enforced.
In order to injure the mental tranquillity of the patients the rules
specifically prohibit “ the- discussion of religion, politics, or labor
matters * * * and the committee will not tolerate having
patients enter into these matters. Your health comes first and that
is what the patient is being cared for.”
General Benefits Provided

The home was provided, by the general membership of the union,
with a player piano and an initial 50 records, to which additions are
being constantly made through donations. Entertainment is also
obtained through a radio.
Books, newspapers, magazines, etc., are also provided.
All clothing needed by the patient is furnished by the home associa­
tion and each resident receives, for pocket money, $2.50 each week.
The rules provide that if he desires he may deposit this money with
the secretary-treasurer of the association, receiving interest upon it.
After a patient has been in residence for a year and if the home
physician and the patient’s local union consent, the home committee
may give him leave of absence to pay a visit to his home city. In
such cases the association furnishes transportation (including berth)
and money for his expenses during the trip.
Maintenance of Home

The home is operated through an organization know as the Cos­
tello Home Association. This home is unique in that instead of
being operated and financed by the international union, it is still
largely a local matter, the Denver local, which inaugurated the home,
sponsoring it and being the main, directing power.
It is financed entirely by voluntary donations from stereotypers
and electro typers’ local unions and by individuals. Of the 150 locals,
33 make regular monthly contributions to the support of the home;
others contribute at Christmas or on specific occasions only.




49

HOMES FOR AGED AND DISABLED

The Costello Home, while a modest undertaking, fills a real need
and that at comparatively small cost. Perusal of labor periodicals
reveals that several unions have considered the provision of a home
or of tuberculosis treatment for their members, but have hesitated
to do so because of the cost. The Costello Home is an example of
what can be done even when the union membership is comparatively
small3 and general union funds not available.
During the year ending July 31, 1927, the cost of maintenance of
the home was $5,854, divided as to the various items of cost, as
follows:
Administration and labor:
Expenditure
Matron__________________________________________$1, 072. 00
127. 35
Secretary-treasurer______________________________
Other___________________________________________
148. 49
Medical care:
Physician________________________________________
435. 00
Drugs and medical supplies______________________
145. 35
Laboratory test__________________________________
3. 00
Nursing service__________________________________
42. 00
Ambulance___ __________________________________
8. 00
Patients' allowances__________________________________
402. 50
Telephone and telegraph_____________________________
57. 40
170. 45
Laundry_____________________________________________
Groceries, meats, etc_________________________________
1, 052. 83
Heat, light, water, ice________________________________
242. 86
Postage______________________________________________
24. 00
Miscellaneous printing__________________ _____________
95. 68
Transportation of patient____________________________
25. 00
Improvements to home:
Equipment______________________________________
702. 14
78. 20
Furniture_______________________________________
Permanent additions to building_________________
456. 07
Amusements and recreation__________________________
4 405. 29
Legal services______________________________ __________
21. 25
Miscellaneous_______________________________________
138. 70

Total______________________ ________________

5,853.56

Printing Pressmen’s Home

rT ,HE International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union of
*
North America has acquired a large tract of land in northeast­
ern Tennessee, where it has established a number of projects, includ­
ing a home for aged pressmen, a tuberculosis sanatorium, a hotel, a
technical trade school, etc. This group of projects forms what is
known as Pressmen’s Home. Situated in a valley in the mountains,
and covering an area of some 1,800 acres, Pressmen’s Home has
become a self-contained community.
Tuberculosis Sanatorium

The tuberculosis sanatorium is situated about half a mile to the
west of the main group of buildings. It is a white frame building
constructed in the shape of a cross (fig. 3, p. 50), so that each room
receives the sunlight at some time in the day.
8 The membership of the International Stereotypers’ and Electrotypers’ Union on Dec. 31. 1926, was
7,178.
* Includes $275 for player piano and $61.40 for Christmas celebration and presents for the patients.




BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




F j g . 3. —Tuberculosis sanatorium

of International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union, Pressmen’s Home, Tennessee

HOMES FOR AGED AND DISABLED

51

Each bedroom opens onto its individual screened porch, the wall of
the room on that side being formed of windows (see fig. 4, p. 52), so that
the patient can be in the open air and in his room at the same time.
A door, cut into the partition between porches, allows communication.
The sanatorium is equipped with an up-to-date kitchen and has its
own refrigeration plant. There are separate dining rooms for the
patients, for the nurses, and for the white and the colored employees.
The number of patients varies from 15 to 35. At the time of the
agent’s visit, 17 were in residence.
Maj. George Berry, president of the pressmen’s union, addressing
the convention of the International Typographical Union in August,
1927, stated that since the opening of the sanatorium 185 cases of
tuberculosis have been arrested and discharged.
Medical care.— Patients at the sanatorium receive not only tuber­
culosis treatment but any other medical attention necessary. This
includes minor operations, X-ray work, dental care, and treatment
for affections of eyes, ears, nose, and throat. The people of the
countryside around about come to the sanatorium for treatment for
their various ailments, although the resident physician states that
they must wait until all the resident patients have been given atten­
tion. Employees at Pressmen’s Home receive free medical attention
also, but pay for medicines.
In case of death of a patient or of a resident at the home it is
provided that, if the body is unclaimed by friends or the local lodge,
burial expenses will be borne by the home.
The equipment at the sanatorium includes X-ray apparatus,
dental outfit, and laboratory.
The sanatorium has a resident physician. The medical director
resides at Rogersville, some 12 miles away, but visits at the sana­
torium several times a week. There are three resident nurses.
Conditions of admission and residence.—Applicants for admission
must have been members of the pressmen’s union for four years.
While the rule is that only incipient cases shall be admitted, it was
stated that in practice many advanced cases are sent to the sanato­
rium and “ they can’t be turned away.”
Material and recreational 'provision.— Special attention is given to
the menu of the patients, to insure a diet rich in protein. A large
flock of chickens and a herd of cattle owned by the home association
provide the eggs and milk consumed at the sanatorium.
No monetary benefits are provided, but all necessaries are furnished,
including clothing and transportation to and from the sanatorium and
the patient’s home.
Although tuberculosis patients must avoid strenuous exertion and
are therefore debarred from many recreational activities, there are
certain quiet amusements that the sanatorium affords for its inmates.
A pleasant library, opening onto a glass-inclosed porch with flower­
ing plants, contains several thousand volumes. A victrola, a radio,
and a billiard room are also furnished.
Home for Aged

The union has built at the foot of the mountain a building of 240
rooms, which will be used as a home for “ aged, invalid, or infirm”
members. It is furnished and ready for occupancy and it is expected




to

BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




C
n

F ig . 4.—Bedroom in tuberculosis sanatorium

at Pressmen’s Home, Tennessee

HOMES FOR AGED AND DISABLED

53

that it will be opened shortly after the convention of 1928. It is a
white frame building with broad verandas across the front and sides.
From the front of the home the lawn slopes down in broad terraces to
the foot of the valley. (Fig. 5, p. 54.)
Conditions oj admission and residence.—To become a resident of the
home the applicant must have reached the age of 60 years and have
been a member in continuous good standing in the union for 20 years.
He must also show that he is “ incapacitated for employment under
the jurisdiction of the international union.”
As already stated, an aged member eligible for the benefit may
choose between the old-age pension or residence at the home. If he
chooses the latter he is entitled to receive the difference between the
pension and the cost of his maintenance at the home. A member
obtaining a furlough from the home begins to draw his pension upon
leaving, relinquishing it again when he returns.
No services will be required of the residents at the home.
Material and recreational provision.—The home contains a large
handsomely furnished library and living room extending across the
eastern end of the building. A smoking room for the men and a
general clubroom for the women are also provided. Both are equipped
with couches, easy chairs, etc., and at one end of the room there is
electrical equipment for making coffee, toast, and other dishes.
The home building itself contains no specific recreational features.
At the foot of the terraces in front of the home is a building containing
a swimming pool, dressing rooms, etc. This will be open to the use
of the residents at the home, as also will be the gymnasium, billiard
room, and motion pictures at the hotel maintained by the union just
outside the grounds.
Administration

Home and sanatorium are administered by a board of five members
selected by referendum vote of the members of the international
union. The sanatorium is under the immediate charge of the resident
physician, while the home is to be under the management of a matron
and her daughter.
Funds are secured by a per capita tax of 25 cents per month, levied
upon each of the more than 40,000 members of the international union.
Home for Aged and Disabled Railroad Employees

'T H E Home for Aged and Disabled Railroad Employees of America
A was established in Chicago in 1891, but was moved to Highland
Park in 1903. Up to August 1, 1911, it was supported “ by soliciting
subscriptions from all possible sources,” and was open to members
of the four train-service brotherhoods— those of the locomotive engi­
neers, the firemen and enginemen, the trainmen, and the conductors.
The 1909 convention of the trainmen appropriated from the
brotherhood funds the sum of $15,000 to be used toward the con­
struction of a fireproof building. The engineers and firemen each
contributed a like amount, and the home was built. In 1924 the
building was remodeled, and a wing containing 39 rooms was added,
the whole costing some $172,000, the expense again being borne by
the same three brotherhoods. The Order of Railroad Conductors
ceased to have a voice in the management of the home in 1925. Its



BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS

F i g . 5.— Home



for superannuated members of International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union, Pressmen’s Home, Tennessee

HOMES FOR AGED AND DISABLED

55

retired members, however, continued to reside at the home, but since
the union had made no financial contribution to the building of the
home the order was, thereafter, charged for its residents one and
a half times the per capita cost of maintaining the home. The con­
ductors, however, have recently completed the construction of a home
for aged members near Savannah, Ga., and to this its residents at
Highland Park were removed early in November, 1927.
The Brotherhood Home is situated at Highland Park, a suburb to
the north of Chicago, and is only four blocks from Lake Michigan.
The home building is a three-story brick structure. (See fig. 6, p. 56.)
Each floor has a sun porch 10 feet wide and 50 feet long. The build­
ing contains 64 single and 30 double rooms and can accommodate as
many as 150 at a pinch, although the normal capacity is 135. At
the time of the agent’s visit, in October, 1927, there were 97 in resi­
dence; 13 of these, however, were conductors who were shortly to
leave for their new home in Georgia.
The power plant and laundry are in a separate building.
The home is surrounded by lawns comprising altogether some 2J^
acres, and buildings and grounds are valued at nearly $350,000.
Conditions of Admission and Residence

The object of the home is to provide a refuge for “ worthy, aged
and disabled, helpless and destitute railroad men who are no longer
able to provide for themselves.” To gain admission to the institution
it is necessary that the applicant be a member in good standing in
one of the three brotherhoods and that he be eligible for insurance
therein. A certificate from a physician showing that he is “ per­
manently incapacitated for railroad work” must accompany his
application. The home does not accept “ insane or dangerous persons,
or persons afflicted with any contagious or infectious disease or
addicted to the use of liquor,” nor any person otherwise eligible “ if
suffering from a disabling incurable affliction or a progressive disease
which is liable to result in death within a reasonably short time after
admission to the home, or which requires at time of admission or is
liable to require shortly thereafter continuous hospital treatment
or other constant medical attention.”
The rules of the home require that “ every inmate of this institution
shall make himself useful in every way consistent with his physical
condition and cheerfully cooperate with the management in the per­
formance of such duties as may be assigned to him” ; also that he
care for his own room, keeping it “ neat and tidy when his physical
condition will permit, attending to it the first thing in the morning
after a thorough airing.” In practice, the manager has rather dis­
couraged the residents from helping around the building. He stated,
however, that when a section of the grounds was being beautified
and he called for volunteers to give 15 minutes’ time each day to
clearing the newly sown grass of weeds, he was surprised at the ready
and general response from the men.
It is pointed out that a member “ can not come and go at will. He
may be furloughed by the management to visit relatives and friends
at reasonable times.” In such cases, while the home does not under­
take to provide transportation, the manager is usually able to secure
railroad tickets through the co.urtesy of the railroads,



BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS

F ig . 6.—H om e for



Aged and Disabled, maintained by Brotherhoods of Locom otive Engineers, Firemen, and Trainm en, Highland Park, 111.

HOMES FOR AGED AND DISABLED

57

Material, Medical, and Recreational Benefits Provided

All the necessaries required by the men are provided. When ill
they are cared for in the home hospital, which consists of two wards
and a diet kitchen. The two wards usually contain eight beds, but
on occasion can accommodate 16. In serious cases or for surgical
operations the patient is removed to an outside hospital, where he is
treated at the expense of the home.
A trained nurse is in attendance at the home hospital and a local
physician visits the home and gives any necessary treatment. The
services of dentist and oculist are also provided by the home as
needed.
The building is kept in immaculate condition and, in the interests
of sanitation, it is the present practice to furnish the new bedrooms
with steel furniture. The new wing contains 39 bedrooms, each of
which will be a “ memorial” room; i. e., a member of one of the
supporting organizations undertakes to furnish the room at a cost
of $100, the room being named for the person memorialized and a
bronze tablet to that effect being placed on the door of the room.
The furniture includes armchair, straight-backed chair, bed, and a
dresser one drawer of which pulls out and down to form a desk.
An automatic elevator enables those residents who are confined to
wheel chairs to move about from floor to floor without help.
The meals are prepared under the supervision of the managers
wife, who acts as matron. Especial care is taken to provide as much
variety in the menu as possible.
In addition to meals and lodging, each inmate is given clothing,
laundry, and barber service; tobacco, stamps and numerous small
comforts are also provided.
The home contains, for the recreational use of its inmates a fine
library, smoking rooms, reading rooms, lounging rooms, billiard
room, and sun room. The institution has its own motion-picture
machine, donated by the ladies' auxiliary of the locomotive engineers,
and pictures are shown in the chapel once a week during the year
(except during very hot weather). Cards, checkers, and a radio also
furnish amusement.
In 1923 the same ladies’ auxiliary presented the home with a
seven-passenger automobile, and since that time automobile rides
have been a regular recreational feature for the old men at the home.
This was an especially welcome addition to the recreational facilities,
since there are usually in residence men confined to wheel chairs or
on crutches who would otherwise be unable to leave the home grounds.
Administration and Maintenance

The home is under the general supervision of a society composed
of the chief executive of each of the three supporting brotherhoods,
each of whom appoints two additional members of his organization
and three members from the ladies’ auxiliary of his order. The
society so composed then elects from its number a board of three
trustees who oversee the management of the home. The secretarytreasurer of the society is the manager of the home, hiring all employees
and paying all bills.




58

BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNION S

The funds are furnished by the three brotherhoods, which con­
tribute on a pro rata basis according to the number of days' occu­
pancy by their members. As already stated, a higher rate has been
charged for members of the Order of Railroad Conductors.
The table immediately following shows the amount chargeable to
each of the organizations in 1926:
Average
number
o f resident
members

Organization

A m ount

Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen_____ _______________________________________
Brotherhood of Locom otive Engineers__________________________________________
Brotherhood of Locom otive Firemen and Enginemen__________________________
Order of Railroad Conductors. __________________________________________ _____

32
30
7
15

$23,971.10
23,416.50
5,639.86
16,754.21

T otal____________________________________________________________________

84

69,781.67

The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers levies upon each of its
members an assessment of 25 cents a year for the home, while each
member of the ladies’ auxiliary of that organization contributes
5 cents a year. Other sources of income are special contributions from
individual members of the brotherhoods, and honorary and associate
memberships, which yield a small income.
The table below shows the expenditure for each item in 1926:
T a b l e 1 2 .—

O P E R A T IN G E X P E N S E S OF R A IL R O A D B R O T H E R H O O D H O M E , 1926

Item

Building expenses:
Maintenance of building__________
Upkeep of grounds.............................
Maintenance of elevator and ma­
chinery
_ _______________
Maintenance of furniture and fix­
tures____________________________
Maintenance of heating plant_____
Light and p o w e r _________________
Heating plant fuel
Heating plant, wages ___________
Depreciation, buildings, old.............
Depreciation, furniture, fixtures,
equipment, and machinery, old.

Expendi­
ture

Item

$6,184.60
206.80

Table expenses— Continued.
Kitchen and dining-room, w ages. . .
Renewals of wares and linens_____

$4,552.55
441.98

262.55

T otal.............................. ....................

25,946.35

288.04
90.43
1,456.66
3,947.00
2,416.30
1,388.15

Hom e expense:
Care of rooms_____________________
Supplies___________________________

674.15
112.15

817.47

T otal..................................................

17,058 00

General expenses:
Administrative
Office, salary
_
_________
Office supplies
Telephone and telegrams _______
Transportation
____
General
_ _________
Publication
_____

4,213.19
1,164.00
120.60
146.80
314.34
395.95
937.78

T o t a l . . . . ............. ............................

7,292.66

Table expenses:
Groceries
Meats
XXTflfAf
Freight and express
Range fuel. ______________________

33,548.98
5,629.88
600.89
214.95
957.12




Expendi­
ture

T o ta l-................................................

786.30

Inmates’ expenses:
Clothing.... .......... ................................
Barber
Laundry. ..............................................
Tobacco.................................................
Amusements.......................................

1,658.07
1,079.50
2,596.76
602.28
134.67

T otal..................................................

6,071.28

Hospital expenses:
Salaries of nurses............... ............. .
Attendants’ w ages.............................
Medical attendance........................ .
Drugs and hospital supplies
Automobile—
Maintenance__________________
Depreciation...............................

1,161.00
2,001.00
2,310.60
906.17
431.07
232.50

T otal...........................................

7,042.34

Total expenses.......... .............

64,196.93

59

HOMES FOR AGED AND DISABLED

The cost of maintaining a superannuated member varies with the
number in residence and with the amount of medical and other
care necessary. Table 13 shows for the past 13 years the total and
average cost of maintenance:
T

able

1 3.— T O T A L

AND

A V E R A G E M A IN T E N A N C E E X P E N S E S
B R O T H E R H O O D H O M E , 1914 T O 1926

Year

1914.................................................
1915............................. .....................
1916______ _____ _____ _________
1917_____ ____________ _________
1918
.
. * ......................
1919.......................... ............ .......... .
1920_______ ____________________
1921____ _______________________
1922_______ ____________________
1923.......................... ........ ................
1924.......................................... .........
1925................................... ...............
1926...................................................

Average
number
of in­
mates
56
55
55
53
52
46
48
59
65
64
74
76
76

Total
mainte­
nance ex­
pense
$28,381.19
33,690.85
34,455.93
35,917.00
33,914.81
33,734.16
44,371.91
45,349.35
44.822.94
50,217.01
51,380.48
65.919.94
64.196.93

OF

R A IL R O A D

Average cost per inmate
Per day

Per week

Per m onth

$1.39
1.67
1.70
1.87
1.81
2.01
2.54
2.12
1.89
2.15
1.90
2.38
2.31

$9.74
11.67
11.91
13.10
12.72
14.16
17.82
1 14.82
13.26
15.09
13.30
16.68
16.24

$42.31
SO 73
.
51.64
56.89
55.13
61.38
76.35
163.53
57.46
65.39
57.86
72 28
70.39

Per year
$507.72
608.82
619.66
682.68
661.63
765.57
916.20
i 772.89
689.58
784.64
694.33
867.37
844.70

1 As shown in the report. Based on number of inmates and total expense as given, the average cost
should be $768.63 per year, $64.05 per month, and $14.78 per week.

Railway Conductors’ Home
rT rHE Order of Railway Conductors until November, 1927, main1 tained its superannuated and disabled members at the Brother­
hood Home owned by the other three train-service brotherhoods—
those of the engineers, firemen and enginemen, and trainmen. The
question of the provision of a home owned by the order itself arose
some time ago, and when it became known that various localities
were being considered for the site of the home citizens of Savan­
nah, Ga., donated to the order 100 acres of land on Oatland Island,
near Savannah, and pledged $20,000 toward the construction of the
building. The 1925 conductors’ convention authorized the erection
of a building to house not only the superannuated members but also
their wives and the widows of members. The contract of construc­
tion was let early in 1927, and the building was formally opened No­
vember 10, 1927. The contract price of construction is reported to
have been $242,000.
The home is a two-story building of reinforced concrete and brick.
(See fig. 7, p. 60.) It is built in the form of an H, with a frontage of
250 feet; wings on each end run back 108 feet. The floors are con­
nected by automatic elevators. A glass-inclosed porch runs along the
entire length of one wing.
There are 75 bedrooms, 21 of which are on the first floor. The
living room is stated to be a large, attractive room, with paneled
walls and a large fireplace. The kitchen is completely equipped with
electric appliances. The second floor contains bedrooms, linen
rooms, and sewing rooms. One wing on this floor is given over to
the "medical department, with hospital wards, and sterilization,
anesthetic, and operating rooms.
102869°— 28------ 5




o

BENEFICIAL

F ig . 7.—H om e for Aged and Disabled Members of Order of Kailway Conductors, on Oatland Island, near Savannah, Ga.

TRADE-UNIONS

uiMMwllillililii b it

O
F

gBSM l l l ' l B

ACTIVITIES




05

HOMES FOR AGED AND DISABLED

61

The building is steam heated and has its own water system sup­
plied from a pneumatic pump on the grounds. Accommodations for
30 servants are provided at the rear of the building, and a garage
housing five cars has also been constructed.
It is planned to erect individual cottages, each with its own garden
and orchard, for the use of family groups in residence at the home.
Medical care and recreational provision.—Reference has already been
made to the medical and hospital equipment. No definite action had
been taken relative to medical care, but officials stated that the serv­
ices of some local physician would probably be engaged.
The home contains a card room, billiard room, and a game room,
all situated in the right wing of the building, and recreational activities
will be centered there.
Administration and maintenance.—As already noted, 100 acres of
land and $20,000 were donated by citizens of Savannah. Additional
funds were raised by special assessments levied upon the 60,000 mem­
bers of the Order of Railway Conductors, and individual contribu­
tions were also received. Some of the members have pledged them­
selves to pay $1 a week to the home.
A number of the rooms have been furnished by local divisions or
by the ladies’ auxiliary units.
No data are available as to what the source of funds for the current
expenses of operation will be. It was stated at the headquarters of
the order, however, that the organization owns some 3,500 acres of
land on which pecan trees have been set out. It is expected that the
income from the pecan groves will eventually cover the operating
expense of the home. Potatoes and cotton are being raised pending
the attainment of bearing age by the pecan groves.
The home is managed b,y one of the deputy presidents of the order
and his wife.
Union Printers* Home

'T ’HE Epochal History of the International Typographical Union,
A issued by the union, states that even in the earliest conventions
of that body the matter of the establishment of a home for aged and
infirm members was brought up. Even though discouraged by com­
mittees time and again, the proposal kept recurring.
Finally, in 1886, two wealthy men of Philadelphia made the union
an unconditional gift of $10,000. Several offers of land for a site were
received, but that of the city of Colorado Springs, Colo., was finally
accepted. The site included 80 acres of land on a hill situated about
a mile east of the city.
Private subscription had increased the original $10,000 to more
than $20,000. Additional contributions were secured from the mem­
bers, and union printers throughout the couatry donated an hour’s
pay, or the price of 1,000 ems of type composition. Later a per capita
tax was levied to increase the funds.
The home was formally dedicated May 12, 1892. This first build­
ing cost approximately $60,000. Successive additions have been
built, and the present edifice has a frontage of some 300 feet. Build­
ing and grounds are now valued at approximately $3,000,000.
The grounds of the home now cover some 300 acres situated on an
eminence overlooking the city of Colorado Springs. From the front




Figure 8. The house outside the grounds (to the left) is occupied by
th resident physician a the home. The land t the rear of the
e
t
o
grounds (shown a the top of the picture) is owned b the home and
t
y
is used for farming purposes.




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F ig . 8.—Panoramic view of Union Printers’ Home at Colorado Springs, Colo., showing landscaped grounds

p^H ^

b t

S.?

o
S
5
cn

S
3
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F ig . 9.—Flower beds and croquet grounds at Union Printers’ Hom e, Colorado Springs, Colo.

P <•. (D

05
CO
r* » °
P <
H
J

S

>
W
t-1
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O

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I

tB C ^
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3-2 S-

of 1 acres. These lawns abound i flowers, shrubs, an trees, maple
2
n
d
an e
d lm alternating i front an along the driveway.
n
d
The m
ain building is of white lava stone, w
ith red sandstone trim­
mings. (Fig. 10, p. 64.) The m
ain edifice is about 300 feet long by
5 feet wide, w
0
ith a wing extending t the rear from each end.
o




w
o
g
H
i/2

BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




F ig . 10.— M ain building at Union Printers’ Home, largest and best known of the trade-union homes for aged members

HOMES FOR AGED AND DISABLED

65

The south wing is used exclusively for hospital purposes. Across
the east (rear) side of the building are screened sun porches, those at
the south end being devoted to the use of the tuberculosis patients
for sleeping purposes. Each story of the building contains a main
hallway, extending the entire length of the building, into which all
the rooms open. An automatic electric elevator has been installed
for the convenience of the residents. The most elderly residents, how­
ever, are given rooms on the first floor.
There are three dining rooms, all located on the ground floor. In
the main dining room are served the meals of the able-bodied resi­
dents, the nurses, and the office force; in an adjoining room those
sanatorium patients who are able to dress and come to the table,
while in still another are served those who, while able to be out of
bed, are yet too weak to bear the exertion of dressing for meals. To
this room they may come in their bath robes and slippers.
The kitchens are equipped with the most modern appliances.
The meals of the sanatorium patients are prepared under the super­
vision of an expert dietitian in a special kitchen equipped for this
purpose. In addition, there are diet kitchens located in convenient
places on the upper floors where special nourishment is prepared for
bed patients. An automatic dumb-waiter is also provided for carrying
trays from the ground-floor kitchen to the upper floors, to those
patients who are confined to their beds.
In August, 1927, there were 140 aged members in residence in the
home, of whom 6 were women. A dormer wing on the third floor
has been set aside for the use of these women.
Hospital and Tuberculosis Sanatorium

As already indicated, the hospital occupies the south yring of the
main building; it provides accommodations for 54 patients. The
tower room on each floor (except that on which the offices of the
medical department are located) is used as a recreation and lounging
room for the patients.
In addition, there are 20 octagonal tents grouped at the south end
of the main building. These tents are mounted on cement bases
and are securely anchored to withstand the most severe winds. The
walls are of the best Army canvas, impervious to snow or rain. A
system of ventilators is provided in the floor on four sides of the tent,
as well as in the peak of the roof; these can be opened or closed at
will. Each tent is electric lighted and steam heated and is provided
with an electric call bell. If a patient needs attention he presses
the bell, which rings in the nurses’ room in the hospital and at the
same time causes a light over the tent door to glow. This remains
lighted until his call is answered.
To supply a central place for the use of the tuberculosis patients,
a solarium was built in 1907. Still more space was found necessary,
and an open-air pavilion was then constructed, supplying accom­
modations for 30 additional patients.
In August, 1927, there were 140 patients in the hospital and
sanatorium.
Other Buildings

A separate building houses the laundry, carpenter shop, and power
plant; and the second floor contains sleeping rooms for the male
employees of the institution.




66

B E N E F IC IA L A C T IV IT IE S

O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

A three-story building, formerly part of the main building, was
moved, when the hospital wing was built, to a space just back of
the main building. It contains a laboratory, sewing room, 39 bed­
rooms, and a barber shop where two union barbers are constantly
employed.
The plants and shrubs used in beautifying the grounds and the
flowers for use in the building are grown in a separate greenhouse
built in 1922, which has two wings 68 by 20 feet each. Adjoining
the greenhouse is a potting shed. The whole is heated by a hotwater system in connection with a smokeless furnace.
In 1921 a fruit and vegetable cellar was constructed, 40 by 24 feet,
with concrete walls 16 inches thick and 9 feet high. Adjoining this
cellar is a record vault 10 by 12 feet, with double walls and air cham­
ber, fitted with steel doors. Access to the cellar and vault is had
through a[tunnel, 72 feet long and 6 feet wide, leading from the main
building.
Some distance to the east of the home is a dairy building, 100 by
300 feet. There are also large barns about a quarter of a mile to the
east of the main building for the horses and for the large herd of Hol­
stein cattle from which are obtained the milk and cream so necessary
to the treatment of tuberculosis. The milking is done by electric
machinery. There is also a garage building for the cars belonging
to the institution.
The superintendent of the home occupies a six-room, modern,
white lava-stone cottage, located just north of the main building.
It has telephone connection with every department of the institution.
The medical director occupies a cottage just outside the main grounds
of the institution but on land belonging to it. The other two resident
physicians have quarters in the main building.
Conditions of Admission and Residence

Applicants for admission to the home must have been members
of the International Typographical Union for not less than 10 years,
at least 3 of which must immediately antedate the date of appli­
cation for admission. Persons suffering from tuberculosis, however,
may be admitted after 18 months’ continuous membership except in
cases where it appears that the applicant joined the union for the
sole purpose of securing admission to the sanatorium.
No persons afflicted with any mental disease are admitted.
In case of there being more applications for admission than there
are vacancies the rules provide that preference shall be given “ (1) to
the afflicted as against the infirm; (2) to those of the afflicted to whom
the greatest probable good can be done by admission as against those
to whom a less degree of good is probable; and (3) to those of the
infirm whose infirmity is greatest.” If the prospective resident
is unable to defray his traveling expenses to the home, these are
borne by his local union. When he is discharged an amount equal
to that expended in his transportation to the home is appropriated
by the home to buy him a railroad ticket in whatever direction he
may select.
Residents who are able to do so are expected to care for their own
rooms, and may also be asked to perform light tasks relative to the
upkeep of grounds or buildings, subject to the judgment of the




HOMES

FOR

AGED

AND

D IS A B L E D

67

medical director. “ It is recommended without being made a duty
* * * that landscape gardening, or some similar vocation, be
undertaken on said grounds as a source of exercise and recreation
to the persons domiciled at said home. But no task or duty shall
ever be imposed under the guise of exercise or recreation on any
inmate of said home.”
Medical Care

Within 48 hours after admission to the home or sanatorium the
resident is given a thorough physical examination, and during his
period of residence he receives all possible medical care, including
operations. In case of death, the home bears the burial expenses if
the body is unclaimed by friends or the local union.
The institution’s medical staff consists of a medical director, two
resident physicians, a consulting neurologist, a consulting ear, nose,
and throat specialist, a consulting eye specialist, a consulting surgeon,
and a dentist. In addition, when occasion demands, a specialist
in genitourinary diseases is also called in. At the September, 1926,
meeting of the board of trustees of the home, the superintendent was
instructed to “ look into the feasibility and advisability of employing
an all-time dentist” on the same basis as the resident physicians.
Major operations are provided for by arrangement with a local
hospital.
The medical director is of the opinion that some system should
also be worked out by which discharged patients could be kept
under medical observation “ for a long period after leaving.”
The equipment of the medical department cost more than $10,000
and includes an up-to-date X-ray machine, ultra-violet lamp, dental
outfit, etc. The home has an arrangement with a local laboratory
clinical company whereby laboratory-test work is done by the
company, which also has supervision of the X-ray department of
the home. The home employs a technician, who is also a nurse, to
do the X-ray work.
In order that the medical department may be in touch with the
latest developments in the medical field, the trustees last year
inaugurated the practice of sending the medical director or one of the
resident physicians to attend two medical meetings each year, all
expenses in connection therewith to be met by the home.
Material and Recreational Provision

The rules governing the home are very restrained in their promises
of care for the residents, providing merely that “ persons admitted
into this home shall be fed with plain but wholesome food, clothed
with plain but decent apparel (no distinctive dress ever to be worn),
and lodged in a plain but safe manner; due regard shall be paid to
their health, comfort, and happiness, and to this end their persons,
clothes, and apartments shall be kept clean.” 5
The actual spirit prevailing in the treatment of these aged and
tubercular printers in residence at the home, however, is much
better expressed in another article of the same document which de­
clares that “ its bounty shall be unpurchasable; its charity shall be
given without price.”
5 The rules of the printing pressmen’ s union also contain this identical provision, presumably adopted
from the printers’ regulations.




68

B E N E F IC IA L A C T IV IT IE S

O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

Each resident receives not only food, lodging, clothing, and
laundry, but also 50 cents a week. This sum is granted to those whose
local unions are unable to make any allowance to their members
who are at the home; if the local union supplies pocket money, the
home does not. As the funds of the home warrant, the amount
will be increased to $1 a week. Additional payment is made to those
residents who perform tasks on the grounds or in the buildings.
A room in the main building is equipped with tables for cards,
chess, or checkers for the use of the residents. From this room an
arched doorway leads into a library which contains between nine and
ten thousand volumes. More than 100 newspapers are received, as
well as magazines and several religious publications. A number of
the magazines are donated by the publishers, and the home subscribes
for two copies of each of the other leading monthlies.
The archway between card room and library is so arranged that
it can be converted into a stage. Here motion pictures are shown
once a week from October 1 to April 1 each year. A six-piece
orchestra furnishes the music accompanying the pictures. On this
stage the local lodge of Elks gives a performance of its minstrel
show every winter, and various other entertainments are given.
The library will seat 300 persons.
A billiard room with two tables furnishes recreation for those who
care for this type of amusement, while piano and victrola provide
for those musically inclined. Usually several dances are given dur­
ing the winter, those on St. Valentine’s day and St. Patrick’s day
being costume affairs. As the inmates consist only of elderly or
sick people, outside amusements are few. There are, however,
two croquet grounds which seem to be well patronized. Tourna­
ments are held and prizes are given to the most successful players.
During the year ending May 31, 1927, $1,792 was expended to
provide amusement of various sorts for the residents.
Administration and Maintenance

The institution is managed by a superintendent acting under the
direction of a board of seven trustees, one of whom resides m Colorado
Springs. The superintendent’s wife acts as matron. The physi­
cians are appointed by the board of trustees, but all other employees
are hired by the superintendent.
The institution is supported entirely by the membership of the
International Typographical Union.6 Each union printer pays* to
the international union, as dues, 65 cents a month plus 1 per cent
of his earnings. Of this amount 40 cents goes to the home fund.7
As would be expected, the cost of maintenance of this extensive
institution is heavy, amounting to $348,955 during the year ending
May 31, 1927. During that year the number of persons in residence
averaged 263. The cost of maintenance per member was therefore
$1,326.83 for the year, or $110.57 per month. Excluding such items
6 Since the original gift of land and m oney, individual donations have amounted to only $9,898.
7 A t the time the home was started each member paid 5 cents per m onth toward the support o f the home.
This amount was subsequently increased to 10 cents, in 1908 to 15 cents, in 1915 to 20 cents, in 1920 to 30
cents, and in 1925 to 40 cents.




HOM ES

FOR

AGED

AND

D IS A B L E D

69

as permanent improvements to the building, insurance, care of ceme­
tery, upkeep of grounds, etc., the average cost per resident was $69.79
per month.
The table below shows the expenditure for each item:
T

able

1 4 .—

C OST OF O P E R A T IO N OF U N IO N P R IN T E R S ’ H O M E , Y E A R E N D IN G
M A Y 31, 1927

Item

Administrative expense:
Clerical work....................................
Employees’ salaries........................
Trustees’ meetings............... ..........
M edical care, drugs, etc.:
Dentist.............. . ..............................
Drugs...............................................
Special service......... . ......................
Spectacles and repairs....................
Groceries and m e a ts ................. .........
Sundry supplies......................... ............
Clothing............... ...................................
Furniture and fixtures______________
Funeral and burial, etc., expenses:
For deceased residents...................
Care of cemetery plots......... ..........
Amusements........................ ...................
Autom obile_________ _______________
Books, stationery, and office supplies.
Street-car tickets____ _______________
Transportation of residents------ ---------

Expendi­
ture

$1,300.00
79, 754.26
5,199.46
3,044.25
7,965.68
4,611.30
583.95
81,580.68
3,790.09
15,308.63
25,614.92
758.23
305.00
1,791.91
3,997. 55
1,949.66
213.00
5,726. 09

Expendi­
ture
$5,005.23
568.72
10,841.70
16,148.88
2,204.20
2,683.62
5,733.97
492.08

Expense of fa r m ................................
Freight and express............... ............
H ay and grain.....................................
Heat and light.....................................
Water........................... ............... ........
Laundry________________ _______
Taxes and insurance..........................
Telephone and telegraph.............
Buildings:
General repairs____ ___________
Permanent improvements.........
Expense of trip to medical meeting.
Legal services........................ ..............
Library............. ............. ....................
Miscellaneous printing............. ........
Residents' allowances.—...................
P o s ta g e ............. .................................
Miscellaneous.....................................

12,773.43
38,636.40
285.49
50.00
167.02
372.07
6,898.65
220.80
2,377.6?

Total..........................................

348,954.59

The statement below shows how the cost of maintenance of each
resident per month has varied from year to year since the establish­
ment of the home:
Cost per
month
per resident

Cost per
month
per resi­
dent

July 1, 1892, to May 1, 18931 - $43. 43 June 1,1910, to June 1, 1 9 1 1 - $ 3 0 . 81
May 1, 1893, to July 1, 1894___ 42. 38 June 1, 1911, to June 1, 1912___
31. 96
July 1, 1894, to July 1, 1895__
29. 82 June 1, 1912, to June 1,1913___ 31. 49
July 1, 1895, to July 1, 1896.. _ 26. 43 June 1,1913, to June 1,1914___ 28. 72
July 1, 1896, to July 1, 1897__
22. 71 June 1, 1914, to June 1,1915___ 26. 66
July 1, 1897, to July 1, 1898_
_
21. 66 June 1,1915, to June 1, 1916___ 28. 35
21. 42 June 1,1916, to June 1,1917___ 32. 63
July 1, 1898, to July 1, 1899__
July 1, 1899, to July 1, 1900__
23. 37 June 1,1917, to June 1,1918___ 35. 60
July 1, 1900, to June 1, 1901__
29. 08 June 1,1918, to June 1,1919___ 35. 78
June 1,1901, to June 1 ,1902___ 30. 07 June 1,1919, to June 1,1920-__
55. 42
June 1,1902, to June 1,1903_
_
29. 56 June 1,1920, to June 1, 1921___ 62. 74
_
27. 51 June 1,1921, to June 1,1922___ 63. 52
June 1,1903, to June 1,1904_
June 1,1904, to June 1,1905_ 26. 20 June 1,1922, to June 1,1923_____ 66. 82
_
June 1,1905, to June 1,1906_ 25. 60 June 1,1923, to June 1,1924_____ 68. 85
_
June 1,1906, to Juue 1,1907.. .
26. 81 June 1,1924, to June 1 ,1 9 2 5 - _
68. 76
June 1,1907, to June 1,1908. _ . 26. 07 June 1,1925, to June 1,1926. _ _
67. 01
June 1,1908, to June 1,1909_
_
27. 06 June 1,1926, to June 1,1927___
69. 79
June 1,1909, to June 1,1910__
30. 66

The cost of maintaining a sanatorium or hospital resident is greater
than in the case of the home resident, since the major part of the
salaries of physicians and nurses, as well as of cost of drugs, is included
in the former charge. Last year these costs were $80.80 per month
for the sanatorium patients and $58.77 for the home residents.




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BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRAD E-U NIO N S

Although only the best foodstuffs are used at the home,8 the cost
of these is lessened by the fact that some of the supplies are furnished
from the farm and gardens of the home. Thus last year the total
value of products from the farm, garden, cattle, and poultry was
$17,456.64. The cattle produced 48,961 gallons of milk, valued
at $14,070.70, while the flock of 1,600 chickens furnished products
valued at $2,186.52. Forage crops are also raised for the cattle,
although in 1926 these crops were a failure due to the exceptionally
hot and dry season.
The 1927 expenditure is made unusually high, also, because of
the construction of the new wing to the main building and other
improvements.® The expenditure for permanent plant, made since
the inauguration of the home in 1892, is shown in the table below:
Building and furnishing main building___________________________
$70, 114. 44
22, 082. 54
Building and furnishing hospital annex__________________________
Building and furnishing superintendent’s cottage and addition
thereto___________________________________________________ ____
3, 824. 57
12, 241. 55
Building laundry, machinery for same, etc_______________________
Heating plant addition______________ ___________________________
14, 376. 87
Library, building addition to and furnishing_____________________
42, 297. 79
Main building, addition No. 1___________________________________
14, 023. 15
Main building, addition No. 2___________________________________
35, 414. 86
Main building, addition No. 3 ___________________________________
157, 803. 09
Open-air pavilion________________________________________________
9, 902. 80
Additional real estate___________________________________________
8, 000. 00
Maintenance, salaries, repairs, improvements, etc., from opening
of home to May 31, 1927______________________________________ 3,693,578.84
Total____________________________________________________

4,083,660.50

Conclusion

The Epochal History of the International Typographical Union
points out that of the benefits derived from the home not the least
has been “ the tightening of bonds of sympathy within the fraternity
and the growth of pride” in the international union. The value of
8 Below is given the menu for a week’s typical meals. Residents able to attend meals m ay order steak,
chops, or eggs in lieu of the regular fare, while bed patients m ay order anything the institution affords,
provided it conforms to diet regulations.
Breakfast.—Stewed prunes, oatmeal, corned-beef hash club style, muffins.
Dinner —Noodle soup, roast leg of lamb with brown gravy, potatoes naturel, June peas, tapioca pudding.
Supper—Hamburger roll with Bordelaise sauce, steamed potatoes, M uscat grapes, raisin cake.
Breakfast—Apple sauce, cream of wheat, fried eggs, American fried potatoes, toast.
Dinner.— Tomato soup w ith rice; broiled sirloin steak m&itre d ’hotel, French fried potatoes, green onions,
chocolate pudding.
Supper.—Steamed rice with raisins, new potatoes in cream, bananas, cream cake.
Breakfast.—H om iny grits, sausage, hot cakes with honey.
Dinner.—Potage Milanaise, Yankee pot roast, sweet potatoes glace, creamed hominy, blackberry pie.
Supper.—Macaroni au gratin, potatoes naturel, apricots, gingerbread.
Breakfast—Jam, cream of rye, fried eggs, hashed brown potatoes, muffins.
Dinner— Clam bouillon, filet of codfish poached with egg sauce, mashed potatoes, cucumber salad, coconut
custard pie.
Supper.—English beefsteak pie, O’ Brien potatoes, R oyal Anne cherries, cookies.
Breakfast.—Stewed prunes, cream of barley, minced ham and scrambled eggs, hashed brown potatoes,
biscuits.
Dinner.—Philadelphia pepper pot, roast loin of veal with dressing, rissole potatoes, new carrots in butter,
rice and raisin pudding.
Supper— Baked pork and beans home style, saute potatoes, green gage plums, chocolate cake.
Breakfast.—Grapefruit, corn flakes, bacon and eggs, American fried potatoes, coffee cake.
Dinner.— Chicken soup w ith rice, fried chicken with cream gravy, mashed potatoes, new asparagus
with drawn butter, sweet pickles, marshmallow sundae and cake.
Supper.—Assorted cold meats, horse-radish, au gratin potatoes, hot rolls, fresh strawberries, coconut cake.
Breakfast—Jam, Pettijohn’s, eggs any style, hashed brown potatoes, biscuits.
Dinner.— Vegetable soup, roast leg of lam b with brown gravy, rissole potatoes, buttered cauliflower,
cherry pie.
Supper.—Flaked codfish in cream, steamed potatoes, sliced pineapple, chocolate cake.
“ The cost of operation fell from $348,955 in 1927 to $293,601 in 1928.




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the institution has been recognized by the Women’s International
Auxiliary to the International Typographical Union, which has had
the matter of the establishment of a similar home under considera­
tion for several years. At the 1927 convention of the auxiliary, by
unanimous vote, it was decided to erect a home for auxiliary members
who have become aged or incapacitated, the building also to be sit­
uated at Colorado Springs. Local unions are making contributions
and every union printer is asked to make a voluntary contribution
of $1 toward the project.
Other Trade-Union Provision for Tuberculosis Treatment

'T'UBERCULOSIS treatment is often one of the benefit features of
those trade-unions whose trade involves factors or conditions
predisposing to that disease. In addition to the unions already
mentioned which have established their own sanatoriums a number
of organizations either pay a tuberculosis benefit directly to the mem­
ber or pay his expenses in some private sanatorium.9 These organi­
zations include those of the headgear workers, the locomotive firemen
and enginemen, the photo-engravers, the potters, and the railroad
trainmen.
A member of the Brotherhood of Firemen and Enginemen afflicted
with tuberculosis may have his choice between benefits of $75 per
month if he remains at home or treatment at the nearest sanatorium,
with treatment paid for and cash benefits of $15 per month paid to
him to cover his personal expenses while there.
The Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen pays no pecuniary bene­
fits to members who contract tuberculosis. It does, however, pro­
vide for treatment, unlimited as to time, in any sanatorium to which
the patient wishes to go. During his residence there the brotherhood
supplies him with everything he needs—or, as it was stated at the
headquarters of the brotherhood, “ everything from cigarettes to shoe
laces.” The report of the tuberculosis fund as of January, 1928,
showed a total of 847 members given sanatorium treatment since
this benefit was inaugurated in 1923. During 1927, 544 persons were
cared for, at a total cost of $546,195. The total cost of tuberculosis
treatment since 1923 has amounted to $1,929,294.
The Union of Cloth Hat, Cap, and Millinery Workers pays a
tuberculosis benefit of a flat sum of $75, the payment of which relieves
the union from any further payments for this purpose to the afflicted
member. The International Photo-Engravers’ Union allows $10 for
the physical examination of any member suspected of being tuber­
culous. If found to have the disease he becomes eligible to benefits
of $15 per week, continuing as long as he is affected with the disease.
The secretary-treasurer of the union reports that “ The treatment of
these cases is not limited to any specific form or care, it being optional
with a member whether treatment is received at home, at a sana­
torium, or any other place selected by the member himself.”
The National Brotherhood of Operative Potters provides for treat­
ment in a sanatorium selected by the patient, at a cost not to exceed
$12 per week, except in “ extreme cases/’ when the executive board
may authorize a higher rate. No more than 50 patients may receive
9 Data as to amounts paid b y various labor organizations for tuberculosis benefits or treatment were given
in Chapter II, p, 26




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such treatment at any one time. If the patient fails to show improve­
ment in six months the brotherhood reserves the right to discontinue
the treatment.
The provision of care for tubercular members has twice come up for
consideration in the annual meetings of the Brotherhood of Railway
and Steamship Clerks but no action has thus far been taken. Study
of the causes of mortality and sickness among its members has shown
that tuberculosis constitutes a real hazard among them and the broth­
erhood therefore appointed a committee to study the relative merits
of Tennessee and Colorado, with a view to establishing a sanatorium.
This committee will report its findings to the next convention of the
brotherhood. The lodges affiliated to the board of adjustment for
the Southern Railway System have erected, on land donated to them,
a mountain home near Saluda, N. C. This will be maintained pri­
marily as a vacation place for members but will also be used as a
tuberculosis home, for persons in the first stages of that disease.
The home is described on page 102.
In the majority of cases receipt of tuberculosis treatment is not
limited to a specified period but is left to the discretion of the general
executive board or continues for whatever time is necessary.
A number of other unions give financial support to certain private
tuberculosis sanatoriums. This is true of a tuberculosis sanatorium
located at Duarte, Calif. The Bakers’ Journal1 is authority for the
0
statement that “ Every single structure on the ground was put there
by some organization, labor group, or community organization. The
Amalgamated Clothing Workers put up the dining hall; the medical
building was put by the International Fur Workers’ Union; one of
the men’s cottages was put up by the Workmen’s Circle; another
building was put up by the International Ladies’ Garment Workers7
Union.” Upon the initiative of the Los Angeles Bakers’ Union, a
fund was raised and a “ Bakers’ Building” has been erected on the
grounds. The building is said to have cost $30,000.
The sanatorium and its services are described as follows:
The sanatorium, founded in 1913, is located just 20 miles from Los Angeles, in
the heart of the orange-grove country. It admits patients from all parts o f the
United States, without charge or expense of any kind; one need only be sick with
consumption and unable to pay for care to have his request for admission con­
sidered. Since its establishment it has cared for 2,263 patients.
To-day the sanatorium has a capacity of 136 beds and a staff of 16 consulting
specialists, 3 resident physicians, 15 nurses, and 45 other attendants. The sana­
torium occupies 20 acres of land and presents the appearance of a beautiful little
village, with spacious, shaded avenues, attractive cottages, and impressive hos­
pital and administration buildings. There are two hospital buildings for men
and one for women; these shelter the patients so sick that they must remain in
bed at all times. In addition there are nine cottages for patients able to go to
meals and stroll about the gardens for short periods. A fine recreation hall,
dining hall, and other administrative structures complete the facilities.

Another tuberculosis sanatorium which has received considerable
support from organized labor is the Ex-Patients’ Tubercular Home
of Denver, Colo. This is described as being the “ only hospital that
keeps incurable cases for an unlimited period of time and teaches
its improved patients a suitable profession” in order that they may
not have to return to an occupation that is harmful to them. During
1 The Bakers’ Journal, Chicago, N ov. 19,1927, p. 2,
0




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the summer of 1927 the Amalgamated Clothing Workers not only
appropriated $500 from the general office for this institution but
issued an appeal to its locals, which responded generously.
Through the efforts of the Central Labor Union of Brooklyn and
Queens, the Medford Sanatorium, for working men, women, and their
families, was incorporated early in 1912 and the sanatorium was
opened to the public in 1913.
The sanatorium is located on 70 acres of rolling woodland on Long
Island. It is free to the public, treatment being given without cost.
Thus far the institution is equipped only for handling incipient cases.
It is supported by voluntary contributions from individuals, from
labor organizations, etc. In an endeavor to raise sufficient funds to
extend the facilities of the institution an attempt is being made to
induce labor and other organizations to make formal affiliation, pay­
ing a fee of $1 per member per year.




Chapter V,—General Health Work
HE trade-union approaches the problem of the health of its
members either indirectly through the avenue of improvement of
the places in which they spend their working life, or directly by
adopting measures designed to benefit the individual member. The
first approach is the more general; in fact the second may be said
to be usually only an outgrowth or development of the first. Wages
and hours are generally the first concern of any labor organization after
recognition of the union is secured; shorter hours and increased
wages are of course a means for improving the workers’ health, for they
mean improved standards of living and time for rest and recreation.
After these are settled, the next direct attack is made upon working
conditions. Improvement in sanitary conditions in the industry
means an advantage to the members collectively, but it is usually
only after an extended experience with shop sanitation or with what
are generally known as “ trade-union benefits” such as those paid
for sickness or disability, that the union becomes impressed with
the necessity for preventive as well as remedial measures for the
individual member along health lines.
Attempts by the unions to improve the health of the membership
generally by raising the standards of sanitation and cleanliness in
the workrooms have been very widespread indeed. Usually this is
done through the incorporation in collective agreements of clauses
guaranteeing safe and sanitary conditions in the plants where the
union members are employed, the enforcement of these being left
to the workers themselves, to a shop chairman or union representa­
tive, or to some machinery set up within the industry.
The clothing-trades unions, especially the International Ladies’
Garment Workers’ Union, have been very active in improving sani­
tary conditions in the industry. In several markets of the women’s
garment industry a joint board of sanitary control has been volun­
tarily set up, composed of representatives not only of workers and
employers, but of the public as well. As a result of the work of this
board, remarkable results have been obtained in raising health stand­
ards and in introducing safety measures. As the investigations of
this board demonstrated the need, the local unions began to under­
take not only the treatment of tuberculosis among their members
but to adopt preventive measures such as the requiring of medical
examination of all new members. Medical and dental work started
by the joint board were taken over by the local unions and by them
continued and expanded until to-day the Union Health Center
furnishes such service to any union worker in New York City.
In the men’s clothing industry also much has been done.
Individual health service has been extended to members by the
Cincinnati locals of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers (those in
New York City have the benefit of the Union Health Center), and
the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. In a number of instances
unions which furnish no direct medical service to members, neverthe-

T

74




GENERAL HEALTH

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75

less make financial contributions to private institutions with the
understanding that their members may receive treatment when
necessary; examples of this were given in Chapter IV, page 72.
An indirect way of improving conditions in the trade is through
the union label. Trades to which the use of a label is adapted have
adopted a distinctive label which every employer who has an agree­
ment with the union is entitled to use as long as he conforms to the
terms of the agreement. Although usually primarily adopted for
organization purposes, the presence of a label upon a commodity is
a guaranty that the article was produced under fair terms of wages
and hours and under sanitary conditions approved by the union.
For several years a workers’ health bureau was carried on, mem­
bership in which was open to trade-unions. This bureau, which was
“ established to assist organized labor to obtain health protection
against industrial exploitation by means of trade-union action,
adequate national and State protective legislation, and the develop­
ment of workers’ cooperative and scientific services,” was discon­
tinued during the summer of 1928, due, it is said, to insufficient
financial support from the union organizations.
Efforts to Improve Shop Conditions

IN THE attempt to do away with shop conditions tending to be
* harmful to the health of the workers in them, trade-unions have
quite generally incorporated into their collective agreements with
employers provisions relating to sanitation. These may be either
general provisions requiring that the employer “ keep his shop in a
sanitary condition,” or may specify particular features desired, such
as suitable and sanitary toilets, washing facilities, cool drinking
water in the summer, heat in the working place in the winter, etc.
Or they may require specific safeguards. Thus the International
Stereotypers’ and Electrotypers’ Union states as its general policy
its insistance upon “ every possible improvement in the ventilated,
lighted, and sanitary conditions of all shops where its members are
employed, together with the use of hoods, guards, and safety appli­
ances on machinery and metal pots, to the end that the health of our
membership be conserved and the danger of accidents be minimized
and avoided.” It therefore enjoins upon all its local unions to secure
in their agreements provisions pledging both employer and union to
cooperate in sanitation, ventilation, and safety work, and to appoint
a committee whose special duty it shall be to work along the above
lines.
The 1926 agreement of the plasterers’ local in Indianapolis states
specifically that “ plasterers will not work on any building where
exposed to the fumes of salamander gas from salamanders used for
any purpose upon such building,” but salamanders may be used if
provided with proper stovepipes and covers.
Agreements quite generally provide that the representative of the
union shall be allowed access to the work place at any time to see
that all the provisions of the agreement are being carried out and that
the sanitary and other working conditions are all that they should be.
In the construction industry of New York City the painters’
agreement provides that the sanitary conditions shall be under the
102869°—28------6



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BENEFICIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRADE-UNIONS

supervision of the joint trade board which “ shall make adequate
and proper provisions for the health and safety of the men in con­
nection with their work, and as far as possible protect them from the
hazards of the trade.”
In 1925-26, the New York local of the International Photo-Engravers’ Union cooperated with the board of health of that city in a
study of the sanitary conditions of the industry and the physical
condition of the men employed therein. The findings and recom­
mendations of the report on this survey were hailed by the president
of the union as such as might “ well be adopted by us as a general
sanitary, health, and protective code,” and he recommended that they
be put into force by every local. The officers’ report to the 1927
convention stated that the New York local was cooperating with the
board of health to put these recommendations into effect. A survey
of sanitary conditions was also reported to have been made by the
Philadelphia local, and sanitary committees have been formed in
Boston, San Francisco, Toledo, and Seattle.
Ladies' Garment Industry

The unions in the garment industries, which have learned from
experience the dire effects of insanitary shop conditions, have been
prominent in their health work. Especially is this true of the Inter­
national Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union. Organized in 1900 in an
industry where sweatshop conditions were rife, with long hours and
insanitary surroundings almost universal, the union was from the
first confronted with the problem of improving the sanitary conditions
under which its members worked.
Joint board of sanitary control.—A general strike in the cloak and
suit industry in New York City in 1910 was settled by the signing of
what was called “ the protocol of peace,” one of the provisions of
which called for the establishment of a board composed of representa­
tives of the employers, the union, and the public. The employers
felt it unfair that the whole industry should be criticized because of
the bad sanitary and working conditions existing in certain shops,
and therefore cast about for some way of remedying the situation.
The attorney of the manufacturers’ association advanced the idea
that the industry might itself take charge of the conditions under
which the work was carried on and assume full responsibility for
prescribing and, where necessary, enforcing standards of health and
safety in its work places. The joint board of sanitary control was
the outcome, and was formed of two representatives each of the
employers, the union, and the public.
In 1911 the board made a preliminary investigation of 1,243 shops,
which disclosed that the health of the workers was menaced by inade­
quate protection against fire, lack of sanitary care and equipment,
lack of adequate ventilation, overcrowding, pollution of air from coal
and gas irons, and eyestrain due to faulty lighting. On the basis of
the findings of this investigation the board drew up a set of 28 “ sani­
tary standards” which were approved by the unions and employers,
and the board was empowered to enforce them. Shop committees
on sanitation were appointed in each shop whose duty it was to see
that the sanitary conditions maintained were those set by the joint
board. Any violations were to be reported by the committee to the



GENERAL HEALTH

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board. In addition the board had a corps of trained inspectors who
visited the plants at intervals.
In 1913 a physical examination was made under the direction of
Dr. George M. Price, then director of investigations of the New York
State Factory Investigating Commission and one of the union’s
representatives on the board, of workers in a number of trades,
including about 800 garment workers. The high incidence of pul­
monary tuberculosis disclosed among the garment workers led to a
campaign among the New York locals of the union to introduce
tuberculosis benefits, and three locals did so in quick succession, one of
these also arranging for the examination of candidates for admission
to the union to determine whether they were tubercular, the examina­
tion being made by the joint board.
Since that time the work of the board has grown and its jurisdic­
tion has expanded. As already stated, it very early undertook shopinspection work, and this has continued to be one of its main functions.
It also helped to establish the practice of fire drills, to establish firstaid service in the shops, and to promote a nursing service. It has
printed a number of special bulletins on sanitary problems in the in­
dustry and has conducted educational work in regard to health.
The “ protocol” was abandoned in 1916, but the joint board of sani­
tary control was retained and has been continued even in times of
strike or lockout.
The July 15, 1927, issue of Justice (the official organ of the Inter­
national Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union) states that the example
set by the industry in New York City was followed in Boston in
April, 1926, by the setting up of a similar joint board. The diffi­
culties encountered in this industry are indicated by the fact that
while at the time of setting up the board 109 shops belonged to the
board, during the first year 31 of these went out of business and were
replaced by new firms. Originally the board functioned only for the
cloak and dress branches of the trade, but in September, 1927, the
raincoat manufacturers also became signatories to the agreement.
A sanitary and safety code was drawn up and inspections began.
That insanitary and unsafe conditions have by no means been elimi­
nated in the industry even yet was indicated by the fact, revealed by
the first inspection, that of the shops party to the agreement twothirds had inadequate supplies of even the simplest medical emergency
supplies, one-fifth had toilets which were in an “ unspeakable condi­
tion,” one-sixth had the doors to the fire exits locked, one-third had
unshaded lights, and the common drinking cup and towel were
“ almost universal.” As a result of the first year’s work of the board
there has been “ an unmistakable improvement in sanitary conditions.”
Prosanis label.—Although the unions and employers had under­
taken the joint board with the idea of cooperative effort in raising
the sanitary and safety standards in the industry, the desirability
was felt of the retailer’s also assuming a “ share in the responsibility
for the maintenance of decent sanitary conditions and labor standards
in the industry.” This the union began to urge as early as 1913.
Various methods of accomplishing this were tried but none proved
satisfactory. The New York governor’s commission of 1924 recom­
mended the adoption of a “ sanitary label” which would be a guaranty
that the garment to which it was attached had been produced under
“ enlightened sanitary and labor conditions,” The recommendation



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T R A D E -U N I O N S

was received with favor, and the agreement signed by employers
and union in the New York market incorporated a provision adopting
the “ prosanis label” for garments produced under the agreement.
In order to be granted the use of the label the employer must see
to it that the sanitary conditions in his shop conform to the jointboard standard, and he must have an active agreement with the Inter­
national Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union.
At the end of 1925 the label was being used by 2,176 shops, of
which 1,331 were in the cloak industry and 845 in the dress industry.
During the period of disorganization in the international union, the
label fell into disuse to some extent, but active steps are now being
taken to revive its general use. It is now being introduced into
the women’s garment industry of Boston.
Pocketbook Industry

The agreement between the International Pocketbook Workers7
Union and the Associated Leather Goods Manufacturers, effective
from July 21, 1926, to May 1, 1929, provides for the establishment
in the industry of a joint board of sanitary control composed of four
members, two representing the employers and two the union. Thus
far, however, no steps have been taken to establish the board, due,
the manager of the union states, “ probably to the fact that with very
few exceptions the sanitary conditions in our shops are pretty good,
particularly so in the shops of the members of the association.”
Printing Trades

Conditions have greatly improved in the printing trades. Due
to unsanitary conditions in the shop, the incidence of tuberculosis
and of lead poisoning among workers in these trades was formerly
very high. As a result of long years of effort, however, great improve­
ment has been made in lighting conditions, ventilation, and cleanli­
ness, much of the credit for which must be given to the printing trades
unions.
A study made by Dr. Frederick L. Hoffman in 1923 and 1924,
with the cooperation of the employers and unions in the printing
trades arid the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics revealed
general health conditions unexpectedly satisfactory. Sanitary inspec­
tions revealed only minor defects, mainly in old plants. Tuberculosis,
the returns indicated, “ is no longer a menace of serious proportions
in tTie industry,” and lead poisoning occurred far less frequently
than had been anticipated.1
The committee on sanitation of typographical union, local No. 101,
has recently reported upon its study of conditions in the printing
trades in 1927. This report points out the “ marked improvement”
which has taken place in the industry. The ailments now found
among printers are “ such as would normally be expected among any
group of aged workers, and are not peculiar to the printing business.”
The rise in the wage level and in living standards which has taken place
since before the war has had “ an unquestionable bearing upon the
present health situation, which is in marked contrast to that found
in earlier investigations, representing a time when shop conditions
1 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Buis. Nos. 392,426, and 427.




GENERAL

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were far less satisfactory, when practically 110 serious attention was
given to sanitation and ventilation, when wages were low and hours
were long. ”
Efforts to Safeguard Members’ Health

HTHE Atlantic City convention of the American Federation of
** Labor directed its committee on education to further the work
■
of trade-unions in promoting the health of their members. A survey
by the committee disclosed, it is reported, that a number of unions
had adopted constructive measures along this line. Because of the
scarcity of data on causes of sickness and death among industrial
workers, the committee has been urging local unions to assist in
the collection of such information by keeping records of sickness
among members. The work is being done with the cooperation of
the United States Public Health Service.
The measures taken along the line of general health work for
members include specific medical service of various sorts to the mem­
bers, educational work along health or medical lines, and the en­
couragement of sports and outdoor recreational activities by the
l'ocals.2 Many unions either have a regular health or medical sec­
tion in their official magazine or run occasional articles either of
general interest or on some specific phase of medicine; these include
those of the flint glass workers, the photo-engravers, the locomotive
engineers, the broom and whisk makers, and the stonecutters.
Ladies’ Garment Industry

Union Health Center.—The results of a dental examination of
3,110 workers carried on by the United States Public Health Service
in the offices of the joint board of sanitary control in 1914, disclosed
such need for dental care that, with the cooperation of the local unions
of the International Ladies* Garment Workers' Union, a medical and
(later) a dental division were created in the joint board, for the benefit
of workers in the industry.
Early in 1919, however, the locals which were supporting the
medicfd and dental clinics decided to separate them from the board
and formed them into an association, the Union Health Center
Association. A building was purchased and remodeled at a total
cost of more than $80,000, and into this the medical and dental
departments were moved. (Fig. 11, p. 80.)
The growth of this Union Health Center is characterized as “ the
most interesting development [in the union] since 1919.” The
number of cases handled increased from 6,631 in 1920 to 29,380 in
1926, while the number of dental patients rose from 1,555 to 5,588.
As at present organized the Union Health Center is a cooperative
association of the nine local unions of the international in New York
City. These unions, with a membership given as approximately
45,000, own the building in which the medical center is housed and
the equipment. The center is managed by a board of nine directors,
one from each of the nine locals. Dr. George M. Price is the
executive director.
The purpose of the center is stated to be (1) to give information on
health matters, (2) to give physical examinations to applicants for
2 See p. 85 for a detailed account o f the recreational activities of trade-unions.







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membership in the union and to members claiming sick benefits, and
(3) to give such treatment as may be necessary. Originally the
services of the center were restricted to members of the international
union. Lately, however, the center has been thrown open to all
members of labor unions.
To aid in the dissemination of health education, a health informa­
tion bureau has been established, and workers are encouraged to seek
information on all questions relating to disease and general health
matters. There is also the life-extension branch of the center which
arranges for physical examinations to be given by a number of phy­
sicians to groups desiring such service. The medical department not
only gives general medical examinations of patients but will also
arrange for special examinations and treatments by specialists along
various lines. The center has a well-equipped X-ray department,
laboratory, physiotherapeutic department, and a well-stocked drug
store at which patients may have their prescriptions filled at nominal
rates. General clinics are held five days a week and in addition there
are special clinics, including surgical, nose and throat, gastric, gyne­
cological, eye, skin, nerves, orthopedic, and proctologicai clinics,
specialists in each branch being engaged for the purpose. A new
service, only recently undertaken, is that of analytical laboratory
work.
The work of the dental clinic expanded to such an extent that suf­
ficient space could not be provided in the original building, and this
department was therefore moved in 1924 to rented quarters in another
building, where it now occupies an entire floor. The dental clinic has
22 dental units and employs 4 full-time dentists at hourly rates, and
18 others on a part-time basis, the latter coming in for the rush period
in the evenings.
Both departments are handicapped by the fact that most of the
patrons are at work during the day and must have their medical
and dental work done in the evening and that much of the equipment
necessary to care for all these must be maintained in idleness in the
daytime. The dental department is now endeavoring to overcome
this source of waste by increasing its work among the children of
the workers during the daylight hours.
The total income of Union Health Center in 1926, the latest year
for which data are available, was $120,493.
The medical and dental departments are operated on different
financial bases. In both cases only competent physicians and dentists
are engaged. In the medical department a flat charge of $2 is made
for examinations of applicants for union membership, of $1 for exam­
inations of claimants for sick benefits, and of $1 for special examina­
tions, the charges in the first case being paid for through the local
union. Certain local unions also have, as part of their benefits,
allowed their members some medical treatment and have given
financial support to the health center. The result has been to link
up the medical department rather closely with the locals, so that it
has also been more or less affected by the conditions in the trade and
in the local organization. Up to 1926 there was usually a surplus of
income over expenditure. Since, then, however, due to conditions
in the union the medical department has suffered and has experi­
enced a deficit. The dental clinic, on the other hand, has always
been run on a strictly self-supporting basis, the charges being based




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upon the cost of the work. Since the onset of the factional troubles
within the union, with the consequent financial difficulties, and the
reduced incomes of the workers because of the strike, both medical
and dental departments have been affected, but the former much
the more seriously.
The monetary aid formerly given to the Union Health Center by
the New York locals has been lacking. Also, large sums are owing
to the center from some of the local unions for work done for them but
for which they are at present unable to pay. In order to tide over
the emergency, the center has issued “ health certificates” to the
amount of $35,000, in denominations of $1, $2, and $5, which it is
appealing to the union membership to purchase and which will entitle
the purchasers to medical attention. It is proposed also to raise the
rate for examinations and treatment from $1 to $2.
A plan was also adopted, of affiliation of other unions with the
center. Under this plan a union desiring to affiliate pays a fee
varying according to its membership. For an organization of from
300 to 500 members the fee is $100 a year; above this membership
the fee increases $50 for every 500 members, subject to a maximum
of $500. These fees entitle the members of the affiliating union to
medical attention at nominal rates and the union to representation
on the board of directors of the Union Health Center. A great many
unions of various trades have affiliated to the center under this
arrangement. It is hoped also to make the center the recognized
agency for examinations of various unions in New York City which
require such examination in order to receive benefits, tuberculosis
treatment, etc.
Physical training—The New York locals of the union are holding
regular physical training classes for their members in the endeavor
to interest the membership in the importance of building up their
physic&l health and the physique.
Men’s Clothing Industry

Near the end of 1926 the Cincinnati locals of the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers inaugurated a new service. They entered info an
agreement with a local health agency known as the Industrial Health
Conservancy Bureau, effective for six months, under which, in con­
sideration of the payment of “ a reasonable fee” by the union, its
members were to be entitled to medical examination and treatment.
The results were so satisfactory that the agreement was renewed and
the scope of the work expanded.
Arrangements are made whereby union members receive a careful
medical examination and advice on health matters. This is done at
the doctor’s office, at the shop, or at the union office. Treatment is
given in certain cases, but others are referred to specialists or to the
family physician for further or special treatment. Whenever a case
is referred to a specialist arrangements are made with him for a nomi­
nal fee only to be charged.
The union emphasizes the preventive aspect of this service, point­
ing out to its members that it is above all a “ health” department
and that the member should not wait until he is sick before being
examined. Examination of the first 64 persons treated disclosed a
number of diseases or defects the existence of which the patient had




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not suspected. During the period from October, 1926, to April 1,
1928, some 2,300 treatments had been given through this service,
not including many cases in which physical examinations were given
but the patient was referred to his own physician for treatment.
No definite health work has been undertaken in New York City, but
members needing medical attention are referred to the Union Health
Center of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union.
In Chicago, the local unions have just erected a new building
which contains not only offices but also many community features.
(See p. 1100 A dental clinic is planned, with room for 10 chairs and
a department for an X-ray laboratory.
Health Work of Locomotive Engineers

Organizations which have benefit or insurance features gradually
accumulate a wealth of data as to the causes of sickness and death,
the diseases to which the members are especially subject, etc., study
of which may yield indications of conditions in the trade which need
to be remedied or of special unavoidable disabilities for which treat­
ment should be given or benefits should be paid. Thus, officials of
the insurance department of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engi­
neers found that a large number of the death claims presented to the
department were for deaths from preventable diseases which could
have been discovered by periodical examination. Analysis of the
causes of the deaths occurring over the period of a year showed
that organic heart disease, Bright’s disease, diabetes, apoplexy, cere­
bral hemorrhage, hardening of the arteries, and uremic poisoning
were the leading causes of death, and that “ 47 per cent of the
deaths could have been prevented and the lives of those members
prolonged for some time—in some instances for many years—had they
known earlier that they were suffering from disease.”
As many of these diseases were those which could have been
detected by urinalysis, the brotherhood made arrangements with an
established health service to supply periodic examinations.
Acceptance of the service is voluntary. Each participating mem­
ber pays $5 a year, receiving for this fee a urinalysis every three
months. (His family may also have the benefit of such service,
children under 18 being charged for at the rate of $2.50 for semiannual
examinations.) Each time the examination is made a report is sent
to the member stating whether his condition is normal or abnormal
and, ii the latter, what should be done to correct the condition.
The brotherhood reports that a large percentage of the membership
is taking advantage of this service.
A regular health department has been established in the Locomotive
Engineers’ Journal to which members desiring medical information
on specific points may write, the answer being printed so that all may
have the benefit of it.
Printing Trades

Tuberculosis and lead poisoning hiave been found to be the out­
standing diseases to which printing-trades workers are subject. This
was especially true in the early days before improvements in shop con­
ditions and sanitation were introduced. So prevalent was tubercu­
losis among the men employed in printing establishments that the




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International Typographical Union, which originally held jurisdic­
tion over all the printing trades, undertook the care of its members
who were afflicted with the disease. This practice has been followed
by the various printing trades as they broke away from the parent
organization; and to-day care for tuberculous members is found more
generally in the printing-trades unions than in those of any other
industry, with the possible exception of the clothing industry.
The printers’ and printing pressmen’ s international unions each
has a tuberculosis sanatorium and the locals of the International
Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union support a small home where
the tubercular members receive treatment. Cash benefits and a
medical examination are provided by the photo-engravers’ union.
All these measures were described in Chapter IV, page 71.
Largely because of the findings of various health surveys of the
printing trades, which brought out the need of interesting these work­
ers in outdoor activities to counteract the fumes and dust in printing
plants, baseball teams were started by typographical locals and in
1908 these were organized into the Union Printers’ Baseball League.
Later golf and bowling groups were formed, with the same under­
lying idea. At the annual tournaments of these groups lectures are
given pointing out the benefits of sanitation, athletics, and general
hygiene, and their effect upon health.8
Even as early as 1909 the president of the International PhotoEngravers’ Union pointed out that “ a glance at our mortuary reports
should suffice to convince members that every precaution possible
should be taken by us to stamp, tuberculosis from our ranks.” He
indorsed the recommendation of the union’s shop committee as to
the desirability of compulsory physical examination of apprentices,
but no action was taken as to this until 1915. The convention of that
year passed a law requiring any member suspected of having tubercu­
losis to submit to a physical examination, which should be paid for by
the union. Under this law, a member found to have tuberculosis
is forbidden to return to work, but must take treatment for the
disease, the union allowing him benefits of $15 per month. The
measure was adopted in the interests both of the member himself and
of his fellow workers. The international urges its locals to report to
it all insanitary shop conditions, and recommends that each local
form a shop committee whose duty it shall be to see that the working
conditions are good. In 1921 the executive council was instructed
to refuse its approval to any local agreement which did not contain a
provision for proper lighting and ventilation.
8 For detailed discussion see pp. 91 and 93.




Chapter VI.— Recreational Activities
NQUIRY has disclosed quite a remarkable activity along recre­
ational and social lines by labor organizations. The value of
social gatherings from the organization viewpoint— as promoters
of fraternal spirit—is quite generally recognized by the international
unions. Others, mainly in “ confined” trades—where the members
are employed in sedentary work or under more or less unhealthful
conditions—encourage recreation and athletics, especially because
of their bearing upon the health of the workers. Thus the printingtrades unions have urged their locals to participate in outdoor
activities and sports as a means of counteracting the conditions of
printing plants having dust and lead fumes. The unions of the cloth­
ing trades, for the same reasons, have also been active in the promo­
tion of recreational activities which would provide the healthful
exercise which their confining work makes desirable. That this is
no new development for certain trade-unions is shown by the fact
that in 1927 the printers held their seventeenth annual baseball
tournament and their third golf tournament, while the printingtrades locals of Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky have for the past 13
years held an annual bowling tournament.
Perhaps the majority of local unions hold at least one social event
during the year, and a number have a regular social and recreational
calendar, prepared by a regular committee or club formed for the
purpose. Thus the Detroit local of the automobile and aircraft
workers has formed a club for the promotion of sports and the appren­
tices of the Chicago electrical workers’ local have formed a club which
carries on a varied program of sports and entertainments, besides
issuing a periodical. One New York local of headgear workers has
formed a club which directs the social and recreational activities
of the union, the aim being to make this work “ both attractive to
the members and constructive to the organization.” In the various
men’s clothing centers the social and recreational work of the locals
is directed by the joint boards of the union, the Amalgamated Cloth­
ing Workers. In New York City this work is done in the ladies’
garment industry by the educational department of the International
Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union.
The social events and indoor recreation of the locals include dances,
card parties, concerts, entertainments, banquets, an occasional play,
etc. Of these, dances and dinners appear to be the most popular.
In some cases the music (whether at concerts, entertainments, dances,
or dinners) is furnished by the union band, orchestra, or glee club,
of which there was found to be a rather surprising number.
Among the sports, baseball and bowling easily hold first place,
although other forms of athletics are less frequently found. These
include tennis, golf, basket ball, hockey, football, boxing, hikes,
swimming, and even a team of sharpshooters.
A great many instances were found where the local arranges at
least one picnic, moonlight excursion, or short trip for its members
during the summer, while others have a regular program of such
affairs. Other outings arranged for by locals for their members
include automobile rides, trips to points of interest, etc. One local

I




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runs an amusement park, equipped with all sorts of amusement
devices. Several union groups have summer camps; in other
instances camps have been held for children which have received
trade-union support; about 10 per cent of the locals of the meat
cutters are reported to have summer camps; and the Women's
Trade-Union League at Chicago has had such a camp since 1917.
The International Ladies' Garment Workers’ Union owns and operates
a most extensive and well-equipped summer resort.
In the main the recreational and social features appear to be carried
on independently by each local. In some cases, however, neighboring
locals of the same union or the various locals in a locality may com­
bine their activities. Thus, adjacent locals of the meat cutters and
butcher workmen hold bowling matches and baseball games, as do
also adjoining locals of the hosiery workers and printing-trades
unions. In some sections of the country some of the railroad brother­
hoods hold joint socials, picnics, etc. In the men's clothing centers,
as already stated, the joint board composed of representatives of all
the Amalgamated locals in the city directs the recreational and social
work and acts as a coordinating agency between locals. The local
unions of the printing trades in Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky cooper­
ate in an annual bowling tournament.
A good deal of interlocal activity along social or recreational lines
may take place where there is a central labor temple, as it was found
that provision for social gatherings is made in a good many labor
temples. Of the temples from which data were obtained, half or
more contained clubrooms, assembly halls, reading rooms, and facili­
ties for serving refreshments; about two-fifths had billiard or pool
tables; about the same proportion a fully equipped kitchen; and
nearly one-third had classrooms. Smaller numbers contained pro­
vision for the showing of motion pictures, for radio, or special rooms
for card parties, dances, banquets, etc.
Extent of Activities

INQUIRY was made of the international unions as to the kinds and
A extent of recreational activities of their local unions. The infor­
mation at hand discloses that more or less social and recreational
activity of one sort or another is undertaken by locals of 43
organizations.1 The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers reported
that many of its lodges have recreational and social features but the
brotherhood has no data concerning the extent of the work. Eight
internationals 2 reported that their locals may do recreational work
but the central organization has no information; the paving cutters'
union reported that there is “ little if any" social or recreational
activity in its locals; and seven internationals 3 stated that nothing
is done by their locals along recreational or social lines.
1 Automobile and aircraft workers, Amalgamated Clothing Workers, Amalgamated M etal Workers,
bookbinders, bricklayers, bridge and structural-iron workers, carpenters, cloth hat, cap, and millinery
workers, electrical workers, fire fighters, glass-bottle blowers, hod carriers, hosiery workers, hotel and res­
taurant employees, iron, steel, and tin workers, lathers, ladies’ garment workers, letter carriers, lithog­
raphers, locom otive firemen and engine men, meat cutters and butcher workmen, metal engravers, mine,
mill, and smelter workers, paper makers, pattern makers, photo-engravers, plumbers and steam fitters,
postal clerks, potters, printing pressmen, printers, quarry workers, railroad station em ployees, railroad
telegraphers, railway clerks, retail clerks, stereotypers and electrotypers, street-railway employees, tobaeeo
workers, United Garment Workers, upholsterers, wall-paper crafts, and W indow Glass Cutters’ League.
3 Blacksmiths and drop forgers, boiler makers, brewery and soft-drink workers, coopers, leather workers,
Operative Plasterers and Cement Finishers, stove mounters, and textile workers.
• Foundry workers, granite cutters, maintenance-of-way employees, National W indow Glass Workers
train dispatchers, trainmen, and window-glass cutters and flatteners.




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Attitude of Internationals toward Recreational Activities

T H E internationals quite generally concede the value of sports and
1 outdoor and social gatherings. The secretary of the streetrailway employees' union considers recreation and social events
“ very beneficial to the health, welfare, and morale” of the men,
while the editor of the Railway Clerk states his opinion to be that
“ it is the failure of the trade-unions more actively to engage in recrea­
tional activities that has been responsible in part for the growth of
the , company union.” The hosiery workers' union regards such
activities as a valuable means of approach in its organizing work.
It also states:
This union feels that if the members are interested in athletics or take part in
social activities the union should make an effort wherever possible to have the
workers engage in these affairs or activities through their organization. This
will tend to avoid personal friction in the local unions and between locals, and will
and has improved the morale of a local as a whole.

The plumbers and steam fitters' union is of the opinion that sports
and socials tend “ to peace and tranquillity in the industry," and the
secretary-treasurer of the Window Glass Cutters' League states “ we
would consider it a blessing if there were more work along this
line.”
The president of the Upholsterers' International Union in his report
to the 1927 convention of that body referred with approval to the
social activities being undertaken by the locals, stating—
Probably at no time during our history have there been so many social affairs,
dances, smokers, picnics, and banquets held by our various local unions as during
the past two years. I am glad to note this and wish to give my hearty indorse­
ment to such activities as conducive to the fostering of sociability among our
members and thus promoting unity, harmony, and general good fellowship. This
is needed to awaken the spirit of those who see in the union activities only dry
routine to be left as a burden upon the shoulders of the faithful.

The bricklayers' union is of the opinion, expressed editorially,
that—
The value of such athletic enterprises is beyond estimate. Not only do they
promote a healthy spirit of rivalry and a healthy interest in clean competition,
but they promote friendship and good will among the members themselves. In
addition to this, the maintenance of high-grade sports undertakings serves to
carry the message of trades-unionism into channels that otherwise are closed to
us. It serves to break down barriers and to dispel prejudices. More such
organizations as our soccer team ought to be maintained. They provide a
fresh and lively interest which distracts from the monotony of work, and they
advertise trade-unionism in the best possible manner.

In general, very little active work is done in the promotion of
social and recreational features by the internationals themselves.
The International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, however, has
an educational department which carries on such work as part of its
regular duties. This union stands out among the labor organizations
in the attention given by the central organization to social and recre­
ational matters, even operating an extensive year-round resort for
the use of its members.
The Amalgamated Clothing Workers is one of the unions which is
encouraging athletics and healthful recreation among the members.
The need of outdoor exercise for workers in sedentary occupations
like those in the clothing industiy was recognized by the 1926 con­
vention of that body in a resolution calling upon the locals to estab


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lish groups to further sports and physical culture and to give moral
support to the consolidation of all existing workers’ gymnastics, sport,
and athletic groups, and to the combination of these groups into “ a
closely knit, well organized and directed labor sports movement.”
It was pointed out recently in the Advance, the official organ of
the union, that “ the Amalgamated membership as a whole has not
learned to play,” and does not generally place sufficient importance
upon recreational activities.
The pioneers in clothing making were accustomed by force of circumstances
to long hours of labor. This accounted for the high percentage of tuberculosis
victims among the clothing workers. Since the advent of the civilizing and
redeeming force under influence of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
America the conditions have been greatly improved and the hours of labor have
been reduced from 60 or 70 to 44 per week. There is now ample time for the
membership to pay more heed to their physical well-being. Without health
there can be no happiness. The Amalgamated is big enough to embrace every
feature of life and is promoting educational, recreational, and social enterprises.
It is the members themselves that are lagging. There is a serious lack of interest
in these really worth-while things that make for healthier, happier communities.

The joint boards in the various clothing centers are actively for­
warding the recreational work, organizing baseball and bowling
teams, etc.
The labor council of New York and similar bodies elsewhere are
cooperating with the Sportsmanship Brotherhood with the idea of
making Labor Day a national day for the advancement of sports and
sportsmanship, under the following code:
Keep the rules.
Keep faith with your comrade.
Keep your temper.
Keep yourself fit.
Keep a stout heart in defeat.
Keep your pride under in victory.
Keep a sound soul, a clean mind, and a healthy body.
Play the game.

Mr. Mathew Woll, fourth vice president of the American Federa­
tion of Labor and president of the Sportsmanship Brotherhood,
believing in the desirability of the promotion of sports for tradeunionists in which they themselves participate, is giving his assist­
ance and support to the movement.
General Social Events and Indoor Recreation

FRANCES, card parties, “ smokers,” concerts, entertainments, and
banquets are among the social affairs undertaken by locals. In
many cases such affairs are regular annual events, which are looked
forward to with interest and of which much is made. Thus; the
Czechoslovak local of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers at Chicago
holds an annual masquerade ball and dance. # The affair is elabo­
rately put on. At the latest one, held early in February, the hall
was decorated to resemble the far north. The decorations, it is
stated, were made by members of the committee and their families,
“ who put in six weeks’ work in preparation for the affair.”
An annual dinner or banquet is the most common feature among
the local unions. All of the locals of the hosiery workers and of the
metal engravers give a dinner each year or oftener, as do also about
one-fifth of the iron, steel, and tin workers’ locals, many of the stereotypers’ locals, and a number of the locals of the bricklayers, bridge
^




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and structural-iron workers, carpenters, electrical workers, hod car­
riers, locomotive engineers, locomotive firemen, meat cutters, paper
makers, pattern makers, plumbers, railroad station employees, rail­
way clerks, retail clerks, and upholsterers.
Occasional dances are given by all of the hosiery workers* unions,
by nearly three-fourths of the meat cutters7 local unions, and by
varying numbers of locals of the Amalgamated Metal Workers, book­
binders, bricklayers, bridge and structural-iron workers, electrical
workers, hod carriers, hotel and restaurant employees, locomotive
firemen, mill, mine, and smelter workers, paper makers, pattern
makers, potters, railroad station employees, railway clerks, retail
clerks, stereotypers, wall-paper crafts, upholsterers, and Window
Glass Cutters’ League.
Card parties are given by a number of local unions. One of the
lodges of the Brotherhood of Railway Clerks reports that it is giving
bridge parties after its semimonthly meetings and this “ is bringing
members to the meetings that have not been there for years.”
The educational department of the International Ladies’ Garment
Workers’ Union is active in the promotion of social and recreational
work, especially in New York City. ^ Concerts and entertainments
are arranged from time to time, often in connection with the Workers’
University of the union. An elaborate series of entertainments
was thus arranged at Unity House for the 1927 Labor Day week­
end, including a pageant, a concert, and a costume ball. An enter­
tainment given January 28, 1928, included a concert followed by a
pageant including 150 people, and ending with a dance. Such
entertainments are free to union members, it being the policy of the
department “ to make no charge for any service or activity offered
to our members, whether lectures, concerts, sociables, or dramatic
performances. ” The expense is met by the international union.
Some of the social activities of labor organizations, especially
dramatics, are held in connection with the labor colleges. Thus it is
reported that “ a permanent labor college theater ” has been developed
in Denver. The students— all trade-unionists—present “ one-act
workshop plays” throughout the school year, and “ once or twice in
the year they present to the college and the public a major industrial
play. ” Somewhat similar work is being done in Baltimore, where
a group known as the Baltimore Labor Players, under the auspices
of the Baltimore Federation of Labor, is producing occasional plays.
The Pioneer Youth of America reports that at a conference of the
Women’s Trade-Union League in Philadelphia one of the Pioneer
Youth clubs presented a play, and dramatics form one of the regular
features of the organization’s clubs and camps.
Dramatic performances in which members of local unions take
part are reported only by the Brotherhood of Railway Clerks, the
International Brotherhood of Bookbinders, the International Hod
Carriers, Building and Common Laborers’ Union, and the Interna­
tional Stereotypers’ and Electrotypers’ Union, this feature, in the
last case, being limited thus far to one local. The Cincinnati
lodges of railway clerks have a joint committee which occasionally
produces plays, as does also the apprentice club of a Chicago electrical
workers’ local. The Milwaukee branch of the hosiery workers at
its meeting for the installation of officers staged a vaudeville show,
while one of the New England locals at a recent meeting had a boxing



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exhibition, following the account of a prize fight which the members
had listened to over the radio.
A few of the international organizations report that motion pic­
tures form a part of the recreational program of some of their locals.
These include the pattern makers, railroad telegraphers, tobacco
workers, and upholsterers.
Musical Organizations

O RCH ESTRAS, bands, or glee clubs seem to be fairly numerous
^
among the local trade-union organizations. Thus, the Chicago
printers’ local has a band, as have also a number of the letter carriers’
local unions. The latter have been in existence for some years. Con­
cerning these Mr. Edward Gainer, president of the National Associa­
tion of Letter Carriers, spoke in appreciation at the 1927 convention
of the association as follows:
These bands render an invaluable character of service; a service that can not
be duplicated by any other agency. They grace banquets and social sessions
and provide an added attraction at our various outings. They give tone and
dignity to our memorial exercises and they join in fitting tribute to a departed
brother. Their work, which covers a wide range of usefulness, is altogether
admirable.
It is at our national conventions, however, where the finished service rendered
by these bands stands out in strongest relief, revealing as it does the matchless
power of music to thrill and inspire. On such occasions their presence is indispensible. They add life and color to these gatherings; they banish formality
and promote friendliness; they command admiration and compel enthusiasm by
their artistic excellence and they charge convention week brimful with melody
and song. They are a natural and necessary part of our work. In thus recording
our high appreciation for the distinctive and special service rendered this associa­
tion by the letter carrier bands, it should also be our purpose to promote and
encourage their continued development in every practical way.

The Portland, Oreg., local of the International Association of Fire
Fighters has organized an orchestra which, besides furnishing enter­
tainment for union affairs, has also participated in the regular radio
programs in the city, appearing weekly in what is known as “ Fire
Fighters’ Hour.”
A singing club has been formed by members of the Dover, N. J.,
branch of the hosiery workers, and one stereotypers’ local has a glee
club. Other internationals some of whose locals have formed some
sort of musical organizations include those of the bricklayers, hodcarriers, iron, steel and tin workers, marine engineers, photo-engravers,
printers, tobacco workers, and upholsterers. About one-tenth of the
meat cutters and butcher workmen’s locals are reported to have bands
or orchestras.
Sports and Athletics

DASEBALL and bowling appear to be the sports most popular
among trade-unionists.
Baseball.—The Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric
Railway Employees reports that all of its large locals have baseball
teams. On large systems each station has a team, and a league is
formed, the teams of which compete with each other during the season.
Practically all of the 101 locals of the Glass Bottle Blowers’ Associa­
tion have ball teams. Among the metal engravers two-thirds of the
locals have teams, among the locals of the Window Glass Cutters’




R E C R E A T IO N A L A C T IV IT IE S

91

League 30 per cent, among the paper makers 20 per cent, and among
the iron, steel, and tin workers and the hosiery workers 5 per cent.
The Cincinnati joint board of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers
of America early in 1927 organized a league for the four teams of the
men's clothing workers in that city, and interest was reported as being
keen. The joint board in Rochester, N. Y., has for several years had
a baseball team. In 1927 this team was admitted into the Industrial
Baseball League of the city, composed of teams representing indus­
trial establishments.
The teams of the New Jersey-New York district of the American
Federation of Full Fashioned Hosiery Workers have formed a league
for the district. The teams play under the names of their respective
local unions, with the idea of creating “ a stronger feeling of union
loyalty among the workers through having their recreational and social
activities center more and more around the union.” There are seven
such teams in the league—two from Brooklyn, two from Paterson, and
one each from Passaic, Newark, and Dover.
The local baseball teams of the International Typographical Union
have since 1908 had a league called the Union Printers’ International
Baseball League which holds a yearly tournament in connection with
the annual convention of the International Typographical Union.
The tournament is made the occasion for a time of general jollifi­
cation, the evenings being devoted to social affairs, while in the
mornings lectures, open to any one who cares to attend, are given
on such subjects as sanitation, hygiene, athletics, and general recre­
ational subjects.
The expenses of the teams are met by their respective locals. The
financing, the president of the league reports, presented at first a big
problem since union funds could not be used for the purpose. To raise
unds to meet the expenses various means were resorted to, such as
dances, card parties, raffles, boxing matches, theater parties, minstrel
shows, picnics, moonlight boat rides, etc. For a number of years the
expenses of the tournament were shared by the International Typo­
graphical Union which donated $1,000 each year for the purpose.
This aid was withdrawn, however, by action of the 1927 convention.
The Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce aided the 1927 tournament
with a gift of $1,000.
The baseball teams, it is stated, have been of benefit in interesting
the younger members in outdoor sports and in improving their
physical condition. The games also tend to promote greater social
intercourse between the members and the families of members.
The students of the Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union
technical trade school at Pressmen’s Home, Tenn., have had a base­
ball team since 1912. “ Never a year has passed but that during
the baseball season this team has won more games than it has lost.”
Some of the locals of the union also have teams. Among these is
that of the Indianapolis press assistants’ local, which, it is stated,
“ has done more to put the press assistants’ union before the public
of Indianapolis than anything we have ever tried.”
Each of the local unions of railway clerks in Cincinnati has a
baseball team and these have formed a league with a schedule of
games between teams in the league.
102869°—28-----7

f




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Other unions some of the locals of which have baseball teams
include the bricklayers, electrical workers, hod carriers, hotel and
restaurant employees, meat cutters and butcher workmen, pattern
makers, plumbers and steam fitters, postal clerks, and stereotypers
and electrotypers. The Redwood, Calif., local of the United Brother­
hood of Carpenters formed a baseball team during the summer of
1927, as did also the local in Big Spring, Tex. The apprentices of the
Chicago electrical workers have their own league of baseball teams.
Bowling.—In about two-thirds of the metal engravers7 locals,
about 20 per cent of the window-glass cutters7 locals, about 15 per
cent of the hosiery workers7locals, and some 3 per cent of the paper
makers7unions, bowling groups are found.
Bowling has also been taken up by the men’s clothing workers of
Cincinnati and Indianapolis, and during the winter of 1927-28
matches were arranged between these teams. The Amalgamated
teams of Rochester have a bowling league, the teams of which com­
pete for weekly prizes. The season is ended with a banquet. One
of the teams, representing the joint board, bowls in an industrial
league. It is reported that in Milwaukee practically the entire
membership is interested in bowling. Teams have been formed
representing the different shops and these compete with each other.
Five locals in the New Jersey-New York district of the American
Federation of Full Fashioned Hosiery Workers have bowling teams.
A league has been formed and interlocal matches are played. A sup­
per is usually given on the occasions of interlocal games. One local
has six teams which play against each other once a week, after
which some sort of social affair is held.
Bowling appears to be one of the favorite indoor sports of the
photo-engravers also. One of the secretaries reports that the men
in his local union have “ gone mad7 over bowling.
7
In connection with the 1927 convention of the National Federation
of Post Office Clerks a bowling tournament was held for the teams
of the various locals, and a trophy was awarded to the winning team.
Various locals of railway clerks have bowling teams. The teams
in the vicinity of Cincinnati held a tournament in April, 1928, all
trade-union teams in the territory being invited to take part. There
are in the city of Cincinnati alone 12 bowling teams of railway clerks.
The stereotypers and electrotypers in Chicago, Cleveland, St.
Louis, Detroit, and Philadelphia have bowling teams, and each
year a competitive event is held at which some or all of the various
city locals are represented.
In 1915 the Louisville, Ky., printers’ local invited the locals at
Cincinnati and Indianapolis to send bowling teams to Louisville to
compete in match games. Out of this meet, which was repeated the
following year, grew#the Union Printing Crafts Tri-State Bowling
Association, started in 1916. This association holds a yearly tour­
nament in which all bowling teams of printing-trades unions in the
States of Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky are eligible to compete. At
the 1928 tournament, held in Cincinnati, 127 teams were entered.
Cash and other prizes are distributed to winners of various events,
and in 1928 the cash prizes totaled $1,890.
The unions of the city entertaining the tournament give a banquet
to the bowlers, and in the last three or four of these banquets there




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have been, present upwards of 500 persons.
association states:

93

The secretary of the

This assembly is of members of every branch of the printing industry, which
tends to create a closer alliance of the different printing branches, thereby afford­
ing new acquaintances. A spirit of good fellowship prevails. Discussions from
the speakers from these different branches in a measure is educational. Every­
one seems to leave with a better understanding of his fellow craftsmen generally.

Organized activity in bowling is also a feature in some of the
locals of the bricklayers, masons and plasterers, hod carriers, lithog­
raphers, meat cutters, and plumbers and steam fitters.
Other sports and athletics.—The other forms of athletic sports are
less frequently found. The Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher
Workmen reports that some 60 per cent of its locals have organized
activity in “ other sports," but does not specify what these are.
Several of the paper makers’ locals encourage tennis, as do also a
few of the stereotypers and electro typers’ locals, and the Amalga­
mated Clothing Workers of Rochester, N. Y., has a tennis club,
the members of which play on the public courts.
A few of the stereotypers’ locals whose membership includes golf­
ers have matches for them, as do also about 15 per cent of the
hosiery workers’ locals.
So successful was the printers’ baseball league that in 1924 the
Union Printers' International Golf League was formed, being pro­
moted by the baseball league as an adjunct to it. It was thought
that members who considered baseball too vigorous might be in­
terested in golf. A golf tournament is held each year in connection
with the baseball tournament. All members of printers’, mailers’
and newswriters’ unions are eligible for membership; and it is stated
by the president of the league that both baseball and golf are
“ enthusiastically indorsed by the trade-unions and employers of
their members as a well-conducted and most valuable agency for
the preservation and improvement of the health of the apprentices
and journeymen of both sexes employed in printing plants.’’
There are also a few union basket-ball teams. These include elec­
trical workers, men’s garment workers, hosiery workers, postal clerks,
etc. The Utica, N. Y., clothing cutters’ local of the United Garment
Workers of America has a basket-ball team which plays in the
industrial league of the city. Each member of the team wears on
the front of his suit the union label of his labor organization. The
Rochester joint board of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of
America has two basket-ball teams, one for women and one for
men, and one of the locals of the Window-Glass Cutters’ League is
reported to have a team. The Paterson, N. J., local of hosiery
workers has a basket-ball team, and last winter a girls’ team was
formed among the members of the ladies’ auxiliary of the local.
The Chicago electrical workers’ apprentice club has a basketball team
which plays in the Industrial League of Cook County.
One or two of the paper makers’ locals have a hockey-playing
group, and the Glass Bottle Blowers’ Association reports that prac­
tically all of its locals have football teams.
The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers states that
60 per cent of its locals carry on athletics or sports of various kinds,
boxing and basket ball being the most popular. Boxing matches
are also a feature of the activities of some of the hod carriers’ and




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O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

postal clerks’ locals. Many of the hod carriers’ locals and some of
those of the hotel and restaurant employees have pool-playing groups.
The Chicago bricklayers’ local has a very successful soccer team.
The Portland, Me., local of post-office clerks has a team of sharp
shooters composed of five young woman unionists.
Some of the women’s locals of the International Ladies’ Garment
Workers and of the full-fashioned hosiery workers are encouraging
the formation of athletic groups which go in for swimming, hiking,
etc., and the educational department of the former organization
conducts a physical training and swimming class for its members.
Hiking clubs are also encouraged by some of the headgear workers’
locals, and the Philadelphia dressmakers’ local arranges for swim­
ming lessons for its members, for the playing of tennis, and for
hikes each Sunday.
Summer Outings

CUMMER outings are arranged by many local unions. Thus,
^ nearly all of the locals of the railway clerks and of the plumbers
and steam fitters’ organizations have one or more picnics during the
summer, all of the hosiery workers and automobile and aircraft
workers’ unions do so, 75 per cent of the meat cutters’ organizations,
two-thirds of the metal engravers’ locals, 10 per cent of the iron and
steel workers’ unions, a few locals of the Amalgamated Clothing
Workers, bricklayers, bookbinders, electrical workers, hotel and
restaurant employees, locomotive firemen and enginemen, metal
workers, paper makers, pattern makers, quarry workers, stereotypers, and upholsterers, and one local of the wall-paper crafts.
The lathers’ union reports that 90 per cent of its locals hold at least
one picnic or other social event during the year.
Excursions or short trips of various sorts are arranged by all of the
hosiery workers’ locals, by nearly all of the unions of railway clerks,
by about half of the meat cutters’ unions, about 10 per cent of the
iron, steel, and tin workers’ unions, by a few of the locals of the
bookbinders, bricklayers, electrical workers, hotel and restaurant
employees, stereotypers, and upholsterers, and by one local of the
automobile and aircraft workers.
The two large dressmakers’ locals in New York City, belonging to
the International Ladies’ Garment^ Workers’ Union, have excur­
sions on the Hudson River, chartering a steamer for the purpose.
The Philadelphia dressmakers’ local has formed an educational,
social, and recreational circle, which has given automobile trips to
Unity House, Valley Forge, and other points of beauty and interest
fairly near to the city. The members of the Philadelphia hosiery
workers’ local in 1927 took a railroad trip to Atlantic City; during
the affair prizes and souvenirs were distributed to those participating.
The Rochester organization of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers
is very active in the promotion of week-end outings, railroad excursion
trips, and picnics throughout the summer.
The St. Louis Bakers’ Local No. 4 is unique in its recreational
work, as far as the Imowledge of the Bureau of Labor Statistics goes,
for it owns and operates an amusement park. The local owns a
triangular block of land facing three streets, with a frontage of 543
feet on one, 300 feet on the second, and 631 feet on the third. On
one corner of the land stands the headquarters building of the local.



R E C R E A T IO N A L A C T IV IT IE S

95

The amusement park is equipped with Ferris wheel, merry-go-round,
fairy swing, shooting gallery, fish pond, hoop-la, open-air dancing
pavilion, refreshment stands, shelters, picnic facilities, etc. The
place will accommodate as many as 4,000 persons at a time.
Summer Camps and Vacation Homes

HOUSE.— The recreational work of the International
jjttuiea vjttiiiicuu fvuuvciis Union, according to Louis Levine in
his book, The Women's Garment Workers, was begun in 1915, with
the renting by Local No. 25 of a house at Pine Hill, N. Y., accommo­
dating 50 persons. This was taken to serve as a center where mem­
bers could spend their summer vacations in pleasant surroundings at
a very reasonable cost. Later the same local acquired a resort at
Forest Park, Pa., being subsequently joined in this project by Local
No. 22. In June, 1925, the international bought the property and
took over its operation. The place is called Unity House. The
grounds comprise 750 acres of woodland and a lake a mile and a half
long. There is a large central house on the grounds and 12 cottages,
the whole group of which accommodates about 500 guests at a time.
(See Fig. 12, p. 96.)
The main building is surrounded by wide porches and contains a
large living room with a fireplace, a writing room, and a concert room
and dance hall. The meals at Unity House are prepared under the
direction of a dietitian, and are served in a dining room overlooking
the lake. There is also a library and reading room well stocked
with books and magazines and with a librarian in charge. The
cottages contain the bedrooms, most of which are provided with hot
and cold running water and some with bath. Covered walks connect
the cottages.
The camp has its own electric lighting and water systems, post
office, laundry, and ice-cream parlor, and an infirmary to care for
guests who are indisposed while at Unity House. There is a full­
time physician and a nurse in attendance -at the infirmary, whose
services are free to the guests. Well guests may also receive a free
medical examination.
Provision is, of course, made for outdoor recreation. The lake
)rovides means for bathing, fishing, boating, and swimming. For the
ess adventurous, a part of the lake has been walled off with concrete,
making a swimming pool. Some 70 bathhouses are provided for the
swimmers. A swimming instructor and a life-saver are in attendance
at the lake. A small charge is made for boats and canoes, but
the other recreational features—swings, tennis and basket-ball
courts, baseball diamonds, bowling alleys, etc.— are free. The woods
furnish the setting for hikes. A tower has been built on the shore of
the lake, from which a view of the whole expanse of water can be
obtained, while small pavilions have been constructed on piers run­
ning out into the lake. Part of the recreational activities are the
bus and automobile rides taken into the surrounding country. All of
the recreation is under the supervision of a social director.
During the summer season lectures are held in a pine grove near by.
These are given several times a week by prominent psychologists,
economists, and sociologists. This is arranged for by the educational
department of the international. Evening activities include group

1




BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




CO

Ci

F ig . 12.—Grounds of U nity House, 750-acre vacation resort of International Ladies’ Garment W orkers’ Union

R E C R E A T IO N A L A C T IV IT IE S

97

singing, dancing, costume parties, theatricals given in the open-air
theater near by, and concerts. The 1927 program of lectures included
talks on psychology, sociological subjects, economics, social interpre­
tation of literature, drama, art, topics of the day, the place of organ-

F ig . 13.— Open-air lecture group at U nity House

F ig . 14.—Bathing pavilion at U nity House

ized labor in modern society, the organized workers as a social force,
the place of women in the labor movement, care of the health, etc.
An art exhibit was one of the features of the 1927 season, and included
informational talks by an artist.



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In the winter of 1927-28 one of the cottages was equipped with
steam heat and remained open until the summer season began in
June, offering opportunity for rest or for winter sports. This was
an experiment but proved to be so successful that it will doubtless be
repeated next year.
The whole project, which is valued at more than $200,000, is run
on a nonprofit basis. Members of the International Ladies' Garment
Workers’ Union pay $18 per week, members of other unions $21
a week, and nonunionists $26 a week. During the summer of 1927,
members of 23 unions, including workers in trades other than the
needle trades, spent all or part of their vacations at Unity House.
The union states: “ Unity House is not only a spot where our mem­
bers, young and old, men and women, may find beauty and rest from
the city’s noise and heat, with every comfort and convenience that
money can obtain, at a remarkably low cost. It is also a promise
of a better day and evidence of our ability to bring on that day.”
Camp Nitgedaiget.— Camp Nitgedaiget (“ Don’t Worry” ) is a
year-round camp run by a group of union workers in New York
City as one of the community activities of their cooperative colony.4
This camp was started about six years ago. The organization
owns more than 100 acres of wooded and rolling land near Beacon,
N. Y. Originally only tents were provided for vacationists; now,
however, it is the policy, as the tents wear out, to replace them with
bungalows of one to three rooms each. Already 75 bungalows
have been built, and 500 tents are still in use. There is a central
dining hall which accommodates 900 persons at a time. The camp
is equipped with running water obtained from the city main which
crosses the land of the association.
A swimming pool several hundred feet long has been formed by
damming up a stream flowing through the property. Facilities for
other sports are furnished by an athletic field.
The camp charges are $2.50 per day, or $18 per week, which price
includes meals. About $125,000 worth of business is done at the
camp annually. The land and equipment are valued at over
$100,000.

Another camp of the same name as the above is operated by a
group of workers in Boston. Their camp is located near Franklin,
Mass.; no details are available concerning it, however.
Valmar Federation Club.—A group of unionists in Chicago have
incorporated the Valmar Federation Club, which will carry on a
“ summer home colony,” to which only members of organized labor
will be eligible. A tract of 100 acres, on the shore of a lake 58 miles
from the center of Chicago, has been acquired. A clubhouse 175 by
75 feet will be built in the center of this tract, which will have “ all
the conveniences of a modem country club.” It will be surrounded
by the cottages of members, many of whom have already purchased
a site for their cottage. It is stated that a network of canals will be
constructed through the property, and two of these canals have
already been completed.
The president of the club states, in regard to the project:
The enterprise does not have the official sanction of any central body in
Chicago, but inasmuch as it is exclusively a project for members of organized
labor, it is receiving the support of the unions in a semiofficial way.
4 The cooperative-housing work of this colony is described in Chapter V I I, p . 128.




R E C R E A T IO N A L

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99

The idea back of the project is the belief that more intimate social contacts
between members of the various crafts and trades will do much to break down
the prejudice that unfortunately too frequently exists between members of
organized labor. The social and recreational side of organization work has
heretofore received little thought by the members of organized labor, and we
hope to make of this project a sort of melting pot where, through social contacts,
differences will be forgotten and solidarity built.

Camp Wocolona.—A number of members of a new labor union—
the Union of Technical Men, composed mainly of engineers and
architects, many of whom are employed by the city of New York—
have started a large summer camp. They acquired a tract of 350
acres at Monroe, N. Y., on the shore of Lake Walton, in the Ramapo
Hills of the Catskills. As the land was bought only in April of this
year, most of the energies of the association have thus far been de­
voted to construction. Bungalow accommodations have been pro­
vided for 250 persons, but 275 can be taken in if necessary.
It is expected that all sorts of recreational facilities will eventually
be provided, and that the next venture will be a separate camp for
children.
Pioneer Youth camps.—An organization called the Pioneer Youth
of America was formed in New York in 1924, as the outgrowth of
a series of conferences on child development, by a group of tradeunionists, educators, and others. It was started with a view to estab­
lishing children’s clubs throughout the United States. The purpose
of the organization is to prepare the children of workers to take their
place in the labor movement, “ to understand social and industrial
conditions and the problems that face us to-day; to develop a sense
of social responsibility, and prepare them to take part in labor’s
effort to attain a happier and freer life.” Through the clubs it was
intended to extend the principle of workers’ education to the children—
the future trade-unionists.
The first year a summer camp was established on the grounds of
Manumit School, at Pawling, N. Y. Grounds were rented again the
next year, but in 1927 the organization bought a camp site in the
Catskill Mountains, at Rifton, N. Y. The grounds consist of 140
acres of wooded hills and meadow land, and include a pond and an
8-acre lake. One hundred and ten children can be accommodated
at a time. Separate quarters are provided for boys and girls, each
under supervision. All the camp activities are participated in jointly,
however.
These activities combine recreation and education and include field
study and various recreations which are educational as well, such as
games, athletics, rowing, swimming, camp craft, dramatic arts,
handicrafts, music, mechanics, improvised entertainment^, discus­
sions, photography, first-aid training, carpenter work, etc., all under
the supervision of trained instructors. No set courses are provided.
The curriculum is very elastic and the various activities are expanded
or added as the children’s interest suggests. Care is taken to secure
as “ councillors” persons who are equipped in a number of lines,
including nature study.
To give the children experience in rough camping, a backwoods
camp has been established, to which they may go for several days
at a time. There they will learn to db camp cooking and to provide
for their other needs.




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-* S
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F ig . 15 —Buildings at Pioneer Youth Camp, for children of trade-unionists and others, at Rifton, N . Y .

accepted a the
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before going to
there. A regis­
is a physician in




Children ranging from 1 t 1 years of age a
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R E C R E A T IO N A L A C T IV IT IE S

101

Benefits have been given at various times, the proceeds of which
have been used to establish a fund from which “ scholarships” could
be given to defray the expenses at camp of children of strikers or of
other workers who can not afford to send their children to the camp.
Clubs continue the work through the winter. For the children
in the clubs, various activities are devised, suited to the ages of
the children participating. These include visits to children of other
races, to industrial establishments, talks on the human aspects of
various occupations (each being given by a worker in that occupa­
tion), and for pupils of 16 to 18, lecture and discussion groups.
All activities of camp and club are self-governing. At camp the
children elect the storekeeper, postmaster, etc. Interclub activities
are directed by a joint committee composed of children elected
by the various clubs of the city.
Branches of the movement have been established in Philadelphia
and in Baltimore. ^The former is supported by some 30 unions.
This branch is forming clubs throughout the city, and in 1926 held a
summer camp at Media, accommodating 66 children. In New York
City and Philadelphia there are now 30 clubs.
The branch in Baltimore is under the auspices of the Baltimore
Federation of Labor. A camp was operated during the summer of
1927, located about 3 miles from Annapolis. Fifty-one children were
accommodated at the camp at the rate of $6 per week. This rate
did not cover the cost of operation, but the deficit was made up
mainly by contributions from labor unions. A camp was also oper­
ated during the summer of 1927.
The 1927 report of the central organization reports great interest
also in the coal districts of Pennsylvania and in some of the larger
cities of the State; in northern New Jersey, Boston, Chicago, Mil­
waukee, and elsewhere. It is the policy of the organization not to
encourage the formation of groups until constant financial and other
support is assured.
Early in 1928 there were 162 local labor organizations participating
in the movement, and the international unions of the teachers,
hosiery workers, machinists, firemen and oilers, fur workers, hatters,
ladies’ garment workers, textile workers, and headgear workers, in
addition to the labor federations of Baltimore and Pennsylvania and
the Central Labor Council of New York City.
Other summer camps and homes.— Since 1917 the Women’s TradeUnion League at Chicago has been operating a summer camp.
In that year this organization of woman trade-unionists was given
a free lease on a cottage at Ravinia. Since then various sites have
been used for the summer camp. In 1920, however, a fund was
started which was used to build a cottage at the edge of the forest
preserve near Palatine, 111., and near a large lake. The bricklayers’
union furnished the bricks and labor to build the fireplace, and the
painters’ union painted the house. A little portable house presented
to the league in 1918 serves as a dining hall and kitchen. The camp
with its tents can give overnight accommodation to 20 persons at a
time, in addition to parties which go out to the camp merely for the day.
The camp is only 30 miles from Chicago. The railroad fare is
only 96 cents for the round trip from the city, and a charge of 50
cents per night is made for the use of the camp facilities. Camping
parties must furnish their own food and linen. The attractions offered




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by the camp are hiking, water sports, baseball, croquet, etc. About
450 persons use the camp each summer.
The Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of America
reports that about 10 per cent of its locals have summer camps.
The local unions of railway clerks affiliated to the board of adjust­
ment of the Southern Railway System have built a clubhouse on a
piece of land (donated to them) in the mountains near Saluda, N. C.
The unions plan to use part of the property for recreational purposes
and to make the site a place where the members may spend their
vacations at a nominal cost. The main building (see fig. 16) is a frame
structure with a large assembly room, dining room, and office on the
first floor, and 10 bedrooms and 2 bathrooms on the second floor.
The kitchen is in the basement. The building is stated to be “ modern
in every respect," and has its own water and lighting system. It
was opened in May, 1928, and it is expected that some of the larger
lodges will build cottages for the use of the members. Thus far
the recreation provided for is limited to dancing in the main building;
at least two tennis courts will, however, be provided, and the organiza­
tion hopes to build a swimming pool. It is expected that the place
will also be used as a convalescent and rest home for members of the
order and for persons in the first stages of tuberculosis.
Vacation Travel

T H E Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, through its bank at
A Cleveland, formerly maintained a travel bureau for those of its
members who wished to take vacation trips. The' service was inau­
gurated in 1923, when a two-month trip to Europe was organized.
The party visited the principal cities and points of interest ana beauty
in England, Scotland, Holland, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Switzer­
land, and France, meeting in their travels the various labor and cooper­
ative groups. The spirit of fellowship engendered by such trips
between the workers in the visiting party and in the countries visited
was emphasized upon the return of the travelers. “ For many of the
members of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers'* bank party,
Europe will never again be quite a ‘ foreign' land. They have come
to know Europe not as a spot on the map, not even as a group of
isolated nations, but rather as a society of fellow human beings, most
of whom have the same just and honest purposes as ourselves."
Similar trips were arranged for the succeeding years.
During the winter of 1924-25, a 14-day trip to Bermuda was
organized.
These were personally conducted trips. The traveler paid in to the
travel bureau a flat sum, from which the person in charge of the trip
paid all expenses and made all the arrangements.
Recreational and Community Features of Labor Buildings

were
out
of Labor
QUESTIONNAIRES templessentvariousby the Bureau country in
Statistics to labor
in
sections of the
the attempt to gain an indication of the extent to which provision is
made in such buildings for social gatherings. No attempt was made
to make the survey inclusive, but a sufficient number of buildings
was included in each section of the country to make the study at




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104

B E N E F IC IA L

A C T IV IT IE S

O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

are used only for office and business purposes. With these this study
has no concern, inasmuch as it is the social, recreational, and com­
munity features which are of interest here, and reports from these
were therefore omitted.
Labor temples.—Data were obtained from 48 labor temples which
have some community feature. All but two of these are owned by
the unions and unionists affiliated with the labor temple association;
these two are rented. Construction of such buildings is usually
financed by a stock issue to which the locals subscribe. In a few
cases, money was also raised by voluntary assessments upon the
members, by giving entertainments, etc. Maintenance is provided
for out of the rents from the offices occupied by the various locals,
and from those for the halls used for meeting places. The 46 build­
ings owned as temples cost $3,793,273. In a number of cases the
building was purchased some years ago and the present value would
be much greater than the above figure shows.
The following statement shows how many of the 46 union-owned
labor temples make provision for each specified community or social
feature. The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers was
quoted recently as having in view a plan by which the labor temples
and lodge rooms would be converted into motion-picture theaters.
As the statement below shows, in a few of the labor temples provision
has already been made for the showing of motion pictures as well as
for other community activities:
Temples having—
N um ber
Clubrooms_____________________________________________
22
Auditorium or assembly hall------------------------------------------ 37
Reading room ---------------------------------------------------------------- 29
Classrooms_____________________________________________ 14
Billiard or pool tables---------------------------------------------------- 18
Stage___________________________________ _______________ 6 17
Motion-picture apparatus______________________________
6
Screen_________________________________________________
9
Radio__________________________________________________
5
Other recreational features—
Card rooms________________________________________
2
Dance hall_________________________________________ 6 3
Facilities for serving refreshments----------------------------------- 29
Kitchen____________________________________________7 19
Banquet or dining room____________________________ 8 7

In addition to the above, three buildings have a counter where
soft drinks or candy or both are served. The association controlling
one building, during the last industrial depression, installed a hotel
range for use in preparing meals for the unemployed.
Two labor temples are worthy of special mention as regards their
community features. These are the temples at Portland, Oreg.,
and Los Angeles, Calif.
The Portland temple is claimed to be “ the largest and most com­
plete building in the United States devoted exclusively to labor
temple activities.” It is six stories in height and occupies a ground
area of 100 by 150 feet. It contains 45 offices, 11 halls with a seating
capacity varying from 20 to 300, a large parlor, an auditorium seating
1,500, clubroom, reading room, and a classroom used by the Portland
Labor College. The ground floor contains a refreshment bar, cigar




5 Portable, in 1 case.
• In X case, 2 balls.

7 In 1 case, 2 kitchens.
* In 2 cases, 2 dining balls eacb.

R E C R E A T IO N A L

A C T IV IT IE S

105

store, barber shop, pool room, restaurant, and card room. All of
these are operated directly by the labor temple association, a manager
(engaged by the board of directors of the association) having charge of
all these departments. The auditorium has a hardwood floor and
may be converted into a dance hall; it is also equipped with stage,
motion-picture apparatus, screen, and radio.
Dances, card parties, smokers, and various kinds of entertainments
are held in the temple, making it a real center of trade-union life
and activity.
The land, building, and equipment cost $396,566. Some 97 local
unions own stock in the association; individual unionists may also
own stock but this must be voted by the union to which they belong.
The Los Angeles temple, which was erected at a total cost of
$244,048, is a seven-story building, containing 18 halls seating from
25 to 1,500 persons, and 32 offices. An annex contains an auditorium
equipped with an inclined floor that can be raised or lowered, as the
occasion requires, so as to be easily convertible into either assembly
room with seats or a large dance hall; this feature, it is stated, cost
$40,000. The auditorium is also equipped with a stage, motionpicture apparatus, and screen. The building also contains clubroom,
reading room, classrooms, billiard tables, and two smaller dance
halls.
Headquarters buildings.—The international organizations of a great
many labor unions own their headquarters building, as do also
manjr of the local unions. Perhaps the majority of international
buildings are used for office purposes only, as more social life is found
in the locals than in the national organization. A few of the inter­
national headquarters buildings do, however, contain some provision
for community activities. Thus that of the Order of Railroad Teleg­
raphers is equipped with motion-picture apparatus and screen and
radio, that of the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tin
Workers has an auditorium and a kitchen, that of the Brotherhood
of Railway Carmen has reading rooms, that of the United Association
of Journeymen Plumbers and Steam Fitters is equipped with a kitchen
and a dining room, and that of the International Union of Painters
and Decorators has clubroom, auditorium, reading room, and kitchen.
In several cases the international has purchased a house and made
alterations to suit its purposes. This has been done by such organi­
zations as the plumbers, railroad telegraphers, and printers. The
International Typographical Union in 1925 purchased the former
residence of an Indianapolis millionaire, paying for the house and 5
acres of land surrounding it $167,500. This building has been con­
verted into offices, though still to some extent retaining the character
of a home in furnishings and atmosphere. The large well-furnished
reception room extends across nearly the whole front of the build­
ing, affording facilities for assembly. The beautiful solid-mahogany
hand-carved staircase leading from the reception hall, the solid silver
lighting fixtures in what was formerly the dining room, and the
exterior beauties—spacious, terraced grounds and sunken gardens—
make the whole a very unusual labor headquarters. The place is
valued to-day at more than $300,000. (See fig. 17, p. 106.)
The Order of Railroad Telegraphers in 1924 purchased for $65,000
the former home of a wealthy resident of St. Louis and this is now




BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




F ig .

17.—Ivy-covered headquarters building of International Typographical Union at Indianapolis

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108

B E N E F IC IA L

A C T IV IT IE S

O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

museum, and art gallery. Each room in the building is equipped
with a telegraph instrument instead of telephone for communication
within the house.
The homes of some of the local unions are also worthy of note.
Thus the building owned by the weavers’ local union at New Bedford,
Mass., built from accumulated union funds, contains club room,
reading room, classrooms, and an auditorium equipped with motionpicture apparatus and screen. The building also contains equipment
for serving refreshments, and with all these facilities has become the
center for dancing, musical entertainments, whist parties, and various
community activities.
The bricklayers’ local of Cincinnati, Ohio, occupies its own building,
containing a club room, reading room, classrooms, and auditorium, as
well as provision for the playing of billiards.
The Chicago local of street-railway employees of the surface lines
owns a headquarters building which cost $1,150,000, and contains
four halls seating from 150 to 500 persons, and a large auditorium
seating 4,000 people and equipped with a stage provided with foot­
lights, electrical apparatus, and other theatrical accessories. (See
fig. 19.) The floor of the auditorium is so arranged that all seats
can be removed in about 10 minutes. There are also eight dressing
rooms for the use of the persons taking part in dramatic performances.
The building contains a large restaurant and refreshment bar, and
a ladies’ parlor, as well as a smoking room for the men. An annex
to the building contains 22 bowling alleys, 20 billiard tables, refresh­
ment stands, etc. These, it is stated, are “ always busy.”
The bakers’ local of St. Louis, Mo., whose amusement park has
already been described, has a headquarters building adjoining the
park. This building contains club room, auditorium (with stage),
and reading room, besides a soft-drink counter and dining room.
The Chicago locals of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers have
just finished the erection of a new building. (See fig. 20.) This
building which, it is reported, cost a million dollars, makes generous
provision for many forms of social and recreational activity. The
locals had been accumulating a building fund since 1919, and pro­
vision has been made for maintenance expenses from surplus union
dues; the building, in fact, was paid for before the construction work
was begun.
The first floor of this building has space for five stores, the union
employment exchange, a library (fig. 21), and an assembly hall.
Here also provision has been made for a dental clinic to serve the
members of the union. On the second floor is a dining room which
may be divided to form two separate rooms. Back of the dining
room is a service room with electric refrigerator and dummy elevator
communication with the kitchen below. The main auditorium of
the building seats 2,000 persons and is equipped with stage, motionpicture apparatus, and dressing rooms for the performers. Adjacent
to it are two lounging rooms, one for men and the other for women.
Another feature of the building is the “ little art theater” (fig. 22)
The basement contains a gymnasium (fig. 23) large enough for class
work, basket ball, and indoor baseball, a handball court, and 3
exercise rooms equipped with punching bags, rowing machines,
stationary bicycle riders, horizontal and parallel bars, chest weights,
stall bars, and wrestling and boxing facilities. In the basement there




_

RECREATIONAL
ACTIVITIES




% S W K !S !!V V ,y :.-

F ig . 19.—Auditorium in headquarters building of Chicago local of street-railway employees (surface lines), seating 4,000 persons

^

BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




F ig . 20.—New building of Chicago locals of Amalgamated Clothing Workers

R E C R E A T IO N A L
A C T IV IT IE S




Fig. 21.—Library in new Amalgamated Temple in Chicago

are also a steam room, showers, lockers, 6 bowling alleys (fig. 24),
3 billiard tables, a visitors’ gallery overlooking th bowling alleys
e
an billiard tables, a buffet, an a kitchen. There is a physical
d
d

F ig . 22.—“ Little art theater” in Amalgamated Temple, Chicago

education department in connection w
ith th gymnasium under the
e
charge of a competent instructor. Physical education classes are
being formed, t which members will b admitted only after medical
o
e







BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




F ig. 24.—Bowling alleys in Amalgamated Temple, Chicago

Chapter VII.—Housing Activities of Labor Groups
HE provision of housing accommodations for trade-unionists
has thus far received comparatively little attention from labor
organizations.
There are, however, a number of organizations promoted by tradeunions for financing the construction of homes by their members.
Of these the Bureau of Labor Statistics has data for seven.
One organization has been in existence since 1920, one since 1922, one
since 1924, two since 1926, one since 1927, and one was organized
in 1928. Six of these building and loan associations have financed
the construction of at least 441 dwellings.
So far as the bureau has been able to determine, only two unions
have undertaken the actual construction of dwellings for their mem­
bers. These are the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and the
Amalgamated Clothing Workers.1 The operations of the former
have been in the development of a town in Florida, constructing
detached dwellings, mainly. Those of the latter have been in the
construction of apartment buildings in the city of New York. In
neither instance, however, is the purchase of dwellings confined to
members of the union which has undertaken the work.
In addition to these union undertakings, a housing project in New
York City is being carried on by a group of trade-unionists from a
number of trades.
Having provided themselves with quarters through their organiza­
tion, the tenants of these union-constructed apartment houses in
New York City have gone further and are filling their other needs
cooperatively, buying milk, ice, electricity, groceries, meats, etc.,
collectively, and providing such other features as library, kinder­
garten, nursery, medical and dental care, gymnasium, playgrounds,
etc., thus forming a more or less self-contained community of apart­
ment dwellers.

T

Amalgamated Clothing Workers* Buildings

HTHE idea of the actual provision of dwellings for its members by
A the Amalgamated Clothing Workers was first broached at the
1924 convention. In 1925 a group of union members imbued with
the cooperative idea formed the Amalgamated Clothing Workers
Corporation for the purpose of purchasing ice and coal for the mem­
bers of the Amalgamated Credit Union. The purchase of coal was in
due time begun and is still being conducted.
This corporation which had been formed for the purchase of ice and
coal was utilized in the housing project. Through it, purchase was
made in April, 1925, of a plot of ground costing $315,000, and this
1 The Cloth, H at, Cap and M illinery Workers’ International Union has for some tim e been interested
in the provision of housing accommodations for its members, but so far circumstances have prevented
action in this field b y the union.




115

116

B E N E F IC IA L

A C T IV IT IE S

OF

T R A D E -U N I O N S

organization lias directed the entire housing project. Ground was
broken on Thanksgiving Day, 1926; the first two buildings were ready
for occupancy November 1,1927, the third December 1, and the fourth
December 15,1927. A celebration of the formal opening of the first five
buildings was held December 25. The sixth building was ready for

O'

•
o

occupancy some time in March, 1928, and work on a seventh is about
to begin.
The union in undertaking this project was actuated by the desire
to show that low rental housing was possible if undertaken by a
group. Care was taken to secure a site which would give the advan­



H O U S IN G A C T IV IT IE S

OF LA BO R G R O U P S

117

tages of the suburbs while at the same time being easily accessible to
the downtown district.
Location of Buildings

The ground acquired for the project is in the Bronx on Mosholu
Parkway opposite Van Courtlandt Park. As the corporation owns
two blocks of land—some 50 lots, in all—the plans were drawn so
that each apartment is an outside apartment facing on a street on at
least one side. There are no rear apartments, and no apartment is
more than two rooms deep.
The group of buildings has parks on three sides, and those families
occupying the upper floors of the apartments have a view from their
windows of Van Courtlandt Park, the waters of the city reservoir,
and the palisades of the Hudson. The proximity of the parks
means access to the tennis courts, ice skating, and other outdoor
recreation and exercise made available by the park facilities.
The houses are so situated as to be reached by five minutes' walk
from two subways. These give quick transportation to the clothing
center in the downtown district where many of the tenants are
employed.
Description of Apartments

As one of the predominant ideas was the provision of plenty of
light and air, as well as play space for the children where they would
be safe, the buildings are, roughly, in the form of a hollow rectangle.
(Fig. 25.) Only 47 per cent of the ground is occupied by the buildings;
the remainder is in lawns and playground space in an inner court 556
feet long which extends the full length of the property and varies in
width from 51 to 100 feet.
They are five-story, walk-up apartments, the elevator being the
only modern feature not installed. This was omitted in order to
keep down maintenance and operating charges and to make low
rentals possible.
The whole group of buildings contains 1,185 rooms in 303 apart­
ments of from 2 to 7 rooms each, apartments of 3 and 4 rooms pre­
dominating. Each dining alcove is counted as a half room, and a
kitchen is counted as one room, but kitchenettes (there are only three
of these in the whole block of buildings) and the bathrooms do not
count as rooms. Some 14,000 square feet of floor space is allotted
for communal purposes.
There are 29 staircases in the six buildings. In most cases, in order
to insure privacy, there are only two dwellings on each landing, and
in no case more than three.
The rooms are large, the average size of the living rooms being 12
by 17 feet, that of the bedrooms 11 by 15 feet, and that of the kitch­
ens 8 by 12 feet. #Each apartment is equipped with gas range, refrig­
erator, dumb-waiter, shower bath, and electricity. All floors are of
hardwood. The buildings are heated by a central oil-burning furnace,
which can, with slight changes, be converted to the use of coal.
Incinerators are also installed throughout the buildings for the disposal
of garbage and refuse.




BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




F ig . 26.—Interior garden of apartments erected b y Amalgamated Clothing Workers, in N ew Y ork C ity

H O U S I N G A C T IV IT IE S OF L A B O R G R O U P S

119

Financing

Considerable time elapsed between the time of purchase of the land
and the beginning of building operations. It is pointed out, however,
that the delay was beneficial, for in the interval a State housing law
was passed, receiving the governor’s signature May 10, 1926. This
law was intended to facilitate the construction of low-rental housing,
offering exemption from taxes and certain other advantages as
inducements.2
The financing of the building project was a problem of considerable
proportions. The union emphasizes that although no union funds
were used, more than $1,400,000 was spent on land and construction
before any attempt was made to secure money from outside sources.
Of this amount $479,000 was paid in by the tenant owners, $250,000
was obtained from the Forward Association, and $172,000 from the
Amalgamated Bank on first mortgages. The remainder of the
$1,400,000 was obtained from the following Amalgamated subsidia­
ries: The Chicago and New York banks of the union, the Amalga­
mated Center (Inc.), the Amalgamated Clothing Workers’ Credit
Union, the Russian-American Industrial Corporation, and the Para­
mount Holding Corporation. In each case the union acted as
guarantor of the loan.
On the security of the buildings a 20-year loan of $1,200,000 was
obtained from the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., the company
taking a first mortgage.
It is estimated that the six-building group will cost about
$1,825,000—$315,000 for land and $1,510,000 for construction—
or about $1,500 a room and approximately 40 cents per cubic foot.
This average includes the rooms built for communal purposes. Of
this amount $1,200,000 is covered by the loan from the Metropolitan
Life Insurance Co., leaving $625,000 to be supplied by the tenant
owners. When all of the 1,185 dwelling rooms have been paid
for at the rate of $500 per room, $592,500 will have been so paid
in. The balance will be raised by the issue of 6 per cent preferred
stock, which, it is said, will constitute “ a sort of junior mortgage."
This stock will be sold to the tenants, the union, and to “ other
friendly organizations."
Savings were possible in various ways. In the first place, the land
was purchased at about $2 per square foot.
Lower rates were obtained on the actual building operations
because of the fact that the contractors, knowing that the work was
a cash job, did not add the usual amount for financing. Competi­
tion between builders, because of this cash feature and the size of the
project, also was a factor in reducing costs. The magnitude of the
contracts is shown by the fact that the excavation and foundation
contract totaled $180,000, masonry $279,000, plastering $167,000,
and plumbing $134,000.
The loan from the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. was obtained
at a rate of 5 instead of the 53^ per cent customary for loans of this,
sort. This saving is estimated at $97,865 for the whole period of
the loan (at $5,000 per year). All of the usual recording fees, revenue
stamps, etc., were waived by the authorities and by the insurance
company.
* For the terms of this law see Labor Review, July, 1926, p. 77.




10
2
BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




F ig . 27.—Typical living room in Amalgamated apartments—12 b y 17 feet in size

HOUSING
ACTIVITIES
O LABOR
F
GROUPS




F ig . 28.—Typical bedroom in Amalgamated apartments— 11 by 15 feet in size

12
2
BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




F ig . 29.—Kitchen in Amalgamated apartments, showing dining alcove

H O U S IN G A C T IV IT IE S




OF L A B O R G R O U P S

123

124

B E N E F IC IA L

A C T IV IT IE S

OF

T R A D E -U N I O N S

But the most considerable of all sources of saving was the exemp­
tion of the buildings (not the land) from taxes, under the State housing
law. The actual saving to the corporation due to this exemption
amounts to approximately $30,000 a year, or $2.11 per room per
month.
How the $11 room was possible.—It is estimated that the yearly cost
will amount to some $150,000, divided as follows:
Per year

Operating cost (labor, light, heat, insurance, repairs, administration,
etc.)______________________________________________________________ $47,400
Interest_____________________________________________________________
60, 000
Amortization of first mortgage (begins February, 1929)_______________
20, 000
Taxes (land only)____________________________________________________
5, 000
Dividends, at 3 per cent, on common stock___________ _______________
18, 000
Total_________________________________________________________

150,400

This will average about $10.50 per month per room. As the rent
is set at $11, it is seen that “ the margin of safety is admittedly low
and makes no allowance for vacancies.” It is stated, however, that
the 3 per cent dividend on common stock may be withheld for a few
years; also that since the amortization of the first mortgage does not
begin until 1929, the 1928 allotment for that purpose will create a
revolving fund of some $20,000 for the redemption of the stock of
those who may wish to withdraw.
The union states: “ Financing this project was no paltry job. It
brought vexing and difficult problems. Having met them success­
fully we have gained the knowledge and experience which will make
it easier for us to extend our housing program here as well as in other
cities.”
Conditions of Ownership and Management

The pui 3hase of dwellings in these cooperative apartment houses is
not confined to members of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, but
is open to any trade-unionist in New York City. Amalgamated
members are, however, given preference over workers in other trades.
Each prospective tenant must pay $500 per room, of which onehalf must be paid at time of purchase. For this he receives stock in
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Corporation equal to the amount
of his purchase. Thus if he buys a three-room apartment he receives
stock to the amount of $1,500, if a four-room apartment, stock to the
amount of $2,000, etc.; and a perpetual lease to the apartment of
his choice.
In addition to this he pays “ rent” of $11 per room per month.
From the amount paid in in rents each month, a certain sum will be
put away to pay off the mortgages, other amounts to cover expendi­
ture for repairs, renovations, etc. As the mortgages are paid off, in
the course of time, the rents will be reduced.
In many cases the prospective purchaser was unable to gather
together the $250 per room required as a down payment. In such
cases, assistance was extended in the way of loans through the Amal­
gamated Bank, or the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Credit Union,
The Jewish daily, Forward, also assisted materially by advancing an
amount of $100,000 from which loans were extended to would-be
purchasers.
In order to prevent speculation, a tenant who wishes to withdraw
from membership in the corporation must sell his stock back to the



H O U S I N G A C T IV IT IE S OF L A B O R G R O U P S

125

corporation, which will allow him its book value at the time of with­
drawal. Subleasing of apartments is prohibited.
Prospective tenants must be accepted by the stockholders’ member­
ship committee before being admitted to ownership in the apartments.
The affairs of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Corporation are
administered by a board of directors representing the tenant owners
and including a representative of the State Housing Board.
The various activities within the buildings are managed by com­
mittees of five, elected by the tenants. There are three of these com­
mittees: The house committee, which looks after the operation and
maintenance of the buildings; the business committee, whose duty it is
to see to the buying of ice and milk, the running of the stores, the main­
tenance of the bus, etc. ; and the social and educational committee,
which arranges the social affairs, has supervision over the library,
play rooms, etc. In order to coordinate the activities of these com­
mittees, the building committee has representatives on the other two.
Cooperative and Communal Activities

Cooperative purchasing.—As soon as the first two buildings were
opened, steps were taken to supply the tenants with milk and ice, on a
cooperative basis. A new organization, the Amalgamated Clothing
Workers Service Corporation, was organized for the purpose. Be­
cause of the large purchasing power of this organization, with its 300
members, it has been able to effect substantial savings and to buy on
a wholesale basis. After successfully undertaking the purchase of
milk and ice, it began to buy eggs directly from the farmers, selling
them to the tenants at a price considerably below the prevailing market
prices.
Electricity is also bought in common, the corporation arranging for
the installation of one large meter. “ Because of the huge amount of
electrical power registered on the one central meter the Edison Co.
charges considerably less than it would for the same power if charged
on 303 separate meters. The tenant owners pay to the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers Corporation for power consumed by them.” The
consumption of the respective tenants is registered on submeters.
It is stated that this is merely a beginning. After the buildings are
all occupied “ the problem of cooperative purchasing will be tackled
in earnest.”
A grocery store, a meat market, and a fruit and vegetable store
have already been started, all operated by the Amalgamated Cloth­
ing Workers Service Corporation. Shares of stock at $25 each are
being sold to the tenants, each of whom, it is expected, will take at
least one share.
There are also on the premises a shoe-repair shop and a tailor shop,
but the colony does not operate these, a concession having been let to a
tailor and a shoemaker who are residents in the building.
Cooperative tea room.—In the basement of one of the buildings a
large room has been fitted up as a tea room, with gaily painted tables
and chairs, piano, etc. Here the members of the colony gather in the
evenings for a general social time. Tea and refreshments are served,
the members of a volunteer committee composed of the women of the
colony taking turns in acting as hostess. A woman is engaged to
come in late in the afternoon to make the place tidy and do the work
necessary in connection with the serving of the refreshments.



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Auditorium.—The land on which the fifth building stands drops
19 feet from one street to the other, and advantage has been taken of
this for the construction of an auditorium seating about 500 people
and having a large stage. Here movies will be shown, and lectures,
plays, and entertainments of various sorts will be given. There is a
kitchen nearby for the preparation of refreshments, a check room, and
a rest room and lavatory for the women as well as one for the men.
Cooperative bus.—Because of the fact that the nearest public school
is some three-fourths of a mile away, some means of transporting the
children between school and home was thought desirable. Each
tenant contributed $15 and a bus was purchased for the purpose. It
is expected that some of the profits from the other cooperative enter­
prises will be used to help defray the expenses of operation of the bus.
At present each tenant parent pays 25 cents per week per child for the
upkeep of the car. This does not cover the whole expense but the
remainder is made up from the earnings of some of the other coopera­
tive activities.
Other communal features.—There is also to be a library in a corner
room in the basement of one building, a music room, and a cooperative
nursery under the care of a competent nurse. In another building
there will be an indoor playground under a trained supervisor; a small
outdoor playground is m course of construction.
It is intended to develop, from among the tenants, an orchestra
under the supervision of a trained teacher. One feature of the com­
mon music room will be that here “ all those youngsters who want to
study piano playing, but who have been deprived of this joy until
now because their parents could not afford buying them a piano”
will find means to satisfy their desire.
After-school classes in Jewish history and in Yiddish are conducted
for the grammar school children of the colony under the auspices of
the Workmen’s Circle (to which about 80 per cent of the residents
belong). This organization pays a rental for the use of the room
where the classes are held, as well as supplying the teacher.
Further Housing Activities

The union announces that it will probably undertake the con­
struction of additional houses, provided suitable land can be obtained.
At the banquet held December 25, 1927, to celebrate the formal
opening of the buildings, President Hillman stated that the organiza­
tion is already planning another project which will provide housing
accommodations for about a thousand more families. The site for
this project will probably be in a crowded section of the city, some­
where on the lower East Side.
Attitude of the Union

These buildings give the tenants access to housing conditions that
would ordinarily (because of expense) be closed to them, at rents
which they can afford to pay. Of the membership now in the build­
ings, about one-third have come from the lower East Side, about 35
per cent were already living in the Bronx, and the remainder have
come from other parts of the city and from Brooklyn.
About one-third are members of the Amalgamated Clothing
Workers, one-third are members of the International Ladies’ Garment
Workers’ Union, and the remaining third are workers from other
unions.



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127

The union took the position that slums are not an unavoidable
evil of city housing, and actuated by the desire to bring its members,
so far as possible, out of the slums into light, airy, sunny dwellings,
has demonstrated what collective effort can do. The step was not
taken without opposition within the organization. President Hill­
man points out:
Our organization, like all groups of human beings, inciuaes two types of
people. On the one hand, there are those who believe that we should leave well
enough alone, limit our usefulness to the spheres where everything has been
tried and is certain; they fear anything new, not realizing that what is accepted
to-day was new and uncertain at some earlier time. The others are impatient
for new things, anxious to fly even before they have learned to walk. It is the
good fortune of our organization that the great bulk of its people have stead­
fastly adhered to a policy of careful, if at times slow, forging ahead. Through
this policy some of our dreams of yesterday are part of our actual life to-day.
The soundness of this state o f mind and attitude of the largest group in the
organization is proved by our achievements, both the volume of them and their
character. The Amalgamated has always laid stress on results as soon as it
was certain of what it wanted. We have always pursued that course regardless
of criticism and no matter from where it came.

It is realized that, in view of the magnitude of the housing problem
in New York City, what has already been achieved is but slight.
Pointing out that there are over 40,000 members of the union in
New York City and 700,000 wage earners in the New York metro­
politan district, the union admits that “ the six apartment houses
are not even so much as a drop in the bucket of the current need.
They are not so much as an approach to the solution of the housing
problem.”
Furthermore, the condition of participation in the venture, an $11 a room
monthly rental, and a capital investment of $500 per room is quite high for the
mass of workers even though it is so much less than what constitutes the rent
in buildings of inferior quality erected by private companies, and is also con­
siderably lower than the rent which cooperating tenants pay in other labor
cooperative apartment houses in the city. The Amalgamated could not possibly
have undertaken to build healthy, beautiful homes, at a cost compatible with
the earnings which prevail in industry to-day. Workers’ earnings are, on the
average, way below what is the minimum of healthy and decent living. The
Amalgamated in common with the other labor unions carries on an unceasing
struggle for a healthy human standard of living, and the struggle is far from
being close to a happy ending. Workers in the men’s clothing industry may
be somewhat better off than workers in many another industry and that con­
dition of comparative improvement they have achieved because of their progres­
sive, solidly built, and carefully guided, militant organization. The first problem
of the workers in the United States is that of improving their earnings. In
the measure as this problem is met and achieved, an approach may be made
to a solution of a string of secondary problems such as housing, cooperative
purchasing, etc.

The significance of the Amalgamated project, it is claimed, lies in
the challenge, the “ friendly challenge,” it presents to other labor
bodies.
The project now realized by the Amalgamated puts the issue squarely before
the people of the State and of the Nation. It tells the workingmen of the
United States that if they expect relief from the State or from any national or
local public agency they expect what they may never get— unless they mobilize
their own strength and take the problem into their own hands.
We have shown you that a union can mass the savings or the prospective
savings o f union members into a considerable body of capital. A union could
make constructive and profitable use of the accumulated strength, standing
and credit capacity of its members and the union itself. The union can get
the voluntary cooperation of competent socially minded people in many walks
of life and put their individual abilities into the service of the labor movement



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as a whole. The union, if it so chooses, can find the necessary means and com­
mand the necessary competence to materialize a project, which, in the regular
run of things, it is assumed, can be done only by the rich for personal profit
and aggrandizement. The union can do this thing and many another thing and
the labor movement has no justification in keeping away from undertaking
large-scale enterprise only because it has no money and does not know how to
do things. Where there is a will there is a way.
We believe that the coming year will show other groups of cooperators in
housing among the members of the Amalgamated, and that in a very few years,
not only in New York but in other cities where the clothing industry exists, the
members of the Amalgamated will be housed in dwellings of a very different
character from what they have been compelled to live in for the last generation.
And they will have made this possible by their understanding of what they can
accomplish by acting together.

United Workers* Buildings

A NUMBER of years ago a small group of workers leased one
floor in a house in New York, on a cooperative basis. As the
group increased the whole house was taken over, and certain social
features were added and a summer camp was started. These proved
so popular that the field of activities has been broadened until to-day
the United Workers’ Cooperative Association is perhaps the largest
and most active cooperative group in New York City.
Early in 1925 the association purchased an entire city block facing
Bronx Park. Since that time additional land has been bought, until
now the organization owns six blocks of land, on two of which cooper­
ative apartments have been built.
The first group of apartment buildings contains four units surround­
ing a large central garden. These four units contain 339 apartments,
totaling 963 rooms. The individual apartments range from two to
five rooms, the majority being those of three rooms.
The second block is built in the form of an E and contains 354
apartments (1,054 rooms), while the third and fourth units will con­
tain 492 apartments (1,450 rooms).
These are five-story, walk-up apartments. As no wing is more than
two rooms deep, this means that every room looks out either upon
a street or upon the interior garden. Special care has been taken in
the arrangement of the rooms so as to secure cross ventilation in
every apartment. In no case do the buildings occupy as much as 50
per cent of the ground space.
The living rooms average 12 by 16 or 12 by 17 feet, and the bed­
rooms are 11 by 15 feet in size. Each kitchen is equipped with gas
range, refrigerator, and dumb-waiter, and the bathroom with a shower.
One section of the first group of buildings contains the “ bachelors’
quarters,” that is, single furnished rooms. Each three of these are
provided with a bathroom, and there is a common kitchen for every
12 rooms.
The buildings are heated by oil from a central plant in each block.
In the first building four incinerators were installed, one for each unit,
the garbage being collected from the various apartments and burned
here. In the second building each hall has a chute connecting
directly with the incinerator, thus saving the process of collection.
Although staircases are expensive, there are many entrances to
the buildings. Since the buildings are only two rooms deep the long
halls, which would be necessary if there were only a few entrances,




HOTJSTNG A C T IV IT IE S

OF L A B O fi GttOTTPS

129

would divide the rooms and either would have to be dark or would
take light desired for the rooms themselves.
Landscaping.—The inner garden of the first block of buildings is
laid out a good deal like that of the Amalgamated Clothing W orked
group. As the buildings of this block occupy only 46 per cent of
the total ground space of a whole city block, it is seen that the
garden is a spacious one. In the center there is a grassy mound on
the top of which the association plans to have a piece of sculpture.
Many walks are laid out in the garden leading to the numerous en­
trances to the buildings and to the fountains (each with its pool) one
of which is located at each end of the court.
As one side of the block where operations will next be started is
solid rock, it was decided not to remove this but to use it as part of
the general landscape scheme, building the apartments around it at
the back and using the rock for terraces and steps leading up to the
buildings.
Financing

The land used for these buildings cost $450,000, and the construc­
tion of the buildings $3,000,000. For the first block of buildings,
which cost $1,600,000, each prospective tenant was required to pay
$250 per room, of which half was a down payment, the balance
being payable in the course of a year. In this way $250,000 was
raised. A loan of $1,100,000 was obtained from the New York Title
& Mortgage Co., and the remainder by a 6 per cent gold bond issue
of $250,000. Succeeding operations are being financed through a sub­
sidiary organization, the Consumers’ Finance Corporation, in the
same way. The loan from the insurance company constitutes a first
mortgage and the bond issue is in the nature of a second mortgage.
This, it is seen, is a procedure similar to that followed by the Amalga­
mated Clothing Workers in their building project.
The cost of construction has averaged $1,500 per room, and about
40 cents per cubic foot.
The association was not able to meet the requirements of the
housing law, so as to be able to obtain the 20-year exemption from
taxation in the construction of the first two blocks, but an effort is
being made to do so in the case of the third and fourth blocks.
Rents are $14 and $14.50 per room, the amount varying according
to the floor on which the dwelling is located, whether the apartment
faces the park, or street, etc. In calculating the rents, neither
kitchenette nor bathroom is counted; full rent is paid for a kitchen,
however, for this is regarded as a room.
The 1927 report of the association shows the following gross income:
Rentals of real estate department (10 months)_________ $161, 088
Camp Nitgedaiget (Beacon, N. Y .)____________________
113, 558
Nine stores (4 months)________________________________
88, 740
Finance corporation (interest, income)_________________
5, 335
Ice business (5 months)----------------------------------------------3, 875
Kindergarten (4 months)--------------------------------------------2, 426
Medical center (3% months)---------------------------------------1, 734
School (4 months)________________________________ ____
1, 437
Literature____________________________________________
1, 255
Dental clinic (2 months)______________________________
761
Lectures (3 months)---------------------------------------------------557
Gymnasium (3 months)_______________________________ ______ 350
Total income____________________ _____ ________
381, 116




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O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

The report shows resources of $4,299,341, of which more than four
million dollars is in real estate. Working capital and earned surplus
aggregated $673,640.
Conditions of Ownership

As already stated, each prospective tenant must pay in $250 per
room, and a monthly rent of $14 or $14.50 per room. Each tenant
is required to be a member of the union of his trade, unless excused
by insurmountable obstacles.
Unlike the ordinary cooperative procedure, the member-purchaser
in one of the United Workers' cooperative apartments receives no
stock in the enterprise; he gets a receipt for the amount paid in and a
two-year lease to the dwelling. At the end of two years, if he is still
acceptable to the other tenants, his lease is renewed; if not, he must
leave, in which case his principal is returned, without interest, minus
his proportional share of the cost of redecorating the apartment for a
new tenant. Subleasing is not allowed; a tenant leaving for any reason
before his lease expires must turn his apartment back to the association.
There is a board of 25 unpaid directors which manages the affairs
of the association, and these directors also serve on various com­
mittees having to do with the community. Subcommittees are
appointed by these committees from among the membership and
much of the actual work of the conduct of the buildings and the
various community projects is done by these subcommittees. The
association encourages as many residents as possible to serve on the
various subcommittees; this is done on the assumption that the more
work done by the individual the greater his interest and pride in the
whole project will be.
Cooperative and Communal Features

There are a number of community activities carried on by the
association in the endeavor to produce a self-contained community.
Many of these activities are housed in the spacious light basement
rooms, the first floor of the buildings being some 10 or 15 feet above
the street level. These communal projects include:
Kindergarten and day nursery.—This department occupies three
rooms in the southwest basement comer of the first block of buildings.
These rooms are furnished with a piano and brightly painted furniture
of children's size, and are made even more cheerful and attractive
by gay pictures and by window boxes with flowering plants. Here
four full-time teachers are employed for the care of 58 children of
preschool age who come here. A child may attend for one session of
four hours in the morning, for two sessions of four hours each, or
may be left (as in the case of children of mothers who are employed
during the day) from 7 a. m. till 7 p. m., receiving three meals.
Since the projects must be more or less self-supporting, a charge of
$3 per week per child is made for those who attend for only one
session a day, $6 for those attending two sessions, and $9 for the fullday children. The children have a dining room and lavatory in con­
nection with the nursery. For those who attend during the whole
day, there are little lockers to hold the bedding used during the “ nap"
period. As the space here will not be sufficient to accommodate
all the preschool children in the colony when the new buildings




H O U S IN G A C T IV IT IE S OF L A B O R G R O U P S

131

are occupied, a similar kindergarten is planned for one of the new
buildings.
Classrooms.—Two basement rooms have been equipped with
school desks (more than 5() in all) and here are held after-school
classes for an hour several times a week. These classes are for the
children of grammar-school age, and they are taught Yiddish and
Jewish history. For the adults of the colony, there are evening
classes in English.
In connection with the classrooms there is a waiting room, lounging
and lavatory rooms for the boys, similar rooms for the girls who
attend the classes, and a cloakroom.
Cooperative society ior young people.—The young people of the
colony have what they call a “ youth cooperative” which arranges
for lectures, discussion groups, and various recreational activities—
concerts, entertainments, hikes, etc. This society has been given
the use of two rooms, divided by a collapsible partition which folds
back making the two rooms into one. One of the rooms has a raised
stage at one end.
Library.—A community library is installed in one of the buildings.
The library room, which is a comer basement room receiving plenty
of light, is fitted up with library tables and chairs, several thousand
volumes (which are being catalogued by volunteer work), and a peri­
odical rack and a newspaper rack, both well filled. The equipment
for the records and other uses of the librarian is very good. Several
good (some striking) pictures hang on the walls and there are several
busts of distinguished men.
Assembly TialI.—The hall now being used as an assembly hall is
small, holding only about 200 persons. This, however, is being used
only until such time as the new auditorium is completed. The
land on which one of the new buildings stands drops some 22 feet
from one street to the next and this slope is being utilized to build a
large and complete auditorium.
Gymnasium.—There is a large gymnasium containing the usual
“ gym” equipment, as well as a piano. Adjoining it are a shower
room, locker room, and room for steam baths.
Health clinic.—A suite of rooms on the first floor of one of the first
block of buildings is reserved for the health clinic. Here are waiting
room, doctor's office with laboratory adjoining, and dentist's office
with adjoining dark room. All are furnished with the best modern
appliances. The doctor has office hours three days a week; for this
he receives a regular salary from the association of $500 per month.
The association in turn charges the members $3 per visit for his
services. In order, however, to meet the need of persons with only
slight ailments, the association has engaged a less experienced
physician for whose services a fee of $1 per visit is charged.
The dentist's office contains two chairs, one for the use of a dentist
who does part-time work for the association, and the other for the
use of a woman dentist who specializes in children's work.
Playground.—A short distance away from the buildings, on a
separate plot of ground, there is a well-equipped playground for the
colony children. The ground is surrounded by a high wire fence, and
a charge of 25 cents per child per week is made for its use. This
charge goes for the upkeep of the playground and equipment. Cards
of admission are issued, a different color being used each week.



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Cooperative stores.—Twenty-five thousand dollars’ worth of stock of
the Consumers’ Finance Corporation was set aside for the operation
of community stores, and this stock is being sold to members of the
association who wish to become members of the store group. In its
own building located several blocks distant, the association now has
in operation seven enterprises—a grocery store, meat market, fish
market, vegetable store, delicatessen, laundry, and restaurant.
Any profits from these operations will not be rebated to the pur­
chasers but will be used for community purposes, as under the Bel­
gian cooperative system.
Gas and electricity are purchased by the association on one big
meter, a monthly charge being made by the association to the tenants
at a fixed rate per room. Ice and milk are also bought cooperatively.
Labor Policy

This group of cooperators has a well-defined labor policy. As
already stated, all members must be trade-unionists, and this require­
ment is carried out wherever possible in the business dealings of the
association, only union firms being dealt with. All the construction
work on the buildings must be done by organized labor and the mate­
rials must be supplied by union firms. The association has insisted
that even the common laborers employed must be union men.
The employees in the cooperative stores, restaurant, and laundry
are all members of their respective unions, as are also the teachers in
the kindergarten. #In one instance the association has been respon­
sible for the unionization of a formerly open-shop business. A milk
dealer who desired the patronage of the colony accorded recognition
to the union of his employees, upon the demand of the cooperative.
Locomotive Engineers’ Project

L-IOUSING and land development on a large scale have been under* A taken in Florida by the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers.
The brotherhood several years ago purchased several parcels of land
totaling more than 50,000 acres. Here land was cleared and the
foundation of a planned city laid out, the services of a city planner
being engaged for the purpose. A small town has been built there,
which is surrounded by an agricultural area laid out in farms of 5 and
10 acres each. The brotherhood operates three hotels for the ac­
commodation of tourists and visitors and two model farms, and has
constructed a nine-hole golf course with clubhouse. Its total in­
vestment there is understood to aggregate some $16,000,000.
No detailed data are available as to the methods in use in the
building and sale of the houses.
Home-Finance Companies of Trade-Unions

A LTHOUGH the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and the
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America are thus far the
only labor organizations which have undertaken the direct task of
providing homes for their members, in certain other instances labor
unions are giving encouragement to home ownership by their mem­
bers. This they are doing by making construction loans. There are
at present eight such home-loan companies of whose existence the
Bureau of Labor Statistics is aware, and the bureau has some data for



H O U S IN G A C T IV IT IE S

133

OF L A B O R G R O U P S

seven of these. Summary data concerning these seven are shown
in the table below:
T

able

1 5 .—

O P E R A T IO N S OF U N IO N H O M E -L O A N A S S O C IA T IO N S

N um ­ N um ­
ber o f
ber
organi­ report­
zations
ing

State

I

Florida..............................
Illinois___________________
Minnesota....................... i
Ohio........................... ..........
Texas.................................... ;
Total______________

i N ot reported.
32 associations only.

N um ber
of share­
holders

Paid-in
share
capital

Surplus
and
undivided
profits

i
1
2
3
1

1
1
1
3
1

0)
0)
1,100
2 2,461
571

0)
$800,000
211,000
1,432,410
23,755

0)
$12,000
713
3 4,800
340

8

7

* 4,132

* 2,467,165

* 17,853

3 1 association only.
* 4 associations only.

N um ber o f homes
financed

Last year

18
0)

Since or­
ganization

0)

31
3 15
13

40
150
2 220
13

*77

• 423

5 6 associations only.
• 5 associations only.

Florida

It was reported to the 1927 convention of the Florida Federation
of Labor that the unions there have organized a building and loan
company which during 1926 financed some 18 homes for union men
“ and is one of the best financed and most solvent building and loan
companies in the State.” Repeated inquiry by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics has failed to elicit any response from this company and
detailed data concerning it are therefore not available.
Illinois

The Illinois Federation Corporation was started in March, 1926, by
leaders of the building-trades unions in Chicago. It was originally
capitalized at $550,000, but grew so fast that its capitalization was
increased to $1,100,000. Its stock is divided into 10,000 shares of
preferred stock at $100 each and 10,000 shares of common stock at
$10 each. These are offered in blocks of one share of common and
one share of preferred stock paying 8 per cent interest. Only tradeunionists or labor organizations may become shareholders. It was
originally intended to limit membership to members of the buildingtrades unions, but later membership was thrown open to all organized
workers in Chicago. In October, 1927, the subscribed capital
amounted to about $800,000 and surplus and reserves had been
accumulated in the sum of $12,000.
It is explained that the corporation was started with the following
purposes in view:
1. To encourage thrift among trade-unionists.
2. To provide a sound business in which to invest their savings.
3. To encourage the ownership of homes by trade-unionists by
providing funds for the erection of homes.
4. To increase the employment of union labor.
A unionist desiring to own his own home can secure from the
corporation a loan of an amount equal to two-thirds of the value of
the dwelling planned, the corporation taking a mortgage on the
property. For this he pays interest of 6 per cent, plus 3 per cent
discount. (Nonunionists must pay the regular rate of interest.)
Each borrower must sign a contract with the company binding him­
self to employ only union labor in the construction of the house.



BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




F ig . 31.—One of the homes financed b y a loan from the Illinois Federation Corporation

H O U S I N G A C T IV IT IE S OF L A B O R G R O U P S

135

The corporation superintends the building operations, making
inspections several times a week to see that the prospective home
owner is getting the materials and work that he is paying for. From
the time of its establishment to October, 1927, the organization had
financed the construction of 40 buildings.
The corporation is indorsed by the building trades council of
Chicago and some of the organizations belonging to the council own
stock in the corporation. It is governed by a board of directors and
an advisory council representing the building trades and other labor
organizations of Chicago.
The Amalgamated Clothing Workers, in the Advance of March
16, 1928, reports that its Chicago bank has organized a subsidiary
company, the Amalgamated Securities Corporation, for the purpose
of making second mortgage loans on properties the first mortgage on
which is held by the bank. “ This corporation will facilitate the
financing of home building by members of the Amalgamated and
workers generally.”
Minnesota

In February, 1922, the Central Labor Union of Minneapolis (com­
posed of some 100 local labor unions) formed the Union Building and
Loan Association? The circumstances leading to the formation of
the association are described by it as follows: “ Money for home-build­
ing purposes was very scarce, loan companies that had funds for home
loans were insisting that the builders of these homes work on the
American plan, or in other words, open shop or a shop closed against
the employment of trade-union members. Also a great number of
people who wished to have a home of their own were handicapped
by not being able to get funds for that purpose."
The association now has about 1,100 members, mostly tradeunionists, its paid-in capital amounts to $211,000 and its surplus to
$713. Receipts for 1927 amounted to $141,015.
Since its formation in 1922 the association has financed the con­
struction of 150 homes, of which 31 were built during 1927. The
rate charged on loans averages 5 per cent net over the period of the
loan.
There is also a union building and loan association in St. Paul, but
the Bureau of Labor Statistics has been able to secure no information
concerning it.
Ohio

The trade-unionists of Ohio have three home-loan organizations,
the Federation Savings & Loan Co. and the American Home Builders,
both of Cleveland, and the Trades-Union Savings and Loan Associa­
tion of Cincinnati.
The Federation Savings & Loan Go. was started in March, 1924.
At first only the building-trades unions were interested in the project,
but now the organization has the indorsement of all the American
Federation of Labor unions in the city. The organization is incor­
porated under the Ohio laws which permit it to receive savings de­
posits, It also issues membership certificates payable over a period
of years like other building and loan associations. Its stock is held
mainly by unionists, but a few nonunionists are also members. In
8 Name since changed to Aetna Building and Loan Association, because of similarity of name to other
associations in the vicinity which have no connection with organized labor.




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March, 1927, its outstanding stock amounted to some $600,000; by
October, 1927, its resources aggregated $1,600,000.
Like the Illinois Federation Corporation, the Federation Savings &
Loan Co. lends its funds to workers desiring to own their own homes;
and like it, requires a written contract pledging the employment of
union labor in the construction of the house. The borrower must
also be a member of the organization. Nonunionists may receive
assistance from the company's funds, but unionists receive preference
in the making of loans. Interest is charged at the rate of 7 per cent.
The loans made average about $4,000 per loan, which represents
about 55 per cent of the market value of the property on which the
loan is made.
Stockholders receive 8 per cent on their certificates. Depositors
receive interest at the rate of 5 per cent on demand deposits and 6
per cent for time deposits. ^In order to insure the absolute safety
of the funds deposited with it, the company is bonded with a surety
company. The stock of the company carries double liability, which
provides an additional guaranty of safety to depositors.
The board of 30 directors which administers the affairs of the
company is representative of nearly all the building trades.
Officials of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen late in 1925
established the American Home Builders, which began business in
February, 1926. This company was organized with an initial capital
of $1,000,000 divided into 100,000 shares of preferred stock paying
a 7 per cent cumulative interest, at $10 par value, and 50,000 shares
of no-par-value common stock. This stock was offered in blocks of
five shares of preferred and one share of common stock, for $55, the
common stock selling for $5 per share. In October, 1927, the com­
pany had about 2,000 shareholders, including 141 local labor organiza­
tions, most of which were lodges of the Brotherhood of Railroad
Trainmen. The international brotherhood itself has no money in
the company, although some of its officials are directors and officers
of it. The paid-in share capital of the company in January, 1927,
amounted to $632,410.
The purposes of the American Home Builders are announced to be
(1) the financing of the construction of workers' homes, (2) the
making of small loans on personal indorsement, and (3) eventually
the establishment and control of a chain of small-loan banks through­
out the United States. As regards the first purpose, Mr. Lee, then
president of the trainmen's organization and chairman of the board
of directors of the company, was quoted, shortly after its formation,
as follows:
Capital admits its failure to meet the housing crisis. The shortage of housing
for people of small means, the steadily mounting rent schedules, and the small
proportion of home owners among our workers constitute a menace to the social
order. We believe that this crisis can not be met effectively unless and until
the workers are brought to realize that the housing problem is their own problem
and that with their combined savings they can ease their own burdens and
eventually bring to a reality the ideal of a home for every worker.4

Since its formation the company has financed the construction of
102 houses, to the amount of $276,515, taking mortgages (mainly
i Locom otive Engineers' Journal, April, 1926, p. 277,




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second) on the property as securit}^. In addition, during 1927 it
made personal loans to 266 borrowers aggregating$47,817.
The company has established a branch organization, the North­
west American Home Builders, at Seattle, Wash., with an authorized
capital of $400,000. It paid its first quarterly dividend July 1, 1927.
The American Home Builders also owns the controlling interest in a
subsidiary organization, the Continental Bank, in Cleveland.
Thirty-seven local unions in Cincinnati, in the fall of 1920, estab­
lished the Trades Union Savings and Loan Association, beginning with
deposits aggregating only $400. Since that time the organization
has grown until its financial statement of November 25, 1927, shows
assets of more than $160,000 and reserves and undivided profits of
$4,800.
It is stated that “ The association is owned and controlled by
union labor. All our officers and directors are members of labor
unions. ^All our loans are made to members and friends of union labor.
We specify that all homes built on our loans shall be built by union
labor.”
For its loans the association charges 6.24 and 6.75 per cent. (De­
posits receive 5 per cent interest.) Since the formation of the asso­
ciation it has financed the construction of 118 homes, 15 of which
were built last year.
Texas

In March, 1927, 100 trade-unionists of Houston, Tex., organized
the Union Building and Loan Association, with an authorized capital
of $10,000,000, divided into shares of $100 each. Each of these 100
unionists pledged a subscription of $1,000, paying $5 down and agree­
ing to pay a similar amount each week for 128 weeks.
During the year that has passed since its organization the associa­
tion has financed the construction of 13 houses, making loans for this
purpose of $16,987. It charges 8.4 to 9 per cent on loans, these being
made on first mortgages in an amount not to exceed two-thirds of the
appraised value of the property. The borrower must also pledge
with the association the stock certificates owned by him.
The organization now has 571 stockholders—all of whom are trade
unions or their members—paid-up capital of $23,755, and a surplus
of $340. On March 8, 1928, the total resources of the company
amounted to $24,687.




Chapter VIII.—Measures Relating to Unemployment
HE problem of unemployment is one with which labor organiza­
tions are continually confronted, in varying degree. In wellorganized trades where the flow of work is more or less even,
unemployment may be a very minor factor. In seasonal industries,
however, especially in trades or industries where the average labor
force exceeds the average supply of work, the matter is one for
serious consideration. The mining industry and the clothing trades
are well-known examples of the latter situation.
Measures which may be taken to solve the problem are (1) those
tending to prevent the occurrence of unemployment, and (2) those
taken to alleviate the effects of unemployment when it occurs.
As to the prevention of unemployment, labor organizations are
handicapped by the fact that unemployment is largely the result of
conditions quite outside the control of the workers. They have,
however, tackled the problem as best they could by various means,
largely from the point of view that the supply of work is a fixed amount.
They have endeavored, therefore, to conserve and “ stretch” this
work supply in some or all of the following ways: By limiting the
numbers among whom the work must be divided (i. e., by limiting
the number of new members admitted to membership in the union
and by limiting the number of apprentices); by insisting on the
principle of the “ worker's right to his job ” and requiring an indem­
nity in case of his dismissal; by demanding the “ rationing” of the
work available among the full working force, instead of permitting
the dismissal of unneeded workers and allowing the remainder to
work full time; by limiting or prohibiting the working of overtime.
When, nevertheless, a union member finds himself out of a job
he can rely upon his union to do its best to find him another. Few
international unions maintain regular employment offices, but there
is hardly a local which does not have some person in touch with condi­
tions and opportunities in the trade. In some cases also a regular
office is maintained whose sole business it is to find work for its
jobless members. Many unions, indeed, specify in their agreements
with the employers that the latter must apply to the union for men
to fill any labor requirements.
For persons out of employment through no fault of their own their
organizations make provision in several ways, such as the payment
of out-of-work benefits, loans, or “ relief.” Only three international
unions are known to be paying unemployment benefits at present,
though a great many have done so at one time or another and many
local unions still pay such benefits. A great many unions exempt
jobless members from the payment of dues during the period of
idleness, the sum so “ excused” amounting to many thousands of
dollars a year. Loans to needy unemployed members are made by
at least two national labor organizations.

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Notwithstanding the apparently slight assistance given by tradeunions to their members, organized workers who are out of a job
have an advantage over nonunionists in a similar situation, for, as
one investigator put it, “ there is scarcely one American local union
which does not in some form or other contribute toward the support
of its unemployed members when they are in need of assistance.”
A member out of work is rarely turned away from the union without receiving
some assistance. In some cases it may take the form of a loan of a few dollars,
but his union will rarely allow him to suffer from want. The usual procedure
is for a friend of the unemployed to announce at a meeting of the local union
that a brother member is unemployed and in need of money to pay the rent and
secure the necessities of life. With scarcely any further remarks, the union
votes to donate a sum of money to the member. In other cases the local union
sets aside a certain sum of money for the relief of the unemployed, and appoints a
committee which has complete control over the granting of aid.1

The effectiveness of even these incomplete measures is attested to
by the fact, brought out by a survey made by the American Associa­
tion for Labor Legislation,2 that few trade-unionists have to resort
to charity in periods of idleness. Social workers in various places
have testified to this, and the United States Commission on Industrial
Relations in its final report stated that “ trade-union members are
practically never found among the applicants for charity during
periods of unemployment.” 3
The unions in some industries especially subject to the evil of
unemployment have realized their inability to cope with the situation
alone and have succeeded in obtaining, by collective bargaining with
the employers, an unemployment insurance system, with the idea,
first, of making the industry responsible for the unemployment of the
regular workers within it, and second, of providing employers with an
incentive for stabilizing the employment in their plants. Plans
providing either for unemployment insurance or a guaranteed period of
employment have been tried in one or more markets of the women’s
garment industry, the men’s clothing industry, the cloth hat and cap
industry, the felt-hat industry, and the wall-paper industry. Only
a few such plans are now in operation, but where such schemes have
been suspended this has not been because of dissatisfaction with the
plan but because of factional difficulties within the union. The
consensus as regards these plans appears to be that while unemploy­
ment insurance has not resulted in decreasing unemployment, it has
been of incalculable benefit in alleviating the distress attendant
upon it.
Measures for the Prevention of Unemployment
Restriction of Membership

/~\NE of the ways by which trade-unions have tried to prevent
^
unemployment among their members is the restriction of the
membership of the union, on the theory that the work available in
the industry should be secured to the workers already in member­
ship. In trades where seasonal fluctuation of demand for the product
has made necessary the creation of a reserve labor force sufficient to
1 Smelser, D . P .: Unemployment and American Trade-Unions. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1919,
p. 148.
2 American Labor Legislation Review, Novem ber, 1915, p. 689.
* U. S. Commission on Industrial Relations. Final report, p. 175,

102869°— 28------ 10




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handle the orders at their peak, in trades where business depression
has resulted in the lay-off of numbers of workers, and in trades where
increased use of machinery or the introduction of improved machinery
or methods is steadily reducing the number of men necessary to turn
out the product—in those trades the unions at such times oiten take
the stand that there is no use aggravating, by the admission of addi­
tional workers, a labor situation already bad.
The Cedar Rapids (Iowa) Local No. 26 of the Sheet Metal Workers7
International Union states as its policy in this regard that “ no appli­
cations for new members will be accepted while members of this
union are out of employment.”
Indemnity for Loss of Job

Cases are even on record where workers already in membership
with the union have been given inducements to leave an industry
which was overmanned. This has occurred in three instances in
the men’s clothing industry. Three firms, one in Chicago and two
in New York City, found it necessary to cut their regular force. The
Chicago firm had introduced new methods which, by increasing the
output per man, did away with the jobs of 150 cutters. Represen­
tations by the union, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, resulted
in the firm’s conceding the justice of remunerating the workers who
thus found themselves out of work through no fault of their own.
The firm contributed $50,000, and $25,000 was added from the
unemployment insurance fund of the industry. From the money so
obtained each man who was dismissed received an “ indemnity” for
the loss of his job amounting to $500, with the understanding that he
was to leave the industry altogether and go into some other line of
work. At the headquarters of the union it was stated that this may
be adopted as a definite policy of the organization. Although the
industry is turning out more product than ever before, decreased
labor forces are required, due to the increased output per worker
owing to new methods and machinery, and the union, therefore,
recognizing this situation, is endeavoring to reduce the number of
workers in the industry.
In New York City, one firm found it could give full-time employ­
ment to only 300 of its regular force of 380. As the union saw the
situation, matters stood thus: “ It was necessary either to discharge
a portion of the workers, or to divide the available work among all
the workers. Adoption of the second choice would have meant
two things: It would have placed all the workers on a part-time basis,
interfered with smooth production, and possibly placed the firm in
a position where it might have chosen to close its factory altogether.
It is quite obvious that * * * it was preferable from the point
of view of the workers themselves to agree to the elimination of 80
workers, rather than jeopardize the jobs of the remaining 300 workers
as well. This was the wiser course because while it is possible to
find new jobs for the 80 eliminated workers, it would be a much
more difficult task to find jobs for all the 380 workers if the firm were
to decide to close its factory.” For this reason the union agreed to
the elimination of these 80 workers, provided some financial provision
was made for them. It is explained that this was done for two
reasons: “ Provisions by the firm for the discharged workers would
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new jobs could be found, but would also establish the principle of
employers’ responsibility to the workers.” The firm advanced
$3,000 and the workers still in employment in the shop each contrib­
uted two days’ earnings. A committee was chosen, from among the
men who were dismissed, to decide how the indemnity money should
% distributed. It was decided that the distribution should be
be
upon the basis of the financial need of each but within the limits of
$50 as a minimum and $200 as a maximum.
The second New York firm had to dismiss 25 employees. It
donated $500, the workers who remained also contributed, and the
discharged workers received an indemnity of $120.58 apiece.
Regulation of Number of Apprentices

Limitation of apprentices is another means of controlling the labor
supply, and this has been quite generally resorted to by labor organi­
zations. # Many unions have strict rules regarding the proportion of
apprentices to journeymen, the age at which the learner shall be
admitted to apprenticeship, the period of training, and the general
conditions under which his training shall be conducted. Surveys
by the Bureau^ of Labor Statistics and by other agencies interested
in the subject indicate, however, that the scarcity of apprentices in
American industry at present is due not so much to union restrictions
as to the general disinterest and indifference of employers; and that,
because of the cost of training and the effort involved, many em­
ployers do not want to be bothered with inexperienced workers and
do not avail themselves even of the number of apprentices allowed
by the union rules.4
Distribution of Work Available

A common union policy is that of equal distribution of what work
is available, among the regular working force. This is usually
embodied hi .the collective agreement, various means of securing
equitable division of work being provided for.
Often the principle is stated only in general terms, such as “ there
shall be equal division of work among all the workers of the shop at
all times.” Some of the local agreements of the headgear workers’
international union provide that arrangements for this equal division
shall be worked out by the employer and a workers’ committee.
The agreement of the tailors’ local of Grand Rapids, Mich., specifies
that “ All workers who are employed in the busy season shall be
employed also in the slack season and all work is to be equally
divided” ; the same provision is made in the agreement for Chicago.
If it becomes necessary to reduce the force, the union may require
that this shall be done by laying off the workers in rotation for a few
days or a week at a time. Many bakers’ agreements contain this
clause, as do also the 1926 agreements of the coopers’ local of Mil­
waukee, the brewery workers’ local of Duluth, Minn., etc. The
machinists’ local of Marion, 111., in its 1926 agreement provided for a
system of seniority when lay-offs became necessary, the man last taken
on being the first to be dismissed. The same requirement occurs in
the agreement of Chicago Typographical Union Local No. 16 with the
* See Labor Review, issues of January, 1925 (pp. 1-7); July, 1925 (pp. 180,181); December, 1925 (pp. 6, 7);
and M ay, 1926 (pp. 115-117); also Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. N o, 459,




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newspaper publishers. The blacksmiths' local of Jersey City
specified in its 1926 agreement that when costs have to be reduced
“ there shall be no reduction in the schedule of hours; the working
time, however, will be equally divided amongst the men by working
at alternate periods. ”
The agreement of the American Federation of Railroad Workers
with the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, covering employees in
the car department, provides that “ When it becomes necessary to
reduce expenses the hours may be reduced to 40 per week before
reducing the force. When the force is reduced, seniority * * *
will govern, the men affected to take the rate of the job to which
they are assigned. "
Following the policy of the upholstery workers' union so to divide
the work at hand as to insure all a fair share, early in 1926 when
the slack season began the shop committee in one plant took up with
the firm the question of equal division of work. A plan was worked
out jointly, for application only in dull periods, by which a 40-hour
week was established and the men were divided into two sets, each
working 20 hours. All wages earned were pooled and divided equally
at the end of the week. The plan is stated to have worked out
satisfactorily, “ assuring all men in the shop, irrespective of earning
capacity, an equal income in a period when some of the men ordi­
narily found themselves completely unemployed."
A novel plan was adopted during the summer of 1927 by Press
Assistants' Local No. 23, New York City, based, as was explained,
upon the theory that “ every member of a local union is entitled to
a fair opportunity to enjoy whatever proportionate measure of
employment that the industry might provide." The summer is the
dull season in the printing trades, and the measure was adopted,
with the cooperation of the employers, to tide over this dull season.
Each day man was required to lay off 1 day in every 20 days, and each
night man 1 night in every 18, his place being filled by a member
out of employment. It was hoped, by this plan, to provide the unem­
ployed with two or three days' work a week. Shop chairmen were
given supervision of the working out of the scheme and of arranging
for the rotation of lay-offs. They were cautioned to arrange the
days off so as to “ cause the least inconvenience to employers and to
the efficient and effective running of the shop." The measure was an
experiment, but the union officials express themselves as pleased
with the results and state that it may be adopted as a general policy
of the union, inasmuch as, due to the improved machinery and the
reduction in numbers of men required to operate it, unemployment
in the trade is increasing. This local has already ceased to admit
new members on this account.
Limitation of Overtime

The working of overtime is either limited, prohibited altogether,
or penalized by requiring compensation at increased rates. Some
unions allow no overtime unless permission is given by union officials.
The laws of the International Typographical Union provide that any
man who has accumulated overtime amounting to a full day must
take a day off and thus make room for a substitute. In order to
relieve the employment situation, the New York local of millinery
workers in 1927 “ decided to prohibit all overtime work and to allow



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no changing of jobs without the permission of the office. To be
sure, these decisions had to be modified in some cases to meet special
situations which made overtime work absolutely indispensable in
certain shops. But in general these rules were enforced and helped
to supply jobs to some of our unemployed members."
Finding Jobs for Members

Most local unions regard as one of their accepted duties that of
finding employment for members who are out of work. Where the
closed shop or preferential union shop has been secured, agreements
with union employers usually specify that in cases where additional
workers are needed, application for these must first be made to the
union. If it is unable to supply workers, help may be obtained else­
where. Generally the union has no formal machinery for this service,
as the business agent, familiar with the capabilities of the men and
the requirements of the various shops, can supply the workers.
Regular employment bureaus have been set up by only a few
national or international unions. Since 1915 the Brotherhood of
Railroad Trainmen has operated in Chicago an employment office
for the benefit of its members in securing work in train and yard
service. The Order of Railroad Telegraphers six years ago estab­
lished an employment exchange which, according to the president’s
report submitted at the 1927 convention of the order, has been suc­
cessful and has served “ an economic need." General and local
officers of the subordinate divisions cooperate with the office by
notifying it of vacancies on their roads, and at intervals a general
employment survey is made through these officers. The president’s
report states:
Railroads generally during the past three years have been instituting economies
such as the automatic block, automatic towers and other devices, and these
features, together with a program of rigid economy, have tended to steadily reduce
forces in our class of service. This condition has given our bureau an unusual
opportunity to render a maximum of benefit to those thrown out of employment.
The experience of the bureau of over six years of operation has worked out
efficient methods for effecting placements. The bureau is looked upon with
favor by many railroad officials. Some roads we have served so well permit us
to request transportation for applicants when needing additional force and depend
entirely upon our integrity to avoid misuse of their confidence; while other roads
give our bureau the first opportunity to fill their need of additional employees.
Each year has added to the prestige of the bureau, which we are conducting at
all times to secure the maximum of results by conforming carefully to the stand­
ards established by the various roads who apply to us for competent and accept­
able men.
During the past three-year period it is estimated that approximately 3,000
applicants have filed requests for assistance, and approximately 1,100 actual
placements have been effected. In addition to this aid we have used the columns
of the Railroad Telegrapher at peak periods to give general information of rail­
roads needing employees, but on which we have no check of the benefits to our
craft through this medium.

The International Pocketbook Workers’ Union, though a young
organization, established only since 1923, has for some time operated
a labor bureau. Employers having agreements with the union apply
here for additional workers. Reports in the journal of the union
indicate that the bureau has been a success and through its experi­
ence is enabled to “ place the right worker in the right position.
Thousands of our members have availed themselves of our labor
bureau * * *." During 1926, more than 13,000 members were



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sent to positions. The manager of the union points out in this
connection that of course a great many of these obtained only a few
days’ work and then again had recourse to the employment bureau.
However, “ it is safe to say that 25 per cent of the workers of our
union hold their positions fairly permanently. About 25 per cent
change their jobs about once a year and the rest make several
changes during the year."
The International Printing Pressmen and Assistants' Union by its
constitution requires each subordinate union to transmit to the head­
quarters of the international each month a report showing the con­
dition of the trade in that locality, the number of members unem­
ployed, the number on short time, etc. Any information desired by
a local or any of its members as to the state of the labor market
can be obtained from the employment information office maintained
at headquarters.
A similar information service is maintained by the Brotherhood
of Locomotive Engineers.
Officers and members of the subordinate lodges of the Brotherhood
of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen are required “ to use their
influence to secure positions for unemployed members, and when­
ever places can be found or vacancies occur" they must report these
to the employment bureau of the international office.
Employment offices are maintained by the Amalgamated Clothing
Workers in the main men's clothing centers. The union regards
its management of the employment problem as “ the most spectacular
administrative advance made by the union since 1920." 6 Prior to
the advent of the union, “ hiring and firing was in a confused and
disorganized state. Jobs were obtained through pull and, sometimes,
bribery. Women occupied a position that can be described moder­
ately as unpleasant. The whole affair was one of favoritism and
discrimination." When the union took over the placement work,
“ favoritism and discrimination were eliminated. The grosser evils
were brought under control." But the administrative methods left
much to be desired. In 1922, however, an employment expert was
hired and placed in charge of the office in Chicago.
The system was reorganized. A complete plan of registration and placement
was put into operation. It worked so effectively that one large clothing manu­
facturer was able to dispense with his own employment office. Substantial progress
was made in dovetailing employment in the two major branches of the industry,
the ready made and special order. More accurate reports became available on
the state of employment in the market as a whole and in all its branches.
Through these reports it became possible to regulate the flow of labor into the
industry, not by arbitrary rule but with reference to the known requirements
of the industry.5

Later the same system was introduced into the Rochester and
Montreal markets, in the former of which the union had hitherto been
unable to secure from the employers the concession of the prefer­
ential shop. Six months after the introduction of the employment
exchange on the Chicago pattern, however, “ more than 98 per cent
of the jobs filled in the Rochester market passed through tne union
employment exchange."
The experience with the employment offices in New York, also,
had not been very satisfactory, owing to the workers' desire for work
in “ inside shops," in preference to that in the contracting establish­
5 Documentary history of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 1924 to 1926, pp. 27, 28.




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ments which form a large proportion of the shops in New York.
This difficulty has been overcome, however, and the Brooklyn office
alone, from November 3, 1926, when it began to function, has filled
more positions than were applied for by members, the surplus of jobs
being filled from members registered at'the Manhattan exchange or
from Brooklyn workers who had failed to register at the exchange.
An employment office was established in Cincinnati toward the
end of April, 1927.
Other internationals which operate employment offices include
those of the brewery and soft-drink workers, granite cutters, lithog­
raphers, paper makers, photo-engravers, potters, quarry workers,
stove mounters, tunnel and subway workers, and wire weavers.
The International Fur Workers' Union is planning the establish­
ment of an employment bureau as a means of eliminating the com­
petition of members with each other for jobs and of discouraging the
practice of going from shop to shop in search of work, “ a condition
[which] naturally brings about a state of affairs where the employer
tries to cut down wages as much as he possibly can."
Opening New Markets and Increasing Business

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers has not stopped with endeav­
oring to find jobs for the jobless. It has gone farther and has
endeavored to increase the demand for the product of the industry.
In Chicago the union has even organized new shops to make ready­
made clothes for special-order firms. This it has done "to increase
the business of the firm and to lengthen the period of employment
for the members of the union.” It is stated that the entire project
was carried through by the union alone and that the cost of promoting
and starting the new shop was reduced to a minimum. New units
have also been organized to produce “ the so-called cheaper lines,
which have brought increased business and greater employment to
all the union markets.”
Unions in the trades which have adopted the union label try to
increase the sales in the trades by constantly urging unionists to buy
only union-label goods. This they do through the columns of their
own magazine and those of other labor organizations, through holding
“ union-label meetings,” etc. Thus, a number of months ago the
union employees of a New England firm manufacturing sheetings
advertised throughout the labor press the fact that the product of
this factory was made under the very best union conditions and as
such was deserving of the patronage of organized labor. Similar
action was recently taken with regard to the collars produced by a
unionized collar factory. Indeed, stores handling only union-label
products have been established by unionists in St. Louis, Chicago,
and Brooklyn to further the sale of such goods.
Under the plan of union-management cooperation adopted on the
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, through operating economies, improved
methods, the elimination of the practice of contracting out of work, etc.,
the period of employment of the shop crafts which are affected by the
arrangement is reported to have been increased an average of two
weeks per year. Also, attempts have been made to increase the
business of the road, the employees, it is stated, having “ on more than
one occasion * * * out of their own pockets paid for advertise­
ments soliciting traffic for their railroads.”



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Somewhat similar action was taken in the Chicago district by the
brick and clay workers’ union in 1916, when it aided the employers in
a widespread advertising campaign by which the sale of bricks was
increased by 150,000,000 bricks in that year.
Measures for the Relief of Unemployment

A LTHOUGH trade-unions make every effort to prevent unemployment among their members, there are many factors causing
unemployment over which the unions have no control. Seasonal
depressions, general economic conditions, bad management, lack of
orders, etc., can not be overcome by labor organizations alone.
Unemployment Benefits

Many unions have at some time or other made some provision for
extending assistance to members who are out of work, generally
through regular unemployment benefits, loans, or “ relief.” Although
regular unemployment benefits are paid by many local unions, the
only unions of national scope which the Bureau of Labor Statistics
knows to be paying direct unemployment benefits at present are the
International Pocketbook Workers’ Union, the Diamond Workers’
Protective Union, and the International Association of Siderographers. Smelser, in his study, states that although few national unions
have adopted a system of direct unemployment benefits, “ there is
scarcely a union in which there has not been a more or less continuous
agitation” for the establishment of such benefits. He expresses the
opinion that the scarcity of such benefits is due to (1) the unwill­
ingness of members to pay the increased dues which would be neces­
sary, and (2) “ the apparent inadequacy of the administrative agencies
of the union to secure a just distribution of the benefit.” 6
The diamond workers’ union pays benefits after three weeks of
unemployment. A diamond cutter who is unemployed receives a
benefit of $12 for the fourth week of his unemployment and thereafter
$2 a day until he has drawn benefit for 13 weeks, when the benefit
ceases. Dining 1927 out-of-work benefits paid amounted to $1,742.
Since this benefit was established, in 1912, $139,087 has been dis­
bursed. The secretary states, however, that the payment of unem­
ployment benefits is “ a losing game.” Because of heavy deficits,
the fund has twice had to suspend payments until funds could be
accumulated.
The siderographers, a small union of about 80 members, pay a
benefit of $5 a week for 26 weeks a year. Nothing was paid out in
out-of-work benefits in 1926, but since this benefit was established, in
1913, payments have aggregated $1,125.
No separate figures are available for unemployment relief paid by
the International Pocketbook Workers’ Union; in 1926 payments for
unemployment and sickness relief amounted to $4,046.
Some of the locals of the international unions of bakery workers,
wood carvers, photo-engravers, stereotypers, and lithographers pay
unemployment benefits. One local of the lithographers is reported
to have disbursed $145,000 in unemployment benefits in the last 4 ^
years, during the period 1923 to 1927 eight locals of photo-engravers
« Smelser, D . P .: Unemployment and American Trade-TJnions.
pp. 139, 146.




Baltimore, Johns H opkins Press, 1919,

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have paid in such benefits a total of $434,808, and from 1924 to 1927
seven bakers’ locals paid out $17,701 in benefits.
The Western Brokers’ Division of the Commercial Telegraphers
Union of America, by referendum vote of its members, in the spring of
1927 adopted a plan providing for the assessment upon every member
employed at full time of $1 per week for a period of five weeks,
to provide funds for the relief of unemployed members. This
applied only to the city of Chicago for the reasons that outside
of that city unemployment was not so serious and the scale of wages
was “ far below the standard wage paid to Chicago members, who
are practically 100 per cent organized. ”
Elxemption from Dues

An indirect form of unemployment benefits is that of excusing an
unemployed member from the payment of trade-union dues during
the time he is out of a job. This keeps the member in good standing
in his union and retains for him his right to any other benefits paid by
the organization. Small though this benefit seems, quite considerable
sums have been disbursed by international unions in paying unem­
ployed members’ dues. Out-of-work stamps issued by the Cigar
Makers’ International Union last year amounted to $7,036 and since
1890, when the practice was inaugurated, to $1,820,777. Until 1927
a member in good standing for 1 year, after he had been out of
employment for 1 week, might have his dues exempted for 6 weeks,
after which he was ineligible for further benefits for 7 weeks. No
member was entitled to more than 18 weeks’ stamps in any one year.
The 1927 convention of the organization placed the whole transaction
on the basis of a loan to be repaid at the rate of 10 per cent of his
weekly earnings as soon as he returned to work, and reduced the
benefit to 2 months9dues per year. Locals were given permission to
establish their own out-of-work funds if they cared to do so. These
and other changes made in the constitution by the convention were
ratified by a referendum vote by the members.
The International Molders ’ Union began to issue out-of-work
stamps as far back as 1897. Each employed member pays into the
out-of-work fund 1 cent per week. Originally no member was entitled
to have his dues paid, because of losing his position, for more than 13
weeks each year. In 1917, however, the convention authorized the
national executive board to extend the benefits “ in the event of an
extraordinary depression of long duration.” Under this authority
extended benefits were granted beginning in January, 1921, and last­
ing throughout 1921 and 1922; during this period the fund paid out
for dues of members $203,990. The normal restriction was resumed on
January 1, 1923. Poor conditions in the trade led to the renewal of
extended relief again in July, 1924, continuing for two years and a half
and calling for an outlay of $55,824. Because of “ appeals and peti­
tions ” from many different localities the executive board announced in
July, 1927, the resumption of extended benefits. Its payments for outof-work stamps from October 1, 1897, to September 30, 1927, have
aggregated $1,447,474.
Other organizations which exempt unemployed members from the
payment of dues are those of the blacksmiths, boiler makers, railway
carmen, coopers, draftsmen, electrical workers, leather workers,




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machinists, maintenance-of-way employees, oil-field workers, paper
makers, pattern makers, metal polishers, stove mounters, and textile
workers.
Loans to Members

A number of organizations have at some time or other made a
practice of extending loans to members out of work. #These were
either in the nature of relief or for the purpose of enabling members
to go to some other locality where there was a prospect of finding
work. Most of such plans have proved unsuccessful and have been
abandoned,7 mainly because of the difficulty of collection of unpaid
loans, abuse of the borrowing privilege, illegal loans, etc.
The Cigar Makers’ International Union has granted traveling
loans to unemployed members since 1890. Loans for this purpose in
1926 amounted to $10,223, and since this practice was inaugurated
such loans have aggregated $1,633,699. No data are available to
show to what extent these loans have been repaid. The loan privilege
was abolished in 1927.
The International Pocketbook Workers' Union in 1926 made loans
to the amount of $3,761. It is expected that only about 25 per cent
of this will be repaid. “ In fact, most of the loans in 1926 were given
to people as loans merely because we did not want to humiliate them
and make them feel that they are getting charity."
Unemployment Insurance Plans

A S A result of collective agreements between employers and unions
* * schemes of unemployment insurance have been set up in various
industries. The underlying idea was to make each industry respon­
sible for the employment of its regular workers.
Men’s clothing industry.— A preliminary contract between the
Amalgamated Clothing Workers and the employers in the Chicago
market was signed early in 1923, providing for the creation of a fund
to which each employer should contribute 1 per cent of his weekly
pay roll, the employees in the shop contributing a similar amount.
Changes in the rates of benefit, administration, and other conditions
have been made from time to time,8 as conditions revealed the neces­
sity for revision. The new agreement, signed early in April, 1928, by
the union and the Chicago Clothing Manufacturers' Association, pro­
vides that, beginning May 1, 1928, the employers will contribute to
the fund at the rate of 3 instead of 13^ per cent of their weekly pay
roll, the workers still continuing their contribution of 1}4 per cent.
Unemployment benefits are paid at the rate of 30 per cent of full­
time wages. Unemployment is calculated on the basis of the total
hours of unemployment of each worker, and the payments are regu­
lated by the size of the fund available for benefits, but no worker is
eligible for unemployment benefit for more than two and one-half
weeks in each half year. Benefits are paid half yearly, at the end of
each season, for the unemplojrment during that season. Only “ invol­
untary unemployment resulting from lack of work" is compensated.
7Discontinued plans include those o f the flint-glass workers, granite cutters, leather workers (horsegoods branch), lithographers, machinists, etc.
8 For detailed descriptions of the plan and its operation see Labor Review, issues of July, 1924 (pp. 22-30),
and Novem ber, 1925 (pp. 133, 134); International Labor Review (Geneva), March, 1925 (pp. 318-328); ana
Bulletin of the Taylor Society, August, 1927 (pp. 471-477).




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The scheme is administered by boards of trustees, equally represen­
tative of both union and employers, with an impartial chairman.
There are two forms of agreement, one of which provides for an
individual firm fund and the other for a “ pool” for a number of
establishments. This is stated to have been done as a compromise
between the plan of a pool for the whole Chicago market, advocated
by the union, and that of a fund for each individual establishment,
advocated by the larger firms. There are about 250 small contracting
establishments which have a common fund, 50 nonassociation shops
have a second fund, and some 80 of the larger firms each have a fund of
their own. There are five boards of trustees, one each for the two
largest firms, one for the remaining large concerns, one for the
nonassociation houses, and one for the contractors. All have the
same chairman. The union representatives are the same for all the
boards, but the employers5representatives differ from board to board.
The union employment bureau plays an important part in the
system, as its records are used to insure accuracy of data on employ­
ment. It forwards to the trustees of the funds daily reports of all
registrations and assignments, and other data, and through it are
paid the checks for benefits.
From the inauguration of the fund, May 1,1923, to October 8,1927,
contributions to the fund have amounted to $3,878,956, and benefits
have been paid in the amount of $2,946,965. On October 8, 1927,
there was a balance in the fund amounting to $625,624.
Although the fund has been v ery successful in alleviating the effects
of unemployment on the workers, in the opinion of the chairman of the
fund the scheme has had no tendency to decrease unemployment.
The agreement contains a clause providing that an employer who has
accumulated in the fund an amount sufficient to pay benefits for two
years will not be required to pay any further contributions until the
fund to his credit is reduced to an amount sufficient to pay benefits
for one year. It was originally thought that this would act as an
incentive upon employers to stabilize employment in their shops as
much as possible in order to secure relief from making contributions.
This has not proved to be the case, largely because the savings
possible in other ways far outweigh the possible savings in contri­
butions.
The union, however, has repeatedly expressed its satisfaction with
the plan and its results, and has announced its intention of endeavor­
ing to extend the plan to the other men’s clothing markets. Thus
the report of the general executive board of the union to the 1926
convention expressed the following opinion as to the unemployment
insurance feature:
The Chicago system of unemployment insurance may be regarded as having
passed the experimental stage. It is not likely to encounter soon industrial
conditions more unfavorable than those it has already experienced. If not
immediately, anyhow the future holds the promise of a stronger fund paying
more liberal benefits. In two other places— in the New York market and in the
Nash firm in Cincinnati— the union already has agreements for the creation
of unemployment funds. Their introduction waits only upon more favorable
conditions. It is the policy of the union to extend unemployment insurance
finally to all unionized clothing markets. As this is done, the plans elsewhere
will benefit from the experience of the pioneer experiment in Chicago.9
* Documentary history of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, 1924 to 1926, p. 31.




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The union has been successful in winning unemployment insurance
in Rochester. The agreement for 1928 for that market provides for a
system similar to that in Chicago, with contributions of lj^ per cent
of pay roll from both employers and employees. The employers’
contributions begin May 1, 1928, but those of the employees do not
begin until May 1, 1929. Under the 1928 agreement, the New York
provision goes mto force and employers’ contributions become pay­
able September 1, 1928.
Women’s garment industry.—A decision of a board of referees in
1921 set up in the women’s garment industry of Cleveland, Ohio, a
plan by which each employed guaranteed to his employees, members
of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, 41 weeks’
employment each year. Under the plan each employer, while making
no actual cash payment to a fund, as in the mean’s clothing industry,
gave a surety bond for an amount equal to 7 ^ per cent of his direct
labor pay roll. His workers who had more than 11 weeks of idleness
during the year were entitled to benefits, from this amount, of twothirds of the weekly minimum rate for all unemployment in excess of
the 11 weeks. There was no provision for a continuing fund; any
amount not required to be paid out in unemployment benefit could
be retained by the employer.
This, it has been stated,1 was “ the first experiment of its kind in
0
America,” and is regarded by the union itself as “ the most direct
attack” it has ever made upon the problem of unemployment.
Although some dissatisfaction developed with the working of the
plan even as early as in the fall of the year of its adoption, the plan
was continued in the agreements of 1922 and 1923, “ but both times
only after some strategic maneuvering” and after the benefits were
reduced to 40 weeks’ guaranteed employment and one-half the weekly
wage. This guaranty is still in force.
On the whole the plan is stated to have worked out satisfactorily,
and only a small percentage of the employers were required to make
payments of out-of-work benefits. The union states that—
Our aim was not to punish the employer, but to give the workers enough
work to enable them to maintain their families during the year. Indirectly our
aim was to create more interest on the part of the employers in seeing to it that
the workers are working— that they have employment. A guaranty of 40 weeks
meant that the employers would possibly go out of their way to take orders which
would keep the workers employed 40 weeks during the year, because they knew
that, if not, they would be penalized to the extent of 50 per cent of the w o rk e d
wages for the period of deficiency.

Early in 1924 the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union
formulated demands for the New York City market which included
a guaranty of a certain number of weeks’ employment during the
year and a joint unemployment insurance fund similar to the plan
in the men’s clothing industry in Chicago, but the employees were to
contribute only 1 per cent of earnings and the employers 2 per cent
of their pay roll. As no agreement could be reached with the em­
ployers, the whole set of demands was referred to a commission
appointed by the Governor of New York. Its report recommended
the adoption, among other things, of the unemployment insurance
scheme, but restricted it to “ manufacturers” only, so that jobbers
10Levine, Louis: The W om en’s Garment Workers. N ew York, B. W . Huebsch (Inc.), 1924, p. 372.




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were only indirectly included. Collection of contributions began on
August 4, 1924.
Internal dissension had, however, developed between the “ Lefts”
and “ Rights ” within the union, which came to a climax in the summer
of 1925, almost disrupting the union. The “ Lefts” gained control of
the joint board of the union, but, according to reports, neglected the
fund which had taken so long to establish, and made little or no
attempt to enforce the collection of premiums. A strike called in
1926 led to the further disorganization of the fund. By the time
the “ Rights” regained control of the organization the union had
become so weakened that it was in no position to enforce the pay­
ment of contributions. An agreement was therefore reached with
the employers early in April, 1927, providing for suspension of the
fund until July, 1928.
Practically the same situation developed as regards the fund in
the women's clothing industry in Chicago. Reports state that dur­
ing the “ Left” domination the contribution of the employers was
cut from 1 per cent of pay roll to three-fourths of 1 per cent,
and the employees’ contribution of three-fourths of 1 per cent was
eliminated entirely. No great effort was made to enforce the col­
lection of even the reduced contribution, and the condition of the
fund has been so weakened that in the Chicago market of this industry
there is now “ no such institution worth mentioning.”
Fur industry.— The International Fur Workers' Union also suc­
ceeded in obtaining, for the New York market, an unemployment
insurance plan as part of its agreement of 1924. Under it both
employers and workers were to contribute 1 per cent of pay rolls
and earnings, respectively. An expert was requested to work out a
plan of operation which was to go into effect early in 1926. In the
meantime factional trouble had broken out within the union, and for
a time the “ Lefts” were in control. During this time the agreement
with the employers expired, and as no terms could be reached a strike
was called which lasted from February to June, 1926. When an
agreement was finally signed the unemployment insurance provisions
had been eliminated. This, it is said, was in return for the concession
of a basic 40-hour week. The new agreement contains a general pro­
vision to the effect that “ in the event of an unemployment emer­
gency arising in the industry, and the conference committee function­
ing under the collective agreement * * * evolves and devises
a plan for the relief and mitigation of such unemployment, that plan
shall be binding upon the parties to this agreement.”
It was estimated, in the Fur Worker of November, 1927, that,
assuming the average wage of a fur worker to be $50 per week, the
amount contributed to the fund (on the basis of 12,000 workers),
would have been $18,000 a week, or over $1,000,000 altogether since
the time of the settlement of the strike.
The new agreement rims until January, 1929. Whether the union
will at that time be able to persuade the employers to grant this
provision again remains to be seen. The loss of the scheme is parti­
cularly regretted because New York City is the principal fur market,
and once the plan had been introduced there it would have been
easier to obtain it in the other cities. The 1926 agreement in the
Chicago fur industry had contained a clause stating that both parties




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were in favor of an unemployment insurance fund, and provided
that within a year the conference committee should submit a detailed
plan for the establishment of such a fund.
Cloth hat and cap industry.— An unemployment insurance plan
was secured in St. Paul in October, 1923, by the cap branch of the
Cloth Hat, Cap and Millinery Workers' International Union by a
collective agreement with one firm; subsequently agreements were
made with other firms of the city. A similar fund was established in
the New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia markets in 1924; in Boston,
Baltimore, and Scranton in February, 1925; and in Milwaukee in
August, 1925.
Under the plan all of the cost is paid by the manufacturers in the
cap industry with whom the headgear workers' union has contracts.
Each employer pays over to the union each week 3 per cent of his
pay roll for that week, to be used for the payment of unemployment
benefits “ and for no other purpose." The employer loses all title
to the sums paid into the fund by him.
In most cases the benefits were paid at the rate of $10 a week for
men and $7 a week for women for a period not to exceed seven
weeks during the year and after a waiting period of two weeks.
The condition of the New York City fund after the first year of pay­
ment was so prosperous that the benefits were increased to $13 and
$10, respectively; the wisdom of this increase was questioned, how­
ever, at the 1927 convention, where it was stated that although the
increased benefits had been in effect only some eight months, the
reserve was “ already dwindling very fast." During the two years
ending March 1, 1927, 3,900 members in the eight manufacturing
centers received $175,907 in benefits, and reserves in the fund at the
end of the period amounted to $142,721.
The last two conventions of the union have authorized the general
executive board to formulate plans by which a national fund admin­
istered through the international union could be substituted for the
present local plans. As a preliminary step the benefits and systems
of the various local plans are to be equalized, and the next con­
vention will then take up the question of a national fund.
Felt-hat industry.—A plan similar to that of the cap industry
has been obtained by New York City locals Nos. 3 and 45 of the
United Hatters of North America. In this plan also the employers
pay the whole cost of the insurance, contributing 3 per cent of the
pay roll. The fund is disbursed by a union committee of six members.
Benefits amount to $10 per week, after a member has been idle for
two weeks, but no member may draw more than six weeks' benefit
in any one year.
The fund was started in 1925 but no payments were made until
July 1,1926. Local No. 3 has since that time paid in benefits $15,980.
Wall-paper industry.—The national agreement of the United
Wall Paper Crafts, which runs to July 15, 1929, provides for a guar­
anty of 50 weeks' employment per year for print cutters; there is
the same guaranty for machine printers and color mixers, but in this
case there is a proviso that 45 of these shall be at full pay and that
half rates shall be paid for any idle time over 45 weeks and up to 50
weeks, but “ the 5 weeks at half pay to be optional with the manu­
facturers. "




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Labor’s Unemployment Conferences

'"THE interest of organized labor in the problem of unemployment
1
found expression in a conference on unemployment held in
Philadelphia in July, 1927.1 Taking the position that unemploy­
1
ment is not an “ irremediable condition,” representatives of some
150 trade-unions, as well as economists and statisticians, met to
consider possible ways of lessening or eliminating it. While, as
was pointed out, the conference did not solve the problem by any
means, it made clear the opinion of those present that labor alone
can not supply the remedy, which must come from “ not only advance
planning but also the cooperation of labor and management and the
consumer in a common task.”
One of the needs emphasized in the conference was that of statistics
showing the extent of unemployment, and it was pointed out that
trade-unions could assist materially in gathering such data. The
American Federation of Labor, as a beginning in this line, has under­
taken the collection of data showing the percentage of trade-unionists
out of work in the various industrial centers.
The holding of this conference was classed by the American Federa­
tion of Labor convention of 1927 as one of the outstanding achieve­
ments of the year, and recommended that other similar ones be held.
The suggestion was taken up by the Workers’ Education Bureau as
an important part of its program, and conferences on the causes and
remedies of unemployment have been held in Passaic, N. J. (under the
joint auspices of the Workers’ Education Bureau and the Passaic
Central Trades and Labor Union and Building Trades Council) and
in New York City (under the sponsorship of the Workers’ Education
Bureau and the New York Central Labor Council of Greater New
York).
ii For a detailed account of this conference see L abor R eview , Novem ber, 1927, pp. 122-125.




Chapter IX.—Cooperation of Trade-Unions With Employers
HERE are still elements in the organized labor movement which
look with misgivings and suspicion upon any cooperation of
labor with capital, on the theory that the two are unalterably
opposed to one another fundamentally and can not possibly have
any interest in common. In general, however, it may be said that
during the past decade a gradual change has taken place in the at­
titude of at least the leaders of organized labor. While still militant
in the sense that it will yield no portion of the advantages already
gained, labor prefers peace to warfare in its relations with em­
ployers. This change of attitude is due partly to enlightened selfinterest, to a very practical realization of the cost of strikes—not
only in dollars and cents but in other tangible benefits—and partly
to wider vision on the part of the leaders. Whereas formerly only
the interests of the men were taken into account by the unions, now
the interests of the industry are considered. A few unions are
leading the way in practical accomplishments in cooperation with
the management for the good of all concerned, and the idea is grad­
ually gaining a more or less general acceptance, even though a still
reluctant one in some quarters.
The idea of enlisting the cooperation of the workers on a general
scale first appeared during the war, when the universal and whole­
hearted efforts of everyone were necessary in the production of war
materials. Shop committees were established in a great many plants,
though in many of these the trade-union yras not a factor, nonunion
as well as union plants having adopted the idea. The value of the
voluntary cooperation of the employees and of their good will received
widespread recognition.
Much of this spirit disappeared after the cessation of the war,
due partly to the industrial depression, partly to the reaction from
the war-time tension, and partly to the wave of antiunion and openshop activities that swept over the country. In some cases, however,
cooperative efforts continued, while what is probably the best-known
of all cooperative schemes, the so-called “ B. & O. plan,” was inaugu­
rated after the close of the war. It had been conceived much earlier
but it was felt that war conditions might militate against the suc­
cess of the plan and the putting into actual practice was therefore
postponed.
The new spirit has manifested itself in different ways and along
various lines. To-day there are instances in which unions and man­
agement are cooperating to improve the operating efficiency of the
plant or the industry; to introduce new methods or machinery or to
improve the old ones; to reduce operating costs by eliminating
wastes, introducing economies, etc.; to improve the quality of work
produced; to bring up the total production; to raise the general
level of sanitation and safety in the plant; and to increase the skill
and efficiency of the workers. In these and other ways employers
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and workers are demonstrating what can be done when the welfare
of the industry is the first concern.
It is not true, of course, that all that is being accomplished through
cooperative effort is done for purely altruistic reasons. Each party
expects to benefit by the cooperative arrangement. The employer
expects greater returns through the increased economy of production,
the greater output, the reduction of amount of imperfect work, etc.
The union expects, by demonstrating the increased value of the
services rendered by its members, to gain for them increases in wage
rates. But the great accomplishment of union-management cooper­
ation is the change of mental attitude thus brought about and the
fact that the results are secured by mutual effort instead of by
antagonism, through peace instead of war.
Attitude of Labor Leaders

A S EARLY as 1925, President William Green of the American
* * Federation of Labor emphasized in an address the “ fixed and
irrevocable" interdependence of capital and labor, and expressed
the opinion that complete success was “ attainable only through under­
standing and cooperation." Although recognizing that there were
many in the ranks both of capital and labor who were not in accord
with him in the matter, he stated the general position of labor as
follows:
It is to these problems of industrial cooperation and understanding that
modern trade-unionism is addressing itself. We do not believe our common
problems are impossible of solution nor do we believe the obstacles to be met
are insurmountable. As evidence of our faith we refuse to accept the oftexpounded theory that the differences between capital and labor, between
employer and employees, are irreconcilable. * * * I do not mean by this
that the time will come when there will be no controversy between employers
and employees over what constitutes a just and equitable division of the wealth
which their joint efforts create. Such a difference of opinion manifests itself
in all forms of human activity where men barter, buy, and sell. Understanding
and agreement upon this controversial subject can with few exceptions be
reached through the process of collective bargaining. Particularly is this true
where both sides approach consideration of the disputed question with patience,
frankness, and a spirit of justice and fair dealing, as between man and man. * * *
A spirit and purpose to follow the right and to do the riglit, to take no unfair
advantage, to practice no trickery or deceit, to neither threaten nor coerce,
should govern the representatives of employers and employees in all wage nego­
tiations and conferences. Through such a reciprocal relationship the common
problems of industry can be solved, efficiency in service promoted, and econo­
mies in production introduced. The practical operation of such a plan of under­
standing must necessarily be based upon the presumption that employers and
employees are no longer inspired by hate, malice, and enmity toward each other.
Instead, the antagonistic and hostile attitude, so characteristic of the old order
in industry, must be supplanted by a friendly relationship and a sense of obli­
gation and responsibility. This is the newer concept of modern trade-unionism.1

And again, at labor’s conference on the elimination of waste, held
in May, 1927, he said:#
Time and experience have developed a new conception of the vital problems
which affect industry. Our viewpoint and understanding of the effect of indus­
trial processes upon the welfare of all associated with industry have undergone
a most revolutionary change. We now find that the line of separation can not
be drawn between any group or groups either interested in or connected with
the producing forces of industry. There is no point which can be definitely fixed
1 American Federationist, April, 1925, pp. 226, 227.

102869°— 28------ 11




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where the interest of one group begins or ends. The interests of all are so inex­
tricably woven together as to preclude a diversion of effort or objective. One
group can not permanently prosper at the expense of the other, nor is any one
group immune from the evil consequences of uneconomic industrial operation.
Industry is made profitable and the rewards of industrial efforts are increased
in proportion to the cooperation established between employers, employees, and
management.2

In a speech made during the course of a “ management week”
held in Philadelphia, Mr. James Maurer, president of the Penn­
sylvania State Federation of Labor, warned organized labor that
it must adjust itself to new conditions, bearing in mind that “ modem
business is based upon scientific analysis.”
The old methods have passed; the engineer has arrived. Are we in close
touch with the men who make intensive studies of business problems? Have
we established research bureaus? Have we given thought to the economics of
business? Do we concern ourselves with the cost or production of materials?
Do we give thoughtful consideration to the facts obtaining in our various crafts?
Modern business throughout its wide ramifications is a scientific problem and
must be solved by the use of research and by analysis.
The rule of trial and error will not bring results in modern business practice,
and organized labor must adopt new methods and adapt itself to ever changing
conditions.
Sometimes demands are made upon management without critical analysis of
the facts as to whether or not the industry can pay more wages and work fewer
hours.
The difficulties that ensue are often the cause of strikes and misunderstand­
ings which are a clear waste— a waste that could be prevented if the human
element were more clearly understood and were more carefully analyzed.8

The same thought was recently expressed by the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers: “ Where it has long held power and wishes to
retain it, organized labor has begun to learn that it must accept an
increasing measure of industrial responsibility; that it must adjust
its economic policies to the needs of a changing industry; and that
it must discard many restrictive practices that have proved in the
long run more harmful than beneficial to its members.” 4 This
thought the union has carried into practice. While the union still
regards itself as “ a fighting army, an active participant in the
industrial struggle,” it finds itself becoming “ more and more in­
volved in the engineering of the industry.” 6 According to one
economist who has been a student of the needle trades, “ the whole
program of the Amalgamated is to extend its organization and then
to improve the economics of the industry, which it constantly
studies.” 6
The same stand has been taken by the Operative Plasterers and
Cement Finishers* International Association. Its official journal, The
Plasterer, in its issue of January, 1928, states:
He who said “ Capital and labor are partners” spoke the truth. Labor now
awaits capital. Very soon let us hope that capital awaits labor. Capital provides
the cash and labor the means. Let us hope that the new year will see both capital
and labor busy and working as partners.
A great field awaits both.

The president of the Upholsterers’ International Union stated in
his report to the 1927 convention of that body: “ I can not stress too
2 American Federationist, June, 1927, p. 729.
3 International M olders’ Journal, April, 1927, p. 217.
4 Advance, Jan. 13,1928.
6 Advance, M a y 13, 1927, p. 7.
• The Nation, M a y 11,1927, p. 524.




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much or repeat too often that the policy of our international is one
of peace and cooperation. '' 7
Matthew Wolf, fourth vice president of the American Federation
of Labor and president of the International Photo-Engravers' Union,
states:
Within our own industry we have shown there is no room for conflict between
employer and worker. Industrial conflict harms both. Both factors in industry
benefit most when cooperating with one another to the highest degree. Our
purpose is not to harm the employer and the industry. Our desire is to protect
the employer and the industry. Not because we manifest any particular love
for the employer but principally because the industry of photo-engraving is
not the employer’s alone but one in which we are as concerned as he.8

The International Ladies’ Garment Workers and the Women's
Clothing Manufacturers of Cleveland as early as 1921 reached the
conclusion, which thev embodied in their agreement, that: “ Coop­
eration and mutual helpfulness are the basis of right and progressive
industrial relations, and that intimidation and coercion have no proper
place in American industry.”
Other unions which may not have expressed themselves in words
on the matter are nevertheless making practical application of cooper­
ative principles, as will be shown. The present discussion makes no
claims to inclusiveness, but merely presents instances of cooperation
between unions and managements which have come to the attention
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Improvement in Operating Efficiency

DERHAPS the greatest amount of cooperative effort has been
A directed toward the improvement of operating efficiency,
through such means as improved methods of work, reorganization
of the system of distribution of work, transfers of workers, introduc­
tion of economies, and elimination of sources of waste. So great
is the interest of organized labor in the question of reducing cost of
production through the elimination of waste and unnecessary expense
that a conference, sponsored by labor, was held in the spring of 1927
to consider the problem and its solution.
The most outstanding and best-known example of union-management cooperation for improved operation is that of the Baltimore &
Ohio Railroad and its shop employees. There are, however, numerous
other cases that are not so well known.
Baltimore & Ohio Plan

Union-management cooperation definitely developed in the railway
industry during the existence of the United States Railroad Admin­
istration. At that time “ the standard railroad labor unions were
universally recognized as the exclusive agencies of the employees in
their relations with the Federal Railroad Administration.” Indeed,
it was proposed to the director general by practically all of the recog­
nized railroad unions that a cooperative program be arranged between
the railway unions and the managements for the improvement of
public service for mutual benefit.
7 Reports and proceedings of the fifteenth biennial convention of the Upholsterers’ International Union
of North America, N ew York, 1927, p. 13.
8 The American Photo-Engraver, January, 1927, p. 101.




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Some steps were actually taken toward carrying out this proposal.
The problem of transferring the railroads to private control, however,
crowded out this program of cooperation. The period from the Gov­
ernment's relinquishment of the railroads up to the end of the shop­
men's strike of 1922 was a trying one for both the railroads and their
employees, but long before the 1922 strike railway managements
were approached by the standard shopmen's union with an offer of
cooperation.
In the spring of 1922, Daniel Willard, president of the Baltimore
& Ohio Railroad, agreed that “ the consummation of an understanding
along cooperative lines between management and the standard shopcraft unions of the Baltimore & Ohio was a feasible matter and de­
served careful trial." The scheme, however, was delayed because of
the shopmen's strike and was not started until February, 1923, after
the employees at a mass meeting had expressed their willingness to
enter whole-heartedly on this experiment.
The scheme was intended (1) to provide for “ the utilization of the
facilities of the railroad company to the fullest possible extent for
the maintenance, rebuilding, and remodeling of locomotives and car
equipment, as well as for the manufacture of supplies and material
needed for mechanical and other purposes"; and (2) “ to help the
stabilization of employment on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad,
thereby producing a situation of satisfied and contented personnel
with improved morale, and consequently improvement in the service
and production by greater efficiency and better quality of work."
The plan was inaugurated in the shop where conditions were most
adverse—the repair shop at Pittsburgh. The men employed were of
many nationalities and had always been more or less dissatisfied;
employment was not always steady; and bitterness had been engen­
dered between the old and the new men during the course of the stnke.
The experiment was tried out at this shop for nearly a year but
the results were unsatisfactory and the shop was closed. Later, when
some of the grievances and misunderstandings had been cleared up,
the same shop was opened again and this time, with the same tools,
the same wages, and the same working conditions, the plan was
successful. Mr. Willard states: “ I have tried to analyze it, and it
seemed to me that the only thing that had happened was a change
in the attitude of the men and of the management; there had been
brought about a different state of mind, and, after all, as I look at it,
that is about the essence of the whole movement. We have, I believe,
succeeded in bringing about a different point of view between our
managers and our men."
It was understood that the benefits derived from the new plan were
to be shared with the men. The management promised to do all in
its power to stabilize employment, provided the men would contrib­
ute to raising the morale of the shop. Mr. Beyer, the engineer who
first conceived the plan and has supervised its working, states:
To this they readily agreed. And the management, in keeping with its promise,
sent a new line of work to Pittsburgh in the form of cars and locomotives to be
rebuilt, in order to help stabilize employment. The men appreciated this action,
for it gave tangible significance to the cooperative idea. The first locomotive,
No. 1003, turned out under this program of “ Baltimore & Ohio work in Baltimore
& Ohio shops” thus became a monument to cooperation. Here was living evi­
dence of how cooperation was helping the men to steadier jobs and hence greater
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The men “ became very active in observing opportunities for im­
provements, working out practical suggestions and presenting them
at their local union meetings and to their representatives for submis­
sion to the shop management." A committee system was developed,
a committee of the men meeting with representatives of the manage­
ment, at first irregularly, but later at stated intervals. It was soon
decided to keep written records of subjects discussed and action taken.
After the scheme had been in operation for six months it was for­
mally ratified by a convention of the shopmen of the railroad, and its
inauguration at each of the 45 shops of the system was provided for
by agreement with the railroad in February, 1924.
The plan is now in operation not only in all the shops of the Balti­
more & Ohio Railroad but has also been adopted on three other rail­
road systems—The Canadian National Railways, the Chicago &
North Western Railway Co., and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St.
Paul Railway Co.
Essentials of the plan.—Under the scheme each shop has its own
machinery and its work is reviewed every three months by a “ joint
system cooperative committee" which meets also for the purpose of
considering and acting upon propositions applicable to the road as a
whole. No grievances are considered at either local or joint meetings.
The essentials to the success of the scheme are listed by Mr. Beyer
as follows:
1. Full and cordial recognition of the standard labor unions as the properly
accredited organizations of the employees.
2. Acceptance by the management of these unions as helpful, necessary, and
constructive in the conduct of industry.
3. Development between unions and managements of written agreements
governing wages, working conditions, and the prompt and orderly adjustment of
disputes.
4. Systematic cooperation between unions and managements for improved
service, increased efficiency, and the elimination of waste.
5. Willingness on the part of managements to help the unions solve some of
their problems in return for the constructive help rendered by the unions in the
solution of some of managements’ problems.
6. Stabilization of employment.
7. Measuring and sharing the gains of cooperation.
8. Provision of definite joint union and management machinery to promote
and maintain cooperative effort.
The sixth and seventh requirements, namely, stabilization of employment and
sharing the gains of cooperation, are reasons why the employees through their
unions are warranted whole-heartedly in. supporting the cooperative policy.
Even should a railroad or industrial plant be run better from either the public’s
or management’s point of view, the union employee’s interest in cooperation
will not endure if he does not himself get direct and tangible benefits from coopera­
tion. These benefits must take the form, first, of steady employment; second,
better working conditions; third, greater yearly wage income; and fourth, better
wage rates. Above all else the workers in industry must be assured that manage­
ment will do everything within its power to stabilize employment; for obviously,
if, as a result of greater efficiency they are apt to work themselves out of a job,
they will soon lose any enthusiasm they might otherwise have had for cooperation.

Results of the plan.— In the shops of the Baltimore & Ohio road
some 18,000 suggestions have been brought forward by the men for
consideration. Of that number 15,000 (83 per cent) have been
accepted, 500 are still under investigation, 500 are regarded as good
but too expensive to adopt, and 1,600 have been rejected as imprac­
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The management makes a special effort to see merit in the sugges­
tions wherever possible, but Mr. Willard points out that rejections
do not result in bad feeling:
A lot of the 1,600 men, perhaps, had ideas in their minds that they thought
were practical; they found the company was not following those ideas and they
thought the company was inefficient because it didn’t do 1,600 things that they
thought ought to be done. After a full discussion they themselves discovered
that those 1,600 things were impracticable, and to the extent that that had seemed
to reflect inefficiency on the part of the management they were cleaned up, and
that led to a better understanding.

About one-third of the suggestions do not benefit the carrier
directly but deal with conditions that the men desire to see improved.
The scope of the scheme has been enlarged so that it includes not
only the shopmen but also practically all the men in the service
of the road.
The plan has, according to Mr. Beyer, resulted in the following
benefits to the men:
1. Keduction in grievances—i. e., fairer application of working
rules. It is estimated that the number of grievances has been re­
duced approximately 75 per cent since the inauguration of the
cooperative plan. In the year preceding the adoption of the plan
there was one case of grievance appeal for every 58 men; in 1925,
one case for every 131 men; and in 1926 the number was still further
reduced.
2. Quicker adjustment of grievances.
3. Improvements in apprentice training.
4. Better working conditions.
5. Better tools and methods for doing work.
6. Higher standards of workmanship.
7. Stabilization of employment. From 1924 to 1925 the period of
employment of shopmen on the Baltimore & Ohio was increased on
an average two weeks. This is equivalent to an increase of $44
er year for each man or 234 cents per hour. On the Canadian
rational Railways similar progress has been made, while the Chicago
& North Western road, by virtue of the more systematic distribution
of work throughout the year plus the policy of doing railroad work
in railroad shops, has been able to tide over several declines in traffic
without reductions in staff.
8. Financial participation in the gains of cooperation.
Among the advantages accruing to the management are listed the
following:
1. Better shop discipline.
2. Reduced labor turnover.
3. Improvements in employee training.
4. Better grade of employees secured.
5. Conservation of materials.
6. Reduction of defects and failures.
7. Better workmanship.
8. Increased output.
9. New business.
10. Better morale.
11. Improved public good will. “ It has become more and more
evident that the reputation enjoyed by railroads in respect to their
ability to get along well with their employees and secure their sys­
tematic cooperation for good service has been a big feature in pro-

S




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muting the sympathy and interest of the public toward such
railroads.”
The general results are summed up by President Willard as having
been “ eminently satisfactory up to date.”
Printing Trades

One of the most significant instances along this line is the news­
paper engineering service of the International Printing Pressmen and
Assistants’ Union. This service was started, according to the vice
president of the union, because whenever wage increases were re­
quested “ the employers would counter with the impossibility of their
industry being able to pay more money because of the high cost of
production.”
And it was then up to us to show them that if they were more scientific in their
attention to their own industries they would not have to worry so much about
costs of labor. We knew from actual experience that thousands of dollars were
being carelessly thrown away simply because the print shop never had the atten­
tion it should have received and things were done in a haphazard, untechnical
manner.®

So the union in 1924 undertook to direct the attention of the em­
ployer to ways in which savings might be effected and quality of
work and production might be increased.
Some 500 newspapers from all parts of the country are received
daily at the union headquarters. These are examined for any defects
of appearance or workmanship over a period of several days or a week.
If the defect continues to appear, a letter is written to the foreman,
pointing out the defect and suggesting ways of overcoming it. Where
necessary an engineering expert is sent to the plant. He makes a
careful study of conditions in the pressroom. If the defect is due to
the work of some other department the matter is taken up with the
publisher, the engineer going from department to department until
the cause is located and corrected. The service also offers personal
assistance, when new plants are being opened, in the proper construc­
tion and layout of the plant, even providing blue prints. It will
also supervise the installation of equipment and the overhauling of
old machinery, constantly taking into consideration the newspaper’s
need for speed and the necessity of continuing publication while the
changes are being made.
All this is done without cost to the publisher, the union bearing all
the expense. At first the union’s new service was regarded with some
suspicion. Gradually, however, it has won the cordial acceptance of
both the publishers and the other newspaper printing trades, so that
to-day its services are voluntarily sought when troubles develop.
Letters of appreciation from publishers and foremen testify to the
effectiveness of the service. Through it many thousands of dollars
are saved each year.
In furnishing this service, every care is taken to preserve absolute
impartiality in locating any defects. “ We, to be successful, must
tell the truth.”
There is no discrimination or partiality. If the facts establish the responsibility
for the defects on the men, on the machinery, on the paper, on the ink, on the
•American Federationist, June, 1927, p. 676.




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blankets, or metal or upon any other phase of printing, this newspaper engineering
service says so and joins with all concerned in improving the existing condition.1
0
If it is the pressmen’s fault it is just as important to say so and to apply the
remedy as it is to say it is the metal’s fault and make recommendations. Of course,
it means infinitely more to us to say frankly this is our own fault and we are now
applying the remedy, than to simply recommend and point out the defects of
others, but we propose to do both. That we have succeeded is best testified to by
* * * letters from publishers and heads of mechanical departments of news­
papers.1
1
Upholstery Industry

The Upholsterers’ International Union is firmly committed to the
cooperative policy. Its president states: “ The foundation of every
successful labor union rests upon its powers for cooperation. It has
been the experience of our membership that the greater the scope of
our cooperating activities the greater the achievements we have been
able to attain."
It is explained that the union was forced into its concern for the
industry. “ We were concerned over the fact that no one seemed to
worry very much whether the looms were in running order or not.
* * * The boss did not seem to care about these matters.
But the weaver at the loom, when things went wrong through no
fault of his own, did worry." It meant lost time and lost earnings
to him. Because of the small shops and the close personal relation
between men and employer (it is said that the latter is always known
to his employees by his first name), defects would be pointed out by
the men to the employer. “ Well, he’d wag his head and figure
out that it would cost $600 and he couldn’t afford it. But I would
show him that 60 times $600 is being lost annually because the mill
is forced into involuntary idleness." Gradually the boss would begin
to rely upon the workers to bring such things to his attention. Later
as the union grew stronger it began to take over this function and
“ is to-day solving many of the problems of shop efficiency through
its own committees and through its own methods of handling appren­
tices." And, furthermore, in one local, “ one of the union’s most
important committees every season goes to a class organized by itself,
under the auspices of the labor college of Philadelphia, to study the
economics of its industry and how to meet its problems in a scien­
tific manner." 1
2
New workers in the shop are shown the best methods of work, as
the union feels “ responsible for the workmanship and efficiency of
all our men and women members of the upholstery union. So we
can not afford to have anyone in our midst who either does not
understand our standards or who does not desire to maintain them."
An incident is related about an employer who moved his factory
in order to be able to employ nonunion labor. But the results did
not prove so successful as he had hoped. “ Even at wages paid to
unorganized workers he could not make the thing work." When
approached by the union after some time he agreed to allow the mill
to be unionized, but protested he could not increase wages, as his
cost per unit of production was already too high. He did, however,
agree that he would sign a contract with the union if it could, in six
months’ time, show improved morale and productivity. A union
1 Pamphlet on newspaper engineering service, issued b y International Printing Pressmen and Assist­
0
ants' Union, p. 5.
1 Report of officers to thirty-first convention of International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union,
1
1927, p. 116.
“ American Federationist, June, 1927, p. 680.




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representative was placed in the factory as manager, and in a month
production had been doubled. “ To-day the factory is being operated
under union conditions with a union man at the head.” 1
3
Carpet-Weaving Industry

A rather unusual measure was resorted to by the tapestry carpet
weavers’ union in one shop. The girls in the finishing room became
dissatisfied because they were not earning as much as girls doing
similar work in other shops; on the other hand, the employer com­
plained of the quality of their work. The union was called into
conference and asked for suggestions as to what could be done. The
measure adopted was the exchange of the finishing-room personnel
of this factory with that of another plant. “ Of course, it required
a bit of diplomatic handling to effect the transfers. Both firms
were promised that the changes were for a time only and their own
workers would be sent back as soon as the difficulties were remedied.
The firm which was having the trouble did not care much what was
done just so the work would be donfe correctly, and the other firm
had so much confidence in the union that it was not hard to get their
permission to make the change required.”
The main thing to be accomplished was to effect a change in the
mental attitude of the girls in the first shop, as they had become
convinced that, do what they might, it was not possible to earn a
living wage in that shop. The girls transferred to this shop from
the cooperating plant found no difficulty with the work and soon had
the shop running smoothly. As it was demonstrated to the original
workers that the difficulty lay with them, the new girls were returned
to their own shop one by one, while the old workers as they returned
were taught new and more efficient methods. “ Since then the girls
earn as much as they could anywhere else.” 1
4
Cloth Hat and Cap Industry

The collective agreement between employers and union in the New
York market of the cloth hat, cap, and millinery industry provides
that a worker indispensable to the factory must notify the union if
he intends to quit his job, and may not leave until the union can
replace him with some other worker. “ The union pledges strict
enforcement of this provision.”
Glass Industry

The leaders of the more progressive unions realize that the organi­
zations which retain their strength and make progress are those
which adapt themselves to changing conditions and help their mem­
bers to do so.
Thus, unions in trades in which swift and radical changes have been
made by the introduction of machinery have found it better to adapt
themselves to the changed circumstances than to attempt to oppose
the inevitable. Such a situation in an extreme degree has had to be
met in the glass-bottle industry. Until 1898 there was practically
no machinery in use in the industry. After that time the trade
rapidly became mechanized. The union did not attempt to stop
the invasion of the machine, but requested that some of the hand
men displaced be given a chance to learn to operate the machines.
m

American Federationist, June, 1927, p. 681.




m

Idem, p. 682.

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It agreed to a reduction in wages of 45 per cent, “ to give the employ­
ers who did not have machines an opportunity to adjust themselves
to the changed conditions and keep the hand workers employed.”
Gradually the union extended its jurisdiction to cover the hand
workers and then it induced the manufacturers not to take on
any apprentices for a year and to give the displaced workers any
positions open.
Thus gradually the displaced men were absorbed into the indus­
try again.
The union then advocated continuous operation, with a threeshift system, and, later, the employment of three men to every two
machines, instead of a man to each machine. Because of the trying
nature of the work the operator had to rest 10 or 15 minutes in every
hour, during which time his machine was stopped. By using three
men, the worker could rest 20 minutes in every hour, but continuous
operation of the machine was secured. Although both men and
employers opposed this at first, trial demonstrated that more ware
was produced and the men earned as much as before, the work being
on a piece-rate basis.
We met displacement of our skilled men first by using every means at our com­
mand to have the displaced man put on to operate the machine; second, by reduc­
ing the cost of production to the hand manufacturer to bring it nearer to that of
the machine; third, by dividing the work with the idle men so that they might be
self-sustaining, self-respecting members of society and consumers of the things
produced.1
5
Clothing Industry

Another union in quite a different field which has been quick to
perceive and adapt itself to changing conditions is the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers.
The union realized from the outset that it could not close its eyes to technical
improvements and retain its power and influence. Directly and indirectly it
participated in the technical revolution which the industry has undergone since
1920. Union control and policy reduced to a minimum the hardship that
always attends the introduction of machinery and the change in industrial
processes. * * * Without those technical advances, gains in efficiency, the
industry would have been unable to weather the business strains of the past
years. This the union knew. It adopted, therefore, a policy which did not hin­
der but controlled, in the interests of its members, the introduction of machinery
which is so characteristic of contemporary American industry.1
6

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers has been active in trying to
reduce unnecessary costs in the industry and thus decrease the
overhead expense. “ The union’s position has constantly been that
much of the reduction in the price of clothes must come from sav­
ings arising out of the elimination of waste.” To this end it has
participated with the manufacturers in both the Cincinnati and
the New York markets in investigations to discover sources of waste,
always insisting that “ unnecessary overhead, exorbitantly high
salaries, undue selling expenses, excessive cost of supervision, unnec­
essary clerical expense, must be found and reduced. The savings
from these sources have in the past few years been enormous.”
In a recent address President Hillman made the following statement:
The labor cost in our industry has gone up much less than that in any other
industry. By working out our problems with the employers we have produced
efficient methods of work. While we can point to over 300 per cent increase
1 Am erican Federationist, September, 1927, p. 1057.
8




1 Advance, Mar. 25, 1927, p. 5.
6

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in wages since the beginning of the organization, there has been less than 80
per cent increase in labor cost. I can say that there is no important change in
the manufacturing process in the shop for which the union is not at least 50
per cent responsible.1
7
Street Railways

On the Pittsburgh street railways the monthly meetings of union
and management representatives deal with “ the entire range of
railway operation * * * the welfare of the whole industry
being of principal concern." The interests of the traveling public
“ also receive a large share of attention."
Suggestions for the improvement of service are invited and “ no
suggestion is ignored, for while they might not all be acceptable
as made, they very often lead to other desirable methods whereby
a great deal of good is accomplished."
Transportation is a competitive business. The trainmen are the sales agents,
and they aim to make the car ride as attractive as possible. By so doing, the
public benefits, the company profits, and the employees, by contributing to the
success of the company, earn that recognition of their efforts that must eventu­
ally bring them their reward as the profits of the employing company will permit.1
8
Railroads

The Order of Sleeping Car Conductors states that it was one of
the first labor organizations “ to outline specifically a plan of coopera­
tion, and present it to the employer." Although not receiving
much encouragement from the employing company, the union recog­
nizes that the best interests of the men are served by making their
service “ indispensable and profitable to the employer." This feel­
ing is being manifested in the movement, sponsored by the union,
for “ scientific conductor supervision of service," the purpose of
which is to improve productive efficiency. A series of articles is
being printed in the official journal of the order, pointing out the
importance to the individual conductor of making himself indis­
pensable in his position, and showing how this can be done.
Shop Sanitation and Safety
Women's Garment Industry

rT lH E outstanding example of cooperation between employers and

A union for the raising of the sanitary and safety standards in
the industry is the joint board of sanitary control in the women's
garment industry of New York City. This board was set up in
1910 and has been the greatest factor in raising the level of sanita­
tion in the shops. It drew up a set of sanitary standards to which
all shops under its jurisdiction were required to conform, and by
means of periodic inspections saw to it that this was done. It has
helped to establish first-aid services, fire drills, published bulletins
on general health questions, etc. Although the “ protocol" under
which the board was established was abrogated in 1916, the employers
and the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union have con­
tinued to cooperate on this board even during times of strike or
lockout. So satisfactory were the results of its work that a similar
board has been set up in the industry in Rochester.
1 Advance, Jan.-13,1928, p. 5
7




1 Horseshoer’ s Magazine, December, 1927, p. 10.
8

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Pocketbook Industry

The same machinery has been accepted in the pocketbook indus­
try, and the agreement in the industry in New York, running until
May 1, 1929, provides for the establishment of a joint board of
sanitary control, but no steps have as yet been taken to put this
provision into actual effect.
Railroads

As a result of a request from the superintendent of safety on one
of the large railroads, the Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Em­
ployees has been encouraging its locals to cooperate with the carrier
in the attempt to reduce accidents. A circular was sent out to the
lodges and to the individual members and a series of meetings was held
at the locals connected with the road. It is hoped that accidents
will be materially reduced by securing the whole-hearted cooperation
of the men.1
9
Street Railways

Similar cooperation in safety work is reported by the Amalgamated
Association of Street and Electric Railway Employees as being
carried on by the street-railway companies and local unions in St.
Louis, Pittsburgh, and “ on various other transportation properties.” 2
0
Production and Quality of Work
Clothing Industry

IN ITS 1920 convention the Amalgamated Clothing Workers adopted
* by a large majority the policy of favoring production standards.
Not only has the union favored a standard of output; it has also
cooperated with the employer in raising the quality of the product.
The A. Nash Co. of Cincinnati became unionized in 1925. It had
had “ such a phenomenal growth” that the company was having
difficulty in keeping the quality of the product up to the standard
which it desired. Apprised of the situation, the union took steps
to meet it. The president of the company, in an article published
in the fall of 1927, stated that “ the Amalgamated brought experts
from various markets and have rendered a service which can never
be figured in dollars and cents in raising to a high quality and stand­
ardizing the production of this company.” 2
1
Production standards were adopted in the Cleveland women's
garment industry in 1921. The agreement providing for the setting
up of such standards stipulated that the wages paid should be based
upon “ the productive value of the individual worker based upon
fair and accurate standards, which standards shall be under the joint
control of the association and the union and subject to review by
the referees.” Standards were set up in each shop. The agreement
by which this step was taken is a continuing one and is still in force.
Hosiery Industry

In the full-fashioned hosiery industry the price of the article is
secondary to quality. Labor costs are of secondary importance,
therefore, as the skill of the worker is a prime requisite. It is pointed
1 Railway Maintenance of W ay Employees Journal, April, 1927, pp. 48, 50.
9
Motorman, Conductor and M otor Coach Operator, February, 1928, p. 10.
2 Journal of Switchmen’s Union, September, 1927, pp. 419, 420.
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out that for this reason the main avenue of elimination of unnecessary
expense in production is that of the reduction of imperfect product.
The union representative at the conference explained that in this
industry, “ quality production also means quantity production. If
the knitter is making good stockings he is also making a lot of them,"
because when all conditions are right and the machine and silk are
in good order, the knitter has to stop very infrequently and can work
at top speed with few mistakes. But he can do this only for a certain
number of hours a day; with the onset of fatigue, efficiency decreases,
production falls, and mistakes occur, resulting in imperfect product.
The union feels therefore that it is a real factor in eliminating waste
when it insists on limiting hours but also urges its members to do
their utmost in the way of producing “ perfect work and lots of it "
during these hours. “ The official policy of our organization is to
encourage capacity production."
The union by guaranteeing to the employer that through cooperation with
his employees and through collective bargaining that he will get the finest possible
output of hosiery that his machinery is capable of making can checkmate anti­
union employers’ competition. The union has shown that it is possible to com­
pete sucessfully on the basis of quality rather than of price. And if union men
and women see to it that the employers who deal with the organization get real
quality service and good production at all times the efforts which are made from
time to time to create disturbances in the hosiery market will be easily nullified.
“ Perfect work and lots of it ” must be our slogan.2
2

The union feels that it must see to it that the services of the members
to the industry become “ so invaluable that the industry will be
bound to recognize the need for encouraging this improved service."
The success of this union in attaining this end is attested to by a
report recently made by the Federal Council of the Churches of
Christ in America and the Conference of American Rabbis of labor
relations in union hosiery plants in Philadelphia. This report states
in part as follows:
In general it seems that the managements of the union plants investigated in
the Philadelphia district have succeeded in establishing a regime of industrial
relations with the union which compares favorably with that found in any other
industry, whether under employee representation schemes or under a system of
collective bargaining. In many respects this regime excels the relations found in
the general run of industries/ The emphasis on the elimination of waste, on
efficiency, and on cooperation is particularly noteworthy. The fact that the
managements concerned indorse the union as a constructive movement and praise
the fairness of the union officials and the flexibility of their policy in meeting
changing conditions is highly significant. At the same time the managements of
these concerns have shown themselves to have more than ordinary ability to deal
with labor constructively.
The record which the union has made in conforming to its announced policies
seems to have given it and its leaders a good reputation, not only with the em­
ployers who deal with it, but in the community at large. It tries to retain
sufficient flexibility in policy to enable it to make adjustments necessary in a
rapidly changing competitive industry. It has announced that it proposes to
help friendly employers who seek its aid. Although it has to look out for the
welfare of the rank and file of its members, it calls upon them to make sacrifices
in the interest of extending harmonious relations. It prides itself on businesslike
dealings.2
8
Textile Industry

The Textile Worker, in its issue of May, 1927, contains an inter­
esting report of an instance of practical union cooperation. A certain
textile mill had recently been organized, and the union “ had prom­
2 The Hosiery Worker, M a y 16,1927, p. 4.
2
9 T h e Textile W orker, June, 1928, p. 148.
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ised the management better production and better relationship between
employers and employees.” In spite of this, however, the mill was
turning out only some 35 per cent of its normal production. The man­
agement declared that this was due to the fact of the employees
being organized, while the union representative was equally con­
vinced that the fault lay with the management. The firm thereupon
invited him to take over the management of the plant and prove his
contention. He did so, and at the end of the first four weeks had in­
creased production 60 per cent; the workers were satisfied with the
new arrangement, and the firm was so pleased that it offered him a
permanent position as manager.
Increasing Workers* Trade Knowledge and Efficiency

'TH E R E seems to be a quite general desire on the part of labor organA izations to improve their members’ skill and knowledge of the
trade. A great many labor periodicals carry a regular section devoted
to technical problems related to the traae, or to setting forth best
methods of performing certain processes. The effort is made to
enable the reader to keep posted on the results of research, the newest
methods, descriptions of improved or new machines, etc. Among the
unions which devote much space to articles on trade subjects are those
of the flint-glass workers, marine engineers, photo-engravers, printers,
printing pressmen, pharmacists, locomotive firemen, locomotive
engineers, carpenters, bookbinders, steam engineers, molders, barbers,
lithographers, lathers, machinists, plasterers, painters, paper makers,
potters, railroad trainmen, railway clerks, railway conductors, etc.
The Brotherhood of Railway Carmen has established a trade edu­
cation bureau with the three-fold purpose of developing books for the
organization, arousing interest in trade literature, ana conducting a
trade department in the monthly magazine.
Some unions have gone so far as to inaugurate courses for members,
journeymen as well as apprentices, others are doing such work jointly
with the employers, and still others have enlisted the help of other
unions or of the school authorities. The work done by labor unions
along educational lines, in their attempt to raise the level of skill in
the trade, is very extensive.
The union and the employers’ association in the photo-engraving
industry in 1919 formed what was known as the Photo-Engravers’
Joint Industrial Council, whose purpose was the formulation of gen­
eral trade policies, the consideration of “ industrial experiments with
special reference to cooperation in carrying new ideas into effect,”
the undertaking of industrial research along technical trade lines,
studying methods of training apprentices, safeguarding the health of
employees, settling disputes, and “ considering any and all matters
of general interest to the trade.” A number of meetings were held
at which the union brought up for consideration such questions as
the advisability of the adoption of a uniform system of cost account­
ing for the trade, the establishment of a research department, the
cost of which should be borne equally by employers and the union,
etc. The union’s attitude was that “ an industry that desires stabil­
ity and progress must provide for keeping abreast technical progress




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and for installing the most improved methods and machinery of pro­
duction. Attention to the material and technical side of production
should proceed with equal attention to developing the organization
of human relations upon a basis that will assure most effective coop­
eration and that high morale that comes when every individual is
accorded opportunity to do his best work.” 2
4
The system of cost accounting which the union had employed a
firm of accountants to devise, the council declared after study to be
too intricate for practical use, and it undertook to study out a new
system. The union’s proposal for trade research has been met with
indifference by the employers. At convention after convention of the
union the union officers have reported that although they had been
pressing the question, the employers had “ manifested no practical
desire to join with us in the development of a technical research
department.” That this attitude on the part of the employers is
being gradually overcome, however, is indicated by the fact, reported
to the 1927 convention, that joint industrial committees have been
formed with employers in 31 local unions, and in 35 locals costaccounting systems have been adopted.
Increasing the Sale of Product

T T IE labor organizations in what are known as the “ union-label
A trades ” —i. e., trades in which the use of a label indicating manu­
facture under union conditions is practicable—carry on a more or
less continuous effort to increase the sale of the goods so produced.
Through the columns of their own and other labor periodicals they
urge fellow trade-unionists to carry their principles into practical
effect by confining their purchases as much as possible to union-made
goods carrying the label.
The United Garment Workers and the United Textile Workers
carry on such work almost constantly. Indeed the latter, in its
label agreement with the manufacturers, specifically pledges itself
to “ do all in its province as a labor organization to advertise the
goods and otherwise benefit the business” of the employer. It is
stated that the efforts of the union in the case of one sheeting mill
“ have been in a large measure responsible for th e------ milPs ability
to work steady, night and day, producing a volume of yardage far
ahead of its competitors.”
Mention has already been made of the fact that the shop employees
of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and of the other railroads which
have adopted the “ B. & O. plan” have on more than one occasion
paid for advertisements soliciting patronage of the road, and that in
1916 the brick and clay workers’ union aided the employers in the
Chicago district in an advertising campaign to increase the sale of
bricks.
Handling of Grievances and Disputes

■"THE report of the executive committee to the 1927 American Feder* ation of Labor convention pointed out that “ practically every
*
establishment operating under a collective agreement has developed
some kind of continuous cooperation.”
2 Proceedings of the Photo-Engravers’ International Union, 1924, p. 37.
4




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Joint Settlement of Disputes

One type of cooperation very often provided for in collective agree­
ments is for the handling of grievances. The simplest type of
grievance machinery provided for is the shop steward. Any com­
plaints by the employees which he can not adjust satisfactorily may
be referred to a joint committee composed of representatives of union
and employer. Sometimes a joint standing committee is provided
for by the agreement. A typical instance is that of a large paper
mill which handles grievances through such a committee which meets
regularly at monthly intervals. The employer states thatu thousands
of matters of very small importance and perhaps hundreds of other
matters of larger importance have thus been handled over a period of
more than eight years between us and our workers."
In order to ascertain how prevalent the use of conciliation and
arbitration in industry has become, the Bureau of Labor Statistics
made inquiry on this point of the various international unions.
The railroad unions were not questioned because disputes on the
railroads are taken care of under the transportation act of 1926. Of
the unions which replied 11 reported either that they made no
agreements or that the agreements made no provision for conciliation
or arbitration, and 38 replied that in some or all of the locals provi­
sion was made for joint settlement of disputes or grievances by either
written or verbal agreements.
The number and per cent of locals having agreements providing
for conciliation of disputes in the unions reporting, grouped accord­
ing to degree of use made of such features, are as follows:
T ab le 1 6 . - P R 0 V I S I 0 N B Y L O C A L A G R E E M E N T S F O R J O IN T S E T T L E M E N T OF D IS ­
P U T E S A N D G R IE V A N C E S

Num ber
of locals
in union

Union

Locals having
agreements pro­
viding for joint
settlement of
disputes
Number

Bookbinders_______________________ __________________ ____________ _____
Brewery and soft-drink workers_________________________________________
Bridge and structural-iron workers____ ____ _________ _________ ________
Garment workers (U nited)___________________________ _______ _________ _
Glass-bottle blowers..................................................... ..........................................
Granite cutters............... ...................................................................................... .
H od carriers..............................................................................................................
H otel and restaurant em ployees____ ______ _____________________________
Iron, steel, and tin workers............. ....................................................................
Paving cutters........................ .................................................................... .............
Plumbers and steam fitters.......................... ...................... .................................
Printing pressmen..................................................................................................
Quarry workers_________________________________________________________
Stove mounters.................... ........................................................... ........................
Stereotypers and electrotypers..............................................................................
Street-railway employees________________________________ _________ _____
Tailors....................................... .................................................................. .............
W all-paper crafts........................ .............................................................................
Foundry employees_________________________________________ ___ _______
Marble and tile setters.......................................................................... .................
W ood, wire, and metal lathers............... .......................................... ...................
Pocketbook workers.... ........ ............................................... .................................
Electrical workers................................................................................ ...................
Paper makers............................. ........ ................................................... .................
Longshoremen............................ ...............................................................................
M eat cutters and butcher workmen______________________________________
Mine, mill, and smelter workers_______________________________ ____ ____
Cloth hat, cap, and millinery workers.............. ..................................................
Automobile and aircraft workers_________________________________________
Textile workers____ _____________________________________________________
Plasterers-.......................................... .......................................................................
l “ Practically all,”




* Approximate,

175
179
151
200
101
101
500
270
125
71
700
400
52
51
149
291
175
10
14
44
283
3
1,050
75
275
200
25
45
7
400
450

1 175
179
1 151
200
101
1 101
1 500
1270
125
i 71
1 700
400
52
51
1 149
i 291
175
10
12
34
2 200
2
00
39
2 138
100
7
10
1
35
30

3 “ A m ajority.”

Per cent
i 100
100
1 100
100
100
i 100
1 100
1 100
100
1 100
1100
100
100
100
1100
1100
100
100
86
77
2 70
67
(8
)
52
50
50
28
22
14
9
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The International Typographical Union reports that “ a large
percentage" of its more than 800 locals have agreements calling for
conciliation of disputes and grievances.
Arbitration

Arbitration is less frequently provided for in agreements than is
the conciliation of disputes. Of the 86 international unions of which
inquiry was made, in only some 23 cases do some or all of the local
unions have agreements providing for local arbitration in case of
failure of the parties to settle any dispute. All of the local agreements
of the bookbinders, brewery and soft-drink workers, bricklayers,
cloth hat, cap, and millinery workers, United Garment Workers,
plumbers and steam fitters, printing pressmen, stereotypers and elec­
trotypers, and street-railway employees make such provision, as do
also 90 per cent of the hod carriers’ agreements, 77 per cent of the
local marble and tile setters’ agreements, 70 per cent of the local
lathers’ agreements, 52 per cent of those of the paper makers, twothirds of those of the pocketbook makers, about 27 per cent of those
of the printers’ unions, about 11 per cent of those of the coopers’
unions, and about 9 per cent of those of the textile workers.
In some instances, the locals are required by their international to
include in their agreements some provision for conciliation and arbi­
tration. Thus, the International Union of Brewery, Flour, Cereal
and Soft Drink Workers requires not only that its locals insert in
their agreements some provision for the settlement of disputes, but
requires that all locals making application for a strike order shall
explain what efforts have been made to avert the strike and to settle
the dispute.
Believing that “ almost all labor troubles can be settled and recti­
fied through the channels of reason and conciliation without having
recourse to strikes,’’ the Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’ Inter­
national Union requires its subordinate unions to provide for joint
committees for the adjustment of all questions in dispute. While
these committees are studying a question no stoppage of work may
take place. In cases where several unions are working under an
agreement with a contractors’ association, a joint conference board
is to be formed. The international has power, if any union refuses
to become a part of this board, to impose a fine for the first and second
offenses and if the local proves obdurate, to revoke its charter.
Until 1928 the Cigar Makers’ International Union made no agree­
ments with employers. The 1927 convention, however, made exten­
sive changes in the laws governing the international and these were
subsequently ratified by referendum vote of the membership. Among
the changes was one permitting the officers hereafter to make collec­
tive agreements for not less than one year. By the new law provi­
sion mil henceforth be made for local arbitration of labor disputes.
“ In the event that the local union is unable to reach a settlement
with the local manufacturers the international president has the au­
thority to call upon a State or Federal board of mediation and arbi­
tration, or upon a civic jury mutually agreed upon by the interested
parties. It is our purpose to include an arbitration clause in all of
our agreements.’’
102869°— 28------ 12




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The union-label agreement of the United Garment Workers pro­
vides for arbitration of disputes which can not be settled by the aid
of the international union. The secretary of the union states, how­
ever, that “ for many years past we have had no occasion to call a
strike or resort to arbitration. Our price adjusters have been able
to adjust all difficulties with the manufacturers. However, if there
is a question in dispute we immediately send a representative to take
the question up and I do not know of a single case that we have been
unable to adjust amicably. This agreement works out very satis­
factorily for our organization.”
All of the local unions of stove mounters have agreements providing
that in the event of the failure of the local union and the firm to reach
a settlement the matter shall be referred to a committee consisting
of the officers of the international union and representatives of the
firm (or if the latter is a member of the employers’ association, the
officers of that body).
The Tobacco Workers’ International Union has a label agreement
providing for arbitration of disputes and so successful has this agree­
ment been that the union reports: “ We have never had but one strike,
occurring many years ago, and we have successfuly thwarted attempts
since then.”
The National Window Glass Workers has no definite arbitration
procedure. The union reports, however, that disputes arising as
to the interpretation of wage scales and working rules are usually
handled through a local council consisting of the officers of the union
and representatives of the employer. Failing adjustment by this
method the international president is called in. “ Under no circum­
stances are the workmen permitted to cease production until the
national president has passed upon points at issue. Cases where this
has been necessary very seldom occurred.”
The Amalgamated Metal Workers of America makes no written
agreements with employers. Disputes which can not be settled
amicably may, however, be arbitrated, the matter of arbitration
being left to the shop stewards’ district council to which all the locals
in a given district are affiliated.
As already shown in the case of the bricklayers’ union, when the
agreement is between the union and an employers’ association in a
particular market, provision may be made for a joint standing
committee composed of equal numbers of representatives of the associ­
ation and the union. Other industries have gone a step farther even
than this and have provided for grievance machinery for an entire
region or for the whole country. One of the many functions of such
a joint committee or board is the interpretation of the agreement and
the handling of new problems arising under it. Disputes arising
between the employer and the union during the life of the agreement
are referred to this board, whose jurisdiction may cover only a single
establishment, a branch of the industry throughout a whole city, or
may embrace a whole market. In such cases the board is usually
headed by an “ impartial chairman” selected mutually by the union
and employer representatives on the board. Such machinery exists
or has existed in all or part of the mining industry, railroads, the
shipping industry, the electrical construction industry, the manufac­
ture of clothing, and in the laundry, printing, coopering, cloth hat,




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cap, and millinery, and cleaning industries, and in certain of the
building trades.
The agreements of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers in the cities
of Chicago, New York, Rochester, Boston, Baltimore, Cincinnati,
Montreal, and Toronto provide for arbitration, but only after failure
to adjust the dispute or grievance jointly by employer and union.
When arbitration is resorted to the decision is final. The union
points, however, with regard to the arbitration procedure:
The system which obtains in the men’s clothing industry is free of the element
of chance. We don’t refer matters for arbitration to people who are known only
because they are — known. It is not the prominence of the prospective arbitra­
tor that determines the choice of an industrial judge in the men’s clothing indus­
try. Nor is it his reputed fairness or wisdom. The industrial competence of the
arbitrator is the thing considered first, fairness, social outlook, and breadth of
view naturally coming next. This industrial competence is not assumed to
dawn upon the arbitrator out of a clear sky. We train our industrial judges.
Any system of arbitration which will operate through chance choices of arbitra­
tors is bound to fail even if all its other conditions should be satisfactory.2
5

In the anthracite field, disputes are handled in accordance with a
system set up by the award of the Anthracite Coal Strike Commission
of 1902 and incorporated into the agreements between the United
Mine Workers and the anthracite operators. The employees at each
mine elect a grievance committee of three workers. Complaints are
taken up by this committee with the foreman, and failing satisfactory
adjustment with the company officials. In case that also is unavail­
ing, the case may be referred to the board of conciliation for the dis­
trict, and finally to the Central Anthracite Board of Conciliation.
This central board is a permanent body of six members consisting of
one representative of the miners' union and one of the operators from
each of the three anthracite districts. In case the board is unable to
reach a majority decision upon any question, the point must be re­
ferred to an umpire appointed by a circuit judge of the third judicial
district, whose award is final and binding.
Until 1922 the newspaper publishers and the International Typo­
graphical Union had a national arbitration agreement by which local
disputes could be appealed to the permanent international arbitra­
tion board of the industry, consisting of three representatives of the
international union and three from the special standing committee
of the American Newspaper Publishers' Association. This arbitra­
tion agreement was not renewed at its expiration in 1922, but the
union states that notwithstanding the absence of a formal agreement
many cases have since that time been referred to the board and settled
by it.
The president of the International Printing Pressmen and Assist­
ants' Union states that “ with the exception of but a few months the
* * * union has held an international arbitration contract with
the American Newspaper Publishers' Association for nearly a quar­
ter of a century."2 Under the system now in force, acceptance of an
6
arbitration agreement is optional with the local unions and the em­
ployers. Where such an agreement exists and in cases where con­
ciliation fails to end a controversy, the parties may submit their case
to be heard under the national arbitration agreement, in which case
the decision of the arbitrators is final.
* Advance, Feb. 3, 1928, p. 5.
* American Pressman, January, 1928, p. 24,




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National arbitration machinery is provided for in the electrical
construction industry. Local conciliation machinery is also set up,
but if local efforts fail the case may be submitted to the council on
industrial relations, a national board which was established in
1920 for the purpose of maintaining peace in the industry, and of
securing “ the largest possible measure of genuine cooperation between
member organizations and generally between employers and employ­
ees, for the development of the industry as a servant to society
and for the improvement of the conditions of all engaged in the
industry." The council consists of five representatives of the employ­
ers in the industry and five representatives of the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. It is stated that its policies
differ from those of ordinary arbitration boards, in that “ it professes
to be a court of justice. It proceeds on the theory that arbitra­
tion involves compromise, which seems to mean in some minds
adding up the claims on both sides of a dispute and dividing the
sum by two; while judicial settlement involves the application of
definite and certain principles without any accommodation between
the parties."
The statement of fundamental principles upon which the council
is based contains the following:
1. Strikes and lockouts are undesirable from every point of view.
2. No dispute can arise between employer and employee which can not be
settled in friendly negotiation, provided the parties to the dispute have the will
honestly to try one or more of these methods.
3. The industry can not fail to thrive on cooperation between employer and
employee, and will surely languish if such cooperation is absent.
4. Cooperation resulting in mutual good will is the key to increased produc­
tion and better craftsmanship.
5. The road to the highest efficiency of the individual working unit lies through
the field of frank cooperation and fair dealing.

Formal decisions have been made in 24 cases, and the services
of the council have been given informally in many others. The
local boards of conciliation provided for under the scheme have,
according to the chairman of the council, “ practically dropped out
of sight because, as a rule, there were always disagreements because
the two parties * * * were stubborn, because they were inter­
ested parties and were not able to bring to bear any impartiality
on the subject."
As to the success of the council, the chairman makes the following
statement:
The council has a degree of influence throughout the industry which is rather
remarkable. It has surprised the council members themselves. Many cases
of local disputes and difficulties have been settled quickly if there seemed to be
any probability of them going to the council. * * * What that means in
reality is that one side or the other knows it is wrong and will be beaten. It
shows that there is a broad feeling that the council is able to function impartially
and like a court.

and again:
One of the chief accomplishments of the council is intangible in its nature.
The representatives of the employers and the unions by getting together in
an informal way around the table and discussing frankly without heat or passion
the many perplexing problems in which both groups are vitally interested have
developed an industrial good will and respect for one another’s opinions which
are of material assistance in laying the foundation for better industrial relations
throughout the whole industry. Their method is the joint investigation of the




C O O P E R A T IO N

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EM PLOYERS

175

facts and working out the elaboration of a constructive industrial program on
the basis of the facts.2
7

On the railroads, disputes over working rules, conditions, and other
matters go to regional boards of adj ustment. Major disputes between
carriers and men may be taken before the United States Board of
Mediation, which was established by a law of 1926 as the result
of the efforts of both carriers and the organizations of the railroad
workers.
In some industries the agreement provides that all means of
conciliation must be exhausted before calling in an impartial member
and constituting an arbitration board. But in most instances the
decision of arbitrators, once resorted to, is final.
Some industries, notably the printing and street-railway industries,
have a long and honorable record of peaceful settlement of disputes.
Even those unions which have made the most use of arbitration,
however, resort to it only when absolutely impossible to reach a
settlement through conciliation or othei peaceful means, because of
the expense involved.
Other Instances of Cooperation

T H E R E are many other instances in which the cooperative efforts
A of organized labor have helped to overcome difficulties and
even sometimes to avert disaster. Thus, a contracting firm in
the men’s clothing industry in New York City notified the Amalga­
mated Clothing Workers that the prices it received from the firm
for which its work is done were so low that it could no longer afford
to remain in business and was therefore going to close its shop. The
union investigated, found the situation to be as represented by the
firm, and arranged for a conference with the manufacturers’ asso­
ciation to discuss the situation. As a result the employing firm
raised the scale of prices paid to the contractor. “ This solves the
problem in a manner satisfactory to everyone concerned. The con­
tracting firm will continue in business and the workers will have
their jobs without having to reduce wages or accept a higher pro­
duction standard.” 2
8
In one of the principal clothing centers a firm employing nearly
3.000 people was on the verge of breakdown, due partly to ineffi­
ciencies in management and partly to keen competition.
Had the firm been allowed to go under, 3,000 people in that city would have
lost employment, and there was no industry in that city to absorb the great
mass of workers thus thrown out of their jobs. A scramble for jobs in the other
establishments would have followed. A general lowering of standards would be
the inevitable outcome. And with industrial standards lowered in the whole
market the general condition of the industry would be bound to suffer. The
organization, to be sure, could retain its theoretical purity, and do nothing
whatsoever to help the employer, and then face the disastrous music of dislo­
cation and demoralization. Or it could do what it has actually done: It could
look into the business, find what was wrong, whether on the side of the manage­
ment or the side of production, and make the necessary readjustments so that
3.000 people could stay employed even though under conditions temporarily
disadvantageous.2
9
2 For a more detailed discussion of this council see Labor Review, issues of M arch, 1921 (pp. 126, 127),
7
and August, 1923 (pp. 26-43).
28 Advance, July 1, 1927 p. 10.
2 Advance, Jan. 14, 1927 p. 3,
9




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For three years the union “ participated constantly in the terms of
business and financial reorganization” of the firm, which finally
regained its ground. The union’s “ policy of care and concern with
the problems of the industry" has also assisted firms in other
markets to tide over crises resulting from industrial depression or
inefficient management.
On several occasions the union has given financial assistance to
union manufacturers who were in danger of liquidation.
In each of these cases, three in number, our policy proved to be wise and had
the effect we had anticipated. Each of these firms, located in widely different
parts of the country, employed more than 1,000 of our members. Each was in
the hands of bankers who threatened liquidation unless the firm could improve
its financial position. The first firm never found it necessary to use any of the
credit it had been promised by the organization and is now in a very prosperous
condition; the second paid off its loan in a few months; and the third is rapidly
liquidating the credit granted by the union. At least two of these companies
would have been out of business but for this assistance from the union. Between
them they now employ more than 4,000 union members. It is, of course, not
the policy of our organization, or of our financial institutions, to make loans to
the manufacturers of clothing. This is the function of the private commercial
bank. But where, as on rare occasions, a firm faces liquidation, our members
face the distress of prolonged unemployment, and the organization appears in
a position to help in the solution of the situation, it is our function to lend what
assistance we can.3
0

As the executive board of the union reported to the 1926 conven­
tion, “ it is no uncommon experience in the clothing industry to find
manufacturers and managers referring their problems of shop man­
agement to officers of a labor organization."
3 Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Eighth biennial report of the general executive board,
0
1926-1928, pp. 14, 15.




Chapter X .— Inquiry into Industrial Problems
Research

HE desire of organized labor for greater knowledge is expressed
in a number of ways and in many directions. Through the
labor colleges general educational subjects are taught; special
emphasis is given to the training of labor leaders; and technical trade
knowledge and skill are imparted to both journeymen and apprentices
in special courses given either by the labor organization of the trade
itself or through its cooperation with the public-school authorities.
Such strictly educational activities are of too wide and varied a
nature to permit of inclusion here.
There are, however, a number of ways by which labor is endeavor­
ing to inform itself which are not educational in the same sense as
those mentioned above. Thus, organized labor has come to recog­
nize the value of research. Unless its representatives are armed with
data bearing on all phases of their situation they find themselves at
a disadvantage in their collective bargaining with the employers.
This was pointed out in an editorial in the February 1928, issue
of the American Federationist, as follows:

T

Trade-unions are realizing that research and record keeping can give them infor­
mation of incalculable value. Several international unions are making special
studies of conditions affecting their members. Some maintain a special staff
for this purpose. The research staff of the American Federation of Labor is
always available to international and local unions for research work.

The service that trade-unions can perform toward finding a remedy
for unemployment by collecting data showing the number of their
unemployed was brought out in the Philadelphia unemployment con­
ference sponsored by the labor unions of that city, early in the
summer of 1927. Following that conference the American Federa­
tion of Labor began the collection of unemployment data from its
affiliated unions and these it has been publishing monthly since early
in the autumn of 1927.
The printing-trades unions have cooperated in several surveys of
the printing industry designed to reveal remediable conditions as to
sanitation, physical hygiene, and preventable diseases arising from
the occupation. As a result of action taken at the Atlantic City
convention of the American Federation of Labor, that organization
through its educational committee has been urging upon the local
bodies the desirability of keeping records of sickness of members,
for use and study by the United States Public Health Service.
The International Typographical Union is one of the labor organ­
izations which recognizes the value of research. It has for some
years maintained a statistical department. The report of the stat­
istician presented to the 1927 convention of the union enumerates
the following fields of activity:
1. Computations on comparative scales and earnings.
2. Comparative statistics on wage scales,




177

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3. Statistics for arbitration briefs.
4. Surveys and reports on cost of living.
5. Statistics of the printing industry.
6. Comparative earnings in manufacturing industries.
7. Industrial statistics.
8. Charts of financial activities, national, State and local.
9. Comparative earnings and investment in the printing industry.
10. General statistics and information.
11. The Monthly Bulletin, containing data for scale committees, executive
council decisions, and increases in scales.
12. Tabulations of cost-of-living budgets.
13. Indexes on food, cost of living and wholesale prices.
14. Organization reports on cost of living.
15. Reports on general business conditions.
16. Employment and wages, national, State, and municipal.
17. National and State health reports.
18. Data on compensation laws, including occupational diseases.
19. Financial reviews.
20. Computations on the relations between wage pay rolls and values added
by manufacturing processes.

Other organizations which maintain statistical or research depart­
ments include the International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’
Union, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, the
Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employees, the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, and the Amalgamated Clothing
Workers.
A most unusual field of trade-union research was entered in 1927,
when the representatives of a number of Chicago labor unions,
including the American Federation of Teachers, formed the Workers’
Nursery Association. The association was formed for the purpose
of establishing a labor-owned nursery school and research center.
The school mil provide “ scientific care and training for children
2 to 5 years of age, demonstrating the value of early group life in a
free but planned environment. Extension services furnished to
unions are to include periodical news bulletins of scientific discoveries
in the field of child care, speakers, parent study-group leaders, etc.”
It was hoped that the school could be opened in September, 1927,
but this was found to be impossible, “ due to lack of time for pro­
motion on the part of those most interested.”
Institutes on General Economic Subjects

DROOKWOOD College, the first resident labor college, has undertaken what it calls “ institutes” — occasional short sessions of
lecture and discussion designed to open up the field of general
economic problems in special fields. Its first effort along this line
was the railroad labor institute held during the week of August
2, 1925, and followed by a general labor institute open to all tradeunionists. The attendance at the railroad institute included persons
employed in various capacities on the railroads, from engineer to
maintenance-of-way men, and the presidents and vice presidents of
railroad labor organizations. Among the subjects discussed were
labor’s gains through legislative activities, the operation of the
Rockefeller plan in the Colorado steel plants and coal mines, the
activities of Cuban railway unions, and the giant power movement.
The special interest of the electrical workers in this last-named
subject led to a special giant-power conference, held under the auspices




INQUIRY INTO INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS

179

of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers from July 19
to 31, 1926. The subjects covered included: The relation of giant
power to the building trades; public ownership of giant power;
mastering of power production; labor, the public and giant power
trends; and the giant power situation in Pennsylvania and New York.
Practically concurrently with the giant-power conference a textile
workers’ institute, sponsored by the United Textile Workers of
America, was held. The main question studied at this institute
was that of the best possible method which the union could adopt to
assist in stabilizing the textile industry. The discussion covered
not only the subject of raw materials used in the industry, but also
banking, transportation, and distribution problems relative to the
manufacture of textiles. Commenting on the conference, the pres­
ident of the union said:
This week at the institute impressed me quite forcibly with the fact that the
workers as a whole, not alone in our industry but in all industries, must secure
vital and necessary statistics so as to be in a position to present to the public,
through the press or otherwise, the facts as they are in the industry in which they
are employed.

A second railroad labor institute was held at about the same time
at which discussion centered in the development of the railroad
industry; activities of the Interstate Commerce Commission in the
regulation of railroads and in the direction of transportation develop­
ment; the Parker-Watson Act; technical training and the effect on
engineers of the new type of locomotive and of automatic train con­
trol; and benefits of union-management cooperation on the railroads.
At this conference the establishment of a trade-union railroad
research bureau was strongly urged. It was pointed out that the
railroad companies have their own departments of research and
that “ the unions will add tremendously to their own effectiveness
when they study the industry minutely and arrive at scientific
judgments in regard to wage movements, negotiations, and other
labor-management relations.”
During the four years, ten such gatherings have been held at
Brookwood.
The 1927 convention of the American Federation of Labor gave
formal approval to the inauguration of week-end conferences for the
discussion of industrial questions, and recommended that these
be encouraged by the internationals and State and city central
bodies. The purpose of these is to afford “ an opportunity to present
the various aspects of a labor problem to the membership of labor,”
and to obtain the point of view of technicians, employers, and edu­
cators. “ No resolutions are passed; no questions of trade-union
policy are determined. There is a deliberate attempt to achieve a
better appreciation of the problem by labor as well as aiding the
public to understand the general question.”




Chapter X I.—Avenues of Publicity Used by Labor
Organizations
Labor Press

P

RACTICALLY all of the larger international unions and some
of the larger local unions have their own periodicals. In the
main these appear monthly, though a few organizations such
as the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and the
Amalgamated Clothing Workers publish a weekly paper.
In the columns of these periodicals the policies and actions of
the union are explained, matters of general or special labor interest
are discussed, and articles on technical trade subjects appear. These
publications are of all degrees of merit, but as the Journal of the
Electrical Workers pointed out, a gradual change for the better has
taken place:
If anyone will take the trouble to compare labor publications of 1927 with
those of 1910, or even with those of 1920, he will see significant changes. For
one thing there is an improvement in appearance, and in style. Color and design
figure more appealingly on the covers. There is a wider range of interest in
articles. There are more original illustrations. There is a more liberal sprin­
kling of articles by economists of the professional rank. There is a keener interest
manifested in the problems of management, in workers’ education, and in realistic
economics. And there is tangible evidence that labor publications are reflecting
the life of the workers themselves. * * *
There are unmistakable signs that still further development of the labor
periodical field is imminent. There is a feeling that it is a waste to publish a
journal that does not carry what smart editors call, reader appeal. A little
more money poured into a publication with the right technical expenditure, and
a dead magazine can be made to blossom as the rose. So editors and readers are
saying.
Then, there is an undercurrent of opinion that looks to the establishment of
a labor monthly with general, pictorial, and even popular appeal. This question
has been discussed by certain editors. How practicable the idea is remains to
be seen. And moreover the need for a great national labor daily will not down.
The whole journalistic field shows a splendid opportunity for continued and future
development and usefulness.

Among the best of the labor periodicals are those of the railroad
unions as a class. The editors of 16 of these, it is said, have formed
an editorial association which holds annual meetings for the purpose
of discussing their common problems.
The 16 organizations which these editors represent own jointly a
weekly paper, “ Labor," issued at Washington, with the general news­
paper make-up. It is published by a separate organization—the
Labor Cooperative Educational and Publishing Society, which owns
its building and its printing plant and has assets valued at $496,416.
Labor dailies have not been so successful, although many have
been started and some have flourished for a time.
An interesting journalistic enterprise of organized labor is the
Labor Publishing Co. of St. Louis. The refusal, in 1910, of printing
establishments of the city to print two papers issued by the labor
unions of St. Louis because of their support of a strike then going on
in another city led to the establishment of the Labor Publishing Co.,
180



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181

capitalized at $25,000, all of which is paid in. Some 23 unions in
the city own 60 per cent of the stock, and 600 of their members the
other 40 per cent. The papers, it is stated, have never been selfsupporting from a business point of view, but any deficits are made
up from private donations, festivals, etc. Job printing is also done
by the publishing company.
Labor Movies

OCCASIO NAL resort has been had to motion pictures as a means
^
of publicity. In 1925 the American Federation of Labor and
its union label trades department sponsored the production of a
motion picture called “ Labor’s Reward.” The picture depicts the
accomplishments of the American Federation of Labor, showing
“ how the labor movement has contributed to the spread of liberty
for all,” and also emphasizes the uses and benefits of the union label.
The film has been shown free for the past two years, and the secre­
tary of the union label trades department states that there is still great
demand for it from local union groups. It is also being shown in
the high schools of Chicago and other places.
Another labor “ movie” produced about the same time as the above
was called “ The Disciple” ; in this the labor problem was solved
by farmer-labor cooperation in buying out capitalism. A later film,
said to be the best of the three, is called “ The Passaic Textile Strike.”
This is described as being “ a movie of intense dramatic power because
it is largely photographed from real life.”
Actual scenes of the strike are run off, including mill pictures, mass picket
lines, police clubbings, giant meetings, the superb relief organization, and the
splendid solidarity not only of the 16,000 strikers, but also of the entire labor
movement back of them.1

The Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ International Union of
America has produced a film showing the processes of bread making,
the conditions under which bread is produced, and something of the work
of the union in improving these conditions. This film is shown as
an adjunct to “ Labor’s Reward.”
The International Typographical Union has produced a motion
picture called “ My Brother’s Keeper,” depicting the work of that
organization and its care for its aged and tubercular members at
Colorado Springs. The Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen also, in
1924, produced a motion-picture history of its organization.
Labor Radios
Chicago (WCFL)

I7ARLY in 1926 the Chicago Federation of Labor decided to open
^
its own radio broadcasting station. It received a charter Jan­
uary 29, 1926, the city granted permission to use the municipal pier
for its broadcasting station and the first program was broadcast July
27, 1926. Since that time the WCFL station has been “ on the air”
for 10 hours each day.
The station has its own workshop and experimental laboratories
and builds practically all of its own radio equipment.
1 Lithographers’ Journal, January, 1927, p. 341.




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184

B E N E F IC IA L A C T IV IT IE S

O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

advertising, and $151 from radiograms.
butions were the following:

Among the larger contri­

Teamsters’ locals (11)__________________________________ $30, 498
CarpentersUocals (9)___________________________________
14, 579
Bricklayers_____________________________________________ 12, 000
Amalgamated Clothing Workers________________________
10, 000
Painters’ locals (6)_____________________________________
7, 679
Musicians______________________________________________
4, 000
3, 000
Brick and clay workers’ locals (11)_____________________
Post-office clerks----------------------------------------------------------2, 929
Machinists’ locals (7)___________________________________
2, 891
Typographical unions___________________________________
2, 500

Disbursements for the 18-month period amounted to $152,161,
leaving a surplus of nearly $13,000.
The station has been favored in other equally important ways.
By reason of its close connection with the Brunswick Co., the studio
is enabled to obtain at minimum expense the services of various of the
singers who come to the studios of that company to make records.
Also, it has received permission from the American Society of Authors,
Composers, and Publishers to broadcast all its copyrighted music
free of the usual charge.
Programs.—The studio broadcasts from noon until 2 p. m., and
from 4 p. m. until midnight each day.
Although by far the greater part of its broadcasting time is devoted
to entertainment, chiefly musical, its programs also include talks on
subjects of special interest to organized labor, one hour a day being
devoted to these; frequent educational talks on subjects of general
interest, including household economics, health, cooperation, indus­
trial problems, employment situation, etc.; market, weather, and
crop reports for the farmers, as well as occasional talks on special
agricultural subjects; religious services; civic programs, band con­
certs, and other entertainments given on the municipal pier; election
returns and other matters of public interest, etc.
Management and administration.—The station is controlled by a
board of directors elected by the labor organizations contributing to
the support of the studio. Each organization has one vote for every
dollar of contribution. While the board of directors has direct
charge of the operation of the station through its business manager,
any matters of importance must be submitted to referendum vote of
the membership.
The studio hopes eventually to erect a superpower station some
distance outside of Chicago and has acquired an option on a 255-acre
farm. The interest of the Farmers’ Union of Iowa was enlisted and
it was reported toward the close of 1927 that the farmers' union would
purchase the farm for experimental farming and recreational purposes,
but would allot to WCFL some 10 or 20 acres for its new station.2
New York (WEVD)

Early in August, 1927, the Debs Memorial Radio Fund purchased
an existing radio station to be used as a “ militant voice of the Amer­
ican labor movement" and to “ give expression to the aspirations of
the millions of men and women who toil for their living." It is said
2 Journal of Electrical Workers, November, 1927, p. 564,




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that the use of the station is free to speakers of all shades of opinion,
no attempt at censorship of any kind being made.
The International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union gave the use
of the entire sixth floor of its building as a studio and control station
(the broadcasting station is at Woodhaven, Long Island), and the
station was form ally opened on October 20, 1927, the birthday of
Eugene V. Debs, to whose memory it is dedicated.
The fund is supported by voluntary contributions and a plan of
memberships at $1 per person per year is to be inaugurated. As
early as the end of June, 1927, it was announced that contributions
toward an endowment of $250,000 had been received from labor unions
in 30 States. Among the unions which are represented in the organ­
ization are the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, International Ladies’
Garment Workers’ Union, Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers,
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, United Mine Workers, United
Hebrew Trades, Pennsylvania Federation of Labor, etc., and various
organizations affiliated with the American Federation of Labor.
Other Labor Radios

Early in 1927 the Reading branch of the American Federation of
Full Fashioned Hosiery Workers secured the use of a radio station in
that city and presented on one evening a week, for 10 weeks, a labor
radio program consisting of musical numbers and brief speeches on
labor topics. It is said that “ in those 10 weeks more useful agitation
was created in favor of trade-unions in the hosiery mills in Reading
* * * than had been accomplished in two years previously.” So
successful was this experiment that the organization is reported
to have filed an application for a license to erect and operate a radio
station of its own.
The value of the use of the radio by labor unions to place their case
before the public is stated to have been demonstrated in Minneapolis
and St. Paul during a lockout of theatrical employees, these workers
making use of a local station for the purpose.
The San Francisco Labor Council is also reported to be consider­
ing the establishment of a radio station in that city, while in St. Louis,
Mo., the electrical workers’ local “ goes on the air” from its own sta­
tion every alternate Thursday.
The general interest of the labor movement in the subject is shown
by the fact that the 1927 convention of the American Federation of
Labor authorized the executive council of that body “ to ascertain if
it is feasible for organized labor to establish and maintain a chain of
radio broadcast stations throughout the country.” The attitude of
the convention was stated as follows:
By censorship, as permitted by law and so construed by the Federal Radio
Commission, big interests are able to control free air and use it for their own
interests to the exclusion of the rights and interests of organized labor, and by
this action will prevent organized labor from transmitting over the air its rights,
interest, and action during a crisis, real or created, by this wonderful means of
transmission.

Other Means of Publicity

AN

UNUSUAL means of obtaining publicity was recently used
by a Chicago local of painters. During a period in which the
union was receiving much and, it considered, undeserved criticism
for its attitude toward an arbitration award, the union undertook an
**




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exhibition of the art work of its members. The public had the idea
that the union was “ a gang of hoodlums and roughnecks, destroyers
of property, and a danger to civilization,” and the union wished to
demonstrate the fact that its members are artists and lovers of beauty.
The art exhibition conducted by local union No. 194 thus had a twofold object:
It aimed to give our members an opportunity to show their own brothers and
people in the community the results of their artistic endeavors, and it also
aimed— by showing what the members of one local union of painters could do—
to give the people of Chicago a somewhat different impression of the caliber of
men of which our organization was composed from that created by the misrepre­
sentations in the public press.
We felt that because this was a new venture, and therefore had what the press
terms * news value,” we would be able to get some publicity, and indeed the same
'‘
papers that had refused to accept the paid advertisements offered by the Painters’
District Council in an effort to set us right with the public gave considerable
space to the event.3

The exhibition included a great variety of subjects—landscapes
and marine paintings, portraits and figures, flowers, decorative art,
graining, marbleizing, designs and sketches, etc. There were also
two busts on exhibit. Although it had been planned to hold the ex­
hibit for four days only, such was the demand to see the pictures that
the exhibition was continued for a week longer. The result of the
undertaking is commented on as follows:
Although our art exhibition when first undertaken was a new venture and by
many regarded as a doubtful one, I think it may be pronounced an unqualified
success. It gave our members a long-desired opportunity to show their crafts­
manship, and I also think it did in some measure tend to alter public opinion in
regard to the inclinations and abilities of a union painter.3
8 American Federationist, February, 1928, p. 174.




Chapter XII.— Business Enterprises of Organized Labor
HE business fields invaded by labor unions are many and various.
The labor banks are probably the best known of these enter­
prises, but some of the other ventures are equally interesting.
The businesses so undertaken include the extension of credit (both
for building purposes and for personal uses), investment service,
writing of life insurance, the establishment of stores where only
union-label goods are for sale; of cooperative stores, where the patrons
benefit in direct proportion to their patronage of the store; and of
mail-order departments in the union organization, the manufacture
of bakery goods, washing the members’ clothes, and even providing
funerals at cost. Others include the manufacture of bricks, cigars,
and millwork, mining of coal, farming, running hotels, etc.
In most instances, when a labor organization goes into business
this is done through an entirely separate business organization.
Usually the enterprise is a capital-stock company whose shares are
offered for sale to members of the union, but the union itself purchases
51 per cent of the stock in order to retain control over the policies of
the organization.
Some of these businesses were started frankly for profit, but in the
majority of cases there was some other motive than this. In some in­
stances, in trades difficult to organize, the union enterprise was started
as an entering wedge to unionism. In other cases the project was
relied upon to bring up the level of wages in the trade, to furnish
employment for unionists, to increase the bargaining power of the
union, to provide additional benefits for members, etc.
Table 17 shows summary data for those business enterprises for
which data were available. Inasmuch as the union home-loan asso­
ciations are business organizations they also are included in the table.

T

T

able

1 7 .—S U M M A R Y O F T R A D E -U N IO N B U SIN ESS O R G A N IZ A T IO N S , 1927

K ind of business

Labor banks______________________________________
Personal-loan ban k__ __
_ ___________________
Home-loan associations___________________________
Credit unions________________________ ___________
Investment and holding companies_______________
Insurance companies_____________________________
Union label stores_____
_ _____________________
Bakeries__ _ _____________________________________
Laundries__
_________________________________
Funeral associations___ __ _______________________
Brick p l a n t ._____________________________________
Cigar factories
_ _ _____________

Total N um ­
num­ ber cov­
ber ered b y
table
28
1
8
150
*6
2
3
3
3
3
1
4

28
1
6
105
6
2
3
1
2
2
1
3

Paid-in
share
capital

$7,437,500
100,000
2,467,165
1,502,274
5,051,500
1,100.000
20,020
10,000
56,890
8 6,400
0)
40,550

Surplus
Amount
and undi­
vided pro­ o f business,
1927
fits
$3,606,614
2 5,000
5,853
0)
«43,249
«209,506
0)
0)
0)
0)

0)
0)
(l)
3 $3,978,856
0)
« 81,223,000
50,088
91,290
7 185,485
40,542
9 100,000
77,000

1 N ot reported.
A t end of first 6 months of operation.
8 Loans granted during year; 98 societies only.
4 N ot counting the 5 subsidiaries of 1 company, nor their 7 subsidiaries.
5 1 com pany only.
« Insurance in force at end of year.
7 Figures for 1926 for 1 company,
s 1 association only; other is nonstock,
s Approximate.
2

102869°— 28-




-13

187

188

B E N E F IC IA L A C T IV IT IE S

O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

Financial Enterprises
Labor Banks

/C H A R AC TER ISTICS of the labor bank.— The term “ labor bank,”

^
as used in the United States, means banks in which the majority
of the stock is owned by labor organizations. In some cases one
international union is the sponsor for the bank and controls a majority
of the stock. Among the banks controlled by a single union are those
of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers in Chicago and New York,
those of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers in Boston, Cleve­
land (2 banks), Hammond (Ind.), San Francisco, Seattle, and Three
Forks (Mont.), that of the Order of Railroad Telegraphers in St.
Louis, that of the Brotherhood of Railway Clerks in Cincinnati, that
of the American Flint Glass Workers’ Association in Toledo, and that
of the International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union in
Rogersville, Tenn. In other cases the bank’s stock is owned by a
number of unions, either of the same industry or of the same locality,
while in a few instances a labor organization exercises control of a
bank through a subsidiary organization. Instances of this latter
method of control are the brotherhood banks at Portland, Oreg.,
and Spokane and Tacoma, Wash., which are controlled by the Brother­
hood of Locomotive Engineers through its subsidiary, the Pacific
Brotherhood Investment Co.
The following table shows for each of the 28 labor banks in existence
on June 30,1928, the labor group by which controlled, whether directly
or indirectly:
T

able

1 8 .—

U N IO N S C O N T R O L L IN G L A B O R B A N K S , JU N E 30, 1928

Bank
M ount Vernon Savings Bank, W ashington...........................
Engineers National Bank, Cleveland............................ .............
Engineers National Bank, B oston...............................................
Brotherhood Cooperative National Bank, Spokane-------------Brotherhood Cooperative National Bank, Tacom a.......... ......
Brotherhood Cooperative National Bank, Portland, Oreg....
Brotherhood National Bank, San Francisco..............................
People’s Cooperative State Bank, Hammond, Ind............—
Brotherhood Bank & Trust Co., Seattle................................. ..
Nottingham Savings & Banking Co., Cleveland— ...............
Brotherhood State Bank, Hillyard (Spokane), W ash.............
Labor National Bank, Three Forks, M on t.................. .............
Amalgamated Bank of N ew Y o r k ...............................................
Amalgamated Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago........................
Telegraphers National Bank, St. Louis............................... ......
Brotherhood of Railway Clerks National Bank, Cincinnati..
American Bank, T oledo.......................... ............................. ........
Hawkins C ounty Bank, Rogersville, T en n ..............................
Federation Bank & Trust Co., New Y ork C ity......................
Transportation Brotherhoods National Bank, M inneapolis.
Farmers & W orkingmen’s Savings Bank, Jackson, M i c h ...
Labor National Bank, Jersey City, N . J...................................
Labor Cooperative National Bank, Paterson, N . J.
United Labor Bank & Trust Co., Indianapolis........
Labor National Bank, Great Falls, M on t..................
Gary Labor Bank, Gary, Ind.......................................
Labor Bank & Trust Co., Houston, Tex....................
Labor National Bank, Newark, N . J..........................




B y whom controlled
Machinists’ Union.
Brotherhood of Locom otive Engineers.
Do.
D o.
D o.
Do.
Do.
Do.
D o.
D o.
D o.
Do.
Amalgamated Clothing Workers.
Order of Railroad Telegraphers.
Brotherhood of Railway Clerks.
American Flint Glass W orkers’ Asso­
ciation.
International Printing P r e s s m e n
and Assistants’ Union.
American Federation of Labor unions.
“ Big 4” railroad brotherhoods.
Railroad unions.
Central Labor Union and Building
Trades Council of Hudson County,
N .J .
Various labor groups.
Do.
Do.
D o.
Do.
68 local unions.

B U S IN E S S E N T E R P R IS E S

OF

O R G A N IZ E D

LABOR

189

In Order that the control of the banks may be retained by the
labor organizations sponsoring them the union or unions which
started the banks usually purchase 51 per cent or more of the stock
of the institution. In some cases the percentage thus owned rises
far above this. Thus, in the banks of the Amalgamated Clothing
Workers in New York and Chicago “ the overwhelming majority
of stock" is held by the union or its members. At the time of the
convention of the American Flint Glass Workers' Union, it was
stated that 89 per cent of the stock of the American Bank was held
by the union. The president of that organization, however, was
of the opinion that “ the stock being so closely held it has a tend­
ency to retard the progress of the bank."
As to this point, the director of industrial relations of Princeton
University, who has devoted much time to the study of labor banks,
expresses himself as follows:
It is questionable whether there is sufficient solidarity among labor groups
in all communities to guarantee that a bank operated by a single union, no
matter how strong that union is nationally, may expect large deposits by members
of other unions. This is especially true in a city where the union's own member­
ship is relatively small. This limitation seems to exist more in the East where
banking competition is most keen. It is more probable, however, that a single
union will be successful in a banking enterprise in a city where its headquarters
is located, and more especially if the headquarters of other national unions are
close at hand. The fact that the bank is at headquarters centers the attention
of the membership upon it so that mail deposits by members are more likely.
Also, the prestige of the union concerned is more effective as a stimulant to non­
member depositors in the home city of the organization.
To be sure, labor banks sponsored by single unions have in several cities been
very successful. But these are cases in which the local membership in those
cities is large. The appeal of the bank is most direct, as the members of the union
associate it not only with the labor movement as a whole, but more especially
with their own trade.
Many of the strongest labor banks, because of the number of local unions
which have sponsored their establishment, have not had to face this possible
difficulty of limited appeal. These institutions are closely associated with the
labor movement as a whole in their particular cities and in turn bring about
increased solidarity among the various organizations which are responsible for
their existence and growth.1

A statement furnished to the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the
Federation Bank & Trust Co. of New York (now the leading labor
bank in point of resources), early in 1928, shows that 45 international
unions and 400 local unions have accounts with it, and 35 interna­
tionals and some 150 locals are stockholders. The bank claims to be
“ the most widely owned and most representative labor bank on the
American Continent because a larger variety of unions own stock in
this institution than in any other labor bank."
Cooperative features.—Most of the labor banks have certain coopera­
tive features. Thus, generally, a limit is placed upon the number of
shares that may be held by any shareholder. Also, dividends to
stockholders are usually limited to 8 or 10 per cent per annum, all
earnings above this to be rebated to depositors in the form of increased
interest rates.
The Federation Bank of New York, however, is reported to have
eliminated this cooperative feature several years ago, when by vote
of the stockholders the 10 per cent restriction on stock returns was
1 American Federationist, October, 1927, pp. 1178-1181: “ Seven years of labor banking,” b y J. Douglas
Brown.




190

B E N E F IC IA L A C T IV IT IE S

O F T R A D E -U N IO N S

removed, the bank declaring in 1925 an extra stock dividend of 12
per cent in addition to the regular 8 per cent dividend.
The Cleveland Engineers’ Bank stated early in 1927 that its share­
holders had received a 10 per cent return on their stock in each of
the four preceding years, while depositors had received interest at
the rate of 4 per cent and in addition cooperative dividends were paid
to savings depositors in 1923, 1924, and 1925.
The Brotherhood of Railway Clerks National Bank during 1927
paid 4 per cent on stock and 4 per cent on deposits; in that year
interest paid to depositors amounted to $129,035.
The Amalgamated Bank of New York at its recent stockholders’
meeting voted, in view of the prosperous condition of the bank, to
increase the interest on savings accounts from 4 to 4J^ per cent,
while keeping the stock dividend to the previous 8 per cent. Excess
earnings of previous years had been used to increase the bank’s
reserves. The report of the directors to the 1927 meeting stated:
The bank is now and will continue to be a limited dividend enterprise. The
rate of earnings has been gratifying and promises to increase substantially in
the future. These increased earnings will be employed, not for private profit,
but to strengthen the surplus of the bank and to develop new functions of use to
its depositors and to the community.

Services offered— Several of the labor banks make a feature of the
“ banking by mail” service they offer. The report of the Teleg­
raphers National Bank made to the 1927 convention of the Order
of Railroad Telegraphers stated that of 9,270 depositors of the bank
more than 3,000 were doing their business with the institution by
mail.
Advice on investments is also offered as a service to stockholders
and depositors of the banks. The engineers’ bank at Cleveland has
a special bond department for this purpose, and offers a plan by
which bonds can be bought through the bank on a partial payment
basis.
The foreign exchange service is another feature emphasized by
some of these labor banks, especially those whose members or cus­
tomers are of foreign stock. So efficient has been the remittance
service of the Amalgamated Bank of New York that even other banks
make use of it in transmitting sums abroad. Since the bank started
this service, more than $18,000,000 has been sent to all parts of
Europe.
Provision of steamship accommodations, letters of credit, travelers’
checks, etc., are some of the other services offered by labor banks.
Several banks have inaugurated a small-loan service. Chief among
these is the Amalgamated Bank of New York, which regards this
service as “ the outstanding feature of the bank’s loan operations.”
It points out that “ one of the greatest handicaps which the wage
earner has had to face has been his comparative inability to borrow
money.” Its loan department is operated on a cost basis. Interest
is charged (at the rate of 6 per cent) only on the unpaid balance of
the loan. Two indorsers are required whose financial responsibility
is known to the bank. The loans range from $50 to $300, run for 10
months, and are repaid in monthly installments. It is stated that
90 per cent of these loans are necessitated by illness or other emer­
gencies. “ Thousands of these small loans are made each year




B U S IN E S S E N T E R P R IS E S

O F O R G A N IZ E D

LABOR

191

* * * with comparatively no losses involved.” A similar’service
has recently been inaugurated by the Amalgamated bank in Chicago.
The Brotherhood of Railway Clerks National Bank announced
that on January 16, 1928, it opened an “ industrial loan department,”
for the purpose of making small loans to persons having steady
employment and to small businesses. This department was estab­
lished to meet “ the growing demand for a dignified plan of financing
individuals at a reasonable rate of interest, without delay or red
tape.” Persons of.good reputation who are steadily employed may
secure a loan upon the indorsement of two others also of good reputa­
tion and steady employment. “ Character and industry are here
recognized as a basis of credit.”
Loans may be made to meet past due accounts; notes; mortgages; interest;
taxes; insurance premiums; vacation expenses; school expenses; street, sidewalk,
or sewer assessments; doctors’ bills; dentists’ bills; hospital bills; funeral expenses;
moving expenses; purchases of real estate; to build, alter, paint, or repair your
home or garage; to install a furnace; to buy household furniture, coal, office
and store equipment, or clothing. In short, for any sensible, legitimate, useful
purpose, but not for buying luxuries or for speculation.

The Brotherhood State Bank at Hillyard (Spokane), Wash., states
that it “ takes care of the laboring class of people here in our little
community * * * and we have a lot of small loans which are
made primarily to help the wage earner feel independent.”
A few banks have made loans to employers of union labor. One
bank on the Pacific coast reported having made two such loans, but
its experience has been anything but satisfactory. In one case, that
of a general contractor, who employed union labor only, the heads
of the various crafts employed by him urged that the loan be made.
Study of the firm’s financial statement showed that “ the loan was
a solvent one,” and it was therefore made. It proved later, however,
that the firm had taken the contract at too low a figure, and it lost
between $35,000 and $40,000 and the bank about $18,000. In the
other case, also, the loan was made on the solicitation of labor leaders
because of the fact that the firm employed union labor only. Suc­
cessive applications for increases of the loan were made, the first of
which were granted, but the remainder refused. The contractor
committed several illegal acts and finally fled, his affairs being thrown
into bankruptcy. In this case, however, the bank holds a lien on
property worth twice the amount of the loan.
As a result of this experience the bank has changed its policy as
regards this type of loans, commenting as follows:
At the outset of the bank’s operations, those in active management were quite
sympathetic with the kind of loans which you are inquiring about, but the present
management have resisted the making of any loans from the standpoint of sen­
timent. The bank’s policy now is to help organized labor or those employing
organized labor whenever such help can be predicated upon security or financial
responsibility fully justifying the credit.

Another bank in the Southwest, during the progress of an openshop controversy, “ had occasion to assist the only brick manufac­
turer in this city who was favorable to organized labor. We extended
him a line of credit from between $5,000 and $7,000 and believe our
assistance was essential in enabling him to tide over his affairs until
conditions returned to normal. We have had several other instances
of a like nature, but our advancement of credit was not as vital as
it was in this particular case.”



192

B E N E F IC IA L A C T IV IT IE S

O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

The Amalgamated Bank of New York reports that it has assisted
striking unions in the fur and cloak industries by “ substantial
loans,” these being “ properly secured by collateral and endorsements
of the international officers in those unions.” However, “ no loans are
made to clothing manufacturers or other manufacturers in the needle
trades.”
In connection with its cooperative housing project in New York
City, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers through its bank in that
city, assisted members, through loans, in making the initial payment
required for the purchase of stock in the housing project. In other
ways also, its banks have assisted cooperative undertakings. “ Time
after time cooperative organizations have received credit from the
Chicago bank within the five years of its existence. Responsible
propertied indorsement or collateral has been required in all cases
and no losses whatsoever have been sustained in this particular loan­
ing field. Strange to say, other banks, through prejudice or ignorance
of cooperative methods, have refused many of these same loans.”
Development oj labor banlcs in the United States.— It is eight years
since the first labor bank was established. During this period 40
such banks have been established, and of these 28 are still in exist­
ence as labor banks,
The following table shows for the 28 still in operation the status
as of June 30, 1928, arranged in descending order, according to their
resources on that date: a
T

able

1 9 — STATU S

OF L A B O R B A N K S AS OF JU N E 30,1928

Bank

Capital
stock

Federation Bank & Trust Co., N ew Y ork ............................. $750,000
Engineers National Bank of Cleveland...................................
650.000
Amalgamated Bank of N ew Y ork............................................
500.000
Telegraphers’ National Bank of St. Louis.............................
Labor Cooperative National Bank of Paterson, N . J .......... 300.000

1 0 ,0 0
,0 0 0

Brotherhood of Railway Clerks National Bank, Cincinnati.

200.000

M ount Vernon Savings Bank, Washington, D . C ............. .
Labor National Bank of Newark, N . J ................................. .
Engineers National Bank of Boston........................................

400.000
250.000

Amalgamated Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago....................

200.000

Brotherhoods Cooperative National Bank of Spokane,
W ash......................................................................................... .
Brotherhood Cooperative National Bank, Tacoma, Wash.
Brotherhood Cooperative National Bank, Portland, Oreg.
Transportation Brotherhoods’ National Bank of Minne­
apolis......................................................................................... .
Labor National Bank of Jersey City, N . J................ ...........
Brotherhood National Bank of San Francisco......................

200,000

500.000

200,000
200,000

200,000
200,000
500.000

Peoples Cooperative State Bank, Hamm ond, In d ............. .

100.000

American Bank, Toledo............................................................ .

200,000

Brotherhood Bank & Trust Co., Seattle............................... .
Farmers’ & W orkingmen’s Savings Bank, Jackson, M ich.

250.000

Nottingham Savings & Banking Co., Cleveland................ .
Hawkins C ounty Bank, Rogersville, Tenn.3.........................

75.000
50.000

100.000

Surplus
and un­
divided
profit
i $750,000
. 2 297,278
359,956
1350,000
2 85,470
224,303
' 1 150,000
. 235,782
' 150,000
. 2 43,794
151,822

Deposits

Total
resources

119,036,393 $21,168,585
16,780,115 20,154,680
9,837,679 11,209,688
6,755,030
7,718,383
5,675,320
5,031,616
4,507,582

5,274,641

3,730,431
3,626,281

4,374,575
4,064,412

150.000
2 22,095
1100,000
2 42,175

2,833,020

3,732,132

3,129,408

3,493,885

89,097
45,164
70,722

2,687,913
2,677,757
2,287,024

3,195,679
3,122,879
2,763,149

61,540
104,320
55,793
130.000
2 15,412
150.000
2 4,241
40,000
16,300
U5,000

2,396,009
2,105,277
1,669,123
1,705,643

2,743,204
2,709,095
2,433,328
1,933,634

1,203,683
911,954
971,087

1,588,567
1,201,954
1,095,938
895,693

53,804

798,717
722,261

1 Surplus.
2 Undivided profits.
3 As of A pr. 24,1928.
“ These figures were furnished b y the section on industrial relations of Princeton University.




826,065

B U S IN E S S E N T E R P R IS E S

OP

O R G A N IZ E D

LABOR

193

T a b l e 1 9 .— STATUS OF LABOR BANKS AS OF JUNE 30, 1928—C o n tin u e d

Capital
stock

Bank

Labor National Bank of Great Falls, M on t___

$ 100,000

United Labor Bank & Trust Co., Indianapolis.

112,500

Gary Labor Bank, Gary, In d ...............................

50.000

Labor Bank & Trust Co., Houston, T ex.......... .

100,000

Labor National Bank, Three Forks, M on t____

25.000

Brotherhood State Bank of Spokane, W ash.4.. .

25.000

Total (28 banks)............................................

7,437,500

2 U ndivided profits.

Surplus
and un­
divided
profit
i $10,500
2 8,786
122,500
* 11,142

11 ,0 0
00
2 2,643
13.000
2 951
15.000
2 5,704
15.000
2 1,745

3,606,614

Deposits

Total
resources

$822,178
658,222

810,144

627,130

759,892

423,878
192,818

228,522

159,891

192,563

98,165,834 114,717,673

* As of Feb. 28, 1928.

The pioneer labor bank, the Mount Vernon Savings Bank, Wash­
ington, D. C., reported in May, 1927, that it had more than 16,000
depositors. The Brotherhood of Railway Clerks’ National Bank at
the close of 1927 had 11,024 depositors.
The two banks of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers have some
25,000 depositors, and the bank at Chicago has accounts from more
than 250 labor organizations.
The table below shows the development in resources of these banks
since 1923:
T

SO.—D E V E L O P M E N T OF L A B O R B A N K S , 1923 T O 1928

able

Bank

Federation Bank & Trust Co., N ew Y ork ..........
Engineers National Bank, Cleveland. .................
Amalgamated Bank of N ew Y ork .........................
Telegraphers National Bank, St. Louis.....................
Labor Cooperative National Bank, Paterson, N . J._
Brotherhood Railway Clerks National Bank, Cin­
cinnati...........................................................................
M ount Vernon Savings Bank, Washington, D . C._
Labor National Bank, Newark, N . J....................
Engineers National Bank, Boston........................
Amalgamated Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago___
Brotherhood Cooperative National Bank, Spokane.
Brotherhood Cooperative National Bank, Tacoma.
Brotherhood Cooperative National Bank, Port­
land, Oreg.....................................................................
Transportation Brotherhoods National Bank, M in­
neapolis.........................................................................
Brotherhood National Bank, San Francisco............
Labor National Bank, Jersey C ity.............................
Peoples Cooperative State Bank, Hammond, In d .
Brotherhood Bank & Trust Co., Seattle...................
United Labor Bank & Trust Co., Indianapolis___
American Bank, Toledo, Ohio.....................................
Farmers & W orkingmen’s Savings Bank. Jackson.
M ich ..............................................................................
Nottingham Savings & Banking Co., ClevelandHawkins County Bank, Rogersville, T enn..............
Labor National Bank, Great Falls, M ont_________
Gary Labor Bank, Gary, In d ......................................
Labor Bank & Trust Co., Houston, Tex...................
Brotherhood State Bank, Hillyard (Spokane),
W ash............................................................................
Labor National Bank, Three Forks, M ont...............
Total (28 banks)..
1 N o data.




Year
estab­
lished

Total resources
1923

1925

1926

1928

1923 $4,510,157 $13,613,560 $19,081,983 $21,168,585
1920 26,101,532 28,565,830 25,483,728 20,154,680
1923 3,114,403
6,429,437
8,642,113 11.209,688
1923 4,979,827
6,428,847
7,217,467
7,718,383
1924
3,372,855
4,414,147
5,675,320
1923
1920
1925
1924
1922
1923
1925

1,835,070

0

2,257,302
1,307,415

1925
1922
1926
1926
1921
1925
1924
1925
1924
1922

3,720,431
3,957,204
1,646,365
3,817,246
2,951,637
3,020,680
2,210,752

4,254,937
4,825,216
2,853,995
4,388,631
3,230,895
3,293,820
3,252,215

5,274,641
4,374,575
4,064,412
3,732,132
3,493,885
3.195,679
3,122,879

2,040,558

2,667,409

2,763,149

1,621,638

2,311,478

1,289, 259

1,765,017
928,910
684,021
557,466

2,611,000
2,452,879
1,525,652
1,901,777
1,196,431
1,117,126

2,743,204
2,433,328
2,709,095
1,933,634
1,201,954
810,144
1,588,567
1,095,938
895,693
826,065
822,178
759,892
528,888
192,563
228,522

” 383, 753

1925
1925

320,443

911,948
845,527
701,614
668,152
577,430
460, 111

1923

209,691
202,908

224,428
201,471

664,649

A

48,065,005

710,386
841,275
634,753
534,866

91,476,616 109,885,054 114,717,673

194

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O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

It is seen from the above figures that of the 28 banks for which
data for successive years are available, 19 have had a steady increase
in resources since their formation. The effect of the reorganization
and change in the financial policy of the Brotherhood of Locomotive
Engineers is shown in the falling off in resources in 1927 of some of
the banks controlled by that organization. The brotherhood has
been the foremost exponent of the idea of labor's meeting capital on
its own ground. A change in this policy is indicated by the follow­
ing resolution passed by the 1927 convention of the organization:
Resolved, That it be the policy of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers
to liquidate our banking, investment, and realty interests at the earliest possible
moment and in such manner as to occasion the least possible loss;
Resolved, That there be no further expansion of any character whatsoever
in the banking, investment, or realty interests and further that there be no
further expenditure in the development of our present holdings except such as
may be necessary to the end of liquidating same.8
Personal Loan Bank

The unionists of Cleveland have a “ personal loan” bank, the
Continental Bank, organized to make small loans on the indorse­
ment of three persons. This bank, which was organized early in
1927 and started business in March of that year, has an authorized
capital of $100,000. Its paid-up capital at the end of 1927 amounted
to $50,000 and its surplus to $5,000. Of its stock, $26,000 worth
is owned by the American Home Builders, another Cleveland enter­
prise owned by trade-unionists.4 The remainder is held by members
of the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen and other unions.
The bank pays 5 per cent on deposits and charges 8 per cent
discount for its loans. During the first six months of operation it
made $5,000 undivided profits.
Credit Unions

Credit unions, designed to furnish an avenue of credit for the man
who has no bank relations and needs a small loan and to encourage
thrift, have been rather widely indorsed by labor organizations,
not only by individual international organizations but by city and
State federations in their annual meetings.
What was perhaps the first labor credit union was formed by
the Central Labor Union of Worcester, Mass. Its credit society
was organized July 17, 1915, membership therein being limited to
members of unions affiliated with the Central Labor Union. Since
that time two other central labor unions (those of Columbia, S. C.,
and Atlanta, Ga.) have started credit unions, as have also one or
more locals of various international labor organizations.
The National Federation of Postal Employees was the first labor
organization to go into the work on a wide scale. It has again and
again given indorsement to these organizations and has actively
cooperated with the National Service Relations Council of the Post
Office Department in their formation at the various post offices
throughout the United States. The latest report of the Service
Relations Council shows that on October 1, 1927, there were 83
of these postal credit unions with resources totaling $1,001,535.
As these are not strictly union organizations, membership in them is
open to all the postal workers irrespective of trade-union affiliation.
a Bailw ay Carmen’s Journal, September, 1927, p. 638.




* Described on p. 136.

B U S IN E S S E N T E R P R IS E S

195

O F O R G A N IZ E D L A B O R

Startling disclosures of the need of their members for loans and of
the usurious rates they had been paying to so-called “ salary buyers”
were made by some of the railway unions a year or two ago. Aroused
by the situation disclosed, some of the railroad brotherhoods have
been encouraging the formation of credit unions. Particularly active
in this respect has been the Brotherhood of Railway Clerks and its
local lodges. With the assistance of the Credit Union National
Extension Bureau, credit unions have already been organized in a
number of these lodges. The Railway Clerk (organ of the Brother­
hood of Railway Clerks) has contained a number of articles on the
subject. In its April, 1928, issue it reported that 41 local lodges
had started credit associations and more were in process of organization.
The first of these was started as early as 1926. These 41 credit
unions are distributed by States, as follows: California, 1; Georgia,
4; Illinois, 4; Indiana, 3; Iowa, 5; Kentucky, 2; Michigan, 1; Min­
nesota, 5; Missouri, 7; Nebraska, 1; North Carolina, 3; Rhode
Island, 1; South Carolina, 1; Tennessee, 2; Washington, 1.
Other organizations one or more of whose locals have recognized
the value of such credit unions and have formed one are the Amalga­
mated Clothing Workers, carpenters, headgear workers, lithographers,
machinists, railway clerks, street-railway employees, teachers, and
textile workers.
In its issue of February, 1928, the Paper Makers’ Journal reviews
the situation in the paper makers’ union. Members of that organ­
ization, when in need, have received help in the form of loans from
local unions, officers, individual members, and the international
itself. The union has found, however, that in many cases this timely
help has been unappreciated and that many thousands of dollars of
such loans remain unpaid. The international secretary is of the
opinion that the situation can be greatly relieved by the formation
of credit unions within the locals, and states:
Within the near future in the columns of this journal we propose to outline
plans for the formation of credit unions. Should they be favorably rceived by
the local unions, then headquarters, local unions, officers, and members will be
relieved of an almost unbearable burden that a certain portion of our members
believe is obligatory upon the rest of us.

The following statement shows the number of credit unions known
to have been formed by locals of each organization up to April, 1928:
Number
of credit
unions

Central labor unions__________________________
3
Cigar makers__________________________________
1
Telephone workers____________________________
4
Lithographers_________________________________
1
Carpenters____________________________________
1
Amalgamated Clothing Workers_______________
3
Various unions________________________________
1
Postal employees 5____________________________
83
2
Headgear workers_____________________________
Textile workers_______________________________
1
Fur workers___________________________________
1
Railway clerks________________________________
41
Teachers______________________________________
4
Expressmen___________________________________
1
Machinists____________________________________
1
Street-railway employees______________________ ___ 2
Total___________________________________ 150
5Not strictly union.




Date of organization
of first

1915
1916
1917
1919
1920
1920
1921
1923
1924
1925
1926
1926
1926
1927
1927
1926

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A C T IV IT IE S

O F T R A D E -T J N IO N S

The following table shows for those credit unions for which data
are at hand, the status at the end of 1927. A number of the labor
credit unions are of very recent origin and have therefore had little
experience in the credit field and little business to report.
T

able

3 1 .— O P E R A T IO N S OF L A B O R C R E D I T U N IO N S, 1927

Loans
N um ­
ber of
credit
unions
cov­
ered

N um ­
ber of
mem­
bers

Paid-in
share
capital

Carpenters1.................................
Expressmen............. ..... ...........
Fur workers1..............................
Headgear w orkers1....................
Lithographers.............................
Machinists__________________ _
M en’s clothing workers *........ .
Postal employees...................... .
R ailway clerks............................
Teachers.......................................
Telephone workers....................
Textile workers...........................
Various trades6..........................

1
1
1
2
1
1
3
83
6
1
2
1
2

747
67
28
1,210
U87
46
2,160
16,257
742
40
2,112
115
659

$37,462 $1,974
51,325
13
28
349
4,765
140,863
9,219
1347
240
200,252 “ "8,”343'
926,857
(3
)
156
7,771
14
339
6,531
86,035
365
4,645
1,278
36,917

Total..................................

105

Trade of members of credit
union

1 Data are for 1926.
2 Average rate.
8 N ot reported.

24,370 1,502,274

R e­
serves

Rate of Granted
interest during
charged
year

Out­
stand­
ing at
end of
year

°U

Per cent
$42,421
«8 .0
(8
)
387
(3
)
174
8.0
5.9
245,626 143,149
5.9
10,367
18,620
(3
)
2 6.9
* 414,882 *209,941
3,183,890
(8
)
(3
)
2 6.5
5,390
7,733
260
75
(3
)
6.0
1 75.461 164,263
8.0
4,547
(3
5
2 6.5
7 33,210
60,973

23,814

6.9

4 Data for 2 societies are for 1926.
5 2 societies only.
6 Data for 1 society are for 1926.

3,979,856

641,687

A m ount
paid in
divi­
dends

(3
)
(3
)
$4,009
(3
)
5 6,002
(3
)
43
4,"783
228
7 1,069
16,134

7 1 society only.

Some credit unions offer additional services to their members.
Thus, the Amalgamated Credit Union of New York City pools the
coal orders of its members, effecting a saving of 75 cents a ton. Of
this, 50 cents goes to the purchaser and 25 cents to the credit union.
Some $100,000 worth of coal is ordered in this way every year. The
Headgear Workers’ Credit Union in the same city has formed a club
through which group life insurance may be secured, in policies of
$1,000. Ninety cents per month is charged for this. A checking
service is also provided.
Many of the headgear workers have no connections with any regular bank,
and therefore have no means of procuring checks for the easy mailing of money.
This credit union offers a checking service free to its members. The man or
woman who wants to pay an electric bill, gas bill, or installment on the new
radio and send a check through the mails, merely brings the cash into the office
of the credit union, and the cashier makes out a check to the order of
that member.6
Investment and Holding Companies

The Bureau of Labor Statistics knows of at least six investment or
holding companies owned by organized labor. These are controlled
by the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, American Train Dispatchers'
Association, Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers (2), Central Labor
Council of Buffalo, N. Y., and Central Labor Union and Building
Trades Council of Hudson County, N. J. The Brotherhood of Loco­
motive Engineers was the first to start such a company, establishing
both its holding company and its investment company in 1922. The
American Train Dispatchers’ Association and the New Jersey unions
• Brotherhood of Locom otive Firemen and Enginemen’s Magazine, January, 1927, p. 75.




B U S IN E S S E N T E R P R IS E S

OF

O R G A N IZ E D

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197

organized their companies in 1925, the Amalgamated Clothing
Workers in 1926, and the Central Labor Union of Buffalo in 1927.
The International Photo-Engravers’ Union has authorized the forma­
tion of such a company but no action has as yet been taken.
The Amalgamated Investors (Inc.), subsidiary of the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers of America, and owned and controlled by it, began
business March 15, 1926. The company, it is stated, was organized
to provide services supplementary to those afforded by the union’s
two banks, and “ to secure for the small and inexperienced investor,
as well as for labor organizations, some of the benefits in the manage­
ment of invested funds which now accrue only to large investors.”
The capital with which the company operates is obtained by the sale
of investment certificates. The purchaser of such a certificate pays
for it “ a sum equal to the ratio of the value of the assets of the cor­
poration to the face value of the certificates outstanding.” (If he
desires to redeem his certificate “ he receives in cash his proportionate
share of the assets of the corporation less 1 per cent of the face value
of the certificate.” ) The money so obtained is invested in various
types of securities, for which service a charge of three-fourths of 1
per cent is made to cover expenses of operation. All earnings on the
investments made (minus the service fee) accrue to the holders of the
certificates. “ In other words, the investors pool their invested cap­
ital and share in the earnings and assets of the invested fund in the
proportion that their investment bears to the whole.” The earnings
of the company arise from the interest and dividends on the stocks
and bonds owned and from profits on the sale of such securities.
During the company’s first year of operation the holders of invest­
ment certificates received an 8 per cent return on their money, and
at the close of business March 15, 1927, the organization had, accord­
ing to its report for that year, in its fund $169,139.94 or $102.82 of
assets for every $100 of investment certificates issued, “ all * * *
in securities which may be sold and cash received therefor within 24
hours.” These certificates outstanding on that date totaled $164,500.
The certificates are transferable only with the consent of the corpora­
tion, but will be accepted as collateral to secure loans at either of the
union’s banks.
The report for the year ending March 15, 1928, shows assets of
$598,105, and net earnings of 14.6 per cent. The investors received a
quarterly cash dividend at the rate of 6 per cent per year and in addi­
tion two extra dividends of 2 and 5 per cent.
The Train Dispatchers’ Investment Co. was organized in December,
1925. Its business is the buying and selling of bonds, making loans,
and buying installment paper. It also gives advice to members as
to what securities to invest in; it acts as an insurance agency, and as
a broker on first mortgages. It has inaugurated for its members a
system by which they may purchase bonds on the installment plan
through the company.
The company was originally capitalized at $2,500,000, but a recent
meeting authorized the reduction of this authorized capital to $250,000; at the same time the number of shares of no-par founders’ or
common stock was reduced from 40,000 to 4,000. Fifty-one per cent
of the stock is held by the union and most of the remainder is owned
by members of the union.




198

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O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

During the period October 1,1926, to November 30, 1927, the com­
pany made 271 loans, of which 198 were still active at the end of the
period; 93 mechanic’s liens were accepted, and 12 junior and 8 first
mortgages were negotiated by the company. Insurance to the
amount of $251,850 was written through the company during the
period.
On June 30, 1927, the assets of the corporation were reported as
being $132,337, an increase during the year of $67,628. During the
seven-month period the income of the company amounted to $5,851.
No dividends have been paid thus far, as the company’s expenses have
exceeded its income. This was explained at the third annual meeting
of the company, held in January, 1928, as follows:
Due principally to a most careful selection and scrutiny and a consequent rejec­
tion of a large percentage of the business offered the company for the investment
of its funds, the average investment for the year was not quite sufficient to bring
returns equal to the overhead. This, however, was after all charge-offs and depre­
ciations had been made and was considered an excellent showing in view of the
circumstances involved. The outlook is quite bright, and with no unforeseen set­
back occurring to prevent a slow but steady growth the profits in the operations
of the company at the end of another year should be quite satisfactory.

The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers owns and controls the
Brotherhood Holding Co., organized in February, 1922, to act as a
supplementary organization to the Engineers National Bank and to
undertake operations which could not be handled by that institution.
This holding company was authorized to carry on the buying and sell­
ing of commercial paper, notes, acceptances, bonds and securities of
all kinds, and to make loans on mortgages and other collateral. It
was capitalized at $1,001,500, divided into 10,000 shares of 7 per cent
preferred stock at $100 per share, and 10,000 shares of common
stock with no par value but having a declared value of 15 cents each.
In the same year the brotherhood also organized the Brotherhood
Investment Co., capitalized at $10,000,000— 100,000 shares of 7 per
cent preferred stock at $100 per share and 100,000 shares of common
stock of no par value. The stock was sold in blocks of two shares of
preferred and one share of common, at $200 per block, the preferred
to be redeemable at $103 per share plus accrued dividends at any divi­
dend date. The brotherhood owned 75 per cent of the preferred and
51 per cent of the common stock.
The company was authorized to buy and sell commercial paper,
invest in securities such as those of Government, municipal, and public
utilities, buy real estate, corporation bonds, and stock of banks and
trust companies, etc.
Various subsidiaries to the company were organized from time to
time, so that by 1927 the Brotherhood Investment Co. had five sub­
ordinate organizations—Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers Se­
curities Corporation of New York, Brotherhood of Locomotive Engi­
neers Securities Corporation of Pennsylvania, Metropolitan Security
Co., New England Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers Securities
Corporation, and Pacific Brotherhood Investment Co. The Pacific
Brotherhood Investment Co. in its turn had seven subsidiaries as
follows: California Brotherhood Investment Co., Pacific Empire Co.,
Pacific Insurance Agency (Inc.), Brotherhood Safe Deposit Co.,
Assured Thrift Agency (Inc.), Assured Thrift Corporation, and Uni­
versal Mortgage Corporation,




B U S IN E S S E N T E R P R IS E S

O F O R G A N IZ E D

LABOR

199

Loans by the investment company to the Brotherhood of Locomo­
tive Engineers Realty Corporation (Venice, Fla.), to the Lake Shore
Stone Products Co., The Coal River Collieries Co., and others which
proved not to be immediately productive involved the corporation in
difficulties and it was forced to pass its dividends during the summer
of 1927, as its assets were “ frozen."
The TJnion Labor Investment Corporation was established in Decem­
ber, 1925, with an authorized capital stock of $5,000,000, of which
$1,600,000 is now paid in. This stock is of two classes: 50,000
shares of 7 per cent preferred stock at $100 per share, and 25,000
shares of no par common stock. These are sold in blocks of two
shares of preferred and one share of common. The company now
has some 2,500 stockholders, including both individual unionists
and trade-unions. Only a minority of stock is held by labor organ­
izations, however, mainly those affiliated with the Central Labor
Union and Building Trades Council of Hudson County. A number
of these unions are represented on the board of directors of the
company.
The company is authorized “ to operate a bond and investment
business, to underwrite and distribute first mortgage real-estate
bonds, to make construction building loans, and assist in the financ­
ing of all legitimate building operations; and to own and operate
an insurance company which will cover under a group policy the
savings depositors of the labor bank."
The company owns and operates the 15-story building in which its
offices and those of the Labor National Bank of Jersey City are
located. Its surplus, as of April 1, 1928, was reported to be $43,249.
The profits made are thus far being put back into the business.
The 1925 meeting of the International Photo-Engravers' Union
authorized the formation of the Photo-Engravers Investment Trust,
with the twofold purpose of deflecting to the company for invest­
ment the money with which the individual members of the union
were purchasing stock in the company by which they were employed,
and of enabling the union “ to extend [its] methods of defense and
aggression in matters affecting the welfare and well-being of our
general membership." One of the measures contemplated under
the latter purpose was the use of some of the money accumulated,
for the purpose of acquiring an interest in photo-engraving shops
throughout the country. The trust company form ot organization
was chosen because it was thought better suited to the union's
purposes than a joint-stock company or corporation would be.
The plan authorized the issue of common and preferred stock not
to exceed $200,000 of shares of $1 each. No action has as yet been
taken toward the formation of such a company.
The International Stereotypers and Electrotypers' Journal for
July, 1927, reports the formation of the TJnion Labor Holding Co.,
at Buffalo, N. Y., sponsored by the Central Labor Council of that
city. The company was formed “ for the purpose of investing and
reinvesting its funds in the stocks of banks, trust companies, govern­
ment, municipal, public utility, and other types of income-producing
securities, and to carry on a general bond-distributing business."
It is capitalized at $2,200,000, divided into 20,000 shares of 7 per
cent preferred stock at $100 per share and 10,000 shares of common
stock of no par value at $20 per share. The Bureau of Labor Sta­



200

B E N E F IC IA L A C T IV IT IE S

O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

tistics has been able to obtain no direct information from the above
company.
There are numerous other so-called holding companies owned
by labor unions but these are companies organized simply for the
purpose of ownership of union buildings and real estate. These
include the Paper Makers’ Realty Co., the Paramount Holding
Corporation (Amalgamated Clothing Workers), the Amalgamated
Center (holding company for New York organization of the Amal­
gamated Clothing Workers), and others.
Insurance Companies

TTHERE are to-day two union-owned companies doing a general
1 insurance business. These are the Union Cooperative Insurance
Association, started by the International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers in November, 1924, and the Union Labor Life Insurance
Co., started by the American Federation of Labor in 1925 and owned
by its affiliated unions.
The Union Cooperative Insurance Association began business in
1925 with a paid-in capital and surplus of $200,000, held by the
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers and the local unions
affiliated to it. The company writes both participating and non­
participating policies for individual and group life insurance^ Prob­
ably the first group insurance issued to labor unions was written by
this association; previously, such insurance was written only for
employees of individual establishments. It also issues special homeprotection policies to cover mortgages on policyholders’ homes, which
decrease in amount and premium as the mortgage is paid off.
At the third annual meeting of the stockholders of the company,
held in January, 1928, it was reported that the organization had in
force insurance aggregating $46,000,000, and assets of $332,000.
It declared a dividend of 4 per cent on the capital stock. Although
the company was issuing policies during all of 1925, there were no
death claims that year; claims paid during 1926 and 1927, however,
amounted to $124,575.
The project of the establishment of an insurance company to be
owned and operated by organized labor was first suggested at the
1923 convention of the American Federation of Labor. The matter
came up for discussion at the following meetings, and the formation
of such a company was authorized in 1925. Accordingly, the Union
Labor Life Insurance Co. was organized late in 1925, with an author­
ized capital of $1,000,000. It did not, however, start to write
insurance until July, 1927.
A stock-selling campaign lasting for 15 months, resulted in the
subscription of 15,000 shares of stock, totaling over $750,000. Stock
ownership in the company is limited to trade-unions (and their mem­
bers) affiliated to or approved by the American Federation of Labor.
The maximum amount of stock that may be held by any one union
is 800 shares and by any individual, 10 shares, the par value of a
share being $25. # Dividends on stock are limited to 6 per cent, and
the profits remaining after provision is made for surplus are to be
returned to the policyholders.
The company does a general life insurance business, specializing
in group insurance. All policies are of the participating type. Its



B U S IN E S S E N T E R P R IS E S

O F O R G A N IZ E D

LABOR

201

rates and business methods are reported as being “ substantially
like those in use by the large companies now writing such business
on a participating basis.” Due to the fact that the field of business
of the company is already organized, much of the business can be
obtained through union officials without the payment of commissions.
The labor press, generally, has given a good deal of publicity to
this latest enterprise of organized labor.
A great many of the affiliated international unions and their
locals pay benefits or provide insurance for sickness, death, disability,
etc., and the advisability of insuring this liability in the insurance
company instead of trying to provide such benefits through funds
which generally are not on an actuarial basis and may “ peter out,”
is receiving attention generally in trade-union organizations and
some organizations have already changed their system. This trend
toward group insurance in lieu of the “ trade-union benefit” was
noted in Chapter II.
At the second annual meeting of the company, held in March, 1928,
it was reported that the organization had in force individual insurance
totaling $1,223,000 and applications pending for $400,000 more. The
group insurance written by the company aggregated in excess of
$34,000,000 and covered 50,000 workers. The company closed the
year with a surplus of $209,506, and total assets of more than $618,000.
It is writing insurance in 34 States.
Supply of Goods and Services
Union Label Stores

IN THE trades manufacturing a product on which use of a label is
* practicable, the practice has grown up of attaching to the articles
manufactured a “ union label” indicating that the commodity bearing
the label has been made under “ fair” conditions—i. e., union wages
and hours, good working conditions, and sanitary work places. One
labor paper describes the union label as follows:
The union label is the silent,, eloquent agent of the trade-union movement.
It is the insignia of the products of organized labor. It is the unquestionable
guaranty that the article to which it is attached has been manufactured by either
men or women who are working under fair living and working conditions. It is
the incontrovertible evidence of fair dealing between employers and employees.
It is the indicator of progress and of increased purchasing power, without which
the constantly heralded but still fictitious prosperity can not be realized.

The labor organizations in the label trades constantly endeavor in
various ways to further the sale of union-made goods bearing the
label. Fellow unionists are reminded that purchase of such goods
tends to increase the employment of union members. Often, dele­
gates to trade-union conventions are required, as a condition of being
seated in the meeting, to be able to show that they are wearing a
specified number of garments bearing the union label. Union label
leagues are found in various industrial centers, and the American
Federation of Labor has a department whose business it is to increase
the use of union-label goods.
There are, in the United States, three stores owned and operated
by organized labor, selling nothing but goods bearing the union label.
They are all men’s furnishings stores, and are located in the cities of
Brooklyn, St. Louis, and Chicago. There is a fourth store in Newark



202

B E N E F IC IA L A C T IV IT IE S

O F T R A D E -U N I O N S

N. J., which while not owned or operated by labor unions has agreed to
carry union-made goods and the unions have guaranteed to give this
store their patronage.
The Brooklyn store has been in operation since 1919, the St. Louis
store since 1921, and the Chicago store since 1925. The Chicago
store, though the youngest of the three, has already outstripped the
other two in point of sales, doing business in 1927 of some $23,000, as
compared with $13,000 in St. Louis, and $14,000 in Brooklyn.
It was the inability of union men to obtain goods bearing the union
label that led in all three cases to the establishment of the store.
And it should be emphasized that only union-label goods are carried.
The manager of the Chicago store stated that in his store the union
man can obtain a complete outfit of union-made clothing, with one
exception—collar buttons. Since there are in this country no union
factories manufacturing this article, the store does not sell collar
buttons.
All three stores are handicapped by lack of capital, and all three
have a large overhead expense in proportion to the volume of busi­
ness of the store. The fact that the store, for the sake of convenience,
must be located at a central point where rents are high brings up the
expense. None of them has been a “ money maker” for the share­
holders. To some extent what small profits the stores have made
have been due, again, to the small volume of business done. The
manager of the Chicago store also points out that while the retail
price of union-made articles is no higher* than that of nonunion-made
goods, the manufacturer’s margin of profit is greater in the latter case.
The Union Label Stores (Inc.), of Brooklyn, was organized nearly
10 years ago by trade-unionists and the unions affiliated to the
Central Union Label Council of Greater New York. Its board of
directors is composed of union men and about 80 per cent of its capital
stock is held by labor unions of the vicinity. It has 300 shareholders.
Thus far, the store has incurred a deficit of nearly $2,000 and therefore
has been able to pay no dividend. It has been emphasized at the
annual meetings that greater patronage will be necessary if it is to
pay one; its sales during the year 1927 amounted to only $13,687.
The matter of the establishment of a similar store in Manhattan
has been under consideration for some time. On March 31, 1927,
about $7,500 had been subscribed toward the capital stock of a
store to be started there. It was announced at that time that the
unions of New York City would be circularized shortly thereafter,
and if they would pledge themselves to purchase $100,000 worth of
goods the store would be opened. No such action has yet been
taken, however.
The Union Label Products Co. at St. Louis, not only is a union
store, with members in 30 different local unions; it is also a coopera­
tive store operated on the Rochdale basis. Members receive 4 per
cent interest on each $25 share of stock, and purchase dividends in
proportion to their patronage of the store.
The Union Label Stores (Inc.) at Chicago was “ talked about
nearly 10 years before it was finally started.” Its shares may be
bought by either unions or individual unionists; the latter are
restricted to 5 shares, while a union may own 50 shares. The store
has never been able to pay a dividend. Its overhead expenses are
high in proportion to the volume of sales, for though the selling



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force is limited to the manager and one assistant, the store is located
on a downtown street where rents are high. The latest half-yearly
financial statement, however, shows a profit of $502 and an increase
in volume of sales of about 21 per cent, as compared with the same
period of the previous year.
The table below shows the membership, capital, and sales of the
three stores:
T able

2 2 .—C A P IT A L , M E M B E R S H IP , A N D SALE S O F U N IO N -L A B E L S T O R E S

Capital stock
Year
estab­
lished

Store

Union Label Stores (Inc.), Brooklyn, N . Y __________
Union Label Products Co., St. Louis, M o . .................
Union Label Stores (Inc.), Chicago, 111_____________

1919
1921
1925

Author­
ized

Paid in

N um ber
of share­
holders

$50,000
100,000
25,000

$7,500
3,875
8,645

300
24
625

i $13,687
13,278
23,123

20,020

949

50,088

Total...........................................................................

Annual
business

i Year ending Mar. 31,1927.

Cooperative Purchase Organizations

Collective buying.—The Order of Railway Conductors has inaug­
urated a mail-order department for the purchase of shoes. The
department has a contract with a shoe manufacturing company
under which the union furnishes sole leather treated by a process for
which the union holds the patent. The soles are then attached to
the shoes at the factory by a special method of stitching which is
claimed to increase the wearing qualities. Belts are made in the same
way and sold through the department. In this way, “ in addition
to saving the jobbers’ profit to our members and making a slight
profit for the company we are building up the practice of using union
goods made by union workmen.” Watches are also reported to be
bought through the mail-order department, at a substantial saving.
Employees in the Postal Service have established cooperative
cafeterias in more than 30 localities, besides undertaking the coopera­
tive buying of various commodities. Although the employees’ union
cooperates in and encourages such activities, this can not be said to
be a union enterprise.
The Ohio Rural Letter Carriers’ Association had for a while, a
cooperative buying department. This was established to effect a
saving for the cooperative members, to add another activity of
mutual interest which would tend to increase the feeling of solidarity
among the rural letter carriers of the district, and to present an added
inducement to membership in the organization. Gasoline, motor oil,
tires, and even automobiles were among the commodities purchased
through the department, and the report of the purchasing agent
made to the 1927 convention of the association showed “ a nice little
sum now in the treasury that has been earned by the cooperative
buying department.” The convention discontinued the department,
notwithstanding, on the ground that it antagonized the business men
of the community.
The Chicago Federation of Labor has started an organization— the
Association of Buyers—membership in which is open to all subscribers
102869°— 28------ 14



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to the Federation News. Arrangements have been made with “ over
a hundred wholesale houses and factories," by which a substantial
discount is allowed on purchases.
Cooperative stores.— During the high-tide period of consumers'
cooperation, in the later years of the World War, many labor organ­
izations, including the American Federation of Labor itself, indorsed
the principle of the cooperative store movement. Others went so
far as to advance union funds for the organization of such stores.
The district organizations of the United Mine Workers of America
gave active support to the consumers' cooperative movement. The
miners in Illinois “ had been experimenting with cooperative stores
for more than 20 years," according to one student of the movement
there,7 and on this high tide of enthusiasm many of the local unions,
especially in Illinois and Pennsylvania, used their funds to start a
cooperative store. By the end of 1922, it was reported, the union
funds so invested amounted to nearly half a million dollars. Mem­
bers of the railroad brotherhoods were also active in the formation
of cooperative stores. The miners' stores in Illinois were run on
what was called “ the American Rochdale plan," a highly centralized
chain-store plan, which, placing most of the responsibility and manage­
ment upon the wholesale society which had been started, also relieved
the local cooperators of the feeling of loyalty and interest which they
might have had in a store for whose success or failure they were
made directly chargeable.
At first the plan was very successful and it even seemed that
something peculiarly adapted to American conditions had appeared.
The lack of direct personal and financial responsibility of individual
members which led to apathy on their part, inefficient local managers,
unwise purchasing by the central organization when prices were
falling rapidly, the miners' strike in 1922, decreased employment of
members and consequent decreased patronage of' the stores were
all factors in the failure of the system. Many of the branches failed
and were closed out. Others, however, were reorganized and con­
verted into genuine Rochdale societies which are successfully doing
business to-day, though not as union organizations. These are now
miners' stores, but not miners' union stores. The experience in
Pennsylvania was somewhat similar.
It should not be inferred that these ventures were uniformly unsuc­
cessful from a business standpoint. Many of the stores established
by unions or unionists during this time are still in business, some still
with the “ loan capital" supplied by the local unions. Miners' cooper­
ative stores are still in successful operation in many places in Illinois,
as well as in Ohio and Pennsylvania, and stores started by railroad
men are found here and there in a number of States.
Figure 34 shows interior views of a successful cooperative store
founded by a union miners' group in Illinois. Starting with a small
coal yard in 1914 it has added to its departments meat, groceries,
and general merchandise. With the exception of 1923 its sales since
1918, when it was reorganized as a genuinely Rochdale enterprise,
have averaged more than $100,000 annually.
7 Warne, Colston E .: “ The cooperative movement in Illinois.”
1926, pp. 50, 51.




Chicago, University of Chicago Press,

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Bakeries

A lockout by the master bakers in 1920 led to the formation of the
Union Bakery Co., of Sioux Falls, S. Dak., by the local unions and
unionists of the city. The company is capitalized at $10,000, all of
which is paid in. This stock is owned by 92 stockholders, 90 per

F ig . 34.— Interior views of a miners’ cooperative store in Illinois

cent being held by local unions or unionists. Its business in 1927
amounted to $91,290.
It is reported that there are union-owned bakeries in Los Angeles,
Calif., and New Haven, Conn., but the bureau has no direct informa­
tion concerning these.



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Laundries

Union-owned laundries are few in number. The Bureau of Labor
Statistics has found only three such, located in San Bernardino,
Calif., Terre Haute, Ind., and Seattle, Wash.
The Union Cooperative Laundry of Terre Haute was established in
October, 1919, by the Central Labor Union and 18 local labor organ­
izations affiliated to it. The formation of the company was a counter­
move in a strike and lockout of union laundry workers in that city.
The organization is capitalized at $50,000, of which $16,890 is paid
in. About 50 per cent of the stock is held by the local unions and the
remainder by 26 individual unionists. The organization does about
$40,000 of business in a year. Thus far all profits have been used to
buy additional machinery.
The Mutual Laundry Co., of Seattle, was started in 1915. The
report from the company states that “ it was hard to establish unions
here and get living wages for workers in this craft, so this laundry
was established for the benefit of the workers.”
Funeral Associations

There are in existence three union funeral associations, all owned
and operated by local unions of the coal miners in Illinois. These
are located in Christopher, Harrisburg, and Gillespie. The organ­
ization at Harrisburg is the oldest, having been established in 1915,
that in Christopher was started in the summer of 1921, while the
Gillespie association has been in existence only since 1924. The
high cost of dying, in an occupation as hazardous as coal mining, was
regarded as a burden upon miners’ families which offered possibili­
ties of substantial savings. That this has proved to’ be true is shown
by the fact that the Christopher association claims to have effected
a saving of 50 per cent in the cost of funerals, and the Gillespie
association a saving of 333^ per cent. In all three cases the services
of the association are available to the general public at the same prices
as those charged to union members.
The Union Cooperative Undertaking Association of Harrisburg, was
organized by the United Mine Workers’ locals of Saline County, the
necessary funds being furnished by these locals, with the understand­
ing that the organization should do business at as near cost as pos­
sible, making only enough profit “ to keep the establishment in a safe
financial condition to meet future obligations.’’ Each local has three
representatives on the board of directors, voting being on the basis
of one vote for every 100 members of the local, subject to a maximum
of five votes.
The business of the association since 1920 has run as follows:
192
192
192
192

0
1
2
3

$17,844
22, 064
15, 398
17, 135

192 4
_ ________________ $19,061
•
192 5
21, 181
1927________________________ 20, 542

The Union Cooperative Undertaking Association of Christopher was
founded in the summer of 1921 by four local miners’ unions. It is
reported as a successful enterprise, doing 80 per cent of the under­
taking business of the vicinity. It is stated that at the time when
the association was formed there were three competing establish­
ments; now there is only one. Its resources in June, 1927, were re­
ported as being $25,197,



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The TJnion Funeral Association oj Gillespie, unlike that at Harris­
burg, has a separate capitalization. About 90 per cent of the
association’s stock is owned by the miners’ unions, though it also has
a paid-in capital amounting to $6,400 contributed by individual
members.
It is the aim of the organization—not so much to accumulate profits but to
give our people a high-class burial at the least amount of profit possible and yet
maintain our business. We have been very successful and accomplished all we
set out to do. Financially we are in good condition, discount all bills 30 days,
and do not owe anything but what we can pay.
We maintain high-class equipment and try to give as good and possibly better
service than can be had anywhere. This is brought about by the cooperation of
our members.

The association did a business in 1927 amounting to about $20,000.
Productive Enterprises of Organized Labor
Brick Manufacture

A N antiunion drive by building-trades employers in Texas led the
^
Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ International Union to
form its own brick manufacturing company, the International Brick
Co., at El Paso, Tex. All of the stock of the company is owned by the
international union. The company manufactures common brick, face
brick, building tile, and various ornamental products. Its business,
done mainly in the States of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona and in
the Mexican border States of Chihuahua and Sonora, amounts to more
than $100,000 per year. It owns its own mountain from which its
shale supply is obtained, and delivers much of its product in its own
tractor train. The company is reported to be very progressive,
constantly experimenting with new colors and styles, and taking
“ advantage of current events to coin business.”
Cigar Manufacture

There are a number of union cigar factories. Neither the Cigar
Makers’ International Union nor the locals hold stock in these. They
are, however, owned and operated by members of the cigar makers’
union.8
The Bureau of Labor Statistics knows of four of these factories,
located in Chicago, Cincinnati, Reading, and St. Louis. Three of
these, for which the bureau has data, were started by striking union­
ists, members of the International Cigar Makers’ Union. The table
below shows the essential data concerning these organizations:
T

able

3 3 .—C A P IT A L , M E M B E R S H IP , A N D SALES OF U N IO N C IG A R F A C T O R IE S

Year of Paid-in
establish­ share
ment
capital

Com pany

Cigar Cooperative, Chicago, HI.........................................................
Cigar Makers Cooperative Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.........................
Commonwealth Cigar Co., St. Louis, M o ......................................
1 Originally started in 1919; reorganized, 1926.

1

2

1926
1920
1920

$660
2 30,000

10,000

Approximate.

Num ber Am ount
of share­ of busi­
holders ness, 1927
6
137
68
3i n

$2,000
3 36,000
40,000

1926.

8 A t the 1927 convention of the union a resolution was offered proposing the establishment of a fund from
which loans should be made to local unions desiring to start cooperative cigar factories. T he measure was
rejected b y a large majority.




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Coal Mining

The Coal River Collieries Co. was organized in 1921 with an
authorized capital of $5,000,000, of which some $2,800,000 was sold,
largely to members of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers
though some of the subdivisions of the brotherhood also owned stock
in the enterprise. The brotherhood itself owned no shares in the
company, but some of its officials did, and the Brotherhood Invest­
ment Co. made loans to it from time to time aggregating nearly
$1,700,000.
Leaseholds were purchased by the company on some 11,000 acres
in West Virginia and Kentucky, and operations were started at four
mines. It was stated that the company was organized “ with a
threefold ideal—good wages and model living conditions for the miners
who produce the coal, fair and reasonable prices to the people who
consume it, and an investment with remarkable possibilities for the
engineers who furnished the capital to make this development
possible.” A mining community was established at each mine,
containing “ neatly painted homes * * * not mere shacks but
permanent houses with plastered walls, screened porches, and electric
lights, and the many other conveniences that go to make for com­
fortable living, yet conspicuously absent from other mining camps
we have seen. At the end of the village is the big clubhouse for the
unmarried miners, and adjoining it the school.”
The mines were to be run on what the brotherhood called a “ cooper­
ative basis,” the men becoming stockholders with a right to share
in the profits of the company. This policy, however, immediately
involved the organization in trouble with the United Mine Workers
of America, which charged the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers
(which was regarded as the responsible party) with refusing to pay
union wages and with operating on a nonunion basis, thus tending
to undermine the standards and principles of organized labor.
A long controversy ensued between the presidents of the two labor
organizations. The miners charged the collieries company with
cutting wages to the nonunion level, with evicting union miners
and their families from the houses owned by the company, and with
practicing “ the same kind of ruthless, brutal tactics and methods that
the other nonunion coal companies practiced.” The collieries com­
pany replied that prior to opening the mines it had “ requested the
United Mine Workers to grant us some relief for a reasonable length
of time,” but that this was refused by the miners’ union officials even
though concessions as to wage scales had been made to certain other
coal companies; that the union miners, though refused permission
by their union to work for the company, had been living in its houses
for months and paying no rent; and finally;, that the men who were
worliing were employed steadily, were earning good wages, and were
well satisfied with the working conditions. The company pointed out
that good living conditions were provided, that a company store was
run for the employees’ benefit “ on the ‘ cost-of-service’ basis,” and
that a $1,000 insurance policy was given by the company to provide
for the men’s families in case of accident.
The dispute went on for some time, evoking much criticism of the
engineers’ organization, not only from other labor unions, but also
from its own members. It was said, within the organization, that



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209

“ the Coal River Collieries has caused the Brotherhood of Locomotive
Engineers to suffer more abuse from outside union labor than any
other source in all its history. This concern has not only been con­
demned by the miners, union, but has been ridiculed by our own
members for the reason that it was used to destroy union labor in
the mining industry.”
Finally, the Locomotive Engineers’ Journal announced that on
July 6, 1923, an agreement had been signed between the company and
the miners’ union. Very little publicity was given to the fact and it
is doubtful whether the public at large ever realized that the event had
taken place.
It was reported, at the time of the signing of the agreement, that
300 men were working and that the main difficulty experienced by
the company was in getting a sufficient number of cars to ship the
coal mined. Early in 1925 it was announced that the mines were
working at full capacity and were loading 50 cars of coal per week.
“ As we drive more entries and open up more rooms so that we can
work more men, the output will increase until we get it up to about
3,500 to 4,000 tons per working-day of eight hours. We hope eventu­
ally to put the camp up to an average of 40,000 tons per month.”
Although the mines were said to be “ producing coal as economi­
cally as any property in this section,” much money had to be spent
for the purchase of modern machinery, for the development operations
at mine and village, etc. The sale of stock was pushed as fast as pos­
sible, loans were obtained from the Brotherhood Investment Co., etc.
Nevertheless, during 1926 the company had a net loss of nearly
$15,000 and its indebtedness during that year increased more than a
quarter of a million dollars. The condition of this company and the
extent to which the brotherhood funds were involved in it were among
the matters which received the scrutiny of the convention of the order,
held early in the summer of 1927. In July, 1927, the Brotherhood
Investment Co. filed a petition for the appointment of a receivership
of the company. The petition was granted and the property was
operated by the receivers until July, 1928, when it was adjudged
bankrupt. The receivers were by the decision, however, directed to
continue operation of the company’s mine in Boone County.
Millwork and Building Supplies

Several years ago a group of members of building-trades unions in
San Bernardino formed the San Bernardino Woodenware Co., for the
purpose of breaking the monopoly of the local millwork company.
No detailed data are available regarding the company and its opera­
tions, but it is reported that it “ is doing a flourishing business in
the competitive field.”
There is reported to be another union-owned factory manufactur­
ing millwork, near Shelton, Wash., but the Bureau of Labor Statistics
has no information concerning this.
During the “ open shop” wave that was particularly strong on the
Pacific coast after the close of the war, the building-trades unions
charged that business interests were attempting to force the open shop
by refusing to sell materials to building contractors who recognized
the unions. As a countermove the building-trades unions of Santa
Clara County, Calif., in 1921 organized the San Jose Cooperative




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Building Supply Co., for the purpose of furnishing building materials
to contractors who were employers of organized labor. A similar
company was formed by the unions at Oakland, Calif. It was reported
that in the first 18 months the San Jose company had a business of
$27,000 and during the next six-month period a business of $60,000,
with a profit of $6,000. The second of these companies went out
of business upon the attainment of its object—the breaking of the
boycott against union firms—but the first is understood to be still
in business.
Model Farms

The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers some years ago pur­
chased 40,000 acres of land in Florida and on this land is developing
its city of Venice. Some 25,000 acres were set apart as an agricul­
tural area and divided into small farms of 5, 10, and 20 acres each,
which are being sold to small farmers. These are cleared and pre­
pared for cultivation by the brotherhood's Venice Farms Co. before
sale.
Eighty acres of the agricultural land was reserved for experimental
purposes and on this the brotherhood has established four demon­
stration farms where various crops are tried out to see which are best
adapted for production in the soil there. In addition it owns a 10-acre
farm devoted to the experimental culture of strawberries, a 160-acre
model dairy farm, and a 5-acre poultry farm.
Other Enterprises
Clothing Manufacture

r\URING the famine period in Russia some years ago the Amal^
gamated Clothing Workers contributed some $250,000 in food
and medicines to aid the famine sufferers in that country* But,
being of the opinion “ that the Russians themselves would wish to
T
have the money invested in Russia rather than receive it in the form
of charity," the union in 1921 formed the Russian-American Industrial
Corporation. The purpose of the organization was “ to help the
Russian clothing industry rehabilitate itself and to aid the Russian
people generally in their reconstructive efforts." This was the first
business enterprise of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. The
union became a large stockholder in the project and some $300,000
was raised by the sale of stock to others. The money was used to
purchase machinery and raw materials for the clothing trusts in
Russia. The union regards the project as having been entirely suc­
cessful. During the five years of existence of the corporation several
dividends on stock were paid. The need is now over and the stock­
holders are being paid back their investment in full. The corporation
is still functioning to some extent, however, for the union has not
withdrawn its investment, and early in 1927 it made arrangements
for the financing of the purchase of machinery for two of the largest
clothing trusts in Russia.
Fruit and Nut Growing

The Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners owns 1,826 acres of
land near Lakeland, Fla. On this property it has erected a home
for its aged members and their wives. Also, 800 acres of it have




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211

been planted in citrus fruit—orange, tangerine, and grapefruit trees.
It is expected that when these become of full bearing age the income
from the sale of the fruit will make the home to a great extent selfsupporting.
Somewhat the same action has been taken by the Order of Railway
Conductors. The order owns a tract of about 3,500 acres of land at
Albany, Ga. On this land pecan trees have been set out, with the
idea that the income from these will eventually offset much of the
cost of maintaining the home for aged conductors which the order
has recently erected on an island near Savannah. In the mean­
time cotton and corn are being raised, and in 1927, it is reported,
$40,000 worth of cotton was sold from this plantation.
Some of the officers and members of the order own stock in the
Mutual Pecan Co., but the union itself has no financial interest therein.
Hotels

For the benefit of visitors to Pressmen’s Home, the community
owned and operated by the International Printing Pressmen and
Assistants’ Union in northern Tennessee, the union has built a wellequipped modern hotel, situated just outside the entrance to the
community. (See fig 35.) Here also many of the employees of the
union five. This hotel provides accommodations for 221 guests.
The hotel contains an auditorium where motion pictures are shown
once a week, a gymnasium for the benefit of the young people
employed at headquarters, a large victrola, a billiard and pool room,
a library and parlor, and a general store, as well as a roof garden, and
a long screened porch running out from the hotel along the foot of
the mountain. Guests at the hotel are also privileged to make use
of the community swimming pool.
The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers operates three hotels
at its city of Venice, Fla., for the convenience of visitors and tourists,
but no data are available concerning these. It also has a financial
interest in an apartment hotel in Cleveland, through loans made
by the Brotherhood Holding Co. and the Brotherhood Investment
Co. The Order of Railway Conductors is reported to have an interest
in a hotel recently erected at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, where the head­
quarters of the order is located.
Patent and Manufacturing Companies

The 1924 convention of the International Printing Pressmen
and Assistants’ Union authorized the establishment of a patent
department. Accordingly, in 1925, a separate subsidiary corpora­
tion, the Pressmen and Assistants’ Manufacturing Co. (Inc.), was
formed. The main purpose of the company is the protection of
members of the union in any inventions they may make. The
union claims that “ the overwhelming majority of mechanical devices
in the printing department of the industry” have been invented
by pressmen. In many instances, however, these inventions have
been lost to the inventor because of lack of money to secure a patent,
lack of knowledge of the proper procedure, lack of contact with
manufacturers, and inability to place the article upon the market.
This state of affairs the company will remedy, being authorized




BENEFICIAL
ACTIVITIES
O
F
TRADE-UNIONS




to

F ig . 35.—Pressauna Tavern at Pressmen’s Home, Tennessee

B U S IN E S S E N T E R P R IS E S

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213

to secure the patent and even to manufacture and distribute the
product if necessary.
Real Estate

Probably the majority of the international organizations and
a great number of the stronger locals own their own headquarters
buildings. As stated elsewhere, most of these buildings, especially
those of the internationals, are devoted exclusively to business
purposes. Figure 36 showing the headquarters of the American
Federation of Labor at Washington, D. C., and Figure 37 showing
the headquarters building of the Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators,
and Paperhangers, at Lafayette, Ind., are good examples of tradeunion office buildings.
What is believed to be the only religious edifice owned by a labor
organization in this country has been erected at Pressmen’s Home,
Tennessee, by the International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’
Union. This is a memorial chapel erected in honor of the 5,500
members of the union who served in the World War and of the
111 who fell in action.
The building (fig. 38, p. 216) is constructed of sandstone quar­
ried on the grounds of the union and is of simple but beautiful
design. Services are held here each Sunday.
Other

Other business understood to be operated by organized labor
but concerning which the Bureau of Labor Statistics has no direct
information include: Quarries owned by members of the Brother­
hood of Locomotive Engineers; the Fuel Distributors (Inc.), Met­
ropolitan Securities Corporation, and Universal Finance Co., in
all of which the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers or its members
are reported to own stock; and the Heyward Cooperative Creamery,
Oakland, Calif., reported to have been taken over and operated by
the milk wagon drivers’ union.9
Abandoned Projects
A GOOD many local unions have resorted to the practice of starting
* * so-called “ cooperative” enterprises in times of strikes. There
are numerous instances of this especially by the unions of laundry
workers, bakers, milk wagon drivers, etc. Often the establishment
of the laundry, bakery, creamery, etc., is a temporary expedient,
designed to keep up the morale of the strikers, to give employment
to some of the unemployed, to supply the public and thus keep it
from becoming antagonistic, and to increase the bargaining power
of the union with the employer. In such cases, when the strike is won
or the matters in dispute settled, the project is abandoned or sold,
having served its purpose. Instances of this sort include cooperative
bakeries at various places, a laundry at San Bernardino, etc.
Other enterprises have been started with the idea of making a
permanent business, but have been forced out of operation. Thus,
a number of years ago the Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way
Employees undertook a gigantic mail-order business for the members,
9 The Franklin Cooperative Creamery, a very successful organization in Minneapolis, doing a business
in 1927 of nearly $3,500,000, was started b y locked-out union milk drivers, and a small proportion of its
stock is held b y a few trade-unions; it can not, however, be considered a trade-union enterprise.




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even going so far as to establish factories to manufacture gloves and
work clothing. Mismanagement made a failure of the enterprise,
and a large amount of union funds was lost.

F i g . 36.—Headquarters building of American Federation of Labor at Washington, D . C.

The National Window Glass Workers’ Association in 1924 formed
the National Window Glass Manufacturing Co., and leased a factory
at Huntington, W. Ya. All the stock of the company was owned or
controlled by the union. This plant was run for several years, then
ceased operation. The causes for the stoppage are not known, but



B U SIN E SS E N T E R P R IS E S O F O R G A N IZE D L A B O R

215

it is probable that, as this was a plant manufacturing by the hand
process, it found itself unable to compete with the machine product.
Members of the Cigar Makers’ International Union have started a
number of cigar factories at various places (usually in time of strike),

F ig .

37.—Headquarters building of Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers, at Lafayette, Ind.

which have met with varying degrees of success. Some of these
which are still in operation have already been described (p. 207).
Others which have gone out of business include the Boston Union
Cigar Makers, Milwaukee Cooperative Cigar Makers, the Union



216

B E N E F IC IA L A C T IV IT IE S O F T R A D E -U N IO N S

Cigar Makers Cooperative Society of New York, the Cooperative
Cigar Co. of Minneapolis, Newark Union Cooperative Cigar Co.,
and several companies in Tampa, Fla., of which the bureau has no
record.

F ig . 38.—Memorial

chapel of International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union, dedicated
to members who served in the W orld War

Other ventures include a cooperative bakery in Minneapolis,
tailor shops in Cleveland and Detroit, a shoe company in New York,
several mines taken over for operation by union miners at different
places in Illinois, which were worked until the seam gave out, a knitgoods company in Brooklyn, and miners’ and other cooperative
stores too numerous to mention.



INDEX
A
Amalgamated Clothing Workers. (See Clothing Workers, Amalgamated.)
American Federation of Labor:
P age
Bank owned b y affiliated unions, (Federation Bank & Trust C o.).................................. 188,189,192,193
214
Headquarters building, picture of................................. .......................... ..................................................
Institutes, indorsement of week-end, for industrial questions........ ...................................................
179
M otion picture, showing benefits o f union label.....................................................................................
181
Research, recognition o f value of, and of data on sickness.....................................................................
177
Sickness records, step toward keeping o f..................................................................- .............................
79
Union-management cooperation, attitude toward........................................... .................................. 155,156
A rbitration o f disputes, provision for, various unions................................. ................ ..........................171,175
Art exhibit, use of, b y Chicago local of painters, as means of publicity............................................. . 185,186
Automobile, Aircraft, and Vehicle Workers, United:
Conciliation o f disputes.................................................................................................................................
170
Recreation activities...................................................................................................................................... 85,94

B
Bakeries of organized labor.............................................................................................................................. 187,205
Bakery and Confectionery Workers' International Union:
Benefits......... ............................................................................................................................................ 14,15,26
---------Local unions............................................................................ ............................................................
146
Headquarters building, St. Louis local, com m unity features of...........................................................
108
M otion picture showing w ork o f union....................................................................................................
181
Pension, old-age, diversion o f funds for, to construct headquarters building...................................
43
Recreation activities, St. Louis local.......................................................................................................... 94,95
72
Tuberculosis sanatorium, assistance to, b y Los Angeles local............................................ .................
Unemployment, rotation of lay-offs as means of preventing.................................................................
141
Baltimore & Ohio plan of union-management cooperation................. ..................................................... 157-161
Banks of organized labor.................................................................................................................................. 187-194
Barbers' International Union, Journeymen:
Benefits....................................................................................................................................................... 14,15,26
Cooperation w ith employers........................................................................................................................
168
Pensions, old-age, rejection of.................................................................................................. ...................
43
Bartenders. (See Hotel and Restaurant Employees’ International Alliance and Bartenders’ Interna­
tional League.)
3
Benefit funds, not on actuarial basis....................................................................... ................... ...................„
Benefits..................................................................................................................... ............................ 1-4,12-20,26,27
---------Benevolence allowances............................................................................. ........................................19,26,27
---------Death.............................................................................................................................................12,14,16,26,29
---------Death, b y collective agreement--------------------------------- ----------- ------------------------------------ ------------31,32
---------Disability..................................................................................................................................... 12,14,16,26,29
---------Old-age. ( See Pensions, old-age).
---------S ick ............................. ................................................................................................................ 12,14-17,26,29
---------Sick, b y collective agreement.................................................................................................................. 31,32
---------Tuberculosis..........................................................................................................................
12,15,17,26,27
---------Unem ploym ent, unions paying............................................................................................................ 146,147
Benefits of local unions, various organizations ............................................................................................... 29-31
Blacksmiths, D rop Forgers, and Helpers, International Brotherhood of:
Benefits.................................................................................................................................................. .
14,18,26
Unemployment, measures of relieving or preventing.......................................................................... 142,147
Boiler Makers, Iron Shipbuilders and Helpers, Internationa Brotherhood of:
Insurance for m embers.............................................................................................................................21.22,28
Unemployment, exemption from dues, as means of relieving...............................................................
147
Bookbinders, International Brotherhood of:
Benefits............................................................................................................................................................. 14,26
Conciliation and arbitration of disputes............................................................................................... 170,171
Cooperation with em ployers................................................................................. .......................... 168,170,171
Recreation activities.......................................................................................................................................89,94




217

218

INDEX

Page
Boot and Shoe W orkers’ Union. B en efits...................................................................... ............. 1 4 , 1 5 , is, 1 9 ,26
Boot and shoe workers. ( See also Shoe W orkers’ Protective Union.)
Bottle blowers, glass. ( See Glass Bottle Blowers’ Association.)
Brewery, Flour, Cereal and Soft Drink W orkers, International Union of United:
Conciliation and arbitration of disputes.......................................... ..................................................... 170,171
E m ploym ent office...................... ...................................................................................................................
145
Pensions, old-age, prevention otadoption of, b y prohibition................................................................
43
Unemployment, rotation of lay-offs as means of preventing, Duluth local........................................
141
Brick and C lay Workers, United:
Benefits................... .......................................................................................................................................
14
Insurance for members............................................................................................................................. 21,22,28
Radio, labor, contribution o f locals tow a rd ...............................................................................................
184
B rick, manufacture o f...........................................................................................................................................
207
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’ International Union:
Arbitration of disputes...................................................................................................................................
171
Benefits...................................................................................................................................................14,15,19,26
Brick com pany- - ............................................................................................................................................ 207
Headquarters building, Cincinnati local, com m unity features o f ........................................................
108
Pensions, old-age....................................................................................................•................................. 34,36-38
_
Radio, labor, contribution toward..................................................... .........................................................
184
Recreation activities............................................................................. .............................................. 87-90,92-94
W idows of deceased members, provision fo r............................................................................................. 29,42
Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Iron W orkers, International Association of:
Benefits.................................................................................................... ......................................... 14,15,18-20,26
Conciliation o f disputes.................................................................................................................................
170
Pensions, old-age.............................................................................................................................. 34-36,38,41,43
Recreational activities....................................................................................................................................88,89
Brookwood College, institutes at.....................................................................................................................178,179
Broom and W hisk Makers’ Union, International:
Benefits............................................................................................................................................................. 14,26
Health and general medical subjects, articles on, in official magazine.................................................
79
Building and loan associations of trade-unions..................................................................................... 132-137,187
Building supplies, companies owned b y organized labor.......................................................................... 209,210
Buildings, headquarters and o th e r.................................................................................................. 104-114,213-215
Butcher workmen. (See Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen, Amalgamated.)

C
Camps, summer, of labor organizations............................................................................................................ 95-10
Carmen, Brotherhood of Railway:
B enefits..,............................................................................................... ....................................................16,19,27
Cooperation w ith em ployers............................................................. ...........................................................
168
Group insurance proposal defeated................................................... .........................................................
12
Headquarters building, com m unity features o f.......................................................................................
105
Unemployment, exemption from dues as means of relieving...... ..................................... ...................
147
Carpenters and Joiners, United Brotherhood of:
Benefits............................................................................................ .................................................14,15,18,26,29
Cooperation w ith em ployers............................................................................................................... .........
168
Credit unions........................................................................................ ............................................ .........195,196
Farming, citrus-fruit.................................................................... .............................. .................................
45
Hom e for aged members................................................................................................................................45,46
Radio, labor, contribution o f locals tow ard...............................................................................................
184
Recreation activities.......................... .......................................................... ............................................... 89,92
W idow s of deceased members, provision for.............................................................................................
29
Carvers’ Association, International W ood. Unem ploym ent benefits of locals.......................................
146
Cement Finishers. (See Plasterers and Cement Finishers, International Union, Operative.)
Chicago Federation of Labor:
Collective purchase b y m embers............................................................................................................. 203,204
Radio (W C F L ), sponsored b y .......................................................... ................................................... 18,2-184
Valmar Federation Club, summer hom e colon y.................................................................................... 198,99
Cigar factories o f organized labor...................................................................................................... 187,207,215,216
Cigar makers’ credit union................................................................................................................................
195
Cigar Makers’ International Union:
Arbitration of disputes, action of 1927 convention permitting...................... ......................................
171
Benefits.............................................................................. - .......... . ...............................................................
26
--------- Local unions.............................................................................. ................. ........................................
30
Insurance for members................................................................................. ........... ...................................
21
Unemployment, measures for relieving............................................ ......................................................147,148




INDEX

219

Page
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station Employees, Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship:
Bank, Cincinnati................. ............................................ .................................... ..............................188,190-193
Benefits.................... . . . ................... ........... . ................................................................... ...................
16,20,27
Cooperation w ith employers................................................................................................ .......... ...........
168
Credit unions.................... ............................ .................................................... ................. .......... .......... 195,196
Insurance for members...... ........ .......... ....................................................... .........................................21,22,28
Recreation activities....................................... ................................... ........... ................ 87,89,91,92,94,102,103
Tubercular members, question o f care of, being studied......................................... ..............................
72
Clerks* International Protective Association, Retail:
Benefits.................... ........... ............. .................................................... ......... .......................... ........... 16,18,27
Recreation activities........................................................................................................... ........................
89
Clothing Workers, Amalgamated:
Amalgamated Center........ ................... .................................... .............................................................. 119,200
Amalgamated Clothing W orkers’ Corporation..................................... ............ ...........................115,124,125
Arbitration o f disputes..................................................................................................................................
173
Banks, Chicago and N ew Y ork ............................................................................ ...........................119,188-193
Collective purchase o f coal through credit union_____ ________________ _________________ _______
196
Cooperation with employers................... .......... ................. ......................... ......................... 164-166,175,176
Credit unions.................................................. ................................. ................................................. 119,195,196
Dental service, Chicago locals...................................................................... ......... ............. .....................
83
E m ploym ent o ffice s ............................................................................. ................................................... 144,145
Headquarters building, Chicago locals, com m unity features o f__________________ ________108,110-114
Health service for members, Cincinnati locals___________ ______ _____________ ______________ 74,82,83
Holding companies_______ _____ ___________ __________ _______ _____________ ________________119,200
Housing activities......... ............. .......................... ......................... .........................................................115-128
Investment com pany.............. ...................................... ................................. ................................. ..........
197
Pensions, old-age, being studied_______________ _________________ ____________________ _______
44
Radio, labor, contribution toward........... ............................. .................. ...............................................
184
Recreation activities................................ .................................................. ........................... .
85,87,88,91-94
Russian-American Industrial Corporation__________ ____ ___________ _______ _______________ 119,210
Securities Corporation, Amalgam ated..................................................... ................................................
135
Service Corporation, Amalgamated Clothing Workers’ ______________ _________________________
125
178
St atistical department........................................................................................... ............ ................... .......
Tuberculosis sanatorium, assistance to ......................................................................... ......... ...........
72
Unemployment, measures for preventing........... ........................... .................. .......................... 140,141,145
Unemployment insurance.................... ........... ........................................................... ...........................148-150
Union-management cooperation, attitude toward............................................................................... _ _ 156
Clothing workers, men’s. (See Clothing Workers, Amalgamated; Garment Workers, United.)
Clothing workers, wom en’s. (See Ladies* Garment Workers* Union, International.)
208,209
Coal River Collieries C o ..............................................................................................................................
Collective purchase b y organized labor............................................................................................ 187,196; 201-205
Commercial telegraphers. (See Telegraphers’ Union, Commercial.)
Conciliation of disputes, number o f locals making provision in agreements, various unions______ 170,171
Conductors, Brotherhood o f Dining Car. Insurance for members........................... ............................21,22,28
Conductors, Order of Railway:
Bank (Transportation Brotherhoods National Bank, Minneapolis), part ownership of____ 188,192,193
Benefits............................................. ..................................................................................... ........................15,19
Collective-purchase facilities offered._________ ______ ____ ____________ _________________________ 203
Cooperation w ith employers------------- ----------------------------- ----------- ------------------------------------------------ 168
Dependents o f deceased members, provision for............ .................................................... ................29,59-61
Farming........................................................................ .......... ................... ................. .......... ..............................61
Hom e for Aged and Disabled Railroad Employees................................................. .............................. 53,55
H om e for aged members and their wives and w idow s.......................................................................... 59-61
Hotel, part ownership o f ....................... ............................................................................................... .........211
Insurance for members___________ _________ —........................................................................... .
21-23,28
M edical care for members........................................................................ ..........................................................61
Pensions, old-age, discontinuance o f ....................... ...................... ........................................................... ..43
Conductors, Order of Sleeping Car:
Cooperation with employers................................................. ............. , _________ ______________ ____ ...165
Insurance for members........... ...................................................................1...................................... . 21,22,28
Cooperation with employers. (See Union-management cooperation.)
Cooperative activities of trade-unions and their m em bers............... ........................................ 125,126,129,131
Cooperative stores.......... ........................................................................................................................... ....... 204,205

102869°— 28------ 15




220

INDEX

Coopers’ International Union:
P age
Arbitration of disputes____ ______ ____________ ______________________________________ ____ ___
171
U nemployment, measures for preventing or relieving_________ _____ _____ __________________ 141,147
Credit unions of organized labor.................. ............................... .......... .................... ..................... ___ 187,194-196

D
Death benefits. (See under Benefits.)
Dental service for members....................................................................... ..................................... 79,81-83,129,131
Dependents o f deceased members, provision for, various unions___________ __________ 28,29,42,43,59-61
Diam ond W orkers' Protective Union. Benefits...................... ..................................... .......... 14,15,20,26,14C
Disability benefits. (See under Benefits.)
Draftsmen’s Unions, International Federation of Technical Engineers, Architects and. U nem ploy­
ment, exemption from dues as means of relieving........................... ............................ ..............................
147
Duarte (Calif.) tuberculosis sanatorium............................................... .............................................. ............
72

£
Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of:
Benefits............................................................ ............ .............................................................................. 14,15,26
Conciliation and arbitration o f disputes------ ---------- ------- ------------------------------------------------- 170,174,175
Institute on giant power ------------------------------------- --------------------------------------- -------- ------------------- 178,179
200
Insurance com p any__________ _____ ______ ___________ ___ ____ ______ _________________ _____
Pensions, old-age............. ............. ......................................... .....................................................................34,36
Recreation activities........................................................ .................................. ................................ 85,89,92-94
Statistical department................... ................... ............................................ ..................... .........................
178
Unemployment, exemption from dues as means o f relieving................... ............................................
147
Electrotypers. (See Stereotypers and Electrotypers* Union, International.)
Engineers, Grand International Brotherhood of Locomotive:
Banks.................. ................................... — ......... — .......... ................................................. ............ 388,190-194
Benefits-------------------------- ----------------- . - . ------------------- -------------- ---------------- ---------- ---------------------- 15,26
Coal R iver Collieries C o ..................... ....................... ............ .............. ........................... .......... .......... 208,209
Cooperation with em ployers------------------------ ---------------------------------------------- -----------------------------168
Dependents o f deceased members, provision fo r........................................................ ...............— 29,42,43
Employment information service_____ ______________ ______________________ _____ ____ _______
144
210
Farms, at V enice..................................... .......................................... .................... ........................ ..........
Financial policy, change in, b y action of 1927 convention----------- ------------------ ---------------------------194
Health and general medical subjects, articles on, in official magazine........ ...................................... 79,83
Health service__________________ ______________________________________ _______ ______________
83
Holding companies_____ ___________________ ____________________ _____ _________________ 196,198,211
Home for aged and disabled members___________ _____ _______ ______ _____________ ___________53-59
Hotels, at Venice and at Cleveland______________________________________________________ - ____ 211
Insurance A gency (Inc.), Pacific__________________ ________ _____ _____ _________________ _____
198
Insurance for members. ____________ ____________ __________ _____ ____________________ ____ 2,l -24,28
Investment companies_______ ____________________________________________ _____ 196,198,199,209,211
M edical care for m em bers._________ ___________________________________ _____ ________________
57
Mortgage Corporation, Universal___________________________________________ ____ ____________
198
Pacific Empire C o _________ _____ . ___________________________________________________________
198
Pensions, old-age------ ------------------------------ ------- ------- ---------------- --------------------------------------------------34-37
Quarries, owned b y members of union______________________ ____ ___ _____ __________________
213
Recreation activities__________________________________________________________________________ 86,89
Safe Deposit Co., Brotherhood_______________ ________ _________________ ____ ____ _____ ______
198
Securities c o r p o r a t i o n s -------- ---------- -------------------- -------------- -------------------------------------------------198
Thrift corporations______ ____ ______ __________ ___________ __________ ____ __________________
198
Vacation travel............ .............................. ........................................... ........................ .............................
102
Venice, Fla............. ......................................................................................................................
132,210,211
Engineers, International Union o f Steam and Operating. Cooperation with em ployers-------- --------168
Engineers, Ocean Association of Marine:
Benefits, of local unions-------------------- ---------- ------- ------- ---------------------- --------------------------------------29
Cooperation with em ployers------------- ------------------------------- ------------------------------------- -----------------168
Recreation activities------------------------------------------ ---------------- ------- ----------------------------------------------90
Engravers’ Union, International Metal. Recreation activities--------------------------------------------- 88,90,92,94
Ex-Patients’ Tubercular Home, Denver, Colo----------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------- 72,73
Expressmen’s credit union................................................................................................................................ 195,196




INDEX

221

F
P age
Farming b y organized labor............................................................................................................................. 210,211
Federal Employees, National Federation of:
Hospital guild, Bureau o f Engraving and Printing, wom en’s local.....................................................
30
Insurance for members, Local N o. 2 (Washington, D . C .) ...................................................................
30
Finance Corporation, Cdnsumers’. ( See under United Workers’ Cooperative Association.)
Fire Fighters, International Association of. Recreation activities............................................... ............
90
Firemen and Enginemen, Brotherhood of Locom otive:
Bank (Transportation Brotherhoods National Bank, Minneapolis), part ownership of— 188,192,193
Benefits.................................................................................................................................. .......... 14,15,19,26,71
Benevolent allowances, conditions for granting______ _____________ _____________ ______________
19
168
Cooperation w ith employers....................................... ...................................... ............ ................... .........
Dependents of deceased members, provision for_________________________ ______ ____________ 29,42,43
Employment office.................................................................. .......................... ...........................................
144
Hom e for aged and disabled m embers........................ ................. .................................. .............. .......... 5 3 - 5 9
Insurance for members_________________ ________ ____ __________________________________ 21,22,24,28
M edical care for m embers. ______ ____________ ______ _______ _____ _____ ____________________
57
Pensions, old-age........................................ ....................................................... ........................... ............. 34-39
Recreation activities. _________________ ______ ______ _______ _____ ___________ ____ ___________
94 v
Statistical department..................................... .......................................... .................... ...........................
178
F lint glass workers. (See Glass Workers’-Union, American Flint.)
Florida Federation o f Labor, building and loan association of unions affiliated t o ...............................
133
F oun dry Employees, International Brotherhood of:
Benefits......................................................................................... ..................... ............................................14,26
Conciliation of disputes______________ __________ ________ _________________ ____________ ______
170
Funeral associations of organized labor___ _______ __________ _______ ______ ___________ _____ 187,206,207
Fur Workers’ Union, International:
Benefits.................................................................................. ...................... ............ ................................14,20,26
Credit un ion ................................ ........................................................ ............. .......................................195,196
Employment office, establishment of, under consideration_____________________________ ________
145
Tuberculosis sanatorium, assistance t o ____________ ________________ ____ _______ _____ ________
72
Unemployment insurance________________ ___________ _______ ______________________________ 151,152

G
Garment workers, men’s. (See Clothing Workers, Amalgamated; Garment Workers, United.)
Garment workers, wom en’s. (See Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, International.)
Garment Workers, United:
Benefits.......................................................... .......................................... ..................... ............. ...................14,26
C onciliation and arbitration of disputes__________ __________ ______ ___________ ______ ______170-172
Cooperation w ith employers.......................................................... .............................................................
169
Recreation activities______________ _____ _____ _______________________________________________
93
Glass Bottle Blowers’ Association:
Benefits.........................................................................................................................................................14,26
Conciliation of disputes-------------------- ----------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------170
Cooperation with employers for operating efficiency.......................... ................... .............................163,164
Recreation activities................................. ................................................................................................... 90,93
Glass Cutters and Flatteners’ Association, W indow. B e n e fits................................. ............................ 16,27
Glass Cutters’ League, W indow. Recreation activities .............................................. .............. 87,89,90,92,93
Glass Cutters’ Protective Association, W indow. Benefits________ _______________________________
16
Glass Workers, National W indow:
Arbitration o f disputes.--------------------------- -------------------- ----------------------- ----------------------------------172
Benefits, discontinuance o f . .................................................. — ---------------- ------------------------------------13
Glass manufacture, discontinuance o f____ ______________ _____ ________ ____________________ 214,215
Glass Workers’ Union, American Flint:
Bank, T oledo.................... ............ ......................................................................................... — 188,189,192,193
Benefits.-------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------- --------------------------------------------------14
Cooperation with employers................................................................ ................... ..................................
168
Health and general medical subj ects, articles on, in official magazine_______ ____ _____________
79
H om e for aged members, c onsidered and rejected.______________ ______________________________
45
Pension, old-age, rejection o f ........ ............................................................ .................................................
43
Granite Cutters’ International Association:
Benefits______ ________ _________ _________ - ............................................................... ................14,15,18,26
Conciliation of disputes-------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------- -----------170
Employment office.................. ................................................................. .......... - ------- ------------------------145
Pensions, old-age______________ ______ - ................. - -------- ---------------- --------------------------------- 33,34,36-38
Group insurance........ ............................ ................... .......... .......................................... - ............ ............ 12> 21» 28




222

IN DEX
H

Hat, Cap, and Millinery Workers, International Union of Cloth:
P a ge
Benefits.................................................................................................................................. ...............14,15,26,71
Conciliation and arbitration of disputes............................. ................................................................. 170,171
Cooperation w ith employers for operating efficiency..............................................................................
163
C redit unions............................................................................................................................................... 195,196
Insurance for members............................................................................................... ........ ..................... ..2 1 ,2 8
Pensions, old-age, being studied.......................................................... ............................. ........................
44
Recreation activities.......... .............................................. ...................................... ......... ...........................85,94
Unemployment, measures to prevent.......... ............ ............................................................................
141
Unemployment insurance........................ ............................................................. .............................. .
152
Hatters, United:
Benefits................................................................................ ..................................................... ........... 14,18,19,26
Unemployment insurance...... ............ .........................................................................................................
152
Headgear workers. ( See H at, Cap, and Millinery Workers, International Union of Cloth.)
Health Bureau, Workers’ ................... ................................................................................................................
75
Health, recreation encouraged for effect upon. .................................... ............................................. ............
84
Health work of labor unions............................................................................................................ .................. 74-84
H od Carriers, B uilding and C om m on Laborers’ Union, International:
Benefits.......................................................................................................................................................14,18,26
Conciliation and arbitration o f disputes...... ........... ...................... .....................................................170,171
Recreation activities_____________ _________ _________ __________________ ___________ ____ 89,90,92-94
H olding companies o f organized labor..................................................... ........................... ......... 187,196,198-200
Home-loan associations of organized labor............................................ .............. ................................ 132-137,187
Hosiery Workers, American Federation o f Full-Fashioned:
Benefits............................... ........................................................................... ............................................14,20,26
--------- Philadelphia local........... ..................... ..............................................................................................
29
Cooperation with employers........................................................................................ ...........................166,167
Recreation activities.......................................................................................................................................87-94
Hotel and Restaurant Employees’ International Alliance and Bartenders’ International League:
Benefits................ ...................................................................... ........ .............. ............................................ 14,26
--------- Local u n ion s-...................... ............................ ...................................... - ...........................................
30
Conciliation o f disputes ...................... ...................................... ............... ..................................................
170
Recreation activities................................. .......... ........... ............. ................... ..................................... 89,92,94
Hotels of labor groups...................... ............................ ..................... ...............................................................211,212

I
Institutes, labor............................................................................... .......................................................... .......178,179
Insurance companies of organized labor............................................................................................... 187,200,201
Insurance for members............................................................................. ...................................................... 20-24,28
Insurance. ( See also Group insurance.)
Insurance, unemployment. ( See Unemployment insurance.)
Investment companies of organized labor................................................................................ 187,188,196-199,209
Iron, Steel, and T in Workers, Amalgamated Association of:
Benefits.................................................................................................. ............ ........................................ 14,15,26
--------- Discontinuance o f ......... - ................... ............... .................... ...........................................................
13
Conciliation o f disputes ........................ ................... ...................................................................................
170
Headquarters building, com m unity features of.................. ....................................................................
105
Recreation activities........................................................................... ................................................ 88,90,91,94
L
Label, union:
Use of. A guaranty of union conditions of sanitation............... ..................................... , _............ 75,77,78
---------, to increase sale of union-made goods ................................ .............................................................
145
(See also Union-label, Union-label stores.)
“ Labor ” , organ of standard railroad brotherhoods................................................................... ........... .......
180
Labor press:
Development o f........................................................................................................................................... 180,181
Health and general medical subjects, articles o n ........................ ............................ ..................... ..........
79
Use of, to increase workers’ trade knowledge and efficiency. ............................................. ..................
168
Labor temples, recreation and com m unity features o f..................... ................................. ....................... 102-105
Laborers, building. ( See H od Carriers, Building and Com m on Laborers’ Union, International.)
Lace Operatives, Chartered Society o f Amalgamated. B enefits......................................................... 14,20,26
Ladies’ Garment W orkers' Union, International:
Cooperation w ith employers_______ : ............................................ ........................................................ 165,166
Dental care................................................................................................................................................79,81,82
Health work and medical service........................................................................................................... 74,79-82




IN DEX

223

Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, International— Continued.
P age
Physical training classes for members, N ew Y ork locals........................................................................
82
Prosanis label, guaranty o f safe and sanitary working conditions....................................................... 77,78
Recreation activities..................................................................................................................... 85,87,89,94-98
Sanitation and shop conditions, action b y union to improve................................................................ 76-78
77
Tuberculosis benefits, local unions.............................................. ............ ............ ................................. .
Tuberculosis sanatorium, assistance t o .............................................................. .......................................
72
Unem ploym ent insurance...................... ................... .............................................................................. 150,151
Union-management cooperation, attitude tow ard............ ........................... ......................................... 157
U nity House.......................... .................................................................................. .......................................95-98
Lathers' International Union, W ood , Wire, and Metal:
Benefits............................................................................... .................................... ....................................... 14*26
Conciliation and arbitration o f disputes................... ............................................................................. 170,171
Cooperation with employers.............................. ........................................................................................
168
Recreation activities...................................................................................... .......................................... 94
Laundries o f organized labor.................................................................................................... ....................... 187,206
Leather Workers* International U nion, United:
Benefits.................................................................................................................. ........ ................................. 14,15
Insurance for members......................................................................... ......... ........................................ 21,22,28
U nemployment, exemption from dues as means o f relieving......................... .....................................
147
Letter Carriers* Association, Rural. Collective purchase, O h io -......................... .................... ..............
203
Letter Carriers, National Association of:
Insurance for members................................................................................... .........................................21-23,28
Recreation activities..................... ............................. ................................ ..................................................
90
Life insurance. ( See Insurance.)
Lithographers, Amalgamated:
Benefits..........................................................- ........ - .........- ................... - ......................................................14,26
--------- Local unions disability.................................................. ................. .......... .....................................
146
Cooperation w ith employers................. ............... ............................. ................... ....................................
168
C reditunion_..................................................... ........... ............................... ........................- ..................195*196
Em ploym ent office................................................................................... ................. ............ - .....................
145
Pensions, old-age, abandonment of scheme, after consideration............... ...........................................
43
Recreation activities........................................................................... ............. ............................................
93
Local unions, benefits........ ...................... .......................................................................................................... 29-31
Locom otive engineers. ( See Engineers, Grand International Brotherhood of Locom otive.)
Locom otive firemen. ( See Firemen and Enginemen, Brotherhood of Locom otive.)
Longshoremen’s Association, International. Conciliation of disputes......................................................
170
Loss of sight, benefits for, granite cutters......................................................................... .......................... 12,14,26

M
Machinists, International Association of:
Bank, Washington, D . C .................................- ............................................................................... 188,192,193
Benefits______ ___________________ ________________ _____________________________ ____ _________
14
168
Cooperation w ith em ployers____________________________ ______ _______________________ _______
Credit unions____________ ______ ______ _____________ ____ _________________________________ 195,196
Insurance for members...................................................................... ^--------------------------------------- 21,22,24,28
Radio, labor, contribution of locals tow ard------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------184
Unemployment, measures to prevent or relieve_______ ________________ ____ _________ _______141,148
M ail Association, Railway. Insurance for members........................ ..................... ........ .................. 21,22,24,28
Maintenance o f W a y Employees, Brotherhood of:
Benefits........... .......... ................................................ ................................................ ............ ............ ............ 14,26
---------Discontinuance of disability........................- .............. - ........................ ........ - .......... .....................
13
Cooperation w ith employers for safety ..................... ..................................... .......... ................................
166
Mail-order business, discontinued.....................................................................................- ....................213,214
178
Statistical department....................................... ............................................ ............................ - ................
Unemployment, exemption from dues as means of relieving................................................................
148
Marble, Stone and Slate Polishers, Rubbers and Sawyers, Tile and Marble Setters’ Helpers, and
Terrazo Workers, Helpers, International Association of. C onciliation and arbitration of disputes. 170,171
Masons. ( See Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ International Union.)
M eat Cutters and Butcher W orkm en, Amalgamated:
Benefits........................................................................................................ .........- ..............- ..................... —
14
Conciliation o f disputes............................................................ .............................................. .....................
170
Recreation activities---------------------- ------------------------------- ------------------------------------------- 89,90,92-94,102
M edford Sanatorium......................................................... ............................ .....................................................
73
M edical care for members................................................... ................... .......... 46-53,57,61,65,67,71-73,79-84,131




224

IN D EX

Metal Polishers’ International Union:
P age
Benefits___________________ ____ ______________________________________________________________ 14,26
Group insurance, proposal for................................................................................................ .....................
13
Unemployment, exemption from dues as means of relieving................................ ........................ .
148
M etal Workers, Amalgamated:
Arbitration o f d isp u tes................................................................................................................................
172
Recreation activities...................................................................................................................... ................
89
Metal Workers’ International Association, Sheet:
Benefits............................................................................................................................................................. 16,27
Pension, old-age, proposed- - ........................................................................................................................
43
140
Unemployment, restriction of membership as means of preventing, Cedar Rapids local............. .
Mill work companies owned b y organized labor— ...................................................................................... 209,210
M ine, M ill, and Smelter Workers, International Union of:
Conciliation o f disputes.................................................................................................................................
170
Recreation activities...................................................................................... ...............................................
89
M ine Workers, United:
Arbitration o f disputes................................................................................................................................ .
173
Controversy w ith Brotherhood of Locom otive E n gin eers............................................................... 208,209
Cooperative stores of local unions. ................................................................. ....................................... 204,205
Funeral associations of local unions........................................................................................ ......... 187,206,207
Mines operated b y organized workers, discontinued........ ................. .......... ............................ ...................
216
Molders’ Union, International:
Benefits.............................................................................. ...................................................... ............ 14,15,20,26
Cooperation w ith em ployers. ............................................................ ................... ........ ............ ...............
168
Unemployment, out-of-work stamps as means of relieving____ ________ ____________ ___________
147
181
Motion-pictures, use of, b y labor organizations.............................................................. .................. ............
Musicians, American Federation of. Radio, labor, contribution toward................................................
184

N
Nitgedaiget, vacation camp of United Workers...............................................................................................
Nursery School of American Federation of Teachers, projected— ...........................................................

98
178

O
Oil Field, Gas W ell and Refinery Workers, International Associat ion of. Unemployment, exemp­
148
tion from dues as means of relieving..................................... ................................................................ .........
Old-age pensions......................................................................................................................................... 26, 27,33-44
Old age, trade-union provision for.......................................... ............................. ................. 12,15,17,33-44,45-73

P
Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers, Brotherhood of:
Art exhibit, Chicago local................................................................................ ........................................ 185,186
Benefits................................................. ............................... .......... ........ ....................................................... 16,26
Cooperation with employers______________________ _____________ ____ ____ ____________________
168
Headquarters building, com m unity features o f--------------------------------------------------------- ---------- -----105
Pensions, old-age, being studied---------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------44
Radio, labor, contribution o f locals tow ard......................................................................... .....................
184
Sanitation and shop conditions, action b y N ew Y ork C ity local to im prove................................... 75,76
Paper Makers, International Brotherhood of:
Benefits.................................................................................................................................................. — 16,20,27
Conciliation and arbitration o f disputes.......... ................................ ........... ............. ...........................170,171
Cooperation with em ployers............................................................................ ........ ........................ .........
168
Credit unions proposed___ ___________ ________________________ . ___________ _____ _________195
Employment office________ ________________ _____ _____ - .......... ................................................ .........
145
Realty com pany.................................................... - .........- ..................... .................................... ...............
200
Recreation activities............................................................................ ............ ............ ................... .......89,91-94
Unemployment, exemption from dues as means of relieving................... .............................................
148
Patent department, pressmen’s u n ion ...................................... ................................................................... 211,213
Patternmakers’ League:
Benefits......................................................................................................... ............................ - .........— 16,17,27
Group insurance, question of, submitted to membership.............. ............. ........................................ 12,13
Recreation activities................................................................................................. ........................... 89,90,92,94
Unemployment, exemption from dues as means of relieving------------- ------- ---------- ----------------------148
Paving Cutters’ Union, International. Conciliation of disputes.................................... ..........................
170
Pennsylvania Federation of Labor. Union-management cooperation, attitude tow ard------------------156
Pensions, old-age, various unions____________________________________________________________ 26,27,33-44




INDEX

225

Pharmacists, American Registered:
P age
Benefits........................................................ .......... ............ ....................... ................. ..............................16,17,27
-------- discontinuance o f._______________ _______ ______ ______________________________ ____ ____
13
Cooperation w ith em ployers....................................... ................... .............................. ........... ...............
168
Photo-Engravers’ International Union:
Benefits............................................................................ ............................. ....... ................................16-18,27,71
168
Cooperation w ith em ployers....................................... ................... ............ ................................................
E m ploym ent office............................................................... ......................................................................
145
Group insurance, substitution of, for death benefit........................ ...................................... ..................
12
Health and general medical subjects, articles on, in official magazine__________ _______________
79
199
Investment trust............................................................ ........................................ ....................... ................
Recreation activities................................................................ ............................ ........................................ 90,92
Sanitation and shop conditions, action b y various locals t o im prove.......................................... ............ 76
U nem ploym ent benefits, payment b y locals...................................................................................... 146,147
Union-management cooperation, attitude tow a rd ............... .................... ............................................... 157
Physical training classes.................................. ...................... ............ ..................................... .............................. 82
Pioneer Y ou th o f America............................................................................................................................ 89,99-101
Plasterers and Cement Finishers’ International Union, Operative:
Benefits.................................................................................. .................................................... .........................27
Conciliation o f disputes................................................... ............... .......... ...................... .............. ................170
Cooperation with employers........ ......................................... ...................................... ...................... .......... 168
Sanitation and shop conditions, action b y Indianapolis local to improve............. ............................ .
75
Union-management cooperation, attitude toward............................................... .......................................156
Plasterers. ( See also Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’ International Union.)
Plate Printers, Die Stampers and Engravers’ Union, International. Benefits........................... .
16,20,27
Plumbers and Steamfitters, U nited Association of Journeymen:
Benefits..................................................................... ................................................ ............ ..................... 16.17,27
Conciliation and arbitration o f disputes___________________ _____________________ ____________170,171
Headquarters building, com m unity features o f _____ ______ ___________ ________ _________________105
Recreation activities.................................................................................. ........................ .................. 89,92,93
Pocketbook Workers’ Union, International:
Benefits......................................................................................................................... ....................................17,27
Conciliation and arbitration o f disputes................. .......................................... ................................ ..........170
Cooperation w ith em ployers_______________ ___________________ _________ _______________ _______166
Em ploym ent office.................................... ............................................ ........... .......... ............ ................143,144
Sanitary control, joint board of_________ ____ ____________________________________________________ 78
U nemployment benefits_________________________________ ___________________________ __________ 146
Unemployment, loans to members as means of relieving........................................................... ..............148
Postal employees:
Collective purchase------- ----------------------------- -------------------- -----------------------------------------------------------203
Cooperative cafeterias------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------- 203
Credit unions................................................................................................................ ..............................194-196
Post Office Clerks, National Federation of:
Benefits............................................................................................. ............. ................... ..................16,17,19,27
Credit unions__________________ ____________ _________________ ______ ______________________ 194-196
Insurance for members............................................................................................... ............ ............... 21,22,28
R adio, labor, contribution o f locals tow ard ................. ..................................................... ......................... 184
Recreation activities...................................................................................................................... .............. 92-94
Post Office Clerks, United National Association of. Insurance for members................................... 21,22,28
Potters, National Brotherhood o f Operative:
Benefits.............................................................- .......................- .......................................... ......................... 16,27
Cooperation w ith em ployers...........................................- ................... ........................ ................................168
Em ploym ent office............................................................- --------------------------------------- --------------------------- 145
M edical care for members............................................... .......................................... ........... ........... .........71,72
Recreation activities......................................... - ..................................... - ......................................................... 89
Tuberculosis, treatment for...................................................... ................................................................. 71,72
Pressmen, printing. ( See Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union, International.)
Printers. ( See Typographical U nion, International.)
Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union, International:
Bank, Rogersville, T enn..................................... ............... - ............................................................. 188,192,193
Benefits........................................................................................................................................................16,17,27
Chapel, at Pressmen’s H om e....................... — ........................... ......... ............... — .......... .............
213
Conciliation and arbitration of disputes-------- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 170,171,173
Cooperation w ith em ployers.......... ........................................................ ................. ............................. 161,162
Dependents o f deceased members, provision f o r . . . ____ _________ ____ ____________ ____________28,29
144
Employment information service______________________________________ _______________________
Engineering service..................................................................................................................................... 161,162




226

INDEX

Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union, International—Continued.
Page
Home for aged.................................................................................. .........................................................51,53,54
Hotel, 4 Pressauna T a vern ,” at Pressmen’s H om e____________________________ ___________ 211,212
4
Manufacturing and patent com pany.......................... ............... ....................................................... . - 211,213
Medical care for members..................................................................... ......................................................49-52
Pensions, old-age,............................................................................................................ ........................ 34-36,38
Pressmen’s H om e................................................................... ..................... ........... .............................. 49,51,53
91
Recreation activities................................................................................ .............. .............. ........................
Statistical department.................................................................................. ................................................
178
Tuberculosis sanatorium............................................................................................................................... 49-52
Unemployment, rotation o f lay-offs as means o f preventing, N ew Y ork C ity loca l_______ ______
142
Publicity, means of, used b y labor unions.................................................................................................__ 180-186
Purchasing, collective, b y members of labor organizations........ , .......... .................................... 125,132,203-205

Q
Quarries, owned b y Brotherhood of Locom otive Engineers’ members................. ............. ............ .............213
Quarry Workers’ International Union:
Benefits.................................................................................................... .......... ...................................... 16,17,27
C onciliation of disputes........................ ............. .................... .........._. _............ ..................................... .....170
Employment office___________ ________________ _____ ____________________ ______ ___________ ____ 145
Pensions, old-age.................... ............................................................. ................................... ....................
36
94
Recreation activities...................................................................................... .......... ................. ...................

B
Radios, labor:
W C F L , radio of Chicago Federation of Labor......................................... ................. ........................ 181-184
W E V D , Debs Memorial Fund radio............. .............................. ............................................... .........184,185
Railroad shop crafts, cooperation in B . & O. plan_______ _______ __________ ______ _________ 157-161,169
Railroad telegraphers. ( See Telegraphers, Order of Railroad.)
Railroad Workers, American Federation of:
16
B enefits........................................................................................................ ............ .......... ..........................
Unemployment, reduction o f force on basis of seniority, as means of preventing______ __________
142
R ailway carmen. <See Carmen, Brotherhood of Railway.)
Railway clerks. (See Clerks, Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship.)
R ailway conductors. (See Conductors, Order of Railway.)
Real-estate ventures................................................................................................................................... 132,210,213
Research, recognition o f value of, b y labor organizations.._______ _______________________________ 177-179
Restaurant employees. (See Hotel and Restaurant Employees’ International Alliance.)
Roofers, Dam p and Waterproof W orkers’ Association, United Slate, Tile and Composition. Benefits. 16,27
Rural letter carriers. (See Letter Carriers’ Association, Rural.)
Russian-American Industrial Corporation..................................................................................... ........ .
119,210

S
Sanitary control, joint board of:
Ladies’ garment industry.................................................................................. .........................................76-78
Pocketbook industry............................................................ .......... ............ ................. ..............................
78
Sanitation and shop conditions, action b y unions to im prove____ ____ ______ ________ ____ _______ 75-79
Securities corporations....................................... ............................................................... ............................ 135,198
Sheet-metal workers. (See M etal W orkers’ International Association, Sheet.)
Shoe Workers’ Protective Union. Benefits.................................................................. ........... ..................... 16,27
Shoe workers. (See also B oot and Shoe Workers’ Union.)
Sick benefits. (See under Benefits.)
Siderographers, International Association of. Unemployment benefits..................................................
146
Sight, loss of, benefits for, granite cutters’ union.......................... ................. .................................... .
12,14,26
Signalmen, Brotherhood of Railroad. Benefits_________________ _________ ________ ______________ 16,27
Sportsmanship Brotherhood, recreation promoted b y _________________ ___ _____ ____________ _____
88
Station Employees and Clerks, International Brotherhood of. Recreation activities_________ _____
89
Statistical departments of labor organizations......................................................... .................... ..............177,178
Stereotypers and Electrotypers’ Union, International:
Benefits............. ................................................................ ..................................................... ....................... 16,17
Conciliation and arbitration o f disputes................................... ....................................... ..................... 170,171
Costello Hom e, tuberculosis sanatorium .............................................................. ....................................46-49
Recreation activities................................................ ..................................... ............. - ............ ......... 88-90,92-94
Sanitation and shop conditions, action b y union to improve-------------------- --------------------------------75
Unemployment benefits, payment b y locals.......................................... ..................................................
146




INDEX

227

Page
Stonecutters' Association, Journeymen. Health and general medical subjects, articles on, in official
magazine...............................................................................................................................................................
79
Stores. (See Union-label stores; Cooperative stores.)
Stove Mounters* International Union:
172
Arbitration of disputes.................................................................................................... ............. ...............
Benefits..................................................................................- ........................................................ ............... 16,27
Conciliation o f disputes........................................ ._ ..................................................................................
170
Em ploym ent office............................... ............. . ........................................ ...................... ............. ..........
145
Unemployment, exemption from dues as means o f relieving................................... ............. .............
148
Street and Electric Railway Employees, Amalgamated Association of:
Benefits....................................................................................................................... .......... ............... 16,17,27,30
Conciliation and arbitration of disputes......................................................... ............. ........................ 170,171
Cooperation with em ployers........ ................................................................ ........................................ . 165,166
Credit unions.................................................................................................................... ............. — .........
195
Headquarters building, Chicago local, com m unity features o f...... .............. .................. ................108,109
Pension, old-age.................................. ........................................................................... ................... 33,34,36,37
Recreation activities......................................................................................... .............................................87,90
Switchmen’s Union of America:
Benefits................................................... .......... .............. ................................................................... ...........
16
Insurance for members...................... ........... ........... ............... ................... ............ ............ ..................... 21,22
T
Tailors’ Union, Journeymen:
Benefits................................................................. ......... ........................ ........ ............ .................16, 17, 19, 27
Conciliation of disputes.................................................................................................................................
170
Unemployment, equal distribution of work as means of preventing, Grand Rapids and Chicago
locals.............................. ...............................................................................................................................
141
Teachers, American Federation of:
Credit union.......................... .................................................................................................................. 195, 196
Nursery school, projected..............................................................................................................................
178
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Stablemen and Helpers, International Brotherhood. Radio, labor, contri­
bution o f locals toward........................................................................................ ............. ............. ........
184
Technical M en , Union of. Cam p W ocolona................. ................................... .......... ..............................
99
Telegraphers, Order of Railroad:
Bank, St. Louis........................................................................... .................... ................... .
188,190,192,193
143
Em ploym ent office_________________________________________ _________________________________
Group insurance, adopted b y ladies* auxiliary------------------------------------------------------------------- ------12
Headquarters building, com m unity features o f ____________ ______ _____ _________________ 105,107,108
Insurance for members........................................ .............. .................................................... ....... .........21,22,28
Pensions, old-age, action concerning_______ ____ __________________________________ ____________
43
Recreation activities.................................................................. ................. .......... ....................................
90
Telegraphers* Union, Commercial:
Benefits............................................ .............................. ............ .................................................................... 14,26
147
Unem ploym ent assessments, Chicago---------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------Telephone workers* credit union_____________ _____ _____ ________________________________ ______195,196
Textile Workers, United:
Benefits.......................................... ................................................ .............................................. ..................16,27
Conciliation and arbitration of disputes............. .................................................... ............................ 170,171
Cooperation w ith employers............................ .......................................................... .............................167-169
Credit union........ ............ ............................................................ ........ ............ .............................. .........195,196
Institute, textile, held at B rookwood College............................. ................ ........... ..............................
179
Unemployment, exemption from dues as means of relieving............... .............................................
148
T obacco Workers, Amalgamated:
Arbitration o f disputes -------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------172
Recreation activities---------------------------------------- ------------- ----------------------------------------------------------90
Train Dispatchers’ Association, American:.
Benefits................................................... .................................................. ........................................— - 16,20,27
Investment com pany------------------------------------------------- ------------- --------------------------------------------- 196-198
Trainm en, Brotherhood o f Railroad:
American H om e Builders, stock owned b y local lodges...................................................... ........... 136,137
Bank (Transportation Brotherhoods National Bank, Minneapolis), part ownership o f . . . 188,192,193
Benefits........................................ — .............................................................................................- .........16-18,27
Cooperation with employers........... ..................................... — .............................................................
168
E m ploym ent office............................................................. ........................................ .............. ...................
143
Home for aged and disabled members---------------------------------- ------- ------------- ^________________ 53,55,59
Insurance for m e m b e r s . ------ ---------- -------------------------- ------- ---------- ------------------ --------------- 21,22,24,28
Medical care for members................................................................................................ ............................57,71




228

INDEX

Trainm en, Brotherhood of Railroad — Continued.
P a ge
181
Motion-picture history of union....................... ..........................................................................................
Pension, old-age_________________________ _______________________________________ ______ 34-39,41,42
W idow s of deceased members, provision f o r . .________ ____________ ____________ _____________ .2 9 ,4 2
Tubercular members, care o f............................. ..................... ............ ..................... .........16-52,65,67,71-73,77,84
Tuberculosis, benefits for. (See under Benefits.)
Tunnel and Subway Constructors’ International Union. Employment office......................................
145
Typographical Union, International:
Benefits___________________________________________________________________________________ 16,17,27
--------- N ew Y ork local, “ B ig 6 ” — ------------------ --------------------------------------------------- ---------------------- 30,31
Conciliation and arbitration of disputes................................................................................... .......... 171,173
Cooperation w ith em ployers.................................................................................. ................... ................
168
Headquarters building, com m unity features o f ............. ......... ............ .............................. ................105,106
Home for aged.................................................................................. - ---------------------- ------------- ---------------61-71
M edical care for members.......................................................................... ............ ........ ............................65,67
M otion picture showing union’s care for aged and tubercular------------------------- ------- ------------------181
Pensions, old-age............................................................................ .................................... ..........................34-41
Radio, labor, contribution o f locals tow ard---------------------- ---------. ------------------ ----------------------------184
Recreation activities. _............. ...................................................... .......... ..................... ............................ 90-93
Research, recognition of value o f ............................................................. ..................................................
177
Statistical department..................................................... ...................... .............................. .......... .........177,178
Survey of conditions in trade, b y Washington, D . C ., local____ ____ _________________________ 78,79
Tuberculosis sanatorium................................... .................... ............................. ..................................... 65,67
Unemployment, measures to prevent.................................................................................................. 141,142
Widows of deceased members, provision for..................................... ........................................ .............
42
U
Undertaking establishments. (See Funeral associations.)
Unemployment:
Advantage of organized over unorganized workers in times o f............................................................
139
Benefits. ( See under Benefits.)
Em ploym ent service of trade-unions _ . ............. .................... ........ ..................................... ...............143-145
Measures to prevent __________________ __________ _______ ____________ ______ ______________ 139-146
Measures t o relieve......................................... .......................... ................. ............................................146-148
Union-label goods, efforts to increase sale of, as means of preventing___________________________
145
U nemployment conferences, labor’s ............___................................... ..........................................................
153
Unem ploym ent insurance:
Consensus o f trade-union opinion as t o ............................. ........... .......................................... ............. .
139
Fur industry..................................................................... .................. ...................... ................... ........... 151,152
152
H at and cap industry, cloth............................................................ ........ .................................................
Hat industry, fe lt..________ ____________ _______________ _________________ _______ ___________
152
M en ’s clothing industry ........................................................ .......... ..................................... ........ .........148-150
Tendency to shift responsibility upon em ployer_____________________ ________________________
3 ,4
W all-paper industry................................................................................. ........ ........ ..................................... 152
W om en’s garment industry______ __________ _________ ______ ____ ______ ___ _____ ________ 1 5 0 ,151
Union Health Center............................. ............. ..................................................... .................. ................... 79-82
Union-label stores........................ .............................. ................................................ _............................ 187.201-203
Union-label trades, efforts to increase sale o f goods................................................................................... 145,181
U nion-management cooperation...................................................................................................... 145,146,154-176
United Workers’ Cooperative Association:
Camp Nitgedaiget...... ............ _...................................................... ..................................................... ...9 8 ,1 2 9
Consumers’ Finance Corporation_____ ____ _________ ____ ________ ______ _______ ___________
129
Housing activities.................................. ............ .................................................................................... 1 28-132
U nity House, summer resort of International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union............................. . 95-98
Upholsterers’ International Union:
Cooperation with employers, for operating efficiency............... ........................ .............................. 162,163
Recreation activities..................................................... ............................ .......................... .............. 87,89,90.94
Unemployment, equal division of work and pool of earnings as means of preventing___________
142
Union-management cooperation, attitude tow ard___ ___________________ _______ ____________156,157
Urinalysis for members and families, Brotherhood of Locom otive Engineers..........................................
83
V
Valmar Federation Club, summer home colony of members of Chicago Federation of Labor_______ 98,99
Venice. Land development project of Brotherhood of Locom otive Engineers................................... 132,210




INDEX

229

w
Waiters and waitresses. ( See Hotel and Restaurant Employees’ International Alliance.)
W all Paper Crafts, United:
Page
Benefits................................................................................................................ ............................................ 16,27
170
Conciliation o f disputes.............................................................................................................. .................
Guaranty o f em ploym ent......................................................... .......... ................. .......... ............ .............
152
Recreation activities..................................... ................................................ ..............................................89,94
W C F L , radio o f Chicago Federation of Labor.................... .................... ........ ................... .................. 181-184
Weavers’ local union, N ew Bedford, com m unity features of headquarters building..............................
108
Welfare benefits. (Sec Benefits.)
W E V D , Debs M emorial Fund ra d io .......................................................................................................... 184,185
Window-glass cutters. ( See Glass Cutters’ League, W indow; Glass Cutters’ Protective Associa­
tion, W indow.)
Window-glass workers. (See W indow Glass Workers, National.)
Wire Weavers’ Protective Association, American. Employment office...................................................
145
W om en’s Trade Union League, summer c a m p ...................................................................... ...................101,102
Workers’ Cooperative Association, United. ( See United Workers’ Cooperative Association.)
Workers’ Education Bureau, unemployment conferences held under auspices of...................................
153

Y
Yard masters. Railroad.




Insurance for members...................................................................................... 21.22 28




LIST OF BULLETINS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
The following is a list of all bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics published since July,
1912, except that in the case of bulletins giving the results of periodic surveys of the bureau
only the latest bulletin on any one subject is here listed
A complete list of the reports and bulletins issued prior to July, 1912, as well as the bulle­
tins published since that date, will be furnished on application. Bulletins marked thus
are out of print.

.

(*)

Conciliation and Arbitration (including strikes and lockouts).
♦No. 124. C on cilia tion an d a rb itra tio n in th e b u ild in g tra d es o f G reater N ew Y ork.
[1 9 1 3 .]
♦No. 133. R e p o rt o f th e in d u stria l cou n cil o f th e B r itis h B oard o f T ra d e on. its in q u iry
in to in d u stria l a greem ents.
[1 9 1 3 .]
No. 139. M ich ig a n cop p er d is trict strike.
[1 9 1 4 .]
No. 144. In d u s tria l cou rt o f th e cloa k , su it, a n d sk irt in d u stry o f N ew Y o rk C ity .
[1 9 1 4 .]
N o. 145. C on cilia tion , a rb itra tion , and s a n ita tion in the dress an d w a ist in d u stry o f
N ew Y o rk C ity.
[1 9 1 4 .]
♦No. 191. C ollectiv e b a rg a in in g in th e a n th ra cite co a l in d u stry. [1 9 1 6 .]
♦No. 198. C o lle ctiv e agreem ents in th e m en’ s c lo th in g in d u stry.
[1 9 1 6 .]
N o. 233. O p eration o f the in d u strial disp u tes in v estig a tio n a ct o f C anada.
[1 9 1 8 .]
N o. 255. J o in t in d u stria l cou n cils in G reat B rita in .
[1 9 1 9 .]
N o. 283. H isto ry o f th e S h ip bu ild in g L a b or A d ju s tm e n t B oa rd , 1917 t o 1919.
N o. 287. N a tion a l W a r L a b or B o a r d : H is to ry o f its fo rm a tio n , activities* etc.
[1 9 2 1 .]
N o. 303. U se o f F ed era l p ow er in settlem en t o f ra ilw a y la b o r disputes.
[1 9 2 2 .]
N o. 341. T ra d e a greem en t in th e silk-rib b on in d u stry o f N ew Y o rk C ity.
[1 9 2 3 .]
N o. 402. C ollectiv e b a rg a in in g b y a ctors.
[1 9 2 6 .]
No. 448. T ra d e agreem ents, 1926.

Cooperation.
N o. 313. C onsum ers’ coop era tive so cie tie s in th e U nited S ta tes in 1920.
N o. 314. C oop era tiv e c r e d it societies in A m erica a n d in fo re ig n co u n tries.
[1 9 2 2 .]
N o. 4 3 7 . C oop era tiv e m ovem ent in th e U n ited S tates in 1925 (o th e r th a n a g ricu l­
t u r a l).

Employment and Unemployment.
♦No. 109. S ta tistics o f u n em p loym en t a n d th e w o r k o f em ploym ent offices in th e
U n ited S tates.
[1 9 1 3 .]
N o. 172. U n em p loym en t in N ew Y o r k C ity , N . Y .
[1 9 1 5 .]
♦No. 183. R e g u la rity o f em p loym en t in th e w om en ’ s rea d y-to-w ea r ga rm en t in d u stries.
[1 9 1 5 .]
♦No. 195. U n em p loym en t in th e U n ited S tates.
[1 9 1 6 .]
No. 196. P roceed in gs o f th e E m p loy m en t M anagers’ C on feren ce held a t M inn eapolis,
M in n ., J a n u a ry 19 and 20, 1916.
♦No. 202. P roceed in g s o f th e co n feren ce o f E m p loy m en t M a n a gers’ A ss o cia tio n o f
B oston , M ass., held M a y 10, 1916.
N o. 206. T h e B ritis h system o f la bor exchanges.
[1 9 1 6 .]
♦No. 227. P roceed in gs o f the E m p loy m en t M a n a gers’ C onference, P h ila d elp h ia , P a .,
A p ril 2 an d 3, 1917.
N o. 235. E m p loy m en t system o f the L ake C arriers’ A sso cia tio n . [1 9 1 8 .]
♦No. 241. P u b lic em p loym en t offices in th e U nited States.
[1 9 1 8 .]
N o. 247. P roceed in gs o f E m p loy m en t M a n a gers’ C on feren ce, R o ch e ste r, N. Y ., M ay
9 -1 1 , 1918.
N o. 310. In d u stria l u n e m p lo y m e n t: A sta tistica l stu dy o f its ex te n t and causes.
[1 9 2 2 .]
N o. 409. U n em p loym en t in C olum bus, O hio, 1921 to 1925.




(I)

Foreign Labor Laws.
♦No. 142. A d m in istra tion o f la b or la w s and fa c t o r y in sp e ctio n in certa in E urop ean
cou n tries.
[1 9 1 4 .]

Housing.
♦No. 158. G overnm ent aid to hom e o w n in g an d hou sin g
cou n tries.
[1 9 1 4 .]
N o. 263. H ou sin g by em p loyers in th e U n ited S tates.
No. 295. B u ild in g op era tion s in rep resen ta tiv e citie s in
N o. 449. B u ild in g p erm its in th e p rin c ip a l citie s o f th e
1926.

o f w ork in g people in fo re ig n
[1 9 2 0 .]
1920.
U nited S tates in [1 92 5 a n d ]

Industrial Accidents and Hygiene.
♦No. 104. L ead p oison in g in p otteries, tile w ork s, a n d p o rce la in enam eled sa n ita ry
w a re fa cto rie s.
[1 9 1 2 .]
N o. 120. H yg ien e o f th e p a in te rs ’ tra d e.
[1 9 1 3 .]
♦No. 127. D angers t o w ork ers fr o m dusts and fum es, and m eth ods o f p ro te ctio n .
[1913.1
♦No. 141. L ea d p o iso n in g in th e s m eltin g and refining o f lead.
[1 9 1 4 .]
♦No. 157. In d u s tria l a ccid e n t sta tis tics.
[1 9 1 5 .]
♦No. 165. L ea d p o iso n in g in th e m a n u fa ctu re o f storag e b atteries.
[1 9 1 4 .]
♦No. 179. In d u s tria l p oison s used in the ru bber in d u stry.
[1 9 1 5 .]
No. 188. R ep ort o f B ritis h d ep a rtm en ta l com m ittee on th e danger in the use o f
lead in th e p a in tin g o f b uild in gs.
[1 9 1 6 .]
♦No. 201. R e p o rt o f com m ittee o n s ta tis tic s and' co m p e n sa tio n in su ra n ce co s t o f th e
In tern a tion a l A s s o cia tio n o f In d u s tria l A ccid e n t B oard s and C om m is­
sion s.
[1 9 1 6 .]
♦No. 207. C auses o f death , b y o ccu p a tion .
[1 9 1 7 .]
♦No. 209. H ygiene o f th e p rin tin g tra d es.
[1 9 1 7 .]
♦No. 219. In d u s tria l p oison s used o r p rod u ced in th e m a n u fa ctu re o f e xp losiv es.
[1 9 1 7 .]
N o. 221. H ours, fa tig u e, and hea lth in B ritish m u n ition fa cto rie s.
[1 9 1 7 .]
N o. 230. In d u stria l efficiency and fa tig u e in B ritish m u n ition fa cto rie s.
[1 9 1 7 .]
♦No. 231. M o r ta lity fr o m r e s p ira to ry diseases in d u sty tra d e s (in o rg a n ic d u s ts ).
[1 9 1 8 .]
♦No. 234. S a fety m ovem ent in th e iron a n d steel in d u stry , 1907 to 1917.
N o. 236. E ffe cts o f th e a ir ha m m er on th e h a n d s o f s to n e cu tte rs.
[1 9 1 8 .]
No. 249. In d u s tria l h ea lth an d efficiency. F in a l re p o rt o f B ritis h H ea lth o f M u ni­
tion W ork ers’ C om m ittee.
[1 9 1 9 .]
♦No. 251. P rev en tab le d ea th in the co tto n -m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u stry.
[1 9 1 9 .]
N o. 256. A ccid en ts and a ccid en t p rev en tion in m achine b u ild in g.
[1 9 1 9 .]
N o. 267. A n th ra x as an o ccu p a tio n a l disease.
[1 9 2 0 .]
N o. 276. S ta n d a rd iz a tion o f in d u s tria l-a ccid en t sta tis tics.
[1 9 2 0 .]
N o. 280. In d u s tria l p oiso n in g in m akin g coa l-ta r dyes and dye interm ed ia tes.
[1 9 2 1 .]
N o. 291. C arbon m on ox id e p o ison in g.
[1 9 2 1 .]
N o. 293. T h e p rob lem o f d u st p h th isis in the gran ite-ston e in d u stry.
[1 9 2 2 .]
N o. 298. C auses a n d p rev en tion o f a ccid e n ts in th e iro n a n d steel in d u stry, 1 9 1 0 1919.
N o. 306. O c cu p a tion a l ha zard s and d ia g n o s tic s i g n s : A gu id e to im p a irm en ts to be
look ed fo r in h a zard ou s occu p a tion s.
[1 9 2 2 .]
N o. 339. S ta tistics o f in d u s tria l a ccid en ts in th e U n ited S tates.
[1 9 2 3 .]
N o. 392. S urvey o f h y g ien ic co n d itio n s in the p rin tin g tra d es.
[1 9 2 5 .]
N o. 405. P h osp h oru s n ecrosis in the m a n u fa ctu re o f firew ork s and in th e p rep a ra ­
tion o f p h osp h oru s.
[1 9 2 6 .]
No. 425. R ecord o f in d u stria l a ccid en ts in th e U n ited S ta tes to 1925.
N o. 426. D eaths fro m lea d p oison in g.
[1 9 2 7 .]
No. 427, H ea lth s u rv ey o f th e p rin tin g tra d es, 1922 to 1925.
N o. 428. P roceed in gs o f th e In d u s tria l A ccid e n t P re v e n tio n C on feren ce, held at
W ash in g ton , D. C., J u ly 1 4 -1 6 , 1926.
N o. 460. A new test fo r in d u s tria l lead p oison in g. [1 9 2 8 .]

Industrial Relations and Labor Conditions.
No. 237.
N o. 340.
N o. 349.
N o. 361.
N o. 380.
N o. 383.
N o. 384.
N o. 399.

In d u s tria l u n rest in G reat B rita in .
T1 91 7 .]
C hinese m ig ra tio n s w ith special refere n ce t o la b o r co n d itio n s .
[1 9 2 3 .]
In d u s tria l r e la tio n s in th e W est C oa st lu m b er in d u stry.
[1 9 2 3 .]
L a b or rela tion s in th e F a irm on t (W . Y a .) b itu m in o u s-co a l field.
[1 9 2 4 .]
P o s tw a r la b or co n d itio n s in G erm any.
[1 9 2 5 .]
W ork s cou n cil m ovem en t in G erm any.
[1 9 2 5 .]
L a b or co n d itio n s in th e sh oe in d u stry in M assa ch u setts, 1 9 2 0 -1 9 2 4 .
L a b or rela tion s in th e la ce a n d la ce-cu rta in in d u stries in th e U n ited S tates.
[1 9 2 5 .]




(II)

Labor Laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor).
N o. 211. L a b or la w s an d th e ir a d m in istra tion in th e P a cific S tates.
r i9 1 7 .]
N o. 229. W ag e-p a ym en t leg isla tion in th e U n ited S ta tes.
[1 9 1 7 .]
No. 285. M inim u m -w a ge la w s o f th e U n ited S t a t e s : C o n stru ctio n an d o p e ra tio n .
[1 9 2 1 .]
N o. 321. L a b or la w s th a t h a ve been d ecla red u n con s titu tio n a l.
[1 9 2 2 .]
N o. 322. K a n sa s C ou rt o f In d u stria l R ela tion s.
[1 9 2 3 .]
N o. 343. L a w s p r o v id in g f o r bureaus o f la b o r s ta tis tics, etc.
[1 9 2 3 .]
N o. 408. L a w s re la tin g t o p a ym en t o f w ages.
[1 9 2 6 .]
N o. 434. L a b o r leg is la tion o f 1926.
N o. 444 . D ecision s o f cou rts an d o p in ion s a ffe ctin g labor.
[1 9 2 6 .]

Proceedings of Annual Conventions of the Association of Governmental Labor Officials of the
United States and Canada.
♦No.
N o.
No.
N o.
♦No.
♦No.
N o.
No.

266.
307.
323.
352 .
389.
411.
429.
455.

S eventh, S eattle, W ash ., J u ly 1 2 -1 5 , 1920.
E ig h th , N ew O rleans, L a ., M a y 2 - 6 . 1921.
N inth, H a rrisb u rg , P a., M a y 2 2 -2 6 , 1922.
T en th , R ich m on d , V a., M a y 1 -4 , 1923.
E lev en th , C h ica go, 111., M a y 1 9 -2 3 , 1924.
T w e lfth , S a lt L ake C ity, U tah , A u gu st 1 3 -1 5 , 1925.
T h irteen th . C olum bus, O hio, J une 7 -1 0 , 1926.
F ou rteen th , P a terson , N. J., M a y 3 1 -J u n e 3, 1927.

Proceedings of Annual Meetings of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards
and Commissions.
No.
N o.
No.
♦No.
No.
N o.
N o.
N o.
No.
No.
N o.
N o.
N o.

210.
248.
264.
273.
281.
304.
333.
359.
385.
395.
406.
432.
456.

T h ird , C olum bus, O hio, A p ril 2 5 -2 8 , 1916.
F ou rth , B o sto n , M ass., A u gu st 2 1 -2 5 , 1917.
F ifth , M a d ison , W is., S eptem ber 2 4 -2 7 , 1918.
S ixth, T o r o n to , C an ada, Septem ber 2 3 -2 6 , 1919.
Seventh, San F ra n cis co , C alif., S eptem ber 2 0 -2 4 , 1920.
E ig h th , C hicago, 111., S eptem ber 1 9 -2 3 , 1921.
N inth, B a ltim ore, M d., O ctob er 9 -1 3 , 1922.
T en th , St. P a u l, M in n ., Septem ber 2 4 -2 6 , 1923.
E lev en th , H a lifa x , N ov a S cotia , A u gu st 2 6 -2 8 , 1924.
In d ex to p roceed in g s, 1 9 1 4 -1 9 2 4 .
T w e lfth , S alt L ake C ity, U tah , A u gu st 1 7 -2 0 , 1925.
T h irteen th , H a rtfo rd , Conn., Septem ber 1 4 -1 7 , 1926.
F ou rteen th , A tla n ta , Ga., S eptem ber 2 7 -2 9 , 1927.

Proceedings of Annual Meetings of International Association of Public Employment Services.
N o. 192. F irs t, C h ica go, D ecem ber 19 an d 20, 1 9 1 3 ; S econd , In d ia n a p o lis, Septem ber
24 an d 25, 1 9 1 4 ; T h ird , D etroit, J u ly 1 and 2, 1915.
No. 220. F o u rth , B u ffa lo, N. Y ., J u ly 20 a n d 21, 1916.
No. 311. N in th , B u ffa lo, N. Y ., S eptem ber 7 -9 , 1921.
N o. 337. T en th , W a sh in g ton , D . C., S eptem ber 1 1 -1 3 , 1922.
N o. 355. E lev en th , T oron to, C an ada, Septem ber 4 - 7 , 1923.
N o. 400. T w e lfth , C hicago, 111., M a y 1 9 -2 3 , 1924.
N o. 414. T h irteen th , R och ester, N. Y ., Septem ber 1 5 -1 7 , 1925.

Productivity of Labor.
N o. 356. P r o d u c tiv ity costs in th e com m on -b rick in d u stry .
[1 9 2 4 .]
No. 360. T im e an d la b or costs in m a n u fa ctu rin g 100 p a irs o f shoes.
[ 1923.1
N o. 407 . L a b o r c o s t o f p rod u ction and w a ges an d h ou rs o f la b o r in th e p a p er b o xb oa rd in d u stry.
[1 9 2 6 .]
N o. 412. W ages, hou rs, an d p ro d u ctiv ity in th e p o tte r y in d u stry , 1925.
No. 441. P ro d u ctiv ity o f la b or in th e glass in d u stry.
[1 9 2 7 .]

Retail Prices and Cost of Living.
♦No. 121.
♦No. 130.
♦No. 164.
N o. 170.
N o. 357.
N o. 369.
No. 464.

S ugar prices, fro m -refiner to con sum er.
[1 91 3 .]
W h ea t and flour prices, fro m fa rm er t o consum er.
B u tte r p rices, fro m p rod u cer t o con sum er.
[1 9 1 4 .]
F oreig n fo o d p rices as a ffected b y th e w a r.
[1 9 1 5 .]
C ost o f liv in g in th e U n ited S tates.
[1 9 2 4 .]
T h e use o f c o s t-o f-liv in g figures in w age ad ju stm en ts.
R e ta il p rices, 1890 to 1927.
(I n p ress.)




(ill)

[1 9 1 3 .]

[1 9 2 5 .]

Safety Codes.
N o. 331. C ode o f l i g h t i n g : F a cto rie s, m ills, a n d o th e r w o rk p laces.
N o. 336. S a fe ty cod e fo r th e p ro te ctio n o f in d u stria l w ork ers in fou n d ries.
N o. 350. S pecification s o f la b o r a to ry tests f o r a p p ro v a l o f e le ctric h e a d lig h tin g
devices f o r m o to r veh icles.
N o. 351. S a fety cod e f o r th e co n stru ctio n , ca re, a n d use o f ladders.
N o. 375. S a fe ty cod e f o r la u n d ry m ach in ery an d op era tion .
N o. 378. S a fety co d e fo r w o o d w o rk in g p lan ts.
N o. 382. C ode o f lig h tin g s ch o o l b u ild in gs.
N o. 410. S a fe ty cod e f o r p a p er and p ulp m ills.
N o. 4 30 . S a fe ty cod e f o r p o w e r presses a n d fo o t a n d ha n d presses.
N o. 433 . S a fety cod es f o r th e p rev en tion o f d u st exp losion s.
No. 4 3 6 . S a fe ty cod e f o r th e use, care, an d p ro te ctio n o f a brasive w heels.
N o. 447 . S a fe ty cod e fo r ru bb er m ills a n d calenders.
N o. 451. S a fe ty cod e f o r fo rg in g an d h ot-m eta l stam pin g.
N o. 463. S a fe ty cod e fo r m ech a n ica l p ow er-tra n sm ission a p p aratu s— first revision*
V ocational and Woi&ers* Education.
♦No. 159. S h ort-u n it cou rses f o r w a g e ea rn ers, a n d a fa c t o r y s ch o o l e x p erim en t.
[1 9 1 5 .]
♦No. 162. V o ca tio n a l ed u ca tion su rv ey o f R ich m on d , V a.
[1 9 1 5 .]
No. 199. V o ca tio n a l ed u ca tion su rv ey o f M inn eapolis, M inn .
[1 9 1 7 .]
N o. 271 . A d u lt w ork in g -cla ss ed u ca tion in G re a t B rita in a n d th e U n ited S tates.
[1 9 2 0 .]
N o. 459„ A p p r e n tice sh ip in b u ild in g co n stru ctio n .
[1 9 2 8 .]
W ages and H ours o f Labor.
♦No. 146. W ages a n d reg u la rity o f em p loym en t an d sta n d a rd iza tio n o f p iece ra tes in
th e d ress a n d w a ist in d u stry o f N ew Y o rk C ity. [1 9 1 4 .]
♦No. 147. W a g es a n d re g u la rity o f em p loym en t in th e cloa k , suit, a n d sk irt in d u stry .
[1 9 1 4 .]
N o. 161. W ages a n d h ou rs o f la b o r in th e c lo th in g a n d cig a r in d u stries, 1911 to 1913.
N o. 163. W ages and h ou rs o f la b o r in the b u ild in g and rep a irin g o f steam ra ilro a d
ca rs, 1907 to 1913.
♦No. 190. W ag es and h ou rs o f la b o r in th e co tto n , w oo le n , and silk in d u stries, 1907
to 1914.
N o. 204. S treet ra ilw a y em p loy m en t in th e U n ited S tates.
[1 9 1 7 .]
N o. 225. W ages a n d h ou rs o f la b or in th e lum ber, m illw ork , a n d fu r n itu re in d u s­
tries, 1915.
♦No. 265. In d u s tria l s u rv ey in s elected in d u stries in th e U n ited S tates, 1919.
N o. 297. W a g es an d h ou rs o f la b or in the p etroleu m in d u stry, 1920.
N o. 356. P r o d u c tiv ity co s ts in th e com m on -b rick in d u stry.
[1 9 2 4 .]
N o. 358. W a g es a n d h o u rs o f la b o r in th e a u to m o b ile -tire in d u stry , 1923.
N o. 360. T im e a n d la b o r costs in m a n u fa ctu rin g 100 p a irs o f shoes. [1 9 2 3 .]
N o. 365. W a g es and h ou rs o f la b or in the p a p e r an d p ulp in d u stry , 1923.
N o. 394. W ag es a n d h ou rs o f la b o r in m eta llifero u s m ines, 1924.
No. 407. L a b o r co s t o f p ro d u ctio n a n d w a ges a n d hours o f la b o r in th e p ap er b oxboard in d u stry .
[1 9 2 6 .]
N o. 412. W ages, h ou rs, and p ro d u c tiv ity in th e p o tte r y in d u stry , 1925.
N o. 413. W ag es a n d h ou rs o f la b or in th e lum ber in d u s try in th e U n ited S ta tes, 1925.
N o. 416. H ou rs a n d ea rn in g s in a n th ra cite a n d b itu m in o u s co a l m in in g, 1922 an d
1924.
N o. 421 . W ages an d h ou rs o f la b o r in th e s la u g h te rin g and m eat-p a ck in g industry*
1925.
N o. 422. W ag es an d h ou rs o f la b or in fou n d rie s an d m achine shops, 1925.
N o. 435 . W ag es a n d h ou rs o f la b o r in th e m en ’s c lo th in g in d u stry, 1911 to 1926.
N o. 438. W ag es a n d h ou rs o f la b o r in the m o to r-v e h icle in d u stry, 1925.
No. 442. W ag es a n d h ou rs o f la b o r in th e iron a n d steel in d u stry , 1907 to 1926.
N o. 443. W a g es an d h ou rs o f la b or in w oolen and w o rste d g o o d s m an ufacturing*
191 0 to 1926.
No. 446. W a g es and h ou rs o f la b or in co tto n -g o o d s m an u fa ctu rin g , 1 91 0 to 1926.
N o. 450. W ages an d h ou rs o f la b o r in the b o o t and shoe in d u stry , 1907 t o 1926.
N o. 452. W a g es and h ou rs o f la b or in the h osie ry an d u n d erw ea r in d u stries, 1 90 7
to 1926.
N o. 454. H ou rs and ea rn in gs in b itu m in ou s-coa l m in in g in 1922, 1924, a n d 1926.
N o. 457. U nion sca les o f w ages an d h ou rs o f la bor, M a y 15, 1927.




<
rv)

Welfare Work.
♦No. 123. E m p loy ers’ w e lfa re w ork .
[1 9 1 3 .]
N o. 222. W e lfa re w o r k in B ritis h m u n ition fa ctories.
[1 9 1 7 .]
♦No. 250 . W e lfa re w ork f o r em ployees in in d u s tria l esta b lish m en ts in
S tates.
[1 9 1 9 .]
N o. 458. H e a lth a n d recrea tion a ctiv itie s in in d u s tria l esta b lish m en ts.

t h e U n ite d
[1 9 2 8 .]

Wholesale Prices.
N o. 2 84 . In d e x num bers o f w h olesa le prices in the U n ited S ta te s an d fo re ig n cou n ­
trie s.
[1 9 2 1 .]
N o. 440 . W h olesa le prices, 1890 to 1926.
N o. 4 53 . R evised in d ex num bers o f w h olesa le p rices, 1923 t o J u ly , 1927.

Women and Children in Industry.
N o. 116 , H ou rs, ea rn in gs, and d u ra tion o f em p loym en t o f w a g e -e a rn in g w om en in
selected in d u stries in the D is tr ic t o f C olum bia.
[1 9 1 3 .]
♦No. 117. P ro h ib itio n o f n ig h t w o r k o f y ou n g p ersons.
[1 9 1 3 .]
♦No. 118. T en -h ou r m axim u m w ork in g-d a y fo r w om en an d y o u n g p erson s. [1 9 1 3 .]
♦No. 119. W o rk in g h ou rs o f w om en in th e pea ca n n eries o f W isco n sin .
[1 9 1 3 .]
♦No. 122. E m p loy m en t o f w om en in p ow er la u n d ries in M ilw aukee.
[1 9 1 3 .]
N o. 160. H ou rs, ea rn in gs, and co n d itio n s o f la b o r o f w om en in In d ia n a m erca n tile
esta b lish m en ts a n d ga rm en t fa cto rie s.
[1 9 1 4 .]
♦No. 167. M in im u m -w a ge le g is la tio n In the U n ited S ta te s and fo r e ig n cou n tries.

[1915.]
♦No. 175 . S um m ary o f th e rep ort on con d ition s o f w om a n and ch ild w a g e earners in
th e U n ited S tates. [1 9 1 5 .]
♦No. 176. E ffe ct o f m in im u m -w age d eterm in a tion s in Oregon.
[1 9 1 5 .]
♦No. 180. T h e b o o t an d shoe in d u s try in M a ssa ch u setts as a v o c a tio n fo r w om en.
[1 9 1 5 .]
♦No. 182,. U n em p loy m en t a m on g w om en in d ep a rtm en t an d o th e r re ta il sto re s o f
B oston , M ass.
[1 9 1 6 .]
N o. 193. D ressm a k in g as a tra d e f o r w om en in M a ssachu setts.
[1 9 1 6 .]
N o. 215. In d u s tria l exp erien ce o f tra d e-sch ool g irls in M a ssa ch u setts.
[1 9 1 7 .]
♦No. 2 17 . E ffe ct o f w ork m en ’ s com p en sation la w s in d im in ish in g th e necessity o f
in d u stria l em p loym en t o f w om en a n d ch ild ren .
[1 9 1 8 .]
N o. 2 2 3 . E m p loy m en t o f w om en and ju v en iles in G reat B rita in d u rin g th e w ar.
[1 9 1 7 .]
N o. 2 53 . W om en in th e lea d in d u stries.
[1 9 1 9 .]

Workmen’s Insurance and Compensation (including laws relating thereto).
♦No. 101. C are o f tu b ercu lou s w a g e earners in G erm any.
♦No. 102. B r itis h n a tio n a l in su ra n ce a ct, 1911.

[1 9 1 2 .]

No. 103. Sickness and accident insurance law o f Switzerland.

[1912.]

N o. 107. L a w r e la tin g to insu ra n ce o f salaried em ployees in G erm any. [1 9 1 3 .]
♦No. 155. C om p en sa tion fo r a ccid en ts to em ployees o f th e U n ited S tates.
[1 9 1 4 .]
N o. 2 12 . P roceed in g s o f the con feren ce o n s o cia l in su ra n ce ca lle d b y th e In te rn a ­
tio n a l A ss o cia tio n o f In d u stria l A ccid e n t B oard s and C om m issions,
W a sh in g ton , D. C., D ecem ber 5 -9 , 1916.
♦No. 243. W ork m en ’ s com p en sa tion leg is la tion in th e U n ited S ta te s a n d fo re ig n
cou n tries, 1917 a n d 1918.
N o. 301. C om p a rison o f w ork m en ’ s com p en sation in su ra n ce an d a d m in istra tio n .
[1 9 2 2 .]
N o. 312 . N a tion a l h ea lth in su ra n ce in G reat B rita in , 1911 to 1921.
N o. 379 . C om p a rison o f w ork m en ’s com p en sation la w s o f the U nited S ta te s as o f
J a n u a ry 1, 1925.
N o. 423. W ork m e n ’ s com p en sa tion le g is la tio n o f th e U n ited S ta te s a n d C an ada
a s o f J u ly 1, 1926.

Miscellaneous Series.
♦No. 174. S u b ject in d ex o f th e p u b lica tion s o f th e U n ited S tates B ureau o f L a b o r
S ta tistics up t o M a y 1, 1915.
♦No. 208. P r o fit s h a rin g in th e U n ited S tates.
[1 9 1 6 .]
N o. 242. F o o d situ a tion in cen tra l E urop e, 1917.
N o. 254. In te rn a tio n a l la b o r leg isla tion and th e so cie ty o f n a tion s.
[1 9 1 9 .]
N o. 268. H is to rica l su rv ey o f in tern a tion a l a ctio n a ffe ctin g la b o r.
[1 9 2 0 .]
N o. 282. M u tu al r e lie f a ss o cia tio n s a m on g G overn m en t em ployees in W a sh in g ton ,
D . C. [1 9 2 1 .]

102869°— 28------ 16




(v )

Miscellaneous Series—C ontinued.
N o. 299. P erson n el resea rch a g e n c ie s : A gu id e t o org a n ize d resea rch in em p lo y m e n t
m an agem ent, in d u s tria l rela tion s, tra in in g , a n d w o r k in g co n d itio n s.
[1 9 2 1 .]
N o. 319. T h e B u rea u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s : Its h is to ry , a ctiv itie s , a n d o rg a n iza tio n .
1922.
N o. 326. M ethod s o f p ro cu rin g a n d com p u tin g s ta tis tica l in fo rm a tio n o f th e B u rea u
o f L a b o r S ta tistics.
[1 9 2 3 .]
N o. 342. In te rn a tio n a l S eam en’s U n ion o f A m e r ic a : A stu d y o f it s h is to r y an d
p rob lem s.
[1 9 2 3 .]
N o. 346. H u m a n ity in g ov ern m en t.
[1 9 2 3 .]
N o. 372. C o n v ict la b o r in 1923.
N o. 386. C ost o f A m e rica n alm sh ou ses.
[1 9 2 5 .]
N o. 398. G row th o f lega l-a id w o rk in th e U n ited S ta tes. [1 9 2 6 .]
N o. 401. F a m ily a llow a n ces in fo re ig n cou n tries.
[1 9 2 6 .]
N o. 420. H a n d b ook o f A m erica n tra ae-u n ion s.
[1 9 2 6 .]
N o. 439. H a n d b ook o f la b o r s ta tis tics, 1 924 t o 1926.
No. 4 58 . H ea lth a n d r e c re a tio n a ctiv itie s in in d u s tria l esta b lish m en ts.
[1 9 2 8 .]
N o. 461. L a b o r o r g a n iza tio n s in C hile.
[1 9 2 8 .]
(I n p ress.)
N o. 462. P a rk recrea tion areas in th e U n ited S ta tes. [1 9 2 8 .]




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