View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

L X3
•

'




Bulletin 1725-51
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

/ Bureau of Labor Statistic*

Region I
I
1515 Broadway, Suite 3400
N e w York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region III
406 Penn Square'Building
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Region VI
Region V
8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7
Chicago, III. 60606
Dallas. Tex. 75202
Phone: 3 5 3 -1 8 8 0 (Area Code 312)
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

Regions V II and V III
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 10th Floor
Kansas C ity, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017 ’
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Region I
1603-JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)

* Regions V II and V III will be serviced by Kansas City.
Regions IX and X will be serviced by San Francisco.

• *




AREA WAGE SURVEY

B u lle t in 1 7 2 5 -5 1

June 1972

U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR, J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S , G e o ffre y H . M o o re , C om m issioner

T h e Y o u n g s t o w n —W a r r e n , O h io , M e tr o p o lita n A r e a , N o v e m b e r 1971
CONTENTS
Page

1.
5.

Introduction
W age trends fo r s e le c te d occupational groups
T a b le s :

4.

1.
2.

E stablish m en ts and w o rk e rs within scope o f su rvey and number studied
Indexes o f standard w e e k ly s a la rie s and s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly earnings fo r s e le c te d occupational
grou p s, and p ercen ts o f in c re a s e fo r s e le c te d p erio d s

A.

O ccupational earn in gs:
A - l . O ffic e occupations—
men and wom en
A -2 . P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ical occupations— en and wom en
m
A - 3. O ffic e , p ro fe s s io n a l, and tech n ica l occupations—
men and wom en com bined
A -4 . M aintenance and pow erplan t occupations
A -5 . C ustodial and m a te ria l m ovem en t occupations

B.

6.

E stablish m en t p ra c tic e s and su pplem en tary wage p ro v is io n s :
B - l . M inim um entrance s a la rie s fo r w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s
B -2 . Shift d iffe re n tia ls
B -3 . Scheduled w eek ly hours and days
B -4 . P a id holidays
B -5 . P a id vacation s
B -6 . H ealth , in su ran ce, and pension plans

7.
9.

10.

11.
12

.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
20.

23.

Appendix.

O ccupational d escrip tio n s




F o r sale by the S u p erin ten d en t o f D o cum ents, U .S . G o vern m en t P rin tin g O ffic e , W ashington, D .C ., 2 0 4 0 2 —Price 3 5 cents

Preface
The Bureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics p ro g ra m o f annual occu p a­
tional w age su rveys in m etro p o lita n a rea s is designed to p ro v id e data
on occupational earnings , and estab lish m en t p ra c tic e s and su pplem en ­
ta ry w age p ro v is io n s .
It yie ld s d eta iled data by s e le c te d industry
d iv is io n fo r each o f the a rea s studied, fo r geograp h ic re g io n s , and
fo r the United States.
A m a jo r co n sid era tio n in the p ro g ra m is the
need fo r g r e a te r in sigh t into (1) the m ovem en t o f w ages by occu pa­
tion al c a te g o ry and s k ill le v e l, and (2) the stru ctu re and le v e l o f
w ages am ong a rea s and indu stry d iv is io n s .
A t the end o f each s u rv e y , an individual area b u lletin p r e ­
sents the re s u lts .
A ft e r com p letion o f a ll individual a rea bulletins
fo r a round o f s u rv e y s , two su m m ary bulletins a re issu ed.
The fir s t
brin gs data fo r each o f the m e tro p o lita n a rea s studied into one bu lletin .
The second p resen ts in fo rm a tio n which has been p ro je c te d fro m in d i­
vidu al m etro p o lita n a re a data to re la te to geograp h ic region s and the
United States.
N in e ty -fo u r a rea s c u rre n tly a re included in the p ro g ra m .
In
each a re a , in fo rm a tio n on occu pational earnings is c o lle c te d annually
and on estab lish m en t p ra c tic e s and su pplem entary w age p ro v is io n s
b ien n ia lly.
T h is bu lletin presen ts resu lts o f the su rvey in Youngstown—
W a rre n , O hio, in N o v e m b e r 1971. Th e Standard M etro p o lita n Statis tic a l A r e a , as defin ed by the O ffic e o f M anagem ent and Budget
(fo r m e r ly the Bureau o f the Budget) through January 1968, con sists
o f Mahoning and T ru m b u ll C ounties.
T h is study was conducted by the
B u reau 's re g io n a l o ffic e in C h icago, 111., under the g e n e ra l d ire c tio n
o f L o is L . O r r , A s s is ta n t R eg io n a l D ir e c to r fo r O peration s.




N o te:
S im ila r re p o rts a re a v a ila b le fo r oth er a re a s .
back c o v e r .)

(See inside

Union w age r a te s , in d ic a tiv e o f p r e v a ilin g pay le v e ls in
the Youngstown a r e a , a re a lso a v a ila b le fo r seven selected
building tra d e s .

In tro d u c tio n
This a rea is 1 o f 94 in which the U.S. Department o f L a b o r 's
Bureau of L a b o r Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings
and re la te d benefits on an areaw ide b a s is . 1 In this area, data w e r e ob­
tained by p erson al v is its of Bureau fie ld econom ists to rep resen ta tive
esta blishm ents within six broad industry division s: Manufacturing;
transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale
trade; r e ta il trade; finance, insurance, and rea l estate; and s e r v ic e s .
M a jo r industry groups excluded fr o m these studies are government
operations and the construction and ex tra c tiv e industries. Establish ­
ments having fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d number of w o rk e rs are om itted
because they tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupations
studied to w arrant inclusion.
Separate tabulations a re p rovided for
each o f the broad industry divis io ns which m e e t publication c r it e r ia .

Occupational em ployment and earnings data are shown fo r
fu ll- tim e w ork ers, i.e ., those hired to w ork a regu lar w eekly schedule.
Earnings data exclude p rem iu m pay for o v e r tim e and for work on
weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are e x ­
cluded, but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g allowances and in centive earnings are in ­
cluded. Where w eekly hours are reported, as for o ffic e c le r ic a l occu­
pations, r e fe r e n c e is to the standard w orkw eek (rounded to the nearest
half hour) fo r which em ployees r e c e iv e their regu lar straig ht-tim e
sa la rie s (e x clu sive o f pay fo r o v e r tim e at regu lar and/or prem iu m
r a tes).
A v e r a g e w e e k ly earnings fo r these occupations have been
rounded to the n earest half dolla r.

T h ese surveys a re conducted on a sample basis because o f
the unnecessary cost involv ed in surveying all establishments. To
obtain optimum accuracy at m in im um cost, a g r e a t e r proportion of
la r g e than o f small establishments is studied. In combining the data,
h o w e v e r, all establishments are given th eir appropriate weight. E s t i ­
m ates based on the establishments studied are presented, t h e r e fo r e ,
as relatin g to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
except fo r those below the minimum size studied.

Th ese surveys m easu re the le v e l of occupational earnings in
an a rea at a p articu lar tim e. Com parisons o f individual occupational
a vera ges o v e r tim e m ay not r e fle c t expected wage changes.
The
a vera ges fo r individual jobs are affected by changes in wages and
employment patterns. F o r example, proportio ns of w o rk e rs employed
by high- or lo w -w a g e fir m s m a y change or hig h-w age w ork ers m ay
advance to better jobs and be repla ced by new w o r k e r s at lo w e r rates.
Such shifts in employment could d e c re a s e an occupational a vera g e even
though m ost establishments in an area in c re a s e wages during the year.
Trends in earnings of occupational groups, shown in table 2, are
better indicators o f wage trends than individual jobs within the groups.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected fo r study are common to a v a rie ty
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the
fo llow in g types:
(1) O ffic e c le r ic a l; (2) p rofe s s io n a l and technical;
(3) maintenance and powerplant; and (4) custodial and m a te r ia l m o v e ­
ment.
Occupational cla s s ific a tio n is based on a uniform set o f job
descriptions designed to take account of interestablishm ent variation
in duties within the same job.
The occupations sele cted for study
are listed and describ ed in the appendix. Unless otherw ise indicated,
the earnings data follo w ing the job titles a re fo r all industries c o m ­
bined. Earnings data fo r some of the occupations listed and d escribed,
o r fo r som e industry div is ions within occupations, are not presented
in the A - s e r i e s tables, because either (1) em ployment in the occupa­
tion is too sm all to p rovid e enough data to m e r i t presentation, or
(2) th ere is p os s ib ility of dis c lo s u re of individual establishment data.
Earnin gs data not shown sep arately fo r industry divisions a re included
in all industries combined data, w here shown.
L ik e w is e , data are
included in the o v e r a ll cla s s ific a tio n when a subclassification o f s e c ­
r e t a r ie s o r t r u c k d r iv e r s is not shown o r inform ation to subclassify
is not available .

The a v e ra g e s presented r e f l e c t composite, areawide e s t i­
m ates.
Industries and establishments d iffe r in pay le v e l and job
staffing and, thus, contribute d iffe re n tly to the estim ates for each job.
The pay relationship obtainable fr o m the a vera ges m a y fail to r e fle c t
accu rately the wage spread o r d ifferen tia l maintained among jobs in
individual establishments. Sim ilarly, d iffe re n c e s in a v e ra g e pay le vels
fo r men and wom en in any of the selected occupations should not be
assumed to r e fle c t d iffe re n c e s in pay treatment of the sexes within
individual establishments.
Other possible fa ctors which may con­
tribute to d iffe r e n c e s in pay fo r men and women include: Differences
in p r o g r e s s io n within established rate ranges, since only the actual
rates paid incumbents are collected; and d ifferen ces in specific duties
p e r fo r m e d , although the w o r k e r s are c la s s ifie d ap propria tely within
the same survey job description. Job descrip tions used in cla ssifyin g
em ployees in these surveys are usually m o r e g e n e ra lize d than those
used in individual establishments and allow for m inor differen ces
among establishments in the specific duties p e rfo rm e d .

1
Included in the 94 areas are eight studies conducted by the Bureau under contract.
These
areas are Binghamton, N . Y . (N ew York portion only); Durham, N . C . ; Fort Lauderdale—H ollyw ood and
Occupational em ployment estim ates represen t the total in all
West Palm Beach, F la .; Huntsville, A l a .; Poughkeepsie—Kingston—Newburgh, N . Y . ; Rochester, N .Y .
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
(o ffic e occupations only); Syracuse, N. Y . ; and U tica — Rom e, N . Y .
In addition the Bureau conducts
ally surveyed. Because o f d iffe re n c e s in occupational structure among
more lim ite d area studies in 64 areas at the request o f the Em ployment Standards Adm inistration of

establishments,

the U. S. Department o f Labor.




1

the

estim ates

of

occupational

em ployment

obtained

2
fr o m the sample of establishments studied s e r v e only to indicate
the r e la t iv e im portan ce o f the jobs studied.
Th ese d iffe re n c e s in
occupational structure do not a ffe c t m a t e r i a l l y the a ccu racy o f the
earnings data.
Establishment P r a c t i c e s and Supplementary Wage P r o v is io n s
Info rm ation is p resented (in the B - s e r i e s tables) on sele cted
establishment p ra c tic e s and supplementary wage p ro v is io n s as they
relate to plant- and o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
Data f o r industry divisions not
presented s ep a ra tely are included in the estim ates for " a l l in d u s trie s ."
A d m in istra tive, execu tive, and p r o fe s s io n a l em ployees, and construc­
tion w o rk e rs who a re u tilized as a separate w ork fo r c e a re excluded.
" P l a n t w o r k e r s " include workin g fo r e m e n and all nonsupervisory w o r k ­
ers (including leadmen and tr a in e e s ) engaged in nonoffice functions.
" O f f i c e w o r k e r s " include w o r k i n g s u p e r v is o r s and nonsu pervisory
w o rk e rs p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l or re la te d functions. C a fe te r ia w o rk e rs
and routemen a re excluded in manufacturing industries, but included
in nonmanufacturing industries.
Min im um entrance s a la r ie s fo r wom en o ffic e w o r k e r s (table
B - l ) relate only to the establishments v is ite d . Because of the optimum
sampling techniques used, and the p ro b a b ility that la r g e e s ta b lish ­
ments are m o r e l ik e ly to have f o r m a l entrance rates f o r w o r k e r s
above the s u b c le ric a l l e v e l than s m a ll establishments, the table is
m o r e - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of p o lic ie s in m ediu m and la r g e establishments.
Shift d iffe r e n tia l data (table B -2 ) a r e lim ited to plantworkers
in manufacturing industrie s.
Th is in form ation is p resented both in
t e r m s o f (1) establishment p o l i c y , 2 presen ted in te r m s of total plantw o r k e r em plo ym ent, and (2) e ffe c t iv e p r a c tic e , presented in te r m s
o f w o r k e r s actually em ployed on the sp e c ifie d shift at the tim e of the
survey.
In establishments having v a r ie d d iffe re n tia ls , the amount
applying to a m a j o r i t y was used o r , i f no amount applied to a m a jo r it y ,
the c la s s ific a tio n " o t h e r " was used. In establishments in which some
la te - s h ift hours a re paid at norm al rates, a d iffe re n tia l was r e c o rd e d
only i f it applied to a m a j o r i t y o f the shift hours.
The scheduled w eek ly hours and days (table B -3 ) o f a m a ­
j o r i t y of the f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s in an establishment a r e tabulated as
applying to all o f the plant- o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s of that establishment.
Scheduled w eek ly hours and days a re those which a m a jo r it y of f u ll­
tim e e m p lo yees w e r e expected to work, whether they w e r e paid fo r at
stra ig h t-tim e o r o v e r t im e rates.
P aid holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pen­
sion plans (tables B -4 through B -6 ) a re tre a te d sta tis tic a lly on the
basis that these a re applicable to a ll plant- or o ffic e w o r k e r s i f a

m a j o r i t y o f such w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le or m a y eventually qualify for
the p ra c tic e s listed . Sums o f individual item s in tables B-2 through
B -6 m a y not equal totals because of rounding.
Data on paid holidays (table B - 4 ) a r e lim ite d to data on h o li­
days granted annually on a f o r m a l basis; i. e . , (1) a r e provided fo r in
w ritte n fo r m , o r (2) have been establis hed by custom. Holidays o r d i ­
n a r ily granted a re included even though they m a y fa ll on a nonworkday
and the w o r k e r is not granted another day off. The f i r s t part of the
paid holidays table presen ts the number o f whole and half holidays
actually granted.
The second p a rt combines whole and half holidays
to show total holiday t i m e .
The sum m ary o f vacation plans (table B -5 ) is lim ite d to a
statistic al m e a s u r e o f vacation p r o v is io n s .
It is not intended as a
m e a s u re of the p ro p o rtio n o f w o r k e r s actually r e c e iv in g specific bene­
fits.
P r o v is io n s of an establis hm ent f o r all lengths o f s e r v i c e w e r e
tabulated as applying to all plant- o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s of the estab lish ­
ment, r e g a r d le s s o f length o f s e r v i c e .
P r o v i s i o n s fo r payment on
other than a tim e basis w e r e con verted to a tim e basis; for example,
a payment o f 2 percen t o f annual earnin gs was c o n sid ered as the equ iv­
alent o f 1 w e e k 's pay. Only basic plans a re included. E stim a tes e x ­
clude vacation bonus and vac a tio n -s a v in g s plans and those which o f f e r
"e x te n d e d " o r "s a b b a tic a l" benefits beyond basic plans with qualifying
lengths of s e r v i c e . Such exclu sions a r e typ ical in the steel, aluminum,
and can industries.
Data on health, insurance, and pension plans (table B - 6 ) in ­
clude those plans f o r which the e m p lo y e r pays at le a s t a part o f the
cost. Such plans include those underwritten by a c o m m e r c i a l insurance
company and those p ro v id e d through a union fund o r paid d ir e c t ly by
the e m p lo y e r out o f current operatin g funds o r f r o m a fund set aside
fo r this purpose. An establishment was c o n sid ered to have a plan i f
the m a j o r i t y of em p lo y e e s was e lig ib le to be c o v e r e d under the plan,
even i f le s s than a m a j o r i t y ele c te d to p articip ate because em p loyees
w e r e requ ired to contribute tow ard the cost o f the plan. L e g a l l y r e ­
quired plans, such as w o rk m e n 's com pensation, social security, and
ra ilro a d r e t ir e m e n t w e r e excluded.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim it e d to that type of in ­
surance under which p re d e te r m in e d cash payments a r e made d ir e c t ly
to the insured during t e m p o r a r y illn e s s or accident disability. I n f o r ­
m ation is presen ted fo r all such plans to which the e m p lo y e r co n trib ­
utes.
H o w e v e r , in N ew Y o r k and N e w J e r s e y , which have enacted
t e m p o r a r y d isa b ility insurance laws which re q u ir e e m p lo y e r contribu­
tions, 3 plans a r e included only i f the e m p lo y e r (1) contributes m o r e
than is l e g a l l y requ ired , o r (2) p r o v id e s the e m p lo yee with benefits
which e x ceed the req u irem en ts o f the law.
Tabulations o f paid sick

2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the following condi­
tions: (1 ) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late
3
shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1 ) had operated late shifts
contributions.
during the 12 months prior to the survey, or (2 ) had provisions in written form for operating late shifts.




The temporary disability laws in California and

Rhode Island do not require employer

3
le a v e plans a re lim ite d to fo r m a l plans 4 which p ro vid e full pay o r a
p ro p o rtio n o f the w o r k e r 's pay during absence fr o m w o rk because of
i l ln e s s .
Separate tabulations a re p resented accordin g to (1) plans
which p ro v id e full pay and no waiting p eriod , and (2) plans which p r o ­
vid e e ith er p a rtia l pay o r a waiting period. In addition to the p r e s e n ­
tation of the proportion s o f w o rk e rs who a re provid ed sickness and
accident insurance o r paid sick le a v e , an unduplicated total is shown
o f w o r k e r s who r e c e i v e either o r both types o f benefits.
L o n g - t e r m d isa b ility plans p rovid e payments to totally d i s ­
abled e m p lo yees upon the expiration o f th eir paid sick le a v e and/or
sickness and accident insurance, o r after a p re d e te rm in e d p erio d of
d isa b ility (ty p ic a lly 6 months).
Payments a re made until the end o f
4
An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the mini­
mum number of days of sick leave available to each employee.
Such a plan need not be written,
but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, were excluded.




the disability, a m axim u m age, o r e lig ib ilit y fo r re tire m e n t benefits.
Payments m a y be at full o r partial pay but are alm ost always r e ­
duced by social security, w o rk m en 's compensation, and private pension
benefits payable to the disabled em p loyee.
M a jo r m e d ic a l insurance includes those plans which a re d e ­
signed to p ro tect em p loyees in case o f sickness and injury in volving
expenses beyond the c o v e r a g e of basic hospitalization, m edical, and
su rgical plans. M e d ic a l insurance r e f e r s to plans providin g fo r c o m ­
plete or partial payment of doctors' fees.
Dental insurance usually
c o v e r s fillin g s , extractions, and X - r a y s .
Excluded a re plans which
c o v e r only o r a l s u r g e r y o r accident damage.
Plans m a y be under­
w ritten by c o m m e r ic a l insurance companies or nonprofit organizations
o r they m a y be paid fo r by the e m p lo y e r out o f a fund set aside fo r
this purpose. Tabulations o f r e tir e m e n t pension plans a re lim ited to
those plans that p ro vid e regu lar payments f o r the rem ain der o f the
w o r k e r 's life .

4

T ab le 1. Establishm ents and w orkers within scope of survey and num ber studied in Youngstow n—W a rre n , O h io ,1
by m ajor industry d iv is io n / N o ve m b e r 1971
Num ber o f establishm ents

Industry d ivis ion

M inim um
em ploym en t
in e sta b lish ­
ments in scope
o f study

W ork ers in establishm ents
W ithin scope o f study

W ithin scope
o f stu dy3

Studied
T o t a l4

Studied

Plant
Num ber

A l l d ivis io n s__________________________________
M anufacturing______________________________________
N onm anufacturing_________________________________
T ra n sp o rta tion , com m unication, and
oth er public u t ilit ie s 5 . ____________________
W h o lesa le t r a d e ------------------------- -------R e ta il tra d e _______ ________
________________
Fin ance, in su rance, and re a l e s t a t e ________
S e rv ic e s 8 _______________________________________

_

O ffic e

P e rcen t

T o t a l4

322

96

111,959

100

84,350

10,863

79,419

-

137
185

43
53

78,153
33,806

70
30

63, 112
21, 238

6,294
4,569

63,106
16,313

50
50
50
50
50

34
20
79
20
32

14
7
15
5
12

9, 885
1,910
16,059
2, 850
3, 102

9
2
14
2
3

50

3,987
(* )
(6)
(* )
(b )

1, 074
(6)
()
(6 )
(6 )

6,252
664
6,990
886
1,521

1 Th e Youngstown— a rren Standard M etrop o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a , as defined by the O ffic e of M anagem ent and Budget (fo r m e r ly the Bureau o f the Budget; through January 1968, consists o f
W
Mahoning and T ru m b u ll Counties. Th e " w o r k e r s w ithin scope o f study" estim ates shown in this table p rovid e a reason a b ly a ccu rate d escrip tio n of the s iz e and com position o f the la b o r fo rc e included in
the su rvey. Th e estim a tes a re not intended, h o w e v e r, to s e r v e as a basis o f com parison w ith oth er em ploym en t indexes fo r the a rea to m easu re em ploym ent tren ds o r le v e ls sin ce (1) planning o f w age
su rveys re q u ire s the use o f establish m ent data co m p iled co n s id era b ly in advance o f the p a y r o ll p erio d studied, and (2) s m a ll establish m ents a re excluded fr o m the scope o f the su rvey.
2 T h e 1967 edition o f the Standard In d u stria l C la s s ific a tio n Manual was used in cla s s ify in g establish m ents by in du stry d ivis ion .
3 Includes a ll establish m ents w ith to ta l em ploym en t at o r above the m inim um lim ita tio n . A l l outlets (within the a re a ) o f com panies in such in du stries as tra d e , fin an ce, auto re p a ir s e r v ic e ,
and m otion p ictu re th e a ters a re co n s id ere d as 1 establish m ent.
4 Includes e x ecu tive, p r o fe s s io n a l, and other w o r k e r s excluded fr o m the sep arate plant and o ffic e c a te g o rie s .
5 A b b re v ia te d to "pu b lic u t ilitie s " in the A - and B - s e r ie s tables. T a x ica b s and s e r v ic e s in ciden tal to w a te r tra n sp o rta tio n w e r e excluded.
6 Th is in du stry d iv is io n is re p res en ted in estim ates fo r " a l l in d u stries" and "nonm anu factu ring" in the S e rie s A ta b le s , and fo r " a ll in d u s trie s " in the S e rie s B ta b les. Separate presentation
o f data fo r th is d ivis io n is not m ade fo r one o r m o re o f the fo llow in g reason s: (1) E m ploym en t in the d ivis ion is too sm a ll to p rovid e enough data to m e r it sep ara te study, (2) the sam ple was not
design ed in itia lly to p e r m it sep ara te p resen tation , (3) respon se w as in su fficien t o r inadequate to p e rm it sep ara te p resen tation , and (4) th e re is p o s s ib ility of d is c lo s u re o f in dividu al establishm ent data.
7 W o r k e rs fr o m th is e n tire in du stry d ivis io n a re re p res en ted in estim ates fo r " a l l in d u stries" and "non m anu factu rin g" in the S e rie s A ta b les, but fr o m the r e a l esta te po rtio n only in estim ates
fo r " a ll in d u s trie s " in the S e rie s B ta b les. Separate p resen tation of data fo r this d ivis ion is not m ade fo r one o r m o re o f the reason s given in footnote 6 above.
8 H otels and m o te ls ; lau ndries and oth er p erso n a l s e r v ic e s ; business s e r v ic e s ; au tom obile r e p a ir , ren ta l, and parking; m otion p ictu res; n on profit m em b ersh ip o rga n izatio n s (excluding re ligio u s
and ch a rita b le o rga n iza tio n s ); and en gin eerin g and a rc h ite c tu ra l s e r v ic e s .




About th ree-fo u rth s o f the w o rk e rs within scope o f su rvey in the Youngstown— arren
W
a rea w e re em ployed in m anufacturing fir m s .
Th e fo llo w in g presen ts the m a jo r industry
groups and s p e c ific in du stries as a p ercen t of a ll m anufacturing:
Industry groups
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s trie s _____

41
28
F a b ric a te d m e ta l p ro d u cts_____
8
E le c tr ic a l equipm ent and
supplies________________________
5
M a ch in ery, except e le c tr ic a l__
5

S p e c ific in du stries
B la st fu rn ace and b a sic
88
M o to r v e h ic le s and
equipm ent_____________________ .. 24
F a b rica ted stru ctu ra l m eta l
produ cts_______________________.. 5

T h is in form a tion is based on estim ates o f to ta l em ploym en t d e r iv e d fr o m u n iverse
m a te r ia ls co m piled p r io r to actual su rvey.
P ro p o rtio n s in va rio u s in du stry d ivision s m ay
d iffe r fr o m proportions based on the resu lts o f the su rvey as shown in table 1 above.

W a g e T re n d s fo r S e le c te d O c c u p a tio n a l G ro u p s
shows the p ercen ta ge change. The index is the product of multiplying
the base y e a r r e la t iv e (100) by the r e la t iv e fo r the next succeeding
y e a r and continuing to m u ltiply (compound) each y e a r 's re la tiv e by the
previou s y e a r 's index.

P r e s e n t e d in table 2 are indexes and p e rcen ta ges of change
in a v e r a g e s a la rie s o f o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and industrial nurses,
and in a v e r a g e earnings of selected plantw orker groups. The indexes
a r e a m e a s u re of w ages at a given tim e, e x p re s s e d as a percen t of
w a ges during the base period . Subtracting 100 fr o m the index yields
the p ercen ta ge change in wages fr o m the base p e rio d to the date of
the index.
The p e rcen ta g es of change or in c re a s e relate to wage
changes between the indicated dates. Annual rates of in c r e a s e , w here
shown, r e f l e c t the amount o f in c re a s e for 12 months when the tim e
p e r io d between su rveys was other than 12 months. T h ese computations
w e r e based on the assumption that wages in crea sed at a constant rate
between surveys. T h e s e estim ates are m ea su res of change in a v e r ­
ages for the are a ; they are not intended to m ea su re a v e ra g e pay
changes in the establishments in the area.

F o r o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and industria l nurses, the wage
trends relate to r e g u la r w e e k ly s a la r ie s f o r the n orm a l w orkweek,
e x c lu sive of earnings fo r o v e r tim e .
F o r plan tw orker groups, they
m e a s u re changes in a v e r a g e stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnin gs, excluding
p re m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w o rk on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. The p e rcen ta g es are based on data f o r selected key oc c u ­
pations and include m ost of the n u m e r ic a lly important jobs within
each group.
L im ita tio n s of Data

Method of Computing
The indexes and p ercen tages o f change, as m ea su res of
change in a re a a v e r a g e s , a re influenced by:
(1) g e n e ra l salary and
wage changes, (2) m e r i t or other in c r e a s e s in pay r e c e iv e d by in di­
vidual w o r k e r s while in the same job, and (3) changes in a v e ra g e
w ages due to changes in the labor f o r c e resultin g fr o m labor turn­
o v e r , f o r c e expansions, fo r c e reductions, and changes in the p r o p o r ­
tions of w o r k e r s em ployed by establishments with d ifferen t pay le v e ls .
Changes in the labor f o r c e can cause in c r e a s e s or d e c re a s e s in the
occupational a v e r a g e s without actual wage changes. It is conceivable
that even though a ll establishments in an a re a gave wage in c re a s e s ,
a v e ra g e wages m ay have declined because lo w e r -p a y in g establishments
entered the a r e a o r expanded their w o rk f o r c e s .
S im ila r ly , wages
m a y have rem ain ed r e la t iv e ly constant, yet the a v e r a g e s fo r an area
m a y have risen con sid erab ly because high er-p ayin g establishments
entered the area.

Each o f the follow in g key occupations within an occupational
group was assigned a constant weight based on its proportionate e m ­
ployment in the occupational group;
Office clerical (men and women): Office clerical (men and women)—
Continued
Bookkeeping- machine
Secretaries
operators, class B
Clerks, accounting, classes
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
A and B
Switchboard operators, classes
Clerks, file, classes
A and B
A , B, and C
Tabulating-machine operators,
Clerks, order
Clerks, payroll
class B
Comptometer operators
Typists, classes A and B
Keypunch operators, classes
A and B
Industrial nurses (m en and
Messengers (office boys or
women):
Nurses, industrial (registered)
girls)

Skilled maintenance ( men):
Carpenters
Electricians
Machinists
Mechanics
Mechanics (automotive)
Painters
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers
Unskilled plant (men):
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners
Laborers, material handling

The use o f constant em ploym ent weights elim inates the effect
of changes in the proportion o f w o r k e r s r ep resen ted in each job in ­
cluded in the data.
The percen tages of change r e f l e c t only changes
in a v e ra g e pay fo r s tra ig h t-tim e hours.
T h e y are not influenced by
changes in standard w o rk schedules, as such, o r by prem ium pay
fo r o v e r t im e . W h e re n e c e s s a r y , data w e r e adjusted to re m o v e fr o m
the indexes and p e rcen ta ges of change any significant effect caused
by changes in the scope o f the survey.

The a v e ra g e (mean) earnings fo r each occupation w e r e m u lt i­
plied by the occupational weight, and the products fo r a ll occupations
in the group w e r e totaled.
The a g g re g a te s fo r 2 consecutive ye a rs
w e r e related by dividing the a g g re g a te fo r the la te r year by the a g g r e ­
gate fo r the e a r l i e r year.
The resultant r e la tiv e , less 100 percent,




5

6




T ab le 2. Indexes of standard w eekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupational groups
in Y o u n g s to w n —W a rre n , Ohio, N o vem ber 1 9 7 0 and N o ve m b e r 1971, and percents of increase for selected periods
A ll in du stries
O ffic e
c le r ic a l
(m en and
w om en )

P e r io d

In du strial
nurses
(m en and
w om en)

M anufacturing

S k illed
maintenance
tra des
(m en)

U n skilled
plantw o rk e rs
(m en)

O ffic e
c le r ic a l
(men and
w om en )

In du strial
nurses
(m en and
w om en )

S killed
m aintenance
tra d es
(m en)

U nsk illed
plantw o rk ers
(m en)

118.8
131.2

116.4
131.6

118.5
135.7

4.4
5.9
9.2
4.4
4.2
10.4

5.5
3.5
6.1
4.8
4.7
1 13.1

5.0
2.5
6.2
4.6
6.7
1 14.5

Indexes (N o vem b er 1967=100)
N o v e m b e r 1970____________________________________
N o v e m b e r 1971____________________________________

116.9
125.2

118.8
131.2

116.3
131.4

118.1
128.3

117.3
130.4

P e rc e n ts o f in c re a s e
N o vem b er
N ovem ber
N o vem b er
N o vem b er
N ovem ber
N o vem b er

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970

1 T h is

to
to
to
to
to
to

N ovem ber
N ovem ber
N ovem ber
N ovem ber
N ovem ber
N ovem ber

in c re a s e

1966______________
1967______________
1968______________
1969______________
1970______________
1971______________

re fle c t s

changes

5.7
3.0
7.8
3.0
5.3
7.1

in em ploym en t

4.9
5.5
9.2
4.4
4.2
10.4

among

5.5
3.4
5.9
4.7
4.9
13.0

establish m ents

4.9
2.1
6.3
3.6
7.3
8.6

with

d iffe re n t

4.8
1.1
7.1
4.1
5.2
1 11.2

pay le v e ls

in

addition to g e n e ra l w a ge

changes.

7

A.

Occupational earnings

T a b le

A -1 .

O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s —m en

and w o m e n

( A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e w e e k ly hours and ea rn in gs fo r s e le c te d occu pation s studied on an a r e a b asis by in d u stry d iv is io n , Youngstow n—W a rre n , O hio, N o v e m b e r 1971)
Weekly earnings 1
(sta idard)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
woikere

Number of w orkers receivin g straight-tim e weekly earnings of—
i

weekly
Mean 2

M edian2

Middle range2

(standard)

S

i
50

55

t

60

$

65

t
70

S
75

i
80

$
90

S

$
100

n o

*
12 0

*
130

*
14 0

*
150

t
160

*
17 0

t
180

$

S
190

200

65

70

75

80

90

10 0

n o

12 0

130

210

220

-

and
under

and

60

over

14 0

15 0

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

9

11

7

9

3
3

3
3

15
13

32
32

22
21

4
4

-

-

3
1

55

2
2

-

7

30
29

4
4

1
1

-

-

20
10
10

44
34

15
11

1
1

1
1

1
-

_

4

12
10
2

5
4

10

1

-

-

1

-

9
9
-

10

9
9
-

9
8

2
2

-

_

1

MEN
$

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A
MA NU FA CT UR IN G -----------CLERKS, PAYROLL ------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ------------

$

$

$

2

106

4 0 .0

1 7 6 .0 0

1 8 3 .0 0

1 6 4 .0 0 -1 9 4 .0 0

93

4 0 .0

1 7 7 .0 0

1 8 3 .5 0

1 7 0 .5 0 -1 9 3 .0 0

47

4 0 .0

1 7 9 .5 0

1 8 2 .5 0

1 8 0 .0 0 -1 8 5 .0 0

43

4 0 .0

1 8 1 .0 0

1 8 3 .0 0

1 8 0 .5 0 -1 8 6 .0 0

41

3 9 .5

9 4 .0 0

1 0 6 .0 0

7 2 .0 0 -1 0 9 .5 0

-

_

1
1

6

4

WOMEN
BILLERS, MACHINE (BOOKKEEPING
MACHINE) ----------------------BO OK KE EP IN G- MA CH IN E OPERATORS,
CLASS B ------------------------M A N U FA CT UR IN G ---------------

40

4 0 .0

9 7 .0 0

8 9 .5 0

8 2 .0 0 -1 1 8 .0 0

31

4 0 .0

1 0 3 .5 0

1 0 5 .0 0

8 7 .0 0 -1 1 9 .0 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A —
M A N U FA CT UR IN G --------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ------------

183

3 9 .0

1 4 0 .0 0

1 4 2 .0 0

116

4 0 .0

1 4 2 .5 0

1 5 1 .0 0

3 8 .0

1 3 6 .0 0

1 3 6 .0 0

~

-

-

-

-

16

7

1

13

2
2

2
2

10
10

5
5

-

-

10

14

14

31

10

13
1

6
8

7

9

24

6

9

1 2 1 .5 0 -1 5 1 .0 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B --

_

1

4
3

10

-

1 2 0 .5 0 -1 5 9 .5 0

67

6

1 2 1 .5 0 -1 5 7 .5 0

15

374

3 9 .0

1 0 2 .5 0

9 8 .0 0

8 2 .0 0 -1 1 7 .0 0

5

28

4 0 .0

1 1 7 .0 0

1 1 2 .0 0

9 8 .0 0 -1 3 3 .0 0

17

8 8 .5 0

8 4 .5 0

7 3 .5 0 -

9 9 .5 0

5

28

18

45

38
16

49
23
26

21
19
2

15
15

3 7 .5

59
33
26

54

184
190

24
2
22

62

M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------------------

NONM AN UF AC TU RI NG ------------

119

3 8 .5

9 3 .5 0

9 3 .0 0

7 5 .0 0 -1 0 8 .0 0

21

21

2
2

7
6

2
“

19
16

24
24

17
16

5
5

15
6

-

7
3

2

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS B -------------NONM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

18
-

-

9

1

99

3 8 .0

8 9 .5 0

9 1 .5 0

7 1 .5 0 -1 0 2 .5 0

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS C --------------

29

3 8 .5

6 6 .5 0

6 5 .5 0

5 6 .0 0 -

-

9

2

i

-

1

CLERKS, ORDER ------------------------

44

3 9 .5

9 6 .5 0

8 4 .0 0

7 3 .0 0 -1 2 4 .0 0

3

3

9

6

2

8

2

-

-

6

-

1

-

CLERKS, PAYROLL --------------------MANU FA CT UR IN G -------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

144

3 9 .5

1 2 6 .0 0

1 2 3 .0 0

9 9 .5 0 -1 5 8 .5 0

-

3

4 0 .0

1 3 8 .0 0

1 3 1 .5 0

1 1 7 .5 0 -1 6 9 .5 0

14
14

2
2

8 7 .0 0

7 2 .0 0 -1 1 8 .0 0

8
4
4

8
8

9 4 .5 0

9
7
2

21
17

3 8 .5

11
11

8
8

40

5
1
4

21

104

9
9

COMPTOMETER OP ERATORS --------------

39

3 9 .5

1 3 0 .0 0

1 4 2 .0 0

9 5 .0 0 -1 5 5 .0 0

1

-

-

-

6

3

2

4

-

2

7

7

3

KE YPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A ------MA NU FACTURING --------------------

40

3 9 .5

1 2 3 .5 0

1 1 4 .5 0

1 0 4 .0 0 -1 5 1 .5 0

-

-

-

-

2

6
4

5
4

11
10

-

5

-

7

2
2

48
48

19

6
6

6
6

46
32
14
3

24
21
3
3

43
21

17
17

22

-

6 9 .5 0

6

8

3

18
3

4

32

4 0 .0

1 2 5 .0 0

1 1 4 .5 0

1 0 5 .5 0 -1 5 3 .0 0

-

-

~

-

2

KE YPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B ------MANUFA CT UR IN G -------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

263

3 9 .5

1 1 2 .5 0

1 0 5 .5 0

9 1 .5 0 -1 4 1 .5 0

5

8

12

32

54

179

4 0 .0

1 2 5 .0 0

1 2 4 .5 0

1 0 3 .0 0 -1 4 4 .0 0

-

-

41

3 8 .5

8 6 .0 0

8 6 .0 0

5

8

3
9

17

84

24
5
19

15

13

19
12
7

MESSENGERS (OFFICE GIRLS) ---------MANUFA CT UR IN G --------------------

48

3 9 .0

7 8 .5 0

16

11

8

6
6

-

8 6 .5 0

2
2

-

4 0 .0

2
2

-

31

-

*

SE CRETARIES -------------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G -------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UTILITIES --------------

396

3 9 .5

13

13

4 0 .0

1 4 4 .0 0

1 3 9 .0 0

1 1 9 .0 0 -1 6 6 .0 0

120

3 8 .5

1 2 7 .0 0

1 2 6 .0 0

1 0 3 .5 0 -1 5 9 .5 0

41

4 0 .0

1 4 3 .0 0

1 5 5 .0 0

1 2 2 .0 0 -1 6 7 .5 0

52
37
15
1

40

276

_

See footnotes at end of tables.




1 3 9 .0 0

7 5 .0 0 -

9 9 .5 0

9
1
8

7 0 .0 0

6 6 .0 0 -

8 9 .0 0

3

8 6 .0 0

6 8 .5 0 -1 0 1 .0 0

1 3 7 .0 0

1 1 4 .5 0 -1 6 2 .5 0

11
-

-

6

2

-

-

-

-

-

6

2

3

8

42
25

10

5

17

2

6

“

•

7
7

7

1

14

14

19

6

—

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

13
13

1

_

_

1

-

-

-

-

-

i

3

-

-

-

-

i
i

_

-

_

_

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

16
13
3

12

n
n

-

-

-

2
2

28
12

53
46
7

6

2

16

2

8

4
4

8

5
5

4

-

-

-

8

8
T a b le A -1.

O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s — m e n a n d w o m e n ----- C o n t i n u e d

(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t- tim e w e e k ly hours and ea rn in gs fo r s e le c te d occu pation s studied on an a re a b a sis by in d u stry d iv is io n , Y o u n g s to w n -W a rre n , O h io, N o v e m b e r 1971)
W e e k l y earnings 1
(standard)

N u m b er

$
S ex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

and

in d u s tr y

$

50

Average
weekly

d iv is io n

55

o f w o rk e rs

%

$

t

r e c e iv in g

%

%

s tr a ig h t- tim e

%

%

w e e k ly

%

e a r n in g s

%

%

o f.

%

$

$

$

$

$

60

65

70

75

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

65

70

75

80

90

100

HO

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220 o v e r

16
10

2
1

1
1

7
6

5
5

220

and

M i d d l e r an g e 2

u n der

55

“

60

WOMEN - CONTINUED
SECRETARIES

-

CONTINUED
$

$

$

SECRETARIES, CLASS A MANUFACTURING ------------

46
32

3 9 .5
39.5

14 3 .0 0
1 4 6 .0 0

1 3 7. 0 0
1 3 9. 0 0

103.50-186.00
104.00-169.50

SECRETARIES, CLASS 8
MANUFACTURING --------NONMANUFACTURING ----

87
52
35

39.0
40.0
3 8 .0

1 45 .0 0
1 57 .5 0
1 26 .5 0

1 4 5. 5 0
1 5 8. 5 0
1 2 6. 0 0

120.00136.00115.00-

SECRETARIES, CLASS C ---------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

132
93
39

3 9 .5
40.0
38.0

14 2 .5 0
14 9 .5 0
1 25 .0 0

1 4 8 .0 0
1 4 9. 0 0
1 3 7. 5 0

115.50169 .0 0
119.501 74 .0 0
85.00-163.50

SECRETARIES, CLASS 0
MANUFACTURING --------NONMANUFACTURING ----

131
99
32

40.0
40.0
3 9 .0

12 9 .5 0
1 31 .0 0
12 6.5 0

1 29 . 0 0
1 29 .5 0
127 .0 0

114.50-142.50
117.00139.50
102.00166. 00

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL
MANUFACTURING ---------

256
136

38.5
40.0

11 0.5 0
1 26 .0 0

1 0 8. 0 0

86.00-141.50

1 4 0 .0 0

1 0 8 . 0 0 - 1 4 3 .5 0

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR
MANUFACTURING ------NONMANUFACTURING —

154
102
52

39.0
40.0
3 7 .5

1 30 .0 0
1 35 .0 0
1 20 .5 0

1 36 . 5 0
1 3 8 .0 0
1 32 . 5 0

108.00146.50
114.001 57 .0 0
106.50-139.50

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS A ------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

35
28

40.0
40.0

13 5.0 0
1 34 .0 0

1 3 4. 0 0
1 3 2. 5 0

119.00-155.00
117.50-159.50

SWITCHB0AR0 OPERATORS, CLASS B ------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

77
51

38 .0
40.0
37 .0

9 2 .0 0
12 7.0 0
74 . 5 0

7 9. 0 0
1 42 . 0 0
6 9. 0 0

67.50 -1 1 6 .0 0
95.0 0 151.50
6 6 . 0 0 - 7 9 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

107
84

40.0
40.0

1 02 .5 0
10 5.5 0

100.00

91.00 -1 1 7 .5 0
91.50 -1 2 3 .5 0

T Y P I S T S , CLASS A
MANUFACTURING

77
72

4 0 .0
40.0

12 7 .0 0
1 28 .5 0

1 3 4. 0 0
1 35 . 0 0

T Y P I S T S , CLASS B ---MANUFACTURING ---NONMANUFACTURING

71
46
25

40.0
40.0
40.0

1 11 .5 0
11 8.0 0
99 . 5 0

1 1 1 .0 0 1 0 0 . 5 0 - 1 4 4 . 0 0

See

fo o tn o te s

at




end

o f

ta b le s .

26

1 0 1. 5 0

107 .0 0
1 0 6. 0 0

$

103.00102.00-

167 .5 0
179. 50
146. 00

87.50-

111. 00

2

-

5
5

1
1

6
5
1
2
2

3
1
2

13
2
11

7
7

13
10
3

13
2
11

9
9

3
3

8
8

5
5

2
2

-

1
1

4
4

5
3
2

11
8
3

15
13
2

6
6
-

5
3
2

19
17
2

9
7
2

20
8
12

9
9

10
8
2

5
5
-

4
4
-

2
2
-

-

4
9
3
6

6
6

1
1

12
6
6

22
21
1

26
21
5

28
27
1

9
8
1

6
5
1

18
8
10

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

13
9

9
6

13
5

8
5
3

4
1
3

43
28
15

10
9
1

5
4
1

2
2
-

-

4
3

5
5

1
1

8
8
-

-

4
-

6
5
3
3

-

7

-

-

7

15
15
-

1
1
3
3

4
4

24
24

5
5
2
2

4
4
4
-

150 .5 0
151. 00

9 6 . 5 0 - 140. 50

5
1

2

4
4
17
12
8
8

1
1

5
1
4

10
7
3

35
32
20
10
10
3
3

12
8
4

6
6

3
2

i
i
-

3
1
2

1
1
-

30
24

23
15

6
6

17
17

8
8

6
5

4
3

22
12

1

10

4
9
3

6

60
52
19
12
7

11
7
-

8
7
1

-

1 2
1

18
16

17
17

-

-

2
-

18
16
2

5
5

2

-

-

1
1

24
24

6
6

2
2

1

1

10

8

-

1

1

10

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

9
T a b le A -2 .
(A v e r a g e

P r o f e s s i o n a l a nd t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s — m e n a n d w o m e n

s tr a ig h t-tim e

w e e k ly

h ou rs

and

e a r n in g s

fo r

s e le c t e d

o c c u p a t io n s

s tu d ie d

on

a rea

b a s is

by

in d u s t r y

d iv is io n ,

Weekly earnings 1
(standard)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

1

Mean

^

Median^

Middle range

O h io ,

N o vem b er

1971)

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s rece iving straight-time w e e k l y ea rnings of--

t
Average
hours
(standard)

Y o u n g s to w n —W a r r e n ,

^

$
no

$

115

120

120

s

$

t

*

t

$

$

»

t

i

t

$

i
S
t
200 210 220 2 3 0

130

135

140

145

150

155

160

170

180

190

125

130

135

140

145

150

155

160

170

160

190

200 210 2 0
2

_

-

4

2

9

-

4

5

“

-

*

5

1
1

1
1

15
15

-

-

-

4

-

1
1

2

-

Under

*

125

s

*
240

250

250

260

and
u n der

no

115

230

240

MEN
$

$
1 6 4 .0 0

$
$
1 4 7 .5 0 -1 9 5 .0 0

1 7 3 .5 0

1 52 .0 0
1 8 6 .0 0

1 3 5 .5 0 -1 8 9 .0 0
1 3 9 .0 0 -1 8 9 .5 0

4 0.0

2 0 9 .5 0
2 1 9 .0 0

2 1 7 .0 0
2 1 8 .0 0

1 9 2 .5 0 -2 3 2 .5 0
2 0 7 .5 0 -2 4 2 .5 0

26

39.5

1 8 8 .5 0

2 0 3 .5 0

1 4 7 .5 0 -2 2 7 .0 0

80

4 0.0
*rU.U

2 11 .5 0
2 1 1 .5 0

2 1 7 .5 0
2 1 7 .5 0

1 9 9 .0 0 -2 3 0 .0 0
1 9 8 .5 0 -2 3 0 .0 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS B -----------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

181
178

4 0.0
4 0.0

1 8 1 .0 0
1 8 1 .5 0

1 80 .0 0
1 8 1 .0 0

1 5 7 .5 0 -2 0 3 .0 0
1 5 7 .5 0 -2 0 3 .0 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS C -----------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------

93

4 0.0
4 0.0

1 6 4 .0 0
1 6 4 .0 0

1 69 .0 0

1 5 7 .0 0 -1 8 3 .0 0

93

1 69 .0 0

99

40

•0

1 64 .0 0

1 7 4 .5 0

97

4 0.0

1 6 4 .5 0

1 7 5 .0 0

---------

27

3 9.5

1 6 8 .0 0

COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS B --------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

65
44

3 9.5
4 0.0

1 6 2 .0 0

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS B ----------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

49

3 9.5

41

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS C -----------------------------

COMPUTER OPERATORS,

CLASS A

5

1
-

1
1

2

2

-

-

-

“

2

-

“

*

2

*
13
5

1

2
1

5

-

5

*

1

-

*

-

-

-

-

"

5

-

1

”

2

2
2

1
1

2

3
3

5
5

-

1

6

“

8

“

4
5

1
0
1
0

_

_

_

-

-

1
1

“

1 5 7 .0 0 -1 8 3 .0 0

3
3

1
1

4
4

1
1

1 5 2 .5 0 -1 8 2 .0 0
1 5 3 .5 0 -1 8 2 .0 0

6
6

_

_

_

2
2

1
1

4
4

5
5

5

_

5
5

6
6

-

_
~

14
14

1
1

5
5

23

-

1
1
1
1

~

2
2

1
1
1
1

16
16

1
1
1
1

20
20

1
2
1
2

9

26

9

26

30
30

9
19
19

2

42
42

1
1

-

2
2

3
3

2
2

4

4

“

4

4

1
1
6
6

1
2
1
2

25
25
25
23

9

14
14

"

“
1
1

4
4

3
3

2
2

~

-

-

-

-

-

*

'

'

_

_

_

_

_

12
12

-

WOMEN

NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) --MANUFACTURING -----------------------

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.




5

5

4

5

3

2
2

6
5

2
2

1
1

3
3

10
T a b le A -3 .

O f f i c e , p r o fe s s io n a l, a n d t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t i o n s — m e n a n d w o m e n c o m b in e d

(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t- tim e w e e k ly hours and ea rn in gs fo r s e le c te d occupations studied on an a r e a b a sis by in d u stry d iv is io n , Y ou ngstow n—W a rre n , O h io, N o v e m b e r 1971)
Av erage

(standard'

O c c u p a tio n

and

in d u s t r y

d iv is io n

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

39.5

$
9 4 .0 0

Weekly

of

OFFICE OC CUPATIONS
BILLERS. MACHINE (BOOKKEEPING
MACHINE) ----------------------------------------------

Average
O c c u p a tio n

and

in d u s t r y

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS -

d iv is io n

Number
of

Weekly
hours 1
(standard]

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

CONTINUED

O c c u p a tio n

and

in d u s t r y

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS
$
1 3 9 .0 0

-

d iv is io n

Weekly
hours 1
(standard!

of

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

CONTINUED
72

40.0

1 1 2 .0 0

47
25

4 0.0
4 0.0

1 18 .5 0
99.50

40
31

40.0
40.0

9 7 .0 0
1 03 .5 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -----------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ------------------------

289
209

3 9.5

1 5 3 .0 0
1 57 .5 0

80

40.0
3 8.0

25

4 0.0

1 6 2 .5 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B -----------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

415

3 9.0

1 0 7 .5 0

225
190

4 0.0
37.5

1 24 .0 0
88.50

CLERKS, F I L E , CLASS B -----------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

123

3 8.5

103

3 8.0

94.00
89.50

CLERKS,

FILE,

1 41 .5 0

CLASS A ------------

29

39.5

1 6 6 .5 0

COMPUTER OPERATORS, CLASS B -----------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

71

39.5

49

4 0.0

1 6 1 .0 0
1 7 2 .0 0

CLASS C ------------------------

29

38.5

62
41

4 0.0

1 1 6 .0 0
1 30 .5 0

CLERKS, PAYROLL ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

191
147
44

3 9.5
4 0.0
38.5

1 39 .0 0
1 5 0 .5 0
1 0 0 .5 0

COMPTOMETER OPERATORS -----------------------

39

39.5

1 30 .0 0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A -----------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

47
32

4 0.0
4 0.0

1 2 5 .0 0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B -----------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

263
179
84

39.5
4 0.0
3 8.5

1 12 .5 0
1 25 .0 0

58

8 1.50

33

3 9.0
4 0.0

85.50

25

37.5

7 7.00

276

120

4 0.0
38.5

41

40.0

1 4 4 .0 0
1 2 7 .0 0
1 4 3 .0 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS A
MANUFACTURING ---------

46
32

3 9.5
39.5

1 4 3 .0 0
1 4 6 .0 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS B
MANUFACTURING --------NONMANUFACTURING ----

87

39.0

1 4 5 .0 0

52

40.0

1 5 7 .5 0

35

3 8.0

1 26 .5 0

COMPUTER OPERATORS,

SECRETARIES, CLASS C --------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

132
93
39

3 9.5
4 0.0
38.0

1 4 2 .5 0
1 49 .5 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS D
MANUFACTURING --------NONMANUFACTURING ----

131
99

40.0
40.0

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS B ----------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

54

39.5

2 0 4 .5 0

41

4 0.0

2 1 9 .0 0

32

3 9.0

1 2 9 .5 0
1 31 .0 0
1 26 .5 0

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL
MANUFACTURING ---------

256

38.5
4 0.0

1 1 0 .5 0

MESSENGERS (OFFICE BOYS AND GIRLS I —
MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

See footn otes at end o f ta b le s .




3 9.5

155

102

3 9,0
4 0.0

53

3 7.5

1 3 0 .5 0
1 3 5 .0 0
1 2 1 .5 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS A ------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

35
28

4 0.0
4 0.0

1 3 5 .0 0
1 3 4 .0 0

1 30 .5 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B ------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

77
26

3 8.0
4 0.0

51

3 7.0

1 2 7 .0 0
7 4.50

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

107
84

40.0
4 0.0

1 0 2 .5 0
1 0 5 .5 0

86.00

80

4 0.0

1 2 8 .0 0

75

4 0.0

1 2 9 .5 0

SENIOR

MANUFACTURING ------NONMANUFACTURING —

T Y P I S T S , CLASS A
MANUFACTURING

136

T Y P I S T S , CLASS B —
MANUFACTURING ---NONMANUFACTURING

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS

1 25 .0 0

66.50

CLERKS, ORDER -------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

3 9.5

S T EN OGR APH ER S,

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS.
CLASS B -----------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

41

396

SECRETARIES ----------------MANUFACTURING ------NONMANUFACTURING PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S

1 2 6 .0 0

92.00

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS C ----------------------------m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------

33

3 9.5

1 92 .5 0

27

4 0.0

2 0 9 .5 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS A ----------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

80
79

4 0.0
40.0

2 1 1 .5 0
2 1 1 .5 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS B ----------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

181
178

40.0
4 0.0

1 8 1 .0 0
1 8 1 .5 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS C ----------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

93
93

4 0.0
40.0

1 6 4 .0 0
1 6 4 .0 0

DRAFTSMEN-TRACERS ------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

50
39

4 0.0
4 0.0

1 43 .5 0
1 46 .5 0

NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) ----MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

99

40.0
40.0

1 6 4 .0 0
1 6 4 .5 0

97

11
T ab le A -4 .

M aintenance and pow erplant occupations

(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly ea rn in gs fo r s e le c te d occu pation s stu died on an a re a b a s is b y in d u stry d iv is io n , You ngstow n— a r r e n , O hio, N o v e m b e r 1971)
W
Hourly earnings3

S ex ,

o c c u p a t io n ,

and

in d u s t r y

d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

*
TT dl r 3 * 50 3 . 6 0
U n re
$
and
3 . 5 0 under
S

Mean 2

Median c

Middle range ^

s
3.80

$
3.90

3.80 3.90

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
S
{
t
t
i
i
i
t
1
*
4.00 4.10 4.20 4 .30 4.40 4.50 4 .60 4 .70 4 . 8 0 4 .90 5.00

4.00

*
3.70

3.60

3.70

-

-

-

-

-

%

4.10 4.20

4.30

4.40 4.50

4.60

4.70 4.80

5.20

t
*
5.40 5.60

4.90

5.00

5.20

5.40

5.60

i
1
t
5.8 0 6 . 0 0 6 . 2 0

5 . 8 0 6 . 0 0 6 . 2 0 over

HEN

CARPENTERS, HAINTENANCE -----------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

147
144

$
4.98
4.99

$
4.87
4.88

$
4.744.78-

$
5. 4 2
5.42

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE -------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

943
908

5.17
5.18

5. 0 2
5.03

4.864.87-

5. 5 3
5.53

_

_

_

ENGINEERS, STATIONARY --------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

106
106

4.90
4.90

4.85
4.85

4.554.55-

5.51
5. 5 1

_

_

7
7

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATORS, TOOLROOM MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

211
211

5.25
5.25

5. 6 3
5. 6 3

4.674.67-

5.69
5.69

MACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE -----------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

471
470

5. 1 1
5.11

4.99
4.99

4.824.82-

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE! ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------

302
117
185
165

4.89
5.07
4.77
4.87

5. 2 1
5. 0 5
5. 2 2
5.23

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE ------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

1,086
1,058

4.98
5.00

P IP EF IT TE RS , MAINTENANCE ---------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

373
358

SHEET-METAL WORKERS, MAINTENANCE MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

126
126

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.




~

*

-

-

-

~

~

7
7

-

3

-

14
14

10
10

7
7

45
45

10
10

9
9

2
2

38
38

2
2

-

-

-

_

_

_

1

13
7

18
18

10
9

14
12

51
47

64
59

108
107

190
190

88
88

89
74

167
167

59
59

40
40

10
10

21
21

_

_

-

*

5
5

_

3
3

-

_

8
8

“

16
16

6
6

12
12

_

-

22
22

_

“

11
11

12
12

“

1
1

2
2

2
2

5
5

9
9

19
19

7
7

6
6

-

11
11

-

-

“

*

126
126

2
2

-

_

2
2

37
37

7
7

46
46

8
8

75
75

67
67

13
13

120
119

12
12

52
52

28
28

9
9

2
2
-

20
13
7
7

27
19
8
8

18
14
4
4

114
4
110
110

36
36

-

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

“

“

5.38
5.38

_

-

-

-

2
2

4.704.864.234.88-

5.28
5.51
5.26
5.26

11

9

14

7

-

-

-

-

11
7

9
7

14
14

7
7

4.93
4.94

4.694.71-

5.24
5. 2 4

_

_

2

_

-

-

-

-

16
5

30
30

9
7

1
1

5.04
5.05

4.89
4.89

4,664.66-

5. 5 4
5.54

_

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

5. 1 4
5.14

5.23
5. 2 3

4.764.76-

5. 5 3
5.53

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

9
9
-

_
_
-

21
21
-

“

2

_

-

-

-

2

-

12

"

_

_

-

-

3
2
1
1

-

17
12

49
49

52
52

104
104

87
85

83
83

285
285

65
65

76
70

114
114

2
2

4
4

6
6

54
50

41
41

10
10

74
74

30
19

3

-

3

147
147

_

_

2
2

_

3
3

42
42

2
2

4
4

9
9

12

-

17
17

9
9

-

4
4
*

2
2

44
44

-

-

-

“

-

*

“

14
14

55
55

1
1

26
26

-

-

-

-

3
3

*

.

-

12
T a b le A -5 .

C u s t o d i a l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t io n s

(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s f o r s e le c te d occu p ation s stu died on an a r e a b a sis by in d u s try d iv is io n , Youngstow n—W a rre n , O h io, N o v e m b e r 1971)

Number o f w orkers receiving straight-tim e hourly earnings of—

Hourly earnings3

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

t
$
t
%
*
S
S
S
*
$
*
$
%
$
%
$
*
$
$
1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.0 0 4.20 4.4 0 4.60 4.8 0 5.00 5.20 5.40
t

M ean2

Median^

Middle range ^

t

$
1.60 under

and

“

95
95

16
16

4
4

10
10

22
22

27
10
17

9
9

20
20
~

6
6

1
1

1

4

24
24

69
69

10

-

24

69

233
225
8
8

81
79
2
2

19
2
17
17

3
3
-

1
1
“

56
56
_

13
13

4

99
99

23
23

116
116

99

23

116

115
112
3
3

49
46
3
-

1
1
-

95
95

123
123

54
54

-

-

IN
T

$
4.2 0
4.4 2
2 .07

o

$
2. 1 1 3.931.65-

o

1.88

$
3.9 4
4 .1 5
1. 69

0
0

$
3 .3 3
4.02

4.2 0 4.40 4.6 0

o

558
379
179

**

MEN
GUARDS AND WATCHMEN
MANUFACTURING —
NONMANUFACTURING

o
o

1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80

5.20 5.40

over

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

*

_
-

-

-

-

-

GUARDS
MANUFACTURING --------------------------------

342

4.16

4.17

3.97-

4 .4 3

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS ---MANUFACTURING -------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ----------------------

920
538
382
54

3 .0 4
3 .5 9
2 .2 5
3.06

3.31
3 .3 9
2 .0 8
3. 29

2.313.321.822. 2 0 -

3.49
4.12
2.65
3 .64

15

33

40

42

48

33

34

20

59

8

15
-

33

40
“

42

48
-

33
14

34
“

20
“

59
4

8
3

87
70
17
3

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING ----------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------

673
568
105

3 .5 6
3. 61
3.27

3 .5 0
3. 4 9
4 .5 0

3.163.371.91-

4.21
4 .1 8
4 .5 5

_
-

10
10

9
9

7
7

5
5

4
4

61
47
14

2
2

_
-

30
30
-

49
49
-

23
23
"

144
144
-

ORDER

330

3 .8 0

4 .1 4

3.24-

4 .4 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

52

-

-

6

67

-

-

-

108

-

94

3

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

3

1

6

_

3

_

80
80

61
61

1
1

4
4

12
12

92
92

8
8

27
27

-

_

55
55

_
-

1

_

_

4
4

1

4

10
10

6
6

4

5
4

18
17

7
7

8
2

3
~

“

“

“

“

4
4

-

-

_

-

”

FILLERS -----------------------------------

353
340

4.05
4.12

4 .2 1
4 .2 2

3.393.51-

4 .53
4 .5 7

_

3 .8 4
3 .8 3

4 .0 9
4 .1 1

3.383.39-

4.31
4 .18

“

_

_

_

_

MANUFACTURING --------------------------------

71
50

-

-

-

"

SHIPPING CLERKS ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------

59
56

3 .9 1
3 .9 3

3. 9 8
3. 99

3.453.46-

4 .3 9
4 .41

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS -------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------

118
109

3 .8 8
3 .9 6

3. 83
4.02

3.493.68-

4 .32
4 .33

_

_

_

_

TRUCKDRIVERS
------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ----------------------

1,120
288
832
601

4.66
4 .0 5
4 .8 8
5 .1 3

4 .9 2
4 .0 5
5. 00
5. 22

4.183.834.714.9 8 -

5.23
4 .51
5.25
5 .26

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

27

3 .8 3

3. 79

3.39-

4.51

-

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM ( 1 - 1 / 2 TO
AND INCLUDING A TONS) ----------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------

256
104
152

4.16
3. 9 6
4.30

4 .1 2
3. 97
4 .1 6

3.923.844.11-

4 .2 0
4.09
5.21

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER A TONS
TRAILER TYPE) -------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ----------------------

694
83
611
546

4 .9 3
3. 7 8
5. 0 8
5.16

5 .2 0
3. 87
5.21
5. 22

4.913.274.954.98-

5 .2 5
4.19
5 .26
5.2 6

TRUCKERS, POWER (F OR KL IF T) ------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------

843
751
92

4 .1 1
4 .0 8
4 .3 8

4 .0 3
3. 9 9
4. 51

3.793.764.25-

4.38
4.35
4 .61

TRUCKERS, POWER (OTHER THAN
FORKLIFT) ------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------

123
123

4 .4 2
4 .4 2

4 .1 5
4 .1 5

3.953.95-

5 .22
5.2 2

87

3 .2 7

3. 19

2.09-

4 .0 5

PACKERS, SHIPPING -----------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------RE C E I V I N G CL ER KS

-------------------------

TRUCKDRIVERS, LIGHT (UNDER
1- 1/2 TONS) -----------------------------------

~

_

“

-

-

1
1

_

_

4

-

-

4

2
-

A6
.
16

i
-

8
8

9
9

4
4

10
10

_

_

_

_

3

5

i
i

7
7

17
17

26
26

2
1

25
25

20
20

7
7

5
5

-

-

-

-

_
-

5
5

3
3

4

_
-

_
-

4

4
i

45
40
5
5

10
10
-

72
66
6
“

117
36
81
“

62
35
27
3

98
77
21
~

44
4
40
"

202
202
177

21
21
21

392
2
390
390

-

~

41
16
25
4

4

i

1

6

2

1

3

7

-

-

-

-

-

10
10
”

1
1

33
12
21

38
38

102
21
81

5
5

15
15
~

_

_

_

-

~

-

~

42
42

-

30
30
-

-

2
2
-

17
17
-

14
14
-

40
16
24

21
21

24
4
20

177
177
177

21
21
21

348
348
348

20
20
“

158
158

183
183
~

90
89
1

168
132
36

125
100
25

18
2
16

23
15
8

2
2
“

11
11
“

52
52

8
8

17
17

_

_

_

"

~

4
4

39
39

“

-

39

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

”

”

”

_

“

“

36
30
6

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

2

-

-

5
5

3
3

2
2
“

_

_

”

-

"

-

-

-

-

_
-

_

3
3

_

~

_
“

_
9
9

_

WOMEN
PACKERS,

SHIPPING ------------------------------

See footnotes at end o f tables.




-

-

3

9

3

7

-

-

-

-

24

-

2

-

-

13
B.

E s tab lish m en t practices and s u p p le m e n ta ry w a g e provisions

T a b le

B -1 .

M in im u m

e n tra n ce

s a la rie s fo r w o m e n

o ffic e w o rk e rs

(D istrib u tio n o f establish m ents studied in a ll in du stries and in in du stry d ivision s by m inim um entrance s a la ry fo r s e le cted c a te g o rie s
o f in exp erien ced wom en o ffic e w o r k e r s , Youngstown— arren , Ohio, N o vem b er 1971)
W
Inexperienced typists

M inimum w eekly stra ig h t-tim e s a la r y 4

Other in exp erien ced c le r ic a l w o r k e r s 5

A ll
industries

Based on standard w eek ly h ou rs6 o f—

A ll
industries

A ll
schedules

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing

40

A ll
schedules

53

A ll
schedules

40

43

XXX

53

XXX

7

7

42

25

25

17

10

_

_

2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
-

_
l
l
2
1
1
2
1
1
-

_

_

XXX

. - ..........

24

17

17

Under $60.00_______________________________________________
$60.00 and under $62.50__________________________________
$62.50 and under $65.00__________________________________
$65.00 and under $67.50-------------------------------------------$67.50 and under $70.00__________________________________
$70.00 and under $72.50__________________________________
$72.50 and under $75.00__________________________________
$75.00 and under $77.50__________________________________
$77.50 and under $ 80.00__________________________________
$80.00 and under $82.50__________________________________
$82.50 and under $85.00__________________________________
$85.00 and under $87.50-------------------------------------------$87.50 and under $90.00__________________________________
$90.00 and under $92.50__________________________________
$92.50 and under $95.00-------------------------------------------$95.00 and under $97.50__________________________________
$97.50 and under $ 100.00________________________________
$ 100.00 and under $ 102.50---------------------------------------$ 102.50 and under $ 105.00----------------------------------------

_

_

.

1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
-

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-

1
3

1
3

1
3

_

_

-

-

$ 105.00
$ 110.00
$ 115.00
$ 120.00
$125.00
$130.00

and
and
and
and
and
and

40

96

43

Establishm ents having a s p e c ifie d m inim um .

A ll
schedules

40

XXX

96

E stablish m ents studied--------- ----- ----------------------------

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard w eekly h ou rs5 o f—

2
2
1
3
3
2
2
4
2
1
2
1
3
1

1
1
1
4
2
1
2
1

_
1
1
1
4
2
1
2
1

2
3

3

1

-

_

under $ 110.00---------------------------------------unde r $115.0 0---------------------------------------under $ 120.00_______________________________
under $ 125.00— ......—----- ----- --------- -------under $ 130.00_______________________________
o v e r _____________________ _____________________

-

-

2
1
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
1

5
1

5
1

-

-

6
1

-

-

6
1

-

-

6
1

E stablish m ents having no s p e cified m in im u m -----------------

13

7

XXX

6

XXX

41

14

E stablishm ents which did not em p loy w o rk ers
in this ca te g o ry ______________________________________________

59

19

XXX

40

XXX

13

4

*

See footnotes at end o f tables.




>

2

-

-

XXX

27

XX X

XXX

9

XXX

14




T a b le B - 2 .

S h if t d iffe re n tia ls

(L a t e - s h ift pay p rovis ion s fo r manufacturing pla n tw orkers by type and amount o f pay d iffe re n tia l,
Youngstown— a rren , O h io, N o vem b er 1971)
W
(A ll plan tw orkers in manufacturing = 100 percen t)
P e r c e n t o f m anufacturing p lan tw orkers—
In establishm ents having p rovision s 7
fo r la te shifts

L a te -s h ift pay p ro vis io n

Second shift

T o ta l-----------------------------------------------------

T h ird o r other
shift

99. 3

98. 5

A ctu a lly w orking on late shifts

Second shift

27. 2

T h ird o r other
shift

9 .4

N o pay d iffe re n tia l fo r w ork on la te s h ift -------

1. 1

0. 8

0. 2

P a y d iffe re n tia l fo r w o rk on late s h ift _________

98. 3

97. 8

27. 0

9. 3

60.6

60. 2

14.9

8. 6

.2
.3
.2
.8
12.4
.5
. 1
.5

-

7. 8

(8)

T ype and amount o f d iffe re n tia l:
U n iform cents (p er hour). --------

—

5 cents ___
_____ _________________
6 c e n ts __________________________________
7 c e n ts -------------------------------------------8 c e n ts ______________________________ ___
10 cents
-------- -------- ----- ---------------12 c e nt s_________________________________
1212 c e n ts ______________________________
/
13V3 cents ---------------------- - — ---15 cen ts------------------------------------------

.8
1. 0
1. 8
2. 7
48. 7
3. 0
.5
2. 2

1. 8
4. 5
1. 3
52. 6

U n iform p e r c e n ta g e -----------------------------

36. 0

36. 0

11.9

.7

5 p e r c e n t _______________________________
10 p ercen t---------------------------------------

31. 2
4. 8

_
36. 0

10. 4
1. 5

_
.7

F o rm a l paid lunch p e r io d ---------------------

1.6

1. 6

.2

S e e fo o tn o te s

a t end o f ta b le s .

-

-

-

.4
.4
-

“

15

T a b le B - 3 .

S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u rs and d a y s

(Percen t distribution of plantworkers and officew orkers in a ll industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours and days
of first-s h ift w orkers, Youngstown— arren , Ohio, Novem ber 1971)
W
P la n tw o rk e rs

O ffic e w o rk e rs

W eek ly hours and days
A ll in du stries

Manufacturing

P u b lic u tilitie s

A ll industries

P u b lic u tilitie s

100

100

-

A ll w o r k e r s .............-.......................................

100

100

100

Under 35 hours— 5 days_________________________
hours— 5 days_________________________________
hours— 5 d a y s ............................ .......................
hours— 5 days_________________________________
37V 2 hours— 5 days________ ______________________
40 hours— 5 days_________________________________
45 hours— 5 days____ ____________________________
48 hours— 6 days________________________________

1
4
2
2

-

97

92

11

1

75

99

-

8

-

-

35
36
37

See footnote at end of tables.




89

(’ )
2

1

1

100

M anufacturing

1
5
2

6

7
93

16

T a b le B - 4 .

P a id h o lid a y s

(P e r c e n t distribu tion o f pla n tw o rk ers and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a ll in d u stries and in in du stry d ivis ion s by num ber o f paid h olidays
p rovid ed annually, Youngstown—W a r re n , Ohio, N o vem b er 1971)
P la n tw o rk e rs

O ffic e w o rk e rs

Item
A l l in du stries

A ll w o r k e r s __________________________________

W ork ers in establish m ents p rovid in g
paid h o lid a y s ____________________________________
W ork ers in establish m ents p rovid in g
no paid h o lid a y s ________________________________

Manufacturing

100

100

100

99

100

100

1

-

-

n

1
( 9)
2
46
16
3

1
3
2
74
5
15

Pu b lic u tilitie s

A l l industries

M anufacturing

P u b lic u tilitie s

100

100

100

99

100

100

-

-

(’ )
1
9
( 9)
7
37
29
7
( 9)
11

1
6
1
46
20
9

_
13
2
4
61
4
16

-

-

17

-

11
11
18
47
83
83
90
98
98
98
99

17
17
26
46
92
92
94
99
100
100
100

16
19
81
83
87
100
100
100
100

Num ber o f days
1 h oliday___________________________________________
3 h o lid a y s _________________________________________
4 h o lid a y s _________________________________________
6 h o lid a y s _________________________________________
6 holidays plus 3 h alf d a y s ______________________
7 h o lid a y s _________________________________________
8 h o lid a y s _________________________________________
9 h olidays
------------ -----------------------------------10 h olidays________________________________ ________
11 h olidays plus 1 h a lf d a y ______________________
12 h olidays________________________________________

1
1
1
4
11
41
12
3

-

-

-

-

23

31

-

23
23
26
38
80
80
91
95
97
97
99

31
31
34
50
96
96
98
99
100
100
100

_
15
20
94
94
96
99
100
100
100

T o ta l h oliday tim e 1
0
12 days_____________________________________________
11V2 days o r m o r e ________________________________
10 days o r m o r e __________________________________
9 days o r m o r e ___________________________________
8 days o r m o r e ___________________________________
7*/2 days o r m o r e ...................... ............................
7 days o r m o r e ___________________________________
6 days o r m o r e _______________ _____ ____ __________
4 days o r m o r e ___________________________________
3 days o r m o r e ....................— _ . ______________
1 day o r m o r e ____________________ ______________

S e e fo o tn o te s a t end o f t a b le s .




_

17

T a b le B -5 .

P a id v a c a tio n s

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f p la n tw o rk e rs and o ffic e w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by vacatio n pay p r o v is io n s , Youn gstow n —W a r r e n , O h io, N o v e m b e r 1971)

P la n tw o rk e rs

O ffic e w o rk e rs

V acation p o licy
A ll industries
A ll w o r k e r s __________________________________

Manufacturing

P u blic u tilitie s

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Pu blic u tilities

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
96
4
-

100
97
3
-

100
96
4

99
99
(9)
1

100
98

100
100
-

-

-

5
2
1

1
(9)

_

91
4
5
-

93
4
3
-

84
8
8
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

72
3
24
1

87
3
10
1
-

M ethod o f paym ent
W o rk ers in establishm ents p rovid in g
paid va ca tion s___________________________________
L e n g th -o f-tim e pa ym en t--------------------------P e rcen ta g e paym ent---------------------------------O th e r___________________________________________
W ork ers in establishm ents p rovid in g
no paid va ca tion s----------------------------------------

n

-

-

-

-

(9)

2

-

Amount o f vacation pay 1
1
A ft e r 6 months o f s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek-----------------------------------------------1 w eek---------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s -----------------------------

3
47
2

_

_

68
2

-

18
2
75
2
1
1
1

4
3
84
4
2
2
2

58
3
39
-

9
83
8
-

5
1
87
3
1
1
1

3
1
84
5
3
2
2

7
90
3
"

92
8
-

1
79
14
2
2
1
“

1
66
24
4
3
2

1

3
32
54
5
2
2
1

4
24
62
5
2
2
1

3
32
55
5
2
2
1

-

1
79
14
3
2
1

-

-

A ft e r 1 v e a r o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ------- --------- -------------------- ------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ----------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ----------------------------3 w e e k s ____________________________________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s ----------------------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------

-

-

*

A ft e r 2 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek---------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ----------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ----------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s ----------------------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------

-

-

A ft e r 3 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ----------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ----------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s ----------------------------4 w e e k s ____________________________________________
O ver 4 and under 5 w eeks -----------------------------

5
24
61
5
2
2
-

97
3
-

A ft e r 4 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek---------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ----------------------------2 w e e k s ____________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ----------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s ----------------------------4 w e e k s ____________________________________________
O ver 4 and under 5 w e e k s ----------------------------See footnotes at end o f tables.




-

92
8
-

-

-

-

67
24
5
3
2

97
3
“
“

18

T a b le B -5 .

P a id v a c a tio n s ----- C o n tin u e d

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f p la n tw o rk e rs and o ffic e w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s b y v a catio n p ay p r o v is io n s , Youn gstow n — a r r e n , O h io , N o v e m b e r 1971)
W

O ffic e w o rk e r s

P la n tw o rk ers
V acation p o lic y
M anufacturing

Pu b lic u tilitie s

A ll industries

i
87
4
4
3
1

i
88
4
2
4
1

_
92
8
-

(9i
71
4
22
2
1

_
57
5
32
4
2

-

-

1
6
24
60
3
2
2
1
2

1
2
31
56
2
2
2
1
2

.

2
90
8
-

(’ )
18
62
12
3
4
2
i

2
64
20
4
6
3
i

4
93
3
-

1
5
23
61
3
2
2
1
2

1
2
31
56
2
2
2
1
2

_
2
90
8
-

(’ )
18
62
12
3
4
2
i

_
2
64
20
4
6
3
1

_
4
93
3
-

1
2
76
1
12
3
2
2
1

1
81
9
3
3
2

.
2
71

(9)
4
64
i
23
4
3
1
1

_
2
55
29
6
6
1
1

_
4
88
6
3

1
2
66
20
4
1
3
2

1
80
8
3
1
4
3

(9)
4
29
58
4
2
2
2

2
17
65
5
3
4
3

4
18
76
3
-

A l l industries

Manufacturing

P u b lic u tilities

Amount o f va ca tion pay 1 — Continued
1
A ft e r 5 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek_____________________________________________
2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ----------------------------3 w eeks . . . . . . . . . „ — r _ ____ ____ T T ..
.
O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s ----------------------------4 w e e k s _____________ ________________ ___ _______
O ver 4 and under 5 w e e k s -----------------------------

_
97
3
-

A ft e r 10 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek _____________________________________________
---------------------------------------2 weeks O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ----------------------------3 weeks ______________ _ ....
O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s _______________________
_- - _____
4 w eeks
O ver 4 and under 5 w e e k s ----------------------------5 w e e k s ________ ___________ ______________—--------O ver 5 and under 6 w eeks — --------------------------

-

_

_

-

A ft e r 12 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek _____________________________________________
2 w e e k s __,_____
. .
___ __
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ----------------------------3 w eeks __________________ __________________________
O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s ----------------------------4 w e e k s _______ _____________ ____________________
O ver 4 and under 5 w e e k s _______________________
5 w e e k s --------- ---------------------------------------------O ver 5 and under 6 w e e k s -----------------------------

-

-

A ft e r 15 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
2 w eeks . ------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ____________________________________________
O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s ----------------------------4 w eeks _
_
___ ___________ ___ __ ________
O ver 4 and under 5 w e e k s ----------------------------5 w e e k s ____________________________________________
O ver 5 and under 6 w e e k s _______________________
6 w e e k s -----' ----- ----------- ----- -------------

1

-

19
8
-

-

-

-

A fte r 20 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ---------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s ____________________________________________
3 w e e k s ____________________________________________
4 w e e k s ____________________________________________
O v e r 4 and under 5 w e e k s ----------------------------5 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------O ver 5 and under 6 w e e k s ----------------------------6 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------

See footnotes at end o f tables




2
4
86
8
-

19

T a b le B - 5 .

P a id v a c a tio n s ----- C o n tin u e d

(P e r c e n t d istribu tion o f p lan tw orkers and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a ll industries and in indu stry d ivision s by va ca tion pay p r o v is io n s , Youngstown— a rren , Ohio, N o vem b er 1971)
W
P la n tw o rk e rs

O ffic ew o rk ers

V acation p o lic y
A ll industries

Manufacturing

P u b lic u tilities

i
2
34
49
3
3
3
2
3

i
38
48
2
1
4
3
4

2
4
67
8
19
-

1
2
34
44

3

1
38
43
2
5
4

2
4

3

-

5

-

1
38
43
2
5
4
3
5

_
2
4
39
8
46

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Pu blic u tilitie s

Amount o f vacation pay 1 — Continued
1
A fte r 25 ye ars o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek_____________________________________________
2 w e e k s _________ __ _______ ___ ________ ___ ___ ____
3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------4 w e e k s __ -_______ _______________________________
O ver 4 and under 5 w e e k s _______________________
5 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------O ver 5 and under 6 w e e k s -------------- ------------6 weeks — ------ ----- --------------------------O ver 6 w eeks------------------------------------------------

_

-

(9)
4
17
67
2
4
3
3
1

_
2
8
72
1
4
6
5
1

(’ )
4
17
63
1
8
4
2
1

2
8
71
1
5
6
4
2

(’ )
4
17
63
1
7
4
2
2

_
2
8
71
1
5
6
4
2

_
4
18
62
3
13
-

-

A ft e r 30 v ea rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek---------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------3 w eeks
,
4 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------O ver 4 and under 5 w e e k s _______________________
5 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------O v e r 5 and under 6 w e e k s ----------------------------6 w eeks -------------------------------------------------------O ver 6 w eeks_____________________________________

3

7

_
2
4
39
8
46
-

_

_
4
18
37
3
39

-

M axim um vacation ava ila b le
1 w eek
2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------4 w eeks — —— ----- .--------------------------------------O ver 4 and under 5 w e e k s ----------------------------5 weeks -------------------------------------------------------O ver 5 and under 6 w e e k s ----------------------------«j w e e k s ____ —____-______-_________________________
6
O ver 6 weeks




1
2
34
44
3

7
3

2
4

-

_
4
18
37
3
39
-

-

20

T a b le B - 6 .

H e a lth , in s u ra n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s

(P e r c e n t o f plant-workers and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a ll in d u stries and in indu stry d ivis ion s em ployed in establish m ents p rovid in g
health, in su rance, o r pension b e n efits, Youngstown— a rre n , Ohio, N o vem b er 1971)
W
P la n tw o rk e r s
T y p e of b en efit and
financing 1
2

A l l w o r k e r s _______

_______________________

W o rk e rs in establish m ents p rovid in g at
lea st 1 o f the ben efits shown b e lo w ___________
L ife in s u ra n c e _________________________________
Non co n trib u to ry p la n s ____________________
A ccid e n ta l death and d ism em b erm en t
in su rance_______ ____________________ _______
Non co n trib u to ry p la n s ____________________
Sickness and a cciden t in su rance or
sick le a v e o r b o th 13_________________________
Sickness and accident in su ra n ce_________
Non co n trib u to ry p la n s ---------------------Sick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w a itin g p e r io d )
------ --------_— —

A l l industries

100

Manufacturing

100

O ffic e w o rk e rs
P u b lic u tilitie s

A l l industries

Manufacturing

P u b lic u tilities

100

100

100

100

98

100

100

99

100

100

97
90

100
97

100
96

98
77

99
90

94
85

63
55

62
58

72
68

63
48

52
49

65
57

95

100

79

82

92

92

88
86

100
98

30
29

57
52

83
81

15
7

5

2

11

59

73

56

6

-

38

8

-

23

29
27
97
87
97
87
92
83
56
51
3
3
91
86

36
34
99
98
99
98
98
97

24
24
100
89
100
89
81
70
100
89
27
27
77
77

41
27
97
85
97
85
94
83
90
69

43
35
99
97
99
97
98
95
93
70

9
4
100
81
100
81
100
81
94
81

Sick l e a v e (partial p a y or

w a itin g p e r io d )----------------------------------L o n g -te r m d is a b ility in s u r a n c e ____________
N on con tribu tory p la n s ___
______________
H o sp ita liza tio n in s u r a n c e ___________________
Non co n trib u to ry p la n s ____________________
S u rg ic a l in su ra n ce-----------------------------------N o n con tribu tory p la n s -------------------------M e d ic a l in s u ra n c e -------------------- ----Non co n trib u to ry p la n s ____________________
M a jo r m e d ic a l in su ra n c e -------------- --------Non co n trib u to ry p la n s -------------------------Dental in s u ra n c e -------------------------------------N o n con trib u to ry p la n s ____________________
R e tire m e n t pension____________________________
Non co n trib u to ry p la n s --------------------------

See footnotes at end of ta b le s .




55
55

(!)
C )

98
97

-

-

-

-

-

-

86
68

98
87

57
54

21

Footnotes
A l l o f these standard footnotes m ay not apply to this bulletin.

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime
at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median
designates position—half of the employees surveyed receive more than the rate shown; half receive less than the rate shown. The middle
range is defined by 2 rates of pay; a fourth of the workers earn less than the lower of these rates and a fourth earn more than the higher rate.
3 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
4 These salaries relate to formally established minimum starting (hiring) regular straight-time salaries that are paid for standard
workweeks.
5 Excludes workers in subclerical jobs such as messenger.
6 Data are presented for all standard workweeks combined, and for the most common standard workweeks reported.
7 Includes all plantworkers in establishments currently operating late shifts, and establishments whose formal provisions cover late
shifts, even though the establishments were not currently operating late shifts.
8 Less than 0.05 percent.
9 Less than 0.5 percent.
1 All combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a
0
total of 9 days includes those with 9 full days and no half days, 8 full days and 2 half days, 7 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions
then were cumulated.
1 Includes payments other than "length of time," such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-sum payments, converted to an equivalent
1
time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay. Periods of service were chosen arbitrarily
and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progression. For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years' service
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years. Estimates are cumulative. Thus, the proportion eligible for 3 weeks' pay or
more after 10 years includes those eligible for 3 weeks' pay or more after fewer years of service.
1 Estimates listed after type of benefit are for all plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer. "Noncontributory
2
plans" include only those plans financed entirely by the employer. Excluded are legally required plans, such as workmen's compensation, social
security, and railroad retirement.
1 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick leave plans are
3
limited to those which definitely establish at least the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick
leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.







.

A p p e n d ix .

O c c u p a tio n a l D e s c rip tio n s

Th e p r im a ry pu rpose o f p rep a rin g jo b d es crip tio n s fo r the B u reau 's w age su rveys is to a s s is t its fie ld sta ff in cla s s ify in g into a p propriate
occupations w o rk ers who a re em ployed under a v a r ie ty o f p a y r o ll title s and d iffe re n t w ork arran gem en ts fr o m establish m ent to establish m ent and
fr o m a rea to a rea .
Th is p e rm its the grouping o f occupational w age ra tes re p res en tin g co m parab le jo b content.
B ecause o f this em phasis on
in terestablish m ent and in te ra re a c o m p a ra b ility o f occupational content, the Bu reau's jo b d es crip tio n s m a y d iffe r sig n ific a n tly fr o m those in use in
individual establish m ents o r those p rep a red fo r oth er pu rposes. In applying these jo b d e s crip tio n s , the B u reau 's fie ld econ om ists a re in stru cted
to exclude w orkin g su p e rv is o rs ; appren tices; le a rn e r s ; begin n ers; tra in e e s ; and handicapped, p a rt-tim e , te m p o ra ry , and p roba tion a ry w o r k e r s .

O F F IC E
C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G — Continued

B IL L E R , M A C H IN E
P r e p a re s statem ents, b ills , and in vo ic es on a m achine oth er than an o rd in a ry o r e le c tr o m a tic ty p e w r ite r. M ay also keep re c o rd s as to b illin gs o r shipping ch a rges o r p e r fo rm other
c le r ic a l w ork incidental to b illin g o p era tio n s. F o r w age study pu rposes, b ille r s , m ach in e, a re
c la s s ifie d by type o f m achine, as fo llo w s:
B ille r , m achine (b illin g m a ch in e). Uses a sp ecia l b illin g machine (com bin ation typing
and adding m achine) to p re p a re b ills and in vo ic es fr o m cu sto m ers' purchase o rd e r s , in te r ­
n ally p rep a red o rd e r s , shipping m em orandum s, etc. U su ally in vo lv es application o f p r e ­
d eterm in ed discounts and shipping ch arges and en try o f n ece s s a ry exten sion s, which m a y o r
m a y not be computed on the b illin g m achine, and tota ls which a re a u to m a tica lly accum ulated
by m ach in e. Th e opera tion u su ally in vo lv es a la rg e num ber o f carbon co p ies o f the b ill being
p rep a red and is often done on a fan fold m achine.
B ille r , m achine (bookkeeping m a ch in e). U ses a bookkeeping m achine (w ith o r without
a ty p e w r ite r keyboard) to p re p a re cu sto m ers' b ills as pa rt o f the accounts r e c e iv a b le o p e ra ­
tion . G en era lly in vo lv es the sim ultaneous en try o f fig u re s on cu sto m ers' le d g e r re c o r d . The
m achine a u tom atically accum ulates fig u re s on a num ber o f v e r t ic a l columns and com putes
and u su ally prints a u tom atically the debit o r c r e d it balances. Does not in vo lv e a know l­
edge o f bookkeeping.
W orks fr o m u niform and standard types o f sales and c r e d it slip s.
B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O perates a bookkeeping m achine (with o r without a ty p e w r ite r keyboard) to keep a re c o rd
o f business tran saction s.
C la ss A . K eeps a set o f re c o rd s re q u irin g a know ledge o f and e x p erien c e in basic
bookkeeping p rin c ip le s , and fa m ilia r it y with the stru ctu re o f the p a rticu la r accounting system
used. D eterm in es p ro p e r re c o rd s and d istribu tion o f debit and cred it item s to be used in each
phase o f the w ork. M ay p re p a re consolidated re p o rts , balance sh eets, and oth er re c o rd s
by hand.
C la ss B. Keeps a re c o r d o f one o r m o re phases o r sections o f a set o f re c o rd s usually
re q u irin g lit t le know ledge o f basic bookkeeping. Ph ases o r sections include accounts payable,
p a y ro ll, cu sto m ers' accounts (not including a sim ple type o f b illin g d es c rib e d under b ille r ,
m a ch in e), co st distribu tion , expense d istribu tion , in ven to ry co n trol, etc. M ay check o r a ssist
in p rep a ra tion o f t r ia l balances and p rep a re co n trol sheets fo r the accounting departm ent.
C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G
P e r fo r m s one o r m o re accounting c le r ic a l tasks such as posting to r e g is te r s and le d g e rs ;
re co n cilin g bank accounts; v e r ify in g the in tern al con sisten cy, com pleten ess, and m ath em atical
a ccu ra cy o f accounting documents; a ssignin g p r e s c r ib e d accounting distribu tion codes; exam ining
and v e r ify in g fo r c le r ic a l accu ra cy va rio u s types o f re p o r ts , lis t s , calcu lation s, posting, etc.;
o r p rep a rin g sim ple o r a ssistin g in p rep a rin g m o re com p licated journal vou ch ers. M ay w ork
in eith er a manual o r automated accounting system .
Th e w ork re q u ire s a know ledge o f c le r ic a l m ethods and o ffic e p ra c tic e s and proced u res
which re la te s to the c le r ic a l p ro c e s s in g and re co rd in g o f tran saction s and accounting in form a tion .
With ex p erien c e, the w o rk er ty p ic a lly b ecom es fa m ilia r with the bookkeeping and accounting term s
and p roced u res used in the assign ed w ork , but is not re qu ired to have a know ledge o f the fo rm a l
p rin c ip le s o f bookkeeping and accounting.




NOTE:

P o s itio n s a re c la s s ifie d into le v e ls on the basis o f the fo llo w in g d efin ition s.
C la ss A . U nder ge n era l su p ervision , p e r fo rm s accounting c le r ic a l operation s which
re q u ire the application o f ex p erien c e and judgm ent, fo r exa m ple, c le r ic a lly p ro ce ssin g c o m ­
p lica ted o r n on rep etitive accounting tran saction s, s ele ctin g among a substantial v a r ie ty o f
p r e s c r ib e d accounting codes and cla s s ific a tio n s , o r tra cin g tran saction s through p reviou s
accounting action s to determ in e sou rce o f d isc rep a n cies. M a y be a ssisted by one o r m o re
c la ss B accounting c le r k s .
C la ss B . U nder clo s e su p ervision , fo llo w in g deta iled in stru ction s and standardized p r o ­
ced u res, p e r fo rm s one o r m o re routine accounting c le r ic a l o p era tio n s, such as posting to
le d g e rs , ca rd s, o r w orksh eets w here id en tifica tion o f item s and location s o f postings a re
c le a r ly indicated; checking accu ra cy and com pleten ess o f stan d ardized and re p e titiv e re c o rd s
o r accounting docum ents; and coding documents using a few p r e s c r ib e d accounting codes.
C L E R K , F IL E
F ile s , c la s s ifie s , and re tr ie v e s m a te r ia l in an esta blish ed filin g sy stem . M ay p e r fo rm
c le r ic a l and manual tasks re q u ired to m aintain file s . P o sitio n s a re c la s s ifie d into le v e ls on the
basis o f the fo llo w in g d efin ition s.
C la ss A . C la s s ifie s and indexes file m a te r ia l such as co rresp o n d en ce, re p o r ts , tech ­
nical docum ents, etc., in an establish ed filin g system containing a num ber o f v a rie d subject
m a tter file s . M ay also file this m a te r ia l. M ay keep re c o rd s o f va rio u s types in conjunction
with the file s .
M ay lead a sm all group o f lo w e r le v e l file c le r k s .
C la ss B . S orts, cod es, and file s
ings o r p a rtly c la s s ifie d m a te r ia l by
c r o s s - r e fe r e n c e aids. A s requ ested,
w ards m a te r ia l. M ay p e r fo rm re la ted

C la ss C . P e r fo r m s routine filin g o f m a te r ia l that has a lrea d y been c la s s ifie d o r which
is e a s ily c la s s ifie d in a sim ple s e r ia l c la s s ific a tio n system (e .g ., alph abetical, c h ro n o lo gica l,
o r n u m eric a l). A s requ ested, lo ca tes re a d ily ava ila b le m a te r ia l in file s and fo rw a rd s m a ­
t e r ia l; and m a y f i l l out w ithdraw al ch a rge. M ay p e r fo rm sim ple c le r ic a l and manual tasks
re q u ired to m aintain and s e r v ic e file s .
C L E R K , ORD ER
R e c e iv e s c u sto m ers' o rd e r s fo r m a te r ia l o r m erch a n dise by m a il, phone, o r p erso n a lly.
Duties in vo lv e any com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Quoting p r ic e s to cu stom ers; m aking out an o rd e r
sheet lis tin g the item s to m ake up the o rd e r ; checking p ric e s and quantities o f item s on o rd e r
sheet; and d istribu tin g o rd e r sheets to re s p e c tiv e departm ents to be fille d . M ay check with c re d it
departm ent to d eterm in e c r e d it ratin g o { cu sto m er, acknow ledge re c e ip t o f o rd e rs fro m cu stom ers,
fo llo w up o rd e r s to see that they have been fille d , keep file o f o rd e rs re c e iv e d , and check shipping
in vo ic es with o rig in a l o rd e r s .
CLERK, P A Y R O LL
Computes w ages o f com pany em p loyees and en ters the n e c e s s a r y data on the p a y ro ll
sheets. Duties in vo lv e: C alcu lating w o r k e r s ' earnings based on tim e o r production re c o rd s ; and
posting calcu lated data on p a y r o ll sheet, showing in form a tion such as w o r k e r 's nam e, w orking
days, tim e , ra te, deductions fo r in su rance, and total w ages due. M a y m ake out paychecks and
a s s is t p a ym a ster in m aking up and distrib u tin g pay en velopes. M ay use a calcu lating m achine.

The Bureau has discontinued c o llectin g data fo r o ile r s and plu m b ers.

23

u n c la s sified m a te r ia l by sim p le (su bject m a tte r) head­
fin e r subheadings. P r e p a re s sim p le re la ted in dex and
lo ca tes c le a r ly id en tified m a te r ia l in file s and f o r ­
c le r ic a l tasks re q u ired to m ain tain and s e r v ic e file s .

24
T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (E le c tr ic A ccounting M achine O p era to r)— Continued

S T E N O G R A P H E R — Continued

P o sitio n s a re c la s s ifie d into le v e ls on the basis o f the fo llo w in g defin itio n s.

Stenographer, S enior
Dictation in v o lv e s a v a r ie d tech n ical o r sp e c ia lize d voca bu la ry such as in le g a l b rie fs
o r re p orts on s c ie n tific re s e a rc h . M a y also set up and m aintain file s , keep r e c o r d s , etc.
OR
P e r fo r m s stenographic duties re q u irin g sig n ific a n tly g r e a te r independence and resp o n ­
s ib ility than sten ogra p h er, g e n e ra l, as evid enced by the fo llow in g:
W ork re q u ires a high
d eg ree o f stenographic speed and a ccu ra cy; a thorough w orkin g knowledge o f gen era l business
and o ffic e p roced u re; and o f the s p e c ific business o peration s, orga n izatio n , p o lic ie s , p r o c e ­
du res, file s , w ork flo w , etc. U ses this know ledge in p e rfo rm in g stenographic duties and
re spon sib le c le r ic a l tasks such as m aintaining follow u p file s ; assem blin g m a te r ia l fo r re p o rts,
m em orandum s, and le t t e r s ; com posing sim p le le tte rs fr o m gen era l in stru ction s; read ing and
routing in com ing m a il; and a nsw erin g routine questions^ etc.
SW ITC H B O AR D O P E R A T O R
C lass A . O perates a sin gle- o r m u ltip le-p ositio n telephone sw itchboard handling in com ing,
outgoing, intraplant o r o ffic e c a lls . P e r fo r m s fu ll telephone in form a tion s e r v ic e o r handles
com plex c a lls , such as con feren ce, c o lle c t, o v e rs e a s , o r s im ila r ca lls, eith er in addition to
doing routine w ork as d e s crib e d fo r sw itchboard o p e ra to r, class B, o r as a fu ll-tim e
assignm ent. (" F u l l " telephone in form a tion s e r v ic e o ccu rs when the establish m ent has v a rie d
functions that a re not re a d ily understandable fo r telephone in form ation pu rposes, e.g ., because
o f o verla p p in g o r in te rre la te d functions, and consequently presen t frequent prob lem s as to
which extension s a re ap p rop ria te fo r c a lls .)
C la ss B . O pera tes a single- o r m u ltip le-p ositio n telephone sw itchboard handling in com ing,
outgoing, intraplant o r o ffic e c a lls . M ay handle routine long distance c a lls and r e c o r d to lls .
M ay p e r fo rm lim ite d telephone in form a tion s e r v ic e . (" L im it e d " telephone in form a tion s e r v ic e
o ccu rs i f the functions o f the establishm ent s e r v ic e d a re re a d ily understandable fo r telephone
in form a tion pu rp oses, o r i f the requ ests a re routine, e .g ., giv in g extension num bers when
s p e c ific names a re fu rnished, o r i f co m p le x c a lls a re r e fe r r e d to another o p e ra to r.)
T h ese cla s s ific a tio n s do not include sw itchboard o p era to rs in telephone com panies who
a s s is t cu stom ers in p lacin g c a lls .
SW ITC H B O AR D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T
In addition to p e rfo rm in g duties o f o p era to r on a sin g le-p o sitio n o r m o n ito r-ty p e sw itch ­
board, acts as re ce p tio n is t and m a y also type o r p e r fo rm routine c le r ic a l w ork as p a rt o f re gu la r
duties. Th is typing o r c le r ic a l w ork m ay take the m a jo r p a rt o f this w o r k e r 's tim e w hile at
sw itchboard.
T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (E le c tr ic A ccounting M achine O p era to r)
O perates one o r a v a r ie ty o f m achines such as the ta bu lator, ca lcu la tor, c o lla to r, in te r ­
p r e te r , s o rte r , reprodu cin g punch, etc. Exclu ded fro m this defin ition a re w orkin g s u p erviso rs.
A ls o excluded a re o p era to rs o f e le c tro n ic d ig ita l com pu ters, even though they m ay also opera te
E A M equipment.

C la ss A . P e r fo r m s com plete rep ortin g and tabulating assignm ents including devisin g
d ifficu lt con trol panel w irin g under gen era l su p ervision . A ssign m en ts ty p ic a lly in vo lv e a
v a r ie ty o f long and co m p lex re p o rts which often a re ir r e g u la r o r n on recu rrin g, re q u irin g
som e planning o f the nature and sequencing o f opera tio n s, and the use o f a v a r ie ty o f m a ­
chines. Is ty p ic a lly in volved in tra in in g new o p era to rs in m achine operations o r train in g
lo w e r le v e l o p era to rs in w irin g fr o m d ia gra m s and in the o p era tin g sequences o f long and
co m p lex re p o r ts .
Does not include position s in which w irin g re s p o n s ib ility is lim ite d to
sele ction and in s ertio n o f p r e w ire d boards.
C la ss B . P e r fo r m s w ork a cco rd in g to establish ed p roced u res and under s p e cific in ­
stru ctions. A ssign m en ts ty p ic a lly in volv e co m p lete but routine and re c u rrin g re p o rts o r parts
o f la r g e r and m o re co m p lex re p o rts . O perates m o re d iffic u lt tabulating o r e le c tr ic a l a c ­
counting m achines such as the tabu lator and ca lcu la tor, in addition to the sim p le r m achines
used by cla ss C o p e ra to rs . M ay be re q u ired to do som e w irin g fr o m d ia gra m s. M a y tra in
new em p loyees in basic m achine operations.
C la ss C . Under s p e c ific in stru ction s, op era tes sim ple tabulating o r e le c tr ic a l accounting
m ach in es such as the s o rte r , in te rp r e te r, reprodu cin g punch, c o lla to r, etc. A ssignm ents
ty p ic a lly in vo lv e portions o f a w ork unit, fo r ex a m p le, in dividu al so rtin g o r co lla tin g runs,
o r re p e titiv e o p era tio n s. M ay p e r fo rm sim ple w irin g fr o m d ia g ra m s, and do som e filin g w ork.
T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L
P r im a r y duty is to tra n s c rib e dictation in volvin g a n orm a l routine vo ca b u la ry fro m
tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e re c o r d s .
M ay also type fr o m w ritten copy and do sim p le c le r ic a l w ork.
W ork ers tra n scrib in g dictation in volvin g a v a rie d tech n ical o r s p e c ia lize d vo ca b u la ry such as
le g a l b r ie fs o r re p o rts on s c ie n tific re s e a rc h a re not included. A w o rk e r who takes dictation
in shorthand o r by Stenotype o r s im ila r m achine is c la s s ifie d as a sten ograph er.
T Y P IS T
U ses a ty p e w r ite r to m ake co p ies o f va riou s m a te r ia ls o r to m ake out b ills a fte r ca lc u la ­
tions have been m ade by another p erso n . M ay include typing o f s ten cils, m a ts, o r s im ila r m a te ­
ria ls fo r use in duplicating p r o c e s s e s . M ay do c le r ic a l w ork in volv in g lit t le sp e cia l tra in in g, such
as keeping sim p le re c o r d s , filin g re c o rd s and re p o r ts , o r so rtin g and d istribu tin g in com ing m a il.
C lass A . P e r fo r m s one o r m o re o f the fo llo w in g : Typing m a te r ia l in fin a l fo rm when
it in volv es com bining m a te r ia l fr o m s e v e ra l so u rces; o r re s p o n s ib ility fo r c o r r e c t sp ellin g,
syllab ica tio n , punctuation, etc., o f tech nical o r unusual w ords o r fo re ig n language m a te ­
ria l; o r planning layout and typing o f co m p licated s ta tistica l ta b les to m ain tain u n iform ity
and balance in spacing. M ay type routine fo rm le t t e r s , v a ry in g d eta ils to suit circu m sta n ces.
C la ss B . P e r fo r m s one o r m o re o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing fr o m rough o r c le a r
d rafts; o r routine typing o f fo rm s , insurance p o lic ie s , etc.; o r settin g up sim ple standard
tabulations; o r copyin g m o re com p lex tables a lrea d y set up and spaced p r o p e rly .

P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D T E C H N IC A L
C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R — Continued

CO M PUTER O PER ATO R
M o n ito rs and o p era tes the co n trol con sole o f a d ig ita l com pu ter to p ro ce ss data accordin g
to operatin g in stru ction s, u su ally p rep a red by a p r o g ra m e r . W ork includes m o st of the fo llo w in g :
Studies in stru ction s to d eterm in e equipm ent setup and o peration s; loads equipment with re q u ired
item s (tape r e e ls , ca rd s, e tc .); sw itch es n ece s s a ry a u x ilia ry equipm ent into c ir c u it, and starts
and o perates com puter; m akes adjustm ents to com puter to c o r r e c t operatin g prob lem s and m eet
sp e cia l conditions; re v ie w s e r r o r s m ade during opera tion and d eterm in es cause o r r e fe r s p rob lem
to su p erviso r o r p ro g ra m e r; and m aintains o p era tin g re c o r d s . M ay te s t and a s s is t in c o rr e c tin g
p ro g ra m .
F o r w age study pu rp oses,

com puter o p era to rs a re c la s s ifie d as fo llow s:

C la ss A . O perates independently, o r under only g e n era l d irection , a com puter running
p ro g ra m s with m o st o f the fo llow in g c h a ra c te ris tic s :
N ew prog ra m s a re freq u en tly tested
and introduced; scheduling requ irem en ts a re o f c r itic a l im p ortan ce to m in im iz e downtim e;
the p ro g ra m s a re o f com p lex design so that id en tifica tion o f e r r o r sou rce often re q u ire s a
w orkin g know ledge o f the total p ro g ra m , and altern ate p rog ra m s m ay not be a va ila b le. M ay
g iv e d ire c tio n and guidance to lo w e r le v e l o p era to rs.
C la ss B . O perates independently, o r under only ge n era l d irectio n , a com puter running
p ro g ra m s with m o st o f the fo llo w in g c h a ra c te ris tic s : M ost o f the p rog ra m s a re establish ed
production rim s, ty p ic a lly run on a re g u la rly re c u rrin g basis; there is little o r no testin g




o f new p ro g ra m s re q u ired ; a ltern a te p ro g ra m s a re p rovid ed in case o rig in a l p rog ra m needs
m a jo r change o r cannot be c o rr e c te d within a reason able tim e .
In com m on e r r o r situ a­
tion s, diagn oses cause and takes c o r r e c t iv e action. Th is usually in vo lv es applying p revio u s ly
p ro g ra m ed c o r r e c t iv e steps, o r using standard c o rr e c tio n techniques.
OR
O perates under d ir e c t su p ervisio n a com puter running p ro g ra m s o r segm ents o f p rog ra m s
with the c h a ra c te ris tic s d e s crib e d fo r c la ss A . M ay a ssist a h igh er le v e l o p era to r by in de­
pendently p e rfo rm in g le s s d iffic u lt tasks assigned , and p e rfo rm in g d iffic u lt tasks fo llo w in g
deta iled in stru ction s and with frequ ent re v ie w o f operations p e r fo rm e d .
C lass C . W orks on routine p rog ra m s under c lo s e su p ervisio n . Is expected to develop
w orkin g know ledge o f the com puter equipment used and a b ility to detect p rob le m s in volv ed in
running routine p ro g ra m s . U su ally has r e c e iv e d som e fo rm a l tra in in g in com puter operation.
M ay a ssist h igh er le v e l o p era to r on com p lex p ro g ra m s.
C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M E R , BUSINESS
C o n verts statem ents o f business p ro b le m s, t y p ic a lly p rep a red by a system s analyst, into
a sequence o f d eta iled in stru ction s which a re re q u ired to so lv e the p rob le m s by autom atic data
p ro ce ssin g equipm ent. W orking fr o m charts o r d ia gra m s, the p r o g ra m e r develop s the p r e c is e in ­
structions which, when en tered into the com pu ter system in coded language, cause the manipulation

25
C O M PTO M ETER O PERATO R

S E C R E T A R Y — Continued

P r im a r y duty is to opera te a C om p tom eter to p e r fo rm m ath em atical com putations. Th is
jo b is not to be confused with that o f s ta tistica l o r other type o f c le rk , which m ay in volve f r e ­
quent use o f a C om p to m eter but, in which, use o f this m achine is incidental to p erfo rm a n ce o f
o th er duties.

N O T E : Th e te rm "c o rp o ra te o ffic e r , " used in the le v e l definitions follow in g, r e fe r s to
those o ffic ia ls who have a significan t co rp o ra te -w id e policym aking ro le with re ga rd to m a jo r
company a c tiv itie s . The title " v ic e p r e s id e n t ," though n orm a lly in dicative o f this ro le , does not
in a ll cases id en tify such position s. V ic e p residen ts whose p rim a ry re s p o n sib ility is to act p e r ­
sonally on individual cases o r tran saction s (e .g ., approve o r deny individual loan o r cred it actions;
adm in ister individual tru st accounts; d ir e c tly su p ervise a c le r ic a l sta ff) a re not co n sidered to be
"c o rp o ra te o ffic e r s " fo r purposes o f applying the fo llow in g le v e l d efin itio n s.

K E YPU N C H O PER ATO R
O pera tes a keypunch m achine to re c o r d
tabulating card s o r on tape.

o r v e r ify

alphabetic

and/or num eric

data on
C la ss A

P o sitio n s a re c la s s ifie d into le v e ls on the basis o f the fo llow in g definitions.
a ll,
C la ss A . W ork re q u ires the application o f e x p erien c e and judgm ent in s ele ctin g p r o c e ­
dures to be fo llo w ed and in search in g fo r , in te rp retin g , selectin g , o r coding item s to be
keypunched fro m a v a r ie ty o f sou rce docum ents. On o cca sio n m a y also p e rfo rm som e routine
keypunch w ork. M ay tra in in exp erien ced keypunch o p era to rs.
C lass B . W ork is routine and re p e titiv e . Under clo se su p ervision o r fo llow in g s p e cific
proced u res o r in stru ction s, w orks fro m variou s standardized sou rce documents which have
been coded, and fo llow s sp e cified p roced u res which have been p r e s c r ib e d in d eta il and re q u ire
little o r no selectin g , coding, o r in te rp retin g o f data to be re co rd ed . R e fe rs to su p erviso r
p rob le m s a ris in g fro m erron eou s item s o r codes o r m is sin g in form ation .

2. S e c re ta ry to a co rp o ra te o ffic e r (oth er than the chairm an o f the board o r presiden t)
o f a company that em ploys, in a ll, o v e r 5, 000 but fe w e r than 25, 000 p erso n s; o r
3. S e c re ta r y to the head, im m ed ia tely below the co rp o ra te o ffic e r le.vel,
segm ent o r su bsid iary o f a company that em ploys, in a ll, o v e r 25,000 p erso n s.

SECRETARY
A ssig n ed as p erson al s e c re ta ry , n o rm a lly to one in dividu al. M aintains a clo se and high ly
resp o n siv e relatio n sh ip to the d a y-to -d a y w ork o f the su p erviso r. W orks fa ir ly independently r e ­
c eiv in g a m inim um o f d eta iled su p ervisio n and guidance. P e r fo r m s va rie d c le r ic a l and s e c re ta ria l
duties, u su ally including m ost o f the fo llo w in g :
a. R e c e iv e s telephone c a lls , person al c a lle r s , and incom ing m a il, answ ers routine in ­
q u irie s , and routes tech nical in qu iries to the p ro p e r persons;
b.

E sta b lish es, m ain tain s,

c.

M aintains the s u p e r v is o r's calen dar and m akes appointm ents as instru cted;

d.

and r e v is e s the s u p e r v is o r's file s ;

R ela y s m e ssa g es fro m

by oth ers fo r the

M ay also p e rfo rm oth er c le r ic a l and s e c re ta ria l tasks o f com parab le nature and d ifficu lty .
The w ork ty p ic a lly re q u ires know ledge o f o ffic e routine and understanding o f the orga n izatio n ,
p r o g ra m s , and p roced u res re la ted to the w ork o f the s u p erviso r.
Exclu sions
Not a ll position s that a re titled " s e c r e t a r y " possess the above c h a ra c te ris tic s .
o f p osition s which a re excluded fro m the defin ition a re as fo llow s:
not m e et the

"p e r s o n a l"

4. S e c re ta ry to the head o f an individual plant, fa c to ry , etc. (o r other equivalent le v e l
o f o ffic ia l) that em ploys, in a ll, o v e r 5,000 p erso n s; or
5. S e c re ta r y to the head o f a la rg e and im portant orga n ization a l segm ent (e .g ., a m iddle
m anagem ent s u p erviso r o f an o rgan izational segm ent often in volvin g as many as s e v e ra l
hundred p erso n s) o r a company that em ploys, in a ll, o v e r 25,000 p ers o n s .
C las s C

2. S e c re ta r y to the head o f an individual plant, fa cto ry , etc. (o r other equivalent le v e l
o f o ffic ia l) that em ploys, in a ll, fe w e r than 5,000 p e rs o n s .
C la ss D

P e r fo r m s stenographic and typing w ork.

do

3. S e c re ta r y to the head, im m ed ia tely below the o ffic e r le v e l, o v e r eith er a m a jo r
co rp o ra te -w id e functional a c tiv ity (e .g ., m arketing, re sea rch , operations, industrial r e la ­
tion s, etc .) o r a m a jo r geograph ic o r orga n ization a l segm ent (e .g ., a re gio n a l headquarters;
a m a jo r d ivis ion ) o f a company that em ploys, in a ll, o v e r 5,000 but few er than 25,000
em p lo y e e s ; or

1. S e c re ta r y to an execu tive o r m a n a gerial person whose re sp o n sib ility is not equivalent
to one o f the sp e c ific le v e l situations in the definition fo r cla ss B, but whose orga n ization a l
unit n o rm a lly num bers at lea st sev e ra l dozen em ployees and is usually divided into o rg a n iz a ­
tional segm ents which a re often, in turn, fu rth er subdivided. In some com panies, this le v e l
includes a w ide range o f orga n ization a l echelons; in oth ers, only one o r two; or

s u p erviso r to subordinates;

e. R ev iew s co rresp o n d en ce, m em orandum s, and re p orts p rep a red
s u p e r v is o r's signature to assu re proced u ra l and typographic a ccu racy;

which

1. S e c re ta ry to the chairm an o f the board o r presid en t o f a company that em p loys, in
fe w e r than 100 p erso n s; o r

2. S e c re ta r y to a co rp o ra te o ffic e r (oth er than the chairm an o f the board o r p residen t)
o f a company that em ploys, in a ll, o v e r 100 but fe w e r than 5,000 p erso n s; o r

P e r fo r m s va rio u s routine duties such as running erra n d s, operatin g m in o r o ffic e m a ­
chines such as sea le rs o r m a ile r s , opening and distribu tin g m a il, and oth er m in o r c le r ic a l w ork.
Exclude position s that re q u ire operation o f a m o to r ve h ic le as a sign ifican t duty.

f.

o f a m a jo r

C la ss B

a ll,
M ESSENGER (O ffic e Boy o r G irl)

1. S e c re ta ry to the chairm an o f the board o r p residen t o f a company that em ploys, in
o v e r 100 but fe w e r than 5,000 p erso n s; o r

a.

P o sition s

s e c re ta ry

b.

1. S e c re ta r y to the s u p erviso r o r head o f a sm all o rgan ization al unit (e .g ., fe w e r than
about 25 o r 30 p erso n s); or
2. S e c re ta ry to a n on su pervisory staff s p e cia list, p rofe ssio n a l em ployee, a d m in istra ­
tiv e o ffic e r , o r a ssistan t, skilled technician o r ex p ert. (N O T E : Many companies assign
sten ograph ers, ra th er than s e c re ta rie s as d es crib e d above, to this le v e l o f su p erviso ry o r
n on su p erviso ry w o r k e r .)

Exam ples

concept d es crib e d

S TE N O G R A P H E R
above;

S tenographers not fu lly train ed in s e c re ta ria l type duties;

c. S tenographers servin g as o ffic e a ssistan ts to a group o f p ro fe ssio n a l, tech n ical, or
m a n a geria l persons;
d. S e c re ta r y position s in which the duties a re eith er su bstantially m o re routine o r sub­
sta n tia lly m o re com plex and resp o n sib le than those c h a ra c te riz e d in the definition;

P r im a r y duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to tra n s c rib e the dictation. M ay
also type fro m w ritten copy. M ay o p era te fro m a stenographic pool. M ay o cca sio n a lly tra n scrib e
fro m vo ic e re co rd in g s ( i f p r im a ry duty is tra n scrib in g fro m re co rd in g s, see Tran scrib in g-M a ch in e
O p era to r, G en era l).
N O T E : Th is job is distinguished fro m that o f a s e c re ta ry in that a s e c re ta ry n orm a lly
w orks in a con fiden tia l relation sh ip with only one m an ager o r execu tive and p erfo rm s m o re
respon sib le and d is c re tio n a ry tasks as d es crib e d in the s e c re ta ry job definition.
S tenographer, G eneral

e.
A ssista n t type position s which in volve m o re d iffic u lt o r m o re resp o n sib le tech ­
n ica l, a d m in istra tive, s u p erviso ry , o r s p e cia lize d c le r ic a l duties which a re not typ ical o f
s e c r e t a r ia l w ork.




D ictation in volv es a n orm al routine vocabu lary. M ay m aintain file s , keep sim ple re c o rd s ,
o r p e rfo rm oth er r e la t iv e ly routine c le r ic a l tasks.

26
CO M PUTER

PRO G RAM ER,

B U S IN E S S — C on tin u ed

o f data to a ch ieve d e s ire d re su lts . W ork in volv es m o st o f the fo llo w in g : A p p lies knowledge o f
com puter ca p a b ilitie s , m a th em a tics, lo g ic em ployed by com pu ters, and p a rticu la r subject m a tter
in volved to an a lyze charts and dia gra m s o f the prob lem to be p rogra m ed ; develop s sequence
o f p ro g ra m steps; w rite s d eta iled flo w charts to show o rd e r in which data w ill be p roce ssed ;
con verts these ch arts to coded in stru ction s fo r m achine to fo llow ; tests and c o rr e c ts p rog ra m s;
p rep a res in stru ction s fo r operatin g personn el during production run; a n a lyzes, re v ie w s , and a lters
p rog ra m s to in c re a s e o pera tin g e ffic ie n c y o r adapt to new requ irem en ts; m aintains re c o rd s of
p ro g ra m developm en t and re v is io n s . (N O T E : W ork ers p erfo rm in g both system s analysis and p r o ­
gram in g should be c la s s ifie d as system s analysts i f this is the sk ill used to d eterm in e th e ir pay.)
Does not include em p loy ees p r im a r ily re sp o n sib le fo r the m anagem ent o r su p ervisio n o f
other elec tro n ic data p ro c e s s in g em p lo y ees, o r p r o g ra m e r s p r im a r ily concern ed with s cie n tific
and/or en gin eerin g p ro b le m s.
F o r w age study pu rp oses,

p r o g ra m e r s a re c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s:

C lass A . W orks independently o r under only ge n era l d ire c tio n on co m p lex prob lem s which
re q u ire com petence in a ll phases o f p ro g ra m in g concepts and p r a c tic e s . W orking fro m d ia ­
gram s and charts which id en tify the nature o f d es ire d re su lts , m a jo r p ro ce ssin g steps to be
a ccom plished , and the relation sh ips betw een va rio u s steps o f the p rob lem so lvin g routine;
plans the fu ll ran ge o f p ro g ra m in g actions needed to e ffic ie n tly u tilize the com puter system
in ach ievin g d e s ire d end products.
A t this le v e l, p rog ra m in g is d iffic u lt because com puter equipment m ust be o rga n ized to
produce s e v e ra l in te rre la te d but d iv e rs e products fro m numerous and d iv e rs e data elem en ts.
A wide v a r ie ty and ex ten s ive number o f in tern al p ro ce ssin g actions must o ccu r. Th is re q u ires
such actions as develop m en t o f com m on operation s which can be reused, establishm ent of
linkage points betw een o p era tio n s, adjustm ents to data when p rog ra m requ irem en ts exceed
com puter sto ra ge ca pa city, and substantial m anipulation and resequ encing o f data elem en ts
to fo rm a h igh ly in tegra ted p ro g ra m .
M ay p ro v id e functional d ire c tio n to lo w e r le v e l p ro g ra m e rs who a re assigned to a ssist.
C la ss B . W orks independently o r under only gen era l d irection on r e la t iv e ly sim ple
p ro g ra m s , o r on sim ple segm ents o f com p lex p ro g ra m s .
P ro g ra m s (o r segm en ts) usually
p ro c e s s in form a tion to produce data in two o r th ree v a rie d sequences o r fo rm a ts. R ep orts
and listin g s a re produced by re fin in g, adapting, a rra y in g , o r m aking m in o r additions to or
deletion s fr o m input data which a re re a d ily a va ila b le.
W hile numerous re c o rd s m ay be
p ro ce ssed , the data have been re fin e d in p r io r actions so that the a ccu ra cy and sequencing
o f data can be tested by using a few routine checks. T y p ic a lly , the p ro g ra m deals with
routine re co rd -k ee p in g type opera tio n s.
OR
W orks on co m p le x p ro g ra m s (as d es crib e d fo r cla ss A ) under clo se d irectio n o f a h igh er
le v e l p r o g ra m e r o r su p e rv is o r.
M ay a ssist h igh er le v e l p ro g ra m e r by independently p e r ­
fo rm in g le s s d iffic u lt tasks assigned, and p e rfo rm in g m o re d ifficu lt tasks under fa ir ly clo se
d irectio n .
M ay guide o r in stru ct lo w e r le v e l p r o g ra m e r s .
C la ss C . M akes p ra c tic a l applications o f p rog ra m in g p ra c tic es and concepts usually
lea rn ed in fo rm a l tra in in g co u rses . A ssign m en ts a re design ed to d evelop com petence in the
a pplication o f standard p roced u res to routine p ro b le m s. R e c e iv e s clo se su p ervision on new
aspects o f a ssignm ents; and w ork is re v ie w e d to v e r ify its a ccu racy and conform ance with
re q u ired p ro ce d u res.
C O M P U T E R SYS TE M S A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS
A n a ly ze s business p rob lem s to fo rm u la te procedu res fo r solvin g them by use o f e lec tro n ic
data p ro ce ssin g equipment. D evelops a co m p lete d es crip tio n o f all specifica tion s needed to enable
p r o g ra m e r s to p rep a re re q u ired d ig ita l com puter p ro g ra m s . W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g :
A n a ly ze s su b jec t-m a tter o p era tion s to be automated and id en tifies conditions and c r it e r ia requ ired
to a ch ieve s a tis fa c to ry resu lts; s p e c ifie s number and types o f re c o r d s , file s , and documents to
be used; outlines actions to be p e r fo rm e d by personn el and com puters in su fficient detail fo r
p resen tation to m anagem ent and fo r p rog ra m in g (ty p ic a lly this in vo lv es p repa ra tion o f w ork and
data flo w ch a rts); coordin ates the developm en t o f test prob lem s and p a rticip ates in tr ia l runs of
new and re v is e d sy stem s; and recom m en ds equipment changes to obtain m o re e ffe c tiv e o v e r a ll
opera tio n s. (N O T E : W ork ers p e rfo rm in g both system s analysis and p rog ra m in g should be c la s ­
sifie d as system s analysts i f this is the sk ill used to d eterm in e th e ir pay.)
Does not include em p loy ees p r im a r ily resp o n sib le fo r the m anagem ent o r su p ervision
o f oth er e le c tro n ic data p ro c e s s in g e m p lo y ees, o r system s analysts p r im a r ily concern ed with
scie n tific o r en gin eerin g p rob le m s.
F o r w age study pu rp oses,

system s analysts a re c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s:

C lass A .
W orks independently o r under only gen era l d ire c tio n on com plex prob lem s in ­
vo lvin g a ll phases o f system s a n a lysis. P ro b le m s a re com p lex because o f d iv e rs e sou rces o f
input data and m u ltip le -u s e requ irem en ts o f output data. (F o r exam ple, develops an in tegrated
production scheduling, in ven to ry co n tro l, cost a n a ly sis, and sales analysis re c o r d in which




COM PUTER

SYSTEM S A N A L Y S T ,

B U S IN E S S — C o n tin u ed

e v e ry item o f each type is a u tom a tica lly p r o ce ssed through the fu ll sy stem o f re cord s and
a ppropriate follow u p actions a re in itiated by the com puter.) C o n fers with persons concerned to
determ in e the data p ro ce ssin g prob lem s and a dvises s u b jec t-m a tter personn el on the im p lic a ­
tions o f new o r re v is e d system s of data p ro c e s s in g o p era tio n s. M akes recom m en dation s, i f
needed, fo r approval o f m a jo r system s in stalla tion s o r changes and fo r obtaining equipment.
M ay p rovid e functional
as sist.

d irectio n to lo w e r

le v e l system s analysts who a re assigned to

C la ss B . W orks independently o r under only gen era l d ire c tio n on prob lem s that a re
r e la t iv e ly uncom plicated to an alyze, plan, p ro g ra m , and o p era te. P ro b le m s a re o f lim ited
co m p le xity because sou rces o f input data a re hom ogeneous and the output data a re c lo s e ly
related .
(F o r exa m ple, develop s system s fo r m aintaining d ep o sito r accounts in a bank,
m aintaining accounts re c e iv a b le in a re ta il establish m ent, o r m aintaining in ven to ry accounts
in a m anufacturing o r w h o lesa le establish m ent.) C o n fers with person s con cern ed to d eterm in e
the data p ro ce ssin g prob lem s and advises su b jec t-m a tter person n el on the im p lica tio n s o f the
data p ro ce ssin g system s to be applied.
OR
W orks on a segm ent o f a co m p lex data p ro c e s s in g schem e o r system , as d e s crib e d fo r
cla ss A . W orks independently on routine assignm ents and re c e iv e s in stru ction and guidance
on com p lex assignm ents. W ork is re v ie w e d fo r a ccu ra cy o f judgm ent, com plian ce with in ­
stru ctions, and to in su re p ro p e r alinem ent with the o v e r a ll system .
C la ss C . W orks under im m edia te su p ervisio n , c a rr y in g out a nalyses as assigned, usually
o f a sin gle a c tiv ity . A ssign m en ts a re design ed to d ev elop and expand p r a c tic a l ex p erien c e
in the application o f p roced u res and sk ills re q u ired fo r system s a n alysis w ork. F o r exam ple,
m ay a s s is t a h igh er le v e l system s analyst by p rep a rin g the d eta iled sp ecifica tion s re q u ired
by p r o g ra m e r s fro m in form a tion develop ed by the h igh er le v e l analyst.
D RAFTSM AN
C lass A . Plan s the graphic presen tation o f com p lex item s having d istin ctive design
fea tu res that d iffe r sig n ific a n tly fro m esta blish ed d raftin g p reced en ts. W orks in c lo s e sup­
port with the d esign o rig in a to r , and m ay recom m en d m in o r design changes. A n a ly ze s the
e ffe c t o f each change on the deta ils o f fo rm , function, and position a l relation sh ips o f c o m ­
ponents and p a rts.
W orks with a m inim um o f s u p e rv is o ry a ssista n ce. C om pleted w ork is
re v ie w e d by design o rig in a to r fo r con sisten cy with p r io r en gin eerin g d eterm in a tion s. M ay
eith er p rep a re draw in gs, o r d ire c t th e ir p rep a ra tion by lo w e r le v e l draftsm en .
C la ss B . P e r fo r m s nonroutine and com p lex draftin g assignm ents that re q u ire the a p p li­
cation o f m o st o f the standardized draw in g techniques re g u la rly used. Duties ty p ic a lly in ­
vo lv e such w ork as:
P r e p a re s w orkin g draw in gs o f su bassem blies with ir r e g u la r shapes,
m u ltiple functions, and p r e c is e position al relation sh ips betw een com ponents; p rep a res a rc h i­
tectu ra l draw in gs fo r constru ction o f a building including d eta il draw in gs o f foundations, w a ll
section s, flo o r plans, and ro o f. Uses accep ted form u la s and m anuals in m aking n ece s s a ry
computations to d eterm in e quantities o f m a te r ia ls to be used, load c a p a cities, strength s,
s tre s s e s , etc.
R e c e iv e s in itia l in stru ction s, req u irem en ts, and a d vice fr o m s u p erviso r.
C om pleted w ork is checked fo r tech nical adequacy.
C la ss C . P r e p a r e s d eta il draw in gs o f sin gle units o r parts fo r en gin eerin g , construction,
m anufacturing, o r re p a ir pu rp oses. T yp es of draw in gs p rep a red include is o m e tr ic p rojectio n s
(dep icting th ree dim ension s in accu rate s c a le ) and section al view s to c la r ify position in g o f
components and convey needed in form a tion . C on solid ates d eta ils fro m a num ber o f sou rces
and adjusts o r tra n sp oses sca le as re q u ired . Suggested m ethods o f approach, applicable
p reced en ts, and advice on sou rce m a te r ia ls a re given with in itia l assignm ents. Instructions
a re less co m p lete when assignm ents re cu r.
W ork m ay be sp o t-ch ecked during p r o g re s s .
DRAFTSM AN- TRACER
C opies plans and draw in gs p rep a red by oth ers by placin g tra cin g cloth o r paper o v e r
draw in gs and tra c in g with pen o r p en cil.
(Does not include tra cin g lim ite d to plans p r im a r ily
con sistin g o f straigh t lin es and a la rg e sca le not re qu irin g clo se delin ea tion .)
AND/OR
P r e p a re s sim ple o r re p e titiv e draw in gs o f e a s ily vis u a liz e d item s .
during p r o g re s s .

W ork is c lo s e ly su pervised

E L E C T R O N IC T E C H N IC IA N
W orks on variou s types of e le c tro n ic equipm ent o r system s by p e rfo rm in g one o r m o re
o f the fo llo w in g o peration s: M o d ifyin g, in stallin g, re p a irin g , and o verh au ling. T h ese operations
re q u ire the p erfo rm a n ce o f m o st o r a ll o f the fo llo w in g tasks: A ssem b lin g , testin g, adjusting,
ca lib ra tin g, tuning, and alining.
W ork is n on rep etitive and re q u ire s a know ledge o f the th e o ry and p ra c tic e o f elec tro n ics
pertain in g to the use o f gen era l and s p e c ia lize d e le c tr o n ic test equipment; trou ble an alysis; and
the operation, relatio n sh ip , and alinem en t o f e le c tro n ic sy stem s, su bsystem s, and c ircu its having
a v a r ie ty o f component pa rts.

27
E L E C T R O N IC TE C H N IC IA N — Continued

NU RSE, IN D U S T R IA L (R e g is te re d )

E le c tro n ic equipment o r system s w orked on ty p ic a lly include one o r m o re of the fo llo w in g :
Ground, v e h ic le , o r a irborn e radio com m unications sy stem s, r e la y sy stem s, navigation aids;
a irb o rn e o r ground radar system s; radio and te le v is io n tra n sm ittin g o r re co rd in g sy stem s; e le c ­
tro n ic com pu ters; m is s ile and sp a cecra ft guidance and co n trol system s; in du strial and m e d ica l
m easu rin g, indicating and co n trollin g d ev ices; etc.

A re g is te r e d nurse who g iv es nursing s e r v ic e under ge n era l m e d ica l direction to i l l or
injured em p loy ees o r other persons who becom e i l l o r su ffer an accident on the p rem ise s o f a
fa c to ry o r other establish m ent. Duties in volve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g ; G iving fir s t aid
to the i l l o r in jured; attending to subsequent d ressin g o f em p loy ees' in ju ries; keeping re cord s
of patients trea ted ; p rep a rin g accident rep orts fo r com pensation o r other purposes; assistin g in
ph ysical exam inations and health evaluations o f applicants and em ployees; and planning and c a r r y ­
ing out p rog ra m s in volvin g health education, accident preven tion , evaluation o f plant environm ent,
o r other a c tiv itie s a ffec tin g the health, w e lfa r e , and sa fety o f a ll personn el. Nu rsing su p erviso rs
o r head nurses in establish m ents em ploying m o re than one nurse a re excluded.

(Exclu de production a ssem b lers and te s te r s , cra fts m en , draftsm en , d e s ig n ers, en g in eers,
and rep a irm en o f such standard ele c tro n ic equipment as o ffic e m achines, radio and tele v is io n
re c e iv in g s e ts .)

M A IN T E N A N C E A N D P O W E R P L A N T
C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E

P e r fo r m s the ca rp en try duties n e c e s s a ry to constru ct and maintain in good re p a ir bu ild­
ing w oodw ork and equipment such as bins, c rib s , cou nters, benches, p a rtitio n s, d o ors, flo o r s ,
s ta irs , casin gs, and tr im made of wood in an establish m ent. W ork in volves m ost o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of w ork fro m blu eprints, draw in gs, m o d els , o r v erb a l in stru ction s; using a
v a rie ty o f c a rp en ter's handtools, portable pow er to o ls , and standard m easuring in stru m en ts; m a k­
ing standard shop computations relatin g to dim ensions o f w ork; and selectin g m a te ria ls n ece s s a ry
fo r the w ork. In ge n era l, the w ork o f the m aintenance ca rp en ter re q u ires rounded tra in in g and
ex p erien ce usually acqu ired through a fo rm a l a pprenticeship or equivalent train in g and ex p erien c e.

P rod u ces rep la cem en t parts and new parts in m aking re p a irs o f m eta l parts o f m echan ical
equipment operated in an establishm ent. W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g : In terp retin g w ritten
in stru ction s and sp e cifica tion s; planning and laying out o f w ork; using a v a r ie ty o f m a ch in ist's
handtools and p recisio n m easu ring instrum ents; setting up and operatin g standard machine to o ls;
shaping o f m e ta l parts to clo s e tole ra n c es; making standard shop computations relatin g to dim en ­
sions o f w ork , too lin g, fee d s, and speeds of m achining; know ledge o f the w orkin g p r o p e rties o f
the com m on m e ta ls; sele ctin g standard m a te ria ls , parts, and equipment re q u ired fo r his w ork;
and fittin g and a ssem blin g parts into m echanical equipment. In g e n e ra l, the m a ch in ist's w ork
n o rm a lly re q u ires a rounded tra in in g in m achine-shop p ra c tic e usually a cq u ired through a fo rm a l
apprenticeship o r equ ivalent train in g and ex p erien ce.

E L E C T R IC IA N , M A IN T E N A N C E
P e r fo r m s a v a rie ty o f e le c tr ic a l tra d e functions such as the in stallation , m aintenance, or
re p a ir of equipment fo r the generation , distribu tion , or u tiliza tio n of e le c tr ic en ergy in an esta b ­
lishm ent. W ork in volves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : In sta llin g o r rep a irin g any o f a v a rie ty of e le c ­
tr ic a l equipment such as g e n era to rs , t ra n s fo rm e rs , sw itch boards, c o n tr o lle r s , circ u it b rea k ers ,
m o to rs, heating units, conduit sy stem s, o r other tra n sm iss ion equipment; w orkin g fr o m b lu e­
prin ts, draw ings, layouts, or other sp e cifica tion s; locatin g and diagnosing trou ble in the e le c tr ic a l
system or equipment; w orking standard computations relatin g to load requ irem en ts of w irin g or
e le c tr ic a l equipment; and using a v a rie ty o f e le c tr ic ia n 's handtools and m easuring and testin g
instrum ents. In g e n era l, the w ork o f the maintenance e le c tr ic ia n requ ires rounded train ing and
ex p erien ce usually acqu ired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship or equ ivalent tra in in g and ex p erien c e.
E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y
Operates and maintains and m ay also su p ervise the operation o f station ary engines and
equipment (m echan ical o r e le c tr ic a l) to supply the establish m ent in which em ployed with pow er,
heat, re frig e ra tio n , o r a ir-co n d ition in g . W ork in vo lv es:
O perating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, a ir c o m p re s s o rs , g e n e ra to rs , m o to rs , turbines, ven tilatin g and r e f r i g ­
eratin g equipment, steam b o ile rs and b o ile r - fe d w a ter pumps; making equipment re p a irs ; and
keeping a re c o rd of operation o f m a ch in ery, tem p era tu re, and fu el consumption. M ay also su­
p e r v is e these operations. Head or ch ief en gin eers in establishm ents em ploying m o re than one
en gin eer a re exclu ded.
F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R
F ir e s stationary b o ile rs to furnish the establishm ent in which em ployed with heat, pow er,
o r steam . F eeds fu els to fir e by hand o r o pera tes a m ech an ical stoker, gas, o r o il burner; and
checks w a ter and sa fety v a lv e s . May clean, o il, o r a ssist in rep a irin g b o ile r room equipment.
H E L P E R , M A IN T E N A N C E TRA D ES
A s s is ts one o r m o re w o rk ers in the sk ille d maintenance tra d es , by p erfo rm in g sp e c ific
o r ge n era l duties o f le s s e r s k ill, such as keeping a w o rk e r supplied with m a te ria ls and to o ls;
cleaning w orkin g a rea , m achine, and equipment; a ssistin g journeym an by holding m a te ria ls or
to o ls; and p erfo rm in g other u nskilled tasks as d irected by journeym an. Th e kind o f w ork the
h elp er is perm itted to p e r fo rm v a rie s fro m trade to tra d e: In som e trades the h elp er is confined
to supplying, liftin g , and holding m a te ria ls and to o ls , and cleaning w orking a rea s; and in others
he is p erm itted to p e r fo rm s p e cia lize d machine o pera tion s, or parts of a tra d e that a re also
p e rfo rm e d by w o rk ers on a fu ll-tim e basis.
M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , TO O LR O O M
S p ecia liz es in the operatipn o f one o r m o re types o f machine to o ls, such as jig b o re r s ,
c y lin d r ic a l o r su rface g r in d e rs , engine lathes, or m illin g m achines, in the construction of
m ach in e-sh op t o o ls , g a g es, jig s , fix tu res, o r d ies. W ork in volves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning
and p erfo rm in g d ifficu lt machining operations; p ro ce ssin g item s requ irin g com p licated setups or
a high d e g re e o f accu racy; using a v a rie ty o f p recisio n m easuring instrum ents; sele ctin g feed s,
speeds, too lin g, and operation sequence; and making n ecess a ry adjustments during operation
to a ch ieve re q u isite tole ra n c es o r dim ension s. M ay be requ ired to re c o g n iz e when too ls need
d ressin g, to d ress to o ls , and to s ele ct p rop e r coolants and cutting and lu bricatin g o ils .
For
cro s s -in d u s try wage study pu rposes, m a ch in e-too l o p era to rs, to o lro o m , in to o l and die jobbing
shops a re excluded fro m this c la ssifica tio n .




M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M aintenance)
R ep airs au tom obiles, buses, m otortru cks, and tra c to rs of an establishm ent. W ork in ­
v o lves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Exam ining au tom otive equipment to diagnose sou rce of trou ble; d is ­
assem blin g equipment and p erfo rm in g re p a irs that in volv e the use o f such handtools as w ren ch es,
ga g es, d r ills , o r s p e c ia lize d equipment in d isa ssem blin g o r fittin g p a rts; replacin g broken or
d efe c tiv e parts fr o m stock; grinding and adjusting v a lv e s ; re as sem b lin g and in stallin g the variou s
a ssem b lies in the v e h ic le and making n ece s s a ry adjustm ents; and alining w h e els, adjusting brakes
and ligh ts, o r tightening body bolts. In ge n era l, the w ork o f the autom otive m echanic re q u ires
rounded tra in in g and expedience usually acqu ired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship or equivalent
train in g and ex p erien ce
Th is cla ssifies -on does not include m echanics who re p a ir cu sto m ers' v e h icles in auto­
m o b ile re p a ir shops.
M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E
R ep airs m a ch in ery o r m echan ical equipment o f an establishm ent. W ork in volves m ost
of the fo llo w in g : Exam ining m achines and m echan ical equipment to diagnose sou rce of trou ble;
dism antling o r p a rtly dism antling m achines and p erfo rm in g re p a irs that m a in ly in volve the use
o f handtools in scra pin g and fittin g pa rts; replacin g broken o r d efe c tiv e parts with item s obtained
fro m stock; o rd erin g the production o f a replacem en t part by a m achine shop o r sending o f the
machine to a m achine shop fo r m a jo r re p a irs ; p rep a rin g w ritten sp ecifica tion s fo r m a jo r rep a irs
o r fo r the production o f parts o rd ered fr o m m achine shop; re assem b lin g m achines; and making
a ll n ece s s a ry adjustm ents fo r operation. In gen era l, the w ork o f a m aintenance m echanic re q u ires
rounded tra in in g and e x p erien c e usually acqu ired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship or equivalent
train ing and e x p erien c e. Excluded fro m this cla s s ific a tio n a re w o rk ers whose p rim a ry duties
in volve setting up o r adjusting m achines.
M IL L W R IG H T
In sta lls new m achines o r heavy equipment, and dism antles and in stalls machines or heavy
equipment when changes in the plant layout a re requ ired . W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g :
Planning and layin g out of the w ork; in te rp retin g blueprints o r other sp ecifica tion s; using a v a rie ty
of handtools and rig gin g; making standard shop computations relatin g to s tre s s e s , strength o f
m a te r ia ls , and cen ters o f g r a v ity ; alinin g and balancing of equipment; sele ctin g standard to o ls,
equipment, and parts to be used; and in stallin g and m aintaining in good o rd e r pow er tra n sm ission
equipment such as d r iv e s and speed re d u cers . In gen era l, the m illw rig h t's w ork n orm a lly requ ires
a rounded train in g and ex p erien c e in the trade acqu ired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship or
equivalent tra in in g and e x p erien c e.
P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
Pain ts and re d eco ra tes w a lls , w oodw ork, and fix tu res o f an establish m ent. W ork in volves
the fo llo w in g : Kn ow ledge o f su rface p ec u lia ritie s and types of paint requ ired fo r d ifferen t app lica ­
tion s; p reparin g su rface fo r painting by rem o vin g old fin ish or by placin g putty or f ille r in nail

28
P A I N T E R , M A I N T E N A N C E — C o n tin u ed

S H E E T -M E T A L

h oles and in te rs tic e s ; and applying paint with sp ra y gun o r brush. M ay m ix c o lo r s , o ils , white
lea d , and oth er paint in gre d ien ts to obtain p ro p e r c o lo r o r con sisten cy. In ge n era l, the w ork o f the
m aintenance pa in ter re q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x p erien c e usually acqu ired through a fo rm a l
apprenticeship o r equ ivalen t tra in in g and ex p erien c e.

up and opera tin g a ll a va ila b le types o f sh eet-m e ta l w orkin g m ach in es; using a v a r ie ty o f handtools
in cutting, bending, fo rm in g , shaping, fittin g , and assem b lin g; and in sta llin g s h eet-m e ta l a r tic le s
as re q u ired . In ge n era l, the w ork o f the m aintenance sh e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r re q u ire s rounded
tra in in g and e x p erien c e usually a cq u ired through a fo rm a l a p p ren ticesh ip o r equ ivalen t train in g
and ex p erien c e.

W O R K E R , M A I N T E N A N C E — C o n tin u e d

P I P E F IT T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
In sta lls o r r e p a irs w a te r, steam , ga s, o r oth er types o f pipe and p ip efittin gs in an
establishm ent. W ork in v o lv e s m o st o f the fo llo w in g : L a yin g out o f w ork and m easu rin g to lo ca te
po sition o f pipe fr o m draw in gs o r oth er w ritten sp e cifica tion s; cutting va rio u s s iz e s o f pipe to
c o r r e c t lengths with ch isel and h am m er o r o xy a c etylen e torch o r pipe-cu ttin g m ach in es; threadin g
pipe with stocks and d ies ; bending pipe by h an d-driven o r p o w e r-d r iv e n m ach in es; a ssem blin g
pipe with couplings and fasten ing pipe to h an gers; m aking standard shop com putations re la tin g to
p r e s s u re s , flo w , and s iz e o f pipe requ ired ; and m aking standard tests to d eterm in e w hether fin ­
ish ed pipes m e e t s p e cifica tio n s. In g e n era l, the w ork o f the m aintenance p ip e fitte r re q u ire s
rounded tra in in g and e x p erien c e usually a cq u ired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship o r equ ivalent
tra in in g and e x p erien c e. W ork ers p r im a r ily engaged in in stallin g and re p a irin g building sanitation
o r heating system s a re exclu ded.
o H E E T -M E T A L W O RKER, M A IN T E N A N C E
F a b ric a te s , in s ta lls , and m aintains in good re p a ir the sh eet-m e ta l equipm ent and fix tu res
(such as m achine gu ards, g r e a s e pans, sh elves , lo c k e r s , tanks, ven tila to rs , chutes, ducts, m eta l
ro o fin g) o f an establish m ent. W ork in vo lv es m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and la yin g out a ll
typ e s-o f sh eet-m e ta l m aintenance w ork fro m blu eprin ts, m o d els , o r other sp e cifica tio n s; setting

T O O L A N D DIE M A K E R
(D ie m a k er; j i g m a k er; tool m a k e r; fix tu re m a k e r; gage m a k e r)
Constructs and re p a irs m a ch in e-sh op to o ls , ga g es, jig s ,' fix tu res o r dies fo r fo rg in g s ,
punching, and oth er m e ta l-fo rm in g w ork .
W ork in vo lv es m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and
la yin g out o f w ork fro m m o d els , blu eprints, draw in gs, o r oth er o ra l and w ritten sp e cifica tio n s;
using a v a r ie ty o f to o l and die m a k e r's handtools and p r e c is io n m ea s u rin g in stru m en ts; u nd er­
standing o f the w orkin g p r o p e rtie s o f com m on m e ta ls and a llo y s ; settin g up and operatin g o f
m achine too ls and re la te d equipment; m aking n ec e s s a ry shop com putations re la tin g to dim ensions
o f w ork, speeds, fee d s, and too lin g o f m ach in es; h ea t-trea tin g o f m e ta l p a rts during fa b rica tio n
as w e ll as o f fin ish ed to o ls and dies to a ch ieve re q u ired q u a lities ; w orkin g to c lo s e to le ra n c e s ;
fittin g and assem blin g o f parts to p r e s c r ib e d tole ra n c e s and allow a n ces; and s ele ctin g ap p rop ria te
m a te r ia ls , to o ls , and p r o c e s s e s . In ge n era l, the to o l and die m a k e r 's w ork re q u ir e s a rounded
tra in in g in m ach in e-sh op and to o lro o m p r a c tic e u su ally a cq u ired through a fo rm a l a pprenticeship
o r equ ivalent tra in in g and ex p erien c e.
F o r c ro s s -in d u s tr y w age study pu rp oses, tool and die m a k e rs in to o l
shops a re exclu ded fr o m this c la s s ific a tio n .

and die jobbin g

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
P A C K E R , S H IP P IN G — Continued

GUARD A N D W A T C H M A N
Guard. P e r fo r m s routine p o lic e duties, eith er at fix ed post o r on tou r, m aintaining o rd e r ,
using a rm s o r fo r c e w h ere n e c e s s a ry . Includes gatem en who a re stationed at gate and check
on iden tity o f em p loy ees and oth er perso n s e n terin g .

and s iz e o f con tain er; in sertin g en clo su res in contain er; using e x c e ls io r o r oth er m a te r ia l to
preven t b reakage o r dam age; c lo sin g and sea lin g con tain er; and applying la b e ls or en terin g
id en tifyin g data on con tain er.
P a c k e rs who also m ake wooden boxes o r c r a te s a re exclu d ed .

W atchm an. M akes rounds o f p r e m is e s p e r io d ic a lly in p rotectin g p ro p e rty against fir e ,
theft, and ille g a l en try.

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K

J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , OR C L E A N E R
(S w eeper; charwom an; ja n itr e s s )
Cleans and keeps in an o r d e r ly condition fa c to ry w orkin g area s and w ashroom s, o r
p r e m is e s o f an o ffic e , apartm ent house, o r c o m m e rc ia l o r oth er establishm ent. Duties in vo lv e
a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Sweeping, m opping o r scrubbing, and polishing flo o r s ; rem o vin g
chips, trash , and oth er re fu se; dusting equipment, fu rn itu re, o r fix tu res; p olish ing m eta l fix ­
tu res o r trim m in g s ; p rovid in g supplies and m in o r m aintenance s e r v ic e s ; and cleaning la v a to r ie s ,
sh ow ers, and re s tro o m s . W o rk ers who s p e c ia liz e in window washing a re exclu ded.

P r e p a re s m erch a n d ise fo r shipment, o r r e c e iv e s and is re s p o n sib le fo r in com ing ship­
m ents o f m erch a n d ise o r oth er m a te r ia ls . Shipping w ork in v o lv e s : A kn ow ledge o f shipping p r o ­
ced u res, p r a c tic e s , rou tes, a va ila b le m eans o f tra n sp o rta tio n , and ra te s ; and p rep a rin g re c o rd s
o f the goods shipped, m aking up b ills of ladin g, posting w eight and shipping ch a rge s, and keeping
a file o f shipping re c o r d s .
M ay d ir e c t o r a s s is t in p rep a rin g the m erch a n d ise fo r shipm ent.
R e c e iv in g w ork in v o lv e s : V e r ify in g o r d ire c tin g oth ers in v e r ify in g the c o rr e c tn e s s o f shipm ents
against b ills o f ladin g, in v o ic e s , o r oth er re c o r d s ; checking fo r sh ortages and re je c tin g dam ­
aged goods; routing m erch a n dise o r m a te r ia ls to p ro p e r dep artm en ts; and m aintaining n ece s s a ry
re c o rd s and file s .
F o r w age study pu rp oses, w o rk e rs a re c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s:
R e c e iv in g c le r k
Shipping c le r k
Shipping and r e c e iv in g clerk

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G
(L o a d e r and unloader; handler and sta cker;
w arehousem an o r w areh ou se h elp er)

s h elver;

tru ck e r;

stockman o r stock h elp er;

T R U C K D R IV E R

A w o rk e r em ployed in a w arehou se, m anufacturing plant, sto re, o r oth er establishm ent
w hose duties in volv e one o r m o re o f the fo llo w in g : Loading and unloading variou s m a te r ia ls and
m erch an dise on o r fro m fr e ig h t c a rs , tru cks, o r other tra n sp ortin g d ev ices; unpacking, sh elvin g,
o r placin g m a te r ia ls o r m erch a n d ise in p ro p e r stora ge location ; and tra n sportin g m a te ria ls o r
m erch an dise by handtruck, c a r, o r w h e elb a rrow . Lon gsh orem en , who load and unload ships a re
exclu ded.

D riv e s a tru ck w ithin a city o r in du strial a rea to tra n sp o rt m a te r ia ls , m erch a n d ise,
equipm ent, o r m en betw een va rio u s types o f establish m ents such as: M anufacturing plants, freig h t
depots, w areh ou ses, w h o lesa le and re ta il establish m ents, o r betw een r e ta il establish m ents and
cu sto m ers' houses o r p la ces o f bu sin ess. M ay also load o r unload tru ck with o r without h elp ers,
m ake m in o r m echan ical re p a irs , and keep tru ck in good w orkin g o r d e r .
D r iv e r -s a le s m e n and
o v e r - th e - r o a d d r iv e r s a re exclu d ed .

ORDER F IL L E R

fo llo w s:

(O rd e r p ick er; stock s e le c to r ; w arehou se stockman)
F ills shipping o r tra n s fe r o rd e r s fo r fin ish ed goods fr o m stored m erch a n dise in a c c o rd ­
ance with sp ecifica tion s on sales slip s, c u sto m ers' o rd e r s , o r oth er in stru ction s. M ay, in addition
to fillin g o rd e r s and indicating item s fille d o r om itted, keep re c o rd s o f outgoing o rd e r s , re q u i­
sitio n additional stock o r re p o rt short supplies to su p erviso r, and p e rfo rm oth er re la ted duties.

F o r w age study pu rp oses, tru c k d riv e r s a re c la s s ifie d by s iz e and type o f equipment, as
( T r a c t o r - t r a ile r should be rated on the basis o f t r a ile r ca p a city.)
T r u c k d riv e r (com bin ation o f s iz e s lis te d sep a ra te ly )
T r u c k d riv e r, ligh t (under l '/2 tons)
T r u c k d riv e r, m ediu m ( 1 V2 to and including 4 tons)
T r u c k d riv e r, heavy (o v e r 4 tons, t r a ile r type)
T r u c k d riv e r, heavy (o v e r 4 tons, oth er than t r a ile r type)

T R U C K E R , PO W E R
P A C K E R , S H IP P IN G
P r e p a re s fin ish ed products fo r shipment o r sto ra ge by placing them in shipping con­
ta in e r s , the s p e c ific operations p e rfo rm e d being dependent upon the type, s iz e , and number
o f units to be packed, the type o f contain er em ployed, and method o f shipment. W ork re q u ire s
the placin g o f item s in shipping contain ers and m ay in vo lv e one o r m o re o f the fo llo w in g :
Kn ow ledge o f va rio u s item s o f stock in o rd e r to v e r ify content; selection o f a ppropriate type




O perates a m an u ally c o n tro lled gasolin e- o r e le c tr ic -p o w e re d tru ck o r tr a c t o r to tra n sp o rt
goods and m a te r ia ls o f a ll kinds about a w areh ou se, m anufacturing plant, o r oth er establish m ent.
F o r w age study p u rp oses,
T r u c k e r,
T r u c k e r,

w o rk e rs a re c la s s ifie d by type o f tru ck,

p ow er (fo r k lift)
p ow er (o th er than fo r k lift)

as fo llo w s:

A v a i l a b l e O n R e q u e s t ----The follow ing areas are surveyed p erio d ica lly fo r use in adm inistering the S ervice Contract A ct of 1965.
available at no cost while supplies last from any o f the BLS regional o ffices shown on the inside front cover.

Alaska
Albany, Ga.
Alpena, Standish, and Tawas City, Mich.
A m a rillo , Tex.
A sh e v ille , N.C.
Atlantic City, N.J.
Augusta, G a —S.C.
Austin, Tex.
B akersfield , C alif.
Baton Rouge, La.
B iloxi, Gulfport, and Pascagoula, M iss.
B ridgeport, Norw alk, and Stamford, Conn.
Charleston, S.C.
C la rk s v ille , Tenn., and Hopkinsville, Ky.
Colorado Springs, Colo.
Columbia, S.C.
Columbus, Ga.—
Ala.
Crane, Ind.
Dothan, Ala.
Duluth— u perior, Minn.—W is.
S
Durham, N.C.
E l Paso, Tex.
Eugene, O reg.
F argo—
Moorhead, N. Dak.—
Minn.
F a yetteville, N.C.
Fitchburg— e o m in s te r, M ass.
L
F o rt Smith, A rk.—
Okla.
F red erick —
Hagerstown, Md.—Pa.—W. Va.
Great F a lls , Mont.
Greensboro—
Winston Salem -H igh Point, N.C.
H arrisbu rg, Pa.
Huntsville, Ala.
K n oxville, Tenn.

Copies o f public releases are

Lared o, Tex.
Las V egas, Nev.
Lexington, Ky.
Low er Eastern Shore, Md.—
Va.
Macon, Ga.
M arquette, Escanaba, Sault Ste. M a rie, Mich.
M eridian, M iss.
M iddlesex, Monmouth, Ocean and Som erset
C os., N.J.
M obile, A la ., and Pensacola, Fla.
M ontgom ery, A la.
N ash ville, Tenn.
New London— roton-N orw ich, Conn.
G
N ortheastern Maine
Ogden, Utah
Orlando, Fla.
Oxnard—
Ventura, C alif.
Panama City, Fla.
Pine Bluff, A rk.
Portsm outh, N.H.—Maine— ass.
M
Pueblo, Colo.
Reno, Nev.

Sacramento, Calif.

Santa Barbara, C alif.
Shreveport, La.
Springfield—
Chicopee—
Holyoke, Mass .—Conn.
Stockton, C alif.
Tacom a, Wash.
Topeka, Kans.
Tucson, A r iz .
V a lle jo —
Napa, C alif.
Wichita F a lls , Tex.
Wilmington, D e l—
N.J.—
Md.

The eleventh annual rep ort on salaries fo r accountants, auditors, chief accountants, attorneys, job analysts, d irectors o f personnel,
buyers, chem ists, engineers, engineering technicians, draftsm en, and c le r ic a l em ployees. O rder as BLS Bulletin 1693, National
Survey of P rofession a l, A d m in istrative, Technical, and C le ric a l Pay, June 1970, $1.00 a copy, from the Superintendent o f Documents,
U.S. Government Prin tin g O ffice, Washington, D.C., 20402, or any of its regional sales o ffices.




☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:

1972— 7 4 5 - 104/76




A re a W a g e Surveys
A lis t o f the latest available bulletins is presented below. A d ire c to ry o f area wage studies including m ore lim ited studies conducted at the request
of the Em ploym ent Standards Adm inistration of the Department o f Labor is available on request. Bulletins may be purchased from the Superintendent
o f Documents, U .S. Government P rin tin g O ffic e , Washington, D. C. , 20402, or fro m any o f the BLS regional sales offices shown on the inside front cover.
A rea
Akron, Ohio, July 1971 1 ----------------------------------------Albany—
Schenectady— r o y , N. Y . , M ar. 1972__________
T
Albuquerque, N. M e x ., M ar. 1971______________________
Allentown—
Bethlehem—
Easton, P a . — .J ., May 1971___
N
A tlan ta, G a ., May 1971------------------------------------------B a ltim o re, M d ., Aug. 1971___________________________ __
Beaumont— o rt Arthur— ran ge, T e x ., M ay 1971 1____
P
O
Binghamton, N . Y . , July 1971 1_________________________
Birm ingham , A la ., M ar. 1971 1_________________________
B oise C ity, Idaho, N ov. 1971___________________________
Boston, M ass., Aug. 1971_______________________________
Buffalo, N . Y . , Oct. 1971________________________________
Burlington, V t ., D ec. 1971______________________________
Canton, Ohio, M ay 1971_________________________________
C harleston, W. V a ., M ar. 1971_________________________
C harlotte, N .C ., Jan. 1972 1-----------------------------------Chattanooga, Tenn. — a ., Sept. 1971------------------------G
C h icago, 111., June 1971 1 ---------------------------------------Cincinnati, Ohio- Ky. —
Ind., Feb. 1971 1--------------------C leveland, Ohio, Sept. 1971_____________________________
Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1971-------------------------------------D allas, T e x ., Oct. 1971-----------------------------------------Davenport—
Rock Island— o lin e , Iowa—
M
111., Feb. 1971__
Dayton, Ohio, D ec. 1971 1______________________________
D en ver, C olo., D ec. 1971 1______________________________
Des M oines, Iowa, May 1971---------------------------------D etro it, M ich., Feb. 1971 1_____________________________
Durham, N. C. (to be surveyed in 1972)
F o rt Lauderdale—
Hollywood and West Palm
Beach, F la. (to be surveyed in 1972)
F o rt Worth, T e x ., Oct. 1971-----------------------------------G reen Bay, W is., July 1971_____________________________
G re e n v ille , S .C ., May 1971 1----------------------------------Houston, T e x ., A p r. 1971 1-------------------------------------H untsville, A la ., Feb. 1972 1
---------------- ------------------Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 1971-----------------------------------Jackson, M is s ., Jan. 1972--------------------------------------Jackson ville, F la ., Dec. 1971__________________________
Kansas C ity, Mo. —
Kans., Sept. 1971-----------------------Law ren ce— a verh ill, M a ss. — H ., June 1971_________
H
N.
L ittle Rock— orth L ittle Rock, A rk ., July 1971_______
N
Los A n geles—
Long Beach and Anaheim—
Santa Ana—
~ Garden G rove, C a lif., M ar. 1971 1------------------------L o u is v ille , K y .—
Ind., Nov. 1971 1 ---------------------------Lubbock, T e x ., M ar. 1971--------------------------------------M anchester, N .H ., July 1971___________________________
M em phis, Tenn. — r k ., N ov. 1971 1____________________
A
M ia m i, F la . , N ov. 1971_________________________________
Midland and Odessa, T e x ., Jan. 1972 1
_________________
M ilwaukee , W is ., M ay 1971_____________________________

l Data on establishment


Bulletin number
and p ric e
1685-87,
1725-49,
1685-58,
1685-75,
1685-69,
1725-16,
1685-68,
1725-6,
1685-63,
1725-27,
1725-11,
1725-34,
1725-25,
1685-71,
1685-57,
1725-48,
1725-14,
1685-90,
1685-53,
1725-17,
1725-19,
1725-26,
1685-51,
1725-36,
1725-44,
1685-70,
1685-77,

40
30
30
30
40
35
35
35
40
30
40
45
25
30
30
35
30
70
45
40
30
35
30
35
35
30
50

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1725-21, 30 cents
1725-3,
30 cents
1685-78, 35 cents
1685-67, 50 cents
1725-50, 35 cents
1725-23, 30 cents
1725-38, 30 cents
1725-39, 30 cents
1725-18, 35 cents
1685-83, 30 cents
1725-4,
30 cents
1685-66, 50 cents
1725-29, 35 cents
1685-60, 30 cents
1725-2,
30 cents
1725-40, 35 cents
1725-28, 30 cents
1725-37, 30 cents
1685-76, 35 cents

practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

A re a
M inneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn., Jan. 1972 1 __ _ ______
_,
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights , M ich., June 1971_____ —
New ark and J ersey C ity, N. J., Jan. 1971—_________ ___
New Haven, Conn., Jan. 1972 1
________
New O rleans, L a ., Jan. 1972_____
_____
New Y o rk , N . Y . , A pr. 1971 ______ __
N orfolk —
Portsm outh and N ew port N ew s—
Hampton, V a., Jan. 1972________________________ —__ __
Oklahoma C ity, O k la., July 1971 1_______________________
Omaha, N e b r. —
Iow a, Sept., 1971 1______________ ________
Paterson — lifton— a s s a ic , N .J ., June 1971____________
C
P
Philadelphia, Pa. — J ., N ov. 1970_____________________
N.
Phoenix, A r iz ., June 1971 _
_
___
Pittsburgh, P a ., Jan. 1972__________________________ ____
Portland, M aine, Nov. 1971 1____ ___ ___
Portland, Or eg. — ash., May 1971______________________
W
Poughkeepsie-Kings ton—
Newburgh,
N. Y . (to be surveyed in 1972)
Provid en ce—
Pawtucket— arw ick, R. I . — ass.,
W
M
May 1971 1 ___________________________ ____ _______________
Raleigh, N .C ., Aug. 1971________________________________
Richmond, V a., M ar. 1971______________________________
R och ester, N .Y . (o ffic e occupations only), July 1971 1__
R ockford, 111., M ay 1971---- -----St. Lou is, M o .—
111., M ar. 1971 1________________________
Salt Lake C ity, Utah, N ov. 1971________________________
San Antonio, T e x ., May 1971 1___________________________
San Bernardino— iv e rs id e -O n ta rio , C a lif.,
R
Dec. 1971.....................................................................
San D iego, C a lif., N ov. 1971 1____ ______
San F ran cisco—
Oakland, C a lif., Oct. 1971 1 ____________
San Jose, C a lif., Aug. 1971 1 ___ — ___ _ __
Savannah, G a., May 1971___________ _ ________
Scranton, P a ., July 1971_______________________________ —
Seattle— verett, Wash., Jan. 1972______________________
E
Sioux F a lls , S. Dak., Dec. 1971—
- _________ _
South Bend, Ind., M ar. 1971__—_________________________
Spokane, Wash., June 1971______________________________
Syracuse, N . Y . , July 1971 1-------------------------------------Tampa—
St. P etersb u rg, F la ., Nov. 1971 1----------------T oled o, Ohio— ich., A p r. 1971*________________________
M
Trenton, N .J ., Sept. 1971— - —
-------------Utica— om e, N . Y . , July 1971 1---- ------ — — - —
R
Washington, D . C. —
Md. — a ., A p r. 1971--------------------V
W aterbury, Conn., M ar. 1971-------------------- -------------W aterloo, Iowa, N ov. 1971--------------------------------------W ichita, Kans., A pr. 1971
______
---- _ _ _ _ _ _
W o rc e s te r, M ass., May 1971_________________________ —
Y o rk , P a ., Feb. 1971____________________________________
Youngstown— arren, Ohio, N o v,, 1971 1 ________________
W

Bulletin number
and p rice
1725-45,
1685-82,
1685-47,
1725-41,
1725-35,
1685-89,

50
30
40
35
30
65

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1725-42,
1725-8,
1725-13,
1685-84,
1685-34,
1685-86,
1725-46,
1725-22,
1685-85,

30
35
35
35
50
30
40
35
35

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1685-80,
1725-5,
1685-62,
1725-7,
1685-79,
1685-65,
1725-24,
1685-81,

40
30
30
35
30
50
30
35

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1725-43,
1725-32,
1725-33,
1725-15,
1685-72,
1725-1,
1725-47,
1725-30,
1685-61,
1685-88,
1725-10,
1725-31,
1685-74,
1725-12,
1725-9,
1685-56,
1685-55,
1725-20,
1685-64,
1685-73,
1685-50,
1725-51,

30
35
50
35
30
30
30
25
30
30
35
35
40
30
35
40
30
30
30
30
30
35

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

FIRST CLASS M AIL

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
W ASHING TO N, D.C. 20212

_______________
O F F IC IA L BUSINESS
PENALTY FOR PR IV A TE USE, $300




POSTAGE A N D FEES PAID

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR