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L




TRUMBULL

Dayton & Montgomery Co.
Public Library
Warren

M Y7
A

1971

D C MN C LE T N
O U E T O L C IO

■

AREA WAGE SURVEY
■

gsto w n —W a rre n , O hio, M etropolitan A re a ,
N ovem ber 1970

B u lle tin 1 6 8 5 - 2 4
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR / Bureau

of

Labor Statistics

BUREAU

OF

LABO R

S T A T IS T IC S

REGIONAL O F F I C E S

ALASKA

Region I
1603-A Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6762 (Area Code 617)

Region II
341 Ninth Ave., Rm, 1025
New York, N.Y. 10001
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region III
406 Penn Square Building
1317 FilbertSt.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Region VI
337 Mayflower Building
411 North Akard St.
Dallas, Tex. 75201
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
* Regions VII and V III will be service by Kansas City.
** Regions IX and X will be serviced b San Francisco.

Regions V II and V III
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 10th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Region V
219 South Dearborn St.
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: 353-7230 (Area Code 312)




U.S. D EPA R TM EN T OF LABO R
J. D. Hodgson, Secretary




BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner

AREA WAGE SURVEY
T h e Y o u n g s to w n —W a rre n , O hio, M etropolitan A re a ,
N ovem ber 1970
B u lle t in 1 6 8 5 - 2 4
March 1971
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 — Price 30 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Bureau of Labor Statistics program of annual
occupational wage surveys in m etropolitan areas is de­
signed to provide data on occupational earnings, and estab­
lishment practices and supplementary wage provisions. It
yields detailed data by selected industry division for each
of the areas studied, for geographic regions, and for the
United States. A m ajor consideration in the program is
the need for greater insight into (1) the movement of wages
by occupational category and skill lev el, and (2) the stru c­
ture and level of wages among areas and industry divisions.
At the end of each survey, an individual area bul­
letin presents the survey resu lts. After completion of all
of the individual area bulletins for a round of surveys, two
summary bulletins are issued.
The first brings data for
each of the metropolitan areas studied into one bulletin.
The second presents information which has been projected
from individual metropolitan area data to relate to geo­
graphic regions and the United States.
Ninety areas currently are included in the p ro ­
gram . In each area, information on occupational earnings
is collected annually and on establishment practices and
supplementary wage provisions biennially.

Introduction------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wage trends for selected occupational groups-----------------------------------------Tables:
1.

Establishm ents and workers within scope of survey and
number studied______________________________________________________
2. Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups, and
percents of increase for selected periods_______________________
A.

Occupational earnings:
A - l . Office occupations—
men and women--------------------------------------A - 2. P rofessional and technical occupations—
men and
women_________________________________________________________
A - 3. O ffice, p rofession al, and technical occupations—
men and women com bined__________________________________
A -4 . Maintenance and powerplant occupations----------------------------A -5 . Custodial and m aterial movement occupations------------------

Appendix.

This bulletin presents| results of the survey in
Youngstown— arren, Ohio, in November 1970. The Stand­
W
ard Metropolitan Statistical A rea, as defined by the Bureau
of the Budget through January 1968, consists of Mahoning
and Trumbull Counties. This study was conducted by the
Bureau's regional office in Chicago, 111., under the general
direction of Lois L. O rr, A ssistant Regional D irector for
Operations.




1
4

Occupational descrip tion s---------------------------------------------------------

NOTE:
Sim ilar tabulations are available
a reas. (See inside back cover.)

for other

Union sca le s, indicative of prevailing pay levels in
the Youngstown area, are also available for seven selected
building trades.

iii

3

5

6
8
9
10
11
14




In tro d u c tio n
T h i s a r e a is 1 o f 90 in w h i c h th e U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ' s
B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics con d u cts su rv e y s o f occu p a tion a l earn in gs
and r e la t e d b e n e fit s on an a r e a w id e b a s i s . 1

e i t h e r (1 ) e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n i s t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h
d a t a t o m e r i t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r (2 ) t h e r e i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e
o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t data. E a r n in g s data not sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly
f o r in d u s t r y d i v is io n s a r e in c lu d e d in a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d data,
w h e r e sh ow n . L i k e w i s e , d ata a r e in c lu d e d in the o v e r a l l c l a s s i f ic a t i o n
w h e n a s u b c la s s if ic a t io n o f s e c r e t a r i e s o r t r u c k d r iv e r s is not sh ow n
o r in f o r m a t io n to s u b c l a s s i f y is not a v a ila b le .

T h is b u lle tin p r e s e n t s c u r r e n t o c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t and
e a rn in g s in fo r m a t io n ob ta in ed la r g e ly b y m a il f r o m the e sta b lis h m e n ts
v i s i t e d b y B u r e a u f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s in the la s t p r e v i o u s s u r v e y f o r
o c c u p a t i o n s r e p o r t e d in that e a r l i e r s tu d y . P e r s o n a l v i s i t s w e r e m a d e
to n o n r e s p o n d e n ts and to th o s e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t in g u n u su a l c h a n g e s
s in c e the p r e v i o u s s u r v e y .

O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s data a r e sh ow n fo r
f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i . e . , t h o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d u le
in the g iv e n o c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s i f ic a t i o n .
E a r n in g s data e x c lu d e p r e ­
m iu m pay f o r o v e r tim e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s ,
h o lid a y s , and
la te sh ifts.
N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g
a llo w a n c e s and in ce n tiv e e a rn in g s a re in clu d e d . W h e re w e e k ly hou rs
a r e r e p o r t e d , as f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e is to the
s ta n d a r d w o r k w e e k {r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) f o r w h ic h e m ­
p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th eir re g u la r s tra ig h t-tim e s a la rie s (e x clu s iv e o f pay
f o r o v e r t i m e at r e g u l a r a n d / o r p r e m i u m r a t e s ). A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n ­
in g s f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t io n s h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

In e a c h a r e a , d a t a a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts w ithin s ix b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s : M a n u fa ctu rin g ; t r a n s ­
p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ;
r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r
in d u s tr y g r o u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e se stu d ies a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a ­
tio n s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a c t i v e in d u s t r ie s .
E sta b lish m en ts
h a v in g f e w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m it t e d b e c a u s e
th e y ten d to fu r n is h in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o c c u p a tio n s stu d ied
to w a r r a n t in c lu s io n .
S ep a ra te tabu lation s a r e p r o v id e d fo r e a ch of
the b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w h ic h m e e t p u b l i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a .

T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e th e l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s in
an a r e a at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . C o m p a r i s o n s o f in d iv id u a l o c c u p a t io n a l
a v e ra g e s o v e r tim e m a y not r e fle c t e x p e cte d w age ch an ges.
The
a v e r a g e s f o r in d iv id u a l jo b s a r e a f fe c t e d b y c h a n g e s in w a g e s and
em p loy m en t p atterns. F o r ex a m p le, p ro p o rtio n s of w o r k e r s em p loy ed
by h ig h - o r lo w -w a g e fir m s m a y chan ge o r h ig h -w a g e w o r k e r s m a y
a d v a n c e t o b e t t e r j o b s an d b e r e p l a c e d b y n e w w o r k e r s at l o w e r r a t e s .
S u ch s h ifts in e m p lo y m e n t c o u ld d e c r e a s e an o c c u p a t io n a l a v e r a g e e v e n
th o u g h m o s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in a n a r e a i n c r e a s e w a g e s d u r in g th e y e a r .
T r e n d s in e a r n i n g s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , s h o w n in ta b le 2, a r e b e t t e r
in d i c a t o r s o f w a g e t re n d s than in d iv id u a l jo b s w ith in the g r o u p s .

T h e s e stirv ey s a r e c on d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e of
the u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a ll e s t a b lis h m e n ts .
To
o b t a in o p t i m u m a c c u r a c y at m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f
l a r g e t h a n o f s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s s t u d i e d . In c o m b i n i n g t h e d a t a ,
h o w e v e r , a ll e sta b lish m e n ts a r e g iv en th e ir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E s ­
t im a t e s b a s e d on the e s t a b lis h m e n t s s tu d ie d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e ,
as r e l a t i n g t o a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g an d a r e a ,
e x c e p t fo r th o se b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e studied.
O c c u p a tio n s and E a r n in g s
T he o ccu p a tio n s s e le c te d fo r study a re c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s ,
and a r e o f the
fo llo w in g ty p e s;
( l ) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (2 ) p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l ;
(3 ) m a i n t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t ; a n d (4 ) c u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e ­
m ent,
O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s i f ic a t i o n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m se t o f jo b
d e s c r ip t io n s d e s ig n e d to take a c c o u n t o f in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia tio n
in d u tie s w it h in the s a m e jo b .
T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r study
a r e l i s t e d a n d d e s c r i b e d in th e a p p e n d ix . T h e e a r n i n g s d a ta f o l l o w i n g
the j o b title s a r e f o r a ll i n d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d . E a r n in g s d a ta fo r s o m e
o f the o c c u p a t i o n s l is t e d an d d e s c r i b e d , o r f o r s o m e i n d u s t r y d i v i s io n s
w ith in o c c u p a t i o n s , a r e not p r e s e n t e d in the A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , b e c a u s e

T he a v e ra g e s p re s e n te d re fle c t co m p o s ite , area w id e e s t i­
m ates.
I n d u s tr ie s and e s t a b lis h m e n t s d if f e r in p a y l e v e l and jo b
sta ffin g and, th u s, c o n t r ib u t e d if f e r e n t ly to the e s t im a t e s f o r e a c h jo b .
T h e p a y r e la t io n s h ip o b ta in a b le f r o m the a v e r a g e s m a y fa il to r e f l e c t
a c c u r a t e l y t h e w a g e s p r e a d o r d i f f e r e n t i a l m a i n t a i n e d a m o n g j o b s in
in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , d i f f e r e n c e s in a v e r a g e p a y le v e ls
f o r m e n a n d w o m e n in a n y o f th e s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s h o u l d n o t b e
a s s u m e d t o r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y t r e a t m e n t o f th e s e x e s w it h in
in d ividu al e sta b lis h m e n ts .
O th e r p o s s ib le fa c t o r s w h ich m a y c o n ­
tr ib u t e to d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y f o r m e n and w o m e n in c lu d e ; D i f f e r e n c e s
in p r o g r e s s i o n w i t h i n e s t a b l i s h e d r a t e r a n g e s , s i n c e o n l y t h e a c t u a l
1
Included in the 90 areas are four studies conducted under co n tract with the New York State
r a t e s p a i d i n c u m b e n t s a r e c o l l e c t e d ; an d d i f f e r e n c e s in s p e c i f i c d u tie s
D epartm en t of Labor. These areas are Bingham ton (New Y oik portion only); R ochester (o ffic e o c c u ­
p e r f o r m e d , a lth o u g h the w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y w ith in
pations only); Syracu se; and U tic a —Rom e. In add ition , the Bureau conducts more lim ite d area studies
th e s a m e s u r v e y j o b d e s c r i p t i o n . J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g
id 77 areas a t the request o f the W age and Hour D ivision o f the U. S. D ep artm en t o f Labor.




1

2

e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u a l l y m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d t h a n t h o s e
u s e d in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d a l l o w f o r m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s
a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in t h e s p e c i f i c d u t i e s p e r f o r m e d .
O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t t h e t o t a l in a l l
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h in th e s c o p e o f t h e s t u d y a n d not th e n u m b e r a c t u ­
a l l y s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a m o n g
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , the e s t i m a t e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t o b t a i n e d f r o m
th e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d s e r v e o n l y to i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i v e
i m p o r t a n c e o f the j o b s s t u d i e d .
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l
s t r u c t u r e do n ot a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y th e a c c u r a c y o f th e e a r n i n g s d a t a .




E s t a b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s and S u p p le m e n ta r y W age P r o v i s i o n s

T a b u l a t i o n s on s e l e c t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s a n d s u p p l e ­
m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s ( B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) a r e not p r e s e n t e d in t h i s
b ulletin .
In fo rm a tio n fo r t h e se ta b u la tio n s is c o lle c te d bien n ially .
T h e s e t a b u l a t i o n s on m i n i m u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d
w om en office w o r k e r s ; sh ift d if fe r e n t ia ls ; sc h e d u le d w eek ly h o u r s;
p a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a t i o n s ; and h ealth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n sio n
p l a n s a r e p r e s e n t e d (in t h e B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) in p r e v i o u s b u l l e t i n s f o r
this a r e a .

3

T a b le 1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o rk e rs w ith in s c o p e o f s u rv e y and n u m b e r stu d ied in Y o u n g s to w n —W a r re n , O h io ,1

by m a jo r industry division,2 N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 0
Minimum
employment
in establishments in scopg
of study

Industry division

Number of establishments
Within scope
of study*

W orkers in establishments
Within scope of study4

Studied
Number

Studied
Percent

----------------------------------------

_

304

96

111, 580

100

78, 210

50

All d ivision s-----

144
160

45
51

85,343
26,237

76
24

64,649
13’ 561

30
18

15
7
14
5

6,944
1,596
13,174
17 2, 368
2, 155

6
2
12
2
2

5, 292
653
5,937
836
843

Transportation, com m unication, and
50
50
50

68

50

27

50

10

1 The Youngstown— arren Standard M etropolitan Statistical A rea, as defined by the Bureau of the Budget through January 1968, consists of
W
Mahoning and Trumbull Counties. The "w o rk ers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the
size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with
other employment indexes for the area to m easure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment
data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishm ents by industry division.
3 Includes all establishm ents with total employment at or above the minimum lim itation. All outlets (within the area) of companies in such
industries as trade, finance, auto repair service, and motion picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes all w orkers in all establishm ents with total employment (within the area) at or above the minim um limitation.
5 Abbreviated to "public u tilities" in the A -s e r ie s tables. Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a l l indu stries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables. Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data
to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to perm it separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to
perm it separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels and m otels; laundries and other personal service s; business services; automobile repair, rental, and parking; motion pictures;
nonprofit m em bership organizations (excluding religious and charitable organizations); and engineering and architectural services.




Over three-fourths of the w orkers within scope of the survey in the Youngstown—
W arren area were employed in manufacturing firm s.
The following presents the m ajor
industry groups and specific industries as a percent of all manufacturing:
Industry groups

Specific industries

P rim ary m etal in d u stries__ ____54
Transportation equipment______13
Fabricated m etal products_____ 9
M achinery, except electrical__ 6
Electrical equipment and
supplies_________________________ 5

Blast furnace and basic
steel products__________________ 38
Nonferrous rolling and
drawing__________________________15
M otor vehicles and
equipment______________________ 9
Fabricated structural m etal
p roducts________________________ 5
Metalworking m ach in ery.— ____ 5

This information is based on estim ates of total employment derived from universe
m aterials compiled prior to actual survey.
Proportions in various industry divisions may
differ from proportions based on the results of the survey as shown in table 1 above.

W a g e

T r e n d s

for

S e le c te d

P r e s e n t e d in ta b le 2 a r e in d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f ch a n g e
in a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s ,
and in a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f s e l e c t e d p la n t w o r k e r g r o u p s .
T he in d e x e s
a r e a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g i v e n t i m e , e x p r e s s e d a s a p e r c e n t o f
w a g e s d u r in g the b a s e p e r i o d .
S u b tr a c tin g 100 f r o m the i n d e x y i e l d s
the p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e in w a g e s f r o m the b a s e p e r i o d to th e d a te o f
the in d e x .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e o r i n c r e a s e r e la t e to w a g e
c h a n g e s b e t w e e n the in d i c a t e d d a t e s .
Annual rates of in cr e a s e , w h ere
s h o w n , r e f l e c t t h e a m o u n t o f i n c r e a s e f o r 12 m o n t h s w h e n t h e t i m e
p e r i o d b e t w e e n s u r v e y s w a s o t h e r t h a n 12 m o n t h s . T h e s e c o m p u t a t i o n s
w e r e b a s e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t w a g e s i n c r e a s e d at a c o n s t a n t r a t e
betw een su rv ey s.
T h e s e e s t im a te s a r e m e a s u r e s o f ch a n g e in a v e r ­
a g e s f o r the a r e a ; t h e y a r e not in t e n d e d to m e a s u r e a v e r a g e p ay
c h a n g e s in the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the a r e a .

O c c u p a tio n a l

s h o w s the p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e .
The in d e x is the p r o d u c t o f m u ltip ly in g
the b a s e y e a r r e l a t i v e (1 0 0 ) b y th e r e l a t i v e f o r the n e x t s u c c e e d i n g
y e a r and c o n t i n u i n g t o m u l t i p l y ( c o m p o u n d ) e a c h y e a r ' s r e l a t i v e b y the
p re v io u s y e a r 's index.
F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r ia l n u r s e s , the w a g e
t r e n d s r e l a t e to r e g u l a r w e e k l y s a l a r i e s f o r the n o r m a l w o r k w e e k ,
e x clu siv e of ea rn in g s fo r o v e r tim e .
F o r p lant w o r k e r g r o u p s , th ey
m e a s u r e c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s , e x c lu d in g
p r e m i u m p ay f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
late sh ifts.
T he p e r c e n t a g e s a re b a s e d on data f o r s e le c t e d k e y o c c u ­
p a t io n s and i n c l u d e m o s t o f th e n u m e r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t j o b s w ith in
each group.
L im itation s

M eth od

of

G r o u p s

of

D ata

C om p u tin g
T h e in d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e ,
as m e a s u r e s
of
c h a n g e in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a r e in f lu e n c e d b y :
( l ) g e n e r a l s a l a r y and
w a g e c h a n g e s , (2) m e r i t o r o t h e r i n c r e a s e s in p a y r e c e i v e d b y i n d i ­
v i d u a l w o r k e r s w h i l e i n the s a m e j o b , and (3) c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e
w a g e s due to c h a n g e s in the l a b o r f o r c e r e s u lt in g f r o m
la b or tu rn ­
o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s i o n s , f o r c e r e d u c t i o n s , and c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r ­
tion s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y e s t a b lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t p a y le v e ls .
C h a n g e s in the l a b o r f o r c e c a n c a u s e i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the
o c c u p a tio n a l a v e r a g e s w ith ou t a ctu a l w a g e c h a n g e s .
It i s c o n c e i v a b l e
that e v e n th o u g h a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in an a r e a g a v e w a g e i n c r e a s e s ,
a v era g e w ages m a y have d eclin ed b e c a u s e lo w e r -p a y in g esta b lish m en ts
e n t e r e d the a r e a o r e x p a n d e d t h e ir w o r k f o r c e s .
S im ila rly , w ages
m a y h a v e r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t , y e t the a v e r a g e s f o r an a r e a
m a y have r is e n c o n s id e r a b ly b e ca u s e h ig h e r-p a y in g esta b lish m en ts
e n t e r e d the a r e a .

E a c h o f the fo llo w in g k e y o c c u p a t io n s w ith in an o c c u p a tio n a l
g r o u p w as a s s ig n e d a co n s ta n t w e ig h t b a s e d on its p r o p o r tio n a t e e m ­
p lo y m e n t in the o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p :
O ffice c le ric a l (m en and women): O ffice c le ric a l (m en and w om en)— S k ille d m ain ten ance (m en):
Carpenters
Continued
Bookkeeping-m achine
Ele ctrician s
operators, class B
S ecretaries
M achinists
C lerks, accou n tin g, classes
Stenographers, gen eral
M echanics
A and B
Stenographers, senior
Sw itchboard operators, classes
M echanics (au to m o tiv e)
C lerks, file , classes
Painters
A , B, and C
A and B
Pipefitters
T a bu latin g-m ach in e operators,
C lerks, order
Tool and die m akers
C lerk s, payroll
class B
Typists, classes A and B
C om ptom eter operators
U nskilled p lan t (m en):
Keypunch operators, classes
Jan ito rs, porters, and clean ers
Industrial nurses (m en and women):
A and B
Laborers, m a teria l handling
Nurses, industrial (registered )
O ffice boys and girls

The
p lie d b y the
in the g r o u p
w e re rela ted
gate f o r the

T h e u s e o f c o n s t a n t e m p l o y m e n t w e ig h t s e l i m i n a t e s the e f f e c t
o f c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h j o b i n ­
c lu d e d in the data.
The p e rce n ta g e s of chan ge r e fle c t on ly chan ges
in a v e r a g e p ay f o r s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r s .
T h e y a r e not in flu e n c e d by
c h a n g e s in sta n d a rd w o r k s c h e d u le s , as su ch , o r b y p r e m iu m pay
for overtim e.
W h e r e n e c e s s a r y , d a t a w e r e a d ju s t e d to r e m o v e f r o m
the i n d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e a n y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t c a u s e d
b y c h a n g e s in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .

a v e ra g e (m ean ) e a rn in g s f o r e a c h o c cu p a tio n w e r e m u lt i­
o c c u p a t i o n a l w e ig h t , and the p r o d u c t s f o r all o c c u p a t i o n s
w e r e totaled .
The aggrega tes for 2 con secu tiv e y ea rs
b y d iv id in g the a g g r e g a t e f o r the l a t e r y e a r b y the a g g r e ­
ea rlier year.
T h e r e s u lt a n t r e l a t i v e , l e s s 100 p e r c e n t ,




4




5

T a b le 2 .

In d e x e s o f s ta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la rie s

and s tra ig h t-tim e

ho urly e a rn in g s fo r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s in

Y o u n g s to w n —W a r r e n , O h io , N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 0 and N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 9 , and p e rc e n ts o f in crease fo r s e le c te d p erio ds
A ll industries
Office
clerical
(men and
women)

Period

Industrial
nurses
(men and
women)

Manufacturing

Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

Unskilled
plant
workers
(men)

Office
clerical
(men and
women)

Industrial
nurses
(men and
women)

Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

Unskilled
plant
workers
(men)

Indexes (November 1967“ 100)
November 1970____________________________________
November 1969____________________________________

116.9
111.0

118.8
114.0

116.3
110.9

118.1
110.1

117.3
111.5

118.8
114.0

116.4
111.2

118.5
111.1

4.2
4.4
9.2
5.9
4.4

4.7
4.8
6.1
3.5
5.5

6.7
4.6
6.2
2.5
5.0

Percents of increase
November
November
November
November
November

1969
1968
1967
1966
1965

to
to
to
to
to

November
November
November
November
November

1970---------------------1969---------------------1968 --------------------1967______________
1966----------------------

5.3
3.0
7.8
3.0
5.7

4.2
4.4
9.2
5.5
4.9

4.9
4.7
5.9
3.4
5.5

7.3
3.6
6.3
2.1
4.9

5.2
4.1
7.1
1.1
4.8

6

A.

O c c u p a t i o n a l ea rning s

T a b le

A -1 .

O ffic e

o c c u p a tio n s —m en

and w o m e n

(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Youngstown-W arren, Ohio, November 1970)
Weekly earnings 1
(stan dard)
S e x , o cc u p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

N um ber of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t- tim e w eekly e a r nings of —
*

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

55
Mean 2

Median2

Middle range2

60

65

70

75

80

S

s

85

$

90

S

$

95

100

$

i

105

110

$

$

115

120

$

125

$

130

$

140

$

150

$

160

170

and
un der

180
and

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

95

115

100

105

110

-

_

-

-

1
1

3

*

1

-

120

125

1 30

140

150

160

170

180

3
3

1
1

4
4

18
10

16
13

23
19

13

21

4
l

4
4

39
39

3
3

6
6

MEN
$

$

$

$

107
89

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

56
53

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

B I L L E R S , MACHINE (BOOKKEEPING
MACHINE) -------------------MANUFACTURING ----- —

72
54

3 9 .5
9 9 .5 0 1 0 8 .0 0
7 3 .5 0 -1 1 7 .5 0
4 0 .0 1 0 9 .5 0 1 1 5 .5 0 1 0 6 .5 0 -1 1 8 .5 0

-

-

10
-

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS A ----------------------

30

3 9 .5

BOOKKE'PING-HACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B ----------------------

101

3 8 .0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------------MANUFACTURING ----NONMANUFACTURING -------------- ------ ------

131
85
46

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B -------------MANUFACTURING ----NONMANUFACTURING

302
203
99

3 9 .5 1 0 4 .5 0 100.00
4 0 .0 1 10 .50 1 0 5 .5 0
3 8 .5
9 2 .0 0
9 1 .5 0

8 9 .0 0 -1 1 8 .0 0
9 4 .0 0 -1 3 5 .0 0
7 4 .5 0 -1 0 3 .0 0

2
2

CLERKS, F I L E , CLASS B --------------------------MANUFACTURING ----- —

57
26

9 0 .0 0
3 8 .5
9 0 .0 0
5 9 .0 0 -1 1 8 .0 0
4 0 .0 1 1 4 .5 0 1 1 8 .5 0 1 1 3 .5 0 -1 2 2 .0 0

18

CLERKS,

FILE,

25

JU. 3

7 3 .0 0

CLERKS,

ORDER ------------

39

4 0 .0

9 9 .0 0

CLERKS, PAYROLL ------MANUFACTURING -----

155
131

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------------MANUFACTURING ----Cl FR KS .

PAYRni 1 ------MANIIF ACTI1R TN f t ------------------------------- ------

1 5 1 .5 0 1 5 3 .5 0 1 3 9 .0 0 -1 6 9 .5 0
1 5 4 .0 0 1 5 7 .0 0 1 4 1 .5 0 -1 7 0 .5 0

~

1 5 8 .5 0 1 5 7 .5 0 1 5 5 .0 0 -1 5 9 .5 0

3
-

WOMEN

CLASS

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

10

-

4

3

2

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

6

13

-

2
2

12
8

9

7

-

12

-

i

-

-

-

-

-

9

1
1

15
9

18
11

16
15

9
9

1
1

1
1

8

19
16
3

5
4

-

i

4

7

-

6

7

1

-

-

-

26
26

16

11

6

11

5

2
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

56
49
7

_
-

1

6
6
"

-

-

10
10

_

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

22
22

-

-

32

6

10

5

8

8

~

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

1
1

11
8

-

_
-

_
-

4

19
3
16

16
9
7

8
1

26

38

22

21

32
26

29
18

7

4

17

6

11

-

5

4
7

1
-

_

2
2

2
-

_

4

_

-

1
-

2

-

5
4

8
8

-

5

-

-

5

4

2
-

4
-

8 2 .0 0

-

3

-

-

-

-

8

3

7 2 .5 0 -1 4 0 .0 0

-

2

2

12

2

5

-

-

2

2

-

-

2

-

-

1

1

8

-

-

-

4 0 .0 1 1 7 .0 0 1 1 6 .00
9 7 .5 0 -1 3 4 .0 0
4 0 .0 121.00 1 1 8 .5 0 1 0 2 .0 0 -1 4 0 .0 0

_

_

1

2

16
16

9
7

10
10

7
5

12
12

7

22
22

1
1

2
2

-

-

8
8

8

-

6
2

6

-

7
3

16

-

3
3

_

1

_

2

8

2

_

-

-

-

-

4
4

3
3

-

2
2

_

-

3
3

-

-

13
13

_

-

4
-

-

-

-

6
6

2
2

1
1

1
1

-

-

10

10
10

2
2

-

-

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B ------------MANUFACTURING ----NONMANUFACTURING

248

3 9 .5 1 0 6 .5 0 1 0 9 .0 0
4 0 .0 1 1 1 .50 121.00
3 8 .5
88.00
8 5 .5 0

9 1 .5 0 -1 2 3 .5 0
9 6 .0 0 -1 2 4 .0 0
7 3 .0 0 - 9 8 .0 0

4
4

3 9 .5

6 8 .0 0 - 8 6.5 0

1 0 7 .0 0 1 1 0 .5 0

9 2 .5 0 -1 2 3 .5 0
120.00 122.00 1 0 1 .0 0 -1 2 9 .5 0

7 6 .5 0

SECRETARIES ---------------MANUFACTURING ----NONMANUFACTURING
PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S -------------------------

394
306
32

3 9 .5 1 2 9 .50
4 0 .0 1 3 1 .0 0
3 9 .0 1 2 5 .0 0
4 0 .0 1 3 1 .00

A -------------------------

37
30

3 9 .5
4 0 .0




6
6

-

-

-

6 9 .0 0 -1 0 5 .5 0

-

* W orkers were distributed as follow s:

18
18

8 3 .0 0

88.00

8 9 .0 0 -1 0 6 .5 0
9 1 .0 0 -1 0 7 .5 0

See footnotes at end of tables.

2
2

-

~

1

-

-

-

4 0 .0 1 27 .00 1 2 4 .0 0 1 0 9 .0 0 -1 4 5 .0 0
4 0 .0 1 32 .00 1 35 .00 1 1 2 .5 0 -1 5 3 .5 0
4 0 .0 1 1 7 .0 0 1 16 .50 1 0 7 .0 0 -1 3 3 .0 0

4 0 .0 1 0 1 .50 100 .50
4 0 .0 1 0 3 .00 101.00

SE CR ETA RIE S, CLASS
MANUFACTURING -----

-

-

6

55
52

88

-

-

-

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A ------------MANUFACTURING -----

34

1
-

-

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

OF FIC E GIRLS --------------

2
-

9 7 .0 0 -1 1 5 .5 0

69
40

46

8
6

1 0 2 .5 0 1 0 3 .0 0

COMPTOMETER OPERATORS ------------------------MANUFACTURING -----

202

3

7 4 .5 0

1 31 .00 1 1 1 .0 0 -1 5 0 .5 0
1 3 2 .0 0 1 1 2 .5 0 -1 5 1 .0 0
1 24 .00 1 0 1 .5 0 -1 4 9 .0 0
1 37 .50 1 1 2 .0 0 -1 5 1 .5 0

144 .00 1 42 .50
148 .50 1 4 4 .5 0

9 6 .0 0 -1 7 2 .5 0
9 5 .0 0 -1 8 1 .0 0

6 at $2 0 0 to $ 220; and 1 at $240 to $ 260 .

11

4

19
18

10

_

-

5
5

-

-

4
4

14
14

6
6

-

3
3

1
1

1
1

_

25

16
9
7

7
7
-

8
6
2

1
1

75
75
~

11
11

15
15
*

12
10

7
7
23
17

20

6

5

_

3

_

6

-

2

-

4

1
1

7
5

22

14

2
2

2

8

-

9
5
4

10

5

4

2

7

2

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

2
2

5
3

11

17
9

15
13

6
2

6

26

17

68

4

-

2
1

2

1

2
1

20
6
2

65
3
2

39
26
13

-

8
2

12
6
2

12

2

36
31
5
3

18

2

25
18
7

_

_

_

9

2

_

-

-

_

_

~

8

“

4
2

-

3

-

_

-

-

-

3
3
-

_

-

-

_

-

“

9

3
7

4

-

-

5
-

-

2
2

“

-

-

*

-

-

-

-

42
34

33
24
9

7

18
15
3

“

6

8
8

4
4

1
1

1

6
1
1

5
3

3
3

*7
7

7
T a b le

A -1 .

O ffic e

o c c u p a tio n s -m e n

a n d w o m e n ----- C o n t i n u e d

(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t- tim e w eekly h o u rs and e a rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d o cc u p a tio n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s i s by in d u stry d iv isio n , Y oungstow n— arren , Ohio, N o v em b er 1970)
W
Weekly earnings 1
( standard)

N u m b er of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t- tim e w eekly e a rn in g s of—
$

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

S e x , o cc u p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv isio n

$

55

*

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

$

115

120

125

$

130

$

140

150

$

160

170

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

140

150

160

170

180 over

%

CONTINUED

S EC RE TA RI ES , CLASS B -----------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

87
58
29

3 9 .5 1 4 1 .5 0 1 4 2 .0 0 126.004 0 .0 1 43 .00 1 4 3 .0 0 131.503 8 .5 1 3 9 .0 0 1 4 1 .5 0 118.00-

165.00
165.50
164.00

13
13
-

14
7
7

11
11
-

S EC RE TA RI ES , CLASS C -----------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

104
78
26

3 9 .5 1 3 2 .5 0 1 3 7 .5 0 112.004 0 .0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 0 .5 0 124.5085.503 8 .5 1 0 9 .5 0 1 0 2 .5 0

154.50
157.50
142.00

20

11
8
3

18
16
2

S E C RE TA RI ES , CLASS D -----------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------- —
NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

166
140
26

4 0 .0 1 1 9 .00 1 2 0 .5 0 109.504 0 .0 1 1 7 .5 0 1 2 0 .5 0 105.504 0 .0 1 2 5 .5 0 1 2 2 . 0 0 112.00-

133.00
132.50
150.00

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL -----------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------- —

299
189
110

84.003 9 .0 1 0 4 .5 0 1 0 7 .0 0
4 0 .0 1 1 4 .5 0 1 1 3 .00 100.0068.508 1 .0 0
8 7 .5 0
3 7 .5

126.50
127.50
106.50

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR -------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

196
134
62

3 9 .0 1 1 9 .0 0 1 2 6 .0 0 104.004 0 .0 1 2 4 .5 0 1 2 9 .0 0 116.0099.503 7 .5 1 0 8 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0

136.00
138.50
131.00

SWITCHB0AR0 OPERATORS, CLASS A -----MANUFACTURING --------------------------------- —

45
38

4 0 .0 1 2 2 . 0 0
4 0 .0 1 2 1 . 0 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B -----MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

60
37

3 9 .0 101.00 9 7 .0 0
4 0 .0 1 1 2 . 0 0 1 2 5 .5 0

77.5093.00-

127.00
128.00

SWITCHBOARD OPERA TOR -R ECE PT ION IS TS
MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

86

3 9 .5 1 0 0 . 0 0
9 7 .5 0
3 9 .5 1 0 3 .0 0 1 0 2 . 0 0

87.0089.00-

118.00
119.50

11
8

T Y P I S T S , CLASS A -----------------------------------MANUFACTURING--------------------------------—

122

4 0 .0 1 1 6 .5 0 1 2 2 .5 0 98.504 0 .0 1 1 7 .5 0 1 2 3 .0 0 104.00-

129.00
129.50

15

117

T Y P I S T S , CLASS B -----------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------- « NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

127
93
34

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

S e e fo o tn otes a t end o f t a b le s .




70

$

%

180

un der
60

SECRETARIES -

$

9 5 .0 0
9 5 .5 0
9 3 .5 0

1 2 5 .0 0 112.001 2 3 .0 0 110.50-

9 4 .5 0
9 6 .5 0
8 9 .5 0

79.5079.5079.50-

18
2
11

13

3

9

12
1

2
1

27
22
5

12
10
2

2

39
35
4

20
13
7

5
2
3

4

10

9

11
2

12
12

1

9

2

16

28
5
23

6
6

11

15

1

15

1
1

12

7
4

19
19
3
1

2

3

17
15

4

15

14

12

12

9
2

17
13
4

11

7

9

8
6
2

2

7

13
10
3

21
19
2

54
37
17
4
3

38
38
13
10
3

2
1
1

10
7
3

6
12

11
11

12
11

33
32
1
18

2
2

130.00
130.50

104.50
104.50
106.00

17
13
4

12
12

22
22

15
15

12
6
6

11
10
1

8

T a b le A -2 .

P ro fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s — m en and w o m e n

( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y h o u r s a n d e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d ie d o n an a r e a b a s i s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n ,
W eek ly earnings 1
(standard)

S e x , o c c u p a t i o n , and in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
woikers

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly e a rn in g s o f—

$
A vera ge
w eek ly
hours 1
(standard)

U n der
M ean2

M edian 2

Y o u n g s t o w n —W a r r e n , O h io , N o v e m b e r 1970)

$
100

$
105

$

$
110

115

$
120

$
125

$

s
130

135

$

i

t
140

145

150

t
160

$
170

i

$
180

190

$

$
200

210

$

$
220

230

and
under

M iddle ran g e2
100

105

240

and
110

115

120

125

130

135

140

145

150

5

1

-

~

160

170

-

1

180

190

200

210

220

230

8

1

2

1

“

1

2

2

4

1

-

1

1

1

2

-

1

4

12

240

over

MEN

B

27

3 9 .5

1 5 1 .5 0

$
1 7 0 .0 0

$
$
1 3 0 .0 0 -1 7 9 .0 0

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,
B U S I N E S S , C L A S S A -----------

27

3 9 .5

2 0 7 .5 0

2 2 5 .0 0

1 7 5 .0 0 -2 3 8 .0 0

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,
BUSINESS, CLASS B

27

3 9 .5

1 8 5 .0 0

2 0 5 .0 0

1 4 5 .0 0 -2 1 2 .5 0

$
COMPUTER

OPERATORS,

CLASS

1

5

L

3

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

2

-

-

i

-

-

-

-

-

2

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFACTURING

B

-

-

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFACTURING

C

-

-

157

4 0 .0

1 8 9 .5 0

1 9 0 .5 0

1 7 6 .0 0 -2 0 5 .0 0

7

10

43

18

37

32

8

4 0 .0

1 8 8 .5 0

1 9 0 .0 0

1 7 6 .0 0 -2 0 5 .0 0

7

10

43

18

37

32

8

213

4 0 .0

1 6 8 .0 0

1 6 8 .0 0

1 5 6 .0 0 -1 8 2 .0 0

-

-

_

_

1

14

5

1

-

4 0 .0

1 6 8 .0 0

1 6 8 .0 0

1 5 6 .0 0 -1 8 2 .0 0

-

“

“

*

1

22
22

53

213

A

53

14

5

1

*

-

9

1

15

-

-

-

-

9

1

15

~

—

125

4 0 .0

1 4 3 .0 0

1 4 5 .5 0

1 2 7 .5 0 -1 5 7 .5 0

3

124

4 0 .0

1 4 3 .0 0

1 4 5 .5 0

1 2 8 .0 0 -1 5 8 .0 0

3

111
109

4 0 .0

14 8 .5 0

1 5 5 .0 0

1 4 3 .5 0 -1 5 8 .5 0

4

4 0 .0

1 4 9 .0 0

1 5 5 .0 0

1 4 4 .5 0 -1 5 8 .5 0

4

-

1

7

7

12

37

47

7

7

12

37

47

13

29

29

5
5

10

13

10

6
6

9
9

5
5

1
1

4
4

3
3

5
5

8

6

14

8

6

14

1
1

1
1

6

6

5

5

6
6

60

WOMEN

NURSES,
I N D U S T R I A L ( R E G I S T E R E D ) ---M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

S ee fo o t n o t e s

12

155

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFACTURING

at e n d o f t a b l e s .




«.

3
3

3
3

6
6

60

9
T a b le A -3 .

O f f i c e , p r o f e s s io n a l, a n d t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s — m e n a n d w o m e n c o m b i n e d

( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y h o a r s a n d e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s i s b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , Y o u n g s t o w n — a r r e n , O h io , N o v e m b e r 1970)
W
Ave rage

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE
A

$
3 9 ,5

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B —
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----- -------C L E R K S , FILE, C L A S S 8
M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----FILE,

CLASS

3 9 .5

8 8 .0 0

4 0 .0

-

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

CONTINUED

174

4 0 .0

1 4 3 .0 0

64

3 9 .5

1 2 4 .0 0

354

3 9 .5

DFFICE

O F F I C E B O Y S A N D G I R L S ---------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------

46

3 9 .5

8 1 .0 0

26

4 0 .0

7 8 .0 0

S E C R E T A R I E S ------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------- —
N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------ -----------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ----------------

395

3 9 .5

306

4 0 .0

89

3 9 .0
4 0 .0

1 3 1 .0 0

255

4 0 .0

1X 7.50

99

3 8 .5

9 2 .0 0

57

3 8 .5

1 3 0 .0 0
1 3 1 .0 0

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S A --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------

37

3 9 .5

1 4 4 .0 0

30

4 0 .0

W eekly
earnings 1
(standard)

CONTINUED

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
C L A S S B ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

30

----------------------------------------------------

130

4 0 .0

11 7 .5 0

----------------------------------------------------

125

4 0 .0

1 1 8 .5 0

T Y P I S T S , C L A S S B ---------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

130

3 9 .5

9 5 .0 0

94

3 9 .5

9 6 .0 0

36

4 0 .0

9 3 .5 0

---------

31

3 9 .0

14 8 .5 0

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,
B U S I N E S S , C L A S S A ---------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------------------

30

3 9 .5

2 0 4 .5 0

26

4 0 .0

2 1 0 .5 0

$

TYPISTS, CLASS A
MANUFACTURING

1 4 9.50

1 4 8 .5 0

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S B --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------

87

3 9 .5

1 4 1 .5 0

58

4 0 .0

1 4 3 .0 0

29

3 8 .5

1 3 9 .0 0

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S C ----------- •
—
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------

104

3 9 .5

78

4 0 .0

1 4 0 .0 0

26

3 8 .5

1 0 9 .5 0

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS

26

4 0 .0

1 1 4 .5 0

3 8 .5

7 3 .0 0

1 3 2 .5 0

9 0 .0 0

o o

60
45

12 0 .0 0
1 3 5 .5 0

211

4 0 .0

184

4 0 .0

1 3 1 .5 0

27

3 9 .0

1 0 0 .0 0
1 0 7 .0 0

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S 0 --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------

167

4 0 .0

11 9 .0 0

140
27

4 0 .0

1 1 7 .5 0

4 0 .0

S T E N O G R A P H E R S , G E N E R A L --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------

299

3 9 .0

1 0 4 .5 0

189

4 0 .0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B
M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------

251

3 9 .5

1 0 7 .0 0

205

4 0 .0

110

3 7 .5

8 7 .5 0

S T E N O G R A P H E R S , S E N I O R ---------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------—
N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ----------------

199
134

3 8 .5

8 5 .5 0

3 9 .0

COMPUTER PROGRAMERS,
B U S I N E S S , C L A S S B ----------------------------------------------

31

3 9 .5

18 0 .5 0

----------------------------------------------

157

4 0 .0

18 9 .5 0

12 4 .5 0

65

1 0 9 .5 0

26

4 0 .0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFACTURING

A

----------------------------------------------------

155

4 0 .0

18 8 .5 0

----------------------------------------------

213
213

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

16 8 .0 0
16 8 .0 0

11 9 .5 0

4 0 .0
3 7 .5

11 9 .0 0

1 1 1 .5 0

46

52

B

S W I T C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S A --M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------

45

4 0 .0

1 2 2 .0 0

38

4 0 .0

60
37

3 9 .0

11 2 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTS
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------

86

3 9 .5

1 0 0 .0 0

70

3 9 .5

10 3 .0 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFACTURING

C

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

133

4 0 .0

14 1 .0 0

----------------------------------------------------

132

4 0 .0

1 4 1 .0 0

1 0 1 .0 0

4 0 .0

B

1 2 1 .0 0

S W I T C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S B ---M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFACTURING

1 0 3 .0 0

o

N* >■
*

1 0 7 .0 0

CLASS

O

64

OPERATORS,

11 4 .5 0

1 1 8 .5 0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------

o o

4 0 .0

o o

3 9 .5

45

COMPUTER

1 2 6 .0 0

1 2 7 .5 0

74




-

W eekly
hours 1
(standard)

1 2 5 .0 0

33

OCCUPATIONS

Number
of
workers

1 1 0 .5 0

COMPTOMETER OPERATORS
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------

S ee fo o tn o te s a t end o f t a b le s .

A verage

O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

1 3 8 .0 0

238

o o
>r

CLERKS, PAYROLL — —
M A N U F A C T U R I N G --NONMANUFACTURING

1 0 2 .5 0

3 8 .0

C

C L E R K S , O R D E R --MANUFACTURING

OCCUPATIONS

Number
of
workers

1 0 9 .5 0

OPERATORS,

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
C L A S S 8 ----------------- --- --------

CLERKS,

9 9 .5 0

4 0 .0

---------------------------- -

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A
M A N U F A C T U R I N G — -----------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------

rage

O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

OFFICE

OCCUPATIONS

BILLERS. MACHINE (BOOKKEEPING
M A C H I N E S --------- ----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------

CLASS

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard) (standard)
We ek ly

O

OFFICE

Number
of
workers

*
O

O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

-------------------------------------------------

46

NURSES,
I N D U S T R I A L ( R E G I S T E R E D ) -------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------------------

111

4 0 .0

14 8 .5 0

109

4 0 .0

14 9 .0 0

DRAFTSMEN-TRACERS

1 2 4 .0 0

10

M a i n t e n a n c e a nd p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t io n s

(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s f o r

s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s

s t u d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s i s b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , Y o u n g s t o w n - W a r r e n , O h io , N o v e m b e r 1970)

Hourly earnings3

Num ber of w orkers
$
3 .3 0

workers

Mean2

Median2

t

Middle range 2

3 .3 0

*
3 .5 0

*
3 .6 0

$
3 .7 0

t
3 .8 0

3 .4 0

S e x , o c c u p a t i o n , a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

t
3 .4 0

3 .5 0

3 .6 0

3 .7 0

3 .8 0

3 .9 0

12
12

-

1
1

2
2

-

S
3 .9 0

receiv in gs

s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly earning s of—

$
4 .0 0

t
4 .1 0

t
4 .2 0

4 .3 0

$
4 .40

S
4 .5 0

S
4 .6 0

$
4 .7 0

t
4 .8 0

4 .9 0

S
5 .0 0

$
5 .2 0

$
5 .4 0

t
5 .6 0

4 .1 0

4 .2 0

4 .3 0

4 .4 0

4 .50

4 .6 0

4 .7 0

4 .8 0

4 .9 0

5 .0 0

5 .20

5 .4 0

5 .6 0

5 .8 0

9
9

12
12

13
12

22
22

50
50

3
3

2
2

4
4

6
6

2
2

-

9
9

-

-

-

t

i

and
under

i

5 .8 0
and

o
o

T a b le A -4 .

MEN

C A R P E N T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

148
147

$
4 .2 8
4 .2 8

$
4 .3 1
4 .3 1

$
4 .1 1 4 .1 1 -

$
4 .3 8
4 .3 8

E L E C T R I C I A N S , M A I N T E N A N C E -----------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

943
907

4 .5 7
4 .5 7

4 .3 8
4 .3 9

4 .2 8 4 .2 8 -

4 .7 3
4 .7 0

E N G I N E E R S , S T A T I O N A R Y -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

119
119

4 .3 1
4 .3 1

4 .2 5
4 .2 5

3 .8 7 3 .8 7 -

4 .4 8
4 .4 8

F I R E M E N , S T A T I O N A R Y B O I L E R ----------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

54
54

3 .8 9
3 .8 9

3 .8 2
3 .8 2

3 .7 4 3 .7 4 -

4 .0 4
4 .0 4

-

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATORS, TOOLROOM —
M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

125
125

4 .8 4
4 .8 4

4 .5 9
4 .5 9

4 .0 7 4 .0 7 -

5 .5 8
5 .5 8

-

-

-

-

-

-

M A C H I N I S T S , M A I N T E N A N C E --------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

447
446

4 .5 7
4 .5 7

4 .6 9

4 .7 7
4 .7 7

_

-

3
3

-

_

4 .7 0

4 .3 0 4 .3 0 -

7
7

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
( M A I N T E N A N C E ) ---------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

255
120
135
127

4 .1 9
4 .5 1
3 .9 1
3 .9 5

4 .4 0
4 .4 8
3 .9 3
3 .9 7

3
4
3
3

4
4
4
4

M E C H A N I C S , M A I N T E N A N C E ---------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

1 ,1 6 3
1 ,1 4 6

4 .4 3
4 .4 3

4 .3 7
4 .3 7

P A I N T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

55
53

4 .3 7
4 .3 4

P I P E F I T T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E -------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

313
299

SHEET-METAL WORKERS» MAINTENANCE —
•
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------T O O L A N D D I E M A K E R S --------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

S ee fo o tn o te s

a t end o f ta b le s .




.5
.3
.3
.3

7
6
5
6

-

.6
.6
.4
.4

-

-

X
1

-

-

3
3

9
9

-

3
3

14
14

4

10
9

67
65

39
39

113
107

248
241

11
11

75
75

104
104

28
28

19
19

37
26

44
39

75
75

16
16

1
1

23
23

-

_

-

-

-

22
22

12
12

2
2

6
6

4
4

28
28

_

20
20

-

4
4

1
1

2
2

-

9
9

2
2

2
2

-

-

5
5

_

-

20
20

9
9

1
1

13
13

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

5
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

17

22
22

_

_

8
8

14
14

1
1

-

_

-

-

-

35
35

24
24

-

_

“
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

-

-

-

-

“

“

4
4
-

8
-

7
7

8
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

77
77

54
54

11
11

31
31

18
18

159
159

11
11

8
8

33
32

3
3

5
5

4
4

34
26
8
8

46
26
20
20

2
-

32
27
5
5

30
10
20
20

9
9
-

4
4

3
3
-

_

_

-

2
2

-

_

-

_

*

-

“

“

7
7

12
12

39
39

114
105

70
70

33
33

345
343

31
31

91
91

77
77

93
92

22
22

25
25

44
39

74
74

1
1

-

19
19

8
8

1
1

7
7

1
1

_

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

“

“

17
15

-

~

1
1

-

-

“

*

5
5

8
8

25
25

26
26

19
15

22
22

91
91

15
15

20
10

10
10

26
26

2
2

-

_

-

12
12

21
21

1
1

“

3
3

3
3

3
3

23
23

5
5

11
11

13
13

20
20

19
19

15
15

5
5

4
4

1
1

19
19

-

-

-

*

“

12
12

3

24
24

2
2

-

24
24

20
20

16
16

8
8

5
5

3
3

-

-

-

-

142
142

6
-

6
-

10
6

44
42

6
6

6
6

4 .1 6 4 .1 6 -

4 .6 7
4 .6 6

12
12

12
12

18
18

4 .0 9
3 .9 9

3 .8 7 3 .8 7 -

5 .2 4
5 .2 3

-

_

_

*

4 .4 0
4 .4 0

4 .3 5
4 .3 4

4 .1 2 4 .1 1 -

4 .5 7
4 .5 8

144
144

4 .5 8
4 .5 8

4 .5 6
4 .5 6

4 .2 9 4 .2 9 -

4 .7 6
4 .7 6

262
262

5 .0 4
5 .0 4

5 .6 1
5 .6 1

4 .3 9 4 ,3 9 -

5 .6 5
5*65

3
3
-

-

-

“
3
3

11

-

38
38

44
-

3
3

*

8
8

-

10
-

-

11

7
1
6
6

5
9
7
8

_

_

17
-

4
4

-

4
4

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

3

3

-

-

-

“
5
5
-

-

-

11

T a b le

A -5 .

C u s to d ia l

and

m a te ria l

m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s

( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s i s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , Y o u n g s t o w n — a r r e n , O h io , N o v e m b e r 1970)
W
Hourly ea Tiings3

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s o f —

M ean 2

M e d ia n 2

M id d le range 2

$
1.60

*
1.80

»
1.90

$
2.00

$
2.10

S
2.20

S
2.30

$
2.40

t
2.50

*
2.60

*
2.80

i

3 .00

t
3 .20

t

2.70

3 .40

3 .60

s
3.80

$
4.00

$
4.20

S
4.40

1.80

1.90

2.00

2.10

2.20

2.30

2.40

2.50

2.60

2.70

2.80

3.00

3 .20

3 .40

3 .60

3 .80

4.00

4.20

4.40

4.60

8

U n der

$
1.70

1.70

S e x , o c c u p a t i o n , a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

$
1.60

29
“

54

19

26
8

14

33
18

33
33

4
1

15
15

15
15

94
94

97
97

131
131

i

%

and
under

$
4.60

and

-

over

MEN

576
416

GUARDS AND WATCHMEN
MANUFACTURING —
GUARDS
MANUFACTURING

$
3.02
3.45

$
3.44
3.62

$

$

2.163.41-

3.69
3.91

“

-------------------------

396

3.49

3.63

3.43-

3.91

-

-

-

-

J A N I T O R S , P O R T E R S , A N D C L E A N E R S --M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

711
459
252
31

2.74
3.03
2.22
3.18

2.84
2.88
2.06
3.35

2.242.831.853.13-

3.02
3.09
2.44
3.45

2

8
“

17
-

2

8

17

72
72

-

“

L A B O R E R S , M A T E R I A L H A N D L I N G --------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

B69
671
198

3.34
3.27
3.59

3.46
3.42
4.37

2.862.911.96-

3.69
3.64
4.45

_

30
-

15

3

30

15

3

ORDER

F I L L E R S ---------------- -----------

281

3.74

4.04

3.95-

4.08

-

-

-

P A C K E R S , S H I P P I N G — --------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

269
260

3.55
3.59

3.52
3.54

3.043.05-

4.19
4.19

-

-

_

-

4
4

-

-

-

18

33

-

-

-

-

1

11

11

94

97

131

-

-

-

-

-

49

10
-

24
9
15

12
12
-

6
6
-

34
27
7
7

42
29
13
13

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

56
50
6
5

-

-

245
241
4
1

13
13
-

-

25
8
17
3

38
38

49

26
14
12
1

6

-

26
12
14
1

-

-

51
48
3

15
15

72
72

49
49

75
75

39
37
2

126
126

172
172

18

-

-

18

*

42
12
30

“

10
-

-

1

-

-

-

15
12
3

4
4

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

38

-

-

-

_

_

1

7
7

12
12

6

_

-

-

-

_

_

4

-

3

-

-

-

*

-

_

_

-

_

R E C E I V I N G C L E R K S ------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

104
74
30

3.29
3.24
3.41

3.38
3.35
3.43

2.792.772.99-

3.65
3.60
4.12

S H I P P I N G C L E R K S -------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

85
82

3.41
3.42

3.39
3.41

2.832.82-

S H I P P I N G A N D R E C E I V I N G C L E R K S -----M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

57
50

3.54
3.64

3.39
3.42

3.263.29-

3.59
3.90

TRUCKDRIVERS
----------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

990
315
675
479

4.06
3.68
4.24
4.37

4.09
3.49
4.50
4.53

3.853.334.054.09-

4.53
4.29
4.55
4.57

TRUCKDRIVERS, LIGHT (UNDER
1 - 1 / 2 T O N S ) ----------------------------

36

3.19

3.26

2.76-

3.56

-

-

-

-

-

3

3

T R U C K D R I V E R S , M E D I U M ( 1 - 1 / 2 TO
A N D I N C L U D I N G 4 T O N S ) ------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

294
122
172
42

3.80
3.44
4.05
4.53

4.01
3.35
4.05
4.55

3.363.314.014.53-

4.08
3.43
4.10
4.58

_
_

_

_
-

_
_

_

-

-

T R U C K D R I V E R S , H E A V Y (OVER 4 TONS,
T R A I L E R T Y P E ) ------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

515
93

4.23
3.59

4.51
3.67

4.033.20-

4.56
3.95

87

4.29

4.36

4.32-

4.41

1

-

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY
OTHER THAN TRAILER

S ee fo o tn o te s

(OVER
TYPE)

4 TONS,
---------

a t end o f ta b le s .




-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

2

_

-

-

-

7
7

91
91

9
9

3.71
3.73

-

_
-

15
15

4

-

-

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

2

-

_

2

4

-

2

-

2

-

4

-

-

4

14
11
3

-

18
18

8
8

3
1

-

_

4

-

"
1
1

-

“

_

_

-

-

*
49
49

5

-

3

5

-

2

-

2

-

-

_

-

2
2

-

-

2

-

10

175

30

-

-

1
1

8
8

42
42

8
8

54
54

8
4
4

19
17
2

11
6
5

11
11

7
1
6

2

-

-

13
13

14
14

12
11

8
8

4
4

-

4
4

23
23

15
14

1
1

-

“

7
7

-

*

102
97
5
3

28
28

50
42
8
2

214
214
118

109
87

371

22

371
346

2
2
-

"

46
16
30
2

5

-

-

-

7

-

5
5

37
9
28

1
1

96

15
15

42

-

96

-

42
42

2

16

286

“

41
32
9
6

-

2

-

5

9

_

-

8
8

73
73

-

_

-

-

6

17
17

7

41
41

118

4

1

1

2

8

-

9

4
4

9

24
24

“

18

11
9
2

-

-

30
30

-

-

2

3

-

90

90

-

7

2

_

*

*
5
5

-

_
-

•
*

-

52

-

21

2

12

T a b le

A -5 .

C u s to d ia l

and

m a te ria l

m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s ----- C o n t i n u e d

( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s

s t u d ie d o n an a r e a b a s i s b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , Y o u n g s t o w n — a r r e n , O h io , N o v e m b e r 1970)
W

Hourly earnings3
t

S e x , o c c u p a t i o n , a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n
workers

M ean2

M e d ia n 2

i
1.6C

$
1.70

1.80

$
1.80

i
1.90

1.90

2.00

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n in g s o f $
S
t
$
$
i
$
$
$
1
$

S

i

i

2.00

$
2.10

2.20

2.30

2.40

2.50

2.60

2.70

2.80

3.00

3.20

3.40

.60

3.80

4.00

$
4.20

*
4.40

$
4.60

2.10

2.20

2.30

2.40

2.50

2.60

2.70

2.80

3.00

3.20

3.40

3.60

.80

4.00

4.20

4.40

4.60

over

-

-

-

_

35
35

139
130
9

278
2 78

33
33

26
26

“

-

156
87
69

55
55

6
6

19
19

5
5

2
2

and
under

M id d le range 2

1.60

1.70

MEN - CONTINUED
TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) •
MANUFACTURING ---------NONMANUFACTURING -------

794
700
94

$
3.72
3.68
4.06

$
3.50
3.48
4.06

$
3.413.404.02-

$
4.10
4.11
4.10

TRUCKERS, POWER (OTHER THAN
FORKLIFT) ----------------MANUFACTURING ----------

144
144

3.93
3.93

3.76
3.76

3.373.37-

4.54
4.54

83
70

2.49
2.62

2.72
2.74

1.841.9C-

2.79
2.80

-

-

-

-

-

WOMEN
PACKERS, SHIPPING
MANUFACTURING ■

S ee fo o tn o te s a t end o f ta b le s .




12
12

3

16
6

6
6

30
30

6
6

10
10

115
99
16

5
5

7
7

”

57
57

.

13

F o o tn o te s

1 S t a n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a t
r e g u l a r a n d / o r p r e m i u m r a t e s ) , a n d th e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k l y h o u r s .
2 T h e m e a n i s c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h j o b b y t o t a l i n g the e a r n i n g s o f a l l w o r k e r s a n d d i v i d i n g b y t h e n u m b e r of w o r k e r s . T h e m e d i a n d e s i g n a t e s
p o s i t i o n — h a l f o f the e m p l o y e e s s u r v e y e d r e c e i v e m o r e t h a n th e r a t e s h o w n ; h a l f r e c e i v e l e s s t h a n t h e r a t e s h o w n . T h e m i d d l e r a n g e i s d e f i n e d b y
2 r a t e s o f p a y ; a f o u r t h o f the w o r k e r s e a r n l e s s t h a n t h e l o w e r o f t h e s e r a t e s a n d a f o u r t h e a r n m o r e t h a n th e h i g h e r r a t e .
3 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , a n d l a t e s h i f t s .




A p p e n d ix .

O c c u p a t i o n a l D e s c r ip t io n s

T h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r i n g j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r th e B u r e a u 's w a g e s u r v e y s i s t o a s s i s t it s f i e l d s t a f f in c l a s s i f y i n g in to a p p r o p r ia t e
o c c u p a t i o n s w o r k e r s w h o a r e e m p l o y e d u n d e r a v a r i e t y o f p a y r o l l t i t l e s a n d d i f f e r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m e s t a b l is h m e n t to e s t a b l is h m e n t a n d
f r o m a r e a to a r e a .
T h is p e r m i t s th e g r o u p in g o f o c c u p a t io n a l w a g e r a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m p a r a b l e j o b c o n t e n t .
B e c a u s e o f t h is e m p h a s i s on
i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d i n t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f o c c u p a t io n a l c o n t e n t , th e B u r e a u 's j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s m a y d i f f e r s i g n if i c a n t ly f r o m t h o s e in u s e in
in d iv id u a l e s t a b l is h m e n t s o r t h o s e p r e p a r e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s .
In a p p ly in g t h e s e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , th e B u r e a u 's f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s a r e in s t r u c t e d
t o e x c l u d e w o r k in g
s u p e r v i s o r s ; a p p r e n t i c e s ; l e a r n e r s ; b e g i n n e r s ; t r a i n e e s ; a n d h a n d ic a p p e d , p a r t - t i m e , t e m p o r a r y , a n d p r o b a t io n a r y w o r k e r s .

OFFICE
B IL L E R ,

CLERK,

M A C H IN E

P r e p a r e s s t a t e m e n t s , b i l l s , a n d i n v o i c e s o n a m a c h in e o t h e r th a n a n o r d i n a r y o r e l e c t r o m a tic ty p e w r ite r .
M a y a l s o k e e p r e c o r d s a s t o b i l l i n g s o r s h ip p in g c h a r g e s o r p e r f o r m o t h e r
c l e r i c a l w o r k in c id e n t a l t o b i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s . F o r w a g e s t u d y p u r p o s e s , b i l l e r s , m a c h in e , a r e
c l a s s i f i e d b y t y p e o f m a c h in e , a s f o l l o w s :
B i l l e r , m a c h in e ( b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ) . U s e s a s p e c i a l b i l l i n g m a c h in e (M o o n H o p k in s , E l l i o t t
F i s h e r , B u r r o u g h s , e t c . , w h ic h a r e c o m b in a t i o n t y p in g a n d a d d in g m a c h in e s ) t o p r e p a r e b i l l s
a n d i n v o i c e s f r o m c u s t o m e r s ' p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , in t e r n a l l y p r e p a r e d o r d e r s , s h ip p in g m e m o ­
r a n d u m s , e t c . U s u a l ly i n v o l v e s a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r e d e t e r m i n e d d i s c o u n t s a n d s h ip p in g c h a r g e s ,
a n d e n t r y o f n e c e s s a r y e x t e n s i o n s , w h ic h m a y o r m a y n o t b e c o m p u t e d o n th e b i l l i n g m a c h in e ,
a n d t o t a l s w h ic h a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c c u m u l a t e d b y m a c h in e . T h e o p e r a t i o n u s u a l ly in v o l v e s
a l a r g e n u m b e r o f c a r b o n c o p i e s o f th e b i l l b e in g p r e p a r e d a n d is o ft e n d o n e on a fa n f o l d
m a c h in e .
B i l l e r , m a c h in e ( b o o k k e e p in g m a c h i n e ) . U s e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e (S u n d s t r a n d , E l l i o t t
F i s h e r , R e m i n g t o n R a n d , e t c . , w h ic h m a y o r m a y n o t h a v e t y p e w r i t e r k e y b o a r d ) t o p r e p a r e
c u s t o m e r s ' b i l l s a s p a r t o f th e a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e o p e r a t i o n . G e n e r a ll y i n v o l v e s t,he s i m u l t a ­
n e o u s e n t r y o f f i g u r e s o n c u s t o m e r s ' l e d g e r r e c o r d . T h e m a c h in e a u t o m a t i c a ll y a c c u m u l a t e s
f i g u r e s o n a n u m b e r o f v e r t i c a l c o l u m n s a n d c o m p u t e s , a n d u s u a l ly p r in t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y th e
d e b i t o r c r e d i t b a l a n c e s . D o e s n o t in v o l v e a k n o w le d g e o f b o o k k e e p in g . W o r k s f r o m u n i f o r m
and sta n d a rd ty p e s o f s a le s and c r e d it s lip s .

B O O K K E E P I N G -M A C H I N E

OPERATOR

O p e r a t e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e (R e m i n g t o n R a n d , E l l i o t t F i s h e r , S u n d s t r a n d , B u r r o u g h s ,
N a t io n a l C a s h R e g i s t e r , w it h o r w it h o u t a t y p e w r i t e r k e y b o a r d ) t o k e e p a r e c o r d o f b u s i n e s s
tr a n s a c tio n s .
C la s s A .
K e e p s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u i r in g a k n o w le d g e o f and e x p e r i e n c e in b a s i c
b o o k k e e p in g p r i n c i p l e s , a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w ith th e s t r u c t u r e o f th e p a r t i c u l a r a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m
u s e d . D e t e r m in e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e b i t a n d c r e d i t i t e m s t o b e u s e d in e a c h
p h a s e o f th e w o r k .
M a y p r e p a r e c o n s o lid a t e d r e p o r t s , b a la n c e s h e e ts , and o th e r r e c o r d s
by hand.
C l a s s B . K e e p s a r e c o r d o f o n e o r m o r e p h a s e s o r s e c t i o n s o f a s e t o f r e c o r d s u s u a l ly
r e q u i r in g li t t le k n o w le d g e o f b a s i c b o o k k e e p in g . P h a s e s o r s e c t i o n s in c lu d e a c c o u n t s p a y a b le ,
p a y r o l l , c u s t o m e r s ' a c c o u n t s (n o t in c lu d in g a s i m p l e t y p e o f b i l l i n g d e s c r i b e d u n d e r b i l l e r ,
m a c h in e ) , c o s t d i s t r i b u t i o n , e x p e n s e d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n v e n t o r y c o n t r o l , e t c . M a y c h e c k o r a s s i s t
in p r e p a r a t io n o f t r i a l b a l a n c e s a n d p r e p a r e c o n t r o l s h e e t s f o r th e a c c o u n t i n g d e p a r t m e n t .
CLERK,

A C C O U N T IN G

C la s s A . U n der g e n e r a l d i r e c t io n o f a b o o k k e e p e r o r a c co u n ta n t, h a s r e s p o n s ib ilit y fo r
k e e p in g on e o r m o r e s e c t i o n s o f a c o m p l e t e s e t o f b o o k s o r r e c o r d s r e l a t i n g t o on e p h a s e
o f a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t 's b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s . W o r k i n v o l v e s p o s t in g a n d b a l a n c in g s u b s i d i a r y
le d g e r o r l e d g e r s s u c h a s a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e o r a c c o u n t s p a y a b le ; e x a m in in g a n d c o d in g
i n v o i c e s o r v o u c h e r s w ith p r o p e r a c c o u n t i n g d i s t r ib u t io n ; a n d r e q u i r e s ju d g m e n t a n d e x p e r i ­
e n c e in m a k in g p r o p e r a s s i g n a t i o n s a n d a l l o c a t i o n s . M a y a s s i s t in p r e p a r i n g , a d ju s t in g , a n d
c l o s i n g jo u r n a l e n t r i e s ; a n d m a y d i r e c t c l a s s B a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s .

C l a s s B . S o r t s , c o d e s , and f i l e s u n c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r i a l b y s i m p l e ( s u b j e c t m a t t e r ) h e a d ­
in g s - o r ~ p a r t l y c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r i a l b y f i n e r s u b h e a d in g s . P r e p a r e s s i m p l e r e l a t e d in d e x and
c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e a i d s . A s r e q u e s t e d , l o c a t e s c l e a r l y id e n t if ie d m a t e r i a l in f i l e s and f o r w a r d s
m a te r ia l.
M ay p e r fo r m re la te d
c l e r i c a l t a s k s r e q u i r e d t o m a in t a in and s e r v i c e f i l e s .

C l a s s C . P e r f o r m s r o u t in e f i li n g o f m a t e r i a l th a t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n c l a s s i f i e d o r w h ic h
is e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d in a s i m p l e s e r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m ( e . g . , a lp h a b e t ic a l , c h r o n o l o g i c a l ,
o r n u m e r i c a l ) . A s r e q u e s t e d , l o c a t e s r e a d i l y a v a il a b l e m a t e r i a l in f i l e s a n d f o r w a r d s m a ­
t e r i a l ; a n d m a y f i l l o u t w it h d r a w a l c h a r g e . P e r f o r m s s i m p l e c l e r i c a l and m a n u a l t a s k s r e ­
q u ir e d t o m a in t a in a n d s e r v i c e f i l e s .

CLERK,

ORDER

R e c e iv e s c u s t o m e r s ' o r d e r s f o r m a te r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e b y m a il, p h on e, o r p e r s o n a lly .
D u t ie s in v o l v e a n y c o m b in a t i o n o f th e f o l l o w i n g : Q u o tin g p r i c e s t o c u s t o m e r s ; m a k in g ou t a n o r d e r
s h e e t li s t i n g th e i t e m s t o m a k e u p th e o r d e r ; c h e c k i n g p r i c e s a n d q u a n t it ie s o f it e m s o n o r d e r
s h e e t ; a n d d i s t r ib u t in g o r d e r s h e e t s t o r e s p e c t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s t o b e f i l l e d . M a y c h e c k w ith c r e d i t
d e p a r t m e n t t o d e t e r m in e c r e d i t r a t in g o f c u s t o m e r , a c k n o w l e d g e r e c e i p t o f o r d e r s f r o m c u s t o m e r s ,
f o l l o w u p o r d e r s t o s e e th a t t h e y h a v e b e e n f i l l e d , k e e p f i l e o f o r d e r s r e c e i v e d , a n d c h e c k sh ip p in g
i n v o i c e s w ith o r i g i n a l o r d e r s .

CLERK,

PAYROLL

C o m p u t e s w a g e s o f c o m p a n y e m p l o y e e s a n d e n t e r s th e n e c e s s a r y d a ta on th e p a y r o l l
s h e e t s . D u t ie s in v o l v e : C a lc u la t in g w o r k e r s ' e a r n i n g s b a s e d o n t im e o r p r o d u c t io n r e c o r d s ; and
p o s t in g c a l c u l a t e d d a ta o n p a y r o l l s h e e t , s h o w in g i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h a s w o r k e r 's n a m e , w o r k in g
d a y s , t i m e , r a t e , d e d u c t i o n s f o r in s u r a n c e , a n d t o t a l w a g e s d u e . M a y m a k e o u t p a y c h e c k s and
a s s i s t p a y m a s t e r in m a k in g u p a n d d i s t r ib u t in g p a y e n v e l o p e s .
M a y u s e a c a lc u la t in g m a c h in e .

COM PTOM ETER

OPERATOR

P r i m a r y d u ty i s t o o p e r a t e a C o m p t o m e t e r t o p e r f o r m m a t h e m a t ic a l c o m p u t a t i o n s . T h is
j o b is n o t t o b e c o n f u s e d w ith th a t o f s t a t i s t i c a l o r o t h e r t y p e o f c l e r k , w h ic h m a y in v o l v e f r e ­
q u e n t u s e o f a C o m p t o m e t e r b u t, in w h ic h , u s e o f t h is m a c h in e i s in c id e n t a l t o p e r f o r m a n c e o f
o th e r d u tie s .

KEYPUNCH O PE RATO R

C l a s s A . O p e r a t e s a n u m e r i c a l a n d / o r a lp h a b e t ic a l o r c o m b in a t i o n k e y p u n c h m a c h in e t o
t r a n s c r i b e d a ta f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s t o k e y p u n c h ta b u la t in g c a r d s . P e r f o r m s s a m e
t a s k s a s l o w e r l e v e l k e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r b u t, in a d d it io n , w o r k r e q u i r e s a p p l ic a t i o n o f c o d in g
s k i l l s a n d th e m a k in g o f s o m e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , f o r e x a m p le , l o c a t e s o n th e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t
th e i t e m s t o b e p u n c h e d ; e x t r a c t s in f o r m a t io n f r o m s e v e r a l d o c u m e n t s ; a n d s e a r c h e s f o r a n d
in t e r p r e t s in f o r m a t io n o n th e d o c u m e n t t o d e t e r m in e in f o r m a t io n t o b e p u n c h e d .
M a y t r a in
in e x p e r ie n c e d o p e r a t o r s .

C l a s s B . U n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n , p e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e r o u t in e a c c o u n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s s u c h
a s p o s t in g s i m p l e j o u r n a l v o u c h e r s o r a c c o u n t s p a y a b le v o u c h e r s , e n t e r i n g v o u c h e r s in
v o u c h e r r e g i s t e r s ; r e c o n c i l i n g b a n k a c c o u n t s ; a n d p o s t in g s u b s i d i a r y l e d g e r s c o n t r o l l e d b y
g e n e r a l l e d g e r s , o r p o s t in g s i m p l e c o s t a c c o u n t i n g d a t a . T h is j o b d o e s n o t r e q u i r e a k n o w l­
e d g e o f a c c o u n t i n g a n d b o o k k e e p in g p r i n c i p l e s b u t i s fo u n d in o f f i c e s in w h ic h th e m o r e r o u t in e
a c c o u n t i n g w o r k i s s u b d i v id e d o n a fu n c t io n a l b a s i s a m o n g s e v e r a l w o r k e r s .




F IL E

C l a s s A . In an e s t a b l i s h e d f i li n g s y s t e m c o n t a in in g a n u m b e r o f v a r ie d s u b j e c t m a t t e r
f i l e s , c l a s s i f i e s a n d in d e x e s f i l e m a t e r i a l s u c h a s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , r e p o r t s , t e c h n i c a l d o c u ­
m e n t s , e t c . M a y a l s o f i l e t h is m a t e r i a l . M a y k e e p r e c o r d s o f v a r io u s t y p e s in c o n ju n c t io n
w ith th e f i l e s .
M a y le a d a s m a ll g r o u p o f l o w e r l e v e l f i l e c l e r k s .

14

15
KEYPUNCH

S E C R E T A R Y — C o n t in u e d

O P E R A T O R ---- C o n t in u e d

C la s s B .
U n der c lo s e s u p e r v is io n o r fo llo w in g s p e c if ic p r o c e d u r e s o r in s t r u c t io n s ,
t r a n s c r i b e s d a ta f r o m s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s t o p u n c h e d c a r d s .
O p e r a te s a n u m e r ic a l a n d /o r
a l p h a b e t i c a l o r c o m b in a t i o n k e y p u n c h m a c h in e t o k e y p u n c h t a b u la t in g c a r d s . M a y v e r i f y c a r d s .
W o r k in g f r o m v a r i o u s s t a n d a r d iz e d s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , f o l l o w s s p e c i f i e d s e q u e n c e s w h ic h h a v e
b e e n c o d e d o r p r e s c r i b e d in d e t a il a n d r e q u i r e li t t le o r n o s e l e c t i n g , c o d in g , o r in t e r p r e t in g
o f d a ta t o b e p u n c h e d . P r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m e r r o n e o u s i t e m s o r c o d e s , m i s s i n g in f o r m a t io n ,
e t c ., a r e r e f e r r e d to s u p e r v is o r .

d.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e h e a d o f a n in d iv id u a l p la n t , f a c t o r y ,
o f o f f i c i a l ) th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 00 p e r s o n s ; o r

e.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e h e a d o f a l a r g e a n d im p o r t a n t o r g a n iz a t io n a l s e g m e n t ( e . g . , a m id d l e
m a n a g e m e n t s u p e r v i s o r o f a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t o ft e n in v o lv in g a s m a n y a s s e v e r a l
h u n d r e d p e r s o n s ) o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , in a ll , o v e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .
C la s s

O F F IC E

BOY

O R G IR L

P e r f o r m s v a r i o u s r o u t in e d u t ie s s u c h a s ru n n in g e r r a n d s , o p e r a t i n g m in o r o f f i c e m a ­
c h i n e s s u c h a s s e a l e r s o r m a i l e r s , o p e n in g a n d d i s t r ib u t in g m a i l , a n d o t h e r m i n o r c l e r i c a l w o r k .

SECRETARY

M a y a l s o p e r f o r m o t h e r c l e r i c a l a n d s e c r e t a r i a l t a s k s o f c o m p a r a b l e n a t u r e and d i f f i c u l t y .
T h e w o r k t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s k n o w le d g e o f o f f i c e r o u t in e a n d u n d e r s t a n d in g o f th e o r g a n iz a t io n ,
p r o g r a m s , a n d p r o c e d u r e s r e l a t e d t o th e w o r k o f th e s u p e r v i s o r .
E x clu s io n s
N o t a l l p o s it i o n s th a t a r e t it l e d " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s th e a b o v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . E x a m p le s
o f p o s i t i o n s w h ic h a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e d e f in i t io n a r e a s f o l l o w s : (a) P o s i t i o n s w h ic h d o n o t m e e t
th e " p e r s o n a l " s e c r e t a r y c o n c e p t d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ; (b) s t e n o g r a p h e r s n o t f u l l y t r a in e d in s e c r e t a r i a l
t y p e d u t i e s ; (c ) s t e n o g r a p h e r s s e r v i n g a s o f f i c e a s s i s t a n t s t o a g r o u p o f p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l ,
o r m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n s ; (d) s e c r e t a r y p o s i t i o n s in w h ic h th e d u t i e s a r e e it h e r s u b s t a n t ia ll y m o r e
r o u t in e o r s u b s t a n t ia ll y m o r e c o m p l e x a n d r e s p o n s i b l e th a n t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i z e d in th e d e f in i t io n ;
a n d (e ) a s s i s t a n t ty p e p o s i t i o n s w h ic h i n v o l v e m o r e d i f f i c u l t o r m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e t e c h n i c a l , a d m in ­
i s t r a t i v e , s u p e r v i s o r y , o r s p e c i a l i z e d c l e r i c a l d u tie s w h ic h a r e n o t t y p i c a l o f s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k .
N O T E : T h e t e r m " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r , " u s e d in th e l e v e l d e f in i t io n s f o l l o w i n g , r e f e r s to
t h o s e o f f i c i a l s w h o h a v e a s i g n if i c a n t c o r p o r a t e - w i d e p o l ic y m a k i n g r o l e w ith r e g a r d t o m a jo r
c o m p a n y a c t i v i t i e s . T h e t it l e " v i c e p r e s i d e n t , " th o u g h n o r m a l l y i n d ic a t i v e o f t h is r o l e , d o e s n ot
in a l l c a s e s id e n t if y s u c h p o s i t i o n s . V i c e p r e s i d e n t s w h o s e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is t o a c t p e r ­
s o n a ll y o n in d iv id u a l c a s e s o r t r a n s a c t i o n s ( e . g . , a p p r o v e o r d e n y in d iv id u a l lo a n o r c r e d i t a c t i o n s ;
a d m in is t e r in d iv id u a l t r u s t a c c o u n t s ; d i r e c t l y s u p e r v i s e a c l e r i c a l s t a ff) a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o b e
" c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s " f o r p u r p o s e s o f a p p ly in g th e f o l l o w i n g l e v e l d e f i n i t i o n s .
C la s s

A

a.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e c h a i r m a n o f th e b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , in
a ll , o v e r 100 b u t f e w e r th a n 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
b.
S e c r e t a r y t o a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o t h e r th a n th e c h a i r m a n o f th e b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t )
o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 b u t f e w e r th a n 2 5 , 0 00 p e r s o n s ; o r
c.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e h e a d ( i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w
s e g m e n t o r s u b s i d i a r y o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s ,
C la s s

C

a.
S e c r e t a r y t o a n e x e c u t i v e o r m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n w h o s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is n o t e q u iv a le n t
t o o n e o f th e s p e c i f i c l e v e l s it u a t i o n s in th e d e f in i t io n f o r c l a s s B , b u t w h o s e s u b o r d in a t e s t a f f
n o r m a l l y n u m b e r s a t l e a s t s e v e r a l d o z e n e m p l o y e e s a n d i s u s u a l ly d i v id e d in to o r g a n iz a t io n a l
s e g m e n t s w h ic h a r e o ft e n , in t u r n , f u r t h e r s u b d i v id e d . In s o m e c o m p a n i e s , t h is l e v e l in c lu d e s
a w id e r a n g e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e c h e l o n s ; in o t h e r s , o n l y o n e o r t w o ; o r
b.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e h e a d o f a n in d iv id u a l p la n t , f a c t o r y ,
o f o f f i c i a l ) th a t e m p l o y s , in a ll , f e w e r th a n 5 , 0 00 p e r s o n s .

A s s i g n e d a s p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o r m a l l y t o o n e in d iv id u a l. M a in ta in s a c l o s e a n d h ig h ly
r e s p o n s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o th e d a y - t o - d a y w o r k a c t i v i t i e s o f th e s u p e r v i s o r . W o r k s f a i r l y in d e ­
p e n d e n t ly r e c e i v i n g a m in i m u m o f d e t a il e d s u p e r v i s i o n a n d g u id a n c e .
P e r f o r m s v a r ie d c l e r i c a l
a n d s e c r e t a r i a l d u t i e s , u s u a l ly in c lu d in g m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : (a ) R e c e i v e s t e le p h o n e c a l l s ,
p e r s o n a l c a l l e r s , a n d i n c o m in g m a i l , a n s w e r s r o u t in e i n q u i r i e s , a n d r o u t e s th e t e c h n i c a l in q u i r i e s
t o th e p r o p e r p e r s o n s ; (b ) e s t a b l i s h e s , m a in t a in s , a n d r e v i s e s th e s u p e r v i s o r 's f i l e s ; (c ) m a in t a in s
th e s u p e r v i s o r 's c a l e n d a r a n d m a k e s a p p o in t m e n t s a s i n s t r u c t e d ; (d ) r e l a y s m e s s a g e s f r o m s u p e r ­
v i s o r to s u b o r d i n a t e s ; (e) r e v i e w s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , m e m o r a n d u m s , a n d r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s
f o r th e s u p e r v i s o r 's s ig n a t u r e t o a s s u r e p r o c e d u r a l a n d t y p o g r a p h i c a c c u r a c y ; a n d (f) p e r f o r m s
s t e n o g r a p h ic a n d t y p in g w o r k .

t h e c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r le v e l ) o f a m a j o r
in a l l , o v e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

B

a.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e c h a i r m a n o f th e b o a r d
a ll , f e w e r th a n 100 p e r s o n s ; o r

o r p r e s i d e n t o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s ,

in

b.
S e c r e t a r y t o a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o t h e r th a n th e c h a i r m a n o f th e b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t )
o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 100 b u t f e w e r th a n 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
c.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e h e a d ( i m m e d i a t e l y b e lo w th e o f f i c e r l e v e l ) o v e r e it h e r a m a j o r
c o r p o r a t e - w i d e fu n c t io n a l a c t i v i t y ( e . g . , m a r k e t i n g , r e s e a r c h , o p e r a t i o n s , i n d u s t r ia l r e l a ­
t i o n s , e t c . ) o r a m a j o r g e o g r a p h i c o r o r g a n iz a t io n a l s e g m e n t ( e . g . , a r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s ;
a m a j o r d i v is i o n ) o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 ,0 0 0 b u t f e w e r th a n 2 5 , 0 0 0
e m p lo y e e s ; o r




e t c . ( o r o t h e r e q u iv a le n t l e v e l

C la s s

e t c . ( o r o t h e r e q u iv a le n t l e v e l

D

a.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e s u p e r v i s o r o r h e a d o f a s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n it ( e . g . , f e w e r th a n
a b o u t 25 o r 30 p e r s o n s ) ; jor
b.
S e c r e t a r y to a n o n s u p e r v is o r y s ta ff s p e c ia lis t , p r o f e s s io n a l e m p lo y e e , a d m in is t r a ­
tiv e o f f i c e r , o r a s s is t a n t , s k ille d te c h n ic ia n o r e x p e r t.
(N O T E :
M any co m p a n ie s a s s ig n
s t e n o g r a p h e r s , r a t h e r th a n s e c r e t a r i e s a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t o t h is l e v e l o f s u p e r v i s o r y o r
n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r .)

STENOGRAPHER,

GENERAL

P r i m a r y d u ty i s t o ta k e d i c t a t io n in v o l v i n g a n o r m a l r o u t in e v o c a b u l a r y f r o m o n e o r m o r e
p e r s o n s e it h e r in s h o r t h a n d o r b y S t e n o t y p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h in e ; a n d t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t io n . M a y
a l s o t y p e f r o m w r i t t e n c o p y . M a y m a in t a in f i l e s , k e e p s i m p l e r e c o r d s , o r p e r f o r m o t h e r r e l a t i v e l y
r o u t in e c l e r i c a l t a s k s .
M a y o p e r a t e f r o m a s t e n o g r a p h ic p o o l .
D o e s n o t in c lu d e t r a n s c r i b i n g m a c h in e w o r k .
(S e e t r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r . )

STEN O G RAPH E R,

S E N IO R

P r i m a r y d u ty is t o ta k e d i c t a t io n in v o l v i n g a v a r i e d t e c h n i c a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y
s u c h a s in l e g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s o n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h f r o m o n e o r m o r e p e r s o n s e it h e r in s h o r t ­
h a n d o r b y S t e n o t y p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h in e ; a n d t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t io n . M a y a l s o t y p e f r o m w r it t e n
cop y.
M a y a l s o s e t u p a n d m a in t a in f i l e s , k e e p r e c o r d s , e t c .
OR
P e r f o r m s s t e n o g r a p h ic d u t ie s r e q u i r in g s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r in d e p e n d e n c e a n d r e s p o n s i ­
b i l i t y th a n s t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l a s e v id e n c e d b y th e f o l l o w i n g : W o r k r e q u i r e s h ig h d e g r e e o f
s t e n o g r a p h ic s p e e d a n d a c c u r a c y ; a n d a t h o r o u g h w o r k in g k n o w le d g e o f g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s a n d o f f i c e
p r o c e d u r e s a n d o f th e s p e c i f i c b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s , o r g a n iz a t io n , p o l i c i e s , p r o c e d u r e s , f i l e s ,
w o r k flo w , e t c .
U s e s t h is k n o w le d g e in p e r f o r m i n g s t e n o g r a p h ic d u t ie s a n d r e s p o n s i b l e c l e r i c a l
t a s k s s u c h a s , m a in t a in in g fo l lo w u p f i l e s ; a s s e m b l i n g m a t e r i a l f o r r e p o r t s , m e m o r a n d u m s , l e t t e r s ,
e t c . ; c o m p o s i n g s i m p l e l e t t e r s f r o m g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s ; r e a d i n g a n d r o u t in g in c o m in g m a i l ; a n d
a n s w e r i n g r o u t in e q u e s t i o n s , e t c .
D o e s n o t in c lu d e t r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h i n e w o r k .

S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R
C l a s s A . O p e r a t e s a s i n g l e - o r m u l t i p l e - p o s i t i o n t e le p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d lin g i n c o m in g ,
o u t g o in g , in t r a p la n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s . P e r f o r m s f u l l t e le p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e o r h a n d le s
c o m p l e x c a l l s , s u c h a s c o n f e r e n c e , c o l l e c t , o v e r s e a s , o r s i m i l a r c a l l s , e it h e r in a d d it io n t o
d o in g r o u t in e w o r k a s d e s c r i b e d f o r s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r , c l a s s B , o r a s a f u l l - t i m e
a s s i g n m e n t . ( " F u l l " t e le p h o n e in f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e o c c u r s w h e n th e e s t a b l is h m e n t h a s v a r i e d
f u n c t io n s th a t a r e n o t r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b le f o r t e le p h o n e in f o r m a t i o n p u r p o s e s , e . g . , b e c a u s e
o f o v e r l a p p i n g o r i n t e r r e l a t e d f u n c t io n s , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t fr e q u e n t p r o b l e m s a s t o
w h ic h e x t e n s io n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c a l l s . )
C l a s s B . O p e r a t e s a s i n g l e - o r m u l t i p l e - p o s i t i o n t e le p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d lin g i n c o m in g ,
o u t g o in g , in t r a p la n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s . M a y h a n d le r o u t in e lo n g d i s t a n c e c a l l s a n d r e c o r d t o l l s .
M a y p e r f o r m l i m i t e d t e le p h o n e in f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e . ( " L i m i t e d " t e le p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e
o c c u r s i f th e f u n c t io n s o f th e e s t a b l is h m e n t s e r v i c e d a r e r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b le f o r t e le p h o n e
in f o r m a t i o n p u r p o s e s , o r i f th e r e q u e s t s a r e r o u t i n e , e . g . , g iv in g e x t e n s i o n n u m b e r s w h e n
s p e c i f i c n a m e s a r e f u r n is h e d , o r i f c o m p l e x c a l l s a r e r e f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r o p e r a t o r . )

16
S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T

T A B U L A T I N G -M A C H I N E

In a d d it io n t o p e r f o r m i n g d u tie s o f o p e r a t o r o n a s i n g l e - p o s i t i o n o r m o n i t o r - t y p e s w i t c h ­
b o a r d , a c t s a s r e c e p t i o n i s t a n d m a y a l s o t y p e o r p e r f o r m r o u t in e c l e r i c a l w o r k a s p a r t o f r e g u l a r
d u tie s .
T h is t y p in g o r c l e r i c a l w o r k m a y ta k e th e m a j o r p a r t o f t h is w o r k e r 's t im e w h il e at
s w itc h b o a r d .

O P E R A T O R ---- C o n tin u e d

C la s s C .
O p e r a t e s s i m p l e ta b u la t in g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t in g m a c h in e s s u c h a s th e
s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c i n g p u n c h , c o l l a t o r , e t c . , w ith s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t io n s .
M a y in c lu d e s i m p l e
w ir in g f r o m d i a g r a m s a n d s o m e f i li n g w o r k . T h e w o r k t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s p o r t io n s o f a w o r k
u n it, f o r e x a m p le , in d iv id u a l s o r t in g o r c o l l a t i n g ru n s o r r e p e t i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s .
T R A N S C R I B I N G -M A C H I N E O P E R A T O R ,

T A B U L A T I N G -M A C H I N E

GENERAL

OPERATO R

C la s s A .
O p e r a t e s a v a r i e t y o f t a b u la t in g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s , t y p i c a l l y
in c lu d in g s u c h m a c h in e s a s th e t a b u l a t o r , c a l c u l a t o r , i n t e r p r e t e r , c o lle c t o r , arid o t h e r s .
P e r f o r m s c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s w it h o u t c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n , ajitd p e r f o r m s d i f f i c u l t
w ir in g as r e q u ir e d .
T h e c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g a n d t a b u la t in g a s s i g n m e n t s t y p i c a l l y in v o l v e a
v a r i e t y o f lo n g a n d c o m p l e x r e p o r t s w h ic h o ft e n a r e o f i r r e g u l a r o r n o n r e c u r r i n g t y p e r e ­
q u ir in g s o m e p la n n in g a n d s e q u e n c i n g o f s t e p s to b e t a k e n . A s a m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d o p e r a t o r ,
is t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d in t r a in i n g n e w o p e r a t o r s in m a c h in e o p e r a t i o n s , o r p a r t i a l l y t r a in e d
o p e r a t o r s in w i r i n g f r o m d i a g r a m s a n d o p e r a t i n g s e q u e n c e s o f lo n g a n d c o m p l e x r e p o r t s .
D o e s n o t in c lu d e w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s p e r f o r m i n g t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t i o n s a n d d a y - t o d a y s u p e r v i s i o n o f th e w o r k a n d p r o d u c t io n o f a g r o u p o f t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s .

P r i m a r y d u ty is t o t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t io n in v o lv in g a n o r m a l r o u t in e v o c a b u l a r y f r o m
tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e r e c o r d s .
M a y a l s o t y p e f r o m w r i t t e n c o p y and d o s i m p l e c l e r i c a l w o r k .
W o r k e r s t r a n s c r i b i n g d i c t a t io n in v o l v i n g a v a r i e d t e c h n i c a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y s u c h a s le g a l
b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s o n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a r e n ot in c lu d e d . A w o r k e r w h o t a k e s d i c t a t io n in s h o r t ­
h a n d o r b y S t e n o t y p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h in e is c l a s s i f i e d a s a s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l.
T Y P IS T
U s e s a t y p e w r i t e r t o m a k e c o p i e s o f v a r io u s m a t e r i a l o r t o m a k e ou t b i l l s a ft e r c a l c u l a ­
t io n s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y a n o t h e r p e r s o n . M a y in c lu d e t y p in g o f s t e n c i l s , m a t s , o r s i m i l a r m a t e ­
r i a l s f o r u s e in d u p lic a t in g p r o c e s s e s . M a y d o c l e r i c a l w o r k in v o lv in g li t t le s p e c i a l t r a in in g , s u c h
a s k e e p in g s i m p l e r e c o r d s , f i l i n g r e c o r d s a n d r e p o r t s , o r s o r t in g a n d d i s t r ib u t in g in c o m in g m a il .
C la s s A .
P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g : T y p in g m a t e r i a l in fi n a l f o r m w h e n it
i n v o l v e s c o m b in i n g m a teria .1 f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o r r e c t s p e ll in g ,
s y l l a b i c a t i o n , p u n c t u a t io n , e t c . , o f t e c h n i c a l o r u n u s u a l w o r d s o r f o r e i g n la n g u a g e m a t e r ia l:
a n d p la n n in g la y o u t a n d t y p in g o f c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s t o m a in t a in u n i f o r m i t y and
b a l a n c e in s p a c in g .
M a y t y p e r o u t in e f o r m l e t t e r s v a r y i n g d e t a il s t o s u it c i r c u m s t a n c e s .

C l a s s B . O p e r a t e s m o r e d i f f i c u l t t a b u la t in g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t i n g m a c h in e s s u c h a s th e
t a b u l a t o r a n d c a l c u l a t o r , in a d d it io n t o th e s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c e r , and c o l l a t o r .
T h is w o r k is
p e r f o r m e d u n d e r s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t io n s a n d m a y in c lu d e th e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s o m e w ir in g f r o m
d i a g r a m s . T h e w o r k t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s , f o r e x a m p le , t a b u la t io n s
in v o l v i n g a r e p e t i t i v e
a c c o u n t i n g e x e r c i s e , a c o m p l e t e but s m a ll t a b u la t in g s t u d y , o r p a r t s o f a l o n g e r a n d m o r e
c o m p l e x r e p o r t . S u ch r e p o r t s a n d s t u d ie s a r e u s u a l ly o f a r e c u r r i n g n a t u r e w h e r e th e p r o ­
c e d u r e s a re w e ll e s t a b lis h e d .
M a y a l s o in c lu d e th e t r a in i n g o f n e w e m p l o y e e s in th e b a s i c
o p e r a t i o n o f th e m a c h in e .

P R O F E S S IO N A L

C l a s s B . P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g : C o p y t y p in g f r o m r o u g h o r c l e a r d r a f t s ;
r o u t in e t y p in g o f f o r m s , in s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e t c . ; a n d s e t t in g up s i m p l e s t a n d a r d t a b u la t io n s ,
o r c o p y in g m o r e c o m p l e x t a b l e s a l r e a d y s e t u p and s p a c e d p r o p e r l y .

AND

T E C H N IC A L

COM PU TER O PE RATO R

COM PU TER PROGRAM ER,

M o n i t o r s a n d o p e r a t e s th e c o n t r o l c o n s o l e o f a d i g i t a l c o m p u t e r t o p r o c e s s d a ta a c c o r d i n g
to o p e r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s , u s u a l ly p r e p a r e d b y a p r o g r a m e r . W o r k in c lu d e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
S t u d ie s in s t r u c t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e e q u ip m e n t s e t u p a n d o p e r a t i o n s ; l e a d s e q u ip m e n t w ith r e q u i r e d
i t e m s (t a p e r e e l s , c a r d s , e t c . ) : s w i t c h e s n e c e s s a r y a u x i l i a r y e q u ip m e n t in to c i r c u i t , a n d s t a r t s
and o p e r a t e s c o m p u t e r ; m a k e s a d ju s t m e n t s t o c o m p u t e r t o c o r r e c t o p e r a t i n g p r o b l e m s a n d m e e t
s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ; r e v i e w s e r r o r s m a d e d u r in g o p e r a t i o n a n d d e t e r m i n e s c a u s e o r r e f e r s p r o b l e m
t o s u p e r v i s o r o r p r o g r a m e r ; a n d m a in t a in s o p e r a t i n g r e c o r d s . M a y t e s t a n d a s s i s t in c o r r e c t i n g
p rog ra m .

C o n v e r t s s t a t e m e n t s o f b u s i n e s s p r o b l e m s , t y p i c a l l y p r e p a r e d b y a s y s t e m s a n a ly s t , in to
a s e q u e n c e o f d e t a il e d i n s t r u c t i o n s w h ic h a r e r e q u i r e d t o s o l v e th e p r o b l e m s b y a u t o m a t ic da ta
p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t .
W o r k in g f r o m c h a r t s o r d i a g r a m s , th e p r o g r a m e r d e v e l o p s th e p r e c i s e
i n s t r u c t i o n s w h ic h , w h e n e n t e r e d in to th e c o m p u t e r s y s t e m in c o d e d la n g u a g e , c a u s e th e m a n ip u ­
la t i o n o f d a ta t o a c h i e v e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : A p p l ie s k n o w le d g e
o f co m p u te r c a p a b ilit ie s , m a th e m a t ic s , lo g i c e m p lo y e d b y c o m p u t e r s , and p a r t ic u la r s u b je c t m a tte r
i n v o l v e d t o a n a l y z e c h a r t s a n d d i a g r a m s o f th e p r o b l e m t o b e p r o g r a m e d .
D e v e lo p s se q u e n ce
o f p r o g r a m s t e p s , w r i t e s d e t a il e d fl o w c h a r t s t o s h o w o r d e r in w h ic h da ta w i l l b e p r o c e s s e d ;
c o n v e r t s t h e s e c h a r t s t o c o d e d in s t r u c t i o n s f o r m a c h in e t o f o l l o w ; t e s t s a n d c o r r e c t s p r o g r a m s ;
p r e p a r e s i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r o p e r a t i n g p e r s o n n e l d u r in g p r o d u c t i o n ru n ; a n a l y z e s , r e v i e w s , a n d a l t e r s
p r o g r a m s t o i n c r e a s e o p e r a t i n g e f f i c i e n c y o r a d a p t t o n e w r e q u i r e m e n t s ; m a in t a in s r e c o r d s o f
p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t a n d r e v i s i o n s . (N O T E ; W o r k e r s p e r f o r m i n g b o th s y s t e m s a n a l y s is a n d p r o ­
g r a m in g s h o u ld b e c l a s s i f i e d a s s y s t e m s a n a l y s t s i f t h is i s th e s k i l l u s e d t o d e t e r m in e t h e i r p a y .)

F o r w age

stu d y p u r p o s e s ,

com p u ter

o p era tors

a re

c la s s ifie d

a s f o l l o w 's ;

C l a s s A . O p e r a t e s in d e p e n d e n t ly , o r u n d e r o n l y g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n , a c o m p u t e r ru n n in g
p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; N ew p r o g r a m s a r e f r e q u e n t l y t e s t e d a n d
in t r o d u c e d ; s c h e d u l in g r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t o m i n i m i z e d o w n t i m e ; th e
p r o g r a m s a r e o f c o m p l e x d e s ig n s o th a t id e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e r r o r s o u r c e o ft e n r e q u i r e s a w o r k i n g
k n o w le d g e o f th e t o t a l p r o g r a m , a n d a lt e r n a t e p r o g r a m s m a y n o t b e a v a il a b l e .
M a y give,
d i r e c t i o n a n d g u id a n c e t o l o w e r l e v e l o p e r a t o r s .
C l a s s B . O p e r a t e s in d e p e n d e n t ly , o r u n d e r o n l y g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n , a c o m p u t e r ru n n in g
p r o g r a m s w it h m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; M o s t o f th e p r o g r a m s a r e e s t a b l is h e d
p r o d u c t i o n r u n s , t y p i c a l l y ru n o n a r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r i n g b a s i s ; t h e r e is li t t l e o r n o t e s t in g
o f n e w p r o g r a m s r e q u i r e d ; a lt e r n a t e p r o g r a m s a r e p r o v i d e d in c a s e o r i g i n a l p r o g r a m n e e d s
m a j o r c h a n g e o r c a n n o t b e c o r r e c t e d w it h in a r e a s o n a b l e t i m e . In c o m m o n e r r o r s i t u a t i o n s ,
d i a g n o s e s c a u s e a n d t a k e s c o r r e c t i v e a c t io n . T h is u s u a l ly in v o l v e s a p p ly in g p r e v i o u s l y p r o ­
g r a m e d c o r r e c t i v e s t e p s , o r u s in g s t a n d a r d c o r r e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s .

B U S IN E S S

D o e s n o t in c lu d e e m p l o y e e s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e m a n a g e m e n t o r s u p e r v i s i o n o f
o t h e r e l e c t r o n i c d a ta p r o c e s s i n g (E D P ) e m p l o y e e s , o r p r o g r a m e r s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w ith
s c i e n t i f i c a n d / o r e n g in e e r in g p r o b l e m s .
F o r w age

s tu d y p u r p o s e s ,

progra m ers

a re

c la s s ifie d

as fo llo w s ;

C l a s s A . W o r k s in d e p e n d e n t ly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n on c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s w h ic h
r e q u i r e c o m p e t e n c e in a l l p h a s e s o f p r o g r a m i n g c o n c e p t s a n d p r a c t i c e s . W o r k in g f r o m d i a ­
g r a m s a n d c h a r t s w h ic h id e n t if y th e n a t u r e o f d e s i r e d r e s u l t s , m a j o r p r o c e s s i n g s t e p s t o b e
a c c o m p l i s h e d , a n d th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n v a r i o u s s t e p s o f th e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g r o u t in e ;
p la n s th e f u l l r a n g e o f p r o g r a m i n g a c t io n s n e e d e d t o e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e th e c o m p u t e r s y s t e m
in a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d e n d p r o d u c t s .

OR
O p e r a t e s u n d e r d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n a c o m p u t e r r u n n in g p r o g r a m s o r s e g m e n t s o f p r o g r a m s
w it h th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d f o r c l a s s A . M a y a s s i s t a h i g h e r le v e l o p e r a t o r b y in d e ­
p e n d e n t ly p e r f o r m i n g l e s s d i f f i c u l t t a s k s a s s i g n e d , and p e r f o r m i n g d i f f i c u l t t a s k s f o l lo w i n g
d e t a il e d i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d w it h fr e q u e n t re v ie w ' o f o p e r a t i o n s p e r f o r m e d .
C l a s s C . W o r k s o n r o u t in e p r o g r a m s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n .
Is e x p e c t e d t o d e v e l o p
w o r k i n g k n o w le d g e o f th e c o m p u t e r e q u ip m e n t u s e d a n d a b i li t y t o d e t e c t p r o b l e m s in v o l v e d in
ru n n in g r o u t in e p r o g r a m s . U s u a l ly h a s r e c e i v e d s o m e f o r m a l t r a in in g in c o m p u t e r o p e r a t i o n .
M a y a s s i s t h i g h e r l e v e l o p e r a t o r on c o m p l e x p r o g r a m s .




A t t h is l e v e l , p r o g r a m i n g is d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e c o m p u t e r e q u ip m e n t m u s t b e o r g a n i z e d to
p r o d u c e s e v e r a l in t e r r e l a t e d b u t d i v e r s e p r o d u c t s f r o m n u m e r o u s a n d d i v e r s e da ta e le m e n t s .
A w id e v a r i e t y a n d e x t e n s iv e n u m b e r o f i n t e r n a l p r o c e s s i n g a c t io n s m u s t o c c u r . T h is r e q u i r e s
s u c h a c t io n s a s d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m o n o p e r a t i o n s w h ic h c a n b e r e u s e d , e s t a b l is h m e n t o f
lin k a g e p o i n t s b e t w e e n o p e r a t i o n s , a d ju s t m e n t s t o d a ta w h e n p r o g r a m r e q u i r e m e n t s e x c e e d
c o m p u t e r s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y , a n d s u b s t a n t ia l m a n ip u la t io n a n d r e s e q u e n c in g o f d a ta e le m e n t s
t o f o r m a h ig h ly in t e g r a t e d p r o g r a m .
M a y p r o v id e

f u n c t io n a l d i r e c t i o n t o l o w e r l e v e l p r o g r a m e r s w h o a r e a s s i g n e d t o a s s i s t .

17
C O M P U T E R P R O G R A f^ E ft ,

B U S IN E S S — C o n t in u e d

C O M P U T E R SYSTEM S A N A L Y S T ,

C la s s B .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n t ly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o n r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e
p r o g r a m s , o r on s im p le s e g m e n ts o f c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .
P r o g r a m s ( o r s e g m e n t s ) u s u a lly
p r o c e s s in f o r m a t i o n t o p r o d u c e d a ta in tw o o r t h r e e v a r i e d s e q u e n c e s o r f o r m a t s . R e p o r t s
a n d l i s t i n g s a r e p r o d u c e d b y r e f i n i n g , a d a p t in g , a r r a y i n g , o r m a k in g m i n o r a d d it io n s t o o r
d e l e t i o n s f r o m in p u t d a ta w h ic h a r e r e a d i l y a v a il a b l e .
W h ile n u m e r o u s r e c o r d s m a y b e
p r o c e s s e d , th e d a ta h a v e b e e n r e f in e d in p r i o r a c t io n s s o th a t th e a c c u r a c y a n d s e q u e n c i n g
o f d a ta c a n b e t e s t e d b y u s in g a fe w r o u t in e c h e c k s .
T y p i c a l l y , th e p r o g r a m d e a l s w ith
r o u t in e r e c o r d - k e e p i n g t y p e o p e r a t i o n s .
OR
W o r k s o n c o m p l e x p r o g r a m s (a s d e s c r i b e d f o r c l a s s A ) u n d e r c l o s e d i r e c t i o n o f a h i g h e r
le v e l p r o g r a m e r o r s u p e r v is o r .
M a y a s s i s t h i g h e r l e v e l p r o g r a m e r b y in d e p e n d e n t ly p e r ­
fo r m in g le s s d iff ic u lt ta s k s a s s ig n e d , and p e r fo r m in g m o r e d iffic u lt ta s k s u n d er fa ir ly c l o s e
d ir e c t io n .
M a y g u id e

or

in s tru c t lo w e r le v e l p r o g r a m e r s .

B U S IN E S S

A n a ly z e s b u s i n e s s p r o b l e m s t o f o r m u l a t e p r o c e d u r e s f o r s o l v i n g t h e m b y u s e o f e l e c t r o n i c
d a ta p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t . D e v e l o p s a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s n e e d e d t o e n a b le
p r o g r a m e r s t o p r e p a r e r e q u i r e d d i g it a l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g ;
A n a ly z e s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o p e r a t i o n s t o b e a u t o m a t e d a n d id e n t i f i e s c o n d it i o n s a n d c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e d
to a c h ie v e s a t is fa c t o r y r e s u lt s ; s p e c i f ie s n u m b e r and ty p e s o f r e c o r d s , f i le s , and d o c u m e n ts to
b e u s e d ; o u t li n e s a c t io n s t o b e p e r f o r m e d b y p e r s o n n e l a n d c o m p u t e r s in s u f f i c i e n t d e t a il f o r
p r e s e n t a t i o n t o m a n a g e m e n t a n d f o r p r o g r a m i n g ( t y p i c a l l y t h is i n v o l v e s p r e p a r a t i o n o f w o r k and
d a ta f l o w c h a r t s ) ; c o o r d i n a t e s th e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t e s t p r o b l e m s a n d p a r t i c i p a t e s in t r i a l ru n s o f
n ew a n d r e v i s e d s y s t e m s ; a n d r e c o m m e n d s e q u ip m e n t c h a n g e s t o o b t a in m o r e e f f e c t i v e o v e r a l l
o p e r a t i o n s . (N O T E ; W o r k e r s p e r f o r m i n g b o t h s y s t e m s a n a l y s is a n d p r o g r a m i n g s h o u ld b e c l a s ­
s i f i e d a s s y s t e m s a n a l y s t s i f t h is is th e s k i l l u s e d t o d e t e r m in e t h e ir p a y .)
D o e s n o t in c lu d e e m p l o y e e s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e m a n a g e m e n t o r s u p e r v i s i o n o f
o t h e r e l e c t r o n i c d a ta p r o c e s s i n g (E D P ) e m p l o y e e s , o r s y s t e m s a n a l y s t s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w it h
s c i e n t i f i c o r e n g in e e r in g p r o b l e m s .
F o r w age

stu d y p u r p o s e s ,

sy stem s

a n a ly s ts

a re

c la s s ifie d

d ir e c t io n

to lo w e r le v e l

OR
W o r k s o n a s e g m e n t o f a c o m p l e x d a ta p r o c e s s i n g s c h e m e o r s y s t e m , a s d e s c r i b e d f o r
c l a s s A . W o r k s in d e p e n d e n t ly o n r o u t in e a s s i g n m e n t s a n d r e c e i v e s in s t r u c t io n a n d g u id a n c e
on c o m p l e x a s s i g n m e n t s . W o r k is r e v i e w e d f o r a c c u r a c y o f ju d g m e n t , c o m p l i a n c e w ith in ­
s t r u c t i o n s , a n d t o in s u r e p r o p e r a lin e m e n t w it h th e o v e r a l l s y s t e m .
C l a s s C . W o r k s u n d e r im m e d ia t e s u p e r v i s i o n , c a r r y i n g ou t a n a l y s e s a s a s s i g n e d , u s u a lly
o f a s i n g le a c t i v i t y .
A s s i g n m e n t s a r e d e s ig n e d t o d e v e l o p and e x p a n d p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e
in th e a p p l ic a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s a n d s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r s y s t e m s a n a l y s is w o r k . F o r e x a m p le ,
m a y a s s i s t a h i g h e r l e v e l s y s t e m s a n a ly s t b y p r e p a r i n g th e d e t a il e d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d
b y p r o g r a m e r s f r o m in f o r m a t io n d e v e l o p e d b y th e h i g h e r l e v e l a n a ly s t .

sy stem s

a n a ly s ts w h o a re

C la s s A .
P la n s th e g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t io n o f c o m p l e x it e m s h a v in g d i s t i n c t i v e d e s ig n
f e a t u r e s th a t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m e s t a b l is h e d d r a f t in g p r e c e d e n t s . W o r k s in c l o s e s u p ­
p o r t w ith th e d e s ig n o r i g i n a t o r , a n d m a y r e c o m m e n d m i n o r d e s ig n c h a n g e s .
A n a ly z e s the
e f f e c t o f e a c h c h a n g e on th e d e t a il s o f f o r m , f u n c t io n , a n d p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c o m ­
p o n e n ts and p a r ts .
W o r k s w ith a m in i m u m o f s u p e r v i s o r y a s s i s t a n c e .
C o m p le t e d w o r k is
r e v i e w e d b y d e s ig n o r i g i n a t o r f o r c o n s i s t e n c y w it h p r i o r e n g in e e r in g d e t e r m in a t io n s .
M ay
e it h e r p r e p a r e d r a w i n g s , o r d i r e c t t h e i r p r e p a r a t io n b y l o w e r l e v e l d r a f t s m e n .
C l a s s B . P e r f o r m s n o n r o u t in e a n d c o m p l e x d r a f t in g a s s i g n m e n t s th a t r e q u i r e th e a p p l i ­
c a t io n o f m o s t o f th e s t a n d a r d iz e d d r a w in g t e c h n i q u e s r e g u l a r l y u s e d .
D u t ie s t y p i c a l l y i n ­
v o lv e s u ch w o rk a s ;
P r e p a r e s w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s o f s u b a s s e m b l i e s w ith i r r e g u l a r s h a p e s ,
m u lt i p l e f u n c t io n s , a n d p r e c i s e p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n c o m p o n e n t s ; p r e p a r e s a r c h i ­
t e c t u r a l d r a w i n g s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b u ild in g in c lu d in g d e t a il d r a w i n g s o f fo u n d a t i o n s , w a ll
s e c t i o n s , f l o o r p l a n s , a n d r o o f . U s e s a c c e p t e d f o r m u l a s a n d m a n u a ls in m a k in g n e c e s s a r y
c o m p u t a t i o n s t o d e t e r m in e q u a n t it ie s o f m a t e r i a l s t o b e u s e d , lo a d c a p a c i t i e s , s t r e n g t h s ,
s t r e s s e s , etc.
R e c e i v e s in it ia l in s t r u c t i o n s , r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d a d v ic e f r o m s u p e r v i s o r .
C o m p le t e d w o r k is c h e c k e d f o r t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y .
C l a s s C . P r e p a r e s d e t a il d r a w i n g s o f s i n g le u n its o r p a r t s f o r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
m a n u fa c t u r i n g , o r r e p a i r p u r p o s e s . T y p e s o f d r a w i n g s p r e p a r e d in c lu d e i s o m e t r i c p r o j e c t i o n s
( d e p i c t in g t h r e e d i m i n s i o n s in a c c u r a t e s c a l e ) a n d s e c t i o n a l v ie w s t o c l a r i f y p o s it i o n in g o f
c o m p o n e n t s a n d c o n v e y n e e d e d i n f o r m a t io n . C o n s o l i d a t e s d e t a il s f r o m a n u m b e r o f s o u r c e s
and a d ju s t s o r t r a n s p o s e s s c a l e a s r e q u i r e d .
S u g g e s t e d m e t h o d s o f a p p r o a c h , a p p l ic a b l e
p r e c e d e n t s , a n d a d v ic e o n s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s a r e g iv e n w ith in it ia l a s s i g n m e n t s . I n s t r u c t io n s
a re le s s c o m p le t e w h en a s s ig n m e n ts r e c u r .
W o r k m a y b e s p o t - c h e c k e d d u r in g p r o g r e s s .
D R A F T S M A N -T R A C E R

as fo llo w s ;

C la s s A .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n t ly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o n c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s
in v o lv in g a ll p h a s e s o f s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s . P r o b l e m s a r e c o m p l e x b e c a u s e o f d i v e r s e s o u r c e s
o f in p u t d a ta a n d m u l t i p l e - u s e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f ou tp u t d a ta . ( F o r e x a m p le , d e v e l o p s an i n t e ­
g r a t e d p r o d u c t io n s c h e d u l in g , in v e n t o r y c o n t r o l , c o s t a n a l y s i s , a n d s a l e s a n a l y s is r e c o r d in
w h ic h e v e r y it e m o f e a c h ty p e is a u t o m a t i c a ll y p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h th e f u l l s y s t e m o f r e c o r d s
a n d a p p r o p r ia t e f o l lo w u p a c t io n s a r e in it ia t e d b y th e c o m p u t e r . ) C o n f e r s w it h p e r s o n s c o n ­
c e r n e d t o d e t e r m i n e th e d a ta p r o c e s s i n g p r o b l e m s a n d a d v i s e s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l on
th e im p l i c a t i o n s o f n ew o r r e v i s e d s y s t e m s o f d a ta p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s .
M akes r e c o m ­
m e n d a t io n s , i f n e e d e d , f o r a p p r o v a l o f m a j o r s y s t e m s in s t a l la t io n s o r c h a n g e s a n d f o r
o b t a in in g e q u ip m e n t .
M a y p r o v i d e fu n c t io n a l
a s s is t.

m a in t a in in g a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e in a r e t a i l e s t a b l is h m e n t , o r m a in t a in in g in v e n t o r y a c c o u n t s
in a m a n u fa c t u r i n g or. w h o l e s a l e e s t a b l is h m e n t .) C o n f e r s w ith p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d t o d e t e r m in e
th e da ta p r o c e s s i n g p r o b l e m s and a d v i s e s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l o n th e im p l i c a t i o n s o f the
d a ta p r o c e s s i n g s y s t e m s t o b e a p p lie d .

D RAFTSM AN

C la s s C .
M a k e s p r a c t i c a l a p p l ic a t i o n s o f p r o g r a m i n g p r a c t i c e s a n d c o n c e p t s u s u a l ly
le a r n e d in f o r m a l t r a in i n g c o u r s e s . A s s ig n m e n t s a r e d e s ig n e d t o d e v e l o p c o m p e t e n c e in th e
a p p l ic a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s t o r o u t in e p r o b l e m s . R e c e i v e s c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n on n ew
a s p e c t s o f a s s i g n m e n t s ; a n d w o r k is r e v i e w e d t o v e r i f y it s a c c u r a c y a n d c o n f o r m a n c e w ith
re q u ire d p r o c e d u r e s .

C O M PU TE R SYSTEM S A N A L Y S T ,

B U SIN E SS— C o n t in u e d

a s s ig n e d

to

C la s s B .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n t ly o r u n d e r o n l y g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o n p r o b l e m s th a t a r e
r e l a t i v e l y u n c o m p l i c a t e d t o a n a l y z e , p la n , p r o g r a m , a n d o p e r a t e . P r o b l e m s a r e o f li m it e d
c o m p l e x i t y b e c a u s e s o u r c e s o f in p u t d a ta a r e h o m o g e n e o u s a n d th e ou tp u t d a ta a r e c l o s e l y
re la te d .
( F o r e x a m p le , d e v e l o p s s y s t e m s f o r m a in t a in in g d e p o s i t o r a c c o u n t s in a b a n k ,

C o p i e s p la n s a n d d r a w i n g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s b y p l a c in g t r a c i n g c l o t h o r p a p e r o v e r
d r a w i n g s a n d t r a c i n g w ith p e n o r p e n c i l .
(D o e s n o t in c lu d e t r a c i n g li m i t e d t o p la n s p r i m a r i l y
c o n s i s t i n g o f s t r a i g h t li n e s a n d a l a r g e s c a l e n o t r e q u i r in g c l o s e d e l i n e a t i o n .)
a n d /o r
P r e p a r e s sim p le
d u r in g p r o g r e s s .
N U RSE,

or

r e p e t it i v e

d r a w in g s

o f e a s ily v is u a liz e d ite m s .

W o r k is

clo s e ly

s u p e r v is e d

IN D U S T R IA L (R e g is t e r e d )

A r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e w h o g i v e s n u r s in g s e r v i c e u n d e r g e n e r a l m e d i c a l d i r e c t i o n t o i l l o r
in ju r e d e m p l o y e e s o r o t h e r p e r s o n s w h o b e c o m e i l l o r s u f f e r a n a c c i d e n t on th e p r e m i s e s o f a
f a c t o r y o r o t h e r e s t a b l is h m e n t . D u t ie s i n v o l v e a c o m b in a t i o n o f th e f o l l o w i n g ;
G iv in g f i r s t a id
t o th e i l l o r i n ju r e d ; a tte n d in g t o s u b s e q u e n t d r e s s i n g o f e m p l o y e e s ' i n j u r i e s ; k e e p in g r e c o r d s
o f p a t ie n t s t r e a t e d ; p r e p a r i n g a c c i d e n t r e p o r t s f o r c o m p e n s a t io n o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s ; a s s i s t i n g in
p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d h e a lt h e v a l u a t i o n s o f a p p l ic a n t s a n d e m p l o y e e s ; a n d p la n n in g a n d c a r r y ­
in g o u t p r o g r a m s in v o l v i n g h e a lt h e d u c a t i o n , a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t io n , e v a lu a t io n o f p la n t e n v ir o n m e n t ,
o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t in g th e h e a lt h , w e l f a r e , a n d s a fe t y o f a l l p e r s o n n e l .

M A IN T E N A N C E A N D P O W E R P L A N T
CARPENTER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P e r f o r m s th e c a r p e n t r y d u tie s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t a n d m a in t a in in g o o d r e p a i r b u ild in g
w o o d w o r k a n d e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s b in s , c r i b s , c o u n t e r s , b e n c h e s , p a r t i t i o n s , d o o r s , f l o o r s , s t a i r s ,
c a s i n g s , a n d t r i m m a d e o f w o o d in an e s t a b l is h m e n t . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g ; P la n n in g
and la y in g o u t o f w o r k f r o m b l u e p r i n t s , d r a w i n g s , m o d e l s , o r v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s u s in g a v a r i e t y




CARPENTER,

M A IN T E N A N C E — C o n t in u e d

o f c a r p e n t e r 's h a n d t o o l s , p o r t a b l e p o w e r t o o l s , a n d s t a n d a r d m e a s u r i n g in s t r u m e n t s ; m a k in g
sta n d a rd sh op co m p u ta tio n s re la tin g to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k ; and s e le c t in g m a te r ia ls n e c e s s a r y
f o r th e w o r k . In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e c a r p e n t e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g and
e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l ly a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .

18
E L E C T R IC IA N ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

M E C H A N IC ,

P e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y o f e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e fu n c t io n s s u c h a s th e in s t a l l a t i o n , m a in t e n a n c e ,
o r r e p a i r o f e q u ip m e n t f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , o r u t il iz a t i o n o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y in an
e s t a b l is h m e n t . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
I n s t a ll in g o r r e p a i r i n g a n y o f a v a r i e t y o f
e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s f o r m e r s , s w i t c h b o a r d s , c o n t r o l l e r s , c i r c u i t b r e a k ­
e r s , m o t o r s , h e a t in g u n i t s , c o n d u it s y s t e m s , o r o t h e r t r a n s m i s s i o n e q u ip m e n t ; w o r k i n g f r o m
b l u e p r i n t s , d r a w i n g s , l a y o u t s , o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; l o c a t i n g a n d d i a g n o s in g t r o u b l e in th e
e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e m o r e q u ip m e n t ; w o r k i n g s t a n d a r d c o m p u t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o lo a d r e q u i r e m e n t s o f
w i r i n g o r e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t ; a n d u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f e l e c t r i c i a n 's h a n d t o o l s a n d m e a s u r i n g and
t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f t h e m a in t e n a n c e e l e c t r i c i a n r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a i n ­
in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l ly a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in i n g and
e x p e r ie n c e .
E N G IN E E R ,

S T A T IO N A R Y

O p e r a t e s a n d m a in t a in s a n d m a y a l s o s u p e r v i s e th e o p e r a t i o n o f s t a t io n a r y e n g in e s and
e q u ip m e n t ( m e c h a n i c a l o r e l e c t r i c a l ) t o s u p p ly th e e s t a b l is h m e n t in w h ic h e m p l o y e d w it h p o w e r ,
h e a t, r e fr ig e r a t io n , o r a ir -c o n d it io n in g .
W o rk in v o lv e s :
O p e r a t i n g a n d m a in t a in in g e q u ip m e n t
s u c h a s s t e a m e n g in e s , a i r c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o t o r s , t u r b i n e s , v e n t il a t i n g a n d r e f r i g ­
e r a t in g e q u ip m e n t , s t e a m b o i l e r s a n d b o i l e r - f e d w a t e r p u m p s ; m a k in g e q u ip m e n t r e p a i r s ; a n d
k e e p in g a r e c o r d o f o p e r a t i o n o f m a c h i n e r y , t e m p e r a t u r e , a n d f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n .
M a y a ls o s u ­
p e r v is e th e se o p e r a tio n s .
H e a d o r c h i e f e n g i n e e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s e m p l o y in g m o r e th a n on e
e n g in e e r a r e e x c l u d e d .
F IR E M A N ,

S T A T IO N A R Y

B O IL E R

F i r e s s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r s t o f u r n is h th e e s t a b l is h m e n t in w h ic h e m p l o y e d w it h h e a t , p o w e r ,
o r ste a m . F e e d s fu e ls to f i r e b y hand o r o p e r a t e s a m e c h a n ic a l s t o k e r , o r g a s o r o il b u r n e r ;
a n d c h e c k s w a t e r a n d s a f e t y v a l v e s . M a y c l e a n , o i l , o r a s s i s t in r e p a i r i n g b o i l e r r o o m e q u ip m e n t .
HELPER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

TRADES

A s s i s t s o n e o r m o r e w o r k e r s in th e s k i l l e d m a in t e n a n c e t r a d e s , b y p e r f o r m i n g s p e c i f i c
o r g e n e r a l d u tie s o f l e s s e r s k i l l , s u c h a s k e e p in g a w o r k e r s u p p l ie d w it h m a t e r i a l s a n d t o o l s ;
c l e a n in g .w o r k i n g a r e a , m a c h in e , a n d e q u ip m e n t ; a s s i s t i n g jo u r n e y m a n b y h o ld in g m a t e r i a l s o r
t o o l s ; a n d p e r f o r m i n g o t h e r u n s k il le d t a s k s a s d i r e c t e d b y j o u r n e y m a n .
T h e k in d o f w o r k th e
h e lp e r is p e r m itte d to p e r fo r m v a r ie s fr o m tra d e to tr a d e :
In s o m e t r a d e s th e h e l p e r is c o n ­
fi n e d t o s u p p ly in g , li f t i n g , a n d h o ld in g m a t e r i a l s a n d t o o l s a n d c l e a n in g w o r k i n g a r e a s ; a n d in
o t h e r s h e i s p e r m i t t e d t o p e r f o r m s p e c i a l i z e d m a c h in e o p e r a t i o n s , o r p a r t s o f a t r a d e th a t a r e
a ls o p e r fo r m e d b y w o r k e r s on a fu ll-t im e b a s is .
M A C H I N E -T O O L O P E R A T O R ,

TOOLROOM

S p e c i a l i z e s in th e o p e r a t i o n o f o n e o r m o r e t y p e s o f m a c h in e t o o l s , s u c h a s j i g b o r e r s ,
c y l i n d r i c a l o r s u r f a c e g r i n d e r s , e n g in e l a t h e s , o r m i l l i n g m a c h i n e s , in t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f
m a c h i n e - s h o p t o o l s , g a g e s , j i g s , f i x t u r e s , o r d i e s . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
P la n ­
n in g a n d p e r f o r m i n g d i f f i c u l t m a c h in in g o p e r a t i o n s ; p r o c e s s i n g i t e m s r e q u i r i n g c o m p l i c a t e d s e t u p s
o r a h ig h d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ; u s in g a v a r i e t y o f p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ; s e l e c t i n g f e e d s ,
s p e e d s , t o o l i n g , a n d o p e r a t i o n s e q u e n c e ; a n d m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t m e n t s d u r in g o p e r a t i o n t o
a ch ie v e r e q u is it e t o le r a n c e s o r d im e n s io n s . M a y b e r e q u ir e d to r e c o g n iz e w h en t o o ls n e e d d r e s s ­
in g , t o d r e s s t o o l s , a n d t o s e l e c t p r o p e r c o o l a n t s a n d cu t t in g a n d l u b r i c a t i n g o i l s . F o r c r o s s ­
in d u s t r y w a g e s t u d y p u r p o s e s , m a c h i n e - t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m , in t o o l and d ie j o b b in g s h o p s
a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
M A C H IN IS T ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P r o d u c e s r e p l a c e m e n t p a r t s a n d n ew p a r t s in m a k in g r e p a i r s o f m e t a l p a r t s o f m e c h a n ­
i c a l e q u ip m e n t o p e r a t e d in an e s t a b l is h m e n t . W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
I n t e r p r e t in g
w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t io n s a n d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; p la n n in g a n d la y in g ou t o f w o r k ; u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f m a ­
c h i n i s t 's h a n d t o o ls a n d p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r i n g in s t r u m e n t s ; s e t t in g up a n d o p e r a t i n g s t a n d a r d m a c h in e
t o o l s ; s h a p in g o f m e t a l p a r t s t o c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ; m a k in g s t a n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e l a t i n g t o
d i m e n s i o n s o f w o r k , t o o l i n g , f e e d s , a n d s p e e d s o f m a c h in in g ; k n o w le d g e o f th e w o r k i n g p r o p e r t i e s
o f th e c o m m o n m e t a l s ; s e l e c t i n g s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l s , p a r t s , a n d e q u ip m e n t r e q u i r e d f o r h is w o r k ;
a n d f it t in g a n d a s s e m b l i n g p a r t s in to m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t .
In g e n e r a l , th e m a c h i n i s t 's w o r k
n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d t r a in i n g in m a c h i n e - s h o p p r a c t i c e u s u a l ly a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t ic e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in i n g and e x p e r i e n c e .

M E C H A N IC ,

A U T O M O T IV E

(M a in t e n a n c e )

R e p a i r s a u t o m o b i l e s , b u s e s , m o t o r t r u c k s , a n d t r a c t o r s o f an e s t a b l is h m e n t . W o r k in ­
v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
E x a m in in g a u t o m o t iv e e q u ip m e n t t o d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ;
d i s a s s e m b l i n g e q u ip m e n t a n d p e r f o r m i n g r e p a i r s th a t in v o l v e th e u s e o f s u c h h a n d t o o ls a s
w r e n c h e s , g a g e s , d r i l l s , o r s p e c i a l i z e d e q u ip m e n t in d i s a s s e m b l i n g o r fi t t in g p a r t s ; r e p la c i n g
b r o k e n o r d e f e c t i v e p a r t s f r o m s t o c k ; g r in d in g a n d a d ju s t in g v a l v e s ; r e a s s e m b l i n g a n d in s t a l li n g




A U T O M O T IV E

(M a in t e n a n c e )---- C o n t in u e d

th e v a r i o u s a s s e m b l i e s in th e v e h i c l e a n d m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t m e n t s ; a n d a lin in g w h e e l s ,
a d ju s t in g b r a k e s a n d l i g h t s , o r t ig h t e n in g b o d y b o l t s .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e a u t o m o tiv e
m e c h a n i c r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l ly a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n ­
t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
M E C H A N IC ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

R e p a i r s m a c h i n e r y o r m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t o f a n e s t a b l is h m e n t .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t
o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
E x a m in in g m a c h in e s a n d m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t t o d i a g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ;
d i s m a n t li n g o r p a r t l y d i s m a n t li n g m a c h in e s a n d p e r f o r m i n g r e p a i r s th a t m a in l y in v o l v e th e u s e
o f h a n d t o o l s in s c r a p i n g a n d fi t t in g p a r t s ; r e p l a c i n g b r o k e n o r d e f e c t i v e p a r t s w it h it e m s o b t a in e d
f r o m s t o c k ; o r d e r i n g th e p r o d u c t io n o f a r e p l a c e m e n t p a r t b y a m a c h in e s h o p o r s e n d in g o f th e
m a c h in e t o a m a c h in e s h o p f o r m a j o r r e p a i r s ; p r e p a r i n g w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r m a jo r r e p a i r s
o r f o r t h e p r o d u c t io n o f p a r t s o r d e r e d f r o m m a c h in e s h o p ; r e a s s e m b l i n g m a c h in e s ; and m a k in g
a l l n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t m e n t s f o r o p e r a t i o n .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f a m a in t e n a n c e m e c h a n i c r e ­
q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l ly a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h i p o r
e q u iv a le n t t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e . E x c l u d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r i m a r y
d u t ie s i n v o l v e s e t t in g up o r a d ju s t in g m a c h in e s .
M IL L W R IG H T
I n s t a ll s n e w m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t , a n d d i s m a n t le s a n d i n s t a l ls m a c h in e s o r
h e a v y e q u ip m e n t w h e n c h a n g e s in th e p la n t la y o u t a r e r e q u i r e d . W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l ­
lo w i n g :
P la n n in g a n d la y in g ou t o f t h e w o r k ; in t e r p r e t in g b lu e p r in t s o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; u s in g
a v a r i e t y o f h a n d t o o ls a n d r i g g i n g ; m a k in g s t a n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e l a t i n g t o s t r e s s e s ,
s t r e n g t h o f m a t e r i a l s , a n d c e n t e r s o f g r a v i t y ; a lin in g a n d b a l a n c in g o f e q u ip m e n t ; s e l e c t i n g s t a n d ­
a r d t o o l s , e q u ip m e n t , a n d p a r t s t o b e u s e d ; a n d in s t a l li n g a n d m a in t a in in g in g o o d -o r d e r p o w e r
t r a n s m i s s i o n e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s d r i v e s a n d s p e e d r e d u c e r s .
In g e n e r a l , th e m i l l w r i g h t 's w o r k
n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e in th e t r a d e a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t ic e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
O IL E R
L u b r i c a t e s , w it h o i l o r
e q u ip m e n t o f a n e s t a b l is h m e n t .
P A IN T E R ,

grea se,

th e

m o v in g p a r t s

o r w e a r in g

s u r fa c e s

o f m e ch a n ica l

M A IN T E N A N C E

P a in t s a n d r e d e c o r a t e s w a l l s , w o o d w o r k , a n d f i x t u r e s o f an e s t a b l is h m e n t .
W o r k in ­
v o l v e s th e f o l l o w i n g : K n o w le d g e o f s u r f a c e p e c u l i a r i t i e s a n d t y p e s o f p a in t r e q u i r e d f o r d i f f e r e n t
a p p l ic a t i o n s ; p r e p a r i n g s u r f a c e f o r p a in t in g b y r e m o v i n g o ld f i n is h o r b y p l a c in g p u tty o r f i l l e r
in n a il h o l e s a n d i n t e r s t i c e s ; a n d a p p ly in g p a in t w it h s p r a y gun o r b r u s h . M a y m i x c o l o r s , o i l s ,
w h it e le a d , a n d o t h e r p a in t in g r e d i e n t s t o o b t a in p r o p e r c o l o r o r c o n s i s t e n c y .
In g e n e r a l , th e
w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e p a in t e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l ly a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h
a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
P IP E F IT T E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

I n s t a ll s o r r e p a i r s w a t e r , s t e a m , g a s , o r o t h e r t y p e s o f p ip e a n d p i p e f it t in g s in an
e s t a b l is h m e n t .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
L a y in g ou t o f w o r k a n d m e a s u r i n g t o l o ­
c a t e p o s i t i o n o f p ip e f r o m d r a w i n g s o r o t h e r w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; c u ttin g v a r i o u s s i z e s o f p ip e
t o c o r r e c t le n g t h s w it h c h i s e l a n d h a m m e r o r o x y a c e t y l e n e t o r c h o r p i p e - c u t t in g m a c h in e ; t h r e a d ­
in g p ip e w it h s t o c k s a n d d i e s ; b e n d in g p ip e b y h a n d - d r i v e n o r p o w e r - d r i v e n m a c h in e s ; a s s e m b li n g
p ip e w it h c o u p li n g s a n d fa s t e n i n g p ip e t o h a n g e r s ; m a k in g s t a n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g
t o p r e s s u r e s , f l o w , a n d s i z e o f p ip e r e q u i r e d ; a n d m a k in g s t a n d a r d t e s t s t o d e t e r m in e w h e t h e r
f i n is h e d p i p e s m e e t s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e p i p e f i t t e r r e q u i r e s
r o u n d e d t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l ly a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t
t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e . W o r k e r s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in in s t a l li n g a n d r e p a i r i n g b u ild in g s a n it a ­
t io n o r h e a t in g s y s t e m s a r e e x c l u d e d .
PLU M BER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

K e e p s th e p lu m b in g s y s t e m o f a n e s t a b l is h m e n t in g o o d o r d e r . W o r k i n v o l v e s : K n o w le d g e
o f s a n it a r y c o d e s r e g a r d in g i n s t a l la t io n o f v e n t s a n d t r a p s in p lu m b in g s y s t e m ; in s t a l li n g o r r e ­
p a i r in g p ip e s a n d f i x t u r e s ; a n d o p e n in g c l o g g e d d r a i n s w ith a p lu n g e r o r p l u m b e r 's s n a k e . In
g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e p l u m b e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly
a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

F a b r i c a t e s , i n s t a l l s , a n d m a in t a in s in g o o d r e p a i r th e s h e e t - m e t a l e q u ip m e n t a n d f i x ­
t u r e s ( s u c h a s m a c h in e g u a r d s , g r e a s e p a n s , s h e l v e s , l o c k e r s , t a n k s , v e n t i l a t o r s , c h u t e s , d u c t s ,
m e t a l r o o f in g ) o f a n e s t a b l is h m e n t .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
P la n n in g a n d la y in g
ou t a l l t y p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l m a in t e n a n c e w o r k f r o m b lu e p r in t s , m o d e l s , o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ;
s e t t in g u p a n d o p e r a t i n g a ll a v a il a b l e t y p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k i n g m a c h i n e s ; u s in g a v a r i e t y o f

19
S H E E T -M E T A L

W ORKER,

M A IN T E N A N C E ---- C o n t in u e d

T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R ---- C o n tin u e d

h a n d t o o ls in c u t t in g , b e n d in g , f o r m i n g , s h a p in g , f i t t in g , a n d a s s e m b l i n g ; a n d in s t a l li n g s h e e t m e t a l a r t i c l e s a s r e q u i r e d . In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r r e q u i r e s
r o u n d e d t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l ly a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t
t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R
(D ie

m a k e r; jig

m a k e r ; t o o l m a k e r ; fi x t u r e

m a k e r; gage m a k er)

C o n s t r u c t s a n d r e p a i r s m a c h i n e - s h o p t o o l s , g a g e s , j i g s , fi x t u r e s o r d i e s f o r f o r g i n g s ,
p u n c h in g , a n d o t h e r m e t a l - f o r m i n g w o r k .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : P la n n in g and
la y in g o u t o f w o r k f r o m m o d e l s , b lu e p r in t s , d r a w i n g s , o r o t h e r o r a l a n d w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ;

u s in g a v a r i e t y o f t o o l a n d d ie m a k e r 's h a n d t o o ls a n d p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r i n g in s t r u m e n t s ; u n d e r ­
sta n d in g o f th e w o r k i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f c o m m o n m e t a l s a n d a l l o y s ; s e t t in g up a n d o p e r a t i n g o f
m a c h in e t o o l s a n d r e l a t e d e q u ip m e n t ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e l a t i n g t o d i m e n s i o n s
o f w o r k , s p e e d s , f e e d s , a n d t o o li n g o f m a c h in e s ; h e a t - t r e a t in g o f m e t a l p a r t s d u r in g f a b r i c a t i o n
a s w e l l a s o f f i n is h e d t o o l s a n d d i e s t o a c h i e v e r e q u i r e d q u a l it i e s ; w o r k in g t o c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ;
f it t in g a n d a s s e m b l i n g o f p a r t s t o p r e s c r i b e d t o l e r a n c e s a n d a ll o w a n c e s ; and s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r ia t e
m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s , a n d p r o c e s s e s . In g e n e r a l , th e t o o l a n d d ie m a k e r 's w o r k r e q u i r e s a ro u n d e d
t r a in i n g in m a c h i n e - s h o p a n d t o o l r o o m p r a c t i c e u s u a l ly a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h i p
o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
^

shop s

F o r c r o s s - in d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s ,
a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

t o o l and

d ie m a k e r s

in

t o o l and d ie jo b b in g

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E I V I N G

GUARD AND W ATCH M AN
G uard.
P e r f o r m s r o u t in e p o l i c e d u t i e s , e i t h e r a t f i x e d p o s t o r on t o u r , m a in t a in in g
o r d e r , u s in g a r m s o r f o r c e w h e r e n e c e s s a r y .
I n c lu d e s g a t e m e n w h o a r e s t a t io n e d at g a te
a n d c h e c k on id e n t it y o f e m p l o y e e s a n d o t h e r p e r s o n s e n t e r i n g .
W a tch m a n .
M a k e s ro u n d s
t h e ft , a n d i l l e g a l e n t r y .
J A N IT O R ,

PORTER,

(S w e e p e r ;

o f p r e m is e s

p e r i o d i c a l l y in p r o t e c t i n g

p r o p e r t y a g a in s t f i r e ,

OR CLEANER

P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h ip m e n t , o r r e c e i v e s a n d is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r in c o m in g s h i p ­
m e n ts o f m e r c h a n d is e o r o th e r m a te r ia ls .
S h ip p in g w o r k i n v o l v e s : A k n o w le d g e o f sh ip p in g
p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c t i c e s , r o u t e s , a v a il a b l e m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and r a t e ; a n d p r e p a r i n g r e c ­
o r d s o f th e g o o d s s h ip p e d , m a k in g up b i l l s o f la d in g , p o s t in g w e ig h t a n d s h ip p in g c h a r g e s , and
k e e p in g a f i l e o f s h ip p in g r e c o r d s . M a y d i r e c t o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r i n g th e m e r c h a n d is e f o r s h i p ­
m en t.
R e c e i v i n g w o r k i n v o l v e s : V e r i f y i n g o r d i r e c t i n g o t h e r s in v e r i f y i n g th e c o r r e c t n e s s o f
s h ip m e n t s a g a in s t b i l l s o f la d in g , i n v o i c e s , o r o t h e r r e c o r d s ; c h e c k i n g f o r s h o r t a g e s a n d r e j e c t i n g
d a m a g e d g o o d s ; r o u t in g m e r c h a n d i s e o r m a t e r i a l s t o p r o p e r d e p a r t m e n t s ; a n d m a in t a in in g n e c e s ­
s a r y r e c o r d s and file s .

ch a rw o m a n ; ja n it r e s s )
F o r w age

C le a n s a n d k e e p s in a n o r d e r l y c o n d it i o n f a c t o r y w o r k i n g a r e a s a n d w a s h r o o m s , o r
p r e m i s e s o f an o f f i c e , a p a r t m e n t h o u s e , o r c o m m e r c i a l o r o t h e r e s t a b l is h m e n t . D u t ie s in v o l v e
a c o m b in a t i o n o f th e f o l l o w i n g : S w e e p in g , m o p p in g o r s c r u b b i n g , a n d p o l is h in g f l o o r s ; r e m o v i n g
c h i p s , t r a s h , a n d o t h e r r e f u s e ; d u s t in g e q u ip m e n t , f u r n i t u r e , o r f i x t u r e s ; p o l is h in g m e t a l f i x t u r e s
o r t r i m m i n g s ; p r o v id i n g s u p p l ie s a n d m in o r m a in t e n a n c e s e r v i c e s ; a n d c le a n in g l a v a t o r i e s , s h o w ­
e r s , and r e s t r o o m s . W o r k e r s w h o s p e c i a l i z e in w in d o w w a s h in g a r e e x c l u d e d .
LABORER,

stu d y p u r p o s e s ,

R e c e iv in g c le r k
S h ip p in g c l e r k
S h ip p in g a n d r e c e i v i n g

w ork ers

a re

c la s s ifie d

as fo llo w s :

c le r k

T R U C K D R IV E R

M A T E R I A L H A N D L IN G

( L o a d e r a n d u n l o a d e r ; h a n d le r a n d s t a c k e r ; s h e l v e r ; t r u c k e r ; s t o c k m a n o r s t o c k h e l p e r ; w a r e ­
h o u s e m a n o r w a r e h o u s e h e lp e r)
A w o r k e r e m p l o y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t, s t o r e , o r o t h e r e s t a b l is h m e n t
w h o s e d u t ie s in v o l v e o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
L o a d in g a n d u n lo a d in g v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s and
m e r c h a n d i s e o n o r f r o m fr e ig h t c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o t h e r t r a n s p o r t i n g d e v i c e s ; u n p a c k in g , s h e l v in g ,
o r p l a c in g m a t e r i a l s o r m e r c h a n d i s e in p r o p e r s t o r a g e l o c a t i o n ; a n d t r a n s p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l s o r
m e r c h a n d is e b y h a n d tru ck , c a r , o r w h e e lb a r r o w .
L o n g s h o r e m e n , w h o lo a d a n d u n lo a d s h ip s a r e
e x clu d e d .
ORDER

CLERK

D r i v e s a t r u c k w it h in a c i t y o r in d u s t r ia l a r e a t o t r a n s p o r t m a t e r i a l s , m e r c h a n d is e ,
e q u ip m e n t , o r m e n b e t w e e n v a r io u s t y p e s o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s s u c h a s : M a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t s , fr e ig h t
d e p o t s , w a r e h o u s e s , w h o l e s a l e a n d r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , o r b e t w e e n r e t a il e s t a b l is h m e n t s and
c u s t o m e r s * h o u s e s o r p l a c e s o f b u s i n e s s . M a y a l s o lo a d o r u n lo a d t r u c k w it h o r w ith o u t h e l p e r s ,
m a k e m in o r m e c h a n i c a l r e p a i r s , a n d k e e p t r u c k in g o o d w o r k i n g o r d e r .
D r i v e r - s a l e s m e n and
o v e r -t h e - ro a d d r iv e r s a re e x c lu d e d .
F o r w a g e s tu d y p u r p o s e s , t r u c k d r i v e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y s i z e a n d t y p e
as fo llo w s :
( T r a c t o r - t r a i l e r s h o u ld b e r a t e d on th e b a s i s o f t r a i l e r c a p a c i t y .)

o f e q u ip m e n t ,

F IL L E R

(O r d e r

p ick e r;

stock

s e le c to r ; w areh ou se

stock m an )

F i l l s s h ip p in g o r t r a n s f e r o r d e r s f o r fi n is h e d g o o d s f r o m s t o r e d m e r c h a n d i s e in a c c o r d ­
a n c e w ith s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on s a le s s l i p s , c u s t o m e r s * o r d e r s , o r o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s . M a y , i n a d d i t i o n
to f i ll in g o r d e r s and in d ic a t in g i t e m s f i l l e d o r o m it t e d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f o u t g o in g o r d e r s , r e q u i ­
s i t io n a d d it io n a l s t o c k o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p l ie s t o s u p e r v i s o r , a n d p e r f o r m o t h e r r e l a t e d d u t ie s .

T r u c k d r i v e r (c o m b i n a t i o n o f s i z e s l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y )
T r u c k d r i v e r , lig h t (u n d e r 1V2 to n s )
T r u c k d r i v e r , m e d iu m ( 1 V2 t o and in c lu d in g 4 t o n s )
T r u c k d r iv e r , h e a v y (o v e r 4 t o n s , t r a il e r ty p e)
T r u c k d r i v e r , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 t o n s , o t h e r th a n t r a i l e r ty p e )

TRUCKER,
PACKER,

POW ER

S H IP P IN G

P r e p a r e s f i n is h e d p r o d u c t s f o r s h ip m e n t o r s t o r a g e b y p l a c in g t h e m in s h ip p in g c o n ­
t a i n e r s , th e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n s p e r f o r m e d b e in g d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e t y p e , s i z e , a n d n u m b e r o f
u n its to b e p a c k e d , th e ty p e o f c o n t a in e r e m p l o y e d , a n d m e t h o d o f s h ip m e n t . W o r k r e q u i r e s th e
p l a c in g o f i t e m s in s h ip p in g c o n t a in e r s and m a y in v o l v e on e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
K n o w l­
e d g e o f v a r i o u s it e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r t o v e r i f y c o n t e n t ; s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r ia t e t y p e a n d s i z e
o f c o n t a in e r ; in s e r t i n g e n c l o s u r e s in c o n t a in e r ; u s in g e x c e l s i o r o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l t o p r e v e n t
b r e a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c l o s i n g a n d s e a li n g c o n t a in e r ; a n d a p p ly in g l a b e l s o r e n t e r in g id e n t if y in g
d a ta on c o n t a in e r . P a c k e r s w h o a l s o m a k e w o o d e n b o x e s o r c r a t e s a r e e x c l u d e d .




O p era tes a
t r a n s p o r t g o o d s and
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m a n u a lly c o n t r o l l e d
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m a t e r i a l s o f a ll k in d s <*Dout a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t, o r o t h e r

F o r w a g e s t u d y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f t r u c k , a s f o l l o w s :
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T ru ck er,

pow er
pow er

( f o r k l if t )
(o t h e r th a n f o r k li f t )

A va ilab le O n

R e q u e s t -----

T h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s a r e s u r v e y e d p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r u s e in a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e S e r v i c e C o n t r a c t A c t o f 1 9 6 5 .
a v a i l a b l e a t n o c o s t w h i l e s u p p l i e s l a s t f r o m a n y o f t h e B L S r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s s h o w n on t h e i n s i d e f r o n t c o v e r .

A b ilen e, T e x.
A lask a
A lb any , G a.
A lexan d ria, L a.
A lp e n a , S t a n d is h , and T a w a s C ity , M ich .
A m arillo, Tex.
Ann A r b o r , M ich .
A s h e v ille , N .C .
A tlan tic C ity , N .J.
A u g u s t a , G a . —S . C .
A u stin , T e x.
B a k e r s f ie ld , C alif.
B aton R ou g e, L a .
B i l l i n g s , M ont.
B ilo x i, G u lfp o rt, and P a s c a g o u l a , M i s s .
B r i d g e p o r t , N o r w a lk , and S t a m f o r d , Conn.
C h a rle sto n , S.C .
C h e y e n n e , W yo.
C la r k s v ille , T e n n ., and H o p k in sv ille, Ky.
C o lo r a d o S p r in g s , C olo.
C olu m b ia, S.C .
C o lu m b u s , G a.— la .
A
C r a n e , Ind.
D e c a t u r , 111.
D oth an, A la .
D u lu th — u p e r i o r , M in n .— i s .
S
W
D u r h a m , N .C .
E l P a so , Tex.
Eugene, O reg.
F a r g o — o o r h e a d , N. D a k . —M in n .
M
F a y e t t e v i l l e , N .C .
F itch b u rg— e o m in ste r, M a ss.
L
F o r t S m i t h , A r k . —O k l a .
F r e d e r i c k — a g e r s t o w n , M d .—P a . —
H
W. V a .
G r e a t F a l l s , M ont.
G r e e n s b o r o ^ W in st o n S a le m — igh P o in t, N .C .
H
H a rrisb u rg , P a.
H a r t fo r d , Conn.
H u n tsv ille, A la.

C o p ie s of p ub lic r e l e a s e s

K n oxville, Tenn.
L ared o, Tex.
L a s V e g a s , Nev.
Lexin gton , Ky.
L o w e r E a s t e r n S h o r e , M d .—V a .
L y n c h b u rg , Va.
M acon, Ga.
M a d is o n , W is.
M a r q u e tt e , E s c a n a b a , S a u lt Ste. M a r i e , M ich
M erid ian , M is s .
M id d le s e x , M onm outh , O c e a n and S o m e r s e t
C o s., N .J.
M o b ile, A la ., and P e n s a c o la , F la .
M o n tg o m e ry , A la.
N a sh v ille , Tenn.
N e w L o n d o r r - G r o t o n — o r w i c h , C on n .
N
N o r t h e a s t e r n M aine
O g d e n , U ta h
O rlan do, F la .
O xn ard— en tura, C alif.
V
P a n a m a C ity , F la .
P in e B luff, A rk.
P o r t s m o u t h , N .H .—M a i n e — a s s .
M
P u e b lo , C olo.
Reno, Nev.
S a c r a m e n to , C alif.
S a lin a , K an s.
S a lin a s — o n te re y , C alif.
M
S a n ta B a r b a r a , C alif.
Sh revepo rt, L a.
S p r i n g f i e l d — h i c o p e e H H o l y o k e , M a s s . —C o n n .
C
Stockton, C alif.
T a c o m a , W ash.
Topeka, K ans.
T u cson , A riz.
V a ld o sta , Ga.
V a lle jo — ap a, C alif.
N
W ich ita F a l l s , T e x .
W i l m i n g t o n , D e l . —N . J . —M d .

T h e e l e v e n t h a n n u a l r e p o r t on s a l a r i e s f o r a c c o u n t a n t s , a u d i t o r s , c h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s , a t t o r n e y s , j o b a n a l y s t s , d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l ,
b u y e r s , c h e m i s t s , e n g in e e r s , e n g in e e rin g te c h n ic ia n s , d r a f ts m e n , and c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s .
O r d e r a s B L S B u lle tin 1693, N atio n al
S u rv e y of P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d m in is t r a t iv e , T e c h n ic a l, and C l e r i c a l P a y , Ju n e 1 9 7 0 , $ 1 .0 0 a copy, f r o m the Su p erin ten d en t of D o c u m e n ts,
U .S . G o v e r n m e n t P r in tin g O ffic e , W ash in gton , D .C ., 2 0 4 0 2 , o r any of its r e g io n a l s a l e s o f f ic e s .




are

A rea

W a g e

S urveys

A l i s t of the l a t e s t a v a i l a b l e b u l l e t i n s i s p r e s e n t e d b e lo w . A d i r e c t o r y of a r e a w a g e s t u d i e s in c lu d in g m o r e l i m i t e d s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d at the
r e q u e s t of the W a ge and H o u r D i v i s i o n of the D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r i s a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t . B u l l e t i n s m a y b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m the S u p e r i n te n d e n t of
D o c u m e n t s , U .S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n , D . C . , 204 0 2 , o r f r o m an y of the B L S r e g i o n a l s a l e s o f f i c e s shown on the i n s i d e f ro n t c o v e r .

A rea

B u lletin num ber
an d p r i c e

A k r o n , O h io , J u l y 1970___________________ _____ ____ _
1660-88,
A l b a n y - S c h e n e c t a d y —T r o y , N . Y . , F e b . 1970__________ 1 6 6 0 - 5 1 ,
A l b u q u e r q u e , N. M e x . , M a r . 1970 1____________________ 1 6 6 0 - 5 5 ,
A lle n t o w n — e t h l e h e m —E a s t o n , P a . — . J . , M a y 1970 L . 1 6 6 0 - 8 3 ,
B
N
A t l a n t a , G a . , M a y 1970 1------------------------------------------ 1 6 6 0 - 7 6 ,
B a l t i m o r e , M d . , Aug. 1970 1 ______ ____________________ 1 6 8 5 - 1 8 ,
_
B e a u m o n t — o r t A r t h u i — r a n g e , T e x . , M a y 1 9 7 0 ____ 1 6 6 0 - 8 4 ,
P
O
B i n g h a m t o n , N . Y . , J u l y 1 9 7 0 _____________ _____________ 1 6 8 5 - 6 ,
B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , M a r . 1970__________________ _______ 1 6 6 0 - 5 7 ,
1685-21,
B o i s e C i t y , Idaho, Nov. 1970 1 ____________ __________ _
B o s t o n , M a s s . , Aug. 1970 1 ____________________ ________ 1 685-1 1,
B u f f a l o , N . Y . , O c t. 1 9 6 9 ---------------------- -------------------- 1 6 6 0 - 2 9 ,
B u r l i n g t o n , V t . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 _ „ _________ ________________
1660-53,
C an to n , O h io, M a y 1970 1_____________ _________________ 1 6 6 0 - 8 1 ,
C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a . , A p r . 1970 1— ----------------------- _--- 1 6 6 0 - 6 8 ,
C h a r l o t t e , N . C . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 1 ___________ ________________ 1 6 6 0 - 6 1 ,
C h a t t a n o o g a , T e n n .— a . , S e p t . 1970 1 ___ _____ __________ 1 6 8 5 - 1 0 ,
G
C h i c a g o , 111., J u n e 1970------------------------ ------ ------------ 1 6 6 0 - 9 0 ,
C i n c in n a t i , O hio— y .—I n d . , F e b . 1 9 7 0 _________________ 1 6 6 0 - 4 9 ,
K
C l e v e l a n d , O h io , S e p t . 1969—_______ ____________________ 1 6 6 0 - 2 2 ,
C o l u m b u s , O h io , O c t. 1969----------------- ----- --------------- 1 6 6 0 - 2 7 ,
D a l l a s , T e x . , O ct. 1 9 6 9 ----------------- ------ -------------------- 1 6 6 0 - 2 3 ,
D a v e n p o r t — o c k I s l a n d — o l i n e , Iowa—
R
M
111.,
Oct. 1969 1-------------------------------- -— -------------- -------- 1 6 6 0 - 2 0 ,
D ay ton , O h io, D e c . 1 9 6 9 ------------------------------------------ 1 6 6 0 - 3 7 ,
D e n v e r , C o l o . , D e c . 1 9 6 9 1--------------------------------------- 1 6 6 0 - 4 1 ,
D e s M o i n e s , Iow a, M a y 1970 1 ______ __________________ 1 6 6 0 - 7 3 ,
D e t r o i t , M i c h ., F e b . 1 9 7 0 ______________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 5 8 ,
F o r t W o rth , T e x . , O ct. 1969___________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 1 8 ,
G r e e n B a y , W i s . , J u l y 1970 1 ------------- ----------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 4 ,
G r e e n v i l l e , S . C . , M a y 1 9 7 0 -------------------------------------- 1 6 6 0 - 7 9 ,
H o u s t o n , T e x . , A p r . 1970-------------—....________________ 1 6 6 0 - 6 7 ,
I n d i a n a p o l i s , Ind., O c t. 1969___________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 2 5 ,
J a c k s o n , M i s s . , J a n . 1970---------------------------------------- 1 6 6 0 - 3 9 ,
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , D e c . 1 9 6 9 ____ _____________________ 1 6 6 0 - 3 5 ,
K a n s a s C i t y , M o . - K a n s . , S e p t . 1970 1_________________ 1 6 8 5 - 1 6 ,
L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i l l , M a s s . — .H ., J u n e 1 9 7 0 1_______ 1 6 6 0 - 8 2 ,
H
N
L i t t l e R ock— o r t h L i t t l e R o c k , A r k . , J u l y 1970 1____ 1665- 1,
N
L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h an d A n a h e im — a n t a A n a S
G a r d e n G r o v e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1970____________________ 1 6 6 0 - 6 4 ,
L o u i s v i l l e , K y . ~ I n d . , N ov. 1969 1______________________ 1 6 6 0 - 2 8 ,
L u b b o c k , T e x . , M a r . 1970 1____________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 5 0 ,
M a n c h e s t e r , N .H ., J u l y 1970 1 ____ ___ ________________
1685-2,
M e m p h i s , T e n n .— r k . , Nov. 1969 1 _________________ ___ 1 6 6 0 - 3 1 ,
A
M i a m i , F l a . , N ov. 1 9 6 9 ----------------------- -------------------- 1 6 6 0 - 3 2 ,
M i d la n d and O d e s s a , T e x . , J a n . 1970 1 ________________ 1 6 6 0 - 4 4 ,
M i lw a u k e e , W i s . , M a y 1 9 7 0 1™
_________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 7 4 ,
M in n eap olis—
St. P a u l , M in n ,, J a n . 1970 1 ____________ 1 6 6 0 - 4 6 ,
D a ta on e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c tic e s a n d su p plem en tary w a g e provision s are a lso presented .




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50
50

c e n ts
c e n ts
cents
cents
c e n ts
cents
cents
cents
cents

A rea

Bu lletin num ber
and p r i c e

M u s k e g o r r - M u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M i c h ., J u n e 1970 1 ______ 1 6 6 0 - 8 5 ,
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C i ty , N . J . , J a n . 1970 1 ____________ 1 6 6 0 - 4 7 ,
New H a v e n , C o n n ., J a n . 1970 x„ ________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 4 0 ,
N ew O r l e a n s , L a . , J a n . 1970--------------------------------- 1660-42,
New Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r . 1 9 7 0 1 ------------------------------------ 1 6 6 0 - 8 9 ,
N o r f o l k — o r t s m o u t h an d N e w p o r t N e w s —
P
H a m p t o n , V a . , J a n . 1 9 7 0 1 ____________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 5 9 ,
O k l a h o m a C i t y , O k l a . , J u l y 1970_______________________ 1 6 8 5 - 5 ,
O m a h a , N e b r . - I o w a , S e p t . 1970 1______________ ________ 1 6 8 5 - 1 4 ,
P a t e r s o n — l i f t o r r - P a s s a i c , N . J . , J u n e 1970 1 ___________ 1 6 6 0 - 8 7 ,
C
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . — . J . , N ov. 1969 1 ___________________
N
1660-48,
P h o e n i x , A r i z . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 1_____ _______________________ 1 6 6 0 - 7 0 ,
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , J a n . 1 9 7 0 1____________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 6 0 ,
P o r t l a n d , M a i n e , Nov. 1970-------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 1 9 ,
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . — a s h . , M a y 1970 1 ___________________ 1 6 6 0 - 7 7 ,
W
P r o v i d e n c e —P a w t u c k e t — a r w ic k , R .I .— a s s . ,
W
M
M a y 1 9 7 0 --------------------- --------------------------------------* __ 1 6 6 0 - 7 2 ,
R a l e i g h , N . C . , A ug. 1 9 7 0 .1 ---------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 1 2 ,
R i c h m o n d , V a . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 * _____ _______________________ 1 6 6 0 - 6 5 ,
R o c h e s t e r , N .Y . ( o f f ic e o c c u p a t i o n s only),
A u g . 1970--------------------------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 7 ,
R o c k f o r d , 111., M a y 1970 1 ______________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 7 5 ,
St. L o u i s , M o.—
111., M a r . 1970_________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 6 6 ,
S a l t L a k e C i t y , U tah, Nov. 1969 1 ______________________ 1 6 6 0 - 3 0 ,
S a n A n to n io , T e x . , M a y 1970___________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 7 1 ,
S a n B e r n a r d i n o — i v e r s i d e — n t a r io , C a l i f . ,
R
O
D a c . 1969--------------------------------------------------------------- 1 6 6 0 - 4 3 ,
S a n D ie g o , C a l i f . , Nov. 1970_______________________ ____ 1 6 8 5 - 2 0 ,
S a n F r a n c i s c o — a k l a n d , C a l i f . , Oct. 1969 1 _____________ 1 6 6 0 - 3 3 ,
O
S a n J o s e , C a l i f . , A u g . 1970_____________________________ 1 6 8 5 - 1 3 ,
S a v a n n a h , G a . , M a y 1970 1 ______________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 8 0 ,
S c r a n t o n , P a . , J u l y 1970 1 _____________________________ 1 6 8 5 - 3 ,
S e a t t l e — v e r e t t , W a s h . , J a n . 1970_____________________ 1 6 6 0 - 5 2 ,
E
S i o u x F a l l s , S. D a k ., S e p t . 1969_________ - _____________ 1 6 6 0 - 1 4 ,
_
South B e n d , Ind., M a r . 1 9 7 0 1----------------------------------- 1 6 6 0 - 6 2 ,
S p o k a n e , W a s h . , J u n e 1970 1 ___________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 8 6 ,
S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , J u l y 1 9 7 0 ______,___________________ ,___ 1 6 8 5 - 8 ,
Tam pa—
St. P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , N ov. 1970_______________ 1 6 8 5 - 1 7 ,
T o l e d o , Ohicr-M ich ., F e b . 1970_________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 5 6 ,
T r e n t o n , N . J . , S e p t . 1970 1 _____________ ________________ 1685- 15,
U tic a — o m e , N . Y . , J u l y 1 9 7 0 __________________________ 1 6 8 5 - 9 ,
R
W a sh in g to n , D . C . - M d . - V a . , S e p t . 1969 1 _______________ 1 6 6 0 - 1 9 ,
W a t e r b u r y , C o n n ., M a r . 1970 1 _________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 5 4 ,
W a t e r l o o , Iow a, J a n . 1 9 7 0 „ _ _ __________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 4 5 ,
W ic h ita, K a n s . , A p r . 1970 1 .__________________________ _ 1 6 6 0 - 6 9 ,
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , M a y 1970 1 ___ _____________________ 1 6 6 0 - 7 8 ,
Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1970 1 __________________ ________________ 1 6 6 0 - 6 3 ,
Y o u n g sto w n — a r r e n , O hio, Nov. 1969 1 _______________ 1 6 6 0 - 3 8 ,
W

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON. O.C.

20212

OFFICIAL BUSINESS
P E N A LT Y FOR P R IV A TE USE. $300




POSTAGE A N D FEES PAID

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

FIRST CLASS MAIL

I