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A re a Wage S u rv e y

The South Bend, Indiana, Metropolitan Area
March 1968
South Bend

ST. J O S E P H

Bulletin No. 1575-56




MARSHALL

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES

N ew England

John F . K ennedy F e d e ra l B uilding
G ov ern m en t C en ter
R oom 1603-B
B oston, L i s s . 02203
T e l.: 223-6762




Mid-Atlantic

341 N inth A ve.
New Y ork, N. Y. 10001
T e l.: 971-5405

Southern

1371 P e a c h tre e S t., N E.
A tlan ta, G a. 30309
T e l.: 526-5418

North Central

219 South D earborn St.
C hicago, 111. 60604
T e l.: 353-7230

P a d fic
450 G olden G ate A v e .
Box 36017
San F ra n c is c o , C a lif. 94102
T e l . : 556-4678

Mountain-Plains
F e d e r a l O ffic e B uilding
T h ir d F lo o r
911 W alnut St.
K a n sa s C ity , M o . 64106
T e l . : 374-2481

Area Wage Survey
The South Bend, Indiana, Metropolitan Area




March 1968

Bulletin No. 1575-56

June 1968
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

For sole by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D .C., 2 0 4 0 2 - Price 30 cents




P reface

The B ureau of Labor S tatistics program of annual
occupational w age su rv ey s in m etropolitan areas is d e­
sign ed to provide data on occupational earn in gs, and esta b ­
lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary w age p ro vision s. It
yield s d etailed data by se lec te d industry d ivision for each
o f the areas stu d ied , for geographic region s, and for the
United S tates. A m ajor consideration in the program is
the need for g rea ter in sigh t into (1) the m ovem ent of w ages
by occupational ca tegory and sk ill le v e l, and (2) the str u c­
ture and le v e l of w a ges am ong areas and industry d ivision s.
At the end of each su rvey, an individual area bul­
letin p resen ts su rvey r e su lts for each area studied. A fter
com p letion of a ll of the individual area bulletins for a
round of su r v e y s, a tw o-p art sum m ary bulletin is issu ed .
The fir s t part b rin gs data for each of the m etropolitan
area s stu died into one bu lletin . The second part p resen ts
inform ation w h ich has been projected from individual m et­
rop olitan area data to rela te to geographic regions and the
U nited S tates.
E ig h ty -six area s curren tly are included in the
p rogram . In each a r ea , inform ation on occupational ea rn ­
ings is co llected annually and on establishm ent p ra ctices
and supplem entary w age p rovision s biennially.
T his b u lletin p resen ts resu lts of the survey in
South B end, Ind. , in M arch 1968. The Standard M etro­
politan S ta tistic a l A rea , as defined by the Bureau of the
B udget through A p ril 1967, co n sists of St. Joseph and
M arsh all C ou n ties. T his study w as conducted in the
B ureau's region al office in C hicago, 111. , Thom as J.
M cA rd le, D irecto r. The study w as under the gen eral
d irection of W oodrow C. L inn, A ssista n t R egional D ir e c ­
tor of O p eration s.




Contents

Page
Introduction________________________________________________________________ 1
Wage trends for selected occupational groups___________________________ 4
T ables:
1. E stab lish m en ts and w orkers w ithin scope of su rvey and
number stu d ied ___________________________________________________ 3
2. Indexes of standard w eekly sa la r ie s and stra ig h t-tim e
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups, and
p ercen ts of change for selected p e r io d s_______________________
4
A. O ccupational earnings:*
A - l. O ffice occupations—m en and w om en_______________________ 6
A -2 . P ro fessio n a l and tech n ical occupations—m en and
w om en_____________________________________________________ 8
A -3. O ffice, p ro fessio n a l, and tech n ical occupations—
m en and w om en com b in ed ________________________________ 9
A -4 . M aintenance and pow erplant occu p ation s_________________ 10
A -5 . C ustodial and m aterial m ovem ent o ccu p ation s___________ 11
B. E stab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary w age p rovision s:*
B - l. M inim um entrance sa la rie s for w om en office
w o rk ers___________________________________________________ 12
B -2 . Shift d iffere n tia ls__________________________________________ 13
B -3 . Scheduled w eekly h o u r s_________________________
14
B -4 . Paid holidays_______________________________________________ 15
B -5 . Paid v a c a tio n s_____________________________________________ 16
B -6 . H ealth, insu ran ce, and pen sion p lan s____________________ 19
B -7 . P rem ium pay for overtim e w o rk __________________________ 20
Appendix. O ccupational d escrip tio n s___________________________________ 21
*NOTE: S im ilar tabulations are available for other
(See inside back co v er.)
A curren t report on earnings in the South Bend area
is also available for food serv ic e occupations (M arch 1968).
Union s c a le s , indicative of p revailin g pay le v e ls , are
available for building construction; printing; lo c a l-tr a n sit
operating em ployees; and m otortruck d r iv e r s, h elp ers, and
allied occupations.
a rea s.

iii




Area Wage Survey
The South Bend, Ind., Metropolitan Area

Introduction
This area is 1 of 86 in w hich the U .S . D epartm ent of L abor's
B ureau of Labor S ta tistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings
and related b en efits on an areaw ide b a sis. In this area, data w ere
obtained by p erson al v is its of Bureau field econom ists to re p re­
sen tative estab lish m en ts w ithin six broad industry d ivisions: M anu­
facturing; tran sp ortation, com m unication, and other public u tilities;
w h olesale trade; r e ta il trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and
s e r v ic e s . M ajor industry groups excluded from these studies are
governm ent op eration s and the construction and extractive in d u stries.
E stab lish m en ts having few er than a prescrib ed number of w orkers are
om itted b ecau se they tend to furnish insufficient em ploym ent in the
occupations studied to w arrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are
provided for each of the broad industry divisions which m eet pub­
lica tion C riteria.
T hese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b asis because of
the u n n ecessa ry c o st involved in surveying a ll estab lish m en ts. To
obtain optim um accu ra cy at m inim um co st, a greater proportion of
large than of sm a ll estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data,
h ow ever, a ll estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E s­
tim ates based on the estab lish m en ts studied are presented, th erefore,
as relatin g to a ll estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area,
excep t for those below the m inim um size studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations selec te d for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries, and are of the
follow ing types: (1) O ffice clerica l; (2) p rofession al and technical;
(3) m aintenance and powerplant; and (4) custodial and m a teria l m ove­
m ent. O ccupational cla ssific a tio n is based on a uniform set of job
d escrip tion s d esign ed to take account of interestab lishm ent variation
in duties w ithin the sam e job. The occupations selected for study
are liste d and d escrib ed in the appendix. The earnings data follow ing
the job title s are for a ll in d u stries com bined. Earnings data for som e
of the occupations liste d and d escrib ed , or for som e industry division s
w ithin occu p ation s, are not presented in the A -s e r ie s ta b les, because
eith er (1) em ploym ent in the occupation is too sm all to provide enough
data to m er it p resen tation , or (2) there is p ossib ility of d isclo su re
of individual estab lish m en t data.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w o rk er s, i. e. , those hired to work a regular w eekly schedule
in the given occupational cla ssifica tio n . Earnings data exclude p re­
m ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and
late sh ifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but co st-o f-liv in g




allow ances and incentive earnings are included. W here w eekly hours
are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occupations, referen ce is to the
standard workw eek (rounde'd to the n ea rest half hour) for which em ­
p loyees re ceiv e their regular straigh t-tim e sa la rie s (exclu sive of pay
for overtim e at regular and/or prem ium ra tes). A verage w eek ly earn ­
ings for th ese occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half dollar.
The averag es presented re fle ct com p osite, areaw ide e s ti­
m ates. Industries and estab lish m en ts differ in pay lev el and job
staffing and, thus, contribute d ifferen tly to the estim a tes for each job.
The pay relationship obtainable from the averages m ay fail to reflect
accu rately the wage spread or d ifferen tial m aintained am ong jobs in
individual estab lish m en ts. S im ilarly, d ifferen ces in average pay
lev els for m en and w om en in any of the selected occupations should
not be assu m ed to re fle ct d ifferen ces in pay treatm ent of the sexes
w ithin individual estab lish m en ts. Other p ossib le factors which m ay
contribute to d ifferen ces in pay for m en and wom en include: D iffer­
ences in p ro g ressio n w ithin estab lish ed rate ran ges, sin ce only the
actual rates paid incum bents are collected; and d ifferen ces in sp ecific
duties p erform ed, although the w orkers are cla ssifie d appropriately
w ithin the sam e su rvey job descrip tion . Job d escrip tion s used in
cla ssifyin g em p loyees in these su rveys are usu ally m ore generalized
than those used in individual estab lish m en ts and allow for m inor
d ifferen ces among estab lish m en ts in the sp ecific duties perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in
all estab lish m en ts w ithin the ocope of the study and not the number
actually surveyed. B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational structure
among estab lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent ob­
tained from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate
the relative im portance of the jobs studied. T h ese d ifferen ces in
occupational structure do not affect m a terially the accuracy of the
earnings data.
E stablishm en t P ra c tic es and Supplem entary Wage P rovision s
Inform ation is p resented (in the B -s e r ie s tables) on selected
estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary wage p rovision s as they
relate to plant and office w ork ers. A d m in istrative, execu tive, and
p ro fession a l em p lo yees, and construction w orkers who are u tilized
as a separate work force are excluded. "Plant w orkers" include
working forem en and all nonsu p ervisory w orkers (including leadm en and train ees) engaged in nonoffice functions. "Office w orkers"
include w orking su p erviso rs and n on su p ervisory w ork ers perform ing
cle rica l or related functions. C afeteria w ork ers and routem en are
excluded in m anufacturing in d u stries, but included in nonm anufacturing
in d u stries.

2

M inim um entrance sa la r ie s for w om en office w ork ers (table
B -l) relate only to the estab lish m en ts v isited . B ecau se of the optim um
sam pling techniques u sed , and the probability that large esta b lish ­
m ents are m ore lik ely to have form al entrance rates for w orkers
above the su b clerical lev el than sm all estab lish m en ts, the table is
m o re-rep resen ta tiv e of p o lic ies in m edium and large estab lish m en ts.
Shift differen tial data (table B -2) are lim ited to plant w orkers
in m anufacturing in d u stries. This inform ation is p resen ted both in
term s of (1) estab lish m en t p olicy, 1 presen ted in term s of total plant
w orker em ploym ent, and (2) effective p ra ctice, presen ted in term s of
w o rk ers actu ally em ployed on the sp ecified shift at the tim e of the
su rvey. In estab lish m en ts having varied d ifferen tia ls, the amount
applying to a m ajority w as used or, if no amount applied to a m ajority,
the cla ssifica tio n "other" w as used. In estab lish m en ts in w hich som e
la te -sh ift hours are paid at norm al ra te s, a d ifferen tial w as record ed
only if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.
The scheduled w eekly hours (table B -3) of a m ajority of the
fir s t-s h ift w ork ers in an estab lish m en t are tabulated as applying to
all of the plant or office w ork ers of that estab lish m en t. Scheduled
w eek ly hours are those w hich fu ll-tim e em p loyees w ere expected to
w ork, whether they w ere paid for at stra ig h t-tim e or overtim e ra tes.
Paid holidays; paid vacations; health, in su ran ce, and pension
plans; and prem ium pay for overtim e work (tables B -4 through B -7)
are treated sta tistica lly on the b a sis that th ese are applicable to all
plant or office w orkers if a m ajority of such w orkers are elig ib le or
m ay even tu ally qualify for the p ra ctices listed . Sum s of individual
item s in tab les B -2 through B -7 m ay not equal totals b ecau se of
rounding.
Data on paid holidays (table B -4) are lim ited to data on h o li­
days granted annually on a form al b asis; i.e ., (1) are provided for
in w ritten form , or (2) have been estab lish ed by custom . H olidays
ord in arily granted are included even though they m ay fall on a non­
w orkday and the w orker is not granted another day off. The fir st
part of the paid holidays table p resen ts the number of w hole and half
h olidays actu ally granted. The second part com bines w hole and half
holid ays to show total holiday tim e .
The sum m ary of vacation plans (table B -5) is lim ited to a
sta tistic a l m easu re of vacation p ro vision s. It is not intended as a
m easu re of the proportion of w ork ers actually receivin g sp ecific b en e­
fits. P ro v isio n s of an estab lish m en t for all lengths of serv ic e w ere
tabulated as applying to all plant or office w ork ers of the esta b lish ­
m ent, re g a rd less of length of se r v ic e . P ro v isio n s for paym ent on
other than a tim e b a sis w ere converted to a tim e b asis; for exam ple,
a paym ent of 2 percen t of annual earnings was con sid ered as the equiv­
alent of 1 w eek 's pay. E stim ates exclude vacation -sa vin gs plans and
th ose w hich offer "extended" or "sabbatical" b en efits beyond b asic
plans to w ork ers w ith qualifying lengths of se r v ic e . T ypical of such
ex clu sion s are plans in the ste e l, alum inum , and can in d u stries.

Data on health, in su ran ce, and p en sion plans (table B -6) in ­
clude those plans for w hich the em p loyer pays at le a st a part of the
cost. Such plans include those underw ritten by a com m ercial insuran ce
com pany and those provided through a union fund or paid d irectly by
•the em ployer out of current operating funds or from a fund set asid e
for this purpose. An estab lish m en t w as co n sid ered to have a plan
if the m ajority of em ployees w ere elig ib le to be covered under the
plan, even if le s s than a m ajority elected to p articip ate b ecau se e m ­
p loyees w ere required to contribute tow ard the co st of the plan. L e­
gally required plans, such as w ork m en 's com p en sation , so cia l s e ­
curity, and railroad retirem en t w ere excluded .
Sickness and accident in su ran ce is lim ited to that type of
insurance under which pred eterm in ed cash paym ents are m ade d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or m onthly b a sis during illn e ss or accident
d isability. Inform ation is p resen ted for all such plans to w hich the
em ployer contributes. H ow ever, in New York and New J e r se y , w hich
have enacted tem porary d isab ility in su ran ce law s w hich req u ire em ­
ployer contributions, 2 plans are included only if the em ployer (1) con­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly req u ired , or (2) p rovid es the em p loyee
with benefits which exceed the req u irem en ts of the law . Tabulations
of paid sick leave plans are lim ited to form al p lan s3 w hich provide
full pay or a proportion of the w o rk er's pay during ab sen ce from work
because of illn e ss. Separate tabulations are p resen ted accord ing to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no w aiting p eriod , and (2) plans
which provide either partial pay or a w aiting p eriod. In addition to
the presentation of the proportions of w ork ers who are provided
sick n ess and accident insurance or paid sick lea v e, an unduplicated
total is shown of w orkers who r e ceiv e eith er or both types of b en efits.

* An establishment was considered as having a policy if it m et either of the following
conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the tim e of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering
late shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1) had operated late
shifts during the 12 months prior to the survey, or (2) had provisions in w ritten form for operating
late shifts.

The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer
contributions.
An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the
minimum number of days of sick leave available to each employee. Such a plan need not be
written, but informal sick leave allowances, determ ined on an individual basis, were excluded.




Catastrophe insuran ce, so m etim es re ferred to as m ajor m ed ­
ica l insurance, includes those plans w hich are d esign ed to p rotect
em ployees in case of sick n ess and injury involving ex p en ses beyond
the norm al coverage of. h osp italization , m ed ical, and su rg ica l plans.
M edical insurance refers to plans providing for com p lete or partial
paym ent of doctors' fees. Such plans m ay be underw ritten by com ­
m ercia l insurance com panies or nonprofit organ ization s or they m ay
be paid for by the em ployer out of a fund set asid e for this purpose.
Tabulations of retirem ent pen sion plans are lim ited to those plans
that provide regular paym ents for the rem ain d er of the w o rk er's life.
Data on overtim e prem ium pay (table B -7 ), the hours after
w hich prem ium pay is received and the corresp on d in g rate of pay, are
presen ted by daily and w eekly p ro v isio n s. D aily overtim e r e fe r s to
work in e x cess of a sp ecified num ber of hours a day r e g a rd less of
the number of hours worked on other days of the pay p eriod . W eekly
overtim e refers to work in e x c e s s of a sp ecified num ber of hours
per w eek regard less of the day on w hich it is p erform ed , the num ber
of hours per day, or number of days w orked.

3

T a b le 1. E s ta b lis h m e n ts and W o rk e rs W ithin Scope of S u rv e y and N u m b er S tudied in South B end, In d ., 1 by M a jo r In d u stry D iv is io n ,2 M a rc h 1968

In d u s try d iv isio n

A ll d iv isio n s ________________________________
M anuf a c tu r ing____________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------------------T ra n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s 5 _______________________
W h o le sa le t r a d e ____________________ ___ —
Rpf-ail
_.
_.
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ____ _
S e rv ic e s 8------------------------------- --------------------------

M inim um
e m p lo y m en t
in e s ta b lis h ­
m e n ts in sco p e
of stu d y

W o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts

N u m b er of e sta b lis h m e n ts

W ithin sco p e of stu d y

W ithin sco p e
o f s tu d y 3

S tudied

.

212

50
50
50
50
50
50

88
124
22
21
49
13
19

T o ta l4

P la n t

S tudied
O ffice

N u m b er

P ercen t

86

4 9 ,5 0 0

100

3 2 ,8 0 0

7,5 0 0

35,7 3 0

37
49
13
7
12
8
9

32, 900
1 6 ,6 0 0
3 ,2 0 0
2 ,4 0 0
6 ,2 0 0
3, 000
1,8 0 0

66
34
7
5
13
6
3

2 3 ,3 0 0
9 ,5 0 0
1,6 0 0
(6)
(6)
( )
(6)

4, 100
3 ,4 0 0
500
(6)
(6)
()
(6)

2 6 ,3 6 0
9, 370
2 ,6 1 0
1,030
2 ,2 4 0
2 ,4 2 0
1,070

T o ta l4

1 T he S o uth B end S ta n d a rd M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A re a , as d e fin ed by the B u re a u of the B udget th ro u g h A p ril 1967, c o n s is ts of S t. J o se p h and M a rs h a ll C o u n tie s. T he " w o rk e rs w ithin
sco p e of stu d y " e s tim a te s show n in th is ta b le p ro v id e a re a s o n a b ly a c c u ra te d e s c rip tio n of the s iz e and c o m p o sitio n of the la b o r fo rc e in c lu d e d in th e s u rv e y . T he e s tim a te s a re not in ten d ed ,
h o w e v e r, to s e r v e as a b a s is of c o m p a ris o n w ith o th e r e m p lo y m en t in d e x e s fo r the a re a to m e a s u re e m p lo y m e n t tr e n d s o r le v e ls s in c e (1) p lan n in g of w age s u rv e y s re q u ire s the u se of e sta b lis h m e n t
d a ta c o m p ile d c o n s id e ra b ly in a d v a n c e of the p a y ro ll p e rio d stu d ied , and (2) s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a re e x c lu d e d fro m the sco p e of th e s u rv e y .
2 T he 1967 e d itio n of th e S ta n d a rd In d u s tria l C la s s ific a tio n M anual w as u se d in c la ss ify in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts by in d u stry d iv isio n .
3 In c lu d e s a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l e m p lo y m en t at o r above th e m in im u m lim ita tio n . A ll o u tle ts (w ithin th e a re a ) of c o m p a n ie s in su ch in d u s tr ie s as tr a d e , fin an ce , auto re p a ir s e rv ic e ,
and m o tio n p ic tu re th e a te r s a r e c o n s id e re d as 1 e s ta b lis h m e n t.
4 In c lu d e s e x e c u tiv e , p ro fe s s io n a l, and o th e r w o rk e rs exclu d ed fro m th e s e p a r a te p la n t and office c a te g o rie s .
5 T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in c id e n ta l to w a te r tra n s p o r ta tio n w e re e x c lu d e d . South B e n d 's tr a n s it s y s te m is m u n ic ip a lly o p e ra te d and is e x clu d ed by d efin itio n fro m th e sco p e of the study.
6 T h is in d u s try d iv isio n is re p r e s e n te d in e s tim a te s fo r " a ll in d u s tr ie s " and " n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g " in th e S e rie s A ta b le s , and fo r " a ll in d u s tr ie s " in th e S e rie s B ta b le s . S e p a ra te p re s e n ta tio n
of d a ta fo r th is d iv isio n is
not m a d e fo r one
o r m o re of the follow ing re a s o n s : (1) E m p lo y m en t in the d iv isio n is too s m a ll to p ro v id e enough d a ta to m e rit s e p a r a te stu d y , (2) the sam p le w as
not d e sig n e d in itia lly to p e rm it s e p a r a te p re s e n ta tio n , (3) re sp o n se w as in s u ffic ie n t o r in a d e q u a te to p e rm it s e p a r a te p re s e n ta tio n , and (4) th e re is p o s s ib ility of d is c lo s u re of in d iv id u al
e s ta b lis h m e n t d a ta .
7 W o rk e rs fro m th is e n tir e in d u s tr y d iv isio n a re re p r e s e n te d in e s tim a te s fo r " a ll in d u s tr ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g " in th e S e rie s A ta b le s , but fro m the re a l e s ta te p o rtio n only in e s tim a te s
fo r " a ll in d u s tr ie s " in th e S e rie s B ta b le s . S e p a ra te p re s e n ta tio n of d a ta fo r th is d iv isio n is not m ad e fo r one o r m o re of th e re a s o n s g iven in footnote 6 above.
8 H o te ls and m o te ls ; la u n d r ie s and o th e r p e rs o n a l s e rv ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; a u to m o b ile re p a ir , re n ta l, and p a rk in g ; m o tio n p ic tu r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e rs h ip o rg a n iz a tio n s (excluding
re lig io u s and c h a rita b le o rg a n iz a tio n s ); and e n g in e e rin g and a rc h ite c tu r a l s e r v ic e s .




A lm o st tw o -th ird s of the w o rk e rs w ith in sco p e of th e s u rv e y in th e South B end a r e a
w e re em p lo y ed in m a n u fa c tu rin g f ir m s . T he follow ing ta b le p re s e n ts th e m a jo r in d u s try
g ro u p s and sp e cific in d u s trie s as a p e rc e n t of all m a n u fa c tu rin g :
In d u stry g ro u p s
T ra n s p o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t-------M a ch in e ry , ex c e p t
e l e c t r i c a l ______________________
R u bber and p la s tic s p ro d u c ts ..
E le c tr ic a l eq u ip m en t and
s u p p lie s ________________________
P r im a ry m e ta l in d u s tr ie s --------

30
23
16
6
6

S p ecific in d u s tr ie s
M o to r v e h ic le s and
e q u ip m e n t_____________________
F a b r ic a te d ru b b e r p ro d u c ts ___
G e n e ra l in d u s tr ia l
m a c h in e r y ____________________
A ir c r a ft and p a r t s _____________
M etal w ork in g m a c h in e ry _____
Iro n and s te e l f o u n d rie s ............

18
14
13
12
6
5

T his in fo rm a tio n is b a s e d on e s tim a te s of to ta l e m p lo y m e n t d e riv e d fro m u n iv e rs e
m a te ria ls c o m p iled p r io r to a c tu a l s u rv e y . P ro p o rtio n s in v a rio u s in d u s try d iv isio n s m ay
d iffe r fro m p ro p o rtio n s b a s e d on th e re s u lts of the s u rv e y a s show n in ta b le 1 above.

4

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P resen ted in table 2 are indexes and p ercen tages of change
in average sa la r ie s of office c le r ic a l w orkers and in d u strial n u rses,
and in average earnings of selected plant w orker groups. The indexes
are a m easu re of w ages at a given tim e, ex p ressed as a percen t of
w ages during the b ase period (date of the area survey conducted
betw een July i960 and June 1961). Subtracting 100 from the index
yield s the percentage change in w ages from the b ase period to the
date of the index. The p ercen tages of change or in cr ea se relate to
wage changes betw een the indicated d ates. T hese estim a tes are
m easu res of change in averag es for the area; they are not intended
to m easu re average pay changes in the estab lish m en ts in the area.
M ethod of Computing
Each of the selected key occupations w ithin an occupational
group w as assign ed a w eight based on its proportionate em ploym ent
Office clerical (men and women):
Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B
Clerks, accounting, classes
A and B
Clerks, file, classes
A, B, and C
Clerks, order
Clerks, payroll
Comptometer operators
Keypunch operators, classes
A and B
Office boys and girls

in the occupational group. T h ese constant w eigh ts re fle ct b a se year
em ploym ents w h erever p o ssib le. The a verag e (m ean) earn in gs for
each occupation w ere m ultiplied by the occupational w eight, and the
products for all occupations in the group w ere totaled . The a g g reg a tes
for 2 consecutive y ea rs w ere related by dividing the aggregate for
the la ter year by the aggregate for the e a r lie r y ea r. The resu ltan t
rela tiv e, le s s 100 p ercen t, show s the p ercen tag e change. The index
is the product of m ultiplying the b a se year rela tiv e (100) by the rela tiv e
for the next succeeding year and continuing to m ultiply (com pound)
each year's relative by the p reviou s y e a r's,in d ex . A verage earn in gs
for the follow ing occupations w ere u sed in com puting the w age trend s:

Office clerical (men and women)—
Continued
Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Switchboard operators, classes
A and B
Tabula ting-m achine operators,
class B
Typists, classes A and B
Industrial nurses (men and women):
Nurses, industrial (registered)

Skilled m aintenance (men):
Carpenters
Electricians
Machinists
Mechanics
M echanics (automotive)
Painters
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers
Unskilled plant (men):
Janitors, porters, and cleaners
Laborers, m aterial handling

Table 2. Indexes of Standard Weekly Salaries and Straight-Tim e Hourly Earnings for Selected Occupational Groups in South Bend, Ind. ,
March 1968 and March 1967, and Percents of Change1 for Selected Periods
Industry and occupational group

Ind exes
(March 1961=100)
March 1968
March 1967

March 1967
to
March 1968

March 1966
to
March 1967

March 1965
to
March 1966

Percents of change 1
March 1963
March 1964
to
to
March 1964
March 1965

March 1962
to
March 1963

March 1961
to
March 1962

March 1960 •
to
March 1961

All industries:
Office clerical (men and w om en)---- Industrial nurses (m en and w om en)---Skilled m aintenance (men)---------------Unskilled plant (men) —-------------------

120.3
128.4
121.4
112.9

114.7
117.9
115.6
111.1

4.9
8.9
5. 1
1.6

2.8
4.2
4.3
3.4

2.3
1.9
2.8
.2

1. 1
4. 5
2 6
2- . *5

2 2*8
2 —1
1.0
1.3
1.2

2 .5
2 .5
2 .5
3 .8

2.3
4 .7
3.3
2.6

2.8
2.7
2.9
1.8

Manufacturing:
Office clerical (men and w om en)-----Industrial nurses (m en and w om en)---Skilled maintenance (men)--------------Unskilled plant (m e n )------—-----—-----

117.5
127.8
120.3
112.7

114.7
117.3
115.2
112.0

2.5
8.9
4 .4
.7

2.0
3.7
4.4
4.5

3.4
2 .4
3.2
2 —. 2

.8
3.9
.1
2- .2

1.5
2 —. 5
1.4
1.5

2.1
2 .5
2 .3
3 .7

4.1
4.2
3.1
2.2

3.3
3.2
2.9
2.9

1 All changes are increases unless otherwise indicated.
2 This decrease largely reflects changes in employm ent among establishments with different pay levels rather than wage decreases.




5

F or office c le r ic a l w orkers and industrial n u rses, the wage
trends relate to regular w eekly sa la ries for the norm al w orkw eek,
ex clu siv e of earnings for overtim e. For plant w orker groups, they
m easu re changes in average straigh t-tim e hourly earn in gs, excluding
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays, and
late sh ifts. The p ercen tag es are based on data for selected key occu­
pations and include m ost of the num erically im portant jobs w ithin
each group.
L im itations of Data
The indexes and p ercen tages of change, as m easu res of
change in area a v era g es, are influenced by: (1) general salary and
w age ch an ges, (Z) m erit or other in crea ses in pay received by indi­
vidual w ork ers w hile in the sam e job, and (3) changes in average
w ages due to changes in the labor force resulting from labor turn­
over, force exp an sion s, force reductions, and changes in the propor­
tions of w ork ers em ployed by establishm ents with different pay le v e ls.




Changes in the labor force can cause in crea ses or d ecrea ses in the
occupational averages without actual wage changes. It is conceivable
that even though all estab lish m en ts in an area gave wage in crea ses,
average w ages m ay have declined b ecau se low er-paying establishm ents
entered the area or expanded their work fo rc es. S im ilarly, w ages
m ay have rem ained rela tiv ely constant, yet the averages for an area
m ay have risen considerably becau se higher-paying establishm ents
entered the area.
The use of constant em ploym ent w eights elim in ates the effect
of changes in the proportion of w orkers rep resen ted in each job in­
cluded in the data. The p ercen tages of change re fle ct only changes
in average pay for straigh t-tim e hours. They are not influenced by
changes in standard work sch ed u les, as such, or by prem ium pay
for overtim e. W here n ec essa ry , data w ere adjusted to rem ove from
the indexes and percen tages of change any significant effect caused
by changes in the scope of the survey.

6

A. Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, South Bend, Ind. , March 1968)

N um ber of w ork ers receiving s tra ig h t-tim e w eekly earn in g s of-

Weekly earnings1
(standard)
Average
weekly
hours1
f standard)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

$100 $105 $110 $115 $120$ 125
$

130

$135

$---- $---- $---- 1---

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

135

140,

140

150

160

170

~

and
under

Middle range 2

-

“

and

150

160

HEN
40 .0
4 0 .0
40 .5

$
$
129.00 134.00
137.00 143.00
113.50 1 27.00

1 0 6 .0 0 1 2 1 .0 0 9 0 .5 0 -

147.50
154.50
139.00

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B --------------

4 0 .0

105.00 1 08.50

9 6 .0 0 -

114.00

CLERKS,

PAYROLL ---------------------------------------

4 0 .0

106.00 107.50

9 8 .0 0 -

OFFICE BOYS -----------------------------------------------

39.5

6 9 .0 0

6 6 .5 0 -

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS A -----------------------------------------------------

39 .5

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

7 2 .5 0

17
13
4

119.50
74.00

131.50 1 35.00

1 2 2 .0 0 - 145.00

1 03.50

1 0 0 .5 0 -1 1 0 .5 0

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B -----------------------------------------------------

WOMEN
BILLERS, MACHINE (B IL L IN G
MACHINE) ---------------------------------------------------

6 5 .0 0 -1 1 0 .0 0

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS*
CLASS A ----------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 3.50
104.00

9 7 .5 0
106.50

7 9 .5 0 9 7 .5 0 -

7 9 .5 0
8 9 . CO
7 7 .50

7 4 .5 0 8 5 .5 0 7 0 .5 0 -

110.00
112.50

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

61
19
42

4 0 .0
40 .0
40 .0

84.00
9 1.00
8 0.50

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

144
29

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

94.50
109.50

93.00
98.00
90.50

5

5

5

5

9 2 . CO
8 3 .0 0 - 106.50
1 08.50 1 0 2 .0 0 -1 1 6 .5 0

250
109

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

80.00
8 2.00

78.50
8 1 .00

15

4 0 .0

93.00

9 3 .0 0

F IL E , CLASS A --------------------------

20

4 0 .0

90.00

96 .0 0

7 6 .5 0 -

CLERKS, F IL E , CLASS B -------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 3--------------------------

63
54
29

4 0 .0
40 .0
4 0 .0

78 .0 0
77.50
83.50

7 8 . CO
7 8 .5 0
84.00

7 1 .5 0 - 84.50
7 0 .0 0 - 85.50
7 7 .5 0 - 92.00

40 .0
4 0 .0

7 8.00
95.50

7 3 .5 0
9 4 .00

6 6 .5 0 - 89.00
8 8 .0 0 105.50

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

95.50
95.00

9 3.50
93.00

8 3 .0 0 8 3 .0 0 -

104.00
103.00

40 .0
40 .0

93 .0 0
97.50

9 3 .0 0
100.00

8 7 .0 0 9 3 .0 0 -

100.00
104.50

20
17

1

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B -------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING:
PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 3-------------------------CLERKS,

CLERKS,

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A -------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

See footnotes a t end of tab le.




8 9 .0 0 -

101.00
100.00

6 2 .5 0 -

F IL E , CLASS C --------------------------

CLERKS, ORDER ------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------CLERKS, PAYROLL --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

7 0 .0 0 6 9 .5 0 -

104
9?

88.00
89.50

68 .0 0

42
12

16
4
12

2

10
8

2

2

16

21

18

44
15

33
16

26
18

1

26

1

24

16
7

12
5

11
1

10
10

5

1
11

7

11
11

11
9
6

22

14

1

5

5

4
17
13
5

6

8

21

11

18

10

?1
2

10 10

15
15

18

14

11

7

9

11

11
5

170 over

7
Table A-l.

Office Occupations—Men and Women— Continued

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, South Bend, Ind. , March 1968)
Weekly earnings1
(standard)
Number
of
workers

Average
weekly
hours1
standard)

N um ber of w o rk ers receivin g straigh t-tim e w eekly earnings oJ
i»

$

$

$

$

WOMFN “

CONTINUED

Under
Mean2

Median 2

Middle range 2

$

s

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

135

140

150

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

U5

»o

l?5

l? o

J35

*40

150

160

13
2
11

25
6
19

28
10
18

18
10
8

26
20
6

18
13
5

9
8
1

5
1
4

1
1

-

7

5

3

6

-

-

-

2

15

20
20
-

36
6
30
3

41
13
28
1

55
17
38
4

36
23
13
“

2

_

5

and
under

%

60

and

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS* CLASS B -------------MANUFACTURING ~i---------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

150
75
75

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$
79.00
83.00
75.00

$
7 7 .50
82.50
72.00

$
$
7 0 .0 0 - 86 .0 0
7 5 .5 0 - 88.50
6 7 .0 0 - 8 1 .00

-

OFFICE GIRLS ---------- * ---------------------------------

23

39.5

72.00

70.00

6 4 .5 0 - 7 7 .50

-

SECRETARIES4-----------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING — --------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------------

503
270
233
26

4 0 .0 107.50 107.50
9 3 .0 0 -1 2 1 .5 0
4 0.0 117.00 116.00 1 0 6 .0 0 -1 2 7 .0 0
94.50
8 4 .0 0 -1 0 7 .0 0
39.5
97.00
9 4 .0 0 -1 2 2 .5 0
4 0 .0 106.50 109.00

_

_

5

-

-

-

-

-

5

15
3

25
2
23
-

SECRETARIES, CLASS A -----------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

45
16
29

4 0 .0 125.50 124.00 1 0 6 .0 0 -1 4 4 .0 0
4 0 .0 135.00 137.50 1 1 1 .0 0 -1 4 9 .5 0
4 0 .0 120.00 120.00 1 0 1 .0 0 -1 3 4 .0 0

-

_

_

-

-

c l a s s b -----------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

106
55
51

9 6 -5 0 -1 3 5 .0 0
4 0 .0 116.00 117.50
39.5 129.50 131.50 1 1 9 .0 0 -1 4 2 .0 0
9 1 .0 0 -1 1 5 .0 0
97.00
4 0 .0 101.00

SECRETARIES, CLASS C ------------ -----------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

182
102
80

40 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

106.50 109.00
9 2 .5 0 -1 2 1 .§ 0
115.50 118.00 1 0 9 .5 0 -1 2 5 .0 0
94.50
93.00
8 2 .5 0 -1 0 2 .0 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS D ------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

170
97
73

39 .5
39.5
39 .0

9 9 .50 100.50
8 7 .0 0 -1 1 2 .0 0
107.50 108.50 1 0 1 .0 0 -1 1 6 .0 0
86.50
88.00
7 7 .5 0 - 9 6 .5 0

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL -----------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING — --------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ---------------------------

185
130
55
17

83.00
85.50
4 0 .0
7 4 .0 0 - 96 .5 0
84.00
39.5
7 5 .0 0 - 9 4 .5 0
86.00
85.00
81.00
4 0 .0
7 2 .0 0 -1 0 2 .5 0
4 0 .0 105.50 108.00 1 0 4 .0 0 -1 1 4 .0 0

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR --------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

165
119
46

4 0 .0
40 .0
4 0 .0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS A -------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

33
22

40 .0
4 0 .0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B -------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

27
21

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

90
46
44

s e c r e t a r ie s ,

I ------- 1 -----170
160

S

%

70

.— 6 5

Sex, occupation, and industry division

65

60

~

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

6

-

-

-

-

-

6

42
32
10
3

37
33
4
1

53
41
12
2

39
27
12
6

32
26
6

_

19
17
2
1

15
9
6
1

18
14
4
1

4
2
2

3
2
1

1
1
~

5
5

4
—
4

2
2

5
3
2

1
1
-

5
4
1

oyer

4
4

5

2

-

3
3

170

-

-

“

3
3

2
2

6
6

12
1
11

11
2
9

8
3
5

3
1
2

4
3
1

9
5
4

8
5
3

8
6
2

6
6
~

10
7
3

9
9
~

11
11

7
7

13
2
11

16
7
9

20
4
16

6
4
2

15
10
5

16
14
2

20
18
2

24
19
5

15
15

7
7
“

2
1
1

4
1
3

11
2
9

11
11

15
4
11

13
5
8

19
11
8

18
14
4

21
19
2

16
15
1

19
18
1

3
3
“

7
5
2

1
1

2
2

_
—
~

4
3
1

4
4

-

-

-

~

5
5
-

_
-

-

9
4
5
”

1
1
-

_

7
2
5

1
1

2
2

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

5
5
~

_

_

-

—
~

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

5

9

-

-

-

-

5

9

21
14
7

26
16
10

21
15
6
“

31
23
8

19
17
2
2

14
12
2
-

8
5
3
1

10
8
2
2

15
8
7
7

9
7
2
2

6
3
3
3

12
2
10

14
5
9

12
8
4

23
17
6

7
5
2

10
10
-

17
17
-

18
18
“

20
15
5

21
19
2

5
5

3
1

2
2

1
1

1
1

-

-

_

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

3

_

_

-

_

_

_

_
—
-

5
2
3
“

97.50 100.50
101.00 104.00
82.00
88.00

8 5 .0 0 -1 1 2 .0 0
8 9 .5 0 -1 1 2 .5 0
7 4 .5 0 -1 1 1 .0 0

_

1

2

-

-

-

-

1

2

89.50
94.00

90.00
96.00

8 1 .0 0 -1 0 2 .5 0
8 7 .0 0 -1 0 3 .0 0

-

5
-

_

1
1

2
1

3
2

6
5

2
2

4
3

40.5
4 1 .0

75.50
73.00

7 4.00
70 .0 0

6 7 .0 0 6 6 .0 0 -

4
4

_

7
7

4
3

2
1

2
2

4

2
2

-

2
2

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
40.0

76.50
74.00
79.50

73.50
70 .5 0
7 4.50

6 6 .5 0 - 83.50
6 3 .5 0 - 7 9 .0 0
7 1 .0 0 - 9 1 .5 0

_
-

19
16
3

12
7
5

22
5
17

9
9

~

~

9
4
5

3
1
2

7
1
6

3
—
3

~

3
3

-

-

-

2

-

17
17

14
14

6
6

6
6

1
1

“

87.50
84.00

-

_

_
-

-

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
39

39.5

7 4.50

73.00

6 6 .0 0 - 81 .5 0

-

9

5

10

4

6

2

1

T Y P IS T S , CLASS A ------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

96
90

40 .0
4 0 .0

93.50
93.00

95.00
95.00

8 4 .0 0 -1 0 2 .5 0
8 5 .0 0 -1 0 2 .0 0

-

2
“

_

11
11

4
4

9
8

13
13

10
10

T Y P IS T S , CLASS B ------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

267
110
157

39.5
40 .0
39.0

71.00
73.00
6 9 .50

69.00
7 2 .00
67.50

6 5 .0 0 - 7 6 .00
6 7 .0 0 - 7 9 .0 0
6 3 .5 0 - 74.00

_

67
13
54

44
23
21

35
17
18

30
22
8

6
1
5

-

~

82
34
48

-

_

3

“

3

T

1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek for which em ployees receive their re g u la r straigh t-tim e s a la rie s (ex clu siv e of pay for overtim e at re gu lar and/or prem ium r a te s ), and the earnings correspond
to these w eekly hours.
2 The m ean is com puted fo r each job by totaling the earnings of a ll w o rk e rs and dividing by the num ber of w o rk e rs.
The m edian designates position— h alf of the em ployees surveyed receive m ore
than the rate shown; h a lf re c e iv e le ss than the rate shown.
The m iddle range is defined by 2 rates of pay; a fourth of the w o rk e rs earn less than the lo w er of these rates and a fourth earn m o re than
the higher rate.
* T ran sp ortation , com m unication, and other public utilities.
4 M ay include w o rk e rs other than those presented separately.




8
Table A-2.

Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women

(A v e ra g e straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an are a basis
by industry division, South Bend, Ind., M arch 1968)

N um ber of w o rk ers receiving stra ig h t -tim e w eekly ea rn in g s of—

Weekly earnings1
(standard)
Num
ber
of

Average
weekly

U nder

$

$

$

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
100 105 110
115 120 125 130

(stan
dard)

Mean1
2

M
edian 2

Middle range 2

$

8b

95

90

Sex, occupation, and industry division

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

135

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

3
3

-

-

2
2

8

“

9
9

19
9

7

and
under

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$
$
210 220

135

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

2
2

10
8

32

27
13

15
7

21
13

9

22

5

6
3

1
1

15
9

1
1

14
9

9

10
10

19
18

9
6

8
5

8
8

10
7

6
6

_

_

-

14

3
-

_

2

5
5

3
3

1
1

_

2

1
1

_

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

MEN

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS A -------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

144
89

$
$
$
$
40.0 163.50 158.00 145 .00-17 4.50
39.5 162.00 156.00 143.00-17 5.00

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS B -------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------

133
94

40.0 142.00 137.00 123.50-15 9.50
40.0 146.00 142.00 127 .00-16 8.00

_

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS C --------------------------

------------------------------

73
51

40.0 121.00 121.00 106.00-12 9.00
40.0 119.50 113.50 100.00-13 0.00

1
1

DRAFTSMEN-TRACERS -----------------------------------

23

40.0

2

24
23

39.5 122.00 125.00 117.00-12 8.50
39.5 122.00 125.50 117 .00-12 8.50

_

m a n u fa c tu r in g

97.50

99.00

90.0 0 -1 0 3 .5 0

-

-

2

7
7

5

4
2

5

9
9

2
2

9
6

4

1

6

7

-

-

3

-

_

_

_

2

8
7

1
7

5

?

5

_

_

_
~

-

-

WOMEN

NURSES,

INDUSTRIAL

MAK u r AP 1 U nJ MC
n u nIl ip Ml* Tl Ifl f i i u

(REGISTERED!

----—

1
1

_

2

10
10

2
2

1 Standard hours reflect the w orkw eek fo r which em ployees receive their re g u la r straigh t-tim e s a la rie s (exclu sive of pay fo r overtim e at regu lar and/or prem iu m ra te s),
to these w eek ly hours.
2 F o r definition of te rm s, see footnote 2, table A - l .




and the earn in gs co rrespon d

9
Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations-r-Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, South Bend, Ind., March 1968)
Average
Number

Occupation and industry d ivision

Weekly Weekly
of
h rs 1 earnings 1
ou
woiken
(standard) (standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS
BILLERS* MACHINE (B IL L IN G
MACHINE I -------------------------------BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS*
CLASS A -----------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

OFFICE OCCUPATlbNS -

CLERKS* ACCOUNTING* CLASS B
MANUFACTURING --------------------NONMANUFACTURING:
PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 1
2-----------

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(standard) (standard)

CONTINUED

15

40.0

45
18

39 .5
39 .5

$
7 2 .0 0
7 8 .5 0

40
21

40.0 100.00
40.0 104.00
96.00
40.0

SECRETARIES3----------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 2
--------------------------

504
270
234
27

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
39 .5
4 0 .0

SECRETARIES, CLASS A -----------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------SECRETARIES, CLASS. B -----------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

19
61
19
42
204

69
268

119
15

40.0 104.50
40.0 125.50
82.00
84.50

40.0

93.00

40.0

90.00

40.0

65.50

CLERKS, PAYROLL --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

120
104
16

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A -------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

09
37

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS* CLASS B -------------MANUFACTURING ----NONMANUFACTURING

150
75
75

82.00
97.00
97.00
97.00
97.00
93.00
97.50

40.0
40.0
40.0

79.00
83.00
75.00

* *

o o
o o

50
75
25

o o o
o o o

CLERKS, F IL E , CLASS C
CLERKS, ORDER ---MANUFACTURING

«*
■

78.00
77.50
83.50

o o
o o

29

*■*•>*■

20
64
54

84.00
91.00
80.50

o o o
o o o

CLERKS* F IL E * CLASS A
CLERKS* F IL E , CLASS B --------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 2---------------------

40.0
40.0
40.0

Average

Occupation and industry division

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

OFFICE BOYS AND GIRLS---------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

A *
*
o o
• •
o a

CLERKS* ACCOUNTING* CLASS A
MANUFACTURING ---------------------

Number
of
workers

$
88.00

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS*
MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

Average

Occupation and industry division

-

Number
of
worker*

CONTINUED

SWITCHBOARD 0PERAT0R-RECEPTI0NISTSMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

108.00
117.00
9 7 .50
108.00

90
46
44

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$
76.50
74.00
7 9 .50

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS A ---------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

27
23

39 .5
3 9 .5

131.00
127.50

46
16
30

4 0 .0 126.00
4 0 .0 135.00
4 0 .0 121.00

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B ----------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

39
25

4 0 .0 107.00
4 0 .0 109.00

106
55
51

4 0 .0 116.00
3 9 .5 129.50
4 0 .0 101.00

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
g e n e r a l -----------------------------------------------------

39

3 9 .5

74.50

T Y PIST S, CLASS A -----------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

96
90

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

93.50
93.00

T Y P IS T S , CLASS B ---------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------- --------------------

267
110
157

39 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

71.00
73.00
69.50

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS A ----------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

144
89

4 0 . O' 163.50
3 9 .5 162.00

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS B ----------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

136
97

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

142.50
146.50

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS C ----------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

77
52

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

120.50
120.00

DRAFTSMEN-TRACERS --------------------------------------

35

4 0 .0

102.00

NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) -----MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

24
23

39.5
3 9 .5

122.00;
122.00'

SECRETARIES, CLASS C -----------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

182
102
80

4 0 .0 106.50
4 0 .0 115.50
9 4 .50
4 0 .0

SECRETARIES, CLASS 0 -----------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

170
97
73

39 .5
39.5
39 .0

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL -----------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 2--------------------------

185
130
55
17

4 0 .0
8 5 .5 0
8 6 .0 0
3 9 .5
85 .0 0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0 105.50

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR -------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

165
119
46

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

97 .5 0
101.00
88 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS A ------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

33
22

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

09.50
9 4.00

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B -------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

27
21

4 0 .5
4 1 .0

7 5 .5 0
7 3 .0 0

9 9 .5 0
107.50
88.00

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS

1 Standard h o u r8 re fle c t the w orkw eek for which em ployees receive their re g u la r straigh t-tim e s a la rie s (exclu sive of pay fo r overtim e at re g u la r and/or prem ium ra te s),
co rrespon d to these w eek ly hours.
2 T ran sp ortation , com m unication, and other public utilities.
3 M a y include w o rk e rs other than those presented separately.




Weekly
Weekly
hour* > earning*'
(rtandard) (itandard)

and the earnings

10
Table A -4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e ra g e straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r men in selected occupations studied on an a rea b a sis
by industry division, South Bend, In d ., M arch

1968)

Hourly earnings

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

1

N um ber of w orkers receiving straight-tim e h ourly earnings of—
$

Mean1
2

Median 2

Middle range 2

$

$

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0 3 .1 0

Under
and
$
2 .8 0 under

$

$

$

$

$

3 .2 0 3 .3 0 3.40

$

$

$

i

3 .5 0 3 .6 0 3.7 0 3 .8 0

1

$

$

$

3 .9 0 4 .0 0 4 .1 0 4 .2 0

1

$

$

$

4 .3 0 4 .4 0 4 .5 0 4 .6 0

and

2 .9 0 3 .0 0 3 .1 0 3 .2 0 3 .3 0 3 .4 0 3.5 0 3 .6 0 3 .7 0 3.8 0 3 .9 0 4 .0 0 4 .1 0 4 .2 0 4 .3 0 4 .4 0 4 .5 0 4 .6 0 4 .7 0

CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE ---------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

36
34

$
3.7 7
3.7 7

$
3.8 3
3 .8 3

$
$
3 . 5 1 - 3 .8 8
3 .5 3 - 3 .8 8

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE -----------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

151
150

3.7 1
3.7 1

3.91
3.91

3 . 5 2 - 3 .9 5
3 .5 2 - 3 .95

ENGINEERS, STATIONARY -------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

16
16

3.81
3.81

3.8 5
3.85

3 . 7 4 - 3 .9 6
3 . 7 4 - 3 .9 6

-

FIREMEN, STATIONARY BOILER ---------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

46
40

3 .4 6
3 .4 9

3.6 5
3 .5 9

3 .3 5 - 3 .7 5
3 . 4 3 - 3.7 5

3
1

MACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE ---------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

40
40

3 .5 6
3 .5 6

3.5 7
3.5 7

3 . 5 2 - 3 .7 4
3 . 5 2 - 3 .7 4

1
1

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE) ----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 3--------------------------

148
48
100
85

3 .6 7
3.48
3 .7 7
3 .8 0

3 .8 4
3.51
3 .8 4
3 .85

3 .6 4 3 .0 0 3 .8 1 3 .8 2 -

-

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE -----------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

152
143

3 .5 0
3.5 2

3.44
3.4 6

3 . 3 3 - 3 .7 6
3 .3 5 - 3 .7 8

MILLWRIGHTS ----------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

155
155

3 .7 4
3.7 4

3.91
3.91

OILERS ---------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING------------------------ ------------

37
37

3.22
3.2 2

PAINTERS, MAINTENANCE -------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

21
21

PIPEFITTER S, MAINTENANCE -------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------TOOL AND DIE MAKERS -----------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

3 .8 8
3 .9 4
3 .8 7
3 .8 7

—
-

-

_

-

1
“

6
6

-

_

_

4
4

1
1

-

~

4
4

-

_

~

**

-

22
21

8
8

16
16

21
21

8
8

4
4

5
5

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

17
8

35
35

28
28

17
17

-

1
1

1
1

13
13

6
6

34

_

9
9

1
1

_

-

1
1

_

3 .1 7
3.1 7

3 . 1 2 - 3 .3 6
3 . 1 2 - 3 .3 6

2
2

-

4
4

3.8 7
3.87

3.87
3.87

3 .8 2 - 4 .2 4
3 .8 2 - 4 .2 4

106
106

3 .9 3
3.9 3

3.9 4
3 .94

3 . 6 8 - 3 .9 8
3 . 6 8 - 3 .9 8

164
164

3.91
3.91

3.85
3.85

3 .6 5 - 4 .1 9
3 .6 5 - 4 .1 9

7

-

-

10
10

7

-

3 . 5 5 - 3 .9 6
3 .5 5 - 3 .9 6

1
1

-

_
-

_

-

19
19

-

_

~

_

_

_

and late shifts.

_

-

-

-

-

1

4
4

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

3
3

19

-

19

—

-

-

-

-

—

-

-

-

18
18

10
10

_

_

_

5

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

5

13
13

86
86

5
-

3
3

5
5

85
77

10
10
_

34

-

1
1

-

-

-

85

3
-

-

7
7

5
5

14
14

-

1
1

1
1

_

_

_

22
22

42
42

8
8

22
22

-

-

-

-

-

8

7
7

“

79
79

-

-

8

3
3

18
18

-

_

-

-

4 .8 0 over

23
19

3
3

_

-

8
8

19
19

6
6

1
1

-

_

1
1

-

~

-

-

~

_

-

-

3
3

-

1
1

-

-

-

1
l

4
4

4
4
1
1

-

1
1

1
1

-

1 Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and for w ork on w eekends, h olidays,
2 F o r definition of te rm s, see footnote 2, table A - l .
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




•

12
12

$

4 .7 0 4 .8 0

~

“

6

6
10
10

7
7
67
67

11
11

-

_

-

-

32
32

38
38

-

-

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
Table A-5.

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, South Bend, Ind., March 1968)
N u m ber of w o rk e rs receivin g straigh t-tim e h ourly earnings of—
$
$
5
I
$
$
$
$
1.70 1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 0 2 .3 0 2 .4 0

T
T
Under
S_
and
1 .7 0 under

O ccupation1 and industry division

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1 .80 1 .9 0 2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 0 2 .3 0 2 .4 0 2 .5 0

$
GUARDS AND WATCHMEN ------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

146
139

$

2 .9 0
2.93

2 .9 5
2.9 6

GUARDS:
MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

$
$
2 .6 4 - 3 .3 3
2 .7 8 - 3 .3 4

$
$
%
$
2 .5 0 2 .6 0 2 .7 0 2 .8 0

_

_

_

_

2 .6 0 2 .7 0 2 .8 0 2 .9 0

12

13
13

12

367
257
110

2 .4 0
2 .6 2
1.87

2.5 1
2 .6 0
1.76

2 . 0 4 - 2 .7 9
2 . 4 5 - 2 .9 9
1 .6 1 - 2 .1 7

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING -------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------—
NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 5---------------------------

454
247
207
38

2.72
2.67
2.77
3.62

2 .6 7
2 .7 0
3.62

2 .2 8 2 .3 3 2 .2 4 3 .5 7 -

ORDER
FILLERS -----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

394
144

3.00
3 .0 9

3 .1 4
3 .24

PACKERS, SHIPPING ----------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

275
249

2.8 5
2.82

2 .8 0
2.7 8

2 .7 1 - 3.2 1
2 .7 1 - 2 .9 4

RECEIVING CLERKS ------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

49
41

3.10
3 .1 4

3.2 3
3 .2 4

24
19

2.75
2.81

2.7 5
2 .8 9

482
105
377
156

3.21
3 .03
3.26
3 .6 6

3.19
3.0 4
3.2 8
3.65

3 .0 6 2 .9 3 3 .1 2 3 .6 2 -

2.92
2.91

2 .9 9
2 .9 6

2 .9 0
2.93
2 .8 9

3.0 8
3.0 4
3.25

2 .6 3 - 3.3 1
2 .8 6 - 3 .09
2 .2 9 - 3 .3 5

451
438

2.90
2.9 0

2 .9 4
2.9 4

TRUCKDRIVERS, LIGHT (UNDER
1 -1 /2 TONS) ----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

2 .6 6

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS,
TRAILER TYPE) -------------------------------------

_

3 .1 0 3 .2 0 3 .3 0

_

_

_

3 .4 0 3 .5 0 3 .6 0

_
3.70 3.80

54
54

4 47

26

31
22
9

11
47

15

35
15

3 .1 2
2 .9 8
3 .2 7
3 .6 6

3 .6 2
3 .2 3
3 .6 4
3 .6 7

11

20

2
76
42
3

20
20
4

34
31
3
28
23

50
48

2
13
13

- 5

23
22

23
23

14

49
10
39

30
30

23
15
8

1

69
63
6
24
22
2

18
18

33
33
56
55

82
82

40
40

2
20
20

2
2

1
1

2

2
25
1
24

5
5

ll

11

22
22

30

30

23
20
3

40
35

49
49

10
10

11
11

24
24

4
3

52
25
27

105
5
100

41
25
16

30
6
24

16

24
24

152
152

13
7

17
17

9 - 1

2 .9 7 - 3 .1 0
2 . 66 - 3 .2 1
2 .6 5 - 3 .2 0

24

14
14

23
19

16

11

14

70
45

10
10

11

27
19
8

195

83
83

49
49

39
33

12
12

111
111

37
37

Data lim ited to m en w o rk e rs .
E xclu des p rem iu m pay fo r overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
F o r definition of te rm s, see footnote 2, table A - l .
W o rk e rs w e r e distributed as fo llo w s:
4 at $1.20 to $1.30; 14 at $1.30 to $1.40; 6 at $1.40 to $1.50; 2 at $1.50 to $1.60; and 21 at $1.60 to $1.70.
T ran sportation , com m unication, and other public utilities.
Includes a ll d r iv e r s , as defined, reg a rd le ss of size and type of truck operated.




_

37
37

13
1

2 .8 5 - 3 .0 7
2 .8 9 - 3 .0 3

113
33
80

10

2 .4 4 - 3 .0 8
2 .4 8 - 3 .0 9

TRUCKDRIVERS6 -------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 5---------------------------

12

9

2 .8 9 - 3 .2 8
2 .9 5 - 3 .2 9

SHIPPING CLERKS --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

20

2 .8 9 - 3 .2 0
2 .8 6 - 3 .3 3

1
2
3
4
5
6

_

2 .2 3 - 2 .7 6

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS -----MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) ---------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------

3 .0 0

_

2 .9 4 - 3 .3 5

WATCHMEN:
MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM (1 -1 / 2 TO
AND INCLUDING 4 TONS) -------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

I
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
{
2 .9 0 3 .0 0 3 .1 0 3 .2 0 3 .3 0 3 .4 0 3 .5 0 3.60 3.7 0

24
24

-

3

-

12
B. Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Minimum Entrance ^Salaries for Women Office Workers
(D is trib u tio n o£ e sta b lish m e n ts studied in a ll in d u s trie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s b y m inim um entran ce s a la r y f o r s e le c te d c a t e g o r ie s
o f in e x p e rie n c e d w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s , South B e n d , I n d ., M a r c h 1968)
O th er in e x p e rie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s 2

In e x p e rie n c e d typists

A ll
in d u strie s

A ll
in d u strie s

B a s e d on stan d ard w e e k ly h o u rs 3 o f—
A ll
sch ed u les

40

A ll
sch edu les

N o n m an u factu rin g

M a n u fa c tu rin g

N on m an u factu rin g

M an u factu rin g
M in im u m w e e k ly s t ra ig h t-tim e s a l a r y 1

B a s e d on s ta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u rs 3 o f—
A ll
sc h e d u le s

40

40

A ll
sch ed u les

40

E sta b lish m e n ts s t u d ie d ------------------------------------------------------

86

37

XX X

49

XXX

86

37

XXX

49

XX X

E s ta b lis h m e n ts h avin g a s p e c ifie d m in im u m __________________

24

12

11

12

10

33

12

11

21

18

1

_

_

_

4
4
1
1
-

5
3
1
-

4
3
1
-

3
9
4
-

1
8
4
-

-

-

1

4
3
1
1
1
1

3
14
7
1

.

9
6
1
1
-

1
5
2
1
1
-

1
1
1

1
1
1

U n i e r $ 62.
$ 62. 50 and
$ 65. 00 and
$ 67. 50 and
$ 70. 00 and
$ 72. 50 and
$ 75. 00 and
$ 77. 50 and
$ 80. 00 and
$ 82. 50 and

5 0 __________________________________________ ___ _
_
u n d er $ 65. 00______________________________________
tinder $ 67. 50-----------------------------------------------------u n d er $ 70. 00_______________________________ ______
un d er $ 72. 50____________________ _________________
u n d er $ 7 5 . 00___________________________ _____ ____
u n der $ 77. 50______________________________________
tinder $ 80. 00______________________________________
u n d er $ 82. 50______________________________________
o v e r _____ ______________________________________ _
_

2
2
2

1

1

4
2
-

1

1
-

1

1
1

2

4
1

3

3

2

2

-

10

5

XX X

5

XXX

22

-

E s ta b lis h m e n ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im u m ________________

11

XXX

11

XXX

E s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ich did not em p lo y w o r k e r s
in this c a t e g o r y ___________________________________________________

52

20

XXX

32

XXX

31

14

XXX

17

XXX

1

T h e s e s a la r ie s re la te to f o r m a lly e s ta b lis h e d m in im u m s ta rtin g (h irin g ) r e g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s that a r e p a id fo r stan d ard w o rk w e e k s .
E x c lu d e s w o r k e r s in s u b c le r ic a l jo b s such as m e s s e n g e r o r o ffic e g i r l.
D ata a re p re s e n te d fo r a ll s ta n d a rd w o rk w e e k s com bin ed , and fo r the m o st com m on stan d ard w o rk w e e k rep o rted .







13

T ab le B-2.

Shift D ifferentials

(S hift d if fe re n tia ls of m a n u fa c tu rin g p la n t w o rk e r s by ty p e an d am o u n t of d if fe re n tia l,
South B en d , In d ., M a rc h 1968)
P e r c e n t of m a n u fa c tu rin g p la n t w o rk e r s —
Shift d iffe re n tia l

In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h av in g fo r m a l
p ro v is io n s 1 fo r—

A c tu a lly wo rk in g on—

S econd s h ift
w o rk

T h ird o r o th e r
s h ift w o rk

S econd s h ift

T h ird o r o th e r
s h ift

T o ta l---------------------------------------------- --------------

97.1

88.4

23.3

8.2

W ith s h ift p a y d if f e r e n tia l_______________________
U n ifo rm c e n ts (p e r h o u r ) ____________________

9 1 .4
80.0

82.7
72.5

2 1.4

6.3
6.1

5 c e n t s _____________________________________
6 c e n t s _______________________________ ____
7 c e n t s ____ ______________________ __ ____
7 V2 c e n t s ___________________________________
8 c e n t s _____________________ ______________
9 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------10 c e n ts ____________________________________
IOV2 c e n ts — ______________________________
12 c e n ts _____ ______________________________
13 c e n ts ____________________________________
15 c e n ts ____________________________________
16 c e n ts ____________________________________
I 7 V2 c e n ts __________________________________
20 c e n ts _________________________ ___________

3.0
13.7
4.7
1.8
4.7
3.3
19.9
22.6
.3
4.1
1.8

U n ifo rm p e rc e n ta g e ----------------------------------------

11.4

5 p e r c e n t___________________________________
10 p e r c e n t_______________________________ _
W ith no s h ift p a y d if f e r e n tia l___________________

5.8
5.5

10.1
10.1

19.5
1.4
3.4
1.7
.3
1.6
.8
3.7
6.2
.1
.3
.1
1.9
1.4
.5

5.8

5.8

1.9

"

_

13.7
3.0
11.9
1.4
26.3
3.3
8.3
4.1
.5

_

2.0
_
.5
.3
2.4
.2
.5
.1
-

(1
2)
.2
_
.2

1.9

1 In c lu d e s e s ta b lis h m e n ts c u r r e n tly o p e ra tin g la te s h ifts , an d e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith fo r m a l p ro v is io n s c o v e rin g la te s h ifts
e v e n thou gh th e y w e re not c u rr e n tly o p e ra tin g la te s h ifts .
2 L e s s th a n 0. 05 p e rc e n t.

14

Table B-3.

Scheduled W eek ly Hours

( P e rc e n t d is trib u tio n of p la n t and office w o rk e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u s try d iv isio n s by sch ed u le d w e e k ly h o u rs 1
of f i r s t- s h if t w o r k e r s , South B e n d , Ind. , M a rc h 1968)
P la n t w o rk e rs
W eekly h o u rs

A ll w o r k e r s — _ _________________________
U n d er 37V2 h o u r s _________________________________
37V2 h o u rs -------------------------------------------------------------379
/
h o u rs __ ___________________________________
40 h o u r s __________________________________________
O v e r 40 and u n d e r 44 h o u r s ___________________
44 h o u r s __________________________________________
O v er 44 and u n d e r 48 h o u r s _____________________
48 h o u r s __________________________________________
50 h o u rs and o v e r________________________________
io

O ffice w o rk e rs

A ll in d u s tr ie s 1
2

M a n u fa c tu rin g

P u b lic u tilitie s 3

100

100

100

2
2

-

-

-

95
5
-

81
4
5
(5)
3
3

91
6
3

All in d u s tr ie s 4

100
(5)
3
3
91
(5)
1
(?)
(5)

M a n u fa c tu rin g

P u b lic u til itie s 3

100

100

6

94
-

_____________________________ i
1
2
3
4
5

S c h e d u led h o u rs a r e th e w eek ly h o u rs w hich a m a jo r ity of th e fu ll-tim e w o rk e rs w e re e x p e c te d to w o rk , w h eth er they w e re p a id fo r a t s tr a ig h t - t m e o r o v e rtim e r a te s .
In c lu d es d a ta fo r w h o le s a le tr a d e , r e ta il tr a d e , r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s , in a d d itio n to th o s e in d u s try d iv isio n s show n s e p a ra te ly .
T ra n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s .
In c lu d e s d a ta fo r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n c e , in s u ra n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s , in a d d itio n to th o se in d u stry d iv isio n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e rc e n t.




-

100
-

15

Table B-4.

Paid Holidays

(Percent distribution of plant and office w orkers in a ll industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually. South Bend, Ind., M arch 1968)

P la n t w o rk e rs
Ite m

O ffice w o rk e rs

A ll in d u s trie s 1

M a n u fa c tu rin g

P u b lic u tilitie s 1
2

A ll w o r k e r s _________________________________

100

100

100

W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
p a id h o lid a y s ___________________________________
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
no p a id h o lid a y s _____________________________ —

96
4

100

100

A ll in d u s tr ie s 3

P u b lic u tilitie s 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

”

“

M a n u fa c tu rin g

“

“

N u m b e r of d a y s
1 h o lid a y __ ____________________________________
3 h o lid a y s ________________ _____________ _____ —
6 h o lid a y s __ ___________________________________ 6 h o lid a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ________— _ — 6 h o lid a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s -------------------------------6 h o lid a y s p lu s 3 h a lf d a y s -------------------------------7 h o lid a y s ________________________________________
7 h o lid a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s -------------------------------8 h o lid a y s ________________________________________
8 h o lid a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s -------— ___ _____-—
9 h o lid a y s ------------------ -------------- -------------------10 h o lid a y s ________________________________ __ —
11 h o lid a y s ______________________ -_________ ______
12 h o lid a y s ______________________________________

1
15
1
1
19
5
8
1
44
1
(4 )

_
9
1
15
6
8
59
1
1

_
(4 )
10
55
22
13
"

(4 )
17
1
1
1
10
1
25
1
41
2
(4 )

1
1

_
-

_
(4 )
3
44

45

71

99

83
100
100

-

.
4
1
(4 )
8
2
12
72
-

18
8
36
23
14
-

_
-

_
14
37
45

T o ta l h o lid a y tim e 5
12 d a y s — __________ — ----- — — ------- ----11 d a y s o r m o r e ______ — ----- — - — ------- -—
10 d a y s o r m o re ------ ------- — — — — — —
9 d a y s o r m o re __ ____________________
_____ 8 d a y s o r m o re
__ — ___
ll z d a y s o r m o r e _______________________________
!
7 d a y s o r m o re __ __ _____ —___ _____ ____
6 V2 d a y s o r m o r e __— — ___ ________ —------- — —
6 d a y s o r m o r e __ ______ ___ __________ _____
3 d a y s o r m o r e ---------------------------------------------------1 day or m o re

1
2
3
4
5
no h a lf

(4 )

1

(*)

46
59
61

80
81

95
95
96

2

61

75
76
91
91
100
100
100

13
35

99

100
100
100

70

72
86
86

82

96
96

99

100
100

100
100

100

100

82
82

In c lu d e s d ata f o r w h o le s a le tra d e , re t a il tra d e , r e a l estate, and s e r v ic e s , in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a ra te ly .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other p u b lic u tilities.
In c lu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e t a il tra d e ; finance, in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s , in addition to those in d u stry d iv is io n s show n se p a ra te ly .
L e s s than 0.5 p e rc e n t.
A l l co m b in a tio n s of fu ll and h a lf days that add to the sa m e am ount a r e c o m bin ed ; f o r e x a m p le , the p ro p o rtio n of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g a total o f 9 day s in c lu d e s those w ith 9 fu ll days and
d a y s , 8 f u ll d a y s and 2 h a lf d a y s , 7 fu ll days and 4 h alf d a y s, and. so on.
P r o p o r t io n s then w e r e cu m u lated.




16
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations1

(Percent distribution of plant arid office w orkers in ail industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, South Bend, Ind., M arch 1968)

P la n t w o rk e rs
V a c a tio n p o lic y

A ll in d u s tr ie s 2

M a n u fa c tu rin g

O ffice w o rk e rs
P u b lic u til itie s 3

A ll in d u s tr ie s 4

M a n u fa c tu rin g

P u b lic u til itie s 3

-------- _ -------

100

100

100

100

100

100

M ethod of p a y m e n t
W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
paid v a c a tio n s ____ ________ -________________ __
L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m e n t ------- — -------------P e r c e n ta g e p a y m e n t _ ------- . ---------------O th e r --------------- ------- ------ ----- ------- ------W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
n o ‘p a id v a c a tio n s . __ __ ----- _ ------ — —

99
51
48
-

100
37
63
-

100
99
(5)
-

100
98
2
-

100
97
3
-

100
100
-

A ll w o r k e r s .

__

1

A m ou nt of v a c a tio n p ay 6
A fte r 6 m o n th s of s e rv ic e
U nder 1 w eek__________________________________-___
1 w e ek__-_____________________________________
O ver 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------_
- ----- — 2 w e e k s ------ ------- . . .
A fte r 1 y e a r of s e rv ic e

9
4
1
-

12
2
1
"

.
47
-

2
49
10
2

2
69
18
-

_
41
-

1 w eek . ------- ------ ----- .
.....
...
O v er 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s _____ ___ ___
2 w eeks ,
.__ _________________ _________ __
O ver 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ___________— — ----------3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 2 y e a rs of s e r v ic e

57
21
13
3
1

44
28
16
5
1

75
25
"

21
(5)
78
.
(5)

9
(5)
89
(5)

71
29
-

1 w eek____ — --------- - _ — - --------O v er 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ------- _. __ ------2 w e e k s --------- ----------- _ ------__ ----O v er 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ___ _. _____ ___ —
3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 3 y e a rs of s e r v ic e

33
26
36
3
1

36
36
23
5
1

36
64
-

7
(5)
92
(5)

4
1
95
(5)

39
61
_
-

1 w eek-___________ ________ —
— ----O v er 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s . _______ ._ __ ___
2 w e e k s ______ . . . . ___. . . __________ ______ ____. _
O ver 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ________ . . .
3 w e e k s . - _______ - _ ----- ----------A fte r 4 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 w eek___ _ ____ _____ ________________ ___
O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ------------------------- -— ----2 w e e k s _____ - - —
— — — — — —
O ver 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s _______ _____ ._ ----3 w e e k s _____ ____________ ___ _____ ______________

7
37
51
4
1

7
51
36
5
1

.
100
-

2
1
97
(5)

2
3
96
(5)

100
-

7
35
53
4
1

7
48
39
5
1

2
(5)
98

2
1
97

-

4
35
44
17

.
-

100
-

-

-

-

(5)

(5)

(5)
82
1
17

(5)
73
(5)
26

_

.
-

100
-

-

A fte r 5 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
1 w eek______________________________________________
O ver 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s -------------------------------- 2 w e e k s ____________________________________________
O v er 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s . ________________ __
3 w e e k s ____________________________________________
See footnotes at end of table.




3
51
32
13

-

-

100
-

'

-

100
■

17

Table B-5.

Paid Vacations1
— Continued

(Percent distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, South Bend, Ind., M arch 1968)

V acation policy
Amount of vacation p a y 6— Continued
A fter 10 y ea rs of serv ice
1 week_
O ver 1 and under 2 w ee k s.
. . . _ 2 w eeks
— — _ - - O ver 2 and under 3 w ee k s.________________ ___
_
_
3 w eeks
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks
4 w ee k s.
. . .
A fter 12 y ears of serv ice
1 week__________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks —_______________ ____
.
.
.
2 w eeks O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks ----------- ---- --------------3 w eeks
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks
4 w eeks - _
— __ A fter 15 y ears of serv ice
1 week____
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks
_ —
2 w eeks —
_
------ -----O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks
3 w eeks _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s.___ _ _ _ —
4 w eeks - -- - _ _„___. ._______________ ____
O ver 4 and under 5 w eeks _ __ — __ __ _
5 w ee k s----------------------------------------------------------—
A fter 20 y ears of serv ice
1 week____
__ __
______
O ver 1 and under 2 w ee k s___________________ —
2 w eeks
_
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks
3 w ee k s. _
_
_ _ _ _ _
—
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks _
___ 4 w eeks
_
_ _ ___
O ver 4 and under 5 w eek s------ -------------------- ---5 w eeks
A fter 25 y ears of serv ice
1 week- _
_
__
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks
_ _ - ---2 w eeks _ _ _ _
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks
3 w eeks _
_
_
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks
4 w eeks _
__ _
O ver 4 and under 5 w eeks
__
5 w eeks
_
_ __
6 w eeks
_ __
_
See footnotes at end of table.




Office w orkers

Plant w orkers
All in d u stries2

M anufacturing

Public u tilitie s 3

All in d u strie s4

M anufacturing

Public u tilitie s3

3
13
37
31
14
1

17
83
-

(5)
_
16
5
74
5
(5)

_
8
10
73
9
-

18
_
82
-

2
21
27
36
12
1

_
3
13
37
29
17
1

_
10
90
-

(5)
13
5
76
5
(5)

7
10
74
9
-

_
8
92
-

_
2
17
21
31
8
15
3
1

3
10
29
22
11
18
5
1

_
84
16
-

(5)
_
7
(5)
75
1
13
5
-

4
(5)
73
(5)
14
9
-

_
85
_
15
-

2
17
4
33
6
30
3
4

_
3
10
6
41
8
22
5
6

_

_
4
23
7
56
10

_

10
_
90
-

(5)
7
39
4
45
—
5

24
_
76
-

_
2
16
4
30
1
24
3
16
1

_
3
10
6
36
2
14
5
22
1

_
_
_
10
90
-

(5)
6
18
(5)
62
1
12

4
_
17
(5)
55
1
22

_
.
24
_
76
-

_
2
23
27
35
10
1
_

_

-

-

18
Table B-5.

Paid V acations'---- Continued

(Percent distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, South Bend, Ind., March 1968)

P la n t w o rk e rs
V a c atio n p o licy

A ll in d u s tr ie s 1
2

M a n u fa c tu rin g

O ffice w o rk e rs
P u b lic u t il itie s 3

A ll in d u s trie s 4

M a n u fa c tu rin g

P u b lic u til itie s 3

A m ou nt of v a c a tio n p a y 6— C ontin ued
A fte r 30 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 w eek-________________ ________ __ ____________
O ver 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ________ _____ ____
2 w eek s _______ ______ ___ ____________________
O ver 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s _______________________
3 w ppks
_
O ver 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ________________ _ ----4 w e e k s ----------- ----- ------ ------------------ ----------- O v er 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s _______________________
5 w eek s - -------------------------------------------------- ----6 w eek s — _
— ------- __ — — -----------------M ax im u m v a c a tio n a v a ila b le
1 w eek_____________
__________ ________ —
O ver 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s _________________ __
2 w eeks ___________ ____________ ___________
O ver 2 and u n d e r 3 w ee k s ______________________
3 w e e k s ___________ ___ __________ _____________
O ver 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ______________________
4 w eek s ________________ ___________________ __
O ver 4 and u n d e r 5 w e e k s ------------ ---------------- _
5 w eek s ----------------------------- — ------ -----------6 w e e k s ----------------------- — ------------------ -----------

_
2
16
4
30
1
24
3
6
11
_

2
16
4
30
1
24
3
6
11

-

3
10
6
36
2
14
5
9
15
_

3
10
6
36
2
14
5
9
15

_
_
_
10
90
_
-

(5)
_
6
_
18
(5)
62
(5)
6
7

_

(5)
6
_
18
(5)
62
(5)
5
7
(5)

_
_

10
-

90

-

_
_
4
_
17
(5)
55
1
10
13

_
_

4
_
17
(5)
55
1
10
13

_
_
_
_
24
_
76
_
_
-

_
_
_
_

24
-

76
_

_
_

1 In c lu d es b a s ic p la n s only. E x clu d e s p la n s su c h a s v a c a tio n -s a v in g s and th o s e p la n s w h ic h o ffe r "e x te n d e d " o r " sa b b a tic a l" b e n e fits beyond b a s ic p la n s to w o rk e r s w ith q u a lify in g le n g th s
of s e r v ic e . T y p ic a l of su ch e x c lu sio n s a r e p la n s in th e s te e l, a lu m in u m , and can in d u s tr ie s .
2 In c lu d es d a ta fo r w h o le s a le tr a d e , r e ta il tr a d e , r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s , in a d d itio n to th o s e in d u s try d iv isio n s show n s e p a ra te ly .
3 T ra n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic atio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s .
4 In c lu d es d a ta fo r w h o le sa le tr a d e ; r e ta il tr a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s , in a d d itio n to th o se in d u stry d iv isio n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
5 L e s s th a n 0.5 p e rc e n t.
6 In c lu d e s p a y m e n ts o th e r th a n " le n g th of tim e ," su ch a s p e rc e n ta g e of a n n u a l e a rn in g s o r fla t- s u m p a y m e n ts , c o n v e rte d to an e q u iv a le n t tim e b a s is ; fo r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t of 2 p e rc e n t
of ann u al e a rn in g s w a s c o n s id e re d a s 1 w e e k ’s pay. P e r io d s of s e r v ic e w e re c h o se n a r b it r a r ily and do not n e c e s s a r ily re fle c t th e in d iv id u al p ro v is io n s fo r p ro g re s s io n . F o r e x a m p le , th e ch a n g e s
in p ro p o rtio n s in d ic a te d a t 10 y e a r s ’ s e r v ic e in c lu d e ch an g e s in p ro v is io n s o c c u rrin g b e tw e e n 5 and 10 y e a rs . E s tim a te s a r e c u m u la tiv e . T h u s, th e p ro p o rtio n e lig ib le fo r 3 w e e k s ' pay o r m o re
a fte r 10 y e a rs in c lu d e s th o s e e lig ib le fo r 3 w e e k s ' pay o r m o re a fte r fe w e r y e a rs of s e r v ic e .




19
Table B-6.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(P e rc e n t of p la n t and office w o rk e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u s try d iv isio n s e m p lo y ed in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
h e a lth , in s u ra n c e , o r p e n sio n b e n e f it s ,1 South B end, In d ., M a rc h 1968)
P la n t w o rk e rs
T y p e of b e n e fit

O ffice w o rk e rs

A ll in d u s trie s 1
2

M an u fa c tu rin g

P u b lic u til itie s 3

100

100

100

100

100

100

L ife in s u r a n c e ________________________________
A c c id e n ta l d e a th and d is m e m b e rm e n t
in s u ra n c e _____________________________________
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e o r
s ic k le a v e o r bo th 5 --------------------------------------

92

96

80
92

100
70

97
71

93

97

95
87
98

100
67
94

S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e _________
S ick le a v e (fu ll p a y and no
w a itin g p e rio d )----------------------------------------S ick le a v e ( p a r tia l p a y o r
w a itin g p e rio d )-----------------------------------------

85

87
96
94

23
42
28

57
72

78

12

90
90
68
72
93

99
99
94
80
82
( 6)

9
100
100
98
71
90

29
38
52

A ll w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------

A ll in d u s tr ie s 4

M a n u factu rin g

P u blic u tilitie s 3

W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g ;

H o s p ita liz a tio n in s u ra n c e ------------------------------S u rg ic a l in s u r a n c e -----------------------------------------M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e ____________________________
C a ta s tro p h e in s u r a n c e -----------------------------------R e tire m e n t p e n s io n ___________________________
No h e a lth , in s u ra n c e , o r p e n s io n p la n _____

9
5
95
95
84
41
65
(6)

4
"
100
100
91
35
75

77

92
92
88
88
81

1 In c lu d e s th o s e p la n s fo r w h ic h at le a s t a p a rt of th e c o st is b o rn e by th e e m p lo y e r, e x c e p t th o s e le g a lly re q u ire d , su c h a s w o rk m e n 's c o m p e n sa tio n , s o c ia l s e c u rity , and ra ilr o a d re tir e m e n t.
2 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r w h o le s a le tr a d e , r e ta il tr a d e , re a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s , in a d d itio n to th o s e in d u s tr y d iv isio n s show n s e p a ra te ly .
3 T ra n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p ublic u tilitie s .
4 In c lu d e s d a ta fo r w h o le s a le tra d e ; re ta il tra d e ; fin an ce, in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s , in a d d itio n to th o s e in d u s try d iv isio n s show n s e p a ra te ly .
5 U n d u p lic ated to ta l of w o rk e r s re c e iv in g s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e show n s e p a r a te ly below . S ick le a v e p la n s a re lim ite d to th o s e w h ich d e fin ite ly e s ta b lis h at le a s t
th e m in im u m n u m b e r of d a y s ' p a y th a t can be e x p e c te d by each e m p lo y ee . In fo rm a l s ic k le a v e a llo w a n c e s d e te rm in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is a r e ex c lu d e d .
6 L e s s th a n 0.5 p e rc e n t.




20

Table B-7.

Premium Pay for Overtime W ork

(P ercen t distribution of plant and office w orkers in a ll industries and in industry divisions by overtime premium pay
provision s, South Bend, Ind. , M arch 1968)

P rem ium pay policy
All w orkers
D aily overtim e at prem ium rates
W orkers in establishm ents having
provisions for daily overtim e p ay 4
at prem ium r a te s ____ - — — — _ —
Tim e and o n e-h alf_________________________
E ffective after:
l l/z hours _ --- -----------------------------8 hour8___ _ ___ __
___
O ther prem ium r a te s ------ ----- ------ — __
W orkers in establishm ents having no
provisions for daily overtim e pay
at prem ium rates 5__--- --------------- _ __
Weekly overtim e at prem ium rate s
W orkers in establishm ents having
provisions for weekly overtim e p ay 4
at prem ium r a te s ----------------------------------------Tim e and o n e-h alf_________________________
E ffective after:
37 l/z h o u rs.. _ ------ --------- __ ___
40 h o u rs__ ___________________ ____
42 h o u rs--------- ---- ----------- --------48 h o u rs-------------------------------------------W orkers in establishm ents having no
provisions for weekly overtim e pay
at prem ium rate s 5________ __ — ---- ---------

Plant w orkers

Office w orkers

All in du stries 1

M anufacturing

Public u tilitie s 13
24
6
5

100

100

100

87
86
86
1

94
94
94
-

All in d u strie s3

Public u tilitie s 2

100

100

100

90
75
75
15

78
77
3
74

92
92

76
60

10

13

M anufacturing

22

93
93

98
98
3
95
1

100
100

-

1

98
98
96
1

100
100
-

93
-

( 6)

-

-

(6)

7

2

2

-

100

-

-

92
-

-

60
17
24

100
-

96
96
96
-

4

1 In c lu d es d a ta fo r w h o le s a le tr a d e , r e ta il tr a d e , r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s , in a d d itio n to th o se in d u s try d iv isio n s show n s e p a ra te ly .
2 T ra n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s .
3 In c lu d es d a ta fo r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s , in a d d itio n to th o se in d u stry d iv isio n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
4 In c lu d e s w o rk e r s in e sta b lis h m e n ts c o v e re d by le g is la tiv e re q u ire m e n ts re g a rd in g p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e , even though su c h w o rk e rs a c tu a lly do not w o rk o v e rtim e . G ra d u a te d p ro v is io n s
fo r p re m iu m p a y a re c la s s if ie d u n d e r th e f i r s t e ffe c tiv e p re m iu m r a te . F o r e x a m p le , a p la n c a llin g fo r tim e and o n e -h a lf a fte r 8 and double tim e a fte r 10 h o u rs w ould be c o n s id e re d as tim e
and o n e -h a lf a fte r 8 h o u rs . S im ila rly , a p la n c a llin g fo r no p a y o r p ay a t a re g u la r ra te a fte r 35 h o u rs and tim e and o n e -h a lf a fte r 40 h o u rs w ould be c o n s id e re d as tim e and o n e -h a lf
a fte r 40 h o u rs .
5 In c lu d e s w o rk e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts e x e m p t fro m le g is la tiv e re q u ire m e n ts re g a rd in g p re m iu m p a y fo r o v e rtim e and w h e re , as a m a tte r o f p o lic y , o v e rtim e is not w o rk e d .
6 L e s s than 0. 5 p ercen t.




Appendix. Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field
staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles
and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits
the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may
differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors;
apprentices; learners; beginners; trainees; and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE—Continued
BILLER, MACHINE
columns and computes, and usually prints automatically the debit or
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than
credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping.
an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips.
billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to
billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are clas­
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
sified by type of machine, as follows:
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher,
Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without a type­
Biller, machine (billing machine). Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc. , which are
writer keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
Class A. Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of pre­
experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the
determined discounts and shipping charges, and entry of necessary
structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets,
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the
and other records by hand.
bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, cus­
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers' bills
tomers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
simultaneous entry of figures on customers' ledger record. The ma­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
chine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.




Note: Since the last survey in this area, the Bureau has discontinued collecting data for duplicatingmachine operators and elevator operators.
21

22

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A. Under general direction of a bookkeeper or accountant,
has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a complete set
of books or records relating to one phase of an establishment's busi­
ness transactions. Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary
ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts payable;
examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper accounting
distribution; and requires judgment and experience in making proper
assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, adjusting, and
closing journal entries; and may direct class B accounting clerics.
Class B. Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or accounts
payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling
bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers controlled by general
ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This job does not
require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping principles but
is found in offices in which the more routine accounting work is
subdivided on a functional basis among several woricers.
CLERK, FILE
Class A. In an established filing system containing a number
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B. Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer sub­
headings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids.
As requested, locates clearly identified material in files and forwards
material. May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain
and service files.
Class C. Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classi­
fication system (e. g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numerical).
As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards
material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Performs simple
clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and service files.




CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers' orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping
invoices with original orders.
CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary
data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers' earnings
based on time or production records; and posting calculated data on payroll
sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working days, time,
rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes.
May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application

23

KEYPU NCH O PERATO R— Continued

of coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.
Class B. Under close supervision or following specific procedures
or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to punched
cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combination
keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May verify cards.
Woiking from various standardized source documents, follows specified
sequences which have been coded or prescribed in detail and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be punched.
Problems arising from erroneous items or codes, missing information,
etc., are referred to supervisor.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating
minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing
mail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Assigned as personal secretary, normally to one individual. Main­
tains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day work
activities of the supervisor. Woiks fairly independently receiving a mini­
mum of detailed supervision and guidance. Performs varied clerical and
secretarial duties, usually including most of the following; (a) Receives
telephone calls, personal callers, and incoming mail, answers routine
inquiries, and routes the technical inquiries to the proper persons; (b)
establishes, maintains, and revises the supervisor's files; (c) maintains the
supervisor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed; (d) relays
messages from supervisor to subordinates; (e) reviews correspondence, mem­
oranda, and reports prepared by others for the supervisor's signature to
assure procedural and typographic accuracy; and (f) performs stenographic
and typing work.
May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks of com­
parable nature and difficulty. The work typically requires knowledge of
office routine and understanding of the organization, programs, and pro­
cedures related to the work of the supervisor.



SECRETARY—Continue d
Exclusions
Not all positions that are titled "secretary" possess the above
characteristics. Examples of positions which are excluded from the def­
inition are as follows: (a) Positions which do not meet the "personal"
secretary concept described above; (b) stenographers not fully trained in
secretarial type duties; (c) stenographers serving as office assistants to a
group of professional, technical, or managerial persons; (d) secretary posi­
tions in which the duties are either substantially more routine or substan­
tially more complex and responsible than those characterized in the def­
inition; and (e) assistant type positions which involve more difficult or more
responsible technical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical
duties which are not typical of secretarial woik.
NOTE: The term "corporate officer," used in the level definitions
following, refers to those officials who have a significant corporate-wide
policymaking role with regard to major company activities. The title
"vice president," though normally indicative of this role, does notin all
cases identify such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibility
is to act personally on individual cases or transactions (e. g. , approve or
deny individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts;
directly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate
officers" for purposes of applying the following level definitions.
Class A
a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a
company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of
the board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but
fewer than 25,000 persons; or
c. Secretary to the head (immediately below the corporate
officer level) of a major segment or subsidiary of a company that employs,
in all, over 25,000 persons.
Class B
a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president oc a
company that employs, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chairman of the
board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer
than 5,000 persons; or

24
SECRETA R Y — Continue d

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL— Continued

perform other relatively
c. Secretary to the head (immediately below the officer level) May maintain files, keep simple records, or stenographic pool. Doesrou­
not
over either a major corporate - wide functional activity (e.g ., marketing, tine clerical tasks. May operate from atranscribing-machine operator. )
research, operations, industrial relations, etc.) or a major geographic or include transcribing-machine woik. (See
organizational segment (e.g., a regional headquarters; a major division) STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical or
employees; or
specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific re­
search from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
d. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.
(or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, over 5,000 similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.
persons; or
OR
e.
Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater inde­
segment (e. g ., a middle management supervisor of an organizational seg­
ment often involving as many as several hundred persons) of a company pendence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evidenced
by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic speed and
that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.
accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general business and
Class C
office procedures and of the specific business operations, organization,
a. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose respon­ policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in per­
sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the def­ forming stenographic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as, main­
for reports, memorandums,
inition for class B, but whose subordinate staff normally numbers at least taining followup files; assembling material general instructions;
composing simple
several dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational segments letters, etc.;incoming mail; and letters fromroutine questions, etc. reading
answering
Does
which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level and routing
not include transcribing-machine work.
includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or
two; or
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone
b. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.
(or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, fewer than switchboard handling incoming, outgoing, intraplant or office calls. Per­
forms full telephone information service or handles complex calls, such as
5,000 persons.
conference, collect, overseas, or similar calls, either in addition to doing
Class D
routine woik as described for switchboard operator, class B, or as a fulla. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational time assignment. (’’Full" telephone information service occurs when the
establishment has varied functions that are not readily understandable for
unit (e.g., fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); or
telephone information purposes, e.g., because of overlapping or interrelated
b. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional functions, and consequently present frequent problems as to which exten­
employee, administrative officer, or assistant, skilled technician or expert. sions are appropriate for calls.)
Class B. Operates a singler or multiple-position telephone
(NOTE: Many companies assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as
described above, to this level of supervisory or nonsupervisory woiker.) switchboard handling incoming, outgoing, intraplant or office calls. May
handle routine long distance calls and record tolls. May perform limited
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
telephone information service. ("Limited" telephone information service
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a normal routine vo­ occurs if the functions of the establishment serviced are readily understand­
cabulary from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or able for telephone information purposes, or if the requests are routine,
similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from writ­ e.g-, giving extension numbers when specific names are furnished, or if
complex calls are referred to another operator.)
ten copy.




25

SW ITCH BO ARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

In addition to performing duties of operator on a single-position
or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type or
perform routine clerical woik as part of regular duties. This typing or
clerical work may take the major part of this Welker's time while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MA CHINE OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines, typically including such machines as the tabulator,
calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs complete
reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs difficult
wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating assign­
ments typically involve a variety of long and complex reports which
often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring some planning and
sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more experienced operator,
is typically involved in training new operators in machine operations,
or partially trained operators in wiring from diagrams and operating
sequences of long and complex reports. Does not include working
supervisors performing tabulating-machine operations and day-to-day
supervision of the woxk and production of a group of tabulatingmachine operators.
Class B. Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the
sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under specific
instructions and may include the performance of some wiring from
diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabulations
involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but small
tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report. Such
reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where the pro­
cedures are well established. May also include the training of new
employees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C. Operates simple tabulating or electrical accounting
machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc., with
specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams and



T A B U LA TIN G -M A C H IN E OPERATOR— Continued

some filing woik. The woik typically involves portions of a woik
unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or repetitive
operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerical woik. Woikers transcribing dictation involving
a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports
on scientific research are not included. A woiker who takes dictation in
shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified as a stenog­
rapher, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicating
processes. May do clerical work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming mail.
Class A. Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctu­
ation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B. Performs one or more of the following; Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance policies,
etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more
complex tables already setup and spaced properly.

26

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN—Continued
DRAFTSMAN
Class A. Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having
Suggested methods of approach, applicable precedents, and advice on
distinctive design features that differ significantly from established
source materials are given with initial assignments. Instructions are
drafting precedents. Works in close support with the design originator,
less complete when assignments recur. Work may be spot-checked
during progress.
and may recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of
each change on the details of form, function, and positional relation­
ships of components and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory DRAFTSMAN-TRACER
assistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator for con­
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing
sistency with prior engineering determinations. May either prepare
cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not
drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level draftsmen.
include tracing limited to plans primarily consisting of straight lines and
Class B. Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments a large scale not requiring close delineation.)
that require the application of most of the standardized drawing tech­
and/or
niques regularly used. Duties typically involve such work as: Prepares
working drawings of subassemblies with irregular shapes, multiple Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items. Woik
functions, and precise positional relationships between components; is closely supervised during progress.
prepares architectural drawings for construction of a building including
detail drawings of foundations, wall sections, floor plans, and roof. NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making necessary computations
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general medi­
to determine quantities of materials to be used, load capacities,
strengths, stresses, etc. Receives initial instructions, requirements, cal direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or
and advice from supervisor. Completed work is checked for technical suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the following; Giving first aid to the ill
adequacy.
or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries; keeping
Class C. Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation
engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types or other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations
of drawings prepared include isometric projections (depicting three of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant en­
of components and convey needed information. Consolidates details vironment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety
from a number of sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. of all personnel.
MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE—Continued
Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain
in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials necessary for the
of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following Plan­ work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires
ning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal ap­
instructions using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable power tools, prenticeship or equivalent training and experience.



27

E LE C T R IC IA N , M A IN TE N A N C E

HELPER, M AIN TE N AN C E TRADES— Continued

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the in­
stallation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of
electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, con­
trollers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other
transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or
other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical
system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load
requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of
electrician’s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In general,
the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind
of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted
to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are
also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of
stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the
establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or
air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors, turbines,
ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed
water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation
of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise
these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing
more than one engineer are excluded.
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, or gas or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.
HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping



MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines, in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling, and oper­
ation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recognize
when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants
and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study purposes,
machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops are ex­
cluded from this classification.
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and speci­
fications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of machinist’s
handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating
standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making
standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds,
and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the
common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment re­
quired for his work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical
equipment. In general, the machinist’s work normally requires a rounded
training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal ap­
prenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

28

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the following; Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechanical
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling
machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools
in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items
obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a
machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major
repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the pro­
duction of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling machines; and
making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of
a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary
duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Woik involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwrights work normally requires a rounded training and experience
in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.



OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculi­
arities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following;
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting
machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.
PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves; Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents
and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures;
and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumbers snake. In general,
the woik of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

29

SH EET-M ETAL W ORKER, MAINTENANCE

TOOL AN D DIE MAKER— Continued

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal
equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves,
lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establish­
ment. Woik involves most of the following: Planning and laying out all
types of sheet-metal maintenance woik from blueprints, models, or other
specifications; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal­
working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, form­
ing, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles
as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fixtures
or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Woik in-

volves most of the following: Planning and laying out of woik from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision measuring
instruments; understanding of the working properties of common metals
and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related equip­
ment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions of woik,
speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during
fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qual­
ities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling of parts to pre­
scribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate materials,
tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's work requires
a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in
tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
GUARD AND WATCHMAN
Guard. Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or
on tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes
gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees
and other persons entering.
Watchman. Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting
property against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commerical
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, napping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,



JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER—Continued
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing
metel fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance
services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Woikers who
specialize in window washing are excluded.
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker, stockman
or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the following:
Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or from
freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and trans­
porting materials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

30

ORDER, FILLER

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers1
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and in­
dicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requi­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.
PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them
in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent
upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of con­
tainer employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of
items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following:
Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection
of appropriate type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container;
using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closing
and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on
container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible
for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work
involves; A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available
means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records of the goods
shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges,
and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing
the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Verifying or
directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of
lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting
damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper departments;
and maintaining necessary records and files.




SHIPPING A N D RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as fallows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping cledc
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCK!) RTVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of es­
tablishments such as; Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck
with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck
in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are
excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size and
type of equipment, as follows; (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the
basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1V2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium ( 1V2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of truck,
as follows;
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)




A v a ila b le O n R eq u es t-----

The eighth annual report on sa la ries for accountants, auditors,
attorneys, ch em ists, en gin eers, engineering tech n ician s, draftsm en,
tra cers, job an alysts, d irectors of personn el, m anagers of office
se r v ic e s, buyers, and clerica l em ployees.
Order as BLS Bulletin 1585, National Survey of P rofession al, Ad­
m in istrative, T echnical, and C lerical Pay, June 1967~! Fifty cents
a copy.




Area Wage Surveys
A list of the latest available bulletins is presented below. A directory indicating dates of ea rlier studies, and the p rices of the bulletins is
available on request. B ulletins may be purchased from the Superintendent of Docum ents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington, D.C., 20402,
or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the inside front cover.
Bulletin number
Bulletin number
and price
Area
Area
and price
Akron, Ohio, July 1967 1_____________________________ 1530-86, 25 cents
M ilwaukee, W is., Apr. 1967 1__________________________ 1530-76, 30 cents
AlbanyHSchenectady-Troy, N.Y., Apr. 1967--------------- 1530-62, 25 cents
M inneapolis— Paul, Minn., Jan. 1968 ______________ 1575-47, 30 cents
St.
Albuquerque, N. M ex., Apr. 1967------------------------------ 1530-60, 20 cents
Muskegon—Muskegon H eights, M ich., May 1967_______ 1530-72, 20 cents
Allentown—Bethlehem —Easton, Pa.— .J.,
N
Newark and Jersey City, N .J., Feb. 1967_____________ 1530-55, 25 cents
Feb. 1967------------------------------------------------------------------- 1530-53, 25 cents
New Haven, Conn., Jan. 19681_________________________ 1575-34, 25 cents
Atlanta, G a., May 1967 ----------------------------------------------- 1530-71, 25 cents
New O rleans, La., Feb. 1968 ________________________ 1575-46, 30 cents
B altim ore, M d., Oct. 1967___________________________ 1575-18, 25 cents
New York, N.Y., Apr. 1967 1___________________________ 1530-83, 40 cents
B eaum ont-Port Arthur—
Orange, Tex., May 1967____ 1530-74, 20 cents
Norfolk—
Portsm outh and Newport News—
Birm ingham , A la., Apr. 1967 1_______________________ 1530-63, 30 cents
Hampton, Va., June 1967 1___________________________ 1530-82, 25 cents
B oise City, Idaho, July 1967__________________________ 1575-3, 20 cents
Oklahoma City, O kla., July 1967______________________ 1575-4, 20 cents
Boston, M ass., Sept. 1967 1____________ ______________ 1575-13, 30 cents
Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa, Oct. 1 967 1________________________ 1575-21, 25 cents
Buffalo, N .Y ., D ec. 1 9 6 7 -.___________________________ 1575-41, 30 cents
Paterson—
Clifton— a ssa ic, N .J., May 1967___________ 1530-67, 25 cents
P
Burlington, V t., Mar. 1968 _________________________ 1575-48, 20 cents
Philadelphia, Pa.— .J., Nov. 1967 1 ___________________ 1575-40, 30 cents
N
Canton, Ohio, Apr. 1967_____________________________ 1530-58, 20 cents
Phoenix, A r iz ., Mar. 1967^____________________________ 1530-59, 20 cents
Charleston, W. V a ., Apr. 1967----------------------------------- 1530-61, 20 cents
Pittsburgh, P a., Jan. 1968 ___________________________ 1575-44, 30 cents
Charlotte, N.C., Apr. 1967 ___________________________ 1530-64, 20 cents
Portland, Maine, Nov. 1 967 1__________________________ 1575-16, 25 cents
Chattanooga, T en n .-G a., Aug. 1967---------------------------- 1575-7, 25 cents
Portland, O reg.—W ash., May 1967_____________________ 1530-79, 25 cents
Chicago, 111., Apr. 1967 1 -------------------------------------------- 1530-73, 30 cents
Providence—Pawtucket—
Warwick, R.I.—M a ss.,
Cincinnati, Ohio— Ind., Mar. 1967 ______ ____ —— 1530-56, 25 cents
Ky.—
May 1967 1 ____________________________________________ 1530-70, 30 cents
Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1967__________________________ 1575-14, 25 cents
Raleigh, N.C., Aug. 1 967 1____________________________ 1575-6, 25 cents
Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1967___________________________ 1575-23, 25 cents
Richmond, Va., Nov. 1 967 1___________________________ 1575-27, 25 cents
D allas, T ex., Nov. 1967___________________________ __ 1575-20, 25 cents
Rockford, 111., May 1967_______________________________ 1530-68, 20 cents
Davenport—
Rock Island—M oline, Iowa—
111.,
St. Louis, Mo.— Jan. 1968_________________________ 1575-39, 30 cents
111.,
Oct. 1967_____________________________________________ 1575-12, 25 cents
Salt Lake City, Utah, D ec. 1967 _______________________ 1575-35, 20 cents
Dayton, Ohio, Jan. 1968 1 _____________________________ 1575-51, 30 cents
San Antonio, T ex., June 1967 1 _______________________ 1530-84, 25 cents
D enver, C olo., D ec. 1967 1______________________ _____ 1575-38, 25 cents
San Bernardino— iverside—
R
Ontario, C alif.,
Des M oines, Iowa, Feb. 1968 1 _______________________ 1575-52, 30 cents
Aug. 1 967 1____________________________________________ 1575-10, 30 cents
D etroit, M ich., Jan. 1968 1 ___________________________ 1575-45, 35 cents
San D iego, C alif., Nov. 1967___________________________ 1575-19, 20 cents
Fort Worth, T ex ., Nov. 1 967_________________________ 1575-22, 25 cents
San F rancisco—
Oakland, C alif., Jan. 1968____________ 1575-37, 25 cents
Green Bay, W is., July 1967__________________________ 1575-5, 20 cents
San Jose, C alif., Sept. 1967 1__________________________ 1575-15, 25 cents
G reen ville, S.C ., May 1967__________________________ 1530-66, 25 cents
Savannah, Ga., May 1967______________________________ 1530-69, 20 cents
Houston, T ex., June 1967———________________________ 1530-85, 25 cents
Scranton, P a., July 1 967 1__________________ ___________ 1575-9, 25 cents
Indianapolis, Ind., D ec. 1967 1 ________________________ 1575-36, 30 cents
Seattle—E verett, W ash., Nov. 1967 1__________________ 1575-29, 25 cents
30 cents
Jackson, M iss., Feb. 1968 l ~ ________________________ 1575-49,
Sioux F a lls, S. Dak., Oct. 1 967 1_______________________ 1575-17, 25 cents
Jacksonville, F la., Jan. iV 68-------------------------------------- 1575-33, 20 cents
South Bend, Ind., Mar. 1968 1_________________________ 1575-56, 30 cents
Kansas City, Mo.— ans., Nov. 1 967 1_________________ 1575-30, 25 cents
K
Spokane, W ash., June 1967 1 _______________ ___________ 1530-80, 25 cents
Lawrence— averhill, M ass.—N.H., June 1967 ------------ 1530-77, 20 cents
H
Tampa— P etersburg, F la ., Aug. 1967______________ 1575-8, 25 cents
St.
Little Rock—
North L ittle Rock, Ark., July 1967______ 1575-2, 25 cents
Toledo, Ohio—M ich., Feb. 1968_______________________ 1575-43, 30 cents
Los A ngeles—Long Beach and Anaheim—
Santa AnaTrenton, N .J., Nov. 1967______________________________ 1575-24, 20 cents
Garden G rove, C alif., Mar. 1967 1 _________________ 1530-65, 30 cents
Washington, D.C.—Md.— a., Sept. 1967_______________ 1575-11, 25 cents
V
L ou isville, Ky.—
Ind., Feb. 1967 1 ____________________ 1530-49, 30 cents
Waterbury, Conn., April 1968 1_______________________ 1575-53, 30 cents
Lubbock, T ex., June 1967 ____________________________ 1530-75, 20 cents
W aterloo, Iowa, Nov. 1967_____________________________ 1575-26, 20 cents
M anchester, N .H ., July 1967_________________________ 1575-1, 20 cents
W ichita, Kans., D ec. 1967___________ _________________ 1575-31, 20 cents
M emphis, fenn.—
Ark., Jan. 1968 1------------------------------ 1575-32, 25 cents
W orcester, M ass., June 1967_________________________ 1530-81, 2 5 cents
York, P a ., Feb. 1968 1 ______________ _________________ 1575-42, 30 cents
M iami, Fla. D ec. 1 967 1_______________—------------------- 1575-28, 25 cents
Midland and O dessa, T ex., June 1967 ------------------------ 1530-78, 20 cents
Youngstown— arren, Ohio, Nov. 1967 1_______________ 1575-25, 25 cents
W
1 Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.