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L* 0.0^5 o.^DG0- (d^

Area
Wage
Survey

Seattle—Everett, Washington,
Metropolitan Area, December 1980

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin 3000-69


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Snohomish
Everett

Seattle

SOUTHWSST MISSOURI 3TATS
~
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

UJI UUPCXJITORY

OOf'i

Preface
This bulletin provides results of a December 1980 survey of occupational
earnings in the Seattle-Everett, Washington, Standard Metropolitan Statistical
Area. The survey was made as part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ annual
area wage survey program. It was conducted by the Bureau’s regional office in
San Francisco, Calif., under the general direction of Susan Holland, Assistant
Regional Commissioner for Operations. The survey could not have been
accomplished without the cooperation of the many firms whose wage and
salary data provided the basis for the statistical information in this bulletin. The
Bureau wishes to express sincere appreciation for the cooperation received.
Unless specifically identified as copyright, material in this publication is in
the public domain and may, with appropriate credit, be reproduced without
permission.
Note:

Reports on occupational earnings and supplementary wage provisions in the
Seattle-Everett area are available for banking (February 1980) and savings and
loan associations (February 1980). Also available are listings of union wage
rates for building trades, printing trades, local- transit operating employees,
local truckdrivers and helpers, and grocery store employees. A report on
occupational earnings and supplementary wage provisions for municipal
government workers is available for the city of Seattle. Free copies of these are
available from the Bureau’s regional offices. (See back cover for addresses.)


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Area
Wage
Survey

Seattle—Everett, Washington,
Metropolitan Area, December 1980

U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary

Contents

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood,
Commissioner

Introduction..................................................................................

April 1981
Bulletin 3000-69

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
D.C, 20402, GPO Bookstores, or BLS Regional
Offices listed on back cover. Price $1.75. Make
checks payable to Superintendent of Documents,
G.P.O.


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Page
2

Tables:
Earnings, all establishments:
A- 1. Weekly earnings of office workers.........................
A- 2. Weekly earnings of professional and
technical workers...................................................
A- 3. Average weekly earnings of office,
professional, and technical workers,
by sex........................................................................
A- 4. Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom,
and powerplant workers........................................
A- 5. Hourly earnings of material movement and
custodial workers...................................................
A- 6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance,
toolroom, powerplant, material movement,
and custodial workers, by sex..............................
A- 7. Indexes of earnings and percent increases
for selected occupational groups.......................

Page
Tables—Continued
A- 8.
A- 9.

3
5

A-10.

6

A-11.

7
8

9
9

Average pay relationships within establish­
ments for office clerical occupations.................
Average pay relationships within establish­
ments for professional and technical
occupations............................................................
Average pay relationships within establish­
ments for maintenance, toolroom, and
powerplant occupations .....................................
Average pay relationships within establish­
ments for material movement and
custodial occupations.........................................

10

10

11

11

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey............................................ 13
B. Occupational descriptions.............................................. 16

Introduction

This area is 1 of 71 in which the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of
Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related
benefits. (See list of areas on inside back cover.) In each area, earnings data for
selected occupations (A-series tables) are collected annually. Information on
establishment practices and supplementary wage benefits (B-series tables) is
obtained every third year. This report has no B-series tables.
Each year after all individual area wage surveys have been completed, two
summary bulletins are issued. The first brings together data for each metropoli­
tan area surveyed; the second presents national and regional estimates,
projected from individual metropolitan area data, for all Standard Metropoli­
tan Statistical Areas in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii.
A major consideration in the area wage survey program is the need to
describe the level and movement of wages in a variety of labor markets,
through the analysis of (1) the level and distribution of wages by occupation,
and (2) the movement of wages by occupational category and skill level. The
program develops information that may be used for many purposes, including
wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and assistance in
determining plant location. Survey results also are used by the U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor to make wage determinations under the Service Contract Act of
1965.
A-series tables

Tables A-l through A-6 provide estimates of straight-time weekly or hourly
earnings for workers in occupations common to a variety of manufacturing and


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nonmanufacturing industries. The occupations are defined in appendix B. For
the 31 largest survey areas, tables A-12 through A-17 provide similar data for
establishments employing 500 workers or more.
Table A-7 provides indexes and percent changes in average hourly earnings
for office clerical workers, electronic data processing workers, industrial
nurses, skilled maintenance trades workers, and unskilled plant workers.
Where possible, data are presented for all industries and for manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing separately. Data are not presented for skilled maintenance
workers in nonmanufacturing because the number of workers employed in this
occupational group in nonmanufacturing is too small to warrant separate
presentation. This table provides a measure of wage trends after elimination of
changes in average earnings caused by employment shifts among establish­
ments as well as turnover of establishments included in survey samples. For
further details, see appendix A.
Tables A-8 through A-ll provide measures of average pay relationships
within establishments. These measures may differ considerably from the pay
relationships of overall area averages published in tables A-l through A-6. See
appendix A for details.
Appendixes

Appendix A describes the methods and concepts used in the area wage
survey program and provides information on the scope of the survey.
Appendix B provides job descriptions used by Bureau field representatives
to classify workers by occupation.

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers In Seattle-Everett, Wash., December 1980

Occupation and industry
division

Number
of
workers

Average
weekly
hours'
(stand­
ard)

Weekly e amings
(in doll ars)1

Mean’

Median*

Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings (in dollars) of

Middle range*

130
and
under
140

140

150

160

170

180

190

210

230

250

270

290

310

330

350

370

390

410

430

450

150

160

170

180

190

210

230

250

270

290

310

330

350

370

390

410

430

450

470

Secretaries..........................................
Nonmanufacturing.......................
Public utilities...........................

2,279
1,143
252

40.0
40.0
40.0

318.00
294.50
328.00

317.50
292.00
303.50

276.00- 365.50
251.50- 333.00
302.50- 365.00

_
-

_
-

Secretaries, class A......................
Nonmanufacturing.......................

82
63

40.0
40.0

338.50
359.00

312.50
322.00

274.50- 383.50
312.50- 439.00

_
-

Secretaries, class B......................
Nonmanufacturing.......................
Public utilities...........................

459
191
40

40.0
40.0
40.0

357.00
326.50
367.50

384.00
326.50
384.50

317.00- 405.00
288.00- 367.00
320.00- 414.50

_
-

Secretaries, class C......................
Manufacturing..............................
Nonmanufacturing.......................
Public utilities...........................

481
83
398
85

39.5
40.0
39.5
39.5

285.50
271.00
288.50
330.00

282.00
269.00
282.00
342.50

250.50225.00252.00287.50-

Secretaries, class D......................
Non manufacturing.......................

683
336

40.0
40.0

311.50
270.50

318.50
269.00

259.50- 368.50
226.00- 302.50

Secretaries, class E:
Nonmanufacturing.......................
Stenographers:
Nonmanufacturing.......................
Public utilities...........................

103

.106
78

40.0
40.0
40.0

294.00
295.00
308.50

316.50
293.50
325.00
354.00

_
-

-

1
1

1
1

3
3

-

_
-

-

-

_

_

_

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_

.
_
-

_

.

_
-

_
-

_

.

_
_
-

_
-

"
_
-

_
-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
1

70
55
8

120
102
8

154
111
8

168
143
11

161
133
19

345
195
81

263
104
22

236
98
20

278
90
16

3

15
3

2
2

6
6

1
1

23
23

1
1

7
5

_
-

2
2
1

23
6

21
9
1

26
26
5

26
23
2

46
36
2

22
8

-

34
34
3

_
_
-

34
15
19
4

50
10
40
1

36
5
31
3

82
12
70
3

74
7
67
12

53
18
35
8

49
8
41
9

23
2
21
15

50
3
47
13

3
3

36
36

55
50

56
47

45
32

38
29

91
84

54
7

66
25

-

470
and
over

241
45
18

190
21
8

7
5
5

14

5

9

4

1

1

-

7

9

57
15
8

6

4

8

16
8

2

-

6

75
14

8

-

-

-

17

1

-

_

290.50

285.50- 311.00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

17

-

14

40

7

10

9

_

_

_

_

_

_

298.50
308.50

273.00- 331.50
279.00- 343.50

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

7
-

7
5

5
5

1
1

2
2

19
9

27
22

11
8

8

2

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

7
-

7
5

5
5

1
1

2
2

17
9

14
9

4
1

5
4

2
2

16
16

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

1
1

-

3
3

19
19

8
8

29
28

10
10

26
26

-

-

4

-

7

-

-

-

-

-

3

39

39
4
35

52
14
38

101
22
79

116
14
102

59
11
48

30
2
28

19
3
16

27

3

27

29
27
2

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

Stenographers, general:
Nonmanufacturing.......................
Public utilities...........................

80
54

40.0
40.0

289.50
305.50

291.00
297.00

247.50- 337.00
279.00- 377.00

Transcribing-machine typists...........
Nonmanufacturing........................

112
106

39.0
39.0

239.50
237.00

226.00
224.50

207.50- 253.00
201.50- 253.00

Typists.................................................
Manufacturing...............................
Nonmanufacturing.......................

560
100
460

39.5
40.0
39.5

234.50
261.50
229.00

230.00
241.50
228.00

196.00- 257.00
217.50- 340.00
190.00- 253.00

_

2

-

2

_
3

_
39

40
1
39

Typists, class A...............................
Nonmanufacturing........................

240
211

39.5
39.5

241.00
239.50

237.50
237.50

228.00- 253.50
228.00- 253.50

_
-

1
1

1
1

1
1

2
2

18
18

4
3

45
40

92
81

45
37

20
19

7
6

Typists, class B...............................
Nonmanufacturing.......................

180
136

39.0
38.5

199.00
193.50

191.50
178.50

172.50- 214.00
168.50- 207.00

_

2
2

38
38

33
32

15
11

37
24

33
16

6
3

3

-

1
1

2
1

6
4

-

2
2

File clerks............................................
Nonmanufacturing........................

524
466

38.5
38.5

170.00
167.00

161.00
161.00

152.50- 175.50
152.50- 175.00

_
-

58
58

156
156

154
121

31
31

53
53

34
30

5
2

18
8

13
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

File clerks, class B........................
Nonmanufacturing........................

202
186

38.5
38.0

172.50
167.00

167.00
164.50

152.50- 180.50
152.50- 176.50

_

4
4

70
70

44
44

22
22

33
33

16
13

1

7

5
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

File clerks, class C........................
Nonmanufacturing.......................

306
269

39.0
38.5

165.50
165.00

161.00
157.50

152.00- 166.50
150.00- 169.00

_

-

54
54

86
86

110
77

7
7

18
18

18
17

4
2

2
1

5
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

Messengers........................................
Nonmanufacturing........................
Public utilities............................

173
132
27

39.5
39.0
40.0

199.50
186.00
188.00

184.00
172.50
172.50

167.00- 229.50
164.00- 211.50
168.50- 184.50

8
5

13
13

6
6

-

-

-

38
38
11

15
11
7

9
8
3

10
6
1

44
43
3

-

-

29
1
1

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

Switchboard operators.....................
Nonmanufacturing........................

143
130

39.0
39.0

196.50
190.50

185.00
182.00

163.00- 208.00
163.00- 203.50

_
-

.

21
21

40
40

4
3

16
16

27
25

4
3

10
10

11
7

-

10
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

See footnotes at end of tables.


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3

-

5

2

1

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers In Seattle-Everett, Wash., December 1980 —Continued

Occupation and industry
division

Number
of
workers

Average
weekly
hours1
(stand-

Weekly earnings
(in dollars)*

Mean*

Median*

Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings (in dollars) of

Middle range*

130
and
under
140

140

150

160

170

180

190

210

230

250

270

290

310

330

350

370

390

410

430

450

150

160

170

180

190

210

230

250

270

290

310

330

350

370

390

410

430

450

470

Switchboard operator-

Manufacturing...............................
Nonmanufacturing.......................

Key entry operators, class A........

Key entry operators, class B........

Workers were distributed as foil dws:
Also see footnotes at end of tables.
*


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

576
206
370
39

39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0

211.00
217.00
207.50
215.00

205.00
211.00
203.50
186.50

180.00187.00180.00185.00-

230.00
230.00
226.50
207.00

381

40.0

332.50

364.00

320.00- 392.00

307

40.0

350.50

379.00

320.00- 392.00

74

40.0

258.00

229.50

195.50- 364.00

_
_

2,559
547
2,012

39.5
40.0
39.5

233.00
255.50
227.00

220.00
258.00
219.50

196.00- 257.00
207.00- 285.50
192.00- 245.50

1,254
270
984

39.5
40.0
39.5

257.00
288.50
248.00

241.00
277.50
236.00

220.00- 284.00
271.50- 299.00
218.50- 276.00

1,300
277
1,023
89

39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0

210.50
223.50
207.00
265.50

198.50
207.00
195.50
301.50

181.00201.50180.50205.00-

230.00
232.00
229.00
313.00

389
177
212
47

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

263.50
265.00
262.00
287.50

250.00
266.00
244.00
290.00

218.50210.00230.00213.00-

1,154
175
979
183

39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0

232.00
234.50
231.50
276.00

222.00
226.50
218.50
282.00

192.00188.00192.00207.00-

495
453

39.5
39.5

249.50
246.50

246.00
243.00

39.5
218.50
659
40.0
218.50
133
218.50
39.5
526
40.0
269.00
86
5 at $470.00 to $490.00; 3 at

207.00
207.00
207.00
256.50
$490.00

_
_
_

3
3
_
_

6
_
6
4

35
30
5
5

90
90
-

68
52
16
12

6

113
13
100
11

100
32
68
-

34

16

5

10

101
29
72

-

1
1

11
9
2
2

5

22

78

2

5

22

78

43
38
5

-

1
1
1

10

2

3

-

-

-

2
2
2

26

78

104

78

104

.

26

-

-

1
1
1

-

.

.

.

.

.

.

29

6

7

.

.

.

_

541
104
437

333
39
294

394
75
319

223
50
173

235
123
112

100
43
57

124
25
99

29
21
8

19
12
7

21
8
13

19
3
16

9
3
6

6
2
4

_

4

53

196
7
189

-

4

147
147

245
17
228

101
31
70

217
114
103

67
34
33

84
9
75

29
21
8

18
11
7

17
8
9

15
3
12

9
3
6

6
2
4

4

27

248
17
231

.

-

20
•20

27

_

-

4

38

53

169
7
162
6

394
104
290
4

84
22
62
9

147
58
89
5

120
19
101
4

18
9
9
1

33
9
24
17

40
16
24
21

1
1

4

4

53
6

195
32
163
8

“

38

4
4

4
4

_
-

_
-

_
-

2

8
-

2
1

8
-

21
14
7
4

27
19
8
1

57
44
13
11

79
4
75
2

48
19
29
4

30
16
14
5

12
3
9
1

6

_

38

53

_

38

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

50
26
24
5

11

35
32
3
3

.

60
10
50
5

26

4

-

-

6
6

26
14

4
3

95
87

34
34

16
16

3
3

6

21
3
18
9

26
10
16
2

10

-

-

310.50
310.50
296.00
352.50

_
_
_

_
_
_

_

256.50
254.50
256.50
313.00

_
_
_

_

_

5
1

12
5

44
2
42
7

106
30
76
8

108
14
94
15

231
25
206
12

147
19
128
12

183
32
151
9

64
22
42
12

116
11
105
42

204.00- 282.00
201.50- 282.00

_

-

4
4

10
10

9
9

34
34

75
75

87
84

52
47

40
24

97
30
67
8

74
14
60
7

156
25
131
10

60
16
44
7

131
27
104
7

24
6
18
11

_

_
12

5

8

-

-

5
8
1
1
to $530.00.

34
2
32
-

4

“

-

-

184.00- 241.50
.
188.00- 247.50
184.00- 241.50
_
199.50- 313.00
to $510.00; and 1 at $510.00

1
1

215
32
183

6

5

1

470
and
over

-

2

.

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

1
1

.

_

12

-

-

-

-

12
12

-

-

-

2

-

_

-

-

_
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12
12

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

28
2
26
26

2
2
-

-

-

-

28
26

1

-

-

-

10
10

1
1

-

-

11
1

-

-

.
-

-

-

Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers In Seattle-Everett, Wash., December 1980

Occupation and industry
division

of
workers

Average
weekly
hours1
(stand­
ard)

Weekly e arnings
(in doll ars)1

Mean2

Median2

Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings (in dollars) of

Middle range2

Computer systems analysts

160
and
under
180

180

200

220

240

260

280

300

320

340

360

380

400

420

460

500

540

580

620

660

200

220

240

260

280

300

320

340

360

380

400

420

460

500

540

580

620

660

700

700
and
over

•
1,496
1,200

39.5

456.00
450.00

439.50
429.00

394.50- 511.00
386.50- 506.00

558
412

39.5
39.5

493.00
482.50

497.50
466.50

440.50- 529.00
434.50- 512.50

571
459

40.0
40.0

441.50
436.50

415.50
406.00

390.00- 462.00
386.50- 441.00

296
258

40.0
39.5

427.00
433.50

381.50
381.00

358.00- 541.00
358.00- 560.00

437
86
351

39.5
40.0
39.5

386.50
358.00
394.00

374.00
366.00
393.50

326.00- 441.50
326.00- 400.00
332.00- 467.00

123

40.0

406.50
405.00

402.50
393.50

364.00- 441.50
364.00- 441.50

18
18

21
21

37
37

60
49

126
117

173
157

147
140

304
245

162
109

197
98

108
69

72
69

57
57

11
11

3
3

1

5
5

36
36

150
142

92
79

171
84

70
35

18
15

-

9
9

3
3

Computer systems analysts

Computer systems analysts
15
15

9
9

15
13

52
49

111
110

96
92

127
81

56
16

13
1

7
3

9
9

57
57

2
2

-

22
22

38
29

63
57

49
34

7

5

8
3

1
1

13
13

31
31

45
45

-

-

-

41
20
21

31

23

53
9
44

_

65

17
1
16

17

21

42
13
29

65

29

54
22
32

17

-

_
-

-

_
-

21
21

30
30

12
10

15
11

32
26

24
24

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

21
19

10

27
9
18

21
3
18

41

16

17

10

41

16

17

-

-

-

. -

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

40
4
36

24

21

13

24

“
21

"
13

-

~

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

13
13

14
14

20
20

12
12

-

-

_
-

_
-

_

_

-

-

8

1

1

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

“

-

-

-

-

Computer systems analysts

Computer programmers (business)..
Nonmanufacturing.......................

14
14
-

-

-

22

-

19

30

23
6

22

Computer programmers
"

Computer programmers
240
56
184

39.5
40 0
39.5

400.50
358.50
413.50

401.00
366.00
421.00

326.00- 472.00
326.00- 368.00
332.00- 481.00

58

39.5

284.00

288.50

259.00- 297.00

685
86
599
53

39.5
40.0
39 5
40.0

303.50
283.00
306.00
338.50

292.00
276.00
303.50
355.50

256.50264.50254.00333.00-

260
255

39.5
39.5

332.00
332.50

320.00
320.00

292.00- 374.00
291.50- 374.00

-

14

7

20
6
14

37
17
20

9

T4

105

57

67

67

50
1

64
13

20

18
17

37
36

48
45

33
33

8

44
9
35

19

14

8
1

7

13

14

Computer programmers

Computer operators, class A.......

Computer operators, class B.......

Computer operators, class C.......

”

345.00
294.50
355.00
357.00

234
62
172

39.5
40 0
39 5

283.50
289.50
281.50

276.00
276.00
267.50

258.00- 299.00
266.50- 294.50
254.50- 303.00

-

171
152

40.0
40.0

296.50
302.50

270.50
315.50

227.50- 367.50
233.00- 374.00

1
1

16

23

61

16

23

54
1

1

4

5

1
10
10

13
13

13
56
3

3

31
31

19

67

26

33
1
32

30

18

17
11

26

6

5
“

Drafters:
298

40.0

324.00

330.00

280.00- 360.00

31
29

1
26
26

16
16

19
19

9

33

47

13

26

9

20

3

5

”

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

2

1

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

0

9

26

39

22

37

_

3

5

3

Drafters, class A:

Registered industrial nurses............

55

40.0

377.50

366.00

360.00- 402.50

76

40.0

411.50

441.50

379.50- 441.50

_

_

_

_

_

See footnotes at end of tables.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5

12
4

51

2

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex, In Seattle-Everett, Wash., December 1980

Sex,* occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours'
(stand­
ard)

Weekly
earnings
(in dollars)1

Nonmanufacturing:
Public utilities.................................................... .
Secretaries, class A.................................................

Secretaries, class C:
Manufacturing..........................................................
Nonmanufacturing:
Public utilities.......................................................
Secretaries, class D.................................................

1,981

40.0

323.50

219

40.0

312.50

70

40.0

314.50

408

40.0

357.00

83

40.0

271.00

85

39.5

330.00

596

40.0

323.50

103

40.0

294.00

Secretaries, class E:

Weekly
earnings
(in dollars)1

571
206
365
34

39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0

211.50
217.00
208.00
221.50

121

40.0

263.00

73

40.0

304.50

2,076
513

39.5
40.0

231.00
256.50

264

40.0

286.50

Nonmanufacturing...................................................

1,127
249
878

39.5
40.0
39.5

209.00
225.50
204.50

Manufacturing..........................................................
Nonmanufacturing...................................................
Public utilities.......................................................

356
177
179
36

40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0

258.00
265.00
251.50
259.00

89

40.0

281.00

101
96

39.0
39.0

231.00
228.00

39.5
40.0
39.5

229.00
234.50
227.50

Sex,* occupation, and industry division

of
workers

Weekly
hours'
(stand­
ard)

Weekly
earnings
(in dollars)'

61

40.0

376.00

90

40.0

409.00

431
401

39.5
39.5

302.50
303.50

185
181

39.0
39.0

331.50
332.00

108
92

39.5
39.5

281.00
278.00

108

40.0
40.0

290.00
294.50

248

40.0

330.00

51

39.5

285.00

212
55

39.5
40.0

302.50
283.50

122
77

39.5
39.0

287.00
286.50

50

40.0

293.50

Computer programmers (business):

Public utilities.......................................................

Order clerks, class A................................................

Computer programmers

Nonmanufacturing..................................................

Accounting clerks, class A:

Stenographers:

472
100

39.5
40.0

230.00
261.50

1,021
174
847

231
202

39.5
39.5

241.00
239.00

430
388

39.5
39.5

246.50
242.00

172
128

39.0
38.5

197.00
190.00

510
456

38.5
38.5

168.50
166.00

591
132
459
72

39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0

216.00
218.50
215.50
268.00

198
185

38.5
38.0

171.50
167.00

296
260

39.0
38.5

163.50
163.00

136
123

39.0
39.0

194.50
188.00

Drafters:

occupations - women
Computer programmers (business):
Computer programmers

Professional and technical
occupations - men
Computer systems analysts
(business):
Computer systems analysts
Nonmanufacturing...................................................

See footnotes at end of tables.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours1
(stand­
ard)

Sex,* occupation, and industry division

Switchboard operator-

Office occupations women

Average
(mean*)

Average
(mean*)

Average
(mean*)

6

432
299

39.5
39.5

491.00
476.00

Drafters:
Nonmanufacturing..................................................

Table A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers In Seattle-Everett, Wash., December 1980
Hourty earn ngs
(in dollars)4
Occupation and industry
division

Number
of
workers

Maintenance machinists..
Manufacturing............ .
Maintenance mechanics
(machinery)...................
Manufacturing.............
Maintenance mechanics
(motor vehicles)..................
Manufacturing...................
Nonmanufacturing............
Public utilities................

148
101

* All workers were under $6.10.
Also see footnotes at end of tables.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

11.67
11.56

Median*

Middle
range*

11.67 11.12-11.83
11.83 11.12-11.83

392
384

11.49
11.48

11.83 10.56-11.83
11.83 10.56-11.83

743
147
596
516

11.86
11.76
11.88
11.83

11.83
11.83
12.20
11.42

Maintenance trades helpers..
Stationary engineers..
Manufacturing......
Nonmanufacturing..

Mean*

252
146
106

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) of
6.70
Under and
6.70 under
6.90
-

-

6.90

7.10

7.30

7.50

7.70

7.90

8.10

8.50

8.90

9.30

9.70

10.10

10.50

10.90

11.30

11.70

12.10

12.50

12.90

13.30

13.70

7.10

7.30

7.50

7.70

7.90

8.10

8.50

8.90

9.30

9.70

10.10

10.50

10.90

11.30

11.70

12.10

12.50

12.90

13.30

13.70

14.10

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
'

10.81-12.84
11.50-11.90
10.81-12.84
10.81-12.85

-

8.97

9.82 9.82- 9.90

• 25

10.79
10.79
10.80

10.67 10.31-11.87
10.67 10.31-11.67
11.87 9.87-11.87

_
—

_
—

_

_

.

-

-

-

1

~

1
1

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

20
5
15

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

~

-

“

-

7

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

- .

1

-

1

27

8

1
1

-

27
27

8
8

1

4

117

2

2

2

8

1
1

_

_

5

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

5

2

2

2

8

1
1

3
3

39
39

37
1

49
49

8
8

36
36

64
64

21
20

34
34

186
180

48
48

11
4
7
7

184
4
180
180

33
8
25
21

64
42
22
22

94
74
20
17

93
6
87
21

58
56
2

42
41
1

2
2

34
34

69

11
-

-

_

-

-

-

119

10

28

119
112

10
10

69
9
60
60

-

28
28
.

4
69

-

-

-

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Seattle-Everett, Wash., December 1980
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) of —
Occupation and industry
division

Truckdrivers........................................
Manufacturing..............................
Nonmanufacturing........................
Public utilities...........................

Number
of
workers

Mean2

Median2

Middle
range2

3.00
and
under
3.40

3.40

3.80

4.20

4.60

5.00

5.40

5.80

6.20

6.60

7.00

7.40

7.80

8.20

8.80

9.40

10.00

10.60

11.20

11.80

12.40

13.00

13.60

3.80

4.20

4.60

5.00

5.40

5.80

6.20

6.60

7.00

7.40

7.80

8.20

8.80

9.40

10.00

10.60

11.20

11.80

12.40

13.00

13.60

14.20

3,281
1,056
2,225
1,522

11.60
10.79
11.99
12.38

12.03
11.47
12.12
12.12

10.99-12.39
9.80-11.67
12.03-12.39
12.03-12.24

_

8

_

-

8
-

-

Truckdrivers, light truck................

128

10.10

11.67 11.67-11.90

-

8

Truckdrivers, medium truck..........

495

10.61

12.03 8.00-12.24

-

-

Truckdrivers, heavy truck.............

617

13.11

14.04 13.58-14.04

-

Truckdrivers, tractor-trailer...........
Manufacturing...............................
Nonmanufacturing........................
Public utilities...........................

1,612
288
1,324
732

11.61
10.14
11.92
12.06

12.03 10.99-12.12
9.95 9.80- 9.95
12.12 12.03-12.39
12.03 12.03-12.12

Shippers..............................................

75

8.29

8.80 6.79- 9.70

Receivers............................................
Manufacturing...............................
Nonmanufacturing.......................

271
56
215

8.96
7.81
9.26

9.61
8.68
9.70

7.56- 9.70
5.36- 9.93
8.10- 9.70

_
-

_
-

Shippers and receivers.....................
Nonmanufacturing.......................

417
306

9.13
8.96

9.67
9.48

8.09- 9.93
8.10- 9.75

_
-

Warehousemen..................................
Manufacturing...............................
Nonmanufacturing.......................
Public utilities...........................

766
102
664
67

9.35
10.67
9.15
9.48

9.51
11.67
9.45
9.17

9.21- 9.51
10.50-11.92
9.21- 9.51
9.17-10.28

Shipping packers................................

69

8.07

Material handling laborers................
Nonmanufacturing.......................
Public utilities............................

536
512
154

Forklift operators................................
Manufacturing...............................
Nonmanufacturing.......................
Public utilities............................

14
14

_

4
4

1

2

_

16

17

1
1

2
2

-

16

17

-

-

75
75

55
25
30

46
46

48
24
24
3

258
253
5
5

220
56
164
80

213
13
200
60

375
337
38
5

1360
27
1333
992

39
30

-

452
108
344
344

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

69

440

38

1028

39

38
5

1028
692

39
30

9
9

12
12

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

28

1

_
-

2
2

28

_
-

_
-

_
-

140
137

11
11

26
23

67
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

139
10
129
27

356

17
7
10

30
30

30
30

-

94
13
81
31

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

2

9

9

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

20
6

5

-

-

-

122
122
4

_
-

_
-

_
"

247
247
150

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

118
118

12
10
2

198
198

94
17
77

175
175

145
120
25

30
30

224

-

_
-

224
118

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

3
3

2
2

3
3

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

14

-

4

1

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

60

39

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

75

55

36

12

-

-

-

31

285

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

16

-

-

-

14

-

54

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

258
253
5
5

83
1
82

145
13
132

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

14

3

-

-

5

-

-

-

-

22

30

-

-

_
-

_
-

1

14
14

4
3
1

_
-

1
1

5
5

1

16

1

16

10

114
13
101

1

"

24
18
6

10

-

50
■ 50

-

-

1
1

6
6

4
4

12
-

33
7

6
6

6
6

_
-

5
5

68
68

6
6

26
26

_
-

-

-

-

2

10

3

4

30

3

1

4

10

3
-

-

-

3
2

1

-

2
2

30

-

4
1

41
12
29

2

2

-

4
4

7.74 7.37- 9.21

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

16

13

15

-

9.94
10.02
11.93

9.21 7.60-12.03
9.23 7.60-12.03
11.97 11.97-12.03

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

23
21

1

3
1

_
-

_
-

85
85

24
24

-

1,021
693
328
118

10.02
9.37
11.41
12.03

10.09
8.97
12.03
12.03

8.97-11.09
8.82-10.09
10.97-12.11
12.03-12.03

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
"

_
-

_
-

Guards.................................................
Manufacturing...............................
Nonmanufacturing........................

1,986
283
1,703

4.36
8.11
3.73

3.59
9.68
3.50

3.25- 4.40
5.11- 9.68
3.25- 4.00

594

540

243

594

540

243

193
42
151

81
2
79

Guards, class A..............................
Nonmanufacturing........................

266
119

7.67
5.15

9.68 5.00- 9.68
5.00 4.83- 5.00

_
-

_
-

8
8

_
-

Guards, class B..............................
Manufacturing...............................
Nonmanufacturing........................

1,684
110
1,574

3.74
5.46
3.62

3.50 3.25- 4.00
5.11 4.40- 5.56
3.50 3.25- 3.87

594

540

235

594

540

235

Janitors, porters, and cleaners........
Nonmanufacturing........................
Public utilities............................

2,726
2,177
53

6.19
5.54
8.51

5.66 5.07- 6.45
5.46 5.07- 5.97
8.77 7.63- 8.92

_
-

8
8
-

1

-

-

_ '
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

25
25

96
36
60

28
12
16

10
1
9

2
2

3
1
2

-

44
44

47
47

11
11

5
5

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

188
42
146

33
2
31

49
36
13

17
12
5

4
1
3

2
2

3
1
2

_
-

3
3
-

-

-

-

9
9

197
194

267
265

445
443

519
487

-

-

-

8
8
4

15
14
11

12
8

-

180
175
3

22
5

-

552
521
3

18
7
7

211
26
18

See footnotes at end of tables.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

-

8

-

-

-

356

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
4
1

147
144
3

31
28
3

-

-

1
1

144

4
3

2
2

3
3

4
4

2
2

2
2

_
-

-

-

3
3
256
-

-

39

78
78

-

-

4
4

1
1

-

-

1

1

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
1
1

2
2
2

4
4
4

_
-

_
-

_
T

Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, powerplant, material movement, and custodial workers, by sex, in Seattle-Everett, Wash., December 1980
Sex,® occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
(mean2)
hourly
earnings
(in dollars)4

Number
of
workers

Sex,3 occupation, and industry division

Maintenance, toolroom, and
powerplant occupations - men

128
Truckdrivers, medium truck...................................................

Manufacturing.......................................................................
Maintenance mechanics
(machinery).............................................................................

148
101

11.67
11.56

392
384

11.49
11.48

715
147
568
490

11.89
11.76
11.92
11.87

10.53

605

13.15

1,542
288
1,254
732

11.62
10.14
11.96
12.06

Receivers:
Manufacturing........................................................................

51

7.91

Manufacturing........................................................................
Nonmanufacturing................................................................

680
96
584

9.44
10.94
9.19

971
670
301
118

9.98
9.31
11.46
12.03

1,665
277
1,388

4.45

Truckdrivers, tractor-trailer....................................................
Manufacturing........................................................................
Non manufacturing................................................................

10.82
96

10.88

Public utilities....................................................................

3,158
1,042
2,116
1,494

Forklift operators.........................................................................
Manufacturing........................................................................

11.61
10.78
12.02
12.39

Nonmanufacturing................................................................

3.73

Average
(mean2)
hourly
earnings
(in dollars)4

Number
of
workers

Sex,3 occupation, and industry division

10.10

461

Maintenance mechanics

Material movement and custodial
occupations - men

Average
(mean2)
hourly
earnings
(in dollars)4

Janitors, porters, and cleaners................................................
Nonmanufacturing................................................................

1,403
110
1,293

3.79
5.46
3.65

1,747
1,429

6.10
5.54

305
299

3.67
3.55

887
656

6.37
5.42

Material movement and custodial
occupations - women

Nonmanufacturing................................................................

See footnotes at end of tables.

Table A-7. Indexes of earnings and percent Increases for selected occupational groups, Seattle-Everett, Wash., selected periods
All industries
Period8

Indexes (December 1977=100):
December 1979........................................................................................................
December 1980........................................................................................................
Percent increases:
January 1972 to January 1973..............................................................................
January 1973 to January 1974..............................................................................
January 1974 to January 1975..............................................................................
January 1975 to January 1976..............................................................................
January 1976 to January 1977..............................................................................
January 1977 to December 1977
11 -month increase..............................................................................................
annual rate increase...........................................................................................
December 1977 to December 1978.....................................................................
December 1978 to December 1979.....................................................................
December 1979 to December 1980.....................................................................

Office
clerical

Electronic
data
processing

119.8
130.9

Manufacturing

Industrial
nurses

Skilled
mainte­
nance

Unskilled
plant

117.5
128.9

116.7
o

117.5
134.3

119.6
131.4

<•)
<*)

o
0

4.8
6.6
9.4
9.1
8.1

«
<•>
10.8
8.0
7.4

o
c>
12.4
10.1
7.1

7.2
7.0
11.6
11.0
8.1

8.3
6.5
o
8.5
7.1

7.7
<■>
o
o
o

8.0
8.8
9.6
9.3
9.3

5.9
6.5
8.2
8.6
9.7

12.5
13.7
5.5
10.6
<•)

9.5
10.4
8.0
8.8
14.3

8.1
8.9
9.4
9.3
9.9

o
c)
c)
c>
o

See footnotes at end of tables.


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9

Office
clerical

Electronic
data
processing

Nonmanufacturing
Skilled
mainte­
nance

Unskilled
plant

Office
clerical

Electronic
data
processing

0
(«)

117.5
134.5

119.8
(•)

119.7
129.6

117.6
129.1

o
(•)

120.3
130.5

o
o
<•)
o
o

o
o
c)
c)
C)

6.8
6.4
11.7
11.5
9.2

6.8
8.9
10.9
12.0
9.2

3.5
6.4
8.3
8.7
8.3

0
0
11.3
7.9
7.1

(«)
0
«
C)
(•)

9.0
5.5
C)
7.0
6.4

<•>
0
<•)
c)
<•>

o
0
o
(•>
o

10.1
11.1
8.2
8.6
14.5

8.4
9.2
8.7
10.2
o

7.8
8.5
9.1
9.7
8.3

6.2
6.8
8.1
8.8
9.8

c)
0
C)
C)
ci

8.3
9.1
9.7
9.7
8.5

Industrial
nurses

Industrial
nurses

Unskilled
plant

Table A-8. Average pay relationships within establishments for office clerical occupations, Seattle-Everett, Wash., December 1980
Office clerical occupation being compared

Occupation which equals 100

Secretaries
Class A

Class B

Class C

Class D

Tran­
scrib­
ing
ma­
chine
typists

File clerks

Typists
Class A

Class B

Secretaries, class A........................................................................
100
Secretaries, class B........................................................................
113
100
Secretaries, class C........................................................................
118
118
100
o
Secretaries, class D........................................................................
140
112
100
c)
Transcribing-machine typists.........................................................
123
155
(■)
100
c)
165
146
134
100
Typists, class A...............................................................................
164
«
Typists, class B...............................................................................
180
151
113
118
<■>
o
o
<•)
115
<■)
150
File clerks, class B..........................................................................
122
133
File clerks, class C..........................................................................
177
186
172
169
o
o
224
175
112
127
Messengers.....................................................................................
«
Switchboard operators...................................................................
164
133
116
110
154
Switchboard operator143
128
124
126
111
113
receptionists.................................................................................
c)
o
c)
99
<•>
Order clerks, class A......................................................................
<•)
(•)
c)
0
o
<•>
Order clerks, class B......................................................................
139
87
89
105
Accounting clerks, class A.............................................................
160
129
113
132
101
Accounting clerks, class B.............................................................
158
139
109
118
83
Payroll clerks...................................................................................
131
121
108
98
92
124
116
89
101
Key entry operators, class A..........................................................
144
135
Key entry operators, class B..........................................................
161
145
139
124
109
114
NOTE: This matrix table shows the average (mean) relationship of earnings within establishments between any two
occupations compared. Earnings for an occupation in the column heading are expressed as a percent of the earnings for an
occupation in the table stub at the point where the data lines for the two intersect. For example, a value of 122 indicates that
earnings for the occupation directly above in the heading are 22 percent greater than earnings for the occupation directly to

100
(•)
108
111
93

Class B

Class C

Switch­
Switch­
board
Messen­
board
operator
gers
operators -recep­
tionists

(■)

Class B

Class A

Payroll
clerks

Class B

Key entry
operators
Class A

Class B

100
o

o

83

100
84

84

78

83

94

<•)

o

o

o

o

o

<•>

79
94
85
81
105

Class A

Accounting clerks

100
109

o

Order clerks

100
(■)
(■)

100
o

100
o
(•)
100
67
83
76
89
124
(■)
100
85
84
98
104
158
(•)
118
100
c)
o
72
73
93
86
87
100
88
100
o
c)
(•)
70
82
97
93
106
87
109
100
o
o
100
81
82
104
95
0
111
99
108
118
the left in the stub. Similarly, a value of 85 indicates earnings for the occupation in the heading are 15 percent below
earnings for the occupation in the stub.
See appendix A for method of computation.
Also see footnotes at end of tables.
(•)

71
86

Table A-9. Average pay relationships within establishments for professional and technical occupations, Seattle-Everett, Wash., December 1980
Professional and technical occupation being compared
Computer systems
analysts (business)

Occupation which equals 100
Class A

Class B

Computer programmers (business)
Class C

Class A

Class B

Computer operators

Registered in­
dustrial nurses

Class C

Class A

Class B

Class C

100
86
108
121
84

100
119
132
o

100
117
88

100
o

Computer systems analysts
100
Computer systems analysts
117

100

133

113

100

132

113

97

100

139

124

(•)

134

100

140
125
127
138

C)

(«)
124
156
185
o

119
131
127
141
c)

Computer systems analysts
Computer programmers
Computer programmers
Computer programmers
166
150
162
170
Registered industrial nurses......................................................................................
157
See table A-8 for description of these pay relationships and appendix A for method of computation.
Also see footnotes at end of tables.


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C)

119
(•)
(s)
o

10

100

Table A-10. Average pay relationships within establishments for maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant occupations, Seattle-Everett, Wash., December 1980
Maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant occupation being compared
Mechanics

Occupation which equals 100
Machinists

Maintenance machinists...........................................................................................................................................
Maintenance mechanics
(machinery).............................................................................................................................................................
Maintenance mechanics
(motor vehicles).....................................................................................................................................................
Maintenance trades helpers.....................................................................................................................................
Stationary engineers.................................................................................................................................................

Trades
helpers

Motor
vehicles

Machinery

Stationary
engineers

100
100

c)
o
o
o

See table A-8 for description of these pay relationships and appendix A for method of computation.
Also see footnotes at end of tables.

101

100

o

120

100

o

104

100

o

Table A-11. Average pay relationships within establishments for material movement and custodial occupations, Seattle-Everett, Wash., December 1980
Material movement and custodial occupation being compared
Truckdrivers

Occupation which equals 100
Light truck

Medium
truck

Truckdrivers, light truck..............................................................................................
100
o
Truckdrivers, medium truck........................................................................................
100
o
o
Truckdrivers, heavy truck...........................................................................................
o
Truckdrivers. tractor-trailer.........................................................................................
99
o
Shippers.......................................................................................................................
0
o
o
Receivers.....................................................................................................................
o
o
Shippers and receivers...............................................................................................
c)
Warehousemen...........................................................................................................
106
o
Shipping packers........................................................................................................
c)
c)
Material handling laborers..........................................................................................
116
o
Forklift operators.........................................................................................................
106
o
o
Guards, class A...........................................................................................................
w
Guards, class B...........................................................................................................
0
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners....................................................................................................................
130
136
See table A-8 for description of these pay relationships and appendix A for method of computation.
Also see footnotes at end of tables.


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Heavy truck

Tractortrailer

100
99
0

100

Shippers

o

c)

c)

0

0
102
107
<•)
<•)

100
102
<•)
102
123
«
<■)
<■>
<•)

138

o

o
o

c)
c)

o
c)
o

106
c)

11

Receivers

100
c)
99
110

Shippers
and
receivers

121

100
98
c)
<*>
96
0
o

133

130

o

91
o

Warehouse­
men

Shipping
packers

100
117
0
95

100
<•>

c)

c)
147

o

Material
handling
laborers

100
90

Guards
Forklift
operators

100
«

(■>
124

o

c)

C)

o

109

124

Class A

Class B

100
(•)

100

c)

87

Janitors,
porters, and
cleaners

100

Footnotes

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time
salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings
correspond to these weekly hours.
2 The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all workers and dividing by the
number of workers. The median designates position—half of the workers receive the same or
more and half receive the same or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two
rates of pay; one-fourth of the workers earn the same or less than the lower of these rates and
one-fourth earn the same or more than the higher rate.
3 Earnings data relate only to workers whose sex identification was provided by the
establishment.
4 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
5 Estimates for periods ending prior to 1976 relate to men only for skilled maintenance and
unskilled plant workers. All other estimates relate to men and women.

6 Data do not meet publication criteria or data not available.


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12

Appendix A.
Scope and Method
of Survey

movement and custodial. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job
descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation in duties within
the same job. Occupations selected for study are listed and described in appendix B.
Unless otherwise indicated, the earnings data following the job titles are for all
industries combined. Earnings data for some of the occupations listed and described, or
for some industry divisions within the scope of the survey, are not presented in the Aseries tables because either (1) data were insufficient to provide meaningful statistical
results, or (2) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data. Separate
men’s and women’s earnings data are not presented when the number of workers not
identified by sex is 20 percent or more of the men or women identified in an occupation.
Earnings data not shown separately for industry divisions are included in data for all
industries combined. Likewise, for occupations with more than one level, data are
included in the overall classification when a subclassification is not shown or
information to subclassify is not available.
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for full-time workers, i.e.,
those hired to work a regular weekly schedule. Earnings data exclude premium pay for
overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses
are excluded, but cost-of-living allowances and incentive bonuses are included. Weekly
hours for office clerical and professional and technical occupations refer to the standard
workweek (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which employees receive regular
straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates).
Average weekly earnings for these occupations are rounded to the nearest half dollar.
Vertical lines within the distribution of workers on some A-tables indicate a change in
the size of the class intervals.
These surveys measure the level of occupational earnings in an area at a particular
time. Changes in an occupational average over time reflect, in addition to earnings
changes, factors such as changes in proportions of workers employed by high- or lowwage firms, or high-wage workers advancing to better jobs and being replaced by new
workers at lower rates. Such shifts in employment could decrease an occupational
average even though most establishments in an area increase wages during the year.
Changes in earnings of occupational groups, shown in table A-7, are better indicators of
wage trends than are earnings changes for individual jobs within the groups.
Average earnings reflect composite, areawide estimates. Industries and establish­
ments differ in pay level and job staffing, and thus contribute differently to the estimates

In each of the 71 areas' currently surveyed, the Bureau obtains wages and related
benefits data from representative establishments within six broad industry divisions:
Manufacturing; transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale
trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Government
operations and the construction and extractive industries are excluded. Establishments
having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are also excluded because of
insufficient employment in the occupations studied. Appendix table 1 shows the number
of establishments and workers estimated to be within the scope of this survey, as well as
the number actually studied,
Bureau field representatives obtain data by personal visits at 3-year intervals. In each
of the two intervening years, information on employment and occupational earnings
only is collected by a combination of personal visit, mail questionnaire, and telephone
interview from establishments participating in the previous survey.
A sample of the establishments in the scope of the survey is selected for study prior to
each personal visit survey. This sample, minus establishments which go out of business
or are no longer within the industrial scope of the survey, is retained for the following
two annual surveys. In most cases, establishments new to the area are not considered in
the scope of the survey until the selection of a sample for a personal visit survey.
The sampling procedures involve detailed stratification of all establishments within
the scope of an individual area survey by industry and number of employees. From this
stratified universe a probability sample is selected, with each establishment having a
predetermined chance of selection. To obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a
greater proportion of large than small establishments is selected. When data are
combined, each establishment is weighted according to its probability of selection so
that unbiased estimates are generated. For example, if one out of four establishments is
selected, it is given a weight of 4 to represent itself plus three others. An alternate of the
same original probability is chosen in the same industry-size classification if data are not
available from the original sample member. If no suitable substitute is available,
additional weight is assigned to a sample member that is similar to the missing unit.
Occupations and earnings

Occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the following types: (1) Office clerical; (2)
professional and technical; (3) maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant; and (4) material


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13

for each job. Pay averages may fail to reflect accurately the wage differential among
jobs in individual establishments.
Average pay levels for men and women in selected occupations should not be
assumed to reflect differences in pay of the sexes within individual establishments.
Factors which may contribute to differences include progression within established rate
ranges (only the rates paid incumbents are collected) and performance of specific duties
within the general survey job descriptions. Job descriptions used to classify employees
in these surveys usually are more generalized than those used in individual establish­
ments and allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.
Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all establishments within
the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed. Because occupational
structures among establishments differ, estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative importance
of the jobs studied. These differences in occupational structure do not affect materially
the accuracy of the earnings data.

Industrial nurses
Registered industrial nurses
Skilled maintenance
Carpenters
Electricians
Painters
Machinists

Unskilled plant
Janitors, porters, and cleaners

Material handling laborers

Percent changes for individual areas in the program are computed as follows:

Wage trends for selected occupational groups

Indexes in table A-7 measure wages at a given time, expressed as a percent of wages
during the base period. Subtracting 100 from the index yields the percent change in
wages from the base period to the date of the index. The percent increases in table A-7
relate to wage changes between the indicated dates. Annual rates of increase, where
shown, reflect the amount of increase for 12 months when the time span between
surveys was other than 12 months. These computations are based on the assumption
that wages increased at a constant rate between surveys.
The indexes and percent increases are based on changes in average hourly earnings of
men and women in establishments reporting the trend jobs in both the current and
previous year (matched establishments). The data are adjusted to remove the effects on
average earnings of employment shifts among establishments and turnover of establish­
ments included in survey samples. The percent increases, however, are still affected by
factors other than wage increases. Hirings, layoffs, and turnover may affect an
establishment average for an occupation when workers are paid under plans providing a
range of wage rates for individual jobs. In periods of increased hiring, for example, new
employees may enter at the bottom of the range, depressing the average without a
change in wage rates.
Occupations used to compute wage trends are:

1- Average earnings are computed for each occupation for the 2 years being
compared. The averages are derived from earnings in those establishments which
are in the survey both years; it is assumed that employment remains unchanged.
2. Each occupation is assigned a weight based on its proportionate employment in
the occupational group.
These weights are used to compute group averages. Each occupation’s average
earnings (computed in step 1) are multiplied by its weight. The products are
totaled to obtain a group average.
4. The ratio of group averages for 2 consecutive years is computed by dividing the
average for the current year by the average for the earlier year. The resultexpressed as a percent—less 100 is the percent change.
The index is computed by adding 100 to the most recent percent increase, multiplying
the total by the previous year’s index number, and dividing the product by 100 to obtain
the current index value.
For a more detailed description of the method used to compute these wage trends, see
‘Improving Area Wage Survey Indexes,’ Monthly Labor Review, January 1973 pp 52­
57.

Office clerical
Secretaries
Stenographers, senior
Stenographers, general
Typists, classes A and B
File clerks, classes A, B, and C
Messengers

Mechanics (machinery)
Mechanics (motor vehicle)
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers

Switchboard operators
Order clerks, classes A and B
Accounting clerks, classes A and B
Payroll clerks
Key entry operators, classes A and B

Average pay relationships within establishments

Tables A-8 through A-11 present occupational pay relatives derived from compari­
sons of job averages within individual establishments. The method of computation is as
follows:

Electronic data processing
Computer systems analysts, classes A,
B, and C


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1- A pay relative for any two occupations is computed for each establishment in
which they are found by dividing the average earnings for one occupation by the
average for the other and multiplying by 100 (e.g., $5 divided by S4 = 1.25 times

Computer programmers, classes A, B,
and C
Computer operators, classes A, B, C
14

2. Each pay relative is weighted by the number of workers in the two occupations
compared and by the weight assigned to the establishment to represent establish­
ments not included in the survey sample.

addition, the mix of establishments used in the comparisons may differ between the two
methods.
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions

Tabulations on selected establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions
(B-series tables) are not presented in this bulletin. Information for these tabulations is
collected at 3-year intervals. These tabulations on minimum entrance salaries for
inexperienced office workers; shift differentials; scheduled weekly hours and days; paid
holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are presented (in the
B-series tables) in previous bulletins for this area.

3. The weighted pay relatives for all establishments reporting the two occupations
are summed and divided by the total of the weights to produce the average pay
relatives shown in the tables.
Occupational pay relationships measured in this manner yield considerably different
results than those produced by using overall survey averages such as those shown in
tables A-1 through A-6. The former measure the average pay relationships found within
establishments; the latter measure the relationships among job averages in an area. In

1 Includes 70 areas surveyed under the Bureau’s regular program plus Poughkeepsie-KingstonNewburgh, N.Y., which is surveyed under contract. In addition, the Bureau conducts more limited
area studies in approximately 100 areas at the request of the Employment Standards Administra­
tion of the U.S. Department of Labor.

Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Seattle-Everett, Wash.,1 December 1980

Industry division*

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of survey

Number of establishments

Within scope
of survey3

All divisions

Within scope
of survey4

Studied

Studied

Number

Percent

1,241

167

342,403

100

188,989

345
896

40
127

142,074
200,329

41
59

100,907
88,082

Manufacturing................................................................................................................................
50
Nonmanufacturing........................................................................................................................................................ _
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities*...............................................................................................................
50
Wholesale trade*.....................................................................................................................................................50
Retail trade*.............................................................................................................................................................50
Finance, insurance, and real estate*......................................................................................
50
Services*7...........................................................................
5Q

95
194
277
143
187

34
37,742
11
30,539
15
22,668
7
3,401
25
69,002
20
24,792
21
32,511
9
17,586
32
38,406
11
11,764
• Includes all workers in all establishments with total employment (within the area) at or above the minimum limitation.
• Abbreviated to “public utilities" in the A-series tables. Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation are excluded.
The local-transit system and electric utility are municipally operated and are therefore excluded by definition from the scope of
the study.
* SeParate data lor this division are not presented in the A-series tables, but the division is represented in the 'all industries' and
“nonmanufacturing” estimates.
’ Hotels and motels; laundries and other personal services; business services; automobile repair, rental, and parking; motion
pictures; nonprofit membership organizations (excluding religious and charitable organizations); and engineering and architectur­
al services.

■The Seattle-Everett Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget through
February 1974, consists of King and Snohomish Counties. The “workers within scope of survey” estimates provide a reasonably
accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. Estimates are not intended, however
for comparison with other statistical series to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires
establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded
from the scope of the survey.
* The 1972 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used to classify establishments by industry division All
government operations are excluded from the scope of the survey.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum limitation. All outlets (within the area) of
nonmanufacturing companies are considered as one establishment when located within the same industry division.


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Workers in establishments

15

Appendix B.
Occupational
Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is
to assist its field representatives in classifying into appropriate occupations workers
who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements
from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits grouping
occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis
on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s
job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments
or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s
field representatives are instructed to exclude working supervisors; apprentices; and
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers. Handicapped workers whose earnings
are reduced because of their handicap are also excluded. Learners, beginners, and
trainees, unless specifically included in the job description, are excluded.

d.

Assistant-type positions which entail more difficult or more responsible
technical, administrative, or supervisory duties which are not typical of
secretarial work, e.g., Administrative Assistant, or Executive Assistant;

e.

Positions which do not fit any of the situations listed in the sections below
titled ‘Level of Supervisor,’ e.g., secretary to the president of a company
that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons;

f.

Trainees.

Classification by Level. Secretary jobs which meet the required characteristics are

Office

matched at one of five levels according to (a) the level of the secretary’s supervisor
within the company’s organizational structure and, (b) the level of the secretary’s

SECRETARY

Assigned as a personal secretary, normally to one individual. Maintains a close and
highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day activities of the supervisor. Works
fairly independently receiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance.
Performs varied clerical and secretarial duties requiring a knowledge of office routine
and understanding of the organization, programs, and procedures related to the work of
the supervisor.
Exclusions. Not all positions that are titled ‘secretary’ possess the above characteristics.
Examples of positions which are excluded from the definition are as follows:
a.

Positions which do not meet the ‘personal’ secretary concept described
above;

b.

Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial-type duties;

c.

Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of professional,
technical, or managerial persons;


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responsibility. The tabulation following the explanations of these two factors indicates
the level of the secretary for each combination of the factors.
Level ofSecretary’s Supervisor (LS)
LS-1

a.
b.

Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational unit (e.g.,
fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); or
Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional employee,
administrative officer or assistant, skilled technician or expert. (NOTE:
Many companies assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as described
above, to this level of supervisory or nonsupervisory worker.)

LS-2
a-

b-

Level ofSecretary's Responsibility (LR)
Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose responsibility is not
equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the definition for LS-3,
but whose organizational unit normally numbers at least several dozen
employees and is usually divided into organizational segments which are
often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level includes a
wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc., (or other
equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, fewer than 5,000 persons.

This factor evaluates the nature of the work relationship between the secretary and
the supervisor, and the extent to which the secretary is expected to exercise initiative
and judgment. Secretaries should be matched at LR-1 or LR-2 described below
according to their level of responsibility.
LR-1
Performs varied secretarial duties including or comparable to most of the
following:

LS-3
abc.

d.
e.

Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that
employs, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or
Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chairman of the board or
president) of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000
persons; or
Secretary to the head (immediately below the officer level) over either a
major corporatewide functional activity (e.g., marketing, research, oper­
ations, industrial relations, etc.) or a major geographic or organizational
segment (e.g., a regional headquarters; a major division) of a company that
employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000 employees; or
Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc., (or other
equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons; or
Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational segment
(e.g., a middle management supervisor of an organizational segment often
involving as many as several hundred persons) of a company that employs,
in all, over 25,000 persons.

ah.
c.
d.
eLR-2

Performs duties described under LR-1 and, in addition performs tasks requiring
greater judgment, initiative, and knowledge of office functions including or compara­
ble to most of the following:
ab.

LS-4
a.
b.
c-

Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that
employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or
president) of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than
25,000 persons; or
Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer level, of a
major segment or subsidiary of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000
persons.

NOTE: The term ‘corporate officer’ used in the above LS definition refers to those
officials who have a significant corporatewide policy-making role with regard to major
company activities. The title ‘vice president,’ though normally indicative of this role,
does not in all cases identify such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibili­
ty is to act personally on individual cases or transactions (e.g., approve or deny
individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts; directly supervise
a clerical staff) are not considered to be ‘corporate officers’ for purposes of applying the
definition.


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Answers telephones, greets personal callers, and opens incoming mail.
Answers telephone requests which have standard answers. May reply to
requests by sending a form letter.
Reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports prepared by others for
the supervisor’s signature to ensure procedural and typographical accura­
cyMaintains supervisor’s calendar and makes appointments as instructed.
Types, takes and transcribes dictation, and files.

cd.
e.

Screens telephone and personal callers, determining which can be handled
by the supervisor’s subordinates or other offices.
Answers requests which require a detailed knowledge of office procedures
or collection of information from files or other offices. May sign routine
correspondence in own or supervisor’s name.
Compiles or assists in compiling periodic reports on the basis of general
instructions.
Schedules tentative appointments without prior clearance. Assembles
necessary background material for scheduled meetings. Makes arrange­
ments for meetings and conferences.
Explains supervisor’s requirements to other employees in supervisor’s unit.
(Also types, takes dictation, and files.)

The following tabulation shows the level of the secretary for each LS and LR
combination:
LS-1.
LS-2.
LS-3.
LS-4.

LR-1
Class E
Class D
Class C
Class B

LR-2
Class D
Class C
Class B
Class A

STENOGRAPHER

Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe the dictation. May
also type from written copy. May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasionally
transcribe from voice recordings (if primary duty is transcribing from recordings, see
Transcribing-Machine Typist). NOTE: This job is distinguished from that of a secretary
in that a secretary normally works in a confidential relationship with only one manager
or executive and performs more responsible and discretionary tasks as described in the
secretary job definition.
Stenographer, Senior. Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vocabulary
such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also set up and maintain
files, keep records, etc., OR
Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and
responsibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the following: Work requires
a high degree of stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough working knowledge of
general business and office procedure and of the specific business operations, organiza­
tion, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing
stenographic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining follow-up files;
assembling material for reports, memoranda, and letters; composing simple letters from
general instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc.
Stenographer, General. Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May maintain
files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE TYPIST

Primary duty is to type copy of voice recorded dictation which does not involve
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as that used in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research. May also type from written copy. May maintain files, keep simple
records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks. (See Stenographer definition
for workers involved with shorthand dictation.)
TYPIST

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various materials or to make out bills after
calculations have been made by another person. May include typing of stencils, mats, or
similar materials for use in duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little
special training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.

FILE CLERK

Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an established filing system. May perform
clerical and manual tasks required to maintain files. Positions are classified into levels on
the basis of the following definitions.
Class A. Classifies and indexes file material such as correspondence, reports, technical
documents, etc., in an established filing system containing a number of varied subject
matter files. May also file this material. May keep records of various types in
conjunction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.
Class B. Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple (subject matter) headings
or partly classified material by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and
cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly identified material in files and
forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and service
files.
Class C. Performs routine filing of material that has already been classified or which is
easily classified in a simple serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological,
or numerical). As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards
material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and manual
tasks required to maintain and service files.
MESSENGER

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating minor office
machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing mail, and other minor
clerical work. Exclude positions that require operation of a motor vehicle as a
significant duty.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR

Operates a telephone switchboard or console used with a private branch exchange
(PBX) system to relay incoming, outgoing, and intrasystem calls. May provide
information to callers, record and transmit messages, keep record of calls placed and
toll charges. Besides operating a telephone switchboard or console, may also type or
perform routine clerical work (typing or routine clerical work may occupy the major
portion of the worker’s time, and is usually performed while at the switchboard or
console). Chief or lead operators in establishments employing more than one operator
are excluded. For an operator who also acts as a receptionist, see Switchboard
Operator-Receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

Class A. Performs one or more of the following: Typing material in final form when it
involves combining material from several sources; or responsibility for correct spelling,
syllabication, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language
material; or planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain
uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit
circumstances.

At a single-position telephone switchboard or console, acts both as an operator—see
Switchboard Operator—and as a receptionist. Receptionist’s work involves such duties
as greeting visitors; determining nature of visitor’s business and providing appropriate
information; referring visitor to appropriate person in the organization or contacting
that person by telephone and arranging an appointment; keeping a log of visitors.

Class B. Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing from rough or clear drafts;
or routine typing of forms, insurance policies, etc.; or setting up simple standard
tabulations; or copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

Receives written or verbal customers’ purchase orders for material or merchandise
from customers or sales people. Work typically involves some combination of the
following duties: Quoting prices; determining availability of ordered items and


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ORDER CLERK

suggesting substitutes when necessary; advising expected delivery date and method of
delivery; recording order and customer information on order sheets; checking order
sheets for accuracy and adequacy of information recorded; ascertaining credit rating of
customer; furnishing customer with acknowledgement of receipt of order; following up
to see that order is delivered by the specified date or to let customer know of a delay in
delivery; maintaining order file; checking shipping invoice against original order.
Exclude workers paid on a commission basis or whose duties include any of the following:
Receiving orders for services rather than for material or merchandise; providing
customers with consultative advice using knowledge gained from engineering or
extensive technical training; emphasizing selling skills; handling material or merchan­
dise as an integral part of the job.
Positions are classified into levels according to the following definitions:

Performs the clerical tasks necessary to process payrolls and to maintain payroll
records. Work involves most of the following-. Processing workers’ time or production
records; adjusting workers’ records for changes in wage rates, supplementary benefits,
or tax deductions; editing payroll listings against source records; tracing and correcting
errors in listings; and assisting in preparation of periodic summary payroll reports In a
nonautomated payroll system, computes wages. Work may require a practical knowl­
edge of governmental regulations, company payroll policy, or the computer system for
processing payrolls.

Class A. Handles orders that involve making judgments such as choosing which specific
product or material from the establishment’s product lines will satisfy the customer’s
needs, or determining the price to be quoted when pricing involves more than merely
referring to a price list or making some simple mathematical calculations.

Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such as keypunch machine or keyoperated magnetic tape or disk encoder to transcribe data into a form suitable for
computer processing. Work requires skill in operating an alphanumeric keyboard and
an understanding of transcribing procedures and relevant data entry equipment.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions:

Class B. Handles orders involving items which have readily identified uses and
applications. May refer to a catalog, manufacturer’s manual, or similar document to
insure that proper item is supplied or to verify price of ordered item.
ACCOUNTING CLERK

Performs one or more accounting clerical tasks such as posting to registers and
ledgers; reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal consistency, completeness,
and mathematical accuracy of accounting documents; assigning prescribed accounting
distribution codes; examining and verifying for clerical accuracy various types of
reports, lists, calculations, posting, etc.; or preparing simple or assisting in preparing
more complicated journal vouchers. May work in either a manual or automated
accounting system.
The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office practices and
procedures which relates to the clerical processing and recording of transactions and
accounting information. With experience, the worker typically becomes familiar with
the bookkeeping and accounting terms and procedures used in the assigned work, but is
not required to have a knowledge of the formal principles of bookkeeping and
accounting.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions:
Class A. Under general supervision, performs accounting clerical operations which
require the application of experience and judgment, for example, clerically processing
complicated or nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a substantial
variety of prescribed accounting codes and classifications, or tracing transactions
through previous accounting actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be
assisted by one or more class B accounting clerks.
Class B. Under close supervision, following detailed instructions and standardized
procedures, performs one or more routine accounting clerical operations, such as
posting to ledgers, cards, or worksheets where identification of items and locations of
postings are clearly indicated; checking accuracy and completeness of standardized and
repetitive records or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few
prescribed accounting codes.

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PAYROLL CLERK

KEY ENTRY OPERATOR

Class A. Work requires the application of experience and judgment in selecting
procedures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items
to be entered from a variety of source documents. On occasion may also perform
routine work as described for class B.
NOTE: Excluded are operators above class A using the key entry controls to access,
read, and evaluate the substance of specific records to take substantive actions, or to
make entries requiring a similar level of knowledge.
Class B. Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision or following specific
procedures or detailed instructions, works from various standardized source documents
which have been coded and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data
to be entered. Refers to supervisor problems arising from erroneous items, codes, or
missing information.

Professional and Technical
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS

Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures for solving them by use of
electronic data processing equipment. Develops a complete description of all specifica­
tions needed to enable programmers to prepare required digital computer programs.
Work involves most of the following-. Analyzes subject-matter operations to be
automated and identifies conditions and criteria required to achieve satisfactory results;
specifies number and types of records, files, and documents to be used; outlines actions
to be performed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for presentation to
management and for programming (typically this involves preparation of work and
data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and participates in trial
runs of new and revised systems; and recommends equipment changes to obtain more
effective overall operations. (NOTE: Workers performing both systems analysis and
programming should be classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine
their pay.)

programs; prepares instructions for operating personnel during production run;
analyzes, reviews, and alters programs to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new
requirements; maintains records of program development and revisions. (NOTE:
Workers performing both systems analysis and programming should be classified as
systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)
Does not include employees primarily responsible for the management or supervision
of other electronic data processing employees, or programmers primarily concerned
with scientific and/or engineering problems.
For wage study purposes, programmers are classified as follows:

Does not include employees primarily responsible for the management or supervision
of other electronic data processing employees, or systems analysts primarily concerned
with scientific or engineering problems.
For wage study purposes, systems analysts are classified as follows:
Class A. Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems
involving all phases of systems analysis. Problems are complex because of diverse
sources of input data and multiple-use requirements of output data. (For example,
develops an integrated production scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and
sales analysis record in which every item of each type is automatically processed
through the full system of records and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the
computer.) Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing problems
and advises subject-matter personnel on the implications of new or revised systems of
data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if needed, for approval of major
systems installations or changes and for obtaining equipment.
May provide functional direction to lower level systems analysts who are assigned to
assist.

Class A. Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems
which require competence in all phases of programming concepts and practices.
Working from diagrams and charts which identify the nature of desired results, major
processing steps to be accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the
problem solving routine; plans the full range of programming actions needed to
efficiently utilize the computer system in achieving desired end products.
At this level, programming is difficult because computer equipment must be
organized to produce several interrelated but diverse products from numerous and
diverse data elements. A wide variety and extensive number of internal processing
actions must occur. This requires such actions as development of common operations
which can be reused, establishment of linkage points between operations, adjustments
to data when program requirements exceed computer storage capacity, and substantial
manipulation and resequencing of data elements to form a highly integrated program.
May provide functional direction to lower level programmers who are assigned to
assist.

Class B. Works independently or under only general direction on problems that are
relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program, and operate. Problems are of
limited complexity because sources of input data are homogeneous and the output data
are closely related. (For example, develops systems for maintaining depositor accounts
in a bank, maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining
inventory accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with
persons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises subjectmatter personnel on the implications of the data processing systems to be applied , OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system, as described for
class A. Works independently on routine assignments and receives instruction and
guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for accuracy of judgment,
compliance with instructions, and to insure proper alignment with the overall system.

Class B. Works independently or under only general direction on relatively simple
programs, or on simple segments of complex programs. Programs (or segments) usually
process information to produce data in two or three varied sequences or formats.
Reports and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor
additions to or deletions from input data which are readily available. While numerous
records may be processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the
accuracy and sequencing of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically,
the program deals with routine recordkeeping operations, OR
Works on complex programs (as described for class A) under close direction of a
higher level programmer or supervisor. May assist higher level programmer by
independently performing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing more difficult
tasks under fairly close direction.
May guide or instruct lower level programmers.

Class C. Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analyses as assigned, usually
of a single activity. Assignments are designed to develop and expand practical
experience in the application of procedures and skills required for systems analysis
work. For example, may assist a higher level systems analyst by preparing the detailed
specifications required by programmers from information developed by the higher
level analyst.
COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS

Converts statements of business problems, typically prepared by a systems analyst,
into a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problems by
automatic data processing equipment. Working from charts or diagrams, the program­
mer develops the precise instructions which, when entered into the computer system in
coded language, cause the manipulation of data to achieve desired results. Work
involves most of the following-. Applies knowledge of computer capabilities, mathemat­
ics, logic employed by computers, and particular subject matter involved to analyze
charts and diagrams of the problem to be programmed; develops sequence of program
steps; writes detailed flow charts to show order in which data will be processed;
converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects


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Class C. Makes practical applications of programming practices and concepts usually
learned in formal training courses. Assignments are designed to develop competence in
the application of standard procedures to routine problems. Receives close supervision
on new aspects of assignments; and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and
conformance with required procedures.
COMPUTER OPERATOR

In accordance with operating instructions, monitors and operates the control console
of a digital computer to process data. Executes runs by either serial processing

20

guidance to the operator before and during the run. After the operator has gained
experience with a program, however, the operator works fairly independently in
applying standard operating or corrective procedures in responding to computer
output instructions or error conditions, but refers problems to a higher level operator or
the supervisor when standard procedures fail.

(processes one program at a time) or multiprocessing (processes two or more programs
simultaneously). The following duties characterize the work of a computer operator:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Studies operating instructions to determine equipment setup needed.
Loads equipment with required items (tapes, cards, disks, paper, etc.).
Switches necessary auxiliary equipment into system.
Starts and operates computer.
Responds to operating and computer output instructions.
Reviews error messages and makes corrections during operation or refers
problems.
Maintains operating record.

PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT OPERATOR

,

May test-run new or modified programs. May assist in modifying systems or
programs. The scope of this definition includes trainees working to become fully
qualified computer operators, fully qualified computer operators, and lead operators
providing technical assistance to lower level operators. It excludes workers who
monitor and operate remote terminals.

•
•
•

Class A. In addition to work assignments described for a class B operator (see below) the
work of a class A operator involves at least one of the following:
•
•
•
•

•
•

Deviates from standard procedures to avoid the loss of information or to
conserve computer time even though the procedures applied materially
alter the computer unit’s production plans.
Tests new programs, applications, and procedures.
Advises programmers and subject-matter experts on setup techniques.
Assists in (1) maintaining, modifying, and developing operating systems or
programs; (2) developing operating instructions and techniques to cover
problem situations; and/or (3) switching to emergency backup procedures
(such assistance requires a working knowledge of program language,
computer features, and software systems).

•

Loading printers and plotters with correct paper; adjusting controls for
forms, thickness, tension, printing density, and location; and unloading
hard copy.
Labelling tape reels, disks, or card decks.
Checking labels and mounting and dismounting designated tape reels or
disks on specified units or drives.
Setting controls which regulate operation of the equipment.
Observing panel lights for warnings and error indications and taking
appropriate action.
Examining tapes, cards, or other material for creases, tears, or other
defects which could cause processing problems.

This classification excludes workers (1) who monitor and operate a control console
(see computer operator) or a remote terminal, or (2) whose duties are limited to
operating decollates, bursters, separators, or similar equipment.
COMPUTER DATA LIBRARIAN

Maintains library of media (tapes, disks, cards, cassettes) used for automatic data
processing applications. The following or similar duties characterize the work of a
computer data librarian: Classifying, cataloging, and storing media in accordance with a
standardized system; upon proper requests, releasing media for processing; maintaining
records of releases and returns; inspecting returned media for damage or excessive wear
to determine whether or not they need replacing. May perform minor repairs to
damaged tapes.

An operator at this level typically guides lower level operators.
Class B. In addition to established production runs, work assignments include runs
involving new programs, applications, and procedures (i.e., situations which require the
operator to adapt to a variety of problems). At this level, the operator has the training
and experience to work fairly independently in carrying out most assignments.
Assignments may require the operator to select from a variety of standard setup and
operating procedures. In responding to computer output instructions or error condi­
tions, applies standard operating or corrective procedures, but may deviate from
standard procedures when standard procedures fail if deviation does not materially
alter the computer unit’s production plans. Refers the problem or aborts the program
when procedures applied do not provide a solution. May guide lower level operators.

DRAFTER

Performs drafting work requiring knowledge and skill in drafting methods, proce­
dures, and techniques. Prepares drawings of structures, mechanical and electrical
equipment, piping and duct systems and other similar equipment, systems, and
assemblies. Uses recognized systems of symbols, legends, shadings, and lines having
specific meanings in drawings. Drawings are used to communicate engineering ideas,
designs, and information in support of engineering functions.
The following are excluded when they constitute the primary purpose of the job:

Class C. Work assignments are limited to established production runs (i.e., programs
which present few operating problems). Assignments may consist primarily of on-thejob training (sometimes augmented by classroom instruction). When learning to run
programs, the supervisor or a higher level operator provides detailed written or oral


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Operates peripheral equipment which directly supports digital computer operations.
Such equipment is uniquely and specifically designed for computer applications, but
need not be physically or electronically connected to a computer. Printers, plotters,
card read/punches, tape readers, tape units or drives, disk units or drives, and data
display units are examples of such equipment.
The following duties characterize the work of a peripheral equipment operator:

•

21

Design work requiring the technical knowledge, skill, and ability to
conceive or originate designs;

•
•
•
•

Illustrating work requiring artistic ability;
Work involving the preparation of charts, diagrams, room arrangements,
iloor plans, etc.;
Cartographic work involving the preparation of maps or plats and related
materials, and drawings of geological structures; and
Supervisory work involving the management of a drafting program or the
supervision of drafters.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
Class A. Works closely with design originators, preparing drawings of unusual, complex
or original designs which require a high degree of precision. Performs unusually
difficult assignments requiring considerable initiative, resourcefulness, and drafting
expertise. Assures that anticipated problems in manufacture, assembly, installation, and
operation are resolved by the drawings produced. Exercises independent judgment in
selecting and interpreting data based on a knowledge of the design intent. Although
working primarily as a drafter, may occasionally perform engineering design work in
interpreting general designs prepared by others or in completing missing design details.
May provide advice and guidance to lower level drafters or serve as coordinator and
planner for large and complex drafting projects.
Class B. Prepares complete sets of complex drawings which include multiple views,
detail drawings, and assembly drawings. Drawings include complex design features
that require considerable drafting skill to visualize and portray. Assignments regularly
require the use of mathematical formulas to compute weights, load capacities,
dimensions, quantities of materials, etc. Working from sketches and verbal information
supplied by an engineer or designer, determines the most appropriate views, detail
drawings, and supplementary information needed to complete assignments. Selects
required information from precedents, manufacturers’ catalogs, and technical guides.
Independently resolves most of the problems encountered. Supervisor or designer may
suggest methods of approach or provide advice on unusually difficult problems.
NOTE: Exclude drafters performing work of similar difficulty to that described at this
level but who provide support for a variety of organizations which have widely
differing functions or requirements.
Class C. Prepares various drawings of parts and assemblies, including sectional profiles,
irregular or reverse curves, hidden lines, and small or intricate details. Work requires
use of most of the conventional drafting techniques and a working knowledge of the
terms and procedures of the industry. Familiar or recurring work is assigned in general
terms; unfamiliar assignments include information on methods, procedures, sources of
information, and precedents to be followed. Simple revisions to existing drawings may
be assigned with a verbal explanation of the desired results; more complex revisions are
produced from sketches which clearly depict the desired product.
Class D. Prepares drawings of simple, easily visualized parts or equipment from
sketches or marked-up prints. Selects appropriate templates and other equipment
needed to complete assignments. Drawings fit familiar patterns and present few
technical problems. Supervisor provides detailed instructions on new assignments,
gives guidance when questions arise, and reviews completed work for accuracy.


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Class E. Working under close supervision, traces or copies finished drawings, making
clearly indicated revisions. Uses appropriate templates to draw curved lines. Assign­
ments are designed to develop increasing skill in various drafting techniques. Work is
spot-checked during progress and reviewed upon completion.
NOTE: Exclude drafters performing elementary tasks while receiving training in the
most basic drafting methods.
ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN

Works on various types of electronic equipment and related devices by performing
one or a combination of the following: Installing, maintaining, repairing, overhauling,
troubleshooting, modifying, constructing, and testing. Work requires practical applica­
tion of technical knowledge of electronics principles, ability to determine malfunctions,
and skill to put equipment in required operating condition.
The equipment—consisting of either many different kinds of circuits or multiple
repetition of the same kind of circuit—includes, but is not limited to, the following: (a)
electronic transmitting and receiving equipment (e.g., radar, radio, television, tele­
phone, sonar, navigational aids), (b) digital and analog computers, and (c) industrial and
medical measuring and controlling equipment.
This classification excludes repairers of such standard electronic equipment as
common office machines and household radio and television sets; production assemb­
lers and testers; workers whose primary duty is servicing electronic test instruments;
technicians who have administrative or supervisory responsibility; and drafters,
designers, and professional engineers.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions:
Class ,4. Applies advanced technical knowledge to solve unusually complex problems
(i.e., those that typically cannot be solved solely by reference to manufacturers’ manuals
or similar documents) in working on electronic equipment. Examples of such problems
include location and density of circuitry, electromagnetic radiation, isolating
malfunctions, and frequent engineering changes. Work involves: A detailed under­
standing of the interrelationships of circuits; exercising independent judgment in
performing such tasks as making circuit analyses, calculating wave forms, tracing
relationships in signal flow; and regularly using complex text instruments (e.g., dual
trace oscilloscopes, Q-meters, deviation meters, pulse generators).
Work may be reviewed by supervisor (frequently an engineer or designer) for general
compliance with accepted practices. May provide technical guidance to lower level
technicians.
Class B. Applies comprehensive technical knowledge to solve complex problems (i.e.,
those that typically can be solved solely by properly interpreting manufacturers’
manuals or similar documents) in working on electronic equipment. Work involves: A
familiarity with the interrelationships of circuits; and judgment in determining work
sequence and in selecting tools and testing instructions, usually less complex than those
used by the class A technician.
Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher level technician,
and work is reviewed for specific compliance with accepted practices and work
assignments. May provide technical guidance to lower level technicians.

Class C. Applies working technical knowledge to perform simple or routine tasks in
working on electronic equipment, following detailed instructions which cover virtually
all procedures. Work typically involves such tasks as: Assisting higher level technicians
by performing such activities as replacing components, wiring circuits, and taking test
readings; repairing simple electronic equipment; and using tools and common test
instruments (e.g., multimeters, audio signal generators, tube testers, oscilloscopes). Is
not required to be familiar with the interrelationships of circuits. This knowledge,
however, may be acquired through assignments designed to increase competence
(including classroom training) so that worker can advance to higher level technician.
Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher level technician.
Work is typically spot-checked, but is given detailed review when new or advanced
assignments are involved.

Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establishment. Work
involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of paint required for
different applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by
placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or
brush. May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSE

MAINTENANCE MACHINIST

A registered nurse gives nursing service under general medical direction to ill or
injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the premises
of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination ofthe following-. Giving
first aid to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries;
keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health education,
accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the
health, welfare, and safety of all personnel. Nursing supervisors or head nurses in
establishments employing more than one nurse are excluded.

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of
mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most of the
following: Interpreting written instructions and specifications; planning and laying out
of work; using a variety of machinist’s handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close
tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling,
feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the common
metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment required for this work; and
fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’s
work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Maintenance, Toolroom, and Powerplant
MAINTENANCE CARPENTER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain in good repair
building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions,
doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves
most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings,
models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable power
tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating
to dimensions of work; and selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the
work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the installation, maintenance,
or repair of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of electric energy
in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a
variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, control­
lers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission
equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specifications;
locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using
a variety of electrician’s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In general,


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the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MAINTENANCE PAINTER

MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (MACHINERY)

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves
most of the following: Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose
source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs
that mainly involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken
or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a
replacement part by a machine shop or sending the machine to a machine shop for
major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the production
of parts ordered from machine shops; reassembling machines; and making all necessary
adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a machinery maintenance mechanic
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (MOTOR VEHICLE)

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of
trouble; disassembling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such
handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or
fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle and making
necessary adjustments; and aligning wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening
body bolts. In general, the work of the motor vehicle maintenance mechanic requires

rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
This classification does not include mechanics who repair customers’ vehicles in
automobile repair shops.

trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding materials and tools, and
cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

MAINTENANCE PIPEFITTER

Specializes in operating one or more than one type of machine tool (e.g., jig borer,
grinding machine, engine lathe, milling machine) to machine metal for use in making or
maintaining jigs, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or metal dies or molds used in shaping
or forming metal or nonmetallic material (e.g., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work
typically involves: Planning and performing difficult machining operations which require
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; setting up machine tool or tools (e.g.,
install cutting tools and adjust guides, stops, working tables, and other controls to
handle the size of stock to be machined; determine proper feeds, speeds, tooling, and
operation sequence or select those prescribed in drawings, blueprints, or layouts); using
a variety of precision measuring instruments; making necessary adjustments during
machining operation to achieve requisite dimensions to very close tolerances. May be
required to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils, to recognize when
tools need dressing, and to dress tools. In general, the work of a machine-tool operator
(toolroom) at the skill level called for in this classification requires extensive knowledge
of machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through considerable on-thejob training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, this classification does not include machinetool operators (toolroom) employed in tool and die jobbing shops.

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an
establishment. Work involves most of the following: Laying out work and measuring to
locate position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various
sizes of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machines; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or
power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers;
making standard shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe
required; and making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.
MAINTENANCE SHEET-METAL WORKER

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal equipment and
fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators,
chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves most of the following-.
Planning and laying out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of sheetmetal working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming,
shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles as required. In
general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
MILLWRIGHT

Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and installs machines or
heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. Work involves most of
the following-. Planning and laying out work; interpreting blueprints or other specifica­
tions; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations
relating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; aligning and balancing
equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and
maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed
reducers. In general, the millwright’s work normally requires a rounded training and
experience in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
MAINTENANCE TRADES HELPER

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing specific
or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with materials and
tools; cleaning working area, machine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding
materials or tools; and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some


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MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR (TOOLROOM)

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

Constructs and repairs jigs, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or metal dies or molds used
in shaping or forming metal or nonmetallic material (e.g., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass).
Work typically involves: Planning and laying out work according to models, blueprints,
drawings, or other written or oral specifications; understanding the working properties
of common metals and alloys; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes
required to complete task; making necessary shop computations; setting up and
operating various machine tools and related equipment; using various tool and die
maker’s handtools and precision measuring instruments; working to very close
tolerances; heat-treating metal parts and finished tools and dies to achieve required
qualities; fitting and assembling parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances. In
general, the tool and die maker’s work requires rounded training in machine-shop and
toolroom practice usually acquired through formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, this classification does not include tool and
die makers who (1) are employed in tool and die jobbing shops or (2) produce forging
dies (die sinkers).
STATIONARY ENGINEER

Operates and maintains one or more systems which provide an establishment with
such services as heat, air-conditioning (cool, humidify, dehumidify, filter, and circulate
air), refrigeration, steam or high-temperature water, or electricity. Duties involve:
Observing and interpreting readings on gauges, meters, and charts which register
various aspects of the system’s operation; adjusting controls to insure safe and efficient
operation of the system and to meet demands for the service provided; recording in logs

various aspects of the system’s operation; keeping the engines, machinery, and
equipment of the system in good working order. May direct and coordinate activities of
other workers (not stationary engineers) in performing tasks directly related to
operating and maintaining the system or systems.
The classification excludes head or chief engineers in establishments employing more
than one engineer; workers required to be skilled in the repair of electronic control
equipment; and workers in establishments producing electricity, steam, or heated or
cooled air primarily for sale.
BOILER TENDER

Tends one or more boilers to produce steam or high-temperature water for use in an
establishment. Fires boiler. Observes and interprets readings on gauges, meters, and
charts which register various aspects of boiler operation. Adjusts controls to insure safe
and efficient boiler operation and to meet demands for steam or high-temperature
water. May also do one or more of the following: Maintain a log in which various
aspects of boiler operation are recorded; clean, oil, make minor repairs or assist in
repairs to boilerroom equipment; and, following prescribed methods, treat boiler water
with chemicals and analyze boiler water for such things as acidity, causticity, and
alkalinity.
The classification excludes workers in establishments producing electricity, steam, or
heated or cooled air primarily for sale.

Material Movement and Custodial
TRUCKDRIVER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport materials, merchandise,
equipment, or workers between various types of establishments such as: Manufacturing
plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between
retail establishments and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or
unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in
good working order. Salesroute and over-the-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by type and rated capacity of
truck, as follows:
Truckdriver, light truck
(straight truck, under 1 1/2 tons, usually 4 wheels)
Truckdriver, medium truck
(straight truck, 1 1/2 to 4 tons inclusive, usually 6 wheels)
Truckdriver, heavy truck
(straight truck, over 4 tons, usually 10 wheels)
Truckdriver, tractor-trailer
SHIPPER AND RECEIVER

Performs clerical and physical tasks in connection with shipping goods of the
establishment in which employed and receiving incoming shipments. In performing
day-to-day, routine tasks, follows established guidelines. In handling unusual nonrou­
tine problems, receives specific guidance from supervisor or other officials. May direct
and coordinate the activities of other workers engaged in handling goods to be shipped
or being received.


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Shippers typically are responsible for most of the following: Verifying that orders are
accurately filled by comparing items and quantities of goods gathered for shipment
against documents; insuring that shipments are properly packaged, identified with
shipping information, and loaded into transporting vehicles; preparing and keeping
records of goods shipped, e.g., manifests, bills of lading.
Receivers typically are responsible for most of the following: Verifying the correct­
ness of incoming shipments by comparing items and quantities unloaded against bills of
lading, invoices, manifests, storage receipts, or other records; checking for damaged
goods; insuring that goods are appropriately identified for routing to departments
within the establishment; preparing and keeping records of goods received.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Shipper
Receiver
Shipper and receiver
WAREHOUSEMAN

As directed, performs a variety of warehousing duties which require an understanding
of the establishment's storage plan. Work involves most of the following-. Verifying
materials (or merchandise) against receiving documents, noting and reporting discrep­
ancies and obvious damages; routing materials to prescribed storage locations; storing,
stacking, or palletizing materials in accordance with prescribed storage methods;
rearranging and taking inventory of stored materials; examining stored materials and
reporting deterioration and damage; removing material from storage and preparing it
for shipment. May operate hand or power trucks in performing warehousing duties.
Exclude workers whose primary duties involve shipping and receiving work (see
Shipper and Receiver and Shipping Packer), order filling (see Order Filler), or
operating power trucks (see Power-Truck Operator).
ORDER FILLER

Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in
accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers’ orders, or other instructions.
May, in addition to filling orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of
outgoing orders, requisition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform other related duties.
SHIPPING PACKER

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping
containers, the specific operations performed being dependent upon the type, size, and
number of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment.
Work requires the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following-. Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection
of appropriate type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using
excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing
container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who
also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORER

Class A. Enforces regulations designed to prevent breaches of security. Exercises
judgment and uses discretion in dealing with emergencies and security violations
encountered. Determines whether first response should be to intervene directly (asking
for assistance when deemed necessary and time allows), to keep situation under
surveillance, or to report situation so that it can be handled by appropriate authority.
Duties require specialized training in methods and techniques of protecting security
areas. Commonly, the guard is required to demonstrate continuing physical fitness and
proficiency with firearms or other special weapons.

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establish­
ment whose duties involve one or more of the following-. Loading and unloading various
materials and merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting
devices; unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage
location; and transporting materials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshore workers, who load and unload ships, are excluded.
POWER-TRUCK OPERATOR

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered truck or tractor to
transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or
other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of powertruck, as follows:

Class B. Carries out instructions primarily oriented toward insuring that emergencies
and security violations are readily discovered and reported to appropriate authority.
Intervenes directly only in situations which require minimal action to safeguard
property or persons. Duties require minimal training. Commonly, the guard is not
required to demonstrate physical fitness. May be armed, but generally is not required to
demonstrate proficiency in the use of firearms or special weapons.

Forklift operator
Power-truck operator (other than forklift)

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

GUARD

Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or
premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial or other establishment. Duties
involve a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing
floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures;
polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance
services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers who specialize in
window washing are excluded.

Protects property from theft or damage, or persons from hazards or interference.
Duties involve serving at a fixed post, making rounds on foot or by motor vehicle, or
escorting persons or property. May be deputized to make arrests. May also help visitors
and customers by answering questions and giving directions.
Guards employed by establishments which provide protective services on a contract
basis are included in this occupation.
For wage study purposes, guards are classified as follows:


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

26

Service Contract
Act Surveys
The following areas are surveyed pe­
riodically for use in administering the
Service Contract Act of 1965. Survey
results are published in releases which
are available, at no cost, while supplies
last from any of the BLS regional offices
shown on the back cover.
Alaska (statewide)
Albany, Ga.
Albuquerque, N. Mex.
■
Alexandria-Leesville, La.
Alpena-Standish-Tawas City, Mich.
Ann Arbor, Mich.
Asheville, N.C.
Atlantic City, N.J.
Augusta, Ga.-S.C.
Austin, Tex.
Bakersfield, Calif.
Baton Rouge, La.
Beaumont-Port Arthur-Orange and
Lake Charles, Tex.-La.
Biloxi-Gulfport and PascagoulaMoss Point, Miss.
Binghamton, N.Y.
Birmingham, Ala.
Bremerton-Shelton, Wash.
Brunswick, Ga.
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Champaign-Urbana-Rantoul, 111.
Charleston-North CharlestonWalterboro, S.C.
Cheyenne, Wyo.
Clarksville-Hopkinsville, Tenn.-Ky.

* U.S; GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1981 - 341-265/110


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Colorado Springs, Colo.
Columbia-Sumter, S.C.
Columbus, Ga.-Ala.
Columbus, Miss.
Connecticut (statewide)
Dothan, Ala.
Duluth-Superior, Minn.-Wis.
El Paso-Alamogordo-Las Cruces,
Tex.-N. Mex.
Eugene-Springfield-Medford, Oreg.
Fayetteville, N.C.
Fort Smith, Ark.-Okla.
Fort Wayne, Ind.
Frederick-HagerstownChambersburg, Md.-Pa.
Gadsden and Anniston, Ala.
Goldsboro, N.C.
Guam, Territory of
Knoxville, Tenn.
La Crosse-Sparta, Wis.
Laredo, Tex.
Lexington-Fayette, Ky.
Lima, Ohio
Little Rock-North Little Rock, Ark.
Logansport-Peru, Ind.
Lower Eastern Shore, Md.-Va.-Del.
Macon, Ga.
Madison, Wis.
Maine (statewide)
Mansfield, Ohio
McAllen-Pharr-Edinburg and
Brownsville-Harlingen- San
Benito, Tex.
Meridian, Miss.

Middlesex, Monmouth, and Ocean
Counties, N.J.
Mobile-Pensacola-Panama City, Ala.Fla.
Montana (statewide)
Montgomery, Ala.
Nashville-Davidson, Tenn.
New Bern-Jacksonville, N.C.
New Hampshire (statewide)
North Dakota (statewide)
Northern New York
Northwest Texas
Orlando, Fla.
Oxnard-Simi Valley-Ventura, Calif.
Peoria, 111.
Pine Bluff, Ark.
Pueblo, Colo.
Puerto Rico
Raleigh-Durham, N.C.
Reno, Nev.
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario,
Calif.
Salina, Kans.
Santa Barbara-Santa Maria-Lompoc,
Calif.
Savannah, Ga.
Selma, Ala.
Sherman-Denison, Tex.
Shreveport, La.
South Dakota (statewide)
Southeastern Massachusetts
Southern Idaho
Southwest Virginia
Spokane, Wash.

Springfield, 111.
Stockton, Calif.
Tacoma, Wash.
Topeka, Kans.
Tucson-Douglas, Ariz.
Tulsa, Okla.
Upper Peninsula, Mich.
Vallejo-Fairfield-Napa, Calif.
Vermont (statewide)
Virgin Islands of the U.S.
Waco and Killeen-Temple, Tex.
Waterloo-Cedar Falls, Iowa
West Virginia (statewide)
Western and Northern Massachusetts
Wichita Falls-Lawton-Altus, Tex.Okla.
Y akima-Richland-KennewickPendleton, Wash.-Oreg.
ALSO AVAILABLE—
An annual report on salaries for ac­
countants, auditors, chief accountants,
attorneys, job analysts, directors of per­
sonnel, buyers, chemists, engineers, en­
gineering technicians, drafters, and cler­
ical employees is available. Order as
BLS Bulletin 2045, National Survey of
Professional, Administrative, Technical
and Clerical Pay, March 1979, $3.00 a
copy, from any of the BLS regional sales
offices shown on the back cover, or
from the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.

Area Wage Surveys
A list of the latest bulletins available is presented below. Bulletins may be purchased from any of
the BLS regional offices shown on the back cover, or from the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402. Make checks payable to Superin­
tendent of Documents. A directory of occupational wage surveys, covering the years 1974 through
1979, is available on request.

Area

Bulletin number
and price*

Albany-Schenectady-Troy, N.Y., Sept. 19801 ......................................................... 3000-45
Anaheim-Santa Ana-Garden Grove, Calif., Oct. 1980............................................ 3000-62
Atlanta, Ga., May 1980 ................................................................................................. 3000-21
Baltimore, Md., Aug. 1980 .....................................................................
3000-38
Billings, Mont., July 1980' ...................................................................3000-31
Boston, Mass., Aug. 1980 ...............................................
3000-40
Buffalo, N.Y., Oct. 1980 .................................................................................... ” | " 3000-52
Chattanooga, Tenn.—Ga., Sept. 1980........................................................................ 3000^14
Chicago, 111., May 1980' ............................................................ ................................ 3000-26
Cincinnati, Ohio—Ky.—Ind., July 1980 .................................................. . . . . . . . . 3000-32
Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1980' ....................................................................................... 3000-46
Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1980......................................................
3000-48
Corpus Christi, Tex., July 1980.................................................................................. ’ 3000-28
Dallas-^Fort Worth, Tex., Dec. 19801 ................................................................. 3000-67
Davenport—Rock Island—Moline, Iowa—111., Feb. 1980' ............................... 3000- 5
Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1$80‘ .................................................................................' ” ' 3000-64
Daytona Beach, Fla., Aug. 1980' .............................................................................. 3000-33
Denver—Boulder, Colo., Dec. 1980' ........................................................................ 3000-68
Detroit, Mich., Mar. 1980 ............................................................................................. 3000- 7
Fresno, Calif., June 1980' ................................................................................ !!!!! 3000-30
Gainesville, Fla., Sept. 1980' ....................................................................................... 3000-55
Gary—Hammond—East Chicago, Ind., Nov. 1980' ............................................ 3000-56
Green Bay, Wis., July 1980 ...................................................................................... ’ ’ 3000-22
Greensboro—Winston-Salem—High Point, N.C., Aug. 1980' ........................ 3000-50
Greenville—Spartanburg, S.C., June 1980 ............................................................... 3000-16
Hartford, Conn., Mar. 19801 .................................................................................... 3000-19
Houston, Tex., Apr. 1980' ......................................................................................... 3000-18
Huntsville, Ala., Feb. 1980' .................................................................................... ’ 3000-14
Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 1980 ........................................................................................ 3000-47
Jackson, Miss., Jan. 1980 ............................................................................................. 3000- 2
Jacksonville, Fla., Dec. 1980......................................................................................... 3000-66
Kansas City, Mo.—Kans., Sept. 1980...............................................................3000-42
Los Angeles—Long Beach, Calif., Oct. 1980 ........................................................... 3000-63
Louisville, Ky.—Ind., Nov. 1980' ............................................................................ 3000-65


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2.25
$2.00
$2 25
t? os
$2J)0
87 7s
$2^25
$f75
$3 25
$2.25
$3^25
«7 no
$L75
$3^25
$2 25
$2^25
$1,75
$3^25
$2 25
$2.00
$2.00
$175
$L75
$2.25
$1/75
$2^5
$3^5
$2^25
$2^25
$1.75
$175
$2'25
$2^25
$2.25

Area
Memphis, Tenn.—Ark.—Miss., Nov. 1980..........................................................
Miami, Fla., Oct. 1980 ..........................................................................’......... ”
Milwaukee, Wis., Apr. 1980 ................................................ ..
Minneapolis—St. Paul, Minn.—Wis., Jan. 1981' .................. ..
Nassau—Suffolk, N.Y., June 1980................................................................ ’ ’'
Newark, N.J., Jan. 1980' .......................................................... 3000- 8
New Orleans, La., Oct. 1980 ............................................................ . . . . . . . . . . .
New York, N.Y.—N.J., May 1980 ...................................... ..
Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth, Va.—N.C., May 1980___' ........
Northeast Pennsylvania, Aug. 1980 ......................................................................
Oklahoma City, Okla., Aug. 1980'
Omaha, Nebr.—Iowa, Oct. 1980' ......................................................................
Paterson—Clifton—Passaic, N.J., June 1980' ...................... .
Philadelphia, Pa.—N.J., Nov. 1980......................................................................
Pittsburgh, Pa., Jan. 1981......................................................3010- 2
Portland, Maine, Dec. 1980........................................................ ..
Portland, Oreg.—Wash., June 1980' ............................ ..
Poughkeepsie, N.Y., June 1980' ......................................................... !..!.!!!!
Poughkeepsie—Kingston—Newburgh, N.Y., June 1980' .............. . . . . . . . . .
Providence—Warwick—Pawtucket, R.I.— Mass., June 1980 ............................
Richmond, Va., June 1980' .............. .................................. ........... ..................
St. Louis, Mo.—111.,Mar. 1980............................................ !!"”!"”!!!"!
Sacramento, Calif., Dec. 1979......................................................
Saginaw, Mich., Nov. 1980 ..................................................................’ ........
Salt Lake City—Ogden, Utah, Nov. 1980 ........................ ..
San Antonio, Tex., May 1980' ..............................................................
San Diego, Calif., Nov. 1979............................................ ..
San Francisco—Oakland, Calif., Mar. 1980 ............................................’, ’' ’
San Jose, Calif., Mar. 1980 ............................................................... . . . . . . . . . .
Seattle—Everett, Wash., Dec. 1980 .................................................. . . . . . . . . . .
South Bend, Ind., Aug. 1980.................... ........................................
Toledo, Ohio—Mich., May 1980 .....................................................
Trenton, N. J., Sept. 1980.................................................... .
Washington, D.C.—Md.—Va., Mar. 1980 ...................... 3000- 4
Wichita, Kans., Apr. 1980' ...................................................................... .. . . . . .
Worcester, Mass., Apr. 1980' ............................................ .
York, Pa., Feb. 1980................................................................................................

Bulletin number
and price*
3000-59
3000-51
3000-10
3010- 1
3000-29
3000-58
3000-24
3000-20
3000-37
3000-41
3000-57
3000-34
3000-53
3000-61
3000-49
3000-35
3000-39
3000-27
3000-23
3000-12
2050-71
3000-54
3000-60
3000-17
2050-70
3000. 9
3000- 6
3000-69
3000-36
3000-13
3000-43
3000-15
3000-25
3000-11

* Prices are determined by the Government Printing Office and are subject to change.
Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

$175
$2 25
$2 25
$3 75
$2 00
$3 25
$2 00
$2 25
$L75
$175
$2 25
$2 25
$2 25
$2 25
$2 25
$1 75
$2 50
$2 00
$2 00
$2.00
$2 25
$2 25
$1 75
$175
$2 00
$2 00
$2 00
$2 25
$2 00
$L75
$1 75
$1 75
$1 '75
$2 25
$2 25
$2 00
$1.75

Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

Third Class Mail
Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300

Lab-441

Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices
Region I

Region II

Region III

Region IV

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y, 10036
Phone: 944-3121 (Area Code 212)

3535 Market Street,
P.0 Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa 19101
Phone: 596-1154 (Area Code 215)

Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St.. N.E
Atlanta. Ga. 30367
Phone: 881-4418 (Area Code 404)

Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
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New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
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Delaware
District of Columbia
Maryland
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Alabama
Florida
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Region V

Region VI

Regions VII and VIII

Regions IX and X

9th Floor, 230 S. Dearborn St
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)

Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 767-6971 (Area Code 214)

Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas

VII

VHI

IX

X

Iowa
Kansas
Missouri
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Colorado
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

Arizona
California
Hawaii
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Alaska
Idaho
Oregon
Washington

Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
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