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/- c?. 3 :

Area
Wage
Survey
Bulletin 2025-26




Richmond, Virginia,
Metropolitan Area, June 1978

Preface
T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s re s u lts o f a June 1978 s u r v e y o f o c c u p a tio n a l
e a rn in g s in the R ich m on d , V ir g in ia , Stan d ard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a .
The s u r v e y w as m ad e as p a r t o f the B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ' annual
a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m . It w as con du cted b y the B u re a u 's r e g io n a l o ffic e
in P h ila d e lp h ia , P a ., under the g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n o f Ir w in L . F e ig e n b a u m ,
A s s is ta n t R e g io n a l C o m m is s io n e r f o r O p e ra tio n s .
T h e s u r v e y cou ld not
have b e en a c c o m p lis h e d w ith ou t the c o o p e r a tio n o f the m an y fir m s w h ose
w age and s a la r y data p r o v id e d the b a s is f o r the s t a t is t ic a l in fo rm a tio n in
th is b u lle tin .
T h e B u re a u w is h e s to e x p r e s s s in c e r e a p p re c ia tio n f o r the
c o o p e ra tio n r e c e iv e d .
M a te r ia l in th is p u b lic a tio n is in the p u b lic d om ain and m a y be
re p ro d u c e d w ith ou t p e r m is s io n o f the F e d e r a l G o v e rn m en t.
P le a s e c r e d it




the B u re a u
p u b lic a tio n .

of

Labor

S ta tis tic s

and

c ite

the

n am e

and

n u m b er

o f th is

Note:
A r e p o rt on oc c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s f o r the R ic h m o n d a r e a is
a v a ila b le fo r the m o v in g and s to r a g e in d u s try (June 1978).
A ls o a v a ila b le
a re lis tin g s o f union w a g e r a te s f o r s e v e n s e le c te d b u ild in g tr a d e s .
F ree
c o p ie s o f th ese a r e a v a ila b le f r o m the B u r e a u 's
r e g io n a l o f f i c e s .
(S ee
b ack c o v e r fo r a d d r e s s e s .)

Area
Wage
Survey
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

Richmond, Virginia,
Metropolitan Area, June 1978
C o n ten ts

P age

Page

August 1978
Bulletin 2025-26

In trod u ctio n __________________________________________

2

Tab les:
A.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, GPO
Bookstores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on back cover.




E arnings, a ll establishm en ts:
A - l . W eek ly earnings o f o ffic e w o rk e rs __ 3
A - 2. W e e k ly earnings o f p ro fe s s io n a l
and techn ical w o r k e r s ______________ 6
A -3 . A v e ra g e w e e k ly earnings o f
o ffic e , p ro fe s s io n a l, and
techn ical w o rk e rs , by s e x _________ 8
A - 4. H ou rly earnings o f m aintenance,
to olroom , and pow erplant
w o rk e rs ________________________________ 10
A - 5 . H ou rly earnings o f m a te ria l
m ovem en t and custodial w o rk e rs __ 11
A - 6. A v e ra g e hou rly earnings o f
m aintenance, to o lro o m , p ow erplant, m a te ria l m ovem ent, and
custodial w o rk e rs , by s e x __________ 12
A - l . P e rc e n t in c re a s es in a vera ge
hourly earn in gs, adjusted fo r
em ploym ent shifts, fo r se lec te d
occupational g ro u p s _________________ 13

Appendix A . Scope and method o f s u r v e y _________ 14
Appendix B. O ccupational d e s c rip tio n s ___________ 17

Introduction
T h is a r e a is 1 o f 75 in w h ich th e U .S. D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r 's B u reau
o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s conducts s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a rn in g s and r e la te d
b e n e fits . (S ee lis t o f a r e a s on in s id e b ack c o v e r . ) In ea c h a r e a , o c c u p a tio n a l
e a rn in g s data ( A - s e r i e s t a b le s ) a re c o lle c t e d an nually. In fo r m a tio n on e s ta b ­
lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w a g e b e n e fits ( B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) is
ob ta in ed e v e r y th ir d y e a r . T h is r e p o r t has no B - s e r ie s ta b le s .

E a c h y e a r a ft e r a ll in d iv id u a l a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s h a ve b een c o m ­
p le te d , tw o s u m m a ry b u lle tin s a re is s u e d .
T h e f i r s t b rin g s to g e th e r data
f o r each m e tr o p o lita n a r e a s u r v e y e d ; the seco n d p re s e n ts n a tio n a l and
r e g io n a l e s tim a te s , p r o je c t e d f r o m in d iv id u a l m e tr o p o lita n a r e a d ata, f o r
a ll Stan d ard M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a s in the U n ited S ta te s , e x c lu d in g
A la s k a and H a w a ii.

A m a jo r c o n s id e r a tio n in the a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m is the n eed
to d e s c r ib e the l e v e l and m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s in a v a r ie t y o f la b o r m a r k e ts ,
th rou gh th e a n a ly s is o f (1 ) the l e v e l and d is trib u tio n o f w a g e s by oc c u p a tio n ,
and (2) the m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s by o c c u p a tio n a l c a te g o r y and s k ill l e v e l. T h e
p r o g r a m d e v e lo p s in fo rm a tio n that m a y be used f o r m an y p u r p o s e s , in clu d in g
w a g e and s a la r y a d m in is tr a tio n , c o lle c t iv e b a r g a in in g , and a s s is ta n c e in
d e te rm in in g plant lo c a tio n . S u rv e y r e s u lts a ls o a r e used by th e U .S. D e p a rt­
m en t o f L a b o r to m ak e w a g e d e te rm in a tio n s under th e S e r v ic e C o n tra c t A c t
o f 1965.




A - s e r i e s ta b le s
T a b le s A - 1 th rou gh A - 6 p r o v id e e s tim a te s o f s t r a ig h t- tim e w e e k ly
o r h o u rly earn in gs fo r w o r k e r s in occ u p a tio n s com m o n to a v a r ie t y o f
m an u factu rin g and nonm anu factu rin g in d u s tr ie s . F o r the 31 la r g e s t s u r v e y
a r e a s , ta b le s A - 8 th rou gh A - 13 p r o v id e s im ila r data f o r e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e m p lo y in g 500 w o r k e r s o r m o r e .
T a b le A - 7 p ro v id e s p e r c e n t chan ges in a v e r a g e h o u rly e a rn in g s
o f o f f ic e c le r ic a l w o r k e r s , e le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g w o r k e r s , in d u s tr ia l
n u rs e s , s k ille d m ain ten an ce tr a d e s w o r k e r s , and u n sk ille d plan t w o r k e r s .
W h e re p o s s ib le , data a r e p re s e n te d f o r a ll in d u s tr ie s and f o r m a n u fa c ­
tu rin g and nonm anu facturin g s e p a r a t e ly . D ata a r e not p r e s e n te d f o r s k ille d
m a in te n a n c e w o r k e r s in n on m an u fa ctu rin g b e ca u s e the n u m b er o f w o r k e r s
e m p lo y e d in th is occu p atio n al g ro u p in n o n m an u fa ctu rin g is to o s m a ll to
w a r r a n t s e p a ra te p re s e n ta tio n .
T h is ta b le p r o v id e s a m e a s u r e o f w a g e
tr e n d s a ft e r e lin im a tio n o f changes in a v e r a g e e a rn in g s cau sed by e m p lo y ­
m en t s h ifts am ong e s ta b lis h m en ts as w e ll as tu r n o v e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts
in clu d ed in s u rv e y s a m p le s . F o r fu r th e r d e ta ils , se e ap pendix A.
A p p en d ixes
A p p en d ix A d e s c r ib e s the m eth od s and co n ce p ts used in the a r e a
w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m and p ro v id e s in fo r m a tio n on the sc o p e o f the s u r v e y .
A p p en d ix B p ro v id e s job d e s c r ip tio n s
m is ts to c la s s ify w o r k e r s by occu p a tio n .

u sed b y B u re a u f ie ld e c o n o ­




office workers in Richmond, Va., June 1978
N um ber o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g stra ig h t-tim e w e e k ly earn in gs of—
Average
weekly
hours1
[standard)

s

M ean2

M edian2

Middle range 2

3
3
3
3

8
8
8
9

.0
.0
.0
.5

$
1 9 7 .0 0
2 0 6 .5 0
1 9 0 .0 0
2 4 1 .0 0

$
1 9 3 .5 0
2 0 1 .5 0
1 7 9 .5 0
2 5 4 .5 0

$
1 6 5 .0 0 1 8 4 .0 0 1 5 5 .5 0 1 8 2 .0 0 -

$
220
223
219
285

s

s

s

s

S

s

s

%

s

%

s

s

s

s

s

s

100

105

115

125

135

145

155

175

195

215

235

255

275

295

315

335

355

375

395

100

105

115

125

135

145

155

175

195

215

235

255

275

295

315

3 35

355

375

395

415

85
18
67
2

284
68
216

305
19 3
112

185
107
78

15
26
17

14
6
8
7

1
11
5

5
2
3
3

4

6

58
26
32
27

12

12

127
45
82
5

41

20

274
145
129
16
5

.5 3
.0 0
.0 0
.5 0

-

12

21

23

-

12

21

-

-

-

-

23
1

86
86
i

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

2

5
4

1

-

12
7

2

-

5
5

8

-

6
6

2

“

5

i

1

-

1
1

-

16
10

32
31

44
38

80
38

75
29

42
12

25
3

14
5

2
1

6
6

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

20
-

72
15
57
10

98
64
34
7

149
119
30
7

80
44
36

1
1

8

_

3

i

_

1
_

1
1

1

_

"

8
8

3
3

-

-

47
13
34
2

101
53
48
6

58
28
30
1

10
8
2
2

34
2
32
1

27
2
25
23

11
3
8
8

7
4
3
3

_

_

-

-

6
1
5
5

28
3
25
25

16
2
14
14

2
2
2

17
17
17

14
14
14

4

11
8

2

67
32

3 8 .0
3 8 .0

2 3 4 .0 3
2 3 4 .0 0

2 2 4 .5 0
2 2 4 .5 0

1 9 5 .5 0 - 2 7 5 .5 0
1 9 5 .5 0 - 2 7 5 .0 0

-

345
182

3 8 .0
3 7 .5

2 1 3 .0 0
2 0 0 .0 0

2 1 3 .5 0
1 9 5 .5 0

1 9 0 .0 0 - 2 3 6 * 0 3
1 7 2 .0 0 - 2 2 0 .5 3

-

512
258
254
41

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 9 .5

1 9 8 .5 0
2 0 3 .5 0
1 9 3 .5 0
2 2 3 .5 0

1 9 7 .5 0
1 9 8 .5 0
1 8 4 .5 0
1 9 7 .5 0

1 7 5 .0 0 1 8 8 .0 0 1 6 2 .0 0 1 7 2 .5 0 -

2 1 9 .0 0
2 1 4 .0 3
2 2 3 .0 0
2 9 4 .0 0

-

469

3 8 .0
3 7 .5
3 8 .0
3 9 .5

1 9 0 .0 0

136
333
64

1 9 7 .5 3
1 8 6 .5 0
2 5 1 .5 0

1 8 0 .0 0
1 9 1 .0 0
1 6 9 .5 0
2 7 3 .5 0

1 5 5 .5 0 1 7 5 .0 0 1 4 7 .5 0 1 8 9 .0 0 -

2 0 7 .0 0
2 0 5 .0 0
2 1 0 .0 0
2 8 2 .0 0

151
95

3 8 .0
3 8 .5

1 6 6 .0 0
1 6 0 .5 0

1 6 1 .0 0
1 5 8 .5 0

1 5 1 .5 0 - 1 7 5 .5 0
1 4 4 .0 0 - 1 6 8 .0 0

290
51
239
133

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .5
3 9 .5

1 9 5 .0 0
2 1 1 .5 0
1 9 1 .0 3
2 1 3 .0 0

1 7 8 .5 0
2 1 3 .0 0
1 7 7 .0 0
2 2 4 .0 0

1 5 2 .0 0 1 8 0 .5 0 1 4 9 .5 0 1 4 7 .0 0 -

192
172
113

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 9 .5

1 8 7 .5 0
1 8 9 .5 0
2 0 6 .0 0

1 6 8 .0 0
1 6 6 .0 0
2 0 9 .5 0

1 4 4 .5 0 - 2 2 4 .0 3
1 4 3 .5 0 - 2 2 4 .0 0
1 4 3 .5 0 - 2 8 0 .5 0

98
67

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

2 0 9 .0 0
1 9 6 .0 0

2 0 7 .0 0
1 8 0 .0 0

1 7 8 .0 0 - 2 4 0 .0 0
1 6 1 .0 0 - 2 2 2 .0 0

121

1 5 5 .0 0
1 4 9 .5 0

1 5 4 .0 0
1 4 9 .5 0

1 3 3 .5 0 - 1 7 6 .0 0
1 3 0 .0 0 - 1 6 1 .0 0

-

81

3 8 .0
3 8 .5

693
102
591

3 7 .5
3 8 .5
3 7 .5

1 3 8 .5 3
1 5 7 .5 0
1 3 5 .5 0

1 3 2 .0 0
1 5 6 .5 0
1 2 8 .5 0

1 2 0 .0 0 - 1 5 0 .0 0
1 3 6 .5 0 - 1 7 8 .0 0
1 1 7 .5 0 - 1 4 4 .5 0

_

234
64
170

3 7 .5
3 8 .5
3 7 .0

1 5 3 .0 0
1 6 7 .5 0
1 4 7 .5 0

1 5 1 .0 0
1 7 4 .5 0
1 4 5 .0 0

1 3 6 .5 0 - 1 7 1 .0 0
1 5 5 .5 0 - 1 7 9 .0 0
1 2 6 .0 0 - 1 5 7 .0 0

459

3 7 .5
3 8 .0
3 7 .5
3 9 .0

1 3 1 .5 0
1 4 1 .0 0
1 3 0 .5 0
1 5 5 .5 0

1 2 6 .0 0
1 3 4 .5 0
1 2 6 .0 0
1 3 6 .0 0

1 1 6 .0 0 - 1 3 6 .0 0
1 2 5 .5 0 - 1 4 5 .0 0
1 1 5 .0 0 - 1 3 6 .0 0
1 2 7 .0 0 - 1 9 0 .5 0

38
421
114

s

%

95

and
under
95

6 28
910
126

s

s

90

2 2 4 .0 0
2 3 2 .5 0
2 2 4 .0 0
2 7 9 .5 0

-

-

-

“

“

-

-

2
2

“

5
5

-

6

2

22

-

-

2
2

-

~

6

“
-

10
-

18
-

39
-

31
6

10
-

10

18
-

39
1

25
1

102
27
75
10

-

-

3
3

3
3

20
20

18
12

68
43

21
4

10
6

6
2

2
2

-

-

“

20
1

4

17

37

17
9

34
3
31
23

37
15

38
9
29
5

48
7
41
6

13
7
6
6

38
13
25
23

11
6
5
5

3
3
“

16
16
9

33
30
23

27
27
15

28
19
5

25
20
4

6
3
3

20
20
20

1

1
1

i

-

-

22

**

2
1

i

1
1

10
10

10
10

23
21

7
3

18
5

10
4

8
4

25
23

10
10

18
7

26
25

30
10

-

*
_

_

_

“
-

-

-

-

108
11

75
29
46

44

5

22

3

27
17

-

_

_

_

97

51
10
41

5

22

3

-

14
3
11

44

30

60

39

-

_

5
39

8
22

23
37

25
14

-

-

122
22
100

64

21

15

5

5

22

6

2
19
8

6
9

2
3

6

3

5
5

22
22

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“
-

-

“
-

-

4

-

-

2
2

8
8

26

73

140

26

73

140

-

-

-

34

-

-

9
9

34

-

-

8
-

26
-

64

106

8

26

64

106
19

3

_

_

-

"

-

-

-

1
1
1

-

136
25
111

-

-

i

1
1

2

10

~

_

i

3
3

29

58
21

-

i
i

3

3

_

_

-

-

1
1

4
4
4

5
2
3
3

2
1
1
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

"

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

_

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

_

_

3

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Richmond, Va., June 1978— Continued
N u m ber o f w o rk e rs re c e iv in g stra ig h t-tim e w eek ly earnings o f—
N

Occupation and indus try di vis ion

U.
of
woxken

s

Average
weekly

f
90

M ean2

(standard)

Middle range2

M edian2

*

I

S

s

S

%

s

s

s

$

s

*

s

s

s

s

<

%

%

95

100

105

115

125

135

195

155

175

195

215

235

255

275

29 5

315

335

355

375

395

100

105

115

125

135

195

155

175

195

215

235

255

275

295

315

3 35

355

375

395

915

100

63
19
49
i

36
5
31
1

44
6
38

3
1
2
2

3
1
2
2

2

95
4

-

2
2

2
2

_

_

a jid
under
95

A LL UORKFRS—
C O N T IN U E D
$

$

$

F I L E C L E R K S ------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S -----------------

392
92
350
26

3 7 .0
3 7 .5
3 7 .0
3 9 .5

1 3 2 .0 0
1 9 3 .5 0
1 3 0 .5 0
1 7 6 .5 0

1 2 9 .0 0
1 3 2 .5 0
1 2 9 .0 0
1 6 9 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0 - 1 9 9 .0 0
1 2 5 .5 0 - 1 9 9 .5 0
1 1 1 .5 0 - 1 9 9 .0 0

$

F I L E C L E R K S . C L A S S B ---------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

157
151

3 7 .5
3 7 .5

1 3 3 .5 0
1 3 3 .0 0

1 2 6 .0 0
1 2 9 .0 0

F I L E C L E R K S . C L A S S C ---------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

211
28
183

3 7 .0

1 2 3 .0 0

3 7 .5
3 7 .0

1 2 6 .0 0
1 2 7 .0 0
1 2 5 .5 0

M E S S E N G E R S -------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

118
96

3 7 .5
3 7 .5

S U IT C H B O A R D

120
100

--------------------

O RD ER C L E R K S ----------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

4
4

6
6

12

“

75
3
72
7

-

~

1 1 5 .0 0 - 1 9 5 .5 0
1 1 9 .0 0 - 1 9 3 .5 0

-

-

12
12

26
26

38
38

22
22

17
16

12
9

26
29

4
4

6
~

-

99
3
46

12
3
9

30
3
27

-

-

62
6
57

91

1 2 5 .5 0
1 1 9 .0 0

1 1 1 .5 0 - 1 3 9 .0 0
1 1 9 .0 0 - 1 3 1 .0 0
1 1 0 .5 0 - 1 3 9 .0 0

-

1 5 7 .0 0
1 5 9 .0 0

1 9 9 .0 0
1 9 0 .0 0

1 1 9 .0 0 - 2 0 3 .0 0
1 1 5 .0 0 - 2 1 5 .5 0

-

-

7
7

16
15

12
10

12

16
11

9
5

3 8 .5
3 8 .5

1 5 7 .0 0

1 9 7 .0 0
1 3 8 .0 0

1 2 1 .0 0 - 1 8 3 .5 0
1 1 6 .5 0 - 1 6 9 .0 0

5
5

-

19
19

15
15

19
19

10

1 5 1 .0 0

9

218
77
191

3 8 .0
3 8 .5
3 8 .0

1 5 2 .0 0
1 6 7 .0 0
1 4 4 .0 0

1 9 9 .0 0
1 6 0 .0 0
1 9 3 .5 0

1 3 8 . 0 0 —1 6 5 * 0 0
1 9 6 .0 0 - 1 7 5 .0 0
1 3 6 .5 0 - 1 5 6 .0 0

-

2
2

17
17

3
1
2

2

16
6
10

220
83
137

3 8 .5
3 7 .5
3 9 .5

1 7 3 .5 0
1 8 1 .5 0
1 6 9 .0 0

1 7 1 .0 0
1 7 1 .5 0
1 7 0 .0 0

1 9 9 .5 0 - 1 9 2 .0 0
1 9 9 .5 0 - 1 8 9 .5 0
1 5 1 .0 0 - 2 0 0 .0 0

8
-

-

10

-

8

6
6

97

3 9 .5

1 9 9 .5 0

1 9 2 .0 0

1 7 5 .0 0 - 2 1 9 .5 0

-

-

-

O RDER C L E R K S . C L A S S B -------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN 6 --------------------

123
66
57

3 8 .0
3 7 .5
3 8 .5

1 5 7 .0 0
1 8 0 .5 0
1 2 9 .5 0

1 5 1 .0 0
1 5 8 .0 0
1 4 4 .0 0

1 3 8 .0 0 - 1 6 2 .5 0
1 9 8 .0 0 - 1 8 5 .0 0
1 0 5 * 0 0 —1 5 2 * 0 0

8
-

6
6

-

A C C O U N T IN S C L E R K S ---------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

1 .3 3 2
363

1 6 9 .0 0
1 8 8 .5 0
1 6 2 .0 0

1 5 9 .5 0
1 8 6 .5 0
1 9 8 .0 0

1 3 5 .0 0 - 1 9 2 .5 0
1 5 9 .0 0 - 2 1 9 .5 0
1 3 2 .0 0 - 1 7 6 .0 0

_

969

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .0

A C C O U N T IN G C L E R K S * C L A S S A ------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

559
166
393

3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 8 .0

1 8 5 .0 0
2 0 9 .5 0
1 7 5 .0 0

1 7 8 .0 0
2 1 2 .5 0
1 7 0 .0 0

1 9 7 .0 0 - 2 1 3 .0 0
1 8 9 .0 0 - 2 3 9 .0 0
1 9 9 .0 0 - 2 0 0 .0 0

-

-

A C C O U N T IN G C L E R K S . C L A S S B ------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------NON M AN U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

773
197
576

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .5

1 5 7 .5 0
1 7 1 .0 0
1 5 3 .0 0

1 4 6 .0 0

-

1 6 8 .0 0
1 9 1 .5 0

1 2 9 .0 0 - 1 7 2 .0 0
1 9 9 .5 0 - 1 9 5 .5 0
1 2 6 .5 0 - 1 6 0 .0 0

B O O K K E E P IN G - M A C H IN E
O P E R A T O R S ----M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

108
32
76

3 8 .5
3 7 .5
3 9 .0

1 9 6 .5 0
1 6 8 .0 0
1 3 7 .5 0

1 9 1 .0 0
1 6 9 .0 0
1 3 0 .0 0

1 3 0 .0 0 - 1 6 8 .5 0
1 6 7 .5 0 - 1 8 9 .5 0
1 2 5 .0 0 - 1 5 9 .0 0

-

B O O K K E E P IN G - M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R S .
C L A S S A --------------------------------

99

3 8 .5

1 6 6 .0 0

1 6 8 .5 0

1 5 9 .0 0 - 1 7 5 .5 0

-

O PERATO RS

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

-----------------

--------------------

S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R - R E C E P T I O N IS T S M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

O R D ER

C LERKS.

C LA SS

A --------------

_

_

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

3
1
2
2

4
-

-

-

_

-

-

-

2

4
4

-

“

i
i

3
2

i i
10

4

29
29

1
1

3
3

_

8
8

15
10

19

19
16

_

1

4

_

-

"

3

1
1

-

5

-

-

93
1
4?

57
27
30

52
22
30

13
10
3

2

8
8

1
1

-

_

-

-

-

"

-

2
1
1

_

2

-

-

21
11
10

39
16
18

50
23
27

35
15
20

20
4

_

_

*

5
5

-

-

-

-

-

34

23

10
10

-

5
5
~

21
11
10

39
16
18

16
11
5

12
12

4
4

42
6
36

125
13
112

149

2

7
7

160
25
135

193
26
117

239
58
176

144
66
78

125
57
68

-

-

2
-

25

26

69
2

98
17
81

81
29
52

1 1 3 .0 0 - 2 1 5 .5 0

-

8

-

6

2
-

-

3

2

19
27

7

10

-

9
190

32
2
30

2

i

4
4

_

“

“

-

“

-

-

~

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

~

-

3
3

3
3

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

23

1

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1
1

3
3

_

_

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
-

-

-

88

25
10
15

13
2
11

28
2
26

8

_

_

_

_

62
26

39
27
12

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

"

80
32
98

63
90
23

38
26
12

14

8
1
7

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

5

3
2
1

63
37
26

45
25
20

25
22
3

1
1

11
1
10

10
10

20

2

-

i
19

2

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

26

67

123
119

97
18
79

136

13
87

91
23
68

-

-

12
-

8

-

7
-

29

-

4

6
~

-

~

7

12

25

6

35
15
20

11
11

“

2
6

“

”

”

“

“

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

27

11

-

-

-

_

4

-

-

25

91

-

1
1

100

95

-

1
1

2

9

-

-

23
1
22

40
6
39

2
2

-

“

7
7

-

-

2
2

-

46
8
38

See footnotes at end o f ta b les.




_
-

5
4
i
i

12

9

~
-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

“

“

-

-

”

-

-

-

-

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Richmond, Va., June 1978— Continued
Weekl) earnings1
(Stsmdard)

O ccupation and in d u stry d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Average
weekly
hours 1
(standard)

N u m ber o f w o rk e rs re c e iv in g s tra ig h t-tim e w eek ly earn in g s o f--S
s
s
s
S
*
S
%
5
S
%
90

Mean2

Middle range2

M edian2

s

s

S

s

s

s

s

*

%

%

95

100

105

115

125

135

145

155

175

195

215

235

255

275

295

315

335

355

375

395

100

105

115

125

135

145

155

175

195

215

235

255

275

295

315

335

355

375

395

415

7
7

12
12

29

2
”

6
6

8

25

1

1
1

16
12
4

20
12
8

20
1
19

39
13
26

19
6

13
6

15

5
3

1

-

-

-

-

108

97
28

and
under
95

A LL W ORKERS—
C O N T IN U E D
B O O K K E E P IN G - M A C H IN E
C O N T IN U E D

O PERATO RS

-

C L A S S B -------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

6A
50

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

$
1 3 3 .5 0
1 2 7 .0 0

$
1 3 0 .0 0
1 3 0 .0 0

$
$
1 2 0 .0 0 - 1 3 6 .5 3
1 1 8 .5 0 - 1 3 0 .0 0

P A Y R O L L C L E R K S --------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

161
64
97

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .5

1 7 8 .5 0
1 7 8 .0 0
1 7 9 .0 0

1 6 8 .5 0
1 6 8 .5 0
1 6 3 .5 0

1 4 7 .5 0 - 2 0 5 .0 0

-

-

1 4 4 .5 0 - 2 0 5 .0 0
1 4 9 .5 0 - 2 0 4 .0 0

“

-

KEY

E N T R Y O P E R A T O R S -------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

686
139
547
79

3 8 .5
3 9 .0
3 8 .5
3 9 .5

1 5 8 .5 0

1 5 1 .5 0
1 6 1 .0 0
1 4 9 .5 0
1 7 5 .0 0

1
1
1
1

-

-

1 6 7 .0 0
1 5 6 .5 0
1 8 8 .5 0

-

-

“

“

K E Y E N T R Y O P E R A T O R S . C L A S S A ----M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

290
88
202

3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

1 6 7 .0 0
1 7 4 .5 0
1 6 3 .5 0

1 7 1 .5 0
1 7 7 .5 0
1 6 7 .5 0

1 3 8 . 5 0 —1 8 7 a 5 0
1 4 7 .0 0 - 1 9 1 .5 0
1 3 5 .5 0 - 1 8 5 .0 0

-

-

K E Y E N T R Y O P E R A T O R S . C L A S S B -------M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ----------------------------

396
51
345
61

3 8 .5
3 9 .0
3 8 .0
3 9 .0

1 5 3 .0 0
1 5 4 .0 0
1 5 2 .5 0
1 9 8 .0 0

1 4 6 .5 0
1 5 3 .0 0
1 4 4 .0 0
2 1 5 . 50

1 3 1 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0 1 2 8 .0 0 1 4 1 .5 0 -

-

B O O K K E E P IN G - M A C H IN E

O PERATO RS.

3
4
3
4

4 . 0 0 —1 7 8 . 5 0
6 .5 0 - 1 8 1 .5 0
2 .5 0 - 1 7 6 .5 0
0 .5 0 - 2 1 5 .5 0

16
16
16
21

3
2
6
5

.0 0
.0 0
.0 0
.5 0

~
-

1
6
6

-

23

56
56
3

92
10
82
11

95
22
73

8

41
10
31

31

51
“
51
9

64
13
51
9

23

3
3

“
-

8

6

20

48

6

20

48

See footnotes at end of tab le s.




*

5

9

9
22

11

29
79
7

69

126
29
97

4 1
10
31

41
15
26

34
6
28

80
27
53

4 1
10
31

67

63
22
4 1
5

14
53

4

2

24
7
17
17

2
1
1
1

2
2

7
7

1
1

2
1
1

5
1

”
1

11
1
10
10

3

”

“
“

-

~
3
3

2
2

1
1

“

-

-

-

-

-

46

-

17

1

-

10

3

-

44

~

17
17

1
1

”

10
10

3
3

“

3

-

~

“

“

-

“

-

-

~

Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Richmond, Va., June 1978
W eekly earning^™ "
(standard)

Occupation and in dus try d i v is io n

Number
of
wodcers

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard

N u m ber o f w o r k e r s re c e iv in g stra ig h t-tim e w eek ly earnings o f
95

M ean2

M ed ian2

Middle range 2

115

ALL

115

135

155

175

195

215

235

255

275

295

315

335

276
118
158

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .5

$
362*00
4 0 0 .0 0
3 3 4 .0 0

! « . »
4 0 2 .5 0
3 3 6 .0 0

$
3 1 9 .0 0 3 4 2 .0 0 2 9 3 .0 0 -

CO M PUTER S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T S
( B U S I N E S S ! * C L A S S A -----M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------N O N M AN U F A C T U R I N 6 ----------

83
37
46

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .0

4 1 0 .0 0
4 5 3 .0 0
3 7 5 .5 0

4 0 0 .0 0
4 4 2 .5 0
3 7 4 .0 0

395

*15

*35

*55

*75

*95

135

155

175

195

215

235

255

275

295

315

335

16

23

1
15

23

21
4
17

33
16
17

355

3 6 8 .5 0 - 4 4 2 .0 0
4 2 2 .0 0 - 4 8 5 .0 0
3 5 5 .0 0 - 3 9 8 .5 0

C OM PUTER S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T S
( B U S I N E S S ! • C L A S S B -----M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------N O N N A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------

133
75
58

3 8 .5
3 8 .0
3 9 .0

3 5 9 .5 0
3 7 9 .0 0
3 3 4 .0 0

3 5 4 .5 0
3 6 4 .5 0
3 4 2 .5 0

3 3 0 .0 0 - 3 9 3 .0 0
3 3 7 .5 0 - 4 1 4 .0 0
2 9 2 .5 0 - 3 6 9 .0 0

C OM PUTER S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T S
( B U S I N E S S ! • C L A S S C -----N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------

60
54

3 8 .0
3 8 .0

3 0 2 .5 0
2 9 8 .5 0

2 9 7 .0 0
2 9 5 .5 0

2 7 7 .5 0 - 3 2 4 .0 0
2 7 7 .0 0 - 3 2 1 .5 0

317
68
2*9

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .0

2 7 2 .0 0
3 0 0 .0 0
2 6 4 .5 0

2 7 6 .5 0
2 9 9 .5 0
2 6 4 .0 0

51
3*

3 8 .5
3 8 .5

3 2 3 .0 0
3 2 3 .0 0

C OM PUTER PRO GRAM M ERS ( B U S IN E S S ! *
C L A S S B -------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------------------N O N M AN U F A C T U R I N 6 -------------------

207
42
165

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 7 .5

COM PUTER PRO GRAMMERS ( B U S IN E S S ! *
C L A S S C -------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------

59
50

375

395

C LA SS

-------------

-

-

-

*15

*35

*55

“

*75

and

*95

over

_

_

_

-

-

32
6
26

57
13
44

39
6
33

37
16
21

10
9
1

6
3
3

5
1
4

~

4
4

4
4

i i
7

11
9

11

3
1

2
1

4

1

4

4

26

7
7

4
2
2

i
i
“

-

_

_

_

2 7 3 .5 0
3 0 2 .5 0
2 6 6 .0 0

2 6 8 .5 0
3 0 3 .5 0
2 5 9 .0 0

2 * 6 .0 0 - 3 0 7 .0 0
2 7 7 .5 0 - 3 2 6 .0 0
2 4 1 .5 0 - 2 9 5 .0 0

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

2 2 4 .5 3
2 2 1 .0 0

2 1 2 .0 0
2 1 1 .0 0

1 8 6 .0 0 - 2 5 1 .5 0
1 8 2 .5 0 - 2 7 8 .5 0

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .0
3 8 .5

1 9 6 .5 0
2 1 0 .0 0
1 9 0 .5 0
2 0 4 .0 0

1 9 2 .0 0
2 0 3 .5 0
1 8 9 .0 0
2 2 4 .0 0

1 6 8 .0 0 - 2 2 4 .0 0
1 7 1 .5 0 - 2 4 3 .0 0
1 6 7 .0 0 - 2 2 1 .0 0
1 8 0 .0 0 - 2 2 4 .0 0

61
37

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

2 3 2 .0 3
2 1 4 .5 0

2 2 5 .0 0
2 1 5 .0 0

2 0 8 .0 0 - 2 5 6 .5 0
2 0 3 .0 0 - 2 2 5 .0 0

216
51
165

3 7 .5
3 8 .5
3 7 .0

2 0 1 .0 0
2 1 9 .5 0
1 9 5 .0 0

1 9 4 .5 0
2 1 0 .5 0
1 9 1 .0 0

1 8 0 .5 0 - 2 2 4 .0 0
1 9 4 .5 0 - 2 3 9 .5 0
1 8 0 .5 0 - 2 2 4 .0 0

89
42
*7

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

1 6 2 .0 0
1 6 9 .5 0
1 5 5 .0 0

1 5 0 .0 0
1 6 0 .0 0
1 4 7 .5 0

1 4 0 .5 0 - 1 7 5 .0 0
1 5 0 .0 0 - 1 8 0 .5 0
1 4 0 .5 0 - 1 6 7 .0 0

9

_

-

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12
11
1

4

1
1

1
1

1
1

_

_

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

58
30

4

-

-

-

-

4
4

5
5

ii

14

10

9

13

4

6
i

10
1

78
11
67

33

50
5
*5

9

2
2

2
2

-

11
6
5

6
3
3

2
2

3
3

16
17

8

4 at $495 to $515; 2 at $515 to $535; 1 at $535j to $555; and 1 at $555 to $57 5

6

_

-

-

8
7
1

10

_

_

22
18

24

_

~

-

66

5

_

-

50
21
29
6

19
9

_

4

~

_

94
17
77

11

“

14
14

48
12
36
1

43
19

-

_

54
19
35
10

5

-

“

10
2

-

-

10

4
4

11

-

28
4
24

14
13

25
3
22

-

1
1

32
9
23

14
14

“

“

28
6
22

3
3

6

1

-

41
1
40

10
-

-

5
2

4

3
3
~

29
3
26

*

1

5

_

9

8

_

_

_

11
9

2 8 9 .0 0 - 3 4 7 .0 0
2 8 6 .0 0 - 3 5 5 .0 0

_

_

12
11

3 1 3 .0 0
3 0 3 .5 0

1

_

14
14

42

_

3
3

12
11

51

_

~

i i
9
2

33
3
30

-

6
6

12
6
6

24
1
23

_

9
7
2

22
10
12

15
-

-

8
*8

25
1*
11

3

_

*

19
14
5

-

—

4

5
5

4

-

_

10

7
3

2 4 1 .5 0 - 3 0 7 .0 0
2 6 8 .0 0 - 3 2 6 .5 0
2 3 1 .0 0 - 2 9 5 .5 0

11

3

9

-

11

4

10

8

9

_

15

10
2

4

1
1

*

15
15

7

4

“

3

12

1

_

-

19

1

-

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.




10
25

2

_

W o r k e rs w e re distribu ted as fo llo w s :

21
12

35

2

~

_

-------------

*3
17
26

13

-

A ------

-

13

_

COM PUTER O P E R A TO R S * C LA S S C
M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

i

-

-------------------

COM PUTER O P E R A TO R S * C L A S S B
M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------------N 0 N M A N U F A C T U R IN 6

i
-

3

366
117
249
57

C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R S --M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----N O N N A N U F A C T U R IN G —
P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S
O PERATO RS*

3
-

-

CO M PU TER PRO GRAMMERS ( B U S IN E S S li
C L A S S A -----------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN 6

$
4 0 2 .5 0
4 4 2 .0 0
3 7 0 .0 0

_

C O M PUTER PRO G RAM M ERS ( B U S IN E S S ! —
M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------

*

375

W O RKERS

CO M PUTER S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T S
( B U S I N E S S ! -----------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------N O N N A N U F A C T U R IN G -------

COM PUTER

355

a" d
under

9

i
3
3

_

9
17

_

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

“

-

_

-

1

-

”

-

“

-

-

“

“

“

-

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

-

-

4
1
3

-

Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Richmond, Va., June 1978— Continued
Weekly earnings
(standard)

Occupat ion and in d us try d iv i si o n

Number
of
woiken

Average
weekly
hours 1
(standard)

N u m ber o f w o rk e rs re c e iv in g s tra ig h t-tim e w eek ly earn in gs o f—
s

s
95
M ean2

Median2

Middle range2

s
115

$
135

%

%

155

175

$

%

195

215

s

*

235

255

%

275

s
295

s

S

315

335

s

s

355

375

t
395

t
415

t
435

i
455

%

475

and
under
135

155

175

195

215

235

255

275

295

315

335

355

375

395

415

1

10
6

15
10

33
26

12
10

24

19
18

5
5

6
3

7
5

8
7

3
1

2
2

1
1

-

23

1

5

8
i

4
2

13
12

7
6

5
5

3
3

3
2

4

4

1

6
6

1
1

7
7

6
6

10
10

12
12

-

-

2

4

4

6

17

13

4

1

3

3

4

17

11

2

1

i
i

2
2

435

455

475

495

over

2

“

115

495

and

A L L W ORKERS—
C O N T IN U E D
D R A F T E R S -------------------------N A N U F A C T U R IN 6 ---------------

146
117

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

$
2 2 3 .5 0
2 2 5 .5 0

$
2 1 7 .0 0
2 1 9 .0 0

$
$
1 7 9 .0 0 - 2 5 1 .0 0
1 8 0 .0 0 - 2 5 1 .0 0

D R A F T E R S * C L A S S B ----------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ---------------

55
36

3 9 .5
3 9 .0

2 3 6 .5 0
2 5 5 .5 0

2 3 4 .0 0
2 4 9 .6 0

1 9 8 .5 0 - 2 7 1 .5 0
2 2 9 .5 0 - 2 7 7 .0 3

_

D R A F T E R S * C L A S S C ----------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ---------------

42
42

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

2 0 8 .0 0
2 0 8 .0 0

2 1 7 .0 0
2 1 7 .0 0

1 8 0 .0 0 - 2 3 5 .0 0
1 8 0 .0 0 - 2 3 5 .0 0

-

55
45

3 8 .5
3 8 .5

2 4 9 .0 3

2 4 8 .5 0
2 4 9 .5 0

2 2 5 .0 0 - 2 7 0 .5 0
2 3 6 .0 0 - 2 6 8 .0 0

-

R E G IS T E R E D

IN D U S T R IA L

M A N U F A C T U R IN G

NURSES

---------------

2 5 3 .5 0

_
-

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.




7

1
1

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex,
in Richmond, Va., June 1978
Average
( w u 1)

Sex, * occupation,

O F F IC E

and in d us tr y d iv is i on

O C C U P A T IO N S

-

W eekly
houn
(standard

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

HEN

m esseng ers

------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------

3 7 .5
3 7 .5

$
1 5 5 .5 0
1 5 6 .0 0

O R D E R C L E R K S ---------------------N O N M AN U F A C T U R I N 6 -------------

4 9 .0
4 0 .0

1 9 2 .5 0
1 9 1 .0 0

A C C O U N T IN G C L E R K S :
N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ----------

3 8 . C 2 3 3 .5 0
4 0 .0 2 6 3 .0 0

verage

Avermae
(m ean')

Sex, 3 occupation, and in dustry di vision

O F F I C E O C C U P A T IO N S
WOMEN— C O N T IN U E D

Weekly
hours
(standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

-

n»an M

Sex, 3 occupation, and i ndu st ry divi si on

Weekly
houi.

Weekly
(standard)

O F F I C E O C C U P A T IO N S
W OMEN— C O N T IN U E D

T R A N S C R IB IN G - N A C H IN E T Y P I S T S
N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------

121

T Y P I S T S --------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G --N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

692

81

102
590

3 8 .0
3 8 .5

$
1 5 5 .0 0
1 4 9 .5 0

3 7 .5
3 8 .5
3 7 .5

1 3 8 .5 0
1 5 7 .5 0
1 3 5 .0 0

B O O K K E E P IN G - M A C H IN E

B O O K K E E P IN G - M A C H IN E

O PERATORS

3 8 .5
3 7 .5
3 9 .0

C LA S S

o p er a to r s

1 4 6 .5 0
1 6 8 .0 0
1 3 7 .5 0

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

-----

M A N U F A C T U R IN G --N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

1 3 3 .5 0
1 2 7 .0 0

.

A ----------------------------

O F F IC E

O C C U P A T IO N S

-

3 9 .0

2 2 6 .5 0

8 .0
8 .0
8 .0
9 .5

1 9 7 .0 0
2 0 6 .5 0
1 9 0 .0 0
2 4 0 .0 0

47
32

3 8 .0
3 8 .0

2 3 4 .0 0
2 3 4 .0 0

S E C R E T A R IE S # C L A S S B —
N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------

3*5
182

3 8 .0
3 7 .5

2 1 3 .0 0
2 0 0 .0 0

S E C R E T A R IE S . C LA S S C —
M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S ----

512
258
254
41

3
3
3
3

8 .5
8 .5
8 .5
9 .5

1 9 8 .5 0
2 0 3 .5 0
1 9 3 .5 0
2 2 3 .5 0

S E C R E T A R IE S # C L A S S U —
M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ----

468
136
332
63

3
3
3
3

8 .0
7 .5
8 .0
9 .0

1 8 9 .5 0
1 9 7 .5 0
1 8 6 .0 0
2 5 0 .5 0

S E C R E T A R IE S . C LA S S E —
N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------

151
95

3 8 .0
3 8 .5

1 6 6 .0 0
1 6 0 .5 0

288

3
3
3
3

1 9 4 .5 0
2 1 1 .5 0
1 9 0 .5 0
2 1 2 .0 0

1 .5 3 7
628
909
125

S E C R E T A R IE S # C L A S S A —
N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------

3
3
3
3

C L A S S B ---------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------------

T Y P I S T S . C L A S S B --M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G —
P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S

420
113

3
3
3
3

7 .5
8 .0
7 .5
9 .0

1 3 1 .0 0
1 4 1 .0 0
1 3 0 .0 0
1 5 4 .5 0

M A N U F A C T U R IN G --N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

153
60
93

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .5

1 7 5 .0 0
1 7 3 .5 0
1 7 5 .5 0

388
42
346
25

3 7 .0
3 7 .5
3 7 .0
3 9 .5

1 3 1 .5 0
1 4 3 .5 0
1 3 0 .0 0
1 7 2 .0 0

M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G —
P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S

681
137
544
79

3
3
3
3

8 .5
9 .0
8 .5
9 .5

1 5 9 .0 0
1 6 6 .5 0
1 5 7 .0 0
1 8 8 .5 0

F IL E C L E R K S . C LA S S B
N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ---

156
150

3 7 .5
3 7 .5

1 3 3 .5 0
1 3 2 .5 0

288
86

3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

1 6 6 .5 0
1 7 4 .0 0
1 6 3 .5 0

F IL E C L E R K S . C LA SS
M A N U F A C T U R IN G ---N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -

209
28
181

3 7 .0
3 7 .5
3 6 .5

1 2 6 .0 0
1 2 7 .0 0
1 2 5 .5 0

393
51
342

3
3
3
3

8 .5
9 .0
8 .0
9 .0

1 5 3 .0 0
1 5 4 .0 0
1 5 3 .0 0
1 9 8 .0 0

58
52

3 8 .0
3 8 .0

1 5 8 .5 0

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

118
98

3 8 .5
3 8 .5

1 5 8 .0 0
1 5 2 .0 0

216
75
141

3 8 .0

M A N U F A C T U R IN G --N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

3 8 .5
3 8 .0

1 5 1 .5 0
1 6 5 .5 0
1 4 4 .0 0

219

3 8 .0
3 7 .5
3 8 .5

1 6 3 .0 0
1 8 0 .0 0
1 4 0 .5 0

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .5

3 6 6 .5 0
4 0 6 .0 0
3 3 3 .5 0

3 8 .0
3 7 .5
3 8 .5

1 5 6 .5 0
1 7 8 .5 0
1 3 0 .5 0

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .0

4 1 2 .5 0
4 5 4 .5 0
3 7 2 .5 0

.2 0 3
309
894

3 8 .0
3 8 .5
3 8 .0

1 6 2 .5 0
1 8 1 .0 0
1 5 6 .0 0

3 8 .5
3 8 .0
3 9 .0

3 6 3 .0 0
3 8 4 .0 0
3 3 1 .5 0

477
130
347

3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 8 .0

1 7 6 .0 0
2 0 2 .0 0
1 6 6 .5 0

49
43

3 8 .0
3 8 .0

3 0 6 .5 0
3 0 2 .5 0

A C C O U N T IN G C L E R K S .
M A N U F A C T U R IN G ---

726
179

1 5 3 .0 0
1 6 6 .0 0
1 4 9 .0 0

228
50
178

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .0

2 7 9 .5 0
3 0 6 .0 0

547

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .5

M A N U F A C T U R IN G

---

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

S T E N O G R A P H E R S --------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ---STENO G RAPH ERS#

GENERAL
------U T I L I T I E S ----

n o n m a n u f a c t u r in g

P U B L IC

, s e n io r —
N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------

sten o g r aph er s

51
237
131
190
170

111

8 .5
9 .0
8 .5
9 .5

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

1 8 7 .0 0
1 8 8 .5 0
2 0 5 .0 0
2 0 9 .0 0
1 9 6 .0 0

O RDER C L E R K S . C L A S S B
M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

-----

M A N U F A C T U R IN G --N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G
A C C O U N T IN G C L E R K S .
M A N U F A C T U R IN G ---

See footn otes at end o f tables.




OPERATO RS.

2 3 7 .5 0

WOMEN

S E C R E T A R I E S ----------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ---------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ---

1 5 3 .0 0
1 6 7 .5 0
1 4 7 .5 0

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

A C C O U N T IN G C L E R K S e C L A S S B :
N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------

3 7 .5
3 8 .5
3 7 .0

n o n m a n u f a c t u r in g

3 7 .5

T Y P IS T S . C LA S S A M A N U F A C T U R IN G --N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

F I L E C L E R K S ------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G —
P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S

A C C O U N T IN G C L E R K S e C L A S S A :
N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------

8

KEY E N T R Y O P E R A T O R S .
M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G —

C LA SS

KEY EN T R Y O P E R A TO R S .
M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------

C LA SS

A -----

202
B

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G —
P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S

—

1 6 1 .5 0
P R O F E S S I O N A L AND
O C C U P A T IO N S

T E C H N IC A L
- MEN

( B U S I N E S S ) ---------M A N U F A C T U R IN G --N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

100
119

COM PUTER S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T S
( B U S I N E S S ) . C L A S S A -----M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ---------COMPUTER S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T S
( B U S I N E S S ) . C L A S S B -----M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

----------

COMPUTER S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T S
( B U S I N E S S ) . C L A S S C -----N 0 N M A N U F A C T U R IN 6 ----------

M A N U F A C T U R IN G

---

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

2 7 2 .5 0

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex
in Richmond, Va., June 1978— Continued
Average
(mean2 )

S e x , 1 occupation.

and in d us tr y d iv is i on

of
wodtert

Weekhr
hours
(standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - HEN— CONTINUED
COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS
CONTINUED
COM PUTER

(BUSINESS)

PRO GRAMMERS

CO M PUTER

PROGRAMMERS

Number

Sex, 3 occupation, and in dustry division

of
workers

Weekly
hours
[standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

COMPUTER OPERATORS -

-

$
( R U S IN E S S ) .

$

39
27

38 .5
38.5

328.50
32 9 . 5 0

55
37

39.0
39.0

1 6 2 .5 0
153.00

D R A F T E R S ----------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

103
81

39.5
39.0

2 4 0 .0 0
2 4 4 .0 0

D R A F T E R S . C L A S S B -------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

46
31

39.5
39.0

2 4 2 .0 0
2 5 8 .5 0

D R A F T E R S . C L A S S C -------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

33
33

40.0
40.0

2 2 0 .5 0
2 2 0 .5 0

( B U S IN E S S ) .

C L A S S B ------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------C O M PU TER PRO GRAMMERS ( B U S IN E S S ) .
C L A S S C ------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------COMPUTER O P ER ATO R S
M A N U F A C T U R IN G —

148
31

117

37.5
38 .5
37.5

279.50
311.5 0
271.5 0

41
34

39.0
39.0

234. 00
23 0.5 0

2 31
71

38.5
38.5

196.5 0
2 2 3. 50

( B U S IN E S S )

52
32

39.0
39.0

23 2.0 0
21 3.5 0

COMPUTER O P E R A TO R S . C LA S S r :
M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------

33

38.5

Weekly
hours*
(standard)

-

3 8 .5

C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R S ( B U S I N E S S ) --N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

89
71

3 8 .5
38.5

253.00
245 .50

C O M PU TER PRO G RAM M ERS ( B U S IN E S S ) '
C L A S S B -------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

59
48

38.0
3 8 .0

2 57 .50
2 52 .50

:
------------------------

46

39.5

189 .00

33

39.5

162 .00

-----------------------------------

43

40.0

184.00

55

3 8 .5

2 49 .00
253 .50

OPERATO RS.

R E G IS T E R E D IN D U S T R IA L
n A N U F At, 1 UK IN o

ANALYSTS

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

--------------------

57
39

3 8 .5

C LA SS

NURSES

-------

3 3 4 .5 0

See fo otn otes at end o f ta b les.




«

9

349 .00

C ------

COMPUTER

224.0 0

SYSTEM S

$

o perato rs

M A N U F A C T U R IN G
P R O F E S S IO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
O C C U P A T IO N S - UOMEN

ANALYSTS

C O N T IN U E D

35

com puter

C OM PUTER

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

COMPUTER S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T S
( B U S I N E S S ) . C L A S S B ----------------

DRAFTERS
C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R S . C L A S S A -----N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

of
workers

COMPUTER SYSTEMS

CONTINUED

C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R S . C L A S S C ---------N 0 N M A N U F A C T U R IN 6 --------------------

Sex, 3 occupation, and indus try divi sion

P R O F E S S I O N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
O C C U P A T IO N S - UO M EN — C O N T IN U E D

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED

C L A S S A ------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------

Average
(mean2)

Average
(mean2)
Number

Number

Table A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers in Richmond, Va., June 1978
Hourly earnings *

Occupation and industry d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g st r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly earn ing s of—
s
3 .3 0

Mean *

Median*

Middle range 2

and
un de r
3 .5 0

ALL

*
3.50

S

3 .7 0
-

3 .7 0

$
3.90
-

3.90

$
4.10
-

4.10

$
4.30
-

4 .3 0

-

4.50

38
26

1.13
8.60

1. 2 8
8.56

1.1 2 8.2 8 -

1.07
9 .1 3

M A IN T E N A N C E E L E C T R I C I A N S ------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

335
308

8.43
8.45

8.28
8.28

8.128.1 2 -

9.20
9.20

M A IN T E N A N C E P A I N T E R S ------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N 0 N M A N U F A C T U R IN 6 --------------------

62

31
31

6.04
7.30
4.79

6.40
7.05
4.50

4.566.813.85-

7 .3 0
7 .9 8
5 .2 7

M A IN T E N A N C E M A C H IN IS T S ---------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

347
344

8.13
8.13

9. 0 8
9.08

6.866.86-

9 .0 8
9 .0 8

M A IN T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC S ( M A C H I N E R Y ) M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N H A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

9 36
896
40

8.42
8.49
7.01

9.15
9.15
6.77

8.128.1 2 6.5 1 -

9.15
9 .1 5
8.57

-

4.70

%

4 .9 0

*
5.10

-

4.90

5.30

S
5 .3 0

$
5 .5 0

5.50

5 .7 0

-

5 .1 0

-

5 .70

s
5.90
-

5.90

i
6.10
-

6.10

*
6 .30
-

6.30

S
6 .70
-

s
7 .1 0
-

t

7.50

7 .10

7.50

1
1

~

*
7.90
-

-

6 .70

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

4
4

2
2

4
4

-

2

2

“

2

2

-

_

-

-

~

8
6
2

1
1

_

_

_

~

“

-

“
-

-

-

-

-

“

~

2
2

6.30
5. 7 5
6.62
7.55

5.255 .2 5 5.256.80-

7 .5 9
7 .5 9
8 .0 1
9 .4 8

M A IN T E N A N C E P I P E F I T T E R S -------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

154
154

8.32
8.32

8.28
8.28

8.1 2 8.12-

8 .2 8
8 .2 8

35

5.21

5.22

4 .5 0 -

5 .7 1

-

-

-

1

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

----------

_

_
-

-

S T A T IO N A R Y E N G I N E E R S ------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------- 1----------------

64
61

7.56
7. 6 1

7. 9 8
8. 1 1

7 .2 8 7.28-

8 .2 8
8.28

-

B O IL E R

42

6.59

7.26

5.5 7 -

7 .6 7

1

2

7
5
2
“
-

-

“

4
4

-

7
3
4

1

-

”

-

2
2

3
3
~

1
1

12
6
6
6

42
1
41
“

26
5
21
6

~

~

10

_

7 .9 0

-

S
8.70

S
9.10

-

S
8.30

-

9 • 10 9 . 5 0

8.30

8.70

12
11

4
4

4

10
10

112
111

39
22

36
34

90
90

-

2
2

3
3

19
15

27
27

2
1
1

_

_

2
2

14
12
2

1
1
-

10
9
i

5
5
~

-

-

-

1

1
1

-

-

28
28

9
9

81
81

17
17

i
“

24
24

2
“

100
100

84
84

9
9

62
59
3

6
3
3

6
6
“

142
142

19
3
16

83
83

516
516

14
14
14

24
2
22
20

31
10
21
14

16
5
11
11

4
4

120
120

-

_

-

5
5

-

-

25
25

-

-

-

-

-

-

9
9

31
31

-

_

1

~

“

~

*

3
1
2

18
18
~

25
25
“

5
4
i

~

23
14
9

4

38
6
32
1

13
10
3
2

5
4
i
i

3
2
1
1

ii
i
10
6

4
2

-

-

1

1

_

-

~

"

1

~

-

-

1

9

i

1

-

_

_

“

-

“

-

3

“

-

“

*

14

2

-

w

-

See footn otes at end o f tables.




2
2
■
“
*

-

-

---------------------------

-

“

**

6.65
6.29
6.74
7.70

H ELPERS

-

-

-

-

301
61
240
127

TRADES

1

2

M A IN T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC S
(M O T O R V E H I C L E S ) ----------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N H A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S -----------------

TENDERS

$
4 .7 0

W ORKERS

M A IN T E N A N C E C A R P E N T E R S ---------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

M A IN T E N A N C E

s
4 .5 0

1

~

12

"
-

12
12
*

-

4

-

_

_

-

-

9
9

“

"

15

7
4
_

it

"

8

'
4
-

8
-

4
4

43
4
39
39

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Richmond, Va
N u m ber of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly earn in gs of—

Hourly earnings 4
s

workers

Mean 2

Median2

Middle range 2

s

s

S

S

s

%

s

s

S

%

s

2 .6 0

Number

Occupation and industry div ision

2*80

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .4 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

4 .0 0

4 .2 0

4 .4 0

4 .6 0

4 .8 0

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .4 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

4 .0 0

4 .2 0

4 .4 0

4 .6 0

4 .8 0

5 .0 0

5.40

5 .8 0

6.20

6.60

12
-

10
-

161
-

26
“

161
15

1C9
20
89

83
9
74

166
20

10

70
5
65
30

26
-

12

60
18
42

92
46
46

18

13
5
8
6

98
96
2

24

146
84

“

120
34
86
3

30
10
20
4

34
4
30
1

7

9

-

-

1
1

9
7

9
3

35
32
3

T
S
S
i
t
t
5 . 0 0 5 . AC 5 . 8 0 6 . 2 0 6 . 6 0

t
7.00

i
7.40

t
7 .8 0

i
8.20

t
8.60

9 .0 0

7.00

7.40

7 .8 0

8 .2 0 8 . 6 0

9 .0 3

9 .4 0

5
1
4
1

196
85
111
108

200

3
1
2
“

277

200
162

-

-

-

-

1

4
4
-

5
1
4

3

_

_

-

-

-

3

1
1
-

83

-

83

“

“

62
62
1

16
16
4

1
1
1

2
1
1

12
12
12

24
24
24

-

2
2
-

12
12

14
14

1
1

28
3
25

151
52
99
96

93

2

-

-

4
-

46

-

-

93
55

2

4

46

-

-

64
64

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
7

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

and
under
2 .8 0

ALL

June 1978

W ORKERS

$

$

$

$

5 .6 7
5 .1 3
5 .8 0
6 .9 4

5 .0 8
4 .8 0
5 .3 5
7 .0 0

3 .9 3 4 .4 8 3 .8 0 4 .2 5 -

7 .0 0
6 .0 9
7 .0 7
9 .3 7

3 .7 5
3 .5 0

3 .2 5 -

4 .5 4

-

2

6

21

3 .7 7

3 .2 5 -

4 .0 0

-

2

6

21

8
8

270
91
179

5 .1 4
4 .6 0
5 .4 2

4 .5 6
4 .5 2
6 .1 7

3 .8 5 4 .1 0 3 .7 0 -

7 .0 0
5 .0 8
7 .0 0

-

-

10
5
5

5

25

-

-

5

T R U C K O R IV E R S . H E A V Y T R U C K --------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

533
469
77

4 .7 0
4 .6 9
7 .5 4

4 .1 0
4 .0 0
7 .1 5

3 .5 0 3 .5 0 6 .6 0 -

5 .3 5
5 .3 5
9 .3 8

12
12

6
6

24
24

T R U C K O R IV E R S . T R A C T O R - T R A I L E R --M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

831
144
687
506

6 .4 7
5 .3 4
6 .7 1
6 .8 5

6 .6 0
4 .8 0
7 .0 0
7 .0 0

4 .2 5 4 .4 5 4 .2 5 4 .0 0 -

8
6
9
9

.2 3
.7 4
.0 2
.0 2

-

S H IP P E R S ----------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

130
98

5 .5 5
5 .8 9

6 .1 9
6 .8 7

3 .6 6 3 .6 6 -

6 .9 1
6 .9 2

-

R E C E I V E R S ---------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

92
38
54

5 .0 6
5 .5 9
4 .6 8

5 .3 5
5 .5 4
5 .3 5

4 .1 9 4 .6 7 3 .7 1 -

5 .7 5
6 .8 6
5 .3 8

S H IP P E R S A N D R E C E I V E R S ---------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

85
46

5 .4 8
4 .9 1

5 .4 2
4 .9 2

4 .3 8 4 .2 1 -

W A R E H O U S E M E N -----------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N H A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

428

4 .5 9

52
376

5 .1 1
4 .5 1

4 .6 3
5 .1 1
4 .3 0

3 .5 0 4 .9 9 3 .4 0 -

T R U C K O R IV E R S -----------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

1 .8 3 1
354

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

1 .4 7 7
751

T R U C K D R IV E R S . L I G H T T R U C K --------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

82
59

4 .0 1

T R U C K O R IV E R S . M E D IU M T R U C K -------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

-

*

-

54
54

13
13

29
-*

96
10

29
18

112
112

40
40

-

13

4

1

1

13
13

6
6
6

63

37
15
22

6
5
1

33
33

86
84

42
16
26
18

-

2

“

13
12

35
10
25
24

5
5

27
23

-

4

6

“

-

-

-

“

1

"

1
1

_
-

11
2

4
3

14
5
9

5
4
1
3

9

6

3

-

2

8
6

1

-

4
4

2
2

9

6

1

2

1

-

-

23
3
20

6 .5 1
5 .3 5

-

-

-

-

-

-

12
6

4
4

9
9

3
3

-

3
3

11
9

5
5

5 .5 0
5 .4 9
5 .5 0

45

13

19

25

14

42

-

3
39

18
5
13

23
21
2

50
16
34

-

2

-

-

-

2

13

1

2

-

-----------------------------------------------

110
100

5 .6 1
5 .8 6

6 .1 2
6 .1 3

4 .1 0 4 .1 5 -

7 .2 8
7 .2 8

5

M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G L A B O R E R S ---------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

923
690
233
60

4 .6 1
4 .4 7
5 .0 2
5 .9 0

4 .2 9
4 .0 7
5 .0 6
5 .4 3

3 .8 0 3 .8 0 4 .2 8 5 .2 2 -

5 .0 6
4 .7 7
5 .3 3
7 .1 0

1

F O R K L I F T O P E R A T O R S --------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

777
651
126

5 .1 7
5 .1 4
5 .3 4

4 .5 4
4 .5 2
5 .3 5

4 .5 2 4 .5 2 5 .3 5 -

6 .2 0
6 .2 0
6 .1 9

G U A R D S . C L A S S B ----------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------------------------------

573
125
448

3 .4 3
5 .5 8
2 .8 3

2 .7 1
6 .1 0
2 .7 0

2 .7 0 4 .5 2 2 .7 0 -

3 .4 5
6 .1 3
2 .7 5

J A N IT O R S . P O R T E R S . AND C L E A N E R S - M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

1 .9 5 6
633
1 .3 2 3
62

3 .6 9

3 .0 0
5 .2 8
2 .7 5
4 .8 3

2 .6 5 3 .8 9 -

4 .2 8
6 .0 9

2 .6 5 4 .2 1 -

3 .0 0
5 .9 9

12

45

18

-

18

5

32

27

2

i

12

5

32

27

11

18

13

12

88

38

16

32
56

38

8
8

10
10

12

-

_

-

-

_

-

*

-

24

-

-

3

3

-

-

-

-

-

3

“

-

28
28
28

-

-

-

24

_

-

199
-

199
199
-

“
-

“

“

14

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

14

*

117

21

75

4

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

115

18

75

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

31
28

7
7

_

-

4
4

3
3

-

8
8

_

10
10

34
34

5
5

-

_

-

172
156
16

96
86
10

110
103

1
1

62
55
7
4

22
21

106
2
104
17

11
1
10
10

35
12
23

20

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

15
13
2
2

18
10

49
40
9

274
274

-

7
7

64
14
50

34
21
13

80
44

122
119

10
10

17
17

36

3

-

-

-

14
10
4

4

12
9
3

-

1
1

65
65

-

_

”

—

1
1

17
17

106

11
5

35
15
20

16

13
2
11

183
174

-

45
32

1

-

8

i

13

-

“

-

3

2

9

-

8

31
31

8

-

9
9

5
5

4

11

4

3

2

i

363

26

4

-

359

26

35
10
25

4

11

4

4

870
3
867

84
15
69
2

142
43
99

63
18
45

77
25
52
3

71
39

39
34
5
2

11

-

13

_

29
25
4

7
6

i

-

22
7

2
2

10
3
7

41
33

1

-

7

42
35
7

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.

-

-

277
27 7

7

16
16

32
1

“

-

-

-

-

41
2
39

1
1

60

60

i
i

-

-

“

1
“

-

6
“

2

2

7
1

14

-

-

-

6

-

“

“

2
23

_

-

2

5 .3 4
4 .9 1
5 .4 4




31
31

“

1

-

i
i

3 .5 3 3 .4 6 3 .6 4 -

5 .0 2
3 .0 5
4 .9 3

-

6

25

1

-

1

5 .2 3

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

2

14

3
2
1

-

4 .9 1
4 .0 9

S H IP P IN G P A C K E R S
M A N U F A C T U R IN G

“

35
26
9

16
10

14

-

-

4 .7 1
4 .3 8
4 .7 9

451
91

-

7
2

1

1

-

360

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

-

2
2

-

27
10
17

“

--------------------

O R D E R F I L L E R S ---------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

2

7

18

-

“

6
2

8
10
5
5
30
13
17
1

-

7
4

78
28
14

i

3

6
“

1
-

_
-

“

121
118
3

20
20

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

35
35

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

”

~

~

_

-

16
16

90
55
35

1

-

9

8

95
84
11
11

31
30

1
1

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-




Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom
powerplant, material movement, and custodial workers,
by sex, in Richmond, Va., June 1978
Sex, 3 occupation, and in du stry d ivis io n

Number
of
workers

Average
(mean2
hourly
earnings'

Sex,

M A IN T E N A N C E . T O O L R O O M . AND
P O U E R P L A N T O C C U P A T IO N S - MEN

occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
(mean2 )
hourly
earnings 4

M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T AND c u s t o d i a l
O C C U P A T IO N S - HEN— C O N T IN U E D

M A IN T E N A N C E C A R P E N T E R S ---------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

38
26

1.13
8.60

S H IP P E R S ---------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------

106
74

1.9 4
6.57

M A IN T E N A N C E E L E C T R I C I A N S ------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

335
308

8.43
8.45

R E C E IV E R S --------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------------------------

79
30
49

4.95
5.21
4.80

S H IP P E R S ANO R E C E IV E R S ---------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------

83
44

5.48
4.88

W A R E H O U S E M E N ----------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

379
44
335

4.78
5 .1 1
4.73

O R D ER F I L L E R S ---------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------

318
270

5.13
5.19

95
95

5.90
5.90

M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G L A B O R E R S ---------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

812
580
232
60

4.71
4.59
5.02
5.90

F O R K L I F T O P E R A T O R S --------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

774
648
126

5.18
5.15
5.34

G U A R D S . C L A S S B ---------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

561
124
437

3.43
5.57
2.83

J A N I T O R S . P O R T E R S . A N D C L E A N E R S --M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S -----------------

1.4 25
483
942
50

3.79
5.12
3 .1 1
5.06

M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G L A B O R E R S ---------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------

111
110

3.82
3.81

J A N I T O R S . P O R T E R S . AND C L E A N E R S --N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

503
381

3.26
2.92

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G
M A IN T E N A N C E P A I N T E R S -----------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

60
29
31

6.02
7.33
4.79

M A IN T E N A N C E M A C H I N I S T S ---------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

347
344

8.13
8.13

M A IN T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC S ( M A C H I N E R Y ) M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

925
889
36

8.42
8.49
6.86

M A IN T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC S
(M O T O R V E H I C L E S ) ----------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S -----------------

291
51
240
127

6.62
6.03
6.74
7.70

M A IN T E N A N C E P I P E F I T T E R S -------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

154
154

8.32
8 . 32

S T A T IO N A R Y E N G IN E E R S ------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G ------------------------

64
61

7.56
7 .6 1

B O IL E R

42

6.59

T R U C K D R IV E R S -----------------------------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S -----------------

1 . 7 90
322
1 .468
751

5.65
4.96
5.81
6.94

T R U C K D R IV E R S . L I G H T T R U C K --------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------

77
54

4.00
3.73

--------------------

270
91
179

5.14
4.60
5.42

T R U C K O R IV E R S . H E A V Y T R U C K --------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

533
469
77

4.70
4.69
7 .5 4

T R U C K D R IV E R S , T R A C T O R - T R A I L E R --N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G -------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S -----------------

795
683
506

6.45
6.71
6.85

TEND ERS

---------------------------

S H IP P IN G P A C K E R S
M A N U F A C T U R IN G

M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T AND C U S T O D IA L
O C C U P A T IO N S - MEN

T R U C K D R IV E R S . M E D IU M T R U C K -------M A N U F A C T U R IN G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

---------------------------------------------

M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
O C C U P A T IO N S

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.

12

AND C U S T O D IA L
- WOMEN

Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted for employment shifts,
for selected occupational groups in Richmond, Va., for selected periods
In du stry and occupational group 5

M a rch 1972
to
M a rc h 1973

M a rch 1973
to
M a rch 1974

M a rch 1974 to June 1975
15 -month
in crea se

Annual rate
o f in crea se

June 1975
to
June 1976

June 1976
to
June 1977

June 1977
to
June 1978

A ll in du stries:
O ffic e c l e r i c a l _______ __________________ ____ ___
E le c tr o n ic data p roce ssin g______________ __________
In d u stria l n u rses_____________________________________
S killed m aintenance trades. __ ____________________
U n skilled plant w o rk e rs ____________________________

5.8
( 6)
5.0
7.8
6.2

7.8
( 6)
8.7
9.5
8.6

11.4
9.2
12.7
15.0
15.8

9.0
7.3
10.0
11.8
12.5

6.5
4.7
6.9
8.8
7.9

5.6
7.0
8.0
9.8
8.7

6.9
8.0
7.3
9.8
8.8

M anufacturing:
O ffic e c l e r i c a l . _____________________________________
E le c tr o n ic data p ro ce ssin g__________________________
In d u stria l n u rses_____________________________________
S k illed m aintenance tra des__________________________
U nsk illed plant w o rk e rs _____________________________

4.5
( 6)
5.3
8.3
6.4

8.9
( 6)
9.4
9.3
8.2

12.7
9.5
13.3
16.6
15.8

10.0
7.5
10.5
13.1
12.5

5.4
4.8
6.4
8.1
9.3

7.2
5.3
8.1
10.3
11.9

7.3
7.8
7.8
10.9
8.5

Nonm anufacturing:
O ffic e c l e r i c a l ____________________________ ___ _____
E le c tr o n ic data p ro ce ssin g__________________________
In d u stria l n u rses_____________________________________
U nsk illed plant w o rk e rs ____ ____________ __________

6.1
(‘)
( 6)
6.6

7.5

10.9
9.4
( 6)
15.8

8.6
7.5
( 6)
12.5

6.9
4.7
( 6)
6.7

4.9
7.6
( 6)
6.0

6.6
7.9
( 6)
9.1

(?)
( 6)
8.5

Footnotes
1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w ork w eek fo r which em ployees re c e iv e th e ir re g u la r stra ig h t-tim e
s a la rie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay fo r o v e rtim e at re g u la r and/or prem iu m ra te s ), and the earn in gs co rresp o n d
to these w e e k ly hours.
2 Th e m ean is com puted fo r each jo b by totaling the earnings of a ll w o rk e rs and d ivid in g by
the num ber o f w o r k e r s .
Th e m edian design ates position— h alf o f the w ork ers r e c e iv e the sam e or
m o re and h alf r e c e iv e the sam e o r le s s than, the rate shown.
The m iddle range is defined by two
ra tes o f pay; a fou rth o f the w o r k e r s ea rn the sam e or le s s than the lo w e r of these rates and a
fourth ea rn the sam e o r m o re than the h igh er rate.




3 E arn in gs
establishm ent.
4 Ex c lu d e s

data

re la te

p r e m i u m pay

only to w o rk ers
fo r o v er ti m e and

whose

sex

fo r w o rk

iden tifica tion
on weeke nds,

was

provided

holidays,

and

by

the

late shifts.

5 E stim ates fo r period s ending p r io r to 197 6 re la te to men only fo r s k ille d maintenance and
unskilled plant w o r k e r s .
A ll oth er estim ates re la te to men and women.
6 Data do not m eet pu blication c r ite r ia o r data not availa b le.

13

Appendix A.
Scope and Method
of Survey
In each o f the 75 * a r e a s c u r r e n t ly s u r v e y e d , the B u re a u obtains
1
w a g e s and r e la te d b e n e fits data fr o m r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in
s ix b ro a d in d u s try d iv is io n s : M a n u fa ctu rin g ; tr a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n ,
and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il tr a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u ra n ce ,
and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s .
G o v e r n m e n t o p e r a tio n s and the c o n s tru c tio n
and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s trie s a re e x c lu d e d . E s ta b lis h m e n ts h a vin g f e w e r than a
p r e s c r ib e d nu m ber o f w o r k e r s a re a ls o ex c lu d e d b e ca u s e o f in s u ffic ie n t
e m p lo y m e n t in the occu p a tio n s stu d ied . A p p e n d ix ta b le 1 show s the nu m ber
o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s e s tim a te d to be w ith in the sc o p e o f th is s u r v e y ,
as w e ll as the nu m b er a c tu a lly stu d ied .
B u re a u f ie ld r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s ob ta in d ata by p e r s o n a l v is it s at 3 - y e a r
in t e r v a ls . In each o f th e two in te r v e n in g y e a r s , in fo rm a tio n on e m p lo y m e n t
and o c c u p a tio n a l e a rn in g s o n ly is c o lle c t e d b y a c o m b in a tio n o f p e r s o n a l v is it ,
m a il q u e s tio n n a ire , and te le p h o n e in t e r v ie w fr o m e s ta b lis h m e n ts p a r tic ip a tin g
in the p re v io u s s u r v e y .
A s a m p le o f the e s ta b lis h m e n ts in the sc o p e o f the s u r v e y is s e le c te d
fo r study p r io r to each p e r s o n a l v is it s u r v e y .
T h is s a m p le , le s s e s ta b ­
lis h m e n ts w h ich go out o f b u s in e s s o r a re no lo n g e r w ith in the in d u s tr ia l
scop e o f the s u r v e y , is r e ta in e d f o r the fo llo w in g tw o annual s u r v e y s .
In
m o s t c a s e s , e s ta b lis h m e n ts new to the a r e a a r e not c o n s id e r e d in the scop e
o f the s u r v e y u n til the s e le c tio n o f a s a m p le f o r a p e r s o n a l v is it s u r v e y .
T h e s a m p lin g p r o c e d u r e s in v o lv e d e ta ile d s tr a t ific a t io n o f all e s ta b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f an in d iv id u a l a r e a s u r v e y b y in d u s try and
num ber o f e m p lo y e e s .
F r o m th is s t r a t ifie d u n iv e r s e a p r o b a b ility sample,,
is s e le c te d , w ith each e s ta b lis h m e n t h a vin g a p r e d e te r m in e d chan ce o f s e ­
le c tio n . T o o b ta in op tim u m a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t, a g r e a t e r p r o p o r tio n
o f la r g e than s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is s e le c te d .
W h en d ata a re c om b in ed ,
each e s ta b lis h m e n t is w e ig h te d a c c o r d in g to its p r o b a b ility o f s e le c tio n so
that un biased e s tim a te s a r e g e n e ra te d .
F o r e x a m p le , i f one out o f fo u r
e s ta b lis h m e n ts is s e le c te d , it is g iv e n a w e ig h t o f 4 to r e p r e s e n t it s e lf plus
th re e o th e r s . A n a lte r n a te o f the s a m e o r ig in a l p r o b a b ility is c h o sen in the
sam e in d u s t r y - s iz e c la s s ific a t io n i f data a r e not a v a ila b le f r o m the o r ig in a l
s a m p le m e m b e r . I f no s u ita b le s u b stitu te is a v a ila b le , a d d ition a l w e ig h t is
a s s ign e d to a s a m p le m e m b e r that is s im ila r to the m is s in g unit.
O ccu p ation s and e a rn in g s
O ccu p ation s s e le c te d f o r study a re co m m o n to a v a r ie t y o f m a n u fa c ­
tu rin g and n on m an u factu rin g in d u s tr ie s , and a re o f the fo llo w in g ty p e s :
(1 )
O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (2 ) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (3 ) m a in te n a n c e , to o lr o o m ,
1 Included in the 75 areas are 5 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are
Akron, Ohio; Birmingham, Ala.; Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va.— .C .;
N
Poughkeepsie—
Kingston—
Newburgh, N.Y.; and Utica—Rome, N.Y. In addition, the Bureau conducts more
limited area studies in approximately 100 areas at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of
the U. S. Department of Labor.




and p o w e rp la n t; and (4) m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t and c u s to d ia l.
O c c u p a tio n a l
c la s s ific a t io n is b ased on a u n ifo rm s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d e s ig n e d to take
account o f in te re s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia tio n in d u ties w ith in the s a m e jo b .
O ccu p ation s s e le c te d f o r study a re lis t e d and d e s c r ib e d in ap p en d ix B .
U n le s s o th e r w is e in d ica ted , the e a r n in g s d ata fo llo w in g the jo b
title s a r e f o r a ll in d u s trie s co m b in e d .
E a r n in g s d ata f o r s o m e o f the
o ccu p atio n s lis te d and d e s c r ib e d , o r f o r s o m e in d u s try d iv is io n s w ith in the
s c o p e o f the s u rv e y , a re not p r e s e n te d in the A - s e r i e s
ta b le s b e ca u s e
e ith e r (1 ) e m p lo ym e n t in the occu p atio n is too s m a ll to p r o v id e enough d ata
to m e r i t p re s e n ta tio n , o r (2 ) th e r e is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e o f in d iv id u a l
e s ta b lis h m e n t data.
S e p arate m e n 's and w o m e n 's e a rn in g s d ata a r e not
p re s e n te d w hen the num ber o f w o r k e r s not id e n tifie d b y s e x is 20 p e r c e n t
o r m o r e o f the m en o r w o m en id e n tifie d in an o c c u p a tio n .
E a rn in g s data
not shown s e p a r a te ly f o r in d u stry d iv is io n s a r e in clu d ed in d ata fo r a ll
in d u s trie s com b in ed .
L ik e w is e , fo r o c c u p a tio n s w ith m o r e than on e l e v e l,
data a r e included in the o v e r a ll c la s s ific a t io n w h en a s u b c la s s ific a tio n is
not shown o r in fo rm a tio n to s u b c la s s ify is not a v a ila b le .
O ccu p a tion a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a rn in g s d ata a r e shown f o r f u ll- t im e
w o r k e r s , i. e ., th ose h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d u le .
E a rn in g s
data e x c lu d e p re m iu m p ay f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s ,
and la te s h ifts .
N on p rod u ctio n b on u ses a r e ex c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g
a llo w a n c e s and in c e n tiv e bon uses a r e in clu d ed .
W e e k ly h ou rs fo r o f f ic e
c le r ic a l and p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s r e f e r to the stan dard
w o rk w e e k (rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf h o u r) f o r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e
r e g u la r s tr a ig h t- tim e s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e o f p a y f o r o v e r t im e at r e g u la r
and/or p re m iu m r a t e s ). A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s f o r th e s e o c c u p a tio n s a re
roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r . V e r t i c a l lin e s w ith in the d is trib u tio n o f
w o r k e r s on som e A - t a b le s in d ic a te a ch an ge in the s iz e o f the c la s s in t e r v a ls .
T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e the l e v e l o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a rn in g s in an a r e a
at a p a r tic u la r tim e . C o m p a ris o n s o f in d iv id u a l o c c u p a tio n a l a v e r a g e s o v e r
tim e m a y not r e f le c t e x p e c te d w a g e c h a n g e s . T h e a v e r a g e s f o r in d iv id u a l jo b s
a re a ffe c te d by chan ges in w a g e s and e m p lo y m e n t p a tte r n s .
F o r e x a m p le ,
p ro p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d by h igh - o r lo w - w a g e f ir m s m a y chan ge, o r
h ig h -w a g e w o r k e r s m a y advance to b e tte r jo b s and be r e p la c e d by new
w o r k e r s at lo w e r r a te s . Such sh ifts in e m p lo y m e n t cou ld d e c r e a s e an o c c u ­
p a tio n a l a v e ra g e e ven though m o s t e s ta b lis h m e n ts in an a r e a in c r e a s e w a g e s
d u rin g the y e a r . C han ges in e a rn in g s o f o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s, shown in tab le
A - 7, a r e b e tte r in d ic a to rs o f w a g e tr e n d s than a re e a rn in g s ch an ges fo r
in d iv id u a l job s w ith in the g ro u p s.
A v e r a g e e a rn in g s r e f le c t c o m p o s ite , a r e a w id e e s tim a te s . In d u s trie s
and e s ta b lis h m en ts d if fe r in pay l e v e l and jo b s ta ffin g , and thus c o n trib u te
d if fe r e n t ly to the e s tim a te s fo r each jo b . P a y a v e r a g e s m a y f a i l to r e f l e c t
a c c u r a te ly the w a g e d iffe r e n t ia l am on g jo b s in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts .

A v e r a g e p a y l e v e ls f o r m en and w o m en in s e le c te d occ u p a tio n s should
n o t be a s s u m ed to r e f l e c t d iffe r e n c e s in p a y o f the s e x e s w ith in in d iv id u a l
e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
F a c t o r s w h ich m a y con trib u te to d iffe r e n c e s in clu d e p r o ­
g r e s s io n w ith in e s ta b lis h e d ra te ra n g e s (o n ly the ra te s p aid in cu m b en ts a r e
c o lle c t e d ) and p e r fo r m a n c e o f s p e c ific duties w ith in the g e n e r a l s u r v e y jo b
d e s c r ip t io n s . Job d e s c r ip tio n s u sed to c la s s ify e m p lo y e e s in th es e s u r v e y s
u s u a lly a r e m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts
and a llo w f o r m in o r d if fe r e n c e s am ong e s ta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c ific d u ties
pe r fo r m e d .

E le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g

S k ille d m ain ten an ce

C o m p u te r s y s te m s
a n a ly s ts , c la s s e s
A , B, and C
C o m p u te r p r o g r a m m e r s ,
c la s s e s A , B, and C
C o m p u te r o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s e s A , B, and C

C a rp e n te r s
E le c t r ic ia n s
P a in te r s
M a c h in is ts
M e c h a n ic s (m a c h in e r y )
M e c h a n ic s (m o to r v e h ic le )
P ip e f it t e r s
T o o l and d ie m a k e rs

O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in a ll e s ta b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f the study and not the n u m b er a c tu a lly s u r v e y e d .
B e c a u s e o c c u p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e s am ong e s ta b lis h m en ts d if fe r , e s tim a te s o f
o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in ed f r o m the sam p le o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts studied
s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a te the r e la t iv e im p o rta n c e o f the jo b s stu d ied .
These
d if fe r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s tru c tu re do not a ffe c t m a t e r ia lly the a c c u r a c y o f
th e e a r n in g s d ata.

In d u s tr ia l n u rs e s

U n s k ille d plan t

R e g is t e r e d in d u s tr ia l
n u rs e s

J a n ito rs , p o r t e r s , and
c le a n e r s
M a t e r ia l han d lin g la b o r e r s

W a g e tr e n d s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l grou p s
T h e p e r c e n t in c r e a s e s p re s e n te d in ta b le A - 7 a r e b a sed on chan ges
in a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f m en and w o m en in e s ta b lis h m e n ts r e p o r tin g the
tr e n d jo b s in both the c u r r e n t and p r e v io u s y e a r (m a tc h e d e s ta b lis h m e n ts ).
T h e data a r e a d ju sted to r e m o v e the e ffe c ts on a v e r a g e e a rn in g s o f e m p lo y ­
m en t s h ifts am on g e s ta b lis h m e n ts and tu r n o v e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts in clu d ed
in s u r v e y s a m p le s .
T h e p e r c e n t in c r e a s e s , h o w e v e r , a r e s t ill a ffe c t e d b y
fa c t o r s o th e r than w a g e in c r e a s e s . H ir in g s , la y o ffs , and tu r n o v e r m a y a ffe c t
an e s ta b lis h m e n t a v e r a g e f o r an occu p atio n when w o r k e r s a r e p aid u n der plan s
p r o v id in g a ra n g e o f w a g e r a te s f o r in d iv id u a l jo b s . In p e r io d s o f in c r e a s e d
h ir in g , f o r e x a m p le , n e w e m p lo y e e s m a y e n te r at the b o tto m o f the ra n g e,
d e p r e s s in g the a v e r a g e w ith ou t a change in w a g e r a te s .
T h e p e r c e n t c h a n ges r e la te to w a g e chan ges b e tw e e n the in d ic a te d
d a te s . W hen the tim e span b e tw e e n s u rv e y s is o th er than 12 m on th s, annual
r a te s a r e shown.
(I t is as s u m ed that w a g e s in c r e a s e at a con stan t ra te
b e tw e e n s u r v e y s .)

P e r c e n t ch an ges f o r i
as fo llo w s :

a r e a s in the p r o g r a m a r e com puted

1. A v e r a g e e a r n in g s a r e com p u ted f o r ea c h occu p ation fo r
the 2 y e a r s b e in g c o m p a re d . T h e a v e r a g e s a r e d e r iv e d
f r o m e a r n in g s in th o s e e s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ich a r e in
the s u r v e y both y e a r s ; it is as s u m ed that e m p lo ym e n t
re m a in s un changed.
2.

E a c h occu p a tio n is a s s ig n e d a w e ig h t b ased on its p r o ­
p o r tio n a te e m p lo y m e n t in the o c c u p a tio n a l grou p in the
base y ea r.

3.

T h e s e w e ig h ts a r e u sed to com p u te g ro u p a v e r a g e s .
E a c h o c c u p a tio n 's a v e r a g e e a r n in g s (com p u ted in step 1)
is m u ltip lie d b y its w e ig h t. T h e p ro d u c ts a r e to ta le d to
ob tain a g ro u p a v e r a g e .

4.

T h e r a tio o f g ro u p a v e r a g e s f o r 2 c o n s e c u tiv e y e a rs is
com p u ted b y d iv id in g the a v e r a g e f o r the c u r re n t y e a r by
the a v e r a g e f o r the e a r l i e r y e a r . T h e r e s u lt— e x p r e s s e d
as a p e r c e n t— le s s 100 is the p e r c e n t chan ge.

O c c u p a tio n s u sed to com p u te w a g e tre n d s a r e :

O f f ic e c l e r i c a l

O ffic e c l e r i c a l — C ontinued

S e c r e t a r ie s
S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l
S te n o g r a p h e r s , s e n io r
T y p is t s , c la s s e s
A and B
F i l e c le r k s , c la s s e s A ,
B, and C
M essen g ers
S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a to r s

O r d e r c le r k s , c la s s e s
A and B
A ccou n tin g c le r k s ,
c la s s e s A and B
B ook k eepin g -m a c h in e
o p e r a to r s , c la s s B
P a y r o ll c le r k s
K e y e n try o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s e s A and B




F o r a m o r e d e ta ile d d e s c r ip tio n o f the m eth od u sed to com pute th ese
w a g e tr e n d s , s ee " Im p r o v in g A r e a W a g e S u r v e y I n d e x e s ," M on th ly L a b o r
R e v ie w , J an u ary 1973, pp. 52-57.
E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w a g e p r o v is io n s
T a b u la tio n s on s e le c te d e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p lem en ta ry
w a g e p r o v is io n s ( B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) a r e n o t p r e s e n te d in this b u lle tin . I n f o r ­
m a tio n f o r th es e tab u la tion s is c o lle c t e d at 3 -y e a r , in t e r v a ls .
T h e s e tab u ­
la tio n s on m in im u m e n tra n c e s a la r ie s f o r in e x p e r ie n c e d o ffic e w o r k e r s ; sh ift
d iffe r e n t ia ls ; sch ed u led w e e k ly h o u rs and d ays; p aid h o lid a y s ; p aid v a c a tio n s ;
and h e a lth , in s u ra n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s a r e p re s e n te d (in the B - s e r ie s ta b le s )
in p r e v io u s b u lle tin s f o r th is a r e a .

Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied
in Richmond, V a .,! June 1978
In du stry d iv is io n 2

ALL

D IV IS IO N S

--------------------------------------

M A N U F A C T U R IN G ----- r -----------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G --------------------------------------------------T R A N S P O R T A T IO N . C O M M U N IC A T IO N . ANO
O T H E R P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S 5 --------------------------------W H O L E S A L E T R A O E 6 ----------------------------------------------R E T A I L T R A D E 6 ----------------------------------------------------F I N A N C E . IN S U R A N C E . AN D R E A L E S T A T E 6 ----------S E R V I C E S 6 7------------------------------------------------------------

M inim um
em ploym en t
in e sta b lish m ents in scope
o f study

_

Num ber of establish m ents

W ithin scope
o f study 3

Studied

Studied
Num ber

Percen t

154

1 2 3 .2 7 8

100

43
111

5 0 .3 3 1
7 2 .9 4 7

41

3 2 .5 0 9

”

141
415

59

4 1 .0 0 2

50
50
50
50
50

43
80
140
73
79

18
15
28
20
30

1 3 .0 0 3
8 .6 8 3
2 9 .6 4 1
14 v 9 8 6
6 .6 3 4

11
7
24
12
5

1 1 .5 2 2
2 .9 9 9
1 4 .2 7 5

50

556

.

1 Th e Richm ond Standard M etrop o lita n S ta tistica l A re a , as defined by the
O ffic e o f M anagem ent and Budget through F e b ru a ry 1974, consists o f the city of
Richm ond; and the counties o f C h a rles C ity , C h e s te rfie ld , Goochland, H a n over,
H en rico , and Powhatan.
Th e "w o r k e rs w ithin scope o f study" estim ates shown in
this table p ro vid e a reason a b ly accu rate d es crip tio n o f the s iz e and com position o f
the la b o r fo r c e inclu ded in the su rvey.
E stim ates a re not intended, h o w eve r, fo r
co m p a rison w ith o th er em ploym en t indexes to m easu re em ploym en t tren ds o r le v e ls
since (1) planning o f w age su rveys re q u ire s establish m ent data com piled co n sid era b ly
in advance o f the p a y r o ll p e rio d studied, and (2) s m a ll establish m ents a re excluded
fr o m the scope o f the su rvey.
2 Th e 1972 ed ition o f the Standard In du strial C la s s ific a tio n Manual was used in
c la s s ify in g establish m ents by in du stry d ivis io n . H o w e ver, a ll governm en t operations
a re exclu ded fr o m the scope o f the su rvey.
3 Includes a ll establish m ents w ith to ta l em ploym en t at o r above the m inim um
lim ita tio n . A ll outlets (w ithin the a re a ) o f com panies in in du stries such as tra d e ,




W ork ers in establish m en ts
W ithin scope o f study 4

73*511

3 .0 9 8

fin ance, auto re p a ir s e r v ic e , and m otion pictu re th e a ters a re co n s id ere d as one
establish m ent.
4 Includes a ll w o rk ers in a ll establishm ents w ith to ta l em ploym en t (w ithin the
a re a ) at o r above the m inim um lim ita tion .
5 A b b revia ted to "pu blic u tilitie s " in the A - s e r ie s ta b les.
T a x ica b s and
s e r v ic e s in cid en tal to w a ter tran sportation are exclu ded. R ich m on d's gas u tility is
m u n icip a lly o p era ted and is excluded by definition fr o m the scope o f the study.
6 Separate presen tation o f data is not m ade fo r this d ivis io n .
7 H otels and m o tels; laundries and oth er p erso n a l s e r v ic e s ; business s e r v ic e s ;
au tom obile re p a ir, rental, and parking; m otion p ic tu re s ; n on profit m e m b ersh ip
o rga n izatio n s (excluding re lig io u s and ch aritable o rg a n iz a tio n s ) and e n gin eerin g and
a rc h itectu ra l s e r v ic e s .

16

Appendix B.
Occupational
Descriptions
T h e p r im a r y p u rp o s e o f p re p a r in g jo b d e s c r ip tio n s f o r the Bu­
r e a u 's w a g e s u r v e y s is to a s s is t its fie ld s ta ff in c la s s ify in g into ap p ror ia t e o c c u p a tio n s w o r k e r s w h o a re e m p lo ye d under a v a r ie t y o f p a y r o ll
t it le s and d if fe r e n t w o r k a r ra n g e m e n ts fr o m e s ta b lis h m e n t to e s ta b lis h ­
m e n t and f r o m a r e a to a r e a . T h is p e r m its the gro u p in g o f oc c u p a tio n a l
w a g e r a te s r e p r e s e n tin g c o m p a ra b le jo b con tent. B e c a u s e o f th is e m ­
p h a s is on in t e r e s ta b lis h m e n t and in t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b ility o f oc c u p a tio n a l
co n te n t, the B u r e a u 's jo b d e s c r ip tio n s m a y d if fe r s ig n ific a n tly fr o m th ose
in u se in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts o r th ose p re p a r e d f o r o th e r p u r­
p o s e s . In a p p lyin g th e s e jo b d e s c r ip tio n s , the B u re a u 's fie ld e c o n o m is ts
a r e in s tr u c te d to e x c lu d e w o rk in g s u p e r v is o r s ; a p p re n tic e s ; and p a r tt im e , te m p o r a r y , and p r o b a tio n a r y w o r k e r s . H an dicapped w o r k e r s w h o s e
e a r n in g s a re re d u c e d b e c a u s e o f th e ir handicap a r e a ls o e x c lu d e d .
L e a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s , and t r a in e e s , u n less s p e c ific a lly inclu d ed in the
jo b d e s c r ip t io n s , a r e e x c lu d e d .

Office
SECRETARY

S E C R E T A R Y — C ontinued

A s s ig n e d as a p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o r m a lly to one in d iv id u a l. M a in ­
ta in s a c lo s e and h ig h ly r e s p o n s iv e re la tio n s h ip to the d a y - t o - d a y a c tiv itie s o f
the s u p e r v is o r . W o r k s f a i r l y in d e p en d en tly r e c e iv in g a m in im u m o f d e ta ile d
s u p e r v is io n and g u id a n c e . P e r f o r m s v a r ie d c le r ic a l and s e c r e t a r ia l d u ties
r e q u ir in g a k n o w le d g e o f o f f i c e rou tin e and un derstan d in g o f the o r g a n iz a tio n ,
p r o g r a m s , and p r o c e d u r e s r e la t e d to the w o rk o f the s u p e r v is o r .

E x c lu s io n s — C ontinued
e.

f.

E x c lu s io n s

P o s itio n s w h ich do not f i t any o f the situ a tion s lis te d in the
s e c tio n s b e lo w title d " L e v e l o f S u p e r v is o r , " e .g ., s e c r e t a r y to the
p re s id e n t o f a com p an y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 5, 000 p e rs o n s ;
T r a in e e s .

C la s s ific a t io n by L e v e l

N o t a ll p o s itio n s th at a r e title d " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s the above c h a r ­
a c te r is t ic s .
E x a m p le s o f p o s itio n s w h ich a re exclu d ed fr o m the d e fin itio n
a r e as fo llo w s :
a.

P o s it io n s w h ich do not m e e t
d e s c r ib e d a b o v e ;

the " p e r s o n a l"

b.

S te n o g ra p h e rs not fu lly tr a in e d in s e c r e t a r ia l- t y p e d u ties;

c.

S te n o g ra p h e rs s e r v in g as o f f ic e ass is ta n ts to a g ro u p o f
f e s s io n a l, te c h n ic a l, o r m a n a g e r ia l p e rs o n s ;

S e c r e t a r y jo b s w h ich m e e t the ab ove c h a r a c t e r is t ic s a re m atch ed at
one o f f iv e le v e ls a c c o r d in g to (a ) the l e v e l o f the s e c r e t a r y 's s u p e r v is o r
w ith in the c o m p a n y 's o r g a n iz a tio n a l s tru c tu re and, (b ) the l e v e l o f the
s e c r e t a r y 's r e s p o n s ib ilit y . T h e c h a r t fo llo w in g the exp lan ation s o f th ese two
fa c t o r s in d ic a te s the le v e l o f the s e c r e t a r y f o r each c om b in atio n o f the
fa c t o r s .

s e c r e t a r y co n ce p t

L e v e l o f S e c r e t a r y 's S u p e r v is o r (L S )

d.

p ro­
S e c r e t a r ie s should be m a tc h e d at one o f the fo u r L S le v e ls d e s c r ib e d
b e lo w a c c o r d in g to the l e v e l o f the s e c r e t a r y 's s u p e r v is o r w ith in the com p an y
o r g a n iz a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e .

A s s is t a n t - t y p e p o s itio n s w h ich e n ta il m o r e d iffic u lt o r m o r e r e ­
s p o n s ib le te c h n ic a l, a d m in is tr a tiv e , o r s u p e r v is o r y d u ties w h ich
a re not t y p ic a l o f s e c r e t a r ia l w o r k , e .g ., A d m in is t r a t iv e A s s i s t ­
ant, o r E x e c u tiv e A s s is ta n t;




L S -1

17

a.

S e c r e t a r y to the s u p e r v is o r o r head o f a s m a ll o r g a n iz a tio n a l
unit (e . g . , f e w e r than about 25 o r 30 p e r s o n s ); o r

S E C R E T A R Y — C ontinued

SECRETARY— Continued

C la s s ific a t io n b y L e v e l — C ontinued

Classification by L evel— Continued

b.

L S -2

a.

b.

L S -3

S e c r e t a r y to a n o n s u p e r v is o r y s ta ff s p e c ia lis t , p r o fe s s io n a l
e m p lo y e e , a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f ic e r o r a s s is ta n t, s k ille d te c h n icia n
o r e x p e r t,
(N O T E :
M a n y c o m p a n ie s a s s ig n s te n o g r a p h e r s ,
r a th e r than s e c r e t a r ie s as d e s c r ib e d ab ove, to th is l e v e l o f
s u p e r v is o r y o r n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r ,)
S e c r e t a r y to an e x e c u tiv e o r m a n a g e r ia l p e r s o n w h o s e r e s p o n ­
s ib ilit y is not e q u iv a le n t to one o f the s p e c ific l e v e l situ a tion s in
the d e fin itio n fo r L S —
3, but w h o s e o r g a n iz a tio n a l unit n o r m a lly
n u m b ers at le a s t s e v e r a l d o ze n e m p lo y e e s and is u s u a lly d iv id e d
into o r g a n iz a tio n a l s e g m e n ts w h ich a r e o fte n , in turn, fu r th e r
s u b d ivid e d . In s o m e c o m p a n ie s , th is l e v e l in clu d es a w id e ra n g e
o f o r g a n iz a tio n a l e c h e lo n s ; in o th e r s , o n ly one o r tw o; o r

L e v e l o f S e c r e t a r y 's R e s p o n s ib ility ( L R )
T h is fa c to r eva lu a te s the n atu re o f the w o r k r e la tio n s h ip b e tw e e n
the s e c r e t a r y and the s u p e r v is o r , and the exten t to w h ich the s e c r e t a r y is
e x p e c te d to e x e r c is e in itia tiv e and ju d g m e n t. S e c r e t a r ie s should be m a tch ed
at L R —1 o r L R —2 d e s c r ib e d b e lo w a c c o r d in g to th e ir l e v e l o f r e s p o n s ib ilit y .

S e c r e t a r y to the head o f an in d iv id u a l p lant, fa c t o r y , e tc ., (o r
o th e r e q u iv a le n t l e v e l o f o f f ic ia l) that e m p lo y s , in a ll, f e w e r
than 5, 000 p e rs o n s .

a.

L e v e l o f R e s p o n s ib ility 1 (L R —1)

S e c r e t a r y to the c h a irm a n o f the b o a rd o r p r e s id e n t o f a com p an y
that e m p lo y s , in a ll, f e w e r than 100 p e rs o n s ; o r

b.

S e c reta -ry to a c o r p o r a te o f f ic e r (o th e r than c h a irm a n o f the
b o a rd o r p r e s id e n t) o f a com p an y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 100
but f e w e r than 5, 000 p e rs o n s ; o r

c.

P e r f o r m s v a r ie d s e c r e t a r ia l d u ties in c lu d in g o r c o m p a ra b le to m o s t
o f the fo llo w in g :
a.

e.

a.

p erso n a l

Types,

c a le n d a r

and

tak es and tr a n s c r ib e s d ic ta tio n ,

c a ll e r s ,

m a k es

and

opens

in­

M ay

ap p oin tm en ts

as

and f i l e s .

P e r f o r m s d u ties d e s c r ib e d u n der L R —1 and, in a d d ition p e r fo r m s
task s r e q u ir in g g r e a t e r ju d gm en t, in it ia t iv e , and k n o w le d g e o f o f f i c e fu n ction s
in clu d in g o r c o m p a ra b le to m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
a.

18

A n s w e r s req u e sts w h ich r e q u ir e a d e ta ile d k n o w le d g e o f o f ­
fic e p ro c e d u r e s o r c o lle c t io n o f in fo r m a tio n f r o m
file s o r
oth er o f f ic e s .
M a y s ig n rou tin e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e in own o r
s u p e r v is o r 's nam e.

c.

N O T E : T h e te r m " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r " u sed in the ab ove L S d e fin itio n
r e f e r s to th ose o f f i c i a ls w ho h a ve a s ig n ific a n t c o r p o r a te w id e p o lic y m a k in g
r o le w ith r e g a r d to m a jo r com p a n y a c t iv it ie s .
T h e t it le " v i c e p r e s id e n t, "
though n o r m a lly in d ic a tiv e o f th is r o le , d o e s not in a ll c a s e s id e n tify such

S creen s telep h on e and p e r s o n a l c a l l e r s , d e te r m in in g w h ich can
be handled by the s u p e r v is o r 's s u b o rd in a te s o r o th e r o f f i c e s .

b.

S e c r e t a r y to the head, im m e d ia te ly b e lo w the c o r p o r a te o f f ic e r
le v e l , o f a m a jo r s e g m e n t o r s u b s id ia ry o f a com p an y that
e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s .




g re e ts

L e v e l o f R e s p o n s ib ility 2 (L R —2)

S e c r e t a r y to a c o r p o r a te o f f ic e r (o th e r than the c h a irm a n o f the
b o a rd o r p r e s id e n t) o f a com p an y th at e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 5, 000
but f e w e r than 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e rs o n s ; o r

c.

M ain tain s s u p e r v is o r 's
in s tru c te d .

e.

S e c r e t a r y to the c h a irm a n o f the b oa rd o f p r e s id e n t o f a com p an y
that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 100 but f e w e r than 5 ,0 0 0 p e rs o n s ; o r

b.

R e v ie w s c o r re s p o n d e n c e , m e m o r a n d a , and r e p o r ts p r e p a r e d b y
oth e rs fo r the s u p e r v is o r 's s ig n a tu r e to e n s u re p r o c e d u r a l and
ty p o g ra p h ic a l a c c u ra c y .

d.

S e c r e t a r y to the head o f a la r g e and im p o rta n t o r g a n iz a tio n a l
s e g m e n t (e . g . , a m id d le m a n a g e m e n t s u p e r v is o r o f an o r g a n i­
z a tio n a l s e g m e n t o fte n in v o lv in g as m an y as s e v e re d hundred
p e r s o n s ) o f a com p a n y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

A n s w e r s telep h on e r e q u e s ts w h ich h a ve stan d a rd a n s w e r s .
r e p ly to req u e sts by sen d in g a fo r m l e t t e r .

c.

S e c r e t a r y to the head o f an in d iv id u a l p lant, fa c t o r y , e tc ., (o r
o th e r e q u iv a le n t l e v e l o f o f f ic ia l) that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r
5 ,00 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

A n s w e r s te lep h on es,
c om in g m a il.

b.

S e c r e t a r y to the head (im m e d ia t e ly b e lo w the o f f i c e r le v e l ) o v e r
e ith e r a m a jo r c o r p o r a te w id e fu n c tio n a l a c tiv ity (e . g . , m a r k e tin g ,
r e s e a r c h , o p e r a tio n s , in d u s tr ia l r e la tio n s , e tc .) o r a m a jo r
g e o g r a p h ic o r o r g a n iz a tio n a l s e g m e n t (e . g . , a r e g io n a l h e a d q u a r­
t e r s ; a m a jo r d iv is io n ) o f a c om p an y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r
5, 000 but f e w e r than 2 5 ,0 0 0 e m p lo y e e s ; o r

d.

LS—
4

p o s itio n s . V ic e p re s id e n ts w h ose p r im a r y r e s p o n s ib ilit y is to act p e r s o n a lly
on in d iv id u a l ca ses o r tra n s a c tio n s ( e . g . , a p p ro v e o r d en y in d iv id u a l loa n
o r c r e d it actio n s; a d m in is te r in d iv id u a l tr u s t accou n ts; d i r e c t l y s u p e r v is e a
c le r ic a l s ta ff) a re not c o n s id e re d to be " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s " f o r p u rp o s es
o f ap p lyin g the d e fin itio n .

C o m p ile s o r a s s is ts in c o m p ilin g p e r io d ic
o f g e n e ra l in s tru c tio n s .

r e p o r ts on the b a s is

SECRETARY— Continued

STENOGRAPHER— Continued

L e v e l o f R e s p o n s ib ilit y 2 (L R —2)— C ontinued

o f the s p e c ific b u s in e s s o p e r a tio n s , o r g a n iz a tio n , p o lic ie s , p ro c e d u r e s , f i le s ,
w o r k flo w , e tc . U s e s th is k n o w le d g e in p e r fo r m in g s te n o g ra p h ic du ties and
r e s p o n s ib le c l e r i c a l task s such as m a in ta in in g fo llo w u p f i le s ; a s s e m b lin g
m a t e r ia l f o r r e p o r ts , m e m o ra n d a , and le t t e r s ; c o m p o s in g s im p le le tte r s
fr o m g e n e r a l in s tru c tio n s ; re a d in g and rou tin g in c o m in g m a il; and an sw erin g
rou tin e q u e s tio n s , e tc .

d.

S ch ed u les te n ta tiv e appoin tm en ts w ith ou t p r io r c le a r a n c e .
As­
s e m b le s n e c e s s a r y b ack grou n d m a t e r ia l fo r sch ed u led m e e tin g s .
M a k e s a r ra n g e m e n ts fo r m e e tin g s and c o n fe r e n c e s .

e.

E x p la in s s u p e r v is o r 's r e q u ire m e n ts to o th e r e m p lo y e e s in s u p e r­
v i s o r 's u n it.
(A ls o ty p e s , tak es d ic ta tio n , and f i l e s . )

T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E T Y P I S T

The fo llo w in g ta b u la tio n shows the l e v e l of the s e c r e t a r y f o r e a c h
L S and L R c o m b in a tio n .

L e v e l o f s e c r e t a r y 's
______ s u p e r v is o r ______

P r i m a r y duty is to typ e co p y o f v o ic e r e c o r d e d d ic ta tio n w h ich does
not in v o lv e v a r ie d te c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y such as that used in
le g a l b r ie f s o r r e p o r ts on s c ie n t ific r e s e a r c h . M a y a ls o type fr o m w r itte n
c op y . M a y m a in ta in f i l e s , k e e p s im p le r e c o r d s , o r p e r fo r m oth er r e la t iv e ly
rou tin e c l e r i c a l ta s k s .
(S e e S te n o g ra p h e r d e fin itio n f o r w o r k e r s in v o lv e d
w ith sh orth an d d ic ta tio n .)

L e v e l o f s e c r e t a r y 's r e s p o n s ib ilit y
L R —1

L R —2
T Y P IS T

C la s s
C la s s
C la s s
C la s s

L S —1
L S -2
L S -3
L S -4

E
D
C
B

C la s s
C la s s
C la s s
C la s s

D
C
B
A

U s e s a t y p e w r it e r to m a k e c o p ie s o f v a rio u s m a te r ia ls o r to m ak e
out b ills a fte r c a lc u la tio n s h a ve b een m a d e by an oth er p e rs o n . M a y include
ty p in g o f s te n c ils , m a ts , o r s im ila r m a t e r ia ls f o r u se in d u p licatin g p r o c ­
esses.
M a y do c le r i c a l w o r k in v o lv in g l it t le s p e c ia l tra in in g , such as
k e e p in g s im p le r e c o r d s , f i l i n g
rec o rd s
and r e p o r ts , o r s o r tin g and
d is trib u tin g in c o m in g m a il.

STENO G RAPH ER

C la s s A . P e r f o r m s one o r m o r e o f the f o llo w in g : T y p in g m a t e r ia l
in fin a l fo r m w h en it in v o lv e s c o m b in in g m a t e r ia l f r o m s e v e r a l s o u rc e s ;
o r r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r c o r r e c t s p e llin g , s y lla b ic a tio n , punctuation, e tc ., o f
te c h n ic a l o r unusual w o rd s o r f o r e ig n lan gu a ge m a t e r ia l; o r planning la y ­
out and ty p in g o f c o m p lic a te d s ta tis tic a l ta b le s to m a in ta in u n ifo rm ity and
b a la n ce in s p a c in g . M a y ty p e ro u tin e fo r m le t t e r s , v a r y in g d e ta ils to suit
c ir c u m s ta n c e s .

P r i m a r y duty is to tak e d ic ta tio n using shorthand, and to t r a n s c r ib e
the d ic ta tio n . M a y a ls o ty p e f r o m w r itte n cop y. M a y o p e r a te fr o m a sten o­
g ra p h ic p o o l. M a y o c c a s io n a lly tr a n s c r ib e fr o m v o ic e r e c o r d in g s ( i f p r im a r y
duty is t r a n s c r ib in g f r o m r e c o r d in g s , s e e T r a n s c r ib in g -M a c h in e T y p is t ).
N O T E : T h is jo b is d is tin g u is h e d fr o m that o f a s e c r e t a r y in that a
s e c r e t a r y n o r m a lly w o r k s in a c o n fid e n tia l re la tio n s h ip w ith o n ly one m a n ­
a g e r o r e x e c u tiv e and p e r fo r m s m o r e r e s p o n s ib le and d is c r e t io n a r y tasks
as d e s c r ib e d in the s e c r e t a r y jo b d e fin itio n .

C la s s B . P e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : C op y typ ing fro m
rou gh o r c le a r d r a ft s ; o r rou tin e ty p in g o f fo r m s , in s u ra n ce p o lic ie s , e tc .;
o r s e ttin g up s im p le stan d a rd ta b u la tion s; o r c o p y in g m o r e c o m p le x tab les
a lr e a d y s e t up and s p a c ed p r o p e r ly .

S te n o g ra p h e r, G e n e r a l

F IL E C L E R K

D ic ta tio n in v o lv e s a n o rm a l rou tin e v o c a b u la ry . M a y m a in ta in f ile s ,
k e e p s im p le r e c o r d s , o r p e r fo r m o th e r r e la t iv e ly rou tin e c le r i c a l ta s k s .

F i l e s , c la s s ifie s , and r e t r i e v e s m a t e r ia l in an e s ta b lis h e d filin g
s y s te m . M a y p e r fo r m c l e r i c a l and m an u a l task s r e q u ir e d to m a in ta in f i le s .
P o s itio n s a re c la s s ifie d into le v e l s on the b a s is o f the fo llo w in g d e fin itio n s .

S te n o g ra p h e r, S e n io r
D ic ta tio n in v o lv e s a v a r ie d te c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y such
as in le g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s on s c ie n tific r e s e a r c h .
M a y a ls o s e t up and
m a in ta in f i l e s , k e e p r e c o r d s , e tc .

C la s s A . C la s s if ie s and in d e x e s f i l e m a t e r ia l such as c o r re s p o n d ­
e n c e , r e p o r t s , te c h n ic a l d ocu m en ts, e tc ., in an e s ta b lis h e d filin g s y s te m
con ta in in g a n u m b er o f v a r ie d s u b je ct m a tte r f i l e s .
M a y also f i l e this
m a t e r ia l. M a y k e e p r e c o r d s o f v a r io u s ty p es in con ju n ction w ith the f ile s .
M a y le a d a s m a ll gro u p o f lo w e r l e v e l f i l e c le r k s .

OR

C la s s B . S o rts , c o d e s , and f i l e s u n c la s s ifie d m a t e r ia l b y s im p le
(s u b je c t m a t t e r ) h ead in gs o r p a r t ly c la s s ifie d m a t e r ia l b y fin e r su bheadings.
P r e p a r e s s im p le r e la te d in d ex and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e a id s .
A s req u e sted ,
lo c a t e s c l e a r l y id e n tifie d m a t e r ia l in f i l e s and fo r w a r d s m a t e r ia l.
M ay
p e r fo r m r e la te d c l e r i c a l task s r e q u ir e d to m a in ta in and s e r v ic e f ile s .

P e r f o r m s s te n o g r a p h ic du ties r e q u ir in g s ig n ific a n tly g r e a t e r in d e­
p en d e n c e and r e s p o n s ib ilit y than s te n o g ra p h e r, g e n e ra l, as e v id e n c e d b y the
fo llo w in g : W o r k r e q u ir e s a high d e g r e e o f ste n o gra p h ic sp eed and a c c u r a c y ;
a th orou gh w o r k in g k n o w le d g e o f g e n e r a l b u sin ess and o f f ic e p r o c e d u r e ; and




19

F IL E CLERK— Continued

ORDER CLERK— Continued

C la s s C . P e r f o r m s ro u tin e f ilin g o f m a t e r ia l that has a lr e a d y b een
c la s s ifie d o r w h ich is e a s ily c la s s ifie d in a s im p le s e r ia l c la s s ific a t io n
s y s te m (e . g . , a lp h a b e tic a l, c h r o n o lo g ic al, o r n u m e r ic a l).
A s r e q u e s te d ,
lo c a te s r e a d ily a v a ila b le m a t e r ia l in f i l e s and fo r w a r d s m a t e r ia l; and m a y
f i l l out w ith d r a w a l c h a r g e . M a y p e r fo r m s im p le c l e r i c a l and m an u a l task s
r e q u ir e d to m a in ta in and s e r v ic e f i l e s .

P o s itio n s
d e fin itio n s :

a re

c la s s ifie d

into

le v e ls

a c c o r d in g

to

the

fo llo w in g

M ESSENGER

C la s s A . H an dles o r d e r s that in v o lv e m a k in g ju d g m en ts such as
c h o o s in g w h ich s p e c ific p ro d u ct o r m a t e r i a l fr o m the e s ta b lis h m e n t's p ro d u c t
lin e s w i l l s a tis fy the c u s to m e r 's n e e d s , o r d e te r m in in g the p r ic e to be quoted
w h en p r ic in g in v o lv e s m o r e than m e r e l y r e f e r r i n g to a p r ic e l i s t o r m a k in g
s o m e s im p le m a th e m a tic a l c a lc u la tio n s .

P e r f o r m s v a r io u s rou tin e d u ties such as running e r r a n d s , o p e r a tin g
m in o r o f f i c e m a c h in e s such as s e a le r s o r m a ile r s , o p en in g and d is trib u tin g
m a il, and o th e r m in o r c l e r i c a l w o r k .
E x c lu d e p o s itio n s that r e q u ir e
o p e r a tio n o f a m o to r v e h ic le as a s ig n ific a n t duty.

C la s s B . H an dles o r d e r s in v o lv in g ite m s w h ich h a ve r e a d ily id e n ­
t if ie d u ses and a p p lic a tio n s . M a y r e f e r to a c a ta lo g , m a n u fa c tu r e r 's m an u al,
o r s im ila r d ocu m ent to in su re that p r o p e r ite m is s u p p lied o r to v e r i f y
p r ic e o f o r d e r e d ite m .

S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R
O p e r a te s a te le p h o n e s w itc h b o a rd o r c o n s o le u sed w ith a p r iv a t e
b ran ch e xch a n g e ( P B X ) s y s te m to r e la y in c o m in g , o u tg o in g , and in tr a s y s te m
c a lls . M a y p r o v id e in fo r m a tio n to c a lle r s , r e c o r d and tr a n s m it m e s s a g e s ,
k e e p r e c o r d o f c a lls p la c e d and t o ll c h a r g e s . B e s id e s o p e r a tin g a te le p h o n e
s w itc h b o a rd o r c o n s o le , m a y a ls o typ e o r p e r fo r m ro u tin e c l e r i c a l w o rk
(ty p in g o r ro u tin e c l e r ic a l w o r k m a y o c c u p y the m a jo r p o r tio n o f the w o r k e r 's
tim e , and is u s u a lly p e r fo r m e d w h ile at the s w itc h b o a rd o r c o n s o le ). C h ie f
o r lea d o p e r a to r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g m o r e than one o p e r a t o r a re
ex c lu d e d . F o r an o p e r a to r who a lso acts as a r e c e p tio n is t, s e e S w itch b oa rd
O p e r a t o r - R e c e p t io n is t .
S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R - R E C E P T I O N I S T
A t a s in g le - p o s it io n te le p h o n e s w itc h b o a rd o r c o n s o le , acts both as
an o p e r a to r — s e e S w itc h b o a rd O p e r a to r — and as a r e c e p tio n is t.
R ecep­
tio n is t 's w o r k in v o lv e s such d u ties as g r e e tin g v is it o r s ; d e te r m in in g nature
o f v i s i t o r 's b u s in e s s and p r o v id in g a p p ro p ria te in fo r m a tio n ; r e f e r r in g v is it o r
to a p p ro p ria te p e rs o n in the o r g a n iz a tio n o r c o n ta c tin g that p e r s o n by t e le ­
phone and a r ra n g in g an ap p oin tm en t; k e e p in g a lo g o f v is it o r s .
ORDER C LER K
R e c e iv e s w r itte n o r v e r b a l c u s to m e r s ' p u rc h a s e o r d e r s f o r m a t e r ia l
o r m e r c h a n d is e f r o m c u s to m e rs o r s a le s p e o p le .
W o r k t y p ic a lly in v o lv e s
s o m e c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g d u tie s :
Q u o tin g p r ic e s ; d e te rm in in g
a v a ila b ilit y o f o r d e r e d ite m s and s u g g e s tin g su b s titu te s w h en n e c e s s a r y ;
a d v is in g e x p e c te d d e l iv e r y d ate and m eth od o f d e liv e r y ; r e c o r d in g o r d e r and
c u s to m e r in fo r m a tio n on o r d e r s h e e ts ; c h e c k in g o r d e r sh e e ts f o r a c c u r a c y
and ad equ acy o f in fo rm a tio n r e c o r d e d ; a s c e r ta in in g c r e d it r a tin g o f c u s to m e r;
fu rn is h in g c u s to m e r w ith a c k n o w le d g e m e n t o f r e c e ip t o f o r d e r ; fo llo w in g up
to s e e that o r d e r is d e liv e r e d by the s p e c ifie d d ate o r to le t c u s to m e r know
o f a d e la y in d e liv e r y ; m a in ta in in g o r d e r f i l e ; c h e c k in g sh ip p in g in v o ic e
a g a in s t o r ig in a l o r d e r .
E x c lu d e w o r k e r s p aid on a c o m m is s io n b a s is o r w h o s e d u ties in­
clude any o f the f o llo w in g : R e c e iv in g o r d e r s f o r s e r v ic e s r a th e r than fo r
m a t e r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e ; p ro v id in g c u s to m e r s w ith c o n s u lta tiv e a d v ic e u sin g
k n o w le d g e g a in e d fr o m e n g in e e rin g o r e x te n s iv e te c h n ic a l tr a in in g ; em p h a­
s iz in g s e llin g s k ills ; hand ling m a t e r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e as an in t e g r a l p a r t
o f the jo b .




A C C O U N T IN G C L E R K
P e r f o r m s one o r m o r e a ccou n tin g c l e r i c a l task s such as p o s tin g to
r e g is t e r s and le d g e r s ; r e c o n c ilin g bank a ccou n ts; v e r if y in g the in te r n a l con­
s is te n c y , c o m p le te n e s s , and m a th e m a tic a l a c c u r a c y o f accou n tin g d ocu m en ts;
a s s ig n in g p r e s c r ib e d accoun ting d is tr ib u tio n c o d e s ; e x a m in in g and v e r if y in g
f o r c l e r i c a l a c c u ra c y v a rio u s ty p es o f r e p o r t s , l is t s , c a lc u la tio n s , p o s tin g ,
e tc .; o r p re p a r in g s im p le o r a s s is tin g in p r e p a r in g m o r e c o m p lic a te d jo u rn a l
vou ch ers.
M a y w o rk in e ith e r a m an u a l o r au tom ated accou n tin g s y s te m .
T h e w o rk r e q u ir e s a k n o w le d g e o f c l e r i c a l m eth o d s and o f f i c e p r a c ­
tic e s and p ro c e d u r e s w h ich r e la te s to the c l e r i c a l p r o c e s s in g and r e c o r d in g
o f tra n s a c tio n s and accou n ting in fo r m a tio n .
W ith e x p e r ie n c e , the w o r k e r
t y p ic a lly b e c o m e s fa m ilia r w ith the b o o k k e e p in g and accou n tin g t e r m s and
p r o c e d u r e s used in the a s s ig n e d w o rk , but is not r e q u ir e d to h a ve a k n o w le d g e
o f the f o r m a l p r in c ip le s o f b o o k k e e p in g and a c cou n tin g.
P o s itio n s
d e fin itio n s :

a re c la s s ifie d

into

le v e ls

on

the b a s is o f

the

fo llo w in g

C la s s A . U n d er g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n , p e r f o r m s accou n tin g c l e r i c a l
o p e r a tio n s w h ich r e q u ir e the a p p lic a tio n o f e x p e r ie n c e and ju d g m e n t, f o r
e x a m p le , c le r ic a lly p r o c e s s in g c o m p lic a te d o r n o n r e p e tit iv e accou n tin g
tr a n s a c tio n s , s e le c tin g am ong a s u b s ta n tia l v a r i e t y o f p r e s c r ib e d accou n tin g
co d e s and c la s s ific a t io n s , o r tr a c in g tr a n s a c tio n s th rou gh p r e v io u s a c ­
coun ting action s to d e te r m in e s o u r c e o f d is c r e p a n c ie s . M a y b e a s s is te d by
one o r m o r e c la s s B accou n ting c le r k s .
C la s s B . U n d e r c lo s e s u p e r v is io n , fo llo w in g d e ta ile d in s tru c tio n s
and s ta n d a rd ize d p r o c e d u r e s , p e r fo r m s one o r m o r e ro u tin e a ccou n tin g c l e r ­
ic a l o p e r a tio n s , such as p o s tin g to le d g e r s , c a r d s , o r w o r k s h e e ts w h e r e
id e n tific a tio n o f ite m s and lo c a tio n s o f p o s tin g s a re c l e a r l y in d ic a te d ;
c h e c k in g a c c u r a c y and c o m p le te n e s s o f s ta n d a rd iz e d and r e p e t it iv e r e c o r d s
o r accou n ting d ocu m en ts; and c o d in g d oc u m e n ts u sin g a fe w p r e s c r ib e d
accou n tin g c o d es.
B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O p e ra te s a b oo k k eep in g m a c h in e (w ith o r w ith o u t a t y p e w r it e r k e y ­
b o a rd ) to k e ep a r e c o r d o f b u sin ess tr a n s a c tio n s .
C la s s A . K e e p s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u ir in g a k n o w le d g e o f and
e x p e r ie n c e in b a s ic b oo k k eep in g p r in c ip le s , and f a m i l ia r i t y w ith the s tr u c tu r e
o f the p a r tic u la r accou n ting s y s te m u s e d .
D e te r m in e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s and
d is trib u tio n o f d eb it and c r e d it ite m s to b e u s e d in each p h ase o f the w o r k .
M a y p r e p a r e c o n so lid a te d r e p o r ts , b a la n c e s h e e ts , and o th e r r e c o r d s b y hand.

BOOKKEEPING-M ACHINE OPERATOR— Continued

KEY ENTRY OPERATOR— Continued

C la s s B . K e e p s a r e c o r d o f one o r m o r e p h a ses o r s e ctio n s o f
a s e t o f r e c o r d s u s u a lly r e q u ir in g lit t le k n o w le d g e o f b a s ic b o o k k e e p in g .
P h a s e s o r s e c tio n s in c lu d e accoun ts p a y a b le, p a y r o ll, c u s to m e r s ' accounts
(n o t in c lu d in g a s im p le ty p e o f b illin g d e s c r ib e d under m a c h in e b i l l e r ) , c o s t
d is trib u tio n , e x p e n s e d is tr ib u tio n , in v e n to ry c o n tro l, e tc .
M a y ch eck o r
a s s is t in p r e p a r a tio n o f t r i a l b a la n ce s and p r e p a r e c o n tr o l sh eets f o r the
a c cou n tin g d e p a rtm e n t.

C la s s B . W o r k is ro u tin e and r e p e t it iv e .
U n d er c lo s e su p e r­
v is io n o r fo llo w in g s p e c ific p r o c e d u r e s o r in s tru c tio n s , w o rk s fr o m v a rio u s
s ta n d a rd ize d s o u rc e d ocu m en ts w h ich have b een coded, and fo llo w s s p e c ­
ifie d p ro c e d u r e s w h ich h a ve b een p r e s c r ib e d in d e ta il and r e q u ir e little o r
no s e le c tin g , c od in g, o r in te r p r e tin g o f data to be r e c o r d e d .
R e fe r s to
s u p e r v is o r p ro b le m s a r is in g fr o m e rro n e o u s ite m s o r codes o r m is s in g
in fo rm a tio n .

M A C H IN E B I L L E R
P r e p a r e s s ta te m e n ts , b ills , and in v o ic e s on a m a c h in e o th e r than
an o r d in a r y o r e le c t r o m a t ic t y p e w r it e r . M a y a lso keep r e c o r d s as to b illin g s
o r sh ip p in g c h a r g e s o r p e r f o r m o th e r c le r ic a l w o rk in c id e n ta l to b illin g
o p e r a tio n s .
F o r w a g e stu dy p u rp o s e s , m a c h in e b ille r s a r e c la s s ifie d by
ty p e o f m a c h in e , as fo llo w s :

Professional and Technical
C O M PU TE R SYSTEM S A N A L Y S T ,

A n a ly z e s b u s in e s s p r o b le m s to fo r m u la te p ro c e d u r e s fo r s o lv in g
them by u se o f e le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g e qu ip m en t. D e v e lo p s a c o m p le te
d e s c r ip tio n o f a ll s p e c ific a tio n s n eed ed to en ab le p r o g r a m m e r s to p re p a r e
r e q u ir e d d ig it a l c o m p u te r p r o g r a m s . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
A n a ly z e s s u b je c t -m a t te r o p e r a tio n s to be au tom ated and id e n tifie s con dition s
and c r i t e r i a r e q u ir e d to a c h ie v e s a t is fa c t o r y r e s u lt s ; s p e c ifie s num ber and
ty p es o f r e c o r d s , f i l e s , and docu m en ts to be used; ou tlin es actions to be
p e r fo r m e d by p e r s o n n e l and c o m p u te rs in s u ffic ie n t d e ta il f o r p re s e n ta tio n
to m a n a g e m e n t and f o r p r o g r a m m in g (t y p ic a lly th is in v o lv e s p re p a ra tio n o f
w o r k and data flo w c h a r ts ); c o o rd in a te s the d e v e lo p m e n t o f te s t p ro b le m s and
p a r tic ip a te s in t r i a l runs o f new and r e v is e d s y s te m s ; and reco m m en d s
eq u ip m en t chan ges to ob ta in m o r e e ffe c t iv e o v e r a l l o p e r a tio n s .
(N O T E :
W o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g both s y s te m s a n a ly s is and p r o g r a m m in g should be c la s ­
s ifie d as s y s te m s an a lys ts if th is is the s k ill u sed to d e te rm in e th e ir p ay .)

B illin g - m a c h in e b i l l e r . U s e s a s p e c ia l b illin g m a c h in e (c o m b in a tio n
ty p in g and adding m a c h in e ) to p r e p a r e b ills and in v o ic e s fr o m c u s to m e r s '
p u rc h a s e o r d e r s ,
in t e r n a lly p r e p a r e d o r d e r s , shipping m e m o ra n d a , e tc .
U s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p lic a tio n o f p re d e te r m in e d discounts and sh ip p in g c h a r g e s
and e n tr y o f n e c e s s a r y e x te n s io n s , w h ich m a y o r m a y not be com p u ted on
the b illin g m a c h in e , and to ta ls w h ich a re a u to m a tic a lly a ccu m u lated by
m a c h in e .
T h e o p e r a tio n u s u a lly in v o lv e s a la r g e num ber o f c a rb o n c o p ie s
o f the b i l l b e in g p r e p a r e d and is o fte n done on a fa n fo ld m a c h in e .
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e b i l l e r . U s e s a b ookk eep in g m a c h in e (w ith o r
w ith o u t a t y p e w r it e r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s to m e rs ' b ills as p a r t o f the
accou n ts r e c e iv a b le o p e r a tio n . G e n e r a lly in v o lv e s the sim u lta n eo u s e n tr y o f
fig u r e s on c u s to m e rs ' le d g e r r e c o r d . T h e m a ch in e a u to m a tic a lly accu m u lates
fig u r e s on a n u m b er o f v e r t i c a l colu m ns and com putes and u s u a lly p rin ts
a u t o m a tic a lly the d e b it o r c r e d it b a la n ce s .
D oes not in v o lv e a k n o w le d g e
o f b o o k k e e p in g .
W o r k s fr o m u n ifo rm and standard ty p es o f s a le s and
c r e d it s lip s .

D oes not in clu d e e m p lo y e e s p r im a r ily r e s p o n s ib le fo r the m a n a g e ­
m e n t o r s u p e r v is io n o f o th e r e le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g e m p lo y e e s , o r s y s ­
te m s a n a lys ts p r im a r ily c o n c e rn e d w ith s c ie n t ific o r e n g in e e rin g p ro b le m s .

P A Y R O L L CLERK

For

O p e r a te s a k eyp u n ch m a c h in e to r e c o r d o r v e r if y a lp h a b e tic and/or
n u m e r ic d ata on ta b u la tin g c a r d s o r on tap e.
into

le v e ls on

the b a s is o f

the

p u rp o s e s ,

s y s te m s

a n alysts

a re

c la s s ifie d

as

fo llo w in g
M a y p r o v id e fu n c tio n a l
who a r e a s s ig n e d to a s s is t.

C la s s A . W o r k r e q u ir e s the a p p lic a tio n o f e x p e r ie n c e and ju d g m e n t
in s e le c tin g p r o c e d u r e s to be fo llo w e d and in s e a rc h in g fo r , in t e r p r e tin g ,
s e le c t in g , o r c o d in g ite m s to be keypunched fr o m a v a r ie t y o f s o u r c e d ocu ­
m e n ts .
On o c c a s io n m a y a ls o p e r fo r m s om e rou tin e k eypu n ch w o r k . M a y
tr a in in e x p e r ie n c e d keyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s .




study

C la s s A . W o rk s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n der o n ly g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n on
c o m p le x p r o b le m s in v o lv in g a ll p h ases o f s y s te m s a n a ly s is .
P r o b le m s a re
c o m p le x b e ca u s e o f d iv e r s e s o u r c e s o f input d ata and m u ltip le - u s e r e q u ir e ­
m en ts o f output data.
( F o r e x a m p le , d e v e lo p s an in te g ra te d p ro d u ction
s c h e d u lin g , in v e n to r y c o n tro l, c o s t a n a ly s is , and s a le s a n a lys is r e c o r d in
w h ich e v e r y ite m o f each typ e is a u to m a tic a lly p r o c e s s e d through the fu ll
s y s te m o f r e c o r d s and a p p ro p ria te fo llo w u p a ction s a r e in itia te d by the
c o m p u te r.) C o n fe r s w ith p e rs o n s c o n c e rn e d to d e te r m in e the data p ro c e s s in g
p r o b le m s and a d v is e s s u b je c t - m a t te r p e r s o n n e l on the im p lic a tio n s o f new
o r r e v is e d s y s te m s o f data p r o c e s s in g o p e ra tio n s . M ak es rec o m m e n d a tio n s ,
if n eed ed , f o r a p p ro v a l o f m a jo r s y s te m s in s ta lla tio n s o r changes and fo r
ob ta in in g equ ip m en t.

K E Y E NTR Y O PERATO R

a r e c la s s if ie d

w age

fo llo w s :

P e r f o r m s the c l e r i c a l task s n e c e s s a r y to p r o c e s s p a y r o lls and to
m a in ta in p a y r o ll r e c o r d s . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P r o c e s s in g
w o r k e r s ' tim e o r p ro d u c tio n r e c o r d s ; adjustin g w o r k e r s ' r e c o r d s f o r chan ges
in w a g e r a te s , s u p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fits , o r tax d ed u ction s; e d itin g p a y r o ll
lis t in g s a g a in s t s o u r c e r e c o r d s ; tr a c in g and c o r r e c t in g e r r o r s in lis tin g s ;
and a s s is tin g in p r e p a r a tio n o f p e r io d ic s u m m a ry p a y r o ll r e p o r t s . In a nona u tom ated p a y r o ll s y s te m , c om p u tes w a g e s . W o r k m a y r e q u ir e a p r a c t ic a l
k n o w le d g e o f g o v e r n m e n t a l r e g u la tio n s , com p an y p a y r o ll p o lic y , o r the
c o m p u te r s y s te m f o r p r o c e s s in g p a y r o lls .

P o s it io n s
d e fin itio n s :

B U SIN E SS

d ir e c t io n to

lo w e r l e v e l

s ys te m s

an alysts

C la s s B . W o rk s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n der o n ly g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n on
p r o b le m s th at a r e r e la t iv e ly u n c o m p lic a te d to a n a ly z e , plan, p r o g r a m , and
o p e r a te . P r o b le m s a r e o f lim it e d c o m p le x ity b e ca u s e s o u rc e s o f input data
a r e h om o gen eo u s and the output d ata a re c lo s e ly r e la te d .
( F o r ex a m p le ,

21

COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A LYS T, EUSINESS— Continued

COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS— Continued

d e v e lo p s s y s te m s f o r m a in ta in in g d e p o s ito r accounts in a bank, m a in ta in in g
accounts r e c e iv a b le in a r e t a il e s ta b lis h m e n t, o r m a in ta in in g in v e n to r y
accounts in a m a n u fa c tu rin g o r w h o le s a le e s ta b lis h m e n t.) C o n fe r s w ith p e r ­
sons c o n c e rn e d to d e te r m in e the data p r o c e s s in g p r o b le m s and a d v is e s
s u b je c t- m a tte r p e rs o n n e l on the im p lic a tio n s o f the d ata p r o c e s s in g s y s te m s
to be ap p lied .

A t this le v e l, p ro g r a m m in g is d if fic u lt b e ca u s e c o m p u te r eq u ip m en t
m u st be o r g a n iz e d to p ro d u ce s e v e r a l in t e r r e la t e d but d iv e r s e p ro d u cts fr o m
n u m erou s and d iv e r s e d ata e le m e n ts . A w id e v a r ie t y and e x te n s iv e nu m b er
o f in te r n a l p r o c e s s in g action s m u s t o c c u r .
T h is r e q u ir e s such a ctio n s as
d e v e lo p m e n t o f com m o n o p e ra tio n s w h ich can be re u s e d , e s ta b lis h m e n t o f
lin k a g e p oin ts b etw een o p e r a tio n s , a d ju stm en ts to d ata w h en p r o g r a m r e ­
q u ir e m e n ts e x c e e d c o m p u te r s to r a g e c a p a c ity , and s u b stan tial m a n ip u la tio n
and res e q u e n c in g o f data e le m e n ts to fo r m a h ig h ly in te g r a te d p r o g r a m .

OR
W o rk s on a s e g m e n t o f a c o m p le x data p r o c e s s in g s c h e m e o r
s y s te m , as d e s c r ib e d fo r c la s s A . W o rk s in d e p en d en tly on rou tin e a s s ig n ­
m en ts and r e c e i v e s in s tru c tio n and gu id an ce on c o m p le x a s s ig n m e n ts . W o r k
is r e v ie w e d f o r a c c u r a c y o f ju d g m e n t, c o m p lia n c e w ith in s tr u c tio n s , and to
in s u re p r o p e r a lig n m e n t w ith the o v e r a ll s y s te m .
C la s s C . W o rk s u n der im m e d ia te s u p e rv is io n , c a r r y in g out a n aly­
ses as a s s ig n e d , u s u a lly o f a s in g le a c tiv ity . A s s ig n m e n ts a r e d e s ig n e d to
d e v e lo p and expand p r a c t ic a l e x p e r ie n c e in th e a p p lic a tio n o f p ro c e d u r e s and
s k ills r e q u ir e d f o r s y s te m s a n a ly s is w o r k . F o r e x a m p le , m a y a s s is t a h ig h e r
l e v e l s y s te m s a n a lys t by p r e p a r in g the d e ta ile d s p e c ific a tio n s r e q u ir e d b y
p ro g ra m m e rs fro m
in fo r m a tio n d e v e lo p e d by the h ig h e r l e v e l a n a ly s t.

M a y p r o v id e fu n ctio n al d ir e c t io n to lo w e r l e v e l
a r e a s s ig n e d to a s s is t.

p r o g r a m m e r s w ho

C la s s B . W o rk s in d ep en d en tly o r u n d er o n ly g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n on
r e la t iv e ly s im p le p r o g r a m s , o r on s im p le s e g m e n ts o f c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .
P r o g r a m s (o r s e g m e n ts ) u s u a lly p r o c e s s in fo r m a tio n to p ro d u c e d a ta in tw o
o r th r e e v a r ie d sequ en ces o r fo r m a ts . R e p o r t s and lis tin g s a r e p ro d u c ed by
r e fin in g , adapting, a r ra y in g , o r m a k in g m in o r ad d ition s to o r d e le tio n s fr o m
input d ata w h ich a re r e a d ily a v a ila b le .
W h ile n u m erou s r e c o r d s m a y be
p r o c e s s e d , the d ata have b een r e fin e d in p r i o r a ctio n s so th at the a c c u r a c y
and sequ en cin g o f d ata can be te s te d b y u sin g a f e w ro u tin e c h e c k s .
r e c o r d k e e p in g o p e r a tio n s .
T y p ic a lly , the p r o g r a m d e a ls w ith r o u t i n e
OR

C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , B U SIN E S S
C o n v e r ts s ta te m e n ts o f b u s in e s s p r o b le m s , ty p ic a lly p r e p a r e d b y a
s y s te m s an a lyst, into a s e q u e n c e o f d e ta ile d in s tru c tio n s w h ich a re r e q u ir e d
to s o lv e the p ro b le m s b y au tom a tic d ata p r o c e s s in g equ ip m en t. W o rk in g fr o m
ch a rts o r d ia g r a m s , the p r o g r a m m e r d e v e lo p s the p r e c is e in s tru c tio n s w h ich ,
w hen e n te r e d into the c o m p u te r s y s te m in cod ed la n gu a ge , cau se the m a n ip u ­
la tio n o f d ata to a c h ie v e d e s ir e d r e s u lt s .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the
fo llo w in g:
A p p lie s k n o w le d g e o f c o m p u te r c a p a b ilitie s , m a th e m a tic s , lo g ic
e m p lo y e d by c o m p u te rs , and p a r tic u la r s u b je c t m a tte r in v o lv e d to a n a ly z e
ch a rts and d ia g r a m s o f the p r o b le m to be p r o g r a m m e d ; d e v e lo p s s e q u en ce o f
p r o g r a m s te p s; w r it e s d e ta ile d flo w c h a rts to show o r d e r in w h ich d a ta w ill
b e p r o c e s s e d ; c o n v e r ts th e s e c h a rts to c o d e d in s tru c tio n s f o r m a c h in e to
fo llo w ; te s ts and c o r r e c t s p r o g r a m s ; p r e p a r e s in s tru c tio n s f o r o p e r a tin g
p e rs o n n e l d u rin g p ro d u c tio n run; a n a ly z e s , r e v ie w s , and a lte r s p r o g r a m s to
in c r e a s e o p e r a tin g e f fic ie n c y o r adapt to new r e q u ir e m e n ts ; m a in ta in s r e ­
c o rd s o f p r o g r a m d e v e lo p m e n t and r e v is io n s . (N O T E : W o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g
both s y s te m s a n a ly s is and p r o g r a m m in g should be c la s s ifie d as s y s te m s
an a lysts i f th is is the s k ill u sed to d e te r m in e t h e ir p a y .)
D o e s not in clu d e e m p lo y e e s p r im a r ily r e s p o n s ib le fo r the m a n a g e ­
m en t o r s u p e r v is io n o f o th e r e le c t r o n ic d a ta p r o c e s s in g e m p lo y e e s , o r p r o ­
g r a m m e r s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w ith s c ie n t ific and/or e n g in e e rin g p r o b le m s .
F o r w a g e study p u r p o s e s , p r o g r a m m e r s

a r e c la s s ifie d

as fo llo w s :

C la s s A .
W o rk s in d ep en d en tly o r u n der o n ly g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n on
c o m p le x p r o b le m s w h ich r e q u ir e c o m p e te n c e in a ll p h a ses o f p r o g r a m m in g
con cep ts and p r a c t ic e s .
W o rk in g fr o m d ia g r a m s and c h a rts w h ich id e n tify
the natu re o f d e s ir e d r e s u lt s , m a jo r p r o c e s s in g s tep s to be a c c o m p lis h e d ,
and the re la tio n s h ip s b e tw e e n v a r io u s s tep s o f the p r o b le m s o lv in g ro u tin e ;
plans the fu ll ra n g e o f p r o g r a m m in g a c tio n s n eed ed to e ffic ie n t ly u t iliz e the
c o m p u te r s y s te m in a c h ie v in g d e s ir e d end p ro d u c ts .




W o rk s on c o m p le x p r o g r a m s (a s d e s c r ib e d f o r c la s s A ) u n d er c lo s e
d ir e c t io n o f a h ig h e r le v e l p r o g r a m m e r o r s u p e r v is o r .
M a y a s s is t h ig h e r
l e v e l p r o g r a m m e r b y in d ep en d en tly p e r fo r m in g le s s d if fic u lt task s a s s ig n e d ,
and p e r fo r m in g m o r e d iffic u lt task s u n der f a i r l y c lo s e d ir e c t io n .
M a y guide o r in s tru c t lo w e r l e v e l p r o g r a m m e r s .
C la s s C . M a k e s p r a c t ic a l a p p lic a tio n s o f p r o g r a m m in g p r a c t ic e s
and c o n cep ts u s u a lly le a r n e d in fo r m a l tr a in in g c o u r s e s . A s s ig n m e n ts a re
d e s ig n e d to d e v e lo p c o m p eten c e in th e a p p lic a tio n o f s tan d a rd p r o c e d u r e s to
ro u tin e p ro b le m s .
R e c e iv e s c lo s e s u p e r v is io n on new a s p e cts o f a s s ig n ­
m e n ts ; and w o rk is r e v ie w e d to v e r i f y its a c c u r a c y and c o n fo rm a n c e w ith
r e q u ir e d p ro c e d u r e s .
C O M PU TER O PERATO R
M o n ito r s and o p e ra te s the c o n tr o l c o n s o le o f a d ig it a l c o m p u te r to
p r o c e s s d ata a c c o rd in g to o p e r a tin g in s tr u c tio n s , u s u a lly p r e p a r e d b y a p r o ­
g ra m m er.
W o rk in clu d es m o s t o f the f o llo w in g : Studies in s tru c tio n s to
d e te r m in e equipm en t setup and o p e r a tio n s ; lo a d s e q u ip m en t w ith r e q u ir e d
ite m s (ta p e r e e ls , c a r d s , e tc .); s w itc h e s n e c e s s a r y a u x ilia r y e q u ip m en t into
c ir c u it , and s ta rts and o p e r a te s c o m p u te r; m a k e s a d ju stm en ts to c o m p u te r to
c o r r e c t o p e ra tin g p ro b le m s and m e e t s p e c ia l c o n d itio n s ; r e v ie w s e r r o r s
m a d e d u rin g o p e r a tio n and d e te r m in e s c a u s e o r r e f e r s p r o b le m to s u p e r v is o r
o r p r o g r a m m e r ; and m a in ta in s o p e r a tin g r e c o r d s .
M a y t e s t and a s s is t in
c o r r e c t in g p r o g r a m .
F o r w age

study

p u rp o s e s ,

c o m p u te r

o p e r a to r s

are

c la s s ifie d

as

fo llo w s :
C la s s A . O p e ra te s in d e p e n d e n tly , o r u n d er o n ly g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n ,
a c o m p u te r running p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f the fo llo w in g c h a r a c t e r is t ic s :
N e w p r o g r a m s a r e fre q u e n tly te s te d and in tro d u c e d ; s c h e d u lin g r e q u ir e m e n ts

COM PUTER OPERATOR— Continued

D RAFTER— Continued

a r e o f c r i t i c a l im p o r ta n c e to m in im iz e d ow n tim e; th e p r o g r a m s a r e o f
c o m p le x d e s ig n so th at id e n tific a tio n o f e r r o r s o u rc e often r e q u ir e s a w o rk in g
k n o w le d g e o f the to ta l p r o g r a m , and a lte r n a te p ro g r a m s m a y not be a v a ila b le .
M a y g iv e d ir e c t io n and gu id a n c e to lo w e r l e v e l o p e r a to r s .

C la s s C . P r e p a r e s d e ta il d ra w in g s o f s in g le units o r p a rts fo r
e n g in e e rin g , c o n stru c tio n , m a n u fa c tu rin g , o r r e p a ir p u rp o s e s .
Types of
d ra w in g s p r e p a r e d in clu d e is o m e t r ic p r o je c t io n s (d e p ic tin g th re e d im en sio n s
in a c c u ra te s c a le ) and s e c tio n a l v ie w s to c l a r i f y p o s itio n in g o f com ponents
and c o n v e y n eed ed in fo rm a tio n .
C o n s o lid a te s d e ta ils fr o m a num ber o f
s o u r c e s and adjusts o r tr a n s p o s e s s c a le as r e q u ir e d . Su ggested m ethods o f
ap p ro a ch , a p p lic a b le p r e c e d e n ts , and a d v ic e on s o u rc e m a te r ia ls are g ive n
w ith in itia l a s s ig n m e n ts . In s tru c tio n s a re le s s c o m p le te when assign m en ts
r e c u r . W o r k m a y be s p o t-c h e c k e d d u rin g p r o g r e s s .

C la s s B . O p e r a t e s in d ep en d en tly, o r u n der on ly g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n ,
a c o m p u te r ru nn ing p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f the fo llo w in g c h a r a c t e r is t ic s :
M o s t o f the p r o g r a m s a r e e s ta b lis h e d p ro d u ction runs, t y p ic a lly run on a
r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r in g b a s is ; th e r e is lit t le o r no te s tin g o f new p r o g r a m s
r e q u ir e d ; a lte r n a te p r o g r a m s a r e p ro v id e d in c a s e o r ig in a l p r o g r a m needs
m a j o r ch an ge o r can n ot be c o r r e c t e d w ith in a re a s o n a b ly s h o rt t im e .
In
c o m m o n e r r o r s itu a tio n s , d ia g n o s e s cau se and tak es c o r r e c t iv e a c tio n . T h is
u s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p lyin g p r e v io u s ly p r o g r a m m e d c o r r e c t iv e s te p s , o r u sin g
sta n d a rd c o r r e c t io n te c h n iq u e s .

D R A F T E R -T R A C E R
C o p ie s
c lo th o r p a p e r
in clu d e t r a c in g
la r g e s c a le not

plans and d ra w in g s p r e p a r e d b y o th e rs b y p la c in g tra c in g
o v e r d ra w in g s and t r a c in g w ith pen o r p e n c il.
(D o e s not
lim ite d to p lans p r i m a r i l y c o n s is tin g o f s tr a ig h t lin e s and a
r e q u ir in g c lo s e d e lin e a tio n .)
AND /O R

OR
O p e r a t e s u n d e r d i r e c t s u p e rv is io n a com p u ter running p r o g r a m s o r
s e g m e n ts o f p r o g r a m s w ith the c h a r a c t e r is t ic s d e s c r ib e d f o r c la s s A . M a y
a s s is t a h ig h e r l e v e l o p e r a t o r b y in d e p en d en tly p e r fo r m in g le s s d if fic u lt task s
a s s ig n e d , and p e r fo r m in g d if fic u lt task s fo llo w in g d e ta ile d in s tru c tio n s and
w ith fr e q u e n t r e v ie w o f o p e r a tio n s p e r fo r m e d .
C la s s C . W o rk s on ro u tin e p r o g r a m s u n der c lo s e s u p e r v is io n . Is
e x p e c te d to d e v e lo p w o r k in g k n o w le d g e o f the c om p u te r eq u ip m en t u s e d and
a b ilit y to d e t e c t p r o b le m s in v o lv e d in running rou tin e p r o g r a m s . U s u a lly has
r e c e i v e d s o m e f o r m a l tr a in in g in co m p u te r o p e ra tio n .
M a y a s s is t h ig h e r
l e v e l o p e r a t o r on c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .
D RAFTER
C la s s A . P la n s th e g ra p h ic p re s e n ta tio n o f c o m p le x ite m s h a vin g
d is t in c t iv e d e s ig n fe a tu r e s th at d if f e r s ig n ific a n tly fr o m e s ta b lis h e d d ra ftin g
p r e c e d e n t s . W o r k s in c lo s e su p p ort w ith the d e sig n o r ig in a t o r , and m a y
r e c o m m e n d m in o r d e s ig n c h a n g e s . A n a ly z e s the e ffe c t o f each ch an ge on the
d e t a ils o f f o r m , fu n c tio n , and p o s itio n a l re la tio n s h ip s o f c om p on en ts and
p a rts .
W o r k s w ith a m in im u m o f s u p e r v is o r y a s s is ta n c e . C o m p le te d w o rk
is r e v ie w e d b y d e s ig n o r ig in a t o r f o r c o n s is te n c y w ith p r i o r e n g in e e r in g
d e t e r m in a t io n s . M a y e it h e r p r e p a r e d ra w in g s o r d ir e c t th e ir p r e p a r a tio n by
lo w e r l e v e l d r a ft e r s .
C la s s B . P e r f o r m s n o n rou tin e and c o m p le x d r a ftin g a s s ig n m e n ts
th a t r e q u ir e th e a p p lic a tio n o f m o s t o f the sta n d a rd ize d d ra w in g tech n iq u es
r e g u la r ly u sed.
D u tie s t y p ic a lly in v o lv e such w o r k as:
P r e p a r e s w o rk in g
d r a w in g s o f s u b a s s e m b lie s w ith ir r e g u la r shapes, m u ltip le fu n c tio n s , and
p r e c i s e p o s it io n a l r e la tio n s h ip s b e tw e e n com p on en ts; p r e p a r e s a r c h ite c tu r a l
d r a w in g s f o r c o n s tr u c tio n o f a b u ild in g in clu d in g d e ta il d ra w in g s o f foun­
d a tio n s , w a ll s e c t io n s , f l o o r p la n s, and r o o f. U s e s a c c e p te d fo r m u la s
and m a n u a ls in m a k in g n e c e s s a r y com p u tation s to d e te rm in e q u a n titie s o f
m a t e r i a l s to b e u s e d , lo a d c a p a c itie s , s tre n g th s , s tr e s s e s , e tc . R e c e iv e s
in it ia l in s tr u c tio n s , r e q u ir e m e n t s , and a d v ic e fr o m s u p e r v is o r . C o m p le te d
w o r k is c h e c k e d f o r t e c h n ic a l ad equ acy.




P r e p a r e s s im p le o r r e p e t it iv e d ra w in g s o f e a s ily v is u a liz e d ite m s .
W o r k is c lo s e ly s u p e r v is e d d u rin g p r o g r e s s .
E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N
W o rk s on v a rio u s ty p es o f e le c t r o n ic e qu ip m en t and r e la te d d e v ic e s
b y p e r fo r m in g one o r a c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : In s ta llin g , m ain ta in in g,
r e p a ir in g , o v e r h a u lin g , tro u b le s h o o tin g , m o d ify in g , c o n s tru c tin g , and te s tin g .
W o r k r e q u ir e s p r a c t ic a l a p p lic a tio n o f te c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e o f e le c tr o n ic s
p r in c ip le s , a b ility to d e te r m in e m a lfu n c tio n s , and s k ill to put equipm en t in
r e q u ir e d o p e r a tin g con d ition .
T h e equ ip m en t— c o n s is tin g o f e ith e r m a n y d iffe r e n t kinds o f c irc u its
o r m u ltip le r e p e titio n o f the s a m e kind o f c ir c u it — in c lu d e s , but is not lim ite d
to, the fo llo w in g : (a ) E le c t r o n ic tr a n s m ittin g and r e c e iv in g equipm en t (e .g .,
r a d a r , r a d io , te le v is io n , te le p h o n e , s o n a r, n a v ig a tio n a l a id s ), (b) d ig it a l and
an alog c o m p u te rs , and (c ) in d u s tria l and m e d ic a l m e a s u rin g and c o n tro llin g
e qu ip m en t.
T h is c la s s ific a t io n e x c lu d e s r e p a ir e r s o f such stan dard e le c tr o n ic
eq u ip m en t as com m o n o f f ic e m a c h in e s and hou seh old r a d io and te le v is io n
s e ts ; p ro d u c tio n a s s e m b le r s and t e s t e r s ; w o r k e r s w h o s e p r im a r y duty is
s e r v ic in g e le c t r o n ic te s t in s tru m e n ts ; te c h n icia n s w ho h a ve a d m in is tra tiv e
o r s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s ib ilit y ; and d r a ft e r s , d e s ig n e r s , and p r o fe s s io n a l
e n g in e e r s .
P o s itio n s
d e fin itio n s .

a re c la s s ifie d

into

l e v e l s on

the b a s is o f the

fo llo w in g

C la s s A . A p p lie s ad van ced te c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e to s o lv e unusually
c o m p le x p r o b le m s (i . e . , th ose that t y p ic a lly cannot be s o lv e d s o le ly by r e f e r ­
en ce to m a n u fa c tu r e r s ' m an u a ls o r s im ila r d oc u m e n ts ) in w o rk in g on e le c ­
tr o n ic equ ip m en t. E x a m p le s o f such p r o b le m s in clu d e lo c a tio n and d e n s ity o f
c ir c u it r y , e le c t r o m a g n e tic ra d ia tio n , is o la tin g m a lfu n c tio n s , and fre q u en t
e n g in e e r in g c h a n ges. W o r k in v o lv e s ; A d e ta ile d u n d erstan d in g o f the in te r ­
re la tio n s h ip s o f c ir c u it s ; e x e r c is in g in d ep en d en t ju d g m e n t in p e r fo r m in g such
task s as m a k in g c ir c u it a n a ly s e s , c a lc u la tin g w a v e fo r m s , tr a c in g r e la tio n ­
ships in s ig n a l flo w ; and r e g u la r ly u sin g c o m p le x te s t in stru m en ts (e .g ., dual
t r a c e o s c illo s c o p e s , Q - m e t e r s , d e v ia tio n m e t e r s , p u ls e g e n e r a t o r s ).

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN— Continued

MAINTENANCE CARPENTER— Continued

W o r k m a y be r e v ie w e d b y s u p e r v is o r (fr e q u e n tly an e n g in e e r o r
d e s ig n e r ) f o r g e n e r a l c o m p lia n c e w ith ac c e p ted p r a c t ic e s .
M a y p r o v id e
te c h n ic a l gu id an ce to lo w e r l e v e l te c h n ic ia n s .

la y in g ou t o f w o rk fro m b lu e p rin ts , d ra w in g s , m o d e ls , o r v e r b a l in s tru c tio n s ;
u sin g a v a r ie t y o f c a r p e n te r 's h a n d tools, p o r ta b le p o w e r to o ls , and stan dard
m e a s u rin g in stru m en ts; m ak in g stan dard shop com p u tation s r e la tin g to d i­
m en s io n s o f w o rk ; and s e le c tin g m a t e r ia ls n e c e s s a r y fo r the w o rk .
In
g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f the m ain ten an ce c a r p e n te r r e q u ir e s rounded tra in in g
and e x p e rie n c e u su a lly a c q u ire d th rough a f o r m a l
a p p re n tic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

C la s s B . A p p lie s c o m p re h e n s iv e te c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e to s o lv e c o m ­
p le x p r o b le m s ( i . e . , th o s e that ty p ic a lly can be s o lv e d s o le ly b y p r o p e r ly
in te r p r e tin g m a n u fa c tu r e r s ' m anu als o r s im ila r d ocu m en ts) in w o rk in g on
e le c t r o n ic e qu ip m en t. W o r k in v o lv e s : A f a m ilia r it y w ith the in t e r r e la t io n ­
ships o f c ir c u it s ; and ju d g m e n t in d e te rm in in g w o rk sequ en ce and in s e le c tin g
to o ls and te s tin g in s tru m e n ts , u s u a lly le s s c o m p le x than th ose u sed by the
c la s s A te c h n icia n .
R e c e iv e s te c h n ic a l gu id an ce, as r e q u ire d , f r o m s u p e r v is o r o r h ig h e r
le v e l te c h n ic ia n , and w o r k is r e v ie w e d f o r s p e c ific c o m p lia n c e w ith a c c e p ted
p r a c t ic e s and w o r k a s s ig n m e n ts .
M a y p r o v id e te c h n ic a l gu id ance to lo w e r
le v e l te c h n ic ia n s .
C la s s C . A p p lie s w o rk in g te c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e to p e r fo r m s im p le o r
rou tin e task s in w o rk in g on e le c t r o n ic equ ip m en t, fo llo w in g d e ta ile d in s tr u c ­
tion s w h ich c o v e r v ir t u a lly a ll p r o c e d u r e s . W o rk ty p ic a lly in v o lv e s such
task s as: A s s is tin g h ig h e r l e v e l te c h n icia n s b y p e r fo r m in g such a c tiv itie s as
r e p la c in g com p on en ts, w ir in g c ir c u it s , and taking te s t r e a d in g s ; r e p a ir in g
s im p le e le c t r o n ic equ ip m en t; and u sing to o ls and com m o n te s t in stru m en ts
( e .g ., m u ltim e t e r s , audio s ig n a l g e n e r a t o r s , tube t e s t e r s , o s c illo s c o p e s ).
Is not r e q u ir e d to be f a m ilia r w ith the in te r r e la tio n s h ip s o f c ir c u it s . T h is
k n o w le d g e , h o w e v e r , m a y be a c q u ire d through ass ign m e n ts d e s ig n e d to
in c r e a s e c o m p e te n c e (in c lu d in g c la s s r o o m tr a in in g ) so that w o r k e r can
advance to h ig h e r l e v e l te c h n icia n .
R e c e iv e s te c h n ic a l gu idance, as r e q u ir e d , f r o m s u p e r v is o r o r h ig h e r
le v e l te c h n ic ia n . W o r k is ty p ic a lly sp ot ch eck ed , but is g iv e n d e ta ile d r e v ie w
when new o r advanced ass ign m e n ts a re in v o lv e d .
R E G IS T E R E D IN D U S T R IA L N U R SE
A r e g is t e r e d n u rse w ho g iv e s n u rsin g s e r v ic e under g e n e r a l m e d ic a l
d ir e c tio n to i l l o r in ju re d e m p lo y e e s o r o th e r p e rs o n s who b e c o m e i l l o r
s u ffe r an a c c id e n t on the p r e m is e s o f a fa c t o r y o r o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n t.
D u ties in v o lv e a c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : G iv in g f i r s t aid to the i l l o r
in ju red ; atten ding to subsequent d r e s s in g o f e m p lo y e e s ' in ju r ie s ; k e ep in g
r e c o r d s o f p atien ts tr e a te d ; p r e p a r in g a c c id e n t r e p o r ts f o r c o m p en s a tio n o r
o th er p u rp o s e s ; a s s is tin g in p h y s ic a l ex a m in a tio n s and h ealth e v a lu a tio n s o f
ap p lican ts and e m p lo y e e s ; and plann ing and c a r r y in g out p r o g r a m s in v o lv in g
health ed u cation , a c c id e n t p re v e n tio n , e v a lu a tio n o f plant e n v iro n m e n t, o r
o th e r a c tiv itie s a ffe c tin g the h ealth , w e lf a r e , and s a fe ty o f a ll p e rs o n n e l.
N u rs in g s u p e r v is o r s o r head n u rses in e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g m o r e than
one n u rse a re exclu d ed .

Maintenance, Toolroom, and Powerplant
M A IN T E N A N C E C A R P E N T E R
P e r f o r m s the c a r p e n tr y d u ties n e c e s s a r y to c o n s tru c t and m a in ta in
in good r e p a ir b u ild in g w o o d w o rk and e q u ip m en t such as b in s, c rib s , co u n te rs ,
b en ch es, p a r titio n s , d o o rs , f lo o r s , s t a ir s , c a s in g s , and tr im m a d e o f w ood
in an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g and




M A IN T E N A N C E E L E C T R IC IA N
P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l tr a d e fu n ctio n s such as the in s ta l­
la tio n , m ain ten an ce, o r r e p a ir o f e q u ip m en t f o r the g e n e ra tio n , d is trib u tio n ,
o r u tiliz a tio n o f e le c t r ic e n e rg y in an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t
o f the fo llo w in g : In s ta llin g o r r e p a ir in g any o f a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l equipm en t such as g e n e r a to r s , t r a n s fo r m e r s , s w itc h b o a rd s , c o n t r o lle r s , c ir c u it
b r e a k e r s , m o to r s , heatin g units, con du it s y s te m s , o r o th e r tr a n s m is s io n
equ ip m en t; w o rk in g fro m b lu e p rin ts , d ra w in g s , la y o u ts , o r o th e r s p e c if i­
ca tio n s ; lo c a tin g and d ia gn osin g tr o u b le in the e l e c t r i c a l s y s te m o r equ ip ­
m en t; w o rk in g standard com pu tations r e la tin g to loa d r e q u ire m e n ts o f w ir in g
o r e le c t r ic a l equipm ent; and using a v a r ie t y o f e le c t r i c i a n 's h an d tools and
m e a s u rin g and te s tin g in s tru m e n ts . In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m a in ten a n ce
e le c t r ic ia n r e q u ire s rounded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ire d through
a fo r m a l a p p re n tic es h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
M A IN T E N A N C E P A IN T E R
P a in ts and r e d e c o r a te s w a lls , w o o d w o rk , and fix tu r e s o f an e s ta b ­
lis h m e n t. W o rk in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g : K n o w le d g e o f s u r fa c e p e c u lia r it ie s
and ty p es o f paint r e q u ire d f o r d iffe r e n t a p p lic a tio n s ; p r e p a r in g s u r fa c e
f o r p a in tin g by r e m o v in g old fin is h o r b y p la c in g putty o r f i l l e r in n a il
h o le s and in t e r s tic e s ; and applyin g p a in t w ith s p r a y gun o r b ru sh .
M ay
m ix c o lo r s , o ils , w h ite le a d , and o th e r p ain t in g r e d ie n ts to ob tain p r o p e r
c o lo r o r c o n sis te n cy .
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m a in te n a n c e p a in te r
r e q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ire d th rough a fo r m a l
a p p re n tic es h ip o r eq u iva len t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
M A IN T E N A N C E M A C H IN IS T
P ro d u c e s re p la c e m e n t p a rts and new p a rts in m a k in g r e p a ir s o f
m e ta l p a rts o f m e c h a n ic a l equ ip m en t o p e r a te d in an e s ta b lis h m e n t. W o rk
in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : In te r p r e tin g w r itte n in s tru c tio n s and s p e c i­
fic a tio n s ; planning and la y in g out o f w o r k ; u sin g a v a r i e t y o f m a c h in is t's
handtools and p r e c is io n m e a s u rin g in s tru m e n ts ; s e ttin g up and o p e r a tin g
stan dard m ach in e to o ls ; shaping o f m e t a l p a rts to c lo s e t o le r a n c e s ; m ak in g
stan dard shop com putations r e la tin g to d im e n s io n s o f w o rk , to o lin g , fe e d s ,
and sp eed s o f m ach in in g; k n o w le d g e o f the w o rd in g p r o p e r t ie s o f the com m o n
m e t a ls ; s e le c tin g standard m a t e r ia ls , p a r ts , and e q u ip m en t r e q u ir e d f o r this
w o rk ; and fittin g and a s s e m b lin g p a r ts into m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m en t.
In
g e n e r a l, the m a c h in is t's w o rk n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a rounded tr a in in g in
m a c h in e -s h o p p r a c tic e u s u a lly a c q u ire d th rou gh a f o r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e .
M A IN T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC (M a c h in e r y )
R e p a ir s m a c h in e r y o r m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m en t o f an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : E x a m in in g m a c h in e s and m e c h a n ic a l
equ ip m en t to d ia g n o s e s o u rc e o f tr o u b le ; d is m a n tlin g o r p a r t ly d is m a n tlin g
m a ch in es and p e r fo r m in g r e p a ir s that m a in ly in v o lv e the u se o f han d tools in
s c ra p in g and fittin g p a r ts ; re p la c in g b ro k e n o r d e fe c t iv e p a rts w ith ite m s

M AINTENANCE MECHANIC (Machinery)— Continued

M ILLW RIG H T

o b ta in ed fr o m s to c k ; o r d e r in g the p ro d u c tio n o f a r e p la c e m e n t p a r t by a
m a c h in e shop o r s e n d in g the m a c h in e to a m a c h in e shop f o r m a jo r r e p a ir s ;
p r e p a r in g w r itte n s p e c ific a tio n s f o r m a jo r r e p a ir s o r f o r the p ro d u c tio n o f
p a rts o r d e r e d f r o m m a c h in e shops; r e a s s e m b lin g m a c h in e s ; and m a k in g a ll
n e c e s s a r y a d ju stm en ts f o r o p e r a tio n . In g e n e ra l, the w o r k o f a m a c h in e r y
m a in te n a n c e m e c h a n ic r e q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly
a c q u ir e d th rou gh a f o r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r i­
e n c e . E x c lu d e d f r o m th is c la s s ific a t io n a re w o r k e r s w h o s e p r im a r y d u ties
in v o lv e s e ttin g up o r a d ju stin g m a c h in e s .

In s ta lls new m a c h in e s o r h e a v y equ ip m en t, and d is m a n tle s and
in s ta lls m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m en t w hen ch an ges in the plan t la y o u t a re
r e q u ir e d .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g and la y in g out
w o r k ; in t e r p r e tin g b lu e p rin ts o r o th e r s p e c ific a tio n s ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f handto o ls and r ig g in g ; m a k in g stan d a rd shop com p u tatio n s r e la tin g to s tr e s s e s ,
s tren g th o f m a t e r ia ls , and c e n te r s o f g r a v ity ; a lig n in g and b alan cin g equ ip­
m en t; s e le c tin g stan d a rd to o ls , equ ip m en t, and p a r ts to be used ; and in s ta llin g
and m a in ta in in g in g ood o r d e r p o w e r tr a n s m is s io n e qu ip m en t such as d r iv e s
and s p ee d r e d u c e r s . In g e n e r a l, the m illw r ig h t 's w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a
roun ded tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e in the tr a d e a c q u ire d through a fo r m a l
a p p re n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

M A I N T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC (M o t o r v e h ic le )
R e p a ir s a u to m o b ile s , b u ses, m o to rtr u c k s , and t r a c t o r s o f an e s ta b ­
lis h m e n t. W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : E xa m in in g a u to m o tiv e equ ip ­
m e n t to d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f tr o u b le ; d is a s s e m b lin g equ ip m en t and p e r fo r m in g
r e p a ir s th at in v o lv e the u se o f such handtools as w r e n c h e s , g a u g es , d r ills ,
o r s p e c ia liz e d e q u ip m en t in d is a s s e m b lin g o r fittin g p a r ts ; r e p la c in g b ro k en
o r d e fe c t iv e p a r ts fr o m s to c k ; g rin d in g and adjusting v a lv e s ; r e a s s e m b lin g
and in s ta llin g the v a r io u s a s s e m b lie s in the v e h ic le and m ak in g n e c e s s a r y
a d ju s tm e n ts ; and a lig n in g w h e e ls , adjustin g b ra k e s and lig h ts , o r tig h te n in g
b od y b o lts . In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m o to r v e h ic le m a in te n a n c e m e c h a n ic
r e q u ir e s rou n ded tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly ac q u ire d th rough a fo r m a l
a p p re n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
T h is c la s s ific a t io n d o e s not include m ec h a n ic s w h o
t o m e r s ' v e h ic le s in a u to m o b ile r e p a ir shops.

r e p a ir

M A IN T E N A N C E T R A D E S H E L P E R
A s s is t s one o r m o r e w o r k e r s in the s k ille d m a in te n a n c e tr a d e s , by
p e r fo r m in g s p e c ific o r g e n e r a l d u ties o f l e s s e r s k ill, such as k e ep in g a
w o r k e r s u p p lied w ith m a t e r ia ls and to o ls ; c le a n in g w o rk in g a re a , m a c h in e ,
and e qu ip m en t; a s s is tin g jo u rn e y m a n b y h o ld in g m a t e r ia ls o r to o ls ; and p e r ­
fo r m in g o th e r u n s k ille d task s as d ir e c te d by jo u rn e y m a n . T h e kind o f w o rk
the h e lp e r is p e r m itte d to p e r fo r m v a r ie s fr o m tr a d e to tra d e :
In som e
tr a d e s the h e lp e r is c on fin e d to s u p p lyin g, lift in g , and h o ld in g m a te r ia ls and
to o ls , and c le a n in g w o rk in g a r e a s ; and in o th e rs he is p e r m itte d to p e r fo r m
s p e c ia liz e d m a c h in e o p e r a tio n s , o r p a rts o f a tr a d e that a re a lso p e r fo r m e d
b y w o r k e r s on a f u ll- t im e b a s is .

cu s­
M A C H IN E - T O O L O P E R A T O R (T o o lr o o m )
S p e c ia liz e s in o p e r a tin g one o r m o r e than one ty p e o f m a c h in e to o l
(e . g . , j i g b o r e r , g rin d in g m a c h in e , en gin e la th e , m illin g m a c h in e ) to m ach in e
m e t a l f o r u se in m a k in g o r m a in ta in in g j i g s , fix tu r e s , cu ttin g to o ls , gau ges,
o r m e t a l d ie s o r m o ld s u sed in shaping o r fo r m in g m e t a l o r n o n m e ta llic
m a t e r ia l (e . g . , p la s tic , p la s te r , ru b b e r, g la s s ).
W o r k ty p ic a lly in v o lv e s ;
P la n n in g and p e r fo r m in g d if fic u lt m a c h in in g o p e r a tio n s w h ich r e q u ir e c o m ­
p lic a te d setups o r a high d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ; s e ttin g up m a c h in e to o l o r
to o ls (e . g . , in s ta ll cu ttin g to o ls and ad ju st g u id es , s to p s , w o rk in g ta b le s ,
and o th e r c o n tro ls to h an d le the s iz e o f s to c k to b e m a c h in e d ; d e te rm in e
p r o p e r fe e d s , s p ee d s , to o lin g , and o p e r a tio n s e q u e n c e o r s e le c t th ose p r e ­
s c r ib e d in d ra w in g s , b lu e p rin ts , o r la y o u ts ); u sin g a v a r ie t y o f p r e c is io n
m e a s u r in g in s tru m e n ts ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y ad ju stm en ts d u rin g m a ch in in g
o p e r a tio n to a c h ie v e r e q u is ite d im e n s io n s to v e r y c lo s e to le r a n c e s .
M ay
b e r e q u ir e d to s e le c t p r o p e r c o o la n ts and cuttin g and lu b r ic a tin g o ils , to
r e c o g n iz e w h en to o ls need d r e s s in g , and to d r e s s to o ls . In g e n e r a l, the w o rk
o f a m a c h in e - to o l o p e r a t o r (t o o lr o o m ) at the s k ill l e v e l c a lle d fo r in this
c la s s ific a t io n r e q u ir e s e x te n s iv e k n o w le d g e o f m a c h in e -s h o p and to o lr o o m
p r a c t ic e u s u a lly a c q u ire d th rou gh c o n s id e r a b le o n - th e - jo b tra in in g and
e x p e r ie n c e .

M A IN T E N A N C E P IP E F IT T E R
In s ta lls o r r e p a ir s w a t e r , stea m , g as, o r o th e r ty p es o f p ip e and
p ip e fitt in g s in an e s ta b lis h m e n t. W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : L a y in g
out w o r k and m e a s u r in g to lo c a t e p o s itio n o f p ip e fr o m d ra w in g s o r o th e r
w r it t e n s p e c ific a t io n s ; c u ttin g v a r io u s s iz e s o f p ip e to c o r r e c t le n g th s w ith
c h is e l and h a m m e r o r o x y a c e ty le n e to rc h o r p ip e -c u ttin g m a c h in e s ; th re a d in g
p ip e w ith stoc k s and d ie s ; b ending p ip e b y h a n d -d riv e n o r p o w e r - d r iv e n
m a c h in e s ; a s s e m b lin g p ip e w ith cou p lin gs and fa s te n in g p ip e to h a n g e rs ;
m a k in g stan d a rd shop com p u ta tio n s r e la tin g to p r e s s u r e s , flo w , and s iz e o f
p ip e r e q u ir e d ; and m a k in g s ta n d a rd te s ts to d e te rm in e w h eth e r fin is h e d p ip es
m e e t s p e c ific a t io n s .
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m ain ten a n ce p ip e fit t e r
r e q u ir e s rou n ded tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ire d th rou gh a f o r m a l
a p p re n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
W o r k e r s p r im a r ily
e n g a g ed in in s ta llin g and r e p a ir in g b u ild in g san itation o r h eatin g s y s te m s
a r e e x c lu d e d .
M A IN T E N A N C E S H E E T - M E T A L W O R K E R
F a b r ic a t e s , in s ta lls , and m ain ta in s in good r e p a ir the s h e e t-m e t a l
e q u ip m en t and f ix t u r e s (s u c h as m a c h in e gu ards, g r e a s e p ans, s h e lv e s ,
lo c k e r s , tan k s, v e n t ila t o r s , ch u tes, ducts, m e ta l r o o fin g ) o f an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g ; P la n n in g and la y in g ou t a ll ty p e s o f
s h e e t- m e t a l m a in te n a n c e w o r k fr o m b lu e p rin ts , m o d e ls , o r o th e r s p e c if i­
c a tio n s ; s e ttin g up and o p e r a tin g a ll a v a ila b le typ es o f s h e e t-m e t a l w o rk in g
m a c h in e s ; u sin g a v a r i e t y o f h a n d too ls in cu ttin g, bending, fo r m in g , shaping,
fittin g , and a s s e m b lin g ; and in s ta llin g s h e e t-m e ta l a r t ic le s as r e q u ir e d . In
g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n c e s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r r e q u ir e s rounded
tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ire d through a fo r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .




F o r c r o s s - in d u s t r y w a g e study p u rp o s e s , this c la s s ific a t io n d oes not
in c lu d e m a c h in e - to o l o p e r a to r s (t o o lr o o m ) e m p lo y e d in to o l and d ie job b in g
shops.
T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R
C o n s tru c ts and r e p a ir s j i g s , fix t u r e s , cu ttin g to o ls , g a u g es, o r m e ta l
d ie s o r m o ld s u sed in shapin g o r fo r m in g m e t a l o r n o n m e ta llic m a t e r ia l (e .g .,
p la s tic , p la s t e r , ru b b e r, g la s s ). W o rk ty p ic a lly i n v o lv e s : P la n n in g and la y in g
ou t w o r k a c c o r d in g to m o d e ls , b lu e p rin ts , d ra w in g s , o r o th e r w r itte n o r o r a l
s p e c ific a tio n s ; u n d ersta n d in g the w o rk in g p r o p e r t ie s o f com m on m e ta ls and

25

TOOL, AND DIE MAKER— Continued

SHIPPER AND RECEIVER

a llo y s ; s e le c tin g a p p ro p ria te m a t e r ia ls , to o ls , and p r o c e s s e s r e q u ir e d to
c o m p le te ta s k s ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y shop c om p u ta tio n s; s e ttin g up and o p e r ­
ating v a r io u s m a c h in e to o ls and r e la te d e q u ip m en t; u sin g v a r io u s to o l and
d ie m a k e r 's h and tools and p r e c is io n m e a s u rin g in s tru m e n ts ; w o rk in g to v e r y
c lo s e to le r a n c e s ; h e a t -tr e a t in g m e t a l p a rts and fin is h e d to o ls and d ie s to
a c h ie v e r e q u ir e d q u a litie s ; fittin g and a s s e m b lin g p a rts to p r e s c r ib e d t o l e r ­
ances and a llo w a n c e s . In g e n e r a l, the to o l and d ie m a k e r 's w o r k r e q u ir e s
rounded tr a in in g in m a c h in e -s h o p and to o lr o o m p r a c t ic e u s u a lly a c q u ire d
through fo r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a i n i n g
and e x p e r ie n c e .

P e r f o r m s c l e r ic a l and p h y s ic a l ta s k s in c o n n ection w ith ship p ing
good s o f the e s ta b lis h m e n t in w h ich e m p lo y e d and r e c e iv in g in c o m in g
sh ip m en ts .
In p e r fo r m in g d a y - to - d a y , ro u tin e ta s k s , fo llo w s e s ta b lis h e d
g u id e lin e s . In handling unusual n o n rou tin e p r o b le m s , r e c e iv e s s p e c ific gu id ­
ance f r o m s u p e r v is o r o r o th e r o f f i c i a l s .
M a y d i r e c t and c o o rd in a te the
a c tiv itie s o f o th er w o r k e r s e n gaged in h a n d lin g go o d s to be ship p ed o r b ein g
r e c e iv e d .

F o r c r o s s - in d u s t r y w a g e study p u rp o s e s , th is c la s s ific a t io n d oes not
inclu d e to o l and d ie m a k e r s w h o ( l ) a r e e m p lo y e d in to o l and d ie jo b b in g
shops o r (2 ) p ro d u c e fo r g in g d ie s (d ie s in k e r s ).
S T A T IO N A R Y E N G IN E E R
O p e r a te s and m a in ta in s and m a y a ls o s u p e r v is e the o p e r a tio n o f
s ta tio n a r y en g in es and equ ip m en t (m e c h a n ic a l o r e le c t r ic a l) to su p p ly the
e s ta b lis h m e n t in w h ich e m p lo y e d w ith p o w e r , heat, r e f r ig e r a t io n , o r a ir c o n d itio n in g . W o rk in v o lv e s : O p e ra tin g and m a in ta in in g eq u ip m en t such as
steam e n g in e s , a ir c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o t o r s , tu rb in e s , v e n tila tin g
and r e f r ig e r a t in g equ ip m en t, s te a m b o ile r s and b o ile r - f e d w a t e r pum ps;
m ak in g e qu ip m en t r e p a ir s ; and k e e p in g a r e c o r d o f o p e r a tio n o f m a c h in e r y ,
te m p e r a tu r e , and fu e l con su m p tion .
M a y a ls o s u p e r v is e th e s e o p e r a tio n s .
H ead o r c h ie f e n g in e e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g m o r e than on e e n g in e e r
ar e e x c lu d e d .

S h ip pers t y p ic a lly a r e r e s p o n s ib le f o r m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : V e r ­
ify in g that o r d e r s a re a c c u r a te ly f i l l e d b y c o m p a r in g ite m s and qu a n tities
o f good s g a th e re d f o r sh ip m en t a g a in s t d o c u m e n ts ; in s u rin g that sh ip m en ts
a re p r o p e r ly p ack aged , id e n tifie d w ith s h ip p in g in fo r m a tio n , and lo a d e d into
tr a n s p o r tin g v e h ic le s ; p re p a r in g and k e e p in g r e c o r d s o f good s sh ip p ed, e .g .,
m a n ife s ts , b ills o f la d in g .
R e c e iv e r s ty p ic a lly a re r e s p o n s ib le f o r m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
V e r if y in g the c o r r e c tn e s s o f in c o m in g s h ip m en ts b y c o m p a rin g ite m s and
qu a n titie s u nloaded a g a in st b ills o f la d in g , in v o ic e s , m a n ife s ts , s to r a g e
r e c e ip ts , o r o th e r r e c o r d s ; ch e c k in g f o r d a m a g e d g o o d s ; in s u rin g that
good s a r e a p p r o p r ia te ly id e n tifie d f o r ro u tin g to d e p a rtm e n ts w ith in the
e s ta b lis h m e n t; p re p a r in g and k e ep in g r e c o r d s o f good s r e c e iv e d .
For

w age

study

p u rp o s e s ,

w o rk ers

are

c la s s ifie d

as

fo llo w s :

S h ipper
R e c e iv e r
Sh ip per and r e c e iv e r

B O IL E R T E N D E R
F i r e s s ta tio n a r y b o ile r s to fu rn is h the e s ta b lis h m e n t in w h ich
e m p lo y e d w ith heat, p o w e r , o r s te a m .
F e e d s fu e ls to f i r e b y hand o r
o p e r a te s a m e c h a n ic a l s to k e r , g a s , o r o il b u rn e r; and ch eck s w a t e r and
s a fe ty v a lv e s . M a y c le a n , o il, o r a s s is t in r e p a ir in g b o ile r r o o m e qu ip m en t.

Material Movement and Custodial
T R U C K D R IV E R
D r iv e s
a tru c k w ith in a c ity o r in d u s tr ia l a r e a to tr a n s p o r t
m a t e r ia ls , m e r c h a n d is e , equ ip m en t, o r w o r k e r s b e tw e e n v a r io u s ty p es o f
e s ta b lis h m e n ts such as: M a n u fa ctu rin g p la n ts, fr e ig h t d e p o ts , w a r e h o u s e s ,
w h o le s a le and r e t a il e s ta b lis h m e n ts , o r b e tw e e n r e t a il e s ta b lis h m e n ts and
c u s to m e r s ' houses o r p la c e s o f b u s in e s s .
M a y a ls o lo a d o r unload tru c k
w ith o r w ith o u t h e lp e r s , m a k e m in o r m e c h a n ic a l r e p a ir s , and k e e p tru c k in
good w o r k in g o r d e r .
S a le s ro u te and o v e r - t h e - r o a d d r iv e r s a re e x c lu d e d .
F o r w a g e study p u rp o s e s , t r u c k d r iv e r s
rated c a p a c ity o f tru c k , as fo llo w s ;

a r e c la s s ifie d b y typ e

T r u c k d r iv e r , lig h t tru ck
(s t r a ig h t tru ck , u n der 1V2 tons, u s u a lly 4 w h e e ls )
T r u c k d r iv e r , m ed iu m tru ck
(s t r a ig h t tru ck , IV2 to 4 tons in c lu s iv e , u s u a lly 6 w h e e ls )
T r u c k d r iv e r , h e a v y tru c k
(s t r a ig h t tru c k , o v e r 4 ton s, u s u a lly 10 w h e e ls )
T r u c k d r iv e r , t r a c t o r - t r a i l e r




and

W AREHOUSEM AN
A s d ir e c te d , p e r fo r m s a v a r ie t y o f w a r e h o u s in g d u tie s w h ich r e q u ir e
an u n derstan d in g o f the e s ta b lis h m e n t's s to r a g e p la n . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t
o f the fo llo w in g : V e r ify in g m a t e r ia ls ( o r m e r c h a n d is e ) a g a in s t r e c e iv in g
d ocu m en ts, noting and r e p o r tin g d is c r e p a n c ie s and ob v io u s d a m a g e s ; rou tin g
m a t e r ia ls to p r e s c r ib e d s to r a g e lo c a tio n s ; s to r in g , s ta c k in g , o r p a lle t iz in g
m a t e r ia ls in a c c o rd a n c e w ith p r e s c r ib e d s to r a g e m e th o d s ; r e a r r a n g in g and
tak in g in v e n to r y o f s t o r e d m a t e r ia ls ; e x a m in in g s to r e d m a t e r ia ls
and
r e p o r tin g d e te r io r a t io n and d a m a ge ; r e m o v in g m a t e r i a l fr o m s to r a g e and
p re p a r in g it fo r sh ip m en t. M a y o p e r a te hand o r p o w e r tru c k s in p e r fo r m in g
w a re h o u s in g d u ties.
E xclu d e w o r k e r s w h ose p r im a r y d u ties in v o lv e sh ip p in g and r e c e i v ­
ing w o r k (s e e Sh ip per and R e c e i v e r and Shipping P a c k e r ) , o r d e r f ill i n g
(s e e O r d e r F i l l e r ) , o r o p e ra tin g p o w e r tr u c k s (s e e P o w e r - T r u c k O p e r a t o r ).
O RD ER F IL L E R
F i l l s shipping o r t r a n s fe r o r d e r s f o r fin is h e d good s fr o m s to r e d
m e r c h a n d is e in a c c o rd a n c e w ith s p e c ific a tio n s on s a le s s lip s , c u s to m e r s '
o r d e r s , o r oth er in s tru c tio n s . M a y , in ad d ition to f ill i n g o r d e r s and in d i­
catin g ite m s f ille d o r o m itte d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f ou tgo in g o r d e r s , r e q u is itio n
a d d itio n a l stock o r r e p o r t s h o rt su p p lies to s u p e r v is o r , and p e r fo r m o th e r
r e la te d d u ties.
S H IP P IN G P A C K E R
P r e p a r e s fin is h e d p rod u cts f o r s h ip m en t o r s to r a g e by p la c in g them
in ship p ing c o n ta in e rs , the s p e c ific o p e r a tio n s p e r fo r m e d b e in g depen den t
upon the ty p e, s iz e , and num ber o f units to b e p a ck ed , the ty p e o f c o n ta in e r

SHIPPING PACKER— Continued

GUARD— Continued

e m p lo y e d , and m eth o d o f s h ip m en t. W o r k r e q u ir e s the p la c in g o f ite m s in
sh ip p in g c o n ta in e r s and m a y in v o lv e one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g ; K n o w le d g e
o f v a r io u s ite m s o f s to c k in o r d e r to v e r i f y content; s e le c tio n o f a p p ro p ria te
ty p e and s i z e o f c o n ta in e r ; in s e r tin g e n c lo s u re s in c o n ta in e r; u sin g e x c e ls io r
o r o th e r m a t e r ia l to p r e v e n t b re a k a g e o r d a m a ge; c lo s in g and s e a lin g con­
ta in e r ; and a p p lyin g la b e ls o r e n te r in g id e n tify in g data on c o n ta in e r . P a c k e r s
w ho a ls o m a k e w o o d e n b o x e s o r c ra te s a re ex c lu d e d .

G u ard s e m p lo y e d by e s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ich p r o v id e p r o te c tiv e s e r ­
v ic e s on a c o n tr a c t b a s is a re inclu d ed in th is o ccu p atio n .

M A T E R I A L H A N D L IN G L A B O R E R
A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a re h o u s e , m a n u fa ctu rin g plant, s to r e , o r
o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n t w h o s e d u ties in v o lv e one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g :
L o a d in g and u n load in g v a r io u s m a t e r ia ls and m e rc h a n d is e on o r fr o m fr e ig h t
c a r s , tr u c k s , o r o th e r tr a n s p o r tin g d e v ic e s ; unpacking, s h e lv in g , o r p la c in g
m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r s to r a g e lo c a tio n ; and tr a n s p o r tin g
m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e b y handtruck, c a r , o r w h e e lb a r r o w .
L on gsh ore
w o r k e r s , w ho lo a d and u n load sh ip s, a re exclu d ed .
P O W E R -T R U C K O P E R A T O R
O p e r a te s a m a n u a lly c o n tr o lle d g a s o lin e - o r e le c t r ic p o w e re d tru c k
o r t r a c t o r to t r a n s p o r t g o o d s and m a t e r ia ls o f a ll kinds about a w a re h o u s e ,
m a n u fa c tu rin g p lan t, o r o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n t.

tru c k ,

F o r w a g e study p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a re c la s s ifie d b y ty p e o f p o w e r as fo llo w s :

F o r w age

study

purposes,

gu ards

a re

c la s s ifie d

as

fo llo w s :

C la s s A .
E n fo r c e s r e g u la tio n s d e s ig n e d to p re v e n t b re a c h es o f
s e c u r ity .
E x e r c is e s ju d g m en t and u ses d is c r e tio n in d e a lin g w ith e m e r ­
g e n c ie s
a n d s e c u r ity v io la tio n s e n c o u n te red .
D e te r m in e s w h eth er f i r s t
r e s p o n s e should be to in te r v e n e d ir e c t ly (a s k in g fo r a s s is ta n c e w hen d eem ed
n e c e s s a r y and tim e a llo w s ), to k e ep situ a tion u n der s u r v e illa n c e , o r to r e p o r t
situ a tion so that it can be handled b y a p p ro p ria te a u th ority . D u ties r e q u ir e
s p e c ia liz e d tr a in in g in m eth od s and tech n iqu es o f p r o te c tin g s e c u r ity a re a s .
C o m m o n ly , the gu ard is r e q u ir e d to d e m o n s tr a te con tinuin g p h y s ic a l fitn e s s
and p r o fic ie n c y w ith f ir e a r m s o r o th e r s p e c ia l w eap on s.
C la s s B . C a r r ie s out in s tru c tio n s p r im a r ily o r ie n te d to w a rd in­
su rin g that e m e r g e n c ie s and s e c u r ity v io la tio n s a re r e a d ily d is c o v e r e d and
r e p o r te d to a p p ro p ria te a u th o rity .
In te r v e n e s d i r e c t ly o n ly in situations
w h ich r e q u ir e m in im a l actio n to s a fe g u a rd p r o p e r ty o r p e rs o n s . D u ties r e ­
q u ir e m in im a l tr a in in g . C o m m o n ly , the gu ard is not r e q u ir e d to d e m o n s tra te
p h y s ic a l fitn e s s . M a y be a rm e d , but g e n e r a lly is not r e q u ir e d to d e m o n s tra te
p r o fic ie n c y in the u se o f f ir e a r m s o r s p e c ia l w e a p o n s .
J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , OR C L E A N E R

F o r k l i f t o p e r a to r
P o w e r - t r u c k o p e r a to r (o th e r than f o r k lift )
GUARD
P r o t e c t s p r o p e r t y f r o m th e ft o r d a m a ge , o r p e rs o n s fr o m h a za rd s
o r in t e r fe r e n c e . D u tie s in v o lv e s e r v in g at a fix e d p ost, m a k in g rounds on
fo o t o r b y m o to r v e h ic le , o r e s c o r t in g p e rs o n s o r p r o p e r ty . M a y be d e p u tize d
to m a k e a r r e s t s .
M a y a ls o h e lp v is it o r s and c u s to m e rs b y a n s w e rin g
q u e s tio n s and g iv in g d ir e c t io n s .




C lea n s and k e ep s in an o r d e r l y con d ition fa c t o r y w o rk in g a re a s and
w a s h r o o m s , o r p r e m is e s o f an o f f ic e , a p a rtm en t hou se, o r c o m m e r c ia l
o r o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n t.
D u ties in v o lv e a com b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g ;
S w eep in g , m op p in g o r s c ru b b in g , and p o lis h in g flo o r s ; re m o v in g ch ip s, tra s h ,
and o th e r r e fu s e ; d u stin g equ ip m en t, fu r n itu r e , o r fix tu r e s ; p o lis h in g m e ta l
fix tu r e s o r t r im m in g s ; p r o v id in g su p p lies and m in o r m ain ten an ce s e r v ic e s ;
and c le a n in g la v a t o r ie s , s h o w e rs , and r e s t r o o m s .
W o r k e r s who s p e c ia liz e
in w in d o w w a s h in g a re e x c lu d e d .

27

Service Contract
Act Surveys
T h e fo llo w in g a r e a s a r e s u r ­
v e y e d p e r io d ic a lly f o r use in a d m in ­
is t e r in g the S e r v ic e C o n tra c t A c t
o f 1965.
S u rv e y re s u lts a r e pub­
lis h e d in r e le a s e s w h ich a re a v a ila ­
b le , at no c o s t, w h ile s u p p lies la s t
f r o m any o f the B L S r e g io n a l o f f ic e s
shown on the b ack c o v e r .
A la s k a (s ta te w id e )
A lb a n y , Ga.
A le x a n d r ia —L e e s v i l l e , L a .
A lp en a—
Standish— a w a s C ity , M ic h .
T
Ann A r b o r , M ic h .
A tla n tic C ity , N .J .
A u gu sta, G a.— .C .
S
A u s tin , T e x .
B a k e r s fie ld , C a lif.
B aton R ou g e, L a .
B a ttle C r e e k , M ic h .
B eau m ont—P o r t A r th u i—O r a n g e , T e x .
B ea u m on t— o r t A r th u i—O ra n g e
P
and L a k e C h a r le s , T e x . —L a .
B ilo x i—G u lfp o rt and P a s c a g o u la —
M oss P o in t, M is s .
B in gh am ton , N .Y .
B irm in g h a m , A la .
B lo o m in g to n —V in c e n n e s , Ind.
B r e m e r to n — h elton , W ash .
S
B ru n s w ic k , Ga.
C e d a r R a p id s , Io w a
C ham p aign—U rbana—R an tou l, 111.
C h a rle s to n —N o r th C h a rle s to n —
W a ite r b o r o , S .C .
C h a rlo tte — a s to n ia , N .C .
G
C h eyen n e, W y o .
C la rk s v i l l e —H opkins v i l l e , T enn.—K y .
C o lo r a d o S p r in g s , C o lo .
C olu m b ia — u m te r, S .C .
S
C olu m b u s, G a.—A la .
C olu m b u s, M is s .
D e c a tu r, 111.
D es M o in e s , Io w a
Duluth— u p e r io r , M inn .—W is .
S
E l P a s o — la m o g o r d o —L a s C r u c e s ,
A
T e x .—
N. M e x .
E u gen e— p r in g fie ld — e d fo r d , O r e g .
S
M
F a y e t t e v ille , N .C .




F o r t L a u d e r d a le — o lly w o o d
H
and W e s t P a lm B ea ch —
B o c a R ato n , F la .
F o r t S m ith , A r k .— k la.
O
F r e d e r ic k —H a g e rs to w n —
C h a m b e rs b u rg , M d .—P a.
G o ld s b o r o , N .C .
G ran d Isla n d —H a s tin g s , N e b r .
G uam , T e r r i t o r y o f
H a r r is b u r g —L e b a n o n , P a .
K n o x v ille , T en n .
L aredo, Tex.
L a s V e g a s —T on op ah , N ev .
L im a , O hio
L it t le R ock —N o rth L it t le R o c k , A r k .
L o g a n s p o r t— e r u , Ind.
P
L o r a in —E ly r ia , O hio
L o w e r E a s te r n S h o r e , M d .— a .—D el.
V
M a c o n , Ga.
M a d is o n , W is .
M a in e (s ta te w id e )
M a n s fie ld , O hio
M c A lle n —P h a r r —E d in b u rg
and B r o w n s v ille —H a rlin g e n —
San B e n ito , T e x .
M e r id ia n , M is s .
M id d le s e x , M on m ou th, and
O cean C o s ., N .J .
M o b ile — e n s a c o la —P a n a m a C ity ,
P
A la . —F la .
M on tana (s ta te w id e )
N a s h v ille —D a v id s o n , T en n .
N e w B e rn —J a c k s o n v ille , N .C .
N e w H a m p s h ire (s ta te w id e )
N e w Lon don—N o r w ic h , Conn.—R .I.
N o r th D akota (s ta te w id e )
N o r th e r n N e w Y o r k
N o r th w e s t T e x a s
O r la n d o , F la .
O x n a r d -S im i V a lle y —V e n tu ra , C a lif.
P e o r i a , 111.
P h o e n ix , A r i z .
P in e B lu ff, A r k .
P u e b lo , C o lo .
P u e r t o R ic o
R a le ig h — u rh am , N .C .
D
R en o, N e v .
S a lin a , K an s.

S a lin a s — easid e—M o n te r e y , C a lif.
S
Sandusky, Ohio
Santa B a rb a ra —
Santa M a r ia —
L o m p o c , C a lif.
Savannah, Ga.
S e lm a , A la .
S h r e v e p o r t, L a .
South D akota (s ta te w id e )
Sou th ern Idaho
South w est V ir g in ia
Spokane, W ash.
S p r in g fie ld , 111.
S tock ton , C a lif.
T a c o m a , W ash.
Tam pa—
St. P e te r s b u r g , F la .
T o p e k a , K ans.
T u cson —D o u g la s , A r i z .
T u ls a , O kla.
U p p e r P e n in s u la , M ic h .
V e r m o n t (s ta te w id e )
V ir g in Isla n d s o f the U .S.
W a co and K ille e n r-T e m p le , T e x .
W a te r lo o —C ed a r F a l l s , Iow a
W e s t V ir g in ia (s ta te w id e )
W ic h ita F a lls —Law ton—A lt u s ,
T e x .— k la.
O
W ilm in g to n , D e l.—N .J .—M d.
Y ak im a—R ich lan d — en n ew ick —
K
P e n d le to n , W ash .— r e g .
O

A LS O A V A IL A B L E —
A n annual r e p o r t on s a la r ie s f o r
accou n ta n ts, a u d ito rs , c h ie f a c c o u n t­
an ts, a tto r n e y s , jo b a n a ly s ts , d i r e c ­
t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l, b u y e r s , c h e m is ts ,
e n g in e e r s , e n g in e e r in g te c h n ic ia n s ,
d r a ft e r s , a n d c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s
is a v a ila b le .
O r d e r as B L S B u lle ­
tin 1980, N a tio n a l S u r v e y o f P r o ­
f e s s io n a l, A d m in is t r a t iv e , T e c h n ic a l
and C l e r i c a l P a y , M a r c h 1977, $ 2A0
a c o p y , f r o m any o f the B L S r e ­
g io n a l s a le s o f f ic e s shown on the
b ack c o v e r , o r f r o m the S u p e r in ­
ten d en t o f D o c u m e n ts , U .S . G o v e r n ­
m en t P r in t in g O f f ic e , W a sh in g ton ,
D .C . 20402.

Area Wage
Surveys
A lis t o f th e la te s t b u lle tin s a v a ila b le is p re s e n te d b e lo w .
B u lle tin s
m a y be p u rc h a s e d f r o m any o f th e B L S r e g io n a l o ffic e s shown on th e b ack
c o v e r , o r f r o m th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D ocu m en ts, U.S. G o v e rn m en t P r in tin g
O ff ic e , W a s h in g to n , D .C . 20402.
M ak e ch eck s p ayab le to S u perinten den t o f
D o c u m e n ts .
A d i r e c t o r y o f o c c u p a tio n a l w a g e s u r v e y s , c o v e r in g th e y e a r s
1970 th ro u gh 1976, is a v a ila b le on req u e st.

A rea
A k r o n , O h io , D e c . 1977______________________________ __________
A lb a n y —Sch en ectad y—T r o y , N . Y . , Sept. 1977 --------------------A n a h e im —Santa A n a—G a rd en G r o v e ,
C a lif. , O c t. 1977_________________________________________________
A tla n ta , G a ., M a y 1977-----------------------------------------------------B a lt im o r e , M d ., A u g . 1977-----------------------------------------------B illin g s , M o n t., J u ly 1977 1 ----------------------------------------------B ir m in g h a m , A l a . , M a r . 1978------------------------------------------B o s to n , M a s s ., A u g . 1977 ------------------------------------------------B u ffa lo , N . Y . , O c t. 1977 ---------------------------------------------------C anton, O h io , M a y 1978__________________________________________
C h a tta n o og a , T e n n .—G a ., S ep t. 1977 ---------------------------------C h ic a g o , 111., M a y 1977 1________________________________________
C in c in n a ti, O hio—K y .—In d ., Ju ly 1 9 7 7 1 -----------------------------C le v e la n d , O h io , S ep t. 1977 1 ___________________________________
C o lu m b u s, O h io , O c t. 1977______________________________________
C orp u s C h r is t i, T e x . , July 1977 1 ------------------------------------D a ll a s - F o r t W o r t h , T e x . , O c t. 1977__________________________
D a v e n p ort—R o c k Is la n d — o lin e , Iow a—111., F eb . 1978-------M
D a y ton , O h io , D e c . 1977 1________________________________________
D ayton a B ea ch , F l a . , A u g . 1977 1______________________________
D e n v e r—B o u ld e r , C o lo ., D e c . 1977 1___________________________
D e t r o it , M ic h ., M a r . 1978_______________________________________
F r e s n o , C a lif. , June 1977 _______________________________________
G a in e s v ille , F l a . , S ep t. 1977 1------------------------------------------G r e e n B a y , W is . , Ju ly 1 9 77 _____________________________________
G r e e n s b o r o — in s to n -S a le m — ig h P o in t,
W
H
N .C . , A u g . 1977 1 ________________________________________________
G r e e n v ille —S p a rta n b u rg , S .C ., June 1977 -------------------------H a r t fo r d , C onn ., M a r . 1978 1 ___________________________________
H ou ston , T e x . , A p r . 1978l
.________________________________________
H u n ts v ille , A l a . , F e b . 1 978_____________________________________
In d ia n a p o lis , In d ., O c t. 1977____________________________________
J a c k s o n , M i s s . , Jam. 1978_______________________________________
J a c k s o n v ille , F l a . , D e c . 1 9 77__________________________________
K a n s a s C ity , M o ^ - K a n s ., S ep t. 1 9 77 ---------------------------------L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h , C a lif . , O ct. 1977---------------------L o u i s v i l l e , K y .- I n d ., N o v . 1977 * ______________________________
M e m p h is , T en n .—A r k . —M i s s ., N o v . 1977---------------------------




B u lle tin nu m ber
and p r i c e *
1950-70, 80 cents
1950-52, 80 cents
1950-60,
1950-17,
1950-39,
1950-40,
2025-15,
1950-50,
1950-58,
2025-22,
1950-44,
1950-41,
1950-45,
1950-53,
1950-64,
1950-35,
1950-65,
2 0 2 5 -6 ,
1950-71,
1950-43,
1950-74,
2025-11,
1950-30,
1950-46,
1950-36,

$1 .0 0
$1 .2 0
$ 1 .2 0
$1.00
80 cents
$1.2 0
$ 1 .0 0
70 cents
70 cen ts
$ 1 .4 0
$1.20
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .0 0
$1 .0 0
$ 1 .2 0
70 cents
$ 1 .1 0
$1 .0 0
$1.40
$ 1 .2 0
70 cents
$1.00
70 cen ts

1950-42,
1950-33,
2 025-14,
2 025-23,
2 0 2 5 -4 ,
1950-56,
2 0 2 5 -1 ,
1950-67,
1950-54,
1950-61,
1950-66,
1950-63,

$1.1 0
70 cents
$ 1 .2 0
$ 1 .2 0
70 cen ts
$1.0 0
70 cents
70 cents
$1.0 0
$ 1 .2 0
$1 .2 0
70 cen ts

A rea
M ia m i, F la . , O c t. 1977__________________________________________
M ilw a u k e e , W is ., A p r . 1978 1__________________________________
M in n e a p o lis —St. P a u l, M inn .—W is . , Jan. 1978 1_____________
N a s s a u -S u ffo lk , N . Y . , June 1977 ______________________________
N e w a r k , N .J ., Jan. 1978 1_______________________________________
N e w O r le a n s , L a ., Jan. 1978______________________ ____ _______
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . - N . J . , M a y 1977............... .................................
N o r fo lk —V ir g in ia B ea ch —P o r ts m o u th , V a .—
N .C ., M a y 1978 -------------------------------------------------------------N o r fo lk —V ir g in ia B e a c h -P o r ts m o u th and
N e w p o rt N ew s —H a m p ton , V a —N .C ., M a y 1978______________
N o r th e a s t P e n n s y lv a n ia , A u g . 1977 1__________________________
O k lah o m a C ity , O k la ., A u g . 1977 1 ____________________________
O m ah a, N e b r .- Io w a , O ct. 1977 1 ______________________________
P a t e r s o n - C lif t o n - P a s s a ic , N .J ., June 1977 _________________
P h ila d e lp h ia , P a .—N .J ., N o v . 1977____________________________
P itts b u r g h , P a ., Jan. 1978_____________________________ _______
P o r tla n d , M a in e , D e c . 1977__________________________ ______ _
P o r tla n d , O r e g .—W a s h ., M a y 1978____________________________
P o u g h k e e p s ie , N . Y . , June 1977 _______________________________
P o u g h k e e p s ie —K in g s to n —N ew b u rg h , N .Y . , June 1976_______
W
P r o v id e n c e — a rw ic k —P a w tu c k e t, R .I.—
M a s s ., June 1977 1 _____________________________________________
R ic h m o n d , V a ., June 1978_______________________________________
St. L o u is , M o .—H I., M a r . 1978 ________________________________
S a c ra m e n to , C a lif. , D ec. 1977 1_______________________________
S a gin aw , M ic h ., N o v . 1977...........................................................
Salt L a k e C ity—O gd en , U tah, N o v . 1977______________________
San A n to n io , T e x . , M a y 1978___________________________________
San D ie g o , C a lif. , N o v . 1 977 1_________________________________
San F r a n c is c o — ak lan d, C a lif. , M a r . 1978 1__________________
O
San J o s e , C a lif. , M a r . 1978 1__________________________________
S e a t t le - E v e r e t t , W a s h ., D ec. 1977____________________________
South B en d , In d ., A u g . 1977 1 __________________________________
T o le d o , O h io— ic h ., M a y 1978 1 _______________________________
M
T re n to n , N .J ., Sept. 1977_______________________________________
U tic a - R o m e , N . Y . , July 1977 1 ________________________________
W a sh in g to n , D .C .—M d r - V a ., M a r . 1978 1_____________________
W ic h ita , K a n s ., A p r . 1978______________________________________
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s ., A p r . 1978 1________________________________
Y o r k , P a ., F e b . 1 9 7 8 1___________________________________________

B u lle tin num ber
and p r i c e *
1950-57,
2025-18,
2025 -2 ,
1950-27,
2 0 25 -7 ,
2025 -5 ,
1950-31,

$1.00
$1 .4 0
$1.40
$1.00
$1.40
$1.00
$1.20

2025-20, 70 cents
2025-21,
1950-38,
1950-49,
1950-55,
1950-34,
1950-62,
2025 -3 ,
1950-69,
2025-25,
1950-25,
1900-55,

80 cents
$1.10
$1.10
$1.10
70 cents
$1.20
$1.10
70 cents
$1.20
70 cents
55 cents

1950-22,
2025-26,
2025-13,
1950-72,
1950-59,
1950-68,
2025-17,
1950-73,
2025-10,
20 25 -9 ,
1950-75,
1950-51,
2025-24,
1950-47,
1950-37,
2025-12,
2025-16,
2025-19,
2 025-8,

$1.20
80 cents
$1.20
$1.00
70 cents
80 cents
70 cents
$1.10
$1.40
$1.20
80 cents
$1.10
$1.20
70 cents
$1 .1 0
$1.4 0
80 cents
$ 1 .1 0
$1.10

* Prices are determined by the Government Printing Office and are subject to change.
1 Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

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