The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.
A• ) Area Wage Survey b 'O o . * S' Poughkeepsie, New York, Metropolitan Area, June 1977 Preface T h is b u lle t in p r o v i d e s r e s u l t s o f a June 1977 s u r v e y o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s in th e P o u g h k e e p s ie , N ew Y o r k , S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l A rea. T h e s u r v e y w a s m a d e a s p a r t o f th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s ' an n u a l a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m . It w a s c o n d u c t e d b y th e B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l o f f i c e in N ew Y o r k , N .Y ., u n d e r th e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f A n th o n y J. F e r r a r a , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r O p e r a t io n s . The su rvey c o u ld n o t h a v e b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d w ith o u t th e c o o p e r a t i o n o f th e m a n y f i r m s w h o s e w a g e an d s a la r y da ta p r o v id e d th e b a s is f o r th e s t a t is t ic a l in fo r m a t io n in th is b u lle tin . T h e B u r e a u w is h e s t o e x p r e s s s i n c e r e a p p r e c ia t io n f o r th e c o o p e r a tio n r e c e iv e d . M a t e r ia l in th is p u b lic a t io n is in th e p u b lic d o m a in a n d m a y b e r e p r o d u c e d w ith o u t p e r m i s s i o n o f th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t . P le a s e c r e d it th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s an d c it e th e n a m e an d n u m b e r o f th is p u b lic a t io n . Note: C u r r e n t r e p o r t s o n o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s in th e P o u g h k e e p s ie — K in g s to n —N e w b u r g a r e a a r e a v a ila b le f o r th e m o v in g an d s t o r a g e and la u n d r y in d u s t r ie s (J u n e 1 9 7 7). Area Wage Survey Poughkeepsie, New York, Metropolitan Area, June 1977 U.S. Department of Labor Ray Marshall, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Julius Shiskin, Commissioner Contents Page September 1977 Bulletin 1950-25 Introduction-------------------------Tables: A. Earnings, all establishments: A - l . Weekly earnings of office A -2 . Weekly earnings of profes sional and technical w ork ers-------A -3 . Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex------------A -4 . Hourly earnings of mainte nance, toolroom, and powerplant w orkers-----------------------A -5 , Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers------------------------------------------— A - 6 . Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, powerplant, material move ment, and custodial workers, by s e x ----------------------------------------------A-l. Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted for employment shifts, for s e lected occupational groups------------ Appendix A. Appendix B. For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, W ashington, D.C. 20402, GPO Bookstores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on back cover. Scope and method of su rvey-----------Occupational descriptions---------------- 4 4 8 9 13 Introduction This area is 1 of 74 in which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related benefits. (See list of areas on inside back cover.) In each area, occupational earnings data (A -se r ie s tables) are collected annually. Information on estab lishment practices and supplementary wage benefits (B -se r ie s tables) is obtained every third year. This report has no B -s e r ie s tables. Each year after all individual area wage surveys have been com pleted, two summary bulletins are issued. The first brings together data for each metropolitan area surveyed; the second presents national and regional estim ates, projected from individual metropolitan area data, for all Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. A m ajor consideration in the area wage survey program is the need to describe the level and movement of wages in a variety of labor m arkets, through the analysis of ( 1 ) the level and distribution of wages by occupation, and (2 ) the movement of wages by occupational category and skill level. The program develops information that may be used for many purposes, including wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and assistance in determining plant location. Survey results also are used by the U.S. Depart ment of Labor to make wage determinations under the Service Contract Act of 1965. A -s e r ie s tables Tables A - 1 through A - 6 provide estimates of straight-tim e weekly or hourly earnings for workers in occupations common to a variety of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. For the 31 largest survey areas, tables A - 8 through A - 13 provide sim ilar data for establishments employing 500 workers or m ore. Table A -7 provides percent changes in average hourly earnings of office clerical w orkers, electronic data processing workers, industrial nurses, skilled maintenance trades w orkers, and unskilled plant workers. Where possible, data are presented for all industries and for manufac turing and nonmanufacturing separately. Data are not presented for skilled maintenance workers in nonmanufacturing because the number of workers employed in this occupational group in nonmanufacturing is too sm all to warrant separate presentation. This table provides a measure of wage trends after elinimation of changes in average earnings caused by employ ment shifts among establishments as well as turnover of establishments included in survey sam ples. For further details, see appendix A. Appendixes Appendix A describes the methods and concepts used in the area wage survey program and provides information on the scope of the survey. Appendix B provides job descriptions used by Bureau field econo m ists to classify workers by occupation. A. E a rn in g s Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., June 1977 Weekly earnings (standard) Number of workers 1 N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tr a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly e a rn in g s o f— $ A verage weekly hours * (standard) S $ $ * $ 5 4 b 5 S $ $ 4 $ 4 M e an 2 M edian Middle range 2 lo o llo 120 130 14o IPO 160 170 18(j 190 200 210 100 llo 120 130 l4 e 1^0 160 170 180 190 200 210 230 2 4 - 2 95 95 O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n - - - - 7 - 2 - - - 1 - 6 3 2 - 4 2 6 6 7 6 3 3 3 1 1 • ? 10 9 2 - 4 2 c 5 5 3 3 3 1 1 * - - - - - - 6 1 * “ 9 2 2 2 1 1 - - 7 - 5 3 2 1 3 2 i 3 2 $ S 5 $ - 2 5 4 90 25g 27C 290 310 330 350 250 270 290 310 330 350 370 2 1 7 6 2 2 - - 1 1 1 5 8 and under ALL WORKERS SECRETARIES* w L L H L 1M n l t i l 1U r i v v $ LLM j j A -31 mm $ $ f . $ . A r 1V C H O 1 j ' •00 1 > . j O . 39.5 182.00 - - 2 - 2 - - - 35 7 7 uu - 6 - _ - 3 2 3 - < L 6 4 4 3 2 3 2 - 1 - 4 2 2 - 2 - - 2 3 3 39.0 147.50 144.50 136.00-170.50 1 - - 2 3 5 4 1 3 6 122.5C-255.C0 26 14 • 14 1 9 13 8 - - 4 9 9 3 5 6 4 2 6 5 1 2 1 i i 1 6 i 5 3 - - — — 50 - _ - 3 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 “ 13 5 5 4 3 — — 5 6 4 2 2 1 1 3 3 - 3 2 1 - 2 1 3 3 3 1 56 38.0 123.50 122.50 102.50-139.50 60 ACCOUNTING CLERKS, CLASS B AA * 186.00 148.00-224.00 • - - - 14 - - “ KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A — — 39 40.0 198.00 206.00 165.0C-225.0C - - 9 - - - * - - at en d o f t a b le s . 3 13 8 2 5 i 1 2 2 5 4 1 1 * 3 6 5 - • - S ee fo o tn o te s - - - - - - - - - 2 2 _ - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - 1 1 6 6 - . • - - 9 - 11 3 2 1 1 1 1 6 6 - 9 ~ “ 11 - 3 3 - 15 10 5 3 3 - 5 2 3 • - - - - - - - - - 3 3 10 10 3 3 5 • 2 - - - - - • 5 * - * - ~ * - 2 1 l 39.5 259.00 276.00 190.50-314.00 • * ACCOUNTING CLERKS, CLASS A - i 170.00 SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTS- - 2 _ 1 3 * * 5 i i 2 5 5 1 1 9 11 . Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Poughkeepsie,N.Y., June 1977 W eek ly earnings^ (standard) Occupation and industry division Number of workers A vera ge w eek ly hours1 (standard) N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of— S S 160 M ean2 M edian 2 M iddle range 2 S S S S $ S $ S $ I S S S s S S S S S 170 180 190 200 210 220 23o 240 250 26o 270 28o 290 300 310 320 330 340 360 380 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 29o 300 310 32f» 330 34o 360 38Q 400 7 8 and under 170 ALL WORKERS $ $ $ 256.00 247.50 218.00-288.00 tlo*Q0*cnJjUO kcO.00s bO ccO.0G~coJ.0U J 1 * 5 J ^0*0 REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSES 15 40.0 242.50 248.00 208.00-278.50 1 1 * * 1 See footnotes at end of tables. Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex. in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., June 1977 A vera ge (m e a n 2 ) Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division Number of workers W eek ly (standard) W eek ly earnings1 (standard) OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN $ A vera ge (m ean 2 ) Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division Number of workers W eekly hours (standard) W eek ly earnings1 (standard) A vera g e (m e a n 2 ) Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division Number of workers W eekly hours4 £standard) W eek ly earnings1 (standard) PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS - MEN OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WOMEN— CONTINUED $ 218.00 r f- r - 188.00 133.00 a /% ST tN0GRAPHc.RS 31 vL A5 j • c53.00 121.00 180.00 185.00 188.00 21 1 70 .00 3 9.0 38 — PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL 198.00 195.00 j 1 tf\ L U 40.0 See footnotes at end of tables. ••••• ••••••••••••• 216.50 20 D 1 UK I N U 1 70 .03 155.50 40 M A nU r A v 1UK iN u M AiNUr A C 4 1 NUU J 1 K i A L N U N vIb w " " " " Table A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. June 1977 Hourly earnings * N u m b e r of worker's receiving straight-time hourly earnings of— 3 s s s 5 I $ s 1 s 1 1 A,40 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.40 6. 60 6 . 8 0 S $ J 1 s $ S S s * 7.00 7.20 7.40 7.60 7.80 8.00 8.20 8.40 8.60 8 . 8 0 and under 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.40 6.60 6. 80 7.00 7.20 7.40 7.60 7.80 8.00 8.20 8.40 8.60 8.80 over S Occupation and industry division of workers Mean 2 Median* Middle range 2 ALL WORKERS $ 6.72 6.61 $ 6.69 6.69 $ $ 6*06* 7*17 6« 06* 7*17 * • * * * 2 2 58 6.76 6.76 7.17 7.17 5.88- 7.17 5.88- 7.17 * * . * 2 2 2 2 111 111 6.82 6.82 6.86 6.86 5.88- 7.59 5.88- 7.59 2 2 - 3 3 - 1 1 MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIANS ----------MANUFACTURING --------------------- 35 33 MAINTENANCE MACHINISTS ------ ------MANUFACTURING --------------------- se TOOL AND DIE MAKERS ----------------MANUFACTURING --------------- ----- See footnotes at end of tables. 5 - 4 4 2 16 16 - - 1 1 7 7 2 2 17 17 3 3 2 6 6 * * 2 2 * 11 11 1 1 1 1 - 4 4 - 2 2 " 19 19 5 5 1 1 1 1 - 17 17 1 1 9 9 3 3 9 9 9 9 8 8 2 2 1 1 - - 1 1 8 a 6 6 • _ 1 2 2 2 1 - - - 4 4 1 1 1 2 l 2 Table A-5. Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., June 1977 N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ H o u rly e a r n in g s * Number Occupation and industry division 2 .3 0 of workers M ean 2 M id d le r a n g e 2 5 1 5 2 .6 o 2*80 3 * 0 0 3 .2 0 3 .4 y 3 .6 0 3 .8 0 4 .0 0 $ 4 .4 t ) 4 . 6 0 S 2 .5 0 & 4 .2 0 S 2 .4 0 4 .8 0 5 .2 0 5 . 6 0 6 .0 0 S 6 .4 0 6 . do 7 .2 0 5 S 2 .5 P 2 .6 0 2 .6 0 3 .0 0 3 .2 0 3 .4 0 3 .6 0 3 .8 0 4 .0 0 4 .2 0 4 .4 0 4 ,6 0 4 .8 0 5 .2 fl 5 .6 0 6 .0 0 6 .4 0 6 . dp 7 . 2 c 4 4 • 6 4 4 4 9 - 15 15 . - * 9 10 5 4 4 12 11 4 4 6 6 . * 1 1 7 5 4 4 4 - 4 - - - 15 15 5 7 .6 0 8 .0 0 and under 2 .4 0 7 . up d.QQ 6.4Q ALL WORKERS . 127 87 $ 5.72 4.94 $ 5.32 4.95 $ $ 4.45- 6.88 3.75- 6.00 . * - * TRUCKDRIVERS. MEDIUM TRUCK NQNMANUF A C T U R I N G ----- ---- 27 25 4.34 4.30 4.68 4.68 3.35- 5.25 3.35- 5.25 • * • - _ - - - “ 4 4 7 7 • * * * - “ SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS 20 3.86 3.93 2.75- 4.65 - - - 7 - 1 2 - * - - - 3 6 - WAREHOUSEMEN M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----- - 30 25 4.02 A . 01 3.92 3.92 3.61- 4.62 3.60- 4.77 - - 2 2 1 4 3 6 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 - 2 2 6 - “ • - 2 6 4 3 3 129 128 4.57 4.57 5.05 5.05 4.25- 5.10 4.25- 5.10 3 3 1 1 52 52 72 62 5.20 5.19 5.39 5.39 5.23- 5.40 5.10- 5.40 * - * * 9 9 422 2.98 2.50 2.30- 2.60 162 40 111 22 4.12 3.32 2.75- 5.56 - - 4 333 60 273 16 3.89 4 . SC 3.75 5.25 4-00 4.78 4.00 5.03 3.254.033.204.94- - - - - 6 - * * TRUCKORIVERS — — --------NONMANUFACTURING — MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS MANUFACTURING ----------FORKLIFT OPERATORS ---m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----GUARDS AND WATCHMEN WATCHMEN! MANUFACTURING JANITORS. PORTERS* AND CLEANERS MANUFACTURING ----------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------- ■ PUBLIC UTILITIES ----------- 4.10 4.97 4.00 5.82 . . - * - * 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 8 8 3 2 3 3 4 4 32 32 . • - - - - 6 - - - - - 6 * * * * ? 2 1 1 18 2 4 6 4 3 1 3 2 1 5 4 - - 4 - - 1 1 - 1 6 1 56 1° 5 32 2 30 6 - - a 143 13 130 6 * - 8 * 4 1 * See footnotes at end of tables. 6 3 53 6 12 " * 1 4 * " " 6 1 1 15 12 3 3 30 - 21 21 2 - - - - • • - - * - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - 4 2 35 3 3 4 2 - - 11 16 14 11 4 1 2 - - - 3 - 20 15 5 5 6 6 - & 4 5 “ 1 7 7 - • * - - - • * 1 1 - 2 - - 1 _ _ - - - - * * * * 1 - - Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, powerplant, material movement, and custodial workers, by sex, in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., June 1977 S ex, 3 o c cu p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv isio n Number of workers A vera ge (m e a n 2 ) hourly earnings4 Sex, 3 o c c u p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv is io n MAINTENANCE * TOOLROOM* AND POwERPLANT o c c u p a t i o n s - MEN Number of workers MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL OCCUPATIONS - M E N — CONTINUED $ $ manufacturing --------------- — --------------- MANUFACTURING — ----- -— --------- --------- A verage (m e a n 2 ) hourly earnings 4 33 in 6 .6 1 M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----- -— ------------- — ----- 128 4 .5 7 256 3 .9 3 0 .8 2 watchmen: MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL j a n i t o r s * p o r t e r s , and cleaners — r! « MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN WAREHOUSEMEN -----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING — --------- — — ------- ----- 30 25 4 .0 2 4 .0 1 See fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s . 7 Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted for employment shifts, for selected occupational groups in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., for selected periods June 1975 to June 1976 Industry and o ccu p a tio n a l gro u p 5 June 1976 to June 1977 A ll in d u s trie s : (6 ) (?) (? ) (6) 5.3 In du strial n u r s e s _______________________ _________ ( 6) (6) (6 ) (‘ ) 6.7 M anufacturin g: (6 ) (? ) ( U n skilled plant w o r k e r s M .. . 3.7 (6) n (?) (&) 8.1 See fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s . Footnotes 1 Standard h ou rs r e fle c t the w o rk w e e k fo r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir re g u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay fo r o v e r tim e at r e g u la r a n d /o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ), and the e a rn in gs c o r r e s p o n d to th ese w eek ly h ou rs. 2 The m ean is com p u ted fo r ea ch jo b by totalin g the ea rn in gs o f a ll w o r k e r s and dividin g by the num ber o f w o r k e r s . T he m ed ian d e sig n a te s p o s itio n — h alf o f the w o r k e r s r e c e iv e the sa m e or m o r e and h alf r e c e iv e the sa m e o r le s s than the rate shown. The m id d le ran ge is d efin ed by tw o ra tes o f pay; a fou rth o f the w o r k e r s ea rn the sam e o r le s s than the lo w e r o f th e se ra te s and a fourth ea rn the sa m e o r m o r e than the h igh er rate. 3 E a rn in g s data r e la te o n ly to w o r k e r s w h ose s e x id e n tific a tio n w as p r o v i d e d by the e stablish m en t. 4 E x clu d e s p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and late sh ifts. 5 E s tim a te s f o r p e r io d s ending p r io r to 1976 re la te to m en only fo r sk illed m ain ten an ce and u n sk illed plant w o r k e r s . A ll o th er es tim a te s r e la te to m en and w om en . 6 Data d o not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r it e r i a o r data not a v a ila b le. 8 Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey Data on area wages and related benefits are obtained by personal visits of Bureau field representatives at 3-year intervals. In each of the intervening years, information on employment and occupational earnings is collected by a combination of personal visit, mail questionnaire, and te le phone interview from establishments participating in the previous survey. Unless otherwise indicated, the earnings data following the job titles are for all industries combined. Earnings data for some of the occupations listed and described, or for some industry divisions within the scope of the survey, are not presented in the A -s e r ie s tables because either (1) employment in the occupation is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit presentation, or (2) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data. Separate m en's and women's earnings data are not presented when the number of workers not identified by sex is 20 percent or m ore of the men or women identified in an occupation. Earnings data not shown separately for industry divisions are included in data for all industries combined. Likewise, for occupations with more than one level, data are included in the overall classification when a subclassification is not shown or information to subclassify is not available. In each of the 74 * areas currently surveyed, data are obtained from 1 representative establishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufac turing; transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted because of insufficient em ploy ment in the occupations studied. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions which m eet publication criteria. Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for full-tim e workers, i.e ., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule. Earnings data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-livin g allowances and incentive bonuses are included. Weekly hours for office clerical and professional and technical occupations refer to the standard workweek (rounded to the nearest half h o u r ) for which employees receive regular straight-tim e salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates). Average weekly earnings for these occupations are rounded to the nearest half dollar. Vertical lines within the distribution of workers on some A -tables indicate a change in the size of the class intervals. These surveys are conducted on a sample basis. The sampling procedures involve detailed stratification of all establishments within the scope of an individual area survey by industry and number of em ployees. From this stratified universe a probability sample is selected, with each establishment having a predetermined chance of selection. To obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than sm all estab lishments is selected. When data are combined, each establishment is weighted according to its probability of selection, so that unbiased estimates are generated. For example, if one out of four establishments is selected, it is given a weight of 4 to represent itself plus three others. An alternate of the same original probability is chosen in the same industry-size c la s s i fication if data are not available from the original sample m em ber. If no suitable substitute is available, additional weight is assigned to a sample member that is sim ilar to the m issing unit. These surveys m easure the level of occupational earnings in an area at a particular tim e. Comparisons of individual occupational averages over time may not reflect expected wage changes. The averages for individual jobs are affected by changes in wages and employment patterns. For example, proportions of workers employed by high- or low-wage firm s may change, or high-wage workers m ay advance to better jobs and be replaced by new workers at lower rates. Such shifts in employment could decrease an occu pational average even though m ost establishments in an area increase wages during the year. Changes in earnings of occupational groups, shown in table A -7 , are better indicators of wage trends than are earnings changes for individual jobs within the groups. Occupations and earnings Occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufac turing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the following types: (1) Office clerical; (2) professional and technical; (3) maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant; and (4) m aterial movement and custodial. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job. Occupations selected for study are listed and described in appendix B. Average earnings reflect composite, areawide estim ates. Industries 1 Included in the 74 areas are 4 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are Akron, and establishments differ in pay level and job staffing, and thus contribute Ohio; Birmingham, A la .; Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va. —N. C. ; and differently to the estim ates for each job. Pay averages may fail to reflect Syracuse, N .Y . In addition, the Bureau conducts more lim ited area studies in approximately 100 areas at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of the U. S. Department of Labor. accurately the wage differential among jobs in individual establishments. 9 Average pay levels for men and women in selected occupations should not be assumed to reflect differences in pay of the sexes within individual establishments. Factors which m ay contribute to differences include p ro gression within established rate ranges (only the rates paid incumbents are collected) and performance of specific duties within the general survey job descriptions. Job descriptions used to cla ssify employees in these surveys usually are m ore generalized than those used in individual establishments and allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties pe rformed. Electronic data processing Skilled maintenance Computer system s analysts, classes A , B, and C Computer program m ers, c la sses A , B, and C Computer operators, cla sses A , B, and C Carpenters Electricians Painters Machinists Mechanics (machinery) Mechanics (motor vehicle) Pipefitters Tool and die makers Occupational employment estim ates represent the total in all estab lishments within the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed. Because occupational structures among establishments differ, estimates of occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occupational structure do not affect m aterially the accuracy of the earnings data. Industrial nurses Unskilled plant Registered industrial nurses Janitors, porters, and cleaners M aterial handling laborers Wage trends for selected occupational groups The percent increases presented in table A -7 are based on changes in average hourly earnings of men and women in establishments reporting the trend jobs in both the current and previous year (matched establishments). The data are adjusted to remove the effects on average earnings of em ploy ment shifts among establishments and turnover of establishments included in survey sam ples. The percent increases, however, are still affected by factors other than wage in creases. H irings, layoffs, and turnover m ay affect an establishment average for an occupation when workers are paid under plans providing a range of wage rates for individual job s. In periods of increased hiring, for example, new employees m ay enter at the bottom of the range, depressing the average without a change in wage rates. The percent changes relate to wage changes between the indicated dates. When the time span between surveys is other than 12 months, annual rates are shown, (it is assum ed that wages increase at a constant rate between surveys.) Occupations used to compute wage trends are: Office clerical Order clerks Accounting clerks, cla sses A and B Bookkeeping -machine operators, class B Payroll clerks Keypunch operators, cla sses A and B areas in the program are computed 1. Average earnings are computed for each occupation for the 2 years being compared. The averages are derived from earnings in those establishments which are in the survey both years; it is assumed that employment remains unchanged. 2. Each occupation is assigned a weight based on its p ro portionate employment in the occupational group in the base yea r. 3. These weights are used to compute group averages. Each occupation's average earnings (computed in step 1) is multiplied by its weight. The products are totaled to obtain a group average. 4. The ratio of group averages for 2 consecutive years is computed by dividing the average for the current year by the average for the earlier year. The result— expressed as a percent— less 100 is the percent change. For a m ore detailed description of the method used to compute these wage trends, see "Improving Area Wage Survey Indexes, " Monthly Labor Review, January 1973, pp. 5 2 -5 7 . Office clerical— Continued Secretaries Stenographers, general Stenographers, senior Typists, c la sses A and B File clerks, cla sses A , B, and C M essengers Switchboard operators Percent changes for i as follow s: Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions Tabulations on selected establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions (B -s e r ie s tables) are not presented in this bulletin. Infor mation for these tabulations is collected at 3-year intervals. These tabu lations on minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced office w orkers; shift differentials; scheduled weekly hours and days; paid holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are presented (in the B -s e r ie s tables) in previous bulletins for this area. Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Poughkeepsie, N .Y .,1June 1977 In du stry d iv is io n 2 all divisions -------------------------------- ------ ------------- ----- --------------------NONMANUFACTURING — — — — — — — — ----------------------TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION, ANO OTHER PUBLIC.UTILITIES 5 ---------------------------------------wholesale trade 6 — — — — — — --------------------RETAIL T R A D E 6 ----------------------------------- --------------------------FINANCE, INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE 6 -------------SERVICES manufacturing M in im um em p lo ym e n t in e s t a b lis h m en ts in s c o p e o f study W ithin s c o p e o f study 4 W ithin s c o p e o f study J Studied Studied N um ber Percent 135 64 3 5 .6 3 6 100 2 9 ,6 2 3 50 - 55 80 26 38 2 5 ,9 1 6 9 ,7 2 0 73 27 2 3 ,3 4 5 6 ,2 7 8 50 50 50 50 50 5 7 45 7 16 3 4 17 5 9 1 ,3 8 7 978 4 ,9 9 9 815 1 ,5 4 1 4 3 14 2 4 1 ,2 5 5 539 2 ,9 2 9 653 902 1 T he P o u g h k e e p sie Standard M e tro p o lit a n -S t a t is t ic a l A r e a , as d e fin e d by the O ffic e o f M anagem ent arid Budget th rou gh F e b ru a r y 1974, c o n s is t s o f D u tch ess Cou nty. Th e "w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s tu d y" e s tim a te s show n in th is ta b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a te d e s c r ip tio n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s itio n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d ed in the s u r v e y . E s tim a te s a r e not in ten ded, h o w e v e r , f o r c o m p a r is o n w ith o th e r em ploym en t in d exes to m e a s u r e em p lo ym e n t tr e n d s o r le v e ls s in c e (1) planning o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s e sta b lish m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in adva n ce o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu died, and (2) s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e e x clu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y . 2 The 1972 ed itio n o f the Standard In d u stria l C la s s ific a t io n M anual w as u s e d in c la s s ify in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts b y in d u stry d iv is io n . H o w e v e r , a l l go ve rn m e n t o p e r a tio n s a r e e x clu d e d fr o m th e s c o p e o f the s u r v e y . 3 In clu d es a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l em p lo ym e n t at o r a b o v e the m in im u m lim ita tio n . AH. o u tle ts (w ithin the a re a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in in d u s trie s such as tr a d e , fin a n c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v ic e , and m o tio n p ic tu re th e a te r s a r e c o n s id e r e d as 1 es ta b lis h m en t. W o r k e r s in es ta b lis h m en ts N um ber o f es ta b lis h m e n ts 4 In clu d e s a ll w o r k e r s in a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l em p loym en t (within the a rea ) at o r a b o v e the m in im u m lim ita tio n . 5 A b b r e v ia te d to "p u b lic u t ilit ie s " in the A - s e r i e s t a b le s . T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w a te r tr a n s p o r ta tio n a r e ex c lu d e d . 6 T h is d iv isio n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s tim a te s fo r " a ll in d u s t r ie s " and " n o n m an u fa ctu rin g " in the A - s e r i e s t a b le s . S ep a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n o f data is not m ade f o r on e o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m p loym en t is to o sm a ll to p r o v id e enough data to m e r it s e p a r a te stu dy, (2) the sa m p le w as not d es ig n e d in itia lly to p e r m it s e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n , (3) r e s p o n s e w as in s u ffic ie n t o r inadequate to p e r m it se p a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n , and (4) t h e r e is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e o f individ ual e sta b lish m e n t data. 7 H o te ls and m o t e ls ; la u n d rie s and o th e r p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir , r e n ta l, and p a rk in g; m otion p ic tu r e s ; n on p rofit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a tio n s (e x clu d in g r e lig io u s and c h a r ita b le o r g a n iz a tio n s ); and en gin eerin g and a r c h ite c t u r a l s e r v ic e s . 11 Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bu reau's wage surveys is to a ssist its field staff in classifying into appro priate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establish ment and from area to area. This perm its the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this empha sis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors; apprentices; learn ers; begin n ers; and part-tim e, temporary, and probationary w orkers. Handicapped workers whose earnings are reduced because of their handicap are also excluded. Trainees are excluded from the survey except for those r e ceiving on-th e-job training in some of the lower level professional and technical occupations. Office SECRETARY SE C R E TAR Y— C ontinue d Assigned as personal secretary, norm ally to one individual. Main tains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day work of the supervisor. W orks fairly independently receiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance. P erform s varied clerical and secretarial duties, usually including m ost of the following: May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks of comparable nature and difficulty. The work typically requires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization, program s, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor. Exclusions a. Receives telephone calls, personal ca llers, and incoming m ail, answers routine inquiries, and routes technical inquiries to the proper persons; b. E stablishes, c. instructed; maintains, and revises the supervisor's files; Maintains the su pervisor's calenda'r and makes appointments as Not all positions that are titled "se c r e ta r y " possess the above char a cteristics. Exam ples of positions which are excluded from the definition are as follow s: a. described above; Positions which do not m eet the "p erso n a l" secretary conce b. Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial-type duties; d. Relays m e ssag es from supervisor to subordinates; e. Reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports prepared by others for the su pervisor's signature to assure procedural and typographic accuracy; f. P erform s stenographic and typing work. sional, c. Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of p ro fes technical, or managerial persons; d. Secretary positions in which the duties are either substantially m ore routine or substantially m ore complex and responsible that those char acterized in the definition; SEC R E TA R Y— C ontinued SECRETARY— Continued C lass C Exclusions— Continued e. A ssistant-type positions which involve m ore difficult or more 1. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose respon responsible technical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the definition duties which are not typical of secretarial work. for class B , but whose organizational unit normally numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational segments which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level includes a N O TE : The term "corporate officer, " used in the level definitions wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; o£ following, refers to those officials who have a significant corporatewide policymaking role with regard to major company activities. The title "vice 2. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or president, " though norm ally indicative of this role, does not in all cases other equivalent level of official) that em ploys, in all, fewer than 5 ,0 0 0 identify such positions. Vice presidents whose prim ary responsibility is to persons. act personally on individual cases or transactions (e .g ., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts; directly C lass D supervise a clerica l staff) are not considered to be "corporate o ffic e r s" for 1. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a sm all organizational unit purposes of applying the following level definitions. (e .g ., fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); c£ j C la ss A 1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that e m p lo y s,' in a ll, over 100 but fewer than 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or 2. Secretary to a non supervisory s t a f f specialist, professional em ployee, administrative officer, or assistant, skilled technician, or expert. (NOTE: Many companies assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of supervisory or nonsupervisory worker.) STENOGRAPHER 2. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president) of a company that em ploys, in all, over 5, 000 but fewer than 2 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or 3. Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer level, of a m ajor segment or subsidiary of a company that em ploys, in all, over 2 5 ,0 0 0 persons. C lass B Prim ary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe the dictation. May also type from written copy. May operate from a steno graphic pool. May occasionally transcribe from voice recordings (if primary duty is transcribing from recordings, see Transcribing-M achine Typist). N O TE : This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a secretary norm ally works in a confidential relationship with only one manager or executive and perform s m ore responsible and discretionary tasks as described in the secretary job definition. 1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that em ploys, in a ll, fewer than 100 persons; or 2. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president) of a company that em ploys, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or 3. Secretary to the head, immediately below the officer level, over either a m ajor corporationwide functional activity (e .g ., marketing, research, operations, industrial relations, etc.) or a m ajor geographic or organizational segment (e .g ., a regional headquarters; a m ajor division) of a company that em ploys, in all, over 5 ,0 0 0 but fewer than 2 5 ,0 0 0 em ployees; or 4 . Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level of official) that em ploys, in a ll, over 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or 5 5. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational segment (e .g ., a middle management supervisor of an organizational segment often involving as many as several hundred persons) or a company that em ploys, in a ll, over 2 5 ,0 0 0 persons. Stenographer, General keep Dictation involves a norm al routine vocabulary. May maintain file s, simple records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks. Stenographer, Senior Dictation involves a varied technical dr specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also set up and maintain file s, keep records, etc. OR P erform s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater inde pendence and responsibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the following: Work requires a high degree of stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough working knowledge of general business and office procedure; and of the specific business operations, organization, policies, procedures, file s, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerica l tasks such as maintaining followup files; assembling m aterial for reports, m emoranda, and letters; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming m a il; and answering routine questions, etc. TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE TYPIST MESSENGER P rim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written copy and do simple clerica l work. W orkers transcribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is classified as a stenographer. P erform s various routine duties such as running errands, operating minor office machines such as sealers or m a ile rs, opening and distributing m ail, and other minor clerical work. Exclude positions that require operation of a motor vehicle as a significant duty. TYPIST Uses a typewriter to make copies of various m aterials or to make out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May include typing of sten cils, m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicating proc e sse s. May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming m ail. C lass A . Perform s one or m ore of the following: Typing m aterial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from several sources; or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctuation, etc., of tech nical or unusual words or foreign language m aterial; or planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circum stances. C lass B. P erform s one or m ore of the following: Copy typing from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of form s, insurance policies, etc.; or setting up simple standard tabulations; or copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly. FILE CLERK F iles, c la ssifies, and retrieves m aterial in an established filing system . May perform clerical and manual tasks required to maintain file s. Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. Class A . C lassifies and indexes file m aterial such as correspond ence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an established filing system containing a number of varied subject matter file s. May also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types in conjunction with the file s. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks. C lass B. Sorts, codes, and files unclassified m aterial by simple (subject matter) headings or partly classified m aterial by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cro ss-re fe re n c e aids. A s requested, locates clearly identified m aterial in files and forwards m aterial. May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and service file s. Class C . Perform s routine filing of m aterial that has already been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classification system (e .g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numerical). A s requested, locates readily available m aterial in files and forwards m aterials; and may fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and service file s. SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR Operates a telephone switchboard or console used with a private branch exchange (PBX) system to relay incoming, outgoing, and intrasystem ca lls. May provide information to c a llers, record and transmit m essages, keep record of calls placed and toll charges. Besides operating a telephone switchboard or console, may also type or perform routine clerical work (typing or routine clerical work m ay occupy the major portion of the worker's tim e, and is usually performed while at the switchboard or console). Chief or lead operators in establishments employing more than one operator are excluded. For an operator who also acts as a receptionist, see Switchboard Operator-Receptionist. SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST At a single-position telephone switchboard or console, acts both as an operator— see Switchboard Operator— and as a receptionist. Receptionist's work involves such duties as greeting visitors; determining nature of visitor's business and providing appropriate information; referring visitor to appro priate person in the organization or contacting that person by telephone and arranging an appointment; keeping a log of visitors. ORDER CLERK Receives custom ers' orders for m aterial or merchandise by mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following: Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer, acknowl edge receipt of orders from custom ers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original orders. ACCOUNTING CLERK P erform s one or m ore accounting clerical tasks such as posting to registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal con sistency, com pleteness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining and verifying for clerica l accuracy various types of reports, lists, calculations, posting, etc.; or preparing simple or assisting in preparing more complicated journal vouchers. May work in either a manual or automated accounting system . The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office prac tices and procedures which relates to the clerical processing and recording of transactions and accounting information. With experience, the worker typically becom es fam iliar with the bookkeeping and accounting term s and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a knowledge of the form al principles of bookkeeping and accounting. Positions definitions; are classified into levels on the basis of the following ACCOUNTING CLERK— Continued MACHINE BILLER----Continued C lass A . Under general supervision, performs accounting clerical operations which require the application of experience and judgment, for example, clerically processing complicated or nonrepetitive accounting trans actions, selecting among a substantial variety of prescribed accounting codes and classifications, or tracing transactions through previous accounting actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or m ore class B accounting clerks. Bookkeeping-machine biller. Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers' bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simultaneous entry of figures on custom ers' ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips. C lass B. Under close su pervision / following detailed instructions and standardized procedures, performs one or more routine accounting c le r ical operations, such as posting to ledgers, cards, or worksheets where identification of item s and locations of postings are clearly indicated; checking accuracy and completeness of standardized and repetitive r e c o r d s or accounting documents; and c o d i n g documents using a few prescribed accounting codes. PAYROLL CLERK BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter key board) to keep a record of business transactions. C lass A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand. Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, custom ers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under machine biller), cost d is tribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department. Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers' earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as w orker's name, working days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine. KEYPUNCH OPERATOR Operates a keypunch machine to record or verify alphabetic and/or numeric data on tabulating cards or on tape. Positions definitions. are classified into levels on the basis of the following C lass A . Work requires the application of experience and judgment in selecting procedures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding item s to be keypunched from a variety of source docu ments. On occasion may also perform some routine keypunch work. May train inexperienced keypunch operators. Class B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision or following specific procedures or instructions, works from various stan dardized source documents which have been coded, and follows specified procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to supervisor problems arising from erroneous item s or codes or m issing information. MACHINE BILLER TABULATING-M ACHINE OPERATOR Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, machine billers are classified by type of machine, as follows: Billing-machine b ille r . Uses a special billing machine (combination typing and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from custom ers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memoranda, etc. Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine. Operates one or a variety of machines such as the tabulator, calcu lator, collator, interpreter, sorter, reproducing punch, etc. Excluded from this definition are working supervisors. A lso excluded are operators of electronic digital computers, even though they may also operate electric accounting machine equipment. Positions definitions. are classified into levels on the basis of the following C lass A . Perform s complete reporting and tabulating assignments including devising difficult control panel wiring under general supervision. Assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex reports which often are irregular or nonrecurring, requiring some planning of the nature and sequencing of operations, and the use of a variety of machines. Is TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR— Continued TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR— Continued typically involved in training new operators in machine operations or training lower level operators in wiring from diagrams and in the operating sequences of long and complex reports. Does not include positions in which wiring responsibility is limited to selection and insertion of prewired boards. the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the simpler machines used by class C operators. May be required to do some wiring from diagram s. May train new employees in basic machine operations. C lass C . Under specific instructions, operates simple tabulating or electrical accounting machines such as the sorter, interpreter, reproducing punch, collator, etc. Assignments typically involve portions of a work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or repetitive operations. May perform simple wiring from diagram s, and do some filing work. C lass B . P erform s work according to established procedures and under specific instructions. Assignments typically involve complete but rou tine and recurring reports or parts of larger and m ore complex reports. Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical accounting machines such as Professional and Technical COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A LYST , BUSINESS COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A LYST , BUSINESS— Continued Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures for solving them by use of electronic data processing equipment. Develops a complete description of all specifications needed to enable program m ers to prepare required digital computer program s. Work involves most of the following: Analyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and criteria required to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and types of records, file s, and documents to be used; outlines actions to be performed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for presentation to management and for programming (typically this involves preparation of work and data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and participates in tria l runs of new and revised system s; and recommends equip ment changes to obtain more effective overall operations. (NOTE: Workers performing both system s analysis and programming should be classified as system s analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.) develops system s for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with per sons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises subject-m atter personnel on the implications of the data processing systems to be applied. OR Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system , as described for class A . Works independently on routine assignments and receives instruction and guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions, and to insure proper alignment with the overall system . C lass C . Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analy ses as assigned, usually of a single activity. Assignments are designed to develop and expand practical experience in the application of procedures and skills required for system s analysis work. For example, may assist a higher level system s analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required by program m ers from information developed by the higher level analyst. Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the manage ment or supervision of other electronic data processing em ployees, or sy s tems analysts prim arily concerned with scientific or engineering problem s. For wage study purposes, system s analysts are classified as follows: C lass A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems involving all phases of system analysis. Problem s are complex because of diverse sources of input data and m ultiple-use require ments of output data. (For example, develops an integrated production sched uling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in which every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system of records and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.) Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises subject-m atter personnel on the implications of new or revised system s of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if needed, for approval of m ajor system s installations or changes and for obtaining equipment. May provide functional direction to lower who are assigned to a ssist. COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS Converts statements of business problem s, typically prepared by a system s analyst, into a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problems by automatic data processing equipment. Working from charts or diagram s, the programm er develops the precise instructions which, when entered into the computer system in coded language, cause the manipu lation of data to achieve desired results. Work involves m ost of the following: Applies knowledge of computer capabilities, mathematics, logic employed by computers, and particular subject matter involved to analyze charts and diagrams of the problem to be programmed; develops sequence of program steps; writes detailed flow charts to show order in which data will be processed; converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects program s; prepares instructions for operating personnel during production run; analyzes, review s, and alters programs to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of program development and revisions. (NOTE: Workers performing both system s analysis and programming should be classified as system s analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.) level system s analysts Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on problems that are relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program, and operate. Problem s are of limited complexity because sources of input data are homogeneous and the output data are closely related. (For example, 17 COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS— Continued COMPUTER OPERATOR Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the manage ment or supervision of other electronic data processing em ployees, or pro gram m ers prim arily concerned with scientific and/or engineering problem s. Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to process data according to operating instructions, usually prepared by a pro gram m er. Work includes m ost of the following: Studies instructions to determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required item s (tape r e e ls, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equipment into circuit, and starts and operates computer; makes adjustments to computer to correct operating problems and m eet special conditions; reviews erro rs made during operation and determines cause or refers problem to supervisor or program m er; and maintains operating records. May test and assist in correcting program . For wage study purposes, program m ers are classified as follow s: C lass A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems which require competence in all phases of programming concepts and practices. Working from diagrams and charts which identify the nature of desired resu lts, m ajor processing steps to be accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the problem solving routine; plans the full range of programming actions needed to efficiently utilize the computer system in achieving desired end products. At this level, programming is difficult because computer equipment must be organized to produce several interrelated but diverse products from numerous and diverse data elem ents. A wide variety and extensive number of internal processing actions must occur. This requires such actions as development of common operations which can be reused, establishment of linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when program require ments exceed computer storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements to form a highly integrated program . May provide functional direction to lower level program m ers who are assigned to a ssist. C lass B . Works independently or under only general direction on relatively simple program s, or on simple segments of complex program s. Program s (or segments) usually process information to produce data in two or three varied sequences or form ats. Reports and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor additions to or deletions from input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy and sequencing of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically, the program deals with routine recordkeeping operations. OR Works on complex program s (as described for class A) under close direction of a higher level program m er or supervisor. May a ssist higher level program m er by independently performing le ss difficult tasks assigned, and performing m ore difficult tasks under fairly close direction. May guide or instruct lower level program m ers. C lass C . Makes practical applications of programming practices and concepts usually learned in form al training cou rses. Assignm ents are designed to develop competence in the application of standard procedures to routine problem s. Receives close supervision on new aspects of assignm ents; and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance with required procedures. For wage study purposes, computer operators are classified as follow s: C lass A . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running program s with m ost of the following characteristics: New program s are frequently tested and introduced; scheduling requirements are of critical importance to m inim ize downtime; the programs are of complex design so that identification of error source often requires a working knowledge of the total program , and alternate program s may not be available. May give direction and guidance to lower level operators. C lass B . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running program s with m ost of the following characteristics: Most of the program s are established production runs, typically run on a regularly recurring b a sis; there is little or no testing of new programs required; alternate program s are provided in case original program needs m ajor change or cannot be corrected within a reasonably short tim e. In common error situations, diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This usually involves applying previously programm ed corrective steps, or using standard correction techniques. OR Operates under direct supervision a computer running program s or segments of program s with the characteristics described for cla ss A . May a ssist a higher level operator by independently performing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing difficult tasks following detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations perform ed. expected ability to received operator C lass C . Works on routine program s under close supervision. Is to develop working knowledge of the computer equipment used and detect problems involved in running routine program s. Usually has some form al training in computer operation. May assist higher level on complex program s. DRAFTER C lass A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex item s having distinctive design features that differ significantly from established drafting precedents. Works in close support with the design originator, and may recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of each change on the details of form , function, and positional relationships of components and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering deter minations. May either prepare drawings or direct their preparation by lower level drafters. DRAFT ER— Continued ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN— Continued C lass B . Perform s nonroutine and complex drafting assignments that require the application of m ost of the standardized drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically involve such work a s: Prepares working drawings of subassem blies with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and precise positional relationships between components; prepares architectural drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foun dations, wall sections, floor plans, and roof. Uses accepted formulas and manuals in m a k i n g necessary computations to determine quantities of m aterials to be used, load capacities, strengths, str e sse s, etc. Receives initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor. Completed work is checked for technical adequacy. This classification excludes repairers of such standard electronic equipment as common office machines and household radio and television sets; production assem blers and testers; workers whose primary duty is servicing electronic test instruments; technicians who have administrative or supervisory responsibility; and drafters, designers, and professional engineers. C lass C . Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of drawings prepared include isom etric projections (depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of components and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable precedents, and advice on source m aterials are given with initial assignm ents. Instructions are le ss complete when assignments recur. Work may be spot-checked during progress. Positions definitions. are classified into levels on the basis of the following C lass A . Applies advanced technical knowledge to solve unusually complex problems (i.e ., those that typically cannot be solved solely by refer ence to m anufacturers' manuals or sim ilar documents) in working on elec tronic equipment. Examples of such problems include location and density of circuitry, electromagnetic radiation, isolating malfunctions, and frequent engineering changes. Work involves: A detailed understanding of the inter relationships of circuits; exercising independent judgment in performing such tasks as making circuit analyses, calculating wave fo rm s, tracing relation ships in signal flow; and regularly using complex test instruments (e .g ., dual trace oscilloscop es, Q -m e te r s, deviation m eters, pulse generators). Work may be reviewed by supervisor (frequently an engineer or designer) for general compliance with accepted practices. May provide technical guidance to lower level technicians. D R A FTER -TR A C E R Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not include tracing limited to plans prim arily consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring close delineation.) A N D /O R Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized item s. Work is closely supervised during p ro gress. C lass B . Applies comprehensive technical knowledge to solve com plex problems fi.e .; those that typically can be solved solely by properly interpreting m anufacturers' manuals or sim ilar documents) in working on electronic equipment. Work involves: A fam iliarity with the interrelation ships of circuits; and judgment in determining work sequence and in selecting tools and testing instruments, usually less complex than those used by the cla ss A technician. Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher level technician, and work is reviewed for specific compliance with accepted practices and work assignm ents. May provide technical guidance to lower level technicians. ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN Works on various types of electronic equipment and related devices by performing one or a combination of the following: Installing, maintaining, repairing, overhauling, troubleshooting, modifying, constructing, and testing. Work requires practical application of technical knowledge of electronics principles, ability to determine malfunctions, and skill to put equipment in required operating condition. The equipment— consisting of either many different kinds of circuits or multiple repetition of the same kind of circuit— includes, but is not limited to, the following: (a) Electronic transmitting and receiving equipment (e .g ., radar, radio, television, telephone, sonar, navigational aids), (b) digital and analog com puters, and (c) industrial and m edical measuring and controlling equipment. C la ss C . Applies working technical knowledge to perform simple or routine tasks in working on electronic equipment, following detailed instruc tions which cover virtually all procedures. Work typically involves such tasks a s: A ssisting higher level technicians by performing such activities as replacing components, wiring circu its, and taking test readings; repairing simple electronic equipment; and using tools and common test instruments (e .g ., m ultim eters, audio signal generators, tube teste rs, oscilloscopes). Is not required to be fam iliar with the interrelationships of circuits. This knowledge, however, may be acquired through assignments designed to increase competence (including classroom training) so that worker can advance to higher level technician. Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher level technician. Work is typically spot checked, but is given detailed review when new or advanced assignments are involved. REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSE REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSE— Continued A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general medical direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the prem ises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of all personnel. Nursing supervisors or head nurses in establishments employing m ore than one nurse are excluded. Maintenance, Toolroom, and Powerplant MAINTENANCE CARPENTER MAINTENANCE MACHINIST Perform s the carpentry duties necessary to construct arid maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, crib s, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following; Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, m odels, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimen sions of work; and selecting m aterials necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experi ence usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of m etal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Interpreting written instructions and speci fications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of m achinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for this work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the m achinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (Machinery) P erform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the instal lation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equip ment such as generators, tran sform ers, switchboards, con trollers, circuit breakers, m otors, heating units, conduit system s, or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specifi cations; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or equip ment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MAINTENANCE PAINTER Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an estab lishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May m ix co lo rs, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In 'general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending the. machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs; preparing written specifications for m ajor repairs or for the production of parts ordered from machine shops; reassem bling machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a machinery maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experi ence. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines. MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (Motor Vehicles) Repairs automobiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an estab lishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Examining automotive equip ment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjust m ents; and aligning wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the motor vehicle maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (Motor Vehicles)— Continued MAINTENANCE TRADES HELPER— Continued This classification does not include mechanics who repair custom ers' vehicles in automobile repair shops. the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers on a fu ll-tim e basis. MAINTENANCE PIPEFITTER Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Laying out work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and ham mer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machines; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to p ressu res, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. W orkers prim arily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating system s are excluded. MAINTENANCE S H E E T -M E T A L WORKER Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-m etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and laying out all types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels, or other specifi cations; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-m etal working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; and installing sheet-m etal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. M ACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR (TOOLROOM) Specializes in operating one or more than one type of machine tool (e .g ., jig borer, grinding machine, engine lathe, milling machine) to machine metal for use in making or maintaining jig s, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or nonmetallic m aterial (e.g ., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically involves: Planning and performing difficult machining operations which require complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; setting up machine tool or tools (e .g ., install cutting tools and adjust guides, stops, working tables, and other controls to handle the size of stock to be machined; determine proper feeds, speeds, tooling, and operation sequence or select those prescribed in drawings, blueprints, or layouts); using a variety of precision measuring instruments; making necessary adjustments during machining operation to achieve requisite dimensions to very close tolerances. May be required to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils, to recognize when tools need dressing, and to dress tools. In general, the work of a m achine-tool operator (toolroom) at the skill level called for in this classification requires extensive knowledge of machine-shop and tool room practice usually acquired through considerable on-the-job training and experience. For cross-in du stry wage study purposes, this classific?tion does not include m achine-tool operators (toolroom) employed in tool and die jobbing shops. MILLWRIGHT TOOL AND DIE MAKER Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and laying out work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to stresses, strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; aligning and balancing equip ment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power transm ission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m illwright's work norm ally requires a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Constructs and repairs jigs, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or m etal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or nonmetallic m aterial (e .g ., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically involves: Planning and laying out work according to models, blueprints, drawings, or other written or oral specifications; understanding the working properties of common metals and alloys; selecting appropriate m aterials, tools, and processes required to complete task; making necessary shop computations; setting up and operating various machine tools and related equipment; using various tool and die m aker's handtools and precision measuring instruments; working to very close tolerances; heat-treating metal parts and finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; fitting and assembling parts to p re scribed tolerances and allowances. In general, the tool and die m aker's work requires rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MAINTENANCE TRADES HELPER A ssists one or m ore workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing specific or general duties of le sse r skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, machine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding m aterials or tools; and p er forming other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work For cross-in du stry wage study purposes, this classification does not include tool and die makers who ( 1 ) are employed in tool and die jobbing shops or (2 ) produce forging dies (die sinkers). STATIONARY ENGINEER STATIONARY ENGINEER— Continued Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or a ir conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as steam engines, air co m p ressors, generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing m ore than one engineer are excluded. BOILER TENDER F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power, or steam . Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment. Material Movement and Custodial TRUCKDRIVER WAREHOUSEMAN Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m ate rials, m erchandise, equipment, or workers between various types of estab lishments such a s: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, whole sale and retail establishm ents, or between r e t a i l establishments and cu stom ers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Salesroute and over-th e-roa d drivers are excluded. A s directed, perform s a variety of warehousing duties which require an understanding of the establishm ent's storage plan. Work involves most of the following: Verifying m aterials (or merchandise) against receiving documents, noting and reporting discrepancies and obvious damages; routing m aterials to prescribed storage locations; storing, stacking, or palletizing m aterials in accordance with prescribed storage methods; rearranging and t a k i n g inventory of stored m aterials; examining stored m aterials and reporting deterioration and damage; removing m aterial from storage and preparing it for shipment. May operate hand or power trucks in performing w a r e h o u s i n g duties. For w age stu d y p u rp oses, type of equipment, as follow s: of trailer capacity.) Truckdriver, Truckdriver, Truckdriver, Truckdriver, tr u c k d r iv e r s are c la s s ifie d by s iz e an d (T ra c to r-tra iler should be rated on the basis Exclude workers whose prim ary duties involve shipping and receiving work (see Shipping and Receiving Clerk and Shipping Packer), order filling (see Order F ille r), or operating power trucks (see Pow er-Truck Operator). light truck (under IV2 tons) medium truck (IV 2 to and including 4 tons) heavy truck (trailer) (over 4 tons) heavy truck (other than trailer) (over 4 tons) ORDER FILLER SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other m aterials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping changes, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; and m ain taining necessary, records and file s. For wage study purposes, Shipping clerk Receiving clerk Shipping and receiving clerk workers are classified as follow s: F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, custom ers' orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties. SHIPPING PACKER Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping containers, the specific operations perform ed being dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of item s in shipping containers and m ay involve one or m ore of the following: Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing con tainer; and applying labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded. MATERIAL HANDLING LABORER GUARD AND WATCHMAN A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or m ore of the following; Loading and unloading various m aterials and merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving, or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting m aterials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshore workers, who load and unload ships, are excluded. Guard. Perform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining order, using arm s or force where n ecessary. Includes guards who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and other persons entering. Watchman. Makes rounds of prem ises property against fire, theft, and illegal entry. periodically in protecting POW ER-TRUCK OPERATOR JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER Operates a manually controlled gasolin e- or electric-pow ered truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment. truck, For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of pow eras follow s: Forklift operator Pow er-truck operator (other than forklift) 23 Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washroom s, or prem ises of an office, apartment house, or com m erical or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trim m ings; providing supplies and minor maintenance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restroom s. W orkers who specialize in window washing are excluded. Service Contract Act Surveys The following areas are sur veyed periodically for use in admin istering the Service Contract Act of 1965. Survey results are pub lished in releases which are availa ble, at no cost, while supplies last from any of the BLS regional offices shown on the back cover. Alaska (statewide) Albany, Ga. Alexandria, La. Alpena, Standish, and Tawas City, Mich. A sheville, N.C. Atlantic City, N.J. Augusta, Ga.— S.C. Austin, Tex. Bakersfield, Calif. Baton Rouge, La. Battle Creek, Mich. B e a u m o n t —P o r t A r t h u r - Orange, Tex. Biloxi— Gulfport and Pascagoula, M iss. Brem erton, Wash. Bridgeport, Norwalk, and Stamford, Conn. Brunswick, Ga. Cedar Rapids, Iowa Champaign-Urbana— Rantoul, 111. Charleston, S.C. Cheyenne, Wyo. Clarksville— Hopkinsville, Tenn.— Ky. Colorado Springs, Colo. Columbia, S.C. Columbus, Mis s . Crane, Ind. Decatur, 111. Des Moines, Iowa Dothan, Ala. Duluth— Superior, Minn.— Wis. El P aso, T ex ., and Alamogordo— Las C ruces, N. Mex. Eugene— Springfield and Medford— Klamath Falls— Grants Pass— Roseburg, Or eg. Fayetteville, N.C. Fitchburg— Leom in ster, M ass. Fort Riley— Junction City, Kans. Fort Smith, Ark.— Okla. Fort Wayne, Ind. Frederick— Hagerstown— Chambersburg, Md.— Pa. Gadsden and Anniston, Ala. Goldsboro, N.C. Grand Island-H astings, Nebr. Guam, T erritory of Harrisburg— Lebanon, Pa. La C rosse, Wis. Laredo, Tex. Lawton, Okla. Lexington— Fayette, Ky. Lim a, Ohio Logansport—Peru, Ind. Lower Eastern Shore, Md.— Va.— Del. Macon, Ga. Madison, W is. Maine (statewide) McAllen— Pharr— Edinburg and B r own s vill e— r 1ing e n— Ha San Benito, Tex. Meridian, M iss. M iddlesex, Monmouth, and Ocean C o s., N.J. Mobile and Pensacola, A la.— Fla. Montana (statewide) Nashville— Davidson, Tenn. New Bern— Jacksonville, N.C. New Hampshire (statewide) New London— Norwich, Conn.— R.I. North Dakota (statewide) Northern New York Orlando, Fla. Oxnard— Sim i Valley— Ventura, Calif. Phoenix, A riz. Pine Bluff, Ark. Pueblo, Colo. Puerto Rico Raleigh— Durham,' N.C. Reno, Nev. Riverside— San Bernardino— Ontario, Calif. Salina, Kans. Salinas— Seaside— Monterey, Calif. Sandusky, Ohio Santa Barbara— Santa Maria— Lom poc, Calif. Savannah, Ga. Selm a, Ala. Sherman-Denison, Tex. Shreveport, La. South Dakota (statewide) Southern Idaho Southwestern Virginia Springfield, 111. S p r i n g f i e l d —C h i c o p e e —H o l y o k e , M a s s . —Conn. Stockton, Calif. T a c o m a , Wash. Tampa-St. Petersburg, Fla. Topeka, Kans. Tulsa, Okla. Upper Peninsula, Mich. Vallejo— Fairfield— Napa, Calif. Vermont (statewide) Virgin Islands of the U.S. Waco and Killeen— Tem ple, Tex. Waterloo— Cedar F a lls, Iowa West Texas Plains West Virginia (statewide) Wilmington, Del.— J.— N. Md. Yakima, Richland—Kennewick, and Walla Walla—Pendleton, Wash.— Oreg. ALSO AVAILABLE— An annual report on salaries for accountants, auditors, chief account ants, attorneys, job analysts, direc tors of personnel, buyers, chem ists, engineers, engineering technicians, drafters, a n d clerical employees is available. Order as BLS B ulle tin 1931, National Survey of P ro fessional, Administrative, Technical and Clerical Pay, March 1976, $1.35 a copy, from any of the BLS r e gional sales offices shown on the back cover, or from the Superin tendent of Documents, U.S. Govern ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Area Wage Surveys A list of the latest bulletins available is presented below. Bulletins may be purchased from any of the BLS regional offices shown on the back cover, or from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D .C. 20402. Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents. A directory of occupational wage surveys, covering the years 1950 through 1975, is available on request. Area Akron, Ohio, Dec. 1 9 7 6 1 ______________________________________ Albany— Schenectady— roy, N. Y ., Sept. 1976 ________________ T Anaheim— Santa Ana— Garden Grove, C alif., Oct. 1976______________________________________________ Atlanta, G a ., May 1977________________________________________ Baltim ore, M d ., Aug. 1976___________________________________ B illings, Mont., July 1976____________________________________ Birmingham, A la ., Mar. 1977________________________________ Boston, M a ss., Aug. 1976 ____________________________________ Buffalo, N .Y ., Oct. 1976 ______________________________________ Canton, Ohio, May 1976_______________________________________ Chattanooga, Tenn.— a ., Sept. 1976 _________________________ G Chicago, 111., May 1976 _______________________________________ Cincinnati, Ohio— Ky.— Ind., Mar. 1976________________________ Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1976___________________________________ Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1976____________________________________ Corpus Christi, T e x ., July 1976______________________________ Dallas— Fort Worth, T ex ., Oct. 1976_________________________ Davenport— Rock Island— Moline, Iowa— 111., Feb. 197 6 ______ Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1976 ______________________________________ Daytona Beach, F la ., Aug. 1976 ______________________________ Denver— Boulder, C olo., Dec. 1976___________________________ Detroit, M ich., Mar. 1977_____________________________________ Fresno, C alif., June 1976 _____________________________________ Gainesville, F la ., Sept. 1976 _________________________________ Green Bay, W is., July 1976___________________________________ Greensboro— Winston-Salem— High Point, N .C ., Aug. 1976_______________________________________________ Greenville— Spartanburg, S .C ., June 1976 1 __________________ Hartford, Conn., Mar. 1977___________________________________ Houston, T ex ., Apr. 1976_____________________________________ Huntsville, A la ., Feb. 1977 1 __________________________________ Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 197 6 __________________________________ Jackson, M is s ., Feb. 1 9 7 7 1 ___________________________________ Jacksonville, F la ., Dec. 1976 1 _______________________________ Kansas City, M o .-K a n s., Sept. 1976 1 ________________________ Los A ngeles— Long Beach, C alif., Oct. 1976_________________ Louisville, Ky.— Ind., Nov. 1976_______________________________ Bulletin number and price * 1900-76, 85 cents 1900-59, 55 cents 1900-67, 1950-17, 1900-52, 1900-39, 1950-8, 1900-53, 1900-70, 1900-28, 1900-57, 1900-32, 1900-7, 1900-62, 1900-68, 1900-41, 1900-63, 1900-25, 1900-78, 1900-45, 1900-73, 1950-13, 1900-29, 1900-54, 1900-37, 75 cents $ 1 .2 0 85 cents 55 cents 85 cents 85 cents 75 cents 55 cents 55 cents $ 1.05 75 cents 95 cents 75 cents 55 cfints 85 cents 55 cents 85 cents 45 cents 85 cents $ 1.20 55 cents 45 cents 55 cents 1900-47, 1900-36, 1950-9, 1900-26, 1950-4, 1900-58, 1950-2, 1900-80, 1900-60, 1900-77, 1900-69, 65 cents 85 cents 80 cents 85 cents $ 1.40 75 cents $ 1 .5 0 85 cents $ 1.05 85 cents 55 cents Area M e m p h i s , T e n n . — r k . — i s s . , N o v . 1976 1_____________________ A M M i a m i , F l a . , O ct. 197 6 ___________________________________________ M i l w a u k e e , W i s . , A p r . 1977 ____________________________________ M in neapolis— St. P a u l , M i n n . —W i s . , Jan. 1 9 7 7 ________________ N a s s a u — u f f o l k , N . Y . , June 1976 _______________________________ S N e w a r k , N . J . , J a n 1977 __________________________________________ N e w O r l e a n s , L a . , Jan. 1977 1__________________________________ N e w Y o r k , N . Y . —N . J . , M a y 1 9 7 6 ________________________________ N o r f o l k —V i r g i n i a B e a c h —P o r t s m o u t h , V a . — N . C . , M a y 1977_____________________________________ ________ _____ N o r f o l k — i r g i n i a B e a c h —P o r t s m o u t h and V N e w p o r t N e w s — a m p t o n , V a . — . C . , M a y 1977_____________ H N N o r t h e a s t P e n n s y l v a n i a , A u g . 1976 ____________________________ O k l a h o m a C i t y , O k l a . , A u g . 1 9 7 6 _______________________________ O m a h a , N e b r . — o w a , O ct . 1 9 7 6 __________________________________ I P a t e r s o n —C l i f t o n —P a s s a i c , N . J . , June 1976 __________________ P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . —N . J . , N o v . 1976 1____________________________ P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , Jan. 1977 ______________________________________ P o r t l a n d , M a i n e , D e c . 1 9 7 6 1 ___________________________________ P o r t l a n d , O r e g . —W a s h . , M a y 197 6 _____________________________ P o u g h k e e p s i e , N . Y . , June 1977 _________________________________ P o u g h k e e p s i e —K i n g s t o n — e w b u r g h , N . Y . , June 1 9 7 6 ____ ,___ N P r o v i d e n c e —W a r w i c k —P a w t u c k e t , R . I . — M a s s . , June 1977 1_______________________________________________ R i c h m o n d , V a . , June 1977 1______________________________________ St. L o u i s , M o . —111., M a r . 1977 __________________________________ S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f . , D e c . 1976 __________________________________ S a g in a w , M i c h . , N o v . 1 9 7 6 1_____________________________________ S a lt L a k e C it y —O g d e n , Utah , N o v . 1 9 7 6 _______________________ San A n t o n i o , T e x . , M a y 1977 1__________________________________ S a n D i e g o , C a l i f . , N o v . 1 9 7 6 ____________________________________ San F r a n c i s c o —O a k la n d , C a l i f . , M a r . 197 6 ___________________ San J o s e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1 9 7 7 _____________________________________ S e a t t l e — v e r e t t , W a s h . , Jan 1977 1_____________________________ E So u th B e n d , I n d ., M a r . 1976 ____________________________________ S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , J u ly 1 9 7 6 _______________________________________ T o l e d o , O h i o —M i c h . , M a y 1 9 7 7 __________________________________ T r e n t o n , N . J . , Sept. 197 6 ________________________________________ W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . — d . —V a . , M a r . 1977 _______________________ M W i c h i t a , K a n s . , A p r . 1977 1______________________________________ W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , A p r . 1977 __________________________________ Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1977 _____________________________________________ Bulletin number and price * 1900-75, 1900-66, 1950-14, 1950-3, 1900-35, 1950-7, 1950-5, 1900-48, 85 cents 75 cents $ 1 .1 0 $ 1.60 85 cents $ 1 .6 0 $ 1.60 $ 1.05 1950-20, 70 cents 1950-21, 1900-43, 1900-42, 1900-61, 1900-38, 1900-64, 1950-1, 1900-72, 1900-51, 1950-25, 1900-55, 70 cents 65 cents 55 cents 55 cents 55 cents $ 1.10 $ 1 .5 0 85 cents 75 cents 70 cents 55 cents 1950-22, 1950-23, 1950-10, 1900-71, 1900-74, 1900-65, 1950-24, 1900-79, 1900-9, 1950-19, 1950-12, 1900-5, 1900-44, 1950-18, 1900-56, 1950-11, 1950-16, 1950-15, 1950-6, $ 1.20 $ 1.10 $ 1.20 55 cents 75 cents 55 cents $ 1.10 55 cents 95 cents $ 1.00 $ 1.20 55 cents 55 cents 80 cents 55 cents $ 1.20 $ 1.10 70 cents $ 1.10 * Prices are determined by the Government Printing Office and are subject tc1 change, 1 Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented. U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Washington, D.C. 20212 Postage and Fees Paid U.S. Department of Labor Third Class Mail Official Business Penalty for private use, $300 Lab-441 Bureau off Labor Statistics Regional Offices Region I Region II Region 11 1 Region IV 1603 JFK Federal Building Government Center Boston, Mass. 02203 Phone: 223-6761 (A reaC o de617) Suite 3400 1515 Broadway New York, N.Y. 10036 Phone: 399-5406 (A reaC ode212) 3535 Market Street, P.O. Box13309 Philadelphia, Pa. 19101 Phone: 596-1154 (A reaC o de215) Suite 540 >371 Peachtree S t., N.E. Atlanta, Ga. 30309 Phone:881-4418 (Area Code 404) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont New Jersey New York Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Delaware District o f Colum bia Maryland Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia Alabama Florida Georgia Kentucky M ississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Region V Region VI Regions VII and VIII Regions IX and X 9th Floor, 230 S. Dearborn St. Chicago, III. 60604 P hone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312) Second Floor 555 G riffin Square B uilding Dallas, Tex. 75202 Phone: 749-3516 (A reaC o de214) Federal O ffice Building 911 W alnut St., 15th Floor Kansas City, Mo. 64106 Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816) 450 Golden Gate Ave. Box 36017 San Francisco, Calif. 94102 Phone:556-4678 (Area Code 415) Arkansas Louisiana New Mexico Oklahoma Texas VII Iowa Kansas M issouri Nebraska IX Arizona California Hawaii Nevada Illinois Indiana Michigan M innesota Ohio W isconsin V III Colorado Montana North Dakota South Dakota Utah Wyoming X Alaska Idaho Oregon W ashington