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Area Wage Survey
Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Portsmouth and
Newport News-Hampton, Virginia-North Carolina,
Metropolitan Areas, May 1976
Bulletin 1900-33
U.S. Department of Labor




Preface
This bulletin p r o v i d e s r e s u lts of a M ay
1976 s u r v e y of o c cu p a t io n a l earn ing s and su p p le ­
m e n t a r y w age ben efits in the Norfolk — irg in ia Beach^
V
P o r t s m o u t h and N e w p or t News—
Hampton, V i r g i n i a N orth C a rolina , Standard M e tr o p o lit a n S tatistical
A r e a s ( c i t i e s of C h esa peak e,
Hampton, N ew p ort
New s, N o r f o l k , P o q u o s o n ,
Portsm outh,
Suffolk,
V irg in ia B ea ch , a n d W il lia m s b u r g , Va.; and the
c oun ties o f G lo u c e s t e r , J a m e s City, and Y o rk , Va.,
and C u rritu ck , N. C.).
The s u r v e y w as made as p a rt
of the Bureau of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ' annual a r e a w age
s u r v e y p r o g r a m , w h ich is d e s ig n e d to y ie ld data f o r
in div id ual m e t r o p o l ita n a r e a s as w e l l as national
and r e g io n a l e s t im a t e s f o r a ll Standard M etr op olita n
S t a t is t ic a l A r e a s in the United States, -excluding
A l a s k a and Hawaii.
A m a j o r c o n s id e r a t i o n in the a r e a wage
s u r v e y p r o g r a m is the n eed to d e s c r i b e the l e v e l and
m o v e m e n t of w a g e s in a v a r i e t y of la b or m a r k e t s ,
through the a n a ly s is o f (1) the l e v e l and d is tribu tion
o f w a g e s b y oc cu p a tion , and (2) the m o v e m e n t of
w a g e s by oc c u p a t io n a l c a t e g o r y and s k i ll le v e l.
The
p r o g r a m d e v e lo p s in f o r m a t io n that m a y be u s e d f o r
m a n y p u r p o s e s , including w age and s a la r y a d m in ­
is t r a t i o n , c o l l e c t i v e b a rg a in in g , and a s s i s t a n c e in
d e t e r m in in g plant lo c a tio n .
S u rvey resu lts a l s o are
u sed b y the U.S. D e p a r tm en t of L a b o r to m a k e
w age det e rm in a tio n s under the S e r v i c e C on tract A c t
o f 1965.

C u r ren tly , 81 a r e a s a r e in clu d ed in the p r o ­
gram .
(See lis t of a r e a s on in side b a c k c o v e r . )
In
e a c h a r ea , o c c u p a t io n a l earn ings data are c o l l e c t e d




annually.
In form a tion on est a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s
and su p p lem en ta r y w age b en efits is ob tain ed e v e r y
th ird y e a r .
E a ch y e a r a f t e r a l l in div id ual a r e a w age
s u r v e y s have b e e n c o m p le t e d , two s u m m a r y bu lletin s
a r e is s u e d .
The f i r s t b r in g s to g e th e r data f o r e a c h
m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s u r v e y e d ; the s e c o n d p r e s e n t s
national and r e g io n a l e s t im a t e s , p r o j e c t e d f r o m in d i­
v id u a l m e t r o p o l ita n a r e a data.
The Norfolk —V i r g in ia B e a c h — o r ts m o u t h and
P
N e w p or t News—Hampton s u r v e y was con du cted b y the
B u r e a u 's r e g i o n a l o f f i c e in Philadelph ia, P a ., under
the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f Ir w in L. F eig en b a u m , A s s i s ­
tant R e g io n a l C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r O p era tion s.
The
s u r v e y c ou ld not have b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d without the
c o o p e r a t i o n o f the m a n y f i r m s w h os e w age and s a la r y
data p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r the st a t is t ic a l in f o r m a t io n
in this bulletin.
The Bu reau w is h e s to e x p r e s s sin ­
c e r e a p p r e c ia tio n f o r the c o o p e r a t i o n r e c e iv e d .

Note:
C u r r e n t r e p o r t s on oc c u p a t io n a l earn ing s in
the N or folk — i r g in ia B e a c h - P o r t s mouth and N ew port
V
News—Ham pton a r e a s a r e a v a ila b le f o r the m ovin g
and s t o r a g e (M a y 1976) and la undry and d r y clean in g
(M ay 1976) in d u str ie s . A l s o a v a ilab le f o r the N or folk
a r e a a r e lis tin g s o f union wage rates f o r building
tr a d e s , prin ting tr a d e s , l o c a l - t r a n s i t o p er a tin g e m ­
p l o y e e s , l o c a l t r u c k d r i v e r s and h e lp e r s , and g r o c e r y
store em p loyees.
F r e e c o p ie s of th ese a r e a v a ilab le
f r o m the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l o f f i c e s .
(See b a c k c o v e r
f o r a d d r e s s e s .)

Bulletin 1900-33

A rea W age Survey:

September 1976

N o rfo lk-V irg in ia B each -P o rtsm o u th and
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, W. J. Usery, Jr., Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS, Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

New port N ew s—Hampton, Virginia—North
Carolina, Metropolitan A rea, M ay 1976

C o n t e n t s

Page

Introduction

—

2

Page
T a b le s— Continued
B.

T a b le s :
A.

Ea rn in gs:
3
A - l . W eek ly earn ings o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s —
A - 2 . W eek ly earn ings o f p r o f e s s i o n a l
and te c h n ic a l w o r k e r s __________ . . .
5
A - 3 . A v e r a g e w e e k ly earn ings o f o f f i c e .
p r o f e s s i o n a l , and te c h n ic a l
w o r k e r s , by s e x _________________ . . . 6
A - 4 . H ou rly earn ing s o f m a in ten a n ce,
t o o l r o o m , and pow erplant
7
w o r k e r s ___ _____ _______________ —
A -5. H ou rly earnings o f m a t e r ia l
m ov e m e n t and cus tod ia l
8
w o r k e r s ___________________________ —
A - 6 . A v e r a g e h ou r ly earn ings of
m a in ten an ce, t o o l r o o m , p o w e r plant, m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t , and
c u s to d ia l w o r k e r s , by s e x ---------- — 10
A - l . P e r c e n t in c r e a s e s in a v er ag e
h o u r ly earn ing s f o r s e le c t e d
o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s , ad justed
f o r e m p loy m en t s h i f t s ______________ 11




E s ta blis h m en t p r a c t i c e s and
s u p p lem en ta r y w ag e p r o v i s i o n s :
B -1. M in im u m en tran ce s a la r ie s
f o r in e x p e r ie n c e d typists
and c l e r k s . . ______________________ . . .
B - 2 . Late shift pay p r o v i s i o n s fo r
f u l l - t i m e m a nu factu ring plant
w o r k e r s . . . _ _____________________ —
B - 3 . Scheduled w e e k ly h ours and days
of f u l l - t i m e f i r s t - s h i f t
w o r k e r s __
__________________ __ . . .
B - 4 . Annual paid h olida ys f o r f u l l - t i m e
w o r k e r s . __ _______ ________ ______....
B - 5 . Paid vacation p r o v i s i o n s fo r
f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s _________________....
B - 6 . Health, in s u r a n c e , and p en sion
plan p r o v i s i o n s f o r f u l l - t i m e
w o r k e r s __________________ ________—

Appendix A.
Appendix B.

12

13
14
15
16
19

Scope and m ethod o f s u r v e y _____ .... 21
O cc u p a tion a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ________ .... 26

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C. 20402, GPO Bookstores, or BLS Regional
Offices listed on back cover. Price 85 cents. Make checks payable to
Superintendent of Documents.




Introduction
n u r s e s , sk illed m a in ten an ce t r a d e s w o r k e r s , and
unskilled plant w o r k e r s .
W h e re p o s s i b l e , data ar e
p r e s e n te d f o r all in d u s tr ie s , m a n u factu rin g , and
nonm an ufacturin g.
This ta ble p r o v i d e s a m e a s u r e o f
w age tr e n d s after elim in ation o f changes in a v e r a g e
earnin gs c a u se d by e m p loy m en t shifts among e s t a b ­
lis h m en ts as w e ll as t u r n o v e r o f e st a b lis h m e n t s i n ­
cluded in s u r v e y s a m p l e s .
F o r fu rther d e t a ils , see
ap pendix A.

This a r e a is 1 o f 84 in w hich the U.S.
D epartm ent o f L a b o r ' s Bu reau o f L a b o r Statistics
conduces s u r v e y s o f oc c u p a t io n a l earn ings and r e ­
lated b e n e fit s .
In this a r e a , data w e r e obtain ed by
p e r s o n a l v is it s o f Bu reau fie ld e c o n o m i s t s to r e ­
p r e s e n ta tiv e est a b lis h m e n t s within six b r o a d industry
d iv is io n s : M an ufacturin g; t r a n s p o r t a tio n , c o m m u n i ­
c a tio n , and oth er pu blic u tilities ; w h o l e s a l e trad e;
r eta il tr a d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l estate;
and s e r v i c e s .
M a jo r in du stry g rou ps ex clu d ed f r o m
th ese studies ar e g ov e r n m e n t op e r a t io n s and the c o n ­
stru c tion and e x tr a c tiv e in du stries.
E s ta b lis h m en ts
having f e w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d num ber o f w o r k e r s
a r e om itted b e c a u s e of in suffic ient e m p loy m en t in
the o c c u p a t io n s studied.
Separate ta bula tions are
p r o v i d e d f o r each o f the b r o a d in du stry d iv is io n s
w h ich m e e t pu blica tion c r i t e r i a .

B - s e r i e s ta bles
The B - s e r i e s ta b le s p r e s e n t in form ation on
m in im u m e n tran ce s a l a r i e s f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s ; late
shift pay p r o v i s i o n s and p r a c t i c e s f o r plant w o r k e r s
in m anu factu ring; and data se p a r a t e l y f o r plant and
o f f i c e w o r k e r s on sch eduled w eek ly h ours and days
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s ; paid h o lid a y s ; paid v a c a tio n s ;
and health, in s u r a n c e , and p en sion plans.

A - s e r i e s ta b le s
T a b le s A - l th rough A - 6 p r o v i d e es t im a te s
o f s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly o r h o u r ly earn ings f o r w o r k ­
e r s in o c c u p a t io n s c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty of m a n u f a c ­
turing and nonm an ufacturin g in d u str ies . O cc u p a tion s
w e r e s e l e c t e d f r o m the follow in g c a t e g o r i e s :
(a)
O f f i c e c l e r i c a l , (b) p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l , (c)
m a in ten a n ce, t o o l r o o m , and pow erp la n t, and (d) m a te­
r ia l m o v e m e n t and c u s to d ia l.
In the 31 la r g e s t
s u r v e y a r e a s , ta b le s A - l a through A - 6 a p r o v id e
s i m il a r data f o r e st a b lis h m e n t s em p loying 500 w o r k ­
ers or m ore.

A pp endixes
App endix A d e s c r i b e s the m eth od s and c o n ­
cepts u sed in the a r e a w ag e su r v e y p r o g r a m .
It
p r o v i d e s in form a tion on the s c o p e o f the a r e a s u r v e y ,
on the a r e a ' s in du stria l c o m p o s i t i o n in m a n u f a c t u r ­
ing, and on la b o r - m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t c o v e r a g e .

App endix B p r o v i d e s jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s u sed
by Bureau field e c o n o m i s t s to c l a s s i f y w o r k e r s by
o c c u p a t io n .

T a b le A - 7 p r o v i d e s p e r c e n t changes in a v ­
e r a g e h o u r ly earn ings o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s ,
e l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s i n g w o r k e r s , in dustr ia l

2

A. Earnings
Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
W eek ly earnings
(standard)

O ccu p a tio n and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of
worker?

1

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s receiving strai ght - t im e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s of—

S
w eek ly
hour?*
(standard)

70
M ean 2

M edian 2

M id d le ran g e2

$

$

s
no

s
120

1 7 7 .0 0 -

vLA j j

s
170

s
180

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

u
39

12
68

102
20
82
4

84
28
56
5

85
33
52
3

84
50
34
9

87
53
34
8

25
21

22

11

11

22

13

s
190

s

S

200

210

$

S

%

220

230

240

22

10

46

33
11

37
1

22
2

200

210

220

230

240

250

1 3 8 .0 0 -

8

176 .00

19

34

1

L v ''L 1AKALj t vLA
nAnUr Av 1UK il'u

34
11
23

8
8

16
16

1

U

ge ne ral

-------------------------

STENOGRAPHERS. SENIOR ------------------

103

99
58

39.5

39.5

152.00

157 .50

135 .00

156 .00

1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 -

170.00
189.60

1 4 3 .50-163 .00
1 5 4 .0 0 163 .00
1 1 1 .0 0 -

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

23

10

22

13

-

S

S

250

260

280

260

280 o v e r

------------------

27

39.5

138.50

124 .00

38
11
1

1

i

1
12

16
11

8

44
28
16
9

35
26

14

18
12
6

28

6
6
i

4

6

i

23
12

30
21

1

59
21
38

16
24
3

31

1

1

i

1
1
1

1

i
2

8

4

2

4

4

2

-

-

-

3

_

2

2
14
11

2

3

i

-

d.

n

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

125 .00

JV

P U B L IC U T I L I T I E S

10
12

1
1

157.50

1

11

1

8

,

160

no

100

1 4 3 .0 0 198 .00
1 6 7 .0 0 20 6 .0 0
131 .50-173 .00

U

357

s t e n o g r a p h e r s

150

9

90

21 7 .5 0

61

j

140

s

s

s

$
130

an d

191 .50
170 .00
23 6 .5 0

37
AKIL j i

100

$

1 5 5 .0 0 1 2 9 .0 0 1 6 0 .0 0 -

457

NUNnANU' Mv 1UK irlu

1

90

S

WORKERS
J ^•Z
j

3

80

S

an d
under

80

ALL

$

$

1 0 0 .5 0 123 .00
1 0 0 .00-123 .50
1 0 5 .5 0 139 .30

1
-

13
13
1

Ill

107
7

20
18

44
36
8

2
2

17
15
7

2

20
61

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g

SWITCHBOARD

---------------------

---------------------

OPtRATOR-RECEPTIONISTS-

25

9 2 . 0C - 9 6 . 3 0
9 5 .5 0 - 97.60

28
19

2
2

69
198
49

U K U t ’ LLL><i\b v
'

UL A3 3

39.5
39.5
39.5

105.00
120.50
118.00
121.00
131 .00

96.00

109 .00
114 .00
124.50

103 .00-132 .30
102 .50-127 .00
1 0 3 .5 0 -1 3 u .0 0
1 2 0 .00-134 .50
98.00-1 1 5 .0 0

-

1

1
1

-

3

10
7

6

-

^

* W orkers w ere distributed as follow s:
** W orkers w ere distributed as follow s:

1

-

11
9

28
26

17
13

7
6

2

-

4*

38

1
43

16
15

24
15

34

43
5
38

20

40.0

1

14

41

3

n

i

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g

n

-

4

2 at $280 to $ 300; and 2 at $300 to $ 320.
8 at $300 to $ 320; and 1 at $320 to $340.

See footnotes at end of tables.




3

9

-

-

3

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

i
i

12
1
11

-

i
i

10

i

-

-

2

7

-

-

14
13

9

8
7

2

6

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976— Continued
W e e k l y e ar n in gs 1

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s receiving st ra ig ht -t im e w e e kly e a r n i n g s of—

( s ta n d a rd )
$
umber

70

w e e k ly

O c c u p a t i o n a n d i n d u s t r y division
orkeR

$

Ho u r 1
M ean 2

( s ta nd ar d)

M edian 2

M iddle ra n g e 2

and
under

S

S

$

S

s

S

S

S

$

S

S

10 0

1 1 0

1 2 0

1 3 0

14 0

15 0

16 0

17 0

18 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10 0

n o

12 0

13 0

14 0

15 0

16 0

17 0

2 3

32

31

2 4

2 7

80

90

-

80

90

S

S

S

S

S

S

2 0 0

2 1 0

-

-

-

-

18 0

190

2 0 0

2 1 0

2 2 0

2 2 0

s

1 ----------

2 3 0

2 3 0

2 4 0

2 5 0

2 6 0

-

1 9 0

-

-

-

and

2 4 0

2 5 0

2 6 0

2 8 0

over

2 8 0

ALL WO R K E R S —
CONTINUED
$

A C C O U N T I N G C L E R K S * C L A S S A ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

2 1 7

3 9 .5

1 5 6 .5 0

$
1 5 4 .0 0

$
$
1 3 5 . 0 0 - 1 7 8 .0 0

-

-

87

3 9 .5

1 7 1 .0 0

1 7 2 .5 0 ,

1 5 4 . 0 0 - 1 9 3 .5 0

-

-

13 0

3 9 . 5

1 4 6 .5 0

1 4 0 .5 0

1 3 4 . 0 C - 1 6 1 .0 0

-

A C C O U N T I N G C L E R K S . C L A S S 8 ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g
--------------------

3 9 9

3 9 . 5

1 1 0 . 0 0 - 1 4 0 . 0 0

-

4

30

-

-

21

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS*
C L A S S B ------------------------- --------P A Y R O L L C L E R K S --------- ----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------K E Y P U N C H O P E R A T O R S * C L A S S A -------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------K E Y P U N C H O P E R A T O R S * C L A S S B -------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------

1 2 4 .5 0

1 2 0 .5 0

1 2 7

3 9 .5

1 2 3 .0 0

1 2 0 .0 0

1 0 7 . 0 0 - 1 3 6 . 0 0

2 7 2

3 9 .5

1 2 5 .5 0

1 2 1 .0 0

1 1 0 . 0 3 - 1 4 2 . 0 0

31

3 8 .0

1 1 9 .0 0

1 2 5 .0 0

1 0 6 . 0 0 - 1 3 7 . 5 0

6 9

3 9 .5

1 3 5 .0 0

1 3 3 .0 0

1 1 3 . 0 0 - 1 5 1 .0 0

4 7

3 9 .5

1 3 8 .0 0

1 3 8 .0 0

-

5

8

14

23

15

9

3

2

-

1

-

-

-

-

5

2

19

9

3

17

13

9

3

•

•

-

•

-

•

5

8

18

30

2 4

5

18

11

6

2

-

-

2

*

•

1

•

51

101

5 8

55

4 3

37

13

7

.

-

.

_

15

2 4

19

22

8

9

5

4

3 6

77

39

3 3

3 5

2 8

8

3

2

6

7

-

5

-

-

11

8

9

6

5

4

5

6

3

7

5

4

1

5

14

21

4

9

6

-

-

-

.

-

12

“

*

6

-

74

8

•

12

•

4

2

1

-

11

-

*

70

18

10

19

7

*

1

22
7

39

32

20

-

.

1 2 0 . 0 C - 1 5 5 .0 0

15 4

3 8 .5

1 1 9 .0 0

1 1 0 .0 0

1 0 3 . 0 0 - 1 3 0 . 0 0

-

-

29

3 9 .5

1 4 5 .5 0

1 3 6 .0 0

1 1 8 . 0 0 - 1 6 2 .0 0

-

1 1 3 .0 0

1 0 3 .0 0

1 0 5 .5 0

9 7 .5 0

9 4 . 0 0 - 1 1 5 . 0 0

1 2 8 .0 0

1 3 3 .5 0

5

-

1 0 3 . 0 0 - 1 2 6 . 5 0

1 2 5

3 8 .5

2 9 4

3 6 .5

31

3 9 .5

-

-

50

4

113

1 1 7 . 5 0 - 1 4 0 . U0

S e e footnotes at en d of tables.




7

4

9
5
2 3

5

1

4

10

17

9

1

-

-

-

*

*

T

*

•

▼

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

2

.

2

-

Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and
Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
W e e k ly earnings
(stan da rd )
N um be r

of

O c c u p a t i o n a n d i n du st ry division

w orkers

A v e ra ge
w e e k ly
h o u rs 1
(standard]

1

N u m b e r of w o r k e rs receiving strai g h t - t i m e w e e k l y e a rn in g s of—
*

$
M ea n

*

M e d ia n

^

M id d le ran ge d

ALL

ANALYSTS

PROGRAMMERS

PROGRAMMERS

$
313,00

$

33
COMPUTER

S

$

$

14 0

150

160

17 0

180

200

220

s
>
24o

no

120

13 0

140

15 0

16 0

17 0

18 0

200

220

24.)

260

251.50

t ^ l .0 0

$

$

s

%

$

5

*

_

40.0

78
59

300

320

340

360

380

400

28C

300

32 0

34 0

36 0

380

400

420

1

1

226.00-267.J0

*
"

1

A

179.50
169.50

1

165.00

10
,

153.50-198.90
13

150.50-198.00

7

“

”
*

18

13

3
“

•

*
*

1
1

2

17

*

26

16

2

1

20
20

37

46

118

20

10

14

21

22

27
20

11

2

-

6

11

*

*
“

*

43
36

107
103

1

1

-

17
154.00

154.50

133.50-178.00
122.00-147.50

1
4 4

class

A-

174

40.0

230.00

26

el e c t r o n i c s

TECHNICIANS.

TECHNICIANS.

CLASS

CLASS

B-

c-

389

7 8

234.00

40.0

220.00

151.00

237.50

133.00

6 7

2 8

N A n u r A w 1U H 1

2 6

178.00-276.50

-

-

-

-

-

-

28

24

24

191.00

i
*

165.00-260.00

126.50-185.50
126.00140.50
179.00178.00-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

24

18
18

5

28
28

1

209.50
206.50

S e e footnotes at e n d of tables.




-

C-.9.00
40.0

129

lot

4 4

*

5

2

0*^0

t e c h n i c i a n s

*

1

•

1

■ ■■

44

*

12

143.00
14

1

1

ELECTRONICS

$

280

(BUSINESS),

51

el e c t r o n i c s

$

$

260

$

224.50

v u M i«

s

130

(BUSINESS)*

._

U K A P 1C K by

5

*

12 0

WORKERS

SYSTEMS

71
COMPUTER

S

$

no

and
under
100

COMPUTER

$
lo o

3

90

1

38

6

30

-

7

1

2

1

20

4

25

15

So
i

5
“

-

-

-

-

-

-

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex, in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
A verage
(m e a n 2 )

A v era g e
(m e a n 2 )

Sex,

3

o c c u p a tio n , and in d u s try d iv is io n

OFFICE
SECRETARIES

OCCUPATIONS

-

Number
of
woikers

W eek ly
h e u rs1
(standard)

W eek ly
earnings 1
(standard)

S ex, 3 o c c u p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv is io n

WOMEN

-------------------------------------------------------------------

782
327
455
79

39.5
39.5
39.5
39.0

$
164.00
177.00
154.50
191.00

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS
WOMEN— CONTINUED

j

L v KL 1A K A l j ?

v

L

CLERKS.

40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.0
40.0

161.00
175.50
149.50
181.00

244
97
147
40

39.5

150.50
191.50

96

Sex, 3 o c c u p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv is io n

W eek ly
hours 1
(standard)

C

W eek ly
earnings *
(standard)

P R O F ES SI ON AL AND TECH NI CA L
OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED

--------------------

$

--------

OPERATORS

-------------------------------------

— — —

o p e r a t o r

-r

—

87

39.5

120.50

r•5

121.00

—

e c e p t i o n i s t s

39

-

42

153.00

39.0
38.5

-

201.50
161.00

354
155
199
28

CLASS

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g
s w it chb oar d

61
86

W eek ly
earnings *
(standard)

28
26

c.09.00

U

W eek ly
hours 2
(standard)

A verage
(m e a n 2 )
N um ber
of
workers

$
FILE

s w it chb oar d

37

Number
of
w oikeis

39.5

UKA r 1C K v f

ORDER

CLERKS*

CLASS

8

v L —j j
.

n A r iU r A v 1UK i ' > v

1c J

2 4 8 . 0P

A

m m

r 1

l j

no n m a n u f a c t u r i n g

35
a c c o unt ing

c l e r k s

*

cl as s

CLERKS*

CLASS

r
•5

.

j* yy
-

153*50

A

L L tv 1■'UN i

ACCOUNTING

39

1

. r. r-

3 9 •5

B

123*00

rUHL1v U l l L l l l t b

—J * "

l ' 5 50
'
31

r-

119.00

39.5

137.50

38*5

119.00

40.0

- _
*
■

38.0

66
45

31

,^

_..

~r-vr-

^

A
29
125

31
248

197
132.50

106.00
128.00
103.00

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
O C CU PA TI ON S - MEN
COMPUTER

SYSTEMS

OCCUPATIONS

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g

. CLASS

<-14.50

40.0

c-

150.50

-

40.0

158.00

40.0

189*00

WOMEN

-------------------------------

25

ANALYSTS
70

See footnotes at end of tables.




t e c h n i c i a n s

113.00

T

,,,

e l e c t r o n i c s

6

0

Table A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
N u m ber o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t-t im e h ou r ly earn in gs o f—

Hourly earnings 4

M e d ia n 2

M id d le range 2

ru w

M ean2

2 .6 0

2.70

2.80

and
under
2.60

^

•

2.50

S

S

s

S

$

S

s

S

$

3.20

3.40

3#60

3.80

4. 00

4.20

4.40

4.60

s
5.00

S

3.00

i —
4.80

$

2.80

5.20

5 .6 0

6 .0 0

6.40

6 .8 0

7.20

7.60

8.00

3.00

3.20

3.40

3.60

3.80

4.00

4. 20

4.40

4.60

4.80

5.00

5.20

5.6Q

6 .0 0

6 .40

6.80

7 ,?0

7.60

8.00

8.40

S

1 ---------- $

o

Occupation and industry division

1 ----------

$

$

1 ---------- 1

1 --------

•

N um be r
of
workers

ALL WORKERS
$

$

$

$
1

1

1

1
n A IN 1CNANCC.

L L U t I K lL lA N u

*

1

■

»w
3

rA

IN

1t K

j

* * B—

M A IN 1C N A N v L .

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS (MACHINERY)

-

288

5.48

5.44

4.86-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

J

1

3

9

20

1

28

46

17

39

68

12

3

17

25

-

9

4

16

57

20

31

2

16

4

7

-

]

5.84

,,

-

2

-

1

6.90

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS
(MOTOR VEHICLES) -----------------------

207

5.48

n A n U r A v 1U

K lIT y

"

MAINTENANCE SHEET-METAL WORKERS ---n A iN ILN AN Ll

IKMUt3 nLLrbK5

6.28
/ AO
3 54

6.01

-

6.04

-

-

-

4

-

16

7

3

6.01

5.84-

6.91

11

*
*

30

j

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

:

1

1

See footnotes at end of tables.

7

-

-

-

-

i

1

6

-

0
-

-

2

13
n
rg

8

3




-

6.04
6.14

5.84-

6.10
36

4.865.44*
5.44-

5.44

12

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
Hourly earnings 4

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s receiving straight - t i m e h o u r l y ea r n in gs of-

%

ALL

S
2.40

2
2.50

2 .6 0

s
2.80

$
3.00

S
3 .20

3 .4 0

1
)
3 .6 0

S
3 .8 0

$
4.00

5
>
4 .20

$
4.4u

S
4.60

S
4.80

$
5.00

$
5.40

S
5.80

i
6.20

i
6 .6 0

i
7.00

*
7.40

2.30

Of
workers

O c c u p a t i o n a n d industry division

3
>
2.30

2.40

2.50

2.60

2 .80

3.00

3.20

3 .40

3 .60

3 .80

4 .0 0

4.20

4 •40

4.60

4.80

5.00

5,40

5.80

6.20

6.60

7 . V0

7.40

7.8c

59
59

31
6
4b

60
60

237
3
234

53
10
43

12 1
17
104

66
19
47

72
16
56

117
35
82
30

67
38
29
3

123
33
90
78

-

145
94
51
4

52
11
41

1
1
-

18
18
-

8
4
4
*

204
20
184
168

96
96

1
1

9
1
a

-

2
2

-

-

*

*

24
24
”

14 7
14 7
147

$
2.20
Mean 2

Median2

Middle range 2

an d
under

WORKERS

T R U C K D R I V E R S -------------------- ----- ---M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------ -----------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

1.854
326
1.528
549

$
4.32
3.94
4.40
6.12

$
3.86
3.90
3.86
5.50

$
$
2.80- 5.50
3.5C- 4.30
2.50- 5.90
5 . 50— 7.76

-

'
TRUCKDRIv

e r s

*

li gh t

tr uc k

—

l

»JO"

161
161
161

"

Cm
. f*
16

2.40
5

T R U C K D R I V E R S . M E D I U M T R U C K -------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------- -----------

638
10 1
537

3.55
3.98
3.47

3.35
3.83
3.08

2.503.352.50-

4.30
4.69
4.30

11
11

TRUCKDRIVERS. HEAVY TRUCK
( T R A I L E R ) ------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

567
67
500
335

5.62
4.12
5.82
5.96

5.50
4.25
5.50
5.50

3.963.504.303.96-

7.76
4.69
7.76
7.76

-

“

.

*

1
1
-

1
1
-

4
4
-

104
20
84

*

41
8
33
*

11
li

-

17
17
-

*

*

10 0
10 0
84

67
67
-

1
«
1
*

6
6

*

4
4
-

-

85
85

-

-

-

-

29

-

-

2
2

16
10

31
31

7
2

1
1

2
2

1
1

2
2

-

-

-

“

*

*

•

22
22

59
14
45

47
4
43

19
8
11

43
27
16

“

2
2
*

1
1
*

65
26
39
30

7
5
2
*

74

10

57
8

6

1

1

25
25

1
“

3
3

_
*

16
16

6
1

19
19
23

“

-

-

3

-

_

*

41
41

50
13
37

13
13

-

19
1
18

-

•

33
8
25

18 6
186

5

74
74

-

-

_

TRUCKDRIVERS. HEAVY TRUCK
( O T H E R T H A N T R A I L E R ) ---------------

241

4.17
J.OcT

4.30

2.81-

4.30

-

6

S H I P P I N G C L E R K S ----- -------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U P I N G ---------------------

107
90

4.03
4.03

4.13
4.13

3.633.65-

4.38
4.38

-

-

•

RECEIVING CLERKS
MANUFACTURING

---------------------------------------------------------------------

125
39
86

4.45
5.18
4.11

4.00
6.61
4.00

3.693.593.75-

4.95
6.61
4.55

*

•
*

S H I P P I N G A N D R E C E I V I N G C L E R K S -----N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------- -----

58
43

3.82
3.65

3.70
3.70

3.353.35-

4.20
4.20

-

-

*

W A R E H O U S E M E N ------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------- ----N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------pu bl ic
u t i l i t i e s ------------------

350
203
147
80

4.36
4.10
4.73
5.55

4.12
4.12
3.91
5.93

3.914.083.753.91-

4.30
4.22
6.13
7.11

O R D E R F I L L E R S ----------- -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

235
74

4.01
3.56

3.75
4.43

3.722.30-

5.12
4.43

n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g

133
133
105

-

*
-

*

6
6
•

2
2

6
3
3

5
5

10
5
5

18
1
17

3
3

13
2
11

-

1

6
6

1
-

4

1
1

1
-

23

4
4

4

*

1

*

-

-

5
5

7
5

-

7
6

1
1

11
11

2
*

-

3
2

6
"
"

i
•

.

*

3
1

-

*

12
12

-

•

-

*

3
3
“

2
2
“

6
6
“

9
8
1
“

42
29
13

9
9
”

46
4
42
34

106
97
9

47
46
1
*

3
1
2
*

10
10
-

4
4
2

9
8
1
-

3
3
*

13
-

-

13
11

_
*

3
3

4

10
6

13

1

71
2

-

-

-

4u
40

_

_

67

-

•

*

-

-

*

“

.

22

ZZ

-

1
“
1
“

4
“
4

1
1

3

*

'

14

-

_

-

-

-

-

•

*
-

*

33
33
33

.

-

_

-

2
•
2

15
15
-

-

•
-

-

-

-

-

13
13
13

28
28

-

-

-

-

-

“

'

18
L A B O R E R S ------------- --------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------

1.216
590
626

3.28
3.21
3.35

2.84
2.95
2.60

2.482.642.48-

3.70
3.66
4.53

-

F O R K L I F T O P E R A T O R S -------- -------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

538

3.85

3.82

3 3 4

3 . 8 3

3 . 6 8

204
60

3.88
4.78

3 . 9 0

3.253.252.753.91-

4.00
3.94
5.17
5.48

MATERIAL

HANDLING

m a n u f a c t u r i n g

4.63

358
86
272

40
23
17

94
36
56

145
14 0
5

28
6
22

105
49
56

77
75
2

91
67
24

31
29
2

17
14

-

30
21
9

.
-

1
1
-

53
13
40

11
11

28
16
12

15
15
-

7
7
-

65
38
27
6

45
38
7

36
35
1

137
79
58
24

15
12
3

'

S e e footnotes at e n d of tables.




8

3

27
27
*

9
9

-

-

-

-

2
2
-

15
15
-

24
24
-

-

142
142

5
5

28
28
2

15
15
15

-

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976— Continued
H o u rly ea ■nings

4

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s re ceiving straight-time h o u r l y e a r n i n g s of—
$
2.20

O c c u p a t i o n a n d industry division
workers

M ean2

M e d ia n 2

M id d le range

^

$

S

2.50

$
2.60

.8 0

$
3.00

$
3.20

$
3.40

$
3.60

$
3.80

$
4.00

$
4.20

$
^
4.40 4.60

$
4.80

$
5.00

$
5.40

5
5. 80

$
6.20

$
6.60

5
7.00

2.50

2.60

2.80

.0 0

3.20

3.40

3.60

3.80

4.00

4.20

4.40

4.60

4.8o

5.00

5.40

5.80

6. 20

6.60

7.00

7.40

7.80

3
3

4
4

~

-

*

*

*

*

10
1
*

18
*

-

*

“

30
21
9
1

40
33
7
6

*
2.30

$
2.40

2.40

7.40

and
under
2.30

ALL W O R K E R S —
CONTINUED
P O W E R - T R U C K O P E R A T O R S (OTHER
T H A N F O R K L I F T ) -------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------

87
83

$
4.07
4.00

$
3.39
3.39

$
3.393.39-

$
5.32
4.25

-

-

-

-

-

*

6
6

-

-

-

43
43

G U A R D S A N D W A T C H M E N -------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G — --------- -------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

563
246
38

3.72
2.91
4.50

3.64
2.35
5.28

2.402.302.65-

4.64
3.10
6.28

-

139
136

30
15
6

8

7
-

15
11
6

2
-

35
22
6

24
18
*

25
4

*

3.20

3.06

1,459
342
1,117
64

2.89
3.78
2.62
3.86

2.50
3.87
2.3c
3.94

2.302.802.303.04-

3.23
4.64
2.75
4.29

16
16

653
8
645
11

106
20
86
1

115
31
84
1

47
26
21
3

55
4
51
7

139
34
105
2

16
12
4
3

-

-

-

-

*

*

11
11
*

52
1

75
-

35
18
17
14

23
15
a
i

8
8

87

*

15
13

*

2
-

6
6

4
2
2

3
3
3

*

15
15
15

10
*

5
1
4
2

12
12
12

-

15
15
-

-

*

WATCHMEN:

J A N I T O R S , P O R T E R S , A N D C L E A N E R S ---M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g
-------------------P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S ------------------

S e e footnotes at e n d of tables.




1-0
53
12
41

14
10
4

83
81
2

2
1
1

-

*
*

Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, powerplant, material movement,
and custodial workers, by sex, in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and
Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
Sex,

3

occupation, a n d in du st ry division

m a i n t e n a n c e
p o w e r p l a n t

,

t o o l r o o m

,

o c c u p a t i o n s

N um ber
of
workers

A vera ge
(m ea n 2 )
hourly
earnings4

and

-

Sex, 3 occupation, a n d i n d u st ry division

ma t e r i a l

mo v e m e n t

and

OCCUPATIONS

MEN
76
52

Number
of
workers

A vera ge
(m e a n 2 )
hourly
earnings4

Sex, 3 occupation, a n d i n d u st ry division

$

rU bL Iv

U 1 * L 11 I t s

■

$

" "

326

70

3.26

549

*

346

1 1 169

3.31

MANUFACTURING
1K U vM /N 1 V tK b ♦

L lu n 1

|K U t ' '

"

nA iN ® LNANLL

622

3.35

536
332

^^,

3.85
3.83

nAvM 1N 1 j IJ

MECHANICS

*■

"""
-~ a

MAINTENANCE

A verage
m ea n 2 )
hourly
earnings4

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED

cu s t o d i a l

- MEN

$
6.31
6.56

80

Number
of
workers

(MACHINERY)

-

288

5.48

TRUCKDRIVERSt

HEAVY

TRUCK

POWER-TRUCK

OPERATORS

(OTHER
87
83

49
36
• U'JL 1 v

U 1•wi 1lu J

gu ar ds

and

wa t c h m e n

NONMANUFACTURING:

m a i n t e n a n c e
m e c h a n i c s
l HU 1 U K V t . n 1 L L l. j /

1 K UU f t U K 1 V L. N o ?
I V 1n tK

1 HAN

ntA V T

|K U t i '

IKAXLt.*»*

1"

3
116

•82

WATCHMENS
39

5.73
6

18

JANITORS,

PORTERS,

AND

CLEANERS

--------

285

74

HAN Ur AO 1 UK 1 l» v

I'L v t * V iN w

v L t “ r\3

—

3.20
3 07
i
3*92
2.70

48
84
M A IN •L N AN vt.
1K A U t i
MANUr A v •U K i N o
n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g

Tl i
b o il er

te n d e r s

-------------------------------------------

08
3.54
4.59
4.73
'

n tL rL “ o

37
40
34

^ f l X r ■ XN w

APiU

K u v C 1 V 1 NO

----------------------------------------------------------

AND CUSTODIAL
- WOMEN

4* 38

r r~\
—

4.73
26

4.48
4.40

JANITORS,
U N U t''

r ILLt-K b

”

S e e footnotes at e n d of tables.




MATERIAL MOVEMENT
OCCUPATIONS

vwwMf Vs}

10

235

4.01

PORTERS.

AND

CLEANERS

--------

425

2.52




Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings for selected
occupational groups, adjusted for employment shifts, in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va.—N.C., for selected periods
Industry and occupational group
(men and women combined)

January 1972
to
January 1973

January 1973
to
January 1974

January 1974 to May 1975
16 -month
increase

Annual rate
of increase

May 1975
to
May 1976

A ll industries:
O ffice c l e r i c a l ,. _
E lectronic data p rocessin g ______________ ____ ____
Industrial n u r s e s ---- --------------- -----------------------Skilled maintenance trades *** __ ----- ---------------Unskilled plant w orkers * * * ______ ______________

**
7.4
7.0

5.7
*
4.3
7.5
8.7

10.9
11.4
12.2
12.4
14.2

8.1
8.4
9-0
9.2
10.5

6.3
5.7
4.8
7.2
8.3

Manufacturing:
Office c le r ic a l _ _______ ______ __
_______
E lectronic data p r o c e s s in g _
_
__
__ _________
_
Industrial n u r s e s _ _ ____ _____ _________ _ _ _
Skilled maintenance trades ***
Unskilled plant w orkers *** _
____
___

**
*
**
6.3
7.6

*
**
7.9
9.2

**
**
sje*
12.3
17.3

**
ss
jeje
**
9.1
12.7

a#
je
**
*
s{e
7.2
9.0

Nonmanufacturing:
Office c l e r i c a l________
_________________ __ ___
E lectronic data p r o c e s s in g _ ____________________
_
Industrial n u r s e s ___ , ___ _ ___________ ____
Skilled maintenance trades ***____
___________
Unskilled plant w orkers * * * ___ _____ ______ ___

5.3
*
s je
jo
ss
jcje
6.1

5.6
*
**
**
8.3

10.9
ss
jejc
ss
jefc
**
12.4

8.1
**
ss
jsje
**
9.2

6.9
**
**
**
8.0

5.3
*

*
Data not available.
**
Data do not m eet publication criteria .
*** Percent in creases for periods ending p rior to 1976 relate to men only.

11

B. Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions
Table B-1. Minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced typists and clerks in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
Inexperienced typists

Minimum weekly straight-tim e s a la r y 4

Other inexperienced c le rica l w orkers 5
Nonmanufacturing

Manufactur ing

Manufacturing
All
industries

Based on standarc weekly hours 6 of—

A ll
industries

All
schedules

All
schedules

40

48

XXX

117

All
schedules

40

All
schedules

40

37'/2

165

48

XXX

117

XXX

XXX

6

53

16

12

37

25

7

1
-

-

_

-

-

1
3
1

*

-

4

4

1
1

“
1

2
2

40

3 7 ‘/2

XXX

XXX

---------------

165

ESTABLISHMENTS h a v i n g a s p e c i f i e d
M I N I M U M --------------- ---------------------

19

6

5

13

6

-

-

-

.

-

1
-

1
-

_
1
3
-

1

-

1

1

ESTABLISHMENTS

UNDEk
$80-00
$83.50
$85.00
$87.50
$90.00
$92.50
$95.00
$97.50
$100.00
$105.00
$110.00
$115.00
$120.00
$125.00
$130.00
$135.00
$140.00
$145.00
$150.00
$155.00

st u d i e d

$ 8 0 . 0 0 ---------------------------A N D u n d e r $ 8 3 . 5 0 -------------A N D U N D E R $ 8 5 . 0 0 ------------A N D U N D E R $ 8 7 . 5 0 -------- ----A N D U N D E R $ 9 0 . 0 0 -------------A N D U N D E R $ 9 2 . 5 0 ------------A N D U N D E R $ 9 5 . 0 0 ------------A N D U N D E R $ 9 7 . 5 0 -------------A N D U N D E R $ 1 0 0 . 0 0 -----------and

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

U N D E R $ 1 0 5 . 0 0 ----------U N D E R $ 1 1 0 . 0 0 ----------U N D E R $ 1 1 5 . 0 0 ----------U N O E R $ 1 2 0 . 0 0 ----------U N D E R $ 1 2 5 . 0 0 ----------U N D E R $ 1 3 0 . 0 0 ----------U N D E R $ 1 3 5 . 0 0 ----------U N D E R $ 1 4 0 . 0 0 ----------U N D E R $ 1 4 5 . 0 0 ----------U N D E R $ 1 5 0 . 0 0 ----------U N D E R $ 1 5 5 . 0 0 ----------O V E R ------------------------

1
«
4
1
3

_

3
1
1
1
1
1
-

-

-

1

d
3
1
1
I

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours 6 of—

2

3
«

1
-

2
21
1

d

-

3

3
1
1
-

6
2
1

1

4

3
1
1
-

1
1
1

3
1

3
-

3
1
2
2
17
4
2
3
1
1
1
-

1
17
2
2
2
1
-

-

1
-

-

-

1
1
•
-

-

*

-

1

1
1

-

“

1
1

1
1
1

-

-

“

-

1
1
3
1

ESTABLISHMENTS HAVING NO SPECIFIED
M I N I M U M --------------------------------------

23

8

XXX

15

XXX

XXX

45

16

XXX

29

XXX

XXX

ESTABLISHMENTS WHICH DID NOT EMPLOY
W O R K E R S I N T H I S C A T E G O R Y --------------

123

34

XXX

89

XXX

XXX

67

16

XXX

51

XXX

XXX

See

-

-

footnotes at en d of tables.




12

1

-




Table B-2. Late shift pay provisions for full-time manufacturing
plant workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and
Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
(All full-time m a n u f a c t u r i n g plant w o r k e r s = 100 percent)
W o r k e r s o n late shifts

All w o r k e r s 7
Item
S e c o n d shift

PERCENT
IN

e s t a b l i s h m e n t s

w i th

OF

AVERAGE

PAY

S e c o n d shift

T h i r d shift

WORKERS

l a te

shift

p r o v i s i o n s

------

W I T H N O P A Y D I F F E R E N T I A L F O R L A T E S H I F T W O R K -----W I T H P A Y D I F F E R E N T I A L F O R L A T E S H I F T W O R K ----------U N I F O R M C E N T S - P E R - H O U R D I F F E R E N T I A L ---------------U N I F O R M P E R C E N T A G E D I F F E R E N T I A L ---------------------O T H E R D I F F E R E N T I A L ----------------------------------------

UNIFORM
UNIFORM

T h i r d shift

90.7

87.8

13.7

5.8

2.9
87.9
72.5
15.3
.1

2.2
85.6
71.3
15.3
-

.6
13.1
12.1
1.0
(9)

.5
5.3
5.0
.3
-

28.9
8.2

31.3
9.0

a

6. 1
7.4

31.5
7.0

.3
.7
1. 3
1. 4
.6

(9)

DIFFERENTIAL

C E N T S - P E R - H O U R D I F F E R E N T I A L ------------------P E R C E N T A G E D I F F E R E N T I A L ------------------------P E R C E N T O F W O R K E R S By T Y P E A N D
AMOUNT OF PAY D I F F ER EN TI AL

UNIFORM CENTS-PER-HOUR*
5 CENTS
7 A N D U N D E R 8 C E N T S ----------------------------------8 C E N T S ---------------------------------------------------9 C E N T S --------------------------------------------------10 C E N T S -------------------------------------------------11 C E N T S -------------------------------------------------1 2 C E N T S -------------------------------------------------1 3 A N D U N D E R 1 4 C E N T S ----- -------------------------15 C E N T S -------------------------------------------------16 C E N T S -------------------------------------------------18 C E N T S --------- ---------------------------------------2 0 C E N T S -------------------------------------------------2 2 C E N T S -------------------------------------------------2 6 A N D U N D E R 2 7 C E N T S -------------------------------4 0 C E N T S ----- ------------ -------------------------------4 2 C E N T S -------------------------------------------------UNIFORM PERCENTAGE!
5 P E R C E N T ------------------------------------------------7 P E R C E N T ------------------------------------------------10 P E R C E N T ----- ----- ---------------- -------------------

1.9
2.8
4.4
5.4
5.6

—

1.8
-

41.0

8.8
.8
4.7
1.1
.9
1.4
.7
4.5
.6
1.1
2.9
41.0

6*0

2.6
5.0
7.7

5.0
10.3

.2
.5
.3

-

1.2
2.2
.7
.7
6.6
-

-

S e e footnotes at en d of tables.

13

-

.1
.8
.2
•
.3
.4
-

-

.4
.1
.5
.1
.3
.1
.1
.2
.2
.4
2.7

.3

Table B-3. Scheduled weekly hours and days of full-time first-shift workers in Norfolk—Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
Pl an t w o r k e r s
Item
All industries

Office w o r k e r s

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

100

10 0

100

1
(10)
“
(lot
3
6
1
3

All industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

-

Pu b l i c utilities

Pu b l i c utilities

PERCENT OF WORKERS BY SCHEDULED
WEEKLY HOURS AND DAYS
10 0

HOURS-5 DAYS ---------------------HOURS --------------------------------------

(10)
1
1
(10)
2
3
(10)
3
“
(10)
82
1
81
1
2
1
(10)
1
3
1
(10)
2
2
(10)
(10)

1/2

-----------------------------------5 DAYS -----------------------------------3 2 1 / 2 HOURS-5 DAYS ---------------------3 4 1 / 2 HOURS-6 DAYS ---------------------3 5 HOURS-5 D A Y S ----- —
-----------------3 7 HOURS-5 DAYS ----- ---------------------3 7 1 / 2 HOURS-5 DAYS ---------------------3 8 HOURS-5 DAYS ---------------------------3 8 3 / 4 HOURS-5 DAYS —
---------------------- ---------4 0 H O U R S ------------------------------------------------------------- --—
4 d a y s --------------------------------------------- — --------------42
42
44

45
46
47
48

50

da ys

5 d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------HOURS-5 DAYS --------------------------------------------------1 / 2 HOURS-5 DAYS ---------------------------------------HOURS --------------------------------------------------------------------5 DAYS -----------------------------------------------------------------5 1 / 2 D A Y S ------------ •
------------------------------------------HOURS-5 DAYS --------------------------------------------------HOURS-6 DAYS -------------------------------------------------1 / 2 H O U R S - 5 D A Y S ---------------------------------------HOURS --------------------------------------------------------------------5 DAYS -----------------------------------------------------------------6 D A Y S ---------------------------------------------------------- ------HOURS-5 DAYS --------------------------------------------------av e r a g e
w e ek ly

1
1
-

2

“

(10)
93
1
91
1

2

( 10)
-

-

loo

10 0

10 0

“

10 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(10)
2
13
(10)
3
82

(10)
1
5
-

6
88

2
17
(10)
2
79

-

»
T
3
31

-

73
(10)
72

86

-

-

-

-

-

86

82

88

79

66

*

“

-

-

3
2
1
1
4
1

10
5
5
4

-

-

“
-

66

“
-

“

-

-

4
3
1

1

*

*

40.1

40.6

-

“

*

“

*

*

39.5

39.7

39.5

39.1

SCHEDULED
HOURS

ALL WEEKLY WORK SCHEDULES -------------------------

■
P
o
o

a

O
O

ALL F U L L - T I M E WORKERS --------------27
30

See footnote at end of tables.




14

Table B-4. Annual paid holidays for full-time workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and
Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
Pl a n t w o r k e r s

Office w o r k e r s

Item
All industries

PERCENT
ALL
IN

OF

FULL-TIME

Manufacturing

N o n m anuf actur ing

Pu b l i c utilities

All industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

P u b l i c utilities

10 0

loo

10 0

100

100

100

100

5

-

9

-

(10)

•

(1 0 )

95

10 0

9l

10 0

99

10 0

99

100

8.0

9.3

6.8

8.6

8.5

9.8

8 .0

8.9

-

-

-

WORKERS

WORKERS

---------------

NOT PROVIDING
P A I D H O L I D A Y S ---------------------------IN E S T A B L I S H M E N T S P R O V I D I N G
P A I D H O L I D A Y S ---------------------------

100

es t a b l i s h m e n t s

AVERAGE

NUMBER

FOR WORKERS
PROVIDING

OF

PAID

HOLIDAYS

IN E S T A B L I S H M E N T S
H O L I D A Y S ---------------------

P E RC EN T OF W O RK ER S BY NU MB ER
OF P A I D H O L I D A Y S P R O V I D E D
1
2
3
4
5

H O L I D A Y ----------------------- -----------H O L I D A Y S --------- ------------------------H O L I D A Y S ----------------------------------H O L I D A Y S ----------------------------------H O L I D A Y S ----------------------------------P L U S 2 H A L F D A Y S ---------------------6 H O L I D A Y S ----------------------------------P L U S 1 h a l f O A Y ----------------------7 H O L I D A Y S ----------------------------------P L U S 1 H A L F D A Y ----------------------P L U S 2 H A L F D A Y S ---------------------P L U S 4 H A L F D A Y S ---------------------8 H O L I D A Y S ----------------------------------P L U S 2 H A L F D A Y S ---------------------9 H O L I D A Y S ----------------------------------P L U S 1 H A L F D A Y ----------------------IQ H O L I D A Y S --------------------------------11 H O L I D A Y S --------------------------------12 H O L I D A Y S --------------------------------P L U S 2 H A L F D A Y S ---------------------1 3 H O L I D A Y S --------------------------------PERCENT
PAID h

OF

WORKERS

o li day

time

2
4
(10)
1
2
16
1
13
1
(10)
-

_
1
(10)
-

_

4
6
2
3
-

7
1
11
.
.
.

23
14
3
1
-

18
.

3
26
8
42
.

11
16
6
1
1
-

2
39
28
3
-

(10)

1

“

-

95
93
89
88
86
70
57
55
47
27

100
100
98
98
98
90
79
79
76
50
50
43
1
1

91
87
81
79
76
52
38
35
23

10 0
10 0
10 0

8
20
6
20
1
-

10
-

1
1
2
(ip>
17
(10)
8
1
(10)
7
(10)
37
2
5
17
(10)
(10)
(10)

(10)
.
•
8
(10)
7
2
21
4
57
1

1

1
3

(1 0 )
21
9
1
(10)
9
1
43
3

•
•
•
13
6
-

•
>
-

2
•44

6

30

1
(10)
1
-

3
*

1

BY T O T A L
P R O V I D E D 11

1 D A Y O R M O R E -----------------------------2 D A Y S O R M O R E ----------------------------4 D A Y S O R M O R E ----------------------------5 D A Y S O R M O R E --------- ------------------6 D A Y S O R M O R E ------ ---------------------7 D A Y S O R M O R E ------ --------------------7 1 / 2 D A Y S O R M O R E ----------------------8 D A Y S O R M O R E ----------------------------9 D A Y S O R M O R E ----------------------------9 1 / 2 D A Y S O R M O R E ----------------------10 D A Y S O R M O R E ---------------------------11 d a y s O R M O R E ---------------------------12 D A Y S O R M O R t ------------- ------------1 3 D A Y S ---------------------------------------

27

21
1
(10)

100
10 0
82
72
72
70
31
31
3
-

7
7
2

1

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s .




15

99
99
99
99
97
79
71
70
63
26

23
18
1
1

100
10 0
10 0
99

99
91
84
84
83
62
62
58
1
1

99
99
99
98
96
74
66
64
55
11
8
2
1
1

100
10 0
10 0
10 0

100
87
81
81
79
35
35
4
3
3

Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions for full-time workers in Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and
Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
Plant w o r k e r s
Item

O ffic e w o r k e r s

A ll in d u s trie s

M an u factu rin g

N on m anufacturing

P u b lic u t ilitie s

A ll in d u s trie s

M an u factu rin g

N onm an u factu rin g

P u b lic u tilitie s

10 0

10 0

100

100

10 0

lo o

10 0

100

2

-

3

-

(10)

-

(10>

98

95

10 0
95

3

5

97
96
1

10 0
10 0
•

99
99
(10)

100
99
(10)

99
99
(10)

100
10 0
•

8
8
2
-

10
<
s
1
-

6
9
2

28

5

5

23

A
10
8
-

29
26

-

-

*

*

5
29
2
A
(10)

1 YEAR OF SERVICE*
U N D E R 1 W E E K ------------------------1 W E E K ---------------------------------O V E R 1 A N D U N D E R 2 W E E K S -------2 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 2 A N U U N O E R 3 W E E K S -------3 W E E K S --------------------------------

1
68
A
22
(10)
1

1
79

59

*
36
(10)
63
1

*
59

2 YEARS OF SERVICE*
I W E E K ---------------------------------O V E R 1 A N D U N D E R 2 W E E K S -------2 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 2 A N D U N D E R 3 W E E K S -------3 W E E K S ------------ -------------------

PERCENT
ALL

OF

FULL-TIME

WORKERS

WORKERS

---------------

IN E S T A B L I S H M E N T S N O T P R O V I D I N G
P A I D V A C A T I O N S -------------------------IN E S T A B L I S H M E N T S P R O V I D I N G
P A I O V A C A T I O N S -------------------------L E N G T H - O F - T I M E P A Y M E N T ------------P E R C E N T A G E P A Y M E N T ------------------AMOUNT

OF

PAID

VACATION

A F T E R * 12

6 MO N T H S OF SERVICE*
U N D E R 1 W E E K --- --------------------1 W E E K --------------------------------O V E R 1 A N D U N D E R 2 W E E K S -------2 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 2 A N U U N O E R 3 W E E K S --------

A

68
7
23
2

YEARS OF SERVICE*
1 W E E K --------------------------------O V E R 1 A N D U N D E R 2 W E E K S -------2 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 2 A N O U N D E R 3 W E E K S -------3 W E E K S --------------------------------

8
6
79
3
1

7
12
76
3
3

YEARS OF SERVICE*
1 W E E K --------------------------------O V E R 1 A N D U N D E R 2 W E E K S — ----2 WEEKS — — — —
—
—
— —
—
O V E R 2 A N D U N D E R 3 W E E K S — ----3 W E E K S --------------------------------

82
3
1

5 YEARS OF SERVICE*
1 WEEK — — — — —
—
— — —
—
O V E R 1 A N D U N D E R 2 W E E K S — ----2 WEEKS —
— — — —
— —
—
—
O V E R 2 A N O U N D E R 3 W E E K S -------3 WEEKS
4 W E E K S --------------------------------

5
(10)
A6
8
38
(10)

3

A

7

5

5

10
80
3
3

3
30
11

55

8
2
83

A

1
1
94
1
2

1
(10)
90
3
6

2
1
96
1
1

1
1
94
1
2

1
(10)
90
3
6

2
1
96
1
1

(10)
1
62

(10)
21
A
74
1

(10)
1
79
6
14

(10)

8
1
83

A
(10)

6
1
60

5
24

1

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f t a b le s .




7
(10)
92
1
(10)

“
84
9
7

64
1
(10>

3
(10)
93
3
(10)

2
88
9
*

A

6
(10)
92
1
(10)

2
2
86
9

28

*
28
(10)
71
1

10
6
78
6
-

30
(10>
*

A6
5
A5
1
1

3
(10)

78
9
13
“

A

12
2

3
-

16

5
32
(10)

7
(10)
90
3
*

2
•
*

2
39
*

7
-

92
2
*

2
93

2
3

2
93

2
3

87

2
11

Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions for full-time workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and
Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976— Continued
Pl a n t w o r k e r s

Office w o r k e r s

Item
All industries

AMOUNT OF PAID
CONTINUED

VACATION

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

A
1A
2
53
2
22
(10)

3
13
2
33
3
A6
1

12 Y E A R S O F S E R V I C E :
1 W E E K --------------------------------2 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 2 A N D U N D E R 3 W E E K S -------3 . W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 3 A N D U N D E R A W E E K S -------A W E E K S -------------------------------6 W E E K S --------- ----------------------

A
10
2
57
2
23
(10)

3
7
2
38
3
48
1

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

-

(10)
12
1
64
i
22
(10)

(10)
A
1
27
3
6A
1

(10)
15
1
79
(10)
A
“

A
93
2
2
-

2
85
9
A
-

(10)
11
1
65
2
22
(10)

(10)
2
1
28
3
6A
1

(10)
1A
1
80
1
A
-

A
90

-

73

15 Y E A R S O F S E R V I C E :
1 W E E K --------------------------------2 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 2 A N D U N O E R 3 W E E K S -------3
WEEKS —
—
— — — — —
—
O V E R 3 A N D U N D E R A W E E K S -------A WEEKS —
— —
— — — — — —
O V E R A A N D U N D E R 5 W E E K S -------6 W E E K S --------------------------------

A
7
1
A1
2
A3
(10)
(10)

3
3
32
1
61
•
1

5
10
2
50
2
27
(10)
*

25

All industries

(10)
8
(10)
37
3
50
(10)
(10)

(10)
2
23
1
73
•
1

(10)
11
1
A3
A
A1
(10)

A
66
29
2
-

(10)
8
(10)
12
(10)
57
1
20
(10)

(10)
2
9
•
22
3
62
1

(10)
10
(10)
1A
(10)
72
(10)
3
-

A
2
-

(10)
8
(10)
10
(10)
AA
1
35
1

(10)
2
8
19
3
67
1

(10)
10
(10)
11
(10)
5A
1
22
1

Pu b l i c utilities

A F T E R 12-

10 Y E A R S O F S E R V I C E :
1 WEEK
2 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 2 A N D U N D E R 3 W E E K S -------3 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 3 A N D U N D E R A W E E K S -------A W E E K S -------------------------------6 W E E K S --------------------------------

20

Pu b l i c utilities

•

5
1A

2
•

2

71

85
9
A

2

2
-

5
12
2

2

2
-

YEARS
1 WEEK
2 WEEKS
O V E R .2
3
WEEKS
OVER 3
A WEEKS
OVER A
5 WEEKS
6 WEEKS

OF SERVICE:
— —
—
— —
—
— —
—
— — —
— —
—
— —
A N D U N D E R 3 W E E K S -------—
— — — — —
—
—
A N D U N D E R A W E E K S — ----—
— — — —
— — —
—
A N O U N D E R 5 W E E K S — ----—
— — —
— —
—
—
--------------------------------

A
6
1
23
1
39
1
22
(10)

3
3
•
20
1
26
A7
1

5
9
2
26
(10)
51
2
1
-

YEARS
1 WEEK
2 WEEKS
O V E R :2
3 WEEKS
OVER 3
A WEEKS
OVER A
5 WEEKS
6 WEEKS

OF SERVICE:
— — —
— — —
— — —
-------------------------------A N D U N D E R 3 W E E K S --------------------------------------A N D U N D E R A W E E K S -------—
—
—
— —
— — —
A N D U N D E R 5 W E E K S -------—
— — — — — — — — — —
--------------------------------

A
6
1
19
(10)
26
1
A0
(10)

3
3
1A
-

2
83
7
5
3
-

5
9
2
2A
(10)
29
2
25

23
57
1

2
•
7
•
80
9
1
-

2
7
15
9
65
1

(10)

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s .




17

5
2
-

8 3

2
9
-

A
2
15
2
71
6

Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions for full-time workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and
Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976— Continued
Plant w o r k e r s
Item

AM OUNT OF P A ID
CONTINUED
30

VACATION

All industries

Manufacturing

Office w o r k e r s

Nonmanufacturing

Pu b l i c utilities

All industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

(10)
2
•
8

(10)
10
(10)
11
(10)
54
1
22
1

(10)
2
8
18

Pu bl ic utilities

A F T E R 12-

YEARS OF SERVICEt
1 W E E K --------------------------------2 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 2 A N D U N D E R 3 W E E K S -------3 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 3 A N D U N D E R 4 W E E K S -------4 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 4 A N O U N D E R 5 W E E K S -------5 W E E K S -------------------------------6 W E E K S --------- ---- ---------- ------

4
6
1
19
(10)
25
1
40
1

MAXIMUM VACATION AVAILABLE!
1 W E E K --------------------------------2 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 2 A N D U N D E R 3 W E E K S -------3 W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R 3 A N D U N D E R 4 W E E K S -------A W E E K S -------------------------------O V E R A A N D U N D E R 5 W E E K S -------5 W E E K S -------------------------------6 W E E K S ------------ -------------------

4
6
1
19
(10)
25
1
39
1

2

14
23
55
2

5
9
2
24
(10)
28
2
27
(10>

7
9
73
1

(10)
8
(10)
10
(10)
43
1
36
1

3
3
14
23
55
2

5
9
2
24
(10)
28
2
26
1

2
7
*
7
9
73
1

(10)
8
(10)
10
(10)
43
1
36
2

3
3

-

-

7

-

S e e footnotes at e n d of tables.




18

-

18

70
2

70
2

(10)
10
(10)
11
(10)
54
1
22
2

-

4
•
2
-

13
2
73
6

-

4

-

2

.

12
2
74
6

Table B-6. Health, insurance, and pension plans for full-time workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and
Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N.C., May 1976
Pl a n t w o r k e r s

Office w o r k e r s

Item
All industries

PERCENT
ALL

OF

FULL-TIME

Manufacturing

N o a m anuf actur ing

Pu b l i c utilities

All industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Pu b l i c utilities

WORKERS

WORKERS

---------------

100

10 0

10 0

10 0

100

10 0

100

100

IN E S T A B L I S H M E N T S P R O V I D I N G AT
LEAST ONE OF THE BE NE FI TS
S H O W N B E L O W 1 3 ------------------------------

99

10 0

96

10 0

99

10 0

99

10 0

L I F E I N S U R A N C E ----------------------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S ----------------

96
66

98
8?

94
53

10 0
75

98
6d

99
79

97
63

100
79

ACCI DE NT AL DE AT H AND
D I S M E M B E R M E N T I N S U R A N C E -------- -----n o n c o n t r i b u t o r y
p l an s
----------------

65
AO

46
35

81
44

80
74

72
45

38
24

86
54

75
73

SICKNESS
OR SICK

64

52

75

92

90

92

90

92

48
33

51
35

45
31

70
62

46
32

31
25

52
36

37
35

28

24

32

57

56

84

45

90

AND AC CIDENT INSURANCE
L E A V E O R B O T H ' 4 ----------------

SI CK NE SS AND ACCIDENT
I N S U R A N C E --------- ---------------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S ----- -------SICK LE A V E (FULL PAY AND NO
W A I T I N G P E R I O O ) — --------------------S I C K L E A V E ( P A R T I A L PA Y OR
W A I T I N G P E R I O D ) ------------- --------

8

1

14

4

7

1

9

*

LONG-TERM DISABILITY
I N S U R A N C E ----------------------------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S ----------------

26
16

21
13

30
19

43
41

53
41

80
69

42
30

52
45

H O S P I T A L I Z A T I O N I N S U R A N C E ------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y P L A N S ----------------

99
59

100
78

97
43

100
73

97
58

99
78

96
50

10 0
76

S U R G I C A L I N S U R A N C E ----------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLANS — —
— ------

99
59

100
78

97
43

10 0
73

97
58

99
78

96
50

10 0
76

MEDICAL INSURANCE
NONCONTRIBUTORY

97
58

97
76

97
43

10 0
73

97
58

99
78

96
50

10 0
76

-------------------------------

93
53

88
66

97
43

10 0
73

97
57

99
75

96
50

10 0
76

D E N T A L I N S U R A N C E -------------------------N O N C O N T R I B U T O R Y p l a n s ----------------

11
7

5
3

15
11

44
31

9
6

5
4

11
6

50
32

RETIREMENT

76
61

89
78

66
47

66
45

81
66

94
87

76
57

74
54

ma jo r

me d i c a l

----------------------------------------

plans

in su ran ce

NONCONTRIBUTORY

PENSION

n o n c o n t r i b u t o r y

PLANS

----------------------P L A N S ----------------

S e e footnotes at e n d of tables.




19

Footnotes
L e s s than 0.05 p e r c e n t.
L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t.
11
A ll co m b in a tio n s o f fu ll and h a lf days that add to the sa m e am ount
are c o m b in e d ; fo r e x a m p le , the p r o p o r tio n o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g a total o f
1 0 days in clu d es th ose with 10 fu ll days and no h a lf d a y s ,
9 fu ll days and
2 h alf d a y s , 8 fu ll days and 4 h a lf d a y s , and so on.
P r o p o r t io n s then w e r e
cu m u la ted.
12
In clu d es p a ym en ts oth e r than "len g th o f t i m e , " such as p e rce n ta g e
o f annual ea rn in g s o r fla t -s u m p a y m en ts, c o n v e rte d to an equ ivalent tim e
b a s is ; fo r ex a m p le , 2 p e r c e n t o f annual ea rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as 1 w e e k 's
pay.
P e r io d s o f s e r v ic e are ch o s e n a r b it r a r ily and do not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t
in dividu al p r o v is io n s fo r p r o g r e s s io n ; fo r e x a m p le , ch a n ges in p r o p o r tio n s
at 10 y e a r s in clu de ch a n g es b etw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .
E stim a tes are cu m u ­
la tiv e .
T hus, the p r o p o r t io n e lig ib le fo r at le a s t 3 w e e k s ' pay after 10 y e a r s
in clu d es th ose e lig ib le fo r at le a s t 3 w e e k s ' pay after fe w e r y ea rs o f s e r v ic e .
13
E s tim a te s lis te d a fter type
o f b e n e fit are f o r all plans fo r w hich
at le a s t a p a rt o f the c o s t is b o rn e
by the e m p lo y e r .
"N o n c o n trib u to r y
p la n s " in clu de on ly th ose fin a n ced e n tir e ly by the e m p lo y e r .
E x clu d ed
are le g a lly r e q u ir e d p la n s, su ch as w o r k e r s d is a b ilit y co m p e n sa tio n , s o c ia l
s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t.
14
U n du plicated total o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and
a ccid e n t in su ra n ce show n s e p a r a te ly b e lo w .
S ick le a v e plans are lim ite d to
th ose w hich d e fin ite ly e s ta b lis h at le a s t the m in im u m n u m ber o f d a y s ' pay
that each e m p lo y e e can e x p e ct.
In fo rm a l s ic k le a v e a llow a n ces d eterm in ed
on an in dividu al b a s is are ex clu d e d .

A ll o f th ese stan dard fo o tn o te s m a y not apply to this b u lletin .

9

10

1
Standard h ou rs r e fle c t the w o rk w e e k fo r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e
th eir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay fo r o v e r t im e at r e g ­
u la r a n d /o r p r e m iu m r a te s ), and the ea rn in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th ese w eek ly
h o u r s.
2
The m ea n is com p u ted fo r ea ch jo b by totalin g the ea rn in g s o f all
w o r k e r s and d iv id in g by the n um ber o f w o r k e r s .
The m ed ian d e s ig n a te s
p o s itio n — h a lf o f the w o r k e r s r e c e iv e m o r e and h a lf r e c e iv e le s s than the
rate show n.
The m id d le ran ge is d efin ed by two r a te s o f pay: a fou rth o f
the w o r k e r s ea rn le s s than the lo w e r o f th ese ra te s and a fou rth earn m o r e
than the h igh er r a te .
3
E a rn in gs data re la te on ly to w o r k e r s w h ose s e x id e n tifica tio n w as
p rov id ed by the esta b lis h m e n t.
4
E x clu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and fo r w ork on w eek en d s,
h olid a y s , and late s h ifts.
3
F o r m a lly e s ta b lis h e d m in im u m r e g u la r s t r a ig h t-tim e h irin g s a la r ie s
that a r e paid f o r stan dard w o rk w e e k s .
6
E x clu d e s w o r k e r s in s u b c le r ic a l jo b s su ch as m e s s e n g e r .
7
D ata are p r e s e n te d fo r all standard w ork w eek s co m b in e d , and fo r
the m o s t c o m m o n stan dard w o rk w e e k s r e p o r te d .
8
In clu des all plant w o r k e r s in e sta b lis h m e n ts c u r re n tly op era tin g
la te s h ifts, and e sta b lis h m e n ts w h ose fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r la te sh ifts,
even though the e sta b lis h m e n ts w e r e not c u r r e n tly op era tin g la te s h ifts.




20

Appendix A
all in d u strie s co m b in e d . E a rn in gs data fo r so m e o f the occu p a tio n s lis te d and
d e s c r ib e d , o r fo r so m e in d u stry d iv is io n s w ithin the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y , are
not p r e s e n te d in the A - s e r i e s t a b le s , b e c a u s e e ith e r (1) em p loym en t in the
occu p a tio n is to o s m a ll to p r o v id e enough data to m e r it p r e se n ta tio n , o r (2)
th e r e is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e o f in div idu al esta b lish m en t data. Sep arate
m e n 's and w o m e n 's earn in g s data a re not p r e s e n te d when the n u m ber o f
w o r k e r s not id e n tifie d by se x is 20 p e r c e n t o r m o r e o f the m en o r w om en
id e n tifie d in an o c cu p a tio n . E a rn in gs data not show n s e p a ra te ly fo r in d u stry
d iv is io n s a re in clu d ed in data fo r a ll in d u str ie s com b in ed .
L ik e w is e , data
a re in clu d ed in the o v e r a ll c la s s ific a t io n when a s u b c la s s ific a tio n o f e l e c ­
tr o n ic s te c h n ic ia n s , s e c r e t a r ie s , o r tr u c k d r iv e r s is not shown o r in form a tion
to s u b c la s s ify is not a v a ila b le .

A r e a w age and re la te d b e n e fits data are obtain ed by p e r s o n a l v is it s
o f B u reau fie ld r e p re s e n ta tiv e s at 3 -y e a r in te r v a ls . * In ea ch o f the in te r v e n ­
1
ing y e a r s , in fo rm a tio n on em p loym en t and o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s is c o lle c te d
b y a com b in a tion o f p e r s o n a l v is it , m a il q u e s tio n n a ir e , and telep h on e in t e r ­
v iew fr o m e sta b lis h m e n ts p a rticip a tin g in the p r e v io u s s u rv e y .
In ea ch o f the 8 4 2 a re a s c u r re n tly su r v e y e d , data a re obtain ed
fr o m r e p re s e n ta tiv e e sta b lish m e n ts w ithin six b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s :
M an u factu rin g; tr a n s p o rta tio n , com m u n ica tio n , and oth e r p u b lic u tilitie s ;
w h o le sa le tr a d e ; r e ta il tr a d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and
s e r v ic e s . M a jo r in d u stry grou p s e x clu d ed fr o m th e se stud ies are g overn m en t
o p e r a tio n s and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s .
E sta b lish m en ts
having fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s a re o m itte d b e c a u se o f
in s u ffic ie n t em p loym en t in the occu p a tio n s stu d ied. S ep arate ta bu la tion s are
p r o v id e d fo r ea ch o f the b ro a d in d u stry d iv is io n s w h ich m eet p u b lica tion
c r it e r ia .

O ccu p a tion a l em p loy m en t and ea rn in g s data are shown fo r fu ll-tim e
w o r k e r s , i . e . , th o se h ir e d to w ork a re g u la r w eek ly sch ed u le. E arn in gs data
e x clu d e p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and
late sh ifts. N on p rod u ction b on u ses a re e x clu d e d , but c o s t -o f-li v i n g a llow a n ces
and in ce n tiv e b o n u se s are in clu d ed . W eek ly h ou rs fo r o ffic e c le r i c a l and
p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o ccu p a tio n s r e fe r to the stan dard w orkw eek
(roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) fo r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e re g u la r
s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay fo r o v e r tim e at r e g u la r a n d /o r
p r e m iu m r a te s ). A v e ra g e w eek ly ea rn in g s fo r th e se o ccu p a tion s a re rounded
to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

T h e se s u rv e y s are con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is .
The sa m plin g
p r o c e d u r e s in v olv e d eta iled str a tific a tio n o f all e sta b lis h m e n ts w ithin the
s c o p e o f an in div idu al a r e a su r v e y by in d u stry and n u m ber o f e m p lo y e e s .
F r o m th is s tr a tifie d u n iv erse a p r o b a b ility sa m p le is s e le c t e d , w ith ea ch
esta b lish m en t having a p r e d e te r m in e d chance o f s e le c t io n . To obtain optim u m
a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r tio n o f la r g e than s m a ll e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts is s e le c t e d . When data are c o m b in e d , ea ch esta b lish m en t is w eigh ted
a c c o r d in g to its p ro b a b ility o f s e le c t io n , so that u nbiased e stim a te s are
g en e ra te d . F o r e x a m p le , if one out o f fo u r e sta b lish m e n ts is s e le c t e d , it is
given a w eigh t o f fo u r to r e p re s e n t it s e lf plus th ree o th e r s . An altern a te o f
the sa m e o r ig in a l p r o b a b ility is ch osen in the sa m e in d u s t r y -s iz e c l a s s i f i ­
cation i f data a r e not a v a ila b le fr o m the o r ig in a l sa m p le m e m b e r . If no
su itab le su bstitu te is a v a ila b le , ad dition a l w eigh t is a s sig n e d to a sa m p le
m e m b e r that is s im ila r to the m is s in g unit.

T h e se su r v e y s m e a s u r e the le v e l o f occu p a tio n a l earn in g s in .an a rea
at a p a r t ic u la r tim e . C o m p a r is o n s o f in d iv id u al occu p a tion a l a v e ra g e s o v e r
tim e m a y not r e fle c t e x p e cte d w age ch a n g es.
The a v era g es fo r in dividu al
jo b s a re a ffe c te d by changes in w ag es and em p loy m en t p a ttern s. F o r ex a m p le ,
p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d by h ig h - o r lo w -w a g e fir m s m a y change,
o r h ig h -w a g e w o r k e r s m a y ad vance to b e tte r jo b s and be r e p la c e d b y new
w o r k e r s at lo w e r r a te s .
Such sh ifts in em p loym en t could d e c r e a s e an
o c cu p a tio n a l a v e ra g e even though m o s t e sta b lish m en ts in an a re a in c r e a s e
w ages during the y e a r . C hanges in earn in g s o f o ccu p a tio n a l g r o u p s , show n in
ta b le A - 7, are b e tte r in d ic a to r s o f w age tren d s than a re earn in gs changes fo r
in d iv id u al jo b s w ithin the g ro u p s.

O ccu p ation s and ea rn in gs
O ccu p a tion s s e le c t e d fo r study are co m m o n to a v a r ie ty o f m a n u ­
fa ctu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s , and a re o f the follow in g ty p e s : (1)
O ffice c le r i c a l; (2) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (3) m a in ten a n ce, t o o lr o o m ,
and p ow erp la n t; and (4) m a te r ia l m ov em en t and c u s to d ia l.
O ccu p a tion a l
c la s s ific a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo rm set o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esig n ed to
take accou n t o f in te r e sta b lish m e n t v a ria tio n in duties w ithin the sa m e jo b .
O ccu p a tion s s e le c t e d fo r study are lis te d and d e s c r ib e d in appendix B.
U n less o th e r w is e in d ica te d , the ea rn in gs data fo llo w in g the jo b title s a re fo r

A v e ra g e ea rn in g s r e fle c t c o m p o s ite , area w id e e s tim a te s . In du stries
and e sta b lis h m e n ts d iffe r in pay le v e l and jo b sta ffin g , and thus con trib u te
d iffe r e n tly to the e s tim a te s f o r ea ch jo b . P a y a v e r a g e s m a y fa il to r e fle c t
a c c u r a t e ly the w age d iffe r e n tia l am ong jo b s in in dividu al e s ta b lis h m e n ts.

1 Personal visits were on a 2-year cycle before July 1972.
2 Included in the 84 areas are 14 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are Akron,
Ohio; Austin, Tex.; Binghamton, N. Y . —
Pa.; Birmingham, Ala.; Fort Lauderdale—
Hollywood and West Palm
Beach—Boca Raton, Fla .; Lexington—
Fayette, Ky.; Melbourne—Titusville—Cocoa, Fla.; Norfolk—Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va. —N. C. ; Poughkeepsie—Kingston—Newburgh, N .Y .; Raleigh—
Durham, N .C .; Stamford, Conn.; Syracuse, N .Y .; Utica—Rome, N .Y .; and Westchester County, N.Y. In
addition, the Bureau conducts more limited area studies in approximately 70 areas at the request of the
Employment Standards Administration of the U. S. Department of Labor.




21

A v e ra g e pay le v e ls fo r m en and w om en in s e le c t e d occu p a tio n s
sh ou ld not be a s su m e d to r e fle c t d iffe r e n c e s in pay o f the s e x e s within
in div idu al e sta b lis h m e n ts .
F a c to r s w hich m a y con trib u te to d iffe r e n c e s
in clu d e p r o g r e s s io n w ithin e s ta b lis h e d rate ran ges (only the ra tes paid
in cu m b en ts a re c o lle c t e d ) and p e r fo r m a n c e o f s p e c ific duties w ithin the
g e n e r a l s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n s . Job d e s c r ip tio n s u sed to c la s s ify e m p lo y e e s
in th e se su r v e y s u su ally a re m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th o se u sed in in dividu al
esta b lis h m e n ts and a llow f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong esta b lish m en ts in
s p e c ific duties p e r fo r m e d .

O ccu p a tion a l em p loy m en t e s tim a te s r e p re s e n t the tota l in a ll e s t a b ­
lish m en ts w ithin the s c o p e o f the study and not the n u m ber a ctu ally s u r v e y e d .
B e c a u s e o c cu p a tio n a l str u c tu r e s am ong esta b lis h m e n ts d iffe r , e stim a te s o f
o c cu p a tio n a l em p loy m en t obtain ed fr o m the sa m p le o f esta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied
s e r v e on ly to in d ica te the r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s stu d ied.
T h e se
d iffe r e n c e s in o c cu p a tio n a l stru c tu re do not a ffe c t m a te r ia lly the a c c u r a c y o f
the ea rn in g s data.

P e r c e n t changes fo r in div idu al a r e a s in the p r o g r a m are com pu ted
as fo llo w s :
1.

E a ch o c cu p a tio n is a s sig n e d a w eigh t b a se d on its p r o ­
p ortion a te em p loy m en t in the o c cu p a tio n a l g rou p in the
base y ear.

2.

T h e se w eigh ts a re u sed to com pu te g rou p a v e r a g e s .
E a ch o c c u p a t io n 's a v e ra g e (m ean ) ea rn in g s is m u ltip lied
by its w eigh t. The p r o d u c ts a re to ta le d to obtain a group
average.

3.

The ra tio o f grou p a v e r a g e s fo r 2 c o n s e cu tiv e y e a r s is
com p u ted by d ividin g the a v e r a g e fo r the cu rre n t y e a r
b y the a v e ra g e fo r the e a r lie r y e a r .
The resu lt—
e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t— le s s 100 is the p e r c e n t change.

W age tr e n d s fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l grou ps
The p e r c e n t in c r e a s e s p r e s e n te d in ta b le A - 7 a re b a se d on changes
in a v e r a g e h o u rly ea rn in g s fo r e sta b lis h m e n ts re p o rtin g the tren d jo b s in both
the c u rre n t and p r e v io u s y e a r (m a tch ed e s ta b lis h m e n ts ). T he data are
a d ju sted to r e m o v e the e ffe c t on a v e ra g e ea rn in g s o f em p loy m en t sh ifts
am ong e sta b lis h m e n ts and tu r n o v e r o f esta b lis h m e n ts in clu d ed in s u r v e y
s a m p le s .
The p e r c e n t in c r e a s e s , h o w e v e r , are s t ill a ffe c te d by fa c to r s
o th e r than w age in c r e a s e s .
H ir in g s , la y o ffs , and tu r n o v e r m a y a ffe ct an
e sta b lis h m e n t a v e ra g e fo r an o c cu p a tio n w hen w o r k e r s a re paid under plans
p r o v id in g a ran ge o f w age ra tes fo r in d iv id u al jo b s . In p e r io d s o f in c r e a s e d
h irin g , fo r e x a m p le , new e m p lo y e e s en ter at the b o tto m o f the ra n g e,
d e p r e s s in g the a v e r a g e w ithout a change in w age r a te s .

F o r a m o r e d eta iled d e s c r ip tio n o f the m eth od u sed to com pu te
th e se w age t r e n d s , se e "Im p r o v in g A r e a W age S u rvey I n d e x e s ," M onthly
L a b or R e v ie w , Janu ary 1973, pp. 5 2 -5 7 .
E s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e p r o v is io n s

The p e r c e n t ch a n ges r e la te to w age ch a n ges b etw een the in d ica ted
d a tes. When the tim e span b etw een s u rv e y s is o th e r than 12 m on th s,
annual ra tes a re show n.
(It is a s su m e d that w ag es in c r e a s e at a constan t
rate betw een s u r v e y s .)

The in c id e n c e o f s e le c t e d esta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry
w age p r o v is io n s is stud ied fo r plant w o r k e r s and o f f ic e w o r k e r s .
P lant
w o r k e r s in clu d e n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s and w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s en gaged in
n o n o ffic e fu n ctio n s.
(C a fe te r ia w o r k e r s and route w o r k e r s a re e x clu d e d
in m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s , but in clu d e d in n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s .)
O ffic e w o r k e r s in clu d e n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s and w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s
p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l o r re la te d fu n c tio n s.
L ead w o r k e r s and tr a in e e s are
in clu d ed am ong n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s .
A d m in is tr a tiv e , e x e c u tiv e , and
p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s and c o n s tr u c tio n w o r k e r s u tiliz e d as sep a ra te w ork
fo r c e s a re e x clu d e d fr o m both the plant and o ffic e w o r k e r c a t e g o r ie s .

O c c u p a tio n s u s e d to c o m p u te w a g e tr e n d s a r e :

O ffic e c l e r i c a l (m en and
w om en-):

E le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g
(m en and w om en )—
Continued

S e c r e t a r ie s
S te n o g r a p h e rs , g e n e r a l
S te n o g r a p h e rs , s e n io r
T y p is t s , c la s s e s A and B
F ile c le r k s , c la s s e s A ,
B , and C
M essen g ers
O r d e r c le r k s , c la s s e s A
and B
A ccou n tin g c le r k s ,
c la s s e s A and B
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B
P a y r o ll c le r k s
K eypunch o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s e s A and B
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e
o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B

C om p u ter p r o g r a m m e r s ,
c la s s e s A , B , and C
C om p u ter o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s e s A , B , and C

E le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g
(m en and w o m e n ):
C om p u ter s y s te m s
a n a ly s ts , c la s s e s
A , B , and C




M in im u m e n tra n ce s a la r ie s (table B - l ) . M in im u m en tra n ce s a la r ie s
fo r o ffic e w o r k e r s r e la te on ly to the e sta b lis h m e n ts v is it e d . B e c a u se o f the
op tim u m sa m p lin g tech n iq u es u sed and the p r o b a b ility that la r g e e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts a r e m o r e lik e ly than s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts to have fo r m a l en tra n ce
ra tes a b ove the s u b c le r ic a l le v e l, the ta b le is m o r e r e p re s e n ta tiv e o f p o lic ie s
in m e d iu m and la rg e e sta b lis h m e n ts .

In d u stria l n u r s e s (m en and
w o m e n ):
R e g is te r e d in d u stria l
n u rse s

Shift d iffe r e n t ia ls — m a n u fa ctu rin g (table B - 2 ) . Data w e re c o lle c te d
on p o lic ie s o f m an u factu rin g e sta b lis h m e n ts r e g a rd in g pay d iffe r e n tia ls fo r
plant w o r k e r s on late sh ifts .
E s ta b lis h m e n ts c o n s id e r e d as having p o lic ie s
a re th o se w h ich (1) have p r o v is io n s in w ritin g c o v e r in g the op e ra tio n o f late
s h ifts , o r (2) have o p e r a te d late sh ifts at any tim e during the 12 m onths
p r e c e d in g a s u rv e y .
W hen e sta b lis h m e n ts have s e v e r a l d iffe r e n tia ls w h ich
v a r y b y jo b , the d iffe r e n tia l applying to the m a jo r it y o f the plant w o r k e r s is
r e c o r d e d . When esta b lis h m e n ts have d iffe r e n t ia ls w h ich apply on ly to certa in
h ou rs o f w o rk , the d iffe r e n tia l applying to the m a jo r it y o f the shift h ou rs is
record ed .

S k illed m a in ten an ce (m en
and w o m e n ):
C a rp en ters
E le ct r ic ia n s
P a in te rs
M a ch in ists
M e ch a n ics (m a ch in ery )
M ech a n ics (m o to r v e h ic le )
P ip e fitte r s
T o o l and die m a k e rs

F o r p u rp o s e s o f th is study, a la te sh ift is e ith e r a se c o n d (even in g)
sh ift w h ich ends at o r n ea r m idn igh t o r a th ird (night) sh ift w hich sta r ts at o r
n ea r m idnigh t.

U n sk illed plant (m en and
w o m e n ):
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and
c le a n e r s
M a te r ia l handling la b o r e r s

D iffe re n tia ls fo r s e c o n d and th ir d sh ifts a re su m m a r iz e d s e p a r a te ly
fo r (1) e sta b lis h m e n t p o li c ie s (an e s ta b lis h m e n t's d iffe r e n tia ls are w eigh ted by

22

a ll plant w o r k e r s in the esta b lish m en t at the tim e o f the su r v e y ) and (2)
e ffe c t iv e p r a c t ic e s (an e s ta b lis h m e n t's d iffe r e n tia ls are w eigh ted by plant
w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e o f the su r v e y ).

w h ich the e m p lo y e r has co n trib u te d , o r (3) b orn e d ir e c tly b y the e m p lo y e r
out o f op era tin g funds o r a fund set asid e to c o v e r the c o s t.
A plan is
in clu d ed even though a m a jo r it y o f the e m p lo y e e s in an esta b lish m en t do not
c h o o s e to p a rticip a te in it b e c a u s e they a re re q u ire d to b e a r pa rt o f its cost
(p r o v id e d the c h o ic e to p a rticip a te is a v a ila b le o r w ill ev en tu a lly b e c o m e
a v a ila b le to a m a jo r it y ). L e g a lly r e q u ire d plans su ch as s o c ia l s e c u r it y , r a il­
road r e tir e m e n t, w o r k e r s ' d is a b ility co m p e n sa tio n , and te m p o r a r y d is a b ility
in su r a n ce 3 are e x clu d e d .

S ch ed u led w eek ly h o u r s ; pa id h o lid a y s ; pa id v a c a tio n s ; and h ea lth ,
in s u r a n c e , and p en sion p la n s . P r o v is io n s w h ich apply to a m a jo r ity o f the
plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s in an e sta b lis h m e n t a re c o n s id e r e d to apply to all
plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s in the e s ta b lis h m e n t; a p r a c t ic e o r p r o v is io n is
c o n s id e r e d n on ex isten t when it a p p lies to le s s than a m a jo r ity .
H olid a y s;
v a c a tio n s ; and h ealth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n sio n plans a re c o n s id e r e d a p p lica b le
to e m p lo y e e s c u r re n tly e lig ib le fo r the b e n e fits as w e ll as to e m p lo y e e s who
w ill even tu a lly b e c o m e e lig ib le .

th rou gh

A c c id e n ta l death and d is m e m b e r m e n t is lim ite d to plans w hich
p r o v id e b en efit pa ym en ts in c a se o f death o r lo s s o f lim b o r sight as a
d ir e c t re s u lt o f an a ccid e n t.

S ch edu led w eek ly h ours and days (table B - 3 ) . S ch ed u led w eek ly
h ou rs and days r e fe r to the n u m ber o f h ou rs and days p e r w eek w h ich fu ll­
tim e fir s t (day) sh ift w o r k e r s a re e x p e cte d to w o rk , w h eth er p a id fo r at
s tr a ig h t-tim e o r o v e r t im e ra te s .

S ick n e ss and a ccid e n t in su r a n ce in clu d es on ly th ose plans w hich
p r o v id e that p r e d e te r m in e d ca sh p a ym en ts be m ade d ir e c tly to e m p lo y e e s
who lo s e tim e fr o m w ork b e c a u s e o f illn e s s o r in ju ry , e .g ., $ 50 a w eek fo r
up to 26 w eek s o f d is a b ility .

P a id h olid a y s (table B - 4 ) . H olid ays are in clu d ed on ly i f they
are gra n ted annually on a fo r m a l b a s is (p ro v id e d f o r in w ritten fo r m o r
e sta b lis h e d by cu stom ) and e m p lo y e e s are paid f o r the tim e o ff.
T h ey are
in clu d ed even though in a p a r tic u la r y e a r they fa ll on a n onw orkd ay and
e m p lo y e e s are not gra n ted an oth er day o ff.

S ick le a v e plans a re lim ite d to fo r m a l p la n s 4 w hich p r o v id e fo r
continu in g an e m p lo y e e 's pay during a b se n ce fr o m w ork b e c a u se o f illn e s s .
Data c o lle c t e d d istin g u ish betw een (1) plans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll pay w ith no
w aitin g p e r io d , and (2) plans w hich e ith er p r o v id e p a rtia l pay o r r e q u ire a
w aitin g p e r io d .

Data a re tabu lated to show the p e r ce n t o f w o r k e r s who (1) are granted
s p e c ific n u m b ers o f w hole and h a lf h olid a y s and (2) are gra n ted s p e c ifie d
am ounts o f to ta l h olid a y tim e (w hole and h a lf h olid a y s a re a g g reg a ted ).

L o n g -t e r m d is a b ility in su ra n ce plans p r o v id e paym ents to tota lly
d is a b le d e m p lo y e e s upon the e x p ira tio n o f th e ir paid s ick lea ve a n d /o r s i c k ­
n ess and a ccid e n t in s u r a n c e , o r a fter a p r e d e te r m in e d p e r io d o f d is a b ility
(ty p ic a lly 6 m on th s).
P a y m en ts a re m ade until the end o f the d is a b ility , a
m a x im u m a g e, o r e lig ib ilit y fo r re tir e m e n t b e n e fits .
F u ll o r p a rtia l p a y ­
m en ts a r e a lm o s t alw ays re d u ce d by s o c ia l s e c u r it y , w o r k e r s ' d is a b ility
c o m p e n sa tio n , and p r iv a te p en sion b en efits payable to the d is a b le d e m p lo y e e .

P a id v a ca tion s (table B - 5 ) . E sta b lish m en ts re p o rt th e ir m eth od o f
ca lcu la tin g v a ca tion pay (tim e b a s is , p e r ce n t o f annual e a r n in g s, fla t-s u m
pa ym en t, e t c .) and the am ount o f v a ca tion pay g ra n ted. O nly b a s ic fo r m a l
plans a re r e p o rte d . V a ca tion b o n u s e s , v a c a tio n -s a v in g s p la n s, and "e x te n d e d "
o r " s a b b a t ic a l" b en efits b eyon d b a s ic plans a re ex clu d ed .

H o sp ita liz a tio n , s u r g ic a l, and m e d ic a l in su ra n ce plans r e p o rte d
in th e se s u r v e y s p r o v id e fu ll o r p a rtia l paym ent fo r b a s ic s e r v ic e s ren d e re d .

3 Temporary disability insurance which provides benefits to covered workers disabled by injury or illness
which is not work-connected is mandatory under State laws in California, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode
Island. Establishment plans which meet only the legal requirements are excluded from these data, but those
under which (1) employers contribute more than is legally required or (2) benefits exceed those specified in the
State law are included. In Rhode Island, benefits are paid out of a State fund to which only employees
contribute. In each of the other three States, benefits are paid either from a State fund or through a private plan:

F o r tabulating v a ca tio n pay g ra n ted, all p r o v is io n s a r e e x p r e s s e d
on a tim e b a s is .
V a ca tio n pay ca lcu la te d on oth e r than a tim e b a s is is
co n v e rte d to its equ ivalen t tim e p e r io d .
Tw o p e r ce n t o f annual e a r n in g s,
fo r e x a m p le , is ta bu la ted as 1 w e e k 's v a ca tion pay.

State fund financing:In California, only employees contribute to the State fund;
in New Jersey, employees
and employers contribute; in New York, employees contribute up to a specified maximum and employers
pay the difference between the employees' share and the total contribution required.

A ls o , p r o v is io n s a fte r ea ch s p e c ifie d length o f s e r v ic e a re re la te d
to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s in an esta b lish m en t r e g a r d le s s o f length o f
s e r v ic e . V a ca tio n plans c o m m o n ly p r o v id e f o r la r g e r amount o f v a ca tio n pay
as s e r v ic e len g th en s. Counts o f plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s by length o f s e r v ic e
w e r e not ob ta in ed . The tabu lation s o f v a ca tio n pay granted p r e s e n t s , t h e r e ­
f o r e , s t a t is t ic a l m e a s u r e s o f th ese p r o v is io n s ra th er than p r o p o r tio n s o f
w o r k e r s a ctu a lly r e c e iv in g s p e c ific b e n e fits .

Private plan financing: In California and New Jersey, employees cannot be required to contribute more
than they would if they were covered by the State fund; in New York, employees can agree to contribute
more if the State rules that the additional contribution is commensurate with the benefit provided.
Federal legislation (Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act) provides temporary disability insurance benefits
to railroad workers for illness or injury, whether work-connected or not. The legislation requires that employers
bear the entire cost of the insurance.
4 An establishment is considered as having a formal plan if it specifies at least the minimum number of
days of sick leave available to each employee. Such a plan need not be written, but informal sick leave
allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.

H ealth, in s u r a n ce , and p en sion plans (table B - 6 ) . H ealth, in s u r a n ce ,
and p en sion plans in clu d e plans f o r w hich the e m p lo y e r pays e ith e r all o r
pa rt o f the c o s t.
The c o s t m ay be (1) u n d erw ritten b y a c o m m e r c ia l
in su ra n ce com pa n y o r n on p rofit o r g a n iz a tio n , (2) c o v e r e d by a union fund to




L ife in su r a n ce in clu d e s fo r m a l plans p ro v id in g in dem n ity (u su ally
an in su r a n ce p o lic y ) in c a se o f death o f the c o v e r e d w o r k e r .

23

H o sp ita liza tio n in su ra n ce c o v e r s h o sp ita l r o o m and b o a rd and m a y c o v e r
oth e r h o sp ita l e x p e n s e s. S u r g ic a l in su ra n ce c o v e r s s u r g e o n s ' fe e s . M e d ica l
in su ra n ce c o v e r s d o c t o r s ' fe e s f o r h o m e , o f f ic e , o r h osp ita l c a lls .
Plans
r e s t r ic t e d to p o s t -o p e r a t iv e m e d ic a l c a r e o r a d o c t o r 's c a r e fo r m in o r
a ilm en ts at a w o r k e r 's p la c e o f em p loy m en t are not c o n s id e r e d to be
m e d ic a l in su r a n ce .

"d e d u c tib le " (e .g ., $ 5 0 ) be m et b e fo r e b en efit , b e g in , (2) has a c o in s u ra n c e
fea tu re that r e q u ir e s the in su r e d to pay a p o r tio n ( e .g ., 20 p e r c e n t) o f
c e rta in e x p e n s e s , and (3) has a s p e c ifie d c o lla r m a x im u m o f b e n e fits (e .g .,
$ 10, 000 a y e a r ).

M a jo r m e d ic a l in su ra n ce c o v e r a g e a p p lies to s e r v ic e s w hich go
b eyon d the b a s ic s e r v ic e s c o v e r e d under h o s p ita liz a tio n , s u r g ic a l, and
m e d ic a l in s u r a n ce .
M a jo r m e d ic a l in su ra n ce ty p ic a lly (1) r e q u ir e s that a

R e tire m e n t p e n sio n plans p r o v id e fo r re g u la r paym en ts to the r e tir e e
fo r life .
In clu ded a re d e fe r r e d p r o fit -s h a r in g plans w h ich p r o v id e the option
o f p u rch a sin g a life t im e annuity.




D ental in su r a n ce plans p r o v id e n o r m a l den tal s e r v ic e b e n e fit s ,
u su ally fo r fillin g s , e x tr a c tio n s , and X - r a y s . P la n s w h ich p r o v id e b en efits
on ly fo r o r a l s u r g e r y o r re p a ir in g a ccid en t dam age a re not re p o rte d .

24

Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.—N .C .,1 May 1976
N u m b e r of es ta bl i s h m e n t s
Minimum
employment
in establish­
m e n t s in s c o p e
of st ud y

In du st ry d i v i si on2

W o r k e r s in esta bl is hm en ts
W i t h i n sc o p e of study

W i t h i n sc o p e
of s t u d y 3

Studied

Total4

Studied
Number

544

ALL D I V I S I O N S ---------------------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------------------------------------T R AN S P OR TA TIO N, COMMUNICATION, AND
OTHER p u b l i c U T I L I T I E S 5 -----------------------------------------------WHOLESALE TRADE
-------------------------------------------------------------------re ta il
TRADE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------FI N A N C E , INSURANCE, AND HEAL E S T A T E
----------------S ERV ICE S
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Percent

Full-time
plant w o r k e r s

165

123,357

100

80,381

15,246

78,847

43
57

36,822
43,559

4,472
10,774

42,670
36,177

10
5
28
5
9

7,577
(6)

1,929
<6 )

9,808
1,744
14,303
3,333
6,989

50
-

132
412

48
117

52,597
70,760

50
50
50
50
50

49
67
16 7
47
82

21
14
37
14
31

12,622
5,919
34,203
6,662
11,354

<6 )
<6 )
<6 >

Full-time
office w o r k e r s

Total4

<6 )
)
<6 )

1 The N orfolk —V ir g in ia B e a c h -P o r t s m o u t h and N ew port News—H am pton Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a s , as d e fin e d b y the O ffic e o f M an agem en t and B u dget th rou gh F e b r u a r y 1974, c o n s is t
o f the c it ie s o f C h esap eak e, H am pton, N ew p ort N ew s, N o rfo lk , P o q u o s o n , P o r ts m o u th , S u ffo lk , V ir g in ia B e a ch , and W illia m s b u r g , V a .; and the c ou n ties o f G lo u c e s t e r , Jam es C ity, and Y ork , V a ., and
C u rritu ck , N .C .
The " w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e of stu dy" e s tim a te s show n in this table p r o v id e a re a s o n a b ly a c c u r a te d e s c r ip t io n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d ed in the su rvey.
E s tim a te s a r e n ot intended, h o w e v e r , f o r c o m p a r is o n w ith o th e r e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t tre n d s o r le v e ls s in c e (1) planning o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s es ta b lis h m en t data c o m p ile d
c o n s id e r a b ly in adva n ce o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d studied, and (2) s m a ll es ta b lis h m e n ts a r e ex clu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f the su rv e y .
2 The 1967 ed ition o f the Standard In d u stria l C la s s ific a t io n M anual w as u s e d to c la s s i f y e s ta b lis h m e n ts b y in d u s tr y d iv isio n .
3 In clu d es a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l e m p lo y m e n t at o r a b o v e the m in im u m lim ita tio n .
A ll ou tlets (w ithin the a r e a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in in d u s tr ie s s u ch as tra d e,
fin a n ce, auto r e p a ir s e r v ic e ,
and m o tio n p ic tu r e th ea ters a r e c o n s id e r e d as 1 e sta b lish m e n t.
4 In clu d es e x e c u tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, p a r t -t im e , and o th er w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d f r o m the s e p a ra te plant and o f fi c e c a t e g o r ie s .
5 A b b r e v ia te d to "p u b lic u t ilit ie s " in the A - and B - s e r ie s t a b le s .
T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w a te r tr a n s p o r ta tio n a r e e x clu d ed .
6 T h is d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n te d in e s tim a te s f o r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g " in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s , and f o r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " in the B - s e r ie s
ta b le s .
S epa ra te p res en ta tion o f data is
not m ade f o r
one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s :
(1) E m p lo y m e n t is too s m a ll to p r o v id e enough data to m e r it s e p a ra te study, (2) the sa m p le w as not d esig n ed
in itia lly to p e r m it sep a ra te presen ta tion ,
(3) r e s p o n s e w as in s u ffic ie n t o r inadequate to p e r m it se p a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n , and (4) th e re is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e o f in d ivid u a l e s ta b lis h m en t data.
7 W o r k e r s f r o m this en tire d iv isio n a r e r e p r e s e n te d in e s tim a te s f o r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g " in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s , but f r o m the r e a l esta te p o r tio n on ly in estim a te s f o r " a ll
in d u s t r ie s " and "n on m a n u fa ctu rin g " in the B - s e r ie s ta b le s .
S ep a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n of data is not m ade f o r one o r m o r e o f the re a s o n s give n in fo o tn o te 6.
8 H otels and m o t e ls ; la u n d ries and o th e r p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ;
a u to m o b ile r e p a ir , ren tal, and p a rk in g ; m o tio n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h ip o rg a n iz a tion s (exclu d in g
r e lig io u s
and c h a r ita b le o r g a n iz a tio n s ); and e n g in e e rin g and a r c h ite c t u r a l s e r v ic e s .

L a b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t c o v e r a g e
Th e fo llo w in g tabu lation show s the p e r c e n t o f fu ll- t im e plant and o f fic e w o r k e r s
e m p lo y e d in es ta b lis h m e n ts in the N o rfo lk — ir g in ia B e a c h -P o r ts m o u th and N ew port N ews—
V
H am pton a r e a s in w h ich a union c o n t r a c t o r c o n t r a c ts c o v e r e d a m a jo r it y o f the w o r k e r s in
the r e s p e c t iv e c a t e g o r ie s , M ay 1976:

In d u stria l c o m p o s itio n in m an u factu rin g
A lm o s t o n e -h a lf o f the w o r k e r s w ithin the s c o p e of the su r v e y in the N orfolk —
V ir g in ia B e a c h -P o r t s m o u t h and N ew port N ew s— am pton a r e a s w e r e e m p lo y e d in m anu­
H
fa ctu rin g f ir m s .
T h e fo llo w in g p r e s e n ts the m a jo r in d u s try g ro u p s and s p e c ific in d u s tr ie s
as a p e r c e n t o f a ll m a n u fa ctu rin g:
In d u stry grou ps
T r a n s p o rta tio n eq u ip m e n t______52
E l e c t r ic a l equipm ent and
s u p p l i e s _________________________ 11
F o o d and k in d red p r o d u c t s _____ 10

Plant w o r k e r s
A l l in d u s t r ie s __________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g ______________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s __________

S p e c ific in d u strie s
Ship and b o atbu ild in g
and r e p a i r in g _________________
R a d io and T V r e c e iv in g
e q u ip m e n t_____________________

13
73

9

.

A n e s ta b lis h m e n t is c o n s id e r e d to have a c o n t r a c t c o v e r in g a ll plant o r o f fic e w o r k e r s
if a m a jo r it y o f su ch w o r k e r s a r e c o v e r e d b y a la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g reem en t.
T h e r e fo r e ,
a ll o th e r plan t o r o ffic e w o r k e r s a r e e m p lo y e d in e s ta b lis h m e n ts that eith er d o not have
la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t c o n tr a c ts in e ffe c t , o r have co n tr a c ts that a pp ly to fe w e r than half of
th e ir plant o r o f fi c e w o r k e r s .
E s tim a te s a r e not n e c e s s a r il y re p r e s e n ta tiv e of the extent
to w h ich a ll w o r k e r s in the a r e a m ay b e c o v e r e d b y the p r o v is io n s of la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t
a g r e e m e n ts , b e c a u s e s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e ex c lu d e d and the in d u stria l s co p e of the
s u r v e y is lim ite d .

49
9

T h is in fo r m a t io n is b a s e d on e s tim a te s o f to ta l e m p lo y m e n t d e r iv e d f r o m u n iv e r s e
m a te r ia ls c o m p ile d b e fo r e a ctu a l su rv e y .
P r o p o r t io n s in v a r io u s in d u stry d iv is io n s m ay
d iffe r f r o m p r o p o r t io n s b a s e d on the r e s u lts o f the s u r v e y as sh ow n in app endix table 1.




O ffic e w o r k e r s

49
79
24
89

25

Appendix B.

Occupational Descriptions

The p r im a r y p u rp o s e o f p re p a rin g jo b d e s c r ip tio n s fo r the B u r e a u 's w age s u r v e y s is to a s s is t its
fie ld sta ff in c la s s ify in g in to a p p ro p ria te o ccu p a tio n s w o r k e r s who a re e m p lo y e d u nder a v a r ie ty o f p a y r o ll
title s and d iffe r e n t w o rk a rra n g em en ts fr o m esta b lis h m e n t to esta b lish m en t and fr o m a r e a to a r e a . T his
p e r m its the g rou pin g o f o c cu p a tio n a l w age ra te s re p re s e n tin g co m p a ra b le jo b con ten t. B e c a u s e o f this
em p h a sis on in te r e sta b lish m e n t and in te r a r e a c o m p a ra b ility o f o c cu p a tio n a l con ten t, the B u r e a u 's jo b
d e s c r ip tio n s m a y d iffe r s ig n ifica n tly fr o m th o se in use in in d iv id u a l e sta b lish m e n ts o r th o se p r e p a r e d f o r
oth er p u r p o s e s . In applying th ese jo b d e s c r ip t io n s , the B u r e a u 's fie ld e c o n o m is t s a re in s tr u c te d to e x clu d e
w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s ; a p p re n tice s ; le a r n e r s ; b e g in n e r s ; t r a in e e s ; and h an dicapped, p a r t -t im e , te m p o r a r y ,
and p r o b a tio n a r y w o r k e r s .

OFFICE
SECRETARY

S E C R E T A R Y ----Continued

A s s ig n e d as p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o rm a lly to one in d iv id u al. M ain ­
tain s a c lo s e and h igh ly r e s p o n s iv e re la tio n s h ip to the d a y -to -d a y w ork o f
the s u p e r v is o r . W o rk s fa ir ly in depen den tly r e c e iv in g a m in im u m o f d eta iled
s u p e r v is io n and gu id an ce. P e r fo r m s v a r ie d c le r i c a l and s e c r e t a r ia l d u tie s ,
u su ally in clu din g m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :

d.

e. R ev iew s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , m e m o ra n d u m s , and r e p o rts p r e p a r e d by
o th e rs fo r the s u p e r v is o r 's sign a tu re to a s s u r e p r o c e d u r a l and ty p o g ra p h ic
accuracy;

a. R e c e iv e s telep h on e c a lls , p e r s o n a l c a l l e r s , and in com in g m a il,
a n sw e rs routine in q u ir ie s , and rou tes te c h n ic a l in q u iries to the p r o p e r
p erson s;
b.
c.
in stru cte d ;

E s ta b lis h e s ,




f.

P e r fo r m s ste n o g ra p h ic and typin g w o rk .

M ay a lso p e r fo r m oth e r c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r ia l ta sk s o f c o m p a ra b le
nature and d ifficu lty . The w ork ty p ic a lly r e q u ir e s kn ow led ge o f o ffic e routine
and understan din g o f the o r g a n iz a tio n , p r o g r a m s , and p r o c e d u r e s re la te d to
the w ork o f the s u p e r v is o r .

m a in ta in s, and r e v is e s the s u p e r v is o r 's file s ;

M aintains the s u p e r v is o r 's

R ela y s m e s s a g e s fr o m s u p e r v is o r to s u b o r d in a te s;

ca le n d a r and m akes appointm ents as

B egin ning w ith ca len d a r y e a r 1976 s u r v e y s , the B u reau has g rou p ed occu p a tio n s stu d ied in its
a r e a w age s u rv e y s into jo b fa m ilie s in o r d e r to p r e s e n t in fo rm a tio n on re la te d o ccu p a tio n s in s e q u e n c e .
Job fa m ilie s have not b een title d , h o w e v e r, sin c e doing so m ight have added ex tra n eou s e le m e n ts to the
jo b m a tch in g p r o c e s s .
The B u reau has a lso r e v is e d s e v e r a l o c cu p a tio n a l title s .
u su al w o rd o r d e r and a re m o r e d e s c r ip tiv e o f the s u r v e y jo b s .

The r e v is e d title s m o r e n e a r ly r e fle c t

R e v is e d o c cu p a tio n a l d e s c r ip tio n s are b ein g in tro d u ce d th is y e a r fo r : O r d e r c le r k ; p a y r o ll c le r k ;
sw itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r ; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t ; tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e ty p is t (p r e v io u s ly title d
t r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r ); m a c h in e -to o l o p e r a t o r (to o lr o o m ); and t o o l and die m a k e r. Th ey a re the
re su lt o f the B u r e a u 's p o lic y o f p e r io d ic a lly re v iew in g a r e a w age su r v e y o c cu p a tio n a l d e s c r ip tio n s in
o r d e r to take into accou n t te c h n o lo g ic a l d ev elop m en ts and to c la r ify d e s c r ip tio n s so that th ey a re m o r e
re a d ily u n d erstood and u n ifo rm ly in te r p r e te d . Even though the r e v is e d d e s c r ip tio n s r e fle c t b a s ic a lly the
sa m e occu p a tio n s as p r e v io u s ly d efin ed , so m e rep ortin g changes m ay o c c u r b e c a u s e o f the r e v is io n s .

26

S E C R E T A R Y — Continued

S E C R E T A R Y — Continued

E x clu s io n s
Not a ll p o s itio n s that a re title d " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s the above
c h a r a c t e r is t ic s . E x am p les o f p o s itio n s w h ich a re e x clu d e d fr o m the defin ition
a r e as fo llo w s :
a. P o s itio n s
d e s c r ib e d a b ove;
b.

w hich

do not m e e t the

" p e r s o n a l"

s e c r e t a r y con cep t

S ten og ra p h ers not fu lly tr a in e d in s e c r e t a r ia l-t y p e d u ties;

c . S ten og ra p h ers s e r v in g as o ffic e
fe s s io n a l, t e c h n ic a l, o r m a n a g e r ia l p e r s o n s ;

a s sista n ts

to a g rou p

of p r o ­

d. S e c r e ta r y p o s itio n s in w h ich the duties a r e e ith e r su bsta n tially
m o r e routine o r su b sta n tia lly m o r e c o m p le x and r e s p o n s ib le than th ose
c h a r a c t e r iz e d in the d efin ition ;
e. A s s is ta n t-ty p e p o s itio n s w h ich in v o lv e m o r e d ifficu lt o r m o r e
r e s p o n s ib le te c h n ic a l, a d m in is tra tiv e , s u p e r v is o r y , o r s p e c ia liz e d c le r i c a l
du ties w h ich a re not ty p ic a l o f s e c r e t a r ia l w ork .
N O T E : The t e r m " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r , " u sed in the le v e l d efin ition s
fo llo w in g , r e fe r s to th o se o ffic ia ls who have a sig n ifica n t c o rp o r a te w id e
p o licy m a k in g r o le w ith r e g a rd to m a jo r com pa n y a c tiv it ie s . The title " v ic e
p r e s id e n t ," though n o rm a lly in d ica tiv e o f th is r o le , does not in all c a s e s
id en tify su ch p o s itio n s . V ic e p r e s id e n ts w h ose p r im a r y r e s p o n s ib ility is to
act p e r s o n a lly on in div idu al c a s e s o r tr a n s a ctio n s (e .g ., a p p rov e o r deny
in dividu al loan o r c re d it a ctio n s ; a d m in iste r in d iv id u al tru st a c c o u n ts ; d ir e c tly
s u p e r v is e a c le r i c a l sta ff) are not c o n s id e r e d to be " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s " fo r
p u rp o s e s o f applying the fo llo w in g le v e l d e fin it io n s .
C la ss A
1 . S e c r e ta r y to the ch a irm a n o f the b o a rd o r p r e sid e n t o f a com pa n y
that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 100 but fe w e r than 5, 000 p e r s o n s ; o r

2. S e c r e t a r y to a c o r p o r a te o f f ic e r (oth er than the ch a irm a n o f the
b o a rd o r p r e s id e n t) o f a com pan y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 5 ,0 0 0 but
fe w e r than 25, 000 p e r s o n s ; o r
3. S e c r e t a r y to the h ead , im m e d ia te ly b e lo w the c o r p o r a t e o f f ic e r
le v e l, o f a m a jo r seg m en t o r s u b s id ia r y o f a com pany that e m p lo y s , in a ll,
o v e r 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

C la ss B
1 . S e c r e t a r y to the ch a irm a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s id e n t o f a com pany
that e m p lo y s , in a ll, fe w e r than 100 p e r s o n s ; o r

3. S e c r e ta r y to the h ead , im m e d ia te ly b e lo w the o f f ic e r le v e l, o v e r
e ith e r a m a jo r co rpo rate w ide fu n ction a l a ctiv ity (e .g ., m a rk etin g , r e s e a r c h ,
o p e r a t io n s , in d u stria l r e la t io n s , e t c .) o>r a m a jo r g e o g r a p h ic o r o r g a n iz a tio n a l
seg m en t ( e .g ., a r e g io n a l h e a d q u a rte rs ; a m a jo r d iv is io n ) o f a com pa n y that
e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 5 ,0 0 0 but fe w e r than 2 5 ,0 0 0 e m p lo y e e s ; o r
4. S e c r e ta r y to the h ead o f an in d iv id u al plant, fa c to r y , e tc . (o r
o th e r equ ivalen t le v e l o f o ffic ia l) that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
5. S e c r e t a r y to the head o f a la rg e and im portan t o rg a n iz a tio n a l
seg m en t (e .g ., a m id d le m a n a gem en t s u p e r v is o r o f an o rg a n iz a tio n a l seg m en t
often in v olv in g as m any as s e v e r a l hundred p e r s o n s ) o r a com pany that
e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s .
C la ss C
1 . S e c r e ta r y
to an e x e cu tiv e o r m a n a g e r ia l p e r s o n w h ose r e s p o n ­
s ib ility is not equ ivalent to on e o f the s p e c ific le v e l situ ation s in the defin ition
fo r c la s s B , but w h ose o r g a n iz a tio n a l unit n o rm a lly n u m b ers at le a st s e v e r a l
d ozen e m p lo y e e s and is u su a lly d iv id ed into o rg a n iz a tio n a l seg m en ts w hich
a r e often , in tu rn , fu rth e r su bd ivid ed . In so m e c o m p a n ie s , this le v e l in ­
clu d es a w ide ran ge o f o r g a n iz a tio n a l e c h e lo n s ; in o th e r s , on ly on e o r tw o; o r

2. S e c r e ta r y to the head o f an in div idu al plant, fa c t o r y , e tc . (o r
o th e r equ ivalent le v e l o f o ffic ia l) that e m p lo y s , in a ll, fe w e r than 5 ,0 0 0
p e r s o n s .*
2
1
C la ss D
1 .
S e c r e ta r y to the s u p e r v is o r o r head o f a s m a ll o r g a n iz a tio n a l
unit (e .g ., fe w e r than about 25 o r 30 p e r s o n s ); oj:

2. S e c r e ta r y to a n o n s u p e r v is o r y s ta ff s p e c ia lis t , p r o fe s s io n a l e m ­
p lo y e e , a d m in istra tiv e o f f i c e r , o r a s s is ta n t, s k ille d te c h n ic ia n , o r e x p e rt.
(N O TE:
M any co m p a n ie s a s sig n ste n o g r a p h e r s , ra th er than s e c r e t a r ie s as
d e s c r ib e d a b o v e , to th is le v e l o f s u p e r v is o r y o r n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r .)
STENOGRAPH ER
P r im a r y duty is to take d icta tion using sh orth an d, and to tr a n s c r ib e
the d icta tio n .
M ay a lso type fr o m w ritten cop y .
M ay o p e r a te fr o m a
ste n o g ra p h ic p o o l.
M ay o c c a s io n a lly tr a n s c r ib e fr o m v o ic e r e c o r d in g s (if
p r im a r y duty is tr a n s c r ib in g fr o m r e c o r d in g s , se e T r a n s c r ib in g -M a c h in e
T y pi s t ).
N O TE: T his jo b is d is tin g u ish ed fr o m that o f a s e c r e t a r y in that a
s e c r e t a r y n o r m a lly w o rk s in a co n fid e n tia l r e la tio n s h ip w ith on ly one m a n a g er
o r e x e cu tiv e and p e r fo r m s m o r e r e s p o n s ib le and d is c r e tio n a r y ta sk s as
d e s c r ib e d in the s e c r e t a r y jo b d efin ition .
S te n o g ra p h e r, G e n e ra l

2. S e c r e ta r y to a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r (oth er than the ch a irm a n o f the
b o a rd o r p r e s id e n t) o f a com p a n y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 100 but fe w e r
than 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r




keep

D icta tion in v o lv e s a n o r m a l routine v o c a b u la r y . M ay m ain tain f ile s ,
s im p le r e c o r d s , o r p e r fo r m o th e r r e la t iv e ly routine c l e r i c a l ta s k s .

ST E N O G R A P H E R — Continued

F IL E C L E R K — Continued

S ten og ra p h er, S en ior
D ictation in v o lv e s a v a r ie d te c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d vocabularysu ch as in le g a l b r ie fs o r r e p o rts on s c ie n t ific r e s e a r c h . M ay a lso set up
and m ain tain f ile s , k eep r e c o r d s , e tc .

C la ss B . S o r ts , c o d e s , and file s u n c la s s ifie d m a te r ia l by s im p le
(su b je ct m a tte r) h eadin gs o r p a rtly c la s s ifie d m a te r ia l by fin e r su bh eadin gs.
P r e p a r e s s im p le re la te d in dex and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e a id s.
As re q u e ste d ,
lo c a te s c le a r ly id e n tifie d m a te r ia l in file s and fo r w a rd s m a te r ia l. M ay p e r ­
fo r m re la te d c l e r i c a l ta sk s re q u ire d to m aintain and s e r v ic e file s .

OR
P e r fo r m s ste n o g r a p h ic duties re q u irin g s ig n ifica n tly g r e a te r in ­
depen d en ce and r e s p o n s ib ility than ste n o g r a p h e r, g e n e r a l, as e v id e n ce d by
the fo llo w in g : W ork r e q u ir e s a high d e g re e o f s te n o g ra p h ic sp eed and
a c c u r a c y ; a th orou g h w ork in g k n ow led ge o f g e n e r a l b u sin e s s and o ffic e p r o ­
c e d u r e ; and o f the s p e c ifi c b u sin e s s o p e r a t io n s , o r g a n iz a tio n , p o li c ie s ,
p r o c e d u r e s , f i l e s , w o rk flo w , etc.
U ses this kn ow led ge in p e r fo rm in g
sten og ra p h ic du ties and r e s p o n s ib le c l e r i c a l ta sk s such as m ain taining
follow u p file s ; a s s e m b lin g m a te r ia l f o r r e p o r t s , m e m o ra n d u m s , and le t te r s ;
co m p o s in g s im p le le t te r s fr o m g e n e r a l in s tr u c tio n s ; readin g and routing
in com in g m a il; and a n sw erin g rou tin e q u e s tio n s , e tc .
T R A N SC R IB IN G -M A C H IN E T Y P IS T
P r im a r y duty is to type c o p y o f v o ic e r e c o r d e d d icta tion w hich does
not in v olv e v a r ie d te c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o ca b u la r y su ch as that u sed in
le g a l b r ie fs o r r e p o rts on s c ie n t ific r e s e a r c h . M ay a lso type fr o m w ritten
cop y . M ay m ain tain f ile s , k eep s im p le r e c o r d s , o r p e r fo r m o th e r re la tiv e ly
routine c le r i c a l ta s k s .
(See S ten og ra p h er d efin ition fo r w o r k e r s in v olv ed
w ith sh orth an d d icta tio n .)
T Y P IST
U ses a ty p e w r ite r to m ake c o p ie s o f v a r io u s m a te r ia ls o r to m ake
out b ills a fter c a lcu la tio n s have been m ade by an oth er p e r s o n .
M ay in ­
clude typing o f s t e n c ils , m a ts , o r s im ila r m a te r ia ls fo r use in duplicatin g
p rocesses.
M ay do c le r i c a l w ork in v olv in g little s p e c ia l tra in in g , such as
k eepin g sim p le r e c o r d s , filin g r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , o r so rtin g and distribu tin g
in com in g m a il.
C la ss A . P e r fo r m s one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : Typin g m a te r ia l
in fin a l fo r m when it in v o lv e s com bin in g m a te r ia l fr o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s ; o r
r e s p o n s ib ility fo r c o r r e c t s p e llin g , s y lla b ic a tio n , pu nctuation, e t c ., o f t e c h ­
n ica l o r unusual w o rd s o r fo r e ig n language m a te r ia l; o r planning layout and
typing o f c o m p lic a te d s t a tis tic a l ta b le s to m ain tain u n iform ity and b a la n ce in
sp a cin g . M ay type routine fo r m le t t e r s , v a ryin g d eta ils to suit c ir c u m s t a n c e s .
C la ss B . P e r fo r m s one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : C opy typing fr o m
rough o r c le a r d r a fts ; o r routine typing o f fo r m s , in su ra n ce p o li c ie s , e t c .;
o r settin g up sim p le stan dard ta b u la tion s; o r cop yin g m o r e c o m p le x ta bles
a lrea d y set up and sp a c e d p r o p e r ly .
F IL E CLE R K
F il e s , c la s s if i e s , and r e tr ie v e s m a te r ia l in an e s ta b lis h e d filin g
s y s te m . M ay p e r fo r m c le r i c a l and m anual ta sk s r e q u ire d to m ain tain file s .
P o s itio n s a re c la s s ifie d into le v e ls on the b a s is o f the fo llo w in g d efin ition s.
C la ss A . C la s s ifie s and in d ex es file m a te r ia l such as c o r r e s p o n d ­
e n c e , r e p o r t s , te c h n ic a l d o cu m e n ts, e t c ., in an e sta b lis h e d filin g s y s te m
contain in g a n u m b er o f v a r ie d su b je ct m a tte r f ile s .
M ay a lso file this
m a te r ia l.
M ay k eep r e c o r d s o f v a r io u s ty p es in con ju n ction w ith the file s .
M ay lea d a s m a ll g rou p o f lo w e r le v e l file c le r k s .




C la ss C . P e r fo r m s routine filin g o f m a te r ia l that has a lrea d y been
c la s s ifie d o r w h ich is e a s ily c la s s ifie d in a sim p le s e r ia l c la s s ific a tio n
s y s te m ( e .g ., a lp h a b e tica l, c h r o n o lo g ic a l, o r n u m e r ic a l).
A s r e q u e ste d ,
lo c a t e s r e a d ily a v a ila b le m a te r ia l in file s and fo r w a r d s m a te r ia l; and m ay
fill out w ith draw al c h a rg e .
M ay p e r fo r m sim p le c le r i c a l and m anual tasks
r e q u ire d to m ain tain and s e r v ic e f ile s .
M ESSENG ER
P e r fo r m s v a r io u s routine duties su ch as running e r r a n d s , op era tin g
m in o r o ffic e m a ch in e s such as s e a le r s o r m a ile r s , open in g and distribu tin g
m a il, and oth e r m in o r c le r i c a l w o rk . E x clu d e p o s itio n s that re q u ire o p e r a tio n
o f a m o t o r v e h ic le as a sig n ifica n t duty.
SW ITC H B O A R D O P E R A T O R
O p era tes a telep h on e s w itch b o a rd o r c o n s o le u sed with a p riv a te
b ra n ch ex ch an ge (P B X ) s y s te m to re la y in c o m in g , o u tg o in g , and in tr a s y s te m
c a lls .
M ay p r o v id e in fo rm a tio n to c a lle r s , r e c o r d and tr a n sm it m e s s a g e s ,
k eep r e c o r d o f c a lls p la ce d and t o ll c h a r g e s . B e s id e s op era tin g a teleph on e
sw itch b o a rd o r c o n s o le , m a y a lso type o r p e r fo r m rou tin e c le r i c a l w ork
(typing o r routine c le r i c a l w ork m a y o c cu p y the m a jo r p o r tio n o f the w o r k e r 's
tim e , and is u su ally p e r fo r m e d w h ile at the sw itch b o a rd o r c o n s o le ). C h ief o r
lea d o p e r a t o r s in esta b lis h m e n ts em p loy in g m o r e than on e o p e r a t o r are
e x clu d e d . F o r an o p e r a t o r who a lso a cts as a r e c e p t io n is t , see S w itch b oa rd
O p e r a to r -R e c e p tio n is t.
SW ITC H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T
At a s in g le -p o s it io n telep h on e s w itch b o a rd o r c o n s o le , acts both as
an o p e r a to r — se e S w itch b oa rd O p e ra to r — and as a r e c e p tio n is t. R e c e p tio n is t's
w ork in v o lv e s su ch duties as g re e tin g v is it o r s ; d eterm in in g nature o f v i s it o r 's
b u sin e s s and p ro v id in g a p p ro p ria te in fo rm a tio n ; r e fe r r in g v is it o r to a p p ro ­
p ria te p e r s o n in the o r g a n iz a tio n o r con tactin g that p e r s o n by telep h on e and
arra n gin g an appoin tm en t; k eepin g a log o f v is it o r s .

ORDER CLERK
R e c e iv e s w ritten o r v e r b a l c u s t o m e r s ' p u rc h a s e o r d e r s fo r m a te r ia l
o r m e r c h a n d is e fr o m c u s to m e r s o r sa le s p e o p le . W ork ty p ic a lly in v o lv e s
som e com b in a tion o f the fo llo w in g d u ties: Quoting p r ic e s ; d eterm in in g a v a ila ­
b ility o f o r d e r e d ite m s and su g gestin g su bstitu tes when n e c e s s a r y ; ad visin g
e x p e cte d d e liv e r y date and m eth od o f d e liv e r y ; r e c o r d in g o r d e r and c u s to m e r
in fo rm a tio n on o r d e r sh e e ts ; ch eck in g o r d e r sh eets fo r a c c u r a c y and
ad equ acy o f in fo rm a tio n r e c o r d e d ; a s ce r ta in in g c re d it rating o f c u s to m e r ;
fu rn ish in g c u s to m e r w ith a ck n ow led gem en t o f r e c e ip t o f o r d e r ; fo llo w in g -u p
to se e that o r d e r is d e liv e r e d by the s p e c ifie d date o r to let c u s to m e r know
o f a delay in d e liv e r y ; m a in tain in g o r d e r file ; ch eck in g shipping in v o ic e
against o r ig in a l o r d e r .

O R D E R C L E R K — Continued

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

E x clu d e w o r k e r s p a id on a c o m m is s io n b a s is o r w h ose duties in clu d e
any o f the fo llo w in g : R e c e iv in g o r d e r s f o r s e r v ic e s ra th er than f o r m a te r ia l
o r m e r c h a n d is e ; p r o v id in g c u s to m e r s w ith con su lta tiv e a d v ice u sin g kn ow led ge
gain ed fr o m en g in eerin g o r e x te n siv e te c h n ic a l tr a in in g ; em p h a sizin g s e llin g
s k ills ; handling m a te r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e as an in te g ra l p a rt o f the jo b .

O p era tes a b ook k eep in g m a ch in e (w ith o r w ithout a ty p e w r ite r k e y ­
b o a rd ) to k eep a r e c o r d o f b u s in e s s tr a n s a c t io n s .

P o s itio n s
d e fin it io n s :

a re

c la s s ifie d

into

le v e ls

a c c o r d in g

to

the

fo llo w in g

C la ss A . H andles o r d e r s that in v olv e m akin g ju dgm en ts su ch as
ch oosin g w h ich s p e c ific p ro d u ct o r m a te r ia l fr o m the e s ta b lis h m e n t's p rod u ct
lin e s w ill s a tis fy the c u s t o m e r ’ s n e e d s , o r d eterm in in g the p r ic e to be qu oted
w hen p r ic in g in v o lv e s m o r e than m e r e ly r e fe r r in g to a p r ic e lis t o r m aking
so m e s im p le m a th e m a tic a l c a lc u la tio n s .
C la ss B . H andles o r d e r s in volvin g ite m s w h ich have r e a d ily id e n ­
tifie d u ses and a p p lic a tio n s . M ay r e fe r to a c a ta lo g , m a n u fa c tu r e r 's m anu al,
o r s im ila r docu m en t to in su re that p r o p e r ite m is su pplied o r to v e r ify
p r ic e o f o r d e r e d ite m .

ACCOUNTIN G C LE R K
P e r fo r m s on e o r m o r e accou n tin g c l e r i c a l ta sk s su ch as p ostin g to
r e g is t e r s and le d g e r s ; r e c o n c ilin g bank a c c o u n ts ; v e r ify in g the in tern a l c o n ­
s is te n c y , c o m p le t e n e s s , and m a th em a tica l a c c u r a c y o f accou n tin g d ocu m en ts;
a ssig n in g p r e s c r ib e d accou n tin g d istrib u tion c o d e s ; exam in in g and v e rify in g
fo r c l e r i c a l a c c u r a c y v a r io u s ty p es o f r e p o r t s , lis t s , c a lc u la tio n s , p o s tin g ,
e t c .; o r p r e p a r in g sim p le o r a s sistin g in p r e p a r in g m o r e c o m p lic a te d jo u r n a l
vou ch ers.
M ay w ork in e ith e r a m anual o r au tom ated a ccou n tin g s y ste m .
The w ork r e q u ire s a kn ow led ge o f c l e r i c a l m eth od s and o ffic e
p r a c t ic e s and p r o c e d u r e s w h ich r e la te s to the c l e r i c a l p r o c e s s in g and r e ­
c o rd in g o f tr a n s a ctio n s and accou n tin g in fo rm a tio n . W ith e x p e r ie n c e , the
w o r k e r ty p ic a lly b e c o m e s fa m ilia r w ith the b ook k eep in g and accou n tin g te r m s
and p r o c e d u r e s u sed in the a s sig n e d w o rk , but is not re q u ire d to have a
k n ow led ge o f the fo r m a l p r in c ip le s o f b ook k eep in g and accou n tin g .
P o s itio n s
d e fin itio n s .

are

c la s s ifie d

into

le v e ls on the b a sis

o f the follow in g

C la ss A . U nder g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n , p e r fo r m s accou n tin g c le r i c a l
o p e r a tio n s w h ich r e q u ire the a p p lica tion o f e x p e r ie n c e and ju d g m en t, fo r
e x a m p le , c le r i c a lly p r o c e s s in g c o m p lica te d o r n o n re p e titiv e accou n tin g t r a n s ­
a c tio n s , s e le c tin g am ong a su bstan tial v a r ie ty o f p r e s c r ib e d accou n tin g cod es
and c la s s ific a t io n s , o r tr a c in g tra n s a ctio n s though p r e v io u s a ccou n tin g action s
to d e te rm in e s o u r c e o f d is c r e p a n c ie s . M ay be a s s is te d b y on e o r m o r e
c la s s B a ccou n tin g c le r k s .
C la ss B . U nder c lo s e s u p e r v is io n , fo llo w in g d eta iled in stru ctio n s
and sta n d a rd iz ed p r o c e d u r e s , p e r fo r m s one o r m o r e routine a ccou n tin g
c le r i c a l o p e r a t io n s , su ch as p ostin g to le d g e r s , c a r d s , o r w o rk s h e e ts w h ere
id e n tifica tio n o f ite m s and lo c a tio n s o f p o s tin g s a re c le a r ly in d ica te d ; c h e c k ­
ing a c c u r a c y and c o m p le te n e s s o f sta n d a rd ized and r e p e titiv e r e c o r d s or
accou n tin g d o cu m e n ts; and codin g d ocu m en ts u sin g a few p r e s c r ib e d a c c o u n t­
ing c o d e s .




C la ss A . K eep s a set o f r e c o r d s re q u irin g a k n ow ledge o f and
e x p e r ie n c e in b a s ic b ook k eep in g p r in c ip le s , and fa m ilia r ity w ith the stru ctu re
o f the p a r t ic u la r accou n tin g s y s te m u sed .
D e te rm in e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s and
d is trib u tio n o f debit and c r e d it ite m s to be u sed in ea ch phase o f the w ork .
M ay p r e p a r e c o n s o lid a te d r e p o r t s , b a la n ce sh e e ts , and o th e r r e c o r d s b y hand.
C la ss B . K eeps a r e c o r d o f one o r m o r e p h a ses o r se c tio n s o f a
set o f r e c o r d s u su ally r e q u irin g little k n ow led ge o f b a s ic b ook k eep in g . P h a s e s
o r s e c tio n s in clu d e a ccou n ts p a y a b le , p a y r o ll, c u s t o m e r s ' a ccou n ts (not in ­
cluding a s im p le type o f b illin g d e s c r ib e d under m a ch in e b i lle r ), c o s t d is ­
tr ib u tio n , ex p en se d is trib u tio n , in v e n to ry c o n t r o l, e tc . M ay ch eck o r a s s is t
in p r e p a r a tio n o f t r ia l b a la n c e s and p r e p a r e c o n tr o l sh eets fo r the accou n tin g
dep a rtm en t.

M ACHINE B IL L E R
P r e p a r e s sta tem en ts, b i lls , and in v o ic e s on a m a ch in e o th e r them
an o r d in a r y o r e le c t r o m a t ic ty p e w r ite r . M ay a lso k eep r e c o r d s as to b illin g s
o r shipping c h a rg e s o r p e r fo r m oth e r c l e r i c a l w ork in cid en ta l to b illin g
o p e r a tio n s . F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , m a ch in e b ille r s a re c la s s ifie d by type
o f m a ch in e , as fo llo w s :
B illin g -m a c h in e b i l l e r . U ses a s p e c ia l b illin g m a ch in e (com b in a tion
typin g and adding m a ch in e ) to p r e p a r e b ills and in v o ic e s fr o m c u s t o m e r s '
p u rch a se o r d e r s , in te rn a lly p r e p a r e d o r d e r s , shipping m e m o ra n d u m s, e tc .
U sually in v o lv e s a p p lica tion o f p r e d e te r m in e d d iscou n ts and shipping ch a rg es
and en try o f n e c e s s a r y e x te n s io n s , w h ich m ay o r m a y not be com pu ted on
the b illin g m a ch in e , and to ta ls w h ich a re a u tom a tica lly accu m u la ted by
m a ch in e . The o p e r a tio n u su ally in v o lv e s a la rg e n u m ber o f ca rb on c o p ie s o f
the b ill b ein g p r e p a r e d and is often done on a fan fold m a ch in e.
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e b i l l e r . U ses a book k eepin g m a ch in e (with o r
w ithout a ty p e w r ite r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s t o m e r s ' b ills as pa rt o f the
a ccou n ts r e c e iv a b le o p e r a tio n . G e n e ra lly in v o lv e s the sim u ltan eou s en try o f
fig u r e s on c u s t o m e r s ' le d g e r r e c o r d . The m a ch in e a u tom a tica lly a ccu m u la tes
fig u r e s on a n u m ber o f v e r t ic a l colu m n s and com p u tes and u su ally p rin ts
a u tom a tica lly the debit o r c r e d it b a la n c e s .
D oes not in v olv e a kn ow led ge
o f b ook k eep in g . W ork s fr o m u n ifo rm and stan dard typ es o f s a le s and
c re d it s lip s .

P A Y R O L L C LE R K
P e r fo r m s the c l e r i c a l ta sk s n e c e s s a r y to p r o c e s s p a y r o lls and to
m ain tain p a y r o ll r e c o r d s . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P r o c e s s in g
w o r k e r s ' tim e o r p ro d u ctio n r e c o r d s ; ad ju sting w o r k e r s ' r e c o r d s fo r changes
in w age r a te s , su p p lem en ta ry b e n e fit s , o r tax d e d u ction s; editing p a y r o ll
lis tin g s against s o u r c e r e c o r d s ; tr a c in g and c o r r e c t in g e r r o r s in lis tin g s ;
and a s s is tin g in p r e p a r a tio n o f p e r io d ic su m m a ry p a y r o ll r e p o r t s . In a n on au tom ated p a y r o ll s y s t e m , com p u tes w a g e s. W ork m a y req u ire a p r a c t ic a l
k n ow led ge o f g o v e rn m e n ta l r e g u la tio n s, com p a n y p a y r o ll p o lic y , o r the
c o m p u te r s y s te m fo r p r o c e s s in g p a y r o lls .

K EY PU N CH O P E R A T O R

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R — Continued

O p era tes a keypunch m a ch in e to r e c o r d o r v e r ify a lp h a b etic a n d /o r
n u m e ric data on tabulating c a r d s o r on tape.

fr o m th is d efin ition a re w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s . A ls o e x clu d e d are o p e r a t o r s
o f e le c t r o n ic d ig ita l c o m p u te r s , even though th ey m a y a ls o o p e r a te e le c t r ic
a ccou n tin g m a ch in e equ ipm en t.

P o s itio n s
d e fin itio n s .

a re

c la s s ifie d

into

le v e ls on the

b a s is o f the fo llo w in g

C la ss A . W ork r e q u ir e s the a p p lica tion o f e x p e r ie n c e and ju dgm en t
in s e le c tin g p r o c e d u r e s to be fo llo w e d and in s e a rc h in g fo r , in te r p r e tin g ,
s e le c t in g , o r cod in g ite m s to be k eyp u n ch ed fr o m a v a r ie ty o f s o u r c e
d ocu m en ts.
On o c c a s io n m a y a lso p e r fo r m so m e routine keypun ch w ork .
M ay tr a in in e x p e r ie n c e d keypun ch o p e r a t o r s .
C la ss B . W ork is routine and r e p e titiv e . U nder c lo s e s u p e r v is io n
o r fo llo w in g s p e c ifi c p r o c e d u r e s o r in s t r u c t io n s , w o rk s fr o m v a r io u s stan d­
a r d iz e d s o u r c e d ocu m en ts w h ich have b een co d e d , and fo llo w s s p e c ifie d
p r o c e d u r e s w h ich have b een p r e s c r i b e d in d eta il and re q u ire little o r no
s e le c t in g , co d in g , o r in te r p r e tin g o f data to b e r e c o r d e d .
R e fe r s to su ­
p e r v is o r p r o b le m s a r is in g fr o m e r r o n e o u s ite m s o r cod es o'r m is s in g
in fo rm ation .

P o s itio n s
d e fin it io n s .

c la s s ifi e d

into le v e ls

on the

b a s is o f the fo llo w in g

C la ss A . P e r fo r m s c o m p le te r e p o rtin g and tabulating a ssign m en ts
in clu din g d e v isin g d ifficu lt c o n tr o l pa n el w irin g u nder g e n e r a l su p e r v is io n .
A s sig n m e n ts t y p ic a lly in v o lv e a v a r ie ty o f lon g and c o m p le x r e p o rts w h ich
often a re ir r e g u la r o r n o n r e c u r r in g , r e q u irin g so m e planning o f the n ature
and seq u en cin g o f o p e r a t io n s , and the u se o f a v a r ie ty o f m a ch in e s . Is
t y p ic a lly in v o lv e d in tra in in g new o p e r a t o r s in m a ch in e o p e ra tio n s o r tra in in g
lo w e r le v e l o p e r a t o r s in w irin g fr o m d ia g r a m s and in the op era tin g se q u e n ce s
o f lon g and c o m p le x r e p o r t s .
D oes not in clu d e p o s itio n s in w h ich w irin g
r e s p o n s ib ility is lim ite d to s e le c t io n and in s e r tio n o f p r e w ir e d b o a r d s .
C la ss B . P e r fo r m s w ork a c c o r d in g to e s ta b lis h e d p r o c e d u r e s and
under s p e c ific in s tr u c tio n s .
A s sig n m e n ts t y p ic a lly in v o lv e c o m p le te but
routine and r e c u r r in g r e p o r ts o r p a rts o f la r g e r and m o r e c o m p le x r e p o r t s .
O p e ra te s m o r e d ifficu lt tabulating o r e le c t r i c a l a ccou n tin g m a ch in es su ch as
the ta b u la to r and c a lc u la to r , in ad dition to the s im p le r m a ch in es u sed by
c la s s C o p e r a t o r s .
M ay be r e q u ir e d to do so m e w irin g fr o m d ia g r a m s .
M ay tr a in new e m p lo y e e s in b a s ic m a ch in e o p e r a t io n s .
C la ss C . U n der s p e c ifi c in s t r u c t io n s , o p e r a te s sim p le tabulating o r
e le c t r ic a l accou n tin g m a ch in e s su ch as the s o r t e r , in t e r p r e t e r , re p ro d u cin g
punch, c o lla t o r , e tc . A s sig n m e n ts t y p ic a lly in v o lv e p o r tio n s of a w ork unit,
fo r e x a m p le , in d iv id u a l s o rtin g o r c o lla tin g ru n s, o r r e p e titiv e o p e r a tio n s .
M ay p e r fo r m
s im p le w irin g fr o m d ia g r a m s , and do som e filin g w o rk .

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

c u la to r ,

a re

O p e ra te s one o r a v a r ie ty o f m a ch in e s su ch as the ta b u la to r, c a l ­
c o lla t o r , in t e r p r e t e r , s o r t e r , r e p ro d u c in g punch, e tc .
E x clu d ed

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
C O M P U T E R SYSTEM S A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS----Continued

C O M P U T E R SYSTEM S A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS

F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , s y s te m s an alysts a re c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s :

A n a ly ze s b u s in e s s p r o b le m s to fo r m u la te p r o c e d u r e s fo r solv in g
th em by u se o f e le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g equ ipm ent. D evelop s a com p le te
d e s c r ip tio n o f a ll s p e c ific a tio n s n eed ed to en able p r o g r a m m e r s to p r e p a re
r e q u ir e d d ig ita l c o m p u te r p r o g r a m s . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
A n a ly zes s u b je c t -m a tte r o p e r a tio n s to be autom ated and id e n tifie s con d ition s
and c r it e r i a r e q u ire d to a ch iev e s a tis fa c to r y r e s u lts ; s p e c ifie s n u m ber and
ty p es o f r e c o r d s , f ile s , and d ocu m en ts to be u sed ; ou tlin es a ction s to be
p e r fo r m e d by p e r s o n n e l and co m p u te rs in su ffic ie n t d etail fo r p re se n ta tio n
to m a n a gem en t and fo r p r o g r a m m in g (ty p ica lly th is in v o lv e s p r e p a r a tio n o f
w ork and data flo w c h a rts ); co o rd in a te s the d ev elop m en t o f te s t p r o b le m s and
p a r tic ip a te s in t r ia l runs o f new and r e v is e d s y s t e m s ; and r e co m m e n d s
equipm ent changes to obtain m o r e e ffe c t iv e o v e r a ll o p e r a tio n s .
(N O TE:
W o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g b oth ~ system s a n a ly sis and p r o g r a m m in g sh ou ld be c l a s ­
s ifie d as sy s te m s a n alysts if th is is the s k ill u sed to d eterm in e th e ir p a y .)

C la ss A . W ork s in depen den tly o r u nder on ly g e n e ra l d ir e c tio n on
c o m p le x p r o b le m s in v olv in g a ll p h a ses o f s y s t e m a n a ly s is . P r o b le m s are
c o m p le x b e c a u s e o f d iv e r s e s o u r c e s o f input data and m u lt ip le -u s e r e q u ir e ­
m en ts o f output data.
(F o r e x a m p le , d e v e lo p s an in teg ra ted p ro d u ctio n
s ch e d u lin g , in v e n to ry c o n t r o l, c o s t a n a ly s is , and s a le s an alysis r e c o r d in
w h ich e v e r y ite m o f e a ch type is a u to m a tica lly p r o c e s s e d th rough the fu ll
s y s te m o f r e c o r d s and a p p rop ria te fo llo w u p a ctio n s are in itiated b y the
c o m p u te r .) C o n fe rs w ith p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d to d e te rm in e the data p r o c e s s in g
p r o b le m s and a d v is e s s u b je c t -m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l on the im p lic a tio n s o f new o r
r e v is e d s y s te m s o f data p r o c e s s in g o p e r a t io n s . M akes r e co m m e n d a tio n s , if
n e e d e d , fo r a p p ro v a l o f m a jo r s y s te m s in sta lla tio n s o r changes and fo r
obtain in g equ ipm ent.
M ay p r o v id e fu n ction a l d ir e c tio n
who a re a s sig n e d to a s s is t .

lo w e r le v e l

sy s te m s an alysts

C la ss B . W ork s in depen den tly o r u nder on ly g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n on
p r o b le m s that a re r e la tiv e ly u n c o m p lica te d to a n a ly ze , pla n , p r o g r a m , and
o p e r a te . P r o b le m s a re o f lim ite d c o m p le x ity b e c a u s e s o u r c e s o f input data
a re h om og en eou s and the output data a re c lo s e ly re la te d .
(F o r e x a m p le ,

D oes not in clu d e e m p lo y e e s p r im a r ily r e s p o n s ib le fo r the m a n ­
agem en t o r s u p e r v is io n o f o th e r e le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g e m p lo y e e s ,
o r s y s te m s an alysts p r im a r ily c o n c e r n e d w ith s c ie n t ific o r en g in eerin g
p r o b le m s .




to

30

C O M P U T E R SY S T E M S A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS— Continued

C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , BUSINESS— Continued

d ev e lo p s s y s te m s fo r m ain taining d e p o s ito r a ccou n ts in a bank, m ain taining
a ccou n ts r e c e iv a b le in a r e ta il e sta b lis h m e n t, o r m ain taining in v en tory
accou n ts in a m a n u factu rin g o r w h o le s a le e s ta b lis h m e n t.)
C o n fe rs w ith
p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d to d e te rm in e the data p r o c e s s in g p r o b le m s and a d v is e s
s u b je c t -m a tte r p e r s o n n e l on the im p lic a tio n s o f the data p r o c e s s in g sy ste m s
to be a p plied.

At th is le v e l, p r o g r a m m in g is d ifficu lt b e c a u s e com p u ter eq u ip ­
m en t m u st b e o r g a n iz e d to p r o d u c e s e v e r a l in te r r e la te d but d iv e r s e p r o ­
ducts fr o m n u m erou s and d iv e r s e data e le m e n ts .
A w ide v a r ie ty and e x ­
te n s iv e n u m b er o f in te rn a l p r o c e s s in g a ction s m u st o c c u r .
T his r e q u ire s
su ch a ction s as d ev elop m en t o f co m m o n o p e ra tio n s w hich can be r e ­
u sed , esta b lish m en t o f lin kage poin ts betw een o p e r a tio n s , ad ju stm ents to
data w hen p r o g r a m r e q u ire m e n ts e x c e e d co m p u te r sto ra g e c a p a city , and
su bsta n tial m an ipu lation and re se q u e n cin g o f data elem en ts to fo r m a
h igh ly in te g ra te d p r o g r a m .

OR
W ork s on a seg m en t o f a c o m p le x data p r o c e s s in g s c h e m e o r s y s te m ,
as d e s c r ib e d fo r c la s s A . W ork s in depen den tly on routine a ssig n m en ts and
r e c e iv e s in stru ctio n and guid an ce on c o m p le x a s sig n m e n ts . W ork is re v ie w e d
fo r a c c u r a c y o f ju d g m en t, c o m p lia n ce w ith in s tr u c tio n s , and to in su re
p r o p e r align m en t w ith the o v e r a ll s y s te m .

M ay p r o v id e fu n ction a l d ir e c tio n
a re a s sig n e d to a s s is t .

C la ss B . W ork s in depen den tly o r under on ly g e n e ra l d ir e c tio n on
r e la t iv e ly s im p le p r o g r a m s , o r on s im p le seg m en ts o f c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .
P r o g r a m s (o r se g m e n ts ) u su ally p r o c e s s in fo rm a tio n to p ro d u ce data in two
o r th re e v a r ie d se q u e n ce s o r fo r m a t s . R e p o rts and lis tin g s are p r o d u c e d by
re fin in g , adapting, a r r a y in g , o r m aking m in o r additions to o r d eletion s fr o m
input data w h ich are r e a d ily a v a ila b le . W hile n u m erou s r e c o r d s m ay be
p r o c e s s e d , the data have b een re fin e d in p r io r action s so that the a c c u r a c y
and seq u en cin g o f data can be te s te d by using a few routine c h e ck s. T y p ic a lly ,
the p r o g r a m d ea ls w ith routine r e co r d k e e p in g o p e r a tio n s .

C la ss C . W ork s under im m e d ia te s u p e r v is io n , c a r ry in g out a n a lyses
as a s sig n e d , u su ally o f a sin g le a c tiv ity . A s sig n m e n ts a re d esig n ed to d ev e lo p
and expand p r a c t ic a l e x p e r ie n c e in the a p p lica tion o f p r o c e d u r e s and sk ills
re q u ire d fo r s y s te m s a n a ly sis w o rk . F o r e x a m p le , m ay a s s is t a h ig h e r le v e l
s y s te m s an alyst by p re p a rin g the d eta iled s p e c ific a tio n s r e q u ir e d by p r o ­
g r a m m e r s fr o m in fo rm a tio n d e v e lo p e d by the h ig h e r le v e l an alyst.
C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , BUSINESS

OR

C on v erts statem en ts o f b u sin e s s p r o b le m s , ty p ic a lly p r e p a r e d by a
s y s te m s an alyst, in to a seq u en ce o f d eta iled in s tru ctio n s w h ich a re r e ­
q u ir e d to so lv e the p r o b le m s b y au tom atic data p r o c e s s in g equ ipm ent.
W orkin g fr o m ch a rts o r
d ia g r a m s , the p r o g r a m m e r d ev elop s the p r e ­
c is e in stru ctio n s w h ich , when e n tered into the com p u ter s y s te m in c od ed
la n gu a ge, ca u se the m anipulation o f data to a ch iev e d e s ir e d r e s u lts . W ork
in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : A p p lies k n ow led ge o f c o m p u te r c a p a ­
b i lit ie s , m a th e m a tic s , lo g ic em p lo y e d by c o m p u te r s , and p a r tic u la r su b ­
je c t m a tte r in v olv ed to an alyze ch a rts and d ia g ra m s o f the p r o b le m to
be p r o g r a m m e d ; d ev elop s seq u en ce o f p r o g r a m s te p s; w rite s d eta iled flow
ch a rts to show o r d e r in w h ich data w ill be p r o c e s s e d ; co n v e rts th ese
ch a rts to co d e d in s tru ctio n s fo r m a ch in e to fo llo w ; te s ts and c o r r e c t s
p r o g r a m s ; p r e p a r e s in stru ctio n s fo r op era tin g p e r s o n n e l during p ro d u ctio n
run; a n a ly z e s , r e v ie w s , and a lte r s p r o g r a m s to in c r e a s e op era tin g e f f i ­
c ie n c y o r adapt to new re q u ire m e n ts ; m ain tains r e c o r d s o f p r o g r a m d e ­
v elo p m en t and r e v is io n s . (N O TE: W o r k e rs p e r fo r m in g both sy s te m s an al­
y s is and p r o g r a m m in g should be c la s s ifie d as sy s te m s an alysts i f this is
the s k ill u sed to d e te rm in e th e ir p a y.)

W ork s on c o m p le x p r o g r a m s (as d e s c r ib e d fo r c la s s A) under
c lo s e d ir e c tio n o f a h ig h e r le v e l p r o g r a m m e r o r s u p e r v is o r .
M ay a s s is t
h ig h e r le v e l p r o g r a m m e r by in depen den tly p e r fo r m in g le s s d ifficu lt tasks
a s s ig n e d , and p e r fo r m in g m o r e d ifficu lt ta sk s under fa ir ly c lo s e d ir e c tio n .
M ay guide o r in stru ct lo w e r le v e l p r o g r a m m e r s .
C la ss C . M akes p r a c t ic a l a p p lica tion s o f p ro g ra m m in g p r a c tic e s
and co n c e p ts u su ally le a rn e d in fo r m a l tra in in g c o u r s e s . A ssig n m en ts
a re d es ig n e d to d ev elop c o m p e te n ce in the ap p lica tion o f stan dard p r o ­
c e d u r e s to routine p r o b le m s .
R e c e iv e s c lo s e s u p e r v is io n on new a sp ects
o f a s sig n m e n ts ; and w ork is re v ie w e d to v e r ify its a c c u r a c y and c o n fo r m a n c e
w ith r e q u ire d p r o c e d u r e s .
COM PUTER O PERATOR
M o n ito rs and o p e r a te s the c o n tro l c o n s o le o f a dig ital c o m p u te r to
p r o c e s s data a c c o r d in g to op era tin g in s tr u c tio n s , u su ally p r e p a r e d by a
p r o g r a m m e r . W ork in clu d e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : Studies in stru ctio n s to
d e te rm in e equipm ent setup and o p e r a tio n s ; loa d s equipm ent w ith re q u ire d
ite m s (tape r e e ls , c a r d s , e t c .); sw itch e s n e c e s s a r y a u x ilia ry equ ipm ent into
c ir c u it , and sta rts and o p e r a te s c o m p u te r ; m a k es adju stm en ts to c o m p u te r to
c o r r e c t op era tin g p r o b le m s and m e e t s p e c ia l c o n d itio n s; re v ie w s e r r o r s
m ade during o p e r a tio n and d e te rm in e s ca u se o r r e fe r s p r o b le m to s u p e r ­
v is o r o r p r o g r a m m e r ; and m a in tain s o p e ra tin g r e c o r d s . M ay te s t and a s s is t
in c o r r e c t in g p r o g r a m .

D oes not in clu d e e m p lo y e e s p r im a r ily r e s p o n s ib le f o r the m a n ­
agem ent o r s u p e r v is io n o f oth e r e le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g e m p lo y e e s ,
o r p r o g r a m m e r s p r im a r ily c o n c e rn e d w ith s c ie n tific a n d /o r en gin eerin g
p r o b le m s .
F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , p r o g r a m m e r s a re c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s :
C la ss A . W ork s in depen den tly o r under on ly g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n
on c o m p le x p r o b le m s w hich re q u ire c o m p e te n c e in all p h a ses o f p r o ­
g ra m m in g co n ce p ts and p r a c t ic e s . W orkin g fr o m d ia g ra m s and ch a rts
w hich id en tify the n ature o f d e s ir e d r e s u lts , m a jo r p r o c e s s in g steps to
be a c c o m p lis h e d , and the r e la tio n s h ip s betw een v a r io u s steps o f the p r o b ­
le m so lv in g rou tin e; pla n s the fu ll ran ge o f p r o g r a m m in g a ction s n eeded
to e ffic ie n tly u tilize the c o m p u te r s y s te m in a ch ievin g d e s ir e d end p r o d u c ts .




to lo w e r le v e l p r o g r a m m e r s who

For

w age

study p u r p o s e s ,

c o m p u te r

op era tors

are

c la s s ifie d

as

fo llo w s :
C la ss A . O p e ra te s in d ep en d en tly , o r u nder on ly g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n , a
c o m p u te r running p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f the fo llo w in g c h a r a c t e r is t ic s : New
p r o g r a m s a re freq u en tly te s te d and in tro d u ce d ; sch ed u lin g re q u ire m e n ts are

31

C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R — Continued

D R A F T E R — Continued

o f c r it ic a l im p o rta n ce to m in im iz e dow n tim e; the p r o g r a m s a re o f c o m p le x
d esig n so that id e n tifica tio n o f e r r o r s o u r c e often r e q u ir e s a w ork in g k n ow ­
led g e o f the to ta l p r o g r a m , and a ltern a te p r o g r a m s m ay not be a v a ila b le.
M ay g iv e d ir e c tio n and guid an ce to lo w e r le v e l o p e r a t o r s .

m a te r ia ls to be u sed , loa d c a p a c it ie s , stre n g th s, s t r e s s e s , e tc .
R e c e iv e s
in itia l in s t r u c t io n s , r e q u ir e m e n ts , and a d v ice fr o m s u p e r v is o r .
C om p leted
w ork is ch e ck e d fo r te c h n ic a l ad equ acy.

C la ss B . O p era tes in depen den tly , o r under on ly g e n e ra l d ir e c tio n , a
co m p u te r running p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f the fo llo w in g c h a r a c t e r is t ic s ; M ost
o f the p r o g r a m s are e sta b lis h e d p ro d u ctio n ru n s, ty p ic a lly run on a r e g u la r ly
r e c u r r in g b a s is ; th e r e is little o r no testin g o f new p r o g r a m s re q u ire d ;
a ltern a te p r o g r a m s are p r o v id e d in c a se o r ig in a l p r o g r a m n eeds m a jo r change
o r cannot be c o r r e c t e d w ithin a re a so n a b ly sh ort tim e . In co m m o n e r r o r
situ a tion s, d ia g n o se s ca u se and takes c o r r e c t iv e a ction . T h is u su ally in ­
v o lv e s applying p r e v io u s ly p r o g r a m m e d c o r r e c t iv e s te p s , o r using stan dard
c o r r e c t io n tech n iq u e s .
OR
O p e ra te s u nder d ir e c t s u p e r v is io n a co m p u te r running p r o g r a m s o r
segm en ts, o f p r o g r a m s w ith the c h a r a c t e r is t ic s d e s c r ib e d fo r c la s s A . May
a s s is t a h ig h e r le v e l o p e r a t o r by in depen den tly p e r fo r m in g le s s d ifficu lt ta sk s
a s s ig n e d , and p e r fo r m in g d ifficu lt ta sk s fo llo w in g d eta iled in s tru ctio n s and
w ith frequ en t r e v ie w o f o p e r a tio n s p e r fo r m e d .

e x p e cte d
a b ility to
r e c e iv e d
op era tor

C la ss C . W ork s on routine p r o g r a m s u nder c lo s e s u p e r v is io n . Is
to d e v e lo p w ork in g kn ow led ge o f the c o m p u te r equ ipm ent u sed and
d etect p r o b le m s in v o lv e d in running routine p r o g r a m s . U su a lly has
so m e fo r m a l tra in in g in c o m p u te r o p e r a tio n . M ay a s s is t h ig h e r le v e l
on c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .

DRAFTER

C la ss A . P la n s the g ra p h ic p re se n ta tio n o f c o m p le x ite m s having
d is tin c tiv e d esig n fe a tu r e s that d iffe r sig n ific a n tly fr o m e sta b lis h e d drafting
p r e c e d e n ts . W ork s in c lo s e su pport w ith the d esig n o r ig in a to r , and m ay
r e co m m e n d m in o r d esig n ch a n g es. A n a ly zes the e ffe c t o f ea ch change on the
d eta ils o f fo r m , fu n ction , and p o s itio n a l r e la tio n s h ip s o f com p on en ts and
p a r ts . W ork s w ith a m in im u m o f s u p e r v is o r y a s s is ta n c e . C om p leted w ork
is re v ie w e d by d e sig n o r ig in a to r f o r c o n s is t e n c y w ith p r io r en g in eerin g
d e te rm in a tio n s. M ay e ith e r p r e p a r e draw in gs o r d ir e c t th e ir p r e p a r a tio n by
lo w e r le v e l d r a fte r s .

C la ss B . P e r fo r m s n on rou tin e and c o m p le x d raftin g a ssign m en ts
that re q u ire the a p p lica tion o f m o s t o f the sta n d a rd iz ed draw ing tech n iq u es
r e g u la r ly u sed .
D uties ty p ic a lly in v o lv e su ch w o rk as:
P r e p a r e s w ork in g
draw in gs o f s u b a s s e m b lie s w ith ir r e g u la r sh a p e s, m u ltip le fu n c tio n s, and
p r e c i s e p o s itio n a l re la tio n s h ip s b etw een com p on en ts; p r e p a r e s a r c h ite ctu r a l
draw in gs f o r co n s tr u c tio n o f a bu ildin g in clu din g d eta il draw in gs o f fou nda­
tio n s , w a ll s e c t io n s , flo o r p la n s , and r o o f. U ses a c c e p te d fo r m u la s and
m anu als in m aking n e c e s s a r y com pu ta tion s t o d eterm in e qu an tities o f




C la ss C . P r e p a r e s d eta il draw in gs o f sin g le units o r p a rts f o r
e n g in e e r in g , c o n s tr u c tio n , m a n u fa ctu rin g , o r r e p a ir p u r p o s e s .
T y p es o f
draw in gs p r e p a r e d in clu d e is o m e t r ic p r o je c t io n s (d ep ictin g th re e d im en sion s
in a c c u r a te s c a le ) and s e c tio n a l v iew s to c la r ify p osition in g o f com p on en ts
and co n v e y n eed ed in fo rm a tio n .
C o n so lid a te s d eta ils fr o m a n u m b er o f
s o u r c e s and ad ju sts o r tr a n s p o s e s s c a le as r e q u ire d . S u g gested m eth od s o f
a p p roa ch , a p p lica b le p r e c e d e n ts , and a d v ice on s o u r c e m a te r ia ls a re given
w ith in itia l a s sig n m e n ts . In stru ction s a re le s s c o m p le te when a ssign m en ts
r e c u r . W ork m ay be s p o t-c h e c k e d during p r o g r e s s .
D R A F T E R -T R A C E R
C op ies plans and draw in gs p r e p a r e d by o th e rs by p la cin g tra cin g
cloth o r p a p er o v e r draw in gs and tr a c in g w ith pen o r p e n c il.
(D oes not
in clu d e tr a c in g lim ite d to plans p r im a r ily c o n s is tin g o f stra ig h t lin e s and a
la rg e s c a le not re q u irin g c lo s e d e lin e a tio n .)
A N D /O R
P r e p a r e s s im p le o r r e p e titiv e d raw in gs o f e a s ily v is u a liz e d ite m s .
W ork is c lo s e ly s u p e r v is e d during p r o g r e s s .
E LE C TR O N IC S TECH N ICIAN
W ork s on v a r io u s ty p es o f e le c t r o n ic equ ipm ent and rela ted d e v ic e s
by p e r fo r m in g one o r a com b in a tion o f the fo llo w in g : In sta llin g , m a in tain in g,
r e p a ir in g , ov e rh a u lin g , tr o u b le s h o o tin g , m o d ify in g , c o n s tr u c tin g , and testin g .
W ork r e q u ir e s p r a c t ic a l a p p lica tion o f te c h n ic a l k n ow led ge o f e le c t r o n ic s
p r in c ip le s , a b ility to d eterm in e m a lfu n c tio n s , and s k ill to put equipm ent in
r e q u ire d op era tin g con d ition .
The equ ipm ent— co n s is tin g o f e ith e r m any d iffe re n t kinds o f c ir c u its
o r m u ltip le re p e titio n o f the sa m e kind o f c ir c u it — in c lu d e s , but is not lim ite d
to , the fo llo w in g : (a) E le c t r o n ic tr a n sm ittin g and r e c e iv in g equipm ent (e .g .,
r a d a r , r a d io , te le v is io n , te le p h o n e , s o n a r , n a v iga tion a l a id s ), (b) dig ital
and analog c o m p u te r s , and (c) in d u str ia l and m e d ic a l m e a su rin g and c o n ­
tr o llin g equ ipm ent.
T h is c la s s ific a t io n e x clu d e s r e p a ir e r s o f su ch standard e le c t r o n ic
equ ipm ent as co m m o n o ffic e m a ch in e s and h ou seh old ra d io and t e le v is io n
s e t s ; p r o d u c tio n a s s e m b le r s and t e s t e r s ; w o r k e r s w h ose p r im a r y duty is
s e r v ic in g e le c t r o n ic te s t in stru m e n ts ; te c h n ic ia n s who have a d m in istra tiv e
o r s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s ib ility ; and d r a ft e r s , d e s ig n e r s , and p r o fe s s io n a l
e n g in e e r s .
P o s itio n s
d e fin itio n s .

a re

c la s s ifie d

into le v e ls

on the b a s is o f the follow in g

C la ss A . A p p lies ad va n ced te c h n ic a l k n ow led ge to so lv e unusually
c o m p le x p r o b le m s ( i . e . , th o se that ty p ic a lly cannot be s o lv e d s o le ly by
r e fe r e n c e to m a n u fa c tu r e r s ' m anu als o r s im ila r d ocu m en ts) in w ork in g on

ELE C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N — Continued

E L E C T R O N IC S TE C H N IC IA N — Continued

C la ss C . A p p lies w ork in g te c h n ic a l k n ow led ge to p e r fo r m sim p le o r
routine ta sk s in w ork in g on e le c t r o n ic equ ipm en t, follow in g d eta iled in ­
s tru c tio n s w h ich c o v e r v ir tu a lly a ll p r o c e d u r e s . W ork ty p ic a lly in v o lv e s such
ta sk s as: A s s is tin g h ig h er le v e l te ch n icia n s by p e r fo r m in g such a c tiv itie s as
re p la c in g co m p o n e n ts, w irin g c ir c u it s , and taking te s t rea d in g s; re p a irin g
sim p le e le c t r o n ic equ ipm en t; and using to o ls and com m on te s t in stru m en ts
( e .g ., m u lt im e t e r s , audio sign a l g e n e r a t o r s , tube t e s t e r s , o s c ill o s c o p e s ) . Is
not re q u ire d to be fa m ilia r w ith the in te r re la tio n s h ip s o f c ir c u it s .
T h is
k n ow led g e, h o w e v e r, m a y be a c q u ir e d th rou gh a ssign m en ts d esig n ed to in ­
c r e a s e co m p e te n ce (in clu din g c la s s r o o m tra in in g ) so that w o r k e r can advance
to h ig h e r le v e l te ch n icia n .

e le c t r o n ic equ ipm ent.
E x a m p les o f su ch p r o b l e m s ' in clu de lo c a tio n and
den sity o f c ir c u it r y , e le c tr o m a g n e tic ra d ia tion , is o la tin g m a lfu n c tio n s, and
frequ en t e n g in eerin g ch a n g es. W ork in v o lv e s :
A d eta iled understan din g o f
the in te r re la tio n s h ip s o f c ir c u it s ; e x e r c is in g independent ju dgm en t in p e r ­
fo rm in g su ch ta sk s as m aking c ir c u it a n a ly s e s , ca lcu la tin g w ave fo r m s ,
tr a c in g re la tio n s h ip s in sig n a l flow ; and r e g u la r ly using c o m p le x te s t in ­
stru m en ts ( e .g ., dual tr a c e o s c i l l o s c o p e s , Q - m e t e r s , dev iation m e t e r s ,
pu lse g e n e r a to r s ).

W ork m a y be re v ie w e d by s u p e r v is o r (freq u en tly an e n g in eer o r
d e s ig n e r ) fo r g e n e r a l c o m p lia n ce w ith a c c e p te d p r a c t ic e s .
M ay p r o v id e
te c h n ic a l guidan ce to lo w e r le v e l te c h n ic ia n s .

R e c e iv e s te c h n ic a l g u id a n ce, as r e q u ire d , fr o m s u p e r v is o r o r h igh er
le v e l te ch n icia n .
W ork is ty p ic a lly spot ch e ck e d , but is given d eta iled
r e v ie w w hen new o r ad va n ced a ssign m en ts a re in v olv ed .
R E G ISTE R E D IN D U STRIA L NURSE

C la ss B . A p p lies c o m p r e h e n s iv e te c h n ic a l k n ow led ge to so lv e c o m ­
p lex p r o b le m s ( i .e ., th ose that ty p ic a lly can be s o lv e d s o le ly by p r o p e r ly
in te rp re tin g m a n u fa c tu r e r s 1 m anu als o r s im ila r d ocu m en ts) in w ork in g on
e le c t r o n ic equ ipm ent. W ork in v o lv e s : A fa m ilia r ity w ith the in te r r e la tio n ­
sh ips o f c ir c u it s ; and ju dgm en t in d eterm in in g w ork seq u en ce and in s e le ctin g
to o ls and testin g in stru m e n ts, u su ally le s s c o m p le x than th o se u sed by the
c la s s A tech n icia n .

A r e g is t e r e d n u rse who g iv e s n u rsin g s e r v ic e under g e n e r a l m e d ic a l
d ir e c tio n to ill o r in ju re d e m p lo y e e s o r oth er p e r s o n s who b e c o m e ill o r
s u ffe r an a ccid e n t on the p r e m is e s o f a fa c to r y o r oth er esta b lish m en t.
D uties in v o lv e a com b in a tion o f the fo llo w in g : G iving fir s t aid to the ill o r
in ju re d ; attending to su bsequ en t d r e s s in g o f e m p lo y e e s ' in ju r ie s ; keeping
r e c o r d s o f patien ts tr e a te d ; p re p a rin g a ccid e n t r e p o rts fo r com p en sa tion o r
oth e r p u r p o s e s ; a s s is tin g in p h y s ic a l ex am in a tion s and health evalu ation s o f
a p plican ts and e m p lo y e e s ; and planning and c a r ry in g out p r o g r a m s in volvin g
h ealth ed u ca tion , a ccid e n t p r e v e n tio n , evalu ation o f plant en viron m en t, o r
oth e r a c tiv itie s a ffectin g the h ealth, w e lfa r e , and sa fety o f all p e r so n n e l.
N u rsin g s u p e r v is o r s o r head n u r s e s in e sta b lish m en ts em p loyin g m o r e than
one n u rse a re e x clu d ed .

R e c e iv e s te c h n ic a l g u id a n ce, as r e q u ir e d , fr o m s u p e r v is o r o r h igh er
le v e l te c h n ic ia n , and w ork is r e v ie w e d fo r s p e c ific c o m p lia n ce w ith a c c e p te d
p r a c t ic e s and w o rk a s sig n m e n ts .
M ay p r o v id e te c h n ic a l guidan ce to lo w e r
le v e l te c h n ic ia n s .

MAINTENANCE, TOOLROOM, AND POWERPLANT
M A IN T E N A N C E C A R P E N T E R

M A IN T E N A N C E E L E C T R IC IA N — Continued

P e r fo r m s the ca rp en try duties n e c e s s a r y to c o n s tr u c t and m ain tain
in g ood r e p a ir bu ildin g w ood w ork and equipm ent su ch as b in s , c r ib s , c o u n te r s ,
b e n c h e s , p a r titio n s , d o o r s , f lo o r s , s t a ir s , c a s in g s , and tr im m ade o f w ood
in an e sta b lish m en t.
W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P lanning and
layin g out o f w ork fr o m b lu e p r in ts , d ra w in g s, m o d e ls , o r v e r b a l in s tru ctio n s ;
using a v a r ie ty o f c a r p e n t e r 's h a n d tools, p o rta b le p o w e r t o o ls , and stan dard
m e a su rin g in stru m e n ts ; m aking stan dard shop com pu tation s relatin g to
d im en sion s o f w o rk ; and s e le ctin g m a te r ia ls n e c e s s a r y fo r the w ork .
In
g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f the m a in ten an ce c a r p e n te r r e q u ire s roun ded train in g
and e x p e r ie n c e u su a lly a c q u ir e d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p re n tice s h ip o r equ ivalent
train in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

w irin g o r e le c t r ic a l equ ipm ent; and using a v a r ie ty o f e le c t r ic ia n 's handtools
and m e a su rin g and testin g in stru m e n ts .
In g e n e r a l, the w ork o f the m a in ­
ten an ce e le c t r ic ia n r e q u ir e s roun ded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e usu ally a c q u iic d
th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p re n tice s h ip o r equ ivalen t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
M A IN TE N AN C E P A IN T E R
P ain ts and r e d e c o r a t e s w a lls , w o o d w o rk , and fix tu re s o f an e s ta b ­
lish m en t.
W ork in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g : K now ledge o f s u r fa c e p e c u lia r itie s
and ty p es o f paint r e q u ire d fo r d iffe re n t a p p lica tio n s ; p re p a rin g s u r fa c e fo r
painting by r em ov in g o ld fin ish o r by p la cin g putty o r f ill e r in n ail h oles
and in t e r s t ic e s ; and applying paint w ith sp ra y gun o r b ru sh . M ay m ix c o lo r s ,
o ils , w hite lea d , and oth e r paint in g red ien ts to obtain p r o p e r c o lo r o r c o n ­
s is te n c y . In g e n e r a l, the w ork o f the m ain ten an ce p a in ter r e q u ire s rounded
tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su ally a c q u ir e d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p re n tice s h ip o r
equ ivalen t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

M A IN T E N A N C E E L E C T R IC IA N

P e r fo r m s a v a r ie ty o f e le c t r ic a l tra d e fu n ction s su ch as the in ­
sta lla tio n , m a in ten a n ce, o r r e p a ir o f equipm ent fo r the g e n e ra tio n , d is t r i­
b u tion , o r u tiliza tion o f e le c t r ic en e rg y in an esta b lis h m e n t. W ork in v o lv e s
m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : In stallin g o r re p a ir in g any o f a v a r ie ty o f e le c t r ic a l
equipm ent su ch as g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s fo r m e r s , s w itch b o a rd s , c o n t r o lle r s ,
c ir c u it b r e a k e r s , m o t o r s , heating units, conduit s y s t e m s , o r oth er t r a n s ­
m is s io n equ ipm ent; w ork in g fr o m b lu e p r in ts , d ra w in g s, la y o u ts , o r oth er
s p e c ific a tio n s ; lo c a tin g and d ia gn osin g tr o u b le in the e le c t r ic a l s y s te m o r
equipm ent; w ork in g stan dard com pu ta tion s rela tin g to loa d re q u ire m e n ts o f




M AIN TE N AN C E MACHINIST
P r o d u c e s re p la c e m e n t p a rts and new p a rts in m aking re p a ir s o f
m e ta l p a rts o f m e c h a n ic a l equipm ent o p e r a te d in an esta b lish m en t. W ork in ­
v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : In terp retin g w ritten in stru ction s and s p e c if i c a ­
tio n s ; planning and layin g out o f w o rk ; using a v a r ie ty o f m a ch in is t's handtools

33

M A IN T E N A N C E M ACH IN IST— Continued

M A IN T E N A N C E P IP E F IT T E R — Continued

and p r e c is io n m e a su rin g in stru m e n ts ; settin g up and op era tin g stan dard
m a ch in e t o o ls ; shaping o f m e ta l p a rts to c lo s e t o le r a n c e s ; m aking stan dard
shop com pu ta tion s rela tin g to d im en sion s o f w o rk , to o lin g , fe e d s , ana sp eed s
o f m a ch in in g; k n ow led ge o f the w ork in g p r o p e r t ie s o f the co m m o n m e ta ls ;
s e le c tin g stan dard m a t e r ia ls , p a r t s , and equ ipm ent r e q u ire d fo r th is w o rk ;
and fittin g and a s s e m b lin g p a rts into m e c h a n ica l equ ipm ent. In g e n e r a l, the
m a c h in is t's w ork n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a roun ded tra in in g in m a c h in e -s h o p
p r a c t ic e u su ally a c q u ir e d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p re n tice s h ip o r equ ivalent
tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

m e e t s p e c ific a t io n s .
In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f the m a in ten an ce p ip e fitte r
r e q u ir e s roun ded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su ally a c q u ir e d th rou gh a fo r m a l
a p p re n tice s h ip o r equ ivalen t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e . W o r k e r s p r im a r ily
en ga ged in in sta llin g and r e p a ir in g bu ildin g sa n ita tion o r heating sy s te m s
a re e x c lu d e d .

M AIN TE N AN C E M ECH ANIC (M ACH IN E RY )
R e p a irs m a ch in e ry o r m e c h a n ica l equ ipm ent o f an esta b lis h m e n t.
W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : E xam in in g m a ch in es and m e c h a n ica l
equipm ent to d ia g n ose s o u r c e o f tr o u b le ; dism a n tlin g o r p a rtly d ism a n tlin g
m a ch in es and p e r fo r m in g r e p a ir s that m a in ly in v o lv e the use o f h an dtools in
sc r a p in g and fittin g p a r t s ; re p la cin g b rok en o r d e fe c tiv e p a rts w ith ite m s
obtain ed fr o m s to ck ; o r d e r in g the p r o d u ctio n o f a re p la ce m e n t p a rt by a
m a ch in e sh op o r sending the m a ch in e to a m a ch in e shop fo r m a jo r r e p a ir s ;
p r e p a r in g w ritten s p e c ific a tio n s fo r m a jo r r e p a ir s o r fo r the p r o d u c tio n o f
p a rts o r d e r e d fr o m m a ch in e sh op s; r e a s s e m b lin g m a ch in e s ; and m aking all
n e c e s s a r y ad ju stm en ts f o r o p e r a tio n .
In g e n e r a l, the w ork o f a m a ch in e ry
m a in ten a n ce m e c h a n ic r e q u ir e s roun ded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su ally
a c q u ir e d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p re n tice s h ip o r equ ivalent tra in in g and e x ­
p e r ie n c e .
E x clu d ed fr o m th is c la s s ific a t io n a re w o r k e r s w h ose p r im a r y
du ties in v olv e settin g up o r ad ju sting m a ch in e s.
M A IN TE N AN C E M ECH AN IC (M O TO R V E H IC L E )
R e p a ir s a u to m o b ile s , b u s e s , m o t o r t r u c k s , and tr a c t o r s o f an e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t. W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : E xam in ing a u tom otive
equ ipm ent to d ia g n ose s o u r c e o f tr o u b le ; d is a s s e m b lin g equ ipm ent and p e r ­
fo r m in g r e p a ir s that in v o lv e the use o f su ch h an dtools as w r e n c h e s , g a u g es,
d r ills , o r s p e c ia liz e d equ ipm ent in d is a s s e m b lin g o r fittin g p a rts; re p la cin g
b ro k e n o r d e fe c tiv e p a rts fr o m s to c k ; g rin din g and adju sting v a lv e s ; r e ­
a s s e m b lin g and in sta llin g the v a r io u s a s s e m b lie s in the v e h ic le and m aking
n e c e s s a r y a d ju stm en ts; and aligning w h e e ls , ad ju sting b ra k e s and lig h ts, o r
tightening bod y b o lts . In g e n e r a l, the w ork o f the m o t o r v e h ic le m a in ten an ce
m e c h a n ic r e q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su ally a c q u ir e d th rough
a fo r m a l a p p re n tice s h ip o r equ ivalen t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
T h is c la s s ific a t io n does not in clu d e m e c h a n ics who r e p a ir c u s t o m e r s '
v e h ic le s in a u tom ob ile r e p a ir sh op s.
M A IN TE N AN C E P IP E F IT T E R
In sta lls o r r e p a ir s w a te r , ste a m , g a s, o r oth er ty p es o f pipe and
p ip efittin g s in an e sta b lish m en t. W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : L aying
out w o rk and m e a su rin g to lo c a te p o s itio n o f pipe fr o m draw in gs o r oth er
w ritten s p e c ific a t io n s ; cutting v a r io u s s iz e s o f pip e to c o r r e c t lengths with
c h is e l and h a m m e r o r o x y a ce ty le n e t o r c h o r p ip e -c u ttin g m a ch in e s ; th readin g
pipe w ith sto ck s and d ie s ; ben din g pip e by h a n d -d riv e n o r p o w e r -d r iv e n
m a ch in e s ; a s s e m b lin g pip e w ith cou p lin g s and fa sten in g pipe to h a n g e rs;
m aking stan dard sh op com pu tation s rela tin g to p r e s s u r e s , flo w , and s iz e o f
pipe r e q u ire d ; and m aking standard te s ts to d e te rm in e w h eth er fin ish ed p ip es




M AIN TE N A N C E S H E E T -M E T A L W O RK ER
F a b r ic a t e s , in s t a lls , and m a in tain s in g ood r e p a ir the s h e e t-m e ta l
equ ipm ent and fix tu re s (su ch as m a ch in e g u a rd s , g r e a s e p a n s, s h e lv e s ,
lo c k e r s , ta n k s, v e n t ila t o r s , ch u te s , d u cts, m e ta l r o o fin g ) o f an esta b lish m en t.
W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P lann in g and layin g out a ll ty p e s o f
s h e e t-m e ta l m a in ten an ce w ork fr o m b lu e p r in ts , m o d e ls , o r oth er s p e c if i c a ­
tio n s ; settin g up and op era tin g a ll a v a ila b le ty p es o f s h e e t-m e ta l w ork in g
m a ch in e s ; using a v a r ie ty o f h an dtools in cuttin g, ben d in g , fo r m in g , sh ap ing,
fittin g , and a s s e m b lin g ; and in sta llin g s h e e t-m e ta l a r t ic le s as r e q u ire d . Tn
g e n e r a l, the w ork o f the m a in ten an ce s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r r e q u ire s rounded
tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su ally a c q u ir e d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p re n tice s h ip o r
equ ivalen t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
M ILLW RIG H T
In sta lls new m a ch in e s o r h ea v y equ ipm en t, and d ism a n tles and
in s ta lls m a ch in e s o r h eav y equ ipm ent w hen ch a n ges in the plant la you t are
re q u ire d . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P lann in g and layin g out w o rk ;
in te r p r e tin g b lu e p rin ts o r oth e r s p e c ific a t io n s ; using a v a r ie ty o f h an dtools
and r ig g in g ; m akin g stan dard shop com p u ta tion s rela tin g to s t r e s s e s , stren g th
o f m a t e r ia ls , and c e n te rs o f g r a v ity ; a lign in g and ba la n cin g equ ipm ent;
s e le c tin g stan d ard t o o l s , equ ipm en t, and p a rts to be u sed; and in sta llin g and
m ain taining in g ood o r d e r p o w e r tr a n s m is s io n equ ipm ent su ch as d r iv e s and
sp e e d r e d u c e r s .
In g e n e r a l, the m illw r ig h t 's w o rk n o rm a lly r e q u ir e s a
rounded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e in the tra d e a c q u ir e d th rough a fo r m a l
a p p re n tice s h ip o r eq u ivalen t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
M A IN TE N A N C E T R A D E S H E L P E R
A s s is t s one o r m o r e w o r k e r s in .th e s k ille d m a in ten an ce t r a d e s , by
p e r fo r m in g s p e c ifi c o r g e n e r a l duties o f l e s s e r s k ill, such as k eepin g a
w o r k e r su p p lied w ith m a te r ia ls and t o o l s ; clea n in g w ork in g a r e a , m a ch in e ,
and equ ipm en t; a s s is tin g jo u rn e y m a n by h old in g m a te r ia ls o r t o o ls ; and
p e r fo r m in g oth e r u n s k ille d ta sk s as d ir e c t e d b y jou rn ey m a n .
The kind o f
w ork the h e lp e r is p e r m itte d to p e r fo r m v a r ie s fr o m trad e to tra d e :
In
so m e tr a d e s the h e lp e r is con fin ed to su p p lyin g , liftin g , and h olding m a te r ia ls
and t o o l s , and clean in g w ork in g a r e a s ; and in o th e r s he is p e r m itte d to
p e r fo r m s p e c ia liz e d m a ch in e o p e r a tio n s , o r p a rts o f a trad e that are a lso
p e r fo r m e d by w o r k e r s on a fu ll-t im e b a s is .
M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R (T O O L R O O M )
S p e c ia liz e s in op era tin g on e o r m o r e than one type o f m a ch in e
t o o l ( e .g ., jig b o r e r , g rin din g m a ch in e , en gin e la th e, m illin g m a ch in e ) to
m a ch in e m eta l f o r u se in m akin g o r m ain taining ji g s , fix tu r e s , cutting t o o l s ,
g a u g es, o r m e ta l d ies o r m o ld s u sed in shaping o r fo rm in g m e ta l o r
n o n m e ta llic m a te r ia l ( e .g ., p la s t ic , p la s t e r , r u b b e r , g la s s ). W ork ty p ic a lly
in v o lv e s : Planning and p e r fo r m in g d ifficu lt m ach in in g o p e ra tio n s w h ich
re q u ire c o m p lic a te d setups o r a high d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ; setting up m a ch in e

M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R (T O O LR O O M )— Continued

T O O L AND DIE M A K E R — Continued

to o l o r to o ls (e .g ., in s ta ll cutting to o ls and adjust g u id es, s to p s, w ork in g
ta b le s , and oth er c o n t r o ls to handle the s iz e o f s to ck to be m a ch in ed ;
d eterm in e p r o p e r fe e d s , s p e e d s , to o lin g , and o p e r a tio n seq u en ce o r s e le c t
th ose p r e s c r ib e d in d ra w in g s , b lu e p r in ts , o r la y o u ts ); u sin g a v a r ie ty o f
p r e c is io n m e a su rin g in stru m e n ts ; m akin g n e c e s s a r y ad ju stm en ts during
m ach in in g o p e r a tio n to a ch iev e r e q u isite d im en sion s to v e ry c lo s e t o le r a n c e s .
M ay be r e q u ire d to s e le c t p r o p e r coola n ts and cutting and lu b rica tin g o ils ,
to r e co g n iz e when to o ls n eed d r e s s in g , and to d r e s s t o o ls . In g e n e r a l, the
w ork o f a m a c h in e -to o l o p e r a t o r (to o lr o o m ) at the s k ill le v e l ca lle d fo r in
this c la s s ific a t io n r e q u ir e s e x te n siv e k n ow led ge o f m a c h in e -s h o p and t o o l ­
room p r a c tic e u su a lly a c q u ir e d th rou gh c o n s id e r a b le o n -t h e -jo b tra in in g and
e x p e r ie n c e .

w ork in g to v e r y c lo s e to le r a n c e s ; h e a t-tre a tin g m eta l p a rts and fin ish ed to o ls
and dies to a ch ie v e re q u ire d q u a litie s ; fittin g and a ssem b lin g p a rts to p r e ­
s c r ib e d to le r a n c e s and a llo w a n ce s .
In g e n e r a l, the to o l and die m a k e r 's
w o rk r e q u ir e s roun ded tra in in g in m a c h in e -s h o p and t o o lr o o m p r a c tic e
u su ally a c q u ir e d th rou g h fo r m a l a p p re n tice s h ip o r equ ivalent train in g and
e x p e r ie n c e .
F o r c r o s s -in d u s t r y w age study p u r p o s e s , th is c la s s ific a tio n does not
in clu d e t o o l and die m a k e rs who (1) are em p lo y e d in to o l and die job b in g
shops o r (2) p r o d u c e fo r g in g d ies (die s in k e r s ).

ST A TIO N A R Y EN GIN EER
F o r c r o s s -in d u s t r y w age study p u r p o s e s , th is c la s s ific a t io n does not
in clude m a c h in e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s (to o lr o o m ) e m p lo y e d in t o o l and die job b in g
sh ops.

O p era tes and m a in tain s and m ay a lso s u p e r v is e the op e ra tio n o f
sta tion a ry en gin es and equ ipm ent (m e c h a n ica l o r e le c t r ic a l) to supply the
e sta b lish m en t in w h ich e m p lo y e d w ith p o w e r , h eat, r e fr ig e r a tio n , o r a i r con d ition in g. W ork in v o lv e s : O p era tin g and m ain taining equipm ent su ch as
stea m e n g in e s, a ir c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o t o r s , tu r b in e s, ventilatin g
and r e fr ig e r a tin g equ ipm en t, stea m b o ile r s and b o i le r - f e d w a ter pu m ps;
m aking equipm ent r e p a ir s ; and keep in g a r e c o r d o f op era tion o f m a ch in e ry ,
te m p e r a tu r e , and fu el con su m p tion .
M ay a lso su p e r v is e th ese o p e r a tio n s .
H ead o r c h ie f e n g in e e rs in e sta b lish m e n ts em p loy in g m o r e than one e n g in eer
are e x c lu d e d .

TO O L AND DIE M A K E R

C o n stru cts and r e p a ir s ji g s , fix tu r e s , cutting t o o l s , g a u ges, o r
m eta l d ies o r m o ld s u sed in shaping o r fo r m in g m eta l o r n o n m e ta llic
m a te r ia l (e .g ., p la s t ic , p la s t e r , r u b b e r, g la s s ). W ork ty p ic a lly in v o lv e s :
P lanning and la yin g out w ork a c c o rd in g to m o d e ls , b lu e p r in ts , d ra w in g s, o r
oth e r w ritten o r o r a l s p e c ific a t io n s ; understan din g the w ork in g p r o p e r t ie s o f
co m m o n m e ta ls and a llo y s ; s e le ctin g a p p ro p ria te m a te r ia ls , t o o l s , and
p r o c e s s e s re q u ire d to com p lete ta sk ; m akin g n e c e s s a r y shop com p u ta tion s;
settin g up and o p e ra tin g v a r io u s m a ch in e to o ls and rela ted equ ipm ent; using
v a r io u s t o o l and die m a k e r 's h an dtools and p r e c is io n m e a su rin g in stru m en ts;

B O IL E R T E N D E R
F ir e s sta tion a ry b o ile r s to fu rn ish the esta b lish m en t in w hich e m ­
p lo y e d w ith h eat, p o w e r , o r steam .
F e e d s fu els to fir e by hand o r
o p e r a te s a m e c h a n ic a l s to k e r , g a s , o r o il b u r n e r ; and ch eck s w a ter and
sa fety v a lv e s . M ay cle a n , o il, o r a s s is t in re p a irin g b o ile r r o o m equipm ent.

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
TR U C K D R IV E R

SHIPPING AND RE CEIVIN G C LE R K — Continued

D riv e s a tr u ck w ithin a city o r in d u stria l a r e a to tr a n s p o r t m a t e r ia ls ,
m e r c h a n d is e , equ ipm en t, o r w o r k e r s b etw een v a r io u s typ es o f e sta b lish m en ts
su ch as:
M an u factu rin g p la n ts, fre ig h t d ep ots, w a r e h o u s e s , w h o le s a le and
re ta il e s ta b lis h m e n ts , o r b etw een r e ta il e sta b lish m e n ts and c u s t o m e r s ' h ou ses
o r p la c e s o f b u s in e s s .
M ay a lso loa d o r unload tru ck w ith o r without
h e lp e r s , m a ke m in o r m e c h a n ica l r e p a ir s , and k eep tru ck in g ood w ork in g
o r d e r . S a le s -r o u t e and o v e r -t h e -r o a d d r iv e r s are e x c lu d e d .

in v o lv e s : A k n ow led ge o f shipping p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c t ic e s , ro u te s, a v a ila b le
m ea n s o f tr a n sp o rta tio n , and r a te s ; and p re p a rin g r e c o r d s o f the g oods
sh ip p ed , m aking up b ills o f la d in g, p ostin g w eigh t and shipping c h a r g e s , and
k eepin g a file o f shipping r e c o r d s .
M ay d ir e c t o r a s s is t in p r e p a r in g the
m e r c h a n d is e fo r sh ipm ent. R e c e iv in g w ork in v o lv e s : V e r ify in g o r d ir e c tin g
o th e rs in v e r ify in g the c o r r e c t n e s s o f sh ipm ents against b ills o f la d in g, in ­
v o ic e s , o r oth e r r e c o r d s ; ch eck in g fo r sh o rta g e s and r e je c tin g dam aged g o o d s ;
routing m e r c h a n d is e o r m a te r ia ls to p r o p e r d ep a rtm en ts; and m aintaining
n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s and file s .

F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , tr u c k d r iv e r s are c la s s ifie d by s iz e and
type o f equ ip m en t, as fo llo w s : ( T r a c t o r -t r a ile r should be rated on the b a s is
o f t r a ile r c a p a city .)
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,

F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a re c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s :

light tru ck (under IV2 ton s)
m ed iu m tru ck ( 1V2 to and in clu d in g 4 ton s)
h eavy tru ck (tr a ile r ) (o v e r 4 ton s)
h eavy tru ck (oth er than t r a i le r ) (o v e r 4 ton s)

Shipping c le r k
R e c e iv in g c le rk
Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k

SHIPPING AND RE CEIVIN G C LE R K

W AREH O USEM AN

P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d is e fo r sh ip m en t, o r r e c e iv e s and is r e s p o n s ib le
fo r in com in g sh ipm en ts o f m e r c h a n d is e o r o th e r m a te r ia ls .
Shipping w ork

A s d ir e c te d , p e r fo r m s a v a r ie ty o f w a reh ou sin g duties w hich re q u ire
an u nderstan din g o f the e sta b lis h m e n t's s to ra g e p la n . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t




35

W A R E H O U SE M A N — Continued

M A T E R IA L H AN DLING L A B O R E R — Continued

o f the fo llo w in g : V e r ify in g m a te r ia ls (o r m e r c h a n d is e ) against r e c e iv in g
d o cu m e n ts, noting and r e p o rtin g d is c r e p a n c ie s and ob v iou s d a m a g e s; routing
m a te r ia ls to p r e s c r ib e d sto ra g e lo c a t io n s ; s to rin g , sta ck in g, o r p a lle tiz in g
m a te r ia ls in a c c o r d a n c e w ith p r e s c r ib e d s to ra g e m eth od s; r e a rra n g in g and
taking in v e n to ry o f s to r e d m a t e r ia ls ; exam in in g s t o r e d m a te r ia ls and r e ­
p ortin g d e t e r io r a tio n and da m ag e; r em ov in g m a te r ia l fr o m s to ra g e and
p r e p a r in g it fo r sh ipm ent. M ay o p e ra te hand o r p o w e r tru ck s in p e r fo r m in g
w a reh ou sin g du ties.

c a r s , tr u c k s , o r oth er tr a n sp o rtin g d e v ic e s ; u npacking, sh e lv in g , o r p la cin g
m a te r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r s to ra g e lo c a tio n ; and tr a n s p o rtin g
m a te r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e by h an dtruck, c a r , o r w h e e lb a r r o w .
L on gshore
w o r k e r s , who loa d and unload sh ip s , a re e x c lu d e d .

E x clu d e w o r k e r s w h ose p r im a r y duties in v o lv e shipping and r e c e iv in g
w ork (s e e Shipping and R e ce iv in g C le rk and Shipping P a c k e r ), o r d e r fillin g
(se e O r d e r F il le r ) , o r op era tin g p o w e r tr u ck s (se e P o w e r -T r u c k O p e ra to r ).

P O W E R -T R U C K O P E R A T O R
O p e ra te s a m anu ally c o n t r o lle d g a s o lin e - o r e le c t r ic -p o w e r e d tru ck
o r t r a c t o r to tr a n sp o rt good s and m a te r ia ls o f a ll kinds about a w a r e h o u s e ,
m an u factu rin g plant, o r oth er esta b lis h m e n t.
F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s are c la s s ifie d by type o f p o w e r tr u ck , as fo llo w s :

O RD ER F IL L E R
F ills shipping o r t r a n s fe r o r d e r s fo r fin ish ed g ood s fr o m s to r e d
m e r c h a n d ise in a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c ific a tio n s on s a le s s lip s , c u s t o m e r s '
o r d e r s , o r oth e r in s tr u c tio n s . M ay, in addition to fillin g o r d e r s and in dicatin g
ite m s fille d o r o m itte d , k eep r e c o r d s o f ou tgoing o r d e r s , re q u isitio n a d d i­
tion a l sto ck o r r e p o rt sh ort su p p lies to s u p e r v is o r , and p e r fo r m o th e r re la te d
d u tie s .
SHIPPING P A C K E R
P r e p a r e s fin ish e d p r o d u c ts fo r shipm ent o r sto ra g e by p la cin g them
in shipping c o n ta in e r s , the s p e c ific o p e r a tio n s p e r fo r m e d bein g dependent
upon the ty p e , s iz e , and n u m b er o f units to be p a ck e d , the type o f con ta in er
e m p lo y e d , and m eth od o f sh ipm en t. W ork r e q u ir e s the p la cin g o f ite m s in
shipping con ta in ers and m a y in v o lv e one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : K now ledge
o f v a r io u s ite m s o f s to ck in o r d e r to v e r ify con ten t; s e le c t io n o f a p p rop ria te
type and s iz e o f c o n ta in e r; in se r tin g e n c lo s u r e s in co n ta in e r; using e x c e ls io r
o r oth er m a te r ia l to p rev en t b r ea k a g e o r d a m a g e; c lo sin g and sea lin g
con ta in er; and applying la b e ls o r en terin g id en tifyin g data on co n ta in e r.
P a c k e r s who a ls o m ake w ood en b o x e s o r c ra te s a re e x clu d ed .
M A T E R IA L HANDLING L A B O R E R
A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u factu rin g plant, s t o r e , o r
oth er esta b lis h m e n t w h ose duties in v olv e one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g :
L oad ing and unloading v a r io u s m a te r ia ls and m e r c h a n d is e on o r fr o m freig h t




F o r k lift o p e r a to r
P o w e r -t r u c k o p e r a t o r (oth er than fo r k lift)

GUARD AND W A T C H M A N
G u a rd . P e r fo r m s routine p o lic e d u tie s , e ith e r at fix e d p o s t o r on
to u r , m ain taining o r d e r , using a rm s o r f o r c e w h e re n e c e s s a r y .
In cludes
guards who are station ed at gate and ch eck on iden tity o f e m p lo y e e s and
oth e r p e r s o n s e n te r in g .
W a tch m a n . M akes rounds o f p r e m is e s
p r o p e r ty against f i r e , th eft, and ille g a l en try.

p e r io d ic a lly

in p r o te c tin g

JA N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R
C lean s and k eep s in an o r d e r ly con d ition fa c to r y w ork in g a rea s and
w a s h r o o m s , o r p r e m is e s o f an o f f i c e , ap artm en t h o u s e , o r c o m m e r c ia l o r
o th e r esta b lis h m e n t. D uties in v o lv e a com b in a tion o f the fo llo w in g : Sw eeping,
m op pin g o r sc r u b b in g , and p o lish in g f l o o r s ; r e m o v in g ch ip s, tr a s h , and oth e r
r e fu s e ; dusting equ ip m en t, fu rn itu r e , o r fix tu r e s ; p o lish in g m eta l fix tu re s o r
tr im m in g s ; p r o v id in g su p p lies and m in o r m a in ten an ce s e r v ic e s ; and clean in g
la v a t o r ie s , s h o w e r s , and r e s t r o o m s .
W o r k e r s who s p e c ia liz e in w indow
w ashin g a re ex clu d e d .

Area Wage Surveys
A l is t of the la te s t a v a ila b le b u lle tin s o r b u lle tin su p p lem en ts is p r e s e n te d b e lo w .
A d ir e c t o r y o f a r e a w age stu dies in clu d in g m o r e lim ite d stu dies con d u cted at the requ est of the E m ploym en t
Standards A d m in is tra tio n o f the D epartm en t of L a b o r is a v a ila b le on requ est.
B u lle tin s m a y be p u r c h a s e d f r o m any o f the BLS r e g io n a l o f fi c e s shown on the b a ck c o v e r .
B u lletin su pplem en ts m ay be
obtained w ithout c o s t , w h e re in d ica te d , fr o m BLS r e g io n a l o f fic e s .

A rea

Akron, Ohio, Dec. 197 5 ____________________________________________________________
Albany—
Schenectady—
Troy, N .Y., Sept. 1975 1_____________________________________
Anaheim—
Santa Ana—
Garden Grove, C alif., Oct. 19751------------------------------------------Atlanta,
G a.,May 1976____ ________________________________________________________
Austin,
Tex., Dec. 1975 1___________________________________________________________
Baltim ore, Md., Aug. 1975 1 _______________________________________________________
Billings, .M ont., July 1975_________________________________________________________
Binghamton, N.Y.—
Pa., July 1975 _________________________________________________
Birmingham, Ala., Mar. 1976 1
____________________________________________________
Boston, M ass., Aug. 1975 1__________________________________ ______ _______________
Buffalo, N. Y .,Oct. 19751___________________________________________________________
Canton,
Ohio,May 1976____________________________________________________________
Chattanooga, Tenn.—
Ga., Sept. 1975 1______________________________________________
Chicago, 111., May 1976 ____________________________________________________________
Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.—
Ind., Mar. 1976_____________________________________________
Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1975________________________________________________________
Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1975 1 _______________________________________________________
Corpus C hristi, T e x ., July 1975___________________________________________________
Dallas— ort Worth, T e x ., Oct.' 1975 1 ________ _____________________________________
F
Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111., Feb. 1976_____________________________
Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1975____________________________________________________________
Daytona Beach, F la ., Aug. 1975-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Denver—B oulder, C o lo ., Dec. 1975____ ____________________________________________
Detroit, M ich ., Mar. 1976 1 ________________________________________________________
F ort Lauderdale—
Hollywood and West Palm Beach—
Boca Raton, Fla., Apr. 1976______________________________________________________
Fresno, Calif., June 1976____________ ______________________________________________
G ainesville, F la ., Sept. 1975 ______________________________________________________
Green Bay, W is., July 1975 1 ______________________________________________________
Greensboro— ins ton-Salem —
W
High Point, N.C., Aug. 197 5___________ ______________
Greenville—
Spartanburg, S.C., June 1975 __________________________________________
Ha rtf ord, Conn., Mar. 1976________________________________________________________
Houston, Tex., Apr. 1976__________________________________________________________
Huntsville, A la., Feb. 1976 _________________________________ ______ ________________
Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 1975 1 _____________________________________________________
Jackson, M is s ., Feb. 1976_________________________________________________________
Jacksonville, F la ., Dec. 1975 _____________________________________________________
Kansas City, Mo.—
Kans., Sept. 197 5 _______________________________________________
Lexington—
Fayette, Ky., Nov. 1975 1_________ ______________________________________
Los Angeles—Long Beach, C a lif., Oct. 1975 1______________________________________
L ou isville, Ky.—
Ind., Nov. 1975 __________________________________________________
Melbourne—Titusville—C ocoa, F la ., Aug. 1975_____________________________________
M em phis, Tenn.— rk.— iss., Nov. 1975 __________________________________________
A
M
* Prices are d e te rm in e d by th e G o v e rn m e n t P rin tin g O ffic e and are s u b je c t to change.
1 D ata on es ta b lis h m e n t pra c tic e s and s u p p le m e ntary w ag e provisions are also presented.
2 T o be surveyed.




B u lletin n um ber
and p r i c e *

1850-80,
1850-63,
1850-75,
1900-30,
1850-83,
1850-62,
1850-46,
1850-50,
1900-11,
1850-58,
1850-69,
1900-28,
1850-67,
1900-32,
1900-7,
1850-64,
1850-78,
1850-37,
1850-59,
1900-25,
1850-73,
1850-47,
1850-82,
1900-15,

45 cents
$1.20
85 cents
85 cents
75 cents
$1.30
65 cents
65 cents
95 cents
$1.50
95 cents
55 cents
85 cents
$1.05
75 cents
$1.30
95 cents
65 cents
$1.50
55 cents
45 cents
65 cents
75 cents
$1.25

1900-20,
1900-29,
1850-57,
1850-44,
1850-49,
1850-42,
1900-14,
1900-26,
1900-17,
1850-66,
1900-8,
1850-81,
1850-55,
1850-84,
1850-86,
1850-79,
1850-54,
1850-85,

55 cents
45 cents
$1.10
80 cents
65 cents
65 cents
55 cents
85 cents
55 cents
95 cents
55 cents
45 cents
80 cents
75 cents
$1.15
45 cents
65 cents
45 cents

A rea
M ia m i, F l a . , O ct. 1975__________________________________________ ________________________
M ilw aukee, W is ., A p r. 1976_____________________________________________________________
M in n eap olis—
St. P aul, M inn.—W is .,Jan. 1976___________________________________________
N assau— u ffolk , N .Y ., June 1975 1_______________________________________________________
S
N ew ark, N .J., Jan. 1976__________________________________________________________________
New O rle a n s , L a ., Jan. 1976 ____________________________________________________________
New Y o r k , N .Y .-N .J ., M ay 1975 1 _______________________________________ ________ ______
N orfolk —V ir g in ia Beach— o rts m o u th , V a.—N. C ., M ay 1976 1_________________________
P
N orfolk —V ir g in ia B each—P o rts m o u th and N ew port N ews—
H am pton, V a .-N .C ., M ay 1 9 7 6 1_______________________________________________________
N orth ea st P e n n s y lv a n ia , A ug. 1975
__________________________________________________
O klahom a C ity, O k la ., A u g. 1 9 7 5 _______________________________________________________
O m aha, N ebr.—Iowa, O ct. 1 97 5__________________________________________________________
P a te rs o n —C lifton—P a s s a ic , N .J ., June 1975 1____________________________________________
P h ila d e lp h ia , P a .—N. J ., Nov. 197 5 ___________________ ______________ ___________________
P ittsb u rgh , P a ., Jan. 1976 1_____________________________________________________________
P o rtla n d , M aine, N ov. 1975______________________________________________________________
P o rtla n d , O r e g.— a s h ., M ay 1975 ______________________________________________________
W
P o u g h k e e p sie , N .Y ., June 1 9 7 5 1 ________________________________________________________
P ou gh k e e p sie —King s ton— ew burgh, N .Y ., June 1 97 5 1__________________________________
N
P r o v id e n c e —W arw ick—Paw tucket, R .I.— a s s ., June 1976_____________________________
M
R a leigh — urham , N .C ., F eb . 1 9 7 6 ______________________________________________________
D
R ich m on d , V a ., June 197 5_______________________________________________________________
St. L o u is , M o .—
111., M ar. 1976 1_________________________________________________________
S a cra m e n to , C a lif ., D ec. 1975___________________________________________________________
Saginaw , M ic h ., Nov. 1975_______________________________________________________________
Salt Lake City—Ogden, Utah, Nov. 1 9 7 5 1_______________________________________________
San A n ton io, T e x ., M ay 1976 ____________________________________________________________
San D ie g o , C a lif ., Nov. 197 5_____________________________________________________________
San F r a n c is c o —
Oakland, C a lif ., M a r. 1 976__ ___________________________________________
San J o s e , C a lif., M ar. 1976.................................................................................................................
Seattle—E v e re tt, W ash ., Jan. 1976 ______________________________________________________
South B en d, In d ., M ar. 1976 _____________________________________________________________
S ta m fo rd , Conn. 1 2 _______________________________________________________________________
S y r a c u s e , N. Y ., July 197 5_______________________________________________________________
T o le d o , Ohio— ic h ., M ay 1976__________________________________________________________
M
T ren ton , N .J., Sept. 1975 1 ___________ _________ _________________________________________
U tica—R o m e , N. Y ., July 1975 1 __________________________________________________________
W ashington, D .C .— d.—V a ., M ai;. 1976__________________________________________________
M
W e s tch e s te r County, N .Y ., M ay 1975 1_________________________________________________
W ich ita, K a n s ., A p r. 197 6_____________________________________________________ £
._________
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s ., A p r. 1976____________________________________________________________
Y o rk , P a ., F eb . 1976_____________________________________________________________ _____ _

B u lletin n u m ber
and p r ic e *
1 8 5 0 -7 6 , 95 cen ts
1 9 0 0 -2 2 , 85 cen ts
1 9 0 0 -3 , ' 95 cen ts
1 8 5 0 -3 9 , $ 1.00
1 9 0 0 -1 0 , 85 cen ts
1 9 0 0 -2 , 75 cen ts
185 0 -4 5 , $ 1 .1 0
1 9 0 0 -2 7 , 85 cen ts
1 9 0 0 -3 3 , 85 cen ts
1 8 5 0 -5 2 , 65 cen ts
1 8 5 0 -5 1 , 6 5 cents
1850-56,* $ 1.10
1 85 0 -3 8 , 80 cents
18 5 0 -6 5 , 85 cents
1 9 0 0 -1 , $1 .1 5
1 8 5 0 -7 2 , 45 cen ts
1 8 5 0 -4 0 , 7 5 cen ts
1 8 5 0 -7 0 , 65 cen ts
1850- 68, 7 5 cen ts
1 9 0 0 -3 1 , 75 cen ts
1 9 0 0 -1 8 , 55 cen ts
1 8 5 0 -4 1 , 65 cen ts
1 9 0 0 -1 9 , $ 1 .2 5
1 8 5 0 -8 7 , 45 cents
1 8 5 0 -7 1 , 35 cen ts
1 8 5 0 -7 4 , 75 cents
1 9 0 0 -2 3 , 65 cents
1 8 5 0 -7 7 , 45 cents
1 9 0 0 -9 , 95 cen ts
1 9 0 0 -1 3 , 75 cents
1 9 0 0 -6 , 65 cents
1 9 0 0 -5 , 55 cents
1 8 5 0 -4 3 ,
1 9 0 0 -2 4 ,
1 85 0-6 0,
1 8 5 0 -4 8 ,
1 9 0 0 -1 2 ,
1 8 5 0 -5 3 ,
1 9 0 0 -2 1 ,
1 9 0 0 -1 6 ,
1 9 0 0 -4 ,

65 cents
55 cen ts
$ 1 .2 0
80 cents
85 cen ts
80 cents
55 cents
55 cen ts
55 cents

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor
Third Class Mail

Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300

Lab-441

Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices
Region I
Region II
1603 JFK Federal Building
Suite 3400
Government Center
1515 Broadway
Boston, Mass. 02203
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)
C onnecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

Region III
3535 Market Street,
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 597-1154 (Area Cade 215)
Delaware
D istrict of Columbia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St., N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
M ississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee

Regions IX and X
Region V
Region VI
Regions VII and V III
450 Golden Gate Ave.
9th Floor, 230 S. Dearborn St.
Second Floor
Federal Office Building
Box 36017
911 W alnut St., 15th Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Chicago, III. 60604
San Francisco, C alif. 94102
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code •
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
Illin o is
X
IX
V III
VII
Indiana
Arkansas
Alaska
Michigan
Arizona
Louisiana
Iowa
Colorado
Idaho
Minnesota
Montana
C alifornia
New Mexico
Kansas
Oregon
Ohio
Hawaii
Missouri
North Dakota
Oklahoma
Washington
W isconsin
Nebraska
Nevada
Texas
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming