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BUREAU

OF

LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S

R E G IO N A L

O F F IC E S

ALASKA

Region I
1603-A Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)
Region V
219 South Dearborn St.
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: 353-7230 (Area Code 312)




Region 1
1
341 Ninth Ave., Rm. 1025
New York, N .Y . 10001
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region III
406 Penn Square Building
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Region VI
1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

Regions V II and V III
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 10th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Regions V II and V III will be serviced by Kansas City.
Regions IX and X will be serviced by San Francisco.

U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR




J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTIC S
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner

AR EA WAGE SURVEY
T h e M u s k e g o n —M u skeg o n H e ig h ts , M ic h ig a n ,
M e tro p o lita n A re a , June 1971

B u lle tin 1 6 8 5 - 8 2
September 1971
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington, D.C., 20402 — Price 30 cents




C o n te n ts

P re fa c e

Page
T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s p r o g r a m o f ann ual
o c c u p a t io n a l w a g e s u r v e y s in m e t r o p o l it a n a r e a s is d e ­
s ig n e d to p r o v id e da ta on o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s , and e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s .
It
y ie ld s d e t a ile d da ta b y s e l e c t e d in d u s t r y d iv is io n f o r e a c h
o f th e a r e a s s tu d ie d , f o r g e o g r a p h ic r e g i o n s , an d f o r the
U n ite d S t a te s .
A m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n in th e p r o g r a m is
th e n e e d f o r g r e a t e r in s ig h t in to ( 1 ) th e m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s
b y o c c u p a t io n a l c a t e g o r y and s k ill l e v e l , and ( 2 ) th e s t r u c ­
tu r e and l e v e l o f w a g e s a m o n g a r e a s and in d u s t r y d i v is io n s .
A t th e end o f e a c h s u r v e y , an in d iv id u a l a r e a b u l­
le t in p r e s e n t s th e s u r v e y r e s u l t s .
A f t e r c o m p le t io n o f a ll
o f th e in d iv id u a l a r e a b u lle tin s f o r a ro u n d o f s u r v e y s , tw o
s u m m a r y b u lle tin s a r e is s u e d .
T h e f i r s t b r in g s da ta f o r
e a c h o f the m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s s tu d ie d in to on e b u lle tin .
T h e s e c o n d p r e s e n t s in fo r m a t io n w h ic h h as b e e n p r o je c t e d
f r o m in d iv id u a l m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a da ta to r e la t e to g e o ­
g r a p h ic r e g io n s a n d th e U n ited S ta te s .
N in e ty a r e a s c u r r e n t ly a r e in c lu d e d in the p r o ­
gram .
In e a c h a r e a , in fo r m a t io n on o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s
is c o l l e c t e d a n n u a lly and on e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and
s u p p le m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v is io n s b ie n n ia lly .

In tr o d u c t io n _______________________________________________________________________
W a g e tr e n d s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s --------------------------------------------T a b le s :
1.
2.

A.

E s t a b lis h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y and
n u m b e r s t u d ie d ________________________________________________________
In d e x e s o f s ta n d a r d w e e k ly s a l a r i e s and s t r a ig h t - t im e
h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s , and
p e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s ________________________
O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s :
A - 1. O f f ic e o c c u p a t io n s —m e n and w o m e n __________________________
A - 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s —
m e n and w o m e n ________________________________________________
A - 3. O f f i c e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s —
m e n and w o m e n c o m b i n e d -----------------------------------------------------A - 4 . M a in te n a n c e and p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a t io n s -----------------------------A - 5. C u s t o d ia l a nd m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s -------------------

A p p e n d ix .

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s -------------------------------------------------------------

T h is b u lle t in p r e s e n t s r e s u l t s o f th e s u r v e y in
M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e ig h t s , M i c h . , in J u n e 19 7 1.
M
The
S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a , a s d e fin e d b y th e
B u r e a u o f th e B u d g e t th ro u g h J a n u a ry 1 9 6 8 , c o n s i s t s o f
M u s k e g o n C o u n ty .
T h is stu d y w a s c o n d u c te d b y th e B u r ­
e a u 's r e g io n a l o f f i c e in C h ic a g o , 111. , u n d e r th e g e n e r a l
d i r e c t i o n o f L o is L . O r r , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l D i r e c t o r f o r
O p e r a t io n s .




1
4

N OTE:
S im ila r ta b u la tio n s a r e a v a ila b le
a reas.
(S e e in s id e b a c k c o v e r . )

i ii

fo r o th e r

3

5

6

7
8

9
10
13




In tro d u ctio n
T h is a r e a is 1 o f 90 in w h ic h th e U .S. D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r 's
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s c o n d u c ts s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s
and r e la t e d b e n e fit s on an a r e a w id e b a s i s . 1

e it h e r ( l ) e m p lo y m e n t in the o c c u p a t io n is t o o s m a ll to p r o v id e en ou gh
da ta to m e r i t p r e s e n t a t io n , o r ( 2 ) t h e r e is p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e
o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t da ta . E a r n in g s da ta n o t s h o w n s e p a r a t e ly
f o r in d u s t r y d iv is io n s a r e in c lu d e d in a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d da ta ,
w h e r e sh ow n . L ik e w is e , da ta a r e in c lu d e d in the o v e r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
w h en a s u b c la s s i f i c a t i o n o f s e c r e t a r i e s o r t r u c k d r i v e r s is n ot sh ow n
o r in fo r m a t io n to s u b c l a s s i f y is n ot a v a ila b le .

T h is b u lle tin p r e s e n t s c u r r e n t o c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t and
e a r n in g s in fo r m a t io n o b ta in e d l a r g e l y b y m a il f r o m th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s
v i s i t e d b y B u r e a u f ie ld e c o n o m is t s in the la s t p r e v io u s s u r v e y f o r
o c c u p a t io n s r e p o r t e d in th at e a r l i e r stu d y. P e r s o n a l v i s i t s w e r e m a d e
to n o n r e s p o n d e n ts and to th o s e r e s p o n d e n ts r e p o r t in g u n u su a l ch a n g e s
s in c e th e p r e v io u s s u r v e y .

O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s da ta a r e sh o w n f o r
f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i . e . , t h o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d u le
in the g iv e n o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
E a r n in g s da ta e x c lu d e p r e ­
m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and
la t e s h ift s .
N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g
a llo w a n c e s and in c e n t iv e e a r n in g s a r e in c lu d e d . W h e r e w e e k ly h o u r s
a r e r e p o r t e d , as f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , r e f e r e n c e is to th e
s ta n d a rd w o r k w e e k (r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lf h o u r) f o r w h ich e m ­
p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a l a r i e s ( e x c lu s iv e o f p a y
f o r o v e r t im e at r e g u la r a n d / o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ) . A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n ­
in g s fofr th e s e o c c u p a t io n s h a v e b e e n ro u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

In e a c h a r e a , da ta a r e o b ta in e d f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s w ith in s i x b r o a d in d u s t r y d iv is io n s : M a n u fa c tu r in g ; t r a n s ­
p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le t r a d e ;
r e t a i l t r a d e ; f in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r
in d u s t r y g r o u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a ­
tio n s and th e c o n s t r u c t io n and e x t r a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s . E s t a b lis h m e n t s
h a v in g f e w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itt e d b e c a u s e
th e y te n d to fu r n is h in s u f fic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d
to w a r r a n t in c lu s io n .
S e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d f o r e a c h o f
the b r o a d in d u s t r y d iv is io n s w h ic h m e e t p u b lic a t io n c r i t e r i a .

T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e th e l e v e l o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s in
an a r e a at a p a r t ic u la r tim e . C o m p a r is o n s o f in d iv id u a l o c c u p a t io n a l
a v e r a g e s o v e r tim e m a y n ot r e f l e c t e x p e c t e d w a g e c h a n g e s .
The
a v e r a g e s f o r in d iv id u a l jo b s a r e a ff e c t e d b y c h a n g e s in w a g e s and
e m p lo y m e n t p a t t e r n s . F o r e x a m p le , p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d
b y h ig h - o r lo w - w a g e f i r m s m a y ch a n g e o r h ig h -w a g e w o r k e r s m a y
a d v a n ce to b e t t e r jo b s and b e r e p la c e d b y n ew w o r k e r s at lo w e r r a te s .
S u ch s h ift s in e m p lo y m e n t c o u ld d e c r e a s e an o c c u p a t io n a l a v e r a g e e v e n
th ou gh m o s t e s t a b lis h m e n t s in an a r e a i n c r e a s e w a g e s d u rin g th e y e a r .
T r e n d s in e a r n in g s o f o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s , s h o w n in ta b le 2, a r e b e t t e r
in d ic a t o r s o f w a g e tr e n d s th an in d iv id u a l jo b s w ith in th e g r o u p s .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c te d on a s a m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f
th e u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s .
To
o b ta in o p tim u m a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t io n o f
l a r g e than o f s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s is stu d ie d . In c o m b in in g th e d a ta ,
h o w e v e r , a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e g iv e n t h e ir a p p r o p r ia t e w e ig h t. E s ­
tim a t e s b a s e d on th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s s tu d ie d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e ,
as r e la t in g to a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u s t r y g r o u p in g and a r e a ,
e x c e p t f o r t h o s e b e lo w th e m in im u m s iz e s tu d ie d .
O c c u p a tio n s and E a r n in g s
T h e o c c u p a t io n s s e le c t e d f o r stu d y a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie t y
o f m a n u fa c tu r in g and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s , and a r e o f the
fo llo w in g t y p e s :
( l ) O f f ic e c l e r i c a l ; (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l;
(3) m a in te n a n c e and p o w e r p la n t ; and (4) c u s t o d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e ­
m e n t.
O c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b
d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s ig n e d to ta k e a c c o u n t o f in t e r e s t a b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n
in d u tie s w ith in th e s a m e jo b .
T h e o c c u p a t io n s s e le c t e d f o r stu d y
a r e lis t e d and d e s c r i b e d in th e a p p e n d ix . T h e e a r n in g s da ta fo llo w in g
the jo b t i t le s a r e f o r a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d . E a r n in g s d a ta f o r s o m e
o f the o c c u p a t io n s lis t e d and d e s c r i b e d , o r f o r s o m e in d u s t r y d iv is io n s
w ith in o c c u p a t io n s , a r e n ot p r e s e n t e d in th e A - s e r i e s t a b le s , b e c a u s e

T h e a v e r a g e s p r e s e n t e d r e f l e c t c o m p o s i t e , a r e a w id e e s t i ­
m a tes.
I n d u s t r ie s and e s t a b lis h m e n t s d if f e r in p a y l e v e l and jo b
s ta ffin g and, th u s, c o n tr ib u te d if f e r e n t ly to th e e s t im a t e s f o r e a c h jo b .
T h e p a y r e la t io n s h ip o b ta in a b le f r o m the a v e r a g e s m a y f a i l to r e f l e c t
a c c u r a t e ly the w a g e s p r e a d o r d if f e r e n t ia l m a in ta in e d a m o n g jo b s in
in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s . S im ila r ly , d if f e r e n c e s in a v e r a g e p a y le v e l s
f o r m e n and w o m e n in a n y o f the s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s h o u ld n o t b e
a s s u m e d to r e f l e c t d if f e r e n c e s in p a y tr e a t m e n t o f the s e x e s w ith in
in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s .
O th e r p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s w h ic h m a y c o n ­
tr ib u t e to d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y f o r m e n and w o m e n in c lu d e : D if f e r e n c e s
in p r o g r e s s i o n w ith in e s t a b lis h e d ra te r a n g e s , s in c e o n ly the a c tu a l
1
Included in the 90 areas are four studies conducted under contract with the New York State
r a t e s p a id in c u m b e n ts a r e c o l l e c t e d ; and d i f f e r e n c e s in s p e c i f i c d u tie s
Department of Labor. These areas are Binghamton (New York portion only); Rochester (office occu­
p e r f o r m e d , a lth ou g h th e w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a p p r o p r ia t e ly w ith in
pations only); Syracuse; and Utica—Rome. In addition, the Bureau conducts more limited area studies
the s a m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r i p t i o n . J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d in c la s s if y in g
in 77 areas at the request of the Wage and Hour Division of the U. S. Department of Labor.




1

2

e m p lo y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th o s e
u s e d in in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s and a llo w f o r m in o r d if f e r e n c e s
a m o n g e s t a b lis h m e n t s in th e s p e c i f i c d u tie s p e r f o r m e d .
O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e p r e s e n t th e to t a l in a ll
e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in th e s c o p e o f th e s tu d y and n ot th e n u m b e r a c t u ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e a m o n g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s , the e s tim a te s o f o c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in e d f r o m
the s a m p le o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s s tu d ie d s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a t e th e r e la t iv e
im p o r t a n c e o f the jo b s s tu d ie d .
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t io n a l
s t r u c t u r e do n ot a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n in g s data.




E s t a b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s and S u p p le m e n ta r y W a g e P r o v i s i o n s

T a b u la tio n s on s e l e c t e d e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le ­
m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s ( B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) a r e n ot p r e s e n t e d in th is
b u lle tin .
I n fo r m a tio n f o r t h e s e ta b u la tio n s is c o l l e c t e d b ie n n ia lly .
T h e s e ta b u la tio n s on m in im u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r in e x p e r ie n c e d
w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s ; s h ift d if f e r e n t ia ls ; s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s ;
p a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a t io n s ; and h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n
p la n s a r e p r e s e n t e d (in the B - s e r i e s t a b le s ) in p r e v io u s b u lle t in s f o r
th is a r e a .

3

T a b l e 1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts

and

w ork ers

w it h in

scop e

of

su rvey

and

num ber

s tu d ie d

in

M u s k e g o n — M u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M i c h .,1 b y m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n ,2 J u n e 1 9 7 1
Minimum
employment
in esta b lish ments in scope
o f study

Industry division

W orkers in establishm ents
Within scope of study4

Within scope
o f study3

Studied

Studied
Number

P ercent

97

55

27, 170

100

21,307

50
“

51
46

30
25

22,297
4,873

82
18

17,601
3, 706

50
50
50
50
50

9
6
23
4
4

9
3
8
3
2

2,033
525
1,645
524
146

7
2
6
2
1

2,033
315
905
380
73

A ll division s________________________________
Manufacturing___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing_______________________________
T ransportation, com m unication, and
other public u tilitie s 5 _____________________
W holesale trade 6 ________________________ ___
R etail trade 6_________________________________
F inance, insurance, and real estate 6 ______
S ervices 6 7________________ _____________ ..

Number o f establishm ents

1 The Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights Standard M etropolitan S tatistical A re a , as defined by the Bureau o f the Budget through January 1968,
con sists of Muskegon County. The "w ork ers within scop e of study" estim ates shown in this table provid e a reasonably accu rate descrip tion o f the
size and com p osition o f the labor fo r c e included in the survey. The estim ates are not intended, h ow ever, to s erve as a b asis of com p arison with
other em ploym ent indexes for the area to m easure em ploym ent trends or levels sin ce (1) planning o f wage surveys req u ires the use of establishm ent
data com p iled con sid era b ly in advance o f the p a yroll p eriod studied, and (2) sm all establishm ents are excluded fro m the scope o f the survey.
2 The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial C la ssifica tion Manual was used in cla ssifyin g establishm ents by industry d ivision .
3 Includes all establishm ents with total em ploym ent at o r above the m inim um lim itation. A ll outlets (within the area) o f com panies in such
industries as trad e, finance, auto rep a ir s e r v ic e , and m otion picture theaters are con sid ered as 1 establishm ent.
4 Includes all w ork ers in all establishm ents with total em ploym ent (within the area) at or above the m inim um lim itation.
5 A bbreviated to "p u b lic u tilities" in the A -s e r ie s tab les. T axicabs and s e rv ice s incidental to w ater transportation w ere excluded.
6 This industry d ivision is rep resented in estim ates fo r " a ll in d u stries" and "nonm anufacturing" in the S eries A tab les. Separate presentation
of data fo r this division is not m ade fo r one or m o re o f the follow ing reasons: (1) Em ploym ent in the division is too sm all to provide enough data
to m erit separate study, (2) the sam ple was not designed initially to perm it separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient o r inadequate to
perm it separate presentation, and (4) th ere is p o ssib ility o f d isclo s u re o f individual establishm ent data.
7 Hotels and m otels; laundries and other p erson a l s e rv ice s ; business s e rv ice s ; autom obile re p a ir, rental, and parking; m otion pictu res;
nonprofit m em bership organizations (excluding religiou s and charitable organ ization s); and engineering and a rch itectu ral s e r v ic e s .




Over fou r-fifth s o f the w ork ers within scop e of the survey in the Muskegon—
Muskegon
Heights area w ere em ployed in m anufacturing firm s. The follow ing p resents the m ajor
industry groups and s p e c ific industries as a percent of all m anufacturing:
Industry groups

S p ecific industries

M achinery, except ele ctrica l
40
P rim a ry m etal in d u strie s_____ 29
Furniture and fixtures_________ 6
M iscellaneou s m anufacturing
in d u strie s_____________________ 5
Paper and a llied p ro d u cts _____ 5

Iron and steel foundries------------ 27
Engines and turbines___________ 17
M iscellaneou s m achinery,
except e le c t r ic a l_____________ 11
C onstruction and related
m achinery_______________________ 5
O ffice furniture________________ 5
T oys and sporting g o o d s _______ 5

This inform ation is based on estim ates of total em ploym ent d erived fro m universe
m aterials com p iled p rio r to actual survey. P rop ortion s in various industry d ivision s m ay
d iffer fro m p rop ortions based on the results of the survey as shown in table 1 above.

W a g e T re n d s fo r S e le c te d O c c u p a tio n a l G ro u p s
P r e s e n t e d in ta b le 2 a r e in d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f ch a n g e
in a v e r a g e s a la r ie s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u s t r ia l n u r s e s ,
and in a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f s e l e c t e d p la n t w o r k e r g r o u p s . T h e in d e x e s
a r e a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g iv e n t i m e , e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t o f
w a g e s d u rin g the b a s e p e r io d .
S u b tr a c tin g 100 f r o m the in d e x y ie ld s
th e p e r c e n t a g e ch a n g e in w a g e s f r o m th e b a s e p e r io d to th e d a te o f
the in d e x .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f ch a n g e o r i n c r e a s e r e la t e to w a g e
c h a n g e s b e tw e e n the in d ic a t e d d a t e s .
Annual ra te s o f in c r e a s e , w h ere
sh ow n , r e f l e c t th e a m ou n t o f i n c r e a s e f o r 1 2 m o n th s w h en th e tim e
p e r io d b e tw e e n s u r v e y s w a s o th e r th an 12 m o n th s . T h e s e c o m p u ta tio n s
w e r e b a s e d on th e a s s u m p tio n th at w a g e s i n c r e a s e d at a c o n s t a n t ra te
b e tw e e n s u r v e y s .
T h e s e e s t im a t e s a r e m e a s u r e s o f c h a n g e in a v e r ­
a g e s f o r th e a r e a ; th e y a r e n ot in te n d e d to m e a s u r e a v e r a g e p a y
c h a n g e s in the e s t a b lis h m e n t s in th e a r e a .

s h o w s th e p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e .
T h e in d e x is th e p r o d u c t o f m u lt ip ly in g
the b a s e y e a r r e la t iv e ( 1 0 0 ) b y th e r e la t iv e f o r th e n e x t s u c c e e d in g
y e a r and co n tin u in g to m u lt ip ly (c o m p o u n d ) e a c h y e a r 's r e la t iv e b y the
p r e v io u s y e a r 's in d e x .
F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u s t r ia l n u r s e s , th e w a ge
tr e n d s r e la t e to r e g u la r w e e k ly s a l a r i e s f o r the n o r m a l w o r k w e e k ,
e x c lu s iv e o f e a r n in g s f o r o v e r t i m e .
F o r p la n t w o r k e r g r o u p s , th e y
m e a s u r e c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s , e x c lu d in g
p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and
la te s h ift s .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s a re b a s e d o n d a ta f o r s e l e c t e d k e y o c c u ­
p a tio n s and in c lu d e m o s t o f th e n u m e r ic a lly im p o r t a n t jo b s w ith in
ea ch grou p.
L im it a t io n s

o f D a ta

M e th o d o f C o m p u tin g
T h e in d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e , as m e a s u r e s o f
ch a n g e in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a r e in flu e n c e d b y :
( l ) g e n e r a l s a la r y and
w a g e c h a n g e s , ( 2 ) m e r i t o r o t h e r i n c r e a s e s in p a y r e c e i v e d b y in d i­
v id u a l w o r k e r s w h ile in th e s a m e jo b , and (3 ) c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e
w a g e s due to c h a n g e s in th e l a b o r f o r c e r e s u lt in g f r o m la b o r tu r n ­
o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s io n s , f o r c e r e d u c t io n s , and c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r ­
tio n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith d if f e r e n t p a y l e v e l s .
C h a n g e s in the l a b o r f o r c e c a n c a u s e i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the
o c c u p a t io n a l a v e r a g e s w ith o u t a c tu a l w a g e c h a n g e s .
It is c o n c e iv a b le
that e v e n th ou g h a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s in an a r e a g a v e w a g e i n c r e a s e s ,
a v e r a g e w a g e s m a y h a v e d e c lin e d b e c a u s e ' l o w e r - p a y in g e s t a b lis h m e n t s
e n te r e d the a r e a o r e x p a n d e d t h e ir w o r k f o r c e s .
S im ila r ly , w a g e s
m a y h a v e r e m a in e d r e la t iv e ly c o n s t a n t , y e t th e a v e r a g e s f o r an a r e a
m a y h a v e r i s e n c o n s i d e r a b l y b e c a u s e h ig h e r - p a y in g e s t a b lis h m e n t s
e n te r e d the a r e a .

E a c h o f th e f o llo w in g k e y o c c u p a t io n s w ith in an o c c u p a t io n a l
g r o u p w a s a s s ig n e d a c o n s t a n t w e ig h t b a s e d on it s p r o p o r t io n a t e e m ­
p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p :
Office clerical (men and women): Office clerical (men and women)— Skilled maintenance (men):
Carpenters
Continued
Bookkeeping-machine
Electricians
Secretaries
operators, class B
Machinists
Stenographers, general
Cleiks, accounting, classes
Mechanics
Stenographers, senior
A and B
Mechanics (automotive)
Switchboard operators, classes
Cleiks, file, classes
Painters
A and B
A, B, and C
Pipefitters
Tabulating-machine operators,
Cleiks, order
Tool and die makers
class B
Cleiks, payroll
Typists, classes A and B
Comptometer operators
Unskilled plant (men):
Keypunch operators, classes
Janitors, porters, and cleaners
Industrial nurses (men and women):
A and B
Laborers, material handling
Nurses, industrial (registered)
Office boys and girls

The
p lie d b y th e
in the g r o u p
w e r e r e la t e d
g a te f o r th e




T h e u s e o f c o n s t a n t e m p lo y m e n t w e ig h ts e lim in a t e s th e e f f e c t
o f c h a n g e s in th e p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h j o b i n ­
c lu d e d in th e d a ta .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f ch a n g e r e f l e c t o n ly ch a n g e s
in a v e r a g e p a y f o r s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r s .
T h e y a r e not in flu e n c e d by
c h a n g e s in s ta n d a rd w o r k s c h e d u le s , as s u c h , o r b y p r e m iu m pay
fo r o v e r tim e .
W h e re n e c e s s a r y , d a ta w e r e a d ju s te d to r e m o v e f r o m
the in d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e any s ig n ific a n t e f f e c t c a u s e d
b y c h a n g e s in th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .

a v e r a g e (m e a n ) e a r n in g s f o r e a c h o c c u p a t io n w e r e m u lt i­
o c c u p a t io n a l w e ig h t, and th e p r o d u c t s f o r a ll o c c u p a t io n s
w e r e t o t a le d .
T h e a g g r e g a t e s f o r 2 c o n s e c u t iv e y e a r s
b y d iv id in g th e a g g r e g a t e f o r th e la t e r y e a r b y the a g g r e ­
e a r lie r y e a r .
T h e r e s u lta n t r e la t iv e , l e s s 100 p e r c e n t ,

4

5

T a b le

2.

In d e x e s

of

sta n d a rd

w e e k ly

s a la r ie s

and

s tr a ig h t-tim e

h o u r ly

e a r n in g s

fo r

s e le c t e d

o c c u p a tio n a l

groups

in

M u s k e g o n — M u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M ic h ., J u n e 1 9 7 0 a n d J u n e 1 9 7 1 , a n d p e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s
Manufacturing

A ll industries
P eriod

O ffice
c le r ic a l
(men and
wom en)

Industrial
nurses
(men and
wom en)

Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

Unskilled
plant
w orkers
(men)

O ffice
cle rica l
(men and
women)

Industrial
nurses
(men and
women)

Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

Unskilled
plant
w orkers
(men)

131. 1
138. 3

123. 2
128. 7

121. 0
125. 8

128. 3
177. 5

118. 7
152. 8

122. 4
154. 0

Indexes (May 1967=100)
June 1970-------------------------------------------------------------June 1971________________________________________

121. 8
131. 3

131. 1
138. 3

123. 3
129. 2

119. 0
124. 6

121.4
130. 6

Indexes (May 1961=100)
May 1967-------------------------------------------------------------June 1971--------------------------------------------------------------

121. 6
159.5

128. 3
177. 5

119. 0
153. 8

122. 4
152. 3

119. 0
155. 4

P ercen ts o f in crea se
May I960 to May 1961----------------------------------------May 1961 to May 1962---------------------------------------May 1962 to May 1963---------------------------------------May 1963 to May 1964__________________________
May 1964 to May 1965__________________________
May 1965 to May 1966__________________________
May 1966 to May 1967__________________________
May 1967 to May 1968---------------------------------------May 1968 to May 1969---------------------------------------May 1969 to June 1970:
13-month in crea se-----------------------------------------Annual rate o f in c r e a s e ----------------- -------------

3.9
4. 3
3. 0
3. 3
2. 1
3. 1
4. 1
5. 1
8. 7

1.
4.
3.
1.
1.
2.
13.
11.
5.

8
0
3
1
6
6
3
3
7

2. 7
3.4
2. 6
2. 3
2. 1
2. 7
4. 6
8. 3
6. 1

2. 7
4. 2
3.9
.8
3. 1
3. 2
5 .4
5. 8
7. 7

4. 4
4. 1
3. 1
3. 6
1. 7
1. 8
3.4
4. 6
9. 5

1. 8
4. 0
3. 3
1. 1
1. 6
2 .6
13. 3
11. 3
5. 7

2. 7
3 .4
2. 6
1. 9
2. 0
2.9
4. 6
8. 3
6. 3

2. 1
4. 6
4. 3
.5
3. 3
3. 7
4. 2
6. 6
8. 2

6. 6
6. 1

11. 5
10. 6

7. 3
6. 7

4. 4
4. 1

5. 9
5. 4

11. 5
10. 6

7. 0
6. 4

4. 9
4. 5

June 1970 to June 1971---------------------------------------

7. 8

5. 5

4. 8

4. 7

7. 6

5. 5

4. 5

4. 0




NOTE: M ost p rev iou sly published indexes fo r the Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights area used May 1961
as the base p eriod . They can be converted to the new base p eriod by dividing them by the correspon din g
index numbers fo r May 1967 on the May 1961 base p eriod as shown in the table.
(The result should
be m ultiplied by 100.)

6

A.

Occupational earnings

T a b le A -1 .

O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s —m en and w o m e n

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich., June 1971)
Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—
Numb e r

Sex, occupation, and industry division

$
A v er ag e

workers

Me an ^

Me d ia n ^

Mi ddl e range ^

(standard)

S

$
,7 0

*

i

f

$

75

80

85

90

95

80

85

_?Q_

95

100

$

$

100

105

105_

11Q

$
110

$

$

»

$

t

*

t

t

$

S

$

115

120

125

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

.. 12SL

125

- 1 3 0

140

150

16Q

170

180

190

200

210

220

5

2

4

2

4

1

-

9

1

1

13

12
12

and
under
75

_ J1 5 _

MEN
CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A

18

4 0 .0

$
1 6 7 .0 0

$
1 5 3 .0 0

$
$
1 3 5 .0 0 -2 0 6 .5 0

1 2 2 .0 0

1 2 2 .5 0

1 1 1 .5 0 -1 3 4 .5 0

WOMEN

O

B O OK KE EP IN G- MA CH IN E OPERATORS,
CL AS S B -------------------------------

25

o
*

BO OK KE EP IN G- MA CH IN E OPERATORS,
CL AS S A -------------------------------

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

8

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

4

-

-

_

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

17

4 0 .0

1 0 5 .5 0

1 0 7 .5 0

1 0 1 .5 0 -1 1 7 .0 0

-

-

-

3

-

-

5

2

2

4

1

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

68

1 3 9 .0 0
1 3 2 .5 0

1 3 9 .0 0
1 3 2 .0 0

1 2 8 .5 0 -1 5 1 .0 0
1 2 4 .0 0 -1 5 0 .5 0

-

_

-

_

-

_

1

-

“

“

1

4
4

1

4
4

8
7

16

-

2
2

1

44

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

CLERKS,

70
47
23

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 0 7 .5 0
1 0 9 .0 0
1 0 4 .5 0

1 0 4 .0 0
1 0 8 .5 0
1 0 2 .5 0

9 7 .0 0 -1 2 0 .0 0
9 6 .5 0 -1 2 3 .0 0
9 8 .0 0 -1 1 2 .5 0

-

-

6
-

8
7
1

3
3

-

-

3
1

6
5
1

5
5

6

6
2
4

1

-

22
14
8

4

-

6
6

1

-

“

-

-

-

47

1 2 0 .5 0
1 2 1 .5 0

1 2 3 .0 0
1 2 4 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0 -1 3 1 .5 0
1 1 3 .0 0 -1 3 3 .0 0

-

4
4

2
2

6

10
6

6
5

9
9

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

3

2
2

-

14
14

1
1

_

28
24
4

AC CO UN TIN G ,

CLA SS

B -------------------

MANUFA CT UR IN G --------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

1
-

2
2

1
-

-

4
3

-

-

-

-

2
2

_

_

-

_

“

*

“

4
4

3
1

10
9

5
5

5
5

8
8

9
9

3

4
4

3

9

5

7
6
i

2
1
1

9

8

5

5

4

3

1
4

1
1

_

5

i
-

13
12

19
18

39

CLERKS, P A Y R O L L ---------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

40

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

K E YP UN CH OPERATORS, CLASS A -------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

63
60

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 2 0 .5 0
1 2 1 .5 0

1 1 8 .0 0
1 1 9 .0 0

1 0 4 .5 0 -1 3 2 .5 0
1 0 6 .0 0 -1 3 4 .5 0

KE YPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B -------MANUFA CT UR IN G --------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

65
38
27

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 7 .5 0
9 7 .5 0
9 8 .0 0

9 6 .5 0
9 6 .0 0
1 0 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0 -1 1 0 .5 0
8 6 .5 0 -1 0 9 .0 0
8 4 .0 0 -1 1 3 .5 0

SE CR ET AR IE S --------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

181
150

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 3 9 .5 0
1 3 9 .0 0

1 3 8 .0 0
1 3 7 .5 0

1 2 6 .0 0 -1 5 4 .0 0
1 2 6 .0 0 -1 5 1 .0 0

_

31

4 0 .0

1 4 1 .0 0

1 4 7 .5 0

1 2 0 .0 0 -1 5 8 .0 0

“

SECRETARIES, CLASS A -------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

20
18

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 5 7 .0 0
1 5 7 .5 0

1 5 4 .0 0

1 3 7 .0 0 -1 8 4 .5 0

-

-

_

-

1 5 4 .0 0

1 3 8 .0 0 -1 8 3 .0 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS B -------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

40
26

4 0 .0

1 3 8 .5 0
1 4 3 .5 0

1 4 0 .0 0

1 2 6 .0 0 -1 5 1 .5 0
1 3 6 .5 0 -1 5 3 .5 0

-

-

1
1

-

SECRETARIES, CLASS C -------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

59
46

4 0 .0

1 4 6 .0 0

*

5

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

4
i

5

-

~

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

~

-

_

_

-

-

-

36
25

3
3

4
2

4

11

-

2

i

1

1

4

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

1
1

-

-

-

-

2
2

_

-

1
1

_

-

_

i

5

1 5 3 .5 0

1 4 5 .5 0

1 4 6 .5 0

1 3 6 .0 0 -1 5 8 .0 0
1 3 3 .0 0 -1 5 8 .0 0

1 2 6 .5 0
1 2 6 .5 0

1 2 7 .5 0
1 2 7 .5 0

1 1 8 .0 0 -1 3 6 .0 0
1 1 8 .0 0 -1 3 5 .5 0

-

2
2

4
2

4
2

7
4

“

2

2

3

1

-

_

-

-

-

1

_

-

6
6

2

3

1

1

3

-

-

2

3

2

-

2
2

1

8
5

8
8

-

1

-

1

10
6

“

-

1
1

2

1 4 8 .0 0

6
5

8
8

9

2

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

~

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

1

-

60

STENOGRAPHERS, GE NE RA L -------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

80
50

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 1 0 .5 0
1 1 1 .0 0

1 0 8 .0 0
1 0 7 .5 0

9 8 .5 0 -1 2 0 .5 0
9 7 .5 0 -1 2 4 .0 0

-

STENOGRAPHERS, SE NIOR --------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

50
47

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 2 9 .0 0
1 2 9 .5 0

1 2 4 .5 0

1 1 6 .5 0 -1 5 1 .0 0
1 1 6 .5 0 -1 5 5 .5 0

-

-

2

3

“

2

9

5
4

10
10

6
6

12

15

9

_

12

15

8

-

-

9
3

12

9

1
1

-

4

7
6

-

2

6
4

6

9

6
3

1

1

5

4

6

9

5

3

1

1

4

4

6

8

4
4

5

2

“

*

_

-

_

2
2

2

-

2
2

1
~

9
5

12
11

_

-

-

-

*

35
4

1
1

*

-

“

1

25
14

-

SECRETARIES, CLASS D -------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

i i
i i

3
3

“

4 0 .0
4 0 .0




4

10
6
4

-

62

See footnotes at end of tables

-

3

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 2 5 .0 0

13

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

-

-

12
12

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
T a b le A -1 .

O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s —m en and w o m e n -----C o n tin u e d

(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e ig h ts , M ic h ., June 1971)
M
Weekly earnings 1
(standard)

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly e a r n in g s o f—

t
A v e rag e
weekly

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is i

i

t

i

i

t

$

t

t

t

t

s

t

s

$

s

s

s

$

$

*

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

80

70

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

Middle range2

u n d er

(standard)

75
WOMEN S W IT C H B O A R D

32

CL A SS

71

A

68

M AN UF A CT U RI NG
T Y P I S T S , C L A S S B -----------------------------------------------M AN UF A CT U RI NG -----------------------------------------------N ON MA NUF A CT URI NG

----------------------------------------

$

$
46

------------------------------------------------

M AN UF A CT U RI NG
TYPISTS,

CONTINUED

0PER AT0R -R ECEPTI0NISTS-

144

121
23

99.50

93 .0 095.00-

125.50

103.00
108.00

40.0
40.0

116.00
116.50

118.50

106.00-125.50

119.00

107.50-126.00

40.0

97.00

40.0
40.0

95.50
105.50

98.00
97.00
105.00

1
1

87.50-

106.50

86.5095.00-

8
6

1
1

U 3 . 0 0

107.00

40.0
40.0

105.00
122.00

6
5

2

13

7

13

14

27

19

19

13

13
13

1

8

3
3

3

23

17

18

1

1

2

See fo o t n o t e s a t en d o f t a b le s .

T a b le A -2 .

P ro fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s —m en and w o m e n

(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n . M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e ig h t s , M ic h . , J une 1971)
M
Weekly earnings 1
( standard)
Number

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly e a rn in g s o f—

$

*

of
workers

Mean 2

M edian2

Middle range2

(standard)

100

100

Sex, occupation, and industry division

95

Average
weekly

105

*

*

105

110

110

“
“

*

$

115

120

115

120

125

“

2

“
”

t

$

$

%

t

*

$

s

*

*

t

t

200 210 220

125

130

135

140

150

160

170

180

190

130

135

140

150

160

170

180

190

200 210 220

3
3

3
3

4

3
3

2
2

*

Under
$
and
under
95

1

230

»

t
230

240

240

250

MEN
$

$

$

$

22

MANU FA CT UR IN G
C O MP UT ER PROGRAMERSf
MA NU FA CT UR IN G

40.0 156.50 159.00 13 9.50-180.50

21
2
1

40.0 199.50
40.0 199.50

200.00
200.00

2
2

~
~

2

2

16 4.00-227.50

3
3

“

3

2

3

2

3

~

1
1

22

1
1

4

4

COMP UT ER PR0GRAMERS*
16

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS

8 --------------------------

40.0 177.00 177.50 1 6 3 . 0 0 -

185.00

36
36

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS

40.0 215.50 235.50 19 6. 00 40.0 215.50 235.50 1 9 6. 00 -

238.00
238.00

91

40.0 173.00 178.00 15 5. 00-188.50

DRAFTSMEN, CL AS S
36

40.0 123.50 129.50 1 1 5 . 5 0 40.0 123.50 129.50 1 1 5 . 5 0 -

15

40.0 153.50 150.00 14 1.50-170.00

1
“
-

-

-

135.00
135.00

-

~

-

“

“

~

~

-

-

4

5

3
3

1
8

—
2

3

4
4

13
13

2
2

2
2

1
1

7
7

9

3

3

9

3

3

-

1

i

i

-

5

2

“

2

“

3

i

12
12

25

6
6

-

10
10

i
i

-

25

“

22

2
2

-

2

-

-

WOMEN
NURSES,

INDUSTRIAL ( R E G I S T E R E D ) ---

S e e fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .




-

-

-

-

2

i

i

i

-

-

-

-

-

8

T a b le A -3 .

O ffic e , p ro fe s sio n a l, and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s —m en and w o m e n co m b in ed

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, M u s k e g o n — M u s k e g o n Heights, Mich., June 1971)
Average

Average

Occupation and industry division

Number
of

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
standard) (standard)

Occupation and industry division

OFFICE OC CU PA TI ON S

OFFICE OC CU PA TI ON S

Number
of
workeis

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

Average

Weekly

Occupation and industry division

(standard)

OF FI CE OC CU PA TI ON S

- CO NTINUED

Number
of
woikers

Weekly
hours 1
standard)

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

- CO NTINUED

25

BO OK KE EP IN G- MA CH IN E OPERATORS,
CL AS S B ------------------------------------------------------------------------

17

*

$

BOOKKE EP IN G- MA CH IN E OPERATORS,
CL AS S A ------------------------------------------------------------------------

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------MANUFA CT UR IN G -------------------------------------------------

86
61

40.0 145.00
40.0 142.50

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B -------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

72
49
23

40.0 107.50
40.0 109.00
40.0 104.50

CLERKS, PAYROLL ---------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

49
41

40.0 123.00
40.0 123.00

KEYP UN CH OPERATORS, CLASS A -----------------MANUFA CT UR IN G -------------------------------------------------

63
60

40.0 120.50
40.0 121.50

KE YPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B -----------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ------------------------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------

65
38
27

40.0
40.0
40.0

97.50
97.50
98.00

OFFICE BOYS AND GIRLS

-----------------------------------

15

39.0

89.50

SECRETARIES --------------------------------------------------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ------------------------------------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------------------------------

183
152
31

40.0 L . o o
23

157.00
40.0 138.50

O
o

61

40.0 156.00

COMP UT ER OPERATORS, CLASS B

-------------------

I jb .jO

C O MP UT ER PROGRAMERS,

--------------------------------

80
50

o o
o o

STENOGRAPHERS, GE NE RA L

40.0
40.0 1
* *

62
60

•

0

110.50

C O MP UT ER PROGRAMERS,

1 1 1 .0 0

H>

47

40 0 129 00
40.0 129.50

SW ITCHBOARD O P E R A T O R -R EC EP TI ON IS TS -

46
32

o o
o o

103.00
108.00

TYPISTS, CLASS A

71
68

o o
o o

116.00
116.50

r0

-------------------------------------------------

* *

40.0 140.00
40.0 139.50
40.0 141.00

PROFES SI ON AL AND TECHNICAL
OC CU PA TI ON S

40.0 149.00

* *




27

' 0 0

105.50
40

See footnote at end of tables,

9'*'0
40.0 105.50

MA NU FA CT UR IN G

-------------------------------------------------

92

40.0 172.50

3-f
NURSE St INDUSTRIAL

I R E G I S T E R E D ) -------

It .00

15

40.0 153.50

9
T a b le A -4 .

M a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t o cc u p atio n s

(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is b y in d u s tr y d i v is i o n , M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e ig h t s , M ic h . , June 1971)
M
Hourly earnings3

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
t
i
i
«
»
*
1
$
$
»
*
*
i
1
$
*
t
.10 4.20 4.30 4.4C 4. 50 4.60 4.70 4. 80 4.90 5.00 5.10 5.20
U n d e r 3 *30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90
$
and
3*30 under
t

M edian2

Middle range 2

1

Mean 2

O
O
«* *

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.60 3.90 4.00 4. 10 4 .20 4.30 4.40 4.50

4.70 4.80 4. 90 5.00 5.10 5.20 5.30

MEN
$

20

$

$

$

5*ii

5*07

5*02

5*62

}

5*

3.97

H A N U r A L 1U K 1Nw
MACHIN E- TO OL OPERATORS, T O O L R O O M —

1

90

3.75

31

1

24

8

20

-

1*

8

27

1

*•10

A . 43

4.35

*•20

*•17

8

4.30- 4.51

*• 0 6 “ 4.35

2

**

2

2

1

9

-

8

5

MECHANICS, AU TOMOTIVE
'
4 * /n

5*6?

5*92

J

79

10

17

20

10

18

8

3*09

3*03

20

J

5*19

1?2

j

^

J
r

J

J

j

19
J

, 1. LI 1 1 1L H J | PIAA N 1L WAIIwTr^™1
5*31
173

S e e fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le s .




5*25

5* 12

4*6'

4*67

5*50

5*55

5*96

i

j

i

57
57

25

12

55

24

-

-

10

T a b le A - 5 .

C u s to d ia l a n d m a te ria l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations on an area basis by industry division, M u s k e g o n — M u s k e g o n Heights, Mich. , June 1971)
Hourly earnings3

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Mean 2

M edian2

Middle range 2

N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
*
»---- «
1 ---- 1
1
1
1 ---- *
*
1
1 ---*
*
%
1
*
1 ---- 1 --- t
t
2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3. 20 3.30 3 .40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4. 20 4.40 4.60 4.80
*
and
2.30 under
2.40 2.50 2. 60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 ?.io 3.20 ?,J0 3,40 3 .50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4.20 4. 40 4.60 4.80 5.00

hen

GU ARDS AND W A TC HM EN ----------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------GUARDS
MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

51
48

$
3.31
3.39

$
3.25
3.26

$
$
3. 08- 3.46
3.11- 3.47

3
“

3
3

8
8

1
1

4
4

14
14

10
10

2
2

6
6

42

3.43

3.27

3.17- 3.46

8

4

14

-

10

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEA NE RS --MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UT IL IT IE S ---------------

274
227
47

3.32
3.40
2.55
2.95

3.023.062.342.45-

3.63
3.65
2.99
3.64

5
5
3

17
17
2

_
-

6
2
4
1

13
6
7
4

2
2
-

4
3
1
“

6
4
2
2

64
63
1
“

14
14
-

2
2
-

19
17
2
2

22
21
1
-

14
14
*

57
50
7
7

21
21

3
3

4
4

1
1

-

-

-

-

21

3.24
3.36
2.70
2.99

~

"

”

LABORERS, MA TERIAL HAND LI NG -------MANU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

252
227

3.31
3.34

3.37
3.39

3.07- 3.47
3.09- 3.47

1
“

1
-

_

_

-

-

8
8

41
41

78
78

8
7

-

16
15

6
6

4
4

3
3

.

-

3
3

-

-

71
50

_

“

4
4

_

-

8
8

-

-

-

-

ORDER
FILLERS -----------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

61
37

3.65
3.77

3.64
3.83

3.46- 3.85
3.66- 3.89

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

_
“

-

-

_

26
2

_

*

11
11

-

16
16

1
1

4
4

2
2

-

-

-

RECE IV IN G CL ERKS --------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

28
28

3.65
3.65

3.52
3.52

3.43- 3.89
3.43- 3.89

2
2

-

3
3

9
9

3
3

1
1

-

4
4

1
1

-

5
5

-

-

“

SH IPPING CLERKS ---------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

32
32

3.75
3.75

3.83
3.83

3.57- 3.88
3.57- 3.88

_

6
6

2
2

-

1
1

2
2

-

-

“

17
17

-

-

SHIPPING AND RECE IV IN G CL ER KS -----

15

3.74

3.59

3.49- 4.06

TRUCKDRIVERS ------------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UT ILITIES --------------TRUCKDRIVERS, ME DI UM (1-1/2 TO
AND INCLUDING 4 TONS) ----------TRUCKDRIVERS, HE AV Y (OVER 4 TONS,
TRAILER TYPE) --------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) --------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

See footnotes at end of tables




-

4
4

”

_
*

-

1

-

3

4

1

-

-

-

5

1

-

-

-

11
10
1

9
7
2

3
3

3

_
-

-

29
29
-

8
8

2
2
-

-

-

81
1
80

6
6
-

-

11
2
9
9

89

3.89
3.54
4.16
4.39

4.30
3.57
4.34
4.36

3.453.094.314.33-

4.36
3.67
4.38
4.38

-

25

3.98

3.77

3.34- 4.94

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

3

-

4

-

2

-

3

2

-

-

-

-

-

9

109

4.14
3.61

4.34
3.44

4.31- 4.37
3.00- 4.52

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

-

-

*

4
4

6
4

-

2
2

5

-

-

-

80

6
6

-

-

3.43
3.47

3.45
3.47

3.10- 3.72
3.24- 3.74

_

4
4

1
1

50
32

7
7

10
10

8
8

53

22
22

21
21

10
10

*

_

23

1
1

_

53

193
83

110

22
210
192

-

6
6

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

6
6
-

18
17
1

-

_

_

3

_

23

11

Footnotes

1 S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s ( e x c lu s iv e o f p a y f o r o v e r t im e at
r e g u la r a n d / o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ) , and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 T h e m e a n is c o m p u te d f o r e a c h jo b b y to ta lin g the e a r n in g s o f a ll w o r k e r s and d iv id in g b y th e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s . T h e m e d ia n d e s ig n a te s
p o s it io n — h a lf o f th e e m p lo y e e s s u r v e y e d r e c e i v e m o r e than th e ra te s h ow n ; h a lf r e c e i v e l e s s than th e ra te sh ow n . T h e m id d le ra n g e is d e fin e d b y
2 r a te s o f p a y ; a fo u r th o f the w o r k e r s e a r n l e s s than th e lo w e r o f t h e s e r a t e s and a fo u r th e a r n m o r e than th e h ig h e r r a te .
3 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m * p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .







Appendix.

Occupational Descriptions

T h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r i n g j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r th e B u r e a u 's w a g e s u r v e y s i s t o a s s i s t it s f i e l d s t a f f in c l a s s i f y i n g in to a p p r o p r i a t e
o c c u p a t i o n s w o r k e r s w h o a r e e m p l o y e d u n d e r a v a r i e t y o f p a y r o l l t i t l e s a n d d i f f e r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m e s t a b l is h m e n t t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d
fr o m a r e a to a r e a .
T h is p e r m i t s th e g r o u p in g o f o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e r a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m p a r a b l e j o b c o n t e n t .
B e c a u s e o f t h is e m p h a s i s on
in t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d i n t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n t e n t , th e B u r e a u 's j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s m a y d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h o s e in u s e in
in d iv i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o r t h o s e p r e p a r e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s .
In a p p l y in g t h e s e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h e B u r e a u 's f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s a r e in s t r u c t e d
to e x c lu d e w o rk in g
s u p e r v is o r s ; a p p r e n t ic e s ; le a r n e r s ; b e g in n e r s ; t r a in e e s ; and h a n d ica p p e d , p a r t - t im e , t e m p o r a r y , an d p r o b a t io n a r y w o r k e r s .

O FFIC E
B IL L E R ,

CLERK,

M A C H IN E

B i l l e r , m a c h in e ( b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ) . U s e s a s p e c i a l b i l l i n g m a c h in e (M o o n H o p k in s , E l l i o t t
F i s h e r , B u r r o u g h s , e t c . , w h ic h a r e c o m b i n a t i o n t y p in g a n d a d d in g m a c h in e s ) t o p r e p a r e b i l l s
a n d i n v o i c e s f r o m c u s t o m e r s ' p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , i n t e r n a l l y p r e p a r e d o r d e r s , s h ip p in g m e m o ­
r a n d u m s , e t c . U s u a l ly i n v o l v e s a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r e d e t e r m i n e d d i s c o u n t s a n d s h ip p in g c h a r g e s ,
a n d e n t r y o f n e c e s s a r y e x t e n s i o n s , w h ic h m a y o r m a y n o t b e c o m p u t e d o n th e b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ,
a n d t o t a l s w h ic h a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c c u m u l a t e d b y m a c h i n e . T h e o p e r a t i o n u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s
a l a r g e n u m b e r o f c a r b o n c o p i e s o f th e b i l l b e in g p r e p a r e d a n d is o ft e n d o n e o n a fa n f o l d
m a c h in e .
B i l l e r , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h i n e ) . U s e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e (S u n d s t r a n d , E l l i o t t
F i s h e r , R e m i n g t o n R a n d , e t c . , w h ic h m a y o r m a y n o t h a v e t y p e w r i t e r k e y b o a r d ) t o p r e p a r e
c u s t o m e r s ' b i l l s a s p a r t o f th e a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e o p e r a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e s t;he s i m u l t a ­
n e o u s e n t r y o f f i g u r e s o n c u s t o m e r s ' l e d g e r r e c o r d . T h e m a c h in e a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c c u m u l a t e s
f i g u r e s o n a n u m b e r o f v e r t i c a l c o l u m n s a n d c o m p u t e s , a n d u s u a l ly p r in t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y th e
d e b i t o r c r e d i t b a l a n c e s . D o e s n o t in v o l v e a k n o w l e d g e o f b o o k k e e p in g . W o r k s f r o m u n i f o r m
and sta n d a rd ty p e s o f s a le s and c r e d it s lip s .

B O O K K E E P I N G -M A C H I N E

O PERATOR

C la s s A .
K e e p s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u i r i n g a k n o w l e d g e o f a n d e x p e r i e n c e in b a s i c
b o o k k e e p in g p r i n c i p l e s , a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w it h th e s t r u c t u r e o f th e p a r t i c u l a r a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m
u s e d . D e t e r m i n e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e b i t a n d c r e d i t i t e m s t o b e u s e d in e a c h
p h a s e o f th e w o r k .
M a y p r e p a r e c o n s o lid a t e d r e p o r t s , b a la n c e s h e e t s , and o th e r r e c o r d s
b y hand.

C la s s B . S o r ts , c o d e s , and f i le s u n c la s s ifie d m a te r ia l b y s im p le (s u b je c t m a tte r ) h e a d ­
in g s " o r - p a r t l y c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r i a l b y f i n e r s u b h e a d i n g s . P r e p a r e s s i m p l e r e l a t e d in d e x a n d
c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e a i d s . A s r e q u e s t e d , l o c a t e s c l e a r l y id e n t i f i e d m a t e r i a l in f i l e s a n d f o r w a r d s
m a te r ia l.
M a y p e r f o r m r e l a t e d c l e r i c a l t a s k s r e q u i r e d t o m a in t a in a n d s e r v i c e f i l e s .

C l a s s C . P e r f o r m s r o u t i n e f i l i n g o f m a t e r i a l t h a t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n c l a s s i f i e d o r w h ic h
i s e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d in a s i m p l e s e r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m ( e . g . a a l p h a b e t i c a l , c h r o n o l o g i c a l ,
o r n u m e r i c a l ) . A s r e q u e s t e d , l o c a t e s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l in f i l e s a n d f o r w a r d s m a ­
t e r i a l ; a n d m a y f i l l o u t w it h d r a w a l c h a r g e . P e r f o r m s s i m p l e c l e r i c a l a n d m a n u a l t a s k s r e ­
q u i r e d t o m a in t a in a n d s e r v i c e f i l e s .

CLERK,

CLERK,

C l a s s B . K e e p s a r e c o r d o f o n e o r m o r e p h a s e s o r s e c t i o n s o f a s e t o f r e c o r d s u s u a l ly
r e q u i r i n g li t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f b a s i c b o o k k e e p in g . P h a s e s o r s e c t i o n s i n c lu d e a c c o u n t s p a y a b le ,
p a y r o l l , c u s t o m e r s ' a c c o u n t s (n o t in c lu d in g a s i m p l e t y p e o f b i l l i n g d e s c r i b e d u n d e r b i l l e r ,
m a c h i n e ) , c o s t d i s t r i b u t i o n , e x p e n s e d i s t r i b u t i o n , in v e n t o r y c o n t r o l , e t c . M a y c h e c k o r a s s i s t
in p r e p a r a t i o n o f t r i a l b a l a n c e s a n d p r e p a r e c o n t r o l s h e e t s f o r th e a c c o u n t i n g d e p a r t m e n t .
A C C O U N T IN G

C la s s A . U n der g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n o f a b o o k k e e p e r o r a cco u n ta n t, h a s r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r
k e e p in g o n e o r m o r e s e c t i o n s o f a c o m p l e t e s e t o f b o o k s o r r e c o r d s r e l a t i n g t o o n e p h a s e
o f a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t 's b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s . W o r k i n v o l v e s p o s t in g a n d b a l a n c in g s u b s i d i a r y
l e d g e r o r l e d g e r s s u c h a s a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e o r a c c o u n t s p a y a b le : e x a m i n in g a n d c o d in g
i n v o i c e s o r v o u c h e r s w ith p r o p e r a c c o u n t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n ; a n d r e q u i r e s ju d g m e n t a n d e x p e r i ­
e n c e in m a k in g p r o p e r a s s i g n a t i o n s a n d a l l o c a t i o n s . M a y a s s i s t in p r e p a r i n g , a d j u s t in g , a n d
c lo s in g jo u r n a l e n t r ie s ; and m a y d i r e c t c la s s B a c co u n tin g c l e r k s .
C l a s s B . U n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n , p e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e r o u t in e a c c o u n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s s u c h
a s p o s t in g s i m p l e j o u r n a l v o u c h e r s o r a c c o u n t s p a y a b le v o u c h e r s , e n t e r i n g v o u c h e r s in
v o u c h e r r e g i s t e r s ; r e c o n c i l i n g b a n k a c c o u n t s ; a n d p o s t in g s u b s i d i a r y l e d g e r s c o n t r o l l e d b y
g e n e r a l l e d g e r s , o r p o s t in g s i m p l e c o s t a c c o u n t i n g d a t a . T h is j o b d o e s n o t r e q u i r e a k n o w l­
e d g e o f a c c o u n t i n g a n d b o o k k e e p in g p r i n c i p l e s b u t i s fo u n d in o f f i c e s in w h ic h th e m o r e r o u t in e
a c c o u n t i n g w o r k i s s u b d i v id e d o n a f u n c t io n a l b a s i s a m o n g s e v e r a l w o r k e r s .




f i l i n g s y s t e m c o n t a in in g a n u m b e r o f v a r i e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r
m a te r ia l su ch a s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , r e p o r t s , te c h n ic a l d o c u ­
m a t e r i a l . M a y k e e p r e c o r d s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s in c o n j u n c t io n
a ll g r o u p o f lo w e r le v e l file c l e r k s .

ORDER

R e c e iv e s c u s t o m e r s ' o r d e r s f o r m a t e r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e b y m a il, p h o n e , o r p e r s o n a lly .
D u t ie s in v o l v e a n y c o m b i n a t i o n o f th e f o l l o w i n g : Q u o t in g p r i c e s t o c u s t o m e r s ; m a k in g o u t a n o r d e r
s h e e t l i s t i n g th e i t e m s t o m a k e u p th e o r d e r ; c h e c k i n g p r i c e s a n d q u a n t i t ie s o f i t e m s o n o r d e r
s h e e t ; a n d d i s t r ib u t in g o r d e r s h e e t s t o r e s p e c t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s t o b e f i l l e d . M a y c h e c k w ith c r e d i t
d e p a r t m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e c r e d i t r a t in g o f c u s t o m e r , a c k n o w l e d g e r e c e i p t o f o r d e r s f r o m c u s t o m e r s ,
f o l l o w u p o r d e r s t o s e e t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n f i l l e d , k e e p f i l e o f o r d e r s r e c e i v e d , a n d c h e c k s h ip p in g
i n v o i c e s w it h o r i g i n a l o r d e r s .

O p e r a t e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e ( R e m i n g t o n R a n d , E l l i o t t F i s h e r , S u n d s t r a n d , B u r r o u g h s ,
N a t io n a l C a s h R e g i s t e r , w it h o r w it h o u t a t y p e w r i t e r k e y b o a r d ) t o k e e p a r e c o r d o f b u s i n e s s
tra n s a ctio n s .

CLERK,

F IL E

C l a s s A . In an e s t a b l i s h e d
f i l e s , c l a s s i f i e s a n d in d e x e s f i l e
m e n t s , e t c . M a y a l s o f i l e t h is
w it h th e f i l e s .
M a y le a d a s m

P r e p a r e s s t a t e m e n t s , b i l l s , a n d i n v o i c e s o n a m a c h in e o t h e r th a n a n o r d i n a r y o r e l e c t r o m a tic ty p e w r ite r .
M a y a l s o k e e p r e c o r d s a s t o b i l l i n g s o r s h ip p in g c h a r g e s o r p e r f o r m o t h e r
c l e r i c a l w o r k in c i d e n t a l t o b i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s . F o r w a g e s t u d y p u r p o s e s , b i l l e r s , m a c h i n e , a r e
c l a s s i f ie d b y ty p e o f m a c h in e , a s fo llo w s :

13

PAYROLL

C o m p u t e s w a g e s o f c o m p a n y e m p l o y e e s a n d e n t e r s th e n e c e s s a r y d a t a o n th e p a y r o l l
s h e e t s . D u t ie s i n v o l v e : C a lc u la t in g w o r k e r s ' e a r n i n g s b a s e d o n t im e o r p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s ; a n d
p o s t in g c a l c u l a t e d d a ta o n p a y r o l l s h e e t , s h o w in g i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h a s w o r k e r 's n a m e , w o r k i n g
d a y s , t im e , r a te , d e d u ctio n s fo r in s u r a n c e , and to ta l w a g e s d u e . M a y m a k e out p a y ch e c k s and
a s s i s t p a y m a s t e r in m a k in g u p a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g p a y e n v e l o p e s .
M a y u s e a ca lc u la t in g m a c h in e .

COM PTOM ETER

OPERATO R

P r i m a r y d u ty i s t o o p e r a t e a C o m p t o m e t e r t o p e r f o r m m a t h e m a t ic a l c o m p u t a t i o n s . T h is
j o b i s n o t t o b e c o n f u s e d w it h t h a t o f s t a t i s t i c a l o r o t h e r t y p e o f c l e r k , w h ic h m a y in v o l v e f r e ­
q u e n t u s e o f a C o m p t o m e t e r b u t , in w h ic h , u s e o f t h is m a c h in e i s in c i d e n t a l t o p e r f o r m a n c e o f
o th e r d u tie s.

KEYPUNCH

OPERATOR

C l a s s A . O p e r a t e s a n u m e r i c a l a n d / o r a l p h a b e t i c a l o r c o m b i n a t i o n k e y p u n c h m a c h in e t o
t r a n s c r i b e d a t a f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s t o k e y p u n c h t a b u la t in g c a r d s . P e r f o r m s s a m e
t a s k s a s l o w e r l e v e l k e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r b u t , in a d d i t io n , w o r k r e q u i r e s a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o d in g
s k i l l s a n d th e m a k in g o f s o m e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , l o c a t e s o n th e s o u r c e d o c u m e n t
th e i t e m s t o b e p u n c h e d ; e x t r a c t s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m s e v e r a l d o c u m e n t s ; a n d s e a r c h e s f o r a n d
i n t e r p r e t s i n f o r m a t i o n o n th e d o c u m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e i n f o r m a t i o n t o b e p u n c h e d .
M a y t r a in
in e x p e r ie n c e d o p e r a t o r s .

14
KEYPUNCH

S E C R E T A R Y — C o n t in u e d

O P E R A T O R — C o n t in u e d

C la s s B .
U n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n o r fo llo w in g s p e c i f ic p r o c e d u r e s o r in s t r u c t io n s ,
t r a n s c r i b e s da ta f r o m s o u r c e d o c u m e n ts to p u n ch e d c a r d s .
O p e r a te s a n u m e r ic a l a n d /o r
a lp h a b e t i c a l o r c o m b i n a t i o n k e y p u n c h m a c h in e t o k e y p u n c h t a b u la t in g c a r d s . M a y v e r i f y c a r d s .
W o r k in g f r o m v a r i o u s s t a n d a r d i z e d s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , f o l l o w s s p e c i f i e d s e q u e n c e s w h ic h h a v e
b e e n c o d e d o r p r e s c r i b e d in d e t a i l a n d r e q u i r e li t t l e o r n o s e l e c t i n g , c o d i n g , o r i n t e r p r e t i n g
o f d a ta t o b e p u n c h e d . P r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m e r r o n e o u s i t e m s o r c o d e s , m i s s i n g in f o r m a t i o n ,
e t c ., a r e r e f e r r e d to s u p e r v is o r .

d.
S e c r e t a r y t o t h e h e a d o f a n in d iv i d u a l p la n t , f a c t o r y , e t c . ( o r o t h e r e q u iv a le n t l e v e l
o f o f f i c i a l ) t h a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
e.
S e c r e t a r y t o t h e h e a d o f a l a r g e a n d im p o r t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t ( e . g . , a m id d l e
m a n a g e m e n t s u p e r v i s o r o f a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t o f t e n in v o l v i n g a s m a n y a s s e v e r a l
h u n d r e d p e r s o n s ) o f a c o m p a n y t h a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .
C la s s

O F F IC E

BOY

O R G IR L

P e r f o r m s v a r i o u s r o u t i n e d u t i e s s u c h a s r u n n in g e r r a n d s , o p e r a t i n g m i n o r o f f i c e m a ­
c h i n e s s u c h a s s e a l e r s o r m a i l e r s , o p e n in g a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g m a i l , a n d o t h e r m i n o r c l e r i c a l w o r k .

SECRETARY

M a y a ls o p e r fo r m o th e r c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r ia l ta s k s o f c o m p a r a b le n a tu re and d iffic u lt y .
T h e w o r k t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s k n o w l e d g e o f o f f i c e r o u t i n e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f th e o r g a n i z a t i o n ,
p r o g r a m s , a n d p r o c e d u r e s r e l a t e d t o th e w o r k o f th e s u p e r v i s o r .
E x clu s io n s
N o t a l l p o s i t i o n s th a t a r e t it l e d " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s th e a b o v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . E x a m p le s
o f p o s i t i o n s w h ic h a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e d e f i n i t i o n a r e a s f o l l o w s ; (a ) P o s i t i o n s w h ic h d o n o t m e e t
th e " p e r s o n a l " s e c r e t a r y c o n c e p t d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ; (b ) s t e n o g r a p h e r s n o t f u l l y t r a i n e d in s e c r e t a r i a l
t y p e d u t i e s ; (c ) s t e n o g r a p h e r s s e r v i n g a s o f f i c e a s s i s t a n t s t o a g r o u p o f p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l ,
o r m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n s ; (d ) s e c r e t a r y p o s i t i o n s in w h ic h th e d u t i e s a r e e i t h e r s u b s t a n t ia ll y m o r e
r o u t i n e o r s u b s t a n t ia ll y m o r e c o m p l e x a n d r e s p o n s i b l e th a n t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i z e d in th e d e f i n i t i o n ;
a n d (e ) a s s i s t a n t t y p e p o s i t i o n s w h ic h in v o l v e m o r e d i f f i c u l t o r m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e t e c h n i c a l , a d m in ­
i s t r a t i v e , s u p e r v i s o r y , o r s p e c i a l i z e d c l e r i c a l d u t i e s w h ic h a r e n o t t y p i c a l o f s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k .
N O T E : T h e t e r m " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r , " u s e d in th e l e v e l d e f i n i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g , r e f e r s t o
t h o s e o f f i c i a l s w h o h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r p o r a t e - w i d e p o l i c y m a k i n g r o l e w it h r e g a r d t o m a j o r
c o m p a n y a c t i v i t i e s . T h e t it l e " v i c e p r e s i d e n t , " th o u g h n o r m a l l y i n d i c a t i v e o f t h is r o l e , d o e s n o t
in a l l c a s e s i d e n t i f y s u c h p o s i t i o n s . V i c e p r e s i d e n t s w h o s e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o a c t p e r ­
s o n a l l y o n in d iv i d u a l c a s e s o r t r a n s a c t i o n s ( e . g . , a p p r o v e o r d e n y in d iv i d u a l lo a n o r c r e d i t a c t i o n s ;
a d m i n i s t e r in d iv i d u a l t r u s t a c c o u n t s ; d i r e c t l y s u p e r v i s e a c l e r i c a l s t a ff) a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o b e
" c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s " f o r p u r p o s e s o f a p p l y in g th e f o l l o w i n g l e v e l d e f i n i t i o n s .

a ll,

A

a.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e c h a i r m a n o f t h e b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , in
o v e r 1 00 b u t f e w e r th a n 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

b.
S e c r e t a r y t o a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o t h e r th a n t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t )
o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 b u t f e w e r th a n 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
c.
S e c r e t a r y to th e h e a d (im m e d ia t e ly b e lo w
s e g m e n t o r s u b s id ia r y o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s ,
C la s s

a ll,

a.
S e c r e t a r y t o a n e x e c u t i v e o r m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n w h o s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s n o t e q u iv a le n t
t o o n e o f t h e s p e c i f i c l e v e l s i t u a t i o n s in t h e d e f i n i t i o n f o r c l a s s B , b u t w h o s e s u b o r d in a t e s t a f f
n o r m a l l y n u m b e r s at l e a s t s e v e r a l d o z e n e m p l o y e e s a n d i s u s u a l l y d i v i d e d in t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l
s e g m e n t s w h ic h a r e o f t e n , in t u r n , f u r t h e r s u b d i v id e d . In s o m e c o m p a n i e s , t h is l e v e l i n c lu d e s
a w id e r a n g e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e c h e l o n s ; in o t h e r s , o n l y o n e o r t w o ; o r
b.
S e c r e t a r y t o t h e h e a d o f a n in d iv i d u a l p l a n t , f a c t o r y , e t c . ( o r o t h e r e q u iv a le n t l e v e l
o f o f f i c i a l ) th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , f e w e r th a n 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

A s s i g n e d a s p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o r m a l l y t o o n e in d iv i d u a l. M a in t a in s a c l o s e a n d h i g h l y
r e s p o n s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o th e d a y - t o - d a y w o r k a c t i v i t i e s o f th e s u p e r v i s o r . W o r k s f a i r l y in d e ­
p e n d e n t ly r e c e i v i n g a m in i m u m o f d e t a i l e d s u p e r v i s i o n a n d g u id a n c e .
P e r fo r m s v a r ie d c l e r i c a l
a n d s e c r e t a r i a l d u t i e s , u s u a l l y in c lu d in g m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : (a ) R e c e i v e s t e le p h o n e c a l l s ,
p e r s o n a l c a l l e r s , a n d i n c o m i n g m a i l , a n s w e r s r o u t i n e i n q u i r i e s , a n d r o u t e s th e t e c h n i c a l i n q u i r i e s
t o th e p r o p e r p e r s o n s ; (b ) e s t a b l i s h e s , m a i n t a i n s , a n d r e v i s e s th e s u p e r v i s o r 's f i l e s ; ( c ) m a in t a in s
th e s u p e r v i s o r 's c a l e n d a r a n d m a k e s a p p o i n t m e n t s a s i n s t r u c t e d ; (d ) r e l a y s m e s s a g e s f r o m s u p e r ­
v i s o r t o s u b o r d i n a t e s ; (e ) r e v i e w s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , m e m o r a n d u m s , a n d r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s
fo i* th e s u p e r v i s o r 's s i g n a t u r e t o a s s u r e p r o c e d u r a l a n d t y p o g r a p h i c a c c u r a c y ; a n d (f ) p e r f o r m s
s t e n o g r a p h i c a n d t y p in g w o r k .

C la s s

C

th e c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r le v e l ) o f a m a jo r
in a l l , o v e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

B

a.
S e c r e t a r y to th e c h a ir m a n
f e w e r th a n 100 p e r s o n s ; o r

o f th e b o a r d

o r p r e s i d e n t o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s ,

in

b.
S e c r e t a r y t o a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o t h e r th a n t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e b o a ^ d o r p r e s i d e n t )
o f a c o m p a n y t h a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 100 b u t f e w e r th a n 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
c.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e h e a d (im m e d ia t e ly b e lo w th e o f f i c e r le v e l) o v e r e it h e r a m a jo r
c o r p o r a t e - w i d e fu n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ( e . g . , m a r k e t i n g , r e s e a r c h , o p e r a t i o n s , i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t io n s , e t c .) o r a m a jo r g e o g r a p h ic o r o r g a n iz a t io n a l s e g m e n t ( e .g ., a r e g io n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s ;
a m a j o r d i v i s i o n ) o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 ,0 0 0 b u t f e w e r th a n 2 5 , 0 0 0
e m p lo y e e s ; o r




C la s s

D

a.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e s u p e r v i s o r o r h e a d o f a s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n it ( e . g . , f e w e r th a n
a b ou t 25 o r 30 p e r s o n s ) ;

or

b.
S e c r e t a r y to a n o n s u p e r v is o r y s t a ff s p e c ia lis t , p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e , a d m in is t r a ­
t iv e o f f i c e r , o r a s s is t a n t , s k ille d t e c h n ic ia n o r e x p e r t.
(N O T E ;
M a n y co m p a n ie s a s s ig n
s t e n o g r a p h e r s , r a t h e r th a n s e c r e t a r i e s a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t o t h is l e v e l o f s u p e r v i s o r y o r
n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r .)

STENOGRAPHER,

GENERAL

P r i m a r y d u ty i s t o t a k e d i c t a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a n o r m a l r o u t i n e v o c a b u l a r y f r o m o n e o r m o r e
p e r s o n s e i t h e r in s h o r t h a n d o r b y S t e n o t y p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e ; a n d t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t i o n . M a y
a l s o t y p e f r o m w r i t t e n c o p y . M a y m a in t a in f i l e s , k e e p s i m p l e r e c o r d s , o r p e r f o r m o t h e r r e l a t i v e l y
ro u tin e c l e r i c a l t a s k s .
M a y o p e r a te f r o m a s te n o g r a p h ic p o o l.
D o e s n o t i n c lu d e t r a n s c r i b i n g m a c h in e w o r k .
(S e e t r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r . )

STENOGRAPH ER,

S E N IO R

P r i m a r y d u ty i s t o t a k e d i c t a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a v a r i e d t e c h n i c a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y
s u c h a s in l e g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s o n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h f r o m o n e o r m o r e p e r s o n s e i t h e r in s h o r t ­
hand o r b y S te n o ty p e o r s i m il a r m a c h in e ; an d t r a n s c r i b e d ic t a t io n . M a y a l s o ty p e f r o m w r itte n
cop y.
M a y a l s o s e t u p a n d m a in t a in f i l e s , k e e p r e c o r d s , e t c .
OR
P e r f o r m s s t e n o g r a p h i c d u t i e s r e q u i r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r in d e p e n d e n c e a n d r e s p o n s i ­
b i l i t y th a n s t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l a s e v i d e n c e d b y th e f o l l o w i n g : W o r k r e q u i r e s h ig h d e g r e e o f
s t e n o g r a p h ic s p e e d a n d a c c u r a c y ; a n d a t h o r o u g h w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s a n d o f f i c e
p r o c e d u r e s a n d o f th e s p e c i f i c b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o l i c i e s , p r o c e d u r e s , f i l e s ,
w o r k flo w , e t c .
U s e s t h is k n o w l e d g e in p e r f o r m i n g s t e n o g r a p h i c d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n s i b l e c l e r i c a l
t a s k s s u c h a s , m a in t a in i n g f o l l o w u p f i l e s ;- a s s e m b l i n g m a t e r i a l f o r r e p o r t s , m e m o r a n d u m s , l e t t e r s ,
e t c .; c o m p o s in g s im p le le t t e r s f r o m g e n e r a l in s t r u c t io n s ; r e a d in g and ro u tin g in c o m in g m a il; and
a n s w e r in g ro u tin e q u e s t io n s , e t c .
D o e s n o t i n c lu d e t r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h i n e w o r k .

S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R
C l a s s A . O p e r a t e s a s i n g l e - o r m u l t i p l e - p o s i t i o n t e le p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d lin g i n c o m i n g ,
o u t g o in g , i n t r a p la n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s . P e r f o r m s f u l l t e le p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e o r h a n d le s
c o m p l e x c a l l s , s u c h a s c o n f e r e n c e , c o l l e c t , o v e r s e a s , o r s i m i l a r c a l l s , e i t h e r in a d d i t io n t o
d o in g r o u t i n e w o r k a s d e s c r i b e d f o r s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r , c l a s s B , o r a s a f u l l - t i m e
a s s i g n m e n t . ( " F u l l " t e le p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e o c c u r s w h e n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t h a s v a r i e d
f u n c t io n s th a t a r e n o t r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b le f o r t e l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n p u r p o s e s , e . g . , b e c a u s e
o f o v e r la p p in g o r in t e r r e la t e d fu n c t io n s , and c o n s e q u e n tly p r e s e n t fr e q u e n t p r o b le m s a s to
w h ic h e x t e n s i o n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c a l l s . )
C l a s s B . O p e r a t e s a s i n g l e - o r m u l t i p l e - p o s i t i o n t e le p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d lin g i n c o m i n g ,
o u t g o in g , in t r a p la n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s . M a y h a n d le r o u t i n e lo n g d i s t a n c e c a l l s a n d r e c o r d t o l l s .
M a y p e r f o r m l i m i t e d t e le p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e . ( " L i m i t e d " t e le p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e
o c c u r s i f t h e f u n c t io n s o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e r v i c e d a r e r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b le f o r t e le p h o n e
i n f o r m a t i o n p u r p o s e s , o r i f t h e r e q u e s t s a r e r o u t i n e , e . g . , g iv in g e x t e n s i o n n u m b e r s w h e n
s p e c i f ic n a m e s a r e fu r n is h e d , o r i f c o m p le x c a ll s a r e r e f e r r e d to a n o th e r o p e r a t o r .)

15
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR— Continued

In addition to perform ing duties of operator on a sin gle-p osition or m onitor-type sw itch­
board, acts as receptionist and m ay also type or p erform routine c le rica l work as part of regular
duties. This typing o r cle rica l work m ay take the m ajor part of this w o rk e r's tim e while at
switchboard.

Class C. Operates sim ple tabulating or e le ctrica l accounting machines such as the
s o rte r, reproducing punch, co lla to r, e tc., with s p e cific instructions. May include sim ple
wiring from diagram s and som e filing w ork. The work typically involves portions of a work
unit, for exam ple, individual sorting o r collating runs or repetitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A . Operates a variety of tabulating or e le ctrica l accounting m achines, typically
including such m achines as the tabulator, calculator, interp reter, co lla to r, arid others.
P erform s com plete reporting assignm ents without close supervision, and p erform s difficult
w iring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating assignm ents typically involve a
va riety of long and com plex reports which often are of irregu la r or nonrecurring type r e ­
quiring som e planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a m ore experienced op erator,
is typically involved in training new op erators in machine operation s, or p artially trained
operators in w iring from diagram s and operating sequences of long and com plex rep orts.
Does not include working su p ervisors p erform ing tabulating-m achine operations and d a y -to day supervision of the work and production of a group of tabulating-m achine op erators.
Class B. Operates m ore difficult tabulating or electrica l accounting m achines such as the
tabulator and ca lcu la tor, in addition to the s o rte r, rep rod u cer, and colla tor. This work is
p erform ed under s p ecific instructions and may include the perform ance of som e wiring fro m
diagram s. The w ork typically involves, for exam ple, tabulations involving a repetitive
accounting e x e r c is e , a com plete but sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and m ore
com plex rep ort. Such reports and studies are usually of a recu rrin g nature where the p r o ­
cedures are w ell established. May also include the training of new em ployees in the basic
operation of the m achine.

P rim a ry duty is to transcribe dictation involving a norm al routine vocabulary from
transcribin g-m achine re co rd s. May also type from written copy and do sim ple c le rica l work.
W orkers transcribin g dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
b riefs or reports on scien tific resea rch are not included. A w orker who takes dictation in short­
hand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is cla ssifie d as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make out bills after ca lcu la ­
tions have been made by another person. May include typing of sten cils, m ats, or sim ilar m ate­
ria ls fo r use in duplicating p ro ce s s e s. May do cle rica l work involving little special training, such
as keeping sim ple r e c o rd s , filing re co rd s and rep orts, or sorting and distributing incom ing m ail.
Class A . P e rfo rm s one or m ore of the follow ing: Typing m aterial in final form when it
involves com bining m aterial from several sou rces or resp onsibility for co r re ct spelling,
syllabication, punctuation, e tc., of technical or unusual w ords or foreign language m aterial;
and planning layout and typing of com plicated statistical tables to maintain uniform ity and
balance in spacing. May type routine form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
Class B . P erfo rm s one or m ore of the follow ing: Copy typing from rough or clear drafts;
routine typing of fo rm s, insurance p o lic ie s, e tc.; and setting up sim ple standard tabulations,
or copying m ore com plex tables already setup and spaced p rop erly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D T E C H N IC A L
COMPUTER OPERATOR

COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS

M onitors and operates the con trol con sole of a digital com puter to p ro ce s s data accordin g
to operating instructions, usually p repared by a p rog ra m er. W ork includes m ost of the follow ing:
Studies instructions to determ ine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
item s (tape r e e ls , ca rd s, e tc.); switches n ecessa ry auxiliary equipment into circ u it, and starts
and operates com puter; m akes adjustments to com puter to c o r r e c t operating p rob lem s and m eet
special conditions; review s e r r o r s made during operation and determ ines cause or re fe rs p roblem
to su p ervisor or p rog ra m er; and maintains operating re co rd s. May test and a ssist in correctin g
p rogram .

Converts statements of business p rob lem s, typically prepared by a system s analyst, into
a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the p rob lem s by automatic data
p ro ce ssin g equipment. Working fro m charts or diagram s, the p rog ra m er develops the p re cise
instructions which, when entered into the com puter system in coded language, cause the manipu­
lation of data to achieve d esired results. Work involves m ost of the follow ing: A pplies knowledge
of computer cap abilities, m athem atics, lo g ic em ployed by com puters, and particular subject m atter
involved to analyze charts and diagram s of the p rob lem to be p rogram ed. D evelops sequence
of p rogram steps, w rites detailed flow charts to show o rd e r in which data w ill be p ro ce s s e d ;
con verts these charts to coded instructions fo r m achine to follow ; tests and c o r r e c t s p rog ra m s;
p repares instructions fo r operating p ersonnel during production run; analyzes, review s, and alters
program s to in crease operating e fficie n cy or adapt to new requirem ents; maintains re co rd s of
p rogram developm ent and rev ision s. (NOTE: W orkers perform ing both system s analysis and p r o ­
gram ing should be cla ss ifie d as system s analysts if this is the skill used to determ ine their pay.)

F or wage study purp oses, com puter operators are cla ss ifie d as fo llo w s:
C lass A . O perates independently, or under only general d irection, a com puter running
p rogram s with m ost of the follow ing ch a ra cteristics: New p rog ra m s are frequently tested and
introduced; scheduling requirem ents are of cr itica l im portance to m inim ize downtime; the
p rog ra m s are of com plex design so that identification of e r r o r sou rce often requires a working
knowledge of the total program , and alternate p rogram s m ay not be available. May give
d irection and guidance to low er level op era tors.
C lass B. O perates independently, o r under only general d irection , a com puter running
p rog ra m s with m ost of the following ch a ra cteris tics: M ost of the p rog ra m s are established
production runs, typ ically run on a regularly recurring b a s is; there is little or no testing
of new p rog ra m s required; alternate p rogram s are p rovided in ca se origin al program needs
m ajor change o r cannot be co r re cte d within a reasonable tim e. In com m on e r r o r situations,
diagnoses cause and takes c o r re ctiv e action. This usually involves applying prev iou sly p r o ­
gram ed co r re ctiv e steps, or using standard c o r re ctio n techniques.

Does not include em ployees p rim a rily responsible fo r the management o r supervision of
other e lectron ic data p ro ce s s in g (EDP) em p loyees, o r p rog ra m ers p rim a rily con cerned with
scien tific a n d /o r engineering p rob lem s.
F o r wage study p u rp oses, prog ra m ers are cla ss ifie d as follow s:
C lass A . W orks independently o r under only general d irection on com p lex p roblem s which
require com petence in all phases of program ing concepts and p ra ctice s. W orking fro m dia­
gram s and charts which identify the nature of d e sired results, m ajor p ro ce ssin g steps to be
a ccom plished, and the relationships between variou s steps of the p rob lem solving routine;
plans the full range of program ing actions needed to efficiently utilize the com puter system
in achieving d esired end products.

OR
O perates under d irect supervision a com puter running p rogram s o r segm ents of program s
with the ch a ra cteristics d escrib ed for cla ss A. May assist a higher level operator by inde­
pendently perform ing less d ifficult tasks assigned, and perform ing difficult tasks following
detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations p erform ed .
C lass C . W orks on routine p rogram s under clo s e supervision. Is expected to develop
working knowledge of the com puter equipment used and ability to detect p rob lem s involved in
running routine p rog ra m s. Usually has receiv ed som e form a l training in com puter operation.
May a ssist higher lev el operator on com p lex p rogra m s.




At this level, program ing is d ifficult because com puter equipment must be organized to
produce severa l interrelated but d iverse products fro m numerous and d iverse data elem ents.
A wide va riety and extensive number of internal p ro ce ssin g actions must occu r. This requires
such actions as developm ent of com m on operations which can be reused, establishm ent of
linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when p rogram requirem ents exceed
com puter storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing o f data elements
to fo rm a highly integrated program .
May provide functional d irection to low er le v e l p rog ra m ers who are assigned to a ssist.

16
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS— Continued

COMPUTER PROGRAM ER, BUSINESS— Continued
C lass B . W orks independently o r under only general d irection on relatively sim ple
p rog ra m s, or on sim ple segm ents of com p lex p rog ra m s. P ro g ra m s (or segm ents) usually
p ro ce s s inform ation to produce data in two o r three va ried sequences or form a ts. R eports
and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making m inor additions to or
deletions from input data which are readily available. While numerous re co rd s m ay be
p ro ce s s e d , the data have been refined in p rio r actions so that the accu ra cy and sequencing
of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. T ypically, the p rogram deals with
routine record -k eep in g type operations.
OR
W orks on com p lex p rog ra m s (as d escrib ed for cla ss A) under clo s e d irection of a higher
level p rog ra m er or su p ervisor. May a ssist higher le ve l p rog ra m er by independently p e r ­
form ing less d ifficult tasks assigned, and perform ing m ore difficult tasks under fa ir ly clo se
d irection.
May guide or instruct low er level p rog ra m ers.

OP
Works on a segm ent of a com p lex data p ro ce ssin g schem e or system , as d escrib ed for
cla ss A. W orks independently on routine assignm ents and re ce iv e s instruction and guidance
on com p lex assignm ents. Work is review ed fo r a ccu ra cy of judgm ent, com pliance with in­
structions, and to insure p rop er alinement with the overall system .
C lass C . W orks under imm ediate supervision, ca rryin g out analyses as assigned, usually
of a single activity. A ssignm ents are designed to develop and expand p ra ctica l experience
in the application of p roced u res and skills required fo r system s analysis w ork. F o r exam ple,
m ay a ssist a higher le ve l system s analyst by preparing the detailed specification s required
by p ro g ra m e rs fro m inform ation developed by the higher le v e l analyst.
DRAFTSMAN

C lass C . Makes p ra ctica l applications of program ing p ra ctice s and concepts usually
learned in form a l training cou rses . A ssignm ents are designed to develop com petence in the
application of standard proced u res to routine p rob lem s. R eceives clo s e supervision on new
aspects of assignm ents; and w ork is review ed to v erify its a ccu ra cy and con form an ce with
required p roced u res.
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS
Analyzes business p roblem s to form ulate p roced u res fo r solving them by use of electron ic
data p rocessin g equipment. Develops a com plete d escrip tion of all specification s needed to enable
p rog ra m ers to p rep are required digital com puter p rog ra m s. Work involves m ost of the follow ing:
Analyzes su b ject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and cr ite ria required
to achieve satisfa ctory resu lts; sp ecifies pumber and types of re c o rd s, file s, and docum ents to
be used; outlines actions to be p erform ed by personnel and com puters in sufficient detail fo r
presentation to management and fo r p rogram ing (typically this involves preparation of work and
data flow ch arts); coordin ates the developm ent of test p roblem s and participates in tria l runs of
new and rev ised system s; and recom m ends equipment changes to obtain m ore effective overall
operations. (NOTE; W orkers p erform in g both system s analysis and program ing should be c l a s ­
sified as system s analysts if this is the skill used to determ ine their pay.)
Does not include em ployees p rim a rily resp onsible fo r the management or supervision of
other electron ic data p rocessin g (EDP) em ployees, or system s analysts p rim a rily con cerned with
scien tific or engineering prob lem s.
F or wage study p u rp oses,

maintaining accounts receiva ble in a reta il establishm ent, o r maintaining inventory accounts
in a m anufacturing or. w h olesale establishm ent.) C onfers with p ersons con cerned to determ ine
the data p ro ce ssin g p rob lem s and advises su b ject-m atter p ersonnel on the im plications of the
data p ro ce ssin g system s to be applied.

C lass B . P e rfo r m s nonroutine and com p lex drafting assignm ents that require the appli­
cation of m ost of the standardized drawing techniques regu la rly used. Duties typ ically in­
volve such w ork as: P re p a re s working drawings of subassem blies with irreg u la r shapes,
m ultiple functions, and p r e c is e positional relationships between com ponents; p rep a res a rch i­
tectural drawings fo r con struction of a building including detail drawings of foundations, wall
section s, flo o r plans, and roof. U ses accepted form ulas and manuals in making n ece ssa ry
computations to determ ine quantities of m aterials to be used, load cap a cities, strengths,
s tr e ss e s, etc.
R eceives initial instructions, requirem ents, and advice fro m supervisor.
Com pleted work is checked fo r technical adequacy.
C lass C . P re p a re s detail drawings of single units o r parts fo r engineering, construction,
m anufacturing, or repair p urposes. Types of drawings prepared include iso m e tric p rojection s
(depicting three dim insions in accu rate scale) and section al view s to cla rify positioning of
com ponents and convey needed inform ation. C onsolidates details fro m a number of sou rces
and adjusts o r transposes sca le as required. Suggested m ethods of approach, applicable
preced en ts, and advice on source m aterials are given with initial assignm ents. Instructions
are le ss com plete when assignm ents re cu r. W ork m ay be spot-ch eck ed during p ro g re ss .
DRAFTSM AN-TRACER

system s analysts are cla ss ifie d as follow s;

C lass A . W orks independently or under only general d irection on com plex problem s
involving all phases of system s analysis. P rob lem s are com p lex because of diverse sources
of input data and m ultip le-u se requirem ents of output data. (F o r exam ple, develops an inte­
grated production scheduling, inventory con trol, cost analysis, and sales analysis re c o rd in
which every item of each type is autom atically p ro ce s s e d through the full system of record s
and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the com puter.) Confers with p erson s co n ­
cerned to determ ine the data p rocessin g p roblem s and advises subject-m atter p ersonnel on
the im plications of new o r rev ised system s of data p ro ce ssin g operations. Makes r e c o m ­
m endations, if needed, fo r approval of m ajor system s installations o r changes and fo r
obtaining equipment.
May provide functional d irection to low er level system s analysts who are assigned to
assist.
Class B . W orks independently or under only general d irection on p roblem s that are
relatively uncom plicated to analyze, plan, p rogra m , and operate. P rob lem s are of lim ited
com plexity because sou rces of input data are hom ogeneous and the output data are clo s e ly
related. (F or exam ple, develops system s for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank,

M A IN T E N A N C E

C lass A . Plans the graphic presentation of com p lex item s having distinctive design
features that differ significantly fro m established drafting preceden ts. W orks in clo se sup­
port with the design origin ator, and m ay recom m end m inor design changes. Analyzes the
effect of each change on the details of fo rm , function, and positional relationships of co m ­
ponents and parts. W orks with a m inimum of su p e rviso ry assista n ce. Com pleted w ork is
review ed by design origin ator fo r con sisten cy with p rio r engineering determ inations. May
either p rep are drawings, o r d ire ct their preparation by low er level draftsm en.

At

C opies plans and drawings p repared by others by placing tracing cloth or paper over
drawings and tracing with pen o r p encil. (Does not include tracing lim ited to plans p rim a rily
consisting of straight lines and a la rge sca le not requiring clo s e d elin ea tion .)
a n d /o r
P re p a re s sim ple o r repetitive drawings of e a sily visu a lized item s. W ork is clo s e ly supervised
during p ro g re ss .
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (R egistered)
A re g iste re d nurse who gives nursing se rv ice under general m ed ical d irection to ill or
injured em ployees or other persons who becom e ill or suffer an accident on the p re m ise s of a
fa cto ry o r other establishm ent. Duties involve a com bination of the follow ing: Giving firs t aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent d ressing of em p loyees' in ju ries; keeping re co rd s
of patients treated; preparing accident reports fo r com pensation or other p u rp oses; assisting in
physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and em p loyees; and planning and c a r r y ­
ing out p rog ra m s involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent,
or other activities affecting the health, w elfa re, and safety of all personnel.

D POW ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE— Continued

P e rfo r m s the carpentry duties n ecessa ry to construct and maintain in good repair building
woodw ork and equipment such as b ins, cr ib s , cou nters, benches, partitions, d o o rs , flo o r s , sta irs,
casin gs, and trim made of w ood in an establishm ent. W ork involves m ost of the follow ing: Planning
and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, m od els, or verbal instructions using a variety

of ca rp en ter's handtools, portable pow er to o ls, and standard m easuring instrum ents; making
standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of w ork; and selecting m aterials n ecessa ry
fo r the work. In gen eral, the w ork of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and
experien ce usually acquired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship o r equivalent training and experien ce.




17
ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (Maintenance)----Continued

P erform s a variety of electrica l trade functions such as the installation, maintenance,
or repair of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of e lectric energy in an
establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of
electrica l equipment such as generators, transform ers, switchboards, con trollers, circuit break­
e rs , m otors, heating units, conduit system s, or other transm ission equipment; working from
blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the
electrica l system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of
wiring or electrica l equipment; and using a variety of electricia n 's handtools and measuring and
testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

the various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels,
adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and
equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the establishment in which employed with power,
heat, refrigeration, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, air com p ressors, generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating and re frig ­
erating equipment, steam boilers and b oiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and
keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also su­
pervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing m ore than one
engineer are excluded.
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power,
or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, or gas or oil burner;
and checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES
A ssists one or m ore workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by perform ing specific
or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with m aterials and tools;
cleaning .working area, machine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding m aterials or
tools; and perform ing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the
helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is con­
fined to supplying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in
others he is permitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are
also perform ed by workers on a full-tim e basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine tools, such as jig b o re rs,
cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes, or milling machines, in the construction of
machine-shop tools, gages, jig s, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following: Plan­
ning and perform ing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring com plicated setups
or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of p recision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling, and operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recognize when tools need d re s s ­
ing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. F or c r o s s ­
industry wage study purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom , in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification.
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of mechan­
ical equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Interpreting
written instructions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of m a­
ch in ists handtools and p recision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine
tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to
dimensions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties
of the common metals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for his work;
and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the m achinist's work
normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves most
of the following: Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
dismantling or partly dismantling machines and perform ing repairs that mainly involve the use
of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained
from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of the
machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs; preparing written specifications for m ajor repairs
or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling machines; and making
all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic r e ­
quires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose prim ary
duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and installs machines or
heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. Work involves most of the fo l­
lowing: Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using
a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to stresses,
strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting stand­
ard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transm ission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m illwright's work
norm ally requires a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing surfaces of mechanical
equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establishment. Work in­
volves the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of paint required for different
applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May m ix co lo rs , o ils,
white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an
establishment. Work involves most of the following: Laying out of work and measuring to lo ­
cate position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe
to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machine; thread­
ing pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating
to p ressu res, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether
finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. W orkers prim arily engaged in installing and repairing building sanita­
tion or heating systems are excluded.
PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order. Work involves: Knowledge
of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or r e ­
pairing pipes and fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plum ber's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (Maintenance)

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE

Repairs automobiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an establishment. Work in­
volves m ost of the following: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
disassem bling equipment and perform ing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as
wrenches, gages, d rills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and installing

F abricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal equipment and fix ­
tures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts,
metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels, or other specifications;
setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal working machines; using a variety of




18
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE--- Continued

TOOL AND DIE MAKER— Continued

handtools in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

using a variety of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision measuring instruments; under­
standing of the working properties of common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of
machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heat-treating of metal parts during fabrication
as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate
m aterials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die m aker's work requires a rounded
training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experience.

TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)
Constructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gages, jig s, fixtures or dies for forgings,
punching, and other m etal-form ing work. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of work from m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;

F or cross-in d ustry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
GUARD AND WATCHMAN
Guard. P erform s routine p olice duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining
order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate
and check on identity of employees and other persons entering.
Watchman. Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property against fire,
theft, and illegal entry.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible for incoming ship­
ments of merchandise or other m aterials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping
procedures, p ra ctices, routes, available means of transportation, and rate; and preparing r e c ­
ords of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and
keeping a file of shipping record s. May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for ship­
ment. Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correctness of
shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other record s; checking for shortages and rejecting
damaged goods; routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; and maintaining n eces­
sary records and files.

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
F or wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washroom s, or
prem ises of an office, apartment house, or com m ercial or other establishment. Duties involve
a combination of the following; Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing
chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures
or trimm ings; providing supplies and minor maintenance services; and cleaning lavatories, show­
ers, and restroom s. W orkers who specialize in window washing are excluded.
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; w are­
houseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment
whose duties involve one or m ore of the following; Loading and unloading various m aterials and
merchandise on or from freight ca rs, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting m aterials or
merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accord ­
ance with specifications on sales slips, customers* ord ers, or other instructions. May, in addition
to filling orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing ord ers, requi­
sition ^additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping

and

receiving

clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m aterials, merchandise,
equipment, or men between various types of establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight
depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers,
make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and
over-th e-road drivers are excluded.
F or wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size and type of equipment,
as follow s; (T ra ctor-tra iler should be rated on the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
T ruckdriver, light (under IV2 tons)
T ruckdriver, medium (1V to and including 4 tons)
2
T ruckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
T ruckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping con­
tainers, the specific operations perform ed being dependent upon the type, size, and number of
units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or m ore of the following: Knowl­
edge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size
of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying
data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.




Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-p ow ered truck or tractor to
transport goods and materials of all kinds ctbout a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other
establishment.
F or wage study purposes, workers a;re classified by type of truck, as follows:
T rucker, power (forklift)
T rucker, power (other than forklift)

Available O n R e q u e s t
T h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s a r e s u r v e y e d p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r u s e in a d m i n i s t e r i n g the S e r v i c e C o n t r a c t A c t o f 1965.
a v a i l a b l e at n o c o s t w h i l e s u p p l i e s la s t f r o m a n y o f the B L S r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s s h o w n on the i n s i d e f r o n t c o v e r .

A b ilen e, T ex.
A lask a
A l b a n y , Ga.
A le x a n d r ia , La.
A l p e n a , S ta n d ish , and T a w a s C i t y , M i c h .
A m arillo, Tex.
Ann A r b o r , M ich .
A s h e v i l l e , N .C .
A t l a n t i c C i t y , N .J .
A u g u s t a , G a .—S .C .
Au stin , T ex .
B a k e r s f i e l d , C a lif .
B aton R o u g e , La.
B i l l i n g s , M o n t.
B i l o x i , G u l f p o r t , and P a s c a g o u l a , M i s s .
B r i d g e p o r t , N o r w a l k , and S t a m f o r d , Con n.
C h a r l e s t o n , S .C .
Cheyenne, Wyo.
C l a r k s v i l l e , T e r m . , and H o p k i n s v i l l e , K y.
C o lo r a d o Springs, C olo.
C o l u m b i a , S .C .
C o l u m b u s , G a.—A l a .
C r a n e , Ind.
D e c a t u r , 111.
D oth a n, A l a .
D u l u t h - S u p e r i o r , M in n .—W i s .
D u r h a m , N .C .
E l P a so, Tex.
Eugene, O reg.
F a r g o — o o r h e a d , N. Dak.—M in n.
M
F a y e t te v ille , N .C .
F i t c h b u r g —L e o m i n s t e r , M a s s .
F o r t S m ith , A r k . ^ ) k l a .
F r e d e r i c k — a g e r s t o w n , M d . - P a . - W , Va.
H
G r e a t F a l l s , M o n t.
G r e e n s b o r o — i n s t o n S a l e m — igh P o i n t , N .C .
W
H
H arrisbu rg, Pa.
H a r t f o r d , Conn.
H u n t s v i l l e , A la .

C o p ie s o f p u blic r e le a s e s

K n o x v ille , Tenn.
Laredo, Tex.
L a s V e g a s , Nev.
L e x i n g t o n , K y.
L o w e r E a s t e r n S h o r e , M d.—V a .
L y n c h b u r g , Va.
M a c o n , Ga.
M a d ison , W is.
M a r q u e t t e , E s c a n a b a , Sault Ste. M a r i e , M i c h .
M erid ian, M is s .
M i d d l e s e x , M o n m o u t h , O c e a n and S o m e r s e t
C o s . , N .J .
M o b i l e , A l a . , and P e n s a c o l a , F la .
M o n t g o m e r y , A la .
N a s h v ille , Tenn.
N e w L o n d o n — r o t o n — o r w i c h , Con n.
G
N
N o r t h e a s t e r n M a in e
O g d e n , Utah
O r l a n d o , F la .
O x n ard — entura, C alif.
V
P a n a m a C i t y , F la .
P in e B lu ff, A rk .
P o r t s m o u t h , N.H .—M a in e — a s s .
M
P u e b lo , C olo.
R e n o , Nev.
S a c r a m e n t o , C a lif .
S a lin a , K a n s .
S a lin a s — o n t e r e y , C a lif .
M
Santa B a r b a r a , C a lif .
S h r e v e p o r t , La.
S p r i n g f i e l d — h i c o p e e — o l y o k e , M a s s . —Conn.
C
H
S t o c k t o n , C a lif .
T a c o m a , W ash.
T op ek a , Kans.
Tucson, A riz.
V a l d o s t a , Ga.
V a l l e j o — a p a , C a lif .
N
W ichita F a lls , Tex.
W i l m i n g t o n , D e l. —N .J .—M d .

T h e e l e v e n t h annual r e p o r t on s a l a r i e s f o r a c c o u n t a n t s , a u d i t o r s , c h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s , a t t o r n e y s , j o b a n a l y s t s , d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l ,
b u y e r s , c h e m i s t s , e n g i n e e r s , e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s , d r a f t s m e n , and c l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e s .
O r d e r a s B L S B u lle t in 1693, N a tio n a l
S u r v e y o f P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , T e c h n i c a l , and C l e r i c a l P a y , J un e 1 9 7 0 , $ 1 . 0 0 a c o p y , f r o m th e S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s ,
U .S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 2 0 4 0 2 , o r any o f it s r e g i o n a l s a l e s o f f i c e s .




are




A r e a W a g e S u rv e y s
A l i s t o f the l a t e s t a v a i l a b l e b u l l e t i n s is p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . A d i r e c t o r y o f a r e a w a g e s t u d ie s in c lu d in g m o r e l i m i t e d s tu d ie s c o n d u c t e d at the
r e q u e s t o f the W a g e and H o u r D i v i s i o n o f the D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r is a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t . B u l l e t i n s m a y b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m the S u p e rin te n d e n t o f
D o c u m e n t s . U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n , D . C . , 2 0 4 02 , o r f r o m any o f the B L S r e g i o n a l s a l e s o f f i c e s s h o w n on the in s i d e f r o n t c o v e r .

A rea

B u lle t in n u m b e r
and p r i c e

A k r o n , O h i o , J u l y 1970____________________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 8 8 ,
A lb a n y —S c h e n e c t a d y —T r o y , N . Y . , M a r . 1971 1________
1685-54,
A l b u q u e r q u e , N. M e x . , M a r . 1971----------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 5 8 ,
A lle n t o w n —B e t h l e h e m —E a s t o n , P a . —N . J . , M a y 1 9 7 1 __ 1 6 8 5 - 7 5 ,
A t la n t a , G a . , M a y 1971____ ________________________________ 1 6 8 5 - 6 9 ,
B a l t i m o r e , M d . , Aug. 1970 1 _____________________________
16 8 5- 18 ,
B e a u m o n t —P o r t A rth u r—O r a n g e , T e x . , M a y 1971 1 ----- 1 6 8 5 - 6 8 ,
B in g h a m t o n , N . Y . , J u l y 1 9 7 0 _____________________________ 1 6 8 5 - 6 ,
B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , M a r . 1971 1 __________________________ 1 6 8 5 - 6 3 ,
B o i s e C it y , Idaho, N o v . 1970 1 ___________________________ 1 6 8 5 - 2 1 ,
B o s t o n , M a s s . , Aug. 1970 1 ______________________________
1 6 8 5 -1 1,
B u f f a l o , N . Y . , O c t . 1970 1-------------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 4 3 ,
B u r l i n g t o n , V t ., M a r . 1971 1 _____________________________
1685-59,
C a n to n , O h i o , M a y 1971____ ______________________________
1 6 8 5 -7 1
C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a . , M a r . 197 1-------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 5 7 ,
C h a r l o t t e , N . C . , Jan. 1971---------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 4 8 ,
1685-10,
C h a t t a n o o g a , T e n n . - G a . , Sept. 1 9 7 0 * __________________
C h i c a g o , 111., June 1970___________________________________ 1 6 6 0 - 9 0 ,
C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o — y .—I n d . , F e b . 197 1 1--------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 5 3 ,
K
C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , Sep t. 1970 1-------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 2 8 ,
C o l u m b u s , O h i o , O c t . 1970 1--------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 3 3 ,
D a l l a s , T e x . , O c t . 1970 1 -------------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 2 2 ,
D a v e n p o r t —R o c k Is la nd — o l i n e , Iowa—111.,
M
F e b . 197 1----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 5 1 ,
D a y ton , O h i o , D e c . 1970 1--------------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 4 5 ,
D e n v e r , C o l o . , D e c . 1970 -------------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 4 1 ,
D e s M o i n e s , I o w a , M a y 1971-------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 7 0 ,
D e t r o i t , M i c h . , F e b . 1971 1
------------------------------------------------ 1 6 8 5 - 7 7 ,
F o r t W o r t h , T e x . , O c t . 1970 1 ------------------------------------------ 1 6 8 5 - 2 5 ,
G r e e n B a y , W i s . , J u l y 1970 1 ------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 4 ,
G r e e n v i l l e , S . C . , M a y 1971 1---------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 7 8 ,
H o u s t o n , T e x . , A p r . 1971 1------------------------------------------------ 1 6 8 5 - 6 7 ,
I n d ia n a p o lis , Ind., O c t . 1970 1____________________________ 1 6 8 5 - 3 1 ,
J a c k s o n , M i s s . , Jan. 1971 1______________________________
1685-39,
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , D e c . 1970 1----------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 3 7 ,
K a n s a s C it y , M o . —K a n s . , Sep t. 1 9 7 0 1---------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 1 6 ,
L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i l l , M a s s . —N . H . , June 1970 1------------ 1 6 6 0 - 8 2 ,
H
L it t l e R o c k — o r t h L it t l e R o c k , A r k . , J u ly 1970 1-------- 1 6 8 5 - 1 ,
N
L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —Santa A n a G a r d e n G r o v e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1971 1____________________
1685-66,
L o u i s v i l l e , K y.—I n d . , N o v . 1970__________________________ 1 6 8 5 - 2 7 ,
L u b b o c k , T e x . , M a r . 1971-------------------------------- ----------------- 1 6 8 5 - 6 0 ,
M a n c h e s t e r , N . H . , J u l y 1 9 7 0 1 ___________________________ 1 6 8 5 - 2 ,
M e m p h i s , T e n n . - A r k . , N o v . 1970------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 3 0 ,
M i a m i , F l a . , N o v . 1970 1---------------------------------------------------- 1 6 8 5 - 2 9 ,
M id la n d and O d e s s a , T e x . , Jan. 1971------------------------------ 1 6 8 5 - 4 0 ,
M i l w a u k e e , W i s . , M a y 1971---------------------------------------------685-76,
M i n n e a p o l i s —St. P a u l , M in n . , Jan. 1971_________________ 1 6 8 5 - 4 4 ,

1 Data on establishment practices


30
35
30
30
40
50
35
30
40
35
50
50
35
30
30
30
35
60
45
50
40
50

cents
ce n ts
ce n ts
cents
cents
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
cents
cen ts
ce n ts
cents
ce n ts
ce n ts
cents
cents
ce n ts
cen ts
ce n ts
cen ts

30 cents
40 ce n ts
35 ce n ts
3 0 c e n ts
50 c e n t s
35 ce n ts
35 c e n t s
35 c e n t s
50 c e n ts
40 ce n ts
35 ce n ts
35 ce n ts
45 c e n t s
35 c e n t s
35 c e n t s
50
30
30
35
30
40
30
35
40

and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

cents
cen ts
ce n ts
cents
ce n ts
cen ts
cen ts
cents
ce n ts

A rea
M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M i c h . , June 1971____ —
M
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y , N . J . , Jan. 1971----------------------N ew H av e n , C o n n . , Jan. 197 1_____________________________
N e w O r l e a n s , L a . , Jan. 1971 1____________________________
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r . 1 9 7 0 1_____________________________
N o r f o l k — o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s —
P
H a m p t o n , V a . , Jan. 1971 1 ---------------------------------------------O k l a h o m a C i t y , O k la . , J u ly 1970_________________________
O m a h a , N e b r . - I o w a , Sept. 1970 1 ________________________
P a t e r son—C l i f t o n — a s s a i c , N . J . , June 1970 1__________
P
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . —N . J . , N o v . 1970_______________________
P h o e n i x , A r i z . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 1---------------------------------------------P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , Jan. 1971 1---------------------------------------------P o r t l a n d , M a i n e , N o v . 1970_______________________________
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . - W a s h . , M a y 1970 1_____________________
P r o v i d e n c e —P a w t u c k e t - W a r w i c k , R .I.—M a s s . ,
M a y 1971 1__________________________________________________
R a l e i g h , N . C . , Aug. 1970 1________________________________
R i c h m o n d , V a . , M a r . 1971________________________________
R o c h e s t e r , N . Y . ( o f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s o n ly ),
A u g . 1970_____________________________ _____________________
R o c k f o r d , 111., M a y 1 9 7 1._________________________________
St. L o u i s , M o . —111., M a r . 1971 1__________________________
Salt L a k e C it y , Utah, N o v . 1 9 7 0 * ------------------------------------San A n t o n i o , T e x . , M a y 1971 1-----------------------------------------San B e r n a r d i n o — i v e r s id e — n t a r i o , C a l i f . ,
R
O
D e c . 1970 1--------------------------------------------------------------------------San D i e g o , C a l i f . , N o v . 1970---------------------------------------------San F r a n c i s c c r - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , O ct . 1970---------------------San J o s e , C a l i f . , A u g . 1970___________________ __________
Savan nah , G a . , M a y 1971__________________________________
S c r a n t o n , P a . , J u l y 1 9 7 0 * _________________________________
S e a t tle —E v e r e t t , W a s h . , Jan. 1971 1_____________________
S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k ., D e c . 1970 1
-------------------------------------South B e n d , Ind., M a r . 1971---------------------------------------------Spokane, W a sh .,
June 1970 1 ____________________________
S yr a c u s e , N .Y .,
J u ly 1 9 7 0 ______________________________
Tampa—
St. P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , N o v . 1970-------------------------T o l e d o , O h i o — i c h . , A p r . 1971 1-------------------------------------M
T r e n t o n , N . J . , Sept. 1970 1 _______________________________
U t ic a — o m e , N . Y . , J u l y 1 9 7 0 ____________________________
R
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . —M d.—V a . , A p r . 1971--------------------------W a t e r b u r y , C o n n . , M a r . 1971-------------------------------------------W a t e r l o o , Io w a ,
N o v . 1970 1
_____________________________
W ichita, K an s.,
A p r . 1971--- -----------------------------------------W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , M a y 1971-------------------------------------------Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1971----------------------------------------------------------Y o u n g s t o w n — a r r e n , O h i o , N o v . 1970___________________
W

B u lle tin n u m b e r
and p r i c e
1685-82,
1685-47,
1685-35,
1685-36,
1660-89,

30 c e n ts
40 c e n ts
30ce n ts
40 ce n ts
75 c e n t s

1685-46,
1685-5,
1685-14,
1660-87,
1685-34,
1660-70,
1685-49,
1685-19,
1660-77,

35c e n ts
30c e n ts
35c e n ts
45 c e n t s
50ce n ts
35c e n ts
50ce n ts
30ce n ts
40 c e n t s

1685-80,
1 6 8 5 - 12,
1685-62,

40 c e n ts
35c e n t s
30 c e n ts

1685-7,
1685-79,
1685-65,
1685-26,
1685-81,

30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
50 c e n t s
35c e n ts
35 c e n ts

1685-42,
1685-20,
1685-23,
1685-13,
1685-72,
1685-3,
1685-52,
1685-38,
1685-61,
1660-86,
1685-8,
1685-17,
1685-74,
1 6 8 5 - 15,
1685-9,
1685-56,
1685-55,
1685-32,
1685-64,
1685-73,
1685-50,
1685-24,

40 c e n ts
30ce n ts
40 ce n ts
30 c e n ts
30 ce n ts
35 c e n t s
35ce n ts
35ce n ts
30ce n ts
35 c e n t s
30 c e n ts
30c e n t s
40 c e n ts
35 c e n t s
30c e n ts
4 0 ce n ts
30ce n ts
35 ce n ts
30 ce n ts
30 ce n ts
30ce n ts
30ce n ts

U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Wa s h i n g t o n ,

d .c

.

20212

O F F IC IA L BUSINESS
P E N A LTY FOR P R IV A TE USE, $300




POSTAGE A N D FEES PAID

U.S. D EPA R TM EN T OF LABOR
FIR ST CLASS M A IL

!


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102