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l_z. 3

‘.




Sayton & Montgomery Gd,
Public Library

O T 111971
C
D C MN C LE T N
O U E T OL CIO :

■

AR EA WAGE SURVEY
—H a v e rh ill, M a s s a c h u s e tts —N e w H a m p s h ire ,
M e tro p o lita n A re a , June 1971

B u lle tin 1 6 8 5 - 8 3
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R / Bureau of Labor Statistics

BUREAU

OF

LABOR

S TA TIS TIC S

R E G IO N A L

O F F IC E S

ALASKA

Region I
1603-A Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)
Region V
219 South Dearborn St.
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: 353-7230 (Area Code 312)




Region II
341 Ninth Ave., Rm. 1025
New York, N .Y . 10001
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region III
406 Penn Square Building
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Region VI
1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

Regions V II and V III
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 10th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Regions V II and V III will be serviced by Kansas City.
Regions IX and X will be serviced by San Francisco.

U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR




J. D. Hodgson, Secretary

B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
G e o ffre y H . M o o re , C o m m issio ner

AREA WAGE SURVEY
T h e L a w re n c e —H a v e rh ill, M a s s a c h u s e tts —N e w H a m p s h ire ,
M e tro p o lita n A re a , Ju ne 1971
B u lle tin 1 6 8 5 - 8 3
September 1971

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 — Price 30 cents




C o n te n ts

P re fa c e

Page
T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s p r o g r a m o f an n u al
o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s in m e t r o p o li t a n a r e a s i s d e ­
s ig n e d t o p r o v id e d a ta o n o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s , a n d e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s a n d s u p p le m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v is io n s .
It
y i e l d s d e t a ile d d a ta b y s e l e c t e d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n f o r e a c h
o f th e a r e a s s t u d ie d , f o r g e o g r a p h ic r e g i o n s , a n d f o r th e
U n ite d S t a t e s .
A m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n in th e p r o g r a m i s
th e n e e d f o r g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o (1 ) th e m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s
b y o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y a n d s k il l l e v e l , a n d (2 ) th e s t r u c ­
tu re a n d le v e l o f w a g e s a m o n g a r e a s a n d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s .

I n t r o d u c t i o n --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------W a g e t r e n d s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s ___________________________________
T a b le s :
1. E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w i t h i n s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d
n u m b e r s t u d i e d ___________________________________________________________________
2. In d e x e s o f s ta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la r ie s a n d s tr a ig h t-t im e
h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s , an d
p e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s _____________________________
A.

A t th e e n d o f e a c h s u r v e y , a n in d iv id u a l a r e a b u l­
le tin p r e s e n t s th e s u r v e y r e s u l t s .
A fte r c o m p le tio n o f a ll
o f th e in d iv id u a l a r e a b u lle t in s f o r a r o u n d o f s u r v e y s , tw o
s u m m a r y b u lle tin s , a r e is s u e d .
T h e f i r s t b r in g s d a ta f o r
e a c h o f th e m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s s tu d ie d in t o o n e b u lle t in .
T h e s e c o n d p r e s e n t s i n f o r m a t io n w h ic h h a s b e e n p r o j e c t e d
f r o m in d iv id u a l m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a d a ta to r e la t e to g e o ­
g r a p h ic r e g i o n s a n d th e U n ite d S t a t e s .

O c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s :
A - 1. O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s —m e n a n d w o m e n ------------------------------------- ---------A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s —m e n a n d w o m e n —
A - 3. O ffic e , p r o fe s s io n a l, a n d t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s —
m e n a n d w o m e n c o m b i n e d ________________________
A - 4 . M a i n t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s ________________________
A - 5 . C u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s _______________

A p p e n d ix .

O c c u p a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s _______________________________________________

N in e t y a r e a s c u r r e n t l y a r e in c lu d e d in th e p r o ­
gram .
In e a c h a r e a , in fo r m a tio n on o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s
is c o l l e c t e d a n n u a lly a n d on e s ta b lis h m e n c p r a c t i c e s a n d
s u p p le m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v is io n s b ie n n ia lly .
T h is b u lle t in p r e s e n t s
r e s u lts
o f t h e s u r v e y in
L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i l l , M a s s . —N . H . , i n J u n e 1 9 7 1 . T h e S t a n d ­
a r d M e t r o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a , a s d e fin e d b y th e B u r e a u
o f th e B u d g e t th r o u g h J a n u a r y 1 9 6 8 , c o n s i s t s o f th e c i t i e s o f
L a w r e n c e a n d H a v e r h ill; th e to w n s o f A n d o v e r , G e o r g e t o w n ,
G r o v e la n d , M e r r im a c , M eth u en , N o rth A n d o v e r , and W e st
N e w b u r y in E s s e x C o u n t y , M a s s .; a n d th e t o w n s o f N e w to n ,
P la is t o w , and S a le m
in R o c k in g h a m
C o u n t y , N .H .
T h is
s t u d y w a s c o n d u c t e d b y t h e B u r e a u 's r e g i o n a l o f f i c e in
B o s t o n , M a s s ., u n d e r th e g e n e r a l
d ir e c tio n
of Paul V.
M u lk e r n , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l D i r e c t o r f o r O p e r a t io n s .




areas.

iii

NOTE:
(S e e

S im ila r ta b u la tio n s
in s id e b a c k c o v e r .)

are

a v a ila b le

fo r

oth er

1
4

3

5

6
7
7
8
9
11




In tr o d u c tio n
T h i s a r e a i s 1 o f 9 0 i n w h i c h t h e U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ' s
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta t is t ic s c o n d u c ts s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s
and r e la te d b e n e fits on an a r e a w id e b a s i s .1

e i t h e r (1 ) e m p l o y m e n t in t h e o c c u p a t i o n i s t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h
d a t a t o m e r i t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r (2 ) t h e r e i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e
o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t d a ta . E a r n in g s d a ta n o t s h o w n s e p a r a t e ly
f o r in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s a r e in c lu d e d in a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d d a ta ,
w h e r e s h o w n . L i k e w i s e , d a ta a r e in c lu d e d in th e o v e r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
w h en a s u b c la s s ific a t io n o f s e c r e t a r ie s o r t r u c k d r iv e r s is n ot sh ow n
o r in fo r m a tio n to s u b c la s s ify is n o t a v a ila b le .

T h is b u lle t in p r e s e n t s c u r r e n t o c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t a n d
e a r n in g s in fo r m a t io n o b ta in e d la r g e l y b y m a il f r o m th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s
v i s i t e d b y B u r e a u f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s in th e la s t p r e v io u s s u r v e y f o r
o c c u p a t io n s r e p o r t e d in th a t e a r l i e r s tu d y . P e r s o n a l v i s i t s w e r e m a d e
to n o n r e s p o n d e n ts a n d to th o s e r e s p o n d e n ts r e p o r t in g u n u su a l ch a n g e s
s in c e th e p r e v io u s s u r v e y .

O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t a n d e a r n in g s d a ta a r e
sh ow n fo r
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i .e ., th o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d u le
in th e g iv e n o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s i f ic a t i o n .
E a r n in g s d a ta e x c lu d e p r e ­
m iu m
p a y fo r o v e r tim e
and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s,
h o lid a y s , and
la te s h ifts .
N o n p r o d u c tio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g
a llo w a n c e s a n d in c e n t iv e e a r n in g s a r e in c lu d e d . W h e r e w e e k ly h o u r s
a r e r e p o r t e d , a s f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , r e f e r e n c e is to th e
s ta n d a r d w o r k w e e k (r o u n d e d t o th e n e a r e s t h a lf h o u r ) f o r w h ic h e m ­
p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r s tr a ig h t-t im e s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e o f p a y
f o r o v e r tim e at r e g u la r a n d /o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ). A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n ­
in g s f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t io n s h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d t o th e n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

In e a c h a r e a , d a t a a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m
re p r e s e n ta tiv e e s ta b ­
lis h m e n t s w ith in s ix b r o a d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s : M a n u fa c tu r in g ; t r a n s ­
p o r t a tio n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le t r a d e ;
r e t a il t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s . M a jo r
in d u s t r y g r o u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a ­
t io n s a n d th e c o n s t r u c t io n a n d e x t r a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s .
E s ta b lis h m e n ts
h a v in g f e w e r th a n a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m it t e d b e c a u s e
t h e y te n d to fu r n is h in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d
to w a r r a n t in c lu s io n .
S e p a r a t e ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d f o r e a c h o f
th e b r o a d in d u s t r y d iv is io n s w h ic h m e e t p u b lic a t io n c r i t e r i a .

T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e th e l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n in g s in
a n a r e a a t a p a r t ic u l a r t im e . C o m p a r is o n s o f in d iv id u a l o c c u p a t io n a l
a verages
o v e r t im e m a y n o t r e f l e c t e x p e c t e d w a g e c h a n g e s .
The
a v e r a g e s f o r in d iv id u a l j o b s a r e a f f e c t e d b y c h a n g e s in w a g e s a n d
e m p lo y m e n t p a t t e r n s . F o r e x a m p le , p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d
b y h ig h - o r lo w -w a g e fir m s m a y ch a n g e o r h ig h -w a g e w o r k e r s m a y
a d v a n ce to b e tte r jo b s and b e r e p la c e d b y n ew w o r k e r s at lo w e r ra te s.
S u c h s h if t s in e m p lo y m e n t c o u ld d e c r e a s e a n o c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e e v e n
th o u g h m o s t e s t a b lis h m e n t s in a n a r e a i n c r e a s e w a g e s d u r in g th e y e a r .
T r e n d s in e a r n in g s o f o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s , s h o w n in t a b le 2 , a r e b e t t e r
i n d ic a t o r s o f w a g e t r e n d s th a n in d iv id u a l jo b s w ith in th e g r o u p s .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c te d on a s a m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f
th e u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s .
To
o b ta in o p t im u m
a c c u r a c y a t m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f
l a r g e t h a n o f s m a l l e s t a b l is h m e n t s is s t u d ie d . In c o m b in i n g t h e d a t a ,
h o w e v e r , a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e g iv e n t h e ir a p p r o p r ia t e w e ig h t. E s ­
t im a t e s b a s e d o n th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s s tu d ie d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e ,
a s r e la t in g t o a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s in th e in d u s t r y g r o u p in g a n d a r e a ,
e x c e p t f o r t h o s e b e lo w th e m in im u m s iz e s tu d ie d .
O c c u p a t io n s a n d E a r n in g s
T h e o cc u p a tio n s s e le c te d f o r stu d y a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie t y
o f m a n u fa c t u r in g a n d n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s t r ie s ,
a n d a r e o f th e
fo llo w in g t y p e s ;
( l ) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (2 ) p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n ic a l ;
( 3 ) m a i n t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t ; a n d (4 ) c u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e ­
m en t.
O c c u p a t io n a l c la s s if ic a t io n is b a s e d o n a u n ifo r m
s e t o f jo b
d e s c r ip t io n s d e s ig n e d to ta k e a c c o u n t o f in t e r e s t a b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n
in d u tie s w ith in th e s a m e jo b .
T h e o c c u p a tio n s
s e le c t e d fo r stu d y

T h e a v e ra g e s p resen ted
r e f le c t c o m p o s it e , a r e a w id e e s t i ­
m a tes.
I n d u s t r ie s a n d e s t a b lis h m e n t s d i f f e r in p a y l e v e l a n d jo b
s ta ffin g a n d , th u s , c o n tr ib u t e d iffe r e n t ly to th e e s t im a t e s f o r e a c h jo b .
T h e p a y r e la t io n s h ip o b ta in a b le fr o m th e a v e r a g e s m a y f a il t o r e f l e c t
a c c u r a t e l y t h e w a g e s p r e a d o r d i f f e r e n t i a l m a i n t a i n e d a m o n g j o b s in
in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s . S im i l a r ly , d i f f e r e n c e s in a v e r a g e p a y l e v e ls

f o r m e n a n d w o m e n in a n y o f th e s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s h o u ld n o t b e
a s s u m e d to r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y t r e a t m e n t o f th e s e x e s w ith in
in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s .
O t h e r p o s s i b le f a c t o r s w h ic h m a y c o n ­
t r ib u t e t o d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y f o r m e n a n d w o m e n i n c lu d e : D i f f e r e n c e s
in p r o g r e s s i o n w it h in e s t a b l is h e d
r a te r a n g e s , s in c e o n ly th e a c t u a l
1
Included in the 90 areas are four studies conducted under contract with the New York State
r a t e s p a id i n c u m b e n t s a r e c o l l e c t e d ; a n d d i f f e r e n c e s in s p e c i f i c d u t ie s
Department of Labor. These areas are Binghamton (New Yoric portion only); Rochester (o ffice occu­
p e r f o r m e d , a lth o u g h th e w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a p p r o p r ia t e ly w ith in
pations only); Syracuse; and Utica—Rome. In addition, the Bureau conducts more limited area studies
th e s a m e s u r v e y j o b d e s c r i p t i o n . J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g
in 77 areas at the request of the Wage and Hour Division of the U. S. Department of Labor.
a r e l i s t e d a n d d e s c r i b e d in th e a p p e n d ix . T h e e a r n in g s d a ta fo llo w in g
th e jo b t it le s a r e f o r a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d . E a r n in g s d a ta f o r s o m e
o f th e o c c u p a t io n s l is t e d a n d d e s c r i b e d , o r f o r s o m e in d u s t r y d iv is io n s
w it h in o c c u p a t i o n s , a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d in th e A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , b e c a u s e




1

2

e m p lo y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u a lly m o r e g e n e r a l iz e d th a n t h o s e
u s e d in in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s a n d a llo w f o r m in o r d i f f e r e n c e s
a m o n g e s t a b lis h m e n t s in th e s p e c i f i c d u t ie s p e r f o r m e d .
O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t th e t o t a l in a ll
e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in th e s c o p e o f th e s tu d y a n d n o t th e n u m b e r a c t u ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e a m o n g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s , th e e s t im a t e s o f o c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in e d f r o m
th e s a m p le o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s s tu d ie d s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a t e th e r e la t iv e
im p o r t a n c e o f th e j o b s
s tu d ie d .
T h e s e d iffe r e n c e s
in o c c u p a t io n a l
s t r u c t u r e d o n o t a ffe c t m a t e r i a l l y th e a c c u r a c y o f th e e a r n in g s d a ta .




E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c t ic e s

a n d S u p p le m e n t a r y W a g e P r o v i s i o n s

T a b u la tio n s o n s e le c t e d e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s a n d s u p p le ­
m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s ( B - s e r i e s t a b le s ) a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d in t h is
b u lle tin .
I n fo r m a t io n f o r t h e s e ta b u la tio n s is
c o lle c t e d b ie n n ia lly .
T h e s e t a b u la t io n s o n m in im u m
e n tra n ce
s a la r ie s fo r in e x p e r ie n c e d
w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s ; s h ift d iffe r e n t ia ls ; s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s ;
p a id h o l i d a y s ; p a id v a c a t i o n s ;
a n d h e a lth ,
in s u r a n c e ,
and p e n s io n
p la n s a r e p r e s e n t e d (in th e B - s e r i e s t a b le s ) in p r e v io u s b u lle t in s f o r
t h is a r e a .

T a b le 1. Establishm ents and w o rk e rs within scope of survey and n um ber studied in
L a w re n c e —Haverhill, M ass.—N .H .,1 by m ajo r industry division,2 June 1971
Minimum
em ploym ent
in esta b lish ­
ments in sdope
o f study

Industry division

A ll division s________________________________
Manufacturing___________________________________
Nonmanufa c tur ing_______________________________
Transportation, com m unication, and
other public utilities 5 6
-------------------------------W holesale trade 6
-------------------------------------------R etail trade 6_________________________________
____ Finance, insurance, and rea l estate 6
S ervices b 7
-------------------------------------------------------

W orkers in establishm ents

Number o f establishm ents

Within scope o f study4
Within scope
o f study*

.

Studied

Studied
Number

P ercent

175

74

42,342

100

29,365

50
-

102
73

37
37

34,375
7,967

81
19

24, 286
5, 079

50
50
50
50
50

9
12
35
9
8

6
5
14
6
6

1, 039
683
3, 738
1, 726
781

2
2
9
4
2

788
299
2, 128
1,251
613

1 The Lawrence— averhill Standard M etropolitan Statistical A rea , as defined by the Bureau of the Budget through January 1968, con sists of
H
the citie s of Law rence and H averhill; the towns r' ( Andover, G eorgetow n, Groveland. M errim a c, Methuen, North A ndover, and West Newbury in
E s s e x County, M ass.; and the towns ot~Newton, P iaistow , and Salem in Kockingham County, N.H. The "w ork ers within scope of study" estim ates
shown j.n this table provide a reasonably accu rate descrip tion of the size and com position of the labor fo r c e included in the survey. The estim ates
are not intended, how ever, to serve as a basis of com parison with other em ploym ent indexes fo r the area to m easure em ploym ent trends or levels
since (1) planning of wage surveys requ ires the use of establishm ent data com piled con sid era b ly in advance of the payroll period studied, and
(2) sm all establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial C la ssifica tion Manual was used in classifyin g establishm ents by industry division .
3 Includes all establishm ents with total em ploym ent at or above the m inim um lim itation. A ll outlets (within the area) of com panies in such
industries as trade, finance, auto repair s e rv ice , and m otion picture theaters are con sid ered as 1 establishm ent.
4 Includes all w orkers in all establishm ents with total em ploym ent (within the area) at or above the m inim um lim itation. ,
5 Taxicabs and s e rv ice s incidental to water transportation w ere excluded.
6 This industry d ivision is represented in estim ates for "a ll in du stries" and "nonm anufacturing" in the S eries A tables. Separate presentation
of data fo r this division is not m ade fo r one or m o re of the follow ing rea son s: (1) Employment in the d ivision is too sm all to provide enough data
to m e rit separate study, (2) the sam ple was not designed initially to perm it separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to
perm it separate presentation, and (4) there is p ossib ility of d isclo s u re of individual establishm ent data.
7 Hotels and m otels; laundries and other personal s e r v ic e s ; busin ess s e r v ic e s ; autom obile rep a ir, rental, and parking; m otion pictu res;
nonprofit m em bersh ip organizations (excluding religiou s and charitable organ ization s); and engineering and arch itectu ral s e r v ic e s .




Over fou r-fifth s of the w ork ers within scope of the survey in the Law rence— averhill
H
area w ere em ployed in manufacturing fir m s . The follow ing presents the m ajor industry
groups and sp ecific industries as a percen t of all m anufacturing:
Industry groups

S pecific industries

E le c tr ic a l equipment and
supplies_________________________26
Leather and leather
p ro d u cts ________________________ 18
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s -----------13
Textile m ill p ro d u cts___________ 9
Rubber and p lastics
p ro d u cts_______________________ 7
A pparel and other textile
p ro d u cts_______________________ 6
M achinery, except e le ctrica l_____ 6

Com m unication equipment--------- 24
F ootw ear, except ru b b e r_______ 15
O rdnance________________________ 13
M iscellaneou s p lastics
p ro d u cts ______________________ 5
Yarn and thread m il l s ___________ 5

This inform ation is based on estim ates of total em ploym ent derived fro m universe
m ateria ls com p iled p rio r to actual survey. P rop ortion s in variou s industry d ivision s m ay
d iffer fro m p rop ortions based on the results of the survey as shown in table 1 above.

W a g e T re n d s fo r S e le c te d O c c u p a tio n a l G ro u p s
P r e s e n t e d in ta b le 2 a r e in d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f ch a n g e
in a v e r a g e s a la r ie s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u s t r ia l n u r s e s ,
and in a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f s e l e c t e d p la n t w o r k e r g r o u p s . T h e in d e x e s
a r e a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g iv e n t i m e , e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t o f
w a g e s d u rin g the b a s e p e r io d .
S u b tr a c tin g 100 f r o m th e in d e x y ie ld s
the p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e in w a g e s f r o m th e b a s e p e r io d to th e da te o f
the in d e x .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f ch a n g e o r i n c r e a s e r e la t e to w a g e
c h a n g e s b e tw e e n the in d ic a t e d d a t e s .
Annual ra te s o f in c r e a s e , w h ere
sh ow n , r e f l e c t th e a m ou n t o f i n c r e a s e f o r 12 m o n th s w h en the tim e
p e r io d b e tw e e n s u r v e y s w a s o th e r than 12 m o n th s . T h e s e c o m p u ta tio n s
w e r e b a s e d o n th e a s s u m p tio n th at w a g e s i n c r e a s e d at a c o n s t a n t ra te
b e tw e e n s u r v e y s .
T h e s e e s t im a t e s a r e m e a s u r e s o f c h a n g e in a v e r ­
a g e s f o r th e a r e a ; th e y a r e n ot in te n d e d to m e a s u r e a v e r a g e p a y
c h a n g e s in the e s t a b lis h m e n t s in th e a r e a .

s h o w s th e p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e .
T h e in d e x is th e p r o d u c t o f m u lt ip ly in g
the b a s e y e a r r e la t iv e (1 0 0 ) b y th e r e la t iv e f o r th e n e x t s u c c e e d in g
y e a r and co n tin u in g to m u lt ip ly (c o m p o u n d ) e a c h y e a r 's r e la t iv e b y the
p r e v io u s y e a r 's in d e x .
F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u s t r ia l n u r s e s , the w a ge
tr e n d s r e la t e to r e g u la r w e e k ly s a l a r i e s f o r the n o r m a l w o r k w e e k ,
e x c lu s iv e o f e a r n in g s f o r o v e r t i m e .
F o r p la n t w o r k e r g r o u p s , th e y
m e a s u r e c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s , e x c lu d in g
p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and
la te s h if t s .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s a re b a s e d o n d a ta f o r s e l e c t e d k e y o c c u ­
p a tio n s and in c lu d e m o s t o f th e n u m e r ic a lly im p o r t a n t jo b s w ith in
ea ch grou p .
L im it a t io n s o f D a ta

M e th o d o f C o m p u tin g
T h e in d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e , as m e a s u r e s o f
ch a n g e in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a r e in flu e n c e d b y :
(1) g e n e r a l s a la r y and
w a g e c h a n g e s , (2) m e r i t o r o t h e r i n c r e a s e s in p a y r e c e i v e d b y in d i­
v id u a l w o r k e r s w h ile in th e s a m e jo b , and (3) c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e
w a g e s due to c h a n g e s in th e l a b o r f o r c e r e s u lt in g f r o m la b o r tu r n ­
o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s io n s , f o r c e r e d u c t io n s , and c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r ­
tio n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith d if f e r e n t p a y l e v e l s .
C h a n g e s in the la b o r f o r c e c a n c a u s e i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the
o c c u p a t io n a l a v e r a g e s w ith ou t a c tu a l w a g e c h a n g e s .
It is c o n c e iv a b le
that e v e n th ou gh a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s in an a r e a g a v e w a g e i n c r e a s e s ,
a v e r a g e w a g e s m a y h av e d e c lin e d b e c a u s e l o w e r - p a y in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e n te r e d the a r e a o r e x p a n d e d t h e ir w o r k f o r c e s .
S im ila r ly , w a g e s
m a y h ave r e m a in e d r e la t iv e ly c o n s t a n t , y e t th e a v e r a g e s f p r an a r e a
m a y h av e r i s e n c o n s i d e r a b l y b e c a u s e h ig h e r - p a y in g e s t a b lis h m e n t s
e n t e r e d the a r e a .

E a c h o f th e f o llo w in g k e y o c c u p a t io n s w ith in an o c c u p a t io n a l
g r o u p w a s a s s ig n e d a c o n s t a n t w e ig h t b a s e d on it s p r o p o r t io n a t e e m ­
p lo y m e n t in the o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p :
Office clerical (men and women): Office clerical (men and women)— Skilled maintenance (men):
Carpenters
Continued
Bookkeeping-machine
Electricians
Secretaries
operators, class B
Machinists
Stenographers, general
Cledts, accounting, classes
Mechanics
Stenographers, senior
A and B
Mechanics (automotive)
Switchboard operators, classes
Cleiks, file, classes
Painters
A and B
A, B, and C
Pipefitters
Tabulating-machine operators,
Cleiks, order
Tool and die makers
class B
Cleiks, payroll
Typists, classes A and B
Comptometer operators
Unskilled plant (men):
Keypunch operators, classes
Janitors, porters, and cleaners
Industrial nurses (men and women):
A and B
Laborers, material handling
Nurses, industrial (registered)
Office boys and girls

The
p lie d b y th e
in th e g r o u p
w e r e r e la t e d
g a te f o r th e

T h e u s e o f c o n s t a n t e m p lo y m e n t w e ig h ts e lim in a t e s the e f f e c t
o f c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h j o b i n ­
c lu d e d in th e d a ta .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f ch a n g e r e f l e c t o n ly ch a n g e s
in a v e r a g e p a y f o r s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r s .
T h e y a r e n ot in flu e n c e d b y
c h a n g e s in s ta n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u le s , as s u c h , o r b y p r e m iu m pa y
fo r o v e r t im e .
W h e re n e c e s s a r y , d a ta w e r e a d ju s te d to r e m o v e f r o m
the in d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e any s ig n ific a n t e f f e c t c a u s e d
b y c h a n g e s in th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .

a v e r a g e (m e a n ) e a r n in g s f o r e a c h o c c u p a t io n w e r e m u lt i­
o c c u p a t io n a l w e ig h t, and th e p r o d u c t s f o r a ll o c c u p a t io n s
w e r e t o t a le d .
T h e a g g r e g a t e s f o r 2 c o n s e c u t iv e y e a r s
b y d iv id in g th e a g g r e g a t e f o r th e la t e r y e a r b y the a g g r e ­
e a r lie r y e a r .
T h e r e s u lta n t r e la t iv e , l e s s 100 p e r c e n t ,




4




T a b le 2.
Ind exes o f standard w e e kly salaries and straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupational groups in
L aw re n c e —Haverhill, M ass.—N .H., 'une 1 9 7 0 and June 1971, and percents of increase fo r selected periods
A ll industries
P eriod

O ffice
cle r ic a l
(men and
wom en)

Industrial
nurses
(men and
wom en)

Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

Manufacturing
Unskilled
plant
w ork ers
(men)

O ffice
cle r ic a l
(men and
wom en)

Industrial
nurses
(men and
wom en)

Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

U nskilled
plant
w orkers
(men)

126.2
146.1

117.6
126.4

115.4
123.8

133.9
195.8

127.2
160.8

126.1
156.2

2.4
4.2
6.3
5.9
3.6
5.9
4.2
9.8
4.9
9.7
15.8

3.8
6.7
2.7
3.3
2.0
(*)
(*)
3.3
8.0
5.4
7.5

6.3
5.5
3.1
2.9
2.4
3.1
6.7
2.4
6.7
5.6
7.3

Indexes (June 1967=100)
June 1970________________________________________
June 1 9 7 1 -......................................................................

120.4
127.7

126.2
146.1

118.4
127.3

115.1
122.9

(‘ )
O

Indexes (June 1961*100)
June 1967.........................................................................
June 1971_________ _____________________________

(*)
161.1

133.9
195.9

127.0
161.6

126.5
155.4

n
C )

P e rce n ts of in crease
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June

196 1 .. ______________________
1962_________________________
1963_________________________
1964_________________________
1965_________________________
1966_________________________
1967 ______________ _______
1968________________ _______
1969_________________________
1970. _______________________
1971_________________________

4.6
3.9
3.4
3.6
2.6
( ')
n

6.1
5.5
7.5
6.1

2.4
4.2
6.3
5.4
4.1
5.9
4.2
9.8
4.9
9.7
15.8

3.7
6.7
2.6
3.3
2.1
2.9
7.0
3.9
8.1
5.4
7.5

4.3
4.6
3.5
2.9
2.7
4.0
6.3
2.8
7.2
4.4
6.8

4.4
3.6
4.2
3.7
(M
(*)
n

(*)
C)
()
(M

______________ ______________
1 Data do not m eet publication cr ite ria .

NOTE: Mosjt p rev iou sly published indexes fo r the L aw rence— averh ill area used June 1961 as
H
the base p erio d . They can be con verted to the new base p eriod by dividing them by the corresp on din g
index num bers fo r June 1967 on the June 1961 base p e rio d as shown in the table. (The resu lt should
be m ultiplied by 100.)

6

A.

Occupational earnings

T a b le A -1 .

O f f ic e o c c u p a tio n s — m e n a n d w o m e n

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H., June 1971)
Weekly earnings 1
(standard)
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
woikers

Num ber o f w ork ers re ce ivin g straigh t-tim e w eekly earnings o f—
t

weekly

S
65

Mean 2

(standard)

Median2

$
70

$
75

$

$
80

85

90

S
95

$
100

t

t

$
105

110

115

$
120

$

$
125

130

»
135

S
140

t
150

$
160

*
170

s
180

190

, and
under

Middle range2

70

and
75

80

85

90

95

100

105

115

120

-

110

125

”

over

130

135

140

150

160

170

“

3

3

7

3

“

3
3

4
3

6
6

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

180

190

HEN

CLERKS,

ACCOUNTING,

CLASS

A

----------- -

18

39.5

$
139.00

$
144.00

$
$
134.50-149.00

2

"

~

WOMEN

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE
CLAj j 0

OPERATORS,

56

30.0

06.00

06. j 0

C L E R K S , A C C O U N T I N G , C L A S S A ------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------

50
37

39.0
39.0

117.50
119.50

114.00
114.50

110.50-132.00
111.50-136.00

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C L E R K S , A C C O U N T I N G , C L A S S B ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------

67
34
33

39.0
39.5
39.0

104.00
112.00
95.50

103.50
111.00
95.00

92.00-114.50
102.00-130.00
87.50-104.50

-

-

_
-

3
-

12
-

121
117

39.5
39.5

100.50
101.00

100.00
100.00

87.00-115.50
87.00-117.00

_
“

2
2

8
8

16
16

12
10

12
ii

ii
ii

24
24

97

39.5
*rU«U

113.50
11 . u u

109.50

106.50-125.50

_

-

_

_

3

_

5

C L E R K S * P A Y R O L L --------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------KEYPUNCH

OPERATORS,

CLASS

A

----------

An

n

16

*0.0

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S B ----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------

43
36

39.5
40.0

140.00
142.50

40.0

136.50

CLASS

C

-----------------

141

135.00
135.00
134.50

-

5
2

19
16

4
3

1
1

2

5
3

6
4

ii
4

8
5

7
6

3
2

3
1

1
1

7
7

1
1

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

4
3

2
2

4
4

10
10

6
6

6
6

-

2
2

2
2

-

-

-

-

*

“

-

6

38

10

8

1

24

-

_

2

_

_

_

_

_

3

30

ro

'

1

11
7
4

24
24

18
16
2

24
23
1

13
12
1

62
61
1

17
15
2

11
3
8

8
5
3

6
6
-

5
4
1

4
4

4
4

1
1

12
11

3
3

_

1

-

-

3
3

3
3

13

16

12

49

12

2

4

3

_

_

'

3
*rU.

39.5
40.0
38.0

_

3

*.UU

121.50-147.00
122.50-145.50
113.00-168.00

_

142.50
146.00

118.50-150.00
128.00-152.00

140.00

127.00-144.50

135.50
135.50
137.50

10

22

-

_
-

2
-

2
-

5
5
”

3
3
*

_
-

2

3
3

-

-

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

5
5

-

-

-

-

2

2

-

-

_

10
8
2

2

3

_

-

2
2

~

-

-

-

-

20

-

3

1GU« OO

3

3

3

3

3

**

42
32

39.0
40.0

118.00
110.50

110.00
109.00

106.50-124.00
106.50-117.00

-

_

_

-

3

_

-

-

1
1

-

-

1
1

_

-

4
4

6

-

2
2

1

-

5
5

_

-

16
16

_

-

3
3

_

-

-

-

-

~

-

-----------------

25

38.5

120.00

116.50

99.50-143.00

-

-

-

-

-

1

6

-

-

5

3

1

1

-

-

5

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S 0 ----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------GENERAL

SWITCHBOARD

OPERATORS,

CLASS

A -----

15

40.0

121.00

125.00

115.00-130.00

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

2

3

1

4

2

-

1

-

-

SWITCHBOARD

OPERATORS,

CLASS

B -----

16

39.0

101.50

105.50

93.00-110.00

-

-

-

-

1

5

-

2

5

1

1

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSM A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------

35
35

40.0
40.0

97.50
97.50

100.00
100.00

88.00-108.50
88.00-108.50

_

_

_

1
1

5
5

6
6

3
3

1
1

_

-

2
2

-

-

5
5

_

-

7
7

_

-

5
5

-

-

-

35

39* 5

99* 0 0

99*00

See footnotes at end of tables.




-

1
18
18
-

* u *u

STENOGRAPHERS,

_

nn

37
242
210
32

3
6
3

12

*w w w
«/

S E C R E T A R I E S --------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------

SECRETARIES,

8

-

_

-

*
_

_

-

_

-

-

7
T a b le A - 2 .

P r o fe s s io n a l a n d te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s — m e n a n d w o m e n

( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y h o u r s a n d e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s st u d i e d o n a n a r e a b a s i s
b y i n d u s t r y division, L a w r e n c e — H a v e r h i l l , M a s s . - N . H . , T u n e 1971)
Weekly earnings 1
( standard)
Number
of
workers

S e x , o c c u p a t i o n , a n d i n d u s t r y di vision

N u m b e r of w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s of—
$

r»
Li nder

weekly
Mean 2

Middle range2

^Median2

(standard)

*
125

$
130

^ 5

t
135

i
140

t
145

t
150

t

t
155

160

t
165

t
170

t
175

t
180

t
18!

and
under
130

190
and

140

145

3
1

135

150

3
2

-

2
2

3
3

-

155

160

165

-

4
2

-

175

2
2

2
2

170

180 - 1 8 5 -

190

over

3
3

3
3

MEN

29
17

40.0
40.0

$
152.50
154.50

160.00

139.00-175.50
132.50-175.50

25
25

C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S B --------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

40.0
40.0

164.50
164.50

170.00
170.00

142.50-186.00
142.50-186.00

$

$

1

4
4

3
-

z

7
4

2
2

3
3

2

WOMEN

N U R S E S , I N D U S T R I A L ( R E G I S T E R E D ) ------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

1
1

2
2

1
1

2
2

1
1

S e e fo o t n o t e s at e n d of tables.

T a b le A - 3 .

O f fic e , p ro fe s s io n a l, a n d te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s — m e n a n d w o m e n c o m b in e d

( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y h o u r s a n d e a r n i n g s for s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d i e d o n a n a r e a b a s i s b y i n d u s t r y division, L a w r e n c e - H a v e r h i l l ,
Average

O c c u p a t i o n a n d i n d u s t r y d i vi si on

OFFICE

Number
of
workers

Weekly

Weekly
earnings *
(standard) (standard)

OCCUPATIONS

Mass.-N.H.,

J u n e 1971)

Average
Number
of

O c c u p a t i o n a n d i n d u s t r y d i vi si on

OFFICE

OCCUPATIONS

-

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

Average

OFFICE

CONTINUED

Number
of
workers

O c c u p a t i o n a n d i n d u s t r y division

OCCUPATIONS

-

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

CONTINUED

$
v t U K t 1A K 1 t a
38

38.0

68
47

39.0
39.0
39*5

123.00
124.00
121.00

32

40.0
38.0
40.0

155.00

3*

AU . O
An n

140 00
142.50

141
132

40.0
40.0

136.50
137.50

TYPISTS* CLASS B
MANUFACTURING

——— ——————

39.0
39.0

95.50

SECRETARIESi

CLASS

C

, „„

*
39 5
40.0
40.0
40.0

93.50
93.00

OPERATORSt

CLASS

A

*
"

15

40.0
3V.O

i U1. e n
1n i

138.00

40.0

203.00

94

121.00

lo

SwITCh BOARD

39.>

Aa "A
4U.U

25

40.0

PR03RAMERS,

1 1 3 *"0
114.00

59
3?

99.00

u v v u r M i l l/HO

COMPUTER

86

39.5

r5

104.00

33

_

35

16

67




OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTS-

135.00
134.50

16

NONMANUFACTURING
---------------------

S e e foot no te at e n d of tables.

$
SWITCHBOARD

86.00

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

NURSES,

INDUSTRIAL

(REGISTERED)

----

t n -»
in i

n

nn
197.00

164.50
164.50

8

T a b le A - 4 .

M a in te n a n c e an d p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a tio n s

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Law rence—
Haver hill, M ass.— H. , June 1971
N.
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
t
t
t
$
$
S
$
S
t
S
$

Hourly earnings3

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

2.60
Mean 2

M edian2

Middle range 2

t
2.50

%
2.60

$

*

$

2.70

2.80

2.90

3.00

3.10

3.20

3.30

3.60

3.50

3.60

3.70

3.80

3.90

6. 00

»
6.10

S
6.20

«
6 .60

*
6.60

t
6.80

t
5.0

2.60

2.70

2.80

2.90

3.00

3.10

3.20

3.30

3.60

3.50

3.60

3.70

3.80

3.90

6.99

6. IQ

6. 2f l

6.60

* ,80

6.80

5.00

5,?

6
6

t

2
2

7

-

1

l
l

9

-

2
2

1

~

9

7

-

12
12

2

2

3

6

35

2

2

3

6

35

2
2

2

1

2

1

8
5

“

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

6

-

2

2
2

and
under
2.50

MEN

C A R P E N T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E -----------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

26
26

$
3.99
3.99

$
6.16
6.16

$
$
3.76- 6.32
3.76- 6.32

E L E C T R I C I A N S , M A I N T E N A N C E -----------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

76
76

6.26
6.26

6.62
6.62

3.863.86-

6.55
6.55

E N G I N E E R S , S T A T I O N A R Y -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------

27
26

6.21
6.16

3.99
3.99

3.933.92-

6.63
6.68

F I R E M E N , S T A T I O N A R Y B O I L E R ----------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------

25
23

3.60
3.56

3.67
3.66

3.623.62-

3.82
3.69

1
1

1

15

1

1

15

HELPERS,

----------

67

2.87

2.85

2.69-

2.90

-

8

6

M A C H I N I S T S , M A I N T E N A N C E -----------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

56
56

3.87
3.87

3.79
3.79

3.583.58-

6.06
6.06

41
19

4.07
3.86
6.30

4.19
3.87
6.73

3.543.663.58-

4.71
6.35
6.86

M E C H A N I C S , M A I N T E N A N C E --------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

93
89

3.86
3.83

3.89
3.89

3.513.68-

6.36
6.36

P I P E F I T T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E --------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

71
71

6.07
6.07

6.16
6.16

3.793.79-

6.36
6.36

T O O L A N D D I E M A K E R S ----------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------

137
137

4.64
6.66

6.75
6.75

6.716.71-

6.79
6.79

MAINTENANCE

TRADES

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
( M A I N T E N A N C E ) ------------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------

See footnotes at end of tables.




22

-

3

5

1

2
2

“

3

5

_

-

_

-

1

_
1

_

-

_

-

-

25

_

1

-

1

-

-

-

7

5
5

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

2
2

1
1

_

-

_

_

_

_

~

-

*

3
3

_

_
“

6
6

_

_

-

-

3
3
2
2

4

-

1
1

3
3

10
10

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

11

2

2

9

11

2

12
12

2

9

5
5

5
5

_
-

_
-

-

2

9
9

-

-

-

2

-

-

5

5

36

2
2

_

-

5
5

6

5
5

2
2

-

_

-

-

_

3
3

-

6

-

_

_
-

_

6

5

5

-

-

~

-

5
5

7
7

7
7

5
3

2
2

3
3

3
3

36

1
1

7
7

9
9

1
1

2
2

6

4

16
16

29
29

“

“

“

9

-

_

6
6

i
i

1

2

7

88

25

1

2

7

88

25

6

_

6
6

-

9

-

*

_

9
T a b le A - 5 .

C u s to d ia l a n d m a te ria l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Lawrence—
Haverhill, M ass.— H. , June 1971)
N.
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—

Hourly earnings3

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
woricers

------- i------ i----1----- {------i----- %
----- 1
------i----- i----- i----- i------i— n — 1 ----- 1 “ I----- $----- i------1
—
----- 1— T — f“
TT .

Mean

2

Median2

Middle range 2

1.80

Under
if
| and
1.801 undei

1.90 2 .00 2 .10

_

_

2.20 2.30 2.40

_

_

_

2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80

_

1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40

_

_

_

_

2.50

2.60 2.70 2.80

2.90 3.00 3.20

_

_

_

2.90 3.00 3.20

3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00

_

_

_

_

4.20 4.40 4.60 4.80

_

_

_

_

3 . 4 0 3 . 6 0 3 . 8 0 4 . 0 0 4 . 2 0 4 . 4 0 4 . 6 0 4 . 8 0 5 . 0(

HEN

G U A R D S A N D W A T C H M E N ------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------

240
138

$
2.57
2.98

$
2.43
3.05

$
2.062.76-

$
3.07
3.25

GUARDS
M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------

-

18
-

10
-

54
-

12
-

15
10

6
6

16
16

4
1

-

3
3

3

-

-

-

-

3

i

59
59

18
18

18
18

-

-

“

•

7

-

53

18

18

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

-

-

-

-

“

-

“

102

3.16

3.08

3.03-

3.35

WATCHMEN
M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------

36

2.48

2.42

2.29-

2.49

-

-

-

-

-

10

6

13

1

~

-

~

-

6

J A N I T O R S , P O R T E R S , A N D C L E A N E R S --M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------

311
203

2.48
2.53

2.46
2.70

2.192.32-

2.83
2.85

13
12

23
19

5
5

31
8

7

22
3

37

28
14

17
14

10
9

22
21

66
65

2
2

7
7

14
7

6

1

-

-

L A B O R E R S , M A T E R I A L H A N D L I N G --------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------

260
223
37

2.97
2.91
3.35

2.90
2.89
3.56

2.73- 3.07
2.77- 3.03
2.08- 4.73

1
-

2
-

4
-

7
4

8
4

2

2

4
4

14
14

18
18

55
55

10
10
-

-

i

-

-

*

6
6
~

12

4

7
2
5

_

3

4
3
1

-

4

45
45
*

-

2

40
40
-

_

2

15
14

4

2

1

-

-

12

-

ORDER

--------------------------

231

3.48

3.64

3.15-

3.85

6

5

112

-

-

-

-

-

P A C K E R S , S H I P P I N G ---------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------

70
70

2.84
2.84

2.96
2.96

2.392.39-

3.24
3.24

5
5

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

R E C E I V I N G C L E R K S ----------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------

50
22

3.43
3.01

3.38
3.04

3.012.60-

3.94
3.16

21
-

_

-

-

-

-

S H I P P I N G C L E R K S ------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------

25
23

3.23
3.31

3.35
3.37

2.882.89-

3.49
3.49

-

-

-

:

:

:

-

-

S H I P P I N G A N D R E C E I V I N G C L E R K S -----M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------

48
34

2.92
2.86

2.75
2.69

2.402.41-

3.38
3.33

-

2

i

-

-

-

-

6
6

2
2

TRUCKDRIVERS
--------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------

230
109
121

3.68
3.09
4.21

3.91
2.96
4.81

2.88- 4.82
2.75- 3.29
3.92- 4.86

-

_

-

-

-

TRUCKDRIVERS, LIGHT (UNDER
1 - 1 / 2 T O NS) --------------------------

35

2.77

2.78

2.72-

2.89

-

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM 11-1/2 TO
A N D I N C L U D I N G 4 T O N S ) ------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------

49
43

2.78
2.80

2.85
2.85

2.662.68-

2.98
2.97

-

M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------

34

3.72

4^02

3.34- 4.06

T R U C K E R S , P O W E R ( F O R K L I F T ) ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------

131
84

3.33
3.00

2.98
2.93

2.912.87-

FILLERS

TRUCKDRIVERS,

HEAVY

(OVER 4

1

“
1

-

“

1

1
1

8
8

6
6

3
3

11

82

8

1
1

-

6
6

-

12
12

12
12

13
13

_

“

1
1

-

3

2
2

9
9

5
1

-

3
3

4
4

3
3

6

6
6

_

-

2
2

_i

1

8

4

-

5
5

_

_

6
4

i

i

1
1

-

-

5

-

-

_

25
21
4

-

_
-

“

-

1

-

“

2
2

6
6

-

3
3

_

6

-

3

2
-

2
-

6
6

“

:

“

-

3

2

2

~

8
6
2

-

-

-

2

2

-

2

3
3

3
-

_

_

3

-

-

-

3

*

6
6

_

_

“

3. 9 3
2.98

~

8

4

11
11

2
2

1

_
-

1
1

“

20
16
4

18
14
4

12
9
3

16

5

4

2

9
9

2
2

15
15

4
1

7
6

6
3

5
5

1
1

47
46

2
1

-

-

-

-

*

-

“

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

“

*

70

4
4

1
1

*

2

7
7

TONS,

See footnotes at end of tables,




17

-

21
21

_
-

30
3
27

20
20
“

1
1

3
3

20
20

10
10

45

_

70

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

F o o tn o te s

1 S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f p a y f o r o v e r t im e at
r e g u la r a n d / o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ) , and th e e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 T h e m e a n is c o m p u te d f o r e a c h j o b b y to ta lin g the e a r n in g s o f a ll w o r k e r s and d iv id in g b y th e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s . T h e m e d ia n d e s ig n a te s
p o s it io n — h a lf o f the e m p lo y e e s s u r v e y e d r e c e i v e m o r e than th e ra te sh ow n ; h a lf r e c e i v e l e s s than th e ra te sh ow n . T h e m id d le ra n g e is d e fin e d b y
2 r a t e s o f p a y ; a fo u r t h o f the w o r k e r s e a r n l e s s than th e lo w e r o f t h e s e r a t e s and a fo u r t h e a r n m o r e than th e h ig h e r r a te .
3 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .




Appendix.

Occupational Descriptions

The p rim ary purpose of preparing job d escrip tions fo r the B ureau's wage surveys is to a ss ist its field staff in cla ssifyin g into appropriate
occupations w orkers who are em ployed under a variety of payroll titles and different w ork arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and
from area to area.
This perm its the grouping o f occupational wage rates representing com parable jo b content.
Because of this em phasis on
interestablishm ent and interarea com parability of occupational content, the B ureau's job d escrip tions may differ significantly fro m those in use in
individual establishm ents or those prepared fo r other purposes.
In applying these job descrip tion s, the B ureau's field econ om ists are instructed
to exclude working su p ervisors; apprentices; lea rn ers; beginners; train ees; and handicapped, p a rt-tim e, tem porary, and probationary w ork ers.

OFFICE
CLERK, FILE

BILLER, MACHINE
P rep ares statem ents, b ills , and in voices on a m achine other than an ordinary or e le c tr o m atic typew riter. May a lso keep re co rd s as to billings or shipping ch arges or p erform other
c le r ic a l work incidental to billing operations. F or wage study purposes, b ille r s , m achine, are
cla ss ified by type of m achine, as follow s;

C lass A . In an established filing system containing a number of varied subject m atter
file s , cla s s ifie s and indexes file m aterial such as corresp on den ce, re p o rts, technical d ocu ­
m ents, etc. May also file this m aterial. May keep re co rd s of various types in conjunction
with the file s . May lead a sm all group of low er level file cle rk s .

B iller, machine (billing m achine). Uses a special billing machine (Moon Hopkins, E lliott
F ish er, Burroughs, e tc., which are com bination typing and adding m achines) to prepare bills
and in voices from cu stom ers' purchase o rd e rs , internally prepared o rd e rs , shipping m em o­
randums, etc. Usually involves application of predeterm ined discounts and shipping ch arges,
and entry of n e c e ss a r y extensions, which m ay or m ay not be computed on the billing m achine,
and totals which are autom atically accum ulated by m achine. The operation usually involves
a large number of carbon cop ies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold
m achine.

C lass B. Sorts, cod es, and file s un classified m aterial by sim ple ( subject matter) head­
ing s " o r - partly cla ssifie d m aterial by finer subheadings. P rep ares sim ple related index and
c r o s s -r e fe r e n c e aids. As requested, loca tes cle a rly identified m aterial in file s and forw ards
m aterial.
May p erform related c le r ic a l tasks required to maintain and se rv ice file s .
C lass C . P erfo rm s routine filing of m aterial that has already been cla ssifie d or which
is ea sily cla ss ifie d in a sim ple se ria l cla ssifica tio n system (e .g ., alphabetical, ch ronological,
or n u m erical). As requested, loca tes read ily available m aterial in file s and forw ards m a­
teria l; and m ay fill out withdrawal ch arge. P e rfo rm s sim ple c le r ic a l and manual tasks r e ­
quired to maintain and se rv ice file s .

B iller, m achine (bookkeeping m achine). Uses a bookkeeping m achine (Sundstrand, E lliott
F ish er, Remington Rand, e tc., which m ay or m ay not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare
cu stom ers' b ills as part of the accounts receiv a ble operation. Generally involves t;he sim ulta­
neous entry of figu res on cu stom ers' ledger re c o rd . The m achine autom atically accum ulates
figu res on a number of vertica l colum ns and com putes, and usually prints autom atically the
debit or cred it balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping. W orks fro m uniform
and standard types of sales and cred it slip s.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives cu sto m e rs' ord e rs fo r m aterial or m erchandise by m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any com bination of the follow in g: Quoting p rice s to cu stom ers; making out an ord er
sheet listing the item s to make up the o rd e r; checking p rice s and quantities of item s on ord er
sheet; and distributing ord er sheets to resp ectiv e departments to be filled . May check with credit
department to determ ine cre d it rating of cu stom er, acknowledge receip t of o rd e rs fro m cu stom ers,
follow up ord e rs to see that they have been fille d , keep file of ord ers re ceiv ed , and check shipping
in voices with original o rd e rs .

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping m achine (Remington Rand, E lliott F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs,
National Cash R egister, with or without a typew riter keyboard) to keep a re co rd of business
transactions.
C lass A. Keeps a set of re co rd s requiring a knowledge of and exp erien ce in basic
bookkeeping p rin cip les, and fam ilia rity with the structure of the particular accounting system
used. D eterm ines p roper record s and distribution of debit and cred it item s to be used in each
phase of the w ork. May prepare consolidated rep orts, balance sheets, and other record s
by hand.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of com pany em ployees and enters the n ecessary data on the payroll
sheets. Duties involve: Calculating w o rk e rs' earnings based on time or production re c o rd s ; and
posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing inform ation such as w o rk e r's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions fo r insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and
a ss ist paym aster in making up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.

C lass B. Keeps a re co rd of one or m ore phases or section s of a set of re co rd s usually
requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable,
p ayroll, cu stom ers' accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing d escrib ed under b ille r,
m achine), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory con trol, etc. May check or a ssist
in preparation of trial balances and prepare con trol sheets fo r the accounting department.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

CLERK, ACCOUNTING

P rim a ry duty is to operate a C om ptom eter to p erform m athem atical com putations. This
job is not to be confused with that of statistical or other type of cle rk , which m ay involve f r e ­
quent use of a C om ptom eter but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance of
other duties.

Class A . Under general d irection of a bookkeeper or accountant, has resp on sib ility fo r
keeping one or m ore sections of a com plete set of books or re co rd s relating to one phase
of an establishm ent's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary
ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiva ble or accounts payable; examining and coding
in voices or vouchers with proper accounting distribution; and req u ires judgment and ex p e ri­
ence in making proper assignations and a llocation s. May a ssist in preparing, adjusting, and
closin g journal entries; and m ay d irect cla ss B accounting cle rk s .

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
C lass A . Operates a num erical a n d /o r alphabetical or com bination keypunch machine to
tra n scrib e data fro m various source docum ents to keypunch tabulating ca rd s. P e rfo rm s same
tasks as low er level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application of coding
skills and the making of som e determ inations, fo r exam ple, loca tes on the source docum ent
the item s to be punched; extracts inform ation fro m several docum ents; and searches fo r and
interprets inform ation on the docum ent to determ ine inform ation to be punched. May train
inexperienced op era tors.

C lass B. Under supervision, p erform s one or m ore routine accounting operations such
as posting sim ple journal vouchers or accounts payable vou chers, entering vouchers in
voucher re g iste rs ; recon cilin g bank accounts; and posting subsidiary led gers con trolled by
general led g ers, or posting sim ple cost accounting data. This job does not require a knowl­
edge of accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in o ffice s in which the m ore routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several w ork ers.




11

12
SECRETARY— Continued

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR— Continued
C lass B. Under clo s e supervision or follow ing s p e cific procedu res or instructions,
tra n scrib es data from sou rce docum ents to punched ca rd s . Operates a num erical a n d /or
alphabetical or com bination keypunch m achine to keypunch tabulating ca rd s. May v e rify ca rd s.
Working from various standardized sou rce docum ents, follow s specified sequences which have
been coded or p rescrib ed in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
of data to be punched. P rob lem s a rising from erron eou s item s or co d e s, m issin g inform ation,
e tc., are re fe rre d to su p ervisor.

d. S ecreta ry to the head of an individual plant, fa cto ry , etc. (o r other equivalent level
o f o fficia l) that em ploys, in all, over 5, 000 p e rs o n s ; or
e. S ecreta ry to the head of a la rge and im portant organizational segm ent (e .g ., a middle
management su p ervisor of an organizational segm ent often involving as many as several
hundred persons) of a com pany that em p loys, in all, o v e r 25, 000 p e rs o n s .
C lass C

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
P erform s various routine duties such as running erran ds, operating m inor o ffice m a­
chines such as sealers or m a ile rs , opening and distributing m ail, and other m inor c le r ic a l work.
SECRETARY
A ssigned as personal s ecreta ry , norm ally to one individual. Maintains a clo se and highly
responsive relationship to the d a y -to -d a y w ork activities of the su p ervisor. Works fa ir ly inde­
pendently receiving a m inimum of detailed supervision and guidance. P e rfo rm s varied cle rica l
and secreta ria l duties, usually including m ost of the follo w in g: (a) R eceives telephone ca lls,
personal c a lle r s , and incom ing m ail, answ ers routine inqu iries, and routes the technical inquiries
to the prop er p ersons; (b) esta b lish es, m aintains, and rev ises the s u p e rv is o r's file s ; (c) maintains
the s u p erv isor's calendar and m akes appointments as instructed; (d) relays m essages fro m super­
v isor to subordinates; (e) review s corresp on d en ce, m em orandum s, and reports p repared by others
fo r the s u p erv isor's signature to a ssure procedu ral and typographic accu ra cy; and (f) p erform s
stenographic and typing work.
May a lso p erform other c le r ic a l and secreta ria l tasks of com parable nature and d ifficulty.
The w ork typ ically req u ires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization,
p rogra m s, and procedu res related to the work of the su p ervisor.
E xclusions
Not all positions that are titled "s e c r e ta r y " p oss es s the above ch a ra cte ris tics. Exam ples
of positions which are excluded fro m the definition are as fo llo w s; (a) P ositions which do not m eet
the "p erson a l" se cre ta ry concept d escrib ed above; (b) stenographers not fully trained in s e cre ta ria l
type duties: (c) stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of p rofession a l, technical,
or m anagerial p ersons; (d) s e cre ta ry positions in which the duties are either substantially m ore
routine or substantially m ore com p lex and resp onsible than those ch aracterized in the definition;
and (e) assistant type positions which involve m ore difficult or m ore responsible technical, admin­
istra tive, su p ervisory, or specialized cle r ic a l duties which are not typical of se cre ta ria l work.
N OTE: The term "co rp o ra te o f f i c e r ," used in the level definitions follow ing, re fe rs to
those officia ls who have a significant corp ora te-w id e policym aking role with regard to m ajor
com pany a ctiv ities. The title "v ic e p re s id e n t," though norm ally indicative of this ro le , does not
in all ca ses identify such p ositions. V ice presidents whose p rim ary resp on sib ility is to act p e r­
sonally on individual ca ses or transactions (e .g ., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions;
adm inister individual trust accounts; d irectly supervise a c le r ic a l staff) are not con sidered to be
"corp ora te o ffic e r s " fo r purposes of applying the follow ing level definition s.
C lass A
a. S ecreta ry to the chairm an of the board or president of a com pany that em ploys, in
all, over 100 but few er than 5,0 0 0 p e rs o n s ; or
b. S ecreta ry to a corp orate o ffice r (other than the chairm an of the b oard or president)
of a com pany that em ploys, in all, over 5,000 but few er than 25, 000 p e rs o n s ; or
c. S ecreta ry to the head (im m ediately below the corp orate o ffice r level) o f a m ajor
segm ent o r subsidiary o f a com pany that em ploys, in all, over 25,000 p e rs o n s .
C lass B
a. S ecreta ry to the chairm an of the board or president of a com pany that em ploys, in
all, few er than 100 p e rs o n s ; or
b. S ecreta ry to a corp orate o ffice r (other than the chairm an of the board o r president)
of a com pany that em p loys, in all, over 100 but few er than 5,000 p e rs o n s ; or
c. S ecreta ry to the head (im m ediately below
corp ora te-w id e functional activity (e .g ., m arketing,
tions, etc.) o r a m ajor geographic o r organizational
a m ajor division) of a com pany that em ploys, in
em p loy ees; or




the o ffice r level) over either a m ajor
re se a rch , operation s, industrial re la segm ent (e .g ., a regional headquarters;
all, over 5,000 but few er them 25,000

a. S ecreta ry to an executive or m anagerial person whose resp on sib ility is not equivalent
to one of the s p e cific level situations in the definition fo r cla ss B, but whose subordinate staff
norm ally numbers at least se ve ra l dozen em ployees and is usually divided into organizational
segm ents which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In som e com panies, this le v e l includes
a wide range of organizational ech elon s; in oth e rs, only one o r two; o£
b. S ecreta ry to the head of an individual plant, fa cto ry , etc. (o r other equivalent level
of o fficia l) that em ploys, in all, few er than 5, 000 p e rs o n s .
Class

D

a. S ecreta ry to the su p ervisor o r head of a sm all organizational unit (e .g ., few er than
about 25 o r 30 p e rso n s); £ r
b. S ecreta ry to a n on sup ervisory staff s p e cia list, p ro fe ssio n a l em p loyee, adm inistra­
tive o ffic e r , o r assistant, skilled technician o r expert. (NOTE; Many com panies assign
stenographers, rather than s e cre ta rie s as d e scrib e d above, to this le v e l of su p ervisory or
n on sup ervisory w orker.)
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
P rim a ry duty is to take dictation involving a norm al routine vocabulary fro m one or m ore
p ersons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine; and tra n scrib e dictation. May
a lso type fro m written copy. May maintain file s , keep sim ple r e c o rd s , or p erform other relatively
routine c le r ic a l tasks. May operate fro m a stenographic pool. Does not include tra n scrib in gm achine w ork. (See transcribin g-m achine o p e ra to r.)
STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
P rim a ry duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary
such as in legal b rie fs or rep orts on scien tific re s e a rch fro m one or m ore persons either in short­
hand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine; and tra n scrib e dictation. May a lso type fro m written
copy. May also set up and maintain file s , keep re c o r d s , etc.
OR
P erfo rm s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and re sp o n si­
bility than stenographers, general as evidenced by the follow ing: Work requires high d egree of
stenographic speed and a ccu ra cy; and a thorough working knowledge of general business and office
p roced u res and of the s p e cific business operation s, organization, p o lic ie s, p ro ce d u re s, file s ,
w orkflow , etc. Uses this knowledge in perform ing stenographic duties and resp onsible cle rica l
tasks such a s, maintaining followup file s ; assem bling m aterial fo r re p o rts, m em orandum s, letters,
e tc.; com posing sim ple letters fro m general instructions; reading and routing incom ing m ail; and
answering routine questions, e tc. Does not include tra n scribin g-m achine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
C la ss-A . O perates a sin gle- o r m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard handling incom ing,
outgoing, intraplant o r o ffice ca lls. P e rfo r m s fu ll telephone inform ation s e rv ice o r handles
com p lex ca lls , such as con fe re n ce , co lle ct, o v e r se a s , o r sim ila r ca lls , either in addition to
doing routine w ork as d e scrib e d fo r sw itchboard o p era tor, cla ss B, or as a fu ll-tim e
assignm ent. ("F u ll" telephone inform ation s e rv ice o cc u rs when the establishm ent has varied
functions that are not read ily understandable fo r telephone inform ation p u rp oses, e .g ., because
of overlapping o r in terrelated functions, and consequently p resent frequent p rob lem s as to
which extensions are appropriate fo r ca lls.)
C lass B. O perates a single- o r m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard handling incom ing,
outgoing, intraplant o r o ffice ca lls. May handle routine long distance ca lls and re c o rd tolls.
May p e rfo rm lim ited telephone inform ation s e rv ice . ("L im ite d ” telephone inform ation se rv ice
o cc u rs if the functions of the establishm ent s e rv ice d are read ily understandable fo r telephone
inform ation p u rp oses, o r if the requests are routine, e .g ., giving extension num bers when
s p e cific names are furnished, or if com p lex ca lls are re fe rr e d to another operator.)

13
S W I T C H B O A R D

O P E R A T O R - R E C E P T I O N I S T .

T A B U L A T I N G - M A C H I N E

I n a d d i t i o n to p e r f o r m i n g d u t i e s of o p e r a t o r o n a s i n g l e - p o s i t i o n o r m o n i t o r - t y p e s w i t c h ­
b o a r d , a c t s a s r e c e p t i o n i s t a n d m a y a l s o t y p e o r p e r f o r m r o u t i n e c l e r i c a l w o r k a s p a r t of r e g u l a r
duties.
T h i s t y p i n g o r c l e r i c a l w o r k m a y t a k e t h e m a j o r p a r t o f th is w o r k e r ' s t i m e w h i l e at
switchboard.

O P E R A T O R —

Class C . Operates
s i m p l e tabulating o r electrical a c c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s
s u c h as the
s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c i n g p u n c h , c o l l a t o r , etc., w i t h s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s .
M a y
include s i m p l e
w i r i n g f r o m d i a g r a m s a n d s o m e filing w o r k .
T h e w o r k t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s p o r t i o n s of a w o r k
unit, f o r e x a m p l e , i n d i v i d u a l s o r t i n g o r c o l l a t i n g r u n s o r r e p e t i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s .
T R A N S C R I B I N G - M A C H I N E

T A B U L A T I N G - M A C H I N E

Continued

O P E R A T O R ,

G E N E R A L

O P E R A T O R

C l a s s A . O p e r a t e s a v a r i e t y of t a b u l a t i n g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s , t y p i c a l l y
including s u c h m a c h i n e s
as the tabulator,
calculator,
i n t e r p r e t e r , collator,
arid o t h e r s .
P e r f o r m s c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s w i t h o u t c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n , a n d p e r f o r m s difficult
wi r i n g as required.
T h e c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g a n d tabulating a s s i g n m e n t s typically in vo lv e a
v a r i e t y o f l o n g a n d c o m p l e x r e p o r t s w h i c h o f t e n a r e of i r r e g u l a r o r n o n r e c u r r i n g t y p e r e ­
q u i r i n g s o m e p l a n n i n g a n d s e q u e n c i n g of s t e p s to b e t a k e n . A s a m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d o p e r a t o r ,
is t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d in t r a i n i n g n e w o p e r a t o r s in m a c h i n e o p e r a t i o n s , o r p a r t i a l l y t r a i n e d
o p e r a t o r s in w i r i n g f r o m d i a g r a m s a n d o p e r a t i n g s e q u e n c e s of l o n g a n d c o m p l e x r e p o r t s .
D o e s not include w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s p e r f o r m i n g t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p er at io ns a n d da y- to d a y s u p e r v i s i o n of t h e w o r k
a n d p r o d u c t i o n of a g r o u p of t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s .

C l a s s B . O p e r a t e s m o r e difficult t a b u l a t i n g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s s u c h a s t h e
t a b u l a t o r a n d c a l c u l a t o r , in a d d i t i o n to t h e s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c e r , a n d co l l a t o r .
T h i s w o r k is
p e r f o r m e d u n d e r s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d m a y i n c l u d e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of s o m e w i r i n g f r o m
diagrams.
T h e w o r k typically involves,
for e x a m p l e ,
tabulations
involving
a
repetitive
a c c o u n t i n g e x e r c i s e , a c o m p l e t e b u t s m a l l ta b u l a t i n g st ud y, o r p a r t s of a l o n g e r a n d m o r e
c o m p l e x report.
S u c h r e p o r t s a n d s t u d i e s a r e u s u a l l y of a r e c u r r i n g n a t u r e w h e r e t h e p r o ­
c e d u r e s a r e w e l l established.
M a y a l s o i n c l u d e t h e t r a i n i n g of n e w e m p l o y e e s in t h e b a s i c
o p e r a t i o n of t h e m a c h i n e .

P r i m a r y d u t y is t o t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a n o r m a l r o u t i n e v o c a b u l a r y f r o m
tr an scribing-machine records.
M a y a l so ty pe f r o m w r i t t e n c o p y a n d d o s i m p l e clerical w o r k .
W o r k e r s t r a n s c r i b i n g dictation in volving a v a r i e d tech ni ca l o r sp ec i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y s u c h a s legal
b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s o n s c i e nt if ic r e s e a r c h a r e n o t i n c l u d e d .
A w o r k e r w h o t a k e s d i c t a t i o n in s h o r t ­
h a n d o r b y S t e n o t y p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e is c l a s s i f i e d a s a s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l .
TYPIST
U s e s a t y p e w r i t e r to m a k e c o p i e s of v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l o r t o m a k e o u t bills a f t e r c a l c u l a ­
tions h a v e b e e n m a d e b y a n o t h e r p e r s o n .
M a y i n c l u d e t y p i n g of s t e n c i l s , m a t s , o r s i m i l a r m a t e ­
ri a l s f o r u s e in d u p l i c a t i n g p r o c e s s e s .
M a y d o c l e r i c a l w o r k i n v o l v i n g little s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , s u c h
a s k e e p i n g s i m p l e r e c o r d s , filing r e c o r d s a n d r e p o r t s , o r s o r t i n g a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g i n c o m i n g m a i l .
Class A .
P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e of t h e f o l l o w i n g : T y p i n g m a t e r i a l in final f o r m w h e n it
i n v o l v e s c o m b i n i n g m a t e r i a l f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o r r e c t sp e l l i n g ,
s y l l a b i c a t i o n , p u n c t u a t i o n , etc., of t e c h n i c a l o r u n u s u a l w o r d s o r f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l ;
a n d p l a n n i n g l a y o u t a n d t y p i n g o f c o m p l i c a t e d statistical t a b l e s t o m a i n t a i n u n i f o r m i t y a n d
b a l a n c e in s p a c i n g .
M a y t y p e r o u t i n e f o r m l e t t e r s v a r y i n g d e t a i l s t o suit c i r c u m s t a n c e s .
C l a s s B . P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e of t h e f o l l o w i n g : C o p y t y p i n g f r o m r o u g h o r c l e a r d r af ts ;
r o u t i n e t y p i n g of f o r m s , i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , etc.; a n d s e t t i n g u p s i m p l e s t a n d a r d t a b u l a t i o n s ,
or c o p y i n g m o r e c o m p l e x tables a l r e a d y se tu p a n d s p a c e d pr op er ly .

P R O F E S S IO N A L AN D T E C H N IC A L
COMPUTER OPERATOR

COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS

M onitors and operates the con trol con sole of a digital com puter to p ro ce s s data accordin g
to operating instructions, usually p repared by a p rog ra m er. W ork includes m ost of the follow ing:
Studies instructions to determ ine equipment setup and op erations; loads equipment with required
item s (tape re e ls , ca rd s, etc.); switches n ecessa ry auxiliary equipment into circu it, and starts
and operates com puter; m akes adjustments to com puter to c o r r e c t operating p roblem s and m eet
special conditions; review s e r r o r s made during operation and determ ines cause or re fe rs problem
to su p ervisor or p rog ra m er; and maintains operating re co rd s. May test and a ssist in correctin g
p rogram .

C onverts statements of business p ro b le m s, typically prepared by a system s analyst, into
a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the p roblem s by automatic data
p ro ce ssin g equipment. Working fro m charts o r diagram s, the p rog ra m er develops the p re cis e
instructions which, when entered into the com puter system in coded language, cause the m anipu­
lation of data to achieve d esired results. W ork involves m ost of the follow ing: A pplies knowledge
of computer cap a bilities, m athem atics, lo g ic em ployed by com puters, and particular subject m atter
involved to analyze charts and diagram s of the p rob lem to be program ed. D evelops sequence
of p rog ra m steps, w rites detailed flow charts to show o rd e r in which data w ill be p ro ce s s e d ;
con verts these charts to coded instructions fo r m achine to follow ; tests and c o r r e c t s p rog ra m s;
p rep ares instructions fo r operating p ersonnel during production run; analyzes, review s, and alters
p rogram s to in crease operating e fficie n cy o r adapt to new requirem ents; m aintains re co rd s of
p rogram developm ent and rev ision s. (NOTE: W orkers perform ing both system s analysis and p r o ­
gram ing should be cla ss ifie d as system s analysts if this is the skill used to determ ine their pay.)

F or wage study purp oses,

com puter operators are cla ss ifie d as fo llo w s:

C lass A . O perates independently, or under only general direction , a com puter running
p rogra m s with m ost of the follow ing ch a ra cteristics: New p rogram s are frequently tested and
introduced; scheduling requirem ents are of cr itica l im portance to m in im ize downtime; the
p rogra m s are of com p lex design so that identification of e r r o r sou rce often requires a working
knowledge of the total p rogra m , and alternate p rogram s m ay not be available. May give
d irection and guidance to low er lev el op era tors.
C lass B . O perates independently, or under only general direction , a com puter running
p rogra m s with m ost o f the follow ing ch a ra cteris tics: M ost of the p rogra m s are established
production runs, typ ica lly run on a regularly recu rrin g b a s is; there is little or no testing
of new p rogram s required; alternate p rogra m s are p rovided in ca se origin al p rogram needs
m ajor change or cannot be c o r re cte d within a reasonable tim e. In com m on e r r o r situations,
diagnoses cause and takes co r re ctiv e action. This usually involves applying p reviou sly p r o ­
gram ed co r re ctiv e steps, or using standard c o r re ctio n techniques.

Does not include em ployees p rim a rily resp onsible fo r the management or supervision of
other e le ctro n ic data p ro ce ssin g (EDP) em p loyees, o r p rog ra m ers p rim arily con cerned with
scien tific a n d /o r engineering p rob lem s.
F o r wage study p u rp oses, p ro g ra m e rs are cla ss ifie d as follow s:
C lass A . W orks independently o r under only general d irection on com p lex p roblem s which
require com petence in all phases of program ing concepts and p ra ctice s. W orking from d ia ­
gram s and charts which identify the nature of d esired results, m ajor p ro ce s s in g steps to be
accom p lish ed , and the relationships between variou s steps of the p rob lem solving routine;
plans the full range of p rogram ing actions needed to efficiently utilize the com puter system
in achieving d e sired end products.

OR
O perates under d irect supervision a com puter running p rog ra m s or segm ents of p rogram s
with the ch a ra cteristics d escrib ed for cla ss A. May a ssist a higher le ve l operator by inde­
pendently perform ing le ss d ifficult tasks assigned, and p erform in g difficult tasks following
detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations perform ed .
C lass C . W orks on routine p rogram s under clo s e supervision. Is expected to develop
working knowledge of the com puter equipment used and ability to detect p rob lem s involved in
running routine p rog ra m s. U sually has receiv ed som e form a l training in com puter operation.
May a ssist higher lev el op era tor on com plex p rog ra m s.




At this le vel, program ing is d ifficult because com puter equipment must be organized to
produce se ve ra l interrelated but d iverse products fro m num erous and d iverse data elem ents.
A wide va riety and extensive number of internal p ro ce s s in g actions must o cc u r. This requires
such actions as developm ent of com m on operations which can be reused, establishm ent of
linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when p rogram requirem ents exceed
com puter storage capacity, and Substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements
to fo rm a highly integrated program .
May provide functional d irection to low er le v e l p rog ra m ers who are assigned to a ssist.

14
C O M P U T E R

P R O G R A M E R ,

BUSINESS—

Continued

C O M P U T E R

C l a s s B . W o r k s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r u n d e r o n l y g e n e r a l di r e c t i o n o n relatively s i m p l e
p r o g r a m s , o r o n s i m p l e s e g m e n t s of c o m p l e x p r o g r a m s .
P r o g r a m s (or s e g m e n t s ) u s u a l l y
p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n to p r o d u c e d a t a in t w o o r t h r e e v a r i e d s e q u e n c e s o r f o r m a t s . R e p o r t s
a n d listings a r e p r o d u c e d b y refining, ad ap ti ng , a r r a y i n g , o r m a k i n g m i n o r ad di ti on s to o r
d e l e ti on s f r o m input d a t a w h i c h a r e r e a d i l y available.
While n u m e r o u s records m a y be
p r o c e s s e d , the d a t a h a v e b e e n r e f i n e d in p r i o r ac ti on s s o that the a c c u r a c y a n d s e q u e n c i n g
of d a t a c a n b e t e s t e d b y u s i n g a f e w ro u t i n e c h e c k s .
T y p i ca ll y, the p r o g r a m d e a l s w i t h
r o ut in e r e c o r d - k e e p i n g t y p e o p e r a t i o n s .
O R
W o r k s o n c o m p l e x p r o g r a m s (as d e s c r i b e d for cl a s s A) u n d e r c l o s e di re c t i o n of a h i g h e r
level p r o g r a m e r o r s u p e r v i s o r .
M a y a s si st h i g h e r level p r o g r a m e r b y i n d e p e n d e n t l y p e r ­
f o r m i n g l e ss difficult t a s k s a s s i g n e d , a n d p e r f o r m i n g m o r e difficult t a s k s u n d e r fairly c l o s e
direction.
May

guide

or

inst ru ct l o w e r

level p r o g r a m e r s .

SYSTEMS

ANALYST,

BUSINESS

A n a l y z e s b u s i n e s s p r o b l e m s to f o r m u l a t e p r o c e d u r e s for solv in g t h e m b y u s e of el ec t r o n i c
d a t a p r o c e s s i n g e q u i p m e n t . D e v e l o p s a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n of all sp ecifications n e e d e d to e n a b l e
p r o g r a m e r s to p r e p a r e r e q u i r e d digital c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t of the f o l l o w i n g :
A n a l y z e s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o p e r a t i o n s to b e a u t o m a t e d a n d identifies c o n d it io ns a n d crit er ia r e q u i r e d
to a c h i e v e sa ti s f a c t o r y results; sp ec if ie s n u m b e r a n d t y p e s of r e c o r d s , files, a n d d o c u m e n t s to
b e u s e d ; outlines a c ti on s to b e p e r f o r m e d b y p e r s o n n e l a n d c o m p u t e r s in sufficient detail for
p r e s e n t a t i o n to m a n a g e m e n t a n d f o r p r o g r a m i n g (typically this i n v o l v e s p r e p a r a t i o n of w o r k a n d
d a t a f l o w ch arts); c o o r d i n a t e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of test p r o b l e m s a n d pa rt ic ip at es in trial r u n s of
n e w a n d r e v i s e d s y s t e m s ; a n d r e c o m m e n d s e q u i p m e n t c h a n g e s to o b ta in m o r e effective o v e r a l l
op er a t i o n s . ( N O T E : W o r k e r s p e r f o r m i n g b o t h s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s a n d p r o g r a m i n g s h o u l d b e c l a s ­
sified a s s y s t e m s a n a l y s t s if this is the skill u s e d to d e t e r m i n e their pay.)
D o e s n o t in c l u d e e m p l o y e e s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m a n a g e m e n t o r s u p e r v i s i o n of
other electronic data p r o c e s s i n g ( E D P ) e m p l o y e e s , o r s y s t e m s analysts p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d with
scientific o r e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s .
For

wage

study p u rp os es ,

systems

analysts

are

p r o v i d e functi on al

direction

to l o w e r

BUSINESS—

Continued

O R
W o r k s o n a s e g m e n t of a c o m p l e x d a t a p r o c e s s i n g s c h e m e o r s y s t e m , a s d e s c r i b e d for
c l a s s A . W o r k s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o n r o ut in e a s s i g n m e n t s a n d r e c e i v e s in st ru ct io n a n d g u i d a n c e
o n c o m p l e x a s s i g n m e n t s . W o r k is r e v i e w e d for a c c u r a c y of j u d g m e n t , c o m p l i a n c e w i t h in­
structions, a n d to i n s u r e p r o p e r a l i n e m e n t w i t h the o v e r a l l s y s t e m .
C l a s s C . W o r k s u n d e r i m m e d i a t e s u p e r v i s i o n , c a r r y i n g out a n a l y s e s a s a s s i g n e d , u s u a l l y
of a single activity.
A s s i g n m e n t s a r e d e s i g n e d to d e v e l o p a n d e x p a n d p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e
in the a p pl ic at io n of p r o c e d u r e s a n d skills r e q u i r e d f o r s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s w o r k . F o r e x a m p l e ,
m a y a s si st a h i g h e r level s y s t e m s a n a l y s t b y p r e p a r i n g the d e ta il ed sp ec if ic at io ns r e q u i r e d
b y p r o g r a m e r s f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n d e v e l o p e d b y the h i g h e r level analyst.

level s y s t e m s

analysts w h o

C l a s s A . P l a n s the g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o m p l e x i t e m s h a v i n g distinctive d e s i g n
f e a t u r e s that differ significantly f r o m e s t a b l i s h e d draf ti ng p r e c e d e n t s . W o r k s in c l o s e s u p ­
p o r t w i t h the d e s i g n orig in at or , a n d m a y r e c o m m e n d m i n o r d e s i g n c h a n g e s .
A n a l y z e s the
effect of e a c h c h a n g e o n the details of f o r m , function, a n d p o si ti on al re la t i o n s h i p s of c o m ­
p o n e n t s a n d parts.
W o r k s w i t h a m i n i m u m of s u p e r v i s o r y a s s i s t a n c e .
C o m p l e t e d w o r k is
r e v i e w e d b y d e s i g n o r i g i n a t o r for c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h p r i o r e n g i n e e r i n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n s .
May
ei ther p r e p a r e d r a w i n g s , o r d i r e c t their p r e p a r a t i o n b y l o w e r level d r a f t s m e n .
C l a s s B . P e r f o r m s n o n r o u t i n e a n d c o m p l e x draf ti ng a s s i g n m e n t s that r e q u i r e the a p p l i ­
c a ti on of m o s t of the s t a n d a r d i z e d d r a w i n g t e c h n i q u e s r e g u l a r l y us e d .
D u t i e s typically i n ­
v o l v e s u c h w o r k as:
P r e p a r e s w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s of s u b a s s e m b l i e s w i t h i r r e g u l a r s h a p e s ,
m u l t i p l e functions, a n d p r e c i s e po si ti on al re l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n c o m p o n e n t s ; p r e p a r e s a r c h i ­
tect ur al d r a w i n g s fo r c o n s t r u c t i o n of a b u il di ng in c l u d i n g detail d r a w i n g s of f o u n d a t i o n s , w a l l
sections, floor pl an s, a n d roof. U s e s a c c e p t e d f o r m u l a s a n d m a n u a l s in m a k i n g n e c e s s a r y
c o m p u t a t i o n s to d e t e r m i n e quantities of m a t e r i a l s to b e u s e d , l o a d ca pa ci ti es , streng th s,
s t r e s s e s , etc.
R e c e i v e s initial in structions, r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d a d v i c e f r o m s u p e r v i s o r .
C o m p l e t e d w o r k is c h e c k e d f o r t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y .
C l a s s C . P r e p a r e s detail d r a w i n g s of single u nits o r p a r t s for e n g i n e e r i n g , c o ns tr uc ti on ,
m a n u f a c t u r i n g , o r r e p a i r p u r p o s e s . T y p e s of d r a w i n g s p r e p a r e d i n c l u d e i s o m e t r i c p r o j e c t i o n s
(depicting t h r e e d i m i n s i o n s in a c c u r a t e scale) a n d se ct io na l v i e w s to clarify p o si ti on in g of
c o m p o n e n t s a n d c o n v e y n e e d e d i n f o r m a t i o n . C o n s o l i d a t e s details f r o m a n u m b e r of s o u r c e s
a n d ad j u s t s o r t r a n s p o s e s s c a l e a s r e q u i r e d .
S u g g e s t e d m e t h o d s of a p p r o a c h , ap pl i c a b l e
p r e c e d e n t s , a n d a d v i c e o n s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s a r e g i v e n w i t h initial a s s i g n m e n t s . I n s t ru ct io ns
a r e l e ss c o m p l e t e w h e n a s s i g n m e n t s r e c u r .
W o r k m a y be sp ot -c he ck ed during progress.
D R A F T S M A N - T R A C E R

classified as follows:

C l a s s A . W o r k s i n de pe nd en tl y or u n d e r only g e n e r a l direction o n c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s
in vo lv in g all p h a s e s of s y s t e m s an al ys is . P r o b l e m s a r e c o m p l e x b e c a u s e of d i v e r s e s o u r c e s
of input d a t a a n d m u l t i p l e - u s e r e q u i r e m e n t s of o u t p u t data. ( F o r e x a m p l e , d e v e l o p s a n in te­
g r a t e d p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l i n g , i n v e n t o r y control, c o s t an al ys is , a n d sa le s a n a l y s i s r e c o r d in
w h i c h e v e r y i t e m of e a c h t y p e is a u t o m a t i c a l l y p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h the full s y s t e m of r e c o r d s
a n d a p p r o p r i a t e f o l l o w u p ac t i o n s a r e initiated b y the c o m p u t e r . ) C o n f e r s w i t h p e r s o n s c o n ­
c e r n e d to d e t e r m i n e th e d a t a p r o c e s s i n g p r o b l e m s a n d a d v i s e s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l o n
the i m p l i c a t i o n s of n e w o r r e v i s e d s y s t e m s of d a t a p r o c e s s i n g op e r a t i o n s .
Makes recom­
m e n d a t i o n s , if n e e d e d ,
for a p p r o v a l of m a j o r s y s t e m s installations o r c h a n g e s a n d for
ob ta in in g e q u i p m e n t .
May
assist.

ANALYST,

D R A F T S M A N

C l a s s C . M a k e s p r a c t i c a l ap pl ic at io ns of p r o g r a m i n g p r a c t i c e s a n d c o n c e p t s u s u a l l y
l e a r n e d in f o r m a l trai ni ng c o u r s e s . A s s i g n m e n t s a r e d e s i g n e d to d e v e l o p c o m p e t e n c e in the
a p pl ic at io n of s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s to r o ut in e p r o b l e m s . R e c e i v e s c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o n n e w
a s p e c t s of a s s i g n m e n t s ; a n d w o r k is r e v i e w e d to v e r i f y its a c c u r a c y a n d c o n f o r m a n c e w i t h
required procedures.

C O M P U T E R

SYSTEMS

m a i n t a i n i n g a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e in a retail e s t a b l i s h m e n t , o r m a i n t a i n i n g i n v e n t o r y a c c o u n t s
in a m a n u f a c t u r i n g or. w h o l e s a l e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . ) C o n f e r s w i t h p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d to d e t e r m i n e
the d a t a p r o c e s s i n g p r o b l e m s a n d a d v i s e s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l o n the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the
d a t a p r o c e s s i n g s y s t e m s to b e applied.

are

assigned

to

C l a s s B . W o r k s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r u n d e r o n l y g e n e r a l di re c t i o n o n p r o b l e m s that a r e
relatively u n c o m p l i c a t e d to a n a l y z e , plan, p r o g r a m , a n d o p e r a t e . P r o b l e m s a r e of l i m i t e d
c o m p l e x i t y b e c a u s e s o u r c e s of input d a t a a r e h o m o g e n e o u s a n d the o u tp ut d a t a a r e cl o s e l y
related.
( F o r e x a m p l e , d e v e l o p s s y s t e m s for m a i n t a i n i n g d e p o s i t o r a c c o u n t s in a b a n k ,

C o p i e s p l a n s a n d d r a w i n g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s b y p l a c i n g t r a c i n g cloth o r p a p e r o v e r
d r a w i n g s a n d t r a c i n g w i t h p e n o r pencil.
( D o e s n o t i n c l u d e t r a c i n g l i m i t e d to p l a n s p r i m a r i l y
c o n s i s t i n g of straight lines a n d a l a r g e sc a l e no t r e q u i r i n g c l o s e de li neation.)
and/or
P r ep ar es simple
during progress.
NURSE,

or

INDUSTRIAL

repetitive d r a w i n g s

of e a si ly v i s u a l i z e d i t e m s .

Work

is c l o s e l y

supervised

(R egistered)

A r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e w h o g i v e s n u r s i n g s e r v i c e u n d e r g e n e r a l m e d i c a l d i r e c t i o n to ill o r
i n j u r e d e m p l o y e e s o r o t h e r p e r s o n s w h o b e c o m e ill o r suffer a n a c c i d e n t o n the p r e m i s e s of a
f a c t o r y o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . D u t i e s in v o l v e a c o m b i n a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g : G i v i n g first aid
to the ill o r in jured; a t t e nd in g to s u b s e q u e n t d r e s s i n g of e m p l o y e e s ' injuries; k e e p i n g r e c o r d s
of pa tients tr eated; p r e p a r i n g a c c i d e n t r e p o r t s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s ; as s i s t i n g in
p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d h e a l t h e v a l u a t i o n s of a p p l i c a n t s a n d e m p l o y e e s ; a n d p l a n n i n g a n d c a r r y ­
ing out p r o g r a m s in v o l v i n g h e a l t h ed uc a t i o n , a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n of pl a n t e n v i r o n m e n t ,
o r o t h e r activities affecting the health, w e l f a r e , a n d sa fe ty of all p e r s o n n e l .

MAINTENANCE AND POW ERPLANT
CARPENTER,

M A IN TE NA NC E

P e r f o r m s t h e c a r p e n t r y du ti es n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t a n d m a i n t a i n in g o o d r e p a i r b u il di ng
w o o d w o r k a n d e q u i p m e n t s u c h a s bins, cr ibs, c o u n t e r s , b e n c h e s , partitions, d o o r s , floors, stairs,
c a s i n g s , a n d t r i m m a d e of w o o d in a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t of th e f o l l o w i n g ; P l a n n i n g
a n d l a yi ng ou t of w o r k f r o m b l ue pr in ts , d r a w i n g s , m o d e l s , o r v e r b a l in st ru ct io ns u s i n g a v a r i e t y




CARPENTER,

MA I N T E N A N C E —

Continued

of c a r p e n t e r ' s h a n d t o o l s , p o r t a b l e p o w e r tools, a n d s t a n d a r d m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ; m a k i n g
s t a n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t i o n s relating to d i m e n s i o n s of w o r k ; a n d se le ct in g m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y
f o r t h e w o r k . In g e n e r a l , t h e w o r k of the m a i n t e n a n c e c a r p e n t e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r ai ni ng a n d
e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u i v a l e n t t r ai ni ng a n d e x p e r i e n c e .

15
ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (Maintenance)----Continued

P e rfo rm s a variety of e le ctrica l trade functions such as the installation, m aintenance,
or rep a ir of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of e le c tr ic energy in an
establishm ent. W ork involves m ost of the follow ing: Installing or repairing any of a va riety of
e le ctrica l equipment such as gen era tors, tra n s form ers, sw itchboards, co n tr o lle rs , circu it brea k ­
e r s , m o to r s, heating units, conduit system s, or other tra n sm ission equipment; working from
blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the
e le ctrica l system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirem ents pf
w iring o r e le ctrica l equipment; and using a va riety of e le ctricia n 's handtools and m easuring afid
testing instrum ents. In gen eral, the work of the maintenance e le ctricia n requires rounded tra in ­
ing and exp erien ce usually acquired through a form a l apprenticeship o r equivalent training and
exp erien ce.

the various assem blies in the veh icle and making n ecessa ry adjustments; and alining w h eels,
adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the w ork of the automotive
m echanic requires rounded training and experien ce usually acquired through a form a l appren­
ticesh ip or equivalent training and exp erien ce.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and
equipment (m echanical or electrica l) to supply the establishm ent in which em ployed with pow er,
heat, refrig era tion , or a ir-conditioning. W ork involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, air co m p re s s o rs , gen era tors, m oto rs, turbines, ventilating and r e fr ig ­
erating equipment, steam b o ile rs and b o ile r -fe d water pum ps; making equipment re p a irs; and
keeping a re c o rd of operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May also su­
p e rv ise these operation s. Head o r ch ief engineers in establishm ents em ploying m ore than one
engineer are excluded.
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
F ire s stationary b o ile rs to furnish the establishm ent in which em ployed with heat, pow er,
or steam . Feeds fuels to fir e by hand or operates a m echanical stoker, or gas o r o il burner;
and checks water and safety valves. May clean, o il, or a ssist in repairing b o ile r ro o m equipment.
H ELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES
A ss ists one or m ore w orkers in the skilled maintenance tra d es, by perform ing s p e cific
or general duties of le s s e r skill, such as keeping a w orker supplied with m aterials and to o ls;
cleaning .working a rea , m achine, and equipment; assisting journeym an by holding m aterials or
to o ls ; and perform ing other unskilled tasks as d irected by journeym an. The kind of w ork the
helper is perm itted to p erform varies from trade to trade: In som e trades the helper is con ­
fined to supplying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools and cleaning working a rea s; and in
others he is perm itted to p erform specialized m achine operation s, or parts of a trade that are
also p erform ed by w ork ers on a fu ll-tim e b a sis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATO R, TOOLROOM
S pecializes in the operation of one or m ore types of m achine to o ls , such as jig b o r e r s ,
cylin d rical or surface grin d ers, engine lathes, or m illing m achines, in the construction of
m achine-shop to o ls , gages, jig s , fixtu res, or d ies. W ork involves m ost of the follow ing: Plan­
ning and perform ing difficult machining operation s; p rocessin g item s requiring com plicated setups
or a high d egree of accu ra cy; using a va riety of p re cis io n m easuring instrum ents; selecting fe e d s,
speeds, toolin g, and operation sequence; and making n e ce ss a ry adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite toleran ces or dim ensions. May be required to recogn ize when to o ls need d r e s s ­
ing, to d ress to o ls , and to select prop er coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . F o r c r o s s ­
industry wage study p u rp oses, m achine-tool op era tors, toolro o m , in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this cla ssification .
MACHINIST. MAINTENANCE
Produ ces replacem ent parts and new parts in making rep a irs of m etal parts of m echan­
ica l equipment operated in an establishm ent. W ork involves m ost of the follow ing: Interpreting
w ritten instructions and specification s; planning and laying out of w ork; using a va riety of m a­
ch in ist's handtools and p re cis io n m easuring instrum ents; setting up and operating standard m achine
to ols; shaping of m etal parts to close toleran ces; making standard shop computations relating to
dim ensions of w ork, toolin g, feed s, and speeds of m achining; knowledge of the working p rop erties
of the com m on m etals; selecting standard m ateria ls, p a rts, and equipment required fo r his w ork;
and fitting and assem bling parts into m echanical equipment. In gen eral, the m achinist's work
norm ally req u ires a rounded training in m achine-shop p ra ctice usually acquired through a form a l
apprenticeship or equivalent training and exp erien ce.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs m achinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent. Work involves m ost
of the follow ing: Examining m achines and m echanical equipment to diagnose sou rce of trouble;
dism antling o r partly dismantling m achines and p erform in g rep a irs that m ainly involve the use
of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with item s obtained
from stock; orderin g the production of a replacem ent part by a machine shop or sending of the
m achine to a m achine shop fo r m ajor re p a irs ; preparing written specifications fo r m ajor repairs
or fo r the production of parts o rd ered fro m m achine shop; reassem bling m achines; and making
all n e ce ss a ry adjustments fo r operation. In gen eral, the work of a maintenance m echanic r e ­
quires rounded training and experien ce usually acquired through a form a l apprenticeship or
equivalent training and exp erien ce. Excluded fro m this cla ssifica tio n are w ork ers whose prim ary
duties involve setting up or adjusting m achines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new m achines o r heavy equipment, and dism antles and installs m achines or
heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are required . W ork involves m ost of the f o l ­
low ing: Planning and laying out of the w ork; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using
a va riety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to s tr e s s e s ,
strength of m ateria ls, and centers o f gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting stand­
ard to o ls , equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good ord er power
tra n sm ission equipment such as d rives and speed re d u ce rs. In general, the m illw right's work
norm ally requires a rounded training and experien ce in the trade acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experien ce.
OILER
L u b rica tes, with o il or g rea se, the m oving parts or wearing su rfa ces
equipment of an establishm ent.

of m echanical

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and red ecora tes w a lls, w oodw ork, and fixtures of an establishm ent. W ork in­
volves the follow in g: Knowledge of surface p eculiarities and types of paint required fo r different
applications; preparing surface fo r painting by rem oving old finish or by placing putty or fille r
in nail holes and in te rstice s; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May m ix c o lo r s , o ils ,
white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain prop er co lo r or con sistency. In general, the
w ork of the maintenance painter req u ires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a form a l apprenticeship or equivalent training and exp erien ce.
PIP E F IT T E R , MAINTENANCE
Installs or rep a irs w ater, steam , gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an
establishm ent. W ork involves m ost of the follow ing: Laying out of w ork and m easuring to lo ­
cate position of pipe fro m drawings or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe
to co r re ct lengths with ch isel and ham m er or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting m achine; thread­
ing pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven or p ow er-d riv en m achines; assem bling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating
to p re s su re s, flow , and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determ ine whether
finished pipes m eet sp ecification s. In general, the w ork of the maintenance pipefitter requires
rounded training and exp erien ce usually acquired through a form a l apprenticeship or equivalent
training and exp erien ce. W orkers p rim a rily engaged in installing and repairing building sanita­
tion or heating system s are excluded.
PLU M BER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good ord er. W ork involves: Knowledge
of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents and traps in plumbing system ; installing or r e ­
pairing pipes and fixtu res; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or p lu m b e r's snake. In
gen eral, the w ork of the maintenance plum ber requires rounded training and experien ce usually
acquired through a form a l apprenticeship or equivalent training and experien ce.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (Maintenance)

SH EE T-M E TAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE

R epairs autom obiles, bu ses, m otortru ck s, and tra cto rs of an establishm ent. W ork in­
volves m ost of the follow ing: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose sou rce of trouble;
disassem bling equipment and perform ing rep a irs that involve the use of such handtools as
w ren ch es, gages, d r ills , or specialized equipment in d isassem bling or fitting parts; replacing
broken o r defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; rea ssem b lin g and installing

F a b rica te s, installs, and maintains in good rep a ir the sheet-m etal equipment and fix ­
tures (such as m achine guards, grease pans, shelves, lo ck e rs , tanks, ven tilators, chutes, ducts,
m etal roofing) of an establishm ent. W ork involves m ost of the follow ing: Planning and laying
out all types of sheet-m etal maintenance w ork fro m blueprints, m od els, or other specification s;
setting up and operating all available types of sheet-m etal working m achines; using a va riety of




16
S H E E T - M E T A L

W O R K E R ,

T O O L

M A I N T E N A N C E --- C o n t i n u e d

h a n d t o o l s in c u tt in g, b e n d i n g , f o r m i n g ,
s h a p i n g , fitting, a n d a s s e m b l i n g ; a n d in st a l l i n g s h e e t m e t a l articles a s re q u i r e d .
I n g e n e r a l , t h e w o r k of t h e m a i n t e n a n c e s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r r e q u i r e s
r o u n d e d training a n d ex p e r i e n c e usually a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l ap pr en ti ce sh ip or equivalent
training a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
T O O L

A N D

(Die

DIE

M A K E R

maker;

jig m a k e r ;

tool m a k e r ;

fixture

maker;

gage

maker)

C o n s t r u c t s a n d r e p a i r s m a c h i n e - s h o p t o o l s , g a g e s , jigs, f i x t u r e s o r d i e s f o r f o r g i n g s ,
punching, a n d other m e t a l - f o r m i n g w o r k .
Work
i n v o l v e s m o s t of t h e f o l l o w i n g : P l a n n i n g a n d
l a y i n g o u t of w o r k f r o m m o d e l s , b l u e p r i n t s , d r a w i n g s , o r o t h e r o r a l a n d w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ;

A N D

DIE

M A K E R —

Continued

u s i n g a v a r i e t y of t o ol a n d d i e m a k e r ' s h a n d t o o l s a n d p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ; u n d e r ­
s t a n d i n g of t h e w o r k i n g p r o p e r t i e s of c o m m o n
m e t a l s a n d a l l o y s ; s e t t i n g u p a n d o p e r a t i n g of
m a c h i n e t o o l s a n d r e l a t e d e q u i p m e n t ; m a k i n g n e c e s s a r y s h o p c o m p u t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to d i m e n s i o n s
of w o r k , s p e e d s , f e e d s , a n d t o o l i n g of m a c h i n e s ; h e a t - t r e a t i n g o f m e t a l p a r t s d u r i n g f a b r i c a t i o n
a s w e l l a s o f f i n i s h e d t o o l s a n d d i e s t o a c h i e v e r e q u i r e d q u a l it ie s; w o r k i n g t o c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ;
fitting a n d a s s e m b l i n g of p a r t s to p r e s c r i b e d t o l e r a n c e s a n d a l l o w a n c e s ; a n d s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e
m a t e r i a l s , t o ol s, a n d p r o c e s s e s .
I n g e n e r a l , t h e t o ol a n d d i e m a k e r ' s w o r k r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d
t r a i n i n g in m a c h i n e - s h o p a n d t o o l r o o m p r a c t i c e u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p
or equivalent training a n d e x pe ri en ce .

shops

F o r cross-industry w a g e
study pu rp os es ,
a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

tool a n d

die

makers

in

tool

and

die j o b b i n g

C U S T O D IA L AN D M A TER IA L M O V E M E N T
G U A R D

A N D

SHIPPING

W A T C H M A N

G u a r d . P e r f o r m s r o u t i n e p o l i c e d u t i e s , e i t h e r at f i x e d p o s t o r
order, using a r m s or force w h e r e ne ce ss ar y.
Includes g a t e m e n w h o
and

check

on

i d e n t i t y of

Watchman.
theft,
JANITOR,

and

Makes

and

other

of p r e m i s e s

persons

entering.

p e r i o d i c a l l y in p r o t e c t i n g

property

against

fire,

il legal e n t r y .

P O R T E R ,

(Sweeper;

employees
rounds

o n tour, m a i n t a i n i n g
a r e s t a t i o n e d at g a t e

O R

C L E A N E R

charwoman;

A N D

For

M A T E R I A L

(Loader

or

warehouse

ware­

helper)

A w o r k e r e m p l o y e d i n a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u f a c t u r i n g pl an t, s t o r e , o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t
w h o s e d u t i e s i n v o l v e o n e o r m o r e of t h e f o l l o w i n g :
L o a d i n g a n d unloading various materials an d
m e r c h a n d i s e o n or f r o m freight c a rs , t r u c k s , o r o t he r t r a n s p o r t i n g d e v i c e s ; u n p a c k i n g , shelving,
o r p l a c i n g m a t e r i a l s o r m e r c h a n d i s e in p r o p e r s t o r a g e l o c a t i o n ; a n d t r a n s p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l s o r
m e r c h a n d i s e b y h a n d t r u c k , car, or w h e e l b a r r o w .
L o n g s h o r e m e n , w h o load a n d u n lo ad ships are

FI L L E R

(Order

picker;

stock

selector;

warehouse

stockman)

F i l l s s h i p p i n g o r t r a n s f e r o r d e r s f o r f i n i s h e d g o o d s f r o m s t o r e d m e r c h a n d i s e in a c c o r d ­
a n c e w i t h s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o n s a l e s slips, c u s t o m e r s ' o r d e r s , o r o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s .
M a y , inaddition
to filling o r d e r s a n d i n d i c a t i n g i t e m s filled o r o m i t t e d , k e e p r e c o r d s of o u t g o i n g o r d e r s , r e q u i ­
si ti on a d d i t i o n a l s t o c k o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p l i e s t o s u p e r v i s o r , a n d p e r f o r m o t h e r r e l a t e d d u ti es .

purposes,

workers

are

classified

as

follows:

clerk

D r i v e s a t r u c k w i t h i n a c i ty o r i n d u s t r i a l a r e a t o t r a n s p o r t m a t e r i a l s , m e r c h a n d i s e ,
e q u i p m e n t , o r m e n b e t w e e n v a r i o u s t y p e s of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u c h a s :
M a n u f a c t u r i n g plants, freight
d e p o t s , w a r e h o u s e s , w h o l e s a l e a n d re ta il e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , o r b e t w e e n re ta il e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d
c u s t o m e r s ' h o u s e s o r p l a c e s of b u s i n e s s .
M a y also load or u n lo ad tr uc k w i t h or without helpers,
m a k e m i n o r m e c h a n i c a l r e p a i r s , a n d k e e p t r u c k in g o o d w o r k i n g o r d e r .
Dr iv er -s al es me n and
ov er -t he -r oa d drivers ar e ex cl ud ed.
For wage
study purp os es , truckdrivers
follows:
(Tractor-trailer should be rated o n

a r e classified b y size a n d t y pe
th e b a s i s of tr ai le r capacity.)

of e q u i p m e n t ,

T r u c k d r i v e r ( c o m b i n a t i o n of s i z e s l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y )
T r u c k d r i v e r , light ( u n d e r I V 2 to ns )
T r u c k d r i v e r , m e d i u m (I V2 to a n d i n c l u d i n g 4 tons)
T r u c k d r i v e r , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 t o ns , tr ailer type)
T r u c k d r i v e r , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 t o n s , o t h e r t h a n t r a i l e r ty p e )

T R U C K E R ,
P A C K E R ,

study

Re ce iv in g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping a n d receiving

as

excluded.
O R D E R

wage

T R U C K D R I V E R

H A N D L I N G

a n d unloader; h a n d l e r a n d stacker; shelver; trucker; s t o c k m a n or stock helper;

houseman

C L E R K

janitress)

Cleans and keeps
in a n o r d e r l y c o n d i t i o n f a c t o r y w o r k i n g a r e a s a n d w a s h r o o m s , o r
p r e m i s e s of a n office, a p a r t m e n t h o u s e , o r c o m m e r c i a l o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
D u t i e s involve
a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e f o l l o w i n g : S w e e p i n g , m o p p i n g o r . s c r u b b i n g , a n d p o l i s h i n g f l o o r s ; r e m o v i n g
c h ip s, t r a s h , a n d o t h e r re f u s e ; d u s t i n g e q u i p m e n t , f u rn it ur e, o r fixtures; p o l i s h i n g m e t a l f i xt ur es
or t r i m m i n g s ; p r o v i d i n g su pp li es a n d m i n o r m a i n t e n a n c e se rv ic es ; a n d c l ea ni ng lavatories, s h o w ­
ers, a n d r e s t r o o m s .
W o r k e r s w h o s p e c i a l i z e in w i n d o w w a s h i n g a r e e x c l u d e d .
L A B O R E R ,

RE CE IV IN G

P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h i p m e n t , o r r e c e i v e s a n d is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n c o m i n g s h i p ­
m e n t s of m e r c h a n d i s e o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s .
Shipping w o r k involves: A
k n o w l e d g e of s h i p p i n g
p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c t i c e s , r o u t e s , a v a i l a b l e m e a n s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d ra te ; a n d p r e p a r i n g r e c ­
o r d s of t h e g o o d s s h i p p e d , m a k i n g u p bills of l a d i n g , p o s t i n g w e i g h t a n d s h i p p i n g c h a r g e s , a n d
k e e p i n g a file of s h i p p i n g r e c o r d s .
M a y d i r e c t o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r i n g t h e m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h i p ­
ment.
R e c e i v i n g w o r k i n v o l v e s : V e r i f y i n g o r d i r e c t i n g o t h e r s in v e r i f y i n g t h e c o r r e c t n e s s of
s h i p m e n t s a g a i n s t bills of l a d i n g , i n v o i c e s , o r o t h e r r e c o r d s ; c h e c k i n g f o r s h o r t a g e s a n d r e j e c t i n g
d a m a g e d g o o d s ; r o u t i n g m e r c h a n d i s e o r m a t e r i a l s to p r o p e r d e p a r t m e n t s ; a n d m a i n t a i n i n g n e c e s ­
s a r y r e c o r d s a n d files.

P O W E R

SHIPPING

P r e p a r e s f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s f o r s h i p m e n t o r s t o r a g e b y p l a c i n g t h e m in s h i p p i n g c o n ­
t a i n e r s , t h e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n s p e r f o r m e d b e i n g d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e t y p e , si z e , a n d n u m b e r of
u n i t s t o b e p a c k e d , t h e t y p e of c o n t a i n e r e m p l o y e d , a n d m e t h o d of s h i p m e n t .
W o r k r e q u i r e s the
p l a c i n g of i t e m s i n s h i p p i n g c o n t a i n e r s a n d m a y i n v o l v e o n e o r m o r e of t h e f o l l o w i n g : K n o w l ­
e d g e of v a r i o u s i t e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r t o v e r i f y c o n t e n t ; s e l e c t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e t y p e a n d s i z e
of c o n t a i n e r ; i n s e r t i n g e n c l o s u r e s i n c o n t a i n e r ; u s i n g e x c e l s i o r o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l t o p r e v e n t
b r e a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c l o s i n g a n d s e a l i n g c o n t a i n e r ; a n d a p p l y i n g l a b e l s o r e n t e r i n g identifying
data o n container. P a c k e r s w h o also m a k e w o o d e n b o x e s or cr at es a r e excluded.




Operates
a
transport goods an d
establishment.

m a n u a l l y controlled
gasolinem a t e r i a l s o f all k i n d s a b o u t a

For wage

study pu rp os es ,

Trucker,
Trucker,

power
power

or el ec tr ic -p ow er ed
truck or
tractor
to
w a r e h o u s e , m a n u f a c t u r i n g pl an t, o r o t h e r

w o r k e r s a ;re c l a s s i f i e d b y t y p e of t r u c k ,

(forklift)
( o t h e r t h a n forklift)

as follows:

A rea W age

Surveys

A l i s t o f t h e l a t e s t a v a i l a b l e b u l l e t i n s i s p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . A d i r e c t o r y o f a r e a w a g e s t u d i e s i n c l u d i n g m o r e l i m i t e d s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d at t h e
r e q u e s t o f t h e W a g e a n d H o u r D i v i s i o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r i s a v a i l a b l e o n r e q u e s t . B u l l e t i n s m a y b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m th e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f
D o c u m e n t s , U .S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 2 0 4 0 2 , o r f r o m a n y o f t h e B L S r e g i o n a l s a l e s o f f i c e s s h o w n o n t h e i n s i d e f r o n t c o v e r .

A rea

A k r o n , O h i o , J u l y 1970____________________________________
A lb a n y —S c h e n e c t a d y —T r o y , N . Y . , M a r . 1971 1________
A l b u q u e r q u e , N. M e x . , M a r . 197 1----------------------------------A lle n t o w n —B e t h l e h e m —E a s t o n , P a . —N . J . , M a y 1971 —
A t la n t a , G a . , M a y 1971____________________________________
B a l t i m o r e , M d . , Aug. 1970 1_____________________________
B e a u m o n t - P o r t A rt h u r—O r a n g e , T e x . , M a y 1971 1___
B i n g h a m t o n , N . Y . , J u ly 1 9 7 0 _____________________________
B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , M a r . 1971 1__________________________
B o i s e C it y , Idaho, N o v . 1970 1 ___________________________
B o s t o n , M a s s . , Aug. 1 9 7 0 1 ______________________________
B u f f a l o , N . Y . , O c t . 1970 1_________________________________
B u r l i n g t o n , V t . , M a r . 1971 1--------------------------------------------C a n to n , O h i o , M a y 1971___________________________________
C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a . , M a r . 197 1-------------------------------------C h a r l o t t e , N . C . , Jan. 1971---------------------------------------------C h a t t a n o o g a , T e n n . —G a . , Sept. 1 9 7 0 1 ---------------------------C h i c a g o , 111., June 1970___________________________________
C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o — y .—I n d . , F e b . 1971 1--------------------------K
C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , Sep t. 1970 1-------------------------------------------C o l u m b u s , O h i o , O c t . 1970 1_____________________________
D a l l a s , T e x . , O ct . 1970* -------------------------------------------------D a v e n p o r t —R o c k Isla nd—M o l i n e , Iowa—111.,
F e b . 197 1----------------------------------------------------------------------------D a y to n , O h i o , D e c . 1970 1-------------------------------------------------D e n v e r , C o l o . , D e c . 1 9 7 0 --------------------------------------------------D e s M o i n e s , Io w a , M a y 1971--------------------------------------------D e t r o i t , M i c h . , F e b . 1971 1-----------------------------------------------F o r t W o r t h , T e x . , O c t . 1970 1 ____________________________
G r e e n B a y , W i s . , J u l y 1970 1-------------------------------------------G r e e n v i l l e , S . C . , M a y 1971 -------------------------------------------H o u s t o n , T e x . , A p r . 1971 1-----------------------------------------------I n d ia n a p o lis , Ind., O c t . 1970 1____________________________
J a c k s o n , M i s s . , Jan. 1971 1______________________________
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , D e c . 1970 1----------------------------------------K a n s a s C it y , M o . - K a n s . , Sep t. 1970 1 ---------------------------L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i l l , M a s s . —N . H . , June 1971--------------L it t l e R o c k — o r t h L it tl e R o c k , A r k . , J u ly 1970 1-------N
L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —Santa A n a G a r d e n G r o v e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1971 1____________________
L o u i s v i l l e , K y .—I n d . , N o v . 1970---------------------------------------L u b b o c k , T e x . , M a r . 1971------------------------------------------------M a n c h e s t e r , N . H . , J u l y 1 9 7 0 1 ___________________________
M e m p h i s , T e n n .—A r k . , N o v . 1970------------------------------------M i a m i , F l a . , N o v . 1970 1---------------------------------------------------M id la n d and O d e s s a , T e x . , Jan. 1971-----------------------------M i l w a u k e e , W i s . , M a y 1971______________________________
M i n n e a p o l i s —St. P a u l , M in n . , Jan. 1971_________________
1
 Data on establishment practices


B ulletin n u m b er
and p r i c e

1660-88,
1685-54,
1685-58,
1685-75,
1685-69,
1685-18,
1685-68,
1685-6,
1685-63,
1685-21,
1 6 8 5 -1 1,
1685-43,
1685-59,
1685-71,
1685-57,
1685-48,
1685-10,
1660-90,
1685-53,
1685-28,
1685-33,
1685-22,

45

30 c e n t s
35ce n ts
30ce n ts
30 c e n t s
40 c e n t s
50ce n ts
35c e n t s
30ce n ts
40 c e n ts
35ce n ts
50 c e n t s
50cen ts
35ce n ts
30 c e n t s
30ce n ts
30ce n ts
35c e n t s
60 c e n t s
ce n ts
5 0 ce n ts
4 0 ce n ts
5 0 ce n ts

1685-51,
1685-45,
1685-41,
1685-70,
1685-77,
1685-25,
1685-4,
1685-78,
1685-67,
1685-31,
1685-39,
1685-37,
1685-16,
1685-83,
1685-1,

30cen ts
40 ce n ts
35ce n ts
30cents
50 c e n ts
35ce n ts
35c e n t s
35c e n ts
50 c e n t s
40 ce n ts
35ce n ts
35ce n ts
45 c e n t s
30 c e n t s
35c e n t s

1685-66,
1685-27,
1685-60,
1685-2,
1685-30,
1685-29,
1685-40,
1685-76,
1685-44,

50 c e n ts
30ce n ts
30ce n ts
35c e n t s
30ce n ts
40 cen ts
30ce n ts
35c e n ts
40 ce n ts

and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

A rea

M u s k e g o n —M u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M i c h . , June 1971----------N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y , N . J . , Jan. 197 1----------------------N ew H av e n , C o n n . , Jan. 1971_____________________________
N e w O r l e a n s , L a . , Jan. 197 1 1____________________________
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r . 1 9 7 0 1_____________________________
N o r f o l k —P o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s —
H a m p t o n , V a . , Jan. 1971 1 ---------------------------------------------O k l a h o m a C it y , O k la . , J u ly 1970-------------------------------------O m a h a , N e b r . - I o w a , Sept. 1970 1 ------------------------------------P a t e r so n — l i f t o n — a s s a i c , N . J . , June 1970 1__________
C
P
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . —N . J . , N o v . 1970----------------------------------P h o e n i x , A r i z . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 1______________________________
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , Jan. 1971 1______________________________
P o r t l a n d , M a in e , N o v . 1970_______________________________
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . — a s h . , M a y 1970 1-------------------------------W
P r o v i d e n c e —P a w t u c k e t —W a r w i c k , R .I .—M a s s . ,
M a y 1971 1_________________________________________________
R a l e i g h , N . C . , A u g. 1970 1________________________________
R i c h m o n d , V a . , M a r . 1971________________________________
R o c h e s t e r , N . Y . ( o f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s o n ly ),
A u g . 1970___________________________________________________
R o c k f o r d , 111., M a y 1971---------------------------------------------------St. L o u i s , M o . —111., M a r . 1971 1__________________________
Salt L a k e C it y , Utah, N o v . 1 9 7 0 * ------------------------------------San A n t o n i o , T e x . , M a y 1971 1-----------------------------------------San B e r n a r d i n o — i v e r s i d e — n t a r i o , C a l i f . ,
R
O
D e c . 1970 1--------------------------------------------------------------------------San D i e g o , C a l i f . , N o v . 1970---------------------------------------------San F r a n c i s c o — a k la n d , C a l i f . , O c t . 1970---------------------O
San J o s e , C a l i f . , A u g . 1970_______________________________
S avan nah , G a . , M a y 1971_________________________ _________
S c r a n t o n , P a . , J u ly 1970 1_________________________________
Seattle—E v e r e t t , W a s h . , Jan. 1971 1-------------------------------S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k ., D e c . 1970 L ------------------------------------South B e n d , Ind., M a r . 1971---------------------------------------------S p o k a n e , W a s h . , June 1970 1 _____________________________
S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , J u l y 1 9 7 0 _______________________________
Tampa—
St. P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , N o v . 1970--------------------- ---T o l e d o , O h i o — i c h . , A p r . 1971 1_________________________
M
T r e n t o n , N . J . , Sept. 1970 1 _______________________________
U t ic a r -R o m e , N . Y . , J u l y 1 9 7 0 ____________________________
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . —Md.—V a . , A p r . 1971--------------------------W a t e r b u r y , C o n n . , M a r . 1971-------------------------------------------W a t e r l o o , I o w a , N o v . 1970 1
______________________________
W i c h i t a , K a n s . , A p r . 1971------------------------------------------------W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , M a y 1971-------------------------------------------Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1971_______________________________________
Y o u n g s t o w n — a r r e n , O h i o , N o v . 1970---------------------------W

B ulletin n u m b er
and p r i c e

1685-82,
1685-47,
1685-35,
1685-36,
1660-89,

30 c e n t s
40 c e n ts
30ce n ts
40 ce n ts
75 c e n t s

1685-46,
1685-5,
1685-14,
1660-87,
1685-34,
1660-70,
1685-49,
1 6 8 5- 19,
1660-77,

35c e n ts
30c e n ts
35c e n ts
45 c e n t s
50ce n ts
35c e n t s
50ce n ts
30ce n ts
40 c e n t s

1685-80,
1 6 8 5 - 12,
1685-62,

40c e n t s
35c e n ts
30 c e n ts

1685-7,
1685-79,
1685-65,
1685-26,
1685-81,

30c e n ts
30c e n t s
50 c e n t s
35c e n ts
35 c e n ts

1685-42,
1685-20,
1685-23,
1685-13,
1685-72,
1685-3,
1685-52,
1685-38,
1685-61,
1660-86,
1685-8,
16 8 5- 17,
1685-74,
1685-15,
1685-9,
1685-56,
1685-55,
1685-32,
1685-64,
1685-73,
1685-50,
1685-24,

40 c e n t s
30c e n ts
40 ce n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n t s
35c e n t s
35ce n ts
35c e n ts
30ce n ts
cents
ce n t s
30c e n t s
40 c e n t s
35c e n t s
30 c e n t s
40 c e n t s
30ce n ts
ce n ts
cents
30 c e n ts
30ce n ts
30ce n ts

35
30

35
30

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTIC S
W A SHING TO N, D.C.

20212

O F F IC IA L BUSINESS
P E N A L T Y FO R P R IV A T E USE, $ 3 0 0




POSTAGE A N D FEES PAID

U.S. D EPA RTM ENT OF LABOR
FIRST CLASS M A IL

I