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ROCKINGHAM

A R EA W AGE S U R VEY
T h e

L a w r e n c e — H a v e r h ill,
H a m p s h i r e ,

M a s s a c h u s e t t s — N e w

M e t r o p o l i t a n

A r e a ,

J u n e

1 9 7 0

Bulletin 1660-82
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

BU REAU

O F

L A B O R

S T A T IS T IC S

R E G IO N A L

O FFIC E S

ALASKA

Region II
341 Ninth Ave.
New York, N.Y. 10001
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region III
406 Penn Square Building
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Region VI
337 Mayflower Building
411 North AkardSt.
Dallas, Tex. 75201
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
* Regions VII and VIII will be serviced by Kansas City.
** Regions IX and X will be serviced by San Francisco.

Regions VII and VIII
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 10th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Region I
1603-B Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6762 (Area Code 617)
Region V
219 South Dearborn St.
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: 353-7230 (Area Code 312)




U .S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner




AREA WAGE SURVEY
T h e L a w r e n c e — H averhill, M a s s a c h u s e t t s — N e w
H a m p s h i r e , M e tr o p o lit a n A r e a , J u n e 1 9 7 0

B u lle tin

1 6 6 0 -8 2
Septem ber 1970

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 — Price

35

cents




P r e f a c e

C o n t e n t s

Page
T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s p r o g r a m o f a nn ua l
o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s i s d e ­
s i g n e d to p r o v i d e data o n o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s , and e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s . It
y i e l d s d e t a i l e d data b y s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n f o r e a c h
o f the a r e a s s t u d i e d , f o r g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s , a nd f o r the
U n it e d S t a t e s .
A m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n in th e p r o g r a m is
the n e e d f o r g r e a t e r i n s i g h t in to (1) th e m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s
b y o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y and s k i l l l e v e l , a nd (2) th e s t r u c ­
t u r e a n d l e v e l o f w a g e s a m o n g a r e a s and i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s .

I n t r o d u c t i o n ________________________________________________________________________
W a g e t r e n d s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s ______________________________
T ables:
1.
2.

A t th e e n d o f e a c h s u r v e y , a n i n d i v i d u a l a r e a b u l ­
letin p r e s e n t s s u r v e y r e s u lts f o r e a c h a r e a stu died . A f t e r
c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l o f th e i n d i v i d u a l a r e a b u l l e t i n s f o r a r o u n d
o f s u r v e y s , tw o s u m m a r y b u l l e t i n s a r e i s s u e d . T h e f i r s t
b r i n g s da ta f o r e a c h o f th e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s s t u d i e d in to
one bulletin .
T h e s e c o n d p r e s e n t s i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h h as
b e e n p r o j e c t e d f r o m i n d i v i d u a l m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a da ta to
r e l a t e to g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s and the U n it e d S t a t e s .

A.

N i n e t y a r e a s c u r r e n t l y a r e i n c l u d e d in the p r o ­
g r a m . In e a c h a r e a , i n f o r m a t i o n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s
is c o l l e c t e d a n n u a lly and on e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and
s u p p le m e n ta ry w age p r o v is io n s b ie nn ially.

B.

T h i s b u l l e t i n p r e s e n t s r e s u l t s o f th e s u r v e y in
L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i l l , M a s s . — . H . , in J un e 1970. T h e S t a n d ­
N
a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a , a s d e f i n e d b y th e B u r e a u
o f the B u d g e t t h r o u g h J a n u a r y 1 9 6 8 , c o n s i s t s o f th e c i t i e s o f
L a w r e n c e a nd H a v e r h i l l ; the to w n s o f A n d o v e r , G e o r g e t o w n ,
G r o v e l a n d , M e r r i m a c , M e t h u e n , N o r t h A n d o v e r , a nd W e s t
N e w b u r y in E s s e x C o u n t y , M a s s . ; a nd th e to w n s o f N e w t o n ,
P l a i s t o w , a n d S a l e m in R o c k i n g h a m C o u n t y , N . H.
Th is
s tu d y w a s c o n d u c t e d b y th e B u r e a u ' s r e g i o n a l o f f i c e in
B o s t o n , M a s s . , u n d e r the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f P a u l V .
M u lk ern , A s s is ta n t R egion a l D ir e c t o r fo r O p era tion s.




1
5

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y and
n u m b e r s t u d i e d _________________________________________________________
I n d e x e s o f s t a n d a r d w e e k l y s a l a r i e s and s t r a i g h t - t i m e
h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , and
p e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s ________________________
O ccu pational earn ings:
A -l.
O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s — e n a n d w o m e n _________________________
m
A - 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l a nd t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s —m e n a n d
w o m e n ___________________________________________________________
A - 3 . O f f i c e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s —
m e n a n d w o m e n c o m b i n e d ___________________________________
A -4 .
M a i n t e n a n c e a nd p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s __________________
A - 5.
C u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s ___________
E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n t a r y w age p r o v i s i o n s :
B -l.
M in im u m en tra n ce s a la rie s fo r w om en o ffic e
w o r k e r s __________________________________________________________
B -2.
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ______________________________________________
B -3.
S c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s _________________________________
B -4 .
P a i d h o l i d a y s ____________________________________________________
B -5.
P a i d v a c a t i o n s __________________________________________________
B -6.
H e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n p l a n s ______________________
B -7.
M eth od o f w a ge d e t e r m i n a ti o n and f r e q u e n c y o f
p a y m e n t __________________________________________________________

A ppendix.

O c c u p a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ________________________________________

areas.

i ii

NOTE:
S im ila r tabu lation s a r e
(See in sid e b a ck c o v e r . )

a va ila b le

for

oth er

4

6

7
8
9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16
19
20
21




I n t r o d u c t i o n

T h i s a r e a is 1 o f 90 in w h i c h th e U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ' s
B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tistics con du cts s u r v e y s of o ccu p a tio n a l earn ings
a nd r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s o n an a r e a w i d e b a s i s . 1 In th is a r e a , d a t a w e r e
o b t a i n e d b y p e r s o n a l v i s i t s o f B u r e a u f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s to r e p r e s e n t ­
a t i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h in s i x b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s :
Manu­
f a c t u r i n g ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ;
w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and
serv ices.
M a jo r in d u stry g ro u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th ese stu dies a re
g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t i o n s and th e c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s .
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g f e w e r th a n a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e
o m i t t e d b e c a u s e t h e y t e n d to f u r n i s h i n s u f f i c i e n t e m p l o y m e n t in the
occu pati.ons stu d ied to w a r r a n t in c lu s io n .
S ep arate tabu lation s are
p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h o f th e b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w h i c h m e e t p u b l i ­
cation c r it e r ia .

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t and e a r n i n g s d a t a a r e s h o w n f o r
f u ll- t i m e w o r k e r s , i .e ., th o se h ir e d to w o r k a re g u la r w e e k ly sch ed u le
in th e g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
E a r n i n g s da ta e x c l u d e p r e ­
m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
la te s h i f t s .
N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a r e e x c l u d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g
a l l o w a n c e s and i n c e n t i v e e a r n i n g s a r e i n c l u d e d . W h e r e w e e k l y h o u r s
a r e r e p o r t e d , as f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e is t o th e
s t a n d a r d w o r k w e e k ( r o u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t h a l f h o u r ) f o r w h i c h e m ­
p lo y e e s r e c e i v e th eir reg u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e of pay
f o r o v e r t i m e at r e g u l a r a n d / o r p r e m i u m r a t e s ) . A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n ­
in g s f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d t o th e n e a r e s t h a l f d o l l a r .
The a v e ra g e s p re se n te d r e fle c t c o m p o s ite , area w ide e s t i­
m ates.
I n d u s t r i e s and e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d i f f e r in p a y l e v e l and j o b
s t a f f i n g a nd , t h u s , c o n t r i b u t e d i f f e r e n t l y t o th e e s t i m a t e s f o r e a c h j o b .
T h e p a y r e l a t i o n s h i p o b t a i n a b l e f r o m th e a v e r a g e s m a y f a i l to r e f l e c t
a c c u r a t e l y th e w a g e s p r e a d o r d i f f e r e n t i a l m a i n t a i n e d a m o n g j o b s in
i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , d i f f e r e n c e s in a v e r a g e p a y l e v ­
e l s f o r m e n and w o m e n in a n y o f th e s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s h o u ld
not b e a s s u m e d t o r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y t r e a t m e n t o f the s e x e s
w it h i n i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
O ther p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s w h ich m a y
c o n t r i b u t e t o d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y f o r m e n and w o m e n i n c l u d e :
D iffer­
e n c e s in p r o g r e s s i o n w it h in e s t a b l i s h e d r a t e r a n g e s , s i n c e o n l y the
a c t u a l r a t e s p a i d i n c u m b e n t s a r e c o l l e c t e d ; and d i f f e r e n c e s in s p e c i f i c
d u t ie s p e r f o r m e d , a lt h o u g h th e w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y
w it h in th e s a m e s u r v e y j o b d e s c r i p t i o n .
J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d in
c l a s s i f y i n g e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u a l l y m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d
th a n t h o s e u s e d in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and a l l o w f o r m i n o r
d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in th e s p e c i f i c d u t ie s p e r f o r m e d .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a re c o n d u cte d on a s a m p le b a s is b e c a u s e of
th e u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t i n v o l v e d in s u r v e y i n g a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
To
o b t a i n o p t i m u m a c c u r a c y at m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f
l a r g e th a n o f s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s s t u d i e d . In c o m b i n i n g th e d a t a ,
h o w e v e r , all e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv e n th e ir a p p r o p r ia t e w eigh t.
E s­
t i m a t e s b a s e d o n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e ,
as r e l a t i n g t o a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g and a r e a ,
e x c e p t f o r t h o s e b e l o w th e m i n i m u m s i z e s t u d i e d .
O ccupations

and E a r n i n g s

The o c c u p a t io n s s e l e c t e d f o r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie t y
o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g and n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , and a r e o f th e
follow in g ty pes:
(1) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l ;
(3) m a i n t e n a n c e and p o w e r p l a n t ; a nd (4) c u s t o d i a l and m a t e r i a l m o v e ­
m ent.
O c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is b a s e d o n a u n i f o r m s e t o f j o b
d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o ta k e a c c o u n t o f i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r i a t i o n
in d u t i e s w i t h i n th e s a m e j o b .
T h e o c c u p a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r s tu d y
a r e l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d in th e a p p e n d i x . T h e e a r n i n g s da t a f o l l o w i n g
th e j o b t i t l e s a r e f o r a ll i n d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d . E a r n i n g s da t a f o r s o m e
o f th e o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d , o r f o r s o m e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s
w i t h i n o c c u p a t i o n s , a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d in the A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , b e c a u s e
e i t h e r (1) e m p l o y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t i o n is t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h
d a t a t o m e r i t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r (2) t h e r e is p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e
o f i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t d a ta .

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t the t o t a l in
a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h i n the s c o p e o f the s t u d y and not th e n u m b e r
actu ally su rv e y e d .
B e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e
a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , th e e s t i m a t e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t o b ­
t a i n e d f r o m th e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d s e r v e o n l y t o i n d i c a t e
th e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f th e j o b s s t u d i e d .
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in
o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d o not a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y th e a c c u r a c y o f the
e a r n i n g s da ta .
E sta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s

and S u p p l e m e n t a r y W a g e P r o v i s i o n s

I n f o r m a t i o n is p r e s e n t e d ( in th e B - s e r i e s

tables) on s e le c t e d

1
Included in the 90 areas are four studies conducted under contract with the New York State
e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s as t h e y
Department of Labor. These areas are Binghamton (New York portion only); Rochester (o ffice occu ­
r e l a t e t o p la n t and o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e x e c u t i v e , and
pations only); Syracuse; and Utica—Rome. In addition, the Bureau conducts more lim ited area studies
p r o f e s s i o n a l e m p l o y e e s , and c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s w h o a r e u t i l i z e d
in 78 areas at the request of the Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions of the U.S. De­
as a s e p a r a t e w o r k f o r c e a r e e x c l u d e d .
"P la n t w o r k e r s " in clude
partment of Labor.




1

2

w o r k i n g f o r e m e n and a l l n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s
(inclu din g le a d m e n and t r a i n e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s .
"O ffice w o rk e rs "
in c l u d e w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s and n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s p e r f o r m i n g
c l e r ic a l or related fun ction s.
C a f e t e r i a w o r k e r s and r o u t e m e n a r e
e x c l u d e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , but i n c l u d e d in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g
in d u s t r ie s .
M i n i m u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s ( ta b le
B - l ) r e l a t e o n l y t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s v i s i t e d . B e c a u s e o f the o p t i m u m
s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s u s e d , and the p r o b a b i l i t y that l a r g e e s t a b l i s h ­
m ents a re m o r e lik e ly to have f o r m a l e n tra n ce ra te s fo r w o r k e r s
a b o v e the s u b c l e r i c a l l e v e l than s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , the t a b le is
m o r e - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p o l i c i e s in m e d i u m and l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .

Sh ift d i f f e r e n t i a l da ta ( t a b l e B - 2 ) a r e l i m i t e d to plant w o r k e r s
in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s .
T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d b o t h in
t e r m s o f (1) e s t a b l i s h m e n t p o l i c y , 2 p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f t o t a l plant
w o r k e r e m p l o y m e n t , and (2) e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e , p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s
o f w o r k e r s a c t u a l l y e m p l o y e d o n the s p e c i f i e d s h if t at the t i m e o f the
survey.
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g v a r i e d d i f f e r e n t i a l s , the a m o u n t
a p p l y i n g t o a m a j o r i t y w a s u s e d o r , if no a m o u n t a p p l i e d to a m a j o r i t y ,
the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " o t h e r " w a s u s e d . In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in w h i c h s o m e
l a t e - s h i f t h o u r s a r e p a i d at n o r m a l r a t e s , a d i f f e r e n t i a l w a s r e c o r d e d
o n l y if it a p p l i e d to a m a j o r i t y o f the s h if t h o u r s .

T h e s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s ( ta b le B - 3 ) o f a m a j o r i t y o f the
f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s in an e s t a b l i s h m e n t a r e t a b u l a t e d a s a p p l y i n g to
a ll o f the p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s o f th at e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
S cheduled
w e e k l y h o u r s a r e t h o s e w h i c h f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s w e r e e x p e c t e d to
w o r k , w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e p a i d f o r at s t r a i g h t - t i m e o r o v e r t i m e r a t e s .

p a r t o f the p a i d h o l i d a y s t a b l e p r e s e n t s th e n u m b e r o f w h o l e and h a lf
h o l i d a y s a c t u a l l y g r a n t e d . T h e s e c o n d p a r t c o m b i n e s w h o l e and h a l f
h o lid a y s to show total h o lid a y t i m e .
T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a t i o n p l a n s ( t a b le B - 5 ) is l i m i t e d to a
sta tistica l m e a s u re of v a ca tion p r o v is io n s .
It is n o t i n t e n d e d a s a
m e a s u r e o f th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s a c t u a l l y r e c e i v i n g s p e c i f i c B e n e ­
f i t s . P r o v i s i o n s o f an e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r a ll le n g t h s o f s e r v i c e w e r e
t a b u l a t e d a s a p p l y i n g t o a ll pla n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s o f the e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t , r e g a r d l e s s o f le n g t h o f s e r v i c e .
P r o v i s i o n s f o r p a y m e n t on
o t h e r th an a t i m e b a s i s w e r e c o n v e r t e d t o a t i m e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p l e ,
a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d as the e q u i v ­
a le n t o f 1 w e e k ' s p a y . E s t i m a t e s e x c l u d e v a c a t i o n - s a v i n g s p la n s and
th ose w hich o ffe r "e x te n d e d " or "s a b b a tic a l" ben efits beyond b a s ic
p la n s t o w o r k e r s w ith q u a l i f y i n g l e n g t h s o f s e r v i c e .
T y p ic a l of such
e x c l u s i o n s a r e p l a n s in th e s t e e l , a l u m i n u m , and c a n i n d u s t r i e s .

D a ta o n h e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n p la n s ( t a b le B - 6 ) i n ­
c l u d e t h o s e p l a n s f o r w h i c h the e m p l o y e r p a y s at l e a s t a p a r t o f the
c o s t . S u c h p la n s i n c l u d e t h o s e u n d e r w r i t t e n b y a c o m m e r c i a l i n s u r a n c e
c o m p a n y and t h o s e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a u n io n fund o r p a i d d i r e c t l y b y
the e m p l o y e r out o f c u r r e n t o p e r a t i n g fu n d s o r f r o m a fund s e t a s i d e
f o r t h is p u r p o s e .
A n e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e a p la n
if th e m a j o r i t y o f e m p l o y e e s w a s e l i g i b l e t o b e c o v e r e d u n d e r the
p l a n , e v e n if l e s s th a n a m a j o r i t y e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e e m ­
p l o y e e s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d th e c o s t o f the p la n .
Le­
g a l l y r e q u i r e d p l a n s , s u c h as w o r k m e n ' s c o m p e n s a t i o n , s o c i a l s e ­
c u r i t y , and r a i l r o a d r e t i r e m e n t w e r e e x c l u d e d .

D a ta on p a i d h o l i d a y s ( ta b le B - 4 ) a r e l i m i t e d to da ta o n h o l i ­
d a y s g r a n t e d a n n u a lly o n a f o r m a l b a s i s ; i . e . , (1) a r e p r o v i d e d f o r
in w r i t t e n f o r m , o r (2) h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d b y c u s t o m .
H olidays
o r d i n a r i l y g r a n t e d a r e i n c l u d e d e v e n th o u g h t h e y m a y f a l l o n a n o n ­
w o r k d a y and the w o r k e r is not g r a n t e d a n o t h e r d a y o f f .
The fir s t

S i c k n e s s and a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e is l i m i t e d t o that ty p e o f
in su ra n ce under w hich p r e d e te r m in e d ca sh paym ents are m ade d ir e c tly
to the i n s u r e d d u r i n g i l l n e s s o r a c c i d e n t d i s a b i l i t y .
I n f o r m a t i o n is
p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l s u c h p la n s t o w h i c h th e e m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t e s .
How­
e v e r , in N e w Y o r k a nd N e w J e r s e y , w h i c h h a v e e n a c t e d t e m p o r a r y
d i s a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e l a w s w h i c h r e q u i r e e m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s , 3 p la n s
a r e i n c l u d e d o n l y if th e e m p l o y e r (1) c o n t r i b u t e s m o r e than is l e g a l l y
r e q u i r e d , o r (2) p r o v i d e s the e m p l o y e e w ith b e n e f i t s w h i c h e x c e e d the
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the la w .
T a b u l a t i o n s o f p a i d s i c k l e a v e p la n s a r e
l i m i t e d to f o r m a l p l a n s 4 w h i c h p r o v i d e f u ll p a y o r a p r o p o r t i o n o f the
w o r k e r ' s pay du rin g a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k b e c a u s e of i lln e s s .
Separate
t a b u l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o (1) p l a n s w h i c h p r o v i d e f u l l p a y
and no w a i t i n g p e r i o d , and (2) p la n s w h i c h p r o v i d e e i t h e r p a r t i a l p a y
o r a w a i t i n g p e r i o d . In a d d i t i o n t o th e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f th e p r o p o r t i o n s
o f w o r k e r s w h o a r e p r o v i d e d s i c k n e s s and a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e o r p a id
s i c k l e a v e , an u n d u p l i c a t e d t o t a l is s h o w n o f w o r k e r s w h o r e c e i v e
e ith e r o r both ty p e s o f b e n e fit s .

^ An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the following con­
ditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering
late shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1) had operated late
shifts during the 12 months prior to the survey, or (2) had provisions in written form for operating
late shifts.

The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer
contributions.
An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the
minimum number of days of sick leave available to each employee. Such a plan need not be
written, but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, were excluded.

P a i d h o l i d a y s ; p a id v a c a t i o n s ; h e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , a nd p e n s i o n
p la n s ;
and f r e q u e n c y o f w a g e p a y m e n t ( t a b l e s B - 4 t h r o u g h B - 7 )
a r e t r e a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y o n th e b a s i s that t h e s e a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o a ll
pla n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s if a m a j o r i t y o f s u c h w o r k e r s a r e e l i g i b l e o r
m a y e v e n t u a l l y q u a l i f y f o r th e p r a c t i c e s l i s t e d .
S u m s o f i n d iv id u a l
i t e m s in t a b l e s B - 2 t h r o u g h B - 7 m a y not e q u a l t o t a l s b e c a u s e o f
rou nding.




3

M a j o r m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e i n c l u d e s t h o s e p la n s w h i c h a r e d e ­
s i g n e d to p r o t e c t e m p l o y e e s in c a s e o f s i c k n e s s and i n j u r y i n v o l v i n g
e x p e n s e s b e y o n d the c o v e r a g e o f b a s i c h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , m e d i c a l , and
s u r g ic a l plan s.
M e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e r e f e r s to p la n s p r o v i d i n g f o r c o m ­
p le t e o r p a r t i a l p a y m e n t o f d o c t o r s ' f e e s .
S u c h p la n s m a y b e u n d e r ­
w ritten by c o m m e r c i a l in su ra n c e c o m p a n ie s o r n on profit o rg a n iza tio n s
o r t h e y m a y b e p a id f o r b y the e m p l o y e r out o f a f u n d s e t a s i d e f o r
th is p u r p o s e .
T a b u l a t i o n s o f r e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n p la n s a r e l i m i t e d to
t h o s e p la n s that p r o v i d e r e g u l a r p a y m e n t s f o r the r e m a i n d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's lif e .
M e t h o d o f w a g e d e t e r m i n a t i o n ( t a b le B - 7 ) r e l a t e s t o b a s i c
t y p e s o f r a t e s t r u c t u r e f o r w o r k e r s p a i d u n d e r v a r i o u s t i m e a nd i n ­
c e n t i v e s y s t e m s . U n d e r a s i n g l e r a t e s t r u c t u r e th e s a m e r a t e i s p a i d
to a ll e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s in th e s a m e j o b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A n i n d i v i d ­
ual w o r k e r o c c a s i o n a l l y m a y be p a id a b o v e o r b e l o w th e s i n g l e r a t e




f o r s p e c i a l r e a s o n s , but s u c h p a y m e n t s a r e e x c e p t i o n s . A r a n g e - o f r a t e s p l a n s p e c i f i e s th e m i n i m u m a n d / o r m a x i m u m r a t e p a i d e x p e r i ­
e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r th e s a m e j o b . I n f o r m a t i o n a l s o is p r o v i d e d o n the
m e t h o d o f p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h the r a n g e . In th e a b s e n c e o f a f o r m a l
r a t e s t r u c t u r e , th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f th e i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r d e t e r m i n e
th e p a y r a t e . I n f o r m a t i o n o n t y p e s o f i n c e n t i v e p l a n s is p r o v i d e d o n l y
f o r p la n t w o r k e r s b e c a u s e o f the l o w i n c i d e n c e o f s u c h p l a n s f o r o f f i c e
w orkers.
U n d e r a p i e c e w o r k s y s t e m , a p r e d e t e r m i n e d r a t e i s p a id
f o r e a c h unit o f o u tp u t. P r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a r e b a s e d o n p r o d u c t i o n
o v e r a q u o t a o r c o m p l e t i o n o f a j o b in l e s s th a n s t a n d a r d t i m e .
Com ­
p e n s a t i o n on a c o m m i s s i o n b a s i s r e p r e s e n t s p a y m e n t s b a s e d o n a
p e r c e n t a g e of valu e o f s a l e s , o r on a c o m b in a tio n of a stated s a la r y
p lu s a p e r c e n t a g e .

table

D ata
B -7.

on

frequen cy

of

wage

paym ent

a lso

are

p rovid ed

in

4

T a b le 1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts

by

in d u s tr y d iv is io n ,2 J u n e 1 9 7 0

m a jo r

and

w o rk e rs

w ith in

scope

o f su rv e y

and

n u m b e r s tu d ie d

in L a w r e n c e — H a v e r h i l l ,

M a s s .— N .H ., 1

Number of establishments
Industry division

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

W orkers in establishments
Within scope of study

Within scope
of study3

Plant
Number

All divisions_________ _______________________
Manufacturing___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing
Transportation, com m unication, and
other public utilities 5 _____________________
W holesale tra d e --------------------------------------------Retail trade___________________________-______
Finance, insurance, and real esta te_______
S ervices __ ____________________ — __

Studied

T o ta l4

Studied

Office

P ercent

T otal4

189

78

46. 785

100

34,196

6, 311

31,153

50
-

116
73

41
37

39,017
7,768

83
17

28,985
5, 211

4, 890
1,421

26,180
4, 973

50
50
50
50
50

9
12
35
9
8

6
5
14
6
6

1, 031
841
3, 820
1, 276
800

2
2
8
3
2

(?)
(‘ )
(6)
(7)
(6)

(6)
(‘ )

<>

(6)
(6)

790
358
2, 148
1, 045
632

1 The Lawrence— averhill Standard M etropolitan Statistical A rea , as defined by the Bureau of the Budget through January 1968, con sists of the cities of Lawrence and H averhill; the towns
H
of A ndover, Georgetown, Groveland, M errim a c, Methuen, North Andover, and West Newbury in E ssex County, M ass.; and the towns of Newton, Plaistow , and Salem in Rockingham County, N.H.
The "w ork ers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and com position of the labor fo rce included in the survey. The estim ates
are not intended, how ever, to serve as a basis of com parison with other employment indexes for the area to m easure employm ent trends or levels since (l) planning of wage surveys requires
the use of establishm ent data com piled con siderably in advance of the payroll p eriod studied, and (2) sm all establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 19 67 edition of the Standard Industrial C lassification Manual was used in classifying establishm ents by industry division.
3 Includes all establishm ents with total em ploym ent at or above the minimum limitation. A ll outlets (within the area) of com panies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair se rvice ,
and m otion picture theaters are con sidered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, p rofession a l, and other w orkers excluded from the separate plant and office categories.
5 Taxicabs and serv ices incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estim ates for " a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables, and for "a ll industries" in the S eries B tables. Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reasons: (l) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not
designed initially to perm it separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to perm it separate presentation, and (4) there is p ossib ility of d isclosu re of individual establishment data.
7 W orkers from this entire industry division are represented in estim ates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the S eries A tables, but from the real estate portion only in estim ates
for "a ll industries" in the S eries B tables. Separate presentation of data fo r this division is not made fo r one or m ore of the reasons given in footnote 6 above.
8 Hotels and m otels; laundries and other personal s e rv ice s ; business s e rv ice s ; automobile repair, rental, and parking; m otion p ictu res; nonprofit m em bership organizations (excluding religious
and charitable organizations); and engineering and architectural se rv ice s.




Over four-fifths of the w orkers within icope of the survey in the Lawrence—
Haverhill
area w ere em ployed in manufacturing firm s, The following presents the m ajor industry
groups and s p e cific industries as a percent of a manufacturing:
Industry groups
E le ctrica l equipment and
Leather and leather
p rod u cts----------------- — ------------18
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s _____ 13
Textile m ill p ro d u cts------------------ 9
Rubber and plastics

Specific industries
Communication equipment_____ 24
F ootwear, except ru bb er_______15
Ordnance----------------------------------- 13
M iscellaneous plastics
p rod u cts______________________ 5
Yarn and thread m ills ___________ 5

Apparel and other textile
p ro d u cts------------------------------------ 6
M achinery, except electrical__ 6
This inform ation is based on estim ates of total employment derived from universe
m aterials com piled p rio r to actual survey. P roportions in various industry divisions may
differ from proportions based on the results of the survey as shown in table 1 above.

W a g e

T re n d s

for

S e le c te d

O c c u p a tio n a l

G ro u p s

F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s a n d i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s , the w a g e
t r e n d s r e l a t e to r e g u l a r w e e k l y s a l a r i e s f o r the n o r m a l w o r k w e e k ,
e x clu s iv e of earn ings fo r o v e r t im e .
F o r pla n t w o r k e r g r o u p s , th e y
m e a s u r e c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s , e x c l u d i n g
p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
la te s h i f t s .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d o n data f o r s e l e c t e d k e y o c c u ­
p a t i o n s a n d i n c l u d e m o s t o f th e n u m e r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t j o b s w ith in
each group.

P r e s e n t e d in t a b l e 2 a r e i n d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e
in a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s ,
and in a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s o f s e l e c t e d p la n t w o r k e r g r o u p s .
The in d ex es
a r e a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g i v e n t i m e , e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t o f
w a g e s d u r i n g th e b a s e p e r i o d . S u b t r a c t i n g 100 f r o m th e i n d e x y i e l d s
the p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e in w a g e s f r o m the b a s e p e r i o d to th e da te o f the
in d e x . The p e r c e n t a g e s o f ch a n ge o r i n c r e a s e r e la t e to w a ge ch a n g e s
b e t w e e n the i n d i c a t e d d a t e s .
T h ese e s tim a te s a re m e a s u r e s of change
in a v e r a g e s f o r th e a r e a ; t h e y a r e n o t i n t e n d e d to m e a s u r e a v e r a g e
p a y c h a n g e s i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the a r e a .

L im itation s

o f Data

M ethod o f C om putin g
The in d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f ch a n g e , as m e a s u r e s of
c h a n g e in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y :
(1) g e n e r a l s a l a r y and
w a g e c h a n g e s , (2) m e r i t o r o t h e r i n c r e a s e s in p a y r e c e i v e d b y i n d i ­
v i d u a l w o r k e r s w h i l e in the s a m e j o b , and (3) c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e
w a g e s du e to c h a n g e s in the l a b o r f o r c e r e s u l t i n g f r o m l a b o r t u r n ­
o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s i o n s , f o r c e r e d u c t i o n s , a n d c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r ­
t i o n s o f w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d b y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith d i f f e r e n t p a y l e v e l s .
C h a n g e s in th e l a b o r f o r c e c a n c a u s e i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the
o c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e s w it h o u t a c t u a l w a g e c h a n g e s .
It i s c o n c e i v a b l e
th at e v e n th o u g h a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in a n a r e a g a v e w a g e i n c r e a s e s ,
a v e r a g e w a g e s m a y have d e c lin e d b e c a u s e l o w e r - p a y i n g e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e n t e r e d the a r e a o r e x p a n d e d t h e i r w o r k f o r c e s .
S im ilarly, wages
m a y h a v e r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t , y e t th e a v e r a g e s f o r a n a r e a
m a y have r is e n c o n s i d e r a b l y b e c a u s e h ig h e r -p a y in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e n t e r e d the a r e a .

E a c h o f th e s e l e c t e d k e y o c c u p a t i o n s w it h in an o c c u p a t i o n a l
g ro u p w as a s sig n e d a con stant w eight b a se d on its p r o p o r tio n a te e m ­
p l o y m e n t in the o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p .
The a vera ge (m ean) ea rn in gs for
e a c h o c c u p a t i o n w e r e m u l t i p l i e d b y th e o c c u p a t i o n a l w e i g h t , and the
p r o d u c t s f o r all o c c u p a t i o n s in th e g r o u p w e r e t o t a l e d . T h e a g g r e g a t e s
f o r 2 c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s w e r e r e l a t e d b y d i v i d i n g th e a g g r e g a t e f o r
the l a t e r y e a r b y the a g g r e g a t e f o r th e e a r l i e r y e a r .
The resultant
r e l a t i v e , l e s s 100 p e r c e n t , s h o w s the p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e .
The in dex
i s the p r o d u c t o f m u l t i p l y i n g the b a s e y e a r r e l a t i v e (100) b y the r e l a t i v e
f o r the n e x t s u c c e e d i n g y e a r and c o n t i n u i n g to m u l t i p l y ( c o m p o u n d )
e a c h y e a r ' s r e l a t i v e b y th e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s i n d e x . A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s
f o r th e f o l l o w i n g o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e u s e d i n c o m p u t i n g th e w a g e t r e n d s ;
Office clerical (men and women): Office clerical (men and women)— Skilled maintenance (men):
Continued
Bookkeeping-machine
Carpenters
operators, class B
Secretaries
Electricians
Clerks, accounting, classes
Stenographers, general
Machinists
A and B
Stenographers, senior
Mechanics
Clerks, file, classes
Switchboard operators, classes
Mechanics (automotive)
A, B, and C
A and B
Painters
Tabulating-machine operators,
Clerks, order
Pipefitters
Clerks, payroll
class B
Tool and die makers
Comptometer operators
Typists, classes A"and B
Keypunch operators, classes
Unskilled plant (men):
A and B
Industrial nurses (men and women):
Janitors, porters, and cleaners
Office boys and girls
Nurses, industrial (registered)
Laborers, material handling




T h e u s e o f c o n s t a n t e m p l o y m e n t w e i g h t s e l i m i n a t e s the e f f e c t
o f c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h j o b i n ­
c l u d e d in th e d a t a .
The p e r c e n t a g e s o f change r e f le c t only ch a nges
in a v e r a g e p a y f o r s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r s .
T h e y a r e not i n f l u e n c e d b y
c h a n g e s in s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e s , a s s u c h , o r b y p r e m i u m pay
for o v ertim e.
W h e r e n e c e s s a r y , data w e r e a d j u s t e d to r e m o v e f r o m
the i n d e x e s a n d p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e a n y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t c a u s e d
b y c h a n g e s in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .

5

6




T a b le

2.

In d e x e s

o f s ta n d a rd

w e e k ly

L a w r e n c e — H a v e r h ill, M a s s .— N .H ., J u n e

s a la r ie s
1970

and

s t r a ig h t -t im e

and June

h o u r ly

19 69, and

e a r n in g s

p e rc e n ts

fo r

s e le c te d

o f in c r e a s e

fo r

A ll industries
Office
cle rica l
(men and
women)

P eriod

Industrial
nurses
(men and
women)

o c c u p a t io n a l

s e le c te d

g ro u p s

in

p e r io d s

Manufacturing

Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

Unskilled
plant
w orkers
(men)

Office
cle rica l
(m en and
women)

Industrial
nurses
(m en and
women)

Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

U nskilled
plant
w orkers
(men)

126. 2
115. 1

117. 6
111.6

115.4
109. 3

169. 0
133. 9

149. 7
127. 2

145. 6
126. 1

Indexes (June 1967=100)
June 1970_____ ______________ _________________
June 1969_________________________________ _____

120.4
112. 0

126. 2
115. 1

118. 4
112. 3

115. 1
110. 2

(")
(*)

Indexes (June 1961=100)
June 1970________________________________________
June 1967________________________________________

151.9
( ')

169. 1
133. 9

150. 4
127. 0

145. 6
126. 5

(*)
O

P ercen ts of in crease
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June

1969
1968
1967
1966
1965
1964
1963
1962
1961
I960

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June

1970_________________________
1969_________________________
1968---------------------------------------1967---------------------------------------1966-------- ---------------------------1965---------------------------------------1964_________________________
1963---------------------------------------1962_______ — --------- -------1961________________ _______

7. 5
5. 5
6. 1
( !)
( )
2. 6
3. 6
3. 4
3.9
4. 6

9. 7
4. 9
9. 8
4. 2
5. 9
4. 1
5. 4
6. 3
4. 2
2 .4

5.
8.
3.
7.
2.
2.
3.
2.
6.
3.

4
1
9
0
9
1
3
6
7
7

4.
7.
2.
6.
4.
2.
2.
3.
4.
4.

4
2
8
3
0
7
9
5
6
3

( >
( )
< >
<)
< )
( ')
3. 7
4. 2
3. 6
4. 4

9.
4.
9.
4.
5.
3.
5.
6.
4.
2.

7
9
8
2
9
6
9
3
2
4

1 Data do not m eet publication crite ria .

NOTE: P re v io u sly published indexes fo r the Lawrence— averhill area used June 1961
H
as the base p eriod . They can be converted to the new base p eriod by dividing them by the
correspon din g index numbers fo r June 1967 on the June 1961 base p eriod as shown in the
table. (The result should be m ultiplied by 100.)

5. 4
8. 0
3. 3
( !)
( )
2. 0
3. 3
2. 7
6. 7
3. 8

5.
6.
2.
6.
3.
2.
2.
3.
5.
6.

6
7
4
7
1
4
9
1
5
3

7

A.

O c c u p a tio n a l earn in g s

Table A-1.

O f fi c e o c c u p a t i o n s— men and w o m e n

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Lawrence—
Haverhill, M ass.— H ., June 1970)
N,
Weekly e a rn in g ^^ ^
(standard)

Number

Sex, occupation, and industry division

of
workers

Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings oJ
$

Average
weekly
[standard)

$
65

Mean ^

Median2

Middle range2

$
70

$
75

$
80

$

$

12 0 .0 0 -1 3 7 .5 0

19

3 9 .5

126.50

12 5.00

a ----------------------------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------------------------------

45

3 8 .0

15

3 9 .5

8 3 .0 0
9 1 .0 0

8 3 .5 0
9 2 .0 0

C L E R K S , A C C O U N T I N G , C L A S S A -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

58
47

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

110.00

C L E R K S , A C C O U N T I N G , C L A S S 8 -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------N U N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------

80
48

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

9 8 .0 0
1 0 0.50

32

3 9 .0

C L E R K S , P A Y R O L L --------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

141
136

K E Y P U N C H O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S A -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

122

CLERKS,

ACCOUNTING,

CLASS

A ------------------

$
90

$
95

100

$
105

110

$

$
115

120

$

S

$
125

130

$
135

$
140

$
145

$
150

S

$
160

170

and
under

130
and

70

$

MEN

85

75

80

85

-

-

-

-

12

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

-

-

3

5

2

2

2

1

-

13
13

7
5

i
-

6
6

4

2

4
4

1
1

2
2

9
7

6

2

5
i
-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

21
20
1

6
6

130

135

140

170

180

over

2

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

145

2
2

-

-

_

-

_

-

-

_

_

13
5

8

7
4
3

4
4

4
3
i

150

160

$

2

-

-

9

6

5
5

4
4

3
3

4
-

3
3

10

18
9
9

15

9

5

3

8
6
2

WOMEN
o pe r a t o r s

,

c la ss

no

7 4 .5 0 -

8 9 .0 0

i

12

2

8 8 .5 0 -

9 6 .0 0

-

-

-

-

108.50
1 0 9.00

1 0 2 .5 0 -1 2 2 .5 0
10 4 .0 0 -1 2 3 .5 0

_

_

-

-

9 3 .5 0

9 7 .5 0
100.50
9 3 .5 0

9 1 .5 0 -1 0 7 .5 0
9 4 .0 0 -1 1 0 .5 0
8 8 .0 0 -1 0 1 .0 0

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

9 9 .0 0
9 9 .0 0

101.00
10 1.00

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

10 4.50
1 0 4.00

1 0 3.00
102.50

11 1.00

-

-

3

-

~

1
-

-

-

1

5

9
5
4

8 6 .5 0 -1 1 2 .0 0
8 6 .5 0 -1 1 2 .0 0

i
i

2
2

11
11

17
16

16
16

14

12

4
4

27
27

7
7

17
15

14
14

6
6

1
1

9 7 .5 0 -1 1 1 .0 0
9 7 .5 0 -1 1 0 .5 0

_

-

-

_

5
5

6
6

36
35

20

25

18
16

11

17
17

2
1

2
1

5
-

-

10

6

9

9 3 .5 0

9 4 .5 0

9 0 .0 0 -1 0 2 .0 0

-

1

-

5

5

14

5

11

i

2

l

1 2 6.50
1 2 6.00
1 3 0.00

1 2 5.50
125.00
13 6.00

1 1 5 .5 0 -1 3 6 .0 0
1 1 5 .5 0 -1 3 4 .5 0

_

-

-

2

-

-

4
4
-

7
7
-

8
6
2

24
24
“

28
25
3

41
39

26
24

42
41

16
14

-

3
3

15
15

2

3
3

30

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .0

A --------------------------------

19

o
o
•
*

•P
o
o

b oukk ee p in g- machine

13 3.00

1 2 3.50

1 1 5 .0 0 -1 5 2 .5 0

7

-

-

2

-

-

3

-

-

2

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S 8 -------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------------------------------

46
39

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

1 3 4 . 0Q
136.00

1 4 0.50
14 1.50

1 1 9 .5 0 -1 4 5 .5 0
12 3 .0 0 -1 4 6 .0 0

_

_

_

_

_

_

2

3

1
1

13
13

4
4

1

i

2
2

-

-

5
5

2

-

5
5

4
4

2
2

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S C -------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------------------------------

148
141

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

128.00
128.50

12 9.00
129.00

1 2 0 .5 0 -1 3 4 .0 0
12 1 .0 0 -1 3 4 .0 0

_

_

_

-

17
17

24
23

21

40
40

12
12

6
6

2
2

3
3

6

-

_

4

-

-

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S 0 -------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

61
51

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

114.00
110.50

1 1 2.50
11 1.00

1 0 3 .0 0 -1 2 3 .5 0
10 3 .5 0 -1 1 9 .5 0

_

_

2
1

_

7

-

-

_

S T E N O G R A P H E R S , G E NE R AL -------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------

36

3 9 .0

9 1 .5 0 -1 1 9 .0 0
8 9 .5 0 - 9 9 .0 0
1 1 1 .5 0 -1 3 3 .0 0

_

_

_

1

_

3 8 .5
3 9 .0

9 9 .0 0
9 5 .5 0
1 2 2.50

_

20
16

104.50
9 4 .5 0
1 1 7.50

-

-

-

-

SW IT CHB OA RO

A ----------

18

4 0 .0

1 0 5.50

1 0 4.50

9 9 .0 0 -1 1 5 .5 0

-

S W I T C H B O A R O O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S B ---------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------

19
17

3 9 .0

9 6 .0 0
9 5 .5 0

9 3 .5 0

3 8 .5

9 3 .5 0

9 1 .0 0 -1 0 0 .0 0
9 1 .0 0 - 9 9 .0 0

SW IT CHBOARO

47
47

3 9 .5

9 4 .0 0

9 6 .5 0

3 9 .5

9 4 .0 0

9 6 .5 0

8 6 .5 0 -1 0 3 .0 0
8 6 .5 0 -1 0 3 .0 0

T Y P I S T S , C L A S S A ------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

79

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 8 .5 0

9 4 .5 0 -1 0 0 .5 0
9 4 .5 0 -1 0 0 .5 0

_

_

_

3

9 8 .5 0

9 7 .5 0
9 7 .5 0

_

79

-

-

-

-

3

T Y P I S T S , C L A S S B ------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

42
42

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

9 5 .0 0
9 5 .0 0

9 6 .0 0
9 6 .0 0

9 1 .5 0 -1 0 5 .5 0
9 1 .5 0 -1 0 5 .5 0

-

_

3
3

_

B ------------------

45

S E C R E T A R I E S 3 -------------------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------

274
244

K E YP U NC H

OPERATORS,

SECRETARIES,

CLASS

CLASS

OPERATORS,

CLASS

U P ERATOR-RECEPTION ISTS-

MANUFA CTU RIN G

-------------------------------------------------

1 1 2 .5 0 -1 5 7 .5 0

5

_

-

2

-

-

3

-

3

3

2
2

-

4
4

i i
n

-

2

2

19

1

4
4

2
2

6
6

9
9

8
8

8
8

5
5

4
4

-

4
4
-

8

-

4

i

i

i

5

7
i

-

3
3
“

4

i

1

1

2

5

-

-

8
6
2

-

-

-

-

i

5

4

2

2

3

-

-

2

-

_

_

-

2
1

_

2

2
2

-

-

i
i

10

-

2
2

-

-

-

9
9

ii
n

9
9

10
10

5
5

-

-

18
18

38
38

10
10

4
4

2
2

13
13

9
9

2
2

10
10

1

“

-

-

-

i

-

-

“

1
1

-

-

4

4

9
i

1

-

-

-

-

2
2

_

_

1

-

-

-

-

_

“

-

_

“

-

-

_

-

-

_

-

-

-

_

-

“

-

4
4

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond
to these weekly hours.
2 The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates position— half of the employees surveyed receive more
than the rate shown; half receive less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by 2 rates of pay; a fourth of the workers earn less than the lower of these rates and a fourth earn more than the
higher rate.
3 May include workers other than those presented separately.




8

Table A -2 .

Prof es si ona l and technical o c c u p a t i o n s — men and w o m e n

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H., June 1970)

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond
to these weekly hours.
2 For definition of terms, see footnote 2, table A -l.




9

and e a r n in g s fo r

selected

occupations

s t u d ie d o n an a r e a b a s i s

b y industry division,

L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i l l ,

Average
O c cu p a tio n and in d u stry d iv is io n

Weekly
earnings *
(standard) (standard)

OFFICE

45

3 8 .0

M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

IS

3 9 .5

$
8 3 .0 0
9 1 .0 0

77

3 9 .5

-------------------

17

C L E R K S, ACCOUNTING, CLASS 8
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------

83
SO

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

33

3 9 .0

—

34

PA YR OL L

-

o

CLERKS,

OR DE R

o

CLERKS,

--------------------

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

134.00
136.00

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S C -------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

148

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S 0 -------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

61
51

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

110.50

S T E N O G R A P H E R S , G E N E R A L -------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

36

3 9 .0

-----------------------------------------

20
16

3 8 .5
3 9 .0

104.50
9 4 .5 0
117.50

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

9 9 .5 0
9 9 .0 0

122
110

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

104.50
104.00

18

40*0

1 0 5.50
9 6 .0 0
9 5 .5 0

Nu NM ANUFA CTU RIN G
SW IT C H B O A R D

UPERATURS,

CLASS

A ----------

OPERATORS,

CLASS

8

----------

19

3 9 .0

-----------------------------------------

17

3 8 .5

S W IT C H B U A R O J P E K A T O R - R E C E P T I 0 N I S T S M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

47
47

39. 5

CONTINUED

A -------------------------------------------------

79

$
9 8 .5 0

79

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 8 .5 0

T Y P IS T S , CLASS 8
M AN UFA CTU RIN G

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

42
42

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

9 5 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS
------------------

36

COMPUTER c p e r a t u r s , c l a s s
b -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------------------------------N U N M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------

73
57
16

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

COMPUTER

SW IT C HB O A R D

K E Y P U N C H U P E R A T U R S , C L A S S A -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

141

-

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

-------------------------------------------------

128.00
1 2 8.50

A

OCCUPATIONS
CLASS

Weekly
hour? *
(standard)

M AN UFA CTU RIN G

$
133.00

O P tRATORS,

CLASS

A

161.00

1 1 4.00

100.50

142
136

M AN U FA CTU RIN G

OFFICE
TYPISTS,
19

CLASS

Number
of

O ccu p a tion and in d u stry d iv isio n

CONTINUED

CONTINUED

46
39

9 4 .0 0

NC NM AN UFA CTU RING

1970)

Average

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

--------------------------------

SECRETARIES,

9 8 .0 0
1 0 0.50

NUNMANU FAC TU RIN G

-

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

S E C R E T A R I E S , C L A S S 8 -------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

113.00
1 1 7.50

3 9 .5
3 9 .0

OCCUPATION.

SECRETARIES2 -

1 1 4 .0 0

60

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A
M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------

Number
of

O c cu p a tio n and in d u stry d iv is io n

OCCUPATIONS

80UKK EEPING -M ACH IN E O PERATORS,
C L A S S 8 -----------------------------------------------------------------------

June

Ave rage

Weekly

O

OFFICE

Number
of
workers

M a s s . —N . H . ,

O

stra ig h t-tim e w eek ly hou rs

O

(A verage

O ffice , p rofessional, and technical o c c u p a t io n s — men and w o m e n c o m b in e d

O

T a b le A -3 .

1 3 3.50
135.50
126.50

-------------------

15

3 9 .0

1 1 1.50

D R A F T S M E N , C L A S S A -------------------------------- ----------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

93
93

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

184.00
184.00

COMPUTER

UPERATURS,

C

B

45
274
244

S E C R E T A R I E S -------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------

30

NON MANU FAC TUR ING

1 Standard

hours

r e fle c t the

workweek

for

o

CLASS

o

OPERATORS,

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .0

w h ich

NUNMANUF ACT URINT

9 3 .5 0
126.50
1 2 b . 00

em p loy ees

B --------------------------------------------

62

-------------------------------------------------

62

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

149.50

-------

27
27

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 4 2.00
142.00

NURSES,

IN DU STRIAL

M AN UFA CTU RIN G

130.00

c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u rs .
2 M a y in c lu d e w o r k e r s o t h e r than t h o s e p r e s en ted s e p a r a t e ly .




3 9 .5

9 4 .0 0
9 4 .0 0

CLASS

MANUFA CTU RIN G

KEYPUNCH

DRAFTSMEN,

CLASS

receive

th eir

regular

straigh t-tim e

sa laries

(exclu sive

of

pay

for

o v e r t im e at

(RE G IST E RE D )

-------------------------------------------------

regular

an d /or

p rem iu m

r a t e s l, and

1 4 9.50

the ea rn in g s

10

T a b le A -4 .

M a intenance and p o w e rp la n t o c c u p a tio n s

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Lawrence—
Haverhill, M ass.— H. , June 1970)
N.
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—

Hourly earnings *
Number
of
woikers

Occupation and industry div

2.20
Mean 2

Median 2

Middle range 2

and
under
2.30

$
3.70
3.70

3 .3 4 3 .3 4 -

3.85
3.85

3 .4 8 3 .4 8 -

2.50

2.60

2 .7 0

_

_

_

2.6 0

2.70

2.80

4.29
4 .1 8

2.80

_
2.90

2 .9 0

_
3 .0 0

3.00

3.1 0

3 .2 0

3.3 0

_

_

_

_

3.2 0

3 .3 0

3.4 0

3.10

3.40

_
3.50

3.50

_

3.6 0

_
3.60

3.7 0

_
3.7 0

3.80

_
3 .8 0

4.3 8
4.38

3 .7 3 3 .7 3 -

2.40

_

2 .5 0

_
3 .9 0

3 .9 0

_
4 .0 0

4 .0 0

4.10

4.20 4 .4 0 4 .60

4.20

4 .40 4 .6 0 over

_
4.1 0

-

3.98
3.98

ELE C TR IC IA N S,

_

2.4 0

$

28
28

$
3.6 1
3.61

$

C A R P E N T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E ------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------------

2 .3 0

MAINT ENA NC E

-------

90

3.92

--------------------------------

90

3.92

------------------

36

3.96

3.98

--------------------------------

33

3.91

3.89

38
36

3 . 34
3.31

3.39
3.38

3 .1 8 -

3.4 9

--------------------------------

3 .1 8 -

3.48

H E L P E R S , M AI NTENANCE TR A D E S M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------------

57
51

2.68
2.7 3

2.72
2.74

2 .6 2 2 .6 6 -

2.79
2.8 0

M A C H I N I S T S , M A I N T E N A N C E ------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------------

84
84

3.60
3.6 0

3.50
3.50

3 .2 3 -

4.01

3 .2 3 -

4.01

( M A I N T E N A N C E ) -------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------NGN MA N JF A C T U R I N G ------------------------

49
30
19

3.7 3
3.54
4.0 4

3.66
3.38
4.15

3 .2 8 3 .1 6 3 .5 8 -

4.1 6
4.13
4.33

M E C H A N I C S , M A I N T E N A N C E ---------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------------

90
86

3.75
3.72

4.10
4.09

3 .3 1 3 .3 0 -

4 .1 6
4 .1 6

M I L L W R I G H T S ---------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------------

71
71

3.81
3.81

3.97
3.97

3 .4 2 3 .4 2 -

4 .1 3
4 .1 3

O I L E R S -----------------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------------

15
15

2 .7 8
2 .7 8

2.7 7
2.77

2 .6 0 2 .6 0 -

2 .9 3
2.93

P A I N T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E -----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------------

20
20

3.79
3 .7 9

3.90
3.90

3 .4 0 3 .4 0 -

4.15
4.15

P I P E F I T T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E ---------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------------

78
78

3.70
3 .7 0

3.91
3.91

3 .2 4 3 .2 4 -

4.13
4.13

T O O L AND D I E M AK E R S -----------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------------

136

4 .2 9
4 .2 9

4.50
4.50

4 .1 5 4 .1 5 -

4.55
4.55

MANUFAC TURIN G
ENGINEERS,

ST ATIO NARY

M AN UFA CTU RIN G
FIREM EN,

STATIONARY

MAN UFA CTU RIN G

M ECHANICS,

BOILER

—

AUTO MO TIVE

136

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 For definition of terms, see footnote 2, table A - l .




23
23

10
10

-

and

11

Ta b le A -5 .
(A v erag e

Custodia l and material m o ve m e n t o c c u p a tio n s

stra ig h t-tim e h ou rly earn in gs fo r

selected occu pation s

stu d ied on an a r e a b a s is

by industry division,

L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i l l ,

Hourly earnings 2

Num ber of w orkers

$

$
1.70

$
1.8 0

$

1.70

Number

1.80

”

1.60

O c cu p a tio n 1 and in du stry d iv ision
Moan 3

Median ^

Middle range3

-----------------------------------------------

WATCHMEN:
MANU FACTUR ING

1970)

straigh t-tim e

hour y earn in gs

of—

S

S

$

S

$

%

3 . 10

3.20

$
3.40

s

.0 0

3 .6 0

3.80

4.00

4.2 0

4.40

.

10

3. 20

3.40

3.60

3.80

4.20

4 .4 0

over

15
15

5
5

8
8

24
24

3
3

-

15

5

8

24

3

1

-

8

i

“

11
6
5

62
62

24
24

2
2

$
2.40

$
2.50

S
2.60

t

s

$

20

$
2.30

2.70

2.80

2 .9 0

30

2.40

2.50

2.60

2.70

2.80

2.90

3 .0 0

12
9

22
13

i

7
7

-

i

4
4

2
2

45
45

-

2

i

2

-

4

2

39

-

-

-

6
_
-

$
2.10

$

1.9 0

S
2.00

2

1.90

2.00

2.10

2.20

2

$

$

30

45

“

~

8
5

-

-

-

$

231
141

2.47
2.82

2.30
2.87

1 .9 6 2 .5 5 -

2.90
3.11

“

105

2.9 9

2.92

2 .8 4 -

3.21

-

5

9

ii

-

5

7
6
1

26

25
7
18

33
19
14

48

34

25
23

33
i

6

-

14

-

31
31

-

-

11
3

18
18

2

2
4

6
5

33
32
1

------------------------------------------------

36

2.3 3

2.24

2 .1 5 -

2 .4 6

-

-

J A N I T G R S , P O R T E R S * AND C L E A N E R S -----M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------------N U N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------------------------

338
231
107

2.38
2.42
2.28

2.39
2.49

2.6 4
2.65
2.37

7
6

15
5
10

13

2.22

2 .1 7 2 .2 8 2 .0 7 -

L A B O R E R S ? M A T E R I A L H A N D L I N G ----------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------------N U N M A N U F A C T U K I N G ---------------------------------------

403
352
51

2.76
2.6 9

2 .4 7 2 .4 7 3 .1 2 -

2.9 0
2 .8 6
3.89

_
-

2
-

3 .2 4

2.75
2.73
3.44

ORDER

i

-

12
1

-

6
20

1

-

“

8
7

98
97

1

i

3
2
1

26
25

26
26

78
78

1

-

-

8

1

-

23
1 7
6
6

-

24
6
18

-

~

-

-

“

~

“

“

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

i

3
3

o
o

GUARDS:
MANUFACTURING

receivin g

June

and
under

$
G U A R D S AND WATCHMEN --------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------

M a s s . —N . H . ,

-

-

10
10

3
-

12
-

-

3

12

-

-----------------------------------------------------

294

3.09

3.09

2 .9 3 -

3.53

-

-

-

5

20

5

10

1

5

-

4

5

16

u

20

115

-

-

-

-

p a c k e r s

? s h i p p i n g --------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------

79
79

2.7 0
2 .7 0

2.84
2.84

2 .2 9 2 .2 9 -

2.98
2.98

-

-

-

9
9

7
7

5
5

14
14

_

n

_

-

-

-

14

-

i i

-

5
5

_

“

1
1

14

4

2
2

-

“

5
5

4

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

P A C K E R S , S H I P P I N G ( WO M E N ) ----------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------

76
76

2.10
2.10

2.02
2.02

1 .9 4 1 .9 4 -

2.18
2.18

-

-

8
8

30
30

3
3

22
22

3
3

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
i

3
3

1
1

2
2

R E C E I V I N G C L E R K S ----------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------------N U N M A N U F A C T U K I N G ---------------------------------------

48
27

3.14
2.94

3.04
2.96

2 .8 3 2 .6 6 -

3.71
3.09

4
4

1
-

6
5

i

-

4
3

-

3.39

3.72

3 .0 5 -

3.76

1

i

i

-

2

i

3
1
2

-

-

11
9

2

-

21

S H I P P I N G C L E R K S -------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------

27
25

3.07
3.10

3.06
3.07

2 .8 6 2 .8 8 -

3-24
3.25

2
1

-

1

7
7

-

-

7
7

1
1

7
7

S H I P P I N G AND R E C E I V I N G C L E R K S ----------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------------------------

71
56
15

2.7 8
2.74
2.94

2 .6 9
2.67
3.15

2 .3 3 2 .3 4 2 .2 9 -

3.15
3.13
3.64

-

4
4

13
11
2

1
-

T R U C K D R I V E R S 4 ------------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ---------------------------------------

306
139
167

3.35
2.88
3.74

3.44
2.85

2 .8 1 2 .4 7 3 .4 4 -

3.87
3.0 9
4.24

4
3

3
2

i

i

T R U C K D R IV E R S ? L IG H T (UND ER
1 -1 /?
T O N S ) ----------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------

39

2.68

2.65

27

2.65

2.50

2 .4 7 2 .4 5 -

2.89
2.79

T R U C K D R I V E R S , M EDI UM ( 1 - 1 / 2
TO
AND I N C L U D I N G 4 T O N S ) ------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------

104
49

3.03
2.68

3.25
2.69

2 .6 1 2 .4 6 -

3 .4 6
2.88

T R J C K D R I V E R S ? H E AV Y ( O V E R 4 T O NS ,
T R A I L E R T Y P E ) ----------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------

36
33

3.53
3.57

3.81
3.82

3 .1 3 3 .1 5 -

3.86
3.86

224

2.93
2 .6 5

2.75
2.65

2 .5 2 2 .3 8 -

3.6 1
2.77

-

FILLERS

T R U C K E R S ? POWER ( F O R K L I F T ) -------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4

162

3 . 75

D ata lim ite d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o th e r w is e in d icate d .
E x clu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e rt im e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s,
F o r d efin ition of t e r m s ,
s e e footn ote 2, table A - l .
In clu d e s all d r i v e r s ,
as d efin ed ,
r e g a r d l e s s of s iz e and type of




_

-

6
6

-

3
3

1
-

1
-

-

11
9

~

~

-

1

1

-

2

-

-

-

-

n

-

-

-

-

6
6

-

-

-

11

-

7
6

2
1
1

-

26
25

8
7

i

14
14

_

5
5

5
4

~

1

17
10
7

7
3
4

18
16

ii

2

3

5

1

1

2

2
1

4

*
2
2

“

_

_

“

_

_

-

_

6
6

_

_

_

_

~

“

~

_

6

6

and

la te

operated.

shifts.

42
42

12
11

3
3

8
7

31
30

-

18
15
13

16
14
2

5
3

2

i

~

15
15

i
i

4
4

i
i

_

holida ys,
truck

_

-

71

_

61
61

9

2

_

9

7
6
2
1

_

1

14

-

2
12

-

-

-

2
2

_

8
3
5

2
2

i

-

1

2
2

_

_

“

“

_

4
3

1

-

-

-

52
4
48

30
3
27

_

_

10
10

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

“
20

_

-

70
70

20

“

~

“
_

_

~

~

52
4

-

-

“

~

_

_

_

_

~

~

_

“

3
3

20
20

60

-

-

_

-

_

-

12

B.

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions

T a b le

B -1 .

M in im u m

e n t r a n c e s a la r i e s f o r w o m e n o f fic e w o r k e r s

(Distribution of establishm ents studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office w ork ers, Lawrence— averh ill, M a s s .— H. , June 1970)
H
N.
Inexperienced typists
Manufacturing
Minimum weekly straight-tim e salary 1

All
industries

Other inexperienced cle rica l w orkers 2
Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours
All
schedules

40

XX X

Establishments studied____________________________

78

41

Establishments having a specified m inimum ___________

All
s chedules

37

of—

Manufacturing
All
industries

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of—
All
s chedules

40

XX X

Nonmanufacturing

78

41

All
s chedules

40

XXX

37

37 V
z

40

XXX

XXX

12

11

9

1

1

31

19

16

12

5

6

50____________________________
00___________________________
50___________________________
00___________________________
50___________________________
00------------------------------- -------50____________________________
00------------------------------------------50____________________________
00------------------------------------------50------------------------------------------00-------------------------------------------

_
4
1
2
3
1
1

_
3
1
2
3
1

_
3
2
2
1
1

_
1
-

_
1
-

1
1
3
7
1
4
7
2
2
3

_
1
3
3
3
5
2
1
1

_
1
3
3
1
4
2
1

1
4
1
1
-

1

1
2

1
1
1
1

_
3
1
1
1

Establishments having no specified m in im u m --------------

2

1

XX X

1

XXX

22

10

XXX

12

XXX

XXX

Establishments which did not em ploy w orkers
in this category________________________________________

64

29

XX X

35

XXX

25

12

XX X

13

XXX

XXX

$ 60.
$62.
$ 65.
$67.
$ 70.
$ 72.
$75.
$ 77.
$ 80.
$ 82.
$ 85.
$ 87.

00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$ 62.
$65.
$67.
$70.
$ 72.
$ 75.
$77.
$ 80.
$ 82.
$ 85.
$ 87.
$90.

1

1 These salaries relate to form a lly established minimum starting (hiring) regular straight-tim e salaries that are paid for standard workweeks.
2 Excludes w orkers in su b clerica l jobs such as m essenger or office girl.
3 Data are presented for all standard workweeks com bined, and for the m ost com m on standard workweeks reported.




2

1




T a b le

B -2 .

S h i f t d if f e r e n t ia ls

(L a te-sh ift pay prov ision s fo r m anufacturing plant w ork ers by type and amount of pay d ifferential,
Lawrencer-Haverhill, M ass.—
N.H., June 1970)
(A ll plant w orkers in m anufacturing = 1 0 0 percent)
P ercent of m anufacturing plant w orkers—
In establishm ents having p rov ision s 1
fo r late shifts

L a te-sh ift pay p rov ision

A ctually working on late shifts

Second shift

Total______

_______ __________

No pay differential for work on late sh ift______

Second shift

Third o r other
shift

68.7

______

Third or other
shift

62 .9

13.9

4 .5

3 .4

1.3

0 .7

(2)

. ~

65.4

61.7

13 .2

4 .4

Uniform cents (per h o u r)___________ ____

29.0

24.6

6.5

3 .2

cents — ___________________ ________
c e n ts --------------------------------------------------c e n ts ____________________ ___________
c e n ts --------------------------------------------------9 V2 ce n ts ______________________________
10 cents
_______ __-_________________
12 cents ______________________________
1 5 cents________________________________
16 cents— ____ __ _______ ____________
17 cents________________________________
____________ ____________
20 cents__
25 cents________________________________
3 5 cents
— ---------------------- --------------

2.3
1.8
7 .4

P ay d ifferential fo r w ork on late sh ift___
Type and amount of differential:

4
6
7
8

U niform percentage

-

2.3

.7
.6
-

-

1.8
2.9

8.1
2.2

2.1

-

-

-

2.0
2.8
2.2
3 .4

4 .4
2.7

1.2
.7

_
-

-

.3

.2

_
(2)
.7
.7
.3

-

7.1

-

1.2
_

-

1.0

-

--------- — __ ______

26.2

26.9

5.5

1.1

________ ___________

26.2

26.9

5.5

1.1

Other form a l pay d iffe re n tia l3__________ -

10.2

10 .2

1.2

.1

10

percen t

___

1 Includes all plant w ork ers in establishm ents cu rrently operating,
even though the establishm ents w ere not cu rren tly operating late shifts.
2 L ess than 0.05 p ercen t.
3 P rim a rily ce n ts -p e r-h o u r differentials which va ry by labor grade.

or having form a l p rov ision s

covering late shifts,




T a b le

B -3 .

S c h e d u le d w e e k ly ho u rs

(P ercen t distribution of plant and o ffice w ork ers in all industries and m anufacturing by scheduled weekly hours 1 of fir s t-s h ift w ork ers,
Law rence— averhill, M ass.—
H
N.H., June 1970)
Plant w ork ers

O ffice w ork ers

W eekly hours
A ll industries 2

Manufacturing

100
?l.
O ver 35 and under 37'/2 hours---------------------------37V2 h o u rs ____________ ________ _______________
383 h o u rs — ----------------------- -------------------------/4
40 h o u rs ____________ _____________ ____ ____
O ver 40 and under 45 hours________
_________
45 h o u rs _________ —______________________________
46 h o u rs ______________ ___ _______ ______________
48 h o u rs _________________________________________

100

1
1
2

2

-

-

81
2
1
4
6
1

86
1
4
6

-

A ll industries 3

100
1
1
8
2
88
(4)
-

Manufacturing

100

(4)
-

3
2
95
-

1 Scheduled hours are the w eekly hours which a m ajority of the fu ll-tim e w ork ers w ere expected to w ork, whether they w ere paid fo r at
straigh t-tim e or overtim e rates.
2 Includes data fo r transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities; w h olesale trad e; reta il trade; real estate; and s e r v ic e s , in
addition to m anufacturing.
3 Includes data for transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities; w h olesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate;
and s e r v ic e s , in addition to m anufacturing.
4 L ess than 0.5 percen t.




15

Table

B -4 .

Paid

holidays

(P ercen t distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and m anufacturing by number of paid holidays provided annually,
Lawrence— averh ill, M ass.—
H
N.H., June 1970)
Plant w orkers

O ffice w orkers

Item
A ll industries 1

A ll w ork ers __

_

-

_

W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holidays __ __ ____ - ____________
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid h olid a y s______________________________

Manufacturing

A ll industries 2

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

98

100

99

100

2

-

1

-

1
3

_

_

3

-

-

10
(3)
24
1
40
8

9

Number of davs
1 bnliHay
_ ____
__
6 h olid a y s_______________________________________
6 holidays plus 2 half d a y s _____________________
7 holidays ____________ ;_______ _____ ___ ___
7 holidays plus 1 o r 3 half days__ _________ __
8 holidays __________ ____________ __ ____
8 holidays plus 1 or 2 half days. __ . __ ___
9 holidays ___ ___________
.
__ . ____
9 holidays plus 1 half day_______________________
9 holidays plus 2 half d a y s .. - — ___
10 holidays_________________________ . . ______
11 holidays- ______ — ____ ____ __ __ ___
12 holidays-----------------------------------------------------------

-

-

7
3
1

5
2
-

(3)
1
(3)
3
(3)
12
1
50
8
(3)
16
6
1

1
3
11
19
60
61
84
84
94
97
98

_
2
7
17
65
65
88
88
97
100
100

1
7
23
32
82
83
95
95
98
98
99

24
1
46
10

1
-

3

13
1

64
11
(3)
5
3
-

Total holiday tim e 4
12 days
11 days or m ore ______ _________________ __
10 days or m ore----------- -------—
__ - 9 V2 days or m o r e -----------------------------------------------9 days or m o r e ___-------- --- --- -------- --- ----- ---------8
days or m ore
__ _
_
_ __ _
8 days or m o r e - — ------- _
____
___
7V2 days o r m ore
— — —
— __ —
7 days or m o r e ___________ ___ _________ _____ ___
6 days or m o r e -------- ------------- ------- -----------_
____
1 day or m ore_ ___ _______ _

_
3
8
19
83
83
96
96
99
100
100

1 Includes data fo r transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities; w holesale trade; retail trade; real estate; and s e rv ice s , in
addition to m anufacturing.
2 Includes data fo r transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities; w holesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate;
and s e r v ic e s , in addition to manufacturing.
3 L ess than 0.5 percent.
4 A ll com binations of full and half days that add to the sam e amount are com bined; fo r exam ple, the proportion of w orkers receivin g a total
of 9 days includes those with 9 full days and no half days, 8 full days and 2 half days, 7 full days and 4 half days, and so on. P rop ortion s then
w ere cumulated.

16




Table

B -5 .

Paid va c a tio n s 1

(P ercen t distribution of plant and o ffice w o rk e rs in all industries and m anufacturing by vacation pay p rov ision s,
Law rence- H averh ill, M ass.— .H ., June 1970)
N
Plant w ork ers

O ffice w ork ers

V acation p o lic y
Manufacturing

A ll in d u s trie s 3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100
81
19

100
79
21

100
100

100
100

A ll industries 2

A ll w orkers.
Method of payment
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid vacations__________________________________
L en g th -of-tim e p aym ent_____________________
P ercen tage payment__________________________

-

W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid vacations_______________________________

-

Amount of vacation p a y 4
A fter 6 months o f s e rv ice
1 week________________ ___________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________ — ____________

53
14
(5)

61
14
_
"

6
68
5
6

2
75
2
17
4
“

2
78
3
13
4
"

88

2
38
2
53
4
(5)

2
41
3
49
4
“

91

2
16
5
72
4
(5)

2
17
6
71
4
“

2
16
5
72
4
(S)

2
17
6
71
4

_

8
77
7
2

A fter 1 year of s e rv ice
Under 1 week____________________________________
1 week____________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s __________ ____________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s -----------------------------------

8
-

4

6
-

92
2

A fter 2 years of se rv ice
Under 1 week__________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s .______________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ____________________

5
-

4

5
-

93
_
2

A fter 3 yea rs of s e rv ice
Under 1 week_________________________
1 week____ ___________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ___________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ___________
3 w e e k s _____________________________

3

3

-

-

94
_
4

96
_
2

3

. 3
_
96
_
2

A fter 4 years of s e rv ice
Under 1 week_________________________
1 week________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s —____ — __
2 weeks __ _____ ____________________—
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ___________

See footnotes at end o f table.

-

94
4




17

Table

B-5.

P a i d v a c a t i o n s 1------ C o n t i n u e d

(P ercen t distribution of plant and office w o rk e rs in all industries and m anufacturing by vacation pay p rov ision s,
Law rence— averhill, M ass.—
H
N.H., June 1970)
Plant w ork ers

O ffice w orkers

V acation p olicy
A ll industries 2

Manufacturing

A ll in d u strie s3

Manufacturing

4
79
9
9

(* )
’
83
1
16

(5)
"
86

(5 )
’
9
1
89
2

(5 )
‘
5
1
93
2

(5)
~

(5)
"

7
1
90
2

3
1
94
2

(5)
"
5

Amount of vacation pay 4— Continued
A fter 5 years of serv ice
Under 1 week— __________________________________
1 week_________ -__________ _____________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ______________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s _____ -______________ _

i
3

79
7
10

-

14

A fter 10 yea rs of se rv ice
Under 1 week____ _______________________________
1 week___ _____ —
____ _____—____________________ _
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ______________ _______
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s —_____________________
4

w e e k s —--------------------------------------- ---------------- --

1

-

3
20
10
64
2

4
18
12
66
1

-

A fter 12 years of serv ice
Unde r 1 week------------- —---------------------------1 week—__________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s _______________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ----------------------3 weeks —_______ — ______ ______ ________

1

-

3
14
13
66
2

4
11
16
68
1

A fter 15 years of se rv ice
Unde r 1 week____________________________________
1 week—---------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 w eek s __________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ______________________

4

7

69
Over 3 and under 4 w eek s ______________________
4 w eek s ________________________________________

1
3
10

9
73

85

(5)
‘
2
91

10

7

10

7

(5)
‘

(5)
‘
2

7

-

A fter 20 yea rs of serv ice
Under 1 week________ _______ _______ __________
1 week------------------ —______________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s _____________________
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s ______________________

1

-

3
10
7
30
48

4
7
9
31
49

-

5
25
70

19
79

(5 )
’

(*)

-

A fter 25 years of serv ice
Under 1 week—-------------------- —---------------------- ------1 week------------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ______________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 w eek s ______ _________— __________ —
___________
4 weeks -------------------------------------------------------------—
Over 4 and under 5 w e e k s______________________
5 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------See footnotes at end of table.

1

-

3
10
7
28

-

-

22

4
7
9
29
19

24
35

17
35

29

33

36

46

5

2

18




Table

B -5 .

P a i d v a c a t i o n s ’ ------ C o n t i n u e d

(P ercen t distribution of plant and o ffice w ork ers in all industries and m anufacturing by vacation pay p rov ision s,
Law rence— averhill, M ass.—
H
N.H., June 1970)
Plant w orkers

O ffice w orkers

V acation p o lic y
A ll industries 2

Manufacturing

A ll industries 3

Manufacturing

Amount of vacation p a y 4— Continued
A fter 30 vea rs of se rv ice
Under 1 week____________________________________
1 we ek___ _____________ _____________ ___________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s _______
_____
2 w eeks -------- _ ------- — — ---- _
— _
___
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks 3 w e e k s __________ ______________ _________ ____
4 w eeks
_
_ _ — _
__
5 w e e k s ____ ____ ____
,__— „„__
,__
—„
—
6 w eeks

....................................................................

1

_

_

-

-

3
10
7
28
21
26
3

4
7
9
29
19
29
4

(5)

(5)

5
24
33
35
4

2
17
35
41
5

M axim um vacation available
Under 1 week— _
1 week-------------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ----------------------------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------4 w eeks ____ ---------------- — —
5 w e e k s ____ _______ ________________________ __ __
6 w e e k s __________________________________________

1

_

-

-

3
10
7
28
21
26
3

4
7
9
29
19
29
4

_

_

(5)

(5)

-

-

5

2

-

-

22
36
34
4
1

17
35
41
5

1 Includes b a s ic plans only. E xcludes plans such as vacation bonus, v a ca tio n -sa v in g s, and those plans which o ffe r "extended" or "sa b ba tica l"
benefits beyond b a s ic plans to w ork ers with qualifying lengths of s e rv ice . T yp ica l of such exclu sion s are plans in the s teel, aluminum, and can
industries.
2 Includes data fo r transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities; w holesale trade; retail trade; real estate; and s e r v ic e s , in
addition to m anufacturing.
3 Includes data fo r transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities; w h olesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate;
and s e r v ic e s , in addition to m anufacturing.
4 Includes paym ent other than "length of t im e ," such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m paym ents, con verted to an equivalent time
b a sis; for exam ple, a payment of 2 percen t of annual earnings was con sid ered as 1 w eek 's pay. P e rio d s of s e rv ice w ere chosen a rb itra rily and do
not n e c e ss a r ily r e fle ct the individual p rov ision s fo r p ro g re ss io n . F o r exam ple, the changes in p rop ortions indicated at 10 y e a rs ' s e rv ice include
changes in p rov ision s o ccu rrin g between 5 and 10 yea rs. E stim ates are cum ulative. Thus, the prop ortion eligib le fo r 3 w eeks' pay or m o re after
10 yea rs includes those eligib le fo r 3 w eeks' pay o r m ore after few er yea rs of s e rv ice .
5 L ess than 0.5 percen t.




19

Table

B-6.

Health, insurance, and pension plans

(P ercen t of plant and o ffice w orkers in all industries and m anufacturing em ployed in establishm ents providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, L aw ren ce-H averh ill, M a ss.— H ., June 1970)
N.
Plant w orkers
Type of benefit and
financing 1

A ll in d u strie s2

Office w orkers

Manufacturing

A ll in d u s trie s 3

Manufacturing

All w ork ers_________________________________

100

100

100

100

W orkers in establishm ents providing at
least 1 of the benefits shown b e lo w -----------------

96

98

99

100

Life in su ra n ce ------------------------------ ----------------N oncontributory p la n s -----------------------------A ccidental death and dism em berm en t
insurance-----------------------------------------------------N oncontributory p la n s-----------------------------Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave o r b oth 4-------------------------------------

91
73

95
78

95
83

99
88

72
37

77
39

80
37

93
42

89

94

89

99

Sickness and accident insurance-------------N oncontributory p la n s________________
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting p eriod )---------------------------------------Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting p eriod )__________________________

66
44

71
49

47
21

54
25

16

14

39

39

20

23

33

42

H ospitalization insurance---- -------------------------Noncontributory p lan s----------------------------Surgical insurance-----------------------------------------Noncontributory p la n s___________________
M edical in su ra n ce-----------------------------------------N oncontributory p la n s -----------------------------M ajor m ed ical in su ra n ce-----------------------------N oncontributory plans
-------- ---------------Retirem ent p e n s io n _________________________
N oncontributory p la n s ------------------------------

95
68
91
64
90
63
66
41
65
60

98
74
94
70
92
68
65
44
69
67

98
76
98
76
98
76
90
63
84
65

99
82
99
82
99
82
89
69
84
64

1 Estim ates listed after type of benefit are fo r all plans fo r which at least a part of the co st is borne by the em p loy er. "N oncontributory p lan s"
include only those plans financed entirely by the em p loyer. Excluded are legally required plans, such as w orkm en 's com pensation, so cia l security,
and railroad retirem ent.
2 Includes data fo r transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities; w holesale trade; retail trade; real estate; and s e rv ice s , in
addition to m anufacturing.
3 Includes data fo r transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities; w holesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate;
and s e rv ice s , in addition to m anufacturing.
4 Unduplicated total of w orkers receiving sick leave or sickness and accid ent insurance shown separately below . Sick leave plans are lim ited
to those which d efinitely establish at least the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each em ployee. Inform al sick leave allow ances
determ ined on an individual b asis are excluded.




Table

B -7 .

M e th o d of w a g e d eterm ination

and f r e q u e n c y of p a y m e n t

(P ercen t distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and m anufacturing by method of wage d eterm in ation 1
and frequen cy of wage payment, Lawrence— averhill, M ass.—
H
N.H., June 1970)
Plant vworkers

O ffice w orkers

Item
All industries 2

All w ork ers---------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

A ll industries 3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

56
48
19
29

49
43
19
24

100
77
2
76

100
81
81

12

12

1

-

15

11

42

40

3
8
44
21
21

2
6
51
25
25

33
23

41
19

22
(4)
21
(4)

26
(4)
25
"

Method of wage determ ination 1
Paid tim e rates__________________________________
F orm a l rate p o lic y ----------------------------------------Single r a t e ________________________________
Range of r a t e s ------------------------------------------P ro g re s sio n based on automatic
advancem ent accordin g to
length of s e r v i c e _____________________
P ro g re s sio n based on m erit
review ________________________________
P ro g re s sio n based on a
com bination of length of
s e rv ice and m erit review ____________
No form a l rate p olicy ________________________
Paid by incentive m ethods---------------------------------P iece rate____________________________________
Individual---------------------------------------------------Group----------------------------------------------------------Individual---------------------------------------------------Group----------------------------------------------------------C om m is si o n ----------------------------------------------------

-

Method of determ ining incentive pay of
o iiic e worKers not presented

Frequen cy of wage payment
W eekly-----------------------------------------------------------------Biw eekly--------------------------------------------------------------Sem im onthly--------------------------------------------------------M onthly__________________________________________
Other fre q u e n cy ------------------------------------------- -------

100
-

100
~

94
6

97
3
-

-

1 F o r a d escrip tion of the m ethods of wage determ ination, see Introduction.
2 Includes data for transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities; w holesale trade; retail trade; real estate; and s e r v ic e s , in
addition to m anufacturing.
3 Includes data for transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities; w holesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate;
and s e r v ic e s , in addition to m anufacturing.
4 L ess than 0.5 p ercen t.

A p p e n d ix .

O c c u p a tio n a l D e s c rip tio n s

The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate
occupations workers who are em ployed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and
from area to area.
This perm its the grouping of occupational wage rates representing com parable job content.
Because of this emphasis on
interestablishm ent and interarea com parability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in
individual establishm ents or those prepared for other purposes.
In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field econom ists are instructed
to exclude working supervisors; apprentices; learners; beginners; trainees; and handicapped, p art-tim e, tem porary, and probationary w orkers.

O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

CLERK, FILE

P repares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or e le ctro m atic typewriter. May also keep record s as to billings or shipping charges or perform other
clerica l work incidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b ille rs , machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:
B iller, machine (billing m achine). Uses a special billing machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott
F ish e r, Burroughs, e tc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills
and invoices from cu stom ers' purchase ord ers, internally prepared ord e rs, shipping m em o­
randums, etc. Usually involves application of predeterm ined discounts and shipping charges,
and entry of n ecessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing machine,
and totals which are automatically accumulated by m achine. The operation usually involves
a large number of carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold
machine.
B iller, machine (bookkeeping m achine). Uses a bookkeeping machine (Sundstrand, Elliott
F ish er, Remington Rand, etc., which may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare
cu stom ers' bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves t;he sim ulta­
neous entry of figures on cu stom ers' ledger record . The machine automatically accumulates
figures on a number of vertical columns and com putes, and usually prints autom atically the
debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform
and standard types of sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs,
National Cash R egister, with or without a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business
transactions.
Class A. Keeps a set of record s requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic
bookkeeping principles, and fam iliarity with the structure of the particular accounting system
used. Determ ines proper record s and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each
phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records
by hand.
Class B. Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections of a set of record s usually
requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable,
payroll, cu stom ers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under b ille r,
machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory con trol, etc. May check or a ssist
in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A. Under general direction of a bookkeeper or accountant, has responsibility for
keeping one or m ore sections of a com plete set of books or record s relating to one phase
of an establishm ent's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary
ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts payable; examining and coding
invoices or vouchers with proper accounting distribution; and requires judgment and exp eri­
ence in making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, adjusting, and
closing journal entries; and may d irect class B accounting clerks.
Class B. Under supervision, p erform s one or m ore routine accounting operations such
as posting simple journal vouchers or accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in
voucher reg isters; reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers controlled by
general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This job does not require a knowl­
edge of accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in which the m ore routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several w orkers.




21

Class A . In an established filing system containing a number of varied subject matter
file s , cla ssifie s and indexes file m aterial such as correspon den ce, rep orts, technical d ocu­
m ents, etc. May also file this m aterial. May keep record s of various types in conjunction
with the file s. May lead a small group of low er level file clerks.
Class B. Sorts, cod es, and files unclassified m aterial by simple (subject matter) head­
ings "o r^ a T tly cla ssified m aterial by finer subheadings. P repares simple related index and
c r o s s -r e fe r e n c e aids. As requested, locates clea rly identified m aterial in files and forw ards
m aterial.
May perform related cle rica l tasks required to maintain and service file s.
Class C. P erform s routine filing of m aterial that has already been cla ssified or which
is ea sily cla ssified in a simple serial cla ssification system (e .g ., alphabetical, ch ronological,
or num erical). As requested, locates readily available m aterial in files and forw ards m a­
terial; and m ay fill out withdrawal charge. P erform s simple cle rica l and manual tasks r e ­
quired to maintain and service file s.
CLERK, ORDER
R eceives cu stom ers' ord ers for m aterial or m erchandise by m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any com bination of the follow ing: Quoting p rices to cu stom ers; making out an order
sheet listing the item s to make up the ord er; checking p rices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled. May check with credit
department to determ ine credit rating of cu stom er, acknowledge receipt of ord ers from cu stom ers,
follow up ord ers to see that they have been filled , keep file of ord ers received , and check shipping
invoices with original ord ers.
CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company em ployees and enters the n ecessary data on the payroll
sheets. Duties involve: Calculating w orkers' earnings based on time or production re co rd s; and
posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing inform ation such as w ork er's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and
assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
P rim ary duty is to operate a Comptom eter to perform mathematical computations. This
job is not to be confused with that of statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve f r e ­
quent use of a Comptom eter but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance of
other duties.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A . Operates a numerical a n d /or alphabetical or combination keypunch machine to
transcribe data from various source documents to keypunch tabulating ca rd s. P erform s same
tasks as lower level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application of coding
skills and the making of some determ inations, for exam ple, locates on the source document
the item s to be punched; extracts inform ation from several documents; and searches for and
interprets inform ation on the document to determ ine inform ation to be punched. May train
inexperienced operators.

22
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR— Continued
C lass B. Under close supervision or follow ing s p e cific procedu res or instructions,
tra n scrib es data from sou rce docum ents to punched ca rd s. Operates a num erical a n d /or
alphabetical or com bination keypunch m achine to keypunch tabulating ca rd s. May v e rify ca rd s.
Working from various standardized sou rce docum ents, follow s specified sequences which have
been coded or p rescrib ed in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
of data to be punched. P roblem s a rising from erron eou s item s or co d e s, m issin g inform ation,
etc., are referred to su p ervisor.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
P erform s various routine duties such as running erran ds, operating m inor office m a­
chines such as sealers or m a ile rs , opening and distributing m ail, and other m inor c le r ic a l work.
SECRETARY
A ssigned as personal secreta ry , norm ally to one individual. Maintains a clo se and highly
responsive relationship to the d a y -to-d a y w ork activities of the su p ervisor. Works fa ir ly inde­
pendently receiving a m inimum of detailed supervision and guidance. P erfo rm s varied cle rica l
and secreta ria l duties, usually including m ost of the follo w in g: (a) R eceives telephone ca lls,
personal c a lle r s , and incom ing m ail, answ ers routine inqu iries, and routes the technical inquiries
to the proper p ersons; (b) esta b lish es, m aintains, and rev ises the s u p e rv iso r's file s ; (c) maintains
the su p erv isor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed; (d) relays m essa ges from super­
visor to subordinates; (e) review s corresp on d en ce, m em oranda, and rep orts prepared by others
fo r the su p erv isor's signature to a ssure procedural and typographic a ccu ra cy; and (f) p erform s
stenographic and typing work.
May also p erform other c le r ic a l and secreta ria l tasks of com parable nature and d ifficulty.
The work typ ically requires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization,
p rogra m s, and proced u res related to the work of the su p ervisor.
E xclusions

Not all positions that are titled "s e c r e ta r y " p o ssess the above ch a ra cte ris tics. Exam ples
of positions which are excluded from the definition are as follo w s: (a) P ositions which do not m eet
the "p erson a l" s ecreta ry concept d escrib ed above; (b) stenographers not fully trained in se cre ta ria l
type duties; (c) stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of p rofession a l, technical,
or m anagerial p ersons; (d) s ecreta ry positions in which the duties are either substantially m ore
routine or substantially m ore com p lex and resp onsible than those ch aracterized in the definition;
and (e) assistant type positions which involve m ore difficult or m ore responsible techn ical, admin­
istrative, su p ervisory , or specialized c le r ic a l duties which are not typical of se cre ta ria l work.
NOTE: The term "co rp o ra te o f f i c e r ," used in the level definitions follow ing, re fe rs to
those officia ls who have a significant corp ora te-w id e policym aking role with regard to m ajor
com pany a ctiv ities. The title "v ic e p re s id e n t," though norm ally indicative of this ro le , does not
in all ca ses identify such p ositions. Vice presidents whose p rim ary resp on sib ility is to act p e r­
sonally on individual ca ses or transactions (e .g ., approve or deny individual loan or cre d it actions;
adm inister individual trust accounts; d irectly supervise a c le r ic a l staff) are not con sid ered to be
"co rp ora te o ffic e r s " for purposes of applying the follow ing level d efinition s.
C lass A
all,

a. S ecreta ry to the chairm an of the b oard or presiden t of a com pany that em ploys, in
over 100 but few er than 5, 000 p e rs o n s ; or

b. S ecreta ry to a corp orate o ffice r (other than the chairm an of the board or president)
of a com pany that em ploys, in all, over 5, 000 but few er than 25, 000 p e rs o n s ; or
c. S ecreta ry to the head (im m ediately below the corp orate o ffice r level) of a m ajor
segm ent or subsidiary of a com pany that em ploys, in all, over 25, 000 p e rs o n s .
C lass B
a. S ecreta ry to the chairm an of the board or president of a com pany that em ploys, in
all, few er than 100 p e rs o n s ; or
b. S ecreta ry to a corp orate o ffic e r (other than the chairm an of the board or president)
of a com pany that em ploys, in all, over 100 but few er than 5,000 p e rs o n s ; or
c. S ecreta ry to the head (im m ediately below the o ffice r level) over either a m ajor
corp ora te-w id e functional activity (e .g ., m arketing, re se a rch , operation s, industrial r e la ­
tions"] etc.) or"a m ajor geographic or organizational segm ent (e .g ., a regional headquarters;
a m ajor division) of a com pany that em ploys, in all, over 5,000 but few er than 35,000
em p loy ees; or




SECRETARY— Continued
d. S ecreta ry to the head of an individual plant, fa cto ry , etc. (o r other equivalent level
of o fficia l) that em p loys, in all, over 5, 000 p e rs o n s ; or
e. S ecreta ry to the head of a large and im portant organizational segm ent (e .g ., a m iddle
management su p ervisor of an organizational segm ent often involving as many as severa l
hundred persons) of a com pany that em p loys, in all, ov e r 25, 000 p e rs o n s .
Class C
a. S ecreta ry to an executive or m anagerial p erson w hose resp on sib ility is not equivalent
to one of the s p e c ific le ve l situations in the definition fo r cla ss B, but whose subordinate staff
norm ally num bers at least severa l dozen em ployees and is usually divided into organizational
segm ents which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In som e com panies, this le v e l includes
a wide range of organizational ech elon s; in o th e rs, only one o r two; o_r
b. S ecreta ry to the head of an individual plant, fa cto ry , etc. (or other equivalent le ve l
of o fficia l) that em p loys, in all, few er than 5, 000 p e rs o n s .
C lass D
a. S e cre ta ry to the su p ervisor or head of a sm all organizational unit (e .g ., few er than
about 25 or 30 p e rs o n s ); or
b. S ecreta ry to a n on su p ervisory staff sp e cia list, p ro fe s sio n a l em p loyee, adm inistra­
tive o ffic e r , or assistant, skilled technician o r expert. (NOTE; Many com panies assign
sten ographers, rather than s e cre ta rie s as d e scrib e d above, to this le ve l of su p ervisory or
n on su p ervisory w orker.)
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
P rim a ry duty is to take dictation involving a norm al routine vocabulary fro m one or m ore
p ersons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine; and tra n scrib e dictation. May
a lso type fro m written copy. May maintain file s , keep sim ple re c o r d s , or p erform other rela tiv ely
routine cle r ic a l tasks. May operate fro m a stenographic pool. Does not include tra n scrib in gmachine w ork. (See tra n scrib in g-m a ch in e o p e ra to r.)
STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
P rim a ry duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary
such as in legal b rie fs or rep orts on scien tific re s e a rch fro m one or m ore persons either in sh ort­
hand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine; and tra n scrib e dictation. May also type fro m written
copy. May a lso set up and maintain file s , keep re c o r d s , etc.
OR
P e rfo rm s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and re s p o n s i­
bility than stenographers, general as evidenced by the follow ing: Work requires high d egree of
stenographic speed and a ccu ra cy; and a thorough working knowledge of general business and office
p roced u res and of the s p e cific business operation s, organization, p o lic ie s, p roce d u re s, file s ,
w orkflow , etc. Uses this knowledge in perform ing stenographic duties and resp onsible c le r ic a l
tasks such as, maintaining followup file s ; assem bling m aterial fo r re p o rts, m em orandum s, letters,
e tc.; com posing sim ple letters fro m general instructions; reading and routing incom ing m ail; and
answering routine questions, etc. Does not include tra n scrib in g-m a ch in e w ork.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
C lass A . O perates a sin gle- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard handling incom ing,
outgoing, intraplant o r o ffice ca lls. P e r fo r m s full telephone inform ation s e rv ice o r handles
co m p lex ca lls , such as con fe re n ce , co lle ct, o v e r se a s , or s im ila r ca lls, either in addition to
doing routine w ork as d e scrib e d fo r switchboard o p e ra to r, cla ss B, or as a fu ll-tim e
assignm ent. ("F u ll" telephone inform ation s e rv ice o ccu rs when the establishm ent has varied
functions that are not readily understandable fo r telephone inform ation p u rp oses, e .g ., because
of overlapping o r in terrelated functions, and consequently present frequent p rob lem s as to
which extensions are appropriate fo r ca lls.)
Class B . O perates a single- o r m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard handling incom ing,
outgoing, intraplant o r o ffice ca lls. May handle routine long distance ca lls and re c o rd tolls.
May p e rfo rm lim ited telephone inform ation s e rv ice . ("L im ite d " telephone inform ation se rv ice
o ccu rs if the functions of the establishm ent s e rv ice d are readily understandable fo r telephone
inform ation p u rp oses, or if the requests are routine, e .g ., giving extension num bers when
sp e cific names are furnished, o r if com p lex ca lls are re fe rr e d to another operator.)

23
SW ITCHBOARD

O PE R A T O R -R E C E P TIO N IST

T A BU LA TIN G -M ACH IN E

In a d d i t i o n to p e r f o r m i n g d u t i e s o f o p e r a t o r on a s i n g l e - p o s i t i o n o r m o n i t o r - t y p e s w i t c h ­
b o a r d , a c t s a s r e c e p t i o n i s t and m a y a l s o t y pe o r p e r f o r m r o u t i n e c l e r i c a l w o r k a s p a r t o f r e g u l a r
duties.
T h i s t y p i n g o r c l e r i c a l w o r k m a y t a ke the m a j o r p a r t o f th is w o r k e r ' s t i m e w h i l e at
sw itchboard.

O P E R A T O R ---- C o n t i n u e d

Class C .
O p e r a t e s s i m p l e ta b u l a t i n g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s s u c h as the
s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c i n g p u n ch , c o l l a t o r , e t c . , w it h s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s .
M a y include sim p le
w i r i n g f r o m d i a g r a m s and s o m e f i li n g w o r k .
The w o r k ty p ica lly in v o lv e s p o r tio n s o f a w o rk
uni t, f o r e x a m p l e , in d iv i d u a l s o r t i n g o r c o l l a t i n g ru n s o r r e p e t i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s .
T R A N SCRIBIN G -M ACH IN E O P E R A T O R ,

T ABU LA TIN G -M ACH IN E

GENERAL

OPERATOR

Class A .
O p e r a t e s a v a r ie t y o f tabulating o r e l e c t r i c a l a ccou n tin g m a c h in e s , ty p ica lly
i n c l u d i n g s u c h m a c h i n e s a s the t a b u l a t o r ,
c a l c u l a t o r , i n t e r p r e t e r , c o l l a t o r , arid o t h e r s .
P e r f o r m s c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s w it h o u t c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n , and p e r f o r m s d i f f i c u l t
w ir in g as re q u ir e d .
T h e c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g and t a b u l a t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s t y p i c a l l y in v o l v e a
v a r i e t y o f lo n g and c o m p l e x r e p o r t s w h i c h o f t e n a r e o f i r r e g u l a r o r n o n r e c u r r i n g t y p e r e ­
q u i r i n g s o m e pl a n n in g and s e q u e n c i n g o f s t e p s to b e ta k e n . A s a m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d o p e r a t o r ,
is t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d in t r a i n i n g n e w o p e r a t o r s in m a c h i n e o p e r a t i o n s , o r p a r t i a l l y t r a i n e d
o p e r a t o r s in w i r i n g f r o m d i a g r a m s and o p e r a t i n g s e q u e n c e s o f lo n g and c o m p l e x r e p o r t s .
D o e s not i n c l u d e w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s p e r f o r m i n g t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t i o n s a nd d a y - t o d a y s u p e r v i s i o n o f the w o r k and p r o d u c t i o n o f a g r o u p o f t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s .

P r i m a r y du ty is t o t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t i o n in v o l v i n g a n o r m a l r o u t i n e v o c a b u l a r y f r o m
tra n scribin g-m ach in e re c o rd s.
M a y a l s o t y p e f r o m w r i t t e n c o p y and d o s i m p l e c l e r i c a l w o r k .
W o r k e r s t r a n s c r i b i n g d i c t a t i o n in v o l v i n g a v a r i e d t e c h n i c a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y s u c h as l e g a l
b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s o n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a r e not i n c l u d e d . A w o r k e r w h o t a k e s d i c t a t i o n in s h o r t ­
han d o r b y S t e n o t y p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e is c l a s s i f i e d a s a s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l .
TYPIST
U s e s a t y p e w r i t e r to m a k e c o p i e s o f v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l o r t o m a k e out b i l l s a f t e r c a l c u l a ­
tions have been m a de by another p e r s o n .
M a y include typing of s t e n c ils , m a ts , or s i m il a r m a t e ­
r i a l s f o r u s e in d u p l i c a t i n g p r o c e s s e s .
M a y d o c l e r i c a l w o r k i n v o l v i n g li t t le s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , s u c h
as k e e p i n g s i m p l e r e c o r d s , f i l i n g r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , o r s o r t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g i n c o m i n g m a i l .
Class A .
P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g : T y p i n g m a t e r i a l in fi n a l f o r m w h e n it
in volves com bining m a te r ia l f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s o r r e s p o n sib ility fo r c o r r e c t spelling,
s y l l a b i c a t i o n , p u n c t u a t io n , e t c . , o f t e c h n i c a l o r un u s u al w o r d s o r f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l ;
an d p l a n n in g la y o u t and t y p i n g o f c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s t o m a i n t a i n u n i f o r m i t y and
b a l a n c e in s p a c i n g .
M a y t y pe r o u t i n e f o r m l e t t e r s v a r y i n g d e t a i l s to su it c i r c u m s t a n c e s .

C l a s s B . O p e r a t e s m o r e d i f f i c u l t t a b u l a t i n g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s s u c h a s the
t a b u l a t o r and c a l c u l a t o r , in a d d i t i o n to the s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c e r , and c o l l a t o r .
T h i s w o r k is
p e r f o r m e d u n d e r s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s and m a y in c l u d e the p e r f o r m a n c e o f s o m e w i r i n g f r o m
d i a g r a m s . The w o r k ty p ica lly in v o lv e s , fo r e x a m p le , tabulations
in v o l v i n g a r e p e t i t i v e
a c c o u n t i n g e x e r c i s e , a c o m p l e t e but s m a l l t a b u l a t i n g st ud y, o r p a r t s o f a l o n g e r and m o r e
com p lex report.
S uc h r e p o r t s and s t u d i e s a r e u s u a l l y o f a r e c u r r i n g n a t u r e w h e r e the p r o ­
c e d u re s are w ell established.
M a y a l s o i n c l u d e the t r a i n i n g o f n ew e m p l o y e e s in the b a s i c
o p e r a t i o n o f the m a c h i n e .

P R O F E S S IO N A L

C l a s s B . P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g : C o p y t y p i n g f r o m r o u g h o r c l e a r d r a f t s ;
r o u t i n e t y p i n g o f f o r m s , i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e t c . ; and s e t t i n g up s i m p l e s t a n d a r d t a b u l a t i o n s ,
o r c o p y i n g m o r e c o m p l e x t a b l e s a l r e a d y s e t u p and s p a c e d p r o p e r l y .

AND

T E C H N IC A L

COMPUTER OPERATOR

COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS

M onitors and operates the con trol con sole of a digital com puter to p ro ce s s data according
to operating instructions, usually prepared by a program er. Work includes m ost of the follow ing:
Studies instructions to determ ine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
item s (tape reels, ca rd s, etc.); switches n ecessary auxiliary equipment into circu it, and starts
and operates com puter; makes adjustments to com puter to co r re ct operating problem s and meet
special conditions; reviews e rr o rs made during operation and determ ines cause or refers problem
to supervisor or p rogra m er; and maintains operating record s. May test and assist in correctin g
program .

Converts statements of business p roblem s, typically prepared by a system s analyst, into
a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problem s by automatic data
processin g equipment. Working from charts or diagram s, the program er develops the p re cise
instructions which, when entered into the com puter system in coded language, cause the manipu­
lation of data to achieve desired results. Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Applies knowledge
of computer capabilities, m athem atics, logic em ployed by com puters, and particular subject matter
involved to analyze charts and diagram s of the problem to be program ed. Develops sequence
of p rogram steps, w rites detailed flow charts to show ord er in which data w ill be p rocessed ;
converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow ; tests and co r re cts program s;
prepares instructions fo r operating personnel during production run; analyzes, review s, and alters
program s to increase operating e fficien cy or adapt to new requirem ents; maintains record s of
p rogram developm ent and revisions. (NOTE: W orkers perform ing both system s analysis and p r o ­
graming should be cla ssifie d as system s analysts if this is the skill used to determ ine their pay.)

F or wage study purposes, com puter operators are cla ssifie d as follow s:
Class A . Operates independently, or under only general d irection, a com puter running
program s with m ost of the following ch a ra cteristics: New program s are frequently tested and
introduced; scheduling requirem ents are of critica l im portance to m inim ize downtime; the
program s are of com plex design so that identification of e rr o r source often requires a working
knowledge of the total p rogram , and alternate program s may not be available. May give
d irection an d ‘ guidance to low er level op erators.
Class B. Operates independently, or under only general d irection, a com puter running
program s with m ost of the following ch a ra cteristics; Most of the program s are established
production runs, typically run on a regularly recurring b a sis; there is little or no testing
of new program s required; alternate program s are provided in case original program needs
m ajor change or cannot be corrected within a reasonable tim e. In com m on e rr o r situations,
diagnoses cause and takes co rre ctiv e action. This usually involves applying p reviou sly p r o ­
gram ed co rre ctiv e steps, or using standard correction techniques.

Does not include em ployees p rim arily responsible fo r the management or supervision of
other electron ic data processin g ( EDP) em ployees, o r p rogram ers p rim arily concerned with
scientific a n d /or engineering problem s.
F or wage study purposes, p rogram ers are cla ssifie d as follow s:
Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on com plex problem s which
require com petence in all phases of program ing concepts and p ra ctice s. Working from dia­
gram s and charts which identify the nature of desired results, m ajor p rocessin g steps to be
accom plished, and the relationships between various steps of the p roblem solving routine;
plans the full range of program ing actions needed to efficiently utilize the com puter system
in achieving d esired end products.

OR
Operates under d irect supervision a computer running program s or segments of program s
with the ch aracteristics d escribed for cla ss A. May a ssist a higher level operator by inde­
pendently perform ing less difficult tasks assigned, and perform ing difficult tasks following
detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations perform ed.
Class C . W orks on routine program s under close supervision. Is expected to develop
working knowledge of the com puter equipment used and ability to detect problem s involved in
running routine p rogra m s. Usually has received some form al training in com puter operation.
May a ssist higher level operator on com plex p rogram s.




At this level, program ing is difficult because com puter equipment must be organized to
produce severa l interrelated but diverse products from numerous and diverse data elem ents.
A wide variety and extensive number of internal processin g actions must o ccu r. This requires
such actions as development of com m on operations Which can be reused, establishm ent of
linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when p rogram requirem ents exceed
com puter storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements
to fo rm a highly integrated program .
May provide functional direction to low er level p rogra m ers who are assigned to assist.

24
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS— Continued

COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS— Continued

maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishm ent, or maintaining inventory accounts
in a manufacturing or wholesale establishm ent.) Confers with persons concerned to determine
the data processin g problem s and advises subject-m atter personnel on the im plications of the
data p rocessin g system s to be applied.

Class B. Works independently or under only general direction on relatively sim ple
p rogram s, or on simple segments of com plex p rogram s. P rog ra m s (or segments) usually
p rocess inform ation to produce data in two or three varied sequences or form ats. Reports
and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making m inor additions to or
deletions from input data which are readily available. While numerous re co rd s may be
p rocessed , the data have been refined in p rio r actions so that the accu racy and sequencing
of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically, the program deals with
routine record-keepin g type operations.

OR
Works on a segment of a com plex data p rocessin g schem e or system , as described for
cla ss A. Works independently on routine assignments and receiv es instruction and guidance
on com plex assignm ents. Work is reviewed for a ccu ra cy of judgment, com pliance with in­
structions, and to insure p roper alinement with the overall system .

OR

Class C. Works under imm ediate supervision, carrying out analyses as assigned, usually
of a single activity. Assignm ents are designed to develop and expand pra ctica l experience
in the application of procedu res and skills required fo r system s analysis work. F or example,
may assist a higher level system s analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required
by p rogram ers from inform ation developed by the higher level analyst.

Works on com plex program s (as d escrib ed for cla ss A) under close direction of a higher
level program er or supervisor. May a ssist higher level program er by independently p e r ­
form ing less difficult tasks assigned, and perform ing m ore difficult tasks under fa irly close
direction.
May guide or instruct low er level prog ra m ers.

DRAFTSMAN
Class A . Plans the graphic presentation of com plex item s having distinctive design
features that differ significantly from established drafting precedents. W orks in close sup­
port with the design originator, and m ay recom m end m inor design changes. Analyzes the
effect of each change on the details of form , function, and positional relationships of co m ­
ponents and parts. Works with a minimum of sup ervisory assistance. Completed work is
reviewed by design originator fo r consistency with p rio r engineering determ inations. May
either prepare drawings, or d irect their preparation by low er level draftsmen.

Class C . Makes pra ctica l applications of program ing p ra ctices and concepts usually
learned in form al training cou rses. Assignm ents are designed to develop com petence in the
application of standard p roced u res to routine problem s. R eceives clo s e supervision on new
aspects of assignm ents; and work is reviewed to verify its accu racy and conform ance with
required procedu res.
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS

Class B . P e rfo rm s nonroutine and com plex drafting assignm ents that require the appli­
cation of m ost of the standardized drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically in­
volve such work as: P rep a res working drawings of subassem blies with irregular shapes,
multiple functions, and p re cise positional relationships between com ponents; prepares a rch i­
tectural drawings fo r construction of a building including detail drawings of foundations, wall
section s, flo o r plans, and roof. Uses accepted form ulas and manuals in making necessary
computations to determ ine quantities of m aterials to be used, load capacities, strengths,
s tre ss e s, etc.
R eceives initial instructions, requirem ents, and advice from supervisor.
Completed work is checked fo r technical adequacy.

Analyzes business problem s to form ulate procedu res fo r solving them by use of electron ic
data p rocessin g equipment. Develops a com plete description of all specifications needed to enable
program ers to prepare required digital com puter program s. Work involves m ost of the follow ing:
Analyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and crite ria required
to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and types of re co rd s, file s, and documents to
be used; outlines actions to be p erform ed by personnel and com puters in sufficient detail for
presentation to management and for program ing (typically this involves preparation ofc work and
data flow charts); coordinates the developm ent of test problem s and participates in trial runs of
new and revised system s; and recom m ends equipment changes to obtain m ore effective overall
operations. (NOTE: W orkers perform ing both system s analysis and program ing should be c la s ­
sified as system s analysts if this is the skill used to determ ine their pay.)

Class C. P rep a res detail drawings of single units or parts fo r engineering, construction,
manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of drawings prepared include isom etric projections
(depicting three dim insions in accurate scale) and sectional views to cla rify positioning of
components and convey needed inform ation. Consolidates details from a number of sources
and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable
precedents, and advice on source m aterials are given with initial assignm ents. Instructions
are less com plete when assignm ents recu r. Work may be spot-checked during p ro g re ss.

Does not include em ployees p rim arily responsible fo r the management or supervision of
other electron ic data p rocessin g (EDP) em ployees, or system s analysts p rim arily concerned with
scientific or engineering problem s.
F or wage study purposes,

DRAFTSM AN-TRACER

system s analysts are cla ssified as follow s:

Class A . Works independently or under only general d irection on com plex problem s
involving all phases of system s analysis. P rob lem s are com plex because of d iverse sources
of input data and m ultiple-use requirem ents of output data. (F or exam ple, develops an inte­
grated production scheduling, inventory con trol, cost analysis, and sales analysis re co rd in
which every item of each type is automatically p rocesse d through the full system of record s
and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the com puter.) Confers with persons co n ­
cerned to determ ine the data p rocessin g problem s and advises subject-m atter personnel on
the im plications of new or revised system s of data p rocessin g operations. Makes re c o m ­
mendations, if needed, fo r approval of m ajor system s installations or changes and for
obtaining equipment.
May provide functional direction to low er level system s analysts who are assigned to
assist.
Class B . W orks independently or under only general direction on problem s that are
relatively uncom plicated to analyze, plan, program , and operate. P roblem s are of lim ited
com plexity because sources of input data are homogeneous and the output data are clo se ly
related. (F or exam ple, develops system s for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank,

M A IN T E N A N C E

Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing cloth or paper over
drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not include tracing lim ited to plans p rim arily
consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring clo s e delineation.)
a n d /or
P rep ares sim ple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized item s. Work is clo s e ly supervised
during p ro g re ss.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing se rv ice under general m edical direction to ill or
injured em ployees or other persons who becom e ill or suffer an accident on the p rem ises of a
fa ctory or other establishm ent. Duties involve a com bination of the follow ing: Giving first aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports fo r com pensation or other purposes; assisting in
physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and em ployees; and planning and ca r r y ­
ing out program s involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment,
or other activities affecting the health, w elfa re, and safety of all personnel.

AND

PO W ER PLA NT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE— Continued

P erform s the carpentry duties n ecessary to construct and maintain in good repair building
woodwork and equipment such as bins, cr ib s , counters, benches, partitions, d oors, flo o rs , stairs,
casings, and trim made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Planning
and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, m odels, or verbal instructions using a variety

of carp enter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard m easuring instruments; making
standard shop computations relating to dimensions of w ork; and selecting m aterials n ecessary
fo r the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form a l apprenticeship o r equivalent training and experience.




25
ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)— Continued

P erform s a variety of electrica l trade functions such as the installation, maintenance,
or repair of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of e le ctric energy in an
establishm ent. Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Installing or repairing any of a variety of
e lectrica l equipment such as gen erators, tra n sform ers, switchboards, co n tro lle rs, circuit break­
e r s , m otors, heating units, conduit system s, or other transm ission equipment; working from
blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the
e lectrica l system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirem ents of
wiring or electrica l equipment; and using a variety of electrician*s handtools and m easuring and
testing instrum ents. In general, the work of the maintenance e le ctricia n requires rounded tra in ­
ing and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

the various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels,
adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and m ay also supervise the operation of stationary engines and
equipment (m echanical or electrica l) to supply the establishm ent in which em ployed with power,
heat, refrig era tion , or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, air co m p re s so rs , generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating and r e fr ig ­
erating equipment, steam b oilers and b o ile r -fe d water pumps; making equipment rep a irs; and
keeping a record of operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consumption. May also su­
p ervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishm ents em ploying m ore than one
engineer are excluded.
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
F ires stationary b oilers to furnish the establishment in which em ployed with heat, power,
or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a m echanical stoker, or gas or o il burner;
and checks water and safety valves. May clean, o il, or assist in repairing b o ile rro o m equipment.
HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES
A ssists one or m ore w orkers in the skilled maintenance tra d es, by perform ing sp ecific
or general duties of le s s e r skill, such as keeping a w orker supplied with m aterials and tools;
cleaning .working area, m achine, and equipment; assisting journeym an by holding m aterials or
tools; and perform ing other unskilled tasks as d irected by journeym an. The kind of work the
helper is perm itted to p erform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is con ­
fined to supplying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools and cleaning working a reas; and in
others he is perm itted to p erform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are
also perform ed by w orkers on a fu ll-tim e basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine to o ls, such as jig b o re rs ,
cylindrical or surface grin d ers, engine lathes, or m illing m achines, in the construction of
m achine-shop tools, gages, jig s , fixtures, or d ies. Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Plan­
ning and perform ing difficult machining operations; p rocessin g item s requiring com plicated setups
or a high degree of accu racy; using a variety of p recision m easuring instrum ents; selecting feed s,
speeds, tooling, and operation sequence; and making n ecessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite toleran ces or dim ensions. May be required to recognize when tools need d r e s s ­
ing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. F or c r o s s ­
industry wage study p urposes, m achine-tool op erators, toolroom , in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification.
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of m echan­
ical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Interpreting
written instructions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of m a­
chinist's handtools and p recision m easuring instrum ents; setting up and operating standard machine
tools; shaping of metal parts to close toleran ces; making standard shop computations relating to
dimensions of w ork, tooling, feed s, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties
of the com m on m etals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for his work;
and fitting and assem bling parts into m echanical equipment. In general, the m achinist's work
norm ally requires a rounded training in m achine-shop p ractice usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tra ctors of an establishm ent. Work in­
volves m ost of the follow ing: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
disassem bling equipment and perform ing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as
w renches, gages, d r ills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts; replacing
broken o r defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and installing




MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs m achinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent. Work involves most
of the follow ing: Examining machines and m echanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
dismantling or partly dismantling machines and perform ing repairs that m ainly involve the use
of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with item s obtained
from stock; ordering the production of a replacem ent part by a machine shop or sending of the
machine to a machine shop for m ajor rep a irs; preparing written specifications fo r m ajor repairs
or fo r the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling m achines; and making
all n ecessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance m echanic r e ­
quires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience. Excluded from this cla ssification are w orkers whose prim ary
duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dism antles and installs machines or
heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. Work involves m ost of the fo l­
lowing: Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using
a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to s tr e ss e s,
strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting stand­
ard to o ls , equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good ord er power
transm ission equipment such as drives and speed red ucers. In general, the m illw right's work
norm ally requires a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER
L ubricates, with o il or grease, the moving parts or wearing surfaces
equipment of an establishm ent.

of m echanical

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and red ecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establishm ent. Work in­
volves the follow ing: Knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of paint required for different
applications; preparing surface fo r painting by rem oving old finish or by placing putty or fille r
in nail holes and in terstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May m ix co lo r s , o ils,
white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper co lo r or consistency. In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs w ater, steam , gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an
establishm ent. Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Laying out of work and m easuring to lo ­
cate position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe
to co rre ct lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machine; thread­
ing pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-driven m achines; assem bling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating
to p re ssu re s, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determ ine whether
finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. W orkers p rim arily engaged in installing and repairing building sanita­
tion or heating system s are excluded.
PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good ord er. Work involves: Knowledge
of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents and traps in plumbing system ; installing or r e ­
pairing pipes and fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or p lu m b e r's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training; and experience.
SH EET-M ETAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F a b rica tes, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-m etal equipment and fix ­
tures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lo ck e rs, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts,
m etal roofing) of an establishm ent. Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Planning a.nd laying
out all types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels, or other specifications;
setting up and operating all available types of sheet-m etal working m achines; using a variety of

26
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE--- Continued

TOOL AND DIE MAKER--- Continued

handtools in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; and installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-m etal w orker requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

using a variety of tool and die m ak er's handtools and p recision measuring instruments; under­
standing of the working properties of com m on m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of
machine tools and related equipment; making n ecessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heat-treating of metal parts during fabrication
as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close toleran ces;
fitting and assem bling of parts to p rescrib ed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro ce s s e s. In general, the tool and die m ak er's work requires a rounded
training in m achine-shop and toolroom p ractice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experience.

TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool m aker; fixture m aker; gage maker)
Constructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gages, jig s , fixtures or dies for forgings,
punching, and other m etal-form ing work. Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Planning and
laying out of work from m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;

C U S T O D IA L

AND

F or cro ss-in d u stry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

M A T E R IA L

GUARD AND WATCHMAN
Guard. P erform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining
ord er, using arms or fo rce where n ecessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate
and check on identity of em ployees and other p ersons entering.
Watchman. Makes rounds of prem ises p eriod ically in protecting property against fire ,
theft, and illegal entry.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

M O VEM ENT

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P repares m erchandise for shipment, or receiv es and is responsible for incoming ship­
ments of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping work involves; A knowledge of shipping
p roced u res, p ra ctice s, routes, available means of transportation, and rate; and preparing r e c ­
ords of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and
keeping a file of shipping re co rd s. May d irect or a ssist in preparing the m erchandise for ship­
ment. R eceiving work in volves: V erifying or directing others in verifying the correctn ess of
shipments against bills of lading, in voices, or other re co rd s; checking for shortages and rejecting
damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to p roper departments; and maintaining n e ce s­
sary record s and file s.

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
F or wage study purposes, w orkers are cla ssified as follow s:
Cleans and keeps in an ord erly condition fa ctory working areas and washroom s, or
prem ises of an office, apartment house, or com m ercia l or other establishment. Duties involve
a combination of the follow ing; Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing flo o rs ; rem oving
chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures
or trim m ings; providing supplies and minor maintenance se rv ice s ; and cleaning lavatories, show­
ers , and restroom s. W orkers who specialize in window washing are excluded.
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; w a re­
houseman or warehouse helper)
A w orker em ployed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment
whose duties involve one or m ore of the follow ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and
m erchandise on or from freight ca rs, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; and transporting m aterials or
m erchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshorem en, who load and unload ships are
excluded.
ORDER

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m aterials, m erchandise,
equipment, or men between various types of establishm ents such as: Manufacturing plants, freight
depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishm ents, or between retail establishments and
custom ers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers,
make minor m echanical rep a irs, and keep truck in good working ord er. D riv e r-sa le sm e n and
o ve r-th e -ro a d drivers are excluded.
F o r wage study p urposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size and type of equipment,
as follow s: (T ra cto r-tra ile r should be rated on the basis of tra iler capacity.)

FILLER

(Order picker; stock s elector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer ord ers for finished goods from stored m erchandise in a cco r d ­
ance with specifications on sales slip s, custom ers* ord e rs , or other instructions. May, inaddition
to filling ord ers and indicating items filled or om itted, keep record s of outgoing o rd e rs , requi­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to sup ervisor, and perform other related duties.

T ruckdriver (com bination of sizes listed separately)
T ru ckdriver, light (under 1V tons)
2
T ru ckdriver, medium (lV2 to and including 4 tons)
T ru ckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, tra iler type)
T ru ckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than tra iler type)
TRUCKER, POWER

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping con­
tainers, the specific operations p erform ed being dependent upon the type, size, and number of
units to be packed, the type of container em ployed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or m ore of the follow ing: Knowl­
edge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size
of container; inserting enclosures in container; using ex ce lsio r or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying
data on container. P ackers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.




Operates a manually controlled gasolin e- or ele ctric-p o w e re d truck or tractor to
transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, or other
establishment.
F or wage study purposes, w orkers are cla ssifie d by type of truck, as follow s:
T ru cker, power (forklift)
T ru cker, power (other than forklift)




A v a i l a b l e O n R e q u e s t -------

T h e tenth annual r e p o r t on s a l a r i e s f o r a c c o u n t a n t s , a u d i t o r s , a t ­
t o r n e y s , c h e m i s t s , e n g i n e e r s , e n g in e e r in g t e c h n i c i a n s , d r a f t s m e n ,
t r a c e r s , j o b a n a ly s t s , d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l , b u y e r s , and c l e r i c a l
e m p loy ees.
O r d e r as B L S B u lle tin 1654, N a tio n a l S u r v e y o f P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d ­
m i n i s t r a t i v e , T e c h n i c a l , and C l e r i c a l P a y , June 1 9 6 9 . S e v e n t y - f i v e
ce n ts a c o p y .




A rea W age S urveys
A lis t o f the l a t e s t a v a ila b le b u lle tin s is p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . A d i r e c t o r y o f a r e a w a g e s tu d ie s in clu d in g m o r e l i m i t e d s tu d ie s c o n d u c t e d at the
r e q u e s t o f the W a ge and H o u r and P u b l i c C o n t r a c t s D i v i s i o n s o f the D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r is a v a ila b le on r e q u e s t . B u lle tin s m a y b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m
the Su pe rin te n de n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n , D . C . , 20402, o r f r o m any o f the BL S r e g i o n a l s a l e s o f f i c e s show n on
the in s i d e f r o n t c o v e r .

Area
A k r o n , O h io , J u ly 1969 *----------------------------------------------------A lb a n y — c h e n e c t a d y —T r o y , N . Y . , F e b . 1970-----------------S
A lb u q u e r q u e , N. M e x . , M a r . 1 970 1___ _________________
A lle n to w n —
Bethleherrr— a s to n , P a . —N .J ., M a y 1969-----E
A tla nta, G a . , M a y 1970 1 ---------------------------------------------------B a l t i m o r e , M d . , A u g. 1969-----------------------------------------------B e a u m o n t - P o r t A rth u r—O r a n g e , T e x . , M a y 1969 1_____
B in g h a m to n , N . Y . , J u ly 1969--------------------------------------------B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , M a r . 1970------------------------------------------B o i s e C it y , Idaho, N o v . 1969-------------------------------------------B o s t o n , M a s s . , A u g . 1969------------------------------------------------B u ff a lo , N . Y . , O ct. 1969___________________________________
B u r lin g to n , V t . , M a r . 1970_______________________________
Cant on, O h io , M a y 1 9 6 9 ___________________________________
C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a „ A p r . 1970 1 --------------------------------------C h a r lo t t e , N . C . , M a r . 1970 1--------------------------------------------Ch atta n o o ga , T e n n . - G a . , Sept. 1969--------------------------------C h ic a g o , 111., A p r . 1969 1 --------------------------------------------------C in cin n a ti, O h i o - K y . —I n d . , F e b . 1970----------------------------C le v e la n d , O h io , Sept. 1969----------------------------------------------C o lu m b u s , O h i o , O c t . 1969-----------------------------------------------D a lla s , T e x . , O ct . 1969-----------------------------------------------------D a v e n p o r t— o c k Isla nd— o l i n e , Io w a ^ Ill.,
R
M
O ct. 1969 1______________________________________ ___________
D ayto n, O h i o , D e c . 1969___________________________________
D e n v e r , C o l o . , D e c . 1 9 6 9 1------------------------------------------------D e s M o i n e s , Io w a , M a y 197 0 1-------------- ----- ---------------------D e t r o it , M i c h . , F e b . 1970-------------------------------------------------F o r t W o r t h , T e x . , O ct. 1969----------------------------------------- —
G r e e n B a y, W i s ., J u ly 1 9 6 9 ----------------------------------------------G r e e n v i l l e , S . C . , M a y 1970-----------------------------------------------H o u s to n , T e x . , A p r . 1970--------------------------------------------------I n d ia n a p o lis , Ind., O ct. 1969--------------------------------------------J a c k s o n , M i s s . , Jan. 1970------------------------------------------------J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , D e c . 1969 ----------------------------------------K a n s a s C ity, M o .—K a n s ., Sept. 1969-------------------------------L a w r e n c e — a v e r h il l, M a s s . —N .H ., June 1970 1-------------H
L ittle R o c k — o rt h L ittle R o c k , A r k . , J u ly 1969---------- N
L o s A n g e l e s —Lon g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
Santa A n a G a r d e n G r o v e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1970---------------------------------L o u i s v i l l e , K y.—I n d ., Nov. 1969 1-------------------------------------L u b b o c k , T e x . , M a r . 1970 1 ----------------------------------------------M a n c h e s t e r , N .H ., J u ly 1969--------------------------------------------M e m p h i s , Ten n.—A r k . , N o v. 1969 1------------------ --------- -----M i a m i , F l a . , N o v . 1969___________________________________
M id la n d and O d e s s a , T e x . , Jan. 1970 1--------------------------M ilw a u k e e , W i s . , A p r . 1969--------------------- ------------------------M in n e a p o lis —
St. P a u l, M in n ., Jan. 1 9 7 0 1------- --------------l

B u lle tin n u m b e r
and p r i c e
1625-89,
1660-51,
1660-55,
1625-86,
1660-76,
1660-11,
1625-75,
1660-5,
1660-57,
1660-34,
1 6 6 0 -1 6 ,
1 6 6 0 -2 9 ,
1660-53,
1625-73,
1660-68,
1660-61,
1660-9,
1625-82,
1660-49,
1660-22,
1660-27,
1660-23,

35
30
35
30
50
35
35
30
30
25
45
45
25
30
35
40
30
65
35
40
30
35

ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
cents
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
cen ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts

1660-20,
1660-37,
1660-41,
1660-73,
1660-58,
1 6 6 0 -1 8 ,
1660-8,
1660-79,
1660-67,
1660-25,
1660-39,
1660-35,
1660-10,
1660-82,
1660-2,

35
30
40
35
35
30
30
30
35
30
30
30
35
35
30

ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
cen ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts

1660-64,
1660-28,
1660-50,
1660-3,
1660-31,
1660-32,
1660-44,
1625-66,
1660-46,

45
40
35
30
40
30
35
35
50

ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
cen ts
ce n ts
cen ts
ce n ts

D ata on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




A rea
M u sk e g o r r - M u s k e g o n H e ig h t s , M i c h . , M a y 1 9 6 9 __ - ___ N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y , N . J . , Jan. 1 9 7 0 1_____________
New H av e n, C o n n ., Jan. 1970 1___________________________
N ew O r l e a n s , L a . , Jan. 1970____________ _____ ___ _______
New Y o r k , N . Y ., A p r . 1969_________________________ ___ __
N o r f o lk r - P o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t New s—
H am pton, V a . , Jan. 1970 1________ ______________________
O k la h o m a C it y , O k l a . , J u ly 1969 1__ _____________________
O m a h a , N e b r . —Iowa, Sept. 1969_________ ________________
P a t e r s o n — lif to n — a s s a i c , N .J ., M a y 1969_____________
C
P
P h ila d e lp h ia , P a . - N . J . , Nov. 1969 *______________________
P h o e n i x , A r i z . , M a r . 1970 1______________________________
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , Jan. 1970 1___ —_________________________
P o r t l a n d , M a in e , Nov. 1969 *_____________________________
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . —W a s h ., M a y 1970 1_________________ ____
P r o v i d e n c e — a w t u c k e t — a r w i c k , R.I.—M a s s .,
P
W
M a y 1970___________________________________________________
R a le ig h , N . C . , Aug. 1969__________ _ _____ —________ ______
R i c h m o n d , V a . , M a r . 1970 1____________ ____ _______ ______
R o c h e s t e r , N .Y . ( o f f i c e o c c u p a t io n s on ly),
R o c k f o r d , 111., M a y 1970 1 ________________________ _______
St. L o u i s , M o .—111., M a r . 1970____________________________
Salt Lake C it y , Utah, Nov. 1969 1_______________________
San A n to n io , T e x . , May 197 0______________________________
San B e r n a r d i n o — i v e r sid e— n t a r i o , C a lif . ,
R
O
San D ie g o , C a l i f . , Nov. 1 9 6 9 1____________________________
San F r a n c i s c o —
Oakla nd, C a l i f . , O ct . 1 9 6 9 1____________
San J o s e , C a l i f . , Sept. 1969 1_____________________________
Savannah, G a . , M a y 1970 1_____ —_________________________
S cra n to n , P a . , J u ly 1969--------------------------------- ------ --------- -Seattle—E v e r e t t , W a s h ., Jan. 1970_________ _____________
S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k., Sept. 1969_________________________
South Ben d, Ind., M a r . 1970 1_____________________________
Sp okan e, W a s h ., June 1 9 6 9 _______________________________
S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , J u ly 1969_________________ ___ ___________
Tampar-St. P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , Aug. 1969 1________ ___ __
T o l e d o , O h i o — i c h . , F e b . 1970________ __________________
M
T r e n t o n , N .J ., Sept. 1969________ —___ - ___ —_____________
U t i c a - R o m e , N . Y ., J u ly 1969_____________________________
W a s h in g t o n , D .C .—M d.—V a . , Sept. 1969 1________________
W a t e r b u r y , C o n n ., M a r . 1970 1___________________________
W a t e r l o o , Iowa, Jan. 1970------------------------------------------------W ic h it a , K a n s . , A p r . 1970 1----------------------------------------------W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , M a y 1970 1_____________________ —____
Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1 9 7 0 1_____________________________________
Y o u n g s to w n — a r r e n , O h io , Nov. 1969 1__ _________ _____
W

B u lle t in n u m b e r
and p r i c e
1625-80,
1660-47,
1660-40,
1660-42,
1625-88,

30
50
35
30
60

cen ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts

1660-59,
1660-17,
1660-12,
1 6 2 5 -8 7 ,
1660-48,
1660-70,
1660-60,
1 6 6 0 -2 6 ,
1660-77,

35
35
30
35
60
35
50
35
40

c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts

1660-72,
1 6 6 0 -6 ,
1660-65,

30 ce n ts
30 ce n ts
40 ce n ts

1660-4,
1 6 6 0 -7 5 ,
1660-66,
1 6 6 0 -3 0 ,
1660-71,

30
35
40
35
30

ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts

1660-43,
1660-36,
1660-33,
1660-24,
1660-80,
1 6 6 0 -1 5 ,
1660-52,
1660-14,
1660-62,
1625-81,
1 6 6 0 -1 3 ,
1660-7,
1660-56,
1660-21,
1660-1,
1 6 6 0 -1 9 ,
1660-54,
1660-45,
1660-69,
1660-78,
1660-63,
1660-38,

30
35
50
35
35
30
30
25
35
30
30
35
30
30
30
50
35
30
35
35
35
35

ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF L AB OR ST A T I S T I C S
WASHINGTON, D .C .

20212

O F F I C I A L BUSINESS




POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U.S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R

FIRST CLASS MAIL