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I— / - < 3 I

1575^7 f
Dayton & Montgomery Go
Public library

A re a Wage S u rv e y

OCT i 5 1968
OCUMENT COLLECTION

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES

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Area Wage Survey

The Lawrence—Haverhill, M assachusettsNew Hampshire, Metropolitan Area




June 1968

Bulletin No. 1575-74
A ugust 1968

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ben Burdetsky, Acting Commissioner

For sole by the Superintendent of Documents, U S. Government Printing Office, W oshingfon, D .C ., 2 0 4 0 2 - Price 3 0 cents




Contents

P refa ce

Page
The Bureau of Labor Statistics program of annual
occupational wage surveys in metropolitan areas is de­
signed to provide data on occupational earnings, and estab­
lishment practices and supplementary wage provisions. It
yields detailed data by selected industry division for each
of the areas studied, for geographic regions, and for the
United States. A major consideration in the program is
the need for greater insight into (1) the movement of wages
by occupational category and skill level, and (Z) the struc­
ture and level of wages among areas and industry divisions.

Introduction_______________________________________________________________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups__________________________

At the end of each survey, an individual area bul­
letin presents survey results for each area studied. After
completion of all of the individual area bulletins for a
round of surveys, a two-part summary bulletin is issued.
The first part brings data for each of the metropolitan
areas studied into one bulletin. The second part presents
information which has been projected from individual
metropolitan area data to relate to geographic regions and
the United States.

A. Occupational earnings;*
A - 1. Office occupations—
men and women________________________
A-Z. Professional and technical occupations—
men and
women_____________________________________________________
A -3. Office, professional, and technical occupations—
men and women combined_______________________
A -4. Maintenance and powerplant occupations_________
A - 5. Custodial and material movement occupations_
_

Tables;
1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and
number studied__________________________________________________
Z. Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-time
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups, and
percents of increase for selected periods______________________




3
4
6
7
r - oo o

B.

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions;*
B - l . Minimum entrance salaries for women office
workers___________________________________________________
B-Z. Shift differentials
___
B -3. Scheduled weekly hours__________________________________
B -4. Paid holidays_______________________
B -5. Paid vacations_____________________________________________
B -6. Health, insurance, and pensionplans______________________
B -7 . Premium pay for overtime work___________________________

10
11
1Z
13
14
17
18

Appendix. Occupational descriptions___________________________________

19

Eighty-six areas currently are included in the
program. In each area, information on occupational earn­
ings is collected annually and on establishment practices
and supplementary wage provisions biennially.
This bulletin presents results of the survey in
Lawrence—
Haverhill, M ass.—
N.H., in June 1968. The Stand­
ard Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Bureau
of the Budget through April 1967, consists of the cities of
Lawrence and Haverhill; the towns of Andover, George­
town, Groveland, Merrimac, Methuen, North Andover, and
West Newbury in Essex County, M ass.; and the towns of
Newton, Plaistow, and Salem in Rockingham County, N.H.
This study was conducted in the Bureau's regional office
in Boston, M ass., Wendell D. Macdonald, Director. The
study was under the general direction of Paul V. Mulkern,
Assistant Regional Director of Operations.

1
4

* NOTE; Similar tabulations are available for other
areas. (See inside back cover.)
A current report on earnings in the Lawrence—
Haverhill area is also available for selected food service occu­
pations (June 1968).

iii




Area Wage Survey---The Lawrence—Haverhill, Mass.—N.H., M etropolitan Area
Introduction
This area is 1 of 86 in which the U.S. Department of Labor’ s
Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings
and related benefits on an areawide basis.
In this area, data were
obtained by personal visits of Bureau field economists to repre­
sentative establishments within six broad industry divisions: Manu­
facturing; transportation, communication, and other public utilities;
wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and
services.
Major industry groups excluded from these studies are
government operations and the construction and extractive industries.
Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are
o m i t t e d because they tend to furnish insufficient employment in the
occupations studied to warrant inclusion.
Separate tabulations are
provided for each of the broad industry divisions which meet pub­
lication criteria.

allowances and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly hours
are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is to the
standard workweek (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which em­
ployees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay
for overtime at regular and/or premium rates). Average weekly earn­
ings for these occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
The averages presented reflect composite, areawide esti­
mates.
Industries and establishments differ in pay level and job
staffing and, thus, contribute differently to the estimates for each joo.
The pay relationship obtainable from the averages may fail to reflect
accurately the wage spread or differential maintained among jobs in
individual establishments.
Similarly, differences in average pay
levels for men and women in any of the selected occupations should
not be assumed to reflect differences in pay treatment of the sexes
within individual establishments. Other possible factors which may
contribute to differences in pay for men and women include: Differ­
ences in progression within established rate ranges, since only the
actual rates paid incumbents are collected; and differences in specific
duties performed, although the workers are classified appropriately
within the same survey job description. Job descriptions used in
classifying employees in these surveys are usually more generalized
than those used in individual establishments and allow for minor
differences among establishments in the specific duties performed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of
the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments.
To
obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data,
however, all establishments are given their appropriate weight.
Es­
timates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore,
as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
except for those below the minimum size studied.
Occupations and Earnings

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in
all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number
actually surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure
among establishments, the estimates of occupational employment ob­
tained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate
the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in
occupational structure do not affect materially the accuracy of the
earnings data.

The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the
following types: (1) Office clerical; (Z) professional and technical;
(3) maintenance and powerplant; and (4) custodial and material move­
ment.
Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job
descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation
in duties within the same job.
The occupations selected for study
are listed and described in the appendix. The earnings data following
the job titles are for all industries combined. Earnings data for some
of the occupations listed and described, or for some industry divisions
within occupations , are not presented in the A -series tables, because
either (1) employment in the occupation is too small to provide enough
data to merit presentation, or (2) there is possibility of disclosure
of individual establishment data.

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B -series tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions as they
relate to plant and office workers. Administrative, executive, and
professional employees, and construction workers who are utilized
as a separate work force are excluded. "Plant workers" include
working foremen and all nonsupervisor y workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions. "Office workers"
include working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers performing
clerical or related functions. Cafeteria workers and routemen are
excluded in manufacturing industries, but included in nonmanufacturing
industries.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly schedule
in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude pre­
mium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living




1

2
Minimum entrance salaries for women office workers (table
B -l) relate only to the establishments visited. Because of the optimum
sampling techniques used, and the probability that large establish­
ments are more likely to have formal entrance rates for workers
above the subclerical level than small establishments, the table is
more-representative of policies in medium and large establishments.
Shift differential data (table B-2) are limited to plant workers
in manufacturing industries. This information is presented both in
terms of (1) establishment policy,1 presented in terms of total plant
worker employment, and (2) effective practice, presented in terms of
workers actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the
survey. In establishments having varied differentials, the amount
applying to a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority,
the classification "other" was used. In establishments in which some
late-shift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded
only if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
The scheduled weekly hours (table B-3) of a majority of the
first-shift workers in an establishment are tabulated as applying to
all of the plant or office workers of that establishment. Scheduled
weekly hours are those which full-time employees were expected to
work, whether they were paid for at straight-time or overtime rates.
Paid holidays; paid vacations; health, insurance, and pension
plans; and premium pay for overtime work (tables B-4 through B-7)
are treated statistically on the basis that these are applicable to all
plant or office ,workers if a majority of such workers are eligible or
may eventually qualify for the practices listed. Sums of individual
items in tables B -2 through B-7 may not equal totals because of
rounding.
Data on paid holidays (table B-4) are limited to data on holi­
days granted annually on a formal basis; i.e ., (1) are provided for
in written form, or (2) have been established by custom. Holidays
ordinarily granted are included even though they may fall on a non­
workday and the worker is not granted another day off. The first
part of the paid holidays table presents the number of whole and half
holidays actually granted. The second part combines whole and half
holidays to show total holiday time.

Data on health, insurance, and pension plans (table B-6) in­
clude those plans for which the employer pays at least a part of the
cost. Such plans include those underwritten by a commercial insurance
company and those provided through a union fund or paid directly by
the employer out of current operating funds or from a fund set aside
for this purpose. An establishment was considered to have a plan
if the majority of employees were eligible to be covered under the
plan, even if less than a majority elected to participate because em­
ployees were required to contribute toward the cost of the plan. Le­
gally required plans, such as workmen's compensation, social se­
curity, and railroad retirement were excluded.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of
insurance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability. Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em­
ployer contributions, 2 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick leave plans are limited to formal plans3 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work
because of illness. Separate tabulations are presented according to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
which provide either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to
the presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided
sickness and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated
total is shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as major med­
ical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by com­
mercial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may
be paid for by the employer out of a fund set aside for this purpose.
Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to those plans
that provide regular payments for the remainder of the worker's life.

The summary of vacation plans (table B-5) is limited to a
statistical measure of vacation provisions. It is not intended as a
measure of the proportion of workers actually receiving specific bene­
fits. Provisions of an establishment for all lengths of service were
tabulated as applying to all plant or office workers of the establish­
ment, regardless of length of service. Provisions for payment on
other than a time basis were converted to a time basis; for example,
a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as the equiv­
alent of 1 week's pay. Estimates exclude vacation-savings plans and
those which offer "extended" or "sabbatical" benefits beyond basic
plans to workers with qualifying lengths of service. Typical of such
exclusions are plans in the steel, aluminum, and can industries.

Data on overtime premium pay (table B -7), the hours after
which premium pay is received and the corresponding rate of pay, are
presented by daily and weekly provisions. Daily overtime refers to
work in excess of a specified number of hours a day regardless of
the number of hours worked on other days of the pay period. Weekly
overtime refers to work in excess of a specified number of hours
per week regardless of the day on which it is performed, the number
of hours per day, or number of days worked.

1 An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the following
conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering
late shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1) had operated late
shifts during the 12 months prior to the survey, or (2) had provisions in written form for operating
late shifts.

The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer
contributions.
An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the
minimum number of days of sick leave available to each employee.
Such a plan need not be
written, but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, were excluded.




3

T a b le 1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and W o r k e r s W ithin S c o p e o f S u rv e y and N u m b e r S tudied in L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i ll, M a s s .— - H . , 1 b y M a jo r I n d u s try D i v i s i o n , 2 June 1968
N
N u m b er o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s

I n d u s try d i v is i o n

M in im u m
em p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts in s c o p e
o f study

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s
W ith in s c o p e o f stu d y

W ith in s c o p e
o f stu d y 3

Studied
T o t a l4

S tu died

P la n t
N u m b er

A ll d iv is io n s ..

___________

__________________

M a n u fa c t u r in g ------------------------------------- - ---------------N on m a n u f a ctu r in g ----------------------------------------------------T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and
o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 _ _____________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e _________________________________
R e t a il t r a d e ------------- -----------------------------------------F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ------------S e r v i c e s 8_________________________________________

O ffi c e

P ercen t

T o ta l4

200

80

4 5 ,8 0 0

100

3 4 ,6 0 0

5 ,9 0 0

3 0 ,8 1 0

-

122
78

44
36

3 8 ,6 0 0
7 ,2 0 0

84
16

3 0, 000
4 ,6 0 0

4, 600
1, 300

2 6 ,6 3 0
4 , 180

50
50
50
50
50

9
11
36
8
14

6
5
13
5
7

1 ,1 0 0
1 ,0 0 0
3 ,3 0 0
900
900

3
2
7
2
2

50

( 6)
( 6)
( 6)
( 7)
( 6)

( 6)
(6)
( 6)
( 6)
( 6)

800
450
1 ,6 8 0
730
520

1 T h e L a w r e n c e — a v e r h ill Sta n da rd M e t r o p o lit a n S ta tis tic a l A r e a , as d e fin e d b y the B u r e a u o f the B u d get th ro u g h A p r i l 1967, c o n s is t s o f the c i t ie s o f L a w r e n c e and H a v e r h ill; the tow ns
H
o f A n d o v e r , G e o r g e t o w n , G r o v e la n d , M e r r i m a c , M eth u en , N o r th A n d o v e r , and W e st N e w b u ry in E s s e x C ou n ty , M a s s .; and the tow n s o f N ew ton , P la is t o w , and S a le m in R o c k in g h a m C ounty, N-H.
T h e " w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f stu d y" e s t im a t e s sh ow n in this ta b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s i z e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in the s u r v e y . T he e s t im a t e s
a r e not in te n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e as a b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n w ith o th e r e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s f o r the a r e a to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t t r e n d s
o r l e v e l s sin c e (1) p la nning o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s
the u s e
o f e s t a b lis h m e n t da ta c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in a d v an ce o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d s tu d ie d , and (2) s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m the s c o p e of the s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1967 e d it io n o f th e Sta n da rd In d u s tria l C la s s if ic a t io n M a n u a l w as u s e d in c l a s s i fy in g e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n .
3 I n c lu d e s a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith to ta l em p lo y m e n t at o r a b o v e the m in im u m li m it a t io n . A l l o u tle ts (w ith in the a re a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in su c h in d u s t r ie s a s t r a d e , fin a n c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v i c e ,
and m o t io n p ic t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s id e r e d as 1 e s ta b lis h m e n t.
4 I n c lu d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s io n a l, and oth e r w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d f r o m the s e p a r a t e plant and o f f i c e c a t e g o r i e s .
5 T a x i c a b s and s e r v i c e s in cid e n ta l to w a t e r tr a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
6 T h is in d u s t r y d i v is i o n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g " in th e S e r i e s A t a b l e s , and f o r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " in the S e r i e s B t a b le s . S e p a ra te p r e s e n t a t io n
o f da ta f o r t h is d i v is i o n is not m a d e fo r one o r m o r e of the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s :
(1) E m p lo y m e n t in the d i v is i o n is t o o s m a ll to p r o v id e en ou g h da ta to m e r it s e p a r a t e stu d y, (2) the s a m p le w as
not d e s ig n e d in it ia lly t o p e r m it s e p a r a te p r e s e n t a t io n , (3) r e s p o n s e w a s in s u ffic ie n t o r in a d eq u a te to p e r m it s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , and (4) t h e r e is p o s s ib i li t y o f d i s c lo s u r e o f in d iv id u a l
e s t a b lis h m e n t d a ta .
7 W o r k e r s f r o m t h is e n t ir e in d u str y d iv is io n a r e r e p r e s e n te d in e s t im a t e s f o r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and " n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g " in the S e r i e s A t a b l e s , but f r o m the r e a l e sta te p o r t io n o n ly in e s t im a t e s
f o r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " in the S e r i e s B t a b le s .
S e p a ra te p r e s e n t a t io n o f data fo r th is d i v is i o n is not m a d e f o r on e o r m o r e o f the r e a s o n s g iv e n in fo o t n o t e 6 a b o v e .
8 H otels and m o te ls; laundries and other personal s e r v ic e s ; busin ess se r v ic e s; automobile rep air, rental, and parking; motion p ictures; nonprofit m em bersh ip organizations (excluding
religiou s and charitable organizations); and engineering and architectural se r v ic e s.




O v e r f o u r - f i f t h s o f the w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y in th e L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h ill
a r e a w e r e e m p lo y e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g f i r m s . T h e fo llo w in g ta b le p r e s e n t s th e m a jo r in d u s tr y
g ro u p s and s p e c i f i c in d u s t r ie s a s a p e r c e n t o f a ll m a n u fa ctu rin g :
I n d u s try g ro u p s
E l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m en t and
s u p p lie s _________________ _____ 29
L e a t h e r and le a t h e r p r o d u c t s — 21
O rd n a n c e and a c c e s s o r i e s -------- 12
8
T e x t i le m i l l p r o d u c t s ________ _
A p p a r e l and o th e r t e x t ile
7
p r o d u c t s ______ ________________
7
R u b b e r and p l a s t ic s p r o d u c t s —
5
P a p e r and a lliecj p r o d u c t s --------

S p e c if ic in d u s t r ie s
C o m m u n ic a t io n e q u ip m e n t_____
F o o t w e a r , e x c e p t r u b b e r ______
A m m u n it io n s , e x c e p t
s m a ll a r m s __ -------------------M is c e lla n e o u s p l a s t ic s
p r o d u c t s ---------- --------------------

26
17
12
5

T h is in fo r m a t io n is b a s e d on e s t im a t e s o f t o ta l e m p lo y m e n t d e r iv e d f r o m u n iv e r s e
m a te r ia ls c o m p ile d p r i o r to a ctu a l s u r v e y .
P r o p o r t io n s in v a r io u s in d u s t r y d iv is io n s m a y
d iff e r fr o m p r o p o r t io n s b a s e d on the r e s u lt s o f the s u r v e y a s sh ow n in ta b le 1 a b o v e .

4

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
Presented in table 2 are indexes and percentages of change
in average salaries of office clerical workers and industrial nurses,
and in average earnings of selected plant worker groups. The indexes
are a measure of wages at a given time, expressed as a percent of
wages during the base period (date of the area survey conducted
between July I960 and June 1961).
Subtracting 100 from the index
yields the percentage change in wages from the base period to the
date of the index.
The percentages of change or increase relate to
wage changes between the indicated dates.
These estimates are
measures of change in averages for the area; they are not intended
to measure average pay changes in the establishments in the area.
Method of Computing

in the occupational group. These constant weights reflect base year
employments wherever possible.
The average (mean) earnings for
each occupation were multiplied by the occupational weight, and the
products for all occupations in the group were totaled. The aggregates
for 2 consecutive years were related by dividing the aggregate for
the later year by the aggregate for the earlier year. The resultant
relative, less 100 percent, shows the percentage change. The index
is the product of multiplying the base year relative (100) by the relative
for the next succeeding year and continuing to multiply (compound)
each year's relative by the previous year's index. Average earnings
for the following occupations were used in computing the wage trends:

Each of the selected key occupations within an occupational
group was assigned a weight based on its proportionate employment
O ffic e c l e r ic a l (m e n and w o m en ):
B o o k k e e p in g - m a c h in e o p e ra to rs,
c la s s B
C le rk s, a c c o u n tin g , c la sse s
A and B
C le rk s, f il e , c la s se s
A , B, and C
C le rk s, o rder
C le rk s, p a y ro ll
C o m p to m e te r o p erato rs
K e y p u n ch o p e ra to rs, c la s se s
A and B
O ffic e boys and g irls

Table 2.

Office clerical (men and women)—
Continued
Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Switchboard operators, classes
A and B
Tabulating-machine operators,
class B
Typists, classes A and B

Unskilled plant (men):
Janitors, porters, and cleaners
Laborers, material handling

Industrial nurses (men and women):
Nurses, industrial (registered)

Indexes of Standard Weekly Salaries and Straight-Time Hourly Earnings for Selected Occupational Groups in Lawrence—Haverhill, Mass. —N .H . ,
June 1968 and June 1967, and Percents of Increase for Selected Periods
Indexes
(June 1961=100)

Percents of increase

Industry and occupational group
June 1968

June 1967

All industries:
Office clerical (men and w om en)-------Industrial nurses (men and w om en)------Skilled maintenance (men)-------------------Unskilled plant (m e n )----------------------------

133. 9
147.0
132.0
130.0

Manufacturing:
Office clerical (men and w om en)-------Industrial nurses (men and w om en)------Skilled maintenance (men)-------------------Unskilled plant (m e n )----------------------------

i 1)

f 1)

147.0
131.4
129.1

133.9

Data do not meet publication criteria.




Skilled maintenance (men):
Carpenters
Electricians
Machinists
Mechanics
Mechanics (automotive)
Painters
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers

(*)

133. 9
127.0
126. 5

(*)
126. 1

June 1967
to
June 1968

6. 1
9. 8
3 .9
2. 8

(*)
9. 8
3. 3
2 .4

June 1966
to
June 1967

June 1965
to
June 1966

June 1964
to
June 1965

2.
4.
2.
2.

6
1
1
7

i 1)

i 1)

4. 2
7. 0
6. 3

5 .9
2. 9
4 .0

(l )
4. 2

(M

( J)

5 .9

3. 6
2 .0
2 .4

(M

(M

6 .7

3. 1

June 1963
to
June 1964

June 1962
to
June 1963

June 1961
to
Tune 1962

3. 6
5. 4
3. 3
2 .9

3.
6.
2.
3.

4
3
6
5

3.
4.
6.
4.

3 .7
5 .9
3 .3
2 .9

4.
6.
2.
3.

2
3
7
1

3 .6
4. 2
6. 7
5. 5

9
2
7
6

June 1960
to
Tune 1961

4.
2.
3.
4.

6
4
7
3

4 .4
2. 4
3 .8
6 .3

5
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the wage
trends relate to regular weekly salaries for the normal workweek,
exclusive of earnings for overtime. For plant worker groups, they
measure changes in average straight-time hourly earnings, excluding
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. The percentages are based on data for selected key occu­
pations and include most of the numerically important jobs within
each group.

Changes in the labor force can cause increases or decreases in the
occupational averages without actual wage changes. It is conceivable
that even though all establishments in an area gave wage increases,
average wages may have declined because lower-paying establishments
entered the area or expanded their work forces. Similarly, wages
may have remained relatively constant, yet the averages for an area
may have risen considerably because higher-paying establishments
entered the area.

Limitations of Data
The indexes and percentages of change, as measures of
change in area averages, are influenced by: (l) general salary and
wage changes, (Z) merit or other increases in pay received by indi­
vidual workers while in the same job, and (3) changes in average
wages due to changes in the labor force resulting from labor turn­
over, force expansions, force reductions, and changes in the propor­
tions of workers employed by establishments with different pay levels.




The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effect
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. The percentages of change reflect only changes
in average pay for straight-time hours. They are not influenced by
changes in standard work schedules, as such, or by premium pay
for overtime. Where necessary, data were adjusted to remove from
the indexes and percentages of change any significant effect caused
by changes in the scope of the survey.

6

A. Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d i v is i o n , L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i ll, M a s s . - N . H . , June 1968)
H
Weekly earnings1
(standard)
Number

Sex, occupation, and industry division

workers

N u m b e r o f w o rk e r ;s r e c e iv in g str a ig h t- •tim e w e e k ly e a r n in g s o f —
*

weekly
hours1
[ standard)

60
M ean 13
2

Median 2

Middle range 2

S

s
65

$

$

70

75

*

80

$

$

$

85

90

95

$

$
100

105

$
110

$
115

S

$

120

125

$

130

$

135

$

$

140

145

$

150

$

15 5

and
u n d er

16 0
and

65___ 70

80

85

.

95

95

2

75

100

*05

115

m

12Q

2

l? 5

1 ?9

135

2

4

-

2
2

2
2

20
19
1

12
12
-

140

145

*59

155

16 0

over

M
EN
$
$
1 1 2 .0 0 1 1 5 -0 0

17

3 9 .5

BOOKKEEPING-Ma l HINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B ---------------------------------------------------------

42

3 8 .0

7 6 .5 0

7 7 .0 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A --------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

51
42

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

9 9 .0 0
1 0 0 .0 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B --------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

45
35

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

8 6 .0 0
8 7 .5 0

CLERKS, ACCOuralING» CLASS A ---------------

$
$
9 7 .5 0 - 1 2 8 .0 0

5

WOMEN

8 4 .0 0

-

9 9 .0 0
1 0 1 .0 0

9 3 .0 0 -1 1 0 .0 0
9 3 .0 0 - 1 1 1 .0 0

-

8 5 .0 0
8 7 .5 0

7 7 .0 0 - 1 0 0 .5 0
7 7 .5 0 - 1 0 2 .0 0

_

-

5
2

6 9 .5 0 -

4

13

4

4

5

_

12

_

_

“

6
5

10
10

13
5

7
7

9
6

2
2

4

4
4

11
11

5
5

4
4

3
3

11
11

_

1
1

1
1

CLERKS, ORDER ---------------------------------------------

26

4 0 .0

8 4 .5 0

8 4 .0 0

7 9 .5 0 -

8 9 .5 0

-

4

-

3

8

6

-

-

-

3

-

2

CLERKS, PAYROLL ----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

154
153

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 9 .5 0
8 9 .5 0

9 2 .5 0
9 2 .5 0

7 9 .0 0 - 1 0 2 .0 0
7 9 .0 0 - 1 0 2 .0 0

-

-

6
6

19
19

17
17

23
23

3
3

19
19

16
15

35
35

10
10

1
1

1
1

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B ---------------

24

4 0 .0

8 2 .0 0

8 3 .5 0

8 0 .5 0 -

8 8 .5 0

-

-

5

-

11

4

4

SECRETARIES3-------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

21 8
19 4
24

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .0

1 1 1 .5 0
1 1 0 .5 0
1 1 7 .0 0

1 1 4 .0 0 1 0 0 . 5 0 - 1 2 1 . 5 0
1 1 3 . CO 1 0 0 . 5 0 - 1 2 0 . 0 0
1 2 2 .5 0
9 2 .5 0 - 1 4 0 .0 0

-

-

-

-

2
2

3
3

9
9

12
8
4

13
13

14
14
-

25
23
2

11
11
-

27
27
-

42
38
4

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

“

-

-

-

-

3
2
1

7
2
5

11
7
4

2
1
1

2
2

1
1

2
2

1

-

1

-

-

-

1

2
-

1
-

2
2

1
1

1
1

SECRETARIES, CLASS A --------------------------

19

4 0 .0

1 1 5 .5 0

1 1 4 . CO 1 1 1 . 0 0 - 1 1 9 . 0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

9

4

-

-

SECRETARIES, CLASS B -------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

43
36

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

1 1 2 .0 0
1 1 2 .5 0

1 1 0 .0 0
1 1 2 .5 0

9 0 .0 0 - 1 2 9 .0 0
9 8 .0 0 - 1 2 8 .0 0

_

_

-

_

-

-

9
5

1
1

2
2

6
6

2
2

_

-

2
2

-

1
1

3
3

9
9

-

1
1

SECRETARIES, CLASS C -------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

118
114

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 1 4 .5 0
1 1 4 .5 0

1 1 6 .5 0
1 1 6 .5 0

1 0 8 .5 0 -1 2 0 .5 0
1 0 9 .0 0 -1 2 0 .5 0

_

_

2
“

_

-

4
4

5
5

9
9

a
8

18
18

37
37

16
16

3
3

2
2

1
1

8
6

1
1

_

_

_

-

4
4

-

-

-

SECRETARIES, CLASS D -------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

38
30

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

9 9 .0 0
9 2 .0 0

9 9 .0 0
9 6 .0 0

9 1 .0 0 - 1 0 4 .0 0
8 8 .0 0 - 1 0 1 .5 0

_

3
3

3
3

3
3

5
5

7
7

10
8

1
1

_

_

1

_

_

5

_

_

_

_

_

-

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL -------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

61
23
38

3 9 .0
3 8 .5
3 9 .5

9 0 .0 0
8 3 .0 0
9 4 .0 0

8 8 .5 0
8 6 .0 0
8 9 .5 0

7 9 . 5 0 - 9 7 .0 0
7 7 . 0 0 - 9 2 .5 0
8 3 .5 0 - 1 1 1 .5 0

-

_

9
5
4

6
2
4

13
4
9

9
6
3

6
2
4

1

4

4

_

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

7
4
3

-

-

-

1

4

4

-

2

-

-

-

-

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B -------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

19
17

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 2 .0 0
8 1 .0 0

8 1 .0 0
8 0 .0 0

7 6 .5 0 7 6 .0 0 -

8 5 .0 0
8 4 .5 0

2
2

1
1

6
6

6
5

1
1

-

-

_

1

-

2
2

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

54
46

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 3 .0 0
8 4 .5 0

8 2 .5 0
8 4 .0 0

7 6 .0 0 7 8 .0 0 -

8 9 .5 0
9 0 .5 0

5
-

_

6
4

12
12

9
9

10
10

4
4

1
1

4
4

2
2

1

TYPISTS, CLASS A --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

111
111

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 5 .5 0
8 5 .5 0

8 6 .0 0
8 6 .0 0

8 0 .5 0 8 0 .5 0 -

8 9 .0 0
8 9 .0 0

_

1
1

18
18

8
8

16
16

52
52

5
5

7
7

_

_

_

-

4
4

_

-

-

“

-

-

TYPISTS, CLASS B --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

63
59

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 4 .0 0
7 5 .0 0

7 4 .5 0
7 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0 7 1 .0 0 -

8 0 .0 0
8 0 .5 0

10
6

6
6

18
18

14
14

7
7

3
3

-

5
5

_

_

-

_

-

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

'

1 S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a la r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f pay f o r o v e r t im e at r e g u la r a n d / o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ) , and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d
to th e se w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 T h e m e a n is c o m p u te d f o r e a ch jo b b y to ta lin g the e a rn in g s o f a ll w o r k e r s and d iv id in g b y the n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s .
T he m e d ia n d e s ig n a t e s p o s it io n — h a lf o f the e m p l o y e e s s u r v e y e d r e c e i v e m o r e than
the ra te sh ow n ; h a lf r e c e i v e l e s s than the r a te sh ow n .
T h e m id d le ra n g e is d e fin e d b y 2 r a t e s o f p a y ; a fo u r th o f the w o r k e r s e a rn le s s than the lo w e r o f t h e s e r a t e s and a fo u r t h e a rn m o r e than the
h ig h e r r a t e .
3 M a y in c lu d e w o r k e r s o t h e r than t h o s e p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .




7

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—
Men and Women
(A verage straight-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Law rence—H averhill, M a s s .-N .H ., June 1968)
W eekly earnings1
(standard)
Number
of

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

*
io o
M ean1
2

Median 2

HRAFT^MFM T! ACC A
UrvAr 1orlCI'l f ULAjo A
— — — — — —- —
— — — — —
—
MANtiPATTUftT Nfl — — _____ _ ___________
_
nAnurWo iunxn\j

52
52

4 0 .0 ^ 8 . 5 0
4 0 .0 1 5 8 .5 0

24
24

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

110

115

$

t
180

and
under

M iddle range 2

$
$
$
1 5 5 . CO 1 4 9 . 0 0 1 5 5 .0 0 1 4 9 . 0 0 -

1 3 4 .5 0
1 3 4 .5 0

125

130

135

140

1 7 0 .0 0
1 7 0 .0 0

1 2 6 .5 0
1 2 6 .5 0

120

145

150

155

160

165

9

_ 105
M
EN

105

Number of w ork ers receiving straight-tim e: w eekly earnings of—
$
$
$
%
$
$
$
t
$
$
$
$
$
130
135
140
145
150
155
115
12 0
125
no
160
165
170
175

$

5

13
13

2
2

6

6

170

5
5

175

180

185

6
-

6
6

6

WOMEN

NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) -----MANUFACTURING _______________ _ _ ____
_ _

1 2 3 .5 0
1 2 3 .5 0

1 1 5 .5 0 1 1 5 .5 0 -

3
3

-

3
—

3

3

2
2

5
5

3

3

2

1 Standard hours r efle ct the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s (exclusive of pay for overtim e at regular an d /o r prem ium rates), and
the earnings corresp on d to these w eekly hours.
2 F o r definition of t e r m s , see footnote 2, table A - l .

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
(Average stra igh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Law rence—H averhill, M a s s .-N .H ., June 1968)
Average

Occupation and industry division

Number
of

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(standard' (standard)

Average

Occupation and industry division

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B ---------------------------------------------------------

42

3 8 .0

$
7 6 .5 0

SECRETARIES2

-

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

CONTINUED

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS -

- CONTINUED

SECRETARIES, CLASS A

Average

Occupation and industry division

---------------------------------

19

4 0 .0

$
1 1 5 .5 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A --------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

53
15

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .5

1 0 2 .0 0
1 0 0 .5 0
1 0 8 .0 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS B --------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

43
36

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

1 1 2 .0 0
1 1 2 .5 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B ------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

48
36

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

8 7 .0 0
8 8 .5 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS C ------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------------

118
114

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 1 4 .5 0
1 1 4 .5 0

CLERKS, ORDER ---------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------------------

44
31

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 0 .0 0
8 5 .0 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS 0 --------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------------

38
30

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

9 9 .0 0
9 2 .0 0

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL --------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

61
23
38

3 9 .0
3 8 .5
3 9 .5

19
17

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 2 .0 0
8 1 .0 0

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(standard) (standard)

CONTINUED

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------------

54
46

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

is .o o
8 4 .5 0

TYPISTS, CLASS A ------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

111
111

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 5 .5 0
8 5 .5 0

TYPISTS, CLASS B --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

63
59

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 4 .0 0
7 5 .0 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS A -------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------------

54
54

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 5 8 .0 0
1 5 8 .0 0

NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) -----MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

24
24

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 2 3 .5 0
1 2 3 .5 0

9 0 .0 0
8 3 .0 0
9 4 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B ---------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

Number
of
worker*

6 ■

156
154

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

-------------------

24

4 0 .0

8 2 .0 0

SECRETARIES2---------------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

21 8
194
24

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .0

1 1 1 .5 0
1 1 0 .5 0
1 1 7 .0 0

CLERKS, PAYROLL ----------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------------KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B

9 0 .0 0
8 9 .5 0

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS

1 Standard hours r e fle ct the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s (exclusive of pay for overtim e at regular an d /or prem ium r a te s), and the earnings
correspond to these w eekly h ours.
2 M ay include w ork ers other than those presented separately.




8

Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied on an a re a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d i v is i o n , L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i ll, M a s s . — .H . , June 1968)
H
N
Hourly earnings

1

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f—

$
2 .1 0

Number

O c c u p a tio n and in d u s t r y d iv is io n
workers

M ean 1
2

Median

2

Middle range 2

$
2 .3 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2 .5 0

$
$
2 . 60 2 . 7 0

$
2 .8 0

$
2 .9 0

$
3 .0 0

%
$
3 . 10 3 .2 0

$
3.30

S
:3 .4 0

%
3 .5 0

%
3 .6 0

$
3 .7 0

$
3 .8 0

$
3 .9 0

*
4 .0 0

$
4 .1 0

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2 . 70 2 . 8 0

2 ,9 0

3 .0 0

3 .1 0

3 . ?0

3,,3 0

3 .4 0

:3 .5 0

3 .6 0

3 .7 0

3 .8 0

3 ,9 0

4 .0 0

4 .1 0

4 ,2 0

-

4
4

-

7
7

-

1

4
4

3
3

3
3

5
5

6
6

16
16

1
1

~

“

-

”

“

“

_

-

-

-

-

8
8

11
11

7
7

15
15

3
3

6
6

45
45

-

1
1

-

-

5
5

-

“

4
4

-

-

8
8

_

_

_

4
4

_

_

3
3

_

4
4

1
1

-

1
1

11
3

5
1

1
1

-

-

1
1

-

~

-

“

_

10
10

4
4

4
4

1
1

1
1

5
5

2

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

14
14

2
2

5
5

8
8

15
15

_
~

7
7

2
2

8
8

19
19

and
under

2 .2 0

$
3 .2 7
3 .2 7

$
2 .9 2 2 .9 2 -

$
3 .4 3
3 .4 3

3 .4 9
3 .4 7
3 .4 7 * 3 .4 9

3 .2 3 3 .2 3 -

3 .7 4
3 .7 4

31
19

3 .4 8
3 .2 9

3 .7 2
3 .2 8

3 .2 3 3 .0 3 -

3 .7 9
3 .7 3

_

FIREMEN, STATIONARY BOILER ----------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

27
25

3 .0 7
3 .0 5

2 .9 9
2 .9 8

2 .8 7 2 .8 7 -

3 .3 2
3 .2 5

-

HELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRADES --------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

56
56

2 .4 0
2 .4 0

2 .4 3
2 .4 3

2 .2 9 2 .2 9 -

2 .4 7
2 .4 7

MACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE ----------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

83
83

3 .3 2
3 .3 2

3 .2 7
3 .2 7

3 .0 4 3 .0 4 -

3 .6 9
3 .6 9

CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE ----------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

50
50

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE — -------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

113
113

ENGINEERS, STATIONARY ---------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

$
3 .1 2
3 .1 2

$
2 .2 0

-

-

“
-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

36
36

-

-

_

_

-

“

~

3
3

_

-

-

-

-

4
4

12
12

_

-

_

~

~

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

~

~

~

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE) -------------------------------------------

24

3 .3 7

3 .5 2

3 .2 1 -

3 .6 2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

3

-

-

2

5

-

-

7

4

-

1

1

-

-

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE -------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

111
109

3 .1 6
3 .1 4

3 .1 2
3 .0 9

2 .9 1 2 .9 0 -

3 .5 5
3 .5 4

-

_

_

~

3
3

12
12

16
16

6
6

4
4

1
1

4
4

29
29

3
3

4
4

1
1

-

-

7
7

-

-

3
3

-

-

14
14

“

4
2

MILLWRIGHTS -------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

52
52

3 .3 2
3 .3 2

3 .4 5
3 .4 5

3 .0 8 3 .0 8 -

3 .5 2
3 .5 2

_

_

_

_

_

1
1

18
18

16
16

-

_

-

-

-

7

2
2

-

-

2
2

-

-

6
6

7

-

-

-

-

PIPEFITTERS, MAINTENANCE --------------------MANUFACTURING---------------------------------------

76
76

3 .2 7
3 .2 7

3 .3 8
3 .3 8

3 .1 1 3 .1 1 -

3 .5 1
3 .5 1

-

-

-

20

-

-

-

-

-

-

TOOL AND DIE MAKERS -------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

127
127

3 .7 2
3 .7 2

3 .7 6
3 .7 6

3 .6 9 3 .6 9 -

3 .9 4
3 .9 4

_

_

_

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s ,
2 F o r d e fin it io n o f t e r m s , s e e fo o t n o t e 2, ta b le A - l .




h o lid a y s ,

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

2
2

4
4

4
4

6
6

3
3

14
14

3
3

17
17

20

_

_

-

-

-

2
2

a
a

6
6

1
1

3

2
2

1

and la te s h ift s .

3

l

~
-

“
10
10

49
49

-

-

“
2
2

28
28

-

15
15

9

Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h ill, M a s s .—N .H ., June 1968)
H
ourly earnings1
2

Number of w ork ers receiving stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings of$
1 .6 0

ber
O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

ers

M
ean3

M
edian3

M
iddle range3

$
1 .7 0

$
1 .8 0

$
1 .9 0

$
2 .0 0

$
2 .1 0

2 .2 0

$
2 .3 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2 .5 0

$
2 .6 0

$
2 .7 0

$
2 .8 0

*
2 .9 0

$
3 .0 0

$
3 .1 0

*
3 .2 0

$
3 .3 0

$
3 .4 0

$
3 .5 0

$
3 .6 0

$
3 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2 .7 0

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3 .1 0

3 .2 0

3 .3 0

3 .4 C

3 .5 0

3 .6 0

3 .7 0

3 .8 0

10
10

-

17
17

3
3

8
8

4
4

5
5

46
46

5
5

6
6

12
12

11
11

9
9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

~

"

-

2

1

7

4

5

42

5

6

12

11

9

-

5

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

~

5

16
15
1

3
3
“

3
3
~

_

30
6
24

3

_

-

-

-

-

-

11
11
-

3

“

-

12

%

$
3 .8 0

and
under
a . 70

GUARDS AND WATCHMEN --------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

138
136

$
2 .5 0
2 .5 1

$
2 .5 4
2 .5 5

$
$
2 . 2 3 - 2 .7 7
2 .2 5 - 2 .7 8

GUARDS:
MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

104

2 .6 6

2 .5 8

2 .5 2 - 2 .8 6

2
~

~

~

over

WATCHMEN:
MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

32

2 .0 6

2 .0 4

1 .8 8 -

2 .1 0

-

-

10

-

15

2

1

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS -----MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

29 5
24 7
48

2 .0 9
2 .1 1
2 .0 1

2 .1 2
2 .1 7
1 .9 3

1 .8 5 1 .9 1 1 .7 4 -

2 .3 4
2 .3 5
2 .3 4

40
31
9

27
18
9

15
10
5

34
29
5

28
21
7

21
21
~

16
16
■
”

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS
(WOMEN) --------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

20
20

2 .0 8
2 .0 8

2 .1 3
2 .1 3

2 .0 6 - 2 .1 8
2 .0 6 - 2 .1 8

1
1

1
1

2
2

2
2

13
13

1
1

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING --------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

42 8
36 1
67

2 .4 8
2 .4 0
2 .9 3

2 .3 9
2 .3 8
3 .2 3

2 .2 9 - 2 -5 8
2 .2 7 - 2 .5 4
2 .3 7 - 3 .3 0

1
1

3
3

12
11
1

6
6
“

20
20
-

21
21

49
44
5

ORDER

3

-

9

8

12

-

-

-

8

9

Ill

2

10

15

90

8

5

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

8
8

16
16

16
16

14
14

12
12

10
10

13
13

26
26

9
9

3
3

_

_

7
7

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

4
4

-

-

-

-

5
5

9
3

83
83

3
3

2
2

5
5

2
2

1
1

_

_

-

1
-

-

-

1

-

1

10
10

-

-

2
2

1
1

-

6
1
5

_

-

2
2
”

_

-

12
9
3

_

-

4
4
-

_

-

3
3
“

1

-

3
3
“

_

-

-

-

1

_

-

-

1
1

5
5

4
4

-

-

3
3

4
4

6
1

2
2

11
10

2
2

9
9

6
6

3
3

-

3
2

13
13

5
5

1
-

6
6

_

_

-

“

-

2
2

~

-

-

-

13
10
3

8
8
~

15
14
1

2

7
3
4

7
5
2

6
3
3

15
13
2

5
5
"

_

1

1

21

88

_

_

_

70

-

1

1

21

88

-

-

70

_

_

_

1
1

45

10
10

_

FILLERS --------------------------------------------

290

2 .7 6

2 .6 9

2 .6 2 -

3 .0 3

PACKERS, SHIPPING ------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

143
143

2 .3 9
2 .3 9

2 .3 8
2 .3 8

2 .1 2 2 .1 2 -

2 .6 4
2 .6 4

PACKERS, SHIPPING (WOMEN) ------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

110
104

1 .8 4
1 .8 5

1 .8 5
1 .8 5

1 .8 2 1 .8 2 -

1 .8 8
1 .8 9

RECEIVING CLERKS --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

45
23
22

2 .6 9
2 .4 4
2 .9 5

2 .6 9
2 .6 2
2 .9 8

2 .4 5 - 3 .0 5
2 .1 9 - 2 .6 9
2 .7 8 - 3 .2 5

SHIPPING CLERKS -----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

26
20

2 .5 9
2 .5 7

2 .6 8
2 .5 5

2 .4 0 - 2 .8 4
2 .3 9 - 2 .7 7

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS ---------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

68
58

2 .5 1
2 .5 1

2 .4 5
2 .4 8

2 .1 6 2 .2 3 -

TRUCKDRIVERS ---------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

25 9
61
198

3 .1 4
2 .4 1
3 .3 6

3 .3 3
2 .2 9
3 .3 7

TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) ----------------MANUFACTURING---------------------------------------

125
80

2 .7 5
2 .5 0

2 .4 9
2 .4 5

-

_

_

_

-

-

2 .8 0
2 .7 9

-

_

-

-

2 .7 5 2 .1 7 3 .3 1 -

3 .7 1
2 .7 3
3 .7 3

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

~

~

“

2 .4 4 2 .4 2 -

3 .1 5
2 .4 9

_

_

1 D ata li m it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w is e in d ic a te d .
2 E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s ,
3 F o r d e f in it io n o f t e r m s , s e e fo o t n o t e 2, ta b le A - 1.




_

h o lid a y s ,

5

-

and la te s h ift s .

_

11
11

4

-

-

92
87
5

4
3
1

13
11
2

-

109
94
15

57
52
5

54
54

18
18

2

58
58

_

_

-

-

_

-

“

_

12

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

2

10

B. Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(D is t r ib u t io n o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s s tu d ie d in a ll in d u s t r ie s and in in d u s t r y d iv is io n s b y m in im u m e n tra n ce s a la r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f in e x p e r ie n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h ill, M a s s .—N .H ., June 1968)
I n e x p e r ie n c e d t y p is t s

M in im u m w e e k ly s t r a i g h t - t im e s a l a r y 1

O th er in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s 2
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

M a n u fa ctu r in g

B a sec on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

E s ta b lis h m e n t s stu d ied -------------------------------------------------

80

44

XXX

E s ta b lis h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f ie d m in im u m -------------------

A ll
s c h e d u le s

36

M a n u fa ctu r in g
A ll
in d u s t r ie s
A ll
s c h e d u le s

37V2

N on m a n u f a c tu r ing

B a s e d on s t a n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 1 o f—
3
2
40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

37V2

40

X XX

80

44

X XX

36

XXX

XXX

13

12

10

1

1

31

17

14

14

4

9

$ 6 2 .5 0 ________________________________
$ 6 5 .0 0 ______________ ___________________
$ 6 7 .5 0 ______________________________
$ 7 0 .0 0 --------------------- -------- ----$ 7 2 .5 0 __________ __________ —
$ 7 5 .0 0
---------------------------------------$ 7 7 .5 0 — ___ __ __ — -------$ 8 0 .0 0 ________ ______
____ _
$ 8 2 .5 0 ________________________________
$ 8 5 .0 0 _____ _ _______ _ ----------

_
2
4
_
2
4
1

_
1
4
2
4
1

_
1
3
1
4
1

_
1
_
-

_
1
-

2
4
10
4
3
5
2
1

_
1
5
2
3
4
1
1

_
1
4
1
2
4

2
3
5
2
1
1
-

2
1
1
-

_
3
3
2
1
-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

E s ta b lis h m e n t s h a v in g no s p e c i f ie d m in im u m ----------------

12

11

XXX

1

XXX

35

19

X XX

16

XXX

XXX

E s ta b lis h m e n t s w h ic h d id not e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in th is c a t e g o r y --------------------------------------------------------------------

55

21

XXX

34

XXX

14

8

XXX

6

XXX

XXX

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

6 0 .0 0 and
6 2 .5 0 and
6 5 .0 0 and
6 7 .5 0 -and
7 0 .0 0 and
7 2 .5 0 and
7 5 .0 0 and
7 7 .5 0 and
8 0 .0 0 and
8 2 .5 0 and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
under
u n d er
under

1 T h e s e s a la r i e s r e la t e to f o r m a l l y e s t a b lis h e d m in im u m s t a r t in g (h irin g ) r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s that a r e paid fo r
2 E x c lu d e s w o r k e r s in s u b c l e r i c a l jo b s su c h a s m e s s e n g e r o r o f f i c e g ir l.
3 D ata a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll s ta n d a rd w o r k w e e k s c o m b in e d , and f o r the m o s t c o m m o n sta n d a rd w o r k w e e k s r e p o r t e d .




1

1

sta n d a rd w o rk w e e k s .




11

Table B-2. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iffe r e n tia ls of m an u factu rin g plant w o r k e r s by type and am ount of d iffe r e n tia l,
L aw re n ce—H a v e r h ill, M a s s .—N .H ., June 1968)
P e r c e n t of m an u factu rin g plant w o r k e r s—
In e sta b lish m e n ts h aving f o r m a l
p r o v isio n s 1 fo r —

Shift d ifferen tia l

Second sh ift
w ork

T h ird or other
sh ift w ork

A c tu a lly w orking on—

Second shift

T h ird or other
sh ift

7 1 .0

6 0 .0

13 .9

_ --------

6 2 .9

5 8 .6

12.2

3 .5

U n ifo rm cents (p er h o u r )_______________________

2 6 .6

21.6

4 .9

2 .2

1.4
.2
.5
.2
1 .9
.7
-

_

5 .0
1.8
4 .1
.8
5 .1
2 .4

3.3

-

(1
2)

"

2 .5

T o ta l........................................................................................

W ith shift pay d iffe r e n tia l________________

4 c e n t s __________________________________________
5 c e n ts __ ____
_______ ____ ____ _
6 V2 c e n ts ___________ __
________ _ _
_ _
7 c e n t s ______ ___________________________ _____ _
8 c e n t s ____________________________ _________ _
9 c e n t s --------------- ---------------- ----------------10 r e n t s

_

___

14 cen ts____________ ______ _ — — —
15 c en ts----------- ---------------------_ _
1A r e n t s

_

_

25 c e n ts .____ ______________ __ __ _______ ___
_ _
_
3 5 c en ts______________________________
___

5 .0
.8
1.8
.8
6 .4
8 .4
-

_

3 .5

_
1.1
.2
.1
.6

.3
-

-

2 5 .5

2 6 .2

5 .4

5 p e r c e n t ------------------------------ ----------- - ----8 p e r c e n t ______ ____
1 0 p ercen t________ ___ ____ „ -------- _ —

1 .4
2 4 .1

1 .4
2 4 .8

.3
5.1

1.0

O ther f o r m a l pay d iffe r e n tia l3--------------------------

10.8

10.8

1.9

.2

W ith no shift pay d iffe r e n tia l----------------------------------

8.1

1 .4

1.7

(2)

U n ifo rm p e r c e n ta g e _________

__________

—

1.1
-

.1

1 In cludes esta b lish m e n ts c u r r e n tly operatin g late s h ift s , and e sta b lis h m e n ts with f o r m a l p r o v isio n s c o v e r in g late sh ifts
e v en though they w e r e not c u rren tly op eratin g late s h ifts.
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p ercen t.
3 P r im a r ily c e n ts -p e r -h o u r d iffe r e n tia ls w hich v a r y b y lab or g r a d e .

12




Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p la n t a n d o f f i c e w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d m a n u fa c t u r in g b y s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s 1
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i l l , M a s s . —N .H ., June 1968)
H
P la n t w o r k e r s

O ffic e w o r k e r s

W e e k ly h o u r s
A l l in d u s t r i e s 1
2

A l l w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------------------

1 00

35 h o u r s
O v e r 35 a n d u n d e r 3772 h o u r s --------------- --------- 3772 h o u r s ___________________ ______________________ _
3 8 3 4 h o u r s ______________________________________________
/
4 0 h o u r s — ----------------— ----- ----------------------O v e r 4 0 a n d u n d e r 45 h o u r s ------------------------------------45 h o u r s

1
2
1
-

82
3
5
5

M a n u fa c t u r in g

100

-

2
-

87
2
6
4

A ll in d u s t r ie s *

100

1
2
6
2
89
(4)
-

M a n u fa c t u r in g

100

(4 )
2
1
96
-

1 S c h e d u le d h o u r s a r e t h e w e e k l y h o u r s w h ic h a m a j o r i t y o f th e f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s w e r e e x p e c t e d t o w o r k , w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e p a id f o r at
s tr a ig h t -t im e o r o v e r t im e r a t e s .
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s , in
a d d i t io n t o m a n u fa c t u r i n g .
3 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; fi n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ;
a n d s e r v i c e s , in a d d i t io n t o m a n u fa c t u r i n g .
4 L e s s th a n 0 .5 p e r c e n t .




13

Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(P e r c e n t distrib u tion of p lant and o ffic e w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and m an u factu rin g b y n u m b er of paid h olid ays
p ro v id e d an n u ally, L a w re n c e—H a v e r h ill, M a s s .—N .H ., June 1968)

Office workers

Plant workers
Item
All industries 1

A ll w orkers___________________________________
W ork ers in establishments providing
paid holidays _ _______________________________ W orkers in establishments providing
no paid holidays_________________________________

Manufacturing

All industries 2

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

97

1 00

99

1 00

3

"

1

“

(3 )
4
15
45

_
5
16
49

_
3
(3 )
3
40

Number of days

L e ss than 6 holidays_____________________________
6 h o lid a ys__________________________________________
6 holidays plus 2 half da ys----------------------------------7 holid a ys---------------------------------------------------------------8 h o lid a ys_____-______________________________
___
8 holidays plus 1 half day------------------------------------8 holidays plus 2 half days __ __________________ _
9 holid a ys__________________ — __________________
9 holidays plus 2 half d a ys_______________________
__
_ __________
10 h o l i d a y s
_
10 holidays plus 1 half day __ --------------- ----------11 holidays_________________________________________
12 holidays_________ ____________________ ___________

1
1

1
1

19
9
-

22
7
“

1
1

1

(3 )
‘ 30
(3 )
18
1

3
1

_
3
2
48
1

(3 )
38
(3 )
7
“

Total holiday tim e 1
4
3
2

12 days_____________________________________________
11 days or m ore_________________
_________ - _____
1 0 V2 days or m ore__ _____________
____________
10 days or m ore____________ —--------------- --- - _____
9 days or m o r e _____ _____ _____________________
8 V2 days or m ore __________ - _________________
8 days or m o r e — ________________________________

7 days or m o r e __ ___ __________________________
6 days or m o r e ____________________________________
2 days or m o r e ____________________________________
1 day or m ore _
___ _______________________ —

1
2
2
10

30
31
77
92
96
96
97

_
-

7
29
31
79
95
100
100
1 00

1

3
4
22

52
53
93
96
99
99
99

_
-

7
45
47
95
97
100
100
100

1 In clu d es data fo r tra n sp ortation , co m m u n ic a tio n , and oth er public u tilit ie s ; w h o le sa le tr a d e ; r e t a il tr a d e ; r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s , in
ad dition to m an ufacturin g.
2 In clu d es data fo r tra n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and other p ublic u tilit ie s ; w h o le sa le tr a d e ; r e t a il tra d e ; fin a n c e , in su r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ;
and s e r v i c e s , in addition to m an ufacturin g.
3 L e s s than 0 .5 p erc en t.
4 A l l com b in ation s of fu ll and half d ays that add to the s a m e am ount a r e c o m b in e d ; fo r e x a m p le , the p r o p o r tio n of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g a total
of 9 d a y s in clu d es th ose with 9 fu ll days and no half d a y s , 8 fu ll d ays and 2 h a lf d a y s, 7 fu ll d ays and 4 h a lf d a y s , and so on.
P r o p o r tio n s
then w e r e cum u lated .

14




Table B-5. Paid Vacations'
(P erc en t d istrib u tio n of plant and o ffic e w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and m an ufacturin g by vacatio n pay
p r o v is io n s , L a w re n c e—H a v e r h ill, M a s s .—N .H ., June 1968)

Plant workers

Office workers

Vacation policy
Manufacturing

All industries3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

99
79
17
3

100
77
19
4

100
99
1
-

100
99
1
-

11
78
(4)
3

All industries 2

A ll workers

Method of payment
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid vacations--------------- ------- — -------------L ength-of-tim e paym ent______________________
Percentage payment___________________________
O th er------- --------- --------------------------- ---------------------W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid vacations. _____________ — _ _ --------

(4)

"

Amount of vacation p ay5
After 6 months of service
Under 1 week_______________________________________
1 week-------- --- _
------- -------— ------ —
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s___ _
__
2 weeks
___ _ _
_ ■
—
—

62
10
(4)

-

10
69
(4)
6

2
77
3
14
3
-

2
80
4
11
4
-

_
16
82
2

_
15
85
-

2
41
11
41
3
(4)

2
41
13
39
4
-

.
4
93
2

_
3
97
-

2

2

_

.

19

20
7
67
4

2

2

69
10
-

After 1 year of service
Under 1 week----------------- _ _
1 week___ ___________ ___
___
Over 1 and under 2 weeks _ __
___ ___ __ ___ _
2 weeks _
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s____
3 weeks __ ____
___ __ _____

~
_ —
_____
___
______

— ----— _

After 2 years of service
Under 1 week— __
___________ ___ —
1 w eek. — -------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ----_
_ _
2 weeks ------------- _ .
_. __ _
- Over 2 and under 3 w eek s_____ _______ ____
3 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------A fter 3 years of service
Under 1 week------ --------- --------- ----- — —
1 week-- -------. . . . . . . .
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s______________________ —
2 w eek s______________ __ ___ ________ _________ __ __
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s_____________________ —
3 w eek s---------------------------------------------------------------------

6
68
3
(4)

-

-

-

95
-

98

2

~

-

A fter 4 years of service
Under 1 week-----------------------------------------------------------1 week_______________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s________________________
2 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s_________________ —------3 w eek s----------- ---------------------------------------------------------

See fo o tn o te s at end of table.

2

2

-

-

18

18
7
69
4

2

2

95
-

98
-

6

70
3
(4)

2




15

Table B-5. Paid Vacations'--- Continued
(Percent distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and manufacturing by vacation pay
provisions, Lawrence—
Haverhill, M a ss.— .H ., June 1968)
N
Plant w o rk er o

O ffic e w o r k e r s

V a c a tio n p o lic y
A ll in d u str ie s 2

M an ufactu ring

A ll in d u str ie s 3

M anufacturing

A m ou n t of va c a tio n p a y 5— Continued
A fte r 5 y e a r s of se r v ic e
U n d er 1 w e e k . __
— __ ______ __ _____ _
1 w ee k -------- ---------------------------— — —
O v e r 1 and under 2 w e e k s — — ----- --------2 w e e k s _____________.__________ ____ _________ O v e r 2 and under 3 w eek s ________ — -----3 w e e k s _________________________________________________

(4)
(4)
3
81
6
9

_
3
81
7
8

(4)
(4 )
3
21
11
64
(4)

_
3
17
12
68
-

(4)
(4)
3
18
12
65
1

.
3
14
14
68
1

(4)
(4)
3
14
8
67
7

3
9
10
73

-

.

(4 )
83
1
17

(4)
84
16

A f te r 10 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
U n d er 1 w eek _______
—
----------------------- —
1 w eek -----------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and under 2 w e e k s --------------------------------------2 w eeks
_____ _________ —
- ----- — ------__
O v e r 2 and u nder 3 w e e k s . ----3 w e e k s _______ ___
— ___ — _ _ _ _ ----4 w e e k s . _______ ___ . _. ___________

_

.

(4)
14
1
85

(4)
9
1
89
-

(4 )

A fte r 12 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
U n d er 1 w eek___ ____ —
__
— __
1 w e e k -____________ ___
_ _ ____ _
_ ______.— .
—
O v e r 1 and under 2 w eek s _ ----2 w eeks _ _
_ _____ _______ _
_ — _______ O v e r 2 and under 3 w ee k s
------------3 w eeks _ _ _
____ _ _ __ _ _ __
4 w eeks
____
_
_
___ _
--------------

-

-

(4)
13
1
84
2

(4)
8
1
89
2

A fte r 15 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
U n der 1 w ee k _____ ___
_ _
_ _
_
1 w eek___________________________—---------------------------------O v e r 1 and under 2 w e e k s --------------------------------------2 w e e k s ____________________________________ ________ ——
O v e r 2 and u nder 3 w e e k s - -------- 3 w e e k s _______
_ -------- —
— -------O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------------4 w e e k s _________________________________________________

.

-

-

-

(4)

(4)
6
1
86

-

5

-

12
1
77
1
10

-

6

A f t e r 20 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
U n der 1 w ee k _ __ _ —
------------ - --------- - 1 w eek ___________________________________________________
O v e r 1 and under 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------2 w e e k s __________
._ — -------------------------- —
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------3 w e e k s _____________________________________________ ___
4 w e e k s _ _______ ____ — ----— — — —

(4)
(4)
3
14
8
33
41

(4)
(4)
3
14
8
31
37
-

-

-

-

-

3
9
10
37
41

(4 )
12
1
24
63

(4)
6
1
21
71

_
3
9
10
34
37
-

-

-

(4 )
12
1
21
62
1

(4)
6
1

A f t e r 25 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
U n d er 1 w ee k — _ ______________
____ _______ ___
1 w eek__
________________
______ — ----------- .-------O v e r 1 and under 2 w e e k s .-------------------------------------2 w e e k s ___________________________________________ .— —
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s -------------------------------- — —
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________ _____
4 w e e k s _____________________________________________ ___
O v e r 4 and under 5 w e e k s ---------------------------------------5 w e e k s __ _________
— — .
— ------------ -----

See fo o tn o te s at end o f table.

6

7

4

-21
67

“
5

16




Table B-5. Paid Vacations1 Continued
--(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and manufacturing by vacation pay
provisions, Lawrence— averhill, M ass.—N .H ., June 1968)
H
Office workers

Plant workers
Vacation policy
All industries 1
2

Manufacturing

All industries3

Manufacturing

Amount of vacation p a y5— Continued

After 30 years of service
TTnrl^r- 1 vueplr
1 week_ _____ ___ __ _ __ __ __ ___________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s—---------------------------------2 w eek s________ __ ___ ____ ___ __________ ____ ______
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s____
____
3 weeks _ :__
_ — ______ ___ — 4 weeks ___ ___ _ ____ ___
____ __ __
5 w eek s-----_ ___ _ — _ _ _ _ __
6 weeks — __ — — _ — — —
----- „

(4)
(4)
3
14
8
31
37
4
2

_
3
9
10
34
37
4
3

_

_

(4)

(4)

12
1
21
62
1
3

6
1
21
67
(4)
4

Maximum vacation available
Under 1 week—___ _______________ ______ _______ _
1 week- — . __________ _______ ___ ________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
__ ___ ____ _ __ _
2 weeks
„ __
— __
____
___ __
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s________________________
_____
3 weeks ____ _ ______—;___ __ _
4 weeks ______
___ ___ ___ ______ _
_____
5 w eek s__ —
_
_____ ___ __ _ __ _____
6 w eek s___ ___ ______ __ __ -----------------Over 6 weeks_____ —
______ - _______

(4)
(4)
3
14
8
31
37
4
2

_
-

3
9
10
34
37
4
3

_

_

(4)

(4)

12
1
21
62
(4)
3
1

6
1
21
67
(4)
4

1
Includes basic plans only. Excludes plans such as vacation-savings and those plans which offer "extended" or "sa b b a tica l" benefits beyond
basic plans to workers with qualifying lengths of service.
Typical of such exclusions are plans in the steel, aluminum, and can industries.
*
Includes data for transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; real estate; and se rv ic e s, in
addition to manufacturing.
3 Includes data for transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real
estate; and service s, in addition to manufacturing.
4 L ess than 0.5 percent.
5 Includes payments other than "length of t i m e ," such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, converted to an equivalent
time b asis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay. Periods of service were chosen arbitrarily
and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progression. F o r example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 y e a rs' service
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years. E stim ates are cumulative.
Thus, the proportion eligible for 3 w eek s' pay or
m ore after 10 years includes those eligible for 3 w eeks' pay or m ore after fewer years of service.




17

Table B-6.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(Percent of plant and office workers in all industries and manufacturing employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension b en efits, 1 Lawrence— averhill, M a s s .— .H . , June 1968)
H
N
Plant workers

Office workers

Type of benefit
All industries1
2

Manufacturing

All industries3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

L ife insurance______ ________ ——--------------Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance-------------------------------------------------------Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both4 ------------- ----------------------.

90

94

97

99

68

73

77

91

87

91

86

98

Sickness and accident insurance_______
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period)___________________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period)___________________ ____

66

69

41

43

16

14

44

49

19

21

31

39

Hospitalization insurance____________________
Surgical insurance________________ __________
M edical insurance____________________________
Catastrophe insurance_______________________
R etirem ent pension___________________________
No health, insurance, or pension plan_____

92
92
83
57
64
4

93
93
83
55
68
3

97
97
96
82
76
(5 )

98
98
97
80
76

A ll w orkers____________________________ _____ _
W ork ers in establishments providing:

1 Includes those plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer, except those legally required, such as workm en's
com pensation, social security, and railroad retirem ent.
2 Includes data for transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; real estate; and se rv ic e s, in
addition to manufacturing.
3 Includes data for transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real
estate; and se rv ic e s, in addition to manufacturing.
4 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
Sick leave plans are
lim ited to those which definitely establish at least the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee.
Informal sick
leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
5 L e s s than 0. 5 percent.

18




Table B-7.

Premium Pay for Overtime Work

(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and manufacturing by overtime prem ium pay
provisions, Lawrence—
Haverhill, M a ss.— .H ., June 1968)
N
O ffic e w o r k e r s

P lan t w o r k e r s
P r e m iu m pay p o lic y
A ll in d u str ie s 1

A ll w o r k e r s _______________________________________

100

M an ufactu ring

100

A ll in d u strie s 1
2

100

M an ufactu ring

100

D a ily o v e r tim e at p r e m iu m r a te s
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lish m e n ts having
p r o v is io n s fo r d a ily o v e r tim e p a y 3
at p r e m iu m r a t e s ___________________________________

73

81

67

80

T im e and o n e -h a lf ------------------------------------------------E ffe c tiv e a ft e r ;
7 V2 h o u r s ____________________________________
8 h o u r s _______________________________________

73

81

66

80

1
71

2
79

3
64

1
79

O th er p r e m iu m r a t e s -------------------------------------------

(4 )

-

1

27

19

33

20

99

100

99

100

99

100

99

100

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts having no
p r o v isio n s fo r d a ily o v e r tim e pay
at p r e m iu m r a t e s 5— -------- ----------- -------------------W e e k ly o v e r tim e at p r e m iu m r a te s
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lish m e n ts having
p r o v is io n s fo r w e e k ly o v e r tim e p a y 3
at p r e m iu m r a te s _________________________________
T im e and o n e -h a lf ------------------------------------------------E ffe c tiv e a ft e r :
35 h o u r s ___ _________ ____ _______ ___ _ _
_
_
3 7 V2 h ou rs
4 0 h o u r s ___________________________ _______
O v e r 40 h o u r s______________________________
W o r k e r s in e sta b lis h m e n ts having no
p r o v is io n s fo r w e e k ly o v e rtim e pay
at p r e m iu m r a t e s 5----------------------------------------------------

1
97
1

-

2
98
-

(4 )
3
97

(4 )
1
98

-

"

(4 )

1 Includes data for transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; real estate; and se rv ic e s, in
addition to manufacturing.
2 Includes data for transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate;
and services, in addition to manufacturing.
3 Includes workers in establishments covered by legislative requirements regarding premium pay for overtim e, even though such w orkers
actually do not work overtim e.
Graduated provisions for premium pay are classified under the first effective prem ium rate. F or exam ple, a
plan calling for time and one-half after 8 and double time after 10 hours would be considered as time and one-half after 8 hours.
Sim ila rly , a
plan calling for no pay or pay at a regular . rate after 35 hours and time and one-half after 40 hours would be considered as time and one-half
after 40 hours.
4 L ess than 0.5 percent.
5 Includes workers in establishments exempt from legislative requirements regarding premium pay for overtime and w here, as a m atter
of policy, overtime is not worked.

Appendix. Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field
staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles
and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits
the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may
differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors;
apprentices; learners; beginners; trainees; and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BILLER, MACHINE— Continued

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than
an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to
billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical woik incidental to
billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are clas­
sified by type of machine, as follows:

columns and computes, and usually prints automatically the debit or
credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher,
Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without a type­
writer keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller, machine (billing machine). Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc. , which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of pre­
determined discounts and shipping charges, and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the
bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge o f and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the
structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper
records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each
phase of the woik. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets,
and other records by hand.
Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, cus­
tomers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc.
May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e t c ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers' bills
as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the
simultaneous entry o f figures on customers' ledger record. The ma­
chine automatically accumulates figures on a number o f vertical




Note: Since the last survey in this area, the Bureau has discontinued collecting data for duplicatingmachine operators and elevator operators.

19

20

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A . Under general direction of a bookkeeper or accountant,
has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a complete set
of books or records relating to one phase of an establishment’ s busi­
ness transactions. Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary
ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts payable;
examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper accounting
distribution; and requires judgment and experience in making proper
assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, adjusting, and
closing journal entries; and may direct class B accounting clerks.
Class B. Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or accounts
payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling
bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers controlled by general
ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This job does not
require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping principles but
is found in offices in which the more routine accounting woik is
subdivided on a functional basis among several woikers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A . In an established filing system containing a number
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material.
May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B. Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer sub­
headings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids.
As requested, locates clearly identified material in files and forwards
material. May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain
and service files.

CLERK, ORDER

Receives customers' orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping
invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary
data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating woikers' earnings
based on time or production records; and posting calculated data on payroll
sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working days, time,
rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes.
May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class C. Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classi­
fication system (e. g. , alphabetical, chronological, or numerical).
As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards
material; and may fill out withdrawal charge.
Performs simple
clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and service files.




Class A. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application

21

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR— Continued
of coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.
Class B. Under close supervision or following specific procedures
or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to punched
cards.
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combination
keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May verify cards.
Working from various standardized source documents, follows specified
sequences which have been coded or prescribed in detail and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be punched.
Problems arising from erroneous items or codes, missing information,
etc. , are referred to supervisor.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating
minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing
mail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Assigned as personal secretary, normally to one individual. Main­
tains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day work
activities of the supervisor. Works fairly independently receiving a mini­
mum of detailed supervision and guidance. Performs varied clerical and
secretarial duties, usually including most of the following: (a) Receives
telephone calls, personal callers, and incoming mail, answers routine
inquiries, and routes the technical inquiries to the proper persons; (b)
establishes, maintains, and revises the supervisor's files; (c) maintains the
supervisor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed; (d) relays
messages from supervisor to subordinates; (e) reviews correspondence, mem­
oranda, and reports prepared by others for the supervisor's signature to
assure procedural and typographic accuracy; and (f) performs stenographic
and typing work.
May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks of com ­
parable nature and difficulty. The woik typically requires knowledge of
office routine and understanding of the organization, programs, and pro­
cedures related to the woik of the supervisor.




SECRETARY— Continued
Exclusions
Not all positions that are titled "secretary" possess the above
characteristics. Examples of positions which are excluded from the def­
inition are as follows: (a) Positions which do not meet the "personal"
secretary concept described above; (b) stenographers not fully trained in
secretarial type duties; (c) stenographers serving as office assistants to a
group of professional, technical, or managerial persons; (d) secretary posi­
tions in which the duties are either substantially more routine or substan­
tially more complex and responsible than those characterized in the def­
inition; and (e) assistant type positions which involve more difficult or more
responsible technical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical
duties which are not typical of secretarial woik.
NOTE: The term "corporate officer," used in the level definitions
following, refers to those officials who have a significant corporate-wide
policymaking role with regard to major company activities. The title
"vice president," though normally indicative of this role, does notin all
cases identify such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibility
is to act personally on individual cases or transactions (e. g. , approve or
deny individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts;
directly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate
officers" for purposes of applying the following level definitions.
Class A
a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a
company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5, 000 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of
the board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but
fewer than 25,000 persons; or
c.
Secretary to the head (immediately below the corporate
officer level) of a major segment or subsidiary of a company that employs,
in all, over 25, 000 persons.
Class B
a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a
company that employs, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chairman of the
board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer
than 5,000 persons; or

22

SECRETA RY— Continued

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL— Continued

c.
Secretary to the head (immediately below the officer level)
over either a major corporate - wide functional activity (e .g . , marketing,
research, operations, industrial relations, e t c .) or a major geographic or
organizational segment ( e .g ., a regional headquarters; a major division)
of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
employees; or

May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively rou­
tine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool. Does not
include transcribing-machine woik. (See transcribing-machine operator. )

d. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.
(or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, over 5,000
persons; or

STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical or
specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific re­
search from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine; and transcribe dictation.
May also type from written
copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR
e.
Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational
Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater inde­
segment (e. g. , a middle management supervisor of an organizational seg­
pendence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evidenced
ment often involving as many as several hundred persons) of a company
by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic speed and
that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.
accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general business and
Class C
office procedures and of the specific business operations, organization,
policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in per­
a. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose respon­
forming stenographic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as, main­
sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the def­
taining followup files; assembling material for reports, memorandums,
inition for class B, but whose subordinate staff normally numbers at least
letters, etc. ; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading
several dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational segments
and routing incoming mail; and answering routine questions, etc. Does
which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level
not include transcribing-machine work.
includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or
two; or

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR

b. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.
(or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, fewer than
5,000 persons.

Class A . Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone
switchboard handling incoming, outgoing, intraplant or office calls. Per­
forms full telephone information service or handles complex calls, such as
conference, collect, overseas, or similar calls, either in addition to doing
routine work as described for switchboard operator, class B, or as a full­
time assignment. (’’Full" telephone information service occurs when the
establishment has varied functions that are not readily understandable for
telephone information purposes, e.g., because of overlapping or interrelated
functions, and consequently present frequent problems as to which exten­
sions are appropriate for calls. )

Class D
a. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational
unit (e .g . , fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); or
b. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional
employee, administrative officer, or assistant, skilled technician or expert.
(NOTE: Many companies assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as
described above, to this level of supervisory or nonsupervisory worker.)
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a normal routine vo­
cabulary from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine; and transcribe dictation.
May also type from writ­
ten copy.




Class B. Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone
switchboard handling incoming, outgoing, intraplant or office calls. May
handle routine long distance calls and record tolls. May perform limited
telephone information service. ( " Limited" telephone information service
occurs if the functions of the establishment serviced are readily understand­
able for telephone information purposes, or if the requests are routine,
e. g. , giving extension numbers when specific names are furnished, or if
complex calls are referred to another operator.)

23

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator on a single-position
or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type or
perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing or
clerical wori< may take the major part of this workers time while at
switchboard.

TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR— Continued

some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a woik
unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or repetitive
operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
TABULATING-MA CHINE OPERATOR

Class A. Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines, typically including such machines as the tabulator,
calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs complete
reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs difficult
wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating assign­
ments typically involve a variety of long and complex reports which
often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring some planning and
sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more experienced operator,
is typically involved in training new operators in machine operations,
or partially trained operators in wiring from diagrams and operating
sequences of long and complex reports. Does not include working
supervisors performing tabulating-machine operations and day-to-day
supervision of the work and production of a group of tabulatingmachine operators.

Class B. Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the
sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under specific
instructions and may include the performance of some wiring from
diagrams.
The work typically involves, for example, tabulations
involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but small
tabulating study, or parts o f a longer and more complex report. Such
reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where the pro­
cedures are well established. May also include the training of new
employees in the basic operation of the machine.

Class CT Operates simple tabulating or electrical accounting
machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc. , with
specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams and




Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation involving
a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports
on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in
shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified as a stenog­
rapher, general.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicating
processes. May do clerical work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming mail.

Class A . Performs one or more of the following; Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctu­
ation, etc. , of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circumstances.

Class B. Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance policies,
e t c .; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more
complex tables already setup and spaced properly.

24

PR OF E S S I ONAL * A N D T E C H N I C A L
DRAFTSMAN— Continue d

DRAFTSMAN
Class A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from established
drafting precedents. Works in close support with the design originator,
and may recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of
each change on the details of form, function, and positional relation­
ships of components and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory
assistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator for con­
sistency with prior engineering determinations. May either prepare
drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level draftsmen.
Class B. Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments
that require the application of most of the standardized drawing tech­
niques regularly used. Duties typically involve such woik as: Prepares
working drawings of subassemblies with irregular shapes, multiple
functions, and precise positional relationships between components;
prepares architectural drawings for construction of a building including
detail drawings o f foundations, wall sections, floor plans, and roof.
Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making necessary computations
to determine quantities of materials to be used, load capacities,
strengths, stresses, etc.
Receives initial instructions, requirements,
and advice from supervisor. Completed work is checked for technical
adequacy.
Class C. Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for
engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types
of drawings prepared include isometric projections (depicting three
dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning
of components and convey needed information. Consolidates details
from a number of sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required.

Suggested methods of approach, applicable precedents, and advice on
source materials are given with initial assignments. Instructions are
less complete when assignments recur. Work may be spot-checked
during progress.
DRAFTSMAN-TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing
cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not
include tracing limited to plans primarily consisting of straight lines and
a large scale not requiring close delineation. )
and/or
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items.
is closely supervised during progress.

Woik

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general medi­
cal direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or
suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill
or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees' injuries; keeping
records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation
or other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant en­
vironment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety
of all personnel.

M A I N T E N A N C E A N D P O WE R P L A N T
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE— Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain
in good repair building woodwoik and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made
of wood in an establishment. Woik involves most o f the following: Plan­
ning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal
instructions using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools,

and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations
relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials necessary for the
work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal ap­
prenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




25

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES— Continued

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the in­
stallation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of
electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, con­
trollers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other
transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or
other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical
system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load
requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of
electrician's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In general,
the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind
of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted
to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are
also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of
stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the
establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or
air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors, turbines,
ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed
water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation
of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise
these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing
more than one engineer are excluded.

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, or gas or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valves.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.
HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping




MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines, in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling, and oper­
ation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recognize
when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants
and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study purposes,
machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops are ex­
cluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and speci­
fications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of machinist's
handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating
standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making
standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds,
and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the
common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment re­
quired for his work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical
equipment. In general, the machinist's work normally requires a rounded
training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal ap­
prenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

26

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)

OILER

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Woik involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechanical
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling
machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools
in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items
obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a
machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major
repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the pro­
duction of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling machines; and
making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of
a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary
duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining,
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience
in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.




PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculi­
arities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting
machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Woik involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents
and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures;
and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In general,
the woik of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

27

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE

TOOL AND DIE MAKER— Continued

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal
equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves,
lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establish­
ment. Woik involves most of the following: Planning and laying out all
types of sheet-metal maintenance woxk from blueprints, models, or other
specifications; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal­
working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, form­
ing, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles
as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.^
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker;

volves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision measuring
instruments; understanding of the working properties of common metals
and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related equip­
ment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions of woik,
speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during
fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qual­
ities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling of parts to pre­
scribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate materials,
tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's work requires
a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

gage maker)

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fixtures
or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Woik in-

For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in
tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

C US T O D I A L AND MA T E R I A L MOVEMENT

GUARD AND WATCHMAN

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Guard. Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or
on tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes
gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees
and other persons entering.

trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing
metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance
services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers who
specialize in window washing are excluded.

Watchman. Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting
property against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman
or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commerical
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,




A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the following:
Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or from
freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and trans­
porting materials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

28

ORDER, FILLER

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers'
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and in­
dicating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requi­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them
in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent
upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of con­
tainer employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of
items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following:
Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection
of appropriate type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container;
using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closing
and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on
container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible
for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work
involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available
means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records of the goods
shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges,
and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing
the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Verifying or
directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of
lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting
damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper departments;
and maintaining necessary records and files.




Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKD RIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of es­
tablishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
customers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck
with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck
in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are
excluded.
For wage study purposes, truck drivers are classified by size and
type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the
basis of trailer capacity. )
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truck driver, light (under 1V 2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium ( 1 V2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials o f all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, woikers are classified by type of truck,
as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than foiklift)

Area Wage Surveys
A list of the latest available bulletins is presented below. A directory indicating dates of earlier studies, and the prices of the bulletins is
available on request. Bulletins may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402,
or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the inside front cover.
Area

Bulletin number
and price

Akron, Ohio, July 1 967 1_______________________________
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, N .Y ., Apr. 1968 1_________
Albuquerque, N. M ex ., Apr. 1968 1____________________
Allentown—
Bethlehem—Easton, Pa.— .J .,
N
Feb. 1967______________________________________________
Atlanta, G a ., May 1968 1_______________________________
Baltimore, M d., Oct. 1967_____________________________
Beaumont—
Port Arthur—
Orange, Tex., May 1968 1___
Birmingham, A la., Apr. 1968__________________________
Boise City, Idaho, July 1967___________________________
Boston, M a ss., Sept. 1967 1____________________________

1530-86,
1575-68,
1575-58,

25 cents
30 cents
30 cents

1530-53,
1575-71,
157 5-18,
1575-75,
1575-59,
1575-3,
1575-13,

25
35
25
30
30
20
30

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Buffalo, N .Y ., Dec. 1967________________________________
Burlington, V t., Mar. 1968_____________________________
Canton, Ohio, June 1968 1— ___________________________
Charleston, W. V a ., Apr. 1968 1_______________________
Charlotte, N .C ., Apr. 1968 1____________________________
Chattanooga, T en n .-G a., Aug. 1967-----------------------------Chicago, 111., Apr. 1967 1 ---------------------------------------------Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.—
Ind., Mar. 1968 1_______ _________
Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1967____________________________
Columbus,, Ohio, Oct. 1967_____________________________
Dallas, Tex., Nov. 1967________________________________

1575-41,
1575-48,
1575-65,
1575-63,
1575-57,
1575-7,
1530-73,
1575-62,
1575-14,
1575-23,
1575-20,

30
20
30
30
30
25
30
30
25
25
25

1575-12,
1575-51,
1575-38,
1575-52,
1575-45,
1575-22,
1575-5,
1575-66,
1530-85,
1575-36,

Jackson, M iss., Feb. 1968 1____________________________
Jacksonville, F la., Jan. 1968----------------------------------------Kansas City, Mo.— ans., Nov. 1967 1------ ---------- --------K
Lawrence—
Haverhill, M ass.—
N.H., June 1968 1-----------Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark., July 1967--------Los Angeles—Long Beach and Anaheim—
Santa AnaGarden Grove, C alif., M ar. 1968_____________________
Louisville, Ky.—
Ind., Feb. 1968-----------------------------------Lubbock, T e x ., June 1967 --------------------------------------------Manchester, N .H ., July 1967___________________________
Memphis, Tenn.— r k ., Jan. 1 9 6 8 1-------------------------------A
M iam i, F la ., D ec. 1967 1-------------------- --—
——
Midland and Odessa, Tex., June 1968 1-----------------------

1575-67,
1575-47,
1575-60,
1575-54,
1575-34,
1575-46,
1530-83,

30
30
30
35
25
30
40

1530-82,
1575-4,

25 cents
20 cents

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa, Oct. 1967 1________________________
Pater son—
Clifton—
Pas s aic, N.J., May 1967____________
Philadelphia, Pa.— .J ., Nov. 1967 1____________________
N
Phoenix, A riz ., Mar. 1968 1_____________________________
Pittsburgh, Pa., Jan. 1968_______________________________
Portland, Maine, Nov. 1967 1___________________________ _
Portland, Or eg.— ash., May 1967_____________________
W
Providence—
Pawtucket—
Warwick, R.I.— a ss.,
M
May 1968_________________________________________________
Raleigh, N .C ., Aug. 1967 1______________________________
Richmond, V a ., Nov. 1967 1________________
Rockford, 111., May 1968 1__________________

1575-21,
1530-67,
1575-40,
1575-55,
1575-44,
1575-16,
1530-79,

25
25
30
30
30
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1575-61,
1575-6,
1575-27,
1575-70,

30
25
25
30

cents
cents
cents
cents

25
30
25
30
35
25
20
30
25
30

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

St. Louis, Mo.—
111., Jan. 1968______________
Salt Lake City, Utah, Dec. 1967___________
San Antonio, Tex., June 1967 1 ____________
San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario, C alif.,
Aug. 1967 1_________________________________
San Diego, C a lif., Nov. 1967_______________
San Francisco—
Oakland, C alif., Jan. 1968_.
San Jose, C a lif., Sept. 1967 1 ______________
Savannah, G a ., May 1968 1_________________
Scranton, P a ., July 1967 1--------------------------Seattle—Everett, Wash., Nov. 19671_______

1575-39,
1575-35,
1530-84,

30 cents
20 cents
25 cents

1575-10,
1575-19,
1575-37,
1575-15,
1575-73,
1575-9,
1575-29,

30
20
25
25
30
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1575-49,
1575-33,
1575-30,
1575-74,
1575-2,

30
20
25
30
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1575-64,
1575-50,
1530-75,
1575-1,
1575-32,
1575-28,
1575-72,

30
30
20
20
25
25
30

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Sioux F a lls, S. Dak., Oct. 1967 1________________________
South Bend, Ind., Mar. 1968 1___________________________
Spokane, W ash., June 1967 1 __________________ ______ ___
Tampa—
St. Peter sburg, F la ., Aug. 1967_______ _______
Toledo, Ohio-M ich., Feb. 1968__________________________
Trenton, N .J ., Nov. 1967_______________________________
Washington, D .C .—
Md.— a ., Sept. 1 967________________
V
Waterbury, Conn., Apr. 1968 1__________________________
Waterloo, Iowa, Nov. 1967_______________________________
Wichita, Kans., Dec. 1967______________________________
Wore ester, Mas s ., June 1967__________________________
York, Pa., Feb. 1968 1----------------------------------------------------Youngstown—
Warren, Ohio, Nov. 1967 1________________

1575-17,
1575-56,
1530-80,
1575-8,
1575-43,
1575-24,
1575-11,
1575-53,
1575-26,
1575-31,
1530-81,
1575-42,
1575-25,

25
30
25
25
30
20
25
30
20
20
25
30
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1 Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




Bulletin number
and price

Milwaukee, W is., Apr. 1968 ___________________________
Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn., Jan. 1968____________ .___
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich., May 1968 1_____
Newark and Jersey City, N .J., Feb. 1968 1____________
New Haven, Conn., Jan. 1968 1__________________________
New Orleans, La., Feb. 1968____________________________
New York, N .Y ., Apr. 1967 1____________________________
Norfolk—
Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va., June 1967 1_____________________________
Oklahoma City, Okla., July 1967_______________________

Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111.,
Dayton, Ohio, Jan. 1968 *-----------------------------------------------Denver, C olo., Dec. 1967 1_____________________________
Des Moines, Iowa, Feb. 1968 1_________________________
Detroit, Mich., Jan. 1968 1 ____________________________
Fort Worth, T ex., Nov. 1 967___________________________
Green Bay, W is ., July 1967____________________________
Greenville, S .C ., May 1968 1----------------------------------------Houston, T ex., June 1967 ---------------------------------------------Indianapolis, Ind., Dec. 1967 1---------------------------------------

Area

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102