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Gainesville, Florida,
Metropolitan Area
September 1978

Area
Wage
Survey
Bulletin 2025-45
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

c u mH
os o
\)Ei

Xi

w

a i-aery Co.




Alachua

Preface
T h is b u lletin p r o v id e s re su lts o f a S ep tem b er 1978 su rv ey o f
occu p a tion a l earn in gs in the G a in e s v ille , F lo r id a , Standard M etrop olitan
S ta tistica l A re a .
The su rv ey w as m ade as part o f the B ureau o f L a b or
S ta tis tic s ' annual a rea w age su rv ey p r o g r a m . It w as con du cted by the
B u rea u 's reg ion a l o ffic e in A tlanta, G a., under the g e n e ra l d ir e c tio n
o f J e r r y G. A d a m s, A ssista n t R eg ion al C o m m is s io n e r fo r O p era tion s.
The su rv ey cou ld not have been a c c o m p lis h e d without the co o p e ra tio n
o f the m any fir m s w hose w age and sa la ry data p ro v id e d the b a s is fo r the




s ta tis tica l in form ation in th is b u lle tin .
The B u reau w ish e s
s in c e r e ap p recia tion fo r the c o o p e ra tio n r e c e iv e d .

to

ex p ress

M ateria l in this pu blica tion is in the p u b lic dom ain and m ay be r e ­
p rod u ced without p e r m is s io n o f the F e d e r a l G ov ern m en t. P le a s e c r e d it the
B u reau o f L ab or S ta tistics and cite the nam e and n u m b er o f th is p u b lica tion .

Area
Wage
Survey

Gainesville, Florida,
Metropolitan Area
September 1978

U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary

Contents

Page

Page

Bureau of Labor Statistics

November 1978
Introduction_____________________________

2

Bulletin 20*o-45

For sale by the Superintendent of Docu­
ments, U.S. Government Printing Office.
Washington. D C 20402. GPO Bookstores, or
BLS Regional Offices listed on back cover
Price $1.00. Make checks payable to Super­
intendent of Documents




T ables:
A. Earnings, all establishm ents:
A - l . W eekly earnings o f o ffic e w ork ers__ 3
A - 2. W eekly earnings o f p rofession a l
and technical w o r k e r s _____________ 4
A -3 . A verage weekly earnings of
o ffic e , p rofession a l, and
technical w ork ers, by s e x ________ 5
A -4 . Hourly earnings o f m aintenance,
toolroom , and powerplant
w ork ers_____________________________ 6
A - 5. Hourly earnings o f m a terial
m ovem ent and custodial w ork ers__ 6
A - 6. A verage hourly earnings of
maintenance, toolroom , pow erplant, m a terial m ovem ent, and
custodial w ork ers, by s e x ________ 7
A - 7. P ercen t in creases in average
hourly earnings, adjusted for
em ploym ent shifts, fo r selected
occupational g rou p s________________ 7

Appendix A . Scope and method of s u r v e y ________ 9
Appendix B. Occupational d escrip tion s__________ 13

Introduction
T h is a r e a is 1 o f 75 in w hich the U.S. D epartm ent o f L a b o r ’ s B u reau
o f L a b or S ta tistics con d u cts su rv e y s o f o ccu p a tio n a l earn in g s and rela ted
b en efits. (See lis t o f a re a s on in sid e b a ck c o v e r .) In ea ch a r e a , occu p a tion a l
earn in gs data ( A - s e r ie s ta b le s ) are c o lle c t e d annually. In form a tion on e s t a b ­
lish m en t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en tary w age b en efits ( B - s e r ie s ta b le s ) is
obtain ed e v e r y th ird y e a r . T his re p o rt has no B - s e r i e s ta b le s .

A - s e r i e s tables
T ab les A - l through A -6 p r o v id e e stim a te s o f stra ig h t-tim e w eek ly
o r h ou rly earnings fo r w o rk e r s in o ccu p a tio n s com m on to a v a r ie ty o f
m anufacturing and n onm anufacturing in d u s tr ie s . F o r the 31 la r g e s t su rv ey
a r e a s , ta b les A -8 through A - 13 p r o v id e s im ila r data f o r esta b lish m en ts
em p loyin g 500 w o rk e r s o r m o r e .
Table A - 7 p r o v id e s p e r ce n t changes in a v era g e h o u rly earn in gs
o f o ffic e c le r ic a l w o r k e r s , e le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g w o r k e r s , in d u stria l
n u r s e s , sk illed m aintenance tra d es w o r k e r s , and u n sk illed plant w o r k e r s .
W h ere p o s s ib le , data are p r e se n te d f o r a ll in d u strie s and fo r m a n u fa c­
tu ring and nonm anufacturing se p a r a te ly . Data a r e not p r e s e n te d fo r sk ille d
m a in ten an ce w o rk e r s in n onm anufacturing b e c a u s e the n u m b er o f w o rk e r s
em p lo y e d in this occu p ation al g rou p in n onm an ufacturin g is to o s m a ll to
w arran t sep a ra te presen ta tion . T h is ta b le p r o v id e s a m e a s u r e o f w age
tren d s a fte r elin im ation o f changes in a v era g e ea rn in g s ca u sed by e m p lo y ­
m ent sh ifts am ong esta b lish m en ts as w e ll as tu r n o v e r o f esta b lish m en ts
in clu d ed in su rvey sa m p les. F o r fu rth e r d e ta ils , see appendix A.

E a ch y e a r a fte r a ll in d iv id u al a r e a w age su rv e y s have been c o m ­
p le te d , tw o su m m a ry b u lletin s are is s u e d . The fir s t b rin g s to g e th e r data
fo r each m e tro p o lita n a r e a su rv e y e d ; the se co n d p r e s e n ts n ational and
reg ion a l e s t im a te s , p r o je c t e d fr o m in dividu al m e tro p o lita n a r e a data, fo r
a ll Standard M etrop olita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a s in the U nited S ta tes, ex clu din g
A laska and H aw aii.

A m a jo r co n s id e r a tio n in the a rea w age su rv e y p r o g r a m is the n eed
to d e s c r ib e the le v e l and m ov em en t o f w ag es in a v a r ie ty o f la b o r m a r k e ts ,
through the a n a lysis o f ( 1 ) the le v e l and d istrib u tion o f w ages by occu p a tio n ,
and (2) the m ov em en t o f w ag es by occu p a tio n a l c a te g o r y and s k ill le v e l. The
p r o g r a m d e v e lo p s in fo rm a tio n that m ay be u sed fo r m any p u r p o s e s , including
w age and s a la r y a d m in istra tion , c o lle c t iv e b a rg a in in g , and a s s is ta n c e in
determ in in g plant lo c a tio n . S u rvey re su lts a lso a re used by the U.S. D ep a rt­
m ent o f L a b o r to m ake w agd d eterm in a tion s under the S e r v ic e C on tract A ct
o f 1965.




A ppendixes
Appendix A d e s c r ib e s the m eth od s and c o n c e p ts u sed in the a re a
w age su rv ey p r o g r a m and p r o v id e s in fo rm a tio n on the s c o p e o f the su rv e y .
Appendix B p r o v id e s jo b d e s c r ip tio n s u sed by B u reau fie ld e c o n o ­
m is ts to c la s s ify w o r k e r s by occu p a tion .

2

A.

E a rn in g s

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Gainesville, Fla., September 1978
" " "w T e k ly '^ a r n ln g ^ ^ ^
(standard)
Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

Number

O cc u p a tio n and in d u s t r y d iv is io n
wodcen

N u m ber o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t-t im e we ek ly ea rn in gs o f—
i

M ean2

Middle range2

Median 2

*

t

S

*

$

S

%

S

*

*

* ------ *
S
*
190
200
210
220

115

120

125

130

135

140

150

160

170

180

120

125

130

135

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

2
~
2

3

2
~
2

-

3
3

5
5

4
4

2
2

2
2

~

-

“

110

t

s

$

t

$

*

230

240

250

260

270

280

240

250

260

270

280

290

2
1
1

6
6

2

~

2
2

1
1

-

~

2

-

and

under
115

210

2 20

2 30

ALL WORKERS
39
10
29

$

$

$

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 8 8 .0 0 1 7 3 .5 0 1 4 7 .5 0 - 2 4 0 .0 0
2 5 0 .5 0 2 4 1 .0 0
1 6 6 .5 0 1 5 5 .5 0 1 4 0 .5 0 - 1 8 6 .5 0

*
O
o

$
SECRETARIES ------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUF AC TU RIN 6--------------------------------

2 1 8 .5 0 2 4 0 .0 0

3

2

1

2

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

2
2

1
1

_

“

2
2

_

~

2
2

-

-

-

-

3
3

2
2

2
2

3
3

2
2

-

1
1

_

“

1
1

1

2
2

9
4
5

2
2

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

,1
1

1
1

-

-

SECRETARIES* CLASS B -------------------------

7

SECRETARIES* CLASS C ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

10
9

4 0 .0 1 7 4 .5 0
4 0 . 0 1 6 2 .5 0

1 6 9 .5 0
1 6 5 .0 0

SECRETARIES* CLASS 0 ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

20
16

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 8 1 .0 0
1 6 2 .0 0

1 5 8 .0 0
1 5 1 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSNANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

33
12
21

3 9 .5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0

1 3 4 .0 0 1 3 4 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 - 1 4 4 .0 0
1 4 9 .5 0 1 4 0 .5 0
1 2 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 - 1 3 4 .0 0

-

ORDER C L E R K S-----------------------------------------------

9

4 0 .0

1 8 1 .5 0 1 7 2 .0 0

-

-

ORDER CLERKS* CLASS A -----------------------

7

4 0 .0

1 8 4 .0 0

1 9 5 .0 0

-

-

ACCOUNTING CLERKS -----------------------------------NONMANUF AC TU RIN 6--------------------------------

80
60

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 5 3 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0
1 4 8 .5 0 1 4 5 .5 0

1 3 6 .0 0 - 1 6 1 .0 0
1 3 6 .0 0 - 1 6 0 .0 0

-

“

7
7

ACCOUNTING CLERKS* CLASS A -----------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUF AC TU RIN 6--------------------------------

19
7
12

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 8 2 .5 0
1 9 6 .5 0
1 7 4 .5 0

1 9 1 .0 0
1 9 1 .0 0
1 6 5 .0 0

1 6 0 .5 0 - 2 0 3 .0 0

-

ACCOUNTING CLERKS* CLASS B -----------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

61
48

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 4 3 .5 0
1 4 2 .0 0

1 4 0 .0 0
1 4 0 .0 0

1 3 5 .5 0 - 1 5 0 .5 0
1 3 5 .5 0 - 1 5 1 .0 0

“
1 3 8 .5 0 - 2 3 5 .0 0
1 3 2 .5 0 - 1 7 3 .5 0

-

~

4
4

~

6

1

4
2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

“

1
1

6
2

12
12

14
11

15
11

12
10

-

-

-

1
1

3

5

3
12
8

7
5

-

3

-

-

“

~

7
7

-

1
1

6
2

-

-

-

4

1

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

2

_

-

1
1

-

-

1
1

2

-

1
1

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
2

-

4
2

1

1

-

~

-

“

“

5
3
2

-

4
2
2

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

_

_

_

1

5

3

6

“

-

_

“

12
12

13
11

-

1
1

-

1
1

1
1

-

“
-

-

-

“

~
_

_

-

-

-

-

29
23

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 6 1 .5 0
1 5 3 .5 0

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS. CLASS A -------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

10
10

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 6 1 .0 0 1 6 3 .0 0
1 6 1 .0 0 1 6 3 .0 0

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS. CLASS B --------

19

O
o

7

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS -------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

1 6 1 .5 0

1 4 6 .5 0

_

1 4 0 .0 0 - 1 6 8 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

2
2

1
1

5
3

1
1

7
7

-

2
2

2
2

_

4

_

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

1
1

2
2

-

“

2
2

-

“

-

1 6 3 .0 0 1 3 8 .0 0 - 1 8 2 .5 0
1 5 0 .0 0 1 3 1 .0 0 - 1 6 7 .0 0

-

2
2

2
2

3

1

1

~

~

‘

4 0 . 0 2 0 0 .5 0 2 2 0 .5 0

PAYROLL CLERKS ------------------------------------------

"

'

~

“

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s .




3

“
5

5

4

~

Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Gainesville, Fla., September 1978
""""weekl^arnlngs^^™
(standard)
O ccu p a tion and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of
woiken

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

N u m ber o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t-tim e we ek ly earning
$
1120

Mean2

Median2

o f— '

Middle range 2

130

140

150

-» *
s
s
$
$
t
170
180
190
200
210
160
220

140

150

160

170

180

-

1

-

4

2

2

1

1

2

1

-

1

-

1

-

*

*

$

s

S

s

s

S

t

$

*

S

$

230

240

250

260

270

280

290

300

320

340

240

250

260

270

280

290

300

320

340

360

and
under
130

190

200

210

220

230

ALL WORKERS
$
1 8 0 .0 0

COMPUTER OPERATORS -------------------------------

13

4 0 .0

2 0 5 .5 0

COMPUTER OPERATORS. CLASS B --------

7

4 0 .0

2 2 6 .0 0 2 0 9 .5 0

drafters:

-

-

~

-

1

2

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

28

4 0 .0

2 3 5 .0 0

$
$
2 6 1 .0 0 1 6 4 .0 0 - 2 8 3 .5 0

DRAFTERS. CLASS Bt
MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

10

4 0 .0

2 6 9 .5 0

2 6 8 .5 0

1

4

2

-

-

-

1

2

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

2

6

-

1

2

1

2

2

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

2

1

-

-

-

-

1

DRAFTERS. CLASS C:
MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

12

4 0 .0

1 8 9 .0 0

1 6 4 .0 0

-

2

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS ---------------------

21

4 0 . 0 3 0 9 .5 0

3 0 3 .0 0

2 7 5 .0 0 - 3 4 6 .5 0

1

-

1

4

2

-

4

-

9

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS. CLASS B

19

4 0 .0

3 0 3 .0 0

2 7 5 .0 0 - 3 4 6 .5 0

1

-

1

4

"

4

“

9

3 1 2 .5 0

See fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s .




4

1

4

-

2

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex,
in Gainesville, Fla., September 1978
Average
(m e a n * )

of
wodters

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS -

Weekhr
hours
(standard)

W eek ly
earnings1
(standard)

W
OMEN

SECRETARIES ------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUF ACTU RIN 6--------------------------------

39
10
29

$
4 0 . 0 1 8 8 .0 0
4 0 . 0 2 5 0 .5 0
4 0 . 0 1 6 6 .5 0
’ DU

SECRETARIES. CLASS C ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------SECRETARIES. CLASS D ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

10
9
20
16

4 0 . 0 1 7 4 .5 0
4 0 . 0 1 6 2 .5 0
4 0 . 0 1 8 1 .0 0
4 0 . 0 1 6 2 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

33
12
21

3 9 .5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0

ACCOUNTING CLERKS -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURIN6 --------------------------------

78
58
19
7
12

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

of

W eek ly
hours*
(standard)

workers

W eek ly
earnings1
(standard)

ACCOUNTING CLERKS -

1 3 4 .0 0
1 4 9 .5 0
1 2 5 .0 0

1 8 2 .5 0
1 9 6 .5 0
1 7 4 .5 0

of

W eek iv
hours1
(standard)

workers

DRAFTERS -

CONTINUED

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS B -----------nuran Aisur hi, i u n i nb
—

59
46

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$
1 4 4 .0 0
1 4 2 .5 0

W eekly
earnings1
(standard)

CONTINUED

DRAFTERS* CLASS B:

$
■9U. W

2 0 0 .5 0

27
21

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 6 1 .0 0
1 5 2 .5 0

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS. CLASS A -------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

8
8

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 6 1 .0 0
1 6 1 .0 0

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS. CLASS B --------

19

4 0 .0

8

4 0 .0

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS -----------------------

18

4 0 .0

3 0 3 .0 0

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS. CLASS B -

16

4 0 .0

3 0 6 .0 0

20

3 8 .5

2 2 4 .0 0

DRAFTERS. CLASS C -------------------------------

7

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

DRAFTERS. CLASS C:
MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

DRAFTERS ------------------------------------------------------

PAYROLL CLERKS ------------------------------------------

6

1 6 1 .5 0

2 0 7 .5 0

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - W EN
OM
PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - HEN
drafters:

MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f t a b le s .




S ex, 3 o c cu p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv is io n

Number

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WOMEN— CONTINUED

4 0 . 0 1 5 3 .5 0
4 0 . 0 1 4 9 .0 0

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS A -----------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

Sex, 3 o c c u p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv is io n

Number

4»
O
O

S ex, 3 o c c u p a tio n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

A vera ge
(m ean *)

A vera ge
(m e a n * )

Number

5

22

4 0 .0

2 4 7 .5 0

4 0 . 0 1 7 6 .0 0

Table A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers in Gainesville, Fla., September 1978

See footnotes at end o f tables.

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Gainesville, Fla., September 1978
Hourly earnings

*

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t-t im e ho u rly e a rn in g s o f—

s

2 .8 0

3 .0 0

$
3 .2 0

*
3 .4 0

S
3 .6 0

2 .8 0

O ccu p ation and in d u stry d iv is io n
workers

s

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .4 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

13
13

-

2
2

1

“

6

-

12

*
2 .6 0

Number
M ean 2

M e d ia n 2

M iddle range 2

S
*
3 .8 0 4 .0 0

s

%

$
4 .8 0

$
5 .0 0

s

5 .2 0

5 .4 0

$
$
5 . 60 6 . 00 6 .4 0

s

4 .4 0

S
4 .6 0

s

4 .2 0

6 . 80 7 . 2 0

7 .6 0

$
8 .0 0

$
8 .4 0

4 ,4 0 4 .6 0

4 .8 0

5 .0 0

5 .2 0

5 .4 0

5 .6 0

6 . 00

7 .2 0

8 .0 0

8 .4 0

8 .8 0

%

s

s

and
under

o

o

<
N
sr

O
<
*

6 . 40 6 .8 0

7 -6 0

ALL UORKERS
TRUCKORIVERS ------------NONMANUF ACTURING

74
52

$
5 .5 5
6 .1 2

$
4 .0 0
8 .4 1

$
$
3 . 6 4 - 8 .4 1
2 . 9 4 - 8 .4 1

WAREHOUSEMEN --------MANUFACTURING -

52
25

4 .0 6
4 .6 5

3 .7 7
4 . 97

3 .0 0 3 .7 7 -

7

3 .3 7

3 .1 5

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS:
NONMANUF ACTURING---------------JANITORS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS -----NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

68
51

3 .7 1
3 .3 2

3 .6 0
2 .9 8

5 .4 3
5 .4 3

2 .6 9 2 .6 5 -

_
2

4 .5 4
3 .8 8

18
18

4

~

1
10
10

“

1

2
2

-

“

4
4

6
6

1

-

3
3

28
28

3
1

1
1

~

“

1
1

1

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

2
2

-

-

12
11

3

-

15

-

-

1
1

2

-

3
3

See fo o tn o te s at end o f t a b le s .




17
“

1

1

7
6

6

1

1

6
6

"

8
8

1




Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom,
powerplant, material movement, and custodial workers,
by sex, in Gainesville, Fla., September 1978
Number

S ex, 1 o c c u p a tio n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

of
workers

A verage
(m ea n 2 )
hourly
earnings4

S ex, 3 o c cu p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv isio n

A verage
(m e a n 2 )
hourly
earnings4

MATERIAL movement and c u s t o o ia l
OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED

MAINTENANCE. TOOLROOM. AND
POWERPLANT OCCUPATIONS - HEN
28
28

$
5 .7 9
5 .7 9

10

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS (MACHINERY) -

Number
of
workers

7 . 28

35

$
4 .4 1
3 .4 0

JANITORS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS ------

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS ----------------

49
35

3 .9 4
3 .5 6

19

3 . 12

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - HEN

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTOOIAL
OCCUPATIONS - W EN
OM

TRUCKORIVERS ---------------------------------------------NONMANUF ACTURING-------------------------------

72
51

5 .5 1
6 .0 7

WAREHOUSEMEN ---------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

50
24

JANITORS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS ------

4 .0 3
4 .6 1

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le s .

7

Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted
for employment shifts, for selected occupational groups
Data f o r th is a r e a do not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r it e r i a .
R e fe r e n c e to table A -7 in the Standard te x t o f the bu lletin do e s
not app ly to this a r e a .

Footnotes
1 Standard h ou rs r e fle c t the w o rk w e e k f o r w hich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t-t im e
s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay f o r o v e r t im e at r e g u la r a n d /o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ), and the ea rn in gs c o r r e s p o n d
to these w e e k ly h ou rs.
2 Th e m ean is c om p u te d fo r ea ch jo b b y totaling the e a rn in g s o f a ll w o r k e r s and d ividin g by
the num ber o f w o r k e r s .
T he m e d ia n d e sig n a te s p o s itio n — h a lf o f the w o r k e r s r e c e iv e the sa m e o r
m o r e and h a lf r e c e iv e the sa m e o r le s s than, the rate show n.
The m id d le ran ge is defin ed by tw o
rates o f pay; a fou rth of the w o r k e r s e a rn the sa m e o r le s s than the lo w e r o f th e se ra te s and a
fourth e a rn the sam e o r m o r e than the h igh e r rate.




3 E a rn in g s data r e la te only to w o r k e r s w h o s e s e x id e n tific a tio n w as p r o v i d e d by the
esta b lish m e n t.
4 E x clu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts.
5 E s tim a te s fo r p e r io d s ending p r io r to 197 6 r e la te to m e n on ly fo r s k ille d m ain ten an ce and
u n sk ille d plant w o rk e rs .
A ll oth er e stim a te s r e la te to m en and w om en .
6 Data do not m e e t p u b lica tio n c r it e r ia o r data not a v a ila b le .

8

Appendix A.
Scope and Method
of Survey
In each o f the 7 5 1 a re a s cu r re n tly su rvey ed , the B u reau obtains
w a g es and re la te d b e n e fits data fr o m r ep resen ta tiv e esta b lish m en ts w ithin
s ix b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s : M an ufacturin g; tra n sp orta tion , co m m u n ica tion ,
and o th e r p u b lic u t ilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e; r e ta il trad e; fin a n ce, in su ra n ce,
and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v i c e s . G overn m en t op era tion s and the con s tr u c tio n
and e x tr a c tiv e in d u strie s are ex clu d e d . E sta blish m en ts having fe w e r than a
p r e s c r ib e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s are ailso ex clu ded b e c a u se o f in su fficien t
em p lo y m e n t in the o c cu p a tio n s studied. A ppendix table 1 show s the num ber
o f esta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s estim a ted to V e w ithin the s c o p e o f this su rv ey ,
as w e ll as the n u m ber a ctu a lly studied.
B u reau fie ld r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s obtain data by p e r so n a l v is its at 3 - year
in te r v a ls . In ea ch o f the tw o in terven in g y e a r s , in form a tion on em p loym en t
and o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s on ly is c o lle c te d by a com bin a tion o f p e r so n a l v isit,
m a il q u e s tio n n a ir e , and telep h on e in terv iew fr o m estab lish m en ts p a rticip a tin g
in tbe p r e v io u s s u r v e y .
A sa m p le o f the esta b lish m en ts in the s c o p e o f the su r v e y is s e le c te d
f o r study p r io r to ea ch p e r s o n a l v is it su r v e y . This sa m p le, le s s e sta b ­
lis h m e n ts w h ich go out o f b u sin e s s o r are no lo n g e r w ithin the in d u stria l
s c o p e o f the s u r v e y , is reta in ed f o r the follow in g tw o annual s u r v e y s . In
m o s t c a s e s , e sta b lis h m e n ts new to the a re a are not c o n s id e r e d in the s c o p e
o f the s u r v e y u ntil the s e le c t io n o f a sam ple fo r a p e r s o n a l v is it s u rv e y .
T h e sa m p lin g p r o c e d u r e s in volve d eta iled stra tifica tio n o f all e sta b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f an individual a rea su r v e y b y in du stry and
n u m ber o f e m p lo y e e s . F r o m this stra tifie d u n iv e rse a p ro b a b ility sa m p le
is s e le c t e d , w ith each esta b lish m en t having a p re d e te rm in e d ch a n ce o f s e ­
le c tio n . T o obtain op tim u m a c c u r a c y at m inim um c o s t, a g r e a te r p r o p o rtio n
o f la r g e than s m a ll e sta b lish m e n ts is s e le c te d . W hen data are co m b in e d ,
each esta b lis h m e n t is w eigh ted a c c o rd in g to its p r o b a b ility o f s e le c t io n so
that u n b iased e s tim a te s a r e g en era ted . F o r ex am ple, if one out o f fou r
esta b lis h m e n ts is s e le c t e d , it is given a w eigh t o f 4 to r e p r e s e n t it s e lf plus
th re e o th e r s . An altern a te o f the sa m e o rig in a l p ro b a b ility is ch o s e n in the
sa m e in d u s t r y -s iz e c la s s ific a t io n if data are not available fr o m the o r ig in a l
sa m p le m e m b e r . If no su itab le substitute is ava ila b le, additional w eigh t is
a s sig n e d to a sa m p le m e m b e r that is s im ila r to the m is s in g unit.
O ccu p a tion s and ea rn in g s
O ccu p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r study are co m m o n to a v a r ie ty o f m a n u fa c­
tu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u str ie s , and are o f the fo llo w in g ty p e s : ( 1 )
O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (2) p r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ica l; (3) m a in ten a n ce, to o lr o o m , 1
1 Included in die 75 areas are 5 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are
Akron, Ohio; Birmingham, A la.; Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, V a.—N .C .;
Poughkeepsie-'-Kingston—Newburgh, N .Y .; and Utica—Rome, N .Y . In addition, the Bureau conducts more
lim ited area studies in approximately 100 areas at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of
the U. S. Department of Labor.




and p ow erp lan t; and (4) m a te r ia l m ov em en t and cu s to d ia l. O ccupational
c la s s ific a tio n is b a sed on a u n iform set o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s design ed to take
accou n t o f in teresta b lish m en t v a ria tion in duties w ithin the sam e jo b .
O ccu p a tion s s e le cte d fo r study are lis te d and d e s c r ib e d in appendix B .
U n less o th e r w is e in d icated , the ea rn in gs data follow in g the jo b
titles are fo r all in d u stries com b in ed . E a rn in gs data fo r som e o f the
occu p a tion s lis te d and d e s c r ib e d , o r for- som e in du stry d iv ision s within the
s c o p e o f the su rv ey , are not p re se n te d in the A - s e r i e s tables becau se
eith er ( 1 ) em p loym en t in the occu p a tion is too sm a ll to p ro v id e enough data
to m e r it p resen ta tion , o r ( 2 ) th ere is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e o f individual
esta b lish m en t data. S eparate m e n 's and w o m e n 's earn ings data are not
p re se n te d w hen the num ber o f w o r k e r s not id en tified by sex is 20 p ercen t
o r m o r e o f the m en o r w om en id en tified in an occu p a tion . E arnings data
not show n s e p a ra te ly f o r in du stry d iv is io n s a re included in data fo r all
in d u stries co m b in e d . L ik e w is e , fo r o ccu p a tion s w ith m o r e than one le v e l,
data a re in cluded in the o v e r a ll c la s s ific a t io n w hen a sub c la s s ific a tio n is
not shown o r in form a tion to s u b c la s s ify is not a v a ila b le.
■

"...

*"♦? - . y '

■■-r-.t;

y ;

‘ ‘

•* ,

x 'tt

O ccu p ation a l em p loym en t and earn in gs data a re shown fo r fu ll-tim e
w o r k e r s , i .e ., th ose h ire d to w o rk a re g u la r w eek ly sch ed u le. Earnings
data e x clu d e p rem iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o rk on w eek en ds, h olida ys,
and la te s h ifts. N on produ ction bon u ses are ex clu d ed , but c o s t -o f-liv in g
a llow a n ces and in cen tiv e b on u ses are in clu ded . W eek ly h ours fo r o ffic e
c le r i c a l and p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l occu p a tion s r e fe r to the standard
w ork w eek (rounded to the n e a r e st h a lf hour) fo r w hich em p loyees r e c e iv e
r e g u la r stra ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay f o r o v e rtim e at regu lar
a n d /o r p rem iu m r a te s ). A v e ra g e w e e k ly earn in gs fo r th ese occu pation s are
rounded to the n e a r e s t h alf d o lla r . V e r tic a l lin e s w ithin the d istribu tion of
w o rk e r s on so m e A -t a b le s in d icate a change in the s iz e o f the c la s s in terv a ls.
T h e se su rv e y s m e a s u r e the le v e l o f occu p a tion a l earnings in an area
at a p a rticu la r tim e. C o m p a r is o n s o f in dividual occu p a tion a l av erag es ov e r
tim e m a y not r e fle c t ex p ected w age ch a n g es. The a v e ra g e s fo r individual job s
are a ffe cte d by ch a n ges in w ag es and em p loym en t p a ttern s. F o r exam ple,
p r o p o rtio n s o f w o r k e r s em p loyed by h igh - o r lo w -w a g e fir m s m ay change, o r
h ig h -w a g e w o r k e r s m a y advance to b etter jo b s and be rep la ced by new
w o r k e r s at lo w e r r a te s . Such sh ifts in em p loy m en t cou ld d e c r e a s e an o c c u ­
pation al a v era g e even though m o s t esta b lish m en ts in an a rea in cr e a s e w ages
during the y e a r . C hanges in earn in gs o f occu p a tion a l g rou p s, shown in table
A - 7, a re b e tte r in d ica to rs o f w age tren d s than are earn ings changes fo r
individu al jo b s w ithin the g ro u p s.
A v e ra g e earn in g s r e fle c t c o m p o s ite , areaw id e estim a te s . Industries
and esta b lish m en ts d iffe r in pay le v e l and jo b staffin g , and thus contribute
d iffe r e n tly to the estim a te s fo r each jo b . P a y a v e ra g e s m ay fa il to r e fle c t
a c c u r a te ly the w age d iffe r e n tia l am ong jo b s in in dividual estab lish m en ts.

A v e ra g e pa y le v e ls fo r m en and w om en in s e le c te d occu p a tion s should
n ot be a ssu m ed to r e fle c t d iffe r e n c e s in pa y o f the s e x e s w ithin individu al
e sta b lish m en ts. F a c to r s w hich m a y con trib u te to d iffe r e n c e s in clu de p r o ­
g r e s s io n w ithin esta b lis h e d rate ran ges (on ly the ra tes paid in cu m bents a re
c o lle c te d ) and p e r fo r m a n c e o f s p e c ific du ties within the g e n e ra l su rv e y jo b
d e s c r ip tio n s . Job d e s c r ip tio n s u sed to c la s s if y e m p lo y e e s in th ese su rv ey s
u su a lly a re m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividu al esta b lish m en ts
and allow fo r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong esta b lish m en ts in s p e c ific duties
p e r fo r m e d .

E le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g

S k illed m ain ten an ce

C om puter sy stem s
an alysts, c la s s e s
A , B, and C
C om puter p r o g r a m m e r s ,
c la s s e s A , B, and C
C om puter o p e r a to rs ,
c la s s e s A , B, and C

C a rp e n te rs
E le c t r ic ia n s
P a in ters
M a ch in ists
M e ch a n ics (m a ch in ery )
M e ch a n ics (m o to r v e h ic le )
P ip e fitte r s
T o o l and d ie m a k e rs

O ccu p a tion a l em p loy m en t e stim a te s r e p re s e n t the to ta l in a ll e s t a b ­
lish m en ts w ithin the s c o p e o f the study and n ot the n u m ber a ctu a lly su rv ey ed .
B ecau se o ccu p a tio n a l stru ctu re s am ong esta b lish m en ts d iffe r , e s tim a te s o f
o ccu p a tion a l em p loy m en t obtain ed fr o m the sa m ple o f esta b lish m en ts studied
s e r v e on ly to in dicate the r e la tiv e im p orta n ce o f the jo b s studied. T h ese
d iffe r e n c e s in o ccu p a tio n a l stru ctu re do not a ffe c t m a te r ia lly the a c c u r a c y o f
the ea rn in gs data.

In dustrial n u rses

U n sk illed plant

R e g is te r e d in du stria l
n u rses

J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and
c le a n e r s
M a te r ia l handling la b o r e r s

W age tren d s fo r s e le c t e d occu p a tion a l grou ps
The p e r c e n t in c r e a s e s p r e se n te d in ta ble A -7 a r e ba sed on changes
in a v era g e h o u r ly ea rn in g s o f m en and w om en in esta b lish m en ts rep ortin g the
tren d jo b s in both the c u r re n t and p r e v io u s y ea r (m a tch ed esta b lis h m e n ts).
The data a r e ad ju sted to r e m o v e the e ffe c t s on a v e ra g e earn in g s o f e m p lo y ­
m ent shifts am ong esta b lish m en ts and tu rn ov er o f esta b lish m en ts in cluded
in su r v e y s a m p le s . The p e r c e n t in c r e a s e s , h o w e v e r, a r e still a ffe c te d by
fa c to r s oth er than w age in c r e a s e s . H ir in g s , la y o ffs , and tu r n o v e " m a y a ffe c t
an esta b lish m en t a v e ra g e fo r an o ccu p a tion when w o r k e r s a r e paid u nder plans
p rovid in g a range o f w age ra tes fo r in dividu al jo b s . In p e r io d s o f in c r e a s e d
h irin g , fo r ex a m p le, new e m p lo y e e s m a y en ter at the b ottom o f the range,
d e p r e ss in g the a v e r a g e without a change in w age ra te s .
The p e r c e n t ch a n g es rela te to w age ch a n ges betw een the in dicated
d a tes. When the tim e span betw een su rv e y s is oth er than 12 m on th s, annual
rates a re show n, (it is assu m ed that w ag es in c r e a s e at a constan t rate
betw een s u r v e y s .)

P e r ce n t changes fo r in divi
as fo llo w s :

a r e a s in the p r o g r a m a r e com p u ted

1. A v e ra g e earn in gs a r e com p u ted f o r ea ch occu p a tio n fo r
the 2 y e a r s being c o m p a r e d . The a v e r a g e s a r e d e r iv e d
fr o m earn in gs in th ose e sta b lis h m e n ts w h ich a r e in
the su rv e y both y e a r s ; it is a s su m e d that em p loy m en t
rem ain s unchanged.
2. E a ch occu p a tion is a s sig n e d a w eigh t b a sed on its p r o ­
p ortion ate em p loym en t in the o c cu p a tio n a l g rou p in the
b a se y e a r .
3. T h ese w eigh ts a r e u sed to com p u te g rou p a v e r a g e s .
E ach o c cu p a tio n 's a v era g e ea rn in g s (com p u ted in step 1)
is m u ltip lied b y its w eigh t. The p r o d u cts a r e tota led to
obtain a grou p a v e ra g e .
4.

The ra tio o f grou p a v e r a g e s f o r 2 c o n s e cu tiv e y e a r s is
com pu ted by dividing the a v e r a g e f o r the c u r re n t y e a r b y
the a v era g e fo r the e a r lie r y e a r . The r e su lt— e x p r e s s e d
as a p e rce n t— le s s 100 is the p e r c e n t ch a n ge.

O ccu p ation s u se d to com pu te w age tren d s a r e :
O ffic e c le r i c a l

O ffic e c le r i c a l— Continued

S e c r e ta r ie s
S te n o g ra p h e rs , g e n e r a l
S te n o g ra p h e rs , s e n io r
T y p is ts , c la s s e s
A and B
F ile c le r k s , c la s s e s A ,
B, and C
M essen gers
S w itch b oa rd o p e r a to r s

F o r a m o r e detailed d e s c r ip tio n o f the m eth od u se d to com p u te th ese
w age tr e n d s, see "Im p rovin g A r e a W age S u rv ey I n d e x e s ," M onthly L a b o r
R e v ie w , January 1973, pp. 5 2 -5 7 .

O rd e r c le r k s , c la s s e s
A and B
A ccou n tin g c le r k s ,
c la s s e s A and B
B ook k eep in g -m a ch in e
o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B
P a y r o ll c le r k s
K e y en try o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s e s A and B




E sta b lish m en t p r a c tic e s and su p p lem en ta ry w age p r o v is io n s
Tabu lations on s e le cte d e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry
w age p r o v is io n s (B - s e r ie s ta b le s ) a r e n ot p r e s e n te d in this b u lletin . I n fo r ­
m a tion f o r th ese tabulations is c o lle c t e d at 3 -y e a r , in te r v a ls .
T h ese ta b u ­
lation s on m in im u m en tran ce s a la r ie s f o r in e x p e r ie n c e d o ffic e w o r k e r s ; sh ift
d iffe r e n tia ls ; sch ed u led w eek ly h ou rs and d a y s; paid h o lid a y s ; paid v a c a tio n s ;
and health, in su ra n ce, and pen sion pla n s a r e p r e s e n te d (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s )
in p r e v io u s bu lletin s f o r this a r e a .

10

Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied
in Gainesville, Fla.,1 September 1978
In d u stry d iv is io n 2

M in im um
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b lis h m e n ts in s c o p e
o f study

W ithin s c o p e o f study 4
W ithin s c o p e
o f study 1

50
“

N um ber

P ercent

50
50
50
50
50

43

9 ,1 3 8

100

7 ,1 0 9

14

9
34

2 ,6 6 4
6 ,4 7 4

29
71

2 , 108
5 ,0 0 1

4

4

3
27
8
11

2
15
5
8

831
160
3 ,2 9 7
1 ,0 5 3
1 ,1 3 3

9
2
36
12
12

831
106
2 ,4 0 1
838
825

53

1 T h e G a in e s v ille Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a , as d efin ed by the
O ffice, o f M an agem en t and Budget through F e b ru a r y 1974, c o n s is t s o f A lach u a County.
T h e 'w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f study" e s tim a te s show n in this table p r o v id e a r e a ­
s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r ip t io n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s itio n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d ed
in the s u r v e y .
E s tim a te s a r e not intended, h o w e v e r, fo r c o m p a r is o n w ith other
e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e em p lo ym e n t tren ds o r le v e ls s in c e (1) planning o f
w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s esta b lish m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in a d va n ce o f the
p a y r o ll p e r io d s tu d ie d , and (2) sm a ll e sta b lish m e n ts a r e e x clu d e d fr o m the s c o p e
o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1972 e d itio n o f the Standard Industrial C la s s ific a t io n M anual w as used
in c la s s ify in g e sta b lis h m e n ts b y in d u stry d iv isio n . H o w e v e r , a ll go v e rn m e n t o p e r a ­
tio n s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f the su rvey.
3 In clu d e s a ll es ta b lis h m e n ts w ith total em p lo ym e n t at o r a b ove the m in im u m
lim ita tio n .
A ll o u tle ts (w ithin the a r e a ) o f co m p a n ie s in in d u s tr ie s such as tr a d e ,




Studied

Studied

67

ALL D IVISIONS ---------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------------------------TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION, AND
OTHER PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 5 --------------------------------------UHOLE S ALE TRADE6 -------------------------------------------------------RETAIL TRADE6 -------------------------------------------------------------FINANCE. INSURANCE, AND REAL ESTATE6 -------------SERVICES6 7-----------------------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in es ta b lis h m en ts

N um ber o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts

fin a n c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v ic e , and m o tio n p ic tu re th e a te r s a r e c o n s id e r e d as one
e stablish m en t.
4 In clu d es a ll w o r k e r s in a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l em p loy m en t (w ithin
the a r e a ) at o r a b o v e the m in im u m lim ita tion .
5 A b b r e v ia te d to " p u b lic u t ilit ie s " in the A - s e r ie s ta b le s .
T a x ic a b s and
s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w a te r tr a n s p o r ta tio n a r e ex clu d ed .
G a in e s v ille 's e le c t r ic
u t ilitie s and tr a n s it s y s te m a r e m u n ic ip a lly o p e r a te d and a r e e x clu d e d f r o m the
s c o p e o f the su rv e y .
6 S e p a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n o f data is not m ade f o r this d iv isio n .
7 H otels and m o t e ls ; la u n d rie s and oth er p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ;
a u to m o b ile r e p a ir , re n ta l, and p a rk in g ; m o tio n p ic tu r e s ; n on p rofit m e m b e r s h ip
o r g a n iz a tio n s (e x clu d in g r e lig io u s and c h a r ita b le o r g a n iz a tio n s ); and e n g in eerin g
and a r c h ite c t u r a l s e r v ic e s .

11




Appendix B.
Occupational
Descriptions
T he p r im a r y p u rp o s e o f p rep a rin g jo b d e s cr ip tio n s fo r the Bu­
r e a u 's w age s u r v e y s is to a s s is t its fie ld staff in c la s s ify in g into a p p roria te o c cu p a tio n s w o r k e r s w ho are em p loyed under a v a r ie ty o f p a y r o ll
title s and d iffe r e n t w o r k a rra n gem en ts fr o m estab lish m en t to e s ta b lis h ­
m en t and fr o m a re a to a r e a . T h is p e rm its the grouping o f occu p a tion a l
w age ra tes r e p r e s e n tin g c o m p a ra b le jo b content. B e ca u se o f this em ­
p h a sis on in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t and in te r a r e a c o m p a ra b ility o f occu p a tion a l
con ten t, the B u r e a u 's jo b d e s c r ip tio n s m a y d iffe r sig n ifica n tly fr o m th ose
in u se in in div idu al e sta b lish m e n ts o r th ose p rep a red fo r oth er pu r­
p o s e s . In applying th ese jo b d e s c r ip tio n s , the B u rea u 's fie ld e c o n o m is ts
are in stru cte d to e x clu d e w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s ; a p p ren tices; and p a rttim e , te m p o r a r y , and p r o b a tio n a r y w o r k e r s . H andicapped w o r k e r s w h ose
earn in g s a re re d u c e d b e c a u s e o f th eir handicap a r e a lso e x clu d ed .
L e a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s , and tr a in e e s , u n less s p e c ific a lly in cluded in the
jo b d e s c r ip t io n s , a re e x clu d e d .

Office
SE CRE TARY

SE C R E T A R Y — Continued

A s s ig n e d as a p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o rm a lly to on e in dividu al. M ain­
tains a c l o s e and h igh ly r e s p o n s iv e re la tion sh ip to the d a y -to -d a y a c tiv itie s o f
the s u p e r v is o r . W o rk s f a i r ly independently r e ce iv in g a m in im u m o f detailed
s u p e r v is io n and g u id a n ce . P e r fo r m s v a ried c le r i c a l and s e c r e t a r ia l duties
re q u irin g a k n ow led g e o f o f f ic e routine and understanding o f the o rg a n iz a tio n ,
p r o g r a m s , and p r o c e d u r e s re la te d to the w ork o f the s u p e r v is o r .

E x clu s io n s — Continued
e.

f.

E x c lu s io n s

P o s itio n s w hich do not fit any o f the situ ations lis te d in the
se c tio n s b elow titled " L e v e l o f S u p e r v iso r , " e .g ., s e c r e ta r y to the
p r e sid e n t o f a com pa n y that e m p lo y s , in all, o v e r 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ;
T r a in e e s .

C la s s ific a t io n by L e v e l

Not all p o s itio n s that a r e titled " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s the above c h a r ­
a c t e r is t ic s . E x a m p le s o f p o s itio n s w hich are exclu ded fr o m the d efin ition
are as fo llo w s :
a. P o s itio n s w h ich do not m e e t the " p e r s o n a l"
d e s c r ib e d a b ov e;

S e c r e ta r y jo b s w hich m e e t the above c h a r a c t e r is t ic s are m atched at
one o f fiv e le v e ls a c c o r d in g to (a) the le v e l o f the s e c r e t a r y 's s u p e r v is o r
w ithin the co m p a n y 's o rg a n iz a tio n a l stru ctu re and, (b) the le v e l of the
s e c r e t a r y 's r e s p o n s ib ility . The ch a rt fo llo w in g the explanations o f these two
fa c t o r s in d ica tes the le v e l o f the s e c r e t a r y f o r each com bin ation o f the
fa c t o r s .

s e c r e t a r y c o n ce p t

b.

S te n o g ra p h e rs not fu lly train ed in s e c r e ta r ia l-ty p e d u ties;

c.

S te n o g ra p h e rs s e r v in g as o ffic e assista n ts to a g rou p o f p r o ­
fe s s io n a l, te c h n ic a l, o r m a n a g eria l p e r s o n s ;

L e v e l o f S e c r e t a r y 's S u p e r v is o r (LS)
S e c r e ta r ie s should be m a tch ed at one o f the fou r LS le v e ls d e s c r ib e d
b elow a c c o rd in g to the le v e l o f the s e c r e t a r y 's s u p e r v is o r w ithin the com pany
o rg a n iz a tio n a l str u c tu r e .

d. A s s is ta n t -ty p e p o s itio n s w hich entail m o r e d iffic u lt o r m o r e r e ­
s p o n s ib le te c h n ic a l, a d m in istra tiv e, o r s u p e r v is o r y du ties w hich
a re not t y p ic a l o f s e c r e t a r ia l w o rk , e .g ., A d m in istra tiv e A s s is t ­
ant, o r E x e cu tiv e A s sis ta n t;




L S -1

13

a.

S e c r e ta r y to the s u p e r v is o r o r head o f a sm a ll orga n iza tion a l
unit (e .g ., fe w e r than about 25 o r 30 p e r s o n s ); o r

SE C R E TA R Y — Continued

S E C R E T A R Y — C on tin u ed

C la s s ific a tio n by L e v e l— Continued

C l a s s i f i c a t i o n b y L e v e l-— C on tin u e d

b. S e c r e ta r y to a n o n s u p e r v is o r y sta ff s p e c ia lis t, p r o fe s s io n a l
e m p lo y e e , a d m in istra tiv e o f f ic e r o r a ssista n t, sk illed tech n icia n
o r e x p e rt. (N O TE : M a n y co m p a n ie s a s sig n ste n o g ra p h e rs ,
ra th er than s e c r e t a r ie s as d e s c r ib e d ab ove, to this le v e l o f
s u p e r v is o r y o r n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r .)
L S -2

a. S e c r e ta r y to an e x e cu tiv e o r m a n a g e ria l p e r s o n w h ose r e s p o n ­
s ib ility is not equ ivalent to on e o f the s p e c ific le v e l situ ations in
the d efin ition fo r LS—
3, but w h ose o rg a n iz a tio n a l unit n o rm a lly
n u m bers at le a s t s e v e r a l d ozen e m p lo y e e s and is u su a lly d ivided
into org a n iz a tio n a l seg m en ts w h ich are often , in turn, fu rth er
su bd ivid ed . In som e c o m p a n ie s , this le v e l in clu d es a w ide range
o f org a n iz a tio n a l e c h e lo n s ; in o th e r s , on ly one o r tw o; o r
b.

L S -3

L e v e l o f S e c r e ta r y 's R e s p o n sib ility (L R )
T h is fa c to r evalu ates the nature o f the w o rk rela tion sh ip betw een
the s e c r e t a r y and the su p e r v is o r , and the extent to w hich the s e c r e t a r y is
ex p ected to e x e r c is e in itiative and ju d g m en t. S e c r e ta r ie s should be m a tch ed
at LR—1 o r LR— d e s c r ib e d below a c c o r d in g to th eir le v e l o f r e s p o n s ib ility .
2

S e c r e ta r y to the head o f an in dividu al plant, fa c to r y , e tc ., (o r
oth er equ ivalent le v e l o f o ffic ia l) that e m p lo y s , in all, few er
than 5, 000 p e r s o n s .

a.

L e v e l o f R e s p o n sib ility 1 (LR—1)

S e c r e ta r y to the ch a irm a n o f the b oa rd o r p r e s id e n t o f a com pa n y
that e m p lo y s , in all, fe w e r than 100 p e r s o n s ; o r

b.

S e c r e ta r y to a c o r p o r a t e o f f ic e r (oth er than ch a irm a n o f the
b oa rd o r p re sid e n t) o f a com p a n y that e m p lo y s , in all, o v e r 100
but fe w e r than 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

c.

P e r fo r m s varied s e c r e ta r ia l d u ties in cluding o r c o m p a ra b le to m o s t
o f the follow in g :
a. A n sw ers teleph on es,
com in g m a il.

S e c r e ta r y to the head (im m e d ia te ly below the o ffic e r le v e l) o v e r
e ith e r a m a jo r c o r p o r a te w id e fu n ction al a ctiv ity ( e .g ., m a rk etin g ,
r e s e a r c h , o p e r a tio n s , in d u stria l re la tio n s , e tc .) o r a m a jo r
g e o g ra p h ic o r o rg a n iz a tio n a l seg m en t (e .g ., a r e g io n a l h eadquar­
t e r s ; a m a jo r d iv is io n ) o f a com p a n y that e m p lo y s , in all, o v e r
5, 000 but fe w e r than 2 5 ,0 0 0 e m p lo y e e s ; o r

d.

and open s

in­

A n sw ers telephone r eq u ests w h ich have standard a n sw e rs.
rep ly to req u ests by sending a fo r m le t te r .

R ev iew s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , m e m o ra n d a , and r e p o r ts p r e p a r e d by
oth ers fo r the s u p e r v is o r 's sign a tu re to en su re p r o c e d u r a l and
ty pogra ph ica l a c c u r a c y .
M aintains s u p e r v is o r 's
in stru cted .

e.

T y p es,

c a le n d a r

and m a k es

takes and t r a n s c r ib e s d icta tio n ,

M ay

appointm ents

as

and f ile s .

L e v e l o f R e s p o n sib ility 2 (LR—
2)
P e r fo r m s duties d e s c r ib e d u n der LR—1 and, in addition p e r fo r m s
tasks req u irin g g re a te r judgm ent, in itia tiv e, and kn pw ledge o f o ffic e fu n ction s
in cluding o r com p a ra b le to m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :

S e c r e ta r y to a c o r p o r a t e o f f ic e r (oth er than the ch a irm a n o f the
b oa rd o r p re sid e n t) o f a com p a n y that e m p lo y s , in all, o v e r 5, 000
but fe w e r than 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

a.

14

A n sw ers req u ests w hich r e q u ir e a d eta iled k n ow led ge o f o f­
fic e p r o ce d u r e s o r c o lle c t io n o f in fo rm a tio n fr o m file s o r
oth er o ffic e s . M ay sign rou tin e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e in own o r
s u p e r v is o r 's n am e.

c.

N O T E : The te rm " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r " u sed in the above LS d efin ition
r e fe r s to th ose o ffic ia ls w ho have a sig n ific a n t c o r p o r a te w id e p olicy m a k in g
r o le with r e g a rd to m a jo r com p a n y a c tiv it ie s . The title " v ic e p r e s id e n t ,"
though n o rm a lly in d ica tiv e o f this r o le , d o e s not in all c a s e s iden tify such

S creen s telephon e and p e r s o n a l c a lle r s , d eterm in in g w hich can
be handled by the s u p e r v is o r 's su b ord in a tes o r oth er o f f ic e s .

b.

S e c r e ta r y to the head, im m e d ia te ly b e lo w the c o r p o r a t e o ffic e r
le v e l, o f a m a jo r seg m en t o r s u b s id ia r y o f a com pa n y that
e m p lo y s , in all, o v e r 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s .




c a lle r s ,

d.

a. S e c r e ta r y to the ch a irm a n o f the b oa rd o f p r e s id e n t o f a com pany
that e m p lo y s , in all, o v e r 100 but fe w e r than 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

c.

p erson al

c.

S e c r e ta r y to the head o f a la r g e and im p orta n t org a n iz a tion a l
seg m en t ( e .g ., a m id d le m a n a gem en t s u p e r v is o r o f an o r g a n i­
za tion al seg m en t often in volvin g as m any as s e v e r a l hundred
p e r s o n s ) o f a com p a n y that e m p lo y s , in all, o v e r 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

b.

g r e e ts

b.

S e c r e ta r y to the head o f an in dividu al plant, fa c to r y , e t c ., (o r
oth er equ ivalent le v e l o f o ffic ia l) that e m p lo y s , in all, o v e r
5, 000 p e r s o n s ; o r

e.

LS—
4

p o s itio n s . V ice p resid en ts w h ose p r im a r y r e s p o n s ib ility is to act p e r s o n a lly
on in dividu al c a se s o r tra n sa ction s (e .g ., ap p rov e o r deny individu al loan
o r c r e d it action s; a d m in ister individual tru st a ccou n ts; d ir e c t ly s u p e r v is e a
c le r i c a l staff) are not c o n s id e r e d to be " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s " fo r p u rp o s e s
o f applying the defin ition .

C om p iles o r a s s is ts in c o m p ilin g p e r io d ic r e p o rts on the b a sis
o f g en era l in stru ctio n s.

S E C R E T A R Y — C o n tin u e d

S T E N O G R A P H E R — C o n tin u e d

L e v e l o f R e s p o n s ib ilit y 2 (L R —
2)— Continued

o f the s p e c ific b u sin ess o p e r a tio n s , org a n iz a tion , p o lic ie s , p r o ce d u r e s , file s ,
w ork flo w , e tc . U ses this k n ow led ge in p e r fo rm in g sten og rap h ic duties and
r e s p o n s ib le c le r i c a l ta sk s such as m ain taining follow u p file s ; assem bling
m a te r ia l fo r r e p o r t s , m em ora n d a , and le t te r s ; c o m p o s in g sim p le letters
fr o m g en era l in stru ctio n s; readin g and routing in com in g m a il; and answ ering
routine q u e stio n s, etc.

d. S ch ed u les ten ta tive appointm ents w ithout p r io r c le a r a n c e . A s ­
s e m b le s n e c e s s a r y backgrou n d m a te r ia l for sch ed u led m e e tin g s .
M akes a rra n g e m e n ts fo r m eetin g s and c o n fe r e n c e s .
e. E x p la in s s u p e r v i s o r 's req u irem en ts to oth er e m p lo y e e s in su p er­
v i s o r 's unit. (A ls o ty p es, takes dicta tion , and file s .)
The fo llo w in g ta bu la tion show s the le v e l of the s e c r e t a r y f o r ea ch
LS and L R com b in a tion .

L e v e l o f s e c r e t a r y 's
______s u p e r v is o r _____

L e v e l o f s e c r e t a r y 's r e s p o n s ib ility
LR—1

TRA N SC RIBIN G -M AC H IN E TY P IST
P r im a r y duty is to type c o p y o f v o ic e r e c o r d e d d icta tion w hich does
not in volve v a rie d te c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o ca b u la ry such as that used in
le g a l b r ie fs o r r e p o r ts on s c ie n tific r e s e a r c h . M ay a lso type fr o m w ritten
c o p y . M ay m ain tain f ile s , k e e p sim p le r e c o r d s , o r p e r fo r m other re la tiv e ly
routine c le r i c a l ta sk s. (See S ten ograph er d efin ition fo r w o rk e r s involved
w ith shorthand d icta tion .)

LR—2
TY PIST

C la ss
C las s
C la ss
C la ss

LS—1
L S -2
L S -3
LS—
4

E
D
C
B

C la ss
C la ss
C la ss
C la ss

D
C
B
A

ST E N O G R A PH E R
P r im a r y duty is to take d icta tion using shorthand, and to tr a n s c r ib e
the d ic ta tio n . M ay a lso type fr o m w ritten c o p y . May o p era te fr o m a sten o­
g ra p h ic p o o l. M ay o c c a s io n a lly tr a n s c r ib e fr o m v o ice r e c o r d in g s (if p r im a r y
duty is tr a n s c r ib in g fr o m r e c o r d in g s , see T r a n s c rib in g -M a c h in e T y p is t).
N O T E : T h is jo b is distin g u ish ed fr o m that o f a s e c r e t a r y in that a
s e c r e t a r y n o rm a lly w o r k s in a con fid en tia l rela tion sh ip w ith on ly one m a n ­
a g er o r e x e cu tiv e and p e r fo r m s m o r e r e s p o n s ib le and d is c r e t io n a r y tasks
as d e s c r ib e d in the s e c r e t a r y jo b defin ition .
S ten og ra p h er, G e n e r a l
D icta tion in v o lv e s a n o rm a l routine v oca b u la ry . M ay m ain tain file s ,
k eep sim p le r e c o r d s , o r p e r fo r m oth er r e la tiv e ly routine c le r i c a l ta sk s.
S ten og ra p h er, S en ior
D icta tion in v o lv e s a v a ried te ch n ica l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o ca b u la r y such
as in le g a l b r ie fs o r r e p o r t s on s c ie n tific r e s e a r c h . M ay a lso s e t up and
m a in tain file s , k e e p r e c o r d s , etc.
OR
p e r f o r m s s te n o g r a p h ic duties req u irin g sig n ifica n tly g r e a te r inde­
p e n d en ce and r e s p o n s ib ilit y than sten og ra p h er, gen era l, as ev id en ced by the
fo llo w in g : W o r k r e q u ir e s a high d e g re e o f sten og rap h ic sp eed and a c c u r a c y ;
a th orough w o rk in g k n ow led g e o f g en era l b u sin ess and o ffic e p r o c e d u r e ; and




U s e s a ty p e w rite r to m a ke c o p ie s o f v a riou s m a te r ia ls o r to m ake
out b ills a fter ca lcu la tion s have b een m a de by another p e r s o n . M ay include
typing o f s t e n c ils , m a ts , o r s im ila r m a te r ia ls fo r u se in duplicating p r o c ­
e s s e s . M ay do c le r i c a l w o rk in volvin g little s p e c ia l trainin g, such as
keepin g sim p le r e c o r d s , f i l i n g r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , o r sortin g and
d istrib u tin g in com in g m a il.
C la ss A . P e r fo r m s one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : Typing m a te r ia l
in fin al fo r m w hen it in v olv es com b in in g m a te r ia l fr o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s ;
o r r e s p o n s ib ility fo r c o r r e c t s p e llin g , sy lla b ica tio n , punctuation, e tc ., o f
te ch n ica l o r unusual w o rd s o r fo r e ig n language m a te r ia l; o r planning la y ­
out and typing o f c o m p lica te d s ta tis tica l ta b les to m ain tain u n iform ity and
ba la n ce in sp a cin g . M ay type rou tin e fo r m le t te r s , v aryin g details to suit
c ir c u m s t a n c e s .
C la s s B . P e r fo r m s one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : C opy typing from
rough o r c le a r d r a fts ; o r rou tin e typing o f fo r m s , in su ran ce p o lic ie s , e tc .;
o r settin g up sim p le standard ta bu la tion s; o r copyin g m o r e c o m p le x tables
a lrea d y s e t up and sp a ce d p r o p e r ly .
F IL E CLE RK
F ile s , c la s s ifi e s , and r e t r ie v e s m a te r ia l in an estab lish ed filing
s y s te m . M ay p e r fo r m c l e r i c a l and m anual tasks r e q u ire d to m aintain file s .
P o s itio n s are c la s s ifie d into le v e ls on the b a sis o f the follow in g defin ition s.
C la ss A . C la s s ifie s and in d ex es file m a te r ia l such as c o r r e s p o n d ­
e n ce , r e p o r t s , te ch n ica l d ocu m en ts, e t c ., in an esta b lish ed filin g system
contain in g a num ber o f v a rie d su b je ct m a tte r f ile s .
M ay also file this
m a te r ia l. M ay k eep r e c o r d s o f v a riou s types in con ju n ction with the file s .
M ay lead a sm a ll grou p o f lo w e r le v e l file c le r k s .
C la ss B . S o r ts , c o d e s , and file s u n c la s s ifie d m a te ria l by sim p le
(s u b je c t m a tter) headin gs o r p a rtly c la s s ifie d m a te r ia l by fin er subheadings.
P r e p a r e s sim p le re la te d in dex and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e a id s. As requ ested ,
lo c a t e s c le a r ly id en tified m a te r ia l in file s and fo r w a rd s m a te r ia l. M ay
p e r fo r m re la te d c l e r i c a l tasks re q u ire d to m ain tain and s e r v ic e file s .

F I L E C L E R K — C o n tin u e d

O R D E R C L E R K — C on tin u ed

C la ss C . P e r fo r m s routine filin g o f m a te r ia l that has a lrea d y been
c la s s ifie d o r w hich is e a s ily c la s s ifie d in a sim p le s e r ia l c la s s ific a tio n
system ( e .g ., a lp h a b etica l, c h r o n o lo g ic a l, o r n u m e r ic a l). A s req u ested ,
lo c a te s r e a d ily a v a ila b le m a te r ia l in file s and fo r w a r d s m a te r ia l; and m a y
fill out w ith draw al c h a r g e . M ay p e r fo r m sim p le c le r i c a l and m anual tasks
req u ired to m ain tain and s e r v ic e f ile s .

P o sitio n s
d efin ition s:

are

c la s s ifie d

into

le v e ls

a c c o rd in g

to

the

fo llo w in g

MESSENGER

C la ss A . H andles o r d e r s that in v olv e m akin g ju dgm en ts such as
ch o o s in g w hich s p e c ific p rod u ct o r m a te r ia l fr o m the e sta b lis h m e n t's p rod u ct
lin e s w ill sa tisfy the c u s to m e r 's n eed s, o r d eterm in in g the p r ic e to be quoted
when p r ic in g in volves m o r e than m e r e ly r e fe r r in g to a p r ic e lis t o r m aking
som e s im p le m a th em a tical c a lc u la tio n s .

P e r fo r m s v a rio u s routine duties such as running e r ra n d s , op eratin g
m in o r o ffic e m a ch in e s such as s e a le r s o r m a ile r s , opening and d istrib u tin g
m a il, and oth er m in o r c le r i c a l w o rk . E x clu d e p o s itio n s that r e q u ire
op era tion o f a m o t o r v e h ic le as a sig n ifica n t duty.

C la ss B . H andles o r d e r s in volvin g item s w hich have r e a d ily id e n ­
tifie d u se s and a p p lica tion s. M ay r e fe r to a c a ta lo g , m a n u fa c tu r e r 's m anual,
o r s im ila r docum ent to in su re that p r o p e r item is su pplied o r to v e r ify
p r ic e o f o r d e r e d item .
ACCOUNTING CLERK

SW ITCHBOARD O P E R A T O R

P e r fo r m s one o r m o r e accou n tin g c l e r i c a l ta sk s such as p ostin g to
r e g is t e r s and le d g e r s ; r e c o n c ilin g bank a c c o u n ts ; v e rify in g the in tern a l con ­
sis te n c y , c o m p le te n e s s, and m a th em a tica l a c c u r a c y o f accoun tin g d ocu m en ts;
assign in g p r e s c r ib e d accoun tin g d is trib u tio n c o d e s ; exam in in g and v e rify in g
fo r c le r i c a l a c c u r a c y va riou s types o f r e p o r t s , lis t s , c a lc u la tio n s , p ostin g,
e tc .; o r p rep a rin g sim p le o r a s sistin g in p re p a rin g m o r e c o m p lica te d jo u r n a l
v o u c h e r s . May w ork in eith er a m anu al o r autom ated accou n tin g s y s te m .

O p era tes a teleph on e sw itch b oa rd o r c o n s o le u sed with a p riv a te
branch exch an ge (P B X ) sy ste m to r e la y in com in g, outgoing, and in tra s y s te m
c a lls . M ay p r o v id e in fo rm a tio n to c a lle r s , r e c o r d and tr a n sm it m e s s a g e s ,
keep r e c o r d o f c a lls p la ce d and to ll c h a r g e s . B e s id e s op era tin g a telephon e
sw itch boa rd o r c o n s o le , m a y a lso type o r p e r fo r m routine c le r i c a l w ork
(typing o r routine c le r i c a l w ork m a y o c cu p y the m a jo r p o rtio n o f the w o r k e r 's
tim e, and is u su a lly p e r fo r m e d w h ile at the sw itch b oa rd o r c o n s o le ). C h ief
o r lead o p e r a t o r s in e sta b lish m en ts em p loyin g m o r e than one o p e r a to r are*
ex clu d ed . F o r an o p e r a to r who a lso acts as a r e c e p tio n is t, se e Sw itch board
O p e r a to r -R e c e p tio n is t.

The w ork re q u ire s a k n ow led ge o f c l e r i c a l m eth od s and o ffic e p r a c ­
tic e s and p r o ce d u r e s w hich r e la te s to the c le r i c a l p r o c e s s in g and r e c o r d in g
o f tra n sa ction s and accounting in fo rm a tio n . W ith e x p e r ie n c e , the w o rk e r
ty p ic a lly b e c o m e s fa m ilia r with the b ook k eep in g and accou n tin g te r m s and
p r o c e d u r e s used in the a ssign ed w o rk , but is not r e q u ire d to have a k n ow ledge
o f the fo r m a l p r in cip le s o f b ook k eepin g and a ccou n tin g .

SW ITCHBOARD O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T

P o sitio n s are c la s s ifie d
d efin itio n s :

At a s in g le -p o s itio n telephon e sw itch b oa rd o r c o n s o le , acts both as
an o p e r a to r — se e S w itch boa rd O p era tor— and as a r e c e p tio n is t. R e c e p ­
tio n is t's w o rk in v o lv e s such du ties as g reetin g v is it o r s ; d eterm in in g nature
o f v is it o r 's b u sin ess and p rov id in g ap p rop ria te in form a tion ; r e fe r r in g v is ito r
to ap p rop ria te p e r s o n in the org a n iz a tion o r con tactin g that p e r s o n by te le ­
phone and a rran gin g an appointm ent; keepin g a lo g o f v is it o r s .

le v e ls on

the b a sis o f the follow ing-

C lass A . U nder g en era l s u p e r v is io n , p e r fo r m s accou n tin g c le r i c a l
o p e ra tio n s w hich re q u ire the a p p lica tion o f e x p e r ie n c e and ju dgm en t, fo r
ex a m p le, c le r ic a lly p r o c e s s in g c o m p lic a te d o r n on rep etitiv e accoun tin g
tr a n sa ctio n s, s e le ctin g am ong a su bsta n tial v a r ie ty o f p r e s c r ib e d accoun tin g
c o d e s and c la s s ific a tio n s , o r tr a c in g tr a n s a ctio n s through p r e v io u s a c ­
counting actions to d eterm in e s o u r c e o f d is c r e p a n c ie s . M ay be a s s is te d by
one o r m o r e c la s s B accounting c le r k s .

O RDER C LE R K
R e c e iv e s w ritten o r v e rb a l c u s to m e r s ' p u rch a se o r d e r s fo r m a te r ia l
o r m e r c h a n d is e fr o m c u s to m e r s o r s a le s p e o p le . W ork ty p ic a lly in v olv es
som e com b in a tion o f the fo llo w in g du tid s; Q uoting p r ic e s ; d eterm in in g
a v a ila b ility o f o r d e r e d item s and su ggestin g su bstitu tes when n e c e s s a r y ;
advisin g ex p e cte d d e liv e r y date and m ethod o f d e liv e r y ; r e c o r d in g o r d e r and
cu s to m e r in fo rm a tio n on o r d e r sh e e ts ; ch eck in g o r d e r sh eets fo r a c c u r a c y
and ad equ acy o f in fo rm a tio n r e c o r d e d ; a scerta in in g c r e d it rating o f c u s to m e r ;
fu rn ish in g c u s to m e r w ith ack n ow led gem en t o f r e c e ip t o f o r d e r ; fo llo w in g up
to see that o r d e r is d e liv e r e d by the s p e c ifie d date o r to le t c u s to m e r know
o f a d ela y in d e liv e r y ; m ain taining o r d e r file ; ch eck in g shipping in v o ice
against o r ig in a l o r d e r .

C lass B . U nder c lo s e s u p e r v is io n , fo llo w in g d eta iled in stru ction s
and stan dardized p r o c e d u r e s , p e r fo r m s one o r m o r e routine accou n tin g c l e r ­
ic a l o p e ra tio n s , such as p ostin g to le d g e r s , c a r d s , o r w o rk s h e e ts w h ere
id en tifica tion o f item s and lo c a tio n s o f p o s tin g s are c le a r ly in dicated;
ch eck in g a c c u r a c y and co m p le te n e s s o f sta n d a rd iz ed and r e p e titiv e r e c o r d s
o r accounting d ocu m en ts; and cod in g d ocu m en ts using a few p r e s c r ib e d
accou n tin g co d e s.
BO O KK EEPIN G -M ACH IN E O P E R A T O R
O p era tes a bookkeeping m a ch in e (with o r w ithout a ty p e w rite r k e y ­
b oa rd ) to keep a r e c o r d o f b u sin ess tr a n s a c tio n s .

E x clu d e w o r k e r s paid on a c o m m is s io n b a s is o r w h ose du ties in­
clude any o f the fo llo w in g ; R e c e iv in g o r d e r s fo r s e r v ic e s ra th er than fo r
m a te r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e ; p rov id in g c u s to m e r s with con su lta tiv e a d vice using
k n ow led ge gain ed fr o m en gin eerin g o r ex ten siv e te c h n ic a l train in g ; em pha­
sizin g se llin g s k ills ; handling m a te r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e as an in teg ra l p a rt
o f the jo b .




into

C la ss A . K eep s a set o f r e c o r d s r e q u irin g a k n ow led ge o f and
e x p e r ie n c e in b a s ic bookkeeping p r in c ip le s , and fa m ilia r ity w ith the s tru c tu re
o f the p a rticu la r accounting sy stem u s e d . D e te r m in e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s and
d is trib u tio n o f debit and c r e d it ite m s to be u se d in each ph ase o f the w o rk .
M ay p r e p a r e co n solid a ted r e p o r ts , b a la n ce sh e e ts , and oth er r e c o r d s by hand.

16

B O O K K E E P I N G -M A C H I N E O P E R A T O R — C on tin u ed

K E Y E N T R Y O P E R A T O R — C on tin u e d

C la s s B . K e e p s a r e c o r d o f one o r m o r e p h a ses o r s e ctio n s o f
a s e t o f r e c o r d s u su a lly re q u irin g little k n ow ledge o f b a s ic book k eep in g .
P h a s e s o r s e c tio n s in clu d e a ccou n ts payable, p a y ro ll, c u s t o m e r s ' accou n ts
(n ot in clu din g a s im p le type o f b illin g d e s c r ib e d under m a ch in e b ille r ), c o s t
d is tr ib u tio n , e x p e n s e d is tr ib u tio n , in ven tory co n tro l, e tc . M ay ch eck o r
a s s is t in p r e p a r a tio n o f tr ia l b a la n ces and p r e p a r e c o n tr o l sh eets fo r the
a ccou n tin g d ep a rtm e n t.

C la ss B . W ork is routine and re p e titiv e . U nder c lo s e su per­
v isio n o r follow in g s p e c ific p r o ce d u r e s o r in stru ctio n s, w ork s fr o m various
stan dardized s o u r c e docu m en ts w hich have been cod ed , and follow s s p e c ­
ifie d p r o c e d u r e s w hich have been p r e s c r ib e d in d etail and req u ire little or
no se le ctin g , cod in g, o r in terp retin g o f data to be r e c o r d e d . R e fe r s to
s u p e r v is o r p r o b le m s a risin g fr o m e rro n e o u s item s o r cod es or m issin g
info rm ation.

M ACHIN E B IL L E R
P r e p a r e s sta te m e n ts, bills., a .d in v o ice s on a m a ch in e oth e r than
an o r d in a r y o r e le c t r o m a t ic ty p e w rite r . M ay a lso keep r e c o r d s as to b illin g s
o r shipping c h a r g e s o r p e r fo r m oth er c le r i c a l w ork in ciden tal to b illin g
o p e r a t io n s . F o r w a g e study p u rp o s e s , m a ch in e b ille r s are c la s s ifie d by
type o f m a ch in e , as fo llo w s :

Professional and Technical
C O M PU TE R SYSTEM S A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS
A n a ly zes b u sin ess p r o b le m s to fo rm u la te p r o c e d u r e s fo r solvin g
them by u se o f e le c tr o n ic data p r o c e s s in g equ ipm ent. D evelop s a com p lete
d e s c r ip tio n o f all s p e cifica tio n s needed to enable p r o g r a m m e r s to p rep a re
re q u ire d d ig ita l com p u ter p r o g r a m s . W ork in v olv es m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
A n a ly ze s s u b je c t -m a tte r op era tion s to be autom ated and iden tifies condition s
and c r it e r i a r e q u ire d to ach ieve s a tis fa c to r y r e s u lts ; s p e c ifie s num ber and
ty pes o f r e c o r d s , f ile s , and docum ents to be u sed ; ou tlin es actions to be
p e r fo r m e d by p e r so n n e l and c om p u ters in su ffic ie n t d etail fo r presen tation
to m a n a gem en t and fo r p ro g ra m m in g (ty p ic a lly this in v olv es p rep aration of
w o rk and data flow c h a rts); co o rd in a te s the d ev elop m en t o f test p rob lem s and
p a rticip a te s in tr ia l runs o f new and r e v is e d s y s te m s ; and recom m en d s
equ ipm ent changes to obtain m o r e e ffe c tiv e o v e r a ll o p e ra tio n s . (NOTE:
W o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g both sy ste m s a n alysis and p r o g r a m m in g should be c la s ­
s ifie d as s y ste m s analysts if this is the s k ill u sed to d eterm in e th eir pay.)

B illin g -m a c h in e b i l l e r . U ses a s p e c ia l billin g m a ch in e (com b in a tion
typing and adding m a ch in e) to p r e p a r e b ills and in v o ice s fr o m c u s t o m e r s '
p u rc h a s e o r d e r s , in te rn a lly p r e p a r e d o r d e r s , shipping m em ora n d a , e tc .
U su a lly in v o lv e s a p p lica tio n o f p re d e te rm in e d discou n ts and shipping ch a rg e s
and en try o f n e c e s s a r y e x te n s io n s , w hich m ay o r m a y not be com pu ted on
the b illin g m a ch in e , and tota ls w hich are au tom atica lly a ccu m u la ted by
m a ch in e .
T he o p e r a tio n u su a lly in v olv es a la rg e num ber o f ca rb on c o p ie s
o f the b ill bein g p r e p a r e d and is often done on a fan fold m a ch in e .
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e b i lle r . U ses a bookkeeping m a ch in e (with o r
w ith ou t a ty p e w rite r k e y b o a rd ) to p re p a re c u s to m e r s ' b ills as p a rt o f the
a ccou n ts r e c e iv a b le o p e r a tio n . G e n e ra lly in volves the sim u lta n eou s en try o f
fig u r e s on c u s to m e r s ' le d g e r r e c o r d . The m a ch in e au tom atica lly accu m u la tes
fig u r e s on a n u m ber o f v e r t ic a l colu m n s and com pu tes and u su ally prin ts
a u to m a tica lly the d e b it o r c r e d it b a la n ce s. D oes not in v olv e a kn ow led ge
o f b o o k k e e p in g . W o rk s fr o m u n iform and standard types o f sa le s and
c r e d it s l ip s .

D oes not in clude em p lo y e e s p r im a r ily r e s p o n s ib le fo r the m anage­
m en t o r su p e r v isio n o f oth er e le c tr o n ic data p r o c e s s in g em p lo y e e s , o r s y s ­
tem s an alysts p r im a r ily co n c e rn e d w ith s c ie n tific o r en gin eerin g p r o b le m s .

P A Y R O L L C LE R K

F o r w age

P e r f o r m s the c l e r i c a l tasks n e c e s s a r y to p r o c e s s p a y r o lls and to
m a in ta in p a y r o ll r e c o r d s . W o r k in v olv es m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P r o c e s s in g
w o r k e r s ' tim e o r p r o d u c tio n r e c o r d s ; adjusting w o r k e r s ' r e c o r d s fo r changes
in w age r a te s , su p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fits, o r tax d ed u ction s; editing p a y r o ll
lis tin g s a g a in st s o u r c e r e c o r d s ; tra cin g and c o r r e c t in g e r r o r s in lis tin g s ;
and a s s is tin g in p r e p a r a tio n o f p e r io d ic su m m a ry p a y r o ll r e p o r t s . In a nonau tom ated p a y r o ll s y s te m , com p u tes w a g e s . W ork m a y re q u ire a p r a c t ic a l
k n ow led g e o f g o v e rn m e n ta l re g u la tio n s, com pan y p a y r o ll p o lic y , o r the
co m p u te r sy ste m f o r p r o c e s s in g p a y r o lls .
O p e ra te s a keypun ch m a ch in e to r e c o r d o r v e r ify alphabetic a n d /o r
n u m e ric data on tabu latin g c a r d s o r on tape.
are c la s s if i e d

s y ste m s

analysts

are

c la s s ifie d

as

into le v e ls on the b a sis o f the follow in g
M ay p r o v id e fu n ction al d ir e c tio n to lo w e r le v e l
who a re assig n ed to a s s is t.

C la ss A . W o r k r e q u ir e s the a p plication o f e x p e rie n c e and ju dgm en t
in s e le c tin g p r o c e d u r e s to be fo llo w e d and in sea rch in g fo r , in terp retin g ,
s e le c t in g , o r cod in g ite m s to be keypunched fr o m a v a rie ty o f s o u r c e d o cu ­
m e n ts . On o c c a s io n m a y a ls o p e r fo r m som e routine keypunch w o rk . M ay
tra in in e x p e r ie n c e d keyp un ch o p e r a t o r s .




pu rposes,

C la ss A . W ork s independently o r u nder on ly g en era l d ir e c tio n on
c o m p le x p r o b le m s in volvin g all ph ases o f sy ste m s a n a ly sis. P r o b le m s are
c o m p le x b e c a u se o f d iv e r s e s o u r c e s o f input data and m u ltip le -u s e r e q u ir e ­
m ents o f output data.
(F o r ex a m p le, d e v e lo p s an in tegrated p rodu ction
sch ed u lin g , in ven tory c o n tr o l, c o s t a n a ly sis, and sa le s an alysis r e c o r d in
w h ich e v e r y item o f each type is a u tom a tica lly p r o c e s s e d through the full
sy ste m o f r e c o r d s and a p p rop ria te follow u p action s are initiated by the
c o m p u te r .) C o n fe rs with p e r s o n s c o n c e rn e d to d e te rm in e the data p r o ce s s in g
p r o b le m s and a d v ises s u b je c t -m a tte r p e r s o n n e l on the im p lica tion s o f new
o r r e v is e d sy ste m s of data p r o c e s s in g o p e ra tio n s . M akes recom m en d a tion s,
if n eeded, fo r ap p rov al o f m a jo r s y ste m s in sta lla tion s o r changes and fo r
obtain in g equipm ent.

KEY EN TRY O PERA TO R

P o s itio n s
d e fin itio n s :

study

fo llo w s :

sy stem s analysts

C la ss B . W ork s independently o r u nder on ly g en era l d ir e c tio n on
p r o b le m s that are r e la tiv e ly u n com p lica ted to an alyze, plan, p ro g ra m , and
o p e r a te . P r o b le m s are o f lim ite d c o m p le x ity b e c a u s e s o u r c e s o f input data
a re h om og en eou s and the output data a re c lo s e ly r e la te d . (F o r exam ple,

17

C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T , BU SIN E SS— C o n tin u e d

C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , BU SIN E SS— C o n tin u e d

d ev elop s sy s te m s fo r m aintaining d e p o s ito r accoun ts in a bank, m aintaining
accounts r e c e iv a b le in a r e ta il esta b lish m en t, o r m aintaining in ven tory
accounts in a m a n u factu rin g o r w h o le sa le esta b lish m en t.) C o n fe rs with p e r ­
sons c o n c e rn e d to d e te rm in e the data p r o c e s s in g p r o b le m s and ad vises
su b ject-m 'a tter p e r so n n e l on the im p lica tion s o f the data p r o c e s s in g sy stem s
to be applied.

A t this le v e l, p rog ra m m in g is d iffic u lt b e c a u se com p u ter equ ipm ent
m u st be org a n ized to p rod u ce s e v e r a l in te r re la te d but d iv e r s e p rod u cts fr o m
n um erous and d iv e r s e data ele m e n ts. A w id e v a r ie ty and ex ten siv e num ber
o f in ternal p r o c e s s in g actions m u st o c c u r .
T h is r e q u ire s such action s as
develop m en t of com m on op era tion s w hich can be reu sed , e sta b lish m en t o f
linkage points betw een o p e ra tio n s , adju stm ents to data when p r o g r a m r e ­
qu irem en ts ex ceed com p u ter sto ra g e c a p a city , and su bstantial m an ipu lation
and reseq u en cin g o f data elem en ts to fo r m a h igh ly in teg ra ted p r o g r a m .

OR

M ay p rov id e functional d ir e c tio n to lo w e r le v e l p r o g r a m m e r s who
are a ssign ed to a s s is t.

W ork s on a segm en t o f a c o m p le x data p r o c e s s in g sch em e o r
sy ste m , as d e s c r ib e d fo r c la s s A . W ork s independently on routine a ssig n ­
m ents and r e c e iv e s in stru ction and guidance on c o m p le x a s sig n m e n ts . W ork
is re v ie w e d fo r a c c u r a c y o f ju dgm en t, c o m p lia n ce with in stru ctio n s, and to
in su re p r o p e r align m en t with the o v e r a ll s y ste m .

C la ss B . W ork s independently o r u nder o n ly g e n e ra l d ir e c tio n on
r e la tiv e ly sim p le p r o g r a m s , o r on s im p le seg m en ts o f c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .
P r o g r a m s (o r segm en ts) u su ally p r o c e s s in fo rm a tio n to p r o d u c e data in two
o r th ree v a ried seq u en ces o r fo r m a t s . R e p o r ts and lis tin g s are p ro d u ce d by
refin in g , adapting, array in g , o r m akin g m in o r additions to o r d e le tio n s fr o m
input data w hich are rea d ily a v a ila b le. W h ile n u m erou s r e c o r d s m a y be
p r o c e s s e d , the data have been re fin e d in p r io r action s so that the a c c u r a c y
and sequen cin g o f data can be te s te d b y u sin g a f e w rou tin e c h e c k s .
T y p ic a lly , the p ro g ra m deeds w ith r o u t i n e r e co r d k e e p in g o p e r a tio n s .

C la ss C . W ork s under im m ed ia te s u p e r v isio n , c a r r y in g out analy­
ses as a ssig n ed , u su a lly o f a sin g le a ctiv ity . A ssig n m en ts are d esig n ed to
d ev elop and expand p r a c tic a l e x p e rie n c e in the ap p lication o f p r o c e d u r e s and
sk ills r e q u ire d fo r s y ste m s a n alysis w o rk . F o r e x a m p le, m a y a s s is t a h igh er
le v e l s y s te m s analyst by p rep a rin g the d eta iled s p e c ific a tio n s r e q u ire d by
p r o g r a m m e r s fr o m in fo rm a tio n d ev e lo p e d by the h igh er le v e l an alyst.

OR
CO M PU TER P R O G R A M M E R , BUSINESS

W orks on c o m p le x p r o g r a m s (as d e s c r ib e d fo r c la s s A) u n der c lo s e
d ir e c tio n o f a h igh er le v e l p r o g r a m m e r o r s u p e r v is o r . M ay a s s is t h igh er
le v e l p r o g r a m m e r by independently p e r fo r m in g le s s d iffic u lt tasks a ssig n ed ,
and p e r fo rm in g m o r e d ifficu lt tasks u nder fa ir ly c lo s e d ir e c tio n .

C on v erts statem en ts o f b u sin ess p r o b le m s , ty p ic a lly p r e p a r e d by a
sy stem s an alyst, into a seq u en ce o f d eta iled in stru ction s w hich are req u ired
to so lv e the p r o b le m s by au tom atic data p r o c e s s in g equ ipm ent. W orkin g fr o m
charts o r d ia g r a m s , the p r o g r a m m e r d e v e lo p s the p r e c is e in stru ction s w hich ,
when en tered into the com p u ter sy stem in cod ed language, ca u se the m anipu ­
lation o f data to a ch ieve d e s ir e d r e s u lts . W ork in v olv es m o s t o f the
fo llo w in g : A p p lies kn ow led ge o f com p u ter c a p a b ilitie s , m a th e m a tics, lo g ic
em p loyed by c o m p u te r s , and p a rticu la r su b je ct m a tte r in volved to analyze
charts and d ia g ra m s o f the p r o b le m to be p r o g r a m m e d ; d e v e lo p s seq u en ce o f
p r o g r a m step s; w r ite s d eta iled flo w ch a rts to show o r d e r in w hich data w ill
be p r o c e s s e d ; c o n v e rts th ese ch a rts to c od ed in stru ction s f o r m a ch in e to
fo llo w ; te s ts and c o r r e c t s p r o g r a m s ; p r e p a r e s in stru ction s fo r op eratin g
p e r so n n e l during p rod u ction run; an a ly zes, r e v ie w s , and a lte rs p r o g r a m s to
in cr e a s e op era tin g e ffic ie n c y o r adapt to new re q u ire m e n ts ; m a in tain s r e ­
c o r d s o f p r o g r a m d ev elop m en t and r e v is io n s . (N O TE: W o r k e r s p e r fo rm in g
both sy s te m s an alysis and p r o g r a m m in g should be c la s s ifie d as sy stem s
analysts if this is the s k ill u sed to d e te rm in e th e ir pay.)

M ay guide o r in stru ct lo w e r le v e l p r o g r a m m e r s .
C la ss C . M akes p r a c tic a l a p p lica tion s o f p r o g r a m m in g p r a c t ic e s
and co n ce p ts u su ally lea rn ed in fo r m a l train in g c o u r s e s . A ssig n m en ts are
design ed to develop com p eten ce in the a p p lica tion o f standard p r o c e d u r e s to
routine p r o b le m s . R e c e iv e s c lo s e su p e r v is io n on new a s p e cts o f a s sig n ­
m en ts; and w ork is review ed to v e r ify its a c c u r a c y and c o n fo r m a n c e with
r e q u ire d p r o c e d u r e s .
CO M PU TE R O PERA TO R
M on itors and op era tes the c o n t r o l c o n s o le o f a d ig ita l com p u ter to
p r o c e s s data a ccord in g to op eratin g in s tru ctio n s , u su a lly p r e p a r e d by a p r o ­
g r a m m e r . W ork in clu des m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : Studies in stru ction s to
d eterm in e equipm ent setup and o p e r a tio n s ; loa d s equ ipm ent with re q u ire d
item s (tape r e e ls , c a r d s , e tc .); sw itch es n e c e s s a r y a u x ilia ry equ ipm ent into
c ir c u it , and starts and op era tes co m p u te r ; m a k es adju stm ents to co m p u te r to
c o r r e c t operatin g p r o b le m s and m e e t s p e c ia l c o n d itio n s; r e v ie w s e r r o r s
m ade du ring op era tion and d e te rm in e s c a u se o r r e fe r s p r o b le m to s u p e r v is o r
o r p r o g r a m m e r ; and m aintains o p e ra tin g r e c o r d s . M ay te s t and a s s is t in
c o r r e c t in g p ro g ra m .

D oes not in clude e m p lo y e e s p r im a r ily r e s p o n s ib le fo r the m a n a ge­
m ent o r su p e r v is io n o f oth er e le c t r o n ic data p r o c e s s in g e m p lo y e e s , o r p r o ­
g ra m m e r s p r im a r ily c o n c e rn e d with s c ie n tific a n d /o r en g in eerin g p r o b le m s .
F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , p r o g r a m m e r s are c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s :
C la ss A . W ork s independently o r under on ly g e n e ra l d ir e c tio n on
c o m p le x p r o b le m s w hich r e q u ire co m p e te n c e in all ph ases o f p ro g ra m m in g
con cep ts and p r a c t ic e s . W ork in g fr o m d ia g ra m s and ch a rts w hich iden tify
the nature o f d e s ir e d r e s u lts , m a jo r p r o c e s s in g step s to be a c c o m p lis h e d ,
and the re la tio n s h ip s betw een v a riou s steps o f the p r o b le m so lv in g rou tin e;
plans the fu ll ran ge o f p ro g ra m m in g action s needed to e ffic ie n tly u tiliz e the
com p u ter sy ste m in a ch ievin g d e s ir e d end p r o d u c ts .




F o r w age

study p u rp o s e s ,

c o m p u te r

op era tors

are

c la s s ifie d

as

fo llo w s :
C la ss A . O p era tes in depen den tly, o r u n der on ly g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n ,
a com p u ter running p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f the follow in g c h a r a c t e r is t ic s ;
New p r o g r a m s are frequ en tly tested and in tro d u ce d ; sch ed u lin g re q u ire m e n ts

18

C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R — C o n tin u e d

D R A F T E R — C o n tin u e d

are o f c r it ic a l im p o rta n ce to m in im iz e dow ntim e; the p r o g r a m s are o f
c o m p le x d esig n so that id e n tifica tio n o f e r r o r s o u r ce often r e q u ir e s a w ork in g
k n ow led ge o f the total p r o g r a m , and alternate p rog ra m s m a y not be a v a ila b le.
M ay give d ir e c tio n and gu id an ce to lo w e r le v e l o p e r a to r s .

C la ss C . P r e p a r e s d etail draw in gs o f sin g le units o r pa rts fo r
en gin eerin g, co n s tr u c tio n , m a n u factu rin g , o r r e p a ir p u rp o s e s . T ypes o f
draw in gs p re p a re d in clu de is o m e t r ic p r o je c tio n s (d ep ictin g th ree d im en sion s
in a ccu ra te s c a le ) and s e c tio n a l v iew s to c la r ify p osition in g of com ponents
and con v ey needed in fo rm a tio n . C on solid a tes d eta ils fr o m a num ber of
s o u r c e s and adjusts o r tr a n s p o s e s s c a le as re q u ire d . Suggested m ethods o f
a p proa ch , a p p lica b le p r e c e d e n ts , and a d vice on s o u r c e m a te r ia ls are given
with in itial a ssig n m en ts. In stru ction s are le s s c o m p le te when assign m en ts
r e c u r . W ork m a y be s p o t-c h e c k e d during p r o g r e s s .

C la ss B . O p e ra te s independently, o r under only g en era l d ir e c tio n ,
a c o m p u te r running p r o g r a m s with m o s t o f the follow in g c h a r a c t e r is t ic s :
M o st o f the p r o g r a m s a re esta b lish ed p rod u ction runs, ty p ic a lly run on a
r e g u la r ly r e c u r r in g b a s is ; th e re is little o r no testing o f new p r o g r a m s
r e q u ir e d ; a ltern a te p r o g r a m s a re p rov id ed in c a s e o r ig in a l p r o g r a m needs
m a jo r change o r can n ot be c o r r e c t e d w ithin a rea son a b ly sh ort tim e . In
c o m m o n e r r o r situ a tion s, d ia g n o se s ca u se and takes c o r r e c t iv e action . This
u su a lly in v o lv e s applying p r e v io u s ly p rog ra m m ed c o r r e c t iv e ste p s, o r using
stan dard c o r r e c t io n te ch n iq u e s .

D R A F T E R -T R A C E R
C op ies
cloth o r pa per
in clude tra cin g
la r g e s c a le not

plans and draw in gs p r e p a re d by o th ers by placing tracin g
o v e r d raw in gs and tra cin g w ith pen o r p e n cil. (D oes not
lim ite d to plans p r im a r ily con sistin g o f stra igh t lin es and a
re q u irin g c lo s e d elin ea tion .)
A N D /O R

OR

P r e p a r e s sim p le o r r e p e titiv e draw in gs o f e a s ily v isu a lized item s.
W ork is c lo s e ly s u p e r v is e d during p r o g r e s s .

O p e ra te s u n d er d ir e c t su p e r v isio n a com p u ter running p r o g r a m s o r
seg m en ts o f p r o g r a m s w ith the c h a r a c t e r is t ic s d e s c r ib e d fo r c la s s A . M ay
a s s is t a h ig h er le v e l o p e r a t o r b y independently p e r fo rm in g le s s d iffic u lt tasks
a s sig n e d , and p e r fo r m in g d iffic u lt tasks follow in g d eta iled in stru ction s and
w ith fre q u e n t r e v ie w o f o p e r a tio n s p e r fo r m e d .

E LE C TR O N IC S TECHNICIAN
W ork s on v a riou s types o f e le c tr o n ic equipm ent and related d e v ice s
by p e r fo rm in g one o r a com b in a tion o f the follow in g : In stalling, m aintaining,
r e p a ir in g , ov erh a u lin g, trou b lesh ootin g , m od ify in g , co n stru ctin g , and testin g.
W ork r e q u ir e s p r a c t ic a l a p plication o f te ch n ica l kn ow led ge o f e le c tr o n ic s
p r in c ip le s , a b ility to d e te rm in e m a lfu n ction s, and sk ill to put equipm ent in
r e q u ire d op era tin g con d ition .

C la s s C . W o rk s on routine p r o g r a m s under c lo s e s u p e r v is io n . Is
e x p e cte d to d e v e lo p w ork in g k n ow led ge o f the com p u ter equ ipm ent u sed and
a b ility to d e t e c t p r o b le m s in v olv ed in running routine p r o g r a m s . U su a lly has
r e c e iv e d so m e fo r m a l tra in in g in com p u ter o p era tion . M ay a s s is t h igh er
le v e l o p e r a t o r on c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .

The equipm ent— c o n s istin g o f eith er m any d iffe r e n t kinds o f c irc u its
o r m u ltip le rep etition o f the sa m e kind o f c ir c u it— in clu d es, but is not lim ited
to, the fo llo w in g : (a) E le c t r o n ic tran sm ittin g and r e c e iv in g equipm ent (e .g .,
ra d a r, r a d io , te le v is io n , telep h on e, son a r, n avigation al a id s), (b) dig ital and
analog c o m p u te r s , and (c) in du stria l and m e d ic a l m e a su rin g and con trollin g
equipm ent.

DRAFTER
C la s s A . P la n s the g ra p h ic p resen ta tion o f c o m p le x item s having
d is tin c tiv e d e s ig n fe a tu r e s that d iffe r sig n ifica n tly fr o m esta b lish ed drafting
p r e c e d e n ts . W o rk s in c lo s e su pport with the design o r ig in a to r , and m a y
r e c o m m e n d m in o r d e s ig n ch a n g e s. A n a ly zes the e ffe ct o f each change on the
d e ta ils o f fo r m , fu n ction , and p o s itio n a l rela tion sh ip s o f com pon en ts and
p a r t s . W o rk s w ith a m in im u m o f s u p e r v is o r y a s s is ta n c e . C om p leted w ork
is r e v ie w e d by d e s ig n o r ig in a to r fo r c o n s is te n c y with p r io r en gin eerin g
d e te r m in a tio n s . M ay e ith e r p r e p a r e draw in gs o r d ir e c t th eir p re p a ra tio n by
lo w e r le v e l d r a ft e r s .

T h is c la s s ific a t io n e x clu d e s r e p a ir e r s o f such standard e le c tr o n ic
equ ipm ent as com m o n o ffic e m a ch in es and h ou seh old ra d io and te le v is io n
s e ts ; p rod u ction a s s e m b le r s and te s t e r s ; w o r k e r s w h ose p r im a ry duty is
s e r v ic in g e le c t r o n ic te s t in stru m en ts; tech n icia n s w ho have ad m in istrative
o r s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s ib ility ; and d r a fte r s , d e s ig n e r s , and p r o fe s s io n a l
e n g in e e r s .
P o s itio n s a re c la s s ifie d
d e fin itio n s .

C la s s B . P e r f o r m s nonroutine and c o m p le x d raftin g assign m en ts
that r e q u ir e the a p p lica tio n o f m o s t o f the stan dardized draw in g tech n iqu es
r e g u la r ly u se d . D u ties ty p ic a lly in volve such w o rk as: P r e p a r e s w ork in g
d ra w in g s o f s u b a s s e m b lie s w ith ir r e g u la r sh ap es, m u ltip le fu n ction s, and
p r e c i s e p o s itio n a l r e la tio n s h ip s betw een com p on en ts; p r e p a r e s a r c h ite ctu r a l
d ra w in g s f o r c o n s tr u c tio n o f a building including d etail d ra w in gs o f foun­
d a tion s, w a ll s e c t io n s , f lo o r p la n s, and r o o f. U ses a cce p te d fo r m u la s
and m a n u als in m a k in g n e c e s s a r y com pu tation s to d eterm in e qu an tities o f
m a t e r ia ls to b e u s e d , lo a d c a p a c it ie s , stren g th s, s t r e s s e s , e tc . R e c e iv e s
in itia l in s tru ctio n s , r e q u ir e m e n t s , and a d vice fr o m s u p e r v is o r . C om p leted
w o r k is c h e ck e d f o r te c h n ic a l adequ acy.




into le v e ls on the b a sis o f the follow in g

C la ss A . A p p lie s advanced te c h n ic a l k n ow led ge to solve unusually
c o m p le x p r o b le m s ( i.e ., th ose that ty p ic a lly cannot be s o lv e d s o le ly by r e fe r ­
en ce to m a n u fa c tu r e r s ' m anu als o r s im ila r d ocu m en ts) in w orkin g on e le c ­
tr o n ic equ ipm ent. E x a m p les o f such p r o b le m s include lo c a tio n and den sity o f
c ir c u it r y , e le c tr o m a g n e tic ra d ia tion , isolatin g m a lfu n ction s, and frequ ent
en gin eerin g ch a n g es. W ork in v o lv e s : A d etailed u nderstanding o f the in ter­
re la tio n s h ip s o f c ir c u it s ; e x e r c is in g independent ju dgm en t in p e r fo rm in g such
tasks as m aking c ir c u it a n a ly ses, ca lcu la tin g w ave fo r m s , tra cin g rela tion ­
sh ips in sign al flo w ; and r e g u la r ly u sin g c o m p le x test in stru m en ts (e .g ., dual
tr a c e o s c ill o s c o p e s , Q -m e t e r s , dev iation m e t e r s , p u lse g e n e r a to rs ).

19

E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N — C on tin u ed

M A IN T E N A N C E C A R P E N T E R — C o n tin u e d

W ork m a y be rev iew ed by s u p e r v is o r (freq u en tly an en gin eer o r
d e s ig n e r) fo r g e n e ra l c o m p lia n ce with accep ted p r a c t ic e s . M ay p rov id e
tech n ica l guidance to lo w e r le v e l te ch n icia n s .

layin g out o f w ork fr o m b lu eprin ts, d ra w in g s, m o d e ls , o r v erb a l in stru ction s;
using a v a riety o f c a r p e n te r's h an dtools, p o rta b le p ow er to o ls, and standard
m ea su rin g instrum ents; m aking standard shop com pu ta tion s relatin g to d i­
m en sion s o f w ork ; and se le ctin g m a te r ia ls n e c e s s a r y fo r the w ork .
In
g e n era l, the w ork o f the m ain ten an ce c a r p e n te r re q u ire s rounded trainin g
and ex p e rie n ce u su ally acqu ired th r o u g h x a f o r m a l a p p ren ticesh ip o r
equivalent training and e x p e rie n c e .

C la ss B . A p p lies c o m p re h e n siv e tech n ica l kn ow led ge to so lv e c o m ­
p lex p r o b le m s ( i.e ., th ose that .typically can be solv ed s o le ly b y p r o p e r ly
in terp retin g m a n u fa c tu r e rs ' m anu als o r s im ila r docu m en ts) in w ork in g on
e le c tr o n ic equipm ent. W ork in v o lv e s : A fa m ilia r ity with the in te r re la tio n ­
ships o f c ir c u it s ; and ju dgm en t in determ in in g w ork seq u en ce and in se le ctin g
tools and testin g in stru m en ts, u su a lly le s s c o m p le x than th ose u sed by the
c la s s A tech n icia n .
R e c e iv e s tech n ica l guidan ce, as r e q u ire d , fr o m s u p e r v is o r o r h igh er
le v e l tech n icia n , and w ork is rev iew ed fo r s p e c ific c o m p lia n ce with accep ted
p r a c tic e s and w ork a ssig n m en ts. M ay p ro v id e te ch n ica l guidance to lo w e r
le v e l te c h n ic ia n s .
C la ss C . A p p lies w ork in g te ch n ica l k n ow ledge to p e r fo r m sim p le o r
routine tasks in w ork in g on e le c tr o n ic equipm ent, follow in g d etailed in stru c ­
tions w hich c o v e r v irtu a lly all p r o c e d u r e s . W ork ty p ic a lly in v olv es such
tasks as: A s s is tin g h igh er le v e l tech n icia n s by p e r fo rm in g such a ctiv ities as
re p la cin g com pon en ts, w irin g c ir c u it s , and taking test rea d in g s; re p a irin g
sim p le e le c tr o n ic equipm ent; and using to o ls and com m on test instrum ents
(e .g ., m u ltim e te rs , audio sign al g e n e r a to rs , tube te s t e r s , o s c ill o s c o p e s ).
Is not re q u ire d to be fa m ilia r with the in te rre la tio n s h ip s o f c ir c u it s . T his
kn ow led ge, h ow ev er, m a y be acq u ired through a ssign m en ts design ed to
in c r e a s e co m p e te n ce (in cluding c la s s r o o m trainin g) so that w o r k e r can
advance to h igh er le v e l tech n icia n .
R e c e iv e s te ch n ica l guidance, as r e q u ire d , fr o m s u p e r v is o r o r h igh er
le v e l tech n icia n . W ork is ty p ica lly sp ot ch eck ed , but is given d etailed rev iew
when new o r advanced assign m en ts are in volved .
REG ISTER ED INDUSTRIAL NURSE
A r e g is te r e d nurse who g iv es n ursing s e r v ic e under g en era l m e d ica l
d ir e c tio n to ill o r in ju red em p lo y e e s o r oth er p e rso n s who b e c o m e ill o r
su ffer an a ccid en t on the p r e m is e s o f a fa c to r y o r oth er esta b lish m en t.
D uties in volve a com bin a tion o f the fo llo w in g : G iving f ir s t aid to the ill o r
in ju red ; attending to subsequent d r e s s in g o f e m p lo y e e s ' in ju rie s ; keepin g
r e c o r d s o f patients trea ted ; p rep a rin g a ccid en t r e p o rts fo r com p en sa tion o r
oth er p u r p o s e s ; a ssistin g in p h y s ica l exam ination s and health evaluations o f
applicants and e m p lo y e e s ; and planning and c a r ry in g out p r o g r a m s in volvin g
health edu ca tion , a ccid en t p reven tion , evalu ation o f plant en viron m en t, o r
oth er a c tiv itie s affectin g the health, w e lfa r e , and sa fety o f all p e r so n n e l.
N ursing s u p e r v is o r s o r head n u rses in esta b lish m en ts em p loyin g m o r e than
one n u rse are ex clu d ed .

Maintenance, Toolroom, and Powerplant
M AINTENANCE C A R P E N T E R
P e r fo r m s the c a rp e n try duties n e c e s s a r y to co n s tr u c t and m ain tain
in good r e p a ir building w oodw ork and equipm ent such as b in s, c rib s , cou n ters,
b e n ch e s , p a rtitio n s, d o o r s , f lo o r s , s t a ir s , c a s in g s , and trim m ade o f w ood
in an esta b lish m en t. W ork in volves m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and




MAINTENANCE ELECTRIC IAN
P e r fo r m s a v a riety o f e le c t r ic a l trad e fu n ction s such as the in sta l­
la tion , m ain ten an ce, o r re p a ir o f equ ipm ent fo r the gen era tion , d istrib u tion ,
o r u tilization o f e le c t r ic en erg y in an esta b lish m en t. W ork in v olv es m o s t
o f the follow in g : Installing o r re p a irin g any o f a v a r ie ty o f e le c t r ic a l equipm ent such as g e n e r a to rs , t r a n s fo r m e r s , sw itch b o a rd s , c o n t r o lle r s , c ir c u it
b r e a k e r s , m o to r s , heating units, condu it s y s te m s , o r oth er tr a n sm iss io n
equipm ent; w orking fr o m b lu ep rin ts, d ra w in g s, la you ts, o r oth er s p e c ifi­
ca tion s; locatin g and diagn osing tro u b le in the e le c t r ic a l sy stem o r equip­
m ent; w orkin g standard com pu tation s rela tin g to loa d req u irem en ts o f w irin g
o r e le c t r ic a l equipm ent; and using a v a r ie ty o f e le c t r ic ia n 's h an dtools and
m ea su rin g and testin g in stru m en ts. In g e n e r a l, the w ork o f the m ain ten an ce
e le c tr ic ia n req u ires rounded trainin g and e x p e r ie n c e u su a lly acq u ired through
a fo r m a l ap pren ticesh ip o r equivalent train in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
M AINTENANCE PAIN TER
Paints and r e d e co r a te s w a lls , w ood w ork , and fix tu re s o f an estab­
lish m en t. W ork in volves the fo llo w in g : K n ow ledge o f s u r fa c e p e c u lia r itie s
and types o f paint req u ired fo r d iffe r e n t a p p lica tion s; p rep a rin g su r fa c e
fo r painting by rem oving old fin ish o r by p la cin g putty o r fille r in nail
h o le s and in te r stice s ; and applying paint with s p ra y gun o r bru sh . M ay
m ix c o lo r s , o ils , white lead, and oth er paint in gred ien ts to obtain p r o p e r
c o lo r o r c o n s iste n cy . In g en era l, the w o r k o f the m a in ten an ce painter
re q u ire s rounded training and e x p e rie n c e u su a lly acq u ired through a fo r m a l
ap pren ticesh ip o r equivalent training and e x p e r ie n c e .
M AINTENANCE MACHINIST
P ro d u ce s rep la cem en t p a rts and new p a rts in m aking r e p a ir s o f
m eted p a rts o f m e ch a n ica l equipm ent o p era ted in an esta b lish m en t. W ork
in volves m o s t o f the follow in g : In terp retin g w ritten in stru ction s and s p e c i­
fic a tio n s ; planning and laying out o f w o rk ; usin g a v a r ie ty o f m a c h in is t's
handtools and p r e c is io n m ea su rin g in stru m en ts; settin g up and operatin g
standard m ach in e to o ls ; shaping o f m e ta l p a rts to c lo s e to le r a n c e s ; m aking
standard shop com putations relatin g to d im e n s io n s o f w ork , toolin g , fe e d s ,
and sp eed s of m ach in in g; k n ow ledge o f the w ork in g p r o p e r tie s o f the com m on
m e ta ls ; selectin g standard m a te r ia ls , p a rts , and equipm ent re q u ire d fo r this
w ork ; and fitting and assem blin g p a rts into m e ch a n ica l equipm ent. In
g en e ra l, the m a ch in is t's w ork n o rm a lly r e q u ir e s a rounded trainin g in
m a ch in e -sh o p p r a c tic e u su ally a cq u ired through a fo r m a l ap p ren ticesh ip o r
equivalent training and e x p e rie n c e .
M AINTENANCE MECHANIC (M ach in ery)
R ep a irs m a ch in ery o r m e c h a n ica l equ ipm ent o f an esta b lish m en t.
W ork in volves m o s t o f the follow in g :
E xam in ing m a ch in es and m e ch a n ica l
equipm ent to d ia gn ose so u r ce o f tro u b le ; d ism a n tlin g o r p a rtly d ism a n tlin g
m a ch in es and p e rfo rm in g re p a ir s that m a in ly in v o lv e the u se o f handtools in
scra p in g and fitting p a rts; rep la cin g b rok en o r d e fe c tiv e pa rts with item s

M A IN T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC (M a c h in e r y )— C o n tin u e d

M IL L W R IG H T

obtain ed fr o m s to ck ; o r d e r in g the p rod u ction o f a r e p la c e m e n t p a rt by a
m a ch in e shop o r sen din g the m a ch in e to a m a ch in e shop fo r m a jo r r e p a ir s ;
p r e p a r in g w ritte n s p e c ific a tio n s fo r m a jo r r e p a ir s or fo r the p rod u ction o f
p a rts o r d e r e d fr o m m a ch in e sh op s; r e a ss e m b lin g m a ch in e s; and m aking all
n e c e s s a r y ad ju stm en ts fo r o p e r a tio n . In g en era l, the w ork o f a m a ch in e ry
m a in ten a n ce m e c h a n ic r e q u ir e s rounded training and e x p e r ie n c e u su ally
a cq u ire d th rough a fo r m a l a p p ren ticesh ip o r equivalent train in g and e x p e r i­
e n ce . E x clu d ed fr o m this c la s s ific a t io n are w o rk e r s w h ose p r im a r y du ties
in v olv e settin g up o r ad ju sting m a ch in e s.

In stalls new m a ch in es o r h eavy equipm ent, and dism a n tles and
in sta lls m a ch in e s o r h eavy equ ipm ent w hen changes in the plant layou t are
re q u ire d . W ork in v olv es m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P lanning and laying out
w ork ; in terp retin g blu ep rin ts o r oth er s p e c ific a tio n s ; u sin g a v ariety o f handto o ls and rig g in g ; m akin g stan dard shop com pu ta tion s relatin g to s t r e s s e s ,
stren gth o f m a te r ia ls , and c e n te rs o f g ra v ity ; aligning and balancing equip­
m en t; se le ctin g standard to o ls , equipm ent, and p a rts to be u sed; and installing
and m ain taining in good o r d e r p ow er tr a n s m is s io n equ ipm ent such as d riv es
and sp eed r e d u c e r s . In g e n e r a l, the m illw r ig h t's w o rk n orm a lly r e q u ire s a
rounded trainin g and e x p e r ie n c e in the tra d e acq u ired through a fo r m a l
a p p ren ticesh ip o r equ ivalent train in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

M A IN TE N AN C E M ECH ANIC (M o to r v eh icle)
R e p a ir s a u to m o b ile s, b u se s , m o to r tr u c k s , and t r a c t o r s o f an e sta b ­
lis h m e n t. W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : E xam ining au tom otive equip­
m e n t to d ia g n o se s o u r c e o f tr o u b le ; d is a s s e m b lin g equipm ent and p e r fo r m in g
r e p a ir s that in v olv e the u se o f such handtools as w re n ch e s , g a u ges, d r ills ,
o r s p e c ia liz e d equ ipm en t in d is a s s e m b lin g o r fittin g p a rts; re p la cin g brok en
o r d e fe c tiv e p a rts fr o m s to ck ; grinding and adjusting v a lv e s ; r e a s s e m b lin g
and in sta llin g the v a r io u s a s s e m b lie s in the v eh icle and m aking n e c e s s a r y
a d ju stm en ts; and aligning w h e e ls , adjusting brak es and lig h ts, o r tightening
b od y b o lt s . In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f the m o to r v eh icle m a in ten a n ce m e c h a n ic
r e q u ir e s rou n ded tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e u su ally acqu ired through a form ed
a p p re n tice s h ip o r eq u iv a len t train in g and e x p e rie n ce .
T h is c la s s ific a t io n d o e s not include m e ch a n ics w h o
t o m e r s ' v e h ic le s in a u tom ob ile r e p a ir sh ops.

r e p a ir

M AIN TEN AN CE T R A D E S H ELPE R
A s s is t s on e o r m o r e w o r k e r s in the s k ille d m ain ten an ce tra d e s, by
p e r fo r m in g s p e c ific o r g e n e ra l duties o f l e s s e r s k ill, such as keepin g a
w o r k e r su pplied with m a te r ia ls and to o ls ; clean in g w ork in g area, m a ch in e,
and equipm ent; a s s is tin g jou rn ey m a n by h olding m a te r ia ls o r to o ls; and p e r ­
fo r m in g oth er u n sk illed tasks as d ir e c te d by jo u rn e y m a n . The kind o f w ork
the h elp er is p erm itte d to p e r fo r m v a r ie s fr o m trad e to trade: In som e
tra d es the h e lp e r is con fin ed to supplying, liftin g , and holding m a te r ia ls and
to o ls , and clean in g w ork in g a r e a s ; and in o th e rs he is p erm itted to p e r fo r m
s p e c ia liz e d m a ch in e o p e r a tio n s , o r pa rts o f a trad e that are also p e r fo rm e d
by w o r k e r s on a fu ll-t im e b a s is .

c u s­
M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R (T o o lr o o m )
S p e c ia liz e s in op era tin g one o r m o r e than one type o f m a ch in e to o l
(e .g ., jig b o r e r , g rin din g m a ch in e , engine lath e, m illin g m a ch in e) to m ach in e
m eta l fo r u se in m akin g o r m ain taining ji g s , fix tu r e s , cutting to o ls , gauges,
o r m eta l d ie s o r m o ld s u sed in shaping o r fo r m in g m e ta l o r n on m etallic
m a te r ia l ( e .g ., p la s t ic , p la s t e r , r u b b e r, g la s s ). W ork ty p ica lly in v o lv e s ;
P lanning and p e r fo r m in g d iffic u lt m a ch in in g o p e ra tio n s w hich req u ire c o m ­
p lica te d setups o r a high d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ; settin g up m a ch in e to o l o r
to o ls (e .g ., in sta ll cutting to o ls and adju st g u id es, sto p s, w orkin g ta b le s,
and oth er c o n tro ls to handle the s iz e o f s to ck to be m a ch in ed; d eterm in e
p r o p e r fe e d s , sp e e d s, toolin g , and op e ra tio n seq u en ce o r s e le c t th ose p r e ­
s c r ib e d in d ra w in g s, b lu ep rin ts, o r la y ou ts); u sin g a v a rie ty o f p r e c is io n
m e a su rin g in stru m en ts; m akin g n e c e s s a r y adju stm ents during m ach in in g
op e ra tio n to a ch ieve r e q u is ite d im en sion s to v e ry c lo s e to le r a n c e s . M ay
be r e q u ire d to s e le c t p r o p e r coola n ts and cutting and lu b rica tin g o ils , to
r e c o g n iz e when to o ls need d r e s s in g , and to d r e s s t o o ls . In gen era l, the w ork
o f a m a c h in e -to o l o p e r a t o r (to o lr o o m ) at the sk ill le v e l ca lled fo r in this
c la s s ific a t io n r e q u ir e s ex ten siv e k n ow led ge o f m a c h in e -s h o p and to o lro o m
p r a c tic e u su a lly a cq u ired through c o n s id e r a b le o n -t h e -jo b training and
e x p e r ie n c e .

M A IN TE N A N C E P IP E F IT T E R
In sta lls o r r e p a ir s w a te r, steam , g as, o r oth er types o f pipe and
p ip efittin g s in an e sta b lis h m e n t. W ork in v olv es m o s t of the fo llo w in g : L ayin g
out w o rk and m e a s u rin g to lo c a te p osition o f pipe fr o m draw in gs o r oth er
w ritten s p e c ific a t io n s ; cutting v a riou s s iz e s o f pipe to c o r r e c t len gths with
c h is e l and h a m m er o r o x y a ce ty le n e torch o r p ip e-cu ttin g m a ch in e s; th readin g
pip e w ith sto ck s and d ie s ; bending pipe by h a n d -d riven o r p o w e r -d r iv e n
m a ch in e s ; a s se m b lin g pip e w ith cou plin gs and fastening pipe to h a n gers;
m a k in g stan dard sh op com p u ta tion s rela tin g to p r e s s u r e s , flow , and s iz e o f
pip e r e q u ir e d ; and m akin g stan dard tests to d eterm in e w h eth er fin ish ed p ip es
m e e t s p e c ific a t io n s .
In g e n e r a l, the w ork o f the m ain ten an ce p ip e fitte r
r e q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e u su a lly acqu ired through a fo r m a l
a p p re n tice s h ip o r equ iv alen t train in g and e x p e rie n c e . W o r k e rs p r im a r ily
en gaged in in sta llin g and r e p a ir in g building sanitation o r heating s y ste m s
a re e x clu d ed .
M AIN TE N AN C E S H E E T -M E T A L WORKER
F a b r ic a te s , in s t a lls , and m ain tains in good r e p a ir the sh e e t-m e ta l
equ ipm ent and fix tu r e s (su ch as m a ch in e guards, g r e a s e pans, sh e lv e s ,
lo c k e r s , tanks, v e n tila to r s , ch u tes, d u cts, m eta l roofin g ) o f an esta b lish m en t.
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and layin g ou t all types o f
sh e e t-m e ta l m a in ten a n ce w o rk fr o m blu ep rin ts, m o d e ls , o r oth er s p e c ifi­
ca tio n s ; settin g up and o p e ra tin g all availab le types of sh e e t-m e ta l w ork in g
m a ch in e s ; u sin g a v a r ie ty o f h an dtools in cutting, bending, fo r m in g , shaping,
fittin g , and a s s e m b lin g ; and in sta llin g s h e e t-m e ta l a r ticle s as r e q u ire d . In
g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f the m a in ten an ce sh e e t-m e ta l w o rk e r r e q u ir e s rounded
tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su a lly acq u ired through a fo r m a l a p p ren ticesh ip o r
equ iv alen t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .




F o r c r o s s -in d u s t r y w age study p u r p o s e s , this c la s s ific a tio n d oes not
in clude m a c h in e -to o l o p e r a t o r s (to o lr o o m ) em p loy ed in to o l and die job bin g
sh op s.
T O O L AND DIE M AK ER
C on stru cts and r e p a ir s ji g s , fix tu r e s , cutting to o ls , gauges, o r m etal
d ie s o r m o ld s u sed in shaping o r fo r m in g m e ta l o r n on m eta llic m a te r ia l (e .g .,
p la s t ic , p la s t e r , ru b b e r, g la s s ). W ork ty p ic a lly in v o lv e s ; Planning and laying
out w o rk a c c o rd in g to m o d e ls , b lu ep rin ts, d ra w in g s, o r oth er w ritten o r o r a l
s p e c ific a tio n s ; u nderstan din g the w ork in g p r o p e r t ie s o f com m on m eta ls and

21

T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R — C o n tin u e d

S H IP P E R AN D R E C E IV E R

a llo y s; se le ctin g a p p rop ria te m a te r ia ls , to o ls , and p r o c e s s e s re q u ire d to
com p lete ta sk s; m akin g n e c e s s a r y shop com p u ta tion s; settin g up and o p e r ­
ating v a rio u s m a ch in e to o ls and rela ted equipm ent; u sin g v a riou s to o l and
d ie m a k e r 's h an dtools and p r e c is io n m e a su rin g in stru m en ts; w ork in g to v e ry
c lo s e t o le r a n c e s ; h e a t-tre a tin g m eta l p a rts and fin ish ed to o ls and d ie s to
a ch ieve r e q u ire d q u a litie s; fittin g and a s se m b lin g p a rts to p r e s c r ib e d t o le r ­
ances and a llo w a n ce s . In g e n e ra l, the to o l and d ie m a k e r 's w ork r e q u ire s
rounded trainin g in m a c h in e -s h o p and to o lr o o m p r a c t ic e u su a lly acqu ired
through fir m e d a p p ren ticesh ip o r equ ivalen t t r a i n i n g and e x p e r ie n c e .

P e r fo r m s c le r i c a l and p h y s ic a l tasks in con n ection w ith shipping
g ood s o f the estab lish m en t in w h ich em p loy ed and r e c e iv in g in com in g
sh ip m en ts. In p e r fo rm in g d a y -to -d a y , routine ta sk s, fo llo w s esta b lish ed
g u id e lin e s. In handling unusual n onroutin e p r o b le m s , r e c e iv e s s p e c ific guid­
ance fr o m su p e r v iso r o r oth er o f f ic ia l s . M ay d ir e c t and c o o rd in a te the
a c tiv itie s o f oth er w o r k e r s engaged in handling g ood s to be shipped o r being
r e c e iv e d .
Shippers ty p ica lly are r e s p o n s ib le fo r m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : V e r ­
ifying that o r d e rs are a ccu ra te ly fille d b y co m p a rin g item s and quantities
o f good s gathered fo r shipm ent against d ocu m en ts; in su ring that shipm ents
are p r o p e r ly packaged, iden tified w ith shipping in form a tion , and loa ded into
tra n sp ortin g v e h ic le s ; p rep a rin g and keep in g r e c o r d s o f g ood s sh ipped, e .g .,
m a n ife s ts , b ills o f lading.

F o r c r o s s -in d u s t r y w age study p u r p o s e s , this c la s s ific a tio n d oes not
include to o l and d ie m a k e rs who ( 1 ) are e m p loy ed in to o l and d ie job b in g
shops o r ( 2 ) p rod u ce fo r g in g d ies (d ie s in k e r s ).
STATIO N ARY ENGINEER

R e c e iv e r s ty p ica lly are r e s p o n s ib le fo r m o s t o f the follow in g :
V e r ify in g the c o r r e c t n e s s o f in com in g sh ipm en ts by com p a rin g item s and
quantities unloaded against b ills o f lad in g, in v o ic e s , m a n ife s ts , s to ra g e
r e c e ip ts , o r oth er r e c o r d s ; ch eck in g fo r dam aged g ood s; in su rin g that
goods are ap p rop ria tely iden tified f o r routing to dep a rtm en ts w ithin the
estab lish m en t; p rep a rin g and k eepin g r e c o r d s o f g ood s r e c e iv e d .

O p era tes and m ain tains and m a y a lso s u p e r v is e the op era tion o f
station a ry engines and equipm ent (m e c h a n ica l o r e le c t r ic a l) to supply the
esta b lish m en t in w hich e m p loy ed w ith p o w e r, heat, r e fr ig e r a tio n , o r a ir con dition in g. W ork in v o lv e s : O p era tin g and m ain taining equipm ent such as
steam en gin es, air c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o t o r s , tu rb in es, ventilating
and r e fr ig e r a tin g equipm ent, steam b o ile r s and b o i le r -fe d w ater pum ps;
m aking equipm ent r e p a ir s ; and k eepin g a r e c o r d o f op era tion o f m a ch in e ry ,
tem p era tu re, and fu el con su m p tion . M ay a lso su p e r v is e th ese o p e r a tio n s .
Head o r c h ie f e n g in eers in esta b lish m en ts em p loyin g m o r e than one en gin eer
are ex clu d e d .

F o r w age

study

p u rp o s e s ,

w ork ers

are

c la s s ifie d

as

fo llo w s :

Shipper
R e c e iv e r
Shipper and r e c e iv e r

BO ILER TENDER
WAREHOUSEMAN

F ir e s sta tion a ry b o ile r s to fu rn ish the esta b lish m en t in w hich
em p loyed with heat, p o w e r, o r stea m . F e e d s fu e ls to fir e by hand o r
op era tes a m e ch a n ica l s to k e r, g a s, o r o il b u rn er; and ch eck s w ater and
safety v a lv e s . M ay clea n , o il, o r a s s is t in re p a ir in g b o ile r r o o m equipm ent.

A s d ire cte d , p e r fo r m s a v a r ie ty o f w a reh ou sin g d u ties w hich re q u ire
an understanding o f the e s ta b lis h m e n t's sto ra g e p la n . W o rk in v olv es m o s t
o f the fo llo w in g : V e rify in g m a te r ia ls (o r m e r c h a n d is e ) against r e c e iv in g
d ocu m en ts, noting and rep ortin g d is c r e p a n c ie s and ob v iou s d a m a g e s; routing
m a te r ia ls to p r e s c r ib e d stora g e lo c a t io n s ; sto rin g , stack in g, o r p a lle tizin g
m a te r ia ls in a c c o rd a n c e with p r e s c r ib e d sto ra g e m e th o d s; r e a r ra n g in g and
taking in ven tory o f s t o r e d m a t e r ia ls ; exam in in g s to re d m a te r ia ls and
rep ortin g d e te rio ra tio n and dam age; r e m o v in g m a te r ia l fr o m s to ra g e and
p rep a rin g it fo r shipm ent. M ay o p e r a te hand o r p o w e r tru ck s in p e r fo r m in g
w a reh ou sin g du ties.

Material Movement and Custodial
TRU CK DRIVER
D r iv e s a tru ck w ithin a c ity o r in d u stria l a rea to tra n sp o rt
m a te r ia ls , m e r c h a n d is e , equipm ent, o r w o r k e r s betw een v a riou s types of
estab lish m en ts such as: M an ufacturin g p la n ts, fr e ig h t d ep ots, w a r e h o u se s ,
w h olesa le and r e ta il esta b lish m en ts, o r b etw een r e ta il esta b lish m en ts and
c u s to m e r s ' h ou ses o r p la ce s o f b u s in e s s . M ay a lso load o r unload tru ck
with o r w ithout h e lp e r s , m ake m in o r m e c h a n ica l r e p a ir s , and k eep tru ck in
good w ork in g o r d e r . S a lesrou te and o v e r -t h e -r o a d d r iv e r s are e x clu d e d .

E xclude w o rk e r s w hose p r im a r y du ties in v olv e shipping and r e c e i v ­
ing w o rk (se e Shipper and R e c e iv e r and Shipping P a c k e r ), o r d e r fillin g
(s e e O rd e r F ille r ), o r operatin g p ow er tr u ck s (s e e P o w e r -T r u c k O p e ra to r ).
O RDER F IL L E R
F ills shipping o r tr a n s fe r o r d e r s fo r fin ish ed g ood s fr o m sto re d
m e r c h a n d ise in a c c o rd a n c e with s p e c ific a tio n s on sa le s s lip s , c u s to m e r s '
o r d e r s , o r other in stru ction s. M ay, in addition to fillin g o r d e r s and indi­
cating item s fille d o r om itted , k e e p r e c o r d s o f ou tgoing o r d e r s , r e q u isitio n
additional stock o r r e p o rt sh ort su p p lies to s u p e r v is o r , and p e r fo r m oth er
re la te d du ties.

F o r w age study p u r p o s e s , tr u c k d r iv e r s are c la s s ifie d by type and
rated c a p a city o f tru ck , as fo llo w s :
T r u c k d r iv e r , lig h t tru ck
(stra ig h t tru ck , u nder IV2 ton s, u su a lly 4 w h eels)
T r u c k d r iv e r , m ed iu m tru ck
(stra ig h t tru ck , IV2 to 4 tons in clu s iv e , u su a lly 6 w h eels)
T r u c k d r iv e r , h eavy tru ck
(stra ig h t tru ck , o v e r 4 ton s, u su a lly 10 w h eels)
T r u c k d r iv e r , t r a c t o r -t r a il e r




SHIPPING PACKER
P r e p a r e s fin ish ed p rod u cts fo r sh ipm ent o r s to ra g e by p la cin g them
in shipping con ta in ers, the s p e c ific o p e r a tio n s p e r fo r m e d being dependent
upon the type, s iz e , and num ber o f units to be p a ck ed , the type o f con ta in er

22

S H IP P IN G P A C K E R — C o n tin u e d

G U A R D — C o n tin u e d

e m p lo y e d , and m eth od o f shipment,, W ork r e q u ire s the p la cin g o f item s in
sh ipping c o n ta in e rs and m a y in v olv e one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : K n ow ledge
o f v a rio u s item s o f s to ck in o r d e r to v e r ify content; se le c tio n o f ap p rop ria te
type and s iz e o f co n ta in e r; in se rtin g e n clo s u re s in con ta in er; u sin g e x c e ls io r
o r o th e r m a te r ia l to p r e v e n t brea k a ge o r dam age; c lo sin g and sea lin g con ­
ta in e r; and applying la b e ls o r en terin g identifying data on c o n ta in e r. P a c k e r s
w ho a lso m a k e w ood en b o x e s o r c ra te s are e x clu d ed .

G uards em p loyed by esta b lish m en ts w hich p r o v id e p r o te c tiv e s e r ­
v ic e s on a c o n tra ct b a sis are in cluded in this occu p a tion .

M A T E R IA L HANDLING LA B O R E R
A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a reh ou se, m anu factu ring plant, s t o r e , o r
oth e r esta b lis h m e n t w h o s e du ties in volve one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g :
L oad in g and u nloadin g v a rio u s m a te r ia ls and m e rch a n d ise on o r fr o m fr e ig h t
c a r s , tr u c k s , o r oth e r tra n sp o rtin g d e v ic e s ; unpacking, sh elv in g, o r p la cin g
m a te r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r stora g e loca tion ; and tra n sp ortin g
m a te r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e b y handtruck, c a r , o r w h e e lb a rro w .
L on gshore
w o r k e r s , w ho loa d and u n loa d sh ip s, are ex clu ded.
P O W E R -T R U C K O P E R A T O R
O p e ra te s a m a n u a lly c o n tro lle d g a so lin e - o r e le c t r ic p ow ered tru ck
o r t r a c t o r to tr a n s p o rt g o o d s and m a te r ia ls o f all kinds about a w a re h o u se ,
m a n u fa ctu rin g plant, o r oth e r esta b lish m en t.

tr u ck ,

F o r w ag e study p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s are c la s s ifie d by type o f p o w e ras fo llo w s ;

F o r w age

study

purposes,

guards

are

c la s s ifie d

as

fo llo w s ;

C la s s A . E n fo r c e s regu la tion s d esig n ed to preven t b rea ch es of
s e c u r it y . E x e r c is e s ju dgm en t and u se s d is c r e tio n in dealin g with e m e r ­
g e n c ie s a n d s e c u r ity v iola tion s e n cou n tered . D e te rm in e s w hether fir s t
r e s p o n s e should be to in terven e d ir e c t ly (askin g fo r a s sista n c e when deem ed
n e c e s s a r y and tim e a llo w s), to k eep situ ation under s u r v e illa n c e , o r to r e p o rt
situ ation so that it can be handled by a p p rop ria te au th ority. D uties req u ire
s p e c ia liz e d trainin g in m eth od s and tech n iq u es o f p r o te c tin g se cu rity a rea s.
C om m on ly , the guard is r e q u ire d to d e m o n s tra te continuing p h y sica l fitn ess
and p r o fic ie n c y w ith fir e a r m s o r oth er s p e c ia l w ea p on s.
C la ss B . C a r r ie s out in stru ction s p r im a r ily orien ted tow ard in­
su rin g that e m e r g e n c ie s and s e c u r it y v iola tion s are r e a d ily d is c o v e r e d and
r e p o rte d to a p p rop ria te au th ority. In terven es d ir e c t ly on ly in situations
w hich r e q u ir e m in im a l action to sa fegu a rd p r o p e r ty o r p e r s o n s . D uties r e ­
q u ire m in im a l tra in in g . C om m on ly , the guard is not r e q u ire d to d em on strate
p h y s ic a l fit n e s s . M ay b e arm ed , but g e n e r a lly is not re q u ire d to d em on strate
p r o fic ie n c y in the u se o f fir e a r m s o r s p e c ia l w ea p on s.
JA N ITO R , P O R T E R , OR C LE A N E R

F o r k lift o p e r a to r
P o w e r -t r u c k o p e r a t o r (oth er than fo rk lift)
GUARD
P r o t e c t s p r o p e r t y fr o m theft o r dam age, o r p e r s o n s fr o m h a za rd s
o r in te r fe r e n c e . D u ties in v olv e serv in g at a fix ed post, m akin g rounds on
fo o t o r by m o t o r v e h ic le , o r e s c o r tin g p e rso n s o r p r o p e rty . M ay be depu tized
to m a k e a r r e s t s . M ay a ls o h elp v is it o r s and c u s to m e r s b y an sw erin g
q u estion s and g ivin g d ir e c t io n s .




C lean s and k eep s in an o r d e r ly con d ition fa c t o r y w orkin g areas and
w a s h r o o m s , o r p r e m is e s o f an o f f ic e , apartm en t h ou se, o r c o m m e r c ia l
o r oth er esta b lish m en t. D uties in v olv e a com b in a tion o f the fo llo w in g ;
Sw eeping, m op pin g o r scru b b in g , and p olish in g f lo o r s ; rem ov in g ch ip s, trash ,
and oth er r e fu s e ; dusting equipm ent, fu rn itu re, o r fix tu r e s ; polish in g m eta l
fix tu re s o r tr im m in g s ; p rov id in g su p p lies and m in o r m ain ten an ce s e r v ic e s ;
and clean in g la v a to r ie s , s h o w e rs , and r e s t r o o m s . W o r k e rs who s p e cia liz e
in w indow w ashin g are e x clu d e d .

Service Contract
Act Surveys
The fo llo w in g a re a s are s u r ­
v eyed p e r io d ic a lly fo r use in ad m in ­
is te rin g the S e r v ic e C on tract A ct
o f 1965. S u rvey re su lts are pu b­
lish ed v ■“ leasv w hich are a v a ila ­
b le , at no »_
’-*'*» su p p lies la st
fr o m any o f the L L o re g io n a l o ffic e s
shown on the ba ck c o v e r .
A lask a (statew id e)
A lban y, Ga.
A lexa n dria—L e e s v ille , La.
Alpena—
Standish— aw as C ity , M ich .
T
Ann A r b o r , M ich .
A tlan tic C ity , N .J.
A ugusta, G a.— .C .
S
A u stin , T e x .
B a k e rs fie ld , C a lif.
Baton R ou g e, La.
Battle C re e k , M ich .
Beaum ont— o r t A rth u r— ra n g e , T e x .
P
O
B eaum ont— o r t A r th u r-O ra n g e
P
and Lake C h a r le s , T e x .—
La.
B ilox i— u lfp ort and P a s ca g o u la —
G
M oss P o in t, M is s .
B ingham ton, N .Y .
B irm in g h a m , A la.
B loom in gton — in c e n n e s , Ind.
V
B re m e rto n — h elton , W ash.
S
B ru n sw ick , Ga.
C eda r R a p id s, Iow a
Cham paign—
Urbana— antoul, 111.
R
C h arleston — orth C h a rleston —
N
W a ite r b o r o , S .C .
C h arlotte— a ston ia , N .C .
G
C h eyenne, W yo.
C larks v ille — o p k in s v ille , T enn.— y .
H
K
C o lo ra d o S p rin g s, C olo.
C olum bia— u m ter, S .C .
S
C olu m bu s, G a.— la.
A
C olu m bu s, M is s .
D eca tu r, 111.
Des M o in e s , Iow a
Duluth— u p e r io r , M inn.— is.
S
W
E l P a s o — la m o g o r d o —L as C r u c e s ,
A
T e x .— M ex.
N.
Eugene— p rin g field — e d fo rd , O re g .
S
M
F a y e tte v ille , N .C.




F o r t L au d erd ale— ollyw ood
H
and W est P a lm B each —
B o c a R aton, F la .
F o r t Sm ith, A rk .— kla.
O
F r e d e r ic k —H agers town—
C h a m b ersb u rg , M d.—
Pa.
G o ld s b o ro , N.C.
G rand Island— a stin g s, N ebr.
H
G uam , T e r r it o r y o f
H a rrisb u rg — eban on , P a.
L
K n o x v ille , Tenn.
L aredo, Tex.
L as V eg a s— on opah , Nev.
T
L im a , Ohio
L ittle R ock— orth L ittle R o ck , A rk .
N
L o g a n sp o rt— e r u , Ind.
P
L ora in — ly r ia , Ohio
E
L o w e r E a stern S h o re , M d.— a .— el.
V
D
M acon , Ga.
M a d ison , W is.
M aine (statew id e)
M a n sfie ld , O hio
M cA llen — h a r r — dinburg
P
E
and B r o w n s v ille — arlingen—
H
San B e n ito , T e x .
M erid ia n , M is s .
M id d le s e x , M onm outh, and
O cean C o s ., N .J.
M ob ile— e n s a co la — an am a C ity,
P
P
A la .— la .
F
M ontana (sta tew id e)
N ash ville— av id son , Tenn.
D
New B ern — a c k s o n v ille , N .C .
J
New H a m psh ire (statew id e)
New London— orw ich , Conn.—R .I.
N
N orth Dakota (statew id e)
N orth ern New Y o r k
N orth w est T ex as
O rla n d o , F la .
O xnard— im i V a lle y -V e n tu r a , C a lif.
S
P e o r ia , 111.
P h oen ix , A r iz .
P in e B lu ff, A rk .
P u e b lo , C olo.
P u e rto R ico
R aleigh —D urham , N .C.
R eno, Nev.
S a lin a, K ans.

S alinas—
Seaside— on terey , C a lif.
M
Sandusky, Ohio
Santa B a rbara—
Santa M aria—
L o m p o c, C alif.
Savannah, Ga.
S elm a , Ala.
S h rev ep ort, La.
South Dakota (statew ide)
Southern Idaho
Southw est V irg in ia
Spokane, Wash.
S p rin g fie ld , 111.
S tockton , C alif.
T a c o m a , Wash.
Tam pa—
St. P e te r s b u r g , F la .
T op ek a , Kans.
T u cson — ouglas, A r iz .
D
T u lsa , Okla.
U pp er P en in su la, M ich.
V erm on t (statew ide)
V ir g in Islands o f the U.S.
W a co and K illeen— e m p le , T ex .
T
W a terloo— edar F a lls , Iowa
C
W est V irg in ia (statew ide)
W ich ita F a lls—Lawton— ltu s,
A
T e x .— kla.
O
W ilm in gton , D el.—
N.J.—
Md.
Y akim a—R ichland— ennew ick—
K
P en dleton , W ash.— reg .
O

ALSO A V A IL A B L E —
An annual re p o rt on s a la r ie s fo r
a ccou n ta n ts, a u d ito rs , c h ie f a cco u n t­
an ts, a tto rn e y s, jo b a n a ly sts, d i r e c ­
t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l, b u y e r s , c h e m is t s ,
e n g in e e r s , e n g in eerin g tech n icia n s,
d r a ft e r s , a n d c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s
is a v a ila b le . O rd e r as BLS B u lle ­
tin 1980, N ational S u rvey o f P r o ­
fe s s io n a l, A d m in is tra tiv e , T e c fa iic a l
and C le r ic a l P a y , M a rch 1977, $ 2 A0
a c o p y , fr o m any o f the BLS r e ­
g ion a l s a le s o ffic e s show n on the
b a ck c o v e r , o r fr o m the S u p erin ­
tendent o f D ocu m en ts, U .S. G o v e r n ­
m en t P rin tin g O ffic e , W ash ington ,
D .C . 20402.

Area Wage
Surveys
A lis t o f the la test bu lletin s av ailab le is p resen ted b e lo w . B u lletin s
m ay be p u rc h a se d fr o m any o f the BLS reg ion a l o ffic e s shown on the ba ck
c o v e r , o r fr o m the Superin ten dent o f D ocu m en ts, U.S. G overnm ent P rintin g
O ffic e , W a sh in gton , D .C . 20402. M ake ch eck s payable to Superintendent o f
D ocu m en ts. A d ir e c t o r y o f occu p a tio n a l w age s u r v e y s , c o v e r in g the y ea rs
1970 th rough 1976, is a v a ila b le on req u est.

A rea
A k ro n , O h io, D e c . 19 7 7 ______________________________________
Albany—Schenectady—T r o y , N .Y ., Sept. 1977 _______________
A n ah eim —
Santa Ana—G arden G ro v e ,
C a lif., O ct. 19 7 7 _____________________________________________
A tlan ta, G a ., M ay 1978 1______________________________________
B a ltim o r e , M d ., A u g. 19 7 7 -----------------------------------------------------B illin g s , M on t., July 1978____________________________________
B irm in g h a m , A la ., M a r . 1978________________________________
B oston , M a s s ., A u g. 1978 1___________________________________
B u ffa lo, N .Y ., O ct. 1977 ______________________________________
C a n ton , O h io, M ay 1978______________________________________
C hattanooga, Tenn.—G a ., Sept. 1977 -------------------------------------C h ic a g o , 111., M ay 1978_______________________________________
C in cin n a ti, O hio—
Ky.—In d ., July 1978________________________
C lev ela n d , O h io, Sept. 1977 1 -------------------------------------------------C olu m b u s, O h io, O ct. 1 9 7 7 -----------------------------------------------------C orpu s C h r is ti, T e x ., July 1978_____________________________
D a lla s -F o r t W o rth , T e x ., O ct. 19 77_________________________
D avenport— o c k Island— o lin e , Iowa—
R
M
111., F eb. 19 78--------D ayton, O h io, D e c . 1 9 7 7 1_____________________________________
Daytona B ea ch , F la ., A u g. 1977 1____________________________
D enver—B o u ld e r , C o lo ., D e c. 1 9 7 7 1_________________________
D e tr o it, M ic h ., M a r. 1978____________________________________
F r e s n o , C a lif., June 1978 1__________________________________
G a in e s v ille , F la ., Sept. 1978_________________________________
G reen B a y , W is ., July 1978 1_________________________________
G re e n s b o r o -W in s to n -S a le m — igh P oin t,
H
N .C ., A u g. 1977 1 _____________________________________________
G re e n v ille — p artan bu rg, S .C ., June 1978____________________
S
H a r tfo r d , C on n ., M a r. 1 9 7 8 1________________________________
H ou ston , T e x ., A p r. 1978_____________________________________
H u n tsv ille, A la ., F e b . 1 9 7 8 __________________________________
In d ia n a p olis, In d., O ct. 1 9 7 7 _________________________________
J a ck s o n , M is s ., Jan. 19 7 8 ____________________________________
J a c k s o n v ille , F la ., D e c . 1 9 7 7 ________________________________
K ansas C ity, M o.—K a n s ., Sept. 19 7 7 -------------------------------------L o s A n g e le s—Long B e a ch , C a lif., O ct. 1977------------------------L o u is v ille , Ky.— d., N ov. 19 7 7 *____________________________
In
M e m p h is, Term.— r k .— i s s ., N ov. 1977-----------------------------A
M




B u lletin num ber
and p r ic e *
1 9 5 0 -7 0 , 80 cents
1 9 5 0 -5 2 , 80 cen ts
1 9 5 0 -6 0 ,
2 0 25 -28,
1 9 5 0 -3 9 ,
2 0 25 -38,
2 0 2 5 -1 5 ,
2 0 25 -43,
1 9 5 0 -5 8 ,
2 0 2 5 -2 2 ,
1 9 5 0 -4 4 ,
2 0 25 -32,
2 0 25 -39,
1 9 5 0 -5 3 ,
1 9 5 0 -6 4 ,
2 0 2 5 -2 9 ,
1 9 50 -65,
2 0 2 5 -6 ,
1 9 5 0 -7 1 ,
1 9 5 0 -4 3 ,
1 9 5 0 -7 4 ,
2 0 25 -11,
2 0 25 -31,
2 0 25 -45,
20 2 5 -4 1 ,

$ 1 .0 0
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .2 0
$ 1 .0 0
80 cents
$ 1 .5 0
$ 1 .0 0
70 cents
70 cen ts
$ 1 .3 0
$ 1 .1 0
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .0 0
$ 1.00
$ 1 .2 0
70 cents
$ 1 .1 0
$ 1 .0 0
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .2 0
$ 1.20
$ 1.00
$ 1 .2 0

1 9 5 0 -4 2 ,
2 0 2 5 -3 0 ,
2 0 25 -14,
2 0 2 5 -2 3 ,
2 0 2 5 -4 ,
1 9 5 0 -5 6 ,
2 0 2 5 -1 ,
1 9 5 0 -6 7 ,
1 9 5 0 -5 4 ,
1 9 5 0 -6 1 ,
1 9 5 0 -6 6 ,
1 9 5 0 -6 3 ,

$ 1 .1 0
$ 1 .0 0
$ 1 .2 0
$ 1 .2 0
70 cents
$ 1 .0 0
70 cents
70 cents
$ 1 .0 0
$ 1 .2 0
$ 1 .2 0
70 cents

A rea
M ia m i, F la ., O ct. 19 7 7 _______________________________________
M ilw au k ee, W is ., A p r . 1 9 7 8 1 _______________________________
M in n eap olis—
St. P a u l, M inn.— is ., Jan. 1978 1____________
W
N a ssa u -S u ffolk , N .Y ., June 1978 1 ___________________________
N ew ark, N .J ., Jan. 1978 1 ____________________________________
New O rle a n s , L a ., Jan. 1 9 7 8 ..._____________________________
New Y o r k , N .Y .-N .J . M ay 1 9 7 8 1 ___________________________
N orfolk — irg in ia B each — ortsm ou th , Va.—
V
P
N .C ., M ay 1978______________________________________________
N orfolk —V irg in ia B ea ch — ortsm ou th and
P
N ew port News— am pton, Va.— .C ., M ay 1978_____________
H
N
N orth east P en n sylva n ia , Aug. 1977 *________________________
O klahom a C ity, O k la ., A ug. 1978____________________________
O m aha, N e b r .—
Iow a, O ct. 1977 1 ____________________________
P aterson —C lifton—P a s s a ic , N .J ., June 1978 1_______________
P h ila d elp h ia , Pa.—N .J ., N ov. 1977__________________________
P ittsb u rg h , P a ., Jan. 19 7 8 __________________________________
P ortla n d , M ain e, D e c. 19 77________________________________
P ortla n d , O re g .— a sh ., M ay 1978__________________________
W
P ou g h k eep sie, N .Y ., June 1978 1____________________________
P ou gh k eep sie— ingston— ew burgh, N .Y ., June 1978 1 _____
K
N
P r o v id e n c e — arw ick—P aw tu cket, R .I.—
W
M a s s ., June 1978____________________________________________
R ich m on d , V a ., June 1978___________________________________
St. L o u is , M o.—111., M a r. 1978_______________________________
S a cra m en to, C a lif., D ec. 1977 1 _____________________________
Saginaw, M ic h ., N ov. 1977----------------------------------------------------Salt Lake City— gden , Utah, N ov. 19 77_____________________
O
San A n ton io, T e x ., M ay 1978________________________________
San D ieg o, C a lif., N ov. 1977 1 _______________________________
San F r a n c is c o — akland, C a lif., M a r. 1978 1 _________________
O
San J o s e , C a lif., M ar. 1978 1 ________________________________
Seattle— v e re tt, W a sh ., D ec. 1977__________________________
E
South B end, Ind., A u g. 1978__________________________________
T o le d o , O hio— ic h ., M ay 1978 *____________________________
M
T ren ton , N .J ., Sept. 19 77____________________________________
U tica ^ R om e, N .Y ., July 1978________________________________
W ash ington , D .C .— d.— a ., M a r. 1978 1 ___________________
M
V
W ich ita , K a n s., A p r . 1978___________________________________
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s ., A p r . 1978 1 _____________________________
Y o r k , P a ., F eb . 1 9 7 8 1________________________________________

B ulletin num ber
and p r ic e *
19 50-57,
20 25 -18,
2 0 2 5 -2 ,
20 25 -33,
2 0 2 5 -7 ,
2 0 2 5 -5 ,
20 25 -35,

$1 .0 0
$ 1 .4 0
$1 .40
$1 .30
$1 .4 0
$ 1 .0 0
$ 1 .5 0

20 25 -20, 70 cents
20 25 -21,
19 50 -38,
20 25-40,
19 50 -55,
20 25 -36,
19 50 -62,
2 0 2 5 -3 ,
19 50 -69,
20 25 -25,
20 25-37,
20 25-42,

80 cents
$ 1 .1 0
$1 .00
$1 .1 0
$ 1 .2 0
$1 .20
$ 1 .1 0
70 cents
$1 .0 0
$1 .1 0
$1 .2 0

20 25 -27,
20 25 -26,
20 25 -13,
19 50 -72,
19 50 -59,
19 50 -68,
20 25 -17,
19 50 -73,
2 0 2 5 -1 0 ,
2 0 2 5 -9 ,
19 50 -75,
20 25 -44,
20 25 -24,
19 50 -47,
2025-34,
20 25 -12,
20 25 -16,
20 25 -19,
2 0 2 5 -8 ,

$ 1 .4 0
80 cents
$ 1 .2 0
$ 1 .0 0
70 cents
80 cents
70 cents
$ 1 .1 0
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .2 0
80 cents
$1 .0 0
$1 .20
70 cents
$ 1 .0 0
$1 .4 0
80 cents
$1 .1 0
$ 1 .1 0

* Prices are determined by the Government Printing Office and are subject to change.
1 Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

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U.S. Department of Labor

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Official Business
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